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Simpson, Essays on Several Curious and Useful Subects (1740)

Simpson, Essays on Several Curious and Useful Subects (1740)

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IN

THE CUSTODY OF THE BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY.

ESSAYS
ON SEVERAL
Curious and Ufeful S u b j e c t s
InSpEcuLATivE and Mi X D
j.

MATHEMATICKS
lUuftrated

by a Variety of Examples,

By

r HO MAS SIMPSON.

L
Printed by

N D
for

Ifr
J.

H.
jthe

Wood fall, y«^.
Lamb

Nourse,

at

without Tempk-Ear^

-/

<

iCAOAHswa'^

(i)

T O

FRANCIS BLAKE,
O F
Twifel^ in the

County of Durham^ Efqj

SI

R,

S our
veral

private

Correfpondence

occafioned

my

Drawing up

fe-

of the following Papers,
Right

I thence claim a Sort of a

to addrefs them to

You

:

But

I well

know
the

[

u

)

common Style of a Dedication would to You be highly offenfive } therefore all the Ufe I dare make of this Opportunity,
is,

to declare

Myfelf to be.

SIR,

Tqu^ moft Obliged^

Humble

Servant^

Tho. Simpson.

(V)

P

R E F A C
HE
me
a
to

Reader,

1 prefume,

will excufe me,

if^

him, in the ufual Way^ with the many weighty Reafons that induced
inftexid of acquaifitifig

publijh the Jollowing

Sheets,

I

fiall

take up no more oj his
concife

7ime than to give Account of the Nature and Ufe-this Mifcellany, in

fuhefi of the feveral Papers that compofe the Order they are printed,

^he firfl,

then,

is

concerned in determining the Apparent

Place of the Stars arifing from the progreffive Motion of Light, and of the Earth in its Orbit j which, though it be a Matter of great Importance in AJironomy, and allowed one of
the fineji Difcoveries, yet

had

it not been

fully

and

demonfira-^

tively treated of by any ^Author, or indeed thrown into any

Method of PraBice.
knowledge,

Now,
lafi

however,

I

mufl not omit to aC"

that in the

Royal Academy

Volume of the Memoirs of the c/ Sciences, for the Tear iji'j.
a
lately

vi

PREFACE.
j

hither a few Weeh htelj publified at Paris, and brought by Monfieur Clairaut, this Subje5i fince^ there is a Paper on

a very enwient Mathematician of that Academy to which in he fiibjoins a Set of PraBical Rules for the Aberration
Right-Afcenfion a?id Declination only
Analogies are exadlly the
5

fame

as

thofe

wherein mojl of his iiiferted in this Book,

with which Br. Bevis favoured me : For which Rea/on I think it proper to aff'ure my Readers, that my Paper, together with the Dodfors Rules, were quite printed off, and in the Hands of feveral Friends, who defired them, before Chrift-

mas

i7'?9.

confiderable

when lime

the Severity of the Seafon interrupted

for a

the Impreffion of this T^reatife,

The fecond Paper, treats of the Motion of Bodies affeBed by ProjeSiile and Centripetal Forces ; wherein the Invention many others of of Orbits and the Motion of Apfides, with the Firfi Book of Sir Ifaac the mofl confiderable Matters in

Newton'^ Principia,
'The 7'hird,
7iet

are fully afid clearly invejligated.

given, to
-,

fhews how, from the Mean Anomaly of a Pla-find its true Place in its Orbit, by three fever al

Methods
be

but what

may

befl

recommend

this

Paper,
will,

is

the

PraBical Rule
found of

in the annexed Scholium,

which

1

hope^^

Service,
Paths.,

The Fourth, i?2cludes the Motion and in re lifting Mediums, in which not only
Curve defcribed according
the

of ProjeBiles the Equation of the.

to any Law of Denfty, Refftance^ important Matters, upon this Head, in ^c. hut all the moll

Second Book of the a'ove-named illufirious Author,
eafy,

are

determined in a new,

and comprehenfive Manner,
Velocities,

The Fifth,

confiders the Refiftances,

and Times of The

Vibration, of pendulous Bodies in Mcdiu??is,

PREFACE.
derable
life,

vii

^he Sixth, contains a new Method Jar the Solution of all Kinds of Algebraical Equations in Numbers ; which, as it is more general than any hitherto give?i, cannot but be of confiperhaps may be objeBed, that the Me^ thod of Fluxions, whereon it is founded, being a more exalted Branch of the Mathematicks, cannot be fo properly applied to
though
it

what

belongs to

common Algebra,

^he Seventh,
is illuftrated

by

Method of Increments fome familiar and ufeful Examples,
relates
to

the

-,

which

The Eighth,
ing the
Differences.

is

a Jhort Inveftigation of a I'heorem Jor findSeries

Sum of a

of ^lantities by Means

of their

The Ninth,
ting the

exhibits

an

eafy

and general

Way

of Livefiiga-

Sum

of a recurring
laft

Series,

Thefe three

Tapers

relate chiefly

to

the In'uentions of

Others
other

:

As

they are all

of Importance, and are required in

Farts of the Book,

untouched',

and

could not well leave the?n entirely if I Jhall be thought to have thrown any new
benefit

I

Light upon them, that may

young Froficients, 1 have

my End.
The Tenth, comprehends a 7iew and general Method for fifjding the Sum of any Series of Fowers whofe Roots are in
Arithmetical Frogreffion,

Advantage

to Series

which may be applied with equal of other Kinds,

The Eleventh,
remarkable

is

concerned about

Angular

Sedlions

andfome
i us

F roper ties

of the Circle,

viil
.

PREFACE.
Muller'i ingenious ^reatife on Conic SeBiojis
containing

7he Twefftb, Includes an eafy and expeditious Method of Reducing a Compound FraBion to Simple Ones ; the firfi Hints whereof I freely acknowledge to have received from

Mr.

and

Fluxions*

Hjc thirteenth and
Hyperbolical Curves,

laft,

is

a general ^adrature of a Froblem remarkable enough, ^s well

on account of its Difficulty, as its having exercifed the Skill of but as none of the Solutions hi^ feveral great Mathematicians
-,

therto publifhed, thd fome of

them are very elegant

ones,

extend

farther than to particular Cafes, except that given in Phil. Tranfl

N°* 417. without Demon/iration, I flatter my elf that this which 1 have now offered, may claim an Acceptance, Jince it
is clearly ifivejiigated

f

by two different Methods,
been done by Others,

without re*

f

and the general ConflruBion rendered abundantly more fimple andft for PraC"
erring to

what hath

tice

than

it there is.

ESSAYS
On feveral Curious and Ufeful SubjeBs in Speculative and Mixt Mathematicks. Of the Apparent Places ofthe Fixed St ars,
ariling

from the Motion of Lights and the Motion of the Earth in its Orbit.

PROPOSITION
If the
Velocity ofthe

I.

Earth

in its Orbit bears any fenfhle

Pro^

portion to the Velocity of Light, every Star in the Heavens mufl appear dijlant from its true Place j and that by fo much
the more, as the Ratio of thofe Velocities approaches nearer to

that of Equality,

^^^ OR,
CG

if

while the Line
defcribed

is

by
Star

a Particle of Light

coming from a

in that Diredion, the

Eye of an
by the
and

Obferver at

T be

carry 'd,

Earth's Motion, thro'

TGj n
faid Star,

CT

be a
j

Tube made
Particle

ufe of in

ebferving

and a

of Light, from the

be
iufl

B

(2)
juft entering at

C

arrived at v, the
parallel to

End of Tube will
the

its

Axis; then

when

the

Eye

is

have acquired the Pofition v

D

TC,
:

and the

faid Particle will be at the

Point m,
becaufe
Earth's

where the Line

GT GC
:

:

C G interfeds the Axis of the Tube; T C m. Let now the Tube, by the
-J
:

Motion,

be brought into the Pofition
::

Ew

-,

then becaufe.

GT GC
:

Tw: Cn,
at G,. as
it

the Particle will be at n^

and

there=it

fore

is flill

in

the Axis of the

Tube
the

:

Therefore

when

en-

ters the

Eye
it

has

all

Time

been in the Axis o£

muft confequently appear to have come in the Diredlion thereof, or to make an Angle with T H, the Line that the Earth moves m, equal to CTH, which is different Whence it is from what it really does, by the Angle evident that,, unlefs the Earth always moves in a Right Line diredly to or from a given Star (which is abfurd to fuppofe) that Star muft appear diftant from its true Place ; and the more fo, as the Velocity of the Earth (in refped; of that of Light) is increafed. And the fame muft neceffarily be the
the Tube,

GOT

:

Cafe

when

the Obfervation

is

made by

the naked Eye;

for

the Suppofition and Ufe of a Tube neither alters the real noE apparent Place of the Star, but only helps to a more eaiy De^-

monftration.

PROi

3

)

PROPOSITION
T<3

II.

find the Path which a Star, thrd the afore/aid Caufe, in one entire Annual Revolution of the Earth , appears to defcribs^

LET
the

ATBA
Orbit

be of the

Earth I S the Sun in

one^
its

Focus; Fthe otherFtJCusj

T the Earth moving in
S D,

Orbit from A towards B 5, DT^aTangentatTj and

FE

Perpendiculars

thereto: Let be Part of an indefinite Plane parallel to that of

QwKRQ^

the EcHptick, pafling thro*

R the Centre of the
Stars

given

andtakeT.'ztoTRs
Orbit at T, to thafc

as the Velocity of the Earth

in

its

of a Particle of Light coming from the faid Star
:

Let
;

tm be parallel to wR; VnN perpendicular to A B
parallel

and

QR K^
it

toP»Vi Then from
that a
it

the foregoing Propofition

is

manifeft,

Ray of Light coming from
proceeded from
;;?,

R

to the Earth

atT,

will appear as if

where the Line

produced,, interfeds the faid parallel Plane; and therefore, becaufe T/« is parallel to ^n, and any Parallelogram, interfeaing two parallel Planes, cuts them alike in every

Tm,

refpea,

it

is

evident that

Km muft
D
ii Z-

be equal to

T n,

and

02-^

to

VwDj

wherefore fince

gad

P

are equal to

two

(4)
•two

Right Angles,

DSP and D«P
But

muft be equal,

alfo,

to

two -Right Angles, and confequently
J) g

QRm
SD

(= VnD)
;

=

p

__ j^i? j?^

Tn

or R/;/, expreffing the Celerity of
or,
;

the Earth at S

T,

is

known

to be inverfely as

becaufe

the Ancrles

QRm being every where Proportion to FE, the Curve Q^K A conftant
ARE,
f/i,

D X J^^JE

is

every where the fame, diredly as

FE

wherefore

equal,

and

Km in
by
de-

defcribed

the apparent Place of the Star in the faid parallel Plane,
it is

will,

manifeft, be llmilar in all RefpecSs to

AEB

But this Curve is known to be a Cirmuft likewife he a Circle, whofe Diacle; therefore Kiis divided by R, the true Place of the Star, in the meter fame Proportion as the Tranfverfe Axis of the Earth's Orbit is
fcribed

by the Point

E

:

QmK

QR

divided by. either of its Foci.

Wherefore, forafmuch
in this Cafe,

as a fmall

Part of the circumjacent Heavens may,

be con-

Line joining the Eye and Star, it follows from the Principles of Orthographic Projection, that the Star w^ill be feen in the Heavens as describing an Ellipfis, whofe Center (as the Excentricity of the
fidered as a Plane pafling perpendicular to a

Orbit

is

but fmall) nearly coincides with the true Place of
except the faid Place be in the Pole or Plane of
;

•the Star,

the EcUptick

in

the former of vvhich Cafes the Star will
latter

appear to defcrlbe a Circle, and in the
great Circle of the Sphere,

an Arch of a

which by Reafon of its Smallnefs may be confidered as a Right Line. But thefe Conclufions will perhaps appear more plain from the next Propofition,
where
for the

Sake of Eafe and Brevity, the Earth
in

is

con-

fidered as
,Ker real

moving

an Orbit perfedlly circular,
differ.

from which

Orbit does not greatly

PRO'

(

5

)

PROPOSITION
Having given, from Experiment^ Light to that of the Earth in its
of the Sun and a Star
5

III.

the Ratio of the Velocity of

Orbit, and the true Places

to find the

apparent Place of the Star

from

thence arifing,

LET
Orbit,

ArQA
S the Sun

be the Earth's
confidered as
;

^f
..^^'"^
\

a Circle
in

the Center there-

of j r the Earth

mo-

ving about the fame

Q

from A towards Qj^ re a Line, which
being produced, {hall
pafs thro' the Eclip-

tick Place of the given Star
dicular, thereto
:

|

AS

parallel,

andyr

perpen-

Let ef be perpendicular to the Plane of the

Ecliptick, fo that

r/ being

equal to

Sr

or Radius,

r^ may

be the Cofine of the Latitude of the given Star : This being premifed, it is manifeil that the true Place of the Star,

from the Earth, will be

pea

to the Ecliptick,
{

^re

=

C^S

r)

Sun and Star, is the Supplement of

Diredion rf and with RefLine r e therefore the Angle being the Difference of Longitudes of the given by the Queftion. Let rg, the Sine of
in the

in the

-,

this

Angle, be denoted by b j

its

Cofine S^,

by

c

J

the Sine of the given Latitude, ovfe, by s

dius Sr, or

/r, by Unity
let

moving along/r,

5 and the Raand while a Particle of Light is the Earth be fuppofed to be carry'd in
j

C

its

'

(6)
its

p

Orbit from r to p, over a Diftance fignified by r ; and, being drawn, make r n and nm perpendicular theree,

pf

to

:

Then
::

becaufe of the exceeding Smallnefs of /> r

it

may

be

confidered as a Right-Line;

and we
i
:

fhall c
:

have

i

(Sr):^

[rg)

r (pr):rb{= p n)
rb, to

;

and

^

: :

r c (= r «) (by the

Similarity of the Triangles prn, Srg)

whence as i (//»,) to> ; rbs =z {n m) the Sine of the Angle nfm : i (/ f ) fo is But fmce the Sine or Tangent of a very fmall Arch differs infenfibly from the Arch itfelf, thefe Values re and rb s may be taken as the Meafures of the Angles rfn, and nfm Hence
i

we

have, as the Semi- Periphery

Ar Q^(=3i4i59, &c.)
is

to-

64.8000 (the Seconds in 180 Degrees,) fo ° ^ ^
(the
(^c.
:

r^

to

^ \ 3.14159,^^,

°°'^

""

Number

of Seconds in the Angle rfn\) and as 3.14159
^_°°"'"'
^^

648000 :vrsb\

= nfm:

Therefore,
is

as

the Earth moves from r to
fcribing

p while

a Partiele of Eight

de-

fj\

it

is

manifefl from

the aforefaid Propofition,

that the

Star

will appear

pafling through its true °°°^^ , Seconds; tick by , ^ J
3.14159,;^^.

removed from the great Circle Place, and the Pole of the Eclipand to have
its

Latitude

in?--

creafed

by

y^-^. Seconds. ^ Ef.l

C O R O

L.

HENCE
lipfis

its be the true Place of the Star, Parallel of Latitude ; and about as a Centre, the EI-

if

C

SCF
fo,

F P S T F,

and Circle

FH

Q

S

OF
C,
5

be defcribed

that-

FC

may be =-^^^^^^

and
j

T

the Semi -Conjugate

Axis, in proportion thereto^ as

to 1

and

if

the Angle

SCH
is

be taken equal to the DiiFerence of Longitudes of the Sun and
Star
5

then in the Point P, where the

elliptical

Periphery

interfered

by the Right Line
:

H QJalling

perpendicularly on
as
i.

FS, the
(Sine of

Star will appear to be pofited.

For

(Radius) \b

QC H)

:

CH

:

/5

xCH

= H d;
648000 3.i4i59,af

but by the Rela=

tion of the

two Curves,

CH:CT::^xCH(=H QJ^: P Qo
I
:

that

isj

by Conflrudion,

s

xb

648000
.

r

sb

3,i4i59,<i:^i-.

C

z

(

8
:

)

= PQ^
.^^Pooo
r

again as

i

fHadius)

f (the

Cofitle

oF

dCHJii

"3 14159,^1^. V

f-cH)' — ^^V

%^^22i:i-- =:C O ; which Expreffions "<^ r 3.14159,^.-.

.are

the very fame as thofe above determined.

C O R O
to purfue his Courfe

L.

II.

THEREFOREit follows,
be feen as moving from
;it

that while the

Sun appears
fo on,

thro' the Ecliptick, the Star will

F

towards

L

and

S,

and
and

'till

hath defcribed the whole elliptical that itsXatitude^will be the the leaft at
greateft
poffible,

Periphery

FLSTFi
its

Tj

apparent

Longitude the
'.fliewing the

when

the

Angle

SCH,
is

Diftance of the Sun and Star
right ones.
It

m

the Ecliptick,

equal to

two

alfo follows,

that the greater
defcribe, to

.Axis of the'Ellipfes, which all Stars appear to •equal, and found by Obfervation to amount

are

40

f

Se-

/I

25 which conds of a great Circle, very nearly j the Term Rules hereto annext, being frequently occurs in the pradtical
20",

put for the half thereof.
Aberrations, or

It

follows moreover, that the greateft

Maxima,

in
j

Longitude, will be as theCofines

of the Latitudes inverfely

and the

Maxima

in Latitude, as

the Sines of the fame Latitudes directly.

-C

O R O

L.

m.
for let

HENCE may
Star

alfo

be found the Stars apparent Right
;

Afcenfion and Declination
rallel of the Stars Declination,

ECP

be the Pa-

P

the apparent Place of the

when

in that Parallel

;

make C

A
let

perpendicular to

CH,

ABD
tick,

toSF, and

BE

to

PC;

and

H K,

or the

Angle

HCK be any Diftance gone over
while the Star by
its

by the Earth

in the Eclip-

apparent Motion moves thro' the
:

wcorrefponding Diftance

PL

Let

Km?iG

be parallel to

HC,
and

(9)
PC Then, forafmuch as KL parallel to HP, 'the Triangles GKL, CHP muft be equiangular, and thereLI to to HP, but KL fore G L C P :: K L H P
and

Lrv

to

:

is

:

:

;

is

2is

QJP, by the Property of the Curve ; whence CP LI Wherefore, the Sides G L,
: : :

it

will be

QT

:

I

L,

GL C P, QP
:

about the equal Angles
Triangles

GL

I,

C P Q^being proportional,

the

Angle
S
^,

F
m^

be finiilar, and therefore the and confequently the Right Line G I L a right one, Therefore, as the Angles the Locus of the Point G.
r,

GLI, C P Q^mufl

V

are

all

given, or continue invariable, let the A.ngle

SCK,
it

or the ecliptick Diftance of the

Sun and

Star be

what
;

will, the Ratio

of
to

the Ratio of
to

CG

C Cr

;?2

to

CG
j

will always be given

but

is
:

given

therefore the Ratio of
is

Cm
to

C

r

is

Ukewife given

Hence, becaufe r v
will be given.

parallel

C E,

the Ratio oi

Cm

to'Ev

But

E i;

is

the

Difference of the true and apparent Declinations; and
as the Sine

C

w,

of the Angle

HCK

:

Whence

it is
is

manifefl, that
as the Sine

the Aberration of Declination, at any Time,
the Sun's Elongation from either of the
is,

of

two Points wherein he
;

when

the true and apparent Declinations are the fame

and

therefore

Qm

will be to E-u, or
to Fi>,

AC

to

E

B, the greated

A^berration, as

the Sine
Polition,

QJH of P C Qj^
is

that

is,

as the Sine of

H CF
is

to

But

PC Q,
to

being equal to the Angle of
it
is

given,

whofe Tangent,

obvious,

to the

Tangent of
laflly,

H C F,

QP

Q^H,
is

or as

CT
Star's

to

C

O,

or

(by Conftrud:ion) as the Sine of the

Laticude to

Radius:

Hence

the Angle

HCF

given,

from which, by

Help of

the foregoing

Theorem

or Proportion, the required

Aberration of Declination at any Time, and in any Cafe,

may

be readily obtained.
In like

manner other Proportions inay be
;

derived for find-

ing the Aberration of Right Afcenfion
that
it

it

being eafy to prove

will be as the Sine of the Sun's Elongation

from where
he

D

(

'o

)

jie

is,

wlicn the true and apparent right Afcenfions are the
;

lame

but the
it

Method of Demonflration being
it.

the fame as

above,

will be needlefs to repeat

1 fliall therefore

now

proceed to illuftrate the foregoing

Doc-

by the pradical Solutions of the feveral Problems depending thereon, as they were drawn up and communicated by
trine

Dr. JohnBevts, with fuitable Examples of feveral

Stars,

which,

among many
of,

others.

He

has carefully obferved with proper
firfl

Inftruments, and thereby, the

of any one that I

know

experimentally prov'd,

that the

Phoenomena

are univer-

fally as

conformable to the Hypothefis in Right Afcenfions, a^

the Rev. Mr. Bradley , to whom we owe this great Difcoveryg, had before found, them to be in Declinations,

)

(

PRACTICAL RULES
For Finding the

ABERRATIONS THE F X T STARS FROM
OF
I
The Motion of
in

Light, and of the Earth
its
I-

Orbit^

N
and Righe

Longitude, Latitude, Declination,
Afcenfion.

SYMBOLS,
Aj
the Aberration at any given Time.

M,

the greateft Aberration, or

Maximum.
when
the Star's Apparent Longitude, Latitude;,

O/the

Sun's Place in the Ecliptick

Declination, or Right Afcenfion, being the fame as the True, tends to Excefs.
P, the Star's

Angle of

Pofition.
its nearsil

Zj the Sun's Elongation frpm

Syzygy wi^h^he

Star, at the

Time

of

02

For

the Abherration in
3 Signs after the Star's

Longitude.
1q find M,
E.

O

.

is

always

true Place in the Ecliptick.

P
CoJ. Star's Latit.
:

R O
Rad.
:

B.

I.

R U L
:

20", 25

:

M.
y
Ur/ce mlnoris^

Example
Log.
Cof. Ar.

in

OPERATION.
Com.
Star's Latit.
'

75**

13'

—_——_——__->—,

4- Log. 20", 25

0.5932 1-3064

=:Xog.

M

79", 36

.1,8996

P
Rad.
:

R O

B.

U.

T:o

find A»

RULE.
Shi. Sun's Elongat.

from

o —
in

M

:

A,

Example
Log.
Sin.

the fame Star.

OPERATION.
Sun's

Elongat. from

-fLog.

M
Sin.

O

60'' 00'
.

79", 36

9-937? 1.8996

— Log.

Rad.

=

1,0^.

A

68",y2

.—

1:1.8371

Otherwife, without .M.

RULE.
Co/
Star's Latit.
:

Sin, San's Elongat.

from

O

:

:

2o",25

:

A.

Same

Example
75°
13'

as before.

OPERATION.
Log.
Co/. Ar.

Com.

Star's Latit.

'4- Log. Sin. Sun's Elongat.

from

Q
2

60° 00'

+ Log.

2o",25
5/;;.


.......
i^

O-^^S^
9-9375 1.3064
., ..

— Log.

Rad.

z=,

Log.

A

6

8
'',7

•—-—"—--.

.n .^371

For

C

'3

)

For the Aberration

/;^

LAt t
i

u d

e,

G

is

always at the Sun's Oppofition to the Star.

PR
R<iit.
:

OJB^
:'
:

I.

_ Tofnd M.
M.
tjrjk tninorls.

-S/wTSSrVLaVit.

2o",25

:

,^^^^_^

g x^aTpT E y in
75 ° 13'
'

Log. Sin.
-j-

Star's Latit.
r
;

—'^

Log. 2o",^g
Sin.

r^:' -.!.:

:i

2

.-

""^-

'

'

Cy

-'
'

'

-

^!-

'

'•''~

9-985+ 1-3064
11.2918

— Log.

Rad. == Log.

M.

i9",58

-—»

>

P
Rad.
:

R O

B.

II.

To find

K

Sift.

Sun's Elongat.

from

O

'•

*

M'

:

A,
fame
Star.

Example G PE R
'^fjog. 6"z«.

in the

ATI O

IfF'^

H

c

Sun's Elongat.

from
.

-f Log.

M

O

60°

00'————

9-937S
1.

i9",58

2918

— Log.

Sin.

Rad.

z=z

Log.

A

i6",96


E-


M.


from
*• "•

11,2293

Otherwife, without

R U L
Rad'^.
:

Sin.

Star's Latit.

X

Sin. Sun's Elongat.

20", 25
-

:

A.

——
,

_^_^.^,,-„=,=^_-.^a-me

Exa.mple
13'
-=

as

before.

_

-O^p-E
°

RATION.
O
60
°

Log. Sin.
4-i-og-

Star's. Latit.. 75 -{-Log. Sin. Sun's Elongat. from
*

oo'
,__

2b'',

5
2

-r

2 Log; 5/«.--^^.
=

=Log.
-

A~i6'^,96''-^=;^-=^i»---^^
" ^
'

——

9'

9854

9.937; 1-3064

21,2293
dthervvifej

"= E^

H
{
Otherwife,

,

J

.

}

RULE.
Co/ee. Star's Latit.
:

5/». Sun's Elongat.

from

G

: :

zo'\2$

:

A.

-

Same Example

as before.

OPERATION.
Log.
Co/ec.

Jr. Cam. Star's Latit.

75° 13'
00'
'

"
=

'

4- Log. Sin. Sun's Elongat.

from
.

©66°

—————

89.9S54-

4- Log. 2o",25

9-937S
1-3064.,
1. 2

= Log.

A

i6"96

29

For

the Aberration in

Declination.
To

P
Siw. Star's Latit.
:

R O
: :

B.

L

fnd

o.

RULE.
Rad.
Ta»g. P.
:

Taftg.

Z.
is

Then,

if the Star

(in refpeft

of that Pole of the Equator which

of the fame

Denomination
1.

as the Star's Latitude)

be in a Sign.

Afcending,

and P be acute,

Z

taken from the oppofite to

its

true Place^

gives
2.
J-.

O,
Afcending, and

Defcending,

and

P be obtufe,.. Z added to its- true Place, gives ©, P be acute, Z added to the oppofite to its P be
obtufe,

true Placed

gives
4.

G,
Defcending, and
its

Z taken

from

its

true Place, gives

Q
:

provided, that
if

Declination and Latitude be

both North, or both South

But,

one be North, and the other Souths then for

its

true P/ar^,, read oppofite to its true

Place, and vice <verfd.

Example
Log. Tang.

of Cafe

I.

in the Pole Star.

OPERATION.
— Log.
P 75°
Sin. Star's Latit.

2i' (acute; -f" Log. Sin. 66° 04' North.
34'

Rad.
.

20.5827
9.9609:

= Log.
(afcending)

Tang. Tj

'](i'^


Latit. being

10.6218'

Therefore the

Star's Declin.

and

both N.

its

Place

I

«,s

«

,

—Z

-j.

6 Signs

24

55

_..-—

216

34

'

'

.

J

(

15

)
%

Example
P 93®

of Cafe II. in

Draconis,

OPERATION. — Log.
Log. Tang.
50' (obtufe) -\-hog. Sin. Rad.

21.1739
9.9926

Sin. Star's Latit.

79° 28' (North)
'

= Log.7««f. Z
+Z =
'

86°

14'


\%&

11.1 81
true

Therefore the Star's Decl. snd Latit. being both North j Place (afcending)-^

}2
3

29°
26
25

12'
14.

26

Ex A M
Log.
Ttfwj'o

P

I'

E of C^?/^ III.

ij

C7r/^ majpris.

OP ER

A T

I

O

N.

— Log.

P 38®

36' (acute)

-|-

Log. Sin. Rad.
(North)

Sin. Star's Latit.

54° 25'

.-

.

19,9022

-

9.9102

=3 Log, Tang.

Z

/^^° 29

9.9920
Latit. being
»

Therefore, the Star's (defending) 6 Signs

+

DecL and
'

both North,
:

its
^

Place 7

s

o

-|-

Z
' '

-f
I »

^^

"*"

14

29
43.

= Q.

07

Exam p l b
Log.
T^/wj".

of

C^^ IV.

in

y

C/r/^ minoriu

OPERATION.
P 94°
48'
(obtufe)
-j-

Log.

S'in.

Rad.


.

21. 075 9^^

"—Log.

Sin. Star's Latit.

75° 13' (North)

99854
1

= Log. Tang.
Z

Z

85

*="

22'
its

1.0905
o
r-

Therefore, the Star's Decl. and Latit. being both North, Pkce (defcending)

true

7

s

4'

J

^7


22

25

In each of thefe four Examples, the Declination and Latitude are of the fame" Denomination j it may fuffice to give one where they are of contrary Denominations,

Example

of Cafe III. in Aldebaran.

OP

E R A T

I

O

N.
-^

Log. Tang. P 9 ® 40' (acute) -j- Log. Sin. Rad. Log. 5;w. Star's Latit. 5° 30' (South)

— —
1
.
1

19.2313;.

8.98 f 5

^ Log.

Ttfwg'^.-Z

60®

38'

»=^-°««»...=»u4>..^«~w^

I.

«..»

.

>»»——io.2498>'
Therefore^',

'

'

o
ThereFore, Star's Dec), being North, and Place (defccnding to S. Pole)

^

)
its,

Latit^ South,

its

1 ^s ^^o
3

,

^Z

'

2

CO 06

38
^^45

4^

PRO
^in.

B.

IL

T'o'find

U,

RULE.
Z
:

Sin.?

'.:

2o\2^

:

M.
~
"^

Example
Log.
5/;/.

in

y Ur/^ mlnons.

OPERATION.
Z
Jr. Com.

85° 22'


.

.

.

4- Log.

Sln^

P 94°

48''

-f Log. 2o",25


.

=— ~
-"

"

O.OO14

— —

9-9985
1.3064
-ii

"

— Log.

Sin.

Rad.

= Log. M 2o",24 —
B.
III.

.3063

PRO
Rad.
:

Tofnd Ae

RULE.
Sin. Sun's Elongat.

from

Q

::

M
sj

:

A.

Example
Log.
Sin. Sun's Elongat.

in

Ur/^e majons.

4- Log.

M

OPERATION. —— from O 75
°

31

'

i8",04

9.9860
^

:

1.2560
.ri.2420

— Log.

Sin.

Rad. := Log.

A

i7",46

'
M.

Othervvife, without

RULE.
Rad.

X

^'»-

Z

:

Sin. Sun's Elongat.

Same

O y^Sin. P Example as beforefrom

:

:

20'-,25-

i-A^

,

.

OPERATION.
Log.
5///.

Sun's Elongat. from

Q

75°

31'

——
.-


_

9.9860
9-97SI 0-I545

4- Log. -}- Log.

Sin. Sin,

P 38" 36'
Ar. Com.
7j

44° 29'

+ Log.

20",25

1,3064

2

Log. Sin. Rad.

= Log. A

i7",46

——

.

zi. 24.20

For

.


(

-

17

)

Hjw f^rtnin n iMi M—Ml
j
i

For

the Aberration

Z;^

R
L

i

gh T

Ascension,

P R O
Sin. Star's Latit.
:

JB.

To find o.

RULE.
Rad,
:
:

Cota7ig. P.

:

Tang. Z.
is

Then,

if the Star (In refpedl

of that Pole of the Equator which
be in a Sign

of the fams

Denomination
1

as the Star's Latitude)

Afcending,

and

2.
3.

Afcending, and

Defcending,

P be acute, Z added to its true Place, gives O P be obtufe, Z taken from its true Place, gives Oand P be acute, Z taken from the oppofite to its true

Place,

gives
4.

O.
Defcendingj

and

P

be obtufej

Z

added to the oppofite to

its

true Place^

gives

O-

Example
Log.
Sin. Ar.

of Cafe

L

in Sinus,

OPERATION,
Com.
Star's Latit.

39"

32' (South.)-

——
-

°

'

+

Log. Cotang.
fang.

P 4°
87°

18' (acute;
16'-

0.1962 11.1238

= Log.
+Z

Z

Therefore the Star's true Place (afcending)-

Example

of Cafe 11. in

s

Dracmis.

OPERATION.
Log.
Sin. Ar.

Com.

Star's Latit.

79° 28' (North)
—>>

-

—-=—«-=__
o

0.0074
8.8261

4- Log. Cotang. V 93°

50' (obtufe)

r=Log. T«K^.

Z

54'—=

8.8335

Therefore the Star's true Place (afcending)

29

12

O

2C

18

Exa:


(

2

i8)
y
Dracofiis^

Example

of Ca/e III.

OPERATION,
Jr. Com. Star's Latit. 74° 28' (North)— *^ ' 4- Log. Coifrtw^. P S° 36' (acute)

Log.

, 1

Sift.

:

m

;^7

— —
"
'
'


--•

^
"—

0.016211. 201

=:Log.Ta77g.

Z

86 ° 32'

^^-2174
8^ 24°
23''

Therefore, the Star's true Place (defcending) -f 6 Signs

Example
Jr. Com.

of Ca/e IV.

in

y Ur/ts minoriu

OPERATION.
'

Log.

Si7t.

Star's Latit.

75° 13' (North)

'^

'

0.0146
8.9241

-j-Log. Cotang.

P

94° 48'

(obtufe)

Therefore, the Star's true Place (defcending)

4-^ Signs—

—10'
M.
:

IT-

17" 50

o 04

58

P
Co/. Star's Decl.

R O

B.

IL

^0 find

RULE.
X Sin, Z Co/ P X Example in
:

Rad.

:

:

20", 25

M.

the Pole Star,

OPERATION.
Log. Co/ Jr. Com. Decl. 4- Log.
Sin.

87°
15"

Jr. Com.

4- Log. Co/ P.
-j-Log. 2o",25

Z

58'——

55'

'

" '.

'""-^


'

439?

'

0-5605
-3064

..^-.,,=—..,....-.^___^.„

_—..._„ 9.4030

I

«- Log.

Sin, Rfid.

=: Log. M.

5

1

2",

1

6

=8

>

3 2",

1

6-

'

12.7094

P R O

Ba

^

( ^9

)

P R O
B^ad,
:

B,

IIL

lojind A.

RULE.
Bin, Sun's Elongat.

from

O

:

^

M

:

A.

Example
Log.
Sun's Elongat.

in Lucida Aquila,

i"///.

-J-Log.

M

20", 18

OPERATION, from O 65° 24' »—=—=
.
,

'

'

^ ..^^_^-^^
.-. ^u,^-.'

.-

^ ..^,..,^^..^^^-

—__
.,

-

9.9587
1.3049

f- Log.

Sin,

Rfd, =;.Log.

A

i8",34

.:--a...v..^--^.=^-=,.....==i

^

-x, ~.^^ .

,.

.

^^ .2636

Otherwife, without

RULE.
Cfl/ Star's_Decl.

X 5/«. Z

:

5/«. Sun's Elongat.

from

O X C*?/

P

:

:

2o",25

:

A,

Same

Example.
°

OPERATION,
Log.
Sin. Sun's Elongat.

from

O

65

24'
12'
^

-~---—--=.=»»=====»=.»-==.
-—
"

4- Log. Co/I Ar. Com.
-j-

Star's

Decl. 8°


'

.

,

Log. Sin. Ar. Com.

Z

84° 36'

4- Log. Cof.

P 10°

55'

»=.,-

9-9S?7 0.0045 0.0019
9-9921!

^

^-..^^

=- 2 Log.'i2«i. =sLog.

A

i8",34 "—

-^

zi.ibiii,

Gl

N

E'

.

(

20

)

General Notes.
t
.

That
That

the Rules give the Values of

A

and M, always

in Seconds

of

a

Degree.

2.

O, A
lows
3.

if the Sun's Place be in that Semicircle of the Ecliptic which precedes mull be taken from the Star's True Longitude, Latitude, Declination, or

Right Afcenfion,

to

ihew the Apparent

;

but

if it

be in that Semicircle which

fol-

O A mull
J

be added

That

>f, XT,

X, T, b

,

n

are Signs Afcending in refpeflof the

North
S5,

Pole,

and Defcending
=^)

in refpedl of the

South Pole of the Equator

:

And

Sit

^f

-f

»

are Afcending in refped

of the South Pole, and Defcending in

refpe<5l

of the North Pole of the Equator.
4.

defcribes,

That a Star may be fo pofited, that the fmall Ellipfe which it apparently may, by including, or approaching very near to the Pole of the World,
it

make
ing
;

fall

under very different Confiderations and Rules from any of the forego^

but as the bed Inftruments

have not difcovered any fuch

Stars, thofe Confi-

derations and Rules

have been here omitted.

0/

0/

deMOTlON

anc^

ORBITS
I.

of Bodies

affeSied with Proje&ile

and

Centripetal Forces.

PROPOSITION
A Body being
Velocity
;

let

go from P,

at a given

Difiance
P

PS, from

S,

the Center of Force y in a given
I'o find the

DireBion

B, with a given

Conic SeBion it will defcribe,

and

the

the of Centripetal Force being as the Square of the Diftance inverfely^ and

Periodic

T^ime^

in cafe it returns,

Law

the abfoliite Force given,

LET ASF
the Section,
lefTer,

be the

greater Axis of

OCD the
up-

and

H the

per Focus.

SuppofeSR

indefinitely near S P,

and the Area AS/?2 equal to the Area PS R i draw S B and

H
if

G
the

perpendicular to

given

BPG and m A F refpeaively

Tangent and R , n to S P and
:

freely defcend in

Let r be the Diftance that a Body would any given Time, m^ by an uniform Force,

equal to that aifeding the Projedile at any given Diftance

from the Centre, and let v be the Space that the Body would uniformly defcribe with the given Velocity at P, in the fame Time Call A F, ^ 3 O D, e the Latus
(^)
;
-,

S

T

G

Redum,

.

(

22

)

Reaum,

or

^,

R

;

SP, d; PR,
to the

x-,

the Periodic
i, s
:

Time,

P,.

and the Sine of S P B,
I
:

Radius
(

Then

it

will be as

5

:

:

.V

:

J .V

=R^
v

J

whence '-^

= R/ X^ j
PS R,
;;;

will exprefs

equal x4.reas either of the infinitely fmall
it

S

A

:

And

will be

as

:

m

:

:

>:

:

^

the
its

Time

of the Projedile's

movino- thro'
faid

P R,

or

that

of

defcribing either of the
:

WhereAreas by Pvadii drawn to the Centre of Force uniform freely defcend by fore the Diilances which Bodies ^ Forces being as the Squares of the Times, we have, as m t
.

J.

.

f~l_

the Square of that
freely defcend

Time,

to

-~r the Diftance

a

Body would

from the Point

T

in the

fame
the

Time,
Time;

butasAS-^^(ST^)::I^ r^^l^-A;.,
it

Diflance

would
is,

freely

defcend from the Point

A

in that

that

in

the

Time

the

Projedile

is

defcribing

Am:
divided

Hence, becaufe

—^

the Area of the Triangle

A S;^/,

by

I-

A S,

is

^ =A

m, we have

^7' =

^'

= ^

>

fmce^iii^

,

in the ultimate Ratio, or wh-en

A« is

indefinitely

fmall, will be

=

the Latus Reftum,

let

the Curve

what

it

will.

Furthermore, fince S

P +P
as
i

H
:

is

A P F be = ^, or A F,
it

and the Angle
will be as
i
:

SPB
s ::

=HPG by the Property of the Curve,
:

d sd ^ ~-d=zHG', but by another Property,
SB, and
or
5 i

s ::

a

— d sxa
:

BSxHGis=OCi
Value of ^r

X ad-dd^ if

3

whence by

fubftituting this

in the other

Equation ^^tTT'^V

(""

^) ^^ §^^ ^

= »~-^?
and

(

23

)

and

therefore e

=

-->-=r

,

i^
H
is

Tr*

and

PH =

''-^-^

— dy

from which,

as the
-,

H

is

given hkewife
it

Angle P G is given, the Focus whence the Orbit may be readily cond

flruded,
infinite,

being,

when

d^nj

pofitive,

an ElHplis,

when
;

a Parabola,

and when negative,
or

an Hyperbola

wherefore, unlefs
'i;i;,

i—

-^ be affirmative,

—^ greater
is

^jan

the Projedile can never return. Now,^ therefore,, putting

p

for the

Area of a Circle whofe Diameter
greater than
i;i;,

Unity, and

fuppoling^-^
Curve,

the Area
dp ^^ x~
•v s

of the whole

(being an Eilipfe,) will be

dn^^

ioZjJl^t-pae^',
Time of
fis,

but as the Area
is

^

is

to

^^

the

its

Defcription, {o

the Area of the whole Ellipdk

to

4^ X ^

i:

or

^^ x"
1.

"^^^

= P?

the

Time of

one:

intire

Revolution,

^ E.

C O R O
E C A U S E tlSi
fcribing the
,

L.

I,

the Square of the
is

Time of
,

de«

Area

RSP,

to

ilH^

the Square

of that Area, as (i) the Square of a conftant Particle of

Time

to

i;*j*^* ^
'^

this lail

Am ^ Time^ it

the Square of *
is

the Area
laft

defcribed in

evident that the Sqyare

named

will

{

24

)

'be

to

the

Latus

Redum

'^^'^; all

as

r/^V: m""

-,

which

Proportion being conflant in
Center,
it

Cafes relating to the fame

oUows, that the principal Latera Recfta of the Orbits of different Bodies, about a common Centre of Force, are dired:ly as the Squares of the Areas defcribed by the revfpedive Bodies, in the fame Time.

C O R O

L.

II.

MOREOVER,
Ratio of
I, to

fince

BS

is

= ^ ^,
5:1
is

and
to
*!;,

R =:il;ill!^

we

have zl1= tt^t and ^^^ BS
^--^
:

•.•

SB
it

in the conftant

Hence

appears,

that the Velocities

are, univerfally, in the fubduplicate

Ratio of the Parameters

diredly, and the Perpendiculars falling from the Center of Porce on Tangents to the Places of the Bodies, inverfely, and
therefore, in the

fame Orbit,

the Velocity will be, barely,
falling.

in the inverfe Ratio of the Perpendiculars fo

C O R O

L.
or
,

III.

s

I

NCE
tion,

P is =
to tfi,

m —r X a^i
zp

in

a conflant Propor-

and d, be what they will; it follows, that the Periodic Times, about the fame Center of Force, whether in Circles or EUipfes, will be in the
let
i;,

s,

fefquiplicate

Ratio of the principal Axes.

C O R O

L.

(

25

)

G O R O
Sj

L.

IV.
of a nor

BECAUSE neither the Values
it

P
P

are affeded

by
let

follows, that the principal Axis, and the Periodic

Time

will be the fame, if the Velocity at

be the fame,

the Direcftion of the Projediile at that Point be what

it will..

C O R O

L.

V.

w
{d)

HEN
=
^/lL
-,

d-v-v

(

= ^)

is

=

2^,

or,

which

is

the fame,,

when V

then

d being

the

mean Diflance

or Semi-

Tranfverfe, the Point

P

will fall in one

Extreme of the Con-

jugate Axis, and ^ ^/J-I' the Velocity there, will be juft fufd ficient to retain a Body in a Circular Orbit at that Diftance

from the Center of Force j and
will,
it

this Velocity,

in relpecfc

of different Orbits,
Square Roots of the

is

obvious, be inverfely as the
:

mean

Diftances

Wherefore the Velocities
Centre, are
reci--

Bodies in Circular Orbits about a

common

procally in the fubduplicate Ratio of the Radii.

C O R O
I

L.

VI.

F 'u be

j;

bs/±jy- or the Square of the Velocity be jufl twice

as great as that v/hereby the Projedile
lar

might defcribe

a circu-

Orbit at

its

own Diflance from the

Center of Force [CorN .)

becoming infinite, the Ellipfe degenerates into a Parabola, whofe principal Latus ReBiim h 4^^ J3. whence it appears, that the Velocity of a Body moving in a Pajabola is inverfely as the Square Root of its Diflance from the
then
^, the Tranfverfe,

Centre of ¥oizi, and that

it

wil! be, every where, to the

Ve-

H

locity

(

.26

)

locity that
its

might carry the Projedile

in a circular Orbit,

at

own

Diftance from the Centre, as the Square Root of two,

to one.

C O R O

L.
f

VII.

B
be

UT

if

-u

be greater than b

— ^^

,

the Trajedory
d
is

will

be an Hyperbola, whofe principal Axis

j^^ _

(=:

/^)

as

has been before intimated, and therefore e i=, ^l^li£\
hs/r

will

J

^'^J.--,,

.

Hence, from the Nature of the HyperRadius,
'^^^^'^xs/dn^'v-^rhh
zr bb

bola,

if

R

be affumed

for

(=^ j

will be the

Tangent of the Angle which the A-

fymptote makes with the Axis, or the Supplement to i8o° of the utmoft Elongation the Projedile can poflibly have

from the lowefl Point of

its

Orbit.

PROP.

;

(

27

)

PROPOSITION
A
Body
is

II.

go from P, at a given Dijiance the Centre of Force^ in a given DireBion P
let

P C Jrom C
b,

with a githe abjolute

ven Celerity
being as any

;

To Jmd

its T!rajediory ? the centripetal Force
)

Tower («

of the Dijiance^

and

Force at

P

given,

ET R

be a Point
required

I'_j

in

the

Trajedory, and r another indefinitely near
it

and with the Centre C, let the Circular Arches F ef, R U., V n r, be defcribed, and having

drawn
let

C R ^, C rf,
(

&c.

CP = ^, CR = C U)=^, P^ = A, Rn
= Xy rn ^y^Kr = z, and s = the Sine of the Angle QVb to
{=IJ v)
the Radius
i
;

and

let

Vb (m)
that

be the Space
in
j

might be defcribed
freely defcend

(i)
and

a given Particle of

Time
Body

with the given Celerity

r

the

Diftance a

would

in that

Time, by an uniform Force

equal to that affedling the Projedile at

P

:

Then

the Space

which would be uniformly defcribed in that fame Time, with the Celerity acquired by defcending thro' the faid Diftance r, it is well known, will be equal to z r. But, from hence
to

1

1

(

28)
b^
let

to find the Celerity at

R, with the fame Velocity that the
another pro-

given Projedile

is

let

go from P, towards

ceed from the fame Point, in a Right-Line pafTing diredly
thro' the Center of

Force j and let the Celerity at U, or the Space that would be uniformly defcribed therewith in i,
the abovefaid Particle of
a"",

Time, be denoted by
is

i;

:

Then,
fo
is

as

the Centripetal Force at P,

to x"" ^ that

atU,

2r,

the Velocity that might be generated

by the former

in the

given Particle of Time,

to

^-^, ^
a

that

which would be gene:

nerated by the latter in the fame
that

Time

Wherefore,

as i,

Time,

to

^^

»

fo

is

-, the

Time

of defcribing Ui;,

to V, the Velocity acquired in this

Time
get

:

Whence, by muli?

tiplying

Means and Extremes, &c. we

v =ILJl!j.

,

and

therefore njv

- zilllet

-

_^

fomeconftant Quantity d; which
with
P,
.x

to determine,

U

coincide

be

=

a^

and
-{.

V = m,
hence

and the Equation becomes

= zi±Lf.

d^

d=—
have
,.

^
E:
,

-^4-

>

which Value being
112
«

fubftituted above,

we

fhall

=^ + 2
« 4:

+

_ llllill
n-^rxa""
this
is

.

and therefore

U
of

i

=

.

;;2

+ -^
'

But

like wife the Celerity

«+ Xa

the

firft

Projedile at

R
j

:

For

fince

both Bodies have the fame
equal Diftances from the
s/

Velocity at P, their Velocities, at
Centre, mull be equal

all

and therefore

j^^a.^^-,^^

,

or
itjs

:

(

29

)

its

Equal

^^^+"

^

TVill

confequently be the
thro*

Time

of the

faid givfen Projedliles

moving

R r,

or of defcribing the

the Area

— = R Cr,
'-—•

by Radii drawn

to the Centre of

Force

Wherefore, fince

is

the Area of the littleTriangle

VCb

that

might be uniformly defcribed in, i, the given Particle of Time, with the Velocity at P j and, becaufe the Areas are as the
Times,
it

will be, as i^-^ to
2

i

(the faid

Time)

,

fo

is

""I-,

to

2

^

^'

:

Hence we get smax

y =:


,

,

or,

rr.\^raxv^j
its

,,,

4r;.M-3

by

fubftitating

inftead

of

known

Value, as above found.

But

as

Cr,

is

to r^.

whofe Fluent Fe
which, when
becaufe,

is

the Meafure of the angular

Motion

-,

from
;

found, the Orbit
?e, or the

may
is

readily be conflruded
is

when

Angle

PCR,

given, as well as
:

CR,
of

the Pofition of the Point
is

R

alfo given

But

this

Value

A

indeed too

general Terms, or
tions,
i^

much compounded to admit of a Fluent in even by the Quadrature of the Conic Sec-

except in certain particular Cafes, as where 72 is equal to as 3, or 5, or the Law of centripetal Force, 2,

the
5^^

firft

Power of

the Diftance diredly,
inverfely
5

or the

2\ 3^
Cafes,

or

Powers thereof

therefore, in

other

can

only be had by infinite Series, &c. or Curves of a fuperior
-Order.

^

E.

I
J

C O R O

L,

,

(

30

)

C O R O

L.

I.

IF,the

inflead of the abfolute Celerity of the Projeaile at P,

Ratio thereof to that which

it

Ihould have to dei,

fcribe the Circle

Fe, be given, as

p

to

and not only the

fame Thing, but the Ratio between the Celerity at any other Diilance CR, and that which a Body muft have to defcjibe

a circular

Orbit at

that Diftance,

be required
to

:

It

will be, as a', the centripetal

Force
a

at P,

^%

that at

R

(or

U)

,

fo

is r,

the Diftance
thefe Forces

Body would
i,

freely defcend:

by the former of
Time,

in

the given

Particle of

to '-^^, that

which

it

would defcend by
if

the latter in

the fam.e

Time

:

Therefore,

Uj
,

be taken equal to
it
is


that

and St h^ made perpendicular to

AC,
will

manifefl:,

U/,

being

indefinitely

fmall

be

the

Diftance

which a of Time,

Body muft move

over in

the
:

aforefaid Particle

to defcribe the Circle
is

UR
*"

But

U

t,

by the Pro.

perty of the Circle,

in that
"

Circumftance

= ^/^m—L
or
its

wherefore

we

have, as

y/

'

^'

>
fo

to

i;,

Equat^

/..ilf _£!:il!Z!
dy muft have
to

(above found)

,

is

the Velocity a

Bo-

defcribe that Circle,

to

that with which,

the given Projectile arrives at

R

:

Therefore,

when x
C
s/'-^--^

and

R

coincides with P,

the Proportion

of

——
to

is

~a^,
^j

7~:?v

to-

-., v/hich there
given as
i,

is,

as

^ zrii

\

in,

is

to ^,

by Sappofiuon

s

whence, multiplying Extremes

(

31

)

and Means, itituted inftead of
tj-emes

we
;;?,

get
in

which being fubthe Value of i;, it will become

m—p^^ra-,

therefore this divided
for the
ner,

by

s/

:_
71

,

is

v//

^

Ratio that was
fubftituting
s

to be found.

