ABDOMINAL INCISIONS -A cut produced surgically by a sharp instrument that creates an opening into the abdomen When choosing

an incision these three should be achieved:  Accessibility  Extensibility  Security Re-entry into the abdominal cavity is best done through the previous laparotomy incision. This minimizes further loss of tensile strength of the abdominal wall by avoiding the creation of additional fascial defects CLASSIFICATIONS:  Vertical incision  Midline incisions  Paramedian incisions  Transverse and oblique incisions  Kocher's subcostal Incision  Chevron (roof top Modification )  Mercedes Benz Modification  Mc Burney’s grid iron or muscle splitting incision.  Rutherford morison incision  Pfannenstiel incision  Maylard Transverse Muscle cutting Incision  Transverse muscle dividing incision  Thoracoabdominal incisions. MIDLINE -the most common incision three types: Upper Midline Incision • From xiphoid to above umbilicus. • Skin à superficial and deep fascia à linea alba à extraperitoneal fat à peritonium. Lower Midline Incision • From the SUPERIOR umbilicus to INFERIOR pubic symphysis .

Full Midline Incision • From xiphoid to pubic symphysis inferiorly.

Once the rectus muscles are divided.the principle is to make long smooth strokes through the subcutaneous fat to the fascia. and the rectus muscles are separated vertically in the midline. The medial portion of the rectus sheath then is dissected from the rectus muscle. are excised vertically in the same plane as the anterior fascial plane Advantages  Provide an access to the lateral structure such as the spleen or the kidney  The closure is theoretically more secure because the rectus muscle can act as a support between the reapproximated posterior and anterior fascial planes so lower risk of dehiscence and hernia as compared to midline incision Disadvantages  Takes longer to make and close  results in atrophy of the muscle medial to the incision  The incision is laborious and difficult to extend superiorly as is limited by costal margin.  It is very quick to make as well as to close.  No muscle fibers are divided. etc. Ugly scar. and extended the length of the incision  Advantages:  Adequate exposure of most if not all of the abdominal viscera  It is almost bloodless. • skin à fascia à anterior rectus sheath à The posterior rectus sheath or transversalis fascia à extraperitoneal fat and peritoneum are then excised allowing entry to the abdominal cavity Skin and subcutaneous fat are divided along the length of the wound.  Wound infection. Incisional hernia.  Risk of epigastric vessels injury . the fascia is incised.  Chest complications. the peritoneum is grasped between 2 haemostats. to which the anterior sheath adheres Once the rectus muscle is free of the anterior sheath it can be retracted laterally because the posterior sheath is not adherent to the rectus muscle. The posterior sheath and the peritoneum which are adherent to each other. opened with a scalpel.  No nerves are injured. Next.  Disadvantages:  Extensive is difficult  More painful. PARAMEDIAN • 2 to 5 cm lateral to the midline.

MCBURNEY GRID IRON • Made at the junction of the middle third and outer thirds of a line running from the umbilicus to the anterior superior iliac spine. outwards and parallel to and about 2. Usually 12 cm long and made in a skin fold approximately 5 cm above symphysis pubis. bladder. A convex incision which minimizing muscle parasthesia and paralysis postoperatively. started at the midline.TRANSVERSE AND OBLIQUE INCISIONS KOCHER ‘S INCISION • Incision parallel to the right costal margin. Use of incision is therefore restricted to the pelvic organs   . It also follows the cleavage lines in the skin resulting in less scarring The incision offers Excellent cosmetic results because the scar is almost always hidden by the pubic hair Limited exposure of the abdominal organs. • CHEVRON (ROOF TOP)MODIFICATION • The incision may be continued across the midline into a double Kocher incision or roof top approach which provide excellent access to the upper abdomen particularly in those with a broad costal margin MERCEDEZ BENZ • consists of bilateral low Kocher’s incision with an upper midline incision up to the xiphisternum. prostate and for caesarean section. 2 to 5 cm below the xiphoid and extends downwards. (The McBurney Point) RUTHERFORD-MORRISON INCISION  This is extension of the McBurney incision by division of the oblique fossa PFANNESTIEL INCISIONP (smile incision)     Used frequently by gynecologists and urologists for access to the pelvis organs. skin à fascia à anterior rectus sheath à rectus muscle à transversalis fascia à extraperitoneal fat à perineum.5 cm below the costal margin It shows excellent exposure to the gallbladder and biliary tract and can be made on the left side to show access to the spleen.

 Gives excellent exposure of the pelvic organs. In newborns and infants. TRANSVERSE MUSCLE DIVIDING INCISION  The operative technique used to make such an incision is similar to that for the Kocher incision. High risk of injury to the bladder  Extension of the incision is difficult laterally  MAYLARD TRANSVERSE MUSCLE CUTTING INCISION  It is placed above but parallel to the traditional placement of Pfannenstiel incision. • Left incision à Resection of the lower end of the esophagus and proximal portion of the stomach. this incision is preferred. Also in obese patients THORACOABDOMINAL INCISION • Converts the pleural and peritoneal cavities into one common cavity à excellent exposure. • Right incision à elective and emergency hepatic resections. SURGICAL PROCEDURES Midline Vagotomy Jejunostomy Gastrectomy Pancreatomy Hysterectomy LSCS Cystotomy Cystectomy Salphingo oopherectomy Para median Right Cholecystectom y Pyroplasty Left Splenectomy pancreadectom y Transverse & oblique Kocher Cholecystostomy Heptectomy chevron Gastrectomy Esophagectomy Adrenalectomy Mercedez benz Liver transplant Pancreatic transplant McBurney Appendectomy Rutherford-morison caecostomy or sigmoid colostomy Pfannestiel thoracoabdominal Hepatic resections .

Caesarean section Hysterectomy Transverse muscle dividing Same with kocher (infant and obese) MIDLINE INCISIONS UMBILICUS UPPER LOWER .

FULL PARAMEDIAN INCISION THORACO ABDOMINAL INCISION .

TRANSVERSE AND OBLIQUE INCISIONS CHECHE CHEVRON MERCEDEZ BENZ .

ine: Midl McB 3. Kocher Incision: 2. Paramedian : 7.1. Rutherford Morison: 9. Transverse: MUSCLE DIVIDING 8. Pfannenstie L . urney: 5. Lanz: 6.

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