# CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

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2ml.1 General 201'1.1,1 Purpose The purpose of the earthquake prOVISIOns here!n is . prtlll:! rilv to safeguard ., against major structural failures _ ' ... alll 11 .,.of life • not to limit damage or mamtam function, (lS~, 201'1.1.2 Minimum Seismic Design Slnlclures and portions thereof shall, as a minimu~, ~e tbit:llcll and constructed to resist the effects of seisrmc grm(nd motions as provided in this section. 2111'1.13 Seismic and Wind Design When the code-prescribed wind design produces greater effects, the wind design shall govern, but detailing requirements and limitations prescribed in this section and referenced sections shall be followed. 201'1.2 Definitions BASE is the level at which the earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to the structure or the level at which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is supported. BASE SHEAR., V, is the total design lateral force or shear at the base of a structure. BEA1UNG WALL SYSTEM is a structural system without a complete vertical load-carrying space frame. See Section .208.4.6.1. nOUNDARY ELEMENT is an element at edges of openings or at perimeters of shear walls or diaphragms. BRACED FRAME is an essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or eccentric type that is provided to resist lateral forces. BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM is an essentially compkk space frame that provides support for gravity loads. Sec Section 20S.4.6.2. CANTILEVERED COLUMN ELEMENT is a column ~kment in a Iateral-force-resisting system that cantilevers I rOI1l a fixed base and has minimal moment capacity at the lop, with lateral forces applied essentially at the top. COLLECTOR is a member or element provided to transfer lateral forces from a portion of a structure to Vl'rllcall'lcments of the lateral-force-resisting system.

COMPONENT is a part or element of an architectural, electrical, mechanical or structural system. COMPONENT, EQUIPMENT, is a mechanical or electrical component or element that is part of a mechanical and/or electrical system. COMPONENT, FLEXIBLE, is a component, including its attachments, having a fundamental period greater than 0.06 second. COMPONENT, RIGID, is a component, including its attachments, having a fundamental period less than or equal to 0.06 second. CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME is a braced frame in which the members are subjected primarily to axial forces. DESIGN BASIS GROUND MOTION is that ground motion that has a 10 percent chance of being exceeded in 50 years as determined by a site-specific hazard analysis or may be determined from a hazard map. A suite of ground motion time histories with dynamic properties representative of the site characteristics shall be used to represent this ground motion. The dynamic effects of the Design Basis Ground Motion may be represented by the Design Response Spectrum. See Section 208.6.2. DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRUM is an elastic response spectrum for 5 percent equivalent viscous damping used to represent the dynamic effects of the Design Basis Ground Motion for the design of structures in accordance with Sections 20S.5 and 20S.6. This response spectrum may be either a site-specific spectrum based on geologic, tectonic, seismological and soil characteristics associated with a specific site or may be a spectrum constructed in accordance with the spectral shape in Figure 208-3 using the site-specific values of C" and C" and multiplied by the acceleration of gravity, 9.815 m/sec'. See Section 208.6.2. DESIGN SEISMIC FORCE is the minimum total strength design base shear, factored and distributed in accordance with Section 20S.5.

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CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

DIAPHRAGM

is a horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to transmit lateral forces to the verticalresisting elements. The term "diaphragm" includes horizontal bracing systems. or SHEAR WALL CHORD is the boundary element of a diaphragm or shear wall that is assumed to take axial stresses analogous to the flanges of a beam.

MOMENT-RESISTING WALL FRAME (MRWF) is
a masonry wall frame especially detailed to provide ductile behavior and designed in conformance with Section 708.2.6.

DIAPHRAGM

ORDINARY BRACED FRAME (OBF) is a steel.
braced frame designed in accordance with the provisions of Section 527 or 528 or concrete-braced frame designed in accordance with Section 421.

DIAPHRAGM STRUT (drag strut, tie, collector) is the
element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load that collects and transfers diaphragm shear to the verticalresisting elements or distributes loads within the diaphragm. Such members may take axial tension or compression.

ORDINARY MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME (OMRF) is a moment-resisting frame not meeting special
detailing requirements for ductile behavior.

ORTHOGONAL

EFFECTS are the earthquake load effects on structural elements common to the lateral, force-resisting systems along two orthogonal axes. OVERSTRENGTH
is a characteristic of structures where the actual strength is larger than the design strength. The degree of overstrength is material-and system-dependent.

DRIFT. See "story drift." DUAL SYSTEM is a combination of moment-resisting
frames and shear walls or braced frames designed accordance with the criteria of Section 208.4.6.4.
in

ECCENTRICALLY

BRACED FRAME (EBF) is a steel-braced frame designed in conformance with Section 528. ELASTIC RESPONSE PARAMETERS are forces and
deformations determined from an elastic dynamic analysis using an unreduced ground motion representation, in accordance with Section 208.6.

P!1 EFFECT is the secondary effect on shears, axial forces and moments of frame members due to the action of the vertical loads induced by horizontal displacement of the structure resulting from various loading.

SHEAR WALL is a wall designed to resist lateral forces
parallel to the plane of the wall (sometimes referred to as vertical diaphragm or structural wall).

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES are those structures that are
necessary for emergency natural disaster. operations subsequent to a

SHEAR WALL-FRAME INTERACTIVE

SYSTEM

FLEXIBLE ELEMENT or SYSTEM is one whose
deformation under lateral load is significantly larger than adjoining parts of the system. Limiting ratios for defining specific flexible elements are set forth in Section 208.5.6.

uses combinations of shear walls and frames designed to resist lateral forces in proportion to their relative rigidities, considering interaction between shear walls and frames on all levels.

SOFT STORY is one in which the lateral stiffness is less
than 70 percent of the stiffness of the story above. See Table 208-9.

HORIZONTAL BRACING SYSTEM is a horizontal
truss system that serves the same function as a diaphragm.

INTERMEDIATE MOMENT RESISTING FRAME (IMRF) is a concrete frame designed in accordance with
Section 412.

SPACE FRAME is a three-dimensional structural system, without bearing walls, composed of members interconnected so as to function as a complete selfcontained unit with or without the aid of horizontal diaphragms or floor-bracing systems. SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME (SCBF) is a steel-braced frame designed in conformance
with the provisions of Section 526.

LATERAL-FORCE-RESISTING
of the structural Seismic Forces.

SYSTEM is that part system designed to resist the Design FRAME is a frame in which
of resisting forces

MOMENT-RESISTING
members and joints primarily by flexure.

SPECIAL MOMENT-RESISTING
is a moment-resisting

FRAME (SMRF)

are capable

frame specially detailed to provide

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

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ductile behavior and comply with the requirements given in Chapter 4 or 5. SPECIAL TRUSS MOMENT FRAME (STMF) is a moment-resisting frame specially detailed to provide ductile behavior and comply with the provisions of Section 525. STORY is the space between levels. Story x is the story below level x. STORY DRIFT is the lateral displacement relative to the level above or below. of one level

STORY DRIFT RATIO is the story drift divided by the story height. STORY SHEAR, V" is the summation of design lateral forces above the story under consideration. STRENGTH is the capacity of an element or a member to resist factored load as specified in Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7. STRUCTURE is an assemblage of framing members designed to support gravity loads and resist lateral forces. Structures may be categorized as building structures or nonbuilding structures. SUBDIAPHRAGM is a portion of a diaphragm used to transfer wall anchorage forces to diaphragm cross ties. VERTICAL LOAD-CARRYING FRAME frame designed to carry vertical gravity loads. is a space

SYSTEM is the system of clements anchoring the wall to the diaphragm and those clements within the diaphragm required to develop the anchorage forces, including sub diaphragms and continuous ties, as specified in Sections 208.8.2.7 and 208.8.2.S.

WALL ANCHORAGE

WEAK STORY is one in which the story strength is less
than 80 percent of the story above. See Table 208-9. 208.3 Symbols and Notation An '" ground floor area of structure to include area Covered by all overhangs and projections, mZ At' "" the combined effective area of the shear walls in the first story of the structure, m2 A,. "" the minimum cross-sectional area in any horizontal plane in the first story of a shear wall, m2 A. '" the torsional amplification factor at Level x Qp "" numerical coefficient specified in Section 20S.7 and set forth in Table 208-12

:::: eismic coefficient, as set forth in Table 20S-8 s :::: ead load on a structural element d ::::the length of a shear wall in the first story in the direction parallel to the applied forces, m E, E", E E,.:::: earthquake loads set forth in Section 208.5.1., N F;, F",F_" ::::design seismic force applied to Level i, n or x, respectively, N ~J :::: design seismic force on a part of the structure, N design seismic force on a diaphragm, N F, ::::hat portion of the base shear, V. considered t concentrated at the top of the structure in addition toF",N fi ::::ateral force at Level i for use in Equation 20S-10, l N g :::: cceleration due to gravity = 9.815 m/sec' a hi> h".llx ::::height above the base to Level i, n or x, respectively, m 1 ::::mportance factor given in Table 208-1 i ~J :::: importance factor for non structural component as given in Table 20S- I L ::::live load on a structural element Level i ::::level of the structure referred to by the subscript i "i= 1" designates the first level above the base Level n ::::that level that is uppermost in the main portion of the structure Level x that level that is under design consideration "x :::: designates the first level above the base 1" M :::: aximum moment magnitude m N, :::: ear-source factor used in the determination of Ca n in Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of the building or structure to known faults with magnitudes as set forth in Tables 20S-4 and 208-6 N" ::::near-source factor used in the determination of C, in Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of the building or structure to known faults with magnitudes as set forth in Tables 20S-5 and 208-6 PI :::: lasticity index of soil determined in accordance p with approved national standards R :::: umerical coefficient representative of the inherent n overstrength and global ductility capacity of lateral-foree-resisting systems, as set forth in Table 20S-11 or 208-13 r :::: ratio used in determining p. See Section 208.5.1 a SA, SB, Sc, SD, SE, SF ::::soil profile types as set forth in Table 20S-2 T ::::elastic fundamental period of vibration of the structure in the direction under consideration, sec V ::::he total design lateral force or shear at the base t given by Equations 208-4, 208-5, 208-6, 208-7 or 208-11, N v." :::: the design story shear in Story x, N
III, ~JX :::::