And,

in

like

manget

by

for

m
"

in the

Value of A,

we

pa a X
.

V/- + -4_X;c--/-.-^-required,

~N

zx"-\-l>
,

.^

for

the other Quantitj

€ O R O
E N C E,
minifhed
if

L.

II.

the Angle
infinitum,

CP^
and
/>''

be fuppofed. to be di„
-f

/;?

-~
:r:

%o,

y''^'

-

x'zr

a\ ^,

the faid Value of v, be] taken

we

fhall

have

^"=f//x« + i-f ir+' X
the

^,

C=

C A)

the Height to
-,

which
xhtx^-

Body would

afcend,

if

projeded diredly upwards

t//x?2-f i-f i| '^+' xa^a.~KV , is the Dlfttmce-^ i t mufl freely defcend to acquire the given Velocity v which Diflance, therefore, with an uniform Centripetal Force
fore,

whera n
the

— o^

will

he
the

—tl±

j

and with aForce
=:rr=

inverfely, as

Square

of

Dilfance,

-1^,
2

— fp
at

But when ^ ic i ^
is

~ I,

or the Velocity of the Projedile

P

juft

fufficient'

~
C
to retain a
|^-[-t
I

32 )

Body

in the circular Orbit

P ^, A P

then becomes

3-}-;,

X^

_^ ^.
3

which
but

in the faid

two Cafes,

will be f a^

2

and

t-?

refpedively

infinite

when ?2is=— 3.
L.
III.

C O R O

HEN

n-\-i

is

a

pofitive

Number,
I

the Velocity

" ,

at the

Centre C,

where x becomes
.-/

=

5,

will,

it

appears,

be barely equal to
1
is

r X 2ra

P"- -\-

-^
it

}

but,

when

n-\-

negative, or the

Law

of Centripetal Force more than the
will be infinite
its
5

firll:

Power of the

Diflance inverfely,

becaufe then, the Ino'^-^') v/ill

dex being negative, x''-\-^ (or to the Denominator.

Equal

come

in=

C O R O

L.

IV.
is

O R E O V E R,
infinite,

when ;2+i
faid

negative,
alfo

and x

the
^

Velocity

will

become

/ 2r a X P^
fpecified,
tripetal

-{-

j

becaufe then, for the Reafon above

x''--^^
is

will be

=5

;

And

therefore,

when

the

Cen-

Force
a

inverfely,
city
/>

more than the firft Power of the Diflance Projedile moving from P with the given Velo(

v/'2^*

= ^''0

^^o"g the Right-Line

PA,

will

af^

cend even
fignified

to an infinite Height,

and have

a.

Velocity there

by

^ ra x
r
as

p"-

-^ -^,

or in Proportion to the gi-

ven Velocity,

^Z

/> '

-4-

-47

^

^^

A

P^'ovided p'^ -\-

be

(

33

)
is

be

pofitivfl

',

for othcrwife the

Thing

impofllblej the Square

Root of

that Quantity being manifeftly fo,

C O R O
E N C E,
to
If the leaft

L.

V.

Velocity that can carry the Body
it

an

infinite

Height, or that which

would acquire
be required
;
:

by

freely defcending
/»"

from the fame Height,
fliall

By making

-f-^- =o, we

have/>r=

^Sf

which.

fubftituted in
for the

p

y2ar
j

gives

</-r^ X
is

^zar
manifefl,

—2^ —^,
is

Value fought

and

this, it

to

^~2ar^

the Velocity a

Body mufl have
Therefore,

to deicribe the Circle

P e,
3,

as\/^i»
or the

^Q

Unity:

when n

is

lefsthan

Law

of Centripetal Force more than the Cube of the
lefs

Velocity will carry a Projediile to an infinite Height in a Right-Line, than can retain it in a circular Orbit, was it turned into a proper Diredion.

Diftance inverfely, a

C O R O

L.

VL

WHEREFORE,
infinite

if it were required, how far a muft defcend by an uniform Force equal to Body

that afFeding the Projedile at the Point P, to acquire the fame Celerity that another Body, by freely falling from an

Height

(as

above) has at

its

Arrival to that Point;
,

then,

by fubflituting the Value
its

^/^
:

as

found in the

lafl

Article, inflead of

Equal, in

^^ (fee
And

Cor. 11.) there

comes

out

^~.

for the

Value fought

hence

it

appears, that

the Velocity with

wivch a Body,

falling freely

from an

in-

K

finite

(34
jfinite

)
is

Height, would impinge on the Earth,

no

greater than
Gi-a-

that
vity,

which another Body may acquire by an uniform
£qual to that at
its its

Surface, in falling freely thro' a Space

equal to

Semi-diameter.

SCHOLIUM.

FROM
locity

the Ratio found in Corollary

I.

with which the Body arrives at from the Centre of Force, and that which it ought to have to defcribe a Circle at the fame Diftance, it will not be difficult

between the Veany Diftance {x)

what Cafes the Body will be compelled to fell to. the Centre, and in what other Cafes it will fly ad infi-^ nitwn therefrom. For, firft, if the Body in moving from P, be acute, I fay, it will begins to defcend, or the Angle C P
to determine in
/^

continue to do fo
if the

'till it

actually falls into the Centre of Force,

Quantity

^

^ p' H-^rxf^+T " 7^1 )
greater than

'''

'^^

^^^^^^
is

thereto, be not

fomewhere

Unity

j

or,

which
its

the fame in

efFe6t, unlefs

the

Body

has fomewhere a Velocity
a circular Orbit at
:

more than
to afcend,

fufficient to retain it in

own

Diilance from the Center of Force
it

For, if

it

ever begins

muft
the

be at a Point, as
Centre,
cuts

D, where
mufl be

a Right-Line,

drawn
and
cified,

from

the Orbit perpendicularly,
as

there,

it is

manifeft, the Celerity

above fpeor
is

otherwife the

Body

will

ftill

continue to defcend,

clfe

mov€

in the Circle

DL

about the Center C, which

equally abfurd.

On

the contrary,, if the faid Quantity,
fo as to

in

approaching the Centre, increafes
Unity, or be every where fo
rior Diflances,
j

become

greater than
all infeis fuffi^

then, the Velocity at

being greater than
a

the Velocity that

cient

to

retain

Body

in

a circular Orbit at any fuch Difit
is

tance, the Projedile cannot,

evident,

be forced to the

Centre.

But

(

35

)

But, on the other hand, the Angle
obtufe,
it

C P ^,

being fuppofcd

if the faid

from a like Reafoning, that, Quantity be always greater than Unity, or the Body
will evidently appear

in
it

its

Recefs from the Center, has, in every Place thro* which a Velocity greater than
is

paffeth,

fufficient to retain it in

a circular Orbit at the Diftance of that Place
ter

from the Cen-

of Force,
infinitum:

it

muft, of confequence, continue to afcend

ad

Now,

therefore,

Force thefe

different Cafes obtain, let the

fuppofed acute, or

what Laws of Centripetal Angle C P ^ be firft the Body moving towards the Centre, and
to

find in

w

in the abovefaid

Quantity
it

^ ^^

,

_£_><. ^L

—._,^
-4- i

to be

infinitely

fmall; then

is

evident,
infinite,

that that Quantity will

become
negative
thefe
tre;

either

*/ .^1

,

or

according as «

is

a

Number,
Cafes,
it

or otherwife

5

wherefore,

in the latter

of

tv>^o

the

Body
3,

can never be forced into the Cen-

neither can

twixt


^^

I

and

in the former,
as
is

when

n has any Value be-

manifeft:

from above, becaufe

v^ ~jr

gi'c^^s^

than Unity (Redilinear Motion being here
will either

excepted
true,

:

)

Nor

of thefe Conclufions hold kfs
is

when

the Angle

CP

/^

obtufe

;

for

it

is

obvious,

that if the Projectile cannot be forced

to the Centre,
it

when

direded towards

it

with the

ieall
:

Obliquity,

never can,

when
if

the

Obliquity

is increafed

?z_i_ I

be either equal to or
i
;

lefs

But on the contrary, than 2, and p be

lefs

than^

then

the

faid

Value */

^zi.

not

beine
in-

greater than Unity, the Projedile
to the Centre
3

muft inevitably be drawn

for, the afore- mentioned general Exprefiion not

exceed ing^

,

(

36

)
<f,

exceeding Unity, neither at the given Diftance
leafl'

nor at the
i

afiignable Diflance, cannot at an intermediate Diftance

becaufe, in the Defcent of the Body, the Expreffion muft ei-

ther increafe or decreafe continually,

there being

only one
But,

Dimenfion of the

variable Quantity (x)

concerned.

when p
fame,

is

greater than Unity, other Things continuing the

and once begins to afcend, it will continue to fly from the fame ad infinitum^ For, fince the Part D L, ^c, of the Trajediory, which it will
I Hiy,

the Body, if

it

efcapes the Centre,

D, is in every refpedl equal and fimilar to D R, &c. if another Body projeded upwards from P, in the oppofite Dirediion, with the fame Velocity, continues to afcend ad infinitum^ our firft Proje<ftile,
begin to defcribe on
its

leaving the loweft Point

after

it

has paffed the loweft Point, muft do fo too, and vice
therefore
/>*

verfa

',

^

—^

being there affirmative, and the

Angle QVb obtufe, the Quantity ^Z

p"- -f-

~1~ X .^^±1
j

- -^

when X
firft ^

is

infinite, will alfa

be infinite
is

above Reafoning, the Pofition
that

manifeft.

when

n

is

greater than

3,

whence from the Hence we conclude, or the Law of Cendirecftly,

tripetal
lefs

Force, as any Power

of the Diftance

or

than the Cube thereof inverfely, the
fall into

Body cannot

pofii-

bly

the Centre, except in a Right- Line.

Aii^jfecondly,

that,

when

the Force

is,

as the
it

Cube, or more than the Cube

of the Diftance inverfely,
Centre, or
fly

muft

either be forced
it

to the

an

infinite

Diftance therefrom, unlefs

moves
in-

in a Circle,

Furthermore, becaufet he abovefaid Quantity,
finite, in all

when x is

Cafes where n-^i

is

negative,
it

2.vApp
follows,

greater than

^^

,

appears to be greater than Unity,

that in all

thofe


(

37

)

thofe Cafes, the

Body may

afcend, even to an infinite Height,

and actually will do fo, when « has any Value betwixt i becaufe then, tho* the Body ihould at firft approach and 3

-,

towards the Centre,

its

Afcent cannot be anticipated by being
is

drawn
as has

into

it,

as

it

may, when the Value of n

fmaller,

been above fhewn.

Noie,

The fame Things may
laft

be otherwife determined by

Help of the

general Value of A-, for if
//

pp

-{-

w-f-i

~x x x

— p^
made

-J- 2

s^ a""

if__4— X^AT,

the Square of

its

Divifor be

equal to nothing, the affirmative Roots of that Equation,

or Values of x, will give the greateft and leafl Diftances of

the Projedile from the Centre of Force, and therefore in thole
Cafes,

where

it is

found not to admit of two fuch Roots, the
it

Body muft

cither fall into the Centre, or fly

ad

infinitumi

F

R OP,

;

(

38

)

PROPOSITION
Power
of the Difiance,

III.

To find the Motion^ or Angular Difiance of the ApfideSy in Orbits nearly circular ; the centripetal Force being as any

LET ArP/^bethe
propofed
Orbit,

A and
the

P two

Places of

higher and

lower

Apfides, A^E^A,

and

nVbn, Circles defcribed with the Radii A C, C P about C, the Centre

of Force

j

let

r be

a Point in the Trajectory taken at Pleafure and let the Velocity of
the

Body

at the higher

Apfe be to that which

it

ought to
to
i
5

have to
calling

retain itfelf In the

Cirde
r,

A^ E,
-,

as

^T^^,
A
^, i

AC,

ij re.y,
i

C
i

i~-y
j,

by

fubftituting,

for a,

for

^ —
i
s

and

A: Then,

e for p,

—y

for

paaX

PC,

and y

for i, in

C._^_^,^__p.,.,^_ ^JT^+a
laft

the general Value of A, as found by the

Prob. the fame

it

is

manifeft, will

become

v/i— ^X)'
if
,

2

12

I

2X1—v''^^"3

for the Value of

A

in this particular Cafe

5

which by reducing

(

39

)

cing

733;^ and
/^

i—y«+3

j^^o fj^ple

Terms,

IS

'--^i^^-'+„j:7><'--2>+-iy'-i+^---^Xi-»+3Xj'+«+3xi"b
jKv'l— ^

3

but, becaufe ^ and;',
fmall,

by the Nature of the Queftion, are very all the Terms wherein more than twoDimenfions of thefc

Quantities are concerned,
refped: of the reftj

may

be rejeded

as inconfiderable in

by doing which, our Equation becomes
5

A=

== ^ ^—y\/2ey—'n-jr3Xyy
'

'

which

(for

the above Reafon)
'

is

,

or

s/ zey^n^riXyy

-i-_x-7=^==^ ^«+3 ^ -yy

^+3

very nearly:

But the

Fluent of

,

when ^£oi_

becomes = 0, or

A=AfE

is

equal to a Semi-circle whofe Radius
I

is

Unity, or to 180

180

Degrees; therefore ;;;=rx 180°= ^_p-

Degrees,

is

the

Meafure of the Angle

AC P.

^E.I.

C O R O

L.
lefs

I.

WHEN
^
Force be,
/J°
as

n

is

equal to, or

than

3,

then the Value
either infi-

^ of
it

the Angle

A C P,

becoming

nite or impoffible,

of Centripetal the Cube, or more than the Cube of the Diflance
inverfely.

follows, that if the

Law

(
inverfely,

40

)

more than one Apjide ^ muft inevita^ And, therefore, bly ciiher fall into the Centre of Force, or fly from it ad inwhich is agreeable to finitum^ unlefs it moves in a Circle
the Trajedory cannot have the Projedile in all fuch Cafes
;

the Sckolium aforegoing. or
be,

But,

if

n be equal to

i, o,

i,

2

J

then will the Angular Diflance of the two Apfides

90°:oo,
;

103°;
firft

55',
lafl

fpedively

the

and

180°: 00', reof which we are afTur'd of from
127°
:

17', or

other Principles.

C O R o
F
the

L.

ir.

Diftance

I

the
:

Law
Then,

of

of the Affides be given, and Centripetal Force from thence be re-

(D)

quired

by making
for

—!l^

equal to

D, we
Hence,

ih^ll

have i^j -—3, =«,
be 360°, or the

the Value fought
takes

:

if

D

Body

up one

intire

Revolution in

going from one Apfe to the other j then, muft the Law of Centripetal Force be reciprocally as that Power of the Diftance, whofe Exponent is 2 i j but, if either Apfe, from the

Return again, has mov'd be = 180° hforward only a very fmall Diftance, E, or

Time of

the

Body

leaving

it,

to

its

D

~,

the Force will then be inverfely as the

2-}-— Power

of the Diftance, very nearly.

SCHOLIUM.
F
X be any Diftance of the Projedile from the Centre of Force, and the Law, by which it tends towards the
2.%

fame Centre, be every where,
&c.
c, d^

cx^

^ dx^^ -{-e xP -J^fxi^
;

&c.

^i,

m^ &c, being determinate Quantities

and
if

(41
if

)

a be the Diftance of one of the Apjides from that Centre, the angular Diftance of thofe Apfides will be
ca''-\'^a'''^eaP -\-fa9
,

&c.

34-«Xf «'^+3 + '»X^^^ + 3+^X<?«^

XI 80°.

From

//&^

MEAN ANOMALY
find
its

of a Planet given-,

to

PLACE

in its

ORBIT.

LET
Sun
in

AOB

be the

given Orbit, S the

one of the Foci,

AC
Axis,

the Semi-Tranfverfe

CO the Semi-Con-

j.j

jugate,

AEHBA
and
let

a Cir-

cle circumfcribing the Elliplis,

n be the
after or

Place of

the Planet at a-

ny given Time
before
its

paffing.
;

A, the
v^^hich

Aphelion

thro'

draw
to

E«P

perpendicular
the Points

AB, and having joined
perpendicular to

E

S,

EC,

S;?,

and made

SD

ECD,

take the

Arch

EH

equal to

SD,

and the
to

Arch

Aa

equal to S C.

Then, the Sedor
is

ECH
com-

being equal to the Triangle

ECS, A C H A

will be equal

ASEA

;

inafmuch

as the

former of thofe Areas

pounded of the Sedor and ECH, and the latter of the fame Sedor and the Triangle ECS: Wherefore, fmce the Area ASEA, is to AEBCA, half the Circle, as the Elliptical Area A/zSA, to the Semi^EUipfis A 72 B C A, by a known Relation of the two Curves if,
,-

ACE

M

inftead

(

42

)

inftead of
as
is

A SEA,
:

its

Equal be
::

fubftltuted,
:

ACHA AEBA
to

A;2SA

we fhall havCj. knBA-, but ACHA
B,

AEBA,
j
:

as the

Arch
it

AH

to

AE

the Semi-Cir:

cumference
:
:

and therefore

will be, as

A;^B A

A^zSA-

AEB

AH:
F.adii

defcribed

by

Wherefore fince the Areas A;2BA, AtiSA, drawn to S, the Center of Force, are as
it

the

Times of

their Defcription,

will be, as the

Time of

defcribing

is to the A;zBA, given Time of defcribing A;2SA, fo is AEB to AH; which, therefore, is the given Mean Anomaly in this Pofition, or the Arch proportional to the Time of the Planet's moving

or that of

Half one Revolution,

thro'

A

?2,

Let
its

now A C ^ Sine E P equal

i,

C S=^, A H =
and
its

D,

AE

equal

E,

x,

Co-fine

from the Similarity of the Triangles
have,

C P =_y. Then, CEP, CSD, we fliall
(SD),
and,

EC
,

:.

EP

:i

Aa (SC)

:

EH

con-

fequently

AE

-{-

^xA^— AH,
it
is

orE-f-AfxA^,
equally*

=zD

;

which Equation,

manifefl,, will hold

whether the Arches
fame,

AE, A a,
Radius
:

and

AH,

be taken in De-

grees or in Parts of the
let

But now,

in order to folve the

the required Arch, or Value of E,.be eftimated pretty

near the Truth,

and

let this

aflumed Value be denoted by

A^— E, D - A^ Tangent
of
its

its

Difference (5^)

from the Truth, by E3

and

|-~x

A^

:^

D- E - i

X A^, the Error of the

the Equation, by

Rj make vr

parallel to

A B,

and

let

sb be a

to the Circle at the Point j:

Then,

as sb,

by reafon

Smallnefs,

may,

in this Cafe, be confidered as equal to e s

and becaufe of the Similarity of the Triangles Cks, srb^
2

^Q

(

+3

)

we

(hall

have as
j

i

{C s)

:

y [C

k)

:

:

E

:

y

x^ =:rl>,
= i -f-

or e r,

very nearly

whence

E = E + E,
there

and

P E ~x

j;

x E,

which Values therefore being
tion

fubflituted in the general

Equa-

E -{-

XX

Aa -T>

,

comes out

E -{- E -f. x^Aa
(

-f ^

yxExA^^D very nearly -^^^

5

wherefore
1

E—

~

'~''^'^
-!

\

i-\-y

XAa
1

—\
J
.^
-i*.

D — E — xyAa -—-I

or, '

-f.(?y

R = i-\-ey
•";

;

nearly J

:

TT V Hence it appears, rr
J

that, if >

the Error of the Equation be divided

by i-\-ey,

and the

Quotient added

to,

or fubtraded
arife

Value of E, there will

from the firft or alTumed a new Value of that Quantity
:

much nearer the Truth than the former And if with this new Value, and thofe of x and y correfponding thereto, we proceed to a new Error, or compute the Value of R, and
that
for

of the
the

Divifor

i

+

^jy,

&c.
that

it

is

likewife

evident,

very

fame Reafons,

a

third

Value

of

E

may

Theorem, ftill nearer the Truth than the preceding, and from thence another, and fo another, &c. 'till we arrive to any Accuracy
be
found,
defired,

by the fame

each Operation, at
fo that in the

leaft,

doubling the

Number

of

moft excentric of the planetary Orbits Operations will be found fufficient to bring out the Antwo to lefs than a Second gle And when that is known, as EP and SP are then given, the Angle nSF may be eafily had; for, by the Property of Curve, it is
Places;

ACE

:

AC CO
:

::EP
(

:

P;,=
)
:

£^^,

and S

P

:

^^^

(P;.)

::

AC

Radius

^—^ =

the Tangent of AS;;,

^ E,

I.

Otherwife,

,

<

44

)

Otherwife,

Let Radius

EC = r
not

and the general Equation

AE

-|-

^ X A<? = AH,
then,

orE =
equal

D —--^x A^be
to

again refumed.;

the Orbit

being

very ExcentriCj

E

will,

it is

evident,

be nearly

D|

and,

confequently,

(x)

Therefore, if : the Sine of E, nearly equal to the Sine of be fubflituted for ^, and the faid Sine be dethe Sine of

D

D

noted by X (fignifying the
that

firft

Value of x)

it is

obvious,

D ~— XA

<2

will be nearer to the true Value of E,

|han D, and, confequently, that the Sine of
(

D — -^ X

h.

a
of

which
I

I call

x)

nearer

to

x than i^x^ the
muft
be,
ilill,

Sine

D

wherefore

D •— —

x

A^

,

nearer

the

Truth, or the required Value of E, than
and, confequently,
its

D«—
ftill,

x

A

^
at,

Sine (which I call x)

nearer

than

(a:)
/

the Sine of
///

D —— xA ^ r
(or ^)

:

In like manner,

the

Sine of

D
and
///

xA^

will appear

to

be

nearer

x

than Xy

D

—^x A
^,
is

^,

nearer to the required

Value

than

D ——X A

^c. &c.

Whence

the following

Me-

thod of Solution

manifeft.

Let 1.758 123, the Log. of (57.2958) the Number of Degrees in an Arch equal in Length to Radius, be added to the Logarithm

;

(45

)

Logarithm of the Excentricity, and from the Sum dedudt the Logarithm of Half the greater Axis 3 the Remainder will be a 4^^ Logarithm (L); which, being once computed, will
ferve in all Cafes of that Orbit
:

To

this

Logarithm add the
reckoned to
will be

Logarithmical Sine of the given
or

Mean Anomaly
Degrees
;

from the Aphelion
of

;

the

Sum, rejeding Radius,
in

the Logarithm

an Arch

which,

being

from the Mean Anomaly, and the Sine of the Remainder added to the faid Logarithm, the Sum, rejcding Radius, will be the Logarithm of a 2^ Arch ; which, in like manner, being taken from the Mean Anomaly, and the Sine of the Remainder added to the fame Logarithm, the Sum, rejed:ing Radius, will be the Logarithm of a 3"^ Arch from whence, by repeating the Operation in the very fame manner, a 4^'^ Arch will be found, and fo a 5'^, (^c. 'till we arrive to any affigned Exadnefs ; the Error in the Anomaly Excentri, or Angle ACE, which Angle is to be expreffed by the Difference of the Mean Anomaly and the laft of the faid Arches, being always much lefs than
taken
the Diiference of the faid

precedes

it,

Arch and that which immediately from which Angle the true Anomaly is had aS

in the above Cafe.

^E. I.
Otherwife,
retained, let

The foregoing Conftrudion being

Radius (AC)
Co-fine ~b^

= 1,
and

the Sine of the given Anomaly
let E;;^

ACH

z=^,
^j

its

be the Sine of

E

H

:

Then

will

Qm

bx'E?n

=

x, the Sine of the Difference of thofe Angles,
'y

of Trigonometry
will be

but

EH

by the Elements being =ex, 'Em (by the fame)
^c. and Qm^::
i

ex^

—-

-4.

ll^,

— ilf^ -^
i-^beyx

-jj^i ^c, whence, by

Subflitution, ^c.

we

get

N

^

(46}

(47
inftead of

)

x and

y, their

refpedlive Values,

and contrading

the whole by Divifion, &c, there will

come

out

zae

into

i—.
v-'t*

4*2
which, when
za
e

3^
e
is
3

'48
very nearly
-,

lO^J

not very large, will appear to be equal to
for this, converted to

— 4X
^ f

a Series,
121; <7^

\s2ae-^i^^
*
,

ii^lil

_ ll!l!^ 10^3^,4.
3

{if<:.

from which,
rt

if the

32

former Series be
i-j

ta-

ken, there will remain only

^-^

^ ^ ^^

—^ -—- »«
6b

-S-lf

xhe^^

&c.

Hence

is

deduced the following

PRACTICAL RULE
For finding the Equation of the Centre from the Mean

Anomaly
j^s Radius,
to

given.

the Co-fine

Farts of the Excentricity of the Orbit, to

of the given Anomaly, fi is | a fourth Number y

which Number add
he
lefs

half the greater Axis, if the Anomaly than 90, or more than 270 Degrees, otherwife fubtradi
to

from

the

fame

:

Say, as the
is

Sum

or Remainder,

is to

Double

of the given Ano-^ maly, to the Sine of afirfi Arch ; from three Times which Sine deduB the double Radius the Remainder will be the Sine of a /?cond Arch, whofe i Part^ taken from the former, leaves the
^

the Excentricity^ fo

the (Logarithmic) Sine

Equation fought.

(

48

)

muft be noted, that this Rule, in the Orbits of Saturn^ Jupiter, and the Moon, anfwers to a Second, and in thofe of the Earth and Fenus to lefs than -j^ of a Second.
it

And

And,

in

thefe

two

laft,

the

Arch

firfl

found

will,

without

farther Correction, be fufliciently exadl to anfwer to the nicefl Obfervations,

the Error never amounting to above 2 or
is

3 Seconds

;

which

more

corredt than either tha^noted

Hyfol-

pothecs of

Ward

or Bidlialdtis, as will appear

from the

lowing Examination of thofe Hypothefes, which, as they have been much celebrated, and come near the Truth in ma-

ny Cafes, may here alfo deferve a particular Confideration. And, to begin with the latter, which fuppofes the Angle AF?2 made at F the upper Focus by the Aphelion and [n) the Planet to be the Mean Anomaly, and therefore
S/zF the Equation. Becaufe a the Sine and b the Co-fine of the faid Angle are given, by the Nature of the Ellipfis,

.

S;2— L+iiiJlii
metry,
I 1

is

alfo given

5

whence, by

Plai?i Trigono^

it

will be, as

iiliiilf

:^::2^(SF):2^^X
S«F, which, put
in a Series,

-^be
e-\-

equal to the Sine of
ee
i

-^ zb

is

2

ae X
this

e

b -\-

2bb

i

x

ee-\-

'^

— ^bb xbe^,
3

Qfr.

and

taken from 2

aexi --^-^
4

-\-^^^~- tllxee, ^c,
2

leaves
this

2^^ X

— -^ H- ^ — ~ X
But now

423
AB,
:

^^,

^V.

for the Error of

Hypothefis.

for the other, where,
is

E;zP being

perpendicular to

AFE

fuppofed the

Mean Ano-

maly.

will be as
::
e

SC and Cm ^ (the Sine of I (EC) (CF) ae^Qm^ the Sine of CEF^
Let
;

be perpendicular to

FE^ then it AFE, or CFE)
whence

Em^
its

^

e

(
its
:

49

)
i
-.

Co-fine,

= V'

i

e

(CF)

::

a-e^-x Again, as

(theSine of C;?^F)

b (the Sine of FC;/;)

alfo to

C m^

becaufe

CS

is

=FC

j

for

—,eb ^Ym, equal which Reafon S / is

double to ;;/C; wherefore

it

will be,

as^i-~^^^--{-^^
v/
I

(E/)

:

^ae (S/)

::

i

(Radius) to

=
a'^ e'^

the

-{-eb

Tangent of
I

SEFj
_f_

which, in a

Series,

will

be

2aex

— eb-^eafily

1-1-^

^^

^% ^c. whence
i

the correlponding Sine
3

is

found

=

2ae x
i

— eb 4"^

b""

e^
A,aa

aa e
'i

&c. and this
.

taken from

zaex
-


that

bb

to— 1Hence

-{

~Y-

"^

-^ X ^

^
>

gives 2ae iw-

+ 7^
appear,

y^ee, G?c. for the

Error in this Cafe

it

will

the greateft Error of each of
thefe Hypothefes, in the
bit of

Or-

/ //

up- e^:^:;^ be about wards of .09, will
e
is

Mars^ where

'^

.^

5 or 6 Minutes, and Jn the other planetary OrbitSj according to the Squares of their
Excentricities
their
it

(in

Parts

of

own Semi- Axis)
Aphelion
the

nearly;

alfo appears,

that towards

the

Circular

Hypothefis will be the more
corred, and near the Perihelion the other
5

and,

laftly,

that

both Hypothefes make the

Equation

too

large

in

the

higher, and too fmall in the lower, Part of the Orbit.

O

Having

,

(

so

)

two noted Hypothefes^^ (by many io much efteemed) differ from Truth, it may be proper to proceed now to give feme Examples of the preceding Methods, whereby the F.robkm is more corredly
thefe
folved,

Having iliewn how much

EXAMPLE

I.

LET
given
let

the Excentricity

of the propofed Orbit be

tI,

af

Mean Diflance or Semi-Tranfverfe Mean Anomaly. 72° 12.' 36' =72.21
the
the
firft

Axis, and the-

Degrees

j

and;

the Anomaly Excenfri, by
It will be, as i, the

Method, be required-

Semi-Tranfverfe, to .05, the Excentri^ city, fo is 57.2958, the Number of Deg. in an Arch, equal in wherefore,,, <^ j Length to Radius, t^ 2.86479 = the Arch

A

the general Equation, in refped; to this Orbit, will be

E

-f-

2.86479 X X =:D, and by writing therein the given Anoma.ly, inilead of D, it will, in this particular Cafe, become E -\Now, becaufe. 2.86479 x x mull 2.86479 X a: = 72.21.
be
lefs

than 2.86479, E,

it is

evident, can neither be
;

much
I as

lefTer,

nor

much

greater,
at

eftimate

the

fame
Sine

than 70 Degrees 70 Degrees, and
that
-i-

therefore,

then
is

fay,

Radius,

to the

of

Angle,

fo

2.692

J

v/hence

E— D

2.86479, to
equal

2.86479 x x

0.482,,

which

is

the Error, or

firft

Value, of

R

:

Again, for the

Divifor i-\.e y^ as Radius, to {y) the Co-line of 70°, fo ey therefore i -{- e y z=: 1.0171, and is .05, [e) ,oiji

'j

_______

_

j-f^jl

_ 0482 __ Q .5^ -T -r
1.0171

'

which,

being; taken o
;

70°, o ffives from /
it

69.536

for the next

Value of

E

wherefore,

will be,
^^
is

as

Radius, to the Sine
faid Co-efficient

of 69.536, or 69° 32'
j

^'A,

the

2.86479, to 2.68401

from whence the
next

(5«
next Value of

)
;

R

is

found equal o.oiooi

and

this.,

divided
lall

by the next Value of j-\~ey, or even by 1.0171, the
Value of

Value, and the Quotient taken from 6(^.536, leaves the true

E

(::=

69° 31'

34)

to lefs than a Second.

EXAMPLE

II.

LET
by the

the fame
J

Things be propofed,

as in the

preceding

Example and the Anfwer according

to the fecond

Me-

thod be required.

The Value
laft

of L, or the Log. of the Arc

A^,

as

found

Example, being 457093, I add thereto the Logarithmic Sine of 72° 12' 36', or 72° .21', the Sum, rejecting Radius, is the Logarithm of 2.^73, the firft Arch, which fubtrad:ed from 72.21, the Remainder vs^ill be 69.48; to whofe Sine adding the faid Value of L, the Sum, deducing Radius, will be the Logarithm of 2.683, ^^^ fecond Arch 5 with which, repeating the Operation, the third Arch will come out 2.6838, c^*^. and this taken from 72.21, leaves
69.5261, &c. or 69° 31' 34" for the Anomaly Excentri
-,

from whence the

TIrue

Anomaly

will

come

out 66° 52' 50".

EXAMPLE
r-TT-^

m.
;

HE
it

fame Things being given

by the

pradlical Rule,

J^
fo
is

will be, as Radius to the Co-fine of

72°

12' 36",

.0625 ( = iof .05) to .0191; again, as i-f-.oi9i, to 0.1, the double Excentricity, fo is the Sine of the fame Angle, to the Sine of 5° 21' 41 '; three times whofe Log. Sine, minus
double the Radius,
is

the Sine of 2'

48"; the

| Part

whereof

being taken from 5° 2i' 41", leaves 5° 20' 45" for the Equation of the Center, and :. this taken from 72 12' 36'
will
give

66° 52' 51", equal

to the True

Anomaly

very

nearly.

Of

(

52

)

Of

the

Motion of Projediles

in refifting

Mediums.

PROPOSITION
Siippofmg that a Body,
give?i Velocity^
It
let

I.

from a gheji Folnt^ with a direBly to or from a Centre^ towards which wuformly gravitates^ is refijied by a fimilar Medium^
go
of certain Powers of the Velocity, whofe
In--

tn the Ratio
dices are

reprefcnted by the given

Numbers^

r,

s,

t^

&c.

And fuppofing the Fart of the whole Refjlance, at the faid given Point, correfponding to each of thofe Powers, as well as the Force of Gravity, to be given ; 'tis required to find
the Relation of the

Times, the Velocities^

and

the Spaces

gone over,

LE T P
in
I

be the given Point,

DPC

the Right Line
e,

which the Body moves, and D,

any two
:

Points therein indefinitely near to each other

Snp-

/

pofe the Velocity at

P

to be

fufficient

to carry the

Body, uniformly, over a given Diftance g, in a given Time h and let m be the Space, which would be de-,

fcribed

in the

fame Time with the Velocity, that
in that

would be generated

Time

in vacuo

by a Force

D
e

equal to the Body's fpecifick Gravity in the given

Meis

dium

;

let

the Part of the Refiftance, which

as

the r Power of the Celerity, at the aforefaid Point,

be fuch, that the Body in moving over a given Dif'

C

tance
that

b,

with

its

Velocity uniformly continued, would

from
take

Part alone,
its

away

meet with a Refiftance fufficient to Motion j or which is the fame, let b be whole
the

.(

53

)

the Diftance that might be defcribed with the Velocity at P in the Time that the Body would, by the faid Part alone, have

Motion deftroyed, was the Refiftance to continue the fame as at the firft Inftant ; and let the like Diftances, with
all
its

refpedt to the other Parts of the Refiftance, that are as the

Powers of the

Celerity,

whofe Indices

are,

5,

if,

Gfc.

be

f, d^

= a;, De=Fq='x, the Time &c, refpedively; la%, let D = T, and the Space the Body would move of defcribing P over in the given Time b, with the Velocity at D, = v.
Then
fcribing
it

PD

will be, as

g
:

i

b

i

:

x {? q)
:

i

^-^ theTime of dethe Velocity deis

Fq, and

as ^

^

:

:

^ (P^)

-^,

ilroyed

by

that Part of the Refiftance,
Celerity, in that

which

as the

r

Power of the
at

Time 3

therefore, the Velocity

D being

to the Velocity at P, as

v tog,

that deftroyed,

the fame Part, in the fame
will confequently

Time, from

the Body's leaving
,

by D^

be

-^ X~=
e,
is

—zr;

becaufe this Part
:

of Refiftance

is

as the

r Power of the Velocity
to the

But the

Time
as

of defcribing

D

Time

of defcribing

P q,

^

to

v, therefore the Refiftance

arifing

from the afore-

faid Part in defcribing

De, muft be

-:^

x

i- =llZ:l^',

from whence,

by Infpedion, that the other Parts of the Refiftance, or Quantities of Motion deftroyed
it

is

manifeft,

thereby, will be

~^
^

,

-~^, &c.
But, the

And

therefore the

whole Velocity deftroyed by the Medium,
IS

in defaibing

D^^

±. bg

4to

'

_

"^
,

^c.

Time of
as

defcribing

D^, being

h

that of defcribing

P^

^

to

v,

will

P

be


54)
it

.

(

be reprefented by

hx

;

and therefore

will be, as h

:

m

— ^
:

,

the Part of Velocity generated or deftroyed in

Time, by the Force of Gravity, which added to, or taken from, the former Part, arifing from the Refiftance,
that

according as the
or Difference
rt

Body
-{-

is

in

its

Afcent or Defcent, the

Sum
it is

^

^

{-

^

,

&c. muft,

manifeft, be equal to (

Hence we have x

=


.

v) the whole Decrement of Velocity

:

——

—"w
^

Moreover, becaufe T, the
equal to

Time of
.v ^

defcribing

D

^, is

found

,

we have

^=
.
,

which being

fubftituted in-

ftead thereof in the other Equation,

^c. there will come

outT=

=t

?/z

-J-

r'^ ——_
_i_

.

^^.i.

iSc,

C O R O

L.

I.

H
nite,

ENCE,

when

the Refiftance

is

barely in the fimc, d,

ple Ratio of the Velocity, then

&c, being

infi-

our Equations become

x

=

-

~'^'^
,

and

T

equal

~~
of
gg:=i^

~
:

b

Whence
and

>c

^ ^:=^
into
cr

,

^

'lilinto the

Hyp. Log.

'-~ m
D

,

T = t^

'-^^ Hyp. Log. of p = J r o ^
•X'

///

COR O

L,

,

(55 C O R O

)

L.
is,

II.

B
and
b_

UT, when
Velocity,

the Refiftance

as 2,
at

the Square of the

r being equal

to

and

c,

d,

&c.

infi-

nite (as before) the Equations will be

equal to
b

T

equal

to

^
X Log. ^ t ~ ^
'

T^'*
b

Hence
if

a:

is

found equal to

,

wherein,
i

v be taken =0, we
for the

ihall

have

— X Hypb. Log.
but, if

+ X.
laftly,

^

Height of the whole

Afcent;

v^^-^mb

be taken

=0, we

fhall

have

^ mb
acquire

equal to the greateft Velocity the

Body can

poflibly

by defcending ;

if

g be taken

= o,

there will

be--x Log. ^^_^^
the

for
;

the

Diftance

gone over

when

Body

falls

from Reft

therefore, in that

Cafe the Log.

mb — 'W

"^^

being; o

=

^
b

,

if

« be put for the abfolute

Number
-{>'

whofe Hyperbolic Log.

is

^ ^ we
^.

fhall get

^^~i =
T
In

and confequently v=^mb^^ X 7^J

Moreover, with refpecS to the Time, becaufe
Defcent of the Body
this Cafe,
is

the

=
mto

/^"^

the.

Time

it

felf will, in

be

--/ ^
therefore,
.

the

Hyp. Log.

.

.^

X

^\—^
is

.

and

when

the
I

Body

defcends from Reft,

barely

=—

y^


1;

X Log

^lil-^i^,

wherein,

if

the above

found Value of

be fubftituted^

it

wDl be

~

y^

x

Log,

(
' Los. '+1:^!

56

)

:

But, in the other Cafe,

t being = -^^^
two
v,

T

will be equal to

drawn

into the Difference of the
are

Circular Arcs,

whofe Tangents

g and

and whofe com-

mon

And, in like manner, the Values of X and T may be exhibited by the Quadratures, &c. of the Conic Sedlions, in any other Cafe, where the Refiftance is barely as a fimple Power of the Velocity, whofe Exponent many Cafes, where the is a rational Number, and alfo, in Refiftance is in the Ratio of two different Powers, by Help
Radius
is

^mb.

of the

laft

Problem of

this Treatife.

C O R O
be IFedmby a Medium only,
taken
fimple

L.

III.

=

o, or the

Body be fuppofed

to be affedas a

and the Refiftance be barely

Power (r) of the Velocity; then x becoming equal

bg^"^^ v^'^^v^ and
Cafe, will therefore be

T=
=

-^ bhg'^^'^ v
^

^^', x,

inthis
equal

._Jif

,

and

T
i,

bh^

'-hH"^

'-^


x

:.

Where,

r be taken

=0,

2,

3,

^c,

fucceffively,

will be


to

— 7p,

^--

^,

^Log.-^,

„ b + *^,©r. andTequal ^ x ^^f^, ^
^^ro
hh_
3
<i;

Log.

i,

'-^

g^—'w
'l"^

^

^^^ refpedively
have ^

;

from whence, by

2g

exterminating v,

we
i

= V^

'^lU^

^~T

^*
^c,

^^,.=

^Log.

+ ix^, T:=^X^-^^,
Times and Spaces
S

expreffing the Relation of the
Cafes, refpeaively.

in the faid

C

H

0-

(

57^

SCHOLIUM.
N
Fluids void of Tenacity the Refiftance
is

I

in the

Du-

plicate

Ratio of the Velocity

j

and

it

is

found,

that a

by moving over a Space, which is to I of its Diameter, as the Denfity of the Body, to that of the Medium, with its Velocity uniformly continued, would meet with a Refiftance fufficient to take away its whole Moin fuch Fluids,

Body

tion

:

Therefore,

if this
II.

lue of b^ in Cor.

Space be taken to reprefent the Vaby Help of the Theorems there given,

the Velocity, Time, or Space gone over, will be readily obFor an Inftance hereof, let a Ball, whofe Diameter tained.

of a Foot, and whofe Denfity is the fame with that of common Rain- Water, be fuppofed to be projeded upwards
is i

Diredion perpendicular to the Horizon, with a Velocity fufficient to carry it uniformly over a Space of 300 Feet in one Second of Time j and let the Heighth of the Afcent, the Times of Afcent and Defcent, with the Velocity generated
in a

in Falling, be required.
is

to that of Air, as

860

Becaufe, the Denfity of Rain-Water, to i, b will, here, be (|Xi X 860)

764.4 Feet i and fince the Velocity, which a Body would acquire in one Second of Time by freely defcending in 'vacuo,
is fufficient

to carry

it

uniformly over a Dillance of 32.2
as

Feet in that Time,
fpecifick Gravity
J

it

will be, as the abfolute Gravity, to the

or,

Feet, to (32.16

=)

860, to 859, fo is 32.2, the faid m, h being equal to the Time aboveif for g, b, b

mentioned

:

Wherefore,
I,

Values 300,

and m, their refpedive and 32.16, be fubflituted in theafore-^ 764.4,
(hall have, firft,

faid I'heoremSj'

we

x Hyp. Log.

i -f-

^

{~x)
2'^,—
h

^

630 Feet

for the

whole Heighth of the Afcent,
is

X Arch, whofe Tang,

g^ and

Rad

^mb =
,

5.48 Seconds,

Qs..

;

(

58

)

.

conds, the whole

of Afcentj 3^ «— .21455; 4*^17 = 130, the Diftance that would be uniformly defcribed in one

Time

Second with the Velocity acquired by falling;

laftly,

^T" — ^^
h

X Log.
I

~ "^ ^ — nj — n =
''
' 1

6.85, the

Time of Defcent. But if the fame

Ball be fuppofed to

move in Water with the fame givenVelocity

then, the fpecifick Gravity in that Fluid being nothing, the Body may be confidered as moving by its innate Force only>

and, therefore, the
ber of
into the

Number
i

of Feet gone over,
will

in

any

Num|,

Seconds,

denoted

by T,

(by Cor. III.) be

Hyp. Log. of

4- 337.5T.

PROPOSITION
To find the
Refiftance
-,

II.

and Denfity of a Medium, whereby a

Body, gravitating uniformly in the jDireBion of Parallel the Law oj ReLines, is made to defcribe a given Curve

n Power, partly as the fiftance being given, partly as the 2 n Power, -partly as the 3 n Power, &c. of the Celerity
or

as ^

C » H-^ C
and

2 «

-J- f

C

3 '',

&c.

where

C

denotes the

Celerity,

n, a, h, c,

&c. any determinate

^i antities.

L
the

ET ArC
Curve, and

be the propofed

AH
to

the Axis

thereof, or a Right-line in

Body

gravitates,

which which let
and

rn and em
and
1

ho. parallel,

Hr
m

hm

perpendicular, r and

\
\

1

being any two Points in the Curve taken indefinitely near to one ar,

nother

:

Suppofe the Body arrived to

with a Velocity in
the

(

59

)
-,.

the Direcflion re,

reprefented

by v

let

AH-;c,
let

Wh

(rn)

= Xy
hv,

Hr=:y,

nm

(re)

— y\ rm=zZy
rn

and

D

be as the

required Denfity.

Then,

fince the Velocity in the Direcftion

re

that in the Direction

will be

-^
y

j

and therefore

'"^"t^"^

will be the
in that

Fluxion of the fame, or the Increafe

y

of Velocity

rm

5

wherefore, if from this

Diredion during the Time of defcribing we take the Part arifing from

the Refiftance of the
to Vy

Medium, which

is

4-^ (becaufe
y

it

is

the Alteration of Velocity in the Diredion re, as

at

to

y

)

there will remain

-^
y

for the other Part arifing

from the
therefore,

Force of Gravity, in the fame

Time and Diredion
is

;

the Refiftance in the faid Direction,
vity,

to the Force of

Gra-

-—- to i j and, confeor, as , ti X y y quently, the abfolute Refiftance, in the Diredion r m, to the
as
-

-r^ to

4^
as


i
:

Force of Gravity,
Velocity,
arifing

'~"^?,

to

But

(

~
the

)

the Part of
2~

from Gravity, being
be
expreflfed

as
j

Time

of

defcribing r m,

may
X
z=:

thereby

whence we have
21;'!;^;^

^= —
+

,

or

ij"^

yy, and

therefore in Fluxions

-y*;^ =: o, or

--=;

-4^^ which
2

fubftituted in the fore*

X

goins Proportion
tie

°*

— -^ ^

:

i

X

gives -4r4^ 2 X X

to

i

for

the

Ra-

of the

Refiftance to tke Gravity.

Moreover,

becaufs

the

(6o
the abfolutc Velocity
is

)

-.— , the Refinance, by Suppofition,
y

will be as

D
,

into

a x

-^

-f-

^

fz X —?—

.

zn

I

&c,

or,

becaufe

^

is

=:i.i

as

D

into

ax — -i-^x-^—

,

(^c,

which

Quantity muft therefore be

as-?^, and confequently

D as

^

^

%E.L

COROLLARY.

H
€,

ENCE,
gle

if

the

Law

of Refiftance be only
j

as

a fin-

Power («) of the Velocity

then,

by taking by

d,C^c, each

=

o,

and ^

=

i,

we

have
z

—~-^
Xx when n

for the

Denfity

'in

that Cafe;

which, therefore,

is

=

2,

or the Refiftance diredly as the Square of the Velocity,

will

be barely

as

-rr
Z.

X

X

EXAMPLE

I
of a

L

ET

it

be

required

to

find

the Denfity
fhall

Meequal

dium,

wherein

a

Body moving,

defcribe the

common

Parabola.

Here x being =:-^,

we

have

at


(6i
li, i = VLLt and
iliews, that a
)

^=0
to

;

and

therefore

D=^oj which
muft move ia

Body,

defcribe this Curve,

Spaces entirely void of Refinance.

EXAMPLE
"^

IL
the Curve
is

O

find the Denflty, C^c.

when

a Circle^

and the Refiftancc

as the Square of the Celerity.

Becaufe x, in this Cafe,
-

1s=^~-^ ^^
"
,
-'

yy, there will
'

ibe

K

=
yjF*

vaa —yy
,

.-£Z

v y
.,

'

z

ay = vaa —
,

X

aa
=z
-.

y y

,

yy

a

a-'

—yy*

i

,

and x

,

*

=
as

3

«

aa
,

—y y
'^^

J
|

therefore the Deniity T

—^ J

will here

be,

,

or,

as th©
;

Tangent of the Diftance from the

higheft Point diredlly
vity,

as

3_y

to

2 a,

and the Refinance will be to Graor, a^ 3 Times the^ine of the fame

Diflance to twice the Radius.

SCHOLIUM
Medium be given, the Curve it be determined by the Conftrudiion of the foregoing fiuxional Equation So, in cafe of an uniform
the Density of the
felf

F

may

:

•Denflty,

and a Refiflance,
have

as the

Square of the Velocity,
T)

where we

D=
=

-iL,

,

or

x k^ y y
,

-f-

x^

x-.

X

will be
is

found

ll -^ Rll

D

' 13/. 3P 2P conilant, and the Refiftance barely as the Velocity,

^ £1l1

e^c.

And when

k

R

will

(

62
I

)

will be

«

=

- ^ X Log. - §,i - =frTo
.

'

P'

"

^-

ther Cafe, being twiee the Radius of Curvature, or the Parameter at the Vertex j both which, and the true Value of Dj,

may

be

eafily

computed from the Velocity

at

A, and the

given Denfity of the

Medium,

PROPOSiriON
7he Centripetal Force being given, and the
as any

III.

Law

of Reftfiancei

fi2d the Denfity of a M'edium in each Part thereof whereby a Body may defer ibe a given Spiral about the Centre of Force.

Power

fnj of the V-^bcity

5

to

L
and

ET R;«H
Spiral,

be

the

given
Points

R and m two
may

therein as near as
other,

be to each

and

C

the Centre of Force;

let

vature

RO be the Radius of Curmaking OD and at R
5-

mp
Km,
and the Velocity,

perpendicular

to

RC,

and

calhng

RD,
as

s,

R C,
is

x; R/», x;

Z'y

the Centripetal Force,

C;

u

Eorafmuch,

RO

to

RD,

as the

abfolute Centripetal Force at P., to that, which tending to the Centre O, would he fufficient to retain the, Body in the.
Circle,

whofe Radius

is

R

O, and, becaufe the Centripetal

Forces in Circles, the Velocities being the fame, are inverfely D, it is manifeft, is the Radius of the Ciras the Radii j

R

cle

which might be defcribed with the Velocity and
Force
at

Centri*^

petal

R

:

Therefore,

fince the

Centripetal Force,
in

(
in Gircles,
is^

63

)
is

known

to be fuch, as

fufficient to generate or
in the

deftroy
is

all

the Velocity of the

moving Body,

Time

it

uniformly defcribing a Diflance equal to the Semi- diameter
its

of

Orbit,

we

have,

s

(

RD

)

:

i {Km) ::v

:

f~ \

the

Velocity which the Centripetal Force would generate in another

Body

freely defcending
is

from Reft
;

the former

defcribing
will be

Rm

R, in the Time wherefore, by the Refolution
at
::

of Forces,

it

i {R m}: x {Rp)

^
-f-

:

-^

,

the

"Vjelccky generated in the

fame Time, by the Hody

defcri-"-

bing

Rm-, which,

therefore,

added to v the Excefs of the

Velocity at
is

R

above that at m, the

Sum -^^
away by

v

will,

it

manifeft, exprefs the Velocity taken

the Mediurai

in that

fame Time

:

But the

Velocities generated or

de~

ftroyed in equal Bodies, in equal Times, are as the Forces

by which they

are generated or deftroyed

3

.

and, therefore^
to
i,

it will be as -^^^ -{is

u

:

JJif.,

or

as4-

+ -V X-^
But,

fa

the Refiftance to the Centripetal Force.

the Velo-

cities in Circles

being in the fubduplicate Ratio of the Ra-

dii

and Centripetal Forces conjundly,
=:

v

will be as

^
C

j

C,

and confequently J^


, 1

-j-

—-

5

whence, by Subftitution^
'

It

will

111

be as
is

2

X

-A- s 7

s

C

*

r i,

or,, as

2

x

-{- s

x -^
j

-{-

i^

:

C, fo

the Refiftance to the Centripetal Force

but

C

is

the Centripetal Force, and therefore the required Refiftange

2

x -^

s

'

x

—.- -{^
2

z

~
2.T?J

is

5

which being divided by (^C^f) ^
th©

(

64

)
is

the

;/

Power of

the Velocity, becaufe the Refiftance

in

the Ratio thereof, and the Denficy of the
ly,

Medium conju.iawill,
it is

the Qaotient

-~f i;^—
2
S z"

H
Z

;-~;rzn
C
2

ma»^

Z

C

2.

