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# STUDENT NAME STUDENT ID COURSE LECTURER SUBMISSION DATE SUBJECT

MD ATIQUR RAHMAN FAISAL SCM-012154 BACHELOR IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DR. CHIA 19th April 2012 ENGINEERING MECHANICS (EAT 227)

TORSION VIBRATION

Experiment Title: Introduction :

Torsion Vibration. Torsion is the twisting of a metallic rod shaped object, when a torque is applied on two sides’ perpendicular to the radius of a uniform cross-sectional bar. Determining the natural frequency of a system undergoing tortional vibration. Using Newton’s second law of tortional system.

o

Objective Theory

: :

T I …………………. ( Equation 1 )

where Io = mass moment of inertia of the disk

** Hence, k I o ……..……... ( Equation 2 )
**

where k = torsional stiffness of the shaft Rearrange Equation 2

n 0 .………..……... ( Equation 3 )

2

where natural frequency of the system,

n

k …..…….…..……... ( Equation 4 ) Io

From Simple Theory of Torsion,

T G J R L

J = Polar second moment of area R = Radius of shaft

where T = Applied torque

= Shear stress

G = Shear modulus L = Length of shaft As torsional stiffness k

= Angle of twist

T

, it can be determined through k

GJ ………….. ( Equation 5 ) L

MD. Atiqur Rahman Faisal

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TORSION VIBRATION

Apparatus

:

One solid circular disk with mass = 4.536kg, diameter = 150mm and thickness = 30mm. One annular circular disk with mass 1.89kg, outer diameter 150mm, inner diameter = 110mm and thickness = 30mm. Two chucks; one steel rod; one stopwatch.

Procedure

:

1. The diameter of the provided rod is measured at three different locations to get the average diameter of the rod. 2. The anchor is chucked tightly to the solid circular disk. 3. The length of the rod or the distance between the two chucks is initially kept 30cm. 4. The disk is displaced slightly, so that the rod can be twisted. 5. The disk is released and the stopwatch is switched on simultaneously. 6. The time taken is recorded according 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 cycles of the disk. 7. From step 3 to step 6 is repeated by increasing the length between the two chucks from 35 cm to 40 cm. 8. The whole procedure is repeated by attaching the annular circular disk on top of the solid disk.

MD. Atiqur Rahman Faisal

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TORSION VIBRATION

Results

: Time, (s) 0.3m(With Annular disk)

Length Number of cycles 10 20 30 40 50

0.3m

0.4m

0.5m

0.4m(With Annular disk)

0.5m(With Annular disk)

4.74 8.93 13.27 18.33 23.05

4.89 10.08 14.64 19.67 25.73

5.08 10.55 15.7 21.14 26.45

4.53 11.25 16.77 22.08 27.49

5.55 11.62 17.77 24.24 30.37

7.24 13.33 19.55 25.4 31.71

Given Information

:

Mass of the circular disk = 4.536kg. Diameter of the circular disk = 150mm. Thickness of the circular disk = 20mm. Mass of the annular disk = 1.86kg. Outer diameter of the annular disk = 150mm. Inner diameter of the annular disk = 110mm. Thickness of the annular disk = 30mm. G ( Shear module ) = 80GPa. Sample calculation :

( )

We know, J (polar second moment of area) = We know, We know,

=

= 2.51327 10-11

(moment of inertia) = mr2 = (4.536) (0.075)2 = 0.0127575 (circular disk) (moment of inertia) for annular disk = =0.28728. =

We know, K (torsion stiffness of the shaft) = We know, (angular speed) = √ = √ =

=

(

)

= 6.70205

= 22.97 rad/s = 0.2735

We know, (shear stress) =

MD. Atiqur Rahman Faisal

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TORSION VIBRATION

Comparing experimental and theoretical value of = 2×π×f, where f is collected from graph. = 2×π×2.17 = 13.63rad/s Percentage errors ×100%, :

,

= 68.525%

Plotted Graph

:

**N vs T ,L=0.30m (without annular disk)
**

60 y = 2.17x + 0.3489 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Linear (N vs T ,L=0.30m (without annular disk)) N vs T ,L=0.30m (without annular disk)

MD. Atiqur Rahman Faisal

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TORSION VIBRATION

**N vs T ,L=0.35m ( without annular disk )
**

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 Linear (N vs T ,L=0.35m ( without annular disk )) N vs T ,L=0.35m ( without annular disk ) y = 1.9458x + 0.809

**N vs T ,L=0.4m ( without annular disk )
**

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 N vs T ,L=0.4m ( without annular disk ) Linear (N vs T ,L=0.4m ( without annular disk )) y = 1.875x + 0.4051

**N vs T, L=0.30m ( with annular disk )
**

60 y = 1.758x + 1.1261 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 Linear (N vs T, L=0.30m ( with annular disk )) N vs T, L=0.30m ( with annular disk )

MD. Atiqur Rahman Faisal

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TORSION VIBRATION

**N vs T, L=0.35m ( with annular disk )
**

60 y = 1.606x + 1.2367 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 N vs T, L=0.35m ( with annular disk ) Linear (N vs T, L=0.35m ( with annular disk ))

**N vs T, L = 0.40m ( with annular disk )
**

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 Linear (N vs T, L = 0.40m ( with annular disk )) N vs T, L = 0.40m ( with annular disk ) y = 1.6389x - 1.8703

Discussion

:

Comparing results, it is observed that the error percentage is quiet high, this is due to the high sensitive values that have been collected during the experiment. Possible reason for the errors are, when the disk was rotating, it was quiet difficult to take the exact turn, or rotation of the disk. So there was also some human reflex and visual errors. Even though, when the experiment was performing, there was some unwanted air resistance application running beside the experiment. Some of the measurement was so sensitive, and it was hard to take the measurement. The apparatus tools, and measurement mechines was also not so accurate. The experiment could be repeated for some more time to get some more result to find it more accurate. Considering all the facts, the experiment can be accepted with errors.

MD. Atiqur Rahman Faisal

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