Ca C, C; D De

= seismic coefficient, as set forth in Table 208-7 = numerical coefficient given in Section 208.5.2.2

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CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

the total seismic dead load defined in Sections 208.5.1.1 and 208.5.2.1, N Wi, lV... = that portion of W located at or assigned to Level i or x, respectively, N Wp = the weight of an element or component, N wpx = the weight of the diaphragm and the element tributary thereto at Level x, including applicable portions of other loads defined in Section 208.5.1.1, N Z = seismic zone factor as given in Table 208-3 /!,.Af = Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement, which is the total drift or total story drift that occurs when the structure is subjected to the Design Basis Ground Motion, including estimated elastic and inelastic contributions to the total deformation defined in Section 208.5.9.2, mm /!"S = Design Level Response Displacement, which is the total drift or total story drift that occurs when the structure is subjected to the design seismic forces, mm 8, = horizontal displacement at Level i relative to the base due to applied lateral forces, f for use in Equation 208-10, mm p = Redundancy/Reliability Factor given by Equation 208-3 no = Seismic Force Amplification Factor, which is required to account for structural overstrength and set forth in Table 208-11
=

W

the design approach used in the design of the structure provided load combinations of Section 203.4 are utilized. ' 208.4.2 Occupancy Categories

For purposes of earthquake-resistant design, each structure shall be placed in one of the occupancy categories listed in Table 103-1. Table 208-1 assigns importance factors, I and Ip, and structural observation requirements for each category. Table 208-1 - Seismic Importance Factors Occupancy Category I. Essential Facilities Seismic Importance Factor, J
3

I

Seismic Importance Factor, J" 1.50 1.50 1.00

2

1.50 1.25 1.00

II.
III.

Hazardous
Facilities Special Occupancy Structures 4 Standard Occupancy Structures 4 Miscellaneous structures

IV.

1.00

1.00 1.00
Section 208.8.2.3 shall

V.
I 2

LOO
ill

See Table 103-1 for oecllpancy categorylisting. The limitation of Il'for panel connections be 1.0 for the entire Colt/lector. Structural observation

208.4 Criteria

Selection

J

requirements are given ill Section 107.9.

< For anchorage

208.4.1 Basis for Design The procedures and the limitations for the design of structures shall be determined considering seismic zoning, site characteristics, occupancy, configuration, structural system and height in accordance with this section. Structures shall be designed with adequate strength to withstand the lateral displacements induced by the Design Basis Ground Motion, considering the inelastic response of the structure and the inherent redundancy, overstrength and ductility of the lateral force-resisting system. The minimum design strength shall be based on the Design Seismic Forces determined in accordance with the static lateral force procedure of Section 208.5, except as modified by Section 208.6.5.4 Where strength design is used, the load combinations of Section 203.3 shall apply. Where Allowable Stress Design is used, the load combinations of Section 203.4 shall apply. Allowable Stress Design may be used to evaluate sliding or overturning at the soil-structure interface regardless of

of mach ill elY and equipment required for life-safety systems, the value of II' shall be taken as / .5.

208.4.3 Site Geology and Soil Characteristics Each site shall be assigned a soil profile type based on properly substantiated geotechnical data using the site categorization procedure set forth in Section 208.10 and Table 208-2. Exception: When the soil properties are not known ill sufficient detail to determine the soil profile type, Type Sf) shall be used. Soil Profile Type Se or SF need not he assumed unless the building official determines that Type Se 01' SF may be present at the site or ill the event that Type S£ or Sf' is established by geotechnical data. 208.4.3.1 Soil Profile Type Soil Profile Types SA, So, Sc, SD and SE are defined in Table 208-2 and Soil Profile Type SF is defined as soils requiring site-specific evaluation as follows: 1. Soils vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under seismic loading, such as liquefiable soils, quick and

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

ily Sc on ite nd SE I Very Dense 360 to Soil ad > 100 > 50 760 Soft Rock Stiff Soil 50 to 180 to 15 to Profile 100 360 50 Soft Soil < 15 < 50 < ISO Profile Soil Requiring Site-specific Evaluation. PI. PI> Wmc 2 40 percent and s. 3. If the site corresponds to these criteria. See Section 208.L Each structure shall be assigned . National Structural Code of the Philippines 6lh Edition Volume 1 . Very high plasticity clays with a plasticity index. The soil profile type is SA. and with Except in single-story structures. in accordance with Table 2'68'-3. 5. The value of N: used to determine Ca need not exceed 1.4. and Type 1 or 4 of Table 208-10. The Plasticity Index.4.4. 208. Velocity. 208. Table 20S-2 . clays. site soil profile characteristics and the structure's importance factor. C. The location and type of seismic sources to be used for design shall be established based on approved geological data. 4. Type A sources shan be determined from Figures 208-2B.4 or 5 of Table 20S-9. each site shall be assigned near-source factors in accordance with Tables 20S-4 and 208-5 based on the Seismic Source Type as set forth in Section 208. see Figure 20S-2A. where the depth of clay exceeds 35 m. < 24 kPa. The exceptions to Section 515. sheds and agricultural buildings.2 Seismic Zone 4 Near-Source In Seismic Zone 4.0 m of soft clay defined as a soil with plasticity index. V. E or the most recent mapping of active faults by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS). 3.3.4.5 shall not apply. Sc or SD. moment frame systems designated as part of the lateral-forceresisting system shall be special moment-resisting frames.4.4. carports.4. (m/s) Z I Zone Factor Z 2 0.20 I 4 0.1 than 20. . PI > 75.4 Site Seismic Hazard Characteristics l in oils ider and Seismic hazard characteristics for the site shall be established based on the seismic zone and proximity of the site to active seismic sources. None of the following structural irregularities is present: Type 1.4. D. except for columns in one-story buildings or columns at the top story of multistory buildings.4.4. (kPa) > 1500 760 to 1500 1. S». . C.1 for structures complying with all the following conditions: 1.1 Seismic Zone The Philippine archipelago is divided into two seismic zones only. residential building accommodating 10 or fewer persons. and collapsible weakly 208.40 Factor 208.3 Seismic Response Coefficients Each structure shall be assigned a seismic coefficient. Zone 2 covers the provinces ofPalawan.Soil Profile Types Soil Soil Profile Name! Generic Description Hard Rock Sn Rock Average Soil Properties for Top 30 m of Soil Profile Shear Undrained SPT. Very thick softJmedium stiff clays. Sulu and Tawi-Tawi while the rest of the country is under Zone 4 as shown in Figure 20S. the site shall be classified as Soil Profile Type SF and a site-specific evaluation shall be conducted. 4. in accordance with Table 20S-7 and a seismic coefficient. C" in accordance with Table 208-S.4. W"'. The criteria set forth in the definition for Soil Profile Type SF requiring site-specific evaluation shall be considered. 208.Minimum Design Loads 2-77 highly sensitive cemented soils.. where the thickness of peat or highly organic clay exceeds 3. 2. i Soil Profile Type So also includes any soil profile with more 3. N Wave Shear (blowsl Strength. the moisture content.4.4 Seismic Source Types Table 208-6 defines the types of seismic sources.5 m.CHAPTER 2 .4.0. p = 300 mm) s. where the depth of clay exceeds 7.~ ~J Table 20S~rSeismic ZONE Peats and/or highly organic clays. private garages.0 m.6. seismic zone factor Z.' shall be determined in accordance approved national standards.

1.0 1.----. C" Soil Profile Type Z = Seismic Zone Z 0.4 3.0 1. M 208: Bach regu and: 208.0 1.64Nv 0.2-78 CHAPTER 2 .64 0.5: The Near-Source Factor liIay be based on the linear interpolation of values Jar distances other than those shown ill the table.:: 15 km ~~--~-------.6 ~~---. 6.2 1.32Na o AONa o AONa 0.0 B 1.44Na See Footnote 1of Table 208-8 0. N" I Closest Distance To Known Seismic Sourcei :s.5 2. Regt Table 208-5 Seismic Source Type Near-Source Factor. Tile closest distance to seismic source shall be taken as lire minimum distance between the site and the area described by the vertical projection oj the source on the surface (i.16 0. An faults other than Types A and I _________________ .56Nv 0. A M?:..32Nv oAONv 0.4 SA SB Sc So SE SF 0. surface projection of fault plane). M<6. Notes for Tables 208.0 ~---------LO 1.96Nv 208 Stru liste 208 See Footnote 1 o/Table 208·8 A! to Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis shall be performed 10 determine seismic coefficients.Seismic Source Types Seismic Source Description Faults that are capable of producing large magnitude events and that have a high rate of seismic activity.M<7. The largest value oj the Near-Source Factor considering all sources shall be used Jar design. ] C Faults that are not capable of producing large magnitude earthquakes and that have a relatively low rate of seismic activity.2 1. The surface projection need 1I0t include portions of the source at depths of 10 km or greater.16 0..~--.Minimum Design Loads Table 208-4 Near-Source Factor N.0 1. Cv Seismic Zone Z Z=O.28 0.2 Z=O.32 OAO 0.5::. 1 Subduction sources shall be evaluated on a site-specific basis. Seismic Source Type --------A B C I Table Seismic Source Type 208-6 .7.2 A 1._--------------~~---~ B 1.0 c. Table 208-7 .5km 10 km .20 0.34 Table 208-8 .2 Z = 0.0 C 1 1._ Closest Distance To Known Seismic Source/ ~ 10km ~5km ----1.0 M Seismic Source Definition Maximum Moment Magnitude..44Na 0.0 discr later featr 208. Soil Profile Type SA SB Sc So SE SF I 0.0 1.24 0. can pro' frar 208 A~ frar late Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines .4 and 208.Seismic Coefficient..Seismic Coefficient.-.e.20 0.0 1.