Zj'

nifeft,

be as the Denfity of the Medium.

^ E, L
Ve-

EXAMPLE.
locity, the Centripetal Force as fome Power, w, of the Diftance, and the Curve propofed the Logarithmic Spiral ;

LE T
and
s

the Refiftance be in the duplicate Ratio of the

Radius being
all

r,

let

c be the Co-fine of the

comnion
:

Angle, which

the Ordinates

make with

the Spiral

Then
Jl^JlL.
JLL.

by the Nature of the Curve, being

:;= a:

(^
_|

C R)
2C2:
:

will

be= -^^ - -^, ^
2Z

and therefore Z5_-tL 23
hence

ii^ _;

2r
,

^flLthe

l-x^^^^

J

we

have, as

^^H
And
when

-^

fo

is

the Refiftance to the Centripetal Force.

the Denfity of
c

Medium

will be as

'-^~~'

'^

^^^t

is,,

and

m

are

given, reciprocally as the Diftances

from the Centre of Force:

But when
spears, that

m

is

3,

then

^—^^

becoming

-o,
:

it

ap-

the

Body

in this

Cafe muil move

in Spaces entire-

ly void of Refiftance to defcribe the propofed Spiral

And,

of Centripetal Force being more than the therefore, the Cube of the Diftance inverlely, the Dcfcription of this Curve

Law

will,

it

is

manifeft, be impoflible

from any

refifting

Force

-whatfoever.

Oi

;

(65

)

Of

the Motion and Reiiftance of Pendulous Bodies

in a

Medium.
I.

PROPOSITION
Suppofijig

two equal Pendulums, whqfe Babs are in Form of the Segfnents of Spheres, to be moving with equal Velocities

Medium, and the Ihicknefs of each Bob with Diameter of the Sphere from which it is formed, to he given ; To find the Ratio of their Refijiajtces.
in a refifting
the

ET AKBA
Side,

be

one

or Half,

of one

of the propofed Bobs, and E A K B F C E Half the whole Sphere whereof it is a Segment; and let the faid Segment be conceived to be divided into an indefinite

Number

of indefinitely fmall Lamince,

by

circular

Planes

perpendi-

cular to the Axis

equi-diflant

and
thofe

let

KC, and from each other A^BSA be one of
be-

Lamince^ included

tween any two adjacent Planes, and n be the Thicknefs thereof, or the
of the faid Planes; calling

common
c
-,

Diflance

AC,

a-,

AD,
;

any Ordinate

RQ^^'i mv,
the Circle, ing a,
is

y, and
have

we

KD, x. Then, D R = ^cc—yy
S

by the Property of
which, Radius be-

the Sine of the Angle that the Surface at

Q^makes
with

(66
with

)

mO

,

the Diredion of
flrikes againft
:

its

Motion, or the Incidence of the
Velocity being the fame,

Particles

it

Therefore, fince the refifling Force
is

of the Medium, on any

Surflice the

as the Number of Particles falling thereon, and the Square of the Sine of their common Incidence conjundily, the whole

Refiilance of that Part of the propofed Surface, reprefented

by Qju,
as the

will be as

-^~ — xny
:

-,

becaufe

ny

is

evidently

Number
aa

of Particles

Hence, by

talking the Fluent,

we

have l^x^^c


,

'j^ for the Refiftance

of A Q^; the Donc,

ble whereof,
fequently

-1^
the

when

y

becomes equal

will

con-

be

whole Refiftance of the
if

faid

Laminae

Which
to

Refiftance,

the Axis

KD

(x)

be,

now, fuppofed

be put inftead of n^ will, it is manifeft, be the Fluxion of the Refiftance of the propofed Segment
flow,

and

'x

AKBD:

But x being
:•

=;

^

— ^ aa--cc
'

by the Property

of the Circle x will

be=:

-7=^77,
to
'^a

and confequently the

above-faid

Fluxion

equal

^ a\ a a —
_

',

whofe Flu^_j and

c c

€nt Will be
therefore the

.,,

,

AKXCK ~

ADXJDC X 1
as the

I

+
_,

2

AD*
>

^Tj-j^

Double thereof E. I. given Pendulum.

whole Refiftance of the

^

C O R O

L.

L

ENCE
that of
its

it

appears, that

the Refiftance of the whole

generating Sphere will be exprefs'd by

EK x KC,
is

or
to

the Area of the Semi-circle
'of its Axis,

EKFE;

and therefore

circumfcribing Cylinder,

moving

in the Diredtion

exadly, as

i

to 2.

€ORO

Le

(

^7

)

C O R O

L.

11,

I
tity

F

the Refinance, as above found, be divided

&c. X

KD^ X

^—
its
I?

by 3.14159,

,

the folid Content, or
will,
it is

Quanmani-

of Matter in the Pendulum, the Quotient
be as the Retardation of
j

fefl,

finance

and

this, if
its

Velocity arifing from that Rebe put for the Axis or Thicknefs o^

the Bob, and y/

greateft

Diameter, will be equal to —^
,

very nearly.

C O R Oh.

III.

HEREFORE,
J4d

if

^ be taken

= ^, we

Oiall

have

for the Retardation

of the Globe,

whofe Dia^

meter

is

dj and therefore the Retardation of the Pendulum of
its

to that
to -^,

circumfcribing
:

Sphere will
nearly.

be as

^

,-

or as

2^^

^^-j- ^^1^

NoteJ If the Bobs of Pendulums be in other Forms than thofe of Segments of Spheres, the Refiflance will be readily

had ken

as

above

;

fince

it

is

evident,

that

AC

(a) being

ta-=

for the

Normal of the

generating Curve
will be

K A,
as

the
is

Re=

fiftance

of the Lamina
let

AeBSA
what

"^^^ "

there

found,

that Curve be

it will.

LEMMA.
^he
Refiflance of

a Body in a Medium^
to. acquire

is to

the Force oj

Grathe

"vity^

as twice the Space

thrd which the Body

miift freely
to

fall by that Gravity

the given Velocity ^

Spact

(68)
Space ever which
''Time
t-tike

it

might move with that Velocity in the

wherein the /aid Ref, fiance, uniformly continued^ would away the Body's whole Motion,

For the Velocity acquired by freely defcending from Reft, thro' any Space, is known to be generated in the Time that the Body, with the Velocity fo acquired, would move uni^ But the Forces, by which formly over double that Space the fame Motion would be uniformly generated er deflroyed, are [inverfely as the Times in which it might be generated
:

and therefore inverfely, as the Distances deicribed with the fame Velocity in thofe Times.
or deflroyed
3

P
Siippofing that

R O P O

S I

T

I

O N

II.

a heavy pendulous Body, ofciHating in a Cycloid, is refilled by an uniform Force, and at the fame time by a rare and fimilar Medium, in the duplicate Ratio of the Ve'To find the Excefs oj the Arc, defcribed in the whole locity ;
Defcent above the Arc, defcribed in the fubfequent Afce?it,

jind the Time oj one entire OJcillation,

ET ABD
the

be the whole Cycloid,

BC

its

Axis,

EB

Arc

defcribed in

the Defcent, and

BF

that de-

fcribed

in the fubfequent

Afcent

;

draw

G H E,

F/, ^c.
R,
the

parallel to

A D,

let

S be any Place of

the Body, and h

C
the DIflance thro* which
it

69)
muft
freely defcend
in
'uaciio,

by a Force equal

to

its

fpecifick Gravity in the given
it

Me-

dium, to acquire the fame Velocity as
be to the Force of Gravity, as
Space over which the
to

has in that PlacC'
is

Suppofe that Part of the Refiftance, which
/;?

uniform, to
let
its

i

;

and

d be the
Velocity

Body mufl move with
to

uniformly continued,

other Part, fufficient to

meet with a Refiftance from the take away its whole Motion j or,

which
fmall

is

to the
as

Arc S«,
b

fame EfFed:, let d be to the indefinitely the whole Motion of the Body at S, to
in

that deftroyed ling

by the Medium
^
;

moving
«, x.

thro'

S n

;

cal«

BD,
Body

-y

B E,

R ^,

2; 3

ES, x; S
i,

Now,

the Force

of Gravity being reprefented by
the
is

that Part of
is

it

whereby
~|-)
: :

accelerated, at the Point S,

^—^ (=
as

%

And, by the preceding Lemma, we have, 11

^

:

2 2;

i -

for the latter Part of the Refiftance, or that in the dupli5

cate Ratio of the Velocity

which being added
^^r-^,

to

m, the
«=^

former Part, and the whole taken from

gives

—^

m

'

for the

whole Force whereby the Body
:

is

accele-

rated at the faid Point

Therefore the Velocity, there^ beipsg
that generated in

known

to be, as ^^22?,

_i

the

Time
x

of defcribing S n will be defined by ^-7-^

— —~
?n
,
i

-—

-. ;

which muft

therefore be equal to,

—^

the Fluxion

or Increafe of,

s/ 2 Zy the

aforefaid Velocity

Hence,
e

we

have

-—^

,—

,

^—

,

^= ^

5

w^hich,

by writing

inftead

T

of

; •

(

70

}

of ^

—m

b, C?r.

becomes

^S ^JL^!±^
z
is

j. equal o;

from whence, by

folving the Equation,

found
Or,

= y—
if^ be

l±i:v

;,»^^ + -^-r4^.
is

^^-

put for (0.367878) the Number, whofe hyperbolical Loga«

rithm

^

I,

=

i-p^

X

"-^^^^ ^
its
"",!
,

.

But when the
its

Body
«
AT

arrives at

F, the Hight of

Afcent, z, or
C5'<:.

Equal

Z+XTTT V i

i^ -i- ^
folved,

becomes equal o
llfl
,

which Equation

gives

x=

2e >^±il.^

&c.
C^'iT.

= ,EBF5

therefore

FG
^
'

is

= 2^-2^ + 4jl _i|ii,,
^^

=
its

2 ^^^ -h

^ —~77
3

^'' (^y refuming 2

inftead of
are fuppo-

Equal

2tf— :2^j)

which, becaufe

m

and

~

Jed very fmall, will be 2

^ H-

1^

very nearly.

^E.L
poffi-

Moreover, fince the
bleDiftance S«,
is

Time

of defcribing the leaft

as -4=;.,

by

fubftituting
fhall

therein

the

yalue of z,

as

above found,

we

have

X--777
red

^

>

\

i

-^ + -77
:

~v
*

for the Fluxion of the requi-

34-^^

Time

But, becaufe

-^ — + ^,
;c

^i?^.

the Square

of the Divifor of the

latter

Part or

Fador

thereof,

when x
becomes

1

(7'
becomes

)

=

2

^ -*- ^A'-

H-

—^^

&c,

appears,

from above, to

be equal to Nothing,

if

r be put to denote the Value of
it is

2^—

^
that

-f. •^—f-,

&c, or the Root of the Equation,

manifest

-~7

^r+ —

^—
^^
-^

-rirX ^^^^

^^^^

^^ ^^"al o, and

confequently r

-^^,

G?^.

=

-^

.

which

being fubftituted inflead thereof, our faid Fluxion will be-

come

mto

I—2

X f^ H- 4 X

\^Zi

>

^

^-

,+^rxT^^I^
and
laftly,

by converting
equal to

i— 2x~f, ^^j

"^

into a ra-

tional Series,

——
JL
r

into i

^

^—7. -*-

.^,

&c.
is

Novr, the Fluent of
r, is

— — Ar[i

!,"^

"^ (^=: -~V s/rx

— xxJ

A

when

a^

=

known

to be equal to the Periphery of the Circle

whafe Diameter is Unity , wherefore, if that Periphery be put equal />, the required Fluent of our given Expreilion

-4u

^

^

^+Tr-^a.

^c. wHl then appear

to

,

(

72)

to

be

:

77 X
of
r,

'

+

3

J-

+ TI72,

G?!?.

from

p.

118. of

my Book
Value of

Fluxions

;

which, by refloring the

known
.

will

become

^^^xi-i-—

'

Xi-{- -

£?<:.

feft,

=:^^^xi as the Time

+ 577 —

--71-,

^^. and

this

is, it is

mani-

of one entire Ofcillation.

^. E.

/.

C O R O

L.

I.

WHEN
^mby
the Refiftance

^
it

is

infinite,

then

will be as 2 ^

F G becoming FG \\ m
: : :

barely equal
\

Hence

it

appears, that the Excefs of the Arc defcribed in the whole Defcent above that defcribed in the fubfequent Afcent, when
is

uniform,

is

to twice the

Length of the Pento the Force of

dulum, or
Gravity.

DBA,

as the refifting Force,

C O R O
UTj when m
^
[

L.

II.

is

=

c, or the Refiftance barely in the
j

duplicate Ratio of the Velocity

the faid Excefs will

be in the duplicate Ratio of the Velocity, or Arc defcribed
nearly.

C O R O
be confidered IFofmbeing by
refifted

L.

III.

as negative,

or the

Pendulum, inftead

an uniform Force, be accelerated
its

thereby,

fo as to continue

Vibrations in the fame given

Arcs

(72)
Arc
J

then,

fince

zmb
And,

-{- -i^"-

(=

FG)
is

becomes

r= o,

?n

will be

= -^JJ

:

therefore,

it

manifeft, the

that

the
is

Force,

which ading uniformly on
counter-ballance a
it

given

Body,

fufficient to

Refiflance in the duplicate
vibrating in the

Ratio of the Velocity, or to keep
given Arc, mufl be to the
:

fame Pendulum, as 2 « ^ And, therefore, the Arcs, which a given Pen^Ifd nearly I dulum fo a(5tuated, will continue to defcribe, by different

Weight of

the

Forces, will be nearly as the Square Roots of thofe Forces.

e O R O

L.

IV.
is,

^ T T H E N both m and -^ are equal to nothing, that ^^ when the Ofcillations are performed without Reis

Time of Vibration will be barely />^ ^5 which Time, wherein a Body freely defcending from Relf, would fall thro' C B, Half the Length of the Pendulum, as
fiftance, the

to the

the Circumference of a Circle, to

its

Diameter.

G O R O

L,

V.
is

MOREOVER,
nal,

when only

-J

=

o,

or the Refif-

tance uniform^ the Vibrations will^ alfo, be Ifochro-

and performed

in the very

fame Time

^as if

the Pen-

-

dulum was not

at all refifted.

C O R O

L.

VI.
or the

UT
city
J

if ^^

be equal to nothing,
only,
in the

Pendulum be

refifted,

duplicate
will

Ratio of the Velothen
be
/> /^ ^

the

Time

of

Ofcillation

x

(

74

)

.

I -4-

-An

^

»

^c.

Therefore, the Excefs of the
in a

Time

of one whole Vibration,
Ratio of the Velocity,
kaft Arc poffible,
is

to

Medium refifting in the duplicate above the Time of Vibration in the the Time of Vibration in this Arc,
Unity
;

^^ ir^ -^
fmall, as

J^rra>

^^'
i

to

or,

becaufe
it

~

is

very

^^'

to

very nearly:
is

Hence

fliould

follov^^,

that

the faid Excefs,

in the duplicate

Ratio of the Arcs
I

very nearly, I fay Jhould follow ^ becaufe
that
Sir Jfaac

know
II.

very well,

Newton^
in

Princip.

Prop. 27. B.

makes
:

it

This I to be, nearly, confefs had made me more than a little fufped, that I might and yet upon re-examining have here fallen into an Error the.Procefs with more than ordinary Attention, I have not
the fimple Ratio of
the Arcs
;

been able to difcover any Miftake therein committed; but*
if

any fuch

ftiould occur to

my

Readers, I

ftiall

readily ac-

knowledge

my

felf

obliged for the Difcovery.

SCHOLIUM.
IFa Circle,
"the

inftead of a Cycloid, the Ofcillations be performed in

the above Conclufions will
j

flill

hold, provided

Arc defcribed be but fmall

excepting thofe that relate
is

to the

Time

of Vibration, which

(hortned or prolonged,

independent of the Refiftance, from the particular Nature of
the Curve, according as a fmaller or greater Arc
.But, if to the
is

defcribed.
as

Time/^^^x

14-^ —
is

^'^''^. found

above, be added

the Excefs of the

Time
b^

of Vibration in above the Time,

the Arch a, of a Circle whofe Radius
in the lead

Arc

poffible,

which, by f. 140. of

my Book

of

FluxioJiSj

(

75

)

Tluxions,

is

pb^x-^^,
1

^c.

we

ftiall

then have

pb^ x

I

-4_

Jll

ll, ^c.

for the

Time of

Ofcillation in the

Arc a of
Arcs of

that Circle nearly.

to determine,

how much

the

Hence it Times of

will not be difficult

Vibration, in fmall

Circles, are increafed or decreafed

Weights of the Atmofphere. For, if the Pendulum is kept in Motion, be always the fame, the

from the different the Force by which

Arc

defcribed,

hy Cor.

III.

will be as

s/ bdy that
if

is,

in the

fubduplicate Ratio, inverfely, of the Denfity of the

Medium,
a givea

or Height of the Barometer

:

Therefore,

h be put for

the Height of the Barometer, at the

Time when
i~-j

Arc

c

is

defcribed, the

Length of the Vibration correfpondwill be
this there-

ing to [y) any other Height thereof,

fore being fubftituted inftead of ^, and -^


~

inflead

of

d^

in the

above Expreffion, gives pb-

x

i -{-

-—

-t-

—-:* &c
Height
j

for the

Time of

Vibration correfponding to this
is

laft

which,

when y =hy

pb''

x

i -\

'—-,

>

&c,

therefore

lb e b

the Difference

of the Times

of Vibration anfwering to

the two Heights of the Barometer h and y, if n be put equal
to

the

Difference

of

thofe

Heights,
fo

will

be
as

J—11.x
y
it is

ibbb

ThTd

>

^^' "^^^^y> excepting by

much

varied

thro' the different fpecific
in a rarer or denfer

Gravities of the
is

Pendulum, ^c.
eafy to be

Atmofphere; which
it is

comwill

puted.

However,

after all,

not to be fappofed, that the

Alteration in the

Time of

Vibration, above fpecified,

happen

(

76

)

liappen immediately upon the Rife or Fall of the

becaufe the Pendulum, thro' its vis viertice, Time before it can be brought to perform
either in a greater

Mercury j will be feme
Vibmiions,

its

or fmaller

Arc

:

And, indeed, the Alte-

rations, both in the

Caufe, are fo

Time and Arc defcribed, from the above fmall, when compared with thofe arifmg from
as fcarcely to

Friaion and Expanfion,
Obfervation.

come under

the niceft

PROPOSITION
^iippoftng that

III.

a Cycloid, is rejifted by a rare and fimilar Medium in the Ratio of a given Power of (n) of the Velocity to fnd the Excefs of the Arc a heavy Body,
ofcillating
i?i
-,

defcribed in the whole
fubfeqiient Afcent,

Dejcent above that defcribed in the
the

and

Number of
other

Ofcillations that will

be

performed bejore

any
lofl

given

Arc
its

is

defcribed,

or the Pendulum has

a given Part of

Motion,
its

LET

ABD

be the whole Cycloid,
firfl

BC

Axis,

EB
that

the given Arc defcribed in the

Defcent,

BF

defcribed in the fubfequent Afcent, and

FG

the required

_c
A^

Difference of thofe Arcs
arrived at

;

and, fuppofing the

Body

to

be

any Point

S,

let its

Velocity there be the fame as
it

%«> p

(
It

77

)
tliro*

would Arc ^S by an uniform Gravity equal
vity in the given

acquire in freely defcending from Reft
to
its

the

fpecifick

Gra-

Medium
fuffer

;

and
with

let

d

be to the Length of

the Arc
the

B D,

as the faid Gravity to

the Refiftance,
the

which
that
it

Body
:

would

Velocity
freely

might acquire, from that Gravity,

by

falling

thro'
let

CB
If,

Draw

EHG,

SR, &c.
for

parallel

to

AD,
BS

and

a,

A%

and z, ftand

BD, BE,

B^, and

refpedively.

Therefore, the Velocity acquired in vacuo, being in the fubduplicate Ratio of the Diftance perpendicularly defcended

RT| i

,

or

its

Equal \/

A — zz

(from the Property of the
;

Curve) will be as the Velocity at S

and therefore

— f ^ 4- ^

~

the Fluxion thereof, as the Increafe of that Velocity:
this Increafe

But

depends upon two Caufes

j

the one, the Force

of Gravity, and the other, the Refiftance of the Medium, If the Medium did not refift, A would be conftant, and
therefore the Increafe of the Velocity barely as
-'^

wherefore, the other Part, arifing from the Refiftance, muft

~'
be
as
J

and, confequently, the refifting Force of the

Medium,

to that Part of the Gravity
^

by which the Body

is

accelerated, as
this Part

VA — zz.
^

:

v'A

— a;s

,

or,

a&Ato 2zz: But
as

of the Gravity being to the whole,
-,

z
it

to b,
is

hy

the Property of the Curve
feft,

the Refiftance will,

mani-

be

to the fpecific Gravity, as

A

to

2bz, Moreover, beis

caufe the Velocity, at the fame Point S,

to

the Velocity

which would be acquired by
along

freely defcending (as

above)

BC,

as

%/

A — zz

:

b

-,

the Refiftance, with the for-

mer of

thofe Velocities,

will be to the Refiftance with the

X

latter,

. >

(78
latter, as

)

A — zz!

2

to

^%

or, as

^
f_^^

^
-

to ^5 and, con-

Icquently,

the Refinance at S,

to

the Force of

Gravity,
^
"
i

as

^-^

— ^—
2 ^i
;

to

d

:

Wherefore,

it

will be as


:

d

i:

A

:

whence

^=
is

-

^^ ~''"
,

from which Equaof in-

lion

A

may

be determined by the

known Methods
it

finite Series,

^c. be the
fuch as
be,

Medium what
much more
Error,

will

But, in a
the

very rare one,

fuppofed in the Propojition,
eafily effeded.
,

Thing may
then

otherwife,
at
its

For,

E e,

being,

greateft,

exceeding fmall

aa
in

zz

y

may, without

fenfible

be fubflituted

our

Equation for

A — zz
.

-,

which done, we have

^

equal

'
"^

aa-^^^

X

jrn db

Z

p^^^
is

^i^ej^

the Fluent of the latter Part

thereof,

when z
to

equal a, and n an even
""

Number,

will

be

found

come
5

out

into-l-^

db"

X -^-.X -^ X
5

3

7

4
9

^<:. to

-^ Fadors
2

and when z equal
i„

^,

and n an odd

Number,
^^. to

equal to

HIU^J^^^
;

_L x

f x -f x -f

"-^ Fadors 2

from which two Expreflions, the Flu-

ent of the faid Part, in any intermediate Cafe, where 7t is a Fradion, may, by Interpolation, be nearly obtained : But,

A
2

the Fluent of the contrary Side,
is

when

S coincides with

B

i

=


2

and when S and
'
-

e

coincide with E,

equal

BE2

(

79

)

BE
',

wherefore, if

s

z

be put for the Uncia of the Fluent, have

above found,

we

Ihall


.

equal

—L.ill
that
is

equal

BE+B.XBE-B.^BE + B.XE,
2
2

^^^^^
-12

^^^^^^ g^.^
in the a-

nearly equal to

B

E,

we

get

E^ =

,

forefaid Circumftance,
ft

when

S coincides with
will,
it is

B

;

therefore

^'^_2

•>

the Double thereof,
nearly.

evident, be equal to

F G very
Let
fcent,
a;,

^ £.
the
is

7.

fore the

now, be Pendulum

Number of
:

Vibrations performed bein its

brought to defcribe,

whole De-

any fmaller Arc (E) Then, fince (E) the Decrement of this Arc, in one entire Ofcillation, or while x is increafed

by
or
r-

i,

or x,

is

found to be

=—

,

we
^
i

have

E—

JiJLjtn d^
2

^—^,
1

and therefore
n
.

a:=:

whence x-^


S

2

X^

n

=-^

_I

^E.l
L.

C O R O
"^

L
defcribed, in the
in

HE

Difference of the

two Arcs
is

De-

fcent

and fubfequent Afcent,

the Ratio of the
is

fame Power of
Velocity.

either of thoie Arcs, as the Reiiftance

of the

COR O

L.

(80)
C O
Pv

O

L.

II.

HE
Number

Refiflance being in the duplicate Ratio of the

Celerity,

and the Lengths of the two Arcs given

j

the

of Ofcillations betwixt the Times of defcribing

thofe Arcs will continue the fame very nearly, let the cloid, or Length of the Pendulum, be what it will.

Cy-

C O R O
the IFRatio
Refiftance be

L.

III.

either uniform,

or diredly in the
lefs

of any Power of the Velocity

than in the

fimple Ratio, as the fubduplicate, fubtriplicate, C^c. the Body will continue vibrating 'till it hath compleated
d a^—""
entire Ofcillations,

and then will have

entirely

loll all its

Motion.

C O R O

L.
in

IV.

WHEN
tio

more than the fimple Raof the Velocity, the Motion will be prolonged
the Refiftance
is

ad

irifinitum,

C O R O

L.

V.

LASTLY,

any two Arcs of the Cycloid, or fmall Arcs of a Circle, be taken in a given Ratio to each other, the Number of Vibrations performed between the Times of defcribing thofe Arcs, in one whole Defcent of
if

the Pendulum, will be nearly in the inverfe Ratio of that

Power of

either of the

faid

Arcs,

whofe Exponent

is

lefs
-,

by Unity than that expreffing the Ratio

of the Refiftance

that

( 8i
that
is,

)

two Arcs, A, B, be taken in the fnm^ Ratio, as two other Arcs, C, D, the Number of Vibrations betwixt defcribing the two former, will be to the Number betwixt defcribing the two latter, in one whole Defcent of the PenduIf

lum,

as

C«—i

to

A«—

»,

or as

D«—

i

to

B«—

'.

From whence,

and the foregoing Conclufions, not only the Law, but the abfolute Refiftance of Mediums may be found, by obferving the Number of Vibrations performed therein by given Pendulums, in lofing given Parts of their Motion.

A

new Method

for the Solution

of Equations in

Numbers.

CASE
W/jen
only

I.

one

Equation

is

given, ajid one

^antity fxj

U

be determined.

^AKE
it

the Fluxion of the given Equation (be
the

it

what
the

will) fuppofing, X,
;

unknown,

to be the variai,
let

ble Quantity

and having divided the whole by

Quotient be reprefented by A.
as alfo in the

Eflimate the Value of x

pretty near the Truth, fubftituting the

fame

in the Equation,

Value of A, and

let

the Error,

or refultine

be divided by this numerical Value and the Quotient be fubtradted from the faid former of A,
in the former,

Number

Value oi X
Quantity

;

and from thence will
nearer to the

arife a

new Value

of that

much

Truth than the former, where-

with proceeding as before, another new Value may be had, and fo another, ^c. 'till we arrive to any Degree of Accuracy defired.

Y

CASE

(

82

)

CASE
When
there are

II.

two Equations given^
(x a?jd y)
to

ajid as

many ^antities

be determined.

TAKE

the Fluxions of both the Equations, confidering
as variable,

X and y

and

in the

former colledl

all

the

Terms, affeded with

x^

under their proper Signs, and having

divided by x^ put the Quotient

=A

5

and

let

the remaining

Terms, divided by

y^ be reprefented

by

B

:

In like manner,
a:,

having divided the Terms
let

in the latter, a,

affeded with x^ by
divided

the Quotient be put

=

and the

reft,

by

_y,

= b,
and

AfTume the Values of x and y
and
fied
let

pretty near the Truth,

fubftitute in both the Equations, marking the Error in each,

thefe Errors,

whether
:

pofitive or negative,

be figni-

by

R

and r

refpedtively

Subftitute likewife in the

Va-

lues of

A, B,

a, b,

and

let

j^~_ ^^ and

^^~^g

be convert-

ed into Numbers, and refpedively added to the former Values of X and y ; and thereby new Values of thofe Quantities

will be obtained

ration,

the true
I.

from whence, by repeating the OpeValues may be approximated ad libitum..
;

Note,

That every Equation
that the

is firft

to be fo reduced

by

Tranfpofition,
2.

Whole may
firft

be equal to Nothing.

That,

if after

the

Operation, the Value of

x or

y be not found to come out pretty nearly as aftumed, fuch Value is not to be depended on, but a new Eftimation made, and the Operation begun again.

——
(

83

)

3. That, the above Method, for the general part, when X and y are near the Truth, doubles the Number of Places at eaeh Operation, and only converges HovAy^ when the Di-

vifor

A,

A^

aBy

at the

fame time converges
I.

to nothing,.

LET

300 a;

lue of X,

EXAMPLE — x^ — 1000 be given = o From 300 — 3^^
a:

j

to find a

Va-

at,

the Fluxion of the

given Equation, having expunged x^ {Cafe L), there will be And, becaufe it appears by Infpedion, 3;fAr-= : 300

A

that the Quantity
a,-

300 a:

a; 3,

when ^

is

3,

will be

lefs

and when =4, greater than 1000, I eftimate x at 3.5, and fubftitute inflead thereof, both in the Equation and in the Value of A, finding the Error in the former = 7.12 c and the Value of the latter = 263.25 Wherefore, by taking
:

^^=:

.027 from 3.5 there will remain

3.473 for a

new

Value of X ; with which proceeding as before, the next Error, and the next Value of A, will come out .00962518 and 263.815 refpedively J and from thence the third Value
of
a;

=

3.47296351

5

which

is

true, at leaft, to

7 or 8

Places.

ET

\/

I

EXAMPLE X \/ — 2XX
-\~
1

II.

-\-

s/

I

3a;3
.^
.

2=;
^
-^
,

o.-

This

in

Fluxions will be
therefore

—1=^
= =
-4=

—^JllL^, and
—-gx
EST5

A, here,

-^-^
,

wherefore

if

x be fuppofed
0.5

.5, it will

become
in

*~ 3-545

And, by

fubftituting

in Head

of

at

the

given

(

84)
.204
j

given Equation,

the Error will be found

therefore

—^^
fore,

(equal

— -^57)
;

fubtraded from

.5,

gives .^^7 for
as be-

the next Value of x

from whence, by proceeding the next following will be found .5516, &c.

EXAMPLE
ET
10

III.

there be given the Equations

= o,

and

AT

-4-

^ yy

-f-"^

y

+ ^ y^ — x^ —
=
o
j

12

to

find

x
a
I

and

y.

The
or
3^

Fluxions here being y

4--^^^^^ and

i-f- -^l^tl±^

+ V/— XX —
yy

7= V yy
'^

we

have

A

equal
^/yy

— xx B
,

equal

i

+

-^

Wyy^xx

,

,

d

=

1+ --i=r
Let
equal

,

and

i= -=^

(&/.

II.)

a;

be fuppofed equal
.68, r equal
i.i,

5,

and^
equal

equal 6

.6,

A


-

;

then will

R

1.5,

B

equal

2.8,

a equal
"^
.

^ equal 9

;

therefore

^''^~

^=

.23,

and

^

~ ^^ =

.37,

and the new Values of
refpe(5lively
;

a:

and y equal to

5.23,

and 6.37

which

are as near the

Truth

as can be exhibited in three Places only, the next Values

coming out 5.23263 and 6.3689B.
Note,

When
it

Equations are given to be

folved
firft

in
all

this

manner,
rations,

will be convenient, that they be

of

re-

duced to the moft

commodious Forms,

to facilitate the

Ope-

whether into Fractions or Surds, or vice
the Equations in the
laft

'uerja

Por

Inftance,

Example had been

much

(

85

)
firfl

much
to

eafier folved,

20 y

— A*^ —
or,
I.

had they been

equal

o,

ing to Cafe
the
(as

loo = o, and y y x x -\- 2^ x 144 by exterminating jy, and working accordwhereas, on the other hand, to have reduced
in the

reduced, out of Surds,

Equation,
is

preceding

Example,

out

of

Surds

ufual

in

other Methods)

would have rendered the

Trouble of Solution almoft infuperable.

L
'
'

ET

EXAMPLE. IV. 49XAr^^^, — 25x1-^-=,,
r^jxz
"^^'^
*

=0, and Six

y

7+:

Here, taking the Fluxions of both the Equations, and proceeding according to Cafe II. we have equal 49 x

A

i+^r

'

,-,1"'

(86
;near the

)

Truth without fome Attention and Trouble ; yet^ •from the Nature of the Problem from whence thofe Equa;tions are derived, when that is known, the Trouble may be avoided, and the Thing effedled without any great Difficulty For inftance, tho' it is not eafy to perceive, that y and
:

X

are about

— and -^
lO
lO

in the laft

Example j

yet,

when

it is

known,

that i, a:, and yy are the Sides of a Plain Triangle, wherein Lines, drawn to bifadt each Angle and terminate in thofe Sides, are to one another, refpedlively, as 5, 7, and 9,

the

Thing then
.

appears evident

upon the

firit

Confideration.

EXAMPLE
— 1000=0,
have
V

y
:

L
,

ET
I

x'f'^-yy

Here we

(hall

1

-^L

y xyy , ^
:

= -^ X
Now,

Af-''

x.y^y — 100 = 0. A z= i -f- L ^ x s B equal L :^, and b equal -^ -f-jV
and
a:
'

X^*-f-;t'-^L

X.

it

appearing from the

firft

Equa-

tion, that the greateft

of the two

required Quantities cannot
;

be

and from the firft and fecond together, that the Difference of ^' and y mult be
lefler

than 4, nor greater than 5

pretty large

j

otherwife
:

x"

-f-/''

could not be 10 times as

great as ;v^-4greater

I therefore take x (which I fuppofe the ^" Number) equal 4.5, and y equal 2.5 i and then by

a Table of Logarithms, or otherwife,

find the next Values
;

of thefe Quantities to be 4.55 and 2.45

and the next

fol-

lowing 4.551^,

(5*r.

and 2.4495,

(i?<r.

refped:ively.

m

I

I

I

I

I

(87)
Of

INCREMENTS. PROPOSITION
I.
/

//

///

I^,

n,

«,

n,

fj,

n^

fly

6cc.

be

a

Series

cf

l!erms in

a

de*

creaftng Arithmetical Progreffion, whofe
r

common Difference

is

n

;

and n n n

Multiplication

^xn, a FroduB arijing from the of any Number ^ r, of thofe TermSy imme.

.

.

diately fucceeding

each other ^

continually together

5

and if

each of the Fadiors in this ProduSl be increafed by the common Difference : I fay^ the ProduSi itfelf will be increafed
r

by r
thofe

nx

n n «

.

. . .

xn-,

taken under the firfl Values of

^antities.

\^ O R,
equal to

£nce
to

», increafed

by the

common

Difference, be-

comes equal

n

j

and
it

ny
is

increafed

by the fame Difference,

4

^c. &c.

manifefl, that the

new Value of
its

the faid Produd, arifing from fuch an Increafe of
r

Fadors,


,

will be equal to n

k n.

.

.

.

X n

under the
r

firfl

Values of
or given
I

thofe Quantities, from
_
_

which taking the former,
I
II

— ^^—^

II

II'

Value of that Product,
r
r

we

have n n n
r

,

..X n ^^n n n.
Increment
to r
-,

**


^ into n

xnzr, n n

ncx

«.

—n

for the

which,
the

becaufe the Excefs of n above n

is

equal

times
to

.common
n nn.,
.
.

Difference, will confequently be equal
r

rnx

^ E,

D.

COROL-

I

I

^ I

'

(88

)

COROLLARY.
I

s

I

N
be

II

III

'—
.
,

r
is
///

CE

the Increment of n n n

.

,

x n
//

proved to

=


1

X «««.... X «
r
I

,

that

of

" ''"
:

'-^^

mud
vx

/•

i

if

III

>—
^^


/"

confequently

\i^

nnn
/. e,

.

.

.

.

K

:

Whence,

to

fiiia

a Pro-

duct of this kind from

its

Increment given, the following

Rule

Number of Fadors, by annexing to them the next inferior Term of the Progreffion, and divide the w^hole by the Number of Fadors, thus increafed, dravv^n into the common Difference.
is

derived,

Increafe the

i

Note^
greffion,

That

n flands for the

Term of

the propofed Pro-

u^hofe Diftance

fcending Side,

from n is r i, when on the deand n v^hen on the afcending Side j the like
r


any other.
I.

is

to be underflood of

EXAMPLE

LE T
w, n, n^

a

Produd

or

Quantity,

exprcffing the Value of
;

i4-2-i-3H-4H-5-flet
it

n be required

or,

which

is

the fame in effed,

be required to find an Expreflion

fo affeded, that increafing «

inflead of

«)

it

fhall

be

by i (or writing therein ii^i augmented by «-f-i. Then, if
Series

&c. be afTumed for a

of

Numbers
is

in Arithi,

metical Progreffion, whofe

ing to the above Notation,

common we fhall
to

Difference

accord-

have n equal to the gi-

ven Increment in this Cafej

which annexing ;?, the next inferior Term of the Progreffion, and dividing the Produ<5t fn»J by (2) the Number of Fadors, drawn into the com-

mon

(89)
mon
is

Difference

-,

there

comes out

i

n

??,

or - "^

'

^^

,

which

equal

1+2-1-3+4+5 ..,+«,

the Value propofed.

EXAMPLE

II.

LE T 1+ 8+27+64+125,
it

as

be required to find the Sum of a Series of Cubes, &c. Put n for the Num-

ber of Cubes to be taken, S their required

Sum, and S
lafl in S,

the

next fucceeding Cube of the Series after the

or the

by augmenting fnj the NumThen, becaufe i is equal to the ber of Terms by Unity Root of the firft Term, and alfo equal to the common DifIncrement of S that will
arife
:

ference,
n-{1 5

the

Root of the Term

S,

it is

manifeft, will be

=:;

or, if n, n, n, n^

&c. be put for a Series of
is

NumForm

bers

whofe
equal

common

Difference

i,

equal to

;z;

wherefore

S

is

nnn.

But to bring
j

this

Value of S
its

to the

of the Propofition

inflead thereof, let

Equal n
S,

1

x

^X«+ li

ox nnn-\-n be fubflituted

-,

then

according to

K n nn
III

the Rule, will be

\-

— where,

n n

'

for

nn

writing

its

Equal nn

2,

it

will

become ^

= -t" =

""

^*
J

A

a

E X A M-

(

90

)

EXAMPLE

ni.
a given

TO
which

find

the Unciae of a Binomial raifed to

Power.

Let a-\~/f he the propofed Binomial, n the Exponent of and let B, C, &c, be the required Uncis, or, its Power,
is

the fame in efFsd:,

hi

a-^if^''

be

=z

a"

-{-

B a"
i?^'''^^

The Equation

multiplied by a

-\-

If

becomes

a-\-

=•

wherefore, becaufe the Unciae of the Power, whofe Exponent
,

\

n

1

Ci,
I,

''

In+if'^l
manifeft,

G, ^c. E, F, D, B, C, B+i, CiB, D+C, E+D, F+E, G+F,^r.
Values of B, C, D, ^c. are fuch,

it is

that the

that increafing {n) the
increafed

Exponent by Unity,

they will be

by
and

i,

B, C, &c. refpedlively.
i,

But the Increment

of

B

being

=

the Value of B, or Increment of C, will
or the Increment of
.i

be

=
J

n

;

therefore G,

D, equal
«>.

to

therefore

D equal
n^
tij

n n n

to -7--J therefore ' 2.3

r

-ry

F equalto
-1

n n n n
2.3.4.

6?c.

^c. where

n^

&c. itand for ;^— i, n

2, n

3,

C^c.

refpedively.

PROP.

2

I

2

.

2

I

I

:

(

91

)

PROPOSITION
Suppofmg
n, «, Hj
Tiy

II.

«,

&c.

to be

as in the

laft

Propolitlon

/ Jayy
I

if each
..

FaBor
n

in the Denominator of the FraSlion

nxnXnX'^.
II
II'

^^ diminified by the

common Difference^

y-~^^

r

the Fradiion it elf will be increafed by

f


nn n
n
.
.

.

.

n
r

y^OR,

lince n,

dimlniflied
-,

by the common Difference;
«,

becomes equal to n

and

diminiflied

by the fame
the faid Fracwill, it
firft

Difference, equal to «, &c. the
tion,
is

new Value of
its

arifing

from fuch a Diminution of
be
equivalent to
^

Fadors,
^

evident,


,
.

-=.»«

under the

nnnn
I II

.

.

n -— r


^

or given Values of thofe Quantities
creafe thereof

5

and therefore the Inn n n

mufl be

^

equal
^-^
r

to

r

— —

n

'
s^

"

nnn
/

» r


n

I

«

I

I

I

I

{

92

)

ft


,

r


n
r

becaufe n

— wequat tor^.

tinnn

nn» n

.

,

.

.

n

r

^E.D.

w
be
«;

COROLLARY.
HE RE FORE,
lacrement
is

the Quantity, or Fraaion, whofc
"^

being
. .

„„„„\_
r

,

the

n

nnn

.

,

«
r


^

X

Quantity whofe Increment

is

muft confequently
.
.

nn

n

.

.

n
r


Value of a Fradion

^

:
.

Whence

to iind the

rnY^7inn

.

.

n

of

this

kind, from
Strike out

its

Increment given,
in

there

arifes

this

Ride.

the leaft Fadtor

the

Denominator
put
the

of the

given

Increment,

and

inilead

thereof

Redangle of the common Difference cf the Fadors into the Nuaiber of remaining Fadtors j the Refult will be the Value that was to be found.

EXAMPLE.

L

ET

it

be required to find the

Sum

of the

infinite

Series

~
2-3

4-

J3-4

-{-

-4-S

+

-^. ^^. or one
S-6

finale ^

Fraction

93
tion (If poflible) that
fliall

)

exprefs the

Value

of,

&c.

-

+
as

3-4

—+ —
2-3

,

Here,

if

the required Fradlon be confidered

made

up, or generated by a continual and regular

Ad-

dition of the

Terms, &c,

— — — of
j >

the propofed Se-

ries,

then

-^ being

the next fucceeding
faid

Term

of the Pro-

greffion, or the
it felf,

Increment of the

Fradion, the Fradion

by the foregoing Rule,

will be

=

—=^=— = —

In hke manner will be found

I.I.I
1.2
2.3

3.4

4'5

1.2.3

2.34

3.4.5

2.2

1.2.3.4

^3-4-5

3

4-5'6

2.3.3

1.2.3.1.5^2.3.4.5.6

34-S-6.7*

*

>2.3.44'

1.2.34.5.6^2.3.4.5.6.7

34.5.6.7.8'

2.3.4.5.5*

N. B. That in finding the Value of any Quantity by the Methods foregoing, it ought to be well confidered, from
the Nature of the Queftlon, whether that Quantity confifts
barely of fuch Fradion, Produd:, or Produds,
as are fpe-

dfied in the Proportions, or thofe joined to fome invariable Quantity (as is done in Fluxions) and Allowances is
to be

made

accordingly.

B

b

Jn

(

94

)

An

Livejligation of Sir Ifaac

Newton'^ theorem for finding

the

Sum

of a Series oj
a, b, Cy d,
:

Numbers
e,

by means of their Differej7ces.

LET Numbers
,_^J^e,

J, g, h, &c.

be the given

Series

of

Then, by taking each of them from the

next fucceeding, there will be

a-{-bj

b-\-c,

C'\-d,

f-^-gi

fo^ the

iirfl

Differences:

Again^, taking

each of theie Differences from its fucceeding one, we have a 2b-\-c, b 2c-^dj c 2d-\-e^ i— 2^+/j ^^* ^°^ ^^ ^^^

In like manner the third .Differences will cond Differences. 3<^ ^ 3^ be found 3^ ^j ^3 *— ^ ^ 3^ and the fourth, a 6^:— 4 J-|-^, 3^ 3^+/j ^^4^-f-

— + — +
6

+

+ — +

^ .^ ^ c
the
firfl

-|_

^— 4 e +/,

^c. &c.

Let the

firfl

Difference of

Order be called D, the
of the third Order D,

firfl

of the fecond Order D,
then

the

firfl

C^c.

we

fhall

have

a^a,

2^+"D, ^ ^=:/?-f.b, f = and from thence by Subftitution^

— +

d=:a^2b~{-2C + b, &e.

a=a b = a'\-i>
c)= a-\-2ty -\-D

J=:.^+3b

+ 3D + D f=^ + 4D + 6r) + 4DH-D.
Law
of Continuation
is

where the

manifeft, the Unclae of
raifed

the Values of

c, d, e,

&c. being thofe of a Binomial,

to the fecond, third, fourth Powers, &c.

Therefore, if n be
the Value

put for the

+

£:

Number of Terms in + 4 ^c, whofe Sum we are

the propofed Series c -\-&

about to

find,

of

(95
of the next
Series,

)
lafl in

Term

in

the Progreflion after the
is

that
it

or that whofe Place

defined
-{-

by ;z+i,

will,

is

plain

,

be

equal

to

a

-{'

?2

D

n x ^^^

D+
And

;2

X ^-^ X

^— D
^

4.« X

~-^X^^ X ^v^
j

D,

(Sfc.

fo

much

will

the {aid

Sum

be increafed by augmenting

;?,

the given

Number
firft

of Terms by Unity
the

which Sum,

therefore,

by the

of

two foregoing

Tropofitions^

isna-^-nx ^^^

D -|- « x ----

X

EXAMPLE.

s
tical

UPPOSE
as 9,
1

a.

If,

Cj d,

&c.

to be a Series of Squares
are in

6, 25, 36, 6ff
;

whofe Roots
firft

Arithme-

Progreflion

13, (^c.

Differences be 7, 9, 1 1, the fecond, 2, 2, 2, ^^. the third, o, o, ^c. &c.

then will the

Therefore a = 9,

D = 7, D =

2,

D = o, D =

o,

(s'f.

and

confequently na-\-nx'^~^i>y &c\ equal gm-}4- «

nx~~- XJ
con-

X

^^ X —^ X 2 = 9 + 16 + 25 + 36 4. 49, ^^.
Sum

tinued to n Terms.

In the fame manner the
drates^

of a Series of Cubes^ Biqua^-

^c.

may

be found.

'M

.

(96)

An

eafy

and general Manner of inveftigating the

Sum

of any recurring

Series.

PROPOSITION.
Suppqfing p, q, r, tive or negative,
Series,
s,

&c.

to

be any Quantities, either pofv-

and

A+B+C+D+E,
Terms A, B, C, &c.

&c. a recurring
are fo related,

or one whcfe

that any one of the?n, being multiplied by p, the next followOrder, by r, 6cc the Sum of all the i^g, ^' ^'^^ ^^^^ ^^

h

VroduBs, thus ariftng, Jloall be equal the Sum of juch a Series.

to

o

:

T'o

find {x)

E
^

CAUSE,
equal o,

by Suppofition,
o,

A 4- ^B-f-r C,

&c.
of

_

is

pB ^qQ-^rD,
&c. &c.
-\it is

&c. equal o, pC-\-qT>
evident, that the

J^ r E, &c, equal
f

Sum

p

A

+ qB

rC

-{-

sD,&c.
sE, &c.
J s

^

all thefe,

<
or,

pB + qC + rD + ^ C + ^ D+ rE + q E -{ rF -\p D rG-\^ qF pE
-}-

F, e?f

muft confe>

Gy

&c

quently be equal o.

-{-

-]-

sH,&c.
&c.

I &c.

&c.

C^c.

&
is

Where, becaufe
&c,

A + B + C+D,
&c.

^ x-'A, C-^D^-E,
fiifl

= ^, B-fC-fD, = ;^-A— B, &c. &c. the
acthe Left-hand will hepx-,

Value of the

Column towards

thatof thefecond,
that of the

qxx^A; that of the third, rx^—A— B3 fourth, ^x^— A— B— C, &c. &c\ and therefore
pX

(97 ) ^j^_f-^x:<r— A-l-rx^^ — A — B + jX^ — A— B— C,Gf<:. or ^a:-4-^a;— ^A-l-rAr — r y A-i-B -f j;^ — 5x A -f-B-[-C,
&c.

=o

;

hence

^^^a+^xa+iT+.xa + e+c+.xa +b+c+p

EXAMPLE

I.

L
L
here

ET

the Series

ay

-{-

y""

-{-^—y ^c, (=

x')

be propofed,
Ci?r.

where p equal
e^^,

jv,

^

= ^>

r

— o,

j

= o,

K—ay^

B=yy,

thenwillA:=^A±Il><A±5Li£il, become ^^^

in this Cafe.

EXAMPLE
^'^

II.

'I,
5'

-h
-=

+
^

-^

-^+
2;^,

^.

>

^^.

=
r

^.

where

=

2 ^3,

r=

being

=: I,

B

- - 4-,
- 6^

^r.

= o, / = o, ^c. Then A yA + ^><A + B,^_£^ _ ^x ^-11
J

/
.

T

?» ^'''

become

~~
.

"^^

-

Cc

PROP.

(98

)

A

Method

for finding the

Sum

of a Series of

Powers, &'c.

PROPOSITION
To

fnd

the

Sum

of any Series of Powers whofe Roofs are in
as

Arithmetical Progrejjton,
tn -X- 3I/I''
»
. .

m-{-d\
dy

+
n^

m-\^2d\
any

+.

^

''j

m^

and

being

Num^

ters whatfoever.

LET
ways equal

Ax

-i-Bx

4-C;c
&c.

+Dx
if poffible,
-v'',

+
be al-

Ex""^ -hFa;""^,
to m-\-d^

—K,
..

^
712

m'\~2d^
:

and A, B,

C

&c> determinate Quantities

Then,

if

any other

Num,

ber in the Progreffion

^

d,

m -\d,

2 d, ?n-\-'^

d

,

.

,

.

x~\-di

x-^2dy X -\X
the

^d, &c. as
will
iiill

x -\-

be fubflituted inftead of

Equality

continue;

and we

fhall

hav€

^c.

K equal

;;2

+^

~\-

m-]-2d^

at-j-^^

,

from

which taking the former Equation
^_;j;
'

there remains Ax^-l-«'

_^Bxx-f^
,

—X

+CxArH-^'
Side
is

—X
increafed

,^c,

= XA^^\
ty
s

(hewing

menting the

how much each Number of Terms in
,

the given Series

by augby Unifeveral

where, by tranfpofingx-j-^'
-\-

and throwing the

Powers oi X

d

into Series,

we have
«~^

X

(

99)

I


ICO
)

.

From which, by
come
out

equating the homologous Terms,
»

A will

=

.

,

v "*

^ = f>^=TT>

D=o,

E

=—
^

''^iJilL'^iilll--^^^
2.3.4.^6

F=

O

'

G = " y^—'^X n~Z Xn—2, X n—\ X d 2.34.56.7.6
G?c.
its

H
fo

-

o,

&c,

wherefore the Values of A, B, C,

being

affigned, the

whole Expreffion, or

E\qual

at

4-^'

be equal o, and confequently

Ax^4-«
that
is,

—x
let a:

-[,

B X^+

^^

— ^3 —K

<^<^.

—x-\-d',

and n be

what they

will, the forefaid
Sind

Increments of

A

a;

-j-^

x

-j-

Cx

«


yMc.

der the

above
:

m-]-d^ Jf.m'\-2d^ , &'c. will, unaffigned Values of A, B, &c. be equal to
if

one another

Therefore,
,

K

be taken equal

Am
a*
,

-f,

Bm

-]-

Cm
is

&c.

fo that

when x

equal m, or the pro-

pofed Series

equal to Nothing,
:= o,
it

Ax

+B
that
it

(s'c.

K

may

be alfo

is

manifeft,

thefe

two Ex-

preffions,

as they are increafed alike, will,

in all other Cir-

eumftances, be equal

;

that

is,

let

x be what
&c.

will

A a:"
~-Bm
2 j\

+

Ba:
?;2

-\-Cx

+Dx
,

,

-^Am
faid

—C
^+

— 'Dm
will be

&c. under the
;;2

Values of A, B,

C, &c.

always equal to
j

4-^'

-j-

m -^

+

3 ^1

...

a;

which Values being

therefore fubflituted,

there will be

-^-V^ + + iX'^'^
ii

— + ^^-^
2
'

»x— .x»-2^-a.
23.4.5.6

34

+

(

101
«— 5 •—
'

)
«x«

•J-

'

»;y«— ly;?— 2X//— ^y«— 4
2.34.^.5.7.5

5

a

X

— iX^— zV;/— —
'^
''^

2,

b"V.
i.

.^

«—
X

a

"^ '

2.3.4.5.6.7.8.5.6.

^
«~-f-'iX^i^

r3.4.5.6.7.-8.g. 11.12.

,

eft*.


<^^-

*""

2

'

3

4

"^

2.3.4.5-6

'^

^

^
, .
.

»

=

7n -Y d\

+ W + 2 ^'
C D R O

+

^J 4- 3 ^1

.

.

.

^

L.

I.

IT E N C E, JL
'

if

;2

be a whole polkive Number, and
then
all

m
n

taken equal o

2

)

the
,

Terms
^€.

in thefecond Series

J^ nam "-J1
3

vanishing

when

//

-j-

1

>,y
all

4

even, and
thing,

but that where the Exponent of
odd,
.

m
JL

is

no^

when
'

we
. .

fhall,
^

in.

this

Cafe,

have
to

d j^2d
-f-

Ar 3 «

-j-

4-^1

.

.

X

bardy equal

l! 4- l££!ll -- l><!i:zii<iiziiiiLl!l2
2

,

(^r. the firft Series
laft

3-4
*till

2.34.5.6
it

continued

terminates,

provided that the

Termj

when

71

is

an odd Number, be rejeded*

C O R O

L.

11.

^^ THEREFORE,

VV

equal to 2, 3^

4,

equal to j, and by taking 5, &c. fucceliively^ we have
<-/

7t

D

d

I

(

102
.H-^

)

^
2
2

14-2
i^4-2^

H-3 4-4

+5

.

.

=:^+jL
3

+ 3-4-4^ + 5^...+Ar^-=fLl-|.fI+42

o

1^4-234-33+43^.^3
144^244-^44-444-

.

..+^3 = il^fll^fl
.

•^'*'
«6

ir4

^.

4.A?4=li.

424 ^
.
.

5^2^ ll__^
3

30

i54_254.354_45
6
I

+ ^5.

..^.^^

=f±+^+H:_f:l

o

6

I

7220
c o R o
L.

4'-

m
equal to
i?,

MOREOVER,
equal
to
i
,

if

^ be taken
general

and

m

our

Equation wilt become.

2

4-3
2

+4- ....4-^
3-4

—d.''

=^+^ +-—
^^^
'

>^^---+^
l^gj

__^4. ^v.-tx^-2 2.3.4.5.6

^^^1^ g.^g

^^

^j^i^j^

&

'inereafed

by Unity, and the whole multiplied by
"

d''

give§-

-\-2d
.

4-3
^ «

d^^''

+ ^d^"
'

.

.

.

.

+

dx^'
^
3

d^ into

?-|-i

«
2
I

.„

I

wX« — X« 2x"
2.3.4.5.6

3.-1

77-fl

I

2

„^
3.4

.

«X «— X«32
2.3.4,56
'

^^

EXAMPLE

r.

LET
V> h--^

it

be required to find the

Sum

of a Series,

conare,,

fifting
2,

of

100 Cube Numbers,
&c.

whofe Roots

-^-, 3,

Here

(

I03

)

Here
n

d,

the
a:

common

Difference of Roots, being equal --,

=

3,

and

=

o, let thefe Values be fubftituted in the

E-4-

quation in Cor,
lool

II.

and

it

will

become
the

(
\


2

in,

—4

J, i^
4

2

=

) ^

3

1878 12.5

,

Number

that

was

to be

found.

EXAMPLE

II.

L
fo

ET

;^

=

— ^^ = —

.

Then
l".

the Equation in
1^

the
I

lafl Corollary

will

become — + ~
I

2

T« 4. -^
.

^
.
.

4

'

4

'4

.

+.

'ITI

_!_'"

X

i^ + -^ + -V
taking x equal 4,
5

f

>

^^-

— -^
-—
4
-L.

very nearly

5

that,

it

will be

J_'
4

4,
'

3

4
lefs

4-1=
than

3.0731

which
if

differs

from the

true

Value by

more Terms had been ufed, the Anfwer J would ftill have been more exad: but never can come acat"
T-cJo-o

and

j

rately true,

when n

is

negative or a Fradion, becaufe then
infinittim.

both

Series

rua on ad

S

C

H O
Sum

L

I

U

M,
ufcful

""^IIE
in

Theorems,
finding the
alfo in

above found, are not only
of a Series of Powers, but

may
efpe-

be of fervice
cially
as the

the Quadrature of Curves, &c.
true,

Conclufions will be accurately
fcientiiic.

and the
Thi.^'

Reafoning. thereupon

;

(

104
is

This
vvherein

I

fliall

endeavour to Ihew by the following Inftance

A C, being fuppofed a Curve, v^^hofe Equation y-z (AB being equal z^ and CB equal y) the Area

A V^Q

is

required.

Ti

r-

Let
Parts,

AB
as

be

divided
a^,

into

any Number,

of equal
cd^ (^c.

A^,

bc^

and from the Points of Divifion
raifed,
let

Perpendiculars

be

cutting the
r,

the Points,

2,

3,

Curve in ^c, and
^2,
r3,
let

having
J 4,

made
Kb^
£5*^.

/) i,

^c.
Bafe

parallel to

A B,
c d,

the

be,

&c,

Av^e7^^~^^~1^^
by d:
angles,

°^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Reaangles/-/^,
, J f

r<^j

be

reprefented

Then

/^

i,

C2, d 2,

(^c.

the Heights of thofe

Red2ZI'',

being Ordinates to the Curve, will be

d\

JJr'j &€. refpedively,

each of which

•.•

being multiplied
all

by

dj

the
,

common

Bife,

and the
d'
for
-j-

Sam
Td^
"

of

the Products
J'''

taken

will give

d
j

into

+3
hi,

... a

J' '\

{^ Apiq2r, &c.
cumfcribing Polygon
faid

CBA)
and
)
is

the Area of the whole cir-

this Series,

according to the above-

Theorem,

(

Cor. III.

equal to

d -h
'''"

.+'
-V

+

l

&c.

=^^—
^VH-

^^'''"'-^\

-h

&c,

or,

becaufe ^x^rje;,

it

will

be^

—,

'^>.

Now,

if

from

this

the Diffe«

rence of the Infcribed and

circumfcribed Polygons, or the

(

f05

)

Redangle B D

= (/a "

be taken, there will remain

"

".

'

— -^^^,
is

for the

Area of the infcribed Polygon.

Hence,

it

manifeft, that, let

d be what

it

will,

the infcribed Polyfo fmall, aS

gon can never be

fo great,

nor the circumfcribed

^^ (= ^^4^7^
Of Angular

)

^"^

therefore this Expreffion

muft

be accurately equal to the required Curvilinear Area

A C B.

Sedions,
perties

and fome remarkable Proof the Circle.

PROPOSITION
^he Radius
as

L
of an Arc,

A C,

and

the Chords Sine, or Co-Jme
j

A r,

being given

AR=:»?xAr,

find the Chord, Sine, or Co-fine of a Multiple of that Arc.
to

LET
RE

RH

be taken

= A R,

and the whole Arc

AH
as

be divided into as

many

equal Parts,

Ar,

rf

Cic.

there be Units in 2 ;« j and the Chords B r, B/] &c. are drawn as alfo the Radii r, and the Perpendiculars calling AC, i; Br, y, Cp, sc, rp, J E, ; rp,

C

CR, CH,

C

w, RE, Uj Ar%jz; and Then, becaufe any one of thofe Chords, as Bf is to B r -|- B R, the Sum of the 2 next it, as B C to B r, by a known Property of
the Circle,

AH*=Z:

X

—Br= BR
=
B^, and

we
}

fhall

have y x

B/ ~ B r

and

for the very

_y

X

B^

—BR=

-{- B R, or ^^ x B/ fame Reafon, ^ x B R B/ B /6, ^c^c. Hence, it ap-

pears, that the

Values of the Chords
Ee-

B/, BR, ^c, (which
to

(

io6

)

to a Radius equal

A

B, will be Co-fines of the Angles

A B/

A B R,

G?r. )

may

be readily had one

after another,

by

talaft

king continually the Produd of the laft by y, minus the but one, for the next following : And thus are had^

^3_3;,= BR,

jy6

— e^'^-f

9;^*

— 2 =;BH,
&c.
^

^c.

And

;enerally, fuppofing g< ->.^j->,„-,jj

w^-y,

A^"

^^By"

'

+ Cy"^^> ^^
,

^^'

to denote

anv one Chord of the foregoing Order, and any

Ay


(

^

I07

)

.

B^y

+

C/

,

&c. the next to

its

then the Chord

next following thefe will be A^''^^'

By'^'

+ Cy^^-^

Ly—'+Ay''-^+.
=
I,

^y'-^, &c.

From which
will

(by the Method of Increments foregoing)

A
X

come
,

out

B=.n, C=:nx^^^, D^nx'^=^

^^
'^

E =

« X ^::^ X

X ^=Z , ^^. and

confequently

A

;;

- B;;

~

^Cy '-^
^ -rif
>^

&c.

=y"

^. ny ""-'

^nx"~^^y ""'""^ri^ "
^

+ « X ~— X --— X -—
-\-mx^^-^y
then
it

7
m,

,

^c.
it

wherein

n be taken equal to the given

Number
^' &c.

y
if

— my
Q?^.
till

will

become
but

equal

BR;

n be equal 2 m,
equal

will be ^'^

ny''~^^^^''_zi}_
2

^n — Ar^
tinued
caufe

BH;

where the

Series are

to be

conbefol-

the Exponents
is

become

negative.

Hence
it

B/

equal 2 x, and the Arc

KW-mx Af,
=
zx^""

lows, that the Chord
-\-

HB

will be

^mxTx'"""''

mx ^^ X 2a;I

""""^

^c, and therefore,
I

X

( :=

CE
2

)

the required Co-fine being equal

H B,

we have

X r= ZE' ^
o

2

Z

'>.

^

2

-1
k,

— X'2.x^

+

-T-

X

-—^ X

—r~ X —r-x 2x\
U

fhewing the Relation of the Co-fmes ; from whence


(

loB

)

U

(

^ ^
X

I

—X
a;1
.
.

*
')

comes out

=:

^

2

a
T-7ri^~"7

X —
,

— icx\in^2,K\ m — — X 2X
I
I

I

^

>^

m— -^
2

^

i

fn — 6 X -3 S X '^

2 AT
y

I

^d-.

Furthermore, becaufe
y
,

~S

— ny

is

equal

CE, =
—y ^^y

+ X ——^—
«

^c
,

AE

will

— «X
^

^J-

S

Cffr.

be equal to
fore

+i

;

and there-

AExAB
-^ 2

equal \q

^y"" ^^ny''~'- -—nx"-^ y"-^
if inftead

^c,

=

Z, where,

of j^,

its

Equal

z-^-^
n
^

(AB*
^

Ar*) be

fubftituted,

it

will

become
=fc

Z=

=±:

2;

:;=

nz~^ ^

nx'^'^z

^

,

^c. equal

2;

''^

^2^2r'^"~^=i:2;»

x.i^z:l.X2;"~'=^2/«x-^^P^x-^^f^x^"-3=^2/» 3 3
._lf~^ y
as

/^"""^

X-^-^^^^ X

2^

'"""''
,

^c,

continued to

many Terms

as there are

Units in m.

^

£.

Z

Otherwife,

Let the Lines rp,
.and

RE,
x
:

be confidered in a flowing
then

State,

{mn)
:

as eq«al to

j

we
-

fhall

have v/

i

— a;x
this

(/r)

I

(Cr)

v/x

^-l^^^

equal r/zj
that of

and
(

be-

ing the Fluxion of the Arc

A r,

AR

equal

m x

Ar)

will be

—^^

-^

which,

for the very

fame Reafon
that


( ^

. i

109

)

that

is

the Fluxion of the

A r,

mufl be equal

to

^

;

Whence,

equally multiplying the

two Deno>

minators by \/'^i,

we

get

^;r=^ = ^^,_ ;
there
ic

where,
either,

taking the Fluent on each Side,

comes

out,

Log.X-f- v/lC^

I

= ^ X Log.

-{-

v/

^a:—,1,

or,

Log.

X — v^'X X —
X-{-v/X^
v/

I

= mhog.x — k/xx — I;

wherefore,
alfo
,

I

and x-\- s/
/v

xx—

i

^'^
,

as

X—
corre-

X^

I

and


~\-

v^'at^c

i"'*

the

Numbers
equal
:

fponding to thofe

Logarithms muft be
Equations,

Hence,

by adding together the two

we
and

have 2

X=

x-{-\/xx
their

i^'"

X -^ \/

XX
i

— i'^,
=

by taking

Difference,
1
''^
'

2
;

v/X^

x-{-\/xx

— i'"^—
latter
at
""

X

— y/ XX —

from whence, by expanding the

Part of each of the Equations into Series,

and dividing the

whole by

2, there will

come out

X= x'^

-{-

mx ^^^

~^

X xx^i-h^x~-x"^^x'^^^=^ x^'-^xxk-^
&c, and

il^,

\/X^
"*

i

= \/xx^ 1
I
,

in^

mx""^'^

-^^

mx

^~

X

^1:11

"V

~

^

X a; a:—

^f

.

the former of

which being

reduced into fimple Terms, givesX

=

^

^

JIL^ix^
as

+ ^X^^=i-X2T» '"""',
found.

^<r.

the very

fame

above

And

the

latter,

by multiplying by */

— i,to
tak^

G

g

;

(no)
.

take

away

the imaginary Quantities, and fubftituting
their

U and

u inflsad of

Equals v/T-^OT^, s/ I'-^xx m

y

becomes

I

m—

^

X
I

1-^tiu^

2

^
^4j

Pi

X

-^— X -y- X
in like

—~

X

-—

— uu^

m—
2

^

^^^ which,

manner, being redu-

ced into fimple Terms, will be \J

— mu — m

x

2-3

^^^^^:l—Lx-^Xus^mx-J:^X-^
C O R O

X

L.

I.

BECAUSE
A

the

laft

Equation,

as appears

from the

Procefs, will hold as well

when

m

is

a Fra6:ion as

-when a whole Number ; let m, or the Multiple Arch (= z» X r) be fuppofed indefinitely fmall j then will

AR mu
the

_;;^X^-^-^=-^xa3 ^ 2.3 ^

+ ;wx^-=^x^^^:^X2^5,
2.3

4.5

'

Gf^.

Sine of that Arch, or the

Arch

it

felf

(which

in this Cafe

may
9_^ii
2.3.4.5

be conlidered as equal to
.

it)

become

mu

-|-~ll
Arch'

+
Ar

9X2^«^
2.3-4-S-6-7-

^^^
is

and therefore the
will,
it

/ =:

A^ )
•"

whofe Sine

«,

is

manifeft, be

= « -f-

ll -L
2.5

3-3"^
2..3.4.S

^
"*"

3-3-?-5

«^
I

3-3-5-5-7-7«^
2.3.4.5.6.7.8^'

^^^

2-3'4-S-f>7

"^

C O R O L.

(

XII
L.

)

C O R O
F Ar

II.

be fuppofed indefinitely fmall, and m indefinitely (=A) may great, fo that the Multiple Arch be a given Quantity ; then fince u may be confidered as

mxhr

equal to

Ar, niu

will be equal to

A, and

~^ mu — mx"" 2-3
^^

X ?*
or

3, '

^c, the Sine of A, equal to ^

m u — ^— 2-3

U
'

5

«

S

2.3.4.5

A—


2.3

-4-

-~~
2.34-S

25, G?f. in the Fadlors rejeded as indefinitely fmall in comparifon of

TTTTTT^ ^^- becaufe i, 9, 7' 2.3.4.5.0.7 ' m"^ .1, ;«*— 9, ^c, may here be
'

>

m%

B
2;cl

SCHOLIUM. — ^x — V xx — ECAUSE \/ = —m be found above ^mx —~ x H-wx —-^ x^x
.V -{-

i^""

Ar;v

i'

is

to

univerfaily

2

a;

'

x
x

2

;f
I

,

&c.
{

it
"*

is

evident,

by
I

Infpedlion,

,

that

—————
\/

X

-{-

XX

-^ i^

-f.

X -^

V XX

y

-^i
<v
'

will
,

be

^
.\

2;<'i

-}-z«X2^1

+»2X -—-^ X 2

eftr.

and

my
-"^-

r^
in the

^ mx—^y
^,

^^ ^^. (by
in that

fubftituting

room of

and r r

of Unity)

let

r and

^ be what

they will

:

Therefore^ \i

y

^

my

r^

-f-

(

IlZ

)

mx !iZLl^.^^-4^4.4_.,;^X^ K-^^-

J^'""^

r^+?/^X

^^ X
,j^

'^^r^

X

"-^^^^

y""''^r\ &c, be fuppofed equal to fome

given Quantity

c^

there will be given Z'

^
%

y^

-4-rr|

^

-A.
2

_V

>^"^ "

-


I

^
3

iZ
A 4

>i«

r

H

alfo

=

c

and

therefore
2 »I

'

srf^

5

wherefore, the double

Redan gle
heing

of

7—

^^12.
,

-f r r|
of

into

J
4

/jrZZVrl"'

— ar^""
/
JL.
^

the Square

i
17^

IL\^ rA

will

be

=:

+
j:

4r

^"^
,

and

confequently

^y
;

yj.

4

^r

r\

,—

/

11. j^

rA
firft

=

\/ ^^

+4^
'

which iiqua-

tion added to the

gives,

2X_L.4-./iZj,rrl V ^ 2
1

=
2

I

c-)-^<:c

+ 4r^^s

and

fubtraded

therefrom,

x

2^4

2^4
1

2 /«

and thereI

Which

1

(

JI3

)

be ufeful and ferve as a Theorem for the Solution of certain Kind of adfe(5led Equations, comprehended

Which mav

in this

Form,

viz.

y

-^my
-,

"

r"-

-^

m

X -^—

y

+

r^ &c,

=c
'"

:

tion x3 -f- /^x

For an Inflance =/& be propofed
"'~~^

hereof,

let

the cubic Equa*

then, by comparing this
?>^

with
•=zb.

'3
or r r
2

;'

— my r % ^c, we have = y^x, mr"= — c^h, and confequently ^ = - 4- x/ ^ 43,
,

2

4

--I
27'

4

27

PROPOSITION
^ on
the

II.

Diameter
the

A B,
is

from any Point C,
O,

/;z

the Circle

AC

B, whofe Centre

the Perpendicular

Ck

be let

fall,

and

Arc

AC
A a,

be divided into any ISlumber,

m^

of equal Parts, as

a m, &c. and

if

the whole

Pe-

riphery be alfo divided into the fame

Number of equal
c d,

Parts,

beginning at the Point a, as a b, be,

&c. and from

any Point P, in the Diameter
Lines be drawn
to the Points a,

A B,
b,
c.

or

AB
to

produced.

&c.

P^* X P^^ X P^*,
Squares of
all
thofe

&c.

the

continual

I fay, P^* x ProduB of the

Lines will be equal

AO

^ ""

:i=

AO^-'

X 20i^ xOP^'^-f PO""^to
I,

A PUT = O = Ok
of the Chords
fince

PO =
to n,

to ^,

io b,

2m =

=zto iu^x\^ V, and the Square of any one
^

AP

A a,

Ab, Ac, Ad, &c.

equal to

any one of the correfponding Arcs A a, reckoned forward a certain Number of Times, brings us to the plus a certain Numfame Point C, or, is equal to AC, or

zi Then, Ab, Abe, &c,

AC

G

g

ber

I

2

(

114

)
it

ber of

Times

the

whole Periphery,

appears from the

lafl

Fropofition that

^z^ ^nz
to

2

Z

n—^

z"^

OT^3
^ ,

^c, continued
is

m

Terms,

is

=AC%
will be
^

or

becaufe

AC*
m—

=

2

+

2/^

(ABxA^)it
nx
2
3

^
5;

n z

n— ; ^ m— 4. nx'^'^^z 2 let
:

—^x-r^z
A ^,
«,

^2 + 2^ = o,
Chords you
ition

z

ftand for the Square of which of thofe

will

Wherefore,

the Roots of this Equa-

being the Squares of the Chords
all pofitive,

Kb^

A

<:,

^c,

they mufl be

their

Sum =
x

the

Sum
,

of their

Produdls n x ^^=^, of their Solids n

^^ X ''-^^
made

^c.

by

common AB, we

Algebra.
{hall

Now,

if

j^ be

perpendicular to

have AF^'
=t

+ A^*=t: AP x
= AP^-f.^

2A^=

Y e"- =
which

AP*

+ A^* APx—

x'a7I',

m

(

115
x

)

And, for the very fame &€, Reafons, P/^^^-uH-^xA^^ F c"" =:v -\~ x x V C^^ therefore the continual Produd: of v -\- x x Aa- into v -\- X X A^^ into ij -i- XX Ac"", &c. is equal to Pa^x
in

Species,

is

'Pe*:=z'v-]-x

A

e^^

:

P/^*xP^%
is

^<^.

But

in the

former of thefe Produds,

it

evident, that

when

the feveral Fad:ors are adually
firft

drawn

into one another, the Co-efficient of the
eft

Term

or high-

Power of
of
all

Vi will be

i

;

of the next inferior Power, the

Sum

the abovefaid Roots

Aa^,

A^%

&c. into x, of

the next following, the
(§c, and, therefore, the

Sum of all their Products into x^, Sum of thofe Roots being already

found

=
^

n,

their Produdls

=

n x '^^^j &c. we have v""
-f.
?;

-j^

nxv"^

-H n x-


2

-

x^v
l-X^'U

X
, .


2

-X
3

^

X3V

^nx — X
,

X

^

.

.

,

-^ 2

-\-

2&XX
its

P/z^xP3*xPf%
I

&c.

Or, by fubftituting for v,
-f

Equal

CO

;c

I*

it

will
4^

be

ToTP"

nxXi

'j^

xi""""

-f-

«x "-—
X

2^' XAr'" = P^?^xP^^ X'-Xl co^l'^— ....-{- 2 P^% &c, (becaufe 2m^n)\ This in fimple Terms is

+

2

23'
+
^ X ^^— x.f:r3 '
;^ 3,

^

-f.

;2 a;


-|-

« «

X ^—^ x^^

ef^.

*
4le

X

"^yx^

- «x Vx^^^^

^^'

l^P^^x

-f-

2

+^ X ^

^

Which

*

{

ii6
Hence

)

Which contrad:ed, by adding
becomes
efficients
firft,
i

together the
it

* *

^^

^c.

homologous Terms, appears, that the Co-

do every where deflroy one another, except in the and the middlemoft of the faid Terms j and that the middle Term would likewife vanifli, if inftcad of
laft,

2
1

-4-

2^

X^

"\

the correfponding

Term
that

of the above Series

CO x^"" •-\-nx

X

1^
;;/,

x^

^^~^
,

or

where
;

the

Expothis

nent

of

a:

is

was

to

be

added

wherefore

Term
is

being

n x

^"~^

X

^"~^

-^

into

x

^

(

=2

a: '")

as

eafy to perceive from the
-\-2bx'''

Law

of Continuation,
or,

we

have

I

+ A:^'^=P^^xP^^xP<r%G'f.
is

AO^'"
&c.

+ 20^xA0^-^
Ok
becoming

xPO^H- PO"^ = P^^xP-^S
taken on the
other Side of

And, when the Point k

^PO^^ will

AO -_0^, A O a^ xP^^ xP^r^ be equal to V
^^
2 O/^ X

O,

^-^
,

xPO^
2).

&c.

% E.
C O R O
at
j

L.
will

I.

O = A O, and C be taken then IFxP3^xP^%^r.B =AC^-f-2AO«xPO^ P
i^

^

+

PO
we

^ "*

}

where, by taking the Square Root on each

Side,

have

P^xP^xPc,

^c,

=:A0^4-P0«.
L.
II.

C O R O
if

A T C A BU A0, AO^^ — 20/^xA0^-'xP0^'"=P^2O =
comes
into
;

then

being == o, and

y^

X

Vbj

^

(^c,

will

therefore

become

AO^^.-.2AO^

x

PO^*

(

1^7

)

PO^ + PO*^ =P^2

xP/52 xPt:2,

^c.

And P^

X

C O R O

L.

III.

HENCE
e>r.

manifeft, that if any Circle be divided into as many equal Parts as there
it

is

ABCD,

are

Units

m zm {m

being

any whole Number what-

produced thro' A, any one of the Points of Divifion, a Point as P be affumed any where, either within or without the Circle,
foever)

and

if

in

the

Radius

O A,

PAx PCxPExPG,

^c.

will

be=

AO^c/3PO*'>

PBxPDxPFxPH, &c. sAC^+PC, and PA xPBxPCxPDxPE, efc. =AO'^wPO^'".

Hh

PROPe

H
(

1

ii8

)

Of

the Reduction

of

Compound
ones.

Fractions

into

more fimple

PROPOSITION.
m—
7o divide a Compound Fradlion, as
into as

many Jimple

ones as there are Units in

p

-,

fuppojing

m
the

to

be

am
r

whole pojtfive Number, not exceeding p,
info binojnial

and

Denominator reducible

Fa&ors.

ET

a;

be any one of the given

Fadors
let

into

which the Denominator may be reduced, and

-^

}

then,

by Redudion, we

.J^bxc^cx'--{-dx^ ....

QjcP—^-\-xP

rA+rB;e+rCA;*+rDAr3-j-^EAr* ....

+r/x/—

have

{

*-A.-B.^-c.3_D.^

..-txP-^^^^

becaufer—.A:x/-f-^A:
Hence,
-

+ ^^%

by comparing the

^^- = a'{-bx^cx\^c. homologous Terms, we get
--.

__-7i
or

B = =^'
.P

-

Xi, C===4^

if

— Ai,

^c,

la% .

=

wherefore

/j

+gr

^+_
J

-^, -4-

-ji^, ^c.

^^S^..
....-{-

^ir*

/ir3

+ ^5^4-

But,


(

^

^

r

; ,

119

)

But, becaufe
18

r^x xf-hgx + t- x + ^'^^ .... + Px/'-' Q^^~'+x:^ we = ^+^-^+^^* + ^^^
!^/+;.^^-j-r^^»-fr/Ar3+riA:*
r?xP—'^
*

1

—fx— _« —bx—
*

gx^—hx^ —
cx^—dx-^

ix^


Q^;^/'— •

YxP r

— ^•

— ex^

— xP^

and therefore /=-^,^=:^+-^,
-l- -*-

^= ^—^y^+-f,^'-

-^

+ -^ + -^
~\-

,

and

P =

— —^H- —
-4.•.

(ifr.

Whence /r=^,^r 2
z=,

ir'^

a-\'br

+^r, hr^=. a-^-br -^ cr^^. P r ^ = ^ -4- ^ c r^ -\-{ir^, C^c, and
.

=^

+ ^r24.d?r3_f-^r4.
all
. . .

..

Qj'

^"""^
;

wherefore (by adding

thefe Equations together) there will
.

be^r -\-gr^
p

^

h r^-

-f-

P r^ = ^ ^
gives s

y.dr''
that of
for
s.

+ p— Q^/—
I

I

X br
laft

-{-

—2 X
,

fr

2

-f- />

3

5

which

=

:r=

=

Value
'"'^

being fubftituted in
—-

——

_ ^_;

Numerator of one of the required fimple Fracfrom whence,, x tions ; whereof the Denominator is r anfwering to the other by Infpeaion, the Numerators For^ given Fadors or Denominators are ealily obtained be the faid Fadors if R AT, C^c, X, S X,
the

-,

:

into

which

— T— a ^ b x -+
R—
a;

^

ex"-

-{-

dx^

Q^xP~^
be =a-^bx-\^

4- ^ ^ is
cx\C^c,
be put

reducible, or

X

S^x X T—x,C^c,
—-

And ^^_^_-^^^_^-_-^^j^^_^_-^^^3

_^p-i^

= A,

r*^ — B,>

^

^

.

(

I20

)

&c»

C^c,

it is

evident, that


,

f X ^^ —
r

will

be
7

,

,

A

t;

R ^

,

B.^S^

Ca>T^^

r^

^ P

EXAMPLE
ET
the

I.

==£^=^, bepropofed. 1—XX2—X Then will a — 2y ^ = — 3, c=i, ^=0,^ = 0, ^^. ^= ijp=Zy m = 2, R=i, S=2, T=o, &c» A=i, B = — I and therefore /i = -i— — -^
l!Zi-, Fraaion 2— 3^4-^"^
*^
*^

,

— EXAMPLE
^-

IL
then,

F

the given

Fradion be

I
paring a

—'^


fn— I
j

by com-

lz:^zl>x"

-^X

"

+ bx +^^* -4-^^^
we have

.

Q^^"~^

-{-

x^

with

isia^Ar" 4-;^^",
of the middle

a=

i,

^ = 2«,
all

the

Coefficient

Term

=

=5=^ ^,

and

the reft except the laft

=

',

wherefore

A (=
become


=
^

)

will in this Cafe

,

B=

1

,

Gfc.

A

(

121

)

A

General

Quadrature of Hyperbolical

Curves.

PROPOSITION
T^here are

two Curves

AC,

H D G,

having the fame com^

mon

Abfciffa

AB
y

{x) whofe Ordinates

B C and B D

ar^

x"-\-

and

To find the Area of

each } fuppojing r and n to be any whole pofittve Numbers^

and

the

Denom'mator

\

^ dx"

-\-

x"^" not reducible into

two binomial FaBors.

L

ET

n be taken in r as often as poffible, and the Remain« and let A a: B xr—nzt^ der be denoted by m
-,

'^

+

be aflumed

=:

2«„^^»^I

;

"c

being any given- Quantity

:

li

Then

;

(

122

)

Then,
to

by reducing

this

one Denomination,

we

Equation inihall have

J''"^!
\'

x*"^"4*

c

)

l+A

J

1
therefore

E=</D — C
But,

A=

r,

B=<^A, C=^B-^A, / = </j-./, j=
i,

D=^C— B,
J,

now
;

in order to conftrud; thefc feveral Cowefficients

with the Radius
dcfcribed

and Centre O, Fig,
id,

2. let

the Circle

AB be

take

Ok~

Ck

perpendicular to

A B,

meeting

r—

the Circle in C,
;//

to

72 ;

and

to the Arch A C, as and the Arch let the fame be divided into as many equal
,

CBU

Parts as there are Units in ^^-^^

at the Points

R,

S,

T, &c.

and

let c

be

now

fuppofed

= C^

j

then will Qk^ Rr, ^c, the

Perpendiculars falling from thofe Points on the Diameter

A B,

be equal to the
fped:ively
:

faid

required Co-efficients

For, lince the Arcs

AC, C
Circle

A, B, C, ^c, reR, ^c. are equal,

by a well known Property of the

Rr

(B)

is

= ~^

xCn = ^A), --Si(C)=i£i^
_X/
(D) =

-.C^(^^B-A),
Hence,

^^^^^'-.Rr(=^C — B)^c.

we

(

124

)

we

have

——

(•.-•''

+

-C^x^

+Rrx^
Cy^x^
'"""''


-h

S.x^'--^"'

-T/x^'" +
i—dx"
-\-x

^^^^""^" ^'^-"" -

and therefore—^^—^—^-^—

= -^ ex

into

Rr

x

whofe Fluent, or
.

"x-"-"
,

+ ^'y^-~'" -^,l^'-ll
the Fluent

T^^^^^'""

pks

of

-^
firft

x

u^X^" + ^^+T/x^^
1

— dx^
this

^^jjl gi^g the Area in the
is

Cafe.

Xx'^^^

And
equally,

Method of Solution, it when the fecond Term of

manifeft,

will
is

hold

the Divifor

pofitive,

x^\ li k, inftead of Denominator i -{-Jx" being taken towards A, be taken at an equal Diftance on But the contrary Side, the Center from O towards B.
or the given

+

now
that

to

find the Fluent

of

—-—^tt^.'

^^^"^

^^^^^

above-named will be obtained, take A a to AC, as the Point a, let I to 72, and O^^X', and beginning at the whole Periphery be divided into as many equal Parts, ab, be, cd, &c. as there Units in «; letting fall the Perpendicular am, and putting b^ld (= Ok) and Om—f-,
then, becaufe
(as
is

P^^ xP ^^- x P<^Ms =

i

2

/^

a;

''

+ x '%
and beis

proved in the Propofition preceding the

lafl)

caufe

i^2fx-\-xx (=0^^-~20;«x0Ph-0P^)
fhall,

Pi2% we

by feigning

i

— 2/Ar-i- :vx equal

to

No-

thing,

3

(

125

)

thing,

get

/h- \^ fj
fi)

\

-^x, and

/— s/"ff-^i-~x for

two of the (2
Quantity
i

imaginary binomial Fadors into which the faid
-{-

if

— 2 bx" x^'\ Equal f-\~^ff^i-^x reducible X f — ^ff— — ^ X ^^' Wherefore, / + v/77-^ ^^ P^t = p, and /- v///-T-^,
or
is

its

I

:

.ft

then will

2«Xi— '^/"X;' —

^

.

aa;

and

^ ^

w

,

Ar

2kXi— ^?''X$'--a:

/^^^

/i:?/?

Propojitioriy
tn

—^— —-I

be two of the fimple Fradtions into which
divided
j

may be
away

thefe

being

added toee)

ther

(

to

take

the

imaginary

Quantities

give

into

r^Xp''-]-q"

+

i>ip"

q''

intoj^

X ?^

which, becaufe will be

pq

=/+ V ff—
— ^X/'^-f?^
is
into

i

></+ v<//-~iis=ij^

zn

into

i.-f^-^

i

— zfx-^xx
Arch
as is.

But,

fmce

^

+^

..

the Co-fine^ of the Multiple
that of /??xAi7, Gff.

AC

(=:;2xA^) and

^

Jg
if

manifeft from Page 109.

A/r:i

^—

AH

be taken
zz ^,

— m\Aa,

and.

I

X

A
-

<7,

and ^ ;^ be put

AH = G, and Oi; = Fi our Expreffion will be thus exhibited,. A^— x Y—±X — C/+ bxXCoLCU r tt — — — xX — ijut as xl —» ZJ X
Cof.^oF
Cof. of
-:
.

H

/&

the Sine of-

.

'ZCCX''

D

-

ri

Gf^. we have by the Elements of T^rtgonometry the Co-fine cf 4- G r Cof. ofCH^ b¥-\€G, and the Cof. ofCfzbgG ^^ b/F ^cJG^cgF and therefore our Expreilion will ftand thus,

A^is=A/,

AC—.AHr_-CH,
^^

-Y

Af^ Ff

',

E/

( 126
n
c c

)

\
i

I

— zfx -^ X X
cc inflead

*

where, by fubftituting
reduced to
into Xy

of b
.

b,

it is,

at length, ^^^^

^/F+^.-F+rg G-^/G-f..xi: G.^::£F
cn'X.
I

— zj^x -^x X

^^^

^^^^^

is

one of the n rational Fradlions, (whofe Denomi-

nators are f «

x P ^ ^, cnx^b"-, c?2x^ c^^y
^
-1
,

C^c,

)

into

which

the Quantity

whofe Fluent we

are feeking.

may

be divided.

Now,
or,

therefore, the Fluent of

X

^_^

,

being

--

(

P^O)


I

into

the

Arch meafuring the
,

Angle P aO. and that of ^

—^—
:

equal to the fame

2/X-\-XX

Arch

into


n

,

plus

(A

O

P^)

or the Hyperbolical

Lo-

garithm of ^-q
cfF

j

the Fluent of

+ 6,F+cgG -6rGXx+i. G-cFX:cx
c

X

I

— 2/ X
^

^

^h^t

-\~

XX
is

of thofe
)

Fradlions

be

=^—~x (0^:P^) + ^-{-4-x(P^0),
en
n
J
^

whofe

Denominator

en X V a^
n
^

will

n

c

Or, >
into

= —rrr-A
(P^O)
:

i^to

(O ^

:

P ^), H

rfVr

-i

Fradions,

From whence the Fluents of the reft of the which make up the required Value, whoie

Denominators are ncxV b'^^ ncxVd'^y &c. are determined by Infpedtion , iince the Manner of Conftruction muft necefTarily be the fame in all of them. Next,
,

from hence

to

find the Fluent

of


z=i

very fame Reafon that

AH

was taken

— mXAa

:

For the
In find-

ing

(
^^

128

)

ins;

the Fluent of

*—-."'


:

,

let

AH

be (now) ta-

ken
then
into

=

m-i-n

xAm,

and
into

let

Hb

be perpendicular to

AB;

— _^
(

(O <^

P ^)

,

+

v.

pr

H

P^O
',

)

(ifc.

^c. &c, will confequently be the Vabeing

lue fought

but

A H —AC

=AH, HbxO k--^
O ^xO>^
faid

C/^X

— 0/6

will be

AOxH^,

and -^

+ C>l
^c.

X
*^

HA=0/&xAO,
-VFi (O^
:

and therefore the

Value equal
&c,
of

P^)

+ -^
*~'

(

:

P^O

)

&c,
that

Now, from

the

two foregoing *^
is

Fluents

^x
ex

u.X^- + ^-T.x-^"
be taken

readily determined

5

and, if

TO
per-

zzmxha,

or
will
C^c,

A C Q^^ -^
come
that
is, if,

x AC, and

Q^

pendicular to

AB,
Gfc,

out=-^ {Oa:Va)
for the

^
that
I,

+

(P^O)

^c,

fame Reafon

TAQJs made = wrxAtf, TAQJje
or

made

mxKb^
II II

TAQ^mxAc, T AQ^mxAdy
I,,

QJ3^= QCJ^=
I

QjCi be

,

^c
fall

— mxab,
on the

I

let

and the Perpendiculars Q^, Diameter AB, it will be

Q^,

&c.»

«

X ^^

(

129
\

) -^^

Qji
(X}i

{O a

V a)
V

O O

n
n

VaO)
I

{O

b

'-

b) --^
-{•

P-^O)

»X^k

into

— QJ
<(

{Oc

:

Vc)
P^)

Oji
//"
ii/i

{Od

:

-{-

VcO) On On —?dO) -P^O)
nil

&c.
This therefore added to
continued
tive,
'till

J

ax^'
r

— ny^c

+

RfYx
r
ziiX.<:

&C.
or negafirfl
is

the Denominators

become nothing

(as

above found)
for the
let

will be the required Area in the
in the other,

Cafe.

But

Area

where the Ordinate

—^

,

X be put
,

equal to -^, or y

=

-^
—y
yy

1

thea

-j-

« 4-

\

will

be
I

+ «+'
^^

=P

J

«

-f J

2 «

'

and X

and

therefore

^-— , or the Fluxion of the propofed Area

ABDHEA,
that
fion

equal to

,

and confequently

of

BF G

D
^

equal to

;

which Expref-

being the very fame in

Form

with the Fluxion of
in the

the Area

ABC

it

is

manifefl,

that if P,

fore-

going Conflru(5t2on, inftead of being taken at the Diflance

X from the Centre, be put
therefrom, as at P,

at the

Diflance
all

(=

^)

and the Signs of

the Indices

of

x

be changed,
will

tiic

Expreffion fhewing the faid Area

ABC,
in

give that of

BF

G D,

or the

Value required

this

L

1

Cafe

«

,

(

13°
is

)

Cafe

:

Which
!

therefore

r—n

£L

+

?p<^
Qji

_ ^y^, —
r
3

«

<sc,

into

1,

plus

—Vt
But

into

iOa

'.

Va)

'\'

d;2
as

(

P^ O
to

)

^s^^.

^r.
)
>

OP

{x)

being to

O^

( i ),

Oa

OP

(

the Triangles

OV a,

and

O^

P,

will be limilar,

and therefore the Angle
:

P jO = O P^, and

Oa
r

:

P^,
r

OP
— 2«

P^, ^c, S/X
r

wherefore the fald Area will be
3

«

,

&c, into

at"

Ci
0;2
(

r

Qjz

(OP

p^) 4P/^)

OP/z)1

/'//^j

"J

into <

Q^ (OP — qJ (OP qJ (OP
^qJ?'
(

^O'n

(

OP^)

p^)

+ On

(

OPc)

PJ)4_0'^ (-OP^)

op

Ve)^0"n (— OP^)

^
C O R O
L.
I.

JS.

L

H

ENCE

the Area of a Curve, whofe AbfcijfTa

is

x,

and Ordinate
:


;

may

be eafilv

obtained

For,

let

the Radius of the Circle

A

B,

denoted by

g, the reft as before

then, fince every

now be Term in
ji)

the required Area

mud confiit

of the fime

Number

(r

of

Dimenfions, by fubftituting the feveral Powers of ^ for thofe of AO, or Unity in our former Area, it will become
C/^

(

13^

)

I

(

132

)

£!Z!
into

into

^+
:

^iiX.?!^'

_

^'^^"'--•"',

©.. 4--^^-;
C^c\

0^2 (O ^

P ^)

+

O

;2

(P ^ O)

+
II.

(^c.

for the

Area in

this Cafe.

C O R O
E

L.

N C E,

alfo,

may

the Area of a Curve, whofe

Ab-

fciiTa is

z, and Ordinate

——
p
-{•

——
r
p

I

.

,

where
be

p

denotes any

Number
:

at

pleafure,

and r and n
t
x^ a''

as above,

JL
eafily derived

For, putting

z

"

^

~g, and
z z^

d^f X
^

^

i

or

/ =. d

X g
r

^

>we

have

=;

_^K-|-r—

wherefore,
fciffa

if in

the foregoing Area, anfvvering to the
''

Ab-

X,

and

Ordinate
i

"

.,,

n-i

n

^'

^^^^^ Values

of

dy gy

Xy bc rcfpcd vc ly fubftituted, and the whole be

multiplied

by -^

,

it

will

become the Area

in the prefent

Cafe, *

which

therefore will

be

"'^

^XP—p "
pXCk
>

into

-^ + r—n
'till

^—^^

H

C

..

^'^^

contmued

the

Denominators become nothing or negative.

-H

(

^33
:

)
(

(

Qj2
Q^h

-xp-p

-Q_;?
in\
'Oji

H-

pX^k

-~Cti

FaO)^ {OA Pa) -hOn P O (OA F6)^^On PcO) (OA Pr) + OJ'z > (OA P^) + On (— P^O) O A P O — O (— P ^ O
:

(

Z^

)

:

(

:

(

:

.

;2

)

Where, according
_1_

to the foregoing
_P
J

Conftmdion,

AO

(hould

=

a

"

,

Ok=:

f

/x ^

'^

,

and

PO = z
its

^
''

i

but fince each

Term

in

the Area,
,

when adually

divided by the

common

Numerator and Denominator by one fmgle Dimenfion or Power of Lines exhibited in the Circle whofe Ratios do not at all depend on. the Magnitude of that Circle, it matters not, whether AO, Oky and PO be taken exadlly equal to thofe as Quantities, or to others in the fame Proportion,
Divifor

Ck

will be affedted boch in

,

___^
a,
f/,,

L
Xtf,
or

and -^1

"

i,

^,

and

"

-^-j

,

provided
like
is

the reft of the Conftrudion be retained. hold in the Area of the Curve whofe
'P-^i

The

will

AbfcifTa

z^

and Ordinate
2 p.

,

which by proceeding

p .fa ^
r.

1

«

p ^

\

-f-

z

Z P
-f^

in the

fame Manner, from the fecond Cafe, will Gome out

'till

the

Denominator becomes nothing or negative,

Mm

+

A

(

^4
;
:

)

Qji 0^2

(OP
{OV
(

?a)

-f.

0;z

(

^PO)
^
t"

F6)
P
c
)

— oil
+
O
;i

{

PO P

)


-4f-

Q^;/

OP

:

(

O

X

in <
«'^•

)

Oji

— Q^'
L

{OF (OP
Area

:

Fd) -{-0
Pf)

72

(—dPO
(— ^ P O

>
)

:

—O
r

?^

)

Hence,

to

find the

ABC A

of a Curve,

whofe

Abfcifiii

is

z,

and Ordinate
a-^^=±fa^-' «^-f
2/
=..

,

or the

A-

rea

BFGD
.P

of that whofe Abfcifla
p—i
(fee

is 2;

(=

A B) and
we
have

Ordinate

71

the foregoine F?V.)>

this

Con-

iirudion.
dius

From the
I,

Centre

O

of the Circle

is—

take the Point k in the Diameter

ACB, whofe RaAB^ towards-

or B, according as the Sign

of/^^~' z^

is.

— or -{-^-fo that
to

Ok may=
k
in that

-^, and draw the Perpendicular
and

Diameter, meeting, the Circle in
I

Ck to the Point Cj make A a 10
n,

A C,

as

to n,

A C Qj:o A C,
equal to

as r

and

C R,,
equal
take

RS, ST, ^c. each
Point a,
let

ACj
??,

and, beginning at the

the

whole

Circle be divided into as
in

many

Farts a& there

are Units

as

a

by

bcy cdy ^c.

OF
^c,

=
the

"Z.

"

,

and each of the Arches
into the

QJ3

,

QCK.
«,

^

Arch a b

Remainder of r divided by
the Perpendiculars

and draw
Sj,

P <?, O ^, P^, Ob^ ^c. and
Qji,

Rr,

Tt, ^c,

Oj/j

Q^n, &c, to the Diameter

AB;.
then.

{

135

)

then will the Areas

be

refpedively

as

above exhibited.
in all
pofitive

And

it

mufl be obferved,

that this Solution holds
^,

Cafes where

f

is

lefs

than 2

and r and n whole

Numbers.

NoU.
bolical

That

(OP
in

:

Logarithm of


any

Va
,

)

is

put to denote the hyper(

and

^

P

O)

the Meafure of

the Angle ^
is

PO

Parts of Radius or
other.

Unity

5

the like

to be underflood of


(

,

13^

)

^S

C

H O

L

I

U

M.

THE

above Solution being fomewhat intricate, others by infinite Series, where they will converge, may
>

be thought preferable
Difficulty in

but

as

the greateft,

if

not the only.
lies

what has been here

delivered,

in finding

the Fluent of
be
proper
a
(

V^r^
any thing
.,

.

<"
,

,,,.,,..
on
this

'

"

""^^
)

before

is

offered

Hciid

to

add

different

Method whereby
in the

the

faid

Fluent

of

,n-\x

m—

I

— zbx^ 4-,

may,

Form

it

flands above, be

more

eafily inveftigated.

In order thereto,

the

firfl

Conftrudion of the Points
being premifed
C^c.
| d,
,

C, R,
B, C,

S,

i'h,

a, by c,

&c, &c.

let

the

Sines of

the Arches

AC, A^, A 6, Ac,
their

be called
\ e,
i

D, E, &c, and
:

Co-fines
i

/^,

| c,

^c,

refpedively

Then, becaufe

— cx-^-xx
x^""
,

is=:P^%

dx

^xx-=-^b'^y

i—ex^xx^'^c^y

&c, and
it

P^^xP^^ X
i

Fc^X P ^%
Sum
&c.
of

C^c.

=1 — 2b x"" ^
of
i

follows,

the .^Logarithms

cx-^xx,
i

— dx~\-xx,

that the

muft be equal to the Logarithm of

^2bx'' ^x^"

and thereforeFluxions
garithm.
X

=

XX — ax-^-i XX — cx-\'i ""^'"'"~ ~^"'~' the Fluxion of i"
Gf^r.the
,
1

^--^-^

+ _^.ll^::iiL,
~

Sum of their
that

2

!J

.i

"

Lo-

-\-

X

Hence, by taking each^de of the Equation from

il^, and dividing the whole by x, we have -i-/^-

XXX

^—'''
C

X

—J" I

+

( 137

)

— —r-r-»
^

^^'

=
,

5

this

Equation be*
-.-,
.V

ing multiplied

by x"

and the former by

and the
4'

Pfoduds added

together, there will be b into ^

~-^^i
I

— cx~\-xx
,

— ——
1
i

I

, ax-\-xx^

^c, 4- X
*

into

——
I

i

cx~\-xx

U
«

i

dx-^xx
,

&c.