lral systems shall be classified as one of the types listed in Table 208-11 and defined in this section. 208. 208.2. IMRF.1 Regular Structures Regular structures have no significant physical discontinuities in plan or vertical configuration or in their lateral-foree-resisting systems such as the irregular features described in Section 208.4.6.2 Irregular 1. 208.7 Nonbuilding Structural System A structural system conforming to Section 208. ..4. designed using the dynamic lateral-force procedures of Section 208.2 Building Frame System A structural system with an essentially complete space frame providing support for gravity loads.7 Height Limits Height limits for the various structural systems in Seismic Zone 4 are given in Table 208-11.4. 208.5 Configuration Requirements Each structure shall be designated as being structurally regular or irregular in accordance with Sections 208.6.4. Bearing walls or bracing systems provide SUpport for all or most gravity loads. The story drifts for this determination may be calculated neglecting torsional effects .4.5. Structures having any of the features listed in Table 208-9 shall be designated as if having a vertical irregu larity. An essentially complete space frame that provides support for gravity loads.6 Undefined Structural System A structural system not listed in Table 208-11. accessible to. Systems A structural system relying elements for lateral resistance. Exception: Regular structures may exceed these limits by not more than 50 percentfor unoccupied structures. Structures having any of the features listed in Table 208-10 shall be designated as having a plan irregularity.4. those described in Tables 208-9 and 208-10.1 and 208. 208.3 Moment Resisting Frame System 208. Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames and moment-resisting frames (SMRF.4. 208.5. Structures A structural system with an essentially complete space frame providing support for gravity loads. i . 3.3 times the story drift ratio of the MOl)' above.6.Mimmum Design Loads 2-79 208. National Structural Code of the Philippines 6tl1 Edition Volume 1 . MMRWF or steel OMRF). 208.6.CHAPTER 2 . thegelleralpublic.6.4.1 Bearing Wall System A structural system without a complete vertical loadcarrying space frame.2.8 Selection of Lateral Force Procedure 208. The moment-resisting frames shall be designed to independently resist at least 25 percent of the design base shear. which are 1I0t.6. 2. The two systems shall be designed to resist the total design base shear in proportion to their relative rigidities considering the interaction of the dual system at all levels.4.5 Cantilevered Exception: Where no stOIY drift ratio under design lateralforces is greater than 1.4.6. Any structure may be. 208. Irregular structures have significant physical discontinuities in configuration or in their lateralforce-resisting systems. but are not limited to. 208. The S(OIY drift ratio for the top two stories need not be considered. Momentresisting frames provide resistance to lateral load primarily by flexural action of members.5. Resistance to lateral Iau d ISprOVIded by shear walls or braced frames. 2.6.5. Column System on cantilevered column 3. and certain structures defined below shall be.4. Resistance t~} lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames.4.4.6 Structural Shuct1. the structure may be deemed to not have the structural irregularities of Type 1 or 2 ill Table 208-9.9. All structures in occupancy Categories 4 and 5 in Seismic Zone 2 need to be evaluated only for vertical irregularities of Type 5 (Table 208-9) and horizontal irregularities of Type 1 (Table 208-10). Irregular features include. 208.5.4 Dual System A structural system with the following features: 1.4.4.4.

Reference Section Torsional Irregularity . 208.8. 208. or changes in effective diaphragm stiffness of more than 50 percent from one sto_!)!to the next. 208. including those having cutout or open areas greater than 50 percent of the gross enclosed area of the diaphragm. 208. 208.8 ltem6 4. A roof that is lighter than the floor below need not be considered.2.1 4. One-story penthouses need not be considered.Plane Offsets Irregularity Discontinuities in a lateral force path. Nonparallel Systems Irregularity The vertical lateral-load-resisting elements are not parallel to or symmetric about the major orthogonal axes of the lateral force-resisting systems.To Be Considered When Diaphragms Are Not Flexible Torsional irregularity shall be considered to exist when the maximum story drift. In-Plane Discontinuity In Vertical Lateral-Force-Resisting Element Irregularity An in-plane offset of the lateral-loadresisting elements greater than the length of those elements.8.8.8. Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or variations in stiffness.8 Item 6 A soft story is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than 70 percent of that in the story above or less than 80 percent of the average stiffness of the three stories above.7 5.2-80 CHAPTER 2 .2. Vertical Geometric Irregularity Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the lateralforce-resisting system in any story is more than 130 percent of that in an adjacent story.3 Item 2 2.1 Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines .2 times the average of the story drifts of the two ends of the structure.8. Weight (Mass) Irregularity Mass irregularity shall be considered to exist where the effective mass of any story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacent story.4. 208. computed including accidental torsion. 208.Weak Story Irregularity A weak story is one in which the story strength is less than 80 percent of that in the story above. such as out-of-plane offsets of the vertical elements 208.8. 208.8. 208. Stiffness Irregularity Story Soft Reference Section Irregularity Type and Definition 1.8 Items 6 and 7 3. 515.8.Minimum Design Loads Table 208-10 Table 208-9 Vertical Structural Irregularities Horizontal Structural Irregularities Irregularity Type and Definition 1.2.5.5. where both projections of the structure beyond a re-entrant comer are greater than 15 percent of the plan dimension of the structure in the given direction.8.1 5.2.9.3 Item 2 2. Out-Of.1 208.4. Discontinuity In Capacity . Re-Entrant Corner Irregularity Plan configurations of a structure and its lateral-force-resisting system contain re-entrant comers.8.4.3 Item 2 3.8 Item 6. at one end of the structure transverse to an aXIS is more than 1.4. The story strength is the total strength of all seismic-resisting elements sharing the story for the direction under consideration.

2. Overstrength and strain hardening or softening. 6. Regular structures under 75 m in height with lateral force resistance provided by systems listed in Table 208-11.3. including the 1 Structures 75 m or more in height. Item 4.. that have a period greater than 0. as defined in Table 208-9.4.4.5.9 System Limitations 208. 5.4. regular or irregular. except as permitted by Section 208.4. Strength and stiffness degradation. regular or irregular in Occupancy Categories IV and V in Seismic Zone 2.5. the coefficient R shall be substantiated by approved cyclic test data and analyses. 208. 3. 208.4.2. The following items shall be addressed when establishing R: 1.8. 208. soils at the site and shall confonn to Section 208. the average story stiffness of the lower portion is at least 10 times the average story stiffness of the upper portion and the period of the entire structure is not greater than 1.9. 4. Irregular structures not more than five stories or 20 m in height. applies. energy dissipation and damping systems may be used in the design of structures when approved by the building official and when special detailing is used to provide results equivalent to those obtained by the use of conventional structural systems. Item 1.Structures over five stories or 20 m in height in Seismic Zone 4 not having the same structural system . vertical irregularity Type 5 as defined in Table 208-9.10 Alternative Procedures Structures having a stiffness. Energy dissipation characteristics. weight or geometric vertical irregularity of Type 1.9.8. 2 or 3.1 Discontinuity Structures with a discontinuity in capacity.1. or structures having irregular features not described in Table 208-9 or 208-10.7 second.6. Structures having a flexible upper portion supported on a rigid lower portion where both portions of the structure considered separately can be classified as being regular. Lateral force resistance.1 Seismic Isolation Seismic isolation.4.3 may be used for the following structures of Occupancy Category IV or V: 1.4. Item 4. The analysis shall include the effects of the Alternative lateral-force procedures using rational analyses based on well-established principles of mechanics may be used in lieu of those prescribed in these provisions.6 be used for all other structures. 208. located on Soil Profile Type SF. and Redundancy.2.4.4.2 Static The static lateral force procedure of Section 2085 may be used for the following structures: L 2. .2 Undefined Structural Systems For undefined structural systems not listed in Table 20811. •permitted by Section 208. Other buildings not more than two stories in height excluding basements. Features 2. throughout their height except as permitted by 208.10.CHAPTER 2 .1 Simplified Static The simplified static lateral-force procedure set forth in Section 208.3 Irregular dynamic lateral-force procedure of Section 208. 208.1 times the period of the upper portion considered as a separate structure fixed at the base. Buildings of any occupancy (including single-family dwellings) not more than three stories in height excluding basements that use light-frame construction.4.4.9. All structures. 2.Minimum Design Loads 2-81 208. 208. except where Section 208. i~Huctures. shall not be over two stories or 9 m in height where the weak story has a calculated strength of less than 65 percent of the story above. except as All structures having irregular features described in Table 208-9 or 208-10 shall be designed to meet the additional requirements of those sections referenced in the tables. System ductility. National Structural Code of the Philippines 6th Edition Volume 1 .8. 7. Dynamic response characteristics.6.8.2.

5. Method A: 208.2. as required in Section 203. In Seismic Zone 4. the contribution of panel zone deformations to overall story drift shall be included.s.5.02 I R.1. The total design base shear shall not be less than the following: (208-6) In addition. = 0. The value of T from Method B shall not exceed a value 30 percent greater than the value of T obtained from Method A in Seismic Zone 4. need not be considered when the ratio of secondary moment to primary moment does not exceed 0.SZNv I R W (208-7) 2.) used in Equation (208-9) shall not 2.1.3 PA Effects The resulting member forces and moments and the story drifts induced by PD. The analysis shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 208. In addition. and 40 percent in Seismic Zone 2. 0.0743 I fA: .0731 for reinforced concrete momentresisting frames and eccentrically braced frames. 208. which are significant to the distribution of forces. the total base shear shall also not be less than the following: V:= O. Method B: V. the value of Cr for structures with concrete or masonry shear walls may be taken as 0.1. above the story times the seismic drift in that story divided by the product of the seismic shear in that story times the height of that story.S.. the ratio may be evaluated for any story as the product of the total dead and floor live loads.5Ca I W R (208-5) The fundamental period T may be calculated using the structural properties and deformational characteristics of the resisting elements in a properly substantiated analysis.5. C. the value T may be approximated from the following equation: (20S-8) where: C.5.. = Alternatively.2 Modelling Requirements The mathematical model of the physical structure shall include all elements of the lateral-force-resisting system. The value of Ac shall be determined from the following equation: (208-9) The value of exceed 0. = 0.5 . 2.Minimum Design Loads 2-83 208.. need not be considered when the story drift ratio does not exceed 0. and shall represent the spatial distribution of the mass and stiffness of the structure. 208.1 Design Base Shear The total design base shear in a given direction shall be determined from the following equation: (208-4) The total following: design base shear need not exceed the For all buildings. De / /. For steel moment frame systems.2 Structure Period from one of the The value of T shall be determined following methods: 1. PD.2 Static Force Procedure 208.9.CHAPTER 2 . effects shall be considered in the evaluation of overall structural frame stability and shall be evaluated using the forces producing the displacements of D.10. C.2.2.0488 for all other buildings. the model shall comply with the following: 1. National Structural Code of the Philippines 6th Edition Volume 1 . The model shall also include the stiffness and strength of elements. for Seismic Zone 4.OS53 for steel moment-resisting frames. Stiffness properties of reinforced concrete and masonry elements shall consider the effects of cracked sections. PD..