(

=. IE!i><ii.fZ.'

)

=

"^'-''.

Now

to

reduce

«"- X ,;-:;.
Let
,

+

vSt+T.
+G;tf

^^- t° lower Dimenfions;

A

A?

+Ba?
C

^^«^^/A;+i

•^

.JL£±V
AT AT

be alTumed

=

^

-i2

x.^'
I

'

x^-.^

^

^^.

X-T^

CX-\-XX

iL^JLzil"^', then, by bringing the Equation into one
XX-'-'

ex -{'I

Denomination,

and equating

the

like

Terms, we have
&c,

A = ff, B = fA— I, C = fB — A, D = ^C — B,
and
a
-u

=

J

:

But, thefe Equations,

it

is

manifeft, (from

known

Property of the Circle) likewife exprefs the Rela-

tioa of the Co-lines of the Arches
therefore

A^, 2

A a, 3A^,
firfl

&c,

(A

=
B

f

C) being the Co-line of the

of thole

Arches, and

that of the fecond ,

the Values of C,

D, E,

&c, which entirely depend on

thefe,

mult confequently be

equal to the Co-lines of the reft of thofe Arches refpectively
;

and
17

therefore

t

equal to the Co-line
i

of ^

xAa,

and --

=

that of »

x A^. Wherefore^

if

Aa^

+
B

Nn

:

(

138

)

Sx'-^
in like

+ Cx''''^...

kx^+"lx+"s+j^^+^,

he.

Manner, affuraed
Bat'-^
-{-

=
G?f.

12

x

*''~'/7''' , xx—ax-\-l

and

Ax"~"
C?r.

-i-

Cx'-\

= _ J_ X "'"^r^"
fame Reafon, that A,

&c.
C,
ty

it

follows, for the very
v, will be

B,

the

Co-fines of the Arches

A ^,
/,

2A^, sA^, nx^by and« — ixA^, and A,
S,

B,

C,
c.

thofe of

A ^,
\

2

A ^,
we
L_

3

A
a;

^, ;?

y A c,

?z

i

x

A
2

^c,

^c.

refpedlively

and

fhall,

by adding together the
'x ^J~'^.^ -{"^ Ji-\-xx
""-^

faid Equations,

have

x

'"""

—d
dx-^xx
-f-

I

(^c,

=

a;''"^

X

A

4-

A

-1-

A,

efr.

-{-

a:

XB

+B

B
4-

4-'B, &c,
'tx-^^

+ ;.«-4 xC 4- C + C,
,

Gf.. G?r.

+ ^-if;±£^^
an

Bat, A,

A, A, &c. being the Co-fines of the
therefore the Roots of

I

dx-{-x X

Arches

Ka, Ab, Ac, &c. and

Equation, exprefling the Relation of the Co-fine of an Arch, to that of another Arch « times as great, wherein the fecond

Term

is

always wanting

{vit^e p.

io6.) their

Sum muft
;

thereis

fore be equal to nothing,

by

common
is

Algebra

which

evifor,

dent even by Infpe6tion, when n then eveiy one of the Points a, h,
inp-

an even

Number;

c,

&c, above

AB

hav-

another Point, of the fame Conftrudtion, diametrically oppofite to it, the Sines, as well as the Co-fines, anfwerii g

to thole Foiais,

mufl be equal and contrary, and therefore
dcftroy

(
deitr oy

^39

)

each other.

In like
2

manner B, B, B,
2

C^c,

being

the Co-fines of 2

A ^,

A ^,

A^
is

,

^c,

or

the Roots of

fuch another Equation, they muft alfo dcftroy one another,
fcft:.

G?r.

Hence our Equation

reduced to
^^-^'" cx-\-xx


t
I

.

f

x"^^ x

\—-cx-\^xx
III
.

I

— d 1-. — dx-^x X
z

,

C^'f. =:
I

+ — dx-^xx +
X

///

'^ ^^ x—'ex-f'xx

-

+

Cs?<:.

But

lince ^

is

found to be the Co-line of «xA a

or

i

(

14°
i'

)

or AC,

't

tliat

of «

x

A b or ABC,
;2

that

of a x

A c or ABCBC,n
i;

^c.
^c.
..^

"J

=: that

of

-u. I

X

A ^,

i;

=: that of


=

i

x A^„
^

we
^

have

t := f

^

i^

&c.
3

= Ok—b^

and

—B C
^
v

V

r=.

— BD— —
z
»

^c. and therefore

z

— cx
fj

— dx
2

"iZZTx^^^x

^C, or X

J

X i_,^^^^

— j?.v-f-xv» — ex

cJ
*

_ ^-y — BC — f^c — cx-\-xx — ^.v
I

bx—^V> — \h
***"

2

,

-r-

j^^x-\-xx'^ i^ex~^xx' ^^'

— dx-\-xx 2 — ex
I

f,_s

fubHituted,

inflead

thereof in

x "~^' x .1" ^!^^
;

,

^^.

=

_J^JJL£^II1_ l—zbx"-\-x^^
2 B,

("as

abovefound) and the whole divided by

wc

fliall

have

._;^^^ 4-

C

D E ,_^,^.^, 4- ,_,^^;,^
.

^-

7=7^^'
2 ^

^^"^

=

''"d.

.-"/."""^J"
"*~

confequently

J

_
I

^

«

I

^«2

I—iTAr-f-ATA?

I— ^.Y-fATAr "T

i_^^_|_^^~r-

^"^

-,£;?<;.

Let now

kx"'-^

fx-\-xx'

+
*

Ba;'^~3

+CAr«-4

.

? •

/;<:

+i + ^-JJ^^jXX CX-f-l
I

be affumed

= ^^^"CX-f-l x^ —

5 '

then,' >

by Redudion, ^c, we
A,

fliall

get

A=

C,

B = c A, C == ^ B
from the a.

D=

i:

C---B, ^c. ^c, where

it

appears,

fore-named Property of the Circle, that A, B, C,

,

,

.

i,

.—

.

'y,

are the Sines of

A ^^

2

A

<7,

3

A ^,

.

.

,

;;/

x

A

tf,

;^

A^

(

HI
if

)

A a refpeaively.
.....
nifeft,
/at

Hence,
.

A ^ ^"^

+

B ^ '^-3
-—r~ — dx~\-i

+ C^
-

'^"^

+

J

H XX — xa-\'i be put r
i

'

.

=

x^

*

It IS

ma-

that A,
'T^hb
, , .

iS, fc

.

.

.

.

/,

i;

will be the Sines of
refpedtively,

2Kby
&c.

.mxhb
it is

and

m — i xAb
C

A b,
^c.

Therefore, as

evident

from the above Reafons, that

A -{- A,
mull
X
all

&c, and
be

6

+ 6,
— iXAa

^c. and
,

+C

,

^c.

^c.

equal to Nothing
of m'
,

we

have
\—zbx"-\-zx"

X Sine ofTfiXAa— Sine
I

— cx-^xx

;»rXSine of

mX^i — Sine
I

oi

m

"^

i

X.A*^

<^x-\-xx
),

^c. which, becaufe
will

AH
^

become

-^-"+—

by Conflrudion ^H;.x.^-sine(A H-.4 .).
is

=

X A <3

(

^H/.x^+^^XO^-H^XQ^
I

C

X-f-X X

'

^^^
being f

Wherefore, the Fluents '

of

1

— —
i^; CX-f-XX

and
I

ffAT-j-XX

(FaiOa) y
\

-f•

2fL
^
j,,

(P^O)

and

^

(P^O)

refpedively,

that of

H_hXf]^-\-am>o^b

kBX

l

— t±hxo_^^^ — CX-\- XX

^c.

&c.

or

its

Equal ^
:

—±!±!1I-L±,
oj>_
,

muft confequently be
^<:. £5'^.

=

ili (Va

Oa)
was

/p^O),

which

is

the very fame as

before found.

Having thus
next to lay

far

effeded what was propofed,

it

remains

down

a

Method
more

for finding the aforefaid Areas

ABC, B F G D,

in a

eafy

O

Manner, by Approximation and o
.

«


(

142

)

and
this,

infinite

Series,

when

that can be done.

In order to
k^

the foregoing Conftrudion of the Points
flill

P, and C,

being
to

retained, let

CR, RS, ST, TU, ^c,
T/, ^c. perpendicular
,

be each equal
to

AC,

and
r
,

R r,

Sj,

AB.

Then

--^"
will

-,-£14. Rry^^-^

-S.x^"-^^-'^

-T/x^3/^-3/
"'

^

ua,x^4-;^^-4^
^

^^^

^^

infinitum,

or

^ into

-£!_ 4- R^x-^Z^^

+

-s^x^-_!^i!^

^

tsc.
is

be

= A B C A,

or the Area of the Curve

whofe AbfcifTa
,

z.

and Ordinate


tn

«
^^-

^

—r—in

i

and

»K

^

«

into

r

£L —

4-

R^x.^.-^

,

-^Ss.^K-'^

r— 2«
r

^ ^HX^Eflll r—^n
+
-±^;
f

&c. or

H
^c,

—- H- iil^S^

f-

Z^E!X£2lflIy
r

+ 4«

= B F G D,

or the Area of the Curve

P——P — H
v^^hofe AbfcifTa
is

r

1

2r,

and Ordinate

The

Reafons whereof, from the former Part of the fore-

going Solution, will appear manifefl:.

F

I

N

I

S.

ERRATA.

.

_j

p
1.

AGE?.
r.

1.

17. for

^r xt&dgr,
\/»«

p. 28.

I.

14.

r.

2
for
*,

=
,

2

?*

V

"t*

ZZZZ
« 4-1

1,

1.

18.

for a^'v''

^v^i;*,

1. laft,

^f.

r.

_—^
1.
1.


1.

^

p. 31.
r.

5.

for ihe

Ratio,

T.

nxihich is to Unity in the Ratio,

p. 32.

18. for than,

/i',?^

as, p.

42.

24. for

Ks
0?-

r.

ks,
r.

1.

25. for cvr
1.

r.

jr,

p. 48.

2|. for S

C

r.

I

C,

p. 49.

L
r.

16. for 5

6

7

or %, p. 51.
r,

19. for §2
p.

50
1.

r.

51 52.
for

1,

penult, for

52 51
r.

51 52, p. 53.

1.

20. for

,

57.

24.

Specifck

Gramty

g
Specifick

g
1.

Gravity in Air, p. 61
12.
r.

io. for

^
for
r.

"^'t^
i

^'

^"^
'

^'

'^'

^
1.

'"°

^'^*

p. 76.

1.

for o/^K

r.

n,

p. 85.

1.

10. for


1.

r,

,

p. 93.

penult, for
p. 103^
""

Allo'wances
1.

Alk<wance,
r.

p. loi.
1,

]. laft,

2,3, ^<r.

r.

1,2,3, <^c.
1.

2.

forjv=:o

a-=:ioo,

3.

for

Or.
,

II.

Cor. lil. p. 104.
2.

24. for«Ar'^

r.

x'^^"\ L
^<? r. flrf,

penult, for

dx^ r.dz"
1.
1

p. 105.

for
p.

</2«

r.
1.

dtc"

,

1.

15^.

for
r.

and
T^5

for are r. ^f,
1.

8
at

for

AH
r.

r.

A
'

R,
"^

u 3.

24. for

1

02

aP i*

I'SiA

::::::

p. 13 !,

kit, for

«

Lately PubliJIjed^
I'

XjL

in Natural A COURSE of LECTURES lsh am, D. Richard He by
Philofophy^

the late

iVf.

Profeflbr of Fhyfick and Natural Philofophy of Dublin. In Odavo. Price Five Shillings.

in

the

Univerfity

Publiflied

by

BRYAN ROBINSON,
added, by

M.D.

PROBLEMS,
1.

To

which

are

Way

of Appendix^ feveral Curious

by the Editor.
de Defcriptione Linearum Curva-

Exercitatio Geometrica
4to.

rum,

Audore
Printed for

GULIELMO BRACKENRIDGE,
Eccleftee

Anglicans Preshytero,
z.tt\\Q

J,

Nourse,

Lamb

without T'emple-Bar.

MATHEMATICAL

DISSERTATIONS
On
a

Variety

of

PHYSICAL

and

SUBJECTS.
Containing,

ANALYTICAL
other Particulars,

among

A Demonftratlon
Axis.

of

the true Figure

A new

Theory of Aftronomical-Re-

which the Earth, or any Planet muft acquire from its Rotation about an

fradions, with exaft Tables deduced

therefrom.

A A

of the Attradlion at the Surfaces of Bodies
general Inveftigation

A

new and very exa£l Method for approximating the Roots of Equations in

Numbers

;

that quintuples

nearly fpherical.

the

Number

of Places at each

Ope-

Determination of the meridional Parts, and the Lengths of the feveral Degrees of the Meridian, according to the true Figure of the
Earth.

ration,

Several

new Methods

for the

Summa-

tion of Series.

Some new and very
Fluxions.

ufeful

An

Inveftigation of the Height of the

ments in the inverfe

Method

Improveof

Tides in the Ocean.

THE WHOLE
In a general and perfpicuous Manner.
5)^

THOMAS SIMPSON.
LONDON:
Woodward,

Printed for

-Moon, between at the Half T. the two "Tempk'Gates in Fketjireet, i743«

(iii)

T O

Martin Folkgs^ Efquire^

PRESIDENT
OF THE

ROYAL-SOCIETY.
S I Ry Could not have wilh'd for a greater Honour than your condefcending to
receive thefe Sheets under

your Pro-

teftion
able,

:

As

every Man

is

in juftice anfwer-

both to his Patron and the Publick, for what he prefumes to print, I hope I have taken care that they may not be

wholly

(

iv

)

If they wholly unworthy your perufal. ihall have the good Fortune to meet with your Approbation, I need not be anxious In the about their Reception elfewhere. mean time, Sir, I moft earneftly defire,
that this Addrefs

may

be underftood as an
the Favours
undeferving,

humble Acknowledgment of which I a Stranger, however have received at your Hands ; Ihall always remember with
Gratitude.

and which I
the fincereft

I

am.
Sir,

Your moft

obliged

Humble Servant,

Thomas

Simpson.

(

V)

ts fo natural when a Work of this kind appears in the Worlds to ask What there is new in it ? arid the greater of thofe who Jet up for fudges, are Jo extreamly bent to depreciate every Thing to which they can frame the leajl Pretence of an Objediion, that an Author, without any Imputation of Vanity, may fometimes be allowed to fet fo?'th the Merits of his own Performance, in order to give his lefs difcerning Readers a true RepreJ'entation thereof : And this I hope will be thought a reafonable Apology for what I have to offer in behalf of the feveral Particulars that compoj'e this Mijcellany.

IT Fart

The Firf, which is one of the mofl confiderable Papers in the whole Work, is concerned in determining the Figure which a Planet, or an homogenous Fluid, mufl acquire from its Potation about an Axis wherein the true Figure, under juch a Rotation,
-,

is

not only univerfally demonjlrated, but the particular Species

in which ; proved that the Gravitation at any Point in the Surface, is accurately as a Perpendicular to the Surface at that Point, producedfrom thence to the Axis of Revolution and that it is impoffible for the Parts of the Fluid ever to come to an Equilibrium among themfelves, when the Motion about the Axis is fo great as to exceed a certain afjignable ^antity ; with feveral other Particulars never before touched upon by Any. I mufi own that, fince my firfl drawing up this Paper, the World has been obliged with fomething very curious on this Head, by that celebrated Mathematician Mr, Mac-Laurin, in which many of the b fame
it is
-,

thereof, according to any affigned

Time of Revolution

(

vi

)

Jatne things ^ dre demonftrated.
before the Royal Society
*",

ajid

But what There offer was read' the greater Part of this Work

printed off, many Months before the Publication of that Gentleman's Book ; jor which Reafon 1 pall think myfelf feciire jrom ajiy Imputations of Plagiarifm, ejpecially as there is not the lead Likenefs between our two Methods.

The fecond Paper,

contains a general Inve(ligation of the At-

traSlion at the Surfaces

of Bodies nearly Jpherical.
the Heights of the Tides in the Ocean,

The Third, confders

The Fourth, exhibits a very eafy Method for finding the Length of a Degree of the Meridian, and the meridional Parts anfwering to
a?2y given

Latitude, accordifigto the true fpheroidal Figure of the

Earth.

The Fifth, includes the Invefligation of the Curve deferibed by a Ray of Light in pafjing thro' an elafiic Medium, whofe Denfty either refpeSis a plane, orfpherical Surface, and varies according to any given Law : Whence are derived fome practical, and very ufeful Cdnclufwns, relating to the RefraSlion which the Light of
the Heavenly-Bodies fuffers in its Paffage thro' the Earth's Atmofphere j with exaB Tables thereof laid down by the help of very

accurate Obfervations.

of the Summation of Series j which, befides Matters intirely new, is much more general containing feveral and extenfve than any Ihing I have hitherto met with, for the

The Sixth,

treats

fame Purpofe.
The Seventh,
exhibits

a new Method for finding the Values of

Series by Approximation.

* It was read before the Royal-Society in March or Jpril, 1741, and been printed in the Philofophical Tranfaftions, had not I defired, the contrary.

had

The

(

vxi)

The Eighth comprehends the Invejligation of fome very nfeful Theorems for approximating the Roots of Equations in Numbers, much more exa5l than any Thing hitherto publificd j whereby the
J

Number

of Places is tripled,
;

quadrupled, or even quintupled, at
eafy

each Operation

to

which are added, fome

and proper Appli-

cations, in illufration thereof.

mechanic ^adratures, or the Method of approximating the Areas of Curves, by Means of equidijlant This Method was originally an Invention of Sir Ordinates. Ifaac Newton's, ftnce profecuted by Mr. De Moivre, Mr. Stirling, and Others : However, as I here afjume nothing to myfelf but a Liberty of putting the Matter infuch a Light, as Ijudge

The Ninth,

relates to

will be moji plain andJatisfaBory to the Reader, Ifee no Reajon why I may not be allowed the fame Privilege as Others.

The Tenth, is concerned in finding and comparing of Fluents, and contains a great Variety of new and ufeful Improvements, being one of the mofl confiderable Papers in the whole Work,
The Eleventh, is an eafy Invefiigation of the Paths of Shadows^ on the Plane of the Horizon. The Twelfth, contains a Determination of the Time of the Tear when Days lengthen the fafteft, according to any affigned Excentricity of the Earth's Orbit.

The

Thirteenth, fhews

how much

the Defcent

of Bodies,

is

affeBed by the Earth's Rotation.

a Demonjlration of the Law of Motion, that a Body defleBed by two Forces^ tending to two fix'd Points, de~ fcribes equal Solids in equal Times, about the Right-Line joining
TheFourteenth,
is

thofe Points.

oe Th

(

viii

)

The Fifteenth, JJoews in what Cafes a Body ^a^ed on by a centripetal Force, may continually dejcend towards the Centre^ yet never jo far as to come within a certain T)ijlance\ and in what other Cafes it ?nay continually afcend, yet never rife to a certain finite
Altitude,-

The Sixteenth and laji comprehends an
,

eafy

and general Inve/ii-

gation of all the principal Theorems relating to Compound- Intereji and Annuities^ without being obliged to fum up the Terms oj a

geometrical Frogrejfion,

Thefe fix
general

laft

Papers,

tho'

more fmple in themfelves, and of lefs

Xjfe thaiifome of the preceding, may never thelefs be look' a upon as entertaining Speculations, and therefore not prove unac-

ceptable.

ERRATA.
PAGE
«"
I.
^at"!

2.

L

lall,

and p.
r.

3.

1.

2.

for

«
',

%^ read
1.

a

«|

;

p. 4.

1.

10. for
p. 20.

Xa"

x^\

,

«"


p.

;t"|

x«"

x^

p. 5.

3. dele the

Semi-colon

j

21. ioT nvhereof, i^c. read nuhereofthe^imeofKe'volutioncanhefoJhortyasofthaty ixihofe equaioreal Diameter is to its Jxis, as 2.7 198 to Unity, p. 38. 1. 12. iox pajjtng, r.
p. 47.
1.

faffing thro^

p. 41. ; 26. for iy,

1.

4. for Spherodial,

r.

Spheroidal', p. 42.
r.

1.

9. fox

Part,

r.

Partsi

X.

be

;

61.

1.

21. for could,

could

R,x. k;

p. 70. I. 14. for in, r. to ; p. 73. 1. 16. for %, r bers put a Semi-colon ; p. 81. 1. 15. for -}-«"rt:«''", r. rfca"-}"^''"

have been ; p. 64. 1. 17. for z ; p. 78. 1. 8. ahex Num1.
' P- ^^- ^ ^S-^r 9. for 613, r. 61.3;

/k-{-2m, r. q-\-ztn

;

p. 99.

I.

laft,
X.

for a"^, x. a'^x'^i p. 105.

p.
r.

122.

1.

20. for independant,

independent;

p.
r.

128.

1.

8, for l

— _aLi

^

^tfc,

I

J—, &c.
r.

p.

136.
149.

I.

5. fox Negative,

negative

Number

p.
1.

145.

I.

Z.

for/-|-3r,
r.

p-\-zr
i.

',

p

1.

12. dele the upper
r. to

Vinculum;

p. 151.

5.

forc:«>

=:Ar; p. i6i.

19. {ox gravitate,

gravitate.

[x]

A Mathematical

DISSERTATION
ON THE

F

I

G U R E

E

ART
L E

M M AT,
to

UPPOSING AC perpendicular

A^B, and

a Corpufcle at C to be attraBed towards every Point or Particle in the Line B, by Forces in the reciprocal duplicate Patio of the Hijiances : T'o find the Ratio of the whole compounded Force, whereby the Corpufcle is urged in the DireBion C, Let

A

A

A

[=^3
/
Let kC:=.d, AB=:Ar, ^ Bbz=. x: Therefore B

O=

an<r
^/*

+

x^-

;

confequently -jrjr^ will

be as the Force of a Particle at B, in the Direftion B C j but d^-^- x^\i

y\

d-'\-x^

d^J^xY
in the

cacy of that Particle
pofed Direction A C; wherefore ^=====-4
d'--\-x'
d'x
is

pro*

the Fluxion of the

whole Force j whofe Fluent
^x^^
fore, the

AB

+

;f-'|^—

CAxBC

is,

thereI.

Force

itfelf.

a E.
IL

LEMMA
SUppoJing

inclined to each other, at the common vertex A, their Jirji or fecond Axes, in an indefnit ely mall angle r of B'y to find the attraSlion of the aid Cuneus, whereby a Cor-

Apr V

a Cuneus of uniformly denfe Matter^ comprlzd between two equal andfimilar elliptical lanes EA,

F

ADB

A,

f

A

pufcle at

urged in the Direction of the Axis r. E and meh^ two Ordinates to the Axis A B, indefiLet nitely near to each other, and let A B ^, B C r=: z, C f =: z^
is

A

f

D

ABorA

C D •=.y, and
to

=

Angle formed by the two Planes> and let the Equation of the Ellipfi? be y^^z=:fz—'Z^'^gz'- (which will anfwer either to the tranfverfe, or conjugate, Axis, according as the Value of g^
the Radius
i,

the Sine of the

=

d',

is

taken negative or pofitive)

Now,

it

will be, as 11

d

:i

a-^z:, d

^ a

2;,

the Diftance

of the two Planes at the Ordinate propofed Matter at that Ordinate

D C,
j

or the

Depth of the
>

into

fz — z"- — g J^ '^""^^. y^ z'-\'\-fz _;2^_^S*
z
sj

which
<

therefore drawrj,

DCxCf i~ACx AD

S

the

the Attradlion of the Particles in the
the preceding

furfaceDCr^D
^

{hy

Lemma)

gives

^
z''

V

^

z"- '\-

f z -^

—g

Z^-

A^?^=

I7IB

for the

Fluxion of half the Force required. But whtnfz-^-^z^-^-

gz" becomes=<?, z will be
writing

=

f

= AB =^
gz
I

;

therefore
it

by

i+^x^

inftead of

y in

the faid Fluxion,

will be

<?+^2;l4 b ^c, the Fluent

3^'^'
^
-

M^l^
2.4.6^3
will

"'^^ ^7

~

2a 2i^

2.4^^

whereof,

when z becomes
_

=

a,

be

ad

^

I

-|-^| -^x

—J+I

^^. which, becaufe ^ x

i

+^1"^.

is=/)c.i

+^r= /x

— ^+ |£'

eifr.

will

be

= ^/

^

.

Lemma

I4l
X
E

MM

A
j
'

III.

TH E
when
a""

Fluent

of'

a'^—x^r

% a:™

x bein^

pofed to find the Fluent of ^^

given ; tis prop^^'^"+^"-^ x ;c"P +

x''\^

"^

^

becomes s=: o

fuppojing

p and v

to

be

whole poftive Numbers,

Let

Q==^»

^"1'"

+

'

H

Af^n,

and

let

E,

F,G,H, ^c,

denote
;^

the Fluents
^«v

of

^"
^"-'
AT

X'^T X a:''"— ' x^

^n __ ^np ^ ^^m

+ n-i
x

;(;np yA;''"

+

refpedively

:

Then

(^ being {=zrn

%

rn X
^n
"X

x'"'—''
x^'f'
>i y.

^

tf"


?z

x"^)

— =r
X

:x:"|''

x ^"


'

a;"|"

—w

-}~ ^

^

'^

-^^

a;''"—'

x

?2 <2"

X ^"
^,

— x^T
if,

x ^'"'~'

a:

r-tm+i

^"

iX:"p
^^^

— a:™ +
''

inflead of
their

a""

a:"!""

x

a:'^'^—' X,

and

a;"!""

><

a:"""

-f-"-^ ;^

Equals E and f

be here fubftituted,
X F
}

we
r

fhall

whence

Q =: r »
>

^"

E

get
r

Qj=:rna''E
-I- »/

r-t-m-\-i-Kn

+

1

x « x F,

and confeI

quently
or

F

=
nxr-{-m-\-

which

therefore
n "C

when ^ZITPl^
'

1

O

becomes =:o, will be

= -4^——
{if^.

.

And

it

is

manifeft,

by Infpedion, from the very fame Reafons
!l±12ifJl> r-tm-f-z

that

G

is

==
>

H = "^^^ +
r

^
771+7,
"^
.

or

^ G =: r + }?i+ iy.r + m +

H=
tf"
1

-

r

— =

^ / \^ + fn+iy.r + ?n+ 2Xr + w +
.^
,

.

>

and therefore the Fluent of

3

+''"—' a:"P X a:™
7, ^

at',

(in this

Cirumftance) putting r-\-m
-r
. . . .

Will be

^ X ^

-r r + x^+ 2
I

^

+

-1;


^

Now

if

this

Fluent be denoted by P, and ;c^^+^«~

by K, the Fluent

[f
cnt of
a""

]
is

A"|

X

K

a;" ;v

will,

it

evident, be
a''

= r-^v ~—y.
a;,

««

which taken from

a'^

P,

that

of

— ^"^ xK^"
'

leaves

^—T

^TXT
^nl""

^°^
its

^^^ Fluent of a^

— ;c"1%K^"a:;
x

— —
^n

^Ka:"a; or

Equal, ^ "
'

— ^"^ +

Ki;
of

therefore
a""

the Fluent of ^"

:v"|"'"^

x

K

a: is

to the Fluent

x''^

xKa;

as fiiiiif!

to ij and, for the very

fame

reafons, will

the Fluent of
as
'-^TffqrT"
:

^n— A;"i'" + \Ki be tothatof <2"— H'""*''xKii
to I, G?r.

whence

it

manifeftly appears that the

Fluent of ^^^"^^^^^^'"^^x
will be exprelTed ^

K^,or of ^^"IT^'^+Pj.^rn+vn-.i ^

by ^- P x

y
^

+ z;-r;) — I
-^

.orbyE^
-^

x»?+i. ^ +
,

2.

q'-h6. q

+ 7.

m+3 m-^p r + m + v-hp

^' x q-hv-hl ^ ^^1_ .... 4±£_ + ^^^ into ^— q-q+\.q + 2.q + +
?
'y

q-i-V-i-2

.

.^

^

z.

^

+ 4.^
r\

5

^

^' ^*
I,

T?

T

COROLLARY,
If

be taken equal to the Fluent of iHT| Part of the Periphery of the Circle whofe Radius

E

""
'

x

i,

or ^

is

Unity,

and

I


:

s^\

'^= V,
y.

and th^ Fluent of

i

ss\

^

s x ^i?^* ^^^

or of

—r_

v"-^ s ='^,

when

i— j j

is

r= o and
i,

if

and w, whole

l—ss\^

Numbers be


•^4

required: Then,
',

by writing

for ^5 4,

forr;
ztu
I

43 for

m

I,

for

§-}

t,

for/* 3 and w, for

v

in the general

Expreffion foregoing,

we

fhall

have d

E

^'^'^'^
-a

2. 4. 6.

8.

10.

13

T~

^'^
^

^^.

'"

2 zv-t-2t.

for the Fluent in this Cafe.

B

CORO

L-

[6]

COROLLARY.
Hence, may the Fluent of -rr—^y. P
1
ss\

IL
^'-j-Q 1;^"—=* i^-j-

i;^"

pr„^2n_4

ss Is=ro, and n any whole pofitive ^c, when i alfo determined j for let the Value of w (in the laft Corollary) be fucceffively expounded by i, 2, 3, C^c. and i, 71 that of t, at the fame time, by n, n 2, &c. and
j6^

Number, be


I

then

it is

evident, the Fluents of
I

j4
J^'
I. 3- 5-

x
7

^r;^".?-,


I
ssl
-1-

t ^ i;^-"—^ i*
r

&c.

will

come

out

^E

>c

— X —^i2_Zii:i^lzziiii 2n-^2
2;^
2,. A., n 2. 4. 6

o M

T

^

je
gf^.

i.,..;....^,,-3j<j_^
2.4 d...
refpedlively
2?Z

^g

^

ij^.....^.-.xi.M
2.4.6
2?Z-{-2,

+2

; which therefore, being multiplied by their proper Coefficients P, Q, R, ^c. and added together, give d E-a I. 3. 5. zn I xP + i.^. 5.»..2?z 3X 3 Q^ n-:, E X I. 3.
.

.

.

<;

2. 4. 5.

8.

.

.

2;z

+2
'

^^'

2.4.

6. 8.

.

.

.

2«1-2
(^c. for the

'2/2

I

2 72

LXzn

3

'

2

72

LXZn

3X2

72

Fluent fought.

LEMMA
SJJppofrtg
Axis

IV.

P A S ET O
Qin
CB

to be

any Spheroid, generated by

the Rotation

P

S

j

S E about its lejjer of an EUipfis P to find the AttraBion thereof exerted on a Corpifcle,
its

A

at any given Point

Surface.

Let
to

Q^R L
B V of

and

r be perpendicular, and r

L

parallel

P

Sj and

let

the Square of any Ordinate

B C of

the ge-

nerating Ellipfis, be to the Square of the correfponding
dinate
the Circle

Or-

Fvl Sy P,
P
S, in

defcribed from the fame
i

Centre O, about the Axis

any given Ratio of

-f:

B
to

[7]
b Q_of the QJI be the Axis of a Sedlon propofed Solid, formed by the Interfedion of a Plane paffing through the Point Q^perpendicularly to the Plane of the generating Ellipfis 3 and let P R, =: ^, the
:

to

I

;

let

Q^ H

O=

PASO

OR

Sine

of the Angle fine =(7, (Xrr=zx^

R QJI
its

Radius i, =:f its Qocorrefponding Ordinate r a-=^y;
to the
,

(.^VT^TR^trF)' = a,
fince

Q^

and

Therefore QJ^ is=^x, -\-px, and Erzz=:qx a-^ whence
y. T

y-

B C-=zR^— b—z bp x —p^ x^ B x% and confequently -f B />^ ^^5^^ —B/^ ^% (^= B C^— r^)^=z2aq x— 2 A/ ;^

= ^^ —
Q^ H

2

Ap X — p^
i,

R T (=: T-f B v.b)~K% andr L=/x, we have 0^^=b

x'^

z>

p""

a;^"

or,

becaufe^^ -(-^^ is=:

/-

is=^^— A/x2;<:

x'^

—B/^a;^;

which Equation being only of two Dimenfions, fhews the Curve 3 Q, whereto it pertains, to be an Elliplis.

[8]
Let now a Plane be fuppofed to revolve about Q^^as a Centre, always continuing perpendicular to the Plane of the and (Xjn k be /? E, and let generating Ellipfis P two Pofitions of that Plane indefinitely near to each other;

QJ

Q H

and fuppofing

QF

the Point Q, QJT of a Circle whofe Centre is Q, and Radius Unity j the Sine of that Arch, be denoted by Sy its Cofine

to be a Tangent to the Ellipfis P Q_S at perpendicular thereto, and F b an Arch
le t

G

b,

(Vi— jj)

by 'u, and, hm, the Fluxion of that Arch, by^: Then, fince is the Difference of the two Angles B QJT, the Angle B Qjr, and the Sine and Cofine of the lafi: of thefe two

R

Q^

equal refpedtively

to

7=^, and ^=^,5
B OR, and

we
its

fhall

have

y'""'i

the Sine of

^jiM==

Cofine,

by

the Elements of Trigonometry 5 which Values being therefore fubftituted infi:ead of /> and q in the Equation above found, it

becomes j^

= V ^H"
2
s *\/a^-\-A'-

^' ^ ^

— :v^— B
of/,
'e

'

"li
*

'

at^

x ^qrfz'

Hence

by writing 2

inftead

inftead of d,
at the

and Bx
fe-

i:^j-^l inftead of ir, in the Theorem ^ «^ + A^

End
2 %

of the
2.

4 B

cond Lemma,

we

fhall get

2

e s

y^

^^-(-A^j

av—sA\"
^^-j-A^

1 1,
'

,

2. 4. 6.
3. 5.

B^
^

av—sA\''
7,

.

cifc.

Ihewing; the Ra-

^^-1-A^ 7 tio of the Force wherewith the Corpufcle at QJs urged in Qj)r k Q, by the Attraftion of the Cuneus the Diredion of Matter included between the two Ellipfes, whofe Axes are Q^H and Q^^; from whence, by the Refolution of Forces, the Attraction of that Cuneus in the Diredions

H

QJF

and

Q^T

will be

had equal

to

zesv

x^"-|-A^|^

[?]
3-5
2.

"^^A^z^*?;

^c.

and 2

^ J J

X

a"- -[-

A^j'

4 B

— ^A|'
G?(r.

"3

3-5
it is

^^

+ A^

refpedlvely

:

which Ex-

preffions are,

manifeft,

as the

Fluxions of the whole
Solid, in thofe

Force, exerted by the Part

Q^ P Q^f the

noW, another Plane Q^K to revolve about the fame Point Q, and with the fame Velocity as the former, but in a contrary Diredion, fo as to meet and coincide with it in the Perpendicular Q^T then v in this Cale becoming the Attradion of the Part 'u, the Fluxion of C^A K Q, in the forefaid Diredlions QJ^ and QJT, (by
birections.

Suppofe,

-,

writing

V

inllead of -j-

nj)

will be

2,e s

v

% a-

A^

C

"

2 --

2.

7^"
2.

4

B

— av — iAI^
^z^A-

^^

^^„^

and

,

.'

2j.,
.

« «^

+
,

,

,r

A-i'-

2 ^~
3
fore,

4 B
X

3-5
if thefe

—aV— ^' + A;

J Al'^

&c.

/« , reipectively ^ ^


:

Where-

Fluxions be

added to thofe of the former

Part in the like Diredions, and

Zlav—sAVit,

be changed to

av

-\- s

Al

J

which
*

is

equal to

we

{hall
s

have 2
A\

e s

v
6

y,

-»-T~TTiT ^ -j-A'i' into

av —
.

>c

5Ai+ ^ =--Tir— a--\-A'\

— — ^ av-UsA^'' anj — X a^J^A3.5. av — A'
2.4B
Z
14.

.

2. 4. l,

B'-

3- 5- 7-

.

&c. and 2

e s^

-x.

2 z ^^4-AM' into

^

.

3
'

2.4B

av -\'S A- \ ~\-av—s Ai'
""

2.4.6B*

av-\-sAr-\-av—sAr
""

IT

^K^
s

3^7"
G

'T^W
mbn
therefore,

^c. for the Fluxion of both Parts together, in thefe DirecBut, fince the Triangles Qj6 tions. and are fimilar,
e will be to

(r=

m n)

:

as

i

:

V i— ^j

3

by

fubfti-

tuning

y-^—^

inftead

of

e,

the foregoing Expreffions will

2vss^
become
,

a'-^-A'V ±

2.4.B
^^'^o

^

av-\-sA^''-^av—sA^
^ ^^+A^ _____ _______
,

i—j^r
.

3-5
.

.i
^

2^

J

x^^-l-A*^'

2

2.4B

av-i-sAf-X-av

— jAI^

(^c.

Fluents of which, when s becomes :== i, will, it is whole required Forces, whereby the Corpufcle is urged in the Diredtions and QJT: Therefore, in order to find thofe Fluents (which is by far the moft difficult Part of the Propofition) let r be put equal to the quadrantal Arc, 3
manifeft, be as the

The

QF

Arc.

F
'

h

e,

and

let

l^lZ±Et
i—ssh
'

.

fdl!ui.E±Iri°
Z'5-7

2«-i-3

%

—=^==^=>
^^-1-A^'^
x

Which

IS

a general

Term

to the

firftof the

two Expreffions, beaflumedi then the fame, by

expanding ^'u-j-jAl^"

av

— jAI'"

into a

Series,

&c. will

2.4.6.... 2/Z-l-2xB"j
""

become 4

^rTFr

77^^

—:rri-:~=ii
2 n

into2/7fl^n-^x

2;22;z
2;?

— 12;^— 2
2^2

«;.

I

2?2

—2

—3
t^4
A

4

But

it is

evident,

from CoroL

II. to

Lemma

III. that

the Fluent

of this Series (by writing

g:4'6....2/g+2xB'^^ J ^ ^^+A^1 3.5.7....2;^-j-3
for

for d; r for

E

J

2 /^^^--^

P

j

^
^

^

i^TZl ^ i^JHf
2

3

X

^—3
X
/3^

A3, for

Q, &c.)
2. 4. 6. ... 2

will

be
2 X

^__Ujl1^5 -

^Jl^;^ ^ 2.4.6,...2«-J-2 ^

4
,
2

+AH-^

?2

-j-

B'^

~J^+A^^
i^zi.^
2
2
72

4rB"

345
3

..2HT~ xl^=?^— 3A3x_3_ — I^I
" 3.5.7..
""
,

'"'° ^

^+ fi^2^:^i
2

^""^

T
^

2 «

2/2

X

3 —-^ X 2n — -rx5'-»-5A5
A.

2;z

X

^-^

ny^r

2/2—1x27^—3

&C,

=
/2

^==^into
I

2na^^-'A
-

+ 2^2^n —
I

i

x ^^-"-3 As

+2

2

»

-

2

3

[li]
4rB"
&C.
•==
,

X 2

7z

A^
into

.Ja_.

^^"—2

-\-

72

I

X ^^n-4 A'--f

7;_i
I

;z

— 2,
2
2 ^ //

4rB"y2.^A^7
tf^--l-Af-'


^

_„

,

^r A a
""T^
::

Y

tf

-

~\-A'I,

zn-l^
3,
ci?^\

— — nJ^^
B"
2
1
y^
,

*

Let n be

now expounded ^

by

2,

fucceffively,

then

will

—^.^;i=:=
4^A^2:

into

2«B"
2^24-1 X 2;z-l-3

4rA^
-.

become
/^

V^'
'

+ A^

> ^ ""3.5

2B

V^'+A^
ift.
'

46^ 4r A
.

5.7
6?^.

—— V^-^-A^
-'

6B3
X

&c. for the Fluents of the

2d.

7-9

o

'jd. >

Terms of

the forefaid general Expreffion, refpedtivelyj

and

therefore the required Fluent of that
is

whole Expreffion,

or the Force whereby the Corpufcle

urged in the Diredlion
into

O F 2B
-

will

be
,

truly

defined

by

-7^;==- drawn
.

8 B4 6B3 _ A 4 ioB5 &c. And, m the 9-ii ^^-^3 3-5 5-7 7-9 fame Manner, the Force in the Diredtion Q^T will come out
^

— — — 4B^
Ara"-

~i
J-

B
3

B^

B^

4rA^
ya-J^A'
by Writ-

V^'-l-A^
I

3-5
.

5-7

7-9

— —B
5

.

-1-

3

B3 — — — 4- B+ &c. Which Values, — 9' ^ 7

B^

^_^

ing

I -[-

B

X ^ and

i ~\-

B\^ x

RjH^f^

for their

Equals

A
,

and

4rb
a, will

-^

i+Bi

become

X K'—i)h\^ -7 B^^l^ R^

2B
-><

+
^

— — 4B^ -p 6B3
5-7
,

3-5

7-9

4rxR^ — ^-x i+BI^
^c, and
.

I
J.

'^ B
3

y

———
B^-

B3

'

R^+B^i-^.

3-5

5-7

7-9

[ ^3 ]
&c,

-f-

4>-^x'H^.
y/Ri-j-B^^
~

X

i-


_
3

1S

4- 1, ^c. refpedively.
7

But,

3

feeing
I

4'

»

cj^.

is

=

-

r>

S

5-7

^——

,

6?^.

7-9*
^
"R

=-B""'^x —B^-f-TTB 2
I
1

X B^----f-? 3^5»
Series expreffing
i,

^

£5?c.

where B*-

B

E

I
,

efr.

is

a

known
is

the Arch

(Q)

of a Circle, whofe Radius
it is

and Tangent

B^, the faid Forces will,
I,

manifefl:,

be truly defined by
I.

2r A

B*—
jB^

4

V^«^+A*

V^^+A^ ^
1

si

-/«^+A'
ri T7 I. Q. E. T

i+BxQ^B"
-«»

r orefpedively.

COROLLARY
Hence,
being
if

L

RD

be made perpendicular to QJT, then,
will

=«,
,

RT=A, RD
DT
===
,.

be

=
'^

Q^

-jt—.,

Q_D

=

and confequently the Attradion ^ ^ in the forefaid Diredlions and QT, as ^ B i_B 4B^ 2B 6B^ 8B^ on A ff\T\\ -—:> ~ <3C. and (Qi/) x h, v^^^ ^ 9-II 1.3 3.5 5.7 7.9^ 5-7
/ v«^+A»

and

v«^+A^'

Q^

,

3-S

7-9

___________________

z

^c,

+

(DT) x-

- 4-

— ,^^.oras(RD)x^-i=— D

^<_^
and

[

H
H-

]

a,Kl
ly.

(QD)

+^"?--^"''

X

(DT)

X

jlf^Q^,

refpeffive-

Therefore, fince B is conftant, it follows, that the Force v/hereby a Corpufcle at any Point Q, in the Surface of a given Spheroid, is attradted in the Direction of the Tangent Q_F, will be limply as D.

R

COROLLARY
=
face, will

IL

If B be taken o, or the Spheroid be fuppofed to degenerate to a Sphere, the Attradion, perpendicular to the Sur-

become

as 3

(^D

-f-

3

TD

3

or as - of the
3

Ra-

Therefore it follows, that the Attradion any Point Q, in the Surface of a Spheroid P A S E P, in the Diredion Q_F, of the Tangent, is to the Attraction at the Surface of a Sphere of any given Radius, as (R D) x
at
..

dius of that Sphere.

I

^^ ^Yi2it Radius ^ and moreover, that the 3 2B^ Attradion in the perpendicular Direction QJT, is to the Attraction at the Surface of the fame Sphere, as (T D) x
I

3-|-BxQr-3B^

^Q

i_

^-^B^

-+-

(OP)

X

^

+ ^^^-^
2

i
'

to

i of the fame Radius
3

;

B^

or,becaufe(TD) x

2l=J^ _i- (Qp)
(QP)

v

;"Tb

x

g,-

B^

.^

^

(QJ)
titv,

X

^^

-f-

X i±l2i^=iJL^asthis

lall

Qimn-

to - of that Radius.
3

CO-

[

^5]
IIL

COROLLARY

But when the given Spheroid is nearly Globular, B will be very fmall, and therefore all the Terms in the foregoing Series, wherein two or more Dimenfions of B are concerned may be negledled, as inconfiderable ; and then the Attraction in the Directions (^F and QT, after proper Redudion,

will,

in
;

this

Cafe, be

as

^

^- """ —R and
30

30

d R

re-

fpedlively
ll

tion

from whence it is eafy to determine, that the Poof the Line QJ^, wherein the Corpufcle gravitates or
is

endeavours to defcend,

fuch that

O

at

is

every where, to

O T,

as 3 to 5, as

Mr.

Stirling has found.

CO-

[i6]

COROLLARY
Hence
it

IV.

follows, that the Attradliori at any Point Q^^in the

Surface of a Spheroid, not differing
to the Attrad:ion of a Sphere

much from a Sphere, is upon the fame Axis, as lo R"*
It alfo follows, that

-^

3

BR'- H-B/^*,

to 10 R'' nearly.

the

Attradion of fuch a Spheroid in going towards the Poles, increafes or decreafes in the duplicate Ratio of the Sine-Complement of the Diftance from the Pole ; and that at the Poles themfelves (where in an oblate Spheroid it is the greateft, and in an Oblong the leaft) it will be to the Attra(fi:ion of a Sphere, having the fame Axis as 4 Times the Diameter of the greateft Circle of that Spheroid, increafed by the Axis, to 5 Times that Axis ; and laftly, that the greatell Difference of Attraction, on the Surface of fuch a Spheroid, will be to the Difference between the Attradion at its Pole, and at the Surface of the forefaid Sphere, as i to 4 very nearly.

PROPOSITION
a IFare Fluid
or freely difpofed to move^

I.

Body of homogeneous Matter^ whofe Particles and ?nutually attract each 0-

ther in the duplicate Ratio of their Difla?ices inverfely, revohes about an Axis^ and all the Parts thereof retain the

fame

Situation ^ moith refpeB to each other

-,

I fay,

the

Form

which that Fluid mufi be under, to preferve this Equilibrium of its Parts, is that of an oblate Spheroid.
For,
at
let

PS

be the Axis about which the propofed Fluid

revolves, and QJT a Perpendicular to the Surface perpendicular to P S any Point Q^^making Q^, and R and QT, and F Q/, parallel to R D. Therefore, fince the

PA SEP

D

i

abfolute centrifugal Force,
3

whereby

a Corpufcle at

Q^ndeavours

[t7]
vours to recede from the Centre R, in the DIredlion Q^, is known to be as Qj^^that Part of it by which the Corpufcle is urged in the Diredlion Q/, of the Tangent, or tends to Hide along the Surface, will, by the Refolution of Forces,

R

p F

be as D. Therefore, as all the Particles remain quiefcent with Regard to each other, the Attradion exerted on the Corpufcle in the contrary Direction

R

QF^

to preferve this Equili-

R 5 brium, mujfl, it is but the Attradion of an oblate Spheroid, in this Direftion aptherefore the pears, from Corol. I. to Lem. IV. to be as R Q^E. D. A, is an oblate Spheroid. Figure PQA-S E
manifeft, be in the fame Ratio of

D

D

:

E

PRO-

[

i8

]

PROPOSITION

II,

T
^

H E fame
the

being fuppofed as in the laft Propojition and time of Revolution^ the AttraBion at the Surface
-,

of the Fluids when at Reft under a fpherical Figure^ toge^ ther with the Diameter of that Sphere being given ; to find the particular Spheroid which the Fluid retains by means of that Rotation^ and alfo the Gravitation at any Point Qlfn the Surface thereof

The foregoing Conftrudion being retained, let the time of Rotation be denoted by /», and let the given Attraction at the Surface of the propofed Fluid, when at reft under the Form of a Sphere, be fiich, that a Projectile or revolving Body may thereby defcribe a circular Orbit, whofe Radius is equal to the Radius of that Sphere, in a given Tinie n Putting P O R, the Attraction at the Surface of the b, propofed Sphere the Semi- Diameter of that Sphere d, and the Proportion of the Square of the equatoreal Diameter E, to the Square of the Axis PS, as i-f- B to Unity. Then, lince the centrifugal Forces of equal Bodies, moving in Circles, are known to be univerfally as the Radii of thofe Circles, applied to the Squares of the Times of Revolution,

=

RO =

:

=f

=

A

we

ihall

have

as

4-

:

^

:

:/:

4^

x (R

Q)

the Force

with which a Particle of Matter at Q, thro' the Rotation of the Fluid, endeavours to recede from the Centre R, in the Direction Q^z^ from whence, by the Refolution of Forces,
the Forces in the Directions

fame Caufe, will be

and QJ', (QJ)) x -^, and

QJ

ariling

from the
x

(R D)

~jAr

refpedtively.

But the Attradion in thefe two Directions,

fuppofing

Q

to be the

Arch of

a Circle,

whofe Radius

is

i,

and

[

19]

and Tangent B% will be to (/) the Attradion at the Surface of the Sphere, whofe Semidiameter is d, as (QJT) x

^M-+(C)D)x H^''V°'

to

-1,

and

as

(RD)

x

^
ceding

^P

to
:

refpectively,

by Corollary

II.

to the pre-

Lemma
defined

And

therefore the

whole compounded Force,

whereby
rightly

a Corpufcle at

QJs
x

urged in thefe Diredions will be

by

-^ I

(QT)
-

x

-5^=^ h- (QJD)
B.

x

,^BxQ.-3B^
2B^

-(QD) x -^, and >f '^-^ 3«^' ^
The
lafl

x

(RD)
^

x

'+«'<'^-'>"
2B^

^

~(RD)
pufcle

X -^-r-

of which Expreffions, that the Cor-

remain at reft, and all the Parts of the Fluid in Equilibrio, muft, it is manifeft, be equal to nothing j therefore

may

^i
or

^
abfolute

is

= -~rt

and confequently the Gravitation,
perpendicular Diredion

Force in

the

QJ,
.

as

(QT)

X

-^^=^ x/,

or barely as

dW

(QT)

x -1!=:5B^

fj-om

whence, by help of a Table of Sines and Tangents, C^c. not only the Value of B, but the Gravitation anfwering to any
-.2,

afligned

Value of -^

may

readily be determined.

But when

-^

is

fmall, the

fame Things

may

be effedted in a more ge-

neral

Manner j

for then our

Equation ^i-^""^^ ^ 2B^

— r= -^

be found
^

maybe J

reduced to

the Series .^5x6«^ 2OT* ^^ 4X7/S*

3-5 .5-7 .7-9 converging fufficiently fwift,

4t"

-1-

-r-r,<^'^.=-^» where,

B

will

3^r

J

=
ly.

i^

^|i^,
8X49^
I
'

£?r. or

—^1^^ very near14;»*— 30«^

[20]
Iv.

Therefore the Ratio of the equatoreal Diameter to the
will,

Axis

in this Cafe,

be
i

as

i -{-

^^^!Z^^„z *to

i, or,

if-^
as Sir
I.

be very fmall, barely as
Ifaac Newtofj and

-+

-^

to Unity, the

fame

Mr.

Stirling have

made

it.

Q^.

COROLLARY
Becaufe

I.

3+BxQ^3B_
as

,^j^g

Left-hand-fide of our foregoing

Equation) never (let
Quantity,

B
it

appears from the Nature of the Exprellion, can be v^hat it will) exceed a certain aflignable

is

manifeft that

if

-^
Limit,

be fo given, as to ex-

ceed

that Quantity,

the

Problem
this

will
let

become
B"

impoflible.
x^

Wherefore, to determine
Fluxion of

=

and the
is

IEtl2Q=l35

(^mj<2=l±)

which

be

put=oj

Q=: o,

and we fhall get 9 A:-^-7 a:3— i-f-;c* x 9-+-^:* x where x is found 2.5293 ; whence the corre-

fpondlng Values of

— and ^Z

=

i

-t-B,

come out 0.58053, Cifc.

and 2.7198, ^c. refpedively. Hence it appears, that it is impoflible for the Parts of the Fluid to continue at Reft ^mong themfelves, when the Motion round the Axis is fo
great, that

-^

exceeds

0.58053, ^c.

or, that

any Spheroid

ftiould be affumed whereof the Ratio of the equatoreal Diameter to the Axis is greater than that of 2.7198 to Unity. But if the Motion be greater than is here fpecified, the Fluid will contradl its Axis, and continue riiing higher and higher

towards

[21

]

towards the Equator, till, by increafing its equatoreal Diame^ ter and Time of Revolution, the Parts thereof either come to an equilibriums or begin to fly off.

COROLLARY
If,

IL

inftead of the time of Revolution, the Quantity of
its

Mo-

Axis be given, fo as to be to the Quantity of Motion in a folid Sphere of the fame Mafs and Denfity, revolving in the forementioned Time ;2, in any givea Ratio of r to Sj then, becaufe the Quantities of Motion in equal Spheroids of the fame Denfity about their Axis, are to one another in a Ratio compounded of the direct Ratio of the Radii of their greatefl Circles, and the inverfe Ratio of the Times of
tion of the Fluid about
their Revolution,

we

fhall

have

as

:

-

^

i

:

s

i

r^

and

confequently
'

AO
X

=:=

^-^. But (becaufe the MafTes are equal)
is

^l

(P

O

A O^)

:^

di,

and therefore

^(=A0)^
"^

d

X i-f-B'^i whence

m^n

% i^LifJ' and

=r

"!_

which Value being
ral

fubflituted for


""
,

i

in the foregoing gene-

Equation,

we have

^^^

=

gj^xTfB'l*

^^^ there-

fore

l+^ii^^^lxi+BJ ==
B^

^
3-f

.

from

whence

it

will

be

eafy to determine the Spheroid
cles

which a Fluid, whofe

Parti-

Reil among themfelves, mull: affume when the Motion about its Axis is increafed or decreafed in any given Ration becaufe the abfolute Motion after fuch Increafe or Deare
at

creafe

is given, and will be no ways affeded by the Adion of the Particles upon one another while the Figure of the Fluid is changing.

F

CO-

[

22

]
III.

COROLLARY
Bat
(fince

3-1-BxQ.-3B^x i+B'^^

l^^^j^

^^^^ g
that

-^

nothing and

infinite,

will

be
]

=

B^

o)

it

is

evident

the Vakie
it

of

3j-B2<_^3B^xx-{-B

^^^ never,
y

let

B

be what
if
it

will,

exceed

a certain finite Quantity

and therefore

the given Motion
will be impoffible

be fuch that -^—7- exceeds that Quantity,
for

reo;ard

the Parts of the Fluid ever to become quiefcent with to each other : Wherefore to determine this Limit, let

A^bsput

= B^,

and the Fluxion of

3+-^-^-xCl- 3 ^x iH-^-'3

^^

taken and made

=

o,

and the Equation, duly ordered, will

be
out

x'^-^2/\.x--\-2y

y^Q::r^S^^

— 27^=05
that

where x

will

come

= 7-5 very
come

nearly,
it

and the correfponding Value of -^-appears,,

= 0.92705.
poffibly

Hence
to

the

Particles

cannot

an Equilibrium among themfelves,
is

when
exceeds

the

Motion round the Axis
fly

fo great,

that

0.92705, but will either
the Axis in Infinitum,

off or cpntinue to recede

from

Becaufe the Values
given,
it

COROLLARY of B andQ^hen —

IV:
is

given, are alio
B^-.-Q.

follows. that the Gravitation

(QJD^

r^j^^^^y

Point in the Surface of the given Spheroid or Fluid, will be, accurately, as a Perpendicular to the Surface at that Point, produced till it meets the Axis of the Figure. Therefore the Gravi-

[23]
Gravitation or Force wherewith a Corpufcle tends to defcend at the Equator, is to the Gravitation at either of the Poles, as

the equatoreal Diameter to the Axis inverfely,

COROLLARY
,

V.

Hence, if the Spheroid be nearly globular, then QT, which by the Property of the EUipfis, is univerfally equal to

Gravitation from the Equator to the Pole, is in the Duplicate Ratio of the Sine Complement of the Uiflance from the Pole very nearly.

iH-B xR^-f-B3^' will here become i B Whence it appears that' the Increafe of ly.

+

xRh- j^,

B^^

near-

COROLLARY
as
I

VL

Moreover, becaufe the Ratio of the equatoreal Diameter to the Axis, when the Spheroid is nearly globular,. becomes nearly

-^-^—r
it

to
is

I,

the Excefs of that Diameter above the

Axis, will,

evident, be to the Axis as

-^-^

:

to /«%

or

(becaufe the Forces by

which Bodies

Circles, are in the duplicate

are retained in equal Ratio of the Times inverfely) as

of the centrifugal Force at the Equator to the mean Force J of Gravity. Therefore, fince the Ratio of the centrifugal Force, in different Circles, is compounded of the direct Ratio of the Diameter, and the inverfe-duplicate Ratio of the Time, it follows that the forefaid Excefs, in Figures nearly fpherical, will be as the Diameter diredly, and the Denlity and Square df the time of Revolution inverfely.

A

[

H

3

A

TABLE
Momentum of
i: i: i: i:

jJoewing the

Time of Revolution,

and

the

Rotation of a Planet or given Fluid^ accord^ ing to the Ratio of its Axis and equatoreal Diameter.
1,01

1,05
1,5

2

[

25

]

of m (one entire Revolution of the Earth about its Axis) 1436 Minutes ; therefore by writing thefe Values in the Ratio of
1

'

"^ 14^^— 3o«^"
:

^

(^s
:

above

found)

it

will

become

as

I, or as 231 230 1.00435 Diameter and Axis of the Earth.

for the Ratio

of the equatorcal Wherefore, as the former of
latter

thefe

is

about 8000 Miles,

it

mufl exceed the
to

by 34

-

Miles, and the Gravitation at the Equator will be to the Gra-

Hence it will not be difficult to determine how much Pendulum Clocks are accelerated or retarded from the Alteration of Gravitation when tranfported into different Latitudes for the number of Vibrations performed by a given Pendulum, in any given Time being in the Sub-duplicate Ratio of the Force by which it is actuated, we have as 230 \/ 2:1 J o^ ^s 460 461 fo is the Number of Vibrations of any Pendulum at the Equator^ in any given Time, to the number of Vibrations of an equal Pendulum at either of the Poles in the fame Time. Hence it will be as 460 i fo is 86400, the Seconds in 24 Hours to 188, the Seconds which a Clock would gain per Diem (from the Caufe under Coniideration) when removed from
vitation at the Poles as

230

231.

;

^
:

:

j

:

:

:

the Equator to either of the Poles 5 and therefore, hnce it is proved that the Gravitation increafes as the Square of the Sine of the Latitude, the Time which a Pendulum will gain or lofe per Diem^ by being tranfported out of any one given Latitude to another, is to 188 Seconds as the Difference of the Squares of the Sines of thofe Latitudes to the Square of

the Radius. The above Proportions, as likewife that of the Axis and equatoreal Diameter, are derived from a Suppolition that all the Matter in the Earth is homogeneous (or nearly foj) bat if the Parts next the Centre fhould be much denfer than thofs nearer the Surface, the Conclufions will be pretty much affedcd
thereby, as will appear from
tlie

following Propofitions.

G

LEM^

[

26

]

LEMMA.
whofe Denfity a^ bout the Surface is equals but in the lower Parts thereof greater, according to any Law of the Difiances from the Centre, if the Excefs of its ^ajjtity of Matter above the ^antity of Matter which it would contain, were all its Parts only of the fame De?fity with thofe near the Surface, be to this lafi jpecified ^lantity of Matter 'tis required to find the Atin any given Ratio of ^ to i
every where nearly
-,

Na

Spheroid

K^V^Y h.

nearly globular^

traction at any Place

Q^n

the Surface

of fuch Spheroid,

The
draw

O

foregoing Conftrudion being retained, join QO, and then, fince the Attraction which B parallel to j

RD

a Sphere, whofe Denfity at equal Diftances from the Centre is the fame, exerts on a Corpufcle above its Surface, is known to be as the Quantity of Matter in that Sphere apply 'd to the

Square of the Diftance from

its

Centre,

it is

manifeft, that if

the Attraction at the Surface

of a Sphere, whofe uniform

Denfity
dius
(as

is

defined
in

by Unity, be reprefented by - of the Ralafl

the

Propofition)

the

Attraction

of

the
fore-

[
forefaid

27]
on
or
a

Excefs of Matter,
^-

Corpufclc at Qj_ will
.^

be

reprefented by

-o?sr—

>

by

Jl^rr-^;

or laftly,

by

-^
and

+

-^R-

nearly.

Whence, by

the Refolution of
in the

Forces, the Attradion of the faid Matter,

QT
and

QJ,

will be

-^

H-

l^ and

Diredions

- /»

x (B

O)
30

nearly

;

which being

therefore refpedively added to

^"R^4-

3BR-+BP
R

-—

A

T?

X

(R D)

the Attraction in the fame Diredions, of

the Spheroid coniidered as homogeneous, (fee Corol. III. Lem.

IV.) there will ^
I

arile

~

and -/>,x(BO)-{

—+ ^ B
3

2

3R x (R D)

J-—-

^
}_

_
3

^
_]

10

^
j

30R

,^_ '

for

the

whole Forces
but

whereby the Corpufcle being to R D, as

is

OT

urged in thofe Diredions

OB

to

TR,

or as

B h

thefe Forces will be as

(R D) x

to i-i-B, the latter of

very nearly.

Q^E.

I.

PROPOSITION
IF a

III.

Fluid nearly globular, whofe Fienfity about the Surface is every where nearly equal, but in the lower Farts thereof, greater according to any Law of the Biflances from the Centre, be revolving uniformly about an Axis 3 Ifay, the Figure of that Fluid under fuch a Rotation, is that of an oblate Spheroid nearly.

The Truth of this is manifefl from the firil Propofition and the preceding Lemma for, fmce the Attradion of a Spheroid, -whofe Denfity varies according to the fame Law, is, in
-,

the

[ 28 ]
the Direilion of the Tangent QF, nearly as R D, by the Lemma, what hath been proved in that Propofition, with regard
to an uniform Fluid, holds alfo in this Cafe.

P
/*~f~^

Pv

O P O

S

1

T

I

O N

IV.

HE

fame hehig fuppofed as in the

Jaji Propofition^

and

the Ratio of the centrifugal Force at the Equator E, J_ to the G?-avity being given [as v : i ) j to fi?id the Ratio of the

A

equatorial Diameter to the Axis of the Spheroid or Fluid, the Surjace and alfo the Gravitation at any Point

Q^n

thereof

Let the fame Conftrudion be iliill retained Then, fince the abfolate centrifugal Force at (preferred to the Centre R, is known to be as R Q2_the Forces ariling therefrom in the Directions and QT, will, it is manifeft, be to the Force of Gravity as (RD)
:

Q^
'

x-^, to
fore
it

I,

and

as

(QJD) x

^
:
^

to

i

refpedively.
is

Where•

will be, as

(R D) X -^ R
the
3

I

:

: '

fo

(R D) X -^ ^ ^
3
(

'

^
to

IS
)

the
-^

Attraction
\-

in

Diredion
-f.10

Q^F

per

Lemma

3

<——- H 3R

30 R'

^, that in the Direction

QJT ; whence by multiplying Extreams and Means, and rejeding all the Terms where more than one Dimenlion of B is found as inconhderable (becaufe the Spheroid is fuppofed
nearly globular)
ly the Proportion
I -f-

v/e

fhall get

B

=

5^

-r/
><J

.

^^d confequent-

of the equatoreal Diameter to the Axis, as

^I^^ll

to Unity.

Moreover, by fubftituting

this

Value

of B, in the Expreflion for the Attradion in the Diredion

QT, we

have

-±^^

+ ^^^

x

if

+ i+

-^,
from

[^9]
from which deducing
-j-

^^

x

/»-{-i

(= QD

x

—|— x

Lttl^, &c,}

the centrifugal Force in the oppofite Direction,

there remains

^^^

-{- i -f-^

xrx

--i-^

—^

1-

il—

6Rx2 + s^
I.

for the Gravitation,

QJE.L

COROLLARY
tor,
is

Hence it appears that the Gravitation, in going towards the Pole, increafes as the Square of the Sine of the Latitude, and
that the greateft Difference thereof, at the Pole and to
to the centrifugal Force at the Equator, as 5 o />. It alfo appears, that the greater the
tov^^ards

+ 20p

Equai

4

-f- I

Den-

the Centre, v^ith Refpedl to that at the SurFigure approach to a Sphere, and the greater vs^ill be the Difference of the Gravitation at the Equator and Pole j and that if p be conceived to become infinite, or the Attraction to tend to the Centre of the Fluid only, and not to all the Parts thereof as fome have fuppofed (vs^ith refpe(fl to the Earth) the Difference of Gravitation at the
iity is

face, the nearer v^ill the

Pole and Equator, will be equal to twice the centrifugal Force at the Equator, and the Ratio of the equatoreal Diamemeter to the Axis of the Earth, only as 579 to 578.

H

CO-

[

30]
II.

COROLLARY
given as
i

If the Ratio of the equatoreal Diameter to the Axis be
-{-i; to i, there will

be given i-i-il^ii£=i-|-«u,

and confequently p

= 1!—1^. SCHOLIUM.

Ratio of the greatefl and leaft Diameters of Jupiter is^ according to Mr. Pound's, Obfervations, as 13 to 12, and the centrifugal Force at the Equator of Jupiter^ to the mean Force of Attraction, as i to 10 ; therefore, the Quantity of Matter in that Planet, will, according to the foregoing Hypothecs, be greater by juft one half, than it would if the Denfity was not greater towards the Centre, than it is nearer the There might, indeed, be other Hypothefes alTumed, Surface. that would bring out the Conclufions a little different, but as no Hypothelis, for the Law of Variation of Denfity, can (from the Nature of the Thing) be verified either by Experiments, made on Pendulums in different Latitudes, or an adhial Menfuration of the Degrees of the Meridian, I fhall infift no further on this Matter, but content myfelf with having proved in general, that the greater the Denfity is towards the Centre, the lefs will the Planet differ from a Sphere, and the greater will be the Variation of Gravitation at its Surface.

The

A

[31
A

]

GENERAL

INVESTIGATION
OF THE

Attraction
of

at the

Surfaces

Bodies
the Planes

nearly fpherical.

LEMMA.
SXJppoJing
of two Curves

ABDEA, AprvA,
A

nearly circular, having both the fame Equation y^=fx hx3 ix4, &c. to be inclitied to each other at x^-f-gx^ their common Vertex A, in an indefiiiitely fmall Angle B r

+

+

fo as

between them the indefinitely fmall Cuneus of uniformly denfe Matter to find the AttraBion that Cuneus exerted on a Corpufcle at A, or the Ratio of of the Force by which that Corpufcle is urged in the Dire5iion
to include

ADBEprvAi

BA.
Since the Equation of either Curve is y''=^fx x'^-^g at^-jhx'i-\-ix'^, &c, by putting f-^x-^gx-hhx^, &c. == o and
reverting the Series,

we

fhall get

Ar=:—£^

-f- ===f^j

&c.

=

f-^fg-^fg^ ^^' -f
But
tiie

V'+3 ^f"'g^ ^^' equal to the Axis A B. Curve being fuppofed nearly circular, and the Equation of the Circle agreeing, in Curvature, with it at the Ver^ xx, the reft of the Terms ^a;% ix'^, ix^, in lex being /x the giv^en Equation, muft be fmall in refped of the two firft and therefore all the Terms wherein two or more Dimenfions of 3

[32]
of the Quantities, g^ /, k^ &c. are found may be reje«5led, will become ==f--{-fg-{-hf^-h and then C &c. which let be reprefented by a, and let ij-hj^kf^^ and m c reprefent any two Ordinates indefinitely near to each z, and the Sine of x) =z, Cc other : Putting B C {a the given Angle formed by the two Planes, to the Radius r,
as inconfiderable,

AB

D

z^ the Diftance of z : e :e:: a or the Thicknefs of the prothe Planes at the Ordinate C,

=<?i then it will be

as

i

= x a—

D

pofed Matter at that Ordinate

5

which drawn

therefore into

I71B

DCxCf ACxA ^,
face

expreffing the Force of the
eyz
(vid.

Particles in

the Sur-

DCcmD
L

p

i.

dves

—==r-~=

for the

Attradion

of the Matter included between the Ordinates

by writing /a;
e
-


,

DC and mc, which,
equal ^, becomes
.

x'^-\-gx^-\-h x'^^^&c. for
1.

its

%

x'^

Xf— x-\-gx
a^

-\-hx''-\-ix^,
.

iffc.

'^
,
ij.

.it

a^z
a

^^^l^

—g a — h —
for

X*X/— Ar4

gAT

+ z^AT^+fAT^
i a^

;

wherein

a

—z

and
fub-

,

flituted,

their

a\ &c. be Equals x and /,
k

effc.'*

refpe(fVively
it

will

become ez

[ 33 ]
ex X a
i — K^X a — ga — ^«% &c. — a-\-z-\-gXa — z-{-hxa — ,^c. — a-\'X.-\-gy, a—« J^hY,a-—z^ l^c^ a—%'\- a— s X a — g a — h
2'

____rT*

fi ^

a^y iSc.

,

I

a

^x '-^^-^^^2^^--'^±^J-^^--^£z!^^ which, being con—gx,—hscAZa — z — izy, ^aa — laz-\-z^j &c. ^
e %''

verted to an infinite Series, at length becomes

z

ia-\-z

—a

^c.

The
above

a x /? x za •xg-\-z z-\-z Fluent whereof, when z

—a x =
is

i

^,

x ''^aa—i^az-\-zz^ will be ^ ^ x
if

~"
3

-Tjrf.

"^ -^7^.
be
35-

~ "^7^' ^^' where,
fubftituted,

the Value of ^,
arife

as
2

found,

there

will
2. 4.

efx
nj
'

.

z.^g
3.5I.

2.4.6/7/
7.

2.4. 6.8 ?'/^
3. 5- 7. 9-

3"^
Q^E.

6.8. IP

i/^

"^

3-S-7.9-^^

PROPOSITION.
SUppo/ing
Equation
Bz"^

PASEPO
the
is

rated by

—Cz3—
QJl L

/i? ^^ a Solid nearly fpherical, geneRotation of arty oval Figure PAS, whofe included in this general Form y*=a^ Az z^

— —

Dz"!-,

^c.

T^o find

the attraBive Force

of that
its

Solid exerted on a Corpufcle, at any given Poi?it

Q^n

Surface.

and C B r be perpendicular, and r L parallel to the Axis P S, about which the Solid is generated j and let Qjl be the Axis of any Sedion, b Q_of that Solid, formed by the Interfection of a Plane paffing thro' the given Point perpendicularly, to the Plane of the generating Curve Putting R Q== a, R B 2;, B C =;', the Sine of the Angle R QJI, to the Radius i =/>, itsCofine=^, x, and its correfponding Ordinate raz=u. Then, by plain Trigonometry, we ihall have x, and rL=px==:z ; q

Let

Q^ H

Q

:

=

PASO

Q^ =

Q^=

I

which

[

34]

which Value of z being fubftituted in the Equation of the Ap x given Curve, it will become y'^ (== B O) == ^^ ^a x^B/)^ x^ C/3 x^y &c. whence u"- {=B C^ B r^) =^* p"^ x^ aa-{-2 aqx q^x^=z C/>3 a;3, ^c, j^px p^ x'^ Kp X X i -H B/^ x x^ Cp'^x^ D/*^^, Gfc. Let 2 a q

— — — — — —
two
;


-,

— — —

now
as

a Plane be conceived

to

revolve about

the Point

Q

a Centre,

continuing always perpendicular to the Plane

PA
be

and let H, and Qjji k, S of the generating Curve Pofitions of that Plane indefinitely near to each
and, fuppofing

Q^

be an Arch of a Centre is Q^ and Semi-diameter Unity, let h m, of that Arch be denoted by e : Then by writing 'Qp^ for g^ Cp"^ for h, &c. in the above y^
other
to

¥h

Circle

whofe

the Fluxion


2.

2aq Ap for Lemma^ we
^

ihall

have

e

into

IJLIU^Ii
^

^.

^^ f

^Tl
_3.
5

._Kp^
£^^

3

4.6C />^ XZflf—A^'""
3- 5- 7:

2.4.6. 8D/)^ x

zag

— Kf^

^^

3-5v7-9-

is impelled in the the Force wherewith the Corpufcle at Attradion of the Cuneus of Matter by the Direiiion and k. But, to reincluded between the two Sections

QH

Q

QH

Q

F be Expreffion to a more commodious Form, let duce the generating Curve at the Point Q^and a Tangent to b, of the Angle perpendicular to it, and let the Sine v : Therefore, fince the s, and its Cofine Q^G Q^F B
this

Q

QT

=

=

G

Fluxion of the Ordinate

B C, when B R
to Unity, the

or

2; is

=

o,

is

to the

Fluxion of

PB

as

-^
;

Tangent of theAngje
its

R QT
and
is

will be

A =— 2«
2a
-.

confequently ' "
:

Sine
as the

A
y'4^« + A=

its

Cofinc ==

Wherefore,

Angle

B OR

the Difference of the two Angles
^
,

of that

.1 Ande
°

will be

'11

1

za^v

— -.fA
.

B QJ,
,
.

R QJT,
Cofine
r^

,

and

r

the Sine zas4-'vA
,

its

y'4«fi-}-A

V^aa-\-A'
fore

,

(by the Elements of Trigonometry) which Values being there-

[

35 ]

fore refpedively fubilituted for
preffion
2.

p

and q

m
X

the forefald
^esv.
2 a

Ex-

of the

Force,

it

will

become
X C —

^aa^ aa^
^

AesB X zav
3.5

— jA'"
1
2 a'v

— -^
—-

2.A..6es'^
3- 5- 7-

v

A'

X4««+^'^'*

4««+ A A2-

2.4. 6. S es^
3- 5- 7-

D

9

r

,

&c.

But, by the Refolution of

4.aa-{-AA

Forces,

as

i

(Q^)
^

:

s

{G b)
3-5

:

:

Co

is

the

faid

Force to

''4^«4-AA y'4^«-J-AA

i'

->

'

2aV'^sA''
the Direaion

— ^^^^7^X2^^;—
QT
j

jA'*,
a?,

^^.
is

the Force

in

and

as

i

to

fo

the fame Force to

L
to

36

]

--=^%= xliii3Ai_^x77^;=}A"-yff X 3-5-73-5 -/4a^4-AA

2av
Let

3

^7A'', ^iT. that in the
it
is

Diredion

QF;

ties are,

manifeft, as the Fluxions of the

which Qaantiwhole Force

P Qj^of the Solid in thofe Directions. another Plane QJl, be fuppofed to revolve about the fame Point Q»_and with the fame Velocity as the former, but in a contrary Diretlion, fo as to meet and coincide with it in the Perpendicular Qjiv ; then 1;, in this Cafe, bev, the Fluxion of the coming Negative or
exerted by the Part

QH

now

PartQKAQ

in the faid Diredions, will

be

^^^^a'
3- 5-

^ _^x_4f

Mi£_

X
3-5

and

3-5 v/4«a AA 3 thefe Fluxions be adJed to thofe refpedively ; wherefore if of the former Part in the like Directions, and c be fubftitu-

=:^^ +

X

iM:<±A:

_ £i4B^__2^.,_,A.,^.,
2 X
c c -\-

ted inftead of 2 ^,

we

fhall

have
V^f
c
J

A'

+A A
1^"

— -^2.

4.B

rr~ y.c'-v^-i- s^A^ -h
.

6 c -~-^
2. 4.

>^

3
.

<^'

A J4-A3 j3,
-_

^c. and
»•

jj^'y

2.

3-5 v/rf-{-AA Fluxions of the whole Force in thofe Diredions -&c. for the G, and m h n are fimilar, e (== m h) But, fince the Triangles
.

X

4 B

X 2

Ac

'U i

2

4.

6

J

C

——
'u^-{-

X 3-5-7 /

<;3

^cv A^ j%

Q^
;

will be

=

-'i^

or

^

and confequently the faid Expreilions,
^,

yi

ss

by writing

^

inflead of

will

become

^

^

^^-

x

3.5
2.
1

3-5-7

4B

1
-/
f
"

A-'x

I

^

K.

.

^—

'

X 2

A

.

c

^* 1;^

\

—r —

j^

.

2 > 4- 6
-

c
X

J J

2.

3-5

3

^ ^ 3/

L 37 ]
A^ cs'^v^-h c'^ i- 1;"^, ^c. refpedlively^ the Fluents whereof, when s =z i, fuppofing the length (r) of the Arch Y he given, may be eafily had from the Lemma in Page 4. and will be
3

l^L^
2.5

into -

x"?TA^— 4
2.7

^

^'+ TV

><

^'+

-7 X

A

3

+
C-

9

2.4.7.5

II

As _h gi:ixA3<:M2.
'

^'^'^'^
2. 4. g. 7

x
^'
1

Ac^-— — x A^
13

+—

9

52. II

x

M

^
'

jii-i4:-3. 2.4. 1 1.

^ AV^-f-

^-

^-f 2.4. 6.

-^ X ^^
'

^^. and

1.

9.

-/c^-j-A^

-7^=
2.5

into

— X A^— -^xAV+-^^xc3-f.4^xA3c4-3iixAf3
5.3
7.5

2.3

9.7

-5l.xA4<:4-i::AxA^^3_jII.

ii^i^iJL
2. 4. 7.

x ^

6F
s

9

2.

7

13. II

ASC

+ -— X A3<:3_{_iilil:-lxA<:5, 2.4.9.7
2.9
,

Sfc.

where the

Law
it
is

of

^

Continuation
dent,

is

manifeit

:

And

thefe Fluents do,

evi-

of the abfolute Forces, whereby the Corpufcle is urged in the Directions and QF; from which, by the Compolition of Forces, both the Diredion of Gravitation and the Force in that Direction, may be eafily determined, Q.E.I.
refped:ively exprefs the Ratio

QT

K

To

I S8]

7^ determine

the height

of

any Planet, caufed hy the Satellite or other re?note Body.
Let P S be the Planet, taken
it

at Attraction of a

the

Tides

as a perfedt Sphere, except by therefrom through the Caufe under {o much as Confideration (which will caufe no fenfible Error in the Solube the propofed Satellite 5 let the Diflance tion) and let B the two Bodies, in Semi-diameters of the former, be C of reprefented by V, and the Quantity of Matter in the former Let be to the Quantity of Matter in the latter, as i to f?i E S A P be a Sedion of the Planet formed by a Plane paffing P any Point in the Perimeter of that the Centres O and C,
dljfFers

H

O

:

Q

Sedion,
thereto
5

FQ/a
make

Tangent

at that Point,

and

Q^T
to

perpendicular

QR and 0£ perpendicular

O C,

and

RD

to

Qji

putting

y

to reprefent the accelerative

TherePlanet at Q, in the Diredion fore, fince the Attradlons or accelerative Forces of Bodies, are linown to be as the Quantities of Matter in thofe Bodies di-

Qj,

and x

=OR
=r^

Force of the
:

redly, and the Squares of the Diftances from their Centres inverfely,

we

fliall

have

as

^^

:

^^,

or as

i

:

:

:

fo isy*:

to

[39]
fft

Xo

==r,
the

f

the accelerative Force of the Satellite at the Point

Q,
for

becaufe

CQ_and
but
it is

QR

may be
the

taken as

equal

;

and

very

fame Reafon,

accelerative

will be

-^;
is,

^^ + ^, ^c.
manifeft, as the

Force

at

E
of

the

Difference

thofe

two

whole Force whereby a

Particle of Matter at Q. tends to recede from E, or to alter its Situation, with refped: to the Body of the Planet.
this

A

Now

be refolved into two others, one in the Dired:ion of the Tangent QF, and the other Perpendicular thereto ; whereof the former, which is nearly expounded by

Force may

^^ X R D,

fhews

how much

that Particle,

by the Attraction

of the Satellite, is urged in the Diredion F Wherefore, this Force appearing to be in the fimple Ratio of D, the Attraction of the Planet in the contrary Direction Q/i as it is every where equal to it, muft confequently be in the Ratio of and therefore the Figure of the Planet a Spheroid by J what is proved in Page 14. Let therefore the Square of the Diameter P S, to the Square of the Diameter E, be now affumed as i : to i -{- B, then the Forces exerted, by the Planet in the Directions QJT and
:

Q

R

RD

A

Q,yi wili be to one another, nearly as appears from Page 13.

:

to ^^^^

x

RD,

as

Hence we have
fore

as - to

B

= =^,

and

^^ x R D whereconfequently OP — OA=-|^xOP.
:
:

"^^ x

RD

/':

;

a E.i.

COROLLARY

I.

Hence it appears, that the Forces of the Planets, or aiy remote Bodies, to produce Tides at the Earth's Surface, are
to

C4o]
to one another as the Quantities of

Matter in thofe Bodies

di-

redly, and the Cubes of their Diftances inverfely, or as their iDeniities and the Cubes of their apparent Diameters, conjundtlyj and this, it is evident, holds equally, whether the

Earth be confidered
verfally fc,

as

partly covered

with Water, or uni-

COROLLARY
If
<^

IL
Feet, '

be taken

= 60,

m=i—. 40'

and

OP = 21 120000

and thefe Values be fubftituted in the foregoing Theorem, there will come out 6. 11 Feet, for the height of the Tides which would arife from the Attraction of the. Moon, was the whole Body of the Earth quite covered with Water. Hence it follows, that tho' the Tides when forced up Rivers, and into narrow Inlets, are found in fome Places, at certain particular Times, to rife to a height greater than 40 Feet, yet in the Main Ocean, the greateft Alteration of the height of the Surface of the Water that can poffibly happen, when the Forces of the Sun and Moon are both united together to produce the Effed:, and the Moon is in its Perige, will never exceed II Feet; nor can it be quite fo much, fince, even in the great Paciiick Ocean, it muft be lefs than it would, was the whole Earth quite covered with Water,

Jo

[

41 \

7^ determine
the

the

Length of a Degree of

Meridian, and the meridional Parts anfwering to any given Latitude, according to
the true fpherodicalViG\jVi^ of the 'Earth,

Let P O S be the Axis, A O the femi-equatoreal Diameter, and P B A S a Meridian of the Earth ; and from any Point B in that Meridian, perpendicular to the Tangent B Q, draw B T meeting PS in T j and upon the Diameter P S
defcribe the Semi-circle

PO=i, AO = ^,

Br

to

PS, and

i;;/,

P i; ^ S, making O v parallel to T B, BC, and Qr^, each to AO^ putting OC==:v, Br{Cd)=:x, (P'=i-\-b, the

Sin€ {O71) of the Latitude of the Pla<;e B, to the Radius i^

^^c^
^==

in

and the meridional Diftance anfwering to that Latitude, Parts of the Axis P O, Then by the Property of the
.c,

=^

:

Ellipfis,

we
;

have

BCz=:d^i-^xx, CT=d^x, and

BT==
Br
(^)

d^/T+Jx^

but as

BT CT
:

:

:

O

-j

(i)

:

O

?i

{s)

.;

whence x

<°C)

= ;=, CB(VT^^-)=5@
L

and

=

i

42
Onv, B
:
:

fs
-.

Therefore, becaufe the Triangles
it

Qr

are

fimilar,

will

be

as

^i —ss

{nv)

:

i

(Ov)

.-=

(Br)
1

:

.,

"^^^^
(B

rzz:

B Q, and as
==

^^Z"^-" (BC) :^(AO)
r
;

:


we

-^:r^

Q)

:

—— =
—— —
^-A±

but

-==

may

be reduced to
ihall

-J^—

of which Fluent bein^
the
(

taken,

have y equal to ^-i^^^-^ into

Brigean

Log. of

I^,
But

— ^-i^^^

into

the

{Brigemi)

Log. of

^^~^ d — hzs
axis

:

as 3.

14 159, &c. X 2

<:/,

the Meafure of the whole

Periphery of the Earth at the Equator, in Part of the SemiP O, is to 21600, the Meafure of the fame Periphery in Geographical Miles, fo is this Value of ^, to 3958 x Log..
l

—-,
s

— ^^7— d

X jLog.
°

-

d

— — bis
zi

, '

the Value of "^ in Geogray ^

phical Miles, or the meridional Parts required.

Aloreover, becaufe the Fluxion '

^

(

\d^-^bsmxi^ss'l
:

,

,

^

y

)

of

the

Arch

A B,

is

to the Fluxion

(• 1
is s^

)

of the correfponding

circular

Arch^^u, whofe Sine '

as

d^

—bj^'^
.

,.3

to

i,

it

is

evi-

dent that the length of that Degree of the Meridian,, whofe,

Middle
Circle

is

B, will be to -^ ^^^ length of a Degree of the S in the fame Ratio of
-,
,

P^

,3

to

i

very nearly,

and

[

43
6q^
,
^

] fuch Parts (or Miles) where-

and therefore

is

equal to

-

;

of every Degree of the Equator contains 60.

Q^^-

I'

COROLLARY
If
will

L
^ very

we

confider the Earth as

bs nearly

=

(it

really is) nearly fpherical,^

i,

and confequently the Value of
395^11 x Log.
jy

fmall, in w^hich Cafe

^

^ becomes
^"fe^,

nearly

;

and confequently

= 3958

x Log.

= 70 i6^r — ygi6h:
—^
^

But

if v^e confider jt as a perfedl

Sphere,. then ^.iii^ x Log.

-i-4^
d

will be

=
it

o,

and therefore y
is

=

3958 x Log.

h zs is

f

equal to 7916 multithe Logarithmic Tangent of half the Diftance from plied by the remoteft Pole (Radius being i) Therefore, if this Product, or the meridional Parts anfwering to the given Latitude, when the Earth is coniidered as a perfed: Sphere, be denoted by Q, it is manifefl that the meridional Parts anfwering to the fame Latitude, when the Earth is taken as a Spheroid, will be defined
I, as

which Value,

eafy to prove,

=

by 0^^7916^5, or Q^^-— 68.5^ ; becaufe i-i-z^'s: being to 231 to 230, (as has been before determined) ygi6lfs is

68.5J.

COROLLA RY
Moreover, becaufe the Earth
is

11^

nearly fpherical,
b

^y

will be nearly

=:

60XJ+-

\-\-b

2= 60 x 1-4-.

~

bss^%

— 22
xi
it

- x b

b$^.

^c,

= 60 X —
I

^-4-

^

-3

^c* whence

appears that the

length

[ 44'kn2;th-

]

of a Degree of the Meridian increafes, from the Equator to the Pole, in the duplicate Ratio of the Sine of the Latitude very nearly.

EXAMPLE.
be required to find the meridional Parts anfwering to 50° Latitude, every Degree of the Equator being fuppofed to Here the artificial or logacontain 60 Geographical Miles. Tangent of (70°) half the Diftance from the remotefi: rithmic Pole is 0,438934, which being multiply'd by 7916, gives 3474,6 for the meridional Parts anfwering to 50° Latitude, confidering the Earth as a perfed Spheres But as Radius to the Sine of 50, fo is 68. 5 to 52.5 j which taken from The like 3474.6, leaves 3422.1 for the true Value required. of any other.

Let

it

SCHOLIUM.
the foregoing Conclufions, the Ratio of the EquatoDiameter and Axis of the Earth may be determined, by knowing (from Experiment) the Ratio of the Lengths of two Degrees of the Meridian For if the Sines of the Latitudes in the Middle of thofe Degrees, be denoted by s and S, and the Lengths of the Degrees themfelves be to one another, as i to ny then, from what has been found above, it will be as
real
:

From

^

^

T-^-^3

jj

!ca73

;

whence n x

^^—

/^S^i"'"

= ^d—bs^lK
''
:

and therefore «l x dd

by Subftitution,
.,

\-\-b x m— ^S^ x ;?T=i-f-^

b^i^-r^-dd

—b

f-^

but<^^=i-f-i^j whence,
bs^, therefore/^=3

and d ( iT^'')

=

1-+-

P^r

From

whence
Axis
as

it

appears, that the equatoreal Diameter will be to the

I

-H

^^^

'

to

i.

But wken the Meafures
differs

of the two Degrees are nearly equal, or the Figure

but

little

C
little

45

3

from

a Sphere,

n will be nearly

=

i,

and therefore,
i

inflead of n
nearly,

we

fubflitute

iH-w,
2

v/e {hall

have ;z!=
all

-4-


3

if

and confequently b
in

m
(becaufe

of the Denominator,

3xS^— ;^ which m enters, may be
.

the

Terms

rejected as

inconfider able) Therefo re,
will be as
I

in

this

Cafe,
I

the required Ratio
to
3>cS^--r
I
,

-h

to I, or as

4-

very

3XS^

nearly.

A TABLE fiewing the length of a Degree of the Meridian^
m fuch
Farts (or Miles) whereof every Degree of the Equator contains 6o.

[46]

DETERMINATION
O
F

THE
a

Refraction which

Ray

fufFers in its Paflage to the

Light Earth,
of
I.

PROPOSITION
STJppofmg
greatejl horizontal Refraction

the Velocity of Light, in refpeB to the Velocity Jufficient to retain a Body in a circular Orbit about the Earth jujl above its Surface, to be very great : Ifay, the

that would
to

arife

from

the

AttraBion of the Earth, Square of the latter of thofe

will be

57°

17' 44",

as the

Velocities, to the

Square of the

former very

nearly^

For, fince the Earth's Attradllon is in the inverfe duplicate Ratio of the Diftance from its Centre (O), the Curve

DA

wliich a Particle of Light would defcribs thereby (fetting all other Caufes afide) will, it is known, be one of the Conic-Sedions

and

C
and
therefore, fince

47

]
is

the Velocity of Light

fuppofed very

it muft be an Hyperbola ; whofe Semi-Tranfverfe, and Semi- Conjugate Axis (A C and C P) if the Ratio of the faid Velocities be »y A O AO put as « to I, will be ^,_^ and refpedively (as is i

great in refped to the propofed circular Velocity,


it

proved in Page 153 of
if the

my Book

of Fluxions.)
will be as

Afymptote
•'

^

CB
I

be defcribed, '
,

—= —
wX

Therefore,

AO

to

-/«^

AO

nn

-, or as
2

I

to

— —
n^/ttn

fo

is

Radius, to the Tanp;ent of

PC

B, the total Refradbon of the

Ray

duced.
5

But

lince

n

is

here very ^ ereat, «/«»
•'

AD

=

fo

indefinitely prois

nearly
•'

=

therefore, the

Tangent of a very fmall Arch being

nearly equal to the

Arch

itfelf,

—^
i,

will be the

Meafure of

the Angle

BC

P, to the Radius
as i to

in Parts of that Radius;
to
i,
is

hence

we have

—^,

or as

nn

^y° ly' 44"

the Degrees, &c. in an Arch equal to the Radius, to the Refradion, or Degrees, C^c. in the forefaid Arch, whofe length is

-^.

Q. E. D.

SCHOLIUM.
It is found, both from the Periodic Time of the Moon and from Experiments of Pendulums, that the Velocity fufhcient

to

retain

a

Body

in

a circular Orbit about the Earth, juft

above its Surface (fetting afide all Refiftance, &c.) muft be fuch as would carry it uniformly over a Space of 4.95 Miles
Therefore, if Light, according to Obfervation, moves thro' a Space equal to the Semi- Diameter of the Magnus Orbis in 8 Minutes time, and the Sun's Parallax by i o Seconds of a Degree, the Velocity of Light muft be to the Velocity I
per Second.

[

4.8

3

Velocity above n-arncd, nearly as
as

34090
35"^

to

i

:

Hence we have

34090'=

:

r-

:

:

S^^ ij' 44"

:

18'', for the Horizontal,

Whence it ap-. or greatefl Refraction ariiing from Gravity. the Rtfradion obferved pears, that but a very fmall Part of in the Sun, Moon and Stars, can be owing to the forefaid
even fhould the Velocity of Light, in reality, be much lefs than it is at prefent fuppofed. And therefore in all Pradical Enquiries, about the Refraftion of the Heavenly Bodies, the Confidcration of Gravity may be entirely negleded, as altogether too minute to caufe any Itnfible Alteration.
Caufe,

P
TJ?

R.

O

P

O

S I

T

I

O N

11.

hwefligafe the Cur^e, 'which a Ray of Light , or any movifjoBody, isoill defcribe by any given Force^ continually urging it perpendicularly towards a gi'ven Flane.

Let E G L be the given Plane, A E the required Curve, and 1; any two Points therein indefinitely near to each other ; and let the Force by which the Body or Particle is urged towards E G, be reprefented by the Ordinates B D, ^c. of any given Curve SDL, whofe Axis A G is perpendicular to

H

BG

;

(Ji'aw

AB=:;^,

R H B, vrkn and Qj\ S parallel to E G, and put BH=i, BD=;Q:^AH = Hr (=B^)=i,
;^,

[

49

]•

wr=:jf, the Area ASDB=j, the Sine of the Angle to the Radius i, =/^, its Cofine f , and the Velocity at the Therefore as i Point b g bg^ the Velocity at A in the Dired:ion AQ; which, becaufe the Motion in the Direction of the Ordinate is not at all affeded by the Force ading in the Direction r, muft alfo be the Velocity at in the Direction R ; wherefore that in the Diredion r

A=^:

=
:

GAH

:

\

\

H

H

H H

will be

-4^, whofe Fluxion -4^
be
as
is

making y
is,

conftant,

will

.therefore

Q_x

--—^ that

as

the Force by

which

the Motion
fcribing

accelerated at

H, drawn

H

i;

:

Hence, by putting

= Qi' (==BD«i) =
Fluent on both
tity
fides,

J,

and

bg y confequently,
j -f-

^ = .^
B

into the time of de-

we

have ^lllii yy by taking the

K^r— ==

fome conftant Quan-

d

'j

which
o,

to determine, let

coincide with
^,

being

=
^

^.^

will
'^-^j

become

=

but

= Xj
5I1I
:

will be

= —^,
=

and confequently
. .
,

~ —4^ =
^.^
2 S
"^"^
j

A

;

then

s

being there
j -+-

Wherefore jK
given in

-, and z

=

from whence

when

s is

Terms of

x, the

be alfo given.

Values of y and z will Q:.E. I.

COROLLARY
(•
,

L

Becaufe the Value of s at all equal DiHances from the given is to Plane E L is the fame, and (b) the Sine of B A

H

ai

=

-^—

)

the Sine of

r Hi;,

as

*/

i

-h

-A to

i, it

follows, that the Sines of Refradion, or of the Angles,

-N

which anv

I 50 I
(having the fame Velocity at A)» any two Rays AE, the Perpendiculars F E, T K, at entering the given; make with Plane or Surface E L, will be to one another as the Sines of Therefore if the Refradlionthe given Angles E A G, K A G. in any one Cafe, or anfwering to any one Angle K A G, be given from Experiment, the Refradions in all other Cafes willfrom hence be given, let the accelerating Force be what it^
will.

AK

C O R O
But tween
if

LL A R Y

IL

the Force whereby the Particle, in its PafTage bd-L is accelerated, be the Attraction of an. increafes interjacent Medium, whofe Denfity in going from

AQ_and E

G

QS

according to fome given

Law, not only
:

For, let the Curve itfelf will be had flant, or taken every where, the, fam.e ^ then
rative

the fame Thing, butB k ht fuppofed con-.

(BD)

the accele-.

Force of the Medium, or the indefinitely little Area BD;?/^, will, it is evident, be as the Difference of Denfities in' B and ^, and confequently the Sum of all thefe indefinite,
little

Areas, or the

whole

curvilinear

Area

A S D B,

as

the

Therefore fince s is as Difference of Denfities in A and B, this givep Difference of Denfities, the Nature of .the Curve^ will be readily had from the Equations foregoing. And hence it appears, that, if the Denfity in S be nothing, and that in givenj the Refraction will alfo be given or remain invariable, let AG, the height of the Medium, and the Law of Denfity be what they will, and therefore is the fame as it would be, was the Ray to be refradted immediately out of a Va-.,

EL

Q

cuum

into the faid giyen Denfity.

COROLLARY
J

IIL

Hence may alfo be found the Law of Denfity, whereby a Ray of Light fhall defcribe a given Curve: For if b be
taken

ta;ken

=

i,

fo

that

A

may

be the principal Vertex of the

Curve, y will then become barely

= -4==, and y
2
s

therefore

s

=

.,

which

is

as

the Denfity required,

EXAMPLE
Let tlie given Curve be a Circle
j|/
:

I.

IS

=

Then ^ being =y/2rA:
)

xx,

and
is

s

(= -^-4^i^
,

=

^

=ir-

:

There-

fore the Denfity

as

or as the Square of the

Tan-

-

g^nt of the Diflance from the highefl Point.

EXAMPLE
Curve

IL

Suppofe the Denfity to increafe uniformly- to find the Here by writing x inftead of j, in the former of the :
in Cor.

two Equations,

IIL

we have y
to the

yz=g^ 2 X
like

= Yf^
2

,

X

and therefore
Parabola2j the

'j

which anfwers

common

of any other,

PROPOSITION
'To

IIL

article of Light or any moving find the Curve which a defcribe by any given Force ^ continually urging it direBly towards a given Centre,

T

Body will

Let

AR

be the Centre to which the Body or Particle is urged, the required Curve, v and n any two Points therein inone another, and

O

definitely near to

A F,

i;

T Tangents

at

A

and

t
and V
;

52

1 and from be defer!-

to

which

let

tho Centre

O

let

O F and O T be perpendicular, the Circles A ^ H, kn, and B

i;

vbed
at

Let the Velocity at A be reprefented by Am, and that by A r, and let the Force whereby the Body is urged towards the Centre O, at any Diftance O B therefrom, be deiined by the Ordinates B D, B D of any given Curve S P D:
:

1?

Putting ;c', P'u

AO = a, Am=g, Ar = v, B D = Q»_0 == vn=zZ3 the Area ABDS=j, and the Sine of = Then by the or OAF to the Radius RAB

=

1;

^t*,

i,

^.

Refolution of Forces,
a(fting in

it

will be

2.s

z

:

x

:

:

Qj

-^-, theForce
at

the Diredion

v ;z, whereby the Motion
into

v

is

acce-

lerated or retarded,of

which therefore drawn
gives

— the Time
Velocity

defcribing n

v

--^

= —
(

-z;)

the Alteration of

[
locity
in

S3

]

by taking the BDP^)= — — = ^ ^— whence = ^g""—
s,

that

Time

:

Hence we have
2 s.

vv =:

Qjc:

(=

and,

Fluent on both

fides,

J

i

i;

Wherefore

becaufe

the Velocity, be the Law of Force what it will, is known to be inverfely as a Perpendicular falling from the Centre of Force to the Tangent, we {hall have I? a (FO) : g (Am) : :

But

as

V

r or
:

:

:

vp p
:

n =i --^===^M^=======^ and
^

as

OP

:/)«::

I

(Radius) to

^ ^

^ "l^

^^

,

the Fluxion or

Decrement of the Angle A 1; ; from which, when the Relation of X and s is given, the Curve itfelf will be given.
CL.E.

L

COROLLARY
If the Curve

L

AR
being

paffing thro' an elaftic

Medium, and

be that formed by a Ray of Light in the Refradion be requi-

red

5

then

OT

= Vg'—zs*
V
€t P*

b £L ^ S
its

,

Fluxion will be
(

g^—2s\l:
)

which divided hy

^t-^- ^^-^^,,
,

^^^X

==

T

'u

gives

==

^

,

,

^

=

-7=r-

X

——
i

for the Fluxion

of

the Refradtion, where
Denfities in

s is

to be defined

AE

and

B 17,

for the very

by the Difference of fame Reafon as in the

iaft Propofition.

COROLLARY
Hence, becaufe the Refraction

IL

(9^

x

——
-

)

which a Ray

of Light

fuffers in paffing thro'

O

any given Stratum of the Medium.

[54]
dium,

B vp k,

appears to be as, -^^^ the

OT

Tangent of

Inciit

dence on the Surface of that Stratum and
is

-^— conjundlly,
2s,

manifeft that if -=r— , as well as g^

OT

be every where

that Ray,
nearly.

nearly the fame, the whole Refradion or total Bending of will be as the Tangent of the Angle

RAB,
very

and the Denlity of the

Medium

at the

Surface

AE

SCHOLIUM.
Conclulion will be found to afford a fhort and very ufeful Theorem for determining the Refradlion which the Light of the heavenly Bodies fuffers in paffing thro* the Earth's Atmofphere, by the help of one Obfervation only, in all Cafes where the Zenith Diftance is not very great : For let E, &c. reprefent the Surface or a great Circle of the B, Earth ^ then, becaufe the Atmofphere at a fmall Height that Surface, in Comparifon of the Semi-Diameter above A O, muft be extreamly rarer than at the Surface itfelf, the Refradlion beyond fuch Height will, at mofl, be but very fmall, and therefore the Curvature, which any Rays R'yA, C f A, fuffer below B ^ i;, may be confidered as their total But thefe Refradions being found by ExperiRefradions. will be ment to be but fmall, the Angles 'uAB and nearly equal, and therefore, if not very large, their Tangents will likewife be nearly equal j from whence, and what has been faid in the laft Corollary, it plainly appears that, let the Law of Denfity of the Atmofphere be what it will, the Re~ fraftions of the Sun, Moon and Stars, at all Altitudes except very fmall ones, will be neatly as. the Tangents of their apparent Zenith Diftances drawn into the refpedtive Denfity of the Atmofphere, at the Places and Times, for which fuch Refracftions are to be determined 3 and therefore if the Denfity be the
laft

The

A

A

AvO

the fame, are fimply as the Tangents of their Zenith Diftances. But now to eftimate in fome fort, how near this Proportion comes to Truth, and how far it may be relied on j let any two

convenient Altitudes, i. e. that are neither very fmall nor Suppofe one of 20, and the very near each other be alfumed. other of 40 Degrees, and let^^ w L, &c. be a Circle, or fpherical Surface dividing the Atmofphere into two Parts fo that the Denfity at that Surface may be equal but to half the Den-

A. Now the Height of this Surface above A E, the Surface of the Earth, from the known Properties of Air, and Experiment made on the Tops of very high Hills, cannot be more
fity at

than about

c
1

Miles, or

^ of
:

the Earth's Radius*
i

Therefore

we

have, as

-h

= 20) the

^

(O-w;)

(AO)

:

:

the Cofineof
:

(RAE
which
being

leafl given Altitude to

the Sine of 69°

48',

[S6]
being increafed by

of the Ray
nearly.