8 2.5 3.8 2.5 8. Dual Systems 0 Special reinforced concrete shear walls • Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls E.2 4. Building Frame Systems 0 Special reinforced concrete shear walls or braced frames • Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls or braced frames 0 Intermediate precast shear walls or braced frames C.5 6.0 2.5 4.5 5.8 2.2 2.8 2.8 2.2 5.5 6.6 5.5 4. m Zone 2 Zone 4 Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System R Qo A.8 2. Shear Wall.5 5.5 8.5 5. Cantilevered Column Building Systems • Cantilevered column elements G.8 2. Bearing Wall Systems 0 Special reinforced concrete shear walls • Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls B.2 2.Minimum Design Loads Table 208-11 A Earthquake-Force-Resisting Structural Systems of Concrete System Limitation and Building Height Limitation by Seismic Zone.8 2.2-84 CHAPTER 2 .8 Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines .8 2.8 NL NL NL NL 50 NP 75 N~ NL NL NL NL NP NL NL NP NL NL NL NP NP NL NP 50 50 NP 10 50 2.Frame Interaction Systems 4. Dual System with Intermediate Moment Frames • Special reinforced concrete shear walls • Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls • Shear wall frame interactive system with ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames and ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls F.8 2. Moment-Resisting Frame Systems 0 S_Q_ecial reinforced concrete moment frames 0 Intermediate reinforced concrete moment frames 0 Ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames D.8 2.5 2.

5 4.0 6. Bearing Wall S:rstems Light steel. non moment-resisting connections at columns away from links • Special concentrically braced frames (SCBF) • Ordinary concentrically braced frames (OCBF) • Light-framed walls sheathed with wood structural panels / sheet steel panels • Light frame walls with shear panels of all other materials • Buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBF).8 4. moment-resisting connections at columns away from links • Steel eccentrically braced frames (EBF). m Zone 2 Zone 4 NL NL NL NL NL 20 50 20 20 NP A.0 4.0 3.2 2.. Dual Systems with Special Moment Frames • Steel eccentrically braced frames • Special steel concentrically braced frames • Composite steel and concrete eccentrically braced frame • 2.CHAPTER 2 .8 2.5 2.2 • 8.8 NL 30 6.5 3.8 2.8 2. Moment-Resist.4 4..2 2. non moment-resisting beam-column connection • Buckling-restrained braced frames.framed bearing walls with tensiononly bracing • Braced frames where bracing carries gravity load • Light framed walls sheathed with wood structural panels rated for shear resistance or steel sheets • Light-framed walls with shear panels of all other light materials Light-framed wall systems using flat strap bracing B.5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2.8 8 5 6 3 8 7 8 National Structural Code of the Philippines 6th Edition Volume 1 .5 2.8 2.8 2. Building Frame Systems • Steel eccentrically braced frames (EBF).5 7 2.5 6.8 2. momentresisting beam-column connections • Special steel plate shear walls (SPSW) C.8 2.!. Frame Systems • Special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) • Intermediate steel moment frames (IMF) • Ordinary moment frames (OMF) • Special truss moment frames (STMF) • Special composite steel and concrete moment frames • Intermediate composite moment frames • Composite partially restrained moment frames • Ordinary composite moment frames D.8 2.8 2.8 3 NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL 48 NP NL NL NL 30 30 NP 20 NP 30 30 30 NL NP NP NP NL NP NP NP NL NL NL 8 7 8.2 2.Minimum Design Loads 2-85 Table 208-11B Earthquake-Force-Resisting Structural Systems of Steel Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System R no System Limitation and Building Height Limitation by Seismic Zone.2 2.2 2.5 2.2 6.

8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.5 4~2 7.8 2. Cantilevered CO/limn Buildin S stems • S ecial steel moment frames • Intermediate steel moment frames • Ordina steel moment frames • Cantilevered column elements G.0 2.8 2.2 3 NL 50 NL 50 NP NP NP NP 10 Th fol NP NP 10 NL NL NP Th uPI Eq rat cal Table 208-IIC Earthquake-Foree-Resisting Structural Systems of Masonry System Limitation and Building Height Limitation by Seismic Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System R 2.Minimum Design Loads Table 208-11B( cant' d) Earthquake-Foree-Resisting Structural Systems of Steel Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System R no 2.8 2.2 1.2 1.0 2.0 2. m Zone 2 Zone 4 Composite steel and concrete concentrically braced frame 6 7.8 2.8 NL Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines .2-86 CHAPTER 2 .8 2.0 3 • System Limitation and Building Height Limitation by Seismic Zone.0 2. Excludin Cantilever S stems • 8.8 2.8 2. Steel Systems not Specifically Detailed for Seismic Resistance.5 3.2 NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL 10 10 10 NL NL NL NL 50 Steel EBF with steel OMRF • Special concentrically braced frames with steel SMRF • Special concentrically braced frames with steel OMRF E.5 8 8 4.8 2. Dual System with Intermediate Moment Frames • S ecial steel concentric all braced frame • Composite steel and concrete concentrically braced frame • Ordina • Ordinary composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel elements F.2 6 5.5 4.5 5 2.

S 2.2.2 Vertical Distribution The forces at each level shall be calculated using the following equation: F = 3Ca w.5.2 NA NL NL 20 20 2.5.5. or Type 1 or 4 of Table 20S-10. 20S.1 may be designed using this procedure. 208. Oi. 208. 2.8.1.9. Type SD shall be used in Seismic Zone 4.Minimum Design Loads 2-87 Table 20S-lID Earthquake-Force-Resisting Structural Systems of Wood Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System R 5.3 Applicability Sections 20S.2.1.1.3 Simplified Design Base Shear Structures conforming to the requirements of Section 20S.2. 20S.S 2.2 NL 20 6. need not be greater than 1.5.1 Base Shear The total design base shear in a given direction shall be determined from the following equation: (20S·11) 208.1.3.2.5. shall be based on Table 20S· 7 for the soil profile type.3. x R I (20S-12) where the value of C.10 and 208.2.5. T =2n: (20S-10) The values of Ji represent any lateral force distributed approximately in accordance with the principles of Equations (20 S-13). 208. 20S. (20S-14) and (20S-15) or any other rational distribution.2.5.5.3. shall be calculated using the applied lateral forces.2.6 shall not apply when National Structural Code of the Philippines 6th Edition Volume 1 .S NL 20 fundamental period T may be computed by using the .5. the Near-Source Factor.5.5.3.5. Na.5.2.5 2. Type 1.5 2.2. shall be determined as in Section 20S.Ji. 208. 20S.3. The elastic deflections. In Seismic Zone 4. When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the soil profile type.CHAPTER 2 .S NA 2. equation: where the value of C. and Type SE shall be used in Seismic Zone 2.2 if none of the following structural irregularities are present: 1.4. 20S. 4 or 5 of Table 20S-9.

3. the value of R used for design in that direction shall not be greater than the least value for any of the systems utilized in that same direction. 3C and need not R Ca wpx. 208.5. but shall not be less than O. In Section 208. 208. shall be taken from Table 208-11.4.5.9 and 208. 208.2 Determination of R The value for R shall be taken from Table 208-11. Any combination of bearing wall systems. (20814) and (208-15) in the absence of a more rigorous procedure. QQ. building frame systems. which is in addition to F".1.5.3.1 Vertical Combinations The value of R used in the design of any story shall be less than or equal to the value of R used in the given direction for the story above.5. V=~+L~ i=l (208-13) The concentrated force F. The remaining portion of the base shear shall be distributed over the height of the structure. IO. 208.5.5.2}. shall be determined from the equation: F.5. dual systems or moment-resisting frame systems may be used to resist seismic forces in structures less than 50 m in height.5.5 Vertical Distribution of Force The total force shall be distributed over the height of the structure in conformance with Equations (208-13). 208. including Level ».3 Determination of Seismic Factors 208.1 Determination of 0. 208.4 Combinations of Structural Systems Where combinations of structural systems are incorporated into the same structure.2. Exception: This requirement need 1I0t be applied to a story where the dead weight above that story is less than 10 percent ofthe total dead weight ofthe structure. as specifically identified in this code. shall be the period that corresponds with the design base shear as computed using Equation (208-4). 0 For specific elements of the structure.07I'V (208-14) The value of T used for the purpose of calculating F. the value of R used for design in the orthogonal direction shall not be greater than that used for the bearing wall system. The following two-stage static analysis procedures may be used for structures conforming to Section 208.designed using the procedures of this section under the following conditions: The entire structure is designed using the lowest R of the lateral force-resisting systems used. at the top. and 00 shall be taken from Table 208-11. 11M shall be taken equal to 0. F.8.1 The flexible upper portion shall be designed as a separate structure.1.5.2 Combinations along Different Axes In Seismic Zone 4 where a structure has a bearing wall system in only one direction.2 The rigid lower portion shall be designed as a separate structure using the appropriate values of Rand p.8.01 times the story height of all stories. II 208.5.4. Where used.4.5. the requirements of this section shall be satisfied.Minimum Design Loads Exception: For buildings with relatively flexible structural systems. according to the following equation: Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines . or 1. the Seismic Force Overstrength Factor. supported laterally by the rigid lower portion. Equation (208-20) exceed shall read Fpx = Ra wpx 1. The reactions from the upper portion shall be those determined from the analysis of the upper portion amplified by the ratio of the (!Up) of the upper portion over (!Up) of the lower portion. Only combinations of dual systems and special moment-resisting frames shall be used to resist seismic forces in structures exceeding 50 m in height in Seismic Zone 4. using the appropriate values of Rand p.8. Item 4. the minimum design strength shall be the product of the seismic force overstrength factor Qo and the design seismic forces set forth in Section 208.7 second or less.5.4. the building official may require consideration 0/ pf1 effects and drift in accordance with Sections 208.5.25V and may be considered as zero where T is 0.3.SCawpx.2.2-88 CHAPTER 2 . Structures may be . 208. =O. For both Allowable Stress Design and Strength Design. 1. lis shall be determined using design seismicforces from Section2()§. need not exceed O.3 Combinations along the Same Axis Where a combination of different structural systems is utilized to resist lateral forces in the same direction.

At any level. The accidental torsional moment shall be determined by assuming the mass is displaced as required by Section 208. Where diaphragms are not flexible. mm zed The value of A x need not exceed 3. This may be determined by comparing the computed midpoint in-plane deflection of the diaphragm itself under lateral load with the story drift of adjoining vertical-resisting elements under equivalent tributary lateral load.vall for The design story shear. The torsional design moment at a given story shall be the moment resulting from eccentricities between applied design lateral forces at levels above that story and the vertical-resisting elements in that story plus an accidental torsion. applied at the appropriate levels above the base. Diaphragms shall be considered flexible for the purposes of distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the maximum lateral deformation of the diaphragm is more than two times the average story drift of the associated story.8 for combining gravity and seismic forces.5.resisting systems. considering the rigidity of the diaphragm. the mass at each level shall be assumed to be displaced from the calculated center of mass in each direction a distance equal to 5 percent of the building dimension at that level perpendicular to the direction of the force under consideration. 208. in any story is the sum of the forces F.6 Horizontal Distribution of Shear . han nne ems han and sist t in Axwhere: Davg Dmax [ L2Davg ] (208-16) = the average .7 Horizontal Torsional Moments Provisions shall be made for the increased shears resulting from horizontal torsion where diaphragms are not flexible. See Section 208.Minimum Design Loads 2-89 as a the lues 18 :8 (208-15) 208. is the be Dmax:= of the displacements at the extreme points of the structure at Level x. the overturning moments to be resisted shall be determined using those seismic forces (FI and F.5.8 Overturning Every structure shall be designed to resist the overturning effects caused by earthquake forces specified in Section 208. National Structural Code of the Philippines s" Edition Volume 1 . the effects shall be accounted for by increasing the accidental torsion at each level by an amplification factor.6.5.0 208.1 and 208. the force F_. determined from the following equation: 2 a of rion . the )8}Us 3) ton l4) all ~ar . At any level. Ax.5.5. the incremental changes of the design overturning moment shall be distributed to the various resisting elements in the manner prescribed in Section 208. Overturning effects on every element shall be carried down to the foundation. above that story.5. The effect of this displacement on the story shear distribution shall be considered.ed )_7 ear re. and F. See Sections 207. Where torsional irregularity exists. shall be applied over the area of the building in accordance with the mass distribution at that level.CHAPTER 2 .6.~) that act on levels above the level under consideration.5.3 for rigid elements that are not intended to be part of the lateral force. Vx shall be distributed to the various elements of the vertical lateral force-resisting system in proportion to their rigidities. of the wer At each level designated as x. The most severe load combination for each element shall be considered for design. mm the maximum displacement at Level x. Vx.8.2. and F. as defined in Table 208-10. Structural displacements and design seismic forces shall be calculated as the effect of forces F_.

5. denoted as t'ls.2. Reinforced concrete or reinforced masonry elements designed primarily as axial-load members shall comply with Section 421. elastic analysis of the lateral force-resisting system shall be prepared using the design seismic forces from Section 208.M. of 1. steel and wood elements supporting such discontinuous systems shall have the design strength to resist the combination loads resulting from the special seismic load combinations of Section 203. The analysis used to determine the Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement t'lM shall consider Pt'l effects. For Allowable Stress Design.9 Drift Drift or horizontal displacements of the structure shall be computed where required by this code.6.MInimum Design Loads 6. 20S. and 708. masonry.S. Wood elements designed primarily as flexural members shall be provided with lateral bracing or solid blocking at each end of the element and at the connection location(s) of the discontinuous system.1.9.8.3. shall be determined in accordance with Section 208.1.1 General Nhere any portion of the lateral load-resisting system is Iiscontinuous.6.1 Calcula times tI period fundarr story dl 20S. of the structure caused by the Design Basis Ground Motion shall be determined in accordance with this section. Reinforced concrete elements designed primarily as flexural members and supporting other than lightframe wood shear wall system or light-frame steel and wood structural panel shear wall systems shall comply with Sections 421.OS. dynamic analysis may be performed in accordance with Section 208. shall be determined at all critical locations in the structure.5.5. 1. 5.2. Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines .third stress increase permitted by Section 203.9. The mathematical model shall comply with Section 208.2 and 515.4. Item 1.3 shall be used.12. 4.S. Strength computations for portions of slabs designed as supporting elements shall include only those portions of the slab that comply with the requirements of these sections. elements supporting discontinuous systems shall meet the following detailing or member limitations: 1.5 The d drift and ( from In Seismic Zone 4. for <l The Maximum Inelastic Response shall be computed as follows: 3. 208.4. Alternatively.1 and 308.S.1. This increase shall not be combined with the one. Exceptions. the design strength may be determined using an allowable stress increase of 1. concrete.1. 20S.1 Determination of 2.3.1 Elements . For both Allowable Stress Design and Strength Design.! The: only.6.S. 20S.1.5. the Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement.9.5.2 Detailing requirements in Seismic Zone 4 As 208.2. D.ti'l1S. AM.1.4.5. the load combinations of Section 203.6. Supporting Discontinuous Steel elements designed primarily as flexural members or trusses shan have bracing for both top and bottom beam flanges or chords at the location of the support of the discontinuous system and shall comply with the requirements of Section 515.6.5. Steel elements designed primarily as axial-load members shan comply with Sections 515.s:is if! w:conl(!nce~ith\$fq_~iQn ~O§.5.Exceptio~~·.ystems m8. such as for vertical irregularity Type 4 in fable 208-9 or plan irregularity Type 4 in Table 208-10. A static.4.2. limits 208. p.2 Determination of AM Displacement.5. t'ls. .4. To determine t'lM' these drifts shall be amplified in accordance with Section 208.-90 CHAPTER 2 . The resulting deformations.3.5 need not exceed the maximum force that can be transferred to the element by the lateral-force-resisting system.4 for overturning moments to be resisted at the foundation soil interface.:-·"· Alternatively.3.3. The drifts corresponding to the design seismic forces of Section 208.1.6.9. The quantity Em in Section 203. Masonry elements designed primarily as axial-load carrying members shall comply with Sections 706.5.S.4.5.7 and a resistance factor. (208-17) . AM may be computed by _MstQtyc!.6.5.6.2 At Foundation See Sections 208. 20S. Masonry elements designed primarily as flexural members shall comply with Section 708. but may be combined with the duration of load increase permitted in Section 615.4.2 and 421. Where Allowable Stress Design is used and where drift is being computed.1 Story ( Inelastii 20~.2.5.2.5. Concrete slabs supporting light-frame wood shear 7. Calculated drift shall include translational and torsional deflections.fla/y. wall systems or light-frame steel and wood structural panelshear' wa11syst.4.1 or Section 208.S.0. 2.S.2.2.3.

11M. either individually or in combination. Item 2.2 Limitations The design lateral forces used to determine the calculated drift may disregard the limitations of Equation (208-6) and (208-7) and may be based on the period determined from Equation (208-10) neglecting the 30 or 40 percent limitations of Section 208. The analysis a be based .7 sec or greater.8.6.5.05.2. as a minimum.6.2.thirds. honzontal prestressed components shall be designed using not more than 50 percent of the dead load for the gravity load. In ~tddition to all other applicable load combinations. Na. The spectrum shall be developed for a damping ratio of 0.CHAPTER 2 .8.5.3.6.10.7Cal~. Item 2.10. shall not be reduced by the quantity R and may be one of the following: I.1u. be The following requirements apply in Seismic Zone 4 only. The dr~"!t used ill this assessment shall be based UPOIl the Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement. the following requirements shall apply when required by Section 208. 208. 9.815 m/sec/. shall conform sh II n ena estabhshed in this section. . 4.1 General Dynalllic I to the C iteri yses pr~cedures.020 times the story height.3 Mathematical Model A mathematical model of the physical structure shall represent the spatial distribution of the mass and stiffuess of the structure to an extent that is adequate for the National Structural Code of the Philippines 6th Edition Volume 1 . 208. Where the Near Source Factor. 5.6 Dynamic Analysis Procedures 208.11 Vertical Component 4.4. 208. shall approximate the site design spectrum conforming to Section 208.10 Story Drift Limitation Story drifts shall be computed using Inelastic Response Displacement. 208.2. Item 4: 4. Alternative factors may be used when substantiated by sitespecific data.1 Calculated Calculated story drift using 11M shall not exceed 0. 208.2 Possible amplification of building response due to the effects of soil-structure interaction and lengthening of building period caused by inelastic behavior shall be considered. For structures having a fundamental period of 0. Structures 011 which this exception is used shall not have equipment attached 10 the structural frame or shall have such equipment detailed to accommodate the additional drift. is greater than 1.3. d' on an appropriate groun motion 208. 2. For structures on Soil Profile Type SF.7 sec.5. site-specific vertical response spectra shall be used in lieu of the factor of twothirds. A site-specific elastic design response spectrum based on the geologic. unless a different value is shown to be consistent with the anticipated structural behavior at the intensity of shaking established for the site.1 The 2. Minor accessory uses shall be a/lowed.2 Ground Motion The ground motion representation shall. The vertical component of ground motion may be defined by scaling corresponding horizontal accelerations by a factor of two. ground motion representation shall developed in accordance with Items 2 and 3. be one having a lO-percent probability of being exceeded in 50 years. An elastic design response spectrum constructed in accordance with Figure 208-3.2. These drift limits may be exceeded when it is demonstrated that greater drift call he tolerated by both structural elements and nonstructural elements that could affect We safety. the calculated story drift shall not exceed 0.0. The design acceleration ordinates shall be multiplied by the acceleration of gravity.Minimum Design Loads 2-91 208. 3. Walls that are laterally supported hy the steel frame shall be designed to accommodate the drift in accordance with Section 208. seismologic and soil characteristics associated with the specific site.025 times the story height for structures having a fundamental period of less than 0. Horizontal cantilever components shall be designed for a net upward force of O. using accepted Structures that are designed in accordance with this section shall comply with all other applicable requirements of these provisions. when used. factories or workshops. There shall he 110 drift limit ill single-suny steelframed structures whose primm)' lise is limited to storage. alone or in combination with the lateral force effects. Exceptiol/s: 1.6.5. tectonic. Ground motion time histories developed for the specific site shall be representative of actual earthquake motions. Response spectra from time histories.5. the Maximum representation and shall be performed principles of dynamics. using the values of Ca and C" consistent with the specific site.

all corresponding response parameters are adjusted proportionately.6.5. 2 2 1 c t s 11 d 2.4.6.4 Reduction of Elastic Response Parameters for Design Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced for purposes of design in accordance with the following items.5.6. Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced such that the corresponding design base shear is not less than 80 percent of the base shear determined in accordance with Section 208. 1 ti P o h tl 2 E 208. In this case.10 and having a rigid or semi-rigid diaphragm.6. Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced such that the corresponding design base shear is not less than 90 percent of the base shear determined in accordance with Section 208.4. l.5.6. story shears and base reactions for each mode shall be Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines .2.5.2 Time History Analysis An analysis of the dynamic response of a structure at each increment of time when the base is subjected to a specific ground motion time history.6. modal interaction effects shall be considered when combining modal maxima.2.6.5.5. s a t 208.6.5.2 Number of Modes The requirement of Section 208.6.6 Torsion The analysis shall account for torsional effects.1. Item 1. tl 208. at least 90 percent of the participating mass of the structure is included in the calculation of response for each principal horizontal direction. A three-dimensional model shall be used for the dynamic analysis of structures with highly irregular plan configurations such as those having a plan irregularity defined in Table 208. Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced such that the corresponding design base shear is not less than 100 percent of the base shear determined in accordance with Section 208.2.6.5. Alternately. with the limitation that in no case shall the Elastic Response Parameters be reduced such that the corresponding design base shear is less than the Elastic Response Base Shear divided by the value of R. Maximum modal contributions are combined in a statistical manner to obtain an approximate total structural response. e 11 208.5. or by equivalent static procedures such as provided in Section 208. When three. determined using dynamic analysis must not be less than the value obtained by the equivalent lateral force method of Section 208. shall be denoted as Elastic Response Parameters.4 Description of Analysis Procedures 208. story forces. effects of accidental torsion shall be accounted for by appropriate adjustments in the model such as adjustment of mass locations.5. The base shear for a given direction. including forces.2. Peak modal responses are calculated using the ordinates of the appropriate response spectrum curve which correspond to the modal periods.5. including accidental torsional effects as prescribed in Section 208.6.2. For all regular structures where the ground motion representation complies with Section 208. moments and displacements.6. For all irregular structures. 2 2 n E d P 2 208.4.2.2-92 CHAPTER 2 .1 that all significant modes be included may be satisfied by demonstrating that for the modes considered.5 Directional Effects Directional effects for horizontal ground motion shall conform to the requirements of Section 208. in no case shall the response used for design be less than that obtained by the static method. The effects of vertical ground motions on horizontal cantilevers and prestressed elements shall be considered in accordance with Section 208.7. s II h II 208.3 Combining Modes The peak member forces.5. For all regular structures where the ground motion representation complies with Section 208. The stiffness properties used in the analysis and general mathematical modeling shall be in accordance with Section 208. 208.5. regardless of the ground motion representation.2.5.1 Response Spectrum Analysis An elastic dynamic analysis of a structure utilizing the peak dynamic response of all modes having a significant contribution to total structural response.1.6.Mirwnunl Design Loads calculation of the significant features of its dynamic response.6. Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced in accordance with Section 208. 208.2.5. o S The corresponding reduced design seismic forces shall be used for design in accordance with Section 203. Where three-dimensional models are used for analysis. displacements.11.6.5.6. s c s d s The ground motion representation shall be in accordance with Section 208.1 Response Spectrum Interpretation of Results Representation and 3. combined by recognized methods.5 Response Spectrum Analysis 208. dimensional models are used for analysis. The corresponding response parameters. vertical seismic response may be determined by dynamic response methods.4. Item 2.

Response parameters 1 ~'Olll clastic time-history analysis shall be denoted as 1·.10.5.4.4. All elements shall be dcsigned using Strength Design. Elastic Response Paral\1~ters may be scaled in accordance with Section 2()X. design of the lateral- Reviewing the final design of the lateral-forceresisting system and all supporting analyses.1 Nonlinear Time History Nonlinear time history analysis shall meet the requirements of Section 208. The motions shall be scaled such that the average value of the SRSS spectra does not fall below 1.6.6.3. Item 2. Capacities and characteristics of nonlinear elements shall be modeled consistent with test data or substantiated analysis.6.2.7 Lateral Nonstructural by Structures 208.2 T second to 1. If seven or more timehistory analyses are performed.or roof-mounted equipment weighing less than 1.6.6.5. Reviewing the development of site-specific spectra and ground-motion time histories. 20S. and furniture need not be designed. appropriate simulated ground-motion time-history pairs may be used to make up the total number required. considering the Importance Factor.1 Time History Time-history analysis shall be performed with pairs of appropriate horizontal ground-motion time. 208. a design review of the lateral. including persons licensed in the appropriate disciplines and experienced in seismic analysis methods. Reviewing the preliminary force-resisting system. 208. Attachments for floor. then the average value of the response parameter of interest may be used for design.6.6. The lateral-force-resisting system design review shall include.6.6.6. permanent nonstructural components and their attachments.3. For each pair of horizontal ground. Components and Equipment Supported !Jastic time history shall conform to Sections 208.7 Dual Systems Where the lateral forces are resisted by a dual system as defined in Section 20S. 208.motion components.6. Force on Elements of Structures. 2.6.5.5. 3. the combined system shall be capable of resisting the base shear determined in accordance with this section.4.10.4. fault distances and source mechanisms that are consistent with those that control the design-basis earthquake (or maximum capable earthquake).4. National Structural Code of the Philippines dh Edition Volume 1 .4.6.7 and 20S.3 Nonlinear Time History Analysis 208.2.2 Design Review When nonlinear time-history analysis is used to justify a structural design.6. Each pair of time histories shall be applied simultaneously to the model considering torsional effects.6 Time History Analysis 208. 208.6.7. Attachments shall include anchorages and required bracing.6. and time histories shall be developed and results determined in accordance with the requirements of Section 208.laslfL' Response Parameters. and may be analyzed using either the procedures of Section 208. The engineer-of-record shall submit with the plans and calculations a statement by all members of the engineering team doing the review stating that the above review has been performed.5.6. Where three appropriate recorded groundmotion time-history pairs are not available. 20XA5.forceresisting system shall be performed by an independent engineering team. the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the 5 percent-damped site-specific spectrum of the scaled horizontal components shall be constructed.4 times the 5 percent-damped spectrum of the design-basis earthquake for periods from 0. 208.5.6. The parameter of interest shall be calculated for each time.6.CHAPTER 2 ~ Minimum Desiqn Loaels 2-93 208. The moment-resisting frame shall conform to Section 20S.1.7.3. the following: 1.6.history components that shall be selected and scaled from not less than three recorded events.6.5.history analysis.1. and the attachments for permanent equipment supported by a structure shall be designed to resist the total design seismic forces prescribed in Section 208.6.5. 208. Friction resulting from gravity loads shall not be considered to provide resistance to seismic forces. Appropriate time histories shall have magnitudes.2.6. but not be limited to.5 or those of Section 208.6.5. 2UX.5T seconds.4. then the maximum response of the parameter or interest shall be used for design.5. If three time-history analyses are performed.1. 208. 208.(l.8 kN.1 General Elements of structures and their attachments.6.2Elastic Time History Analysis 20X.6. The maximum inelastic response displacement shall not be reduced and shall comply with Section 208.6.

7. = the in-structure Component Amplification Factor that varies from 1. Members and connection design shall use the load combinations and factors specified in Section 203. 2.0. equation: ~} may be calculated using the following 208.7. shall not be less than O.\f. shallow chemical anchors or shallow cast-in-place anchors.7Cal pWp need not be more than where: hx = the element and 208.7.2. A value for Qp shall be selected from Table 208-12. 208. Rp is the Component Response Modification Factor that shall be taken from Table 208-12. = the structure roof elevation with respect to grade. The value shall not be taken less than 1.0.0. When anchorage is constructed of non ductile materials. Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines . such criteria shall be obtained from approved national standards subject to the approval of the building official. When permissible design strengths and other acceptance criteria are not contained in or referenced by this code. Ii.3.8. p. such a standard or data may be accepted as a basis for design of the items with the following limitations: I.2-94 CHAPTER 2 . such systems shall be designed to resist the seismic forces prescribed in Section 208. The force. which result in the most critical loadings for design. refer to Sections 208.2 Design for Total Lateral Force The total design lateral seismic force.7.4.5. These provisions shall provide minimum values for the design of the anchorage and the members and connections that transfer the forces to the seismicresisting system.7. Forces shall be applied in the horizontal directions.7.0. this factor may be determined based on the dynamic properties or empirical data of the component and the structure that supports it.8. FI" and the overturning moment used in the design of the nonstructural component shall not be less than 80 percent of the values that would be obtained using these provisions. h.4 Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments For equipment in Categories I and II buildings as defined in Table 103-1.Mmimum Desiqn Loads When the structural failure of the lateral-foree-resisting systems of nonrigid equipment would cause a life hazard. 208. The Reliability/Redundancy Factor. and 208. except that Rp for anchorages shall equal 1. or by use of adhesive. The design lateral forces determined using Equation (20818) or (208-19) shall be distributed in proportion to the mass distribution of the element or component. (208-19) Except that F.8.2.0 to 2.3 Specifying Lateral Forces Design specifications for equipment shall either specify the design lateral forces prescribed herein or reference these provisions. shall not be taken less than 0. using the drift based upon t1.5 for shallow expansion anchor bolts. For applicable forces and Component Response Modification Factors in connectors for exterior panels and diaphragms. Alternatively.5 Alternative Designs Where an approved national standard or approved physical test data provide a basis for the earthquakeresistant design of a particular type of equipment or other nonstructural component.2. the lateral-force design shall consider the effects of relative motion of the points of attachment to the structure. may be taken equal to 1. ~)' determined from the following equation: shall be (208-18) Alternatively. 208. Forces determined using Equation (208-(8) or (208-19) shall be used to design members and connections that transfer these forces to the seismic-resisting systems. Shallow anchors are those with an embedment length-to-diameter ratio of less than 8.8. 4CJ/~. ap or component attachment elevation with respect to grade.3 or 203. Rp shall equal 1.2.

0 3. Rigid components with ductile material and attachments. Connections for prefabricated structural elements other walls.----.5 3. Masonry or concrete fences over 1.. 3..__ 40 _. Nonstructural Components 1--.-1__ 2 ..-~-...5. Flexible components with ductile material and attachments.14.. .. 2.Minimum Design Loads 2-95 Table 208-12 Horizontal Force Factors... ap and Rp for Elements of Structures and Nonstructural Components and Equipment Category Element or Component l.0 4.-.-.-~---~--·c:·-:·--·-· braced or anchored to the structural frame at . -1----1-.. All interior-bearing -~-----~. 16 1..0 +__ . - "eher be the for -ed 7. Storage racks (include contents) over I.0 3.5 2. Anchorage of emergency power supply systems and essential communications equipment..-------·-.§ystems. --------_·_---------- --.... 3. Elements of Structures walls at or above the ground floor braced above their centers of and non-bearing walls Footnote 2. ---.. --..CHAPTER 2 .__ _1 _ . --------··----11-----. e I--·-"-'- stacks and trussed towers supported on or the roof ..--... -------·----· - 3. -·---~------.. Equipment 12..__ ..-~. -------·---...· .... ..----- -I·-----I--- 4.--..5 5.. ~llllUlll"'J'~. .5 3. .0 4... 4.0 3.9 --+----~ 8. 2. ~_.. _1 1...'C'--:---"'C"--'---".0 3.- 4 to LO _··_·_ 1----.. Access floor systems I---. See also Section 208. Tanks and vessels (include contents). 10.2_ 1. See also Section 1---0.0 19 J . 3._0 2.~.0 ~d lC 3.. Unbraced (cantilevered) parapets b... Partitions..0 1..5 National Structural Code of the Philippines 6th Edition Volume 1 .0 -----1--·-·-- b.. Signs and billboards 2.7.0 3. 1. Temporary containers with flammable or hazardous materials.8 m high 1--. V'.0 2 LO 1..·---.S m tall. ---.. __ ._ __ _.. I-··. __ 1.0 3.. Electrical. 2. ~~ .:. 3.0 3...0 1. 1. . Flexible components with nonductile material or attachments.. mechanical and plumbing equipment and associated conduit and ductwork and piping.0 3.5 1._. - 9. 8.5 1.--1 ... _.0 ---. 3.5 y 2..0 3..0 1.0 2. --------·-!----+· ..-. Anchorage and support systems for battery racks and fuel tanks necessary for operation of emergency equipment. Penthouse (except when framed by an extension of the I---c--~st-ru-c. Any flexible equipment braced or anchored to the structural frame at a their center of mass 4. 15.5 3...0 1. 3 1 25 _.--.. 1... -~-~ . ~----~ c..1----.. ·-----I-------I Other Components 2..0 2. ~~.5 1 1 1 2. Rigid components with nonductile material or attachments 3. 7_..18 .----'-. ------. Exterior and interior ornamentations and appendages... 11.0 3... Including support .1-··--- LO 1.0 3._20 .-.0 17.-.·------·-----"-' --.----.0 LO 2.. Walls including the following: a. 1. ·_-_·(-----1---- 1 ---3-0-.tural frame)..0 3...0 1. Laterally braced or anchored to the structural frame at orabovethe~cen~er~ima~~.2 1. ~ 5. -.13.-.0 and nicdin not d be 3.

comparable to those expected of the real structure when responding to the Design Basis Ground Motion. to resist the effects of seismic ground motions as represented by these design forces. which are required to transmit the forces resulting from lateral loads to the foundation.S. b.5.2. For purposes of calculating design seismic forces in nonbuilding structures. sci 20: the de! bel L 2. bins and piping.1.3 or 203. consistent with the provisions specified herein for buildings.1 Scope Nonbuilding structures include all self.1.9. 208. For nonbuilding structures designed using Section 208.0. u ( Ii c.5 Drift The drift limitations of Section 208.5. 208.4 or 208. 20S.S.2 Criterla The minimum design seismic forces prescribed in this section are at a level that produces displacements in a fixed base. IMRF.9. the Reliability/Redundancy Factor. 208.4 Period The fundamental period of the structure shall be determined by rational methods such as by using Method B in Section 208.1.9. 20S. PI':l effects shall be considered for structures whose calculated drifts exceed the values in Section 208.1 0 need not apply to nonbuilding structures. Motion of the projecting directions.9 Nonbuilding 208. of the adjacent 1 t. 20S. elastic model of the structure.9.9 Building Separations All structures shall be separated from adjoining structures.supporting structures other than buildings that carry gravity loads and resist the effects of earthquakes.9.2.5.1. The design of nonbuilding structures shall use the load combinations or factors specified in Section 203. such criteria shall be obtained from approved national standards. STMF and MMRWF system elements below the base. shall apply to columns supporting discontinuous lateral-force-resisting elements and to SMRF. vessels. When applicable.1.2-100 CHAPTER 2 .1General 208. that structure shall also be set back from the property line by at least the displacement I':lM of that structure. Reductions in these forces using the coefficient R is permitted where the design of nonbuilding structures provides sufficient strength and ductility.I/T where (208-21) and I':lMi and I':lM2 are the displacements buildings. Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines . 208. p.2. Nonbuilding structures Structures The weight.3. Separations shall allow for the displacement I':lAt.Minimum Design Loads elements shall be designed for the more severe of the following two assumptions: a. Design shall conform to the applicable provisions of other sections as modified by the provisions contained in Section 208.9. Exception: Smaller separations or property line setbacks may be permitted when justified by rational analyses based 011 maximum expected ground motions. W shall also include all normal operating contents for items such as tanks. as appropriate. When applicable design strengths and other design criteria are not contained in or referenced by this code.9. The special detailing requirements of Chapters 4. design strengths and other detailed design criteria shall be obtained from other sections or their referenced standards. Drift limitations shall be established for structural or nonstructural elements whose failure would cause life hazards.9. for nonbuilding structures shall include all dead loads as defined for buildings in Section 208.6 in conjunction with a threedimensional model have been used to determine the lateral seismic forces for design. Motion of the projecting direction.2.3. wings wings in the same shall be designed to provide the strength required to resist the displacements induced by the minimum lateral forces specified in this section.3 Weight W In opposing Exception: This requirement lIlay be deemed satisfied if the procedures of Section 208.9. W.5.1. 5 and 7. 208. may be taken as 1.S Framing Below the Base The strength and stiffness of the framing between the base and the foundation shall not be less than that of the superstructure.1.9. S( la TI di: he 20 Ph fOI When a structure adjoins a property line not common to a public way.5. EBF.1.4. Adjacent buildings on the same property shall be separated by at least 1':l.

shall be designed to resist the seismic forces calculated using the procedures in Section 208.2 shall not be less than the following: (208-23) Additionally.\W/ 208.2 Lateral Force Lateral-force procedures for nonbuilding structures with structural systems similar to buildings (those with structural systems which are listed in Table 208-11) shall be selected in accordance with the provisions of Section 208. such tanks may be designed using one of the two procedures described below: I. Procedure u n tS Flat bottom tanks or other tanks with supported bottoms. subject to the 208.5 with the following additions and exceptions: 1. se le ~d National Structural Code of the Philippines 6th Edition Volume 1 . provided that ~he seismic zones and occupancy categories shall be In conformance with the provisions of Sections 208.9. 1. The total design base shear determined in accordance with Section 208. The vertical distribution of the design seismic forces in structures covered by this section may be determined by using the provisions of Section 208. A design basis prescribed for the particular type of tank by an approved national standard.6 shall be used.4.5.5 or by using the procedures of Section 208.9. II. Exception: Intermediate moment-resisting frames (IMRF) may be ill Seismic Zone 4 for non-building structures in Occupancy Categories III and IV if (1) the structure is less than 15 m in height and (2) the value R used in reducing calculated member forces and moments does not exceed 2. the procedures ofSection 208.CHAPTER 2 . [1 Where an approved national standard for the earthquake-resistant design type of nonbuilding structure covered such a standard may be used. limitations in this section: provides a basis of a particular by this section.1.6. The values for total lateral force and total base overturning moment used in design shall not be less than 80 percent of the values that would be obtained using these provisions. for Seismic Zone 4. Alternatively.4 and 208.4. respectively. 208.06 second) and their anchorages shall be designed for the lateral force obtained from Equation (208-22).5.9. The factors Rand 00 shall be as set forth in Table 208-13.9.4.Minimum Design Loads 2·101 208. A response spectrum analysis that includes consideration of the actual ground motion anticipated at the site and the inertial effects of the contained fluid.2.3 Rigid Structures Rigid structures (those with period T less than 0. respectively.6 Interaction Effects In Seismic Zone 4. 208.2. 3.10 Site Categorization 208.9. structures that support flexible nonstructural elements whose combined weight exceeds 25 percent of the weight of the structure shall be designed considering interaction effects between the structure and the supported elements.7 for rigid structures considering the entire weight of the tank and its contents.9.1 Scope This section describes the procedure for determining Soil Profile Types SA through SF as defined in Table 208-2. to le 2. the total base shear shall also not be less than the following: V= 2.3 and 208.4.4 Tanks with Supported Bottoms The seismic zones and occupancy categories shall be in conformance with the provisions of Sections 208. (208-22) The force V shall be distributed according to the distribution of mass and shall be assumed to act in any horizontal direction.4.S.5 Other Nonbuilding Structures Nonbuilding structures that are not covered by Sections 208.4 and 208.4 shall be designed to resist design seismic forces not less than those determined in accordance with the provisions in Section 208.10.9.6ZNJ R W 208. Exception: For irregular structures assigned to Occupancy Categories 1 and IJ that cannot be modeled as a single mass. founded at or below grade.

. . 0 .6 2..0 .. Average Standard Penetration Resistance for Cohesionless Soil Layers Nand Ncn shall be determined following equation: in accordance with the 2.._... Distributed mass cantilever structures such as stacks. _ ._ ~ -:------~-·----·-------·-·I-----I 208 The 3r defi 2. (208-26) 208 TIl( sha goo soh and We< NCH""-- ds . _~ __ . .2 structures. 5. Vs. ::. Signs and billboards.. The criteria set forth in the definition for Soil Profile Type SF requiring site-specific evaluation shall be considered. 11. _.__ vessel~_. .0 1 _ ---::.n~_~.!___ . (H> 3 m of peat and/or highly organic clay where H"" thickness of soil). _ ~~p. .._.t:~_~~ed leg..2-102 CHAPTER 2 .n .2:__. Soil Profile Type Sf:: need not be assumed unless the building official determines that Soil Profile Type SF:may be present at the site or in the event that Type SE is established by geotechnical data.0 2 . mls.=lNi L-' /I d. wille?: 40 percent and SCI < 25 kPa.._. 2.£Q.?: 100 kPa.760 mls or with either N > 50 or s.~~_n.__. STRUCTURE I. the site shall be classified as Soil Profile Type SF and a site-specific evaluation shall be conducted. L-' " d.. Type SD shall be used..~ __ ..2 Definitions Soil profile types are defined as follows: i=! Vsi I:- SA Sa Sc Hard rock with measured shear wave velocity. Vessels.l]~~.2 N.. If the site corresponds to these criteria.2.~ wh: 6. '" thickness of Layer i in m = shear wave velocity in Layer i in mls Sec L Very dense soil and soft rock with 360 mls < Vs ::. 10.0 ~_.. n_. _ .9 2. Cantilevered column-type 2. SCl. __ S.... Cast-in-place concrete silos and chimneys having walls continuous 2. quick and highly sensitive clays.. 3.. ---. 100 kPa. 4. Very thick soft/medium stiff clays (H> 36 m)._.0 2. ..9 2.__!Q_!E!f9"_l!~dati~~ .._.. . 3. 7.2 . .. Trussed towers (freestanding or guyed).3.r!ed~~_!iical _ .0 . Cooling towers. 208..1 v. on braced or ___ . guyed stacks and 2. SE A soil profile with Vs < 180 mls or any profile with more than 3 m of soft clay defined as soil with PI> 20. 6._.. 2. _~ _ . Soils vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under seismic loading such as liquefiable soils..._. vs > 1500 mfs. collapsible weakly cemented soils. 60 mls or v3 with 15::. ch~!!!. All other self-supporting structures not otherwise covered.10.0 v "" i=! slid· "LA (208-25) 1 the: Pro 208 Sit elm witl 208.=IN.2.2 2. .. Very high plasticity clays (H> 7..._ 2._..0 2.0 . . (208-27) wa1 Th( sup where: d. ~_. Storage racks.10. 7. Bins and hoppers on braced or ___.~. 1500 where: d.. Average Field Standard Penetration Resistance and Nell. "" thickness of Layer i in mm 2. 9. 208.0 chimneys. 2. Soils requiring site-specific evaluation: I. 2. _ 4..s.---I---. Average Shear Wave Velocity Vs shall be determined in accordance with the following equation: ~ II -------------------------~ 3.6 ..i=.s. silos and skirt._l!.6 I--2-. Peats and/or highly organic clays t:« JI N"". Stiff soil with 180 mls ::.__. 2...5 m with PI> 75). Exception: When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the soil profile type.6 3.. Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines ._.. .9 2. Amusement structures and monuments.__ . including tanks and pressurized spheres. _ 5.Minimum Design Loads Table 208-13 R and Do Factors for Nonbuilding Structures TYPE R 3.10. __ .9-. 208 cqu 3.n« 50 or 50 kPa._._.__~_l]!?rac_cd I~_g~. Rock with 760 mfs < vs ::.._~ __ ..

The symbol i then refer to anyone of the layers between 1 and 11. SD and SE shall be classified by using one of the following three methods with vs .-Iand SII.10.c.2: 40 percent and PI > 20. 208. where there are a total of II distinct layers in the upper 30 meters.2.6 Rock Profiles. shall not be used if there is more than 3 meters of soil between the rock surface and the bottom of the spread footing or mat foundation. N and Sri computed in all cases as specified in Section 208.. the site shall be classified as Soil Profile Type SE.10. i'. SE The existence of a total thickness of soft clay greater than j m shall be investigated where a soft clay layer is defined by s" < 24 kPa. 1. not to exceed 250 kPa 208. !VI := := the total thickness of cohesionless soil layers in the top 30 m the standard penetration resistance of soil layer in accordance with approved nationally recognized standards Sit. This alternative earthquake load procedure shall be subject to Peer Review and approval of the Building Official.2. :he hard rock. shall be either measured on site or estimated by a gc. 208.2.\""shall be determined in accordance with the following equation: de S =-d. N for the top 30 meters (N method).10. 2. If these criteria are met.10.2.+ CHAPTER 2 . Soil Profile Type SA. Soil Profile Types S. category shall be s~lpp()rtcdby shear wave velocity measurement either on Sllc Or on p ro fil es 0f th e same rock type III the same . 3. for the top 30 meters (vs method). The engineer-on-record shall be responsible for the spectral acceleration and other related data not issued by Phivolcs used in the determination of the earthquake loads.olechllical engineer. w".=1 Sed where: d. S". = = the total thickness (l00-4. The rock categories.11 Alternative Earthquake Load Procedure . r 1 ormation with an equal or greater degree of weathering National Structural Code of the Philippines 6th Edition Volume 1 .Mmimurn Desiqn Loads d. Soil Profile Type So.3 Average Undrained Shear Strength and fracturing. surficial shear wave velocity measurements may be extrapolated to assess v. SA and So 'rile shear wave velocity for rock.) of cohesive soil layers in the top 30 m the undrained shear strength in accordance with approved nationally recognized standards. 20S. engineering geologist or sClsmologist for competent rock with moderate fracturing and weathering. Nw for cohesionless soil layers (PI < 20) in the top 3n m and average SCI for cohesive soil layers (PI> 20) in the top 30 m (SCI method).2.4 Soft Clay Profile. " /I (208-28) ~_' . Profiles containing distinctly different soil layers shall be subdivided into those layers designated by a number from 1 to 11 at the bottom. The earthquake load procedure of ASCE/SEI 7-05 may be used in determining the earthquake loads as an alternative procedure subject to reliable research work commissioned by the owner or the engineer-on-record to provide for all data required due to the non-availability of Phivolcsissued spectral acceleration maps for all areas in the Philippines. The definitions presented herein shall apply to the upper 30 meters of the site profile. 208.10. Where hard rock conditions are known to be continuous to a depth of 30 m. Softer and more highly fractured and weathered rock shall either be measured on site for shear wave velocity or classified as Soil Profile Type Sc.5 Soil Profiles So SD and SE Sites with Soil Profile Types Sc.

approximate offshore projection 1600' . ··H·.trace approximate Trench Transform Fault Collision zone Trench-related faults .c: o c Roadslhighways if> ~ 1600' CityfTown 100 Kilometers 200 14M' 1200' 1000' 12700' Figure 208-2A.dashed line.trace certain ·······.Minimum Design Loads Legend Active Fault: solid line..2-104 CHAPTER 2 . Seismic Sources: Active Faults and Trenches in the Philippines Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines .

_. Cruz Figure 208-2B.. SI c....~~ .. dashed line.onland: .ottsnore ® Capital Cityrrown mus:~ .600' Legend --ActiVe Fault solid line.....Minimum Design Loads 2-105 1900' 12000' 11100' l13 00· Active Faults in NCfr'therKPhilippines IS 00· 1700' ~Bnyo:mbon!] 1... r t: .. Seismic Sources: Active Faults in Northern Philippines National Structural Code of the Philippines e" Edition Volume 1 ..CHAPTER 2 .

onland.... Seismic Sources: Active Faults in East Central Philippines Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines .f" 11 00' CS ~ t )000' Slq"~ Figure 208-2C..~O .... .offshore . dashed ® Capital CilylTown lJOO' 9 " J 1200' ..... 1 0 ~ .. line.Minimum Design Loads 12~ 00' 11600' Legend --Active Fault: solid line. III •..2-106 CHAPTER 2 ...

CHAPTER 2 . Seismic Sources: Active Faults in West Central Philippines National Structural Code of the Philippines 6th Edition Volume 1 .~ 00' Q :V d ann Jo::.offshore ® Capital Cityfrown l2l00' 12200' Figure 208-2D. .onland.Minimum Design Loads 2-107 1100' I." -----.o do 8Llol1i'Jvi::.1 Legend Active Fault: solid line.dashed line.

.motQ9Y Figure 20S-2E..Minimum Design Loads SlqUI~ Legend --Active Fault: solid line......offshore Active Faults in Southern<PhUippines ~~"""""""O.. ~ I:zJOO' U400' moo' Phlllppin. IrrliUtulA arVQlanOlClrora!.It"'-h .. dashed Iine...clG«.. Seismic Sources: Active Faults in Southern Philippines Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines . ..cf! ~f~It....A~Id-~'olll!D¢~.a·.w:No..2-108 CHAPTER 2 .onland..ld ~kVfO".m:il:!JGnwtJ :i!"f~2(tloJ Stli....