A it\
in

And

Minute on Account of the Curvature 69° 49', for the Angle 1^; A very the fame manner the Angle Of A, correi

gives

fponding to the other given Altitude, will be found 49° ^^', Now it hath been proved, that if the Angles of Incidence 1; A, f A, continued every where invariable, or equal to themfelves, the Refraftions would be to one another exadily as the Tangents of thofe Angles; therefore, becaufe the Difference of the Tangents of i;AB and &c. is but little, and the Refradion above and below the Surfacey^ ':£;L, nearly equal, therefore may 69° 49', and 49° : ^^\ be taken as mean Incidences, and then the Refradions, anfwering thereto, will be to one another as the Tangents of thofe Angles, or as i to 0.4372; which Proportion being much nearer the Truth than that of I to .4338, ariling immediately from the Theorem, the Error, in the confequent Term of this laft Proportion, cannot, it is plain, be much greater than (.0034) the Difference between .4372 and .4388; which, fhould it be even double that Quantity, would fcarce caufe an Error in the Refradion itfelf of a fingle Second. Nor is it in this one particular Cafe only, that the Rule anfwers fo exadly, the Error here being nearly as great, if not greater, than it can be in any other Cafe, where the leafl of the two propofed Altitudes is not lefs than 20 Degrees, as is eafy to fee from the Reafons

O

OwA,

:

foregoing.

by any Means we can Refradion correfponding to any one given Altitude, not lefs than about 20°, the Refradion at all higher Altitudes, for the fame Denfity of the Atmofphere, may be had from the forefaid Proportion, and that to a fingle Second. And this is to be the more relied on in Pradice, as it does not depend on any particular Hypothefis, for the Law of Denfity of the Atmofphere. The Refradions in -fmall Altitudes, which remain to be confidered, are not fo certain and eafy to come at, nor indeed, If to be computed at all but by Virtue of fome Hypothefis.

Hence

it

appears, that if

come

at the true

3

the

[57]
the Denfity of the Atmofphere, in going from the Earth, be fuppofed to decreafe uniformly (which Law will be found to anfwer better to Experiment than the commonly received one, founded on the Elafticity of Air) and h be put for A B the height of the whole Atmofphere, in Parts of the Earth's Radius, and k be aflumed equal to the greatefl Value of j, correfpond-

ing to this Height, then will j be to ^ Fluxion of Refradion ( found in Cor.

as ^
I. )

to ^, 'and the will

become

abgkx
=, and
is

'hgx
therefore to
as
-,

the Fluxion of the Angle

AOi;,
i^

—^—
k

to-, or, if a be

taken

=
I

i,

and

^== i,

as

to

^ x

^"^"^
-

5

which,

becaufe
;^

X and

2s are always nearly the fame, will be as

to

/&

very nearly.

Wherefore, becaufe the Angle

i;HB

is

equal
to

P

[58
to both the Angles

]

O-uH, HOv, the Fluxion thereof, or of the Refradion, will be equal to the Fluxions of both that them two, and is, therefore, to the Fluxion of 1; H, in the conftant Ratio of ^ to b k-, therefore the Fluents themfelves (corrected by their proper conlknt Quantities) muft be in


'u

the fame conftant Ratio, that

is,

Excefs

of

OAF

above

O

H,

the Refraction will be to the as k to b k. But, fince

OT

is

found above to be

=
Oi;H

,

or
is

^===

(

becaufe
b

a=i, g=J,
(

&c\) the Sine of
X
I

given

=
it

=-^j— j =/^
I

b-{-k, very nearly.

Therefore

will be

as

to

I

b-\-k
to the

Diftance,

is the Sine of any apparent Zenith : : fo Sine of an Arc, the Difference between

which Arc and the Zenith Diftance, multiplied by
give the Refraction fought
fraction

j^

will

Proportion, the Re; from which may, in any Cafe, be determined, when b and k are given from Experiment 5 both which may be had from two
Obfervations.

be pretty large, then the Difference of the two Arcs meafuring the Angles OAF, 1; H, being nearly equal to the Difference of their Sines into Radius, applied to' (c) the Coiine of the former, the Refradtion will be barely
if the Altitude

But

x k

{=

^

~

X 7—7-,) and therefore

in

any fuch Cafe, the

Value of k

may be found from one Obfervation only. For an Inilance hereof, let us fuppofe the Refraction at the Alti1' 30"!; tude of 30 Degrees to be given from Experiment, then the length of an Arc of i' 30"!, in Parts of the Ra-

=

dius,

being

we

have

= ,00044 and — = .00044, 1.732
y^

,

the Tangent of 60°,

== 1.732,

and

therefore

^

= .000253.

By help of may be alfo
3

v/hich,

the Refractions at very fmall Altitudes

found,

when

the RefraCtion anfwering to any one ^uch

[59]
Suppofe, for Example, the horizontal Refradion, co: r^fponding to the above Value of X', to be given 33', -'id let the Refradion, at the apparent Altitude
fur.h Altitude
is

given.

=

fame time, be required Becaufe b x h k^ the Difference of the Sines of the Angles OAF, Oi;H, here becomes =.h—kz=z\.'iit verfed Sine of the Complement of Oi'H to a right Angle, the Arc correfponding to this verfed Sine, or, which is the fame, the Difference of the Arcs meafuring the of
5°, at the
:

faid Angles,

v^^ill

be nearly

= ^^2 x h —
,

k^

by the Nature of
will be equal to
in Parts of

the Circle

;

and therefore

,__^

x ^/a x h

—k
c
'J

(.0096)

the
3

Arc meafuring the given Refradlion whence
f \

the Radius
hi

f_

=
>^

.00009216,
) J

and h

— =
k
fore-

.00004608
1 h

^-

——
k

is

= .00110 becaufe = 0002 DO and oy = -^^ — very Wherefore from the H
or
1390
'

therefore

nearly. ^

going Proportion,

we have
of %6°
the Sine

this

Rule

-,

As

i

to

Radius

to the Sine
to

58'!, Jo is the Sine

.9986, (^c. or as of any given Ze-

nith Dijiance

of an Arc^

-^

of the Difference

of which Arc and the Zenith Dijiance, is the RefraBion fought which in the Cafe above propofed, comes out 9' 10". And in this Manner were the two following Tables computed, the firff from the above Numbers, adapted to the mean Denfity of the Atmofphere, and the other from Numbers fomewhat larger, to anfwer when the Refradions are the greateft.
',

Ap.

C

60]

>

[6i
rial

]

Objedlion (that I forefee) the Tables are liable to, is their being founded on a Suppofition, that the Denfity of the Atmofphere decreafes uniformly ; which is not only very diffe-

from what hath been hitherto commonly received, but feemingly contrary to Experiment, whereby it is proved, that the Dejtfity of Air decreafes as the compj'ejjiiig Force : But it may be anfwered, that, tho' this is allowed to be true in Air containing the fame Degree of Heat, yet it cannot be fuppofed to hold in the Earth's Atmofphere, fmce the upper Re_gion thereof is known to be much colder, and consequently
rent

the Elafticity there much lefs than at the Earth's Surface But, a convincing Proof that this Law of Denlity canftot obtain in our Atmofphere, is, that the mean horizontal Refradiion computed therefrom, according to the known refractive Power, and fpecifick Oravity of Air, will be found to come out no lefs
:

than 52 Minutes, which

is

greater

by almoft -

of a

whole

Degree than it ought to be ; whereas, if the fame Refra(flipn be calculated from the Hypothecs of a Denfity decreafing uniformly, and compared with Obfervations, the Difference will not be near fo confiderable. This fhev/s the Tables to be much exader, than they could had they been computed from the common Hypothefis I mean, in very fmall Altitudes ; for the Refractions in high Altitudes, it has been proved, will be but by different Laws of Denfity, and therefore little affeded
;

them according to even fo near, that if the Refradion at any Altitude not lefs than about 7 Degrees be truly given from Experiment, the Refradlions, com.puted from thence, according to the two Hypothefes forenamed, for any higher Altitude, will never differ from one another by more than about 2 Seconds. From whence we may infer^ that as the Hypothefis on which the abovefaid Tables are founded is much the exader of the two, the Error arifins; therefrom cannot in any fuch Altitude amount to more than a iingle Second.
the fame, compute
;

come out very near what Hypothefis you

will

Q_

OF

[62]
OF THE

SUMMATION
i? ai^ -fI

of

SERIES.
I.

PROPOSITION

be any Power 2i-^Xy either whole or broken^ pojitive (n) of the Binomial

b an— X -f- c a"— 2 x^ -{- d an— 3, &c.

or negati've, and the Terms thereof be refpeBively multiplied by any Series of ^antities p, q, r, s, &c. and the Differences of thefe ^lanfities be continually taken, and the firfl Diffe-

rence (q-^p) of the frji Order ^
jlyjl
(r

be denoted by

D, and

the

of the fecond Order, by D, &c. I fay^ the Series pan H- q b a"— » x -4- re an— 2 x^, &c. thence arifng.
n

— 2q-}-p)

/'^//3^=pxaH-xl -f-Dbxxa-f-xl

1

-l-Dcx* x a-t-xl

.

-^

>

—— —
:

rn

+Ddx3xa-t-xl
For,
-i-4-

n—
,

6cc.
n

let

P X ^-f-A:l" -h

Q^ x a-\-x\
x

-H R a:* x

a-\-x^

S

;v3

X a-^x^^~~^^ &c. be afTumed
y.

= p a^
a^—Sx\
-,

-\-

qna'^—^x

r n

aT^-^2x^-{-snx

<3C.

{=pan

-\'qba^—^x-^-rca'^—^x'^-\-sda^—lx^, C^c.) then, by conthe feveral Powers 0^ a-\-x to fimple Terms, and verting
tranfpofing
fhall

pa^^qna n—

»

x-\-rn x ^^^ a n— i

x'^^

&c.

we

have

-*-P

[63]
2
'

—pa^ —
will be

qna^-^^

x

— r « x ^^^

p,

a^-^^ x^^ &c.

From whence, by

equating the homologous Terms, there

P=/>, (X=znxq
X
3

R=«x^^—^xr
py

2q-\-p^ S
is

=

n X
n

2

xj
5'

=

c,

G?^.

— 3^+3^ ^^' ^^t w = — = D, — 2§'+/>=D, ^c and
/>

^,

nx

r

confe-

quQnily pa^-^-gba^— ^x-\- re a^— 2 x'^'i-sda^'^^ x^, &c.

=px
x^

a-^x\ -{-D a X X
a-{-x\
-\r'Dex'i

a-\-x\

^-D
^

c

x"^

x

a-{-x\
it is

-{-

Dd
in

x

xa-hxl
laft

,&c.wheve

evident, that the
finite

Value of pa^-h Terms, when the
are equal.

q/>aT^—i

&c. will be always had

Differences of the Quantities />,^,r, &c\

Q. E. D.

COROLLARY
k-^-zm, k-\-2Wy &c. then

I.

Hence, if the Values of p, q, r, s, &c. be refpedively expounded by the Terms of any Arithmetical Progreffion kj k~\~m^

&c. each

=

p

being

=^,

i)=tn^ and D, D, D,

o,

we

fhall

have k a^-\-k~^?n x ba^—^x-{-k-{-2m x
a-i-xl^-i-

ca'^—^x'^^ C^c. barely

=^x

mbxy,

^-t-^Yl*^""^,

or

kx

a-^x\^-{-

mnxx a-^-x^^"^,
C O-

[64]
C O R O
But
if

LL A R Y
q^ r,

II.

the Values of

/>,

^c. be defined by y>

"ttt''

^n~", ^c.

(the Reciprocals of that Progreffion) then
I'

D being
3

-7n

m. 2

m

J''

—m
J

.

2

w

.

w

D=:t—T-j

7/

'"^

^
'

?
',


,

T-]

^^'

we

fhall

have

V

»

/»0xXa-f-x\

~~i

—[n—
,

— rn— _^ m.zmcx^ Y.a-\'x\
;


*

m zm
.

.

'^max^ X <^+.y|

,

,

— —rfl—-?
;

i

.

z

m

.

T^m

.

^me x^Xa-\-x\
,
ij

;n

'

r^
'

— — 7n
-j ^

a~f-x\
k

^

Izz.
ff

y,

A.k-^m.k^zm.i-\-^m.^'\'/\.m

-f-

pi

IX B
<2-}-A-

mx
<3-j-Ar

«

2XC

ZK^
«-{"*

«

3

X

D
the

/^-{-^^

i-|-3z«
firfl

^-^ ^ff

~-r-y where
third,

A

denotes the

Term, B the

fecond,

C

and

fo on.

Therefore, if

^ being

=—
,

COROLLARY IIL == — ^=i, and
?i

be taken

i,

a:=2;J", then

i,

<:

= +!, d = -^i,
k-\-A^m
»;

C^c.

we
i-}-^;'"

have ^

— x^
-^^

,im

k-\-zm

k-\-im
2 B i+2»^

^X
i-l-z'^

k

m
z«a:

^^^^
i-fj:'"

%"

,3c
>^+3'»

wrz™.

4D
-44-47W

l+z""

i-j-is™

^._5A_x-^^, ^^ i+«"'
R-f-5«7

^.. or
C5r.

-.^=puttinp;

[/fxi+2"»

-,-,—

^

-f-

T ,-—^,

by

+ Q=—

-^Q^
4
-

+

+ ^^

-^20.
-{4-2;w

,

CO-

[

65]
IV.
i

COROLLARY
Moreover,
j,ave

when n

is

taken

;=—-

and

^=i, we

(hall

p^qx^rx-^sx^-^tx\
///

^^\

j

&c. and

= r+l^ — 7=p + 7=p confequently (by writing — x of
(^c.

inftead

&c. (hewing the Value of the
tinued in infinitum.

Series p'\-qx-{'rx'^,

&c. con-

COROLLARY
But
if

V.

the Value of only a finite Number {li) of Terms be wanted, let the remaining Part of the Series be reprefented P^nH-Qxn+i_{-R;cn+2, and the Difference of the Coefficients P, Q, R, ^c, be continually taken ; and let the
firft

Difference of the

firft

Order be denoted by E, the

firfl

Difference of the fecond Order by E, ^c, ^c. Then, for the

very fameReafons xhsX p-\-qx-\-rx^, &c.

is

=

P
-^-^
f~

Da: __
.

^*

&c.
Gfc.

will

P-4-Q^+R^% ^c.

be

= -^
I

-4-

—°-x

=^ 4- ==i>
l'—x\
1

—=

;*'j

and therefore

P^n-f- Q^n+i H-R^cn+z^ ^c.

=
.

-^^
^
J-=»*|
^,

1


«

-f^1

-==r^, &c. which taken from
I

X\

~—H
'

"

ii?(7.

leaves
firfl

H
Terms of the

^^

-f-

.

,

&c,

equal

to the

Series propofed.

R

CO-

[66

]

COROLLARY
Hence may
Series
-^-

VL
[n) of

the

Sum
i-

of any

Number

Terms of
is

the

H
alfo

%

-\

— +
for

4> ^^fince

where z

indetermi(^c,
is

nate,

be

found;

px -{- qx"^-^

rx'^,

let

z be

written therein inftead of

-,

and

it

will

become

equal to the Value fought, which therefore,
nite,

when

;z

is

infi-

or the whole Series
/ //

is

taken, will be barely

=

-^

///

«

il

z

1|

«—

ij

EXAMPLE L + "7^» ^^Where ai-^-^ —
7"^

t>eing

= ^4-^1%
gal -^

'tis

propofed to find the

Sum
^'^^

of the

infinite Series

zax

•—

"T^ + "Vl"'
firft

Here /being

=

9,

^=16, ^=25,

Differences will be 7, 9, 11, 13, ^c, the fecond 2, 2, 2, ^^. and the third, fourth, ^c, each e-

j:=36, ^c. the
qual
to nothing

whence by

o; 2, D, Gf^. 7, thefe Values, with thofe of n and p, fubftituting
:

Therefore

D=

D=

=

iBc, in the general

Equation,

we

have o

^H

i

f-^-

4-

[67]
was
to be found.

EXAMPLE
Where x
being
lefs

IL

than

i,

'tis

required to find the

the infinite Series i-h2A;+3^^-{-4A;^,

&c.

In

this

Sum of Cafe,/>=i,
In Hke
is

qx=2y r=2j ^c. D=:i,
IV.) i-4-2;^+3^% &c.

D=o,

^c, and therefore (by Cor.

=-rT
^3 ,

-+-

=^ =r=^.

Manner

it

will be found, that
'XX
'

i-h^x-^-gx^'-i-iGx^, &c.

+

-^--^z

+ --—
2 X^

and that i'\-Sx-h2yx''-{'64.x^,
6 x^

(^c,

SCHOLIUM.
The
foregoing Conclufions are not only ufeful in finding

the Values ,of Series, which are. in their own Nature exactly fumible, but may alfo be applied to very good Purpofe in the Quadrature of Curves, and in approximating the Values of fuch Series, whofe exadl Values cannot be determined. Let it, for example, be required to approximate the Value of the
Series li! _i- if!

4.6.8.11^^4.6.8.10.13 4.7 4.6.9 3. 5 exprefiing the Area of the redangular Hyperbola, whofe
fciffa is X,

—^

-i- £ili4 _-. ±.3i5£I. _ju

tl±2ll. &c.
Abeffed:

and principal Diameter Unity. which, let a few of the leading Terms firft) be coUedled into one Sam, and let the Coefficients of a few of the firft of the

In order to

(fuppofe the four the Differences of

remaining Terms,

which

(in this Cafe) are ^
'

4.6.8. II*

4^,

-41^^^, 4.6.8.10.13*

4#^^^^, ^c. 4.6.8.10.12.15'
or

[ 68 1
or 0.0142, 0.00841, 0.00546, 0.00379, &c. be continually taken ( as in the Margin )
.01420
.00841

00579

.00546 .00295

-J-.00284-I— 00128, &c. .00156, ^c.

— —

.00379, y<-. .00167, ^c.

Then, the
of
the
iirft

firft

Difference

of /, q^ r, s, the 0.01420, 0.00841, 0.0284, 0.00156, &c. be refpcclively fubftituted in the geneilead

—0.00579, of fecond Order +0.00284, of the —0.00156, ^c. &c. D, D, D, &c. above Values 0.00546, 0.00379, &c. — 0.00579,
the
third
III

Order

being

if in-

/

U

ral

Equation p ^ ^
(as


>,

qx-^-rx"^
^

I

sx^.

&c.

= -J

&c.

found in Corol. IV.)

we

fhall get

+ 0.00546;^- - 0.00379x3,
2.

&c.

— ^-i-^ (^^^^ 0.01420
0.00579 X

i-\-x

——

Dx

II

r^

D, -i"=^

i-\-x\

^^x\

rz-

0.00841A,*

3.5.7. 9

;y^

V

0.01420

0.00284^^

4. 6.8. 10. 12. i5»

^^'

^

i+x

^
"^

'ilrA^

o^ooi^
i+x\
'

->-^'3.5-7-9^
4.6.8. 10. 12. 15

^^^ confequently — ^ &C. = — v/7x ^
X^
to

H^'
f^iiiZi^
4.6.8.10.13

£i3,5Zl. -i4.6.8.11

<>-°H^o^
l-j-x

^
l^
10

gl^^^Zi^
I

+

Jfj

-{-

^^^_1-^ &c. which added
i+x|

x ^x ^

xi
3

+
'

— ^-i_f!
14
'

36'

the

Sum

of the four

firft

whole propounded found in Numbers,
will
Ai^-

Series

that

Terms, will give the Value of the which Value may now be eafily of x being given j for let x=i, then
;

*

^.x-

X ^^^^T~~

"*~

—====I—

J

&;C.

=—
^

O.OOQO, &c.
therefore the

and^Tv/^x^3

-4-

— 10

— — 414

^ 36

= 1.6806, and
^

Value of the whole Series will be 1.6806, which is more exadt, than if 20 Terms of the original Series had been taken. Again,
3
let

[

69

i

let

^:

[
mediately be
that ^
I


firit,

]
let

fl:iewR.

And
_f
2 m-\1

z=i^

and
i

;;z,

=22,

fa
5

^
m-\-i
^sfr.

^_

,

Ci?^.

may become
|-

h
3

,

(expreffing the length of
is

of the Periphery of the

Circle,
(i

whofe Radius
I
7
5

V

— A_|_l — ^
3
X'

Unity)- then the Value (0.7440 117) of
I
9
,

L) the
»
J

fix

firft

^

Terms
&c.

thereof

being; colied:ed there will

remain

^,

Therefore.
firfl:

feeing the Value of

(the
13,

Denominator of the

remain-

ing

Term)

is

here

=

andQ(=: -^j^j=

i,

we

flaall,

by writing
-4---,
17'

thefe Values in the above Equation, have

&C.— 1 x-i-4-— +i^+3j^, 19 17 13

= 0.04138735
for the

0.0025641 H- 0.0D00024
-\-

+ +

2.

'

^^.

15

=o.o3846ic J T J
-f-

0.0003016 0.0000007
this

+ +
1

0.0000476 0.0000002
;

+
i,
{-

0.0000091 0.000000

and

added to 0.74401 17, gives 0.785399
Series
if

Value of the whole

which
let

is

true in the iafl
origi-

Place, and
nal Series
fo that the

more exad: than
had been taken.
propounded
Series

00000 Terms of the

Again,

a:=

and mz=zi^
-,

may

be

^c\

(expreffing the hyperbolical

Logarithm of 2) then the

Sum
i

(0.634523809)

of the 8

firfl

Tjerms being taken, the remainr

ing Part of the Series will ^

be9

^

10

—h —
II

12

ij^

——
have

,

&c. Therefore k being here

=
-4-

9,

and

Q== -, we

fhall

+ z^ X y^ + -A5^ 41^ + ».A,B,C,2D,cE,F«j

-1^,
^
^

ISc.
^

4-

[

71

]

0.000252525 4- 0.000031565 0.002777777 0.000004856 -h 0.000000867 H- 0.000000177 -f•40.000000038 -4- 0.000000009 -4- 0.G00000002 .3= 0.058623367; and confequently 0.693 147176 equal to the whole Value required; which errs but 4 in the laft Place and would have required, at leafl:, looooooo Terms of the
original Series.
initial

P

+

But

after all
iiril

it

Terms

are always

to

may not appear why a few be taken, feeing the Series
-jit

for.

the Value, of

±z''

x^

— -^
are

^^^ &c. holds uniwill
;

verfally, let the
is.

Value of k be what

but the Reafon

taken, the fafter will the Series expreffing the Value of the remaining Terms converge, fo that by firfl collecting a proper Number of initial Terms (which will be. greater or lefler, according as a greater or lefler Degree of Accuracy is required) the fame Conthis,
firft

the

more Terms there

cluiion will be brought out with a great deal lefs Trouble,

than
this

if the Value of the whole Series was to be found by Method, as upon Trial will plainly appear,
.

PROPOSITION
a-i-x, decreafed by the v fir/i

IL

SUppoJing an-{-ba"--ix-{-can^2x2-{-dan--3x3, &c.

to he as in the lafi Propofition, and r any whole pojitive JS)u??iber, and that S is equal to the n-4-r Power of the Binomial

Terms
V-

:

I fay,
x"

the
.

Sum of
da

the

Sertes
5cc.

ci

'

——

^

i.2.3...r

4-. --—-:;

.

ba

X
i

ca

^x^

2.3.4....r-}-i

3.4L5....r+2

^^

4.5.6...r-f-3

(whether finite or ^

infinite) will '

be-

=^=

«-{-ixk-|-2x«+3....«+^xxv
^n+i"-!- n-\-r x ^"4-^—^ at.

For the;2-f-r Power of a-\-x being

^ «4-r X ^"^^T
2
..

i,

X ^"+'""^ x\ '

C^c,

if

from the fame the r
firil

[

72

]

Terms be taken,there will remain ^E]^^¥^h^^ 2 2
I
. .
.

^--«1^^'''''
.

.

.r

"*
J

.2.3

r+I

1.2.3
n-\:

r+ 2
na
\-

>

^^«

;;2H-r

x«-hr
^'^— ^.^^

i

i

^-X'

x
1.2.3...^

f2ifziif__l- =:;z4-r X
i.2.3.,..r-f-2
«

7z

— — +
r
n

1. 2. 3.4.. ..^-{-i

^~"
i

....724-

1

x

a;''

"

x
^

^

2

i ,

'^^

I

«^

^
"^

-I

2.3.4....^+!

? .3.4.s...r+2

Gf^:.

=85
n—
^f
2.3 4....r+i

therefore

c

==
7

i^-l

=
,

X«+2X«-|-3
A^
1.2.3... .r

n-\-r%x''

—:is=—
^

n
1

^

1,2.3. ..r

%

,

^c.

n—
^^
1-

n— 2
-if

H _if

^.3.4.. .r+i

1—

-

, '

S'^.

3.4.5. ...r-t-2

Q, E. D. ^

C O R O LLA RY
Therefore
«
it

I.

"^"^ follows that "^+^1 r—

— n+iXA•^'\''^

is

=—
I
i

-I-


2

-,

""T
5

n+2

——

,,

n+i

4
i
--,

C^'^-

^nat

^+ix«+2Xa;^

_f!_ -I1.2^^

^^

^

J-

-J^_JL_,
3.4

G?^.

and

that

2.3

,:nFr+'-'.''+'-H^x»"+'.-H^x^
»-|-lX«+2X«+3Xr3

/+V
IS

=

1.2.3

,;2

.

3

<

4

3

'

4

5

CO-

in)
COROLLARY
Hence may
&c. (=za-hx\

H.

the Value of a^^-h^a^'^^x-^ca^-^^x^'+'da^'^ix^

when the Terms thereof are refpedlively di) vided by any Series of figurate Numbers (as i, 3, 6, 10, 15, &c. or as I, 4, 10, 20, 35, &c.) be alfo eafily ' derived :
For, fince
it is

found

tliat

—^1l.2.3...r

^^"""'
-f-

-^
.

z.3.4...r-|-i

-4- __tf""*"^-* ^^ 3.4.5. ...r+2

^'be

''

^ nT^T^Z^^^Zj^n^'
1.2.3

^^'

^^^ whole Equation

multiply'd by

^

and

we

fhall

have

-^
t

'•+IX-^ z
.

r+lX-^X-V^ 2 3
I

i.2.3....nxS

Y

S
«4.i
I

^

«-|-iX«+2X«+3
i,

«+r X x'J

n-\-z

«^-3

g^-^
^

^
are

2

^

3

^*

;

where

r-hi, r-f-i x
Series^

-^,

{ifr.

known

to

reprefent

una verfally any

of

figurate

Numbers.

EXAMPLE
Let there he given -r
find the
"^

L
^^' =^ ^

—^

"^

^j
-f-

^'

\to

exad Value of
is

-^
i.c2.

-H .-^
2.2^^

-^,
J.Sf''

&c.

Then,
fliail

becaufe r

=

i,

a-=.c^

x=:z, and

;z

=

-;—-,
2'

we

in

^qp^j^_-«n+r
this

Cafe have 2±4._»-}-lXAr

;i:^p_,^

2.^^2x^—«p
«

fX—»

which was

to be found,

EX-

[74]
JSX
Let
£5?/:.

AMPLE
a-^-x^

II.

it

be required to find the Value of ^ ^ I

—h ^^
4

H-

^^" *
lo

\

or of the fifth

Power of
by
i,

when

the

Terms

thereof
in

are refpeclively divided

order that

10, 20, 35, &c. the above general Series (for figurate

4,

Now,

Numbers)
let

may agree with

(1, 4, 10,

20) the particular one here given,

the Value of r-f- i be fo taken, that the fecond Terms of both Series may be equal, and then the reft will be fa of Courfej therefore r, in this Cafe, being 3, ?2 5, and

=

=

-n-[-r

the three

firft

Terms of

^-i-x^

expanded
a^

+
I

8^7;^-!-

28
S

A% we have 8=^-1-^1^
«-\-f

— ^a^x— 28^^a% and

in a Series

=<3^

2/4-1

x.^ w+3
»4-2
3

c6 ^

"V-^*'

Value that was to be found.

PROPOSITION
TJppo/ing
Series,

IIL

axPH-bxP+"-f-cxP+^"-f-^xP+3n^ &c. to he any is given j and thefinite or infinite^ whofe Sum

A

Terms thereof to be refpeBively multiply' d by the Therms r, r-i-n, r 2n, &c. of any arithmetical ProgreJJion, whofe common Difference is n 5 to find the Sum ( B ) of all the

+

ProduBs, or the Value of the Series raxP-j-r-f-n xbxP+*^ -hr+2n X cxP+^^, &c. thence arifing.
Becaufe ax^-^^bx^^-^-cx^'^^^
will

^c.

is

given

= A,

there

be

given a i^ -V-b x'+'' -\-c x'-^'-'' ,

Fluxion being taken and divided

=A;c"-Pj whofe by x^^'^^^x, we have ra x^
^c.

-^r-hn X

^;fP+"'4- r-f-2 « x cx^^"^, &c,

= r—p x A-h A—

L

75 ]

=B
B

}

where, becaufe
finite

always had in
alfo.

given in finite Terms, A will be Terms, and confequently the Value of
is

A

CLE.

I.

COROLLARY.
Hence,
the Series
qual
for

the very fame Reafons that (B)
x,

the

Sum
is

of
e^

ra x^-\-r-\-n x l?x'^^-{-r-{-2n
will

cx^~^^^^ C^c.

tor—/xA-f-i-^,
.— , and

(C)

the

Sum

of

the Series

rsax^-hr-\-n.s-\-N'^x^^-{-r-{-2n.s-{-2n.cx^^,

&c.

be

=s—px
^c.

B-i

(D) the

Sum

of the
.

Series
.

r.s.t,

ax^^ r^n.s-i-n ,t-\-n\ ^;cP+"-f-r-i-2 n.s-{-2 n

t-{-2n cx^"^^^,

=7=7 X C -i- -^,

&c, &c. &c,

EXAMPLE
Let there be
ffiven

L
Series

the

Sum

of the
.

'.7
,

x

—~
3

~i- fL, 5
is

&c. exprelling the Arc of a Circle, whofe Radius
x,

i,

and Tangent
of the

and

let

it

be required to find the
3

— ^-f-^ll — 2fl!4_ ^^ />=i, = ^==3, and A = -^^~, we have B (= r—p x A — -^) = A4- -;^ Value
infinite Series

Sum

(B)

3^; ^

iil!
9

S

7

Becaufe, in this Cafe,

72

2,

2

for the

fought.

EXAMPLE
Having given the Sum of the

IL
x

infinite Series

— -—J

f^

H-

C^c. equal to

(A)

the hyperbolical Logarithm of

t76]
I -f. Afi

to' find
J-

(

C

)

the

Sum
^c.

of" the infinite Series

2.2Af

^

— Ul—
A
-f-

lii!

liii-j

Here/> being

=

i,

«=i,
px

r=2, ^=2

(vid. Corol.)

and

A = -^^, we have B (=:r

^) = A +
C

Gonfequently

6=4- + ==^, and (=^ x B + -?A) = A 4- -^ H- =^
-"-;
therefore

which was

to be found.

LEMMA.
J'o

divide a Compound FraSfiojty as
ones,

^+-^ ^

^T^ ^ '^t^

—±

^^^U as

many Jimpk
Juppofmg
b,

as there are Factors in its Denominator

-^

&c. to- be unequal Numbers, and a, a, a, ^c. any Numbers, either equal or unequal, and that the Number of FaBors in the Numerator is lejs than the Number of FaSiors in the Denominator,
b, b,

Let A,, B, C, D, ^c.

reprefent the

unknown -invariable Nuii

merators of the required Frad:ions to which ^±i2i^xl]i±tf!

may be

reduced,
.

or,

which

is

the fame
/

in efFed,
//

let y-j—
,i

B ^---^- C

,

J-

D _-,

n-) ^^. -^

«4-a; -r
-

X ^+Ar X fl+Jf, ^c, -r -r

.

^hen by

i

b-\-x b-^-x-^b-^-xy^k-^-Xi^c. b-\-x h2^x multiplying the whole Equation by ^ -i- x, we fhall have
.

b-\-x

X B

bArX X
b-^x

C

b-\-x X
l-^-x

D

«j

a-\-x

X a -\-x, &c.

yy

^.

iJ^x

b-{-x

X b-{-x, ^c.
it

fince the Equation holds univerfally, be the

Value of x what

[77]
it

will, let

X be taken ==


/

the

Terms affeded by /^-h^
(hall

o, and then, all vanifhing out of the Equation,
^,
/^

or
//

-f-

at

=

we

have

A

^c. ^x^ of that of the required Fradions, whofe Denominator is From whence the Numerators anfwering to the reft ^-{-a:
h

= ~—~—^~—~ — — —
ixt>
1>,

for

the

Numerator

:

of the Denominators or Facftors,. ^-I-Ar, /^-f-Ar, &c. may be found by Infpedlion, and will be had (as the foregoing is) by taking the Quantity conjoined with x in the Fador propofed, and fubftituting the fame, with its Sign changed, inftead of at, in every other Fador of the Fradion given i and fo we have
a

—^X«
/
II

//

hXa
I


II

b,

Cfff.

I

,

a

////// —bxa—ixa—
I

B,

&c.

i

i^b%b—by.b—b,^c.
,

"^'^
l
II

b^bxb^bxb—b,
p^
>

^c.
II

b
HI

+x
.

a-^b X a
7i I

."*"

w l^bxh^hxb'-^b,^c.
7i

—b X a—~
II
II

b,Z^c.

^

a-{-xXa-\'XXa-\-xXa-\-x, &'c

/ //

^

///

b-{-x

b-\-xy(.b-{-xxb-{-xX.b-{'X, ^c,

Q^E.L

COROLLARY.
If the Number of Fadors in the Denominator of the propofed Fradion be greater by two, at leaft, than the Number of thofe in the Numerator, it will appear, by conceiving
/
//

^T^

^-1-^

x^b

x+b

x-{-b

Xx+bXx + b,

&c.

(== o) to be reduced to one Denomination, that A-f-B-S-C+D, &c. will be the Sum of the Coefficients of the higheft Power of X in the Numerator, and therefore equal to nothing.

U

PRO-

[78

]

PROPOSITION
Having
,

IV.
Infinite

given
m-f-n

(

S

)

the
,

m4-2n

Sum of m+jn

the

Series

-^
tn

m-l-An

Fluent of

—m—

I

--=r-^

{which may be always had from the
to find the

^^^ ^„

drature of the Conic-SeB ions) 'ttspropofed
Infinite Series

Sum of the

t^^^-^l'.p
i^c.
-^

+ .+^.x.-j
/^o

-»,i^..

+

a-\-zn

X ^4-2« X f4-2«,

_i_ fl4-3« X

/+2«Xj-i-2«Xr+2«, ^f.

— ;+3'^Xf4-3«X^+3«,£ffc.
n, any

^+3« X C'\-'hn, &c.
"^-^^
*

&c. fiippofng '^^^j
qual whole Numbers
unequal^

^^,
a,

^^^, &c.

reprefent any une^

b, c,

m,

"Numbers equal or

Fatlors in each Numerator of the Series to be the fame, and lefs than the Number of FaBors in the Denominator, this laft Nmnber being aljo Juppofed

and

the

Number of

the

fame

in every T!erm.

^^^^

q

— ^Xr

pXs
&c.

f,

^c.

*

/>

f

Xr

— yXJ—
i^c.
£fff.
x,

f,

&c.
j^ »

*

^-^rX^— rXf— r>
^__r

__

q
»

a—sxi>—sXc—s,

X?— rXJ— r,

^r.

^_j xj— ^Xr—

^^ ^^

then, from the preceding

Lemma,

it

will appear that
to
/'
'

—p^,
firft

— ,-, — ,—
^idL_^
q

,

^c. are the fimple Fractions
Series
\.
is

which the
will

Term of the
r

reducible, that
^^7.

is

pqt's,

^

'

,

be

iSf'.

=—
p
it

^-


s

J

And

in the

fame Manner

will

appear, that the zd, 3d, 4th ^
will be equal to

^c^ Terms of the

fa id Series

[79]

/+2«

^-{-^n

f^^"

s-^-zn

"^

/-|-2

/+3«


I
I

j4-3«


{-

'*4-3«

-f+S"


I-

^+3»

Therefore the
~

Sum
n

of

all

thefe, or
2n -I- -^-

the whole Series,

A

.

X -

2!:

-

zn

-^

-—
-^,
.

ad

&c

c

>->•

X -

I

+
I

4_

^"^

^_

_«_

2n

5n
-f-

An

^«1_

_j_

^^.

&C. But unce


01
,

+
n

J^-h^
-f
zn
j-

^

m-|-2n
,

_. osc.

.

is

given

=
--

_ S,

and

A
-I-

X -

±

:;4-

-^ -1
p4"2i^

»

^^- "^^y ^^ reduced

to

—A
I

x
-5^.

-^—

p

p4*^

-^1

h -tj-—

J

^'^.

it

is

evident that

A
^
«»
.

x 7 ^~ -j—
_4_

-4- _^ , /-}-2«

^c.

Will be equal to "-r-

x
in

S


equal

^

m-|-2n


'

»

^+
will

m-\-zn

— — p n
p
,

;

and

the lame

Manner
B

B

X -

-r- -^

{_

-

^c.

appear

to

~V

^

^

m
"^

m-j-n
-im-\-tt

q—
-^
q

m

,

G?r.

and therefore the

Sum

of the whole Series propounded

is

[8o]
A_
,

q

Z

m
m

g

m-4-n

7

g

m4-2n
'

g^^

p


n
n

m-f-n

B

c

^

f

f____
«?-[-«

,

1___
«-|-2«

m4-2n

q
.

.

^

^_
^
r

«
g

£
When
A

m ^

g

m+n

^

m-4-2n
'^

^

—n
,

t

^c.

all

the Signs thereof are given affirmative, and equal to

-i_c-r^

m

+

m+n
_J_

m-}-2n

[
will be defined

8^ ]
2;"""

by 4r
I

><

A+ B
«"

4.

C

^"~"'"±
n
m-4-n

D

z
2n

B

,

C
«.

m

m-\-Zft

D

COROLLARY
But
if the Series to
py.p-\-ny,p-\'2n,

IL
this

be fummed, be comprifed in
;

Form

^c.

+

r--> -i p'^ny.p-\-2nXp-\'in,

of Factors in the Denominator of
-uH-i, *

and the number ^c ^c. each Term be denoted by
)

we

fliall

B

= — 'uA,
therefore
^
*

A (== ny^zny^'^n,.. nj = 1.2.3.4...1; C = 'ux^^^A,D=—'ux^^^x^^^ A, &c,
have
^

.n}

*

and

the

Sum
^

of

the

whole

Series

equal

to

V S

—^
""
.
.

I.2.3.4...T;X«''a?

+"
I

——
OT

+ 2«
.

.....

.

p—fz

'vz'^^
1.2.3

'vXn"

p

— 2n — 3n rzix^— 4-^
the
faid -L
1.2 .3...'yX«'aP

- —-— V X '^— X 2 —
V,
^n

«""^"
.

«""

J-

_

.

{- 'U

X

'V—l

X

p

p-{-

h-^

>

^^'

when
;

all

the

Signs of

Series

are

given

affirmative
z
'

but

equal

to

3
^_,
2

X S

«
-4'u

h
X

.2:
'^^^^

z«-{"'^

X
i.2.3.4....'z;X'k''
;>

2

X
p

p-\-ft

i

4- ^ X
change

—311
^z^-z
3

^2
/

s

— zn
j__

_^a


^^^ ^^^^
^Yity

^

/+«

X

H-2«
alternately

[8a]
alternately, in

which Cafe the Sign

-f-

or

before i-4-x"~"l

obtains according as

^^^

is

an even or an odd Number.

COROLLARY
Laftly, let

IIL
Series

z be taken

=

i,

and the

propounded be

p-^Z»Xq-{- 2nXr-{-2n, ^c. pXq K rXs, &7. '^ p-{-nX q-{-»X. }-{», ^'c B-f-C &c. then, fince the Sum of all the Coefficients A -\- D, &c. will be o (fy the Coroh to the precedmg Lemma) when the Number of Factors in the Denominator of each Term is greater by two, at leaft, than the Number of thofe in the ' B C A 4have ^ ^>^^Numerator, we fhall, in this Cafe,

=

+

^

^+
;

c
fore,

2

m

g

m+n
'

alfo equal to
p—'tt

nothing

and there-

by expunging
i

fubftituting

out of the general Expreffion, and inftead of 2;, we have
this

B

X -

-4-

-]-

+ TTPrr^^

^—p
I

g X ^ X / X
•4y

c

X

r

X X

</,

/,

^c. ^c.

P
r

P'T"
p-t»

r—p
I

P+2n

s

-d
I.

EXAMPLE
Let there be given the
or the Arc of a Circle,
Series -

^^
i,

\r

,

C^c,
2;,

whofe Radius
3-5

is

and Tangent
6«*

and

let

the

Sum

of the Series

— — 1^
5-7

-*-

— - ^'^^• ^9
be

[83]
be required.
Expreffions,

Here,

by comparing

we have m=zi^ «

=

thefe with
2,

<z=:2.

/>

=

the general
3,
$'

=

5,

/-»='. ?-»=3. A (=-g)=^.B=(f^^)=|^C=o,
C^c.

and confequently

^x — S+- +
jj^g

-^xS — —

H-

s'

X s-~3 g or s+g^ gq^^j ^^

Value fought.

EXAMPLE
Let there
~ "^ 7" "^ be given
the

II.

Sum

of

the Infinite

Series

T

"^ ^^^^.expreflingthehyperbohcLogarithmof

i—x
-4-

to find the
U^
JL«3

Sum
2

of the
^^
7 Z' 5.6.7.8

Infinite Series


'

^

X
{-

1.2.3.4

2.3.4.5
J

7
3.4.5.6

H

^

=

4.5.6.7
.y

2,
"IS

r=3,
XS
or
to

=

^
1

4, /

=
*

Here m=.i. nz=ii. ^ />=i, »
(by Corol.
2

o,
1

^^. therefore
-^

II.)
2


.

ll

I.2.3X-

+

2
'7

—1
2
*

-

1.2.3

X

^

X
*

i

\-

^

4-

^,
3

— ^' X SH-4^
6;v'^

36*

I2;r*

^-

-f-

-7^ OJf^

is

the Value

that

was

be founds which therefore, when x=ii^ or the
is
-

propofed Series ^ ^
equal to 11

-{-

?

1

1.2.3.4

^,^c. will be barely
•'^

2.3.4.5

- ^ His

3-4'S-6'

1,

or

^.
III.

EXAMPLE
Where
it

required to find the
-i

—1
1.2.4.7

^
1

L-~
2.3.5.8

L_ ^
34-6-9

\

4-5'7-io

Sum

of the
In

Infinite Series
this Cafe,

^^^

we

have

[ have

84]

p=i, q=2, r=4, s=y, B ( ,_,,^1,,^_, )
^*
V

= =^,C
90'
*

Vi—.4x2—4x7—4 /
GfiT.

1—7 X

2— 7 X 4—7/

and therefore (by Corol. IIL)
I

^

^_

^90

_L X

^2^3*4 +
4--I-

- -f- -

- "H ^ 6
5

— -^xH--j--f.-^ = -^^ the Value
is

5400

required.

EXAMPLE
Let there be given
(

IV.

S

)

the hyperboHcal Logarithm of

-^, z'
E—

to find the
_l_

Sum

of the Series

-^
1.2.3

H^

-^^
2.3.4

+

-39^
3-4-S

may be ^ _5i^ A^^l ^c. This ^ -i- + -^:^ >h -^^ -h -^, ^^. and + -ii^ ^ h — -, &c, 4 x — ^^ 57fl ^^^ and — h — + — ^c. Now the Sum of the former of
Series

refolved into

4.5.6

5-6.7

-i:i1.2.3

1.2.3

2.3.4

3-4-S

4- 5-0
^

2 .3.4

that

is,

into

1

3-4-5

^-^-S

2.3.4

3.4.5'

,

1.2.

2.3

3.4'
as

thefe,
I

by proceeding
X.

in the foregoing Examples,, will

be

1^

4-

— — —

II

_
.

-f.

i


H

,

and that of the

latter

equal to

3^^"^^

which Values
XS

therefore, added together, give
for the

-^

-I

propounded. In the other Series be determined, when the Denominators thereof come under the general Form in the Propofition, and the lall: Differences of its Numerators are equal, provided the number of Differences before you come to the laft, be always lefs
ries

Sum of the whole Sefame manner may the Sum of any
%

than

the

number of Fadors
3

in

the

Denominator of each

Term.

.

EX-

[

85]
V.
Series

EXAMPLE
Let there be given the
-I-

Sum

of the

z

-h—
5

-4^

^
9

-f


'3

,

&c. (which

is

equal to half the
-I

Sum

of the hy-

perbolic

Logarithm of
i,

ii^^''

and the Length of the Arc whofc
let
it
{

Radius
the
-J

is

and Tangent z) and
Infinite Series

be required to find
5-9-I7

Sum
12J!.

of the
J

-^
1.5.13
a;+

^

[

HI

13.17.25

17.21.29'

9-I3-21

^—
then

^c.

Put

=

y, -^^

or

2;

=
x

y^
-^

:

'

becaufe the Numerators

may
•'

be reduced to

^ 32
i

~ x 8,— x '32
4.

8xi2;2;*— XI2X '
32

162;^,— X 16 x ^
32

20

2;", *
'-^^^

&c. the

Series itfelf

will

be changed to °

where
^

m

^

being
fhall

=

— x —^ i-S-»3 32
i^

i

=

8, '

we

have

= p = ^ = r=i3, <?=4, A = -^, B == -^, C = -^ and
n
^j
ij

S-9'^7

9-I3-2'

,

&c.

5,

10

32

there-

'

,

32

fore

[86

]

PROPOSITION
Vppofmg the

V.

Sum of
,

the

Infinite

Series

bx -f-cx

k

k+l

H-dx
U'hofe

-f-ex

refpeBively divided by

^c. when the Terms thereof are thoje of any arithmetical ProgreJJion,
is

common Difference

m,

to be

given j

'tis

propofed to
''^'''

find the
a-\-?n

Sum of

the Infinite Series
"''
.

''+°r+r^+°'^:;
aAr^m X a-\-zmy^c. Xdx
"^

X a-\-m X a'\'m,^\. X ex p^mXq-\-mXr-\-my ^c.
p, q,
a, a,
r,

a-{-Zm X

p-\-zmy.q-{-zmXr-{-2my i^c.

&c. fuppo/ing
bers^

s,

&c.

to reprefent

any unequal Num-

and

a,

^c. any Numbers equal or unequal^ and
Term^

that the
is lefs

Number of FaSlors in the Numerator of each than the Number of FaBors in the Denominator,
. .

k
p

Let the Values of the

Series
„,
,

t^
r-

^ £Vp-\-m
'

k-f-1

,

k+zl
y

^

-f-

^^'
Af^

p-\-zm

k ix
I

,

k+1 ex
*
i

,

.k+zl dx ^

i

n

»

f^^

k bx.

k+l ex

dx
1

,

k+2l
*

j

j—

>

^*"
re-

(which are fuppofed given) be denoted by P,
fpeaiveiy , and ^ i
-^

Q^

R, &c.
q.i

let

A = !^=^%-|^,B=p^-%-|i: — — —p.r—f.i— p— q.r
q

p, iSc.

f, <Sc.

&c. Then
/-f-o

it

will

appear from the foregoing

Lemma,

that

-4-. -f-, ?-}-o

-^, r^-o'
°'
.

~,
j-}-°

6?r. are the fimple

Fraaions into which
evi-

—.— ^°'
'-

A

//

c.^^'
izfc.

f-\-0.q^0.r-\-0,

niav be refolved '

y.

and therefore

it is

dent, that the
».^

iirfl:

Term
r-|-o

of the propofed Series will be equal
A?^ ^y
it

kb X
p-\-0

^^ B h X
f~l~0

^^ Qh X

Ab X
/

^^ B ^

AT

^^ Cbx
r

Af/,

q.

and

in the

fume Manner
3

will appear, that the fecond

and
third;

[87]
third

Terms, &c,
^^^^'^"^

will be equal to

^ifLJl^-?i^_._f.£liLi!
k.4-zl

&c. and
fore the

+ ^^ ^
is

k+zl

^j j^^JL, r\zm

&c. &c.

Thfire-

whole
A^.
p

Series

+
'

Bh
?

H-

Ch k

-h

n&x''

p-^-m

S'h^" B^;.*^-!",

r-\i-m

s-\-)

i

/-|-2A»

q-\i^zm

-T"

-

C^;.--rirz

.

D^;.^+^^
s-\-zm

^^^

r-

V.

(^c.

Which, becaufe the Value (A x
k+3l
,

^^7.)

of the

iirft

Column towards
&c,

the Left-Hand

is

= APj

P+d'

of the fecond,

AP4-BCt+CR+DS,

= B Q,

&c, will therefore become

Q^E.
1.

J.

COROLLARY
k
If the Series

propofed be

^^
p. q.r,
i3'c.

4will

ex

k+i
'

p'^m.q-J^m.r-\-:n,
^

^f.

+ B= —
p

,
'.,

&C' then

&c.

A be = q—p.r—p.s—p,^'c. t^
the. Series as a-

q.r

— —
q.s

y,

^c.

,

&c

and the Value of

bove exhibited.

^

O*^

[88]

COROLLARY
But
^•^

IL
-'c
',
,

if

the

Series

propofed
*•

be
,

*

p .p-\-m .p-\-2m,

rxjc.

.

_

k4-l
L.

^^ k-l-2l

&c. and the

Num-

ber of Fadors in the Denominator of each Term be denoted by n-\-i ; then q becoming =zp-\-i7i, r-^-p-^-zm^ s=p-\-yn^ &c.

we ll:iall have A

^

i/t.zm.'^m.^ftt

nm

,

Q
B
«

__

— zm. —
I

m.m.zm....n

_=— —
I

B == —

^

:

m.m.zm.'^m

«

i

— xm

^

^^, or A ==
1
.

zfi^m^

2. 3.4.. .»X/»"

*

=
2

^, C=-^
'

X

«-r^A,
2
'

D=--1

"-"
>

2

A

,

&c.

and
X 12

therefore

the
^c.

whole

Series

3

p_«Q4.-x ^-'12 R
1.2.3.4.5

X
2

S,

«X»z"

EXAMPLE
Where
the

I.

Sum

of the Series
Circle,

f^

—^+
this
-S^^

f^

fl,

^^.

(expreffing the

Arch of a
{-

whofe Radius
In
T

is i,

and Tan-

gent x) being given,
I-3-S
i
---

I.C.I 3-S-7
-.'

——
c .1 .n 5-7-9

it is

required to find the
,

^c.

Sum of the Series Cafe we have/'=i, >
I
.

-

_ i + ^,
5

©A

7

( ^

— 7 + y. = .^) R = ^ _ ^ +
.*'
'
-^

PAT =
/

OJ

G?*^-

^ 0== -r
^^

^.
9

&c.

5

7

(^riiifll) and therefore by Cor.
^

II.

/ P-«Q.+»x
\

^

R, fcf.A
'^

i.2.3...«x«?'^

[

89]
liflLL^ 3^— s*"

5*"

8

equal

to

24.**

the Value fought.

Let the Sum of the
X

EXAMPLE — +
Series
;v

11.

-f-


5

-f-

3

— 7

,

^r.

= the
Sx'^

Hyp. Log. of \/Hifl be
1

given, and let

it

be required to find
6x^
1-

the

Sum of

the Series

—^ +
zx
1.3.5
'1

-^

/\.x^
1

3-5-7

5-7-9

7-9-I1

= 2,/=i, ^==3, ^=5, — 1 R r— ^^g — c r— 4P=^+^ + ^,. CL= ^ + ^c. (^=^) and R = ^ +
&c. Here, a being
i
f^,

A (= jz~r:})
''""''
"1

=

5-

f^

l!,

^c, (==Z=:iLj
have

1! -,- ^J,

we

^^
^
i, '
v^ill

4- -i^l3-5-7

-f-

-_^fL_
5-7-9
'

e^^.

(==AP+BQH-CR) -^
^
/

equal to

^^-{-2^^— 3xP4-3Ar~A;3
8jf*

^j^jcjj

therefore,
'

when

a:

=

become barely

=

-.

PROPOSITION
STJppofing n
'tis
.

VL

r

to

reprefent

required to find
n.px
I

the
.x'^

any whole pojitive Number-, Sian of the Infinite Series
,

n.n-\-i.p,p-{-l
X

».??-{-

1

.n-\-2.p .p-^i.p-{-2_^

^

—Z.

.r

.z.r,7-\-i

I.2.3.r.»"-j-I.r-j-2

^ n_±±J^--\'^--\-3-P-P+\t^\^^^'-\
X
dejiote

^c, where

r,

p and

any Sluantities at pleajure.
is

The
pofition

Solution of this Problem

eafily derived

from Pro-

L

For

the propofed Series

may

Z

be confidered as generated

[9o]
nerated

by a refpedive Multiplication of
expanded in a
Series,

the

Terms of
Series
i,

1+^'
«

by thofe of the
^c. therefore
if

X

^,

- X
laft

-t- X

^,

the DifFe-

rences of thefe
to the

Method

there propofed;

Quantities be continually taken, according then the iirft Difference of

the

firft

Order being

= ^^, of thefecond ^^^^
n

of the third

=
n
-A—-I

x

— ——
r
j

r

'

r

x

— —
.r

r-\-i

'I

x

«•
-,

,

&c.

it is

evident,

from

what

is

there

proved, that the

Sum

of the whole propofed

Series, putting

— r=§',
-f-

will be truly defined
:

by
>~^p.

I-^-atI

-t-

!

^^-~
I

,

Gfc. or

I

.r

.Z.r.r-f-i

-f-

^?^
'••I-}-*'

.

q.q—i.p.p+t.x''
1. 2.

^lx\^
-f-

r.r-f

I

.

l_|^;

Sil

LLL-.-f-£iHiLitti^5l_^

£Vj>^^

which, when

fl',

ot»—

is

a whole pofitive Number, will always terminate in ^H- i Terms ; and therefore in all fuch Cafes, its exad Value will from hence be obtained. QJ^- !•
Note.

When

two Signs
-,

are prefixed to one

Term,

as

above,

the upper takes place when all the Signs of the propofed Series are given affirmative but the lower when they are given
•+-

and

alternately.

CO-

[91

]

COROLLARY
Therefore i£p be taken ==
i
,

L
i

we lliall have

-t-

— 4- ^:^±1:^'
r+l.l_|_;

-H
r.r-J-i'''-i-2.i_L.'
r. r-|-2 r-j- 2 .r+ 3 .
.

1

T; *

^ ,

^(T.

COROLLARY
But
if

IL
then

p be taken
I

=

w,

and

r=i,

we

fliall

have


«±3'
4
.

4
.

33' EH'x 10
9
n.n

:)c4,

^^.

49 ==^
into
I

«.«


+^i

2.

a'

i^»
-J

— X
;:--I^

——
^

1+^ «.«— 3 .«*— 1 ,«*;—

1.4.9
6?f.

2L_

1.4.9. 16

X
I

+X
I

fl,

COROLLARY
Infinite Series
-r-

IIL

Alfo from the foregoing general Expreffion, the

asi-H-x^^^ r
A^zm

i

Sum of any
2

x

—[—
r-f-m

5<

<£>

X

a;

- X
is

r-\-m

-?— X

X ^ X ^i^ X ^^i^ X 21/ V 3 1;

jc^j

©'r.

where
:

n-—r

m

a whole pofitive

Number may

be

ealily derived

For

this Series

may be changed

toi-^-x— 4-7^

X
£ «

[92]
'+'
^ X
,

&c. and therefore by writing

-,

and

~ inftead m
_
I

of p, n and r in that Expreffion,

we

fhall

have

^ x

-

r.'v

"

+*

r

.r-\-m ^v
Qj)^ '
»

.

zv
j

.

i~Tx\^
-{n .px
f.

_|_

q-q—m.q—zm.p.p-^nj.p-\-2n}.x l_
r.r-f «.r-f-2»z.<i/.2'c/.3i/.iT:;f[^
.f2-\-m.p.p-\-'u.x'^
r. r-{-

__

cv

^^

ft

i_

f2

.}i-\'m .n-\'Zm.p.p-^'V.p-\'2'v.x'^

«j
'

«

.

'u

.

2

1;

r.r-|-«. i^-{"2z«.'y 2i'.3i/
.

EXAMPLE
Let
it

I.

be required to find the
:>c*-{-

Sum

of the Infinite Series

i^2^xa;H- — X — X
^p;^2_j_
in
i6;<;3,

—x—x^

x

x^,

&c. or

i -f-

4 at

Gf^.

Corollary

II.

then by comparing this Series with that we fhall have n=:2, and confequently
to

X i-h iiL
I

x\

= ==j equal the Value fought. EXAMPLE IL
Sum
of the Infinite Series
1.3.10.13Z+
2.4.4.7

Let
I

it

be propofed to find the

i.ioz''

2.4 I.3.5.7-IO.I3. 16.1

+


1

.3.5. 10. 13 .16 «^

2.4.6.4.7.10

9^
z^y

^^^ then/being
and
5'

r

=

2.4.6.8.4.7. 10.13
4,
?72

= i,i;=2,;?=io,
we
I

=

2,

x

=

— r)=s6,
have
!Z+

fhall.
^ ^

by

fubfiituting thefe Values in Corollary III.
6.1
Z"-

x

,6.3.1.3
4.7.2.4
27
^--

I

4.2

I-fg^
<2
,

- X , l-\-Z 4 be found.
I

/J

4- 7— X 112


X

I-fK'-f

"i+='l

-^

for the

Value that was to

i-j-Z5;|

PRO-

[93

]

PROPOSITION
TO
determine the

VII.
i

Sum of

any Infinite Series, as

-^ -^^ x

where (v)

o?^^'

o/'

the

two Divifors

Number, and the Difference (n and 0716 of the Multiplyers ( n
alfo.


)

r,

r)

a whole pofitive between the other (r)
v,
is

a whole pofitive Number

Put

i-^

X

^-!-

X

^-i-^

X

=^
J

> X
let

d

= e,f+^.e =/, ?±f
I -i-

X

f=g/:^j ^g^b.
_j^2
'

&c. and
^^

S z=

^
ni/

"•Hh^-Z-Z+t ^ X X 4r.r-f-i.'v.'V-\-l

^^
we

^^^ ^^

whole »T v^ w

Equation being multiplied by ^x^"~^,

fh all have
t:

dSx^~'^

= ^;vv—
where
prefs

-^-xex
Terms

-\

J- X /^^v+i

_|

—^ ^

o-^v+2 Af^

it is

evident that

dx^^\
i firil

ex^, fx"^-^^, gx'^+^j &c. exa;'"^""^

the

that remain of the Binomial i

expanded, after the
fore, to

v

Terms are taken away. Where-

deduce the true Value of the Series d x^—'^

ex"', &c. (according to Prop. I.) let the v i Terms of the Binomial, which are not above exprefled, be denoted by

-f.

x

A-hBx-hCx^-hDx^
wards by the fame
thofe

bx^'—^-i-cx''-^,
(^c.

and

let

the Series

^/^v— 1_|_^ X ex''-h"£^ x/^v+i^

be continued dovi^nall

Law

that

it is

continued upwards, fo that

Terms may be taken

in

5

and then, from fuch Continua-

tion, there will arife

^=^

x '-=^4~ x ^=±^.,..'-=^ x

Aa

A

[

94

]

A
-<~

H- ^^^^ X
r

^^
^*

X b A'V— 3

+

'-^ X
r

c a:^— 2

,

equal

to

<z/_j_i

;-

<!/-}-

a/-J-2

^^

X
n

f Arv-2^

by

writing

Q=

"^

;;=:::;4:t

^i:::^ ^ ^=^^-1
fides

^^^^

:

Which
we
X X
r

being therefore added to both °

of the

Equation,

fliall

have ^S:^^—'

3:^|,

''-=^
p— v-f-z

H
-f-

r

'L'-j-i

-f-

+ Q_x A + '^_^t' x Bx X Ca:% ^c. =QA + '-^=^' X QBx X QC;c+ dx^ — — X
K

c

x"'

^

^

^ X ^>'*^H-^j-j xfx^-\-\ &c. which

laft

Expreffion, on

the Right-hand-fide, may be confidered as generated by a refpedive Multiplication of the Terms of the two following Lines

A
^

+
r

Bx

-f-

6 x^""^
n

H-

cx'^'^^,&c,

o'-j-t

^"^

2

«

fz

""^expanded, whereof the former is the Binomial i a;' and the latter one regular Infinite Series, continued throughLet, therefore, the Differences of out by the fame Law.

""^'^^

the

Terms of
firffc

to the

be continually taken {according forementioned Propojition) and then, the firft Difference
this laft Series

of the
,_!n^'i'
_i_

Order
X

being

'"~\

x

Q,

of the

fecond,

T

.7^L "—

Q,
Eat

^^.

we
«

fhall

have

=%p_}_,_v
CT^

x

r.Ti

——
r

r

[95
r

]
ex^.
is

X r;^v— 2

-f-

^x^—

'

4-

y.

&c.
alfo

(by

what
to

is

there

demonjlrated)

which,
-]_--

therefore,

equal

JS^v—
x",

+ Q_x
Whence

A

H

X Ba;-{

£
dx

\-

x

C

&c.

S comes out equal to ~;^rr multiply'd into the Diffe-

rence of the two following Series 7z::^p+i-v X
«

I
-.X.+
I

-4-

-'v-^-l.r

— —— —
r.

«

r

X

C;fr,

nj-if-z

e?^.

A

4-

.+

1

Bx
is

_j_

n-^i.n^'v-Y-2

^

^^

^^^ whereof the

latter

to

be

continued to as many Terms, as there are Units in i; i, and the former till it terminates; which, as n r is a whole pofitive Number, will always come to pafs in ;z r-f-i Terms.

Q^E.

I.

COROLLARY
Hence may the Sum of
the Series
-^
i

I.

\
n.p

X X

»«+?•/+
r.r-j-l.o'.i'-J-i

^..

_ '-H-H-^-^H-'-H
Qat
I

r.r-^-i.r-J^z.v .<v-\-i.'v-\-z

X

x3, ^.'.'where the '

Signs change alternately,

be eafily deduced ; for let a: be fubflituted inftead of x^ in the foregoing general Expreffion,
V

and then
B
1+^

we

fliall

have

:zi=

ip4-i—v

X

I

r

nj-^-l

r—nj-\~\.r
'^-f-i.^

— ^+2 ^+2
V
2

J_ ,-1 i-fA-1
,

'
fl^;f

An — 4—
1;-4I

'+'

X

B

x-i-

^

^ ^^3

^^^

^^^ ^j^^ required Value in

this

Cafe.

Therefore,

generally,

the

Sum

of the Series
I

I

.

1
n.p
r.nf
,

96

]
.

t!.n-^-i.p.p-\-i
r.r-\-l.'V .v-^-l

«.«4-l.?/-|-2./>./i4-i.*4-2
r.r-j-i.r-j-z.i/.o'-j-l.'f-J-z
""

xK,

&c\
;;

will

be
x

truly

reprefented

by

x
i=Px\
1;-4-2
J,;

—*—

r.p

x'-f-I
j^

-——-

,

n

— —
r.7i

;-

\.p

I

—v-X-\.p — —
-'

x'^
,

,,_,,,„,_x.«-;--z./--.;+i-/-'^+^/-'^-f3

^

__/,

vi-v
a;%G?^. '

fed Series are -{is

+ ^iz4±f=::LJ;"^—+"^—+^ x 1.2 — =t equal where h —— x —— x 3^— — Fadors, which ^^^ continued ./— of the propoonly when the Value the Sign — the fame and and —
I

:±.

^z:!±i:EHii X X r—.ro-X-\
.

1

^

f-j-i'^

'V-\-Z'

1

/

1

i.

is

to

.

!•'
;

X'+I
'

2.^—^4-2
;

;

'

i

J-

;;

qjJi^\,p

^-^2
"j

tl

'V-^^Z.p

1;-|-2

-^+3

to

i

in

lafl

.'.—.+3

i^;f 3

prevails

Signs
at

alternately,

t',

time,

an even Number.

COROLLARY
Moreover from hence the
I r±:

IL
Series

Sum
.

of any Infinite

as

—^ X X H
n.p
.

n.n-\-m .p
,

.p-\'njij

^

X

n .nAr-m.n-X-zm.t .pAr'M .p-X-znu X^z±z ±i-f }

^-^

X

x^\

&c. where
eafily

— and ^^^
j

are

whole

pofitive

Numbers, may
be reduced to

be

derived
'^^

for

fmce
"-

this Series

may

"

X X

— —^-i.— mm
r r
.

"

^

'^
,

1}

.

—4,

nj

X ^%"^r. let-, '

-,A mm
ov

lu

ID
?t,

and

be refpedtively fubftituted for
72

r,

p and

i;,

in the

preceding Corollary, and let

— ^=^3
^^

r^m — -^^

=

s,

p

— v-{-w=zf.

and

n-\-

=

k

;

then

will

hx

[97]
It/—"y

hx

X
:x\
">

I

=t:-^
s.iu

ir^zv

-fs

.s-^m

X
.nv. 2<u;

y.y

IV
w.j'

V

zm.t.i-\-'wJ-\-2iu

x'-

s.s-\-m,s-^2m.'w.znv.^'nj

X
i k-\-m i-\-zm
.
.

i.t
I

XX

.

t

.

s

.s-\-*n .n» .ziu

X
'

/-j-^u

.

t\ z
.Tfiv

<

a:^

s.s-\^m. s-\-2m
-,

.nju.

z^w

X
is

Ar3

^c.

be the true Value required
tinued
it
till it

where the

firft

Series

to

be confin

terminates, and the fecond to ^^^^^

Terms

Cafe

does not terminate before)

h being equal to
t.k

^'^•^+.^

X

3'"-^H-^"

,

C^c. continued to

Fadors, in
the Signs of the
at the

which Value, the Sign

obtains only

when
is,

propofed Series change alternately, and -^

fame time,

an even Number.

EXAMPLE
Let
it

I.

be required to find the
,

2.10
1. 12

y.X'A

Sum

of the

Infinite Series

2. 3.
1. 2.

10.13

12. 15

^ X x^

..3.4.,o..3..6
1. 2. 5.

^^^_

12. IC. 18

^j^

'

by comparing
fliall

this Series

with that in the
"-^^

laft

Corollary,

we
;

have

«=2, ^=1, /=io, 'u=i2, m=zi^

and 'Z£;=3

therefore
pofitive

=

4,
is

and

=

i

;

which two lafi being whole

Numbers

mible

:

Therefore

tuted above,

andwe
I

an Indication that the Series is exadly fuall thefe feveral Values be now fubftifhall have ^=1, s= 2, /=i, k i,
let


,

=—
Ar|T

and

y&

{- ^^ X ^^^ IX— 4X0
V

X 9ii^)

7x1/
X

= ^j and 7'
I

therefore

I.I

—2.3

X
is

X

81*—
.

-^"ir X 7Xl +
27x6^7^:
i-T-x\

+^

— I.I — 2.3
T

XX

i^x^X

.— 17^^

^

the true Value required.

Bb

EX-

[

98

]

EXAMPLE
Where
it
is

II.

propofed to

find

the

Sum

of the

Series

3

.

3-4-5-6.5_:7:9JI ^

/-"V,

^c.

This

Series

may be

re-

duced to
^e

^=

X

i

-H

^

x ^ -H -f^-?4X
;c%
£?<:.

>^

"^j ^'^^

or to

^

J

_l_li.5

^ ^ 4_

i^5^

by writing x
with
i

=
n.p

Therefore, by comparing this

laft Series

-f-

X

a;

+ liHi^i^i^tli
4^) =^45,

X x\ &c,
jrsia,

we

have «
1,

=

3,

r=i,/»

=

5,

V=b, iW=I, «=2,

S=

!f=I,

^=1, h \^~^ X
1

and therefore

fi^iS^^ xi+ "' 2 X
8xox.-^
6 ^^, '

I—

A?

_2x_nox^ ^^—1x0x2x4

^^_
i^x\
-fa;

^j^_iAL_ ^ -T•»

__ix2

x ^) y

— — =: i+M X
?

T

114

1.0

i^^^^ X 1.2.6.8
^^""^
y, '''

^r. which

laft

Equation ^
fhall

being multiplied by a\ and the Value of a; reftored,
"'^

we

have

„i4

=

^^

4- —5 X
1.6

^(T.

which was

to be found,

In this Example [s-\-m) one of the Fadors in the Value of h o, it may feem, at firft Sight, as if both the Expreflions being multiplied by h would intirely vaniih ; but upon confidering that in the former of thefe Expreffions there is a Term which

=

has the fame s-\-m in

its Denominator, it is evident that that adual Multiplication by the Value of h, will Term, after an be no ways affeded by s-\-??i, tho' all the reft of the Terms

iiitirely

vanifh
o

j

fo that the

Sum

of the Series

is

as truly

de-

termined.

[99]
terminedasifj+w was a
appear if that Series be
real

Quantity; which will manifeflly
^z''

firft

reduced to

x

i -{-

at the
fee

&c. whofe Sum is found almoll: by bare fame time as we fee the extent of

^ -f- ^ 2.4
2
firft

x x^

InfpecStion.
this

Hence
alfo

Method, we
to

how

needful

it

is

(for avoiding

Trouble)

reduce

every Series to the moft commodious Form, about to determine its Value.

before

we

fet

Of

the Values of

Series

hy Approximation.
I.

CASE

LET
-~~^
ax

the Series ax^-^bx^'^'' -i.r;f"'+^"-}-^;^"'+3n^ ^^^
let
.
'

be propounded, and
proximation
for

p_^^

be affumed as an

Ap-

the

Value thereof.
^

Then,

by
the
ihall

writing

z=.a x^ -\-bx^'^^
to

^c.

and reducing

whole
have

Equation
-\r

one

Denomination,

^c»

we

b

and therefore

P

-^ax -H P X
confequently,

= n^^ and
fwift,

'

,

KSC.}

when

the Series converges
is

fufficiently
^"^^

ax^ '^bx^'^^ -hcx^'^^^^ ^r.
nearly.

equal to

or

-

V-'

A

b

jCj

[

lOO

]

CASE

II.

TH
'

E
I "

Series
»

propounded
^^ allumed
as
,

being
as
lall

as

above,

let

^^ m

m-|-n

i~4.pj^

nearly
Cafe,

equal

thereto

j

then,

by proceeding

in

the

we
05

fhall

have

ax
*

m

m-4-2n ro^ ^ m+n -^bx^-\-cx^ ,^^.7
,

7

4-^Px^+"-i-^PA;"'+'^G?^.>

=

whence, by

comparing the hke Terms,

P

= ^,
1

h:=-b
»

— -^, and
m-l-n

there-

^^

^,

fore

^^

+,

/

=
CASE

V~
--r
III.

=

^v-

X

mi*
""""i

m-j-n
^n

L^^ +^^"^+^", ^^^+"

t.

p

nVn

be affumed as nearly equal to ax"^

^r. (the

Series

firfl

propounded)

then by following the above Method of Operation, there will bd cc be ad bb-\-aY.bc ad 11 by.ac -r) P, ^<:--— Will come out -^7 ri ^*— n. '

— ac—00

=

— ^ — 00 = ac
,

ac

— bb

=

A, and therefore

m+n m ax -Y A X r+P^"+'<^
.

where P and

O

are as above fpecified.

CO-

C

'°' 1

COROLLARY.
Hence
it

appears, that

the

true Value of the Series ax"^
is

^bx^'^^

-^cx^^'^^^-\-dx^^^'^,&c.
to
;c'"

nearly equal to

-—r^t

more nearly equal

x fi+^^'-l^i:^, and ftill nearer equal to

EXAMPLE
Let the
Series

I.

x

—~ ^
is
i

—,^^.expreffing the length

of the Arc whofe Radius
then,
<^

and Tangent

x^ be propofed

in

this Cafe,

m

being

=

i,

nz=i^^ az=i^ b

=—

;

-,
3

=

•^,

&c. the Value of the

Series,

by writing

thefe Values

in the fecond of the foregoing Expreffions, will

come out equal to

(x X

^

2

1

\x X

-^4^

nearly.

""3

5

EXAMPLE Suppofe x+'^^x""-^^^^^ X — '2 ^r 23
to be c

IL

^^3_f-^ril X

the Series propounded

j

then a being

= ^—
n
3

23
^
^
AT

^^ 234' = ^=^^,
i,

X ^^^x^, &€,

X ^^^,

&€.

the

Value of the

Scries

will

be

^^"^"6

— I—

nearly, or '

— - -~—~-~ more nearly. «— I— 2 X-\ K — X—^—X^ Cc EXn

226.
"^
,

x4-i-x^

I

•'

[

102

]

EXAMPLE
Laftlyjet-^ ** 1.2
1

III,

2.3.4

2.3.4.5.6

r

„ 2.3.4.5.6.7.8*

''\

&c.

expreffing the verfed Sine of the Arc x to the Radius i, be propofed ; then the Value thereof, by proceeding as above, will

come out
more

-

x

^^

nearly,

or

-

x

.^J^eeo^^^i^.*

nearly.

Of

the Roots of

Eqjjations by Approximation.

Let there be given the Equation ax+bx^-f-cx^-f-dx*, ^c, y, where ax-f-bx^'-Hcx^-l-dx'^, ^c, reprefents any Infi-

=

nite or converging Series

-,

to

find the Value oj x.

appears ITpropofed Series
nearly

from the preceding Pages, that the Value of the
will be nearly defined

by _^,
.

but more

jl ^|

by

iM^5^Z>L£

^nd

flill

nearer by

-'"+^ ><fl,;
;

wherein
fore,
if

P and Qftand for-^^ and ^^^tt
thefe three Expreffions be
fhall

refpedlively

there-

put,

to y^

we

have,

firft,

a'^x=iay

fucceffively, equal

byx-,

and therefore

x

= —^rr = —=^
'+-7

nearly. Secondly ^ 3^-1-/^^

ac xa:*

=

hy

— cyXy

or b

—y

x x^-\-ax
^

^-^-^-=:A, and

+ ^ =y + -^ = B,
it

;

whence, by putting
be

will

A

;^*

-h 2 B

;^

[

103
_,

]

—-y, •"

and therefore Af=!=ir*/ J'
A*
a:'

"^

bI*
a"

""

B
"a

^^^^ ^^^^
or,

nearly„

^_

,

Thirdly, ax-i- b-\-a P x

/^-4-tfP—
therefore
a:

Qy = C

and

Q^*j^ "^^^^

—•P>r^=:;f,
it

by writing
5

= ^^

H- -^

= D, —
-^

will be

Cx*H-2 T>x i=y
:

ftill

nearer

Which

three

Expreffions will ferve as fo

many

general

Theorems

for the

Value of X, and may be ufed at Pleafure, according or greater Degree of Accuracy is required.

as a lefTer

COROLLARY
If there be given
J5*

I.

2.3.4

2.3.4.5.6

2.3.4.5.6.7.8'

(expreffing the Relation between the verfed Sine (y) &c. and the Arc (z) of a Circle, whofe Radius is Unity) then, by

=y

putting z^ssA*, i t> t
fore

it

will be

^—
2
2.3.4
^

-i

-, -,G?^.==y, .. 6' 2. 3.4.5.

therefubfli-

a being here

=

-,

^

=

,

&c. we
{

Ihall,

by

tuting thefe Values

above,

have x
nearly.

^^10

-y^"

40;;

= z^) = 10 Or =
a: (

y
2;^

378^33j— /378— 3ayi

--M 5i2;>x 3o-{-i,3y

more

nearly.

COROLLARY
But
if the

IL
x""

Equation given be x

— -i^
^
11

-+-

^"J:ly,"J:ly,"J:±x\&c.
of an Annuity,
?i

345

= ^^^
nXn-\-l

^ ^
x
s is
i,

x^

(where

the Value

of

Interefl

Number correfponding) we
the

of Years, and i-^x the Rate
n
• •

^-{r2

ihall^

by writing

—-»

[
'•.+-:x-+^,
^
"^

X04
If,

]

&c,mCic:xdofa\

c,

&c.
-

in the laft

of the three
get
"'^
_L

= — '±^i±l}<y=C,'2 — ^^ = D, and X = ylT^^D ^ C C C
general

ExprePuons,

and putting

^"^f j'

y,

'-

20

5

very nearly.

COROLLARY
Laflly, if the given Equation be
a:

IIL
.r^

H-

^^^—^

234
W
1

X ^^^ X ^^^
K-

;^%

^<:.

+ 'inl^^^-f-mi x ^^ 23 = then = tf=i,
2
j^'

;

will

/^

2

X

^—^, GV. which
3

Values being fubftituted above.

we

Hiall

have

A = 1+-, B = s+^-^x.y c = 1— ^-ix«-2Xj> 6 6 12 2
and
;^

D = i+fizl^j
4

equal to
I

^—7_|_

L^y

nearly, but

more nearly

equal to^/JL'

-{-

--^

t->^^^ ^i^^ nearer equal to

y/— +--^

-^.

drate,

Hence we have a ready Method for finding the Cube, Biquareprefent &c. Root of any given Quantity for let
;

Q

k be taken nearly equal to the required and Root thereof, and let ?z be the given Lidex, that is, if the Cube-Root be required, let ?z be 3, if the Biquadrate, 4, C^c. and let the true Root be reprefented by >^H-z, that is, let
that Quantity,
let
y^

+
_j_

2;i"be

= Q^
X

Therefore

i+j
X

=

>r> ^^^d,

by expanding

J

-71

,

we have 1+72 x
-,-

v -|-;z x

x-j^,cjc.=~^-j there-

fore Y

-^

-f-

X

-j^s&c


+ -^^^

and, by putting |

==

x,

and

^,— = J,

we have x

«*H

quently the Value of x is as there determined required Value of ^4-/^ a: (^4- 2;) is alfo given-

23.
it

t

105 ]
confe-r

%-^^^x^. &c, the very fame as above, and
j

whence the

EX A MPLE
Let
Arc, whofc Radius
is

L
{z) of
the circular

be required to find the length
i,

and verfed Sine -: Here, by writing

- inflead of y, in Corollary I.

we

fhall

have

z

equal

to

Ck/

^

~~ v/

^9x29

2^ j

J

,

o^^2

nearly,

oc

/y7^3-v/ilEx^7^23-iSi2x6i3A
fince the Arc,

1.047 1 98 ^^'^ nearly. Thereis

fore,

whofe verfed Sine

-,

is

equal to - of

the Semicircle, it is manifefl that the length of the whole Semicircle, according to the foregoing Numbers, ought to be
3. 14 1 6 nearly,

or

3.141594 more
is

nearly.

Now
3.

the true

length of

the Semicircle

known

to

be

therefore the Error in the former of thefe Values,

14 15926, C^c. is lefs than
than
lefs,
-

— — Part 40000
-

of the whole, and in the
if

latter

lefs

——
Contrue,

2000000
as for

Part.

And

the verfed Sine

firfl

taken had been

Inftance, that of 15 Degrees
clufions would.

(=1

— y/ 1 — ^|)

the

Ml, have been much more exad, and

at leaft, to 9 or 10 Places, it fcarcely poffible to find

which is fo very near, that I believe out more eafy and exacl Approxi-

mations for the Arp of a Circle, than thofe above given.

D

d

EX-

[

io6 ]
II.

EXAMPLE
Where

fuppofing the Value of an Annuity for lo Years to be

8 Years Purchafe, 'tis required to find the Rate of Intereft. By comparing the Values here given with thofe in Corol. 11.

we
"""

have nc=:io, '
20
/

^=8,
'

therefore y -^
V 2

^"'^y
(.

\«x«-|-i/
^

)

==3 _i_

no'

c
c

f^i^^
V 15

550'

s i

550*

Pf.

=

i

=

ifg.

^"d confequently

-§ + v/f^l^

.

Now

for the Rate of Intereft required very nearly. according to Dr. Halley's Theorem, the Rate will be 1.042798, which is alfo very near the Truth, but notfoex-

1.042775

ad as the

former, which

is

right in

all its Places..

EXAMPLE
Where
caufe
it it

m.
Cube-Root of
is

is

required to extrad the

10.

Be-

appears that the

Root required

a

little

greater than

2, let the

lue of ky

y

will be

=

Value thereof be reprefented by 2+2?, or the Vain Corol. III. be taken then, « being 3,

=25
;

=

-^j

C

= ^,
;

and

D

=^

therefore (by the

firft

of the Approximations there given) x will

come out f—^j

=

.0768, G?f. nearly

or (by the laft) equal to (v/

7^-*-^— 7^)

.077217 ftill nearer: Hence (k-^kx) thQ Value fought, will be 2.154, or 2.154434 more nearly.

EXAMPLE
Let Here,
it

IV.

Root of 125000.' as the required Root appears, by Infpedion, to befomething greater than 10, let the fame be denoted by 10 -{-z,
firft

be required to extradl the

furfolid

that

IS, let io-h2;l 125000 j then, by proceeding as in the Example, we fhall have ^=0.05, A i, 6 0.525, from whence, by the fecond Theorem (In Corol. III.) the required Value will come out 10.45636, which is very near the Truth, but if the laft Theorem had been ufed, the Anfwer would have, ftill, been more exadl.

that

=

laft

=

=

EXAMPLE
Where
ceive,, is let

V.

there

is

given the Equation z^ -{- z^ -h
Since the Value of
2;,

z

= ga

-,

to*

find the Root thereof.

it is

eafy to per-

greater than 4, let it be denoted by ^-\-x„ Value be fubftituted inftead of z in the given Equation, and it will become 84 -f- 57^ -f- 1 3 ^^-f- x^== 90, or 57A;-f- 13 a:* -4-^:3=65 which being compared with the general Equation ax-\-ifx^'^cx'^-{-dx^j &c..=z y, we thence 6 3 wherei, d=zOj &c. and ^ have. ^=57, 3=13, c

not

much

and

this

=

=

fore,

by the

firft

Approximation, the Value of x

will be 0.1028, and therefore that of
if a greater

to the laft

z 4.1028 nearly But Degree of Exaftnefs be defired, then, according, of the three Approximations, laid down in the ge:

=

(= —xT" )

neral Propofition,

we fhallhave P

(^^)

=—

-iA,

q (^)
is

= J,,

C (^^aV^y)
^ (v' ^' 4-;^

= Z^,

D

(^^) = -^, and.

therefore

— §)

==0.102832355 which

true to the laft Place.

Let Here,
2;

EXAMPLE be given = 1000 3002; —
2;3

VL
j

to find a Value of z,.

as

it

appears

=3,

will be lefs,

^beput

=

3.5-l-;>f5

z^, when^ by Infpedion, that 3002 and when z=4., greater than 1000, let. and then by writing this Value inftead of

[
of
.::;

io8
we

]
{hall

— = — 7.125, 2io6x— — 8x3 =;— = — and^r=: — we have a being here = 2106, (= —=^) = — .oo2703633,andconfequently 2 = 3.472963 —
A'3

in

the given Equation,
or
^

have 263.25^^— lo.^jc*
57,

84^;^

^-y. therefore

84,

j^"

a

very nearly.
the Root of any high Equation is fought according to this Method, it will be convenient, and fhorten the Operation very much, to negle6l all the Powers of the con-

Note.

When

verging Quantity at, which, in fubflituting for the true Root (2) would rife higher than the 2d, 3d, or 4th Dimenfion, according as you would work by the lit, 2d, or 3d Theorem,
or as a lelTer or greater Degree of Accuracy
is

required.

is once approximated, a greater Exadnefs be ftill deemed nectirary, the Operation may be repeated till you arrive as near the Truth as you defire, as will appear from the following.

Note

alfo,

That

if,

after the

Value of the Root

EXAMPLE
Wherein
2;5H- 2

VII.

z+H- 3 2.3+4 .2^-1-5 2; being given =5;432i ; 'tis required to find the Value of 2;, according to the firfl ApHere, becaufe it is eafy to perceive that % is proximation. greater than 8, and lefs than 9, write 8-f-;^=2; ; and then by involving 8-4-x, and neglediing all the Powers of x above the 2048o.vH-5 120;;^, 2i'^=:4096 2d, we fliall have 2:5=32768 92 A;-{-24;f% 2;-=64-f- 1 6 a;H-a;% +2048^^+3 84^:% 2;3izr:5 1 1

+

2+

and therefore 42792

25221X+
-1'

25221 a: 4- 5964^:^=54321, that is, 5964;^^= 11529 J which, by ilriking off two Fi-{-

gures in each

Term

(to
•>

fhorten the Operation) will be 252;:

cqA;^= lie O J7"
I

nearly, J

confequently ^ J
nearly.

:;=o.4i, and 2;=; 8.41

252X252+115X59 / Let, therefore, 8.41 -t- a: be
\

a;

1'?-—}!^—
f-

1

now

[

109

]

now

afTumed z j then, by repeating the Operation, we iliali have 30479^-f-6876x^==:i 35.92 whence (according to the
;

=

forefaid

Theorem) we have -=^J^^5-'^^^
30479I

= .004454
8.41, nearly.
gives

+6876X135.92

f__fZ__ V
aa-\-by

\

J

for a

new Value of

x-,

which, therefore, added to
the true Value of

8.414454,

equal to

z very

Of

the

Areas of Curves, &c.

by Approximation,
I.

PROPOSITION
fiall nearly exhibit the included

a, Suppofiig a b c to be a fmall Portion of any Curve a b f i, and B b, Co, three equidijiant Ordinafes j to find an Exprejfion in 'Terms of thofe Ordinates, and the common Difia?2ce B, that

A

A

Area
its

A C c b a A,
Axis
parallel to the given

LET
A

a

common Parabola,

having

propofed Curve,

Ordinates, be defcribed thro' the three Points ^, b^ r, of the or rather, to avoid confufing the Figure, let

that Curve itfelf reprefent a Portion of fuch a Parabola; join

A and

C with a Right-Line, and make S 3 parallel thereto, produand C <r to meet S /5 in S and T, and drawing v m /sr, cing from any Point v, in the

T

T

S. Parabola, parallel to Then vm, by the Pro-

A

perty of the Parabola being to S ^, as 3 m^, to b S^,
or,

in the duplicate Ratio

S

^

of b m, the Space b a^b, included by the Parabola and the Right-Lines S^,

^

[no]
and S^,
will

be - of the Parallelogram bra^b, for the fame
3

Reafon that a Pyramid, whofe Sedlions made by a Plane parallel to the Bafe, are in a duplicate Ratio of their Diftances

from the Vertex,

is

known

to be - of

its

circumfcribins; Prifm.

Wherefore, feeing

B^ x 2 A B is

equal to the Area of

A C T^ S A,

and Aa-\-Cc x AB to that of AC^rr^A, the former of thefe Qaantities muft exceed the Parabolic Area ACcbaA by juft half what the latter wants of it 5 and therefore twice the former added to once the latter, will be juft three times this Area, and confequently the Area
itfelf

equal to

—^^^

—^^—^

x

AB

j

which

Quantity, lince a Parabola admits of infinite Variation of Curvature, fo as to nearly coincide with any Curve for a fmall Diftance, muft be equal alfo to the Area fought very nearly. Q. E. I.

COROLLARY.
Hence may the Area of
the whole Curve be alfo nearly

found J for let the AbfcifTa be divided into any even Number of equal Parts, at the Points B, C, D, &c. according as a lefler or greater Degree of Accuracy is required, and let B b^ Cc, T>dj &c. be Ordinates to the Curve at thofe Points j then,
for the

fame Reafon that
will

—^^—^Li
3

x

AB

is

the Area of

ACcbaA,
and
the
3

c^+4P ^+E^ xCD, betheAreaofCEf^^C,
3

F-^+4F/+G^

^

EP^

that of

EGg/eE,

&c, &c.
or
3

But

Sum

of

all

thefe

Areas

taken

together,

x

~Aa-\-^Bb-\-2Cc-\-j:^Dd-\-2Ee-\-^Fj--^2Gg, &c. is the Area of the whole Curve: Hence it appears, that if to four times the Sum of the 2d, 4th, and 6th Ordinates, &c. be added the Double of all the reft, but the firft and laft, and the Sum be
in-

[ III
increafed

]

by

thefe

two

fingle Ordinates,

and multiply *d by -

of the
fought.

common

Diflance,

the Product will be the Area

EXAMPLE
Suppofing

L

to be a Quadrant of a Circle, whofe Raand A^, B^, Cc, D^, E^, five Ordinates thereto, whofe common Diftance is Unity; to find the Area A^<:^EA. '^ Here, by the Property of the ^ d^^--^ Curve, A a being 8, B ^

AQ,^
8,

dius

AQ^is

AB

=

=

v/63

=

7-93725.

_Cf =v/"6^

=7-7459M^i=v/55=74i62, E^ = v/ 48 == 6.9282, we have
4 X B/^+Di-f-2C<:-4-A^-i-E^ x
AT?

=
eafily

30.6113; which, by the
is

foregoing Corollary,
fought.

the Area

^
may
A-

From whence
found
;

the Area of the whole Quadrant

be

for,

taking

13.8564

(= E ^ x - A E)

the

A ^ E, from 30.6 1 1 3 there remains 1 6.7549 Area of the Sed:or Kae K-^ the treble whereof, fince A E is E Q, will be the Area of the whole Quadrant, which therefore is to its circumfcribing Square, 350.78538, G?r. to I nearly, the fame as it is known to be by other Methods.
rea of the Triangle
for the

=

the Area of any Part of a Curve near the Vertex, where the Ordinates are very oblique to the Curve, is
Note.

When

propofed to be found, the Solution by this the leafi: exadt : Therefore, in all fuch Cafes
3

Method
it

will

be

will be conve-

nient

[
nient, iiiftead

^^2

]

of

fiicli

Ordinates, to

make

ufe of Lines parallel

to the Axis, as in the following.

EXAMPLE
Where ahcde

11.

being a Semi-Hyperbola, whofe AbfcilTa 20j 20, and Semi-Tranfverfe Atf is 10, Ordinate to find an Expreffion for the Area A^f EA, in 'tis required Numbers, that fliall be true, at leaft, to 3 or 4 Places. fuppofe divided I Firft, into 4 equal Parts, at the Points

AE

O^

AE

B, C, and D, and B /^, C ^r, ^, ^c. the Axis AO, produced parallel to conjugate Axis meet the to of the Hyperbola in the Points

D

Therefore, by the P, Q2_R, S. Property of the Curve, AE^ (400)
'-

OP- (25) ES^-— O^^ (500) OQ^(ioo) qV Yb'-—Oa' O^-:: OR-(225):R^-— O^-; whence P^=20. 766, Q£==22. 913,
:

:

:

:

:

:

E
B^

=

D

9.2 34,

fequently

— 7.0 87, 0^ =3.900, ^ez=zQ; 10 2 x 7.087 4 x 9.234 + 3.900
Cf
-{-f-

C

B

A

R^= 26. 1003 therefore A^= 10,
-f-

and cono
into

^=:

127.8 equal to the Area fought.

EXAMPLE
EGDHLE
tation of

IIL

to be a Solid, generated by the RoSuppofe A, viz. either a any Conic-Se6tion about its Axis Spheroid, or Conoid ; and let the Content of Cone, Sphere, of that Solid be required. any Fruftum Here if p be put for the Area of a Circle, whofe Diameter is Unity, and a Curve z,% a b c be fuppofed, whofe Ordinates

D

EFGHKLE

A^.

[

"3]

A^,
be as

&c. fhall every where the Areas/ x EL%/» x FK%
Blfj

&c. of the correfponding Sections, then the Area of that Curve will, it is manifeft, be as
the required Content of the pro-

But this Curve pofed Fruftum always a Portion of the common Parabola, except in the parabolic Conoid, where it degenerates to a Right-line, and therefore its Area, fuppofmg will be, exadly, equal to
:

is

AB

=BC,

A<a:-[-4B^-f-Cc X -7fequently

;

and conof the

the Content

Fruftum, equal

toELM^^lFK^

-4-GH^xg/' X
therefore to

AC;
x/» x

which

is

EL*

AC,

the Content of the circumfcribing

Cyhnder,
tion,
if

as

EL*-f-4FK^-f-GH*

EGDHLE

AC

be fuppofed DC, be taken, will become as
is

=

to

6EL^
or

This Proporand the whole Solid
to

ELS'-4GH

where 4 GH^
as the Solid
is

equal to

EL% 2EL%

6EL^

3EL%

according

Cone, parabolic Conoid, or Semi-fpheroid. Hence it appears that a Cone, a parabolic Conoid, a Semifpheroid and a Cylinder, having the fame common Bafe and Altitude, are to one another as 2, 3, 4 and 6 refpectively.
a

Ff

LEM-

[

iH

]

LEMMA.
If hi any Series of ^antiiies a, b, c, d,
the Vncice of the Values 0/ A, B, C, D, &c. may be thofe of a Binomial raifed to the i/?, 2^, 3^, 4/^, ^c. Towers-, Ifay^ the Value of any Term in that Series, whofe Diftance from the x A-4- n x B-i- n x fir is denoted by n, will be a-hn
ft

A=b— a, B=c— 2b+a, D=d— 3c-h3b—a, E=e — 4d -j^dc —4b-i-a, F=f— 5e+iod — ioc4-5b—a, ^c.fothat

e,

&c.

there he taketi

^^

^^

l=!C-|-nx ^=1x^=^x^:33 D, ^c.
3

234'
-\-

fmce b^^a is=:A, by Tranfpolition, have
For,

t— 2^-l-^ = B,

^^r.

we

fhall,

= zb — <z-f-B — ^b a -{-C d =z = 4.d — 6^4-4^ — tf-f-D ^ f z= ^ — lod IOC — 5
c

b

=:a^ A
^ c

e

e

-{-

^ -f-

-f-

E,

&c.

&c.

&c,

where, by taking the Value of
tion,

b, as

andVubftituting

it

in the reft,

found in the firll Equathere comes out
.

A+B = 3^ — 3A — a C ^d — 6 H-4A-l-3^-f-D f =z — 10^4-30^ — 5A — 4^-1- E,
(7=^-1^
e

2

2

-\-

z=z

c

^ e

&c.
in

e?c.
c,

&c,

which the Value of

here found, being fubftituted,

we

next have

["5]
f = ^ e^iod -{&c.
&c.

^==4^ —

I

a

— 8A — 6B-f-D
6 a

+i5A-i-ioB
&c.

-{-

E,

In like manner the Values of ^, y, &c. are found to be tfH-4 6 BH-4C-t-D and rt-l-5 1 o B4- 1 o C-i-5D-f-E,©*<rWhere the Unciae, in the Value of each of the Terms d, c, J, &c. are, it is manifeft, thofe of a Binomial raifed to that Power, whofe Index is equal to the Number denoting the Diftance of that Term from the firft in the Series j therefore the Value of that Term, whofe Diftance from the firft is de-

A+

A+

noted by n, will be

a-i-nA-h — x

^^ x B, &c.
II.

QJ). D.

PROPOSITION
Suppofing

abode, &c. to B b, C c, D d, E e, G?<7.
the

be a Curve of any kind, and A a, given Ordinates thereto, at equal Dijiances, but not very far from each other to approximate
-y

Area of

the

Curve by me am of

thofe Ordinate^.

T A^=^, LEQc—c,Tid=d,^c.

B^==/^,

C, &c. z=p, and A the number of given Ordinates,

B=B

—a=.A, + 2^-j-^=B, — d— 3^-4-3^ a=Cy — a=zD, 4 iH-6 —
qual to
;2

Aa,Bbj &c.
1
5

e-

putting
e

b

c

c

b-i-

&c. Then that Ordinate, whofe Place from the firft is denoted by n^ or whofe

[

ii6

]

Diftance from the

firfl is

n times the

by the foregoing Lemma, be ^ -f- ;2
-I

common Diftance, B A -{- x —
;^

will,

»

X

— —

2

-

C

/~,

.

n

-\-ny.

I

X

n

X


Q.X


if

x

-

D, ^c. Wherefore,

np^
x^

the Diftance of this Ordinate from the Point A, be put

=

and -- be fubilituted above inftead of
,

its

equal

(ii)
nj>

we

fhall

have a-\

A.V

,

h


B.\-

x

P

P


.Y

p f2/

-\

x

X—p ——
2p

x
.


X
-4-

p

3P

I t^, ^c. equal ^

2p

to that Ordinate,

whofe correfponding Abfciffa
p

is

x

;

which

reduced to fimple Terms, will be a-]-—^ ' r

—xr
zp'-

-^
2p

C^c.

Hence

it is

manifeft that a-\--j-

+-^—'^ +

-g^,

the Equation of a parabolic Curve, which, beG, will pafs thro' all the giinp- defcribed to the AbfciiTa Therefore the Area of this ven Points a^ b, c, d, &c. Curve, which by the common Methods is found to be a; x

^c. ==^',

is

A

^+

Ax
2^

+

Bx^
6p^

Bx ^p

Cx^
'

Cx6p^

24/3

"^">>"!VMnBHmi

[

"7

J

Area,
5, 6, 7,

equal

to

lX-l_±J_£±

—_

^

x

:

Moreover,

if

Area,

&c. be the Number of Ordinates given, then the required by proceeding in the fame manner, will come out
90

^ ^»

Tss

^ ^
^^

-^^

and
tively

y-+-^^^i'-7c+27^J+27e+z^e/+^.g
;

^^^

^^^^^^^
firfl

where

at,

in each Cafe, denotes the Diftance of the

and laft Ordinates.
Note.

When

hended

in this
S,

Form, viz.y
'

the Equation of the given Curve is compreQ-f- Ra: -hSA,=-+-TA;3, (^c, where

=

&c. may fignify any determinate Quantities whatCurve defcribed thro' the given Points a, b^ c, &c. (as above) will be the very Curve given Therefore, in this Cafe, the required Area may be exadly had, by making ufe only of as many Ordinates as there are Terms in the Value of ^', or as there are are Units in the Index of the higheft Power of X in that Equation, increafed by one.
ever, the
:

Q^R,

EXAMPLE
Let

I.

be the Centre, a the Vertex, and an AfTympthe equilateral Hyperbola abed-, and, fuppoling'O A, tote of a, and AD, each equal to Unity; let it be required to find the Area comprehended by the Curve, the AlTymptote, and

O

OD

A

the Ordinates

Aa

and D^.

b

= .6666,

Here,

if

only three Ordinates be ufed, then a being i, c =.5, by the Property of the Curve, we fhall have

=

\

'

X

I

= .6944,

^c,

for the

Area fought.

But

if four

Gg

Ordi-

[

ii8

]
i,

Ordinatesbe taken, then ^ beino;
-^
^

= ^=
will

.7r, r

=

.6,

fl^=.c

g

>^

I

=.6937,

^<^.

be the Area fought

O

A K«

which Value is fomething nearer than the former, the true Area being .693 14, &c.

EXAMPLE
The fame
Let
its

11.

being fuppofed as in the preceding Example,

'tis

required to find the length of the

Arch a d.

RP

(

^

)

be any Ordinate to the Hyperbola,

O R {x)

correfponding Abfciffa, and

R ^= x

j

then y being

=

-

by the Property of the Curve, we

fhall

have

y

= ^^^, and

\s/x^^y^=)x^\ -^ —^ equal to the Fluxion ,qf the Curve. Wherefore, if we now fuppofe another Curve YiQklm^ whofe Ab^
fcifla is X.

and Ordinate </

i

+

-A->

the Meafure of the Area
exprefs the

of this Curve, will, it is manifeft, alfo of the required Arch a d^ the Fluxions fame. Hence, if A be divided, as in ample, into any Number of equal Parts

Length

D

of both being the the foregoing Ex(fuppofe 3) by the

X

Ordi-

[ 119 ]
Ordinates
fubftituted

Bk, C /, &c. and
in

the

foregoing

134 for the Arch ner, to find a Curve whofe Area fhall be as the Value fought, not only the Lengths of Curves, but any other Quantities, whofe Fluxions are given, may be approximated, even when the given Fluxions are fo complicated, as to render a Solution by
out
1.

the Values of thefe Ordinates be Corollary, there will come required. By proceeding in this Man-

Infinite Series very troublefome, if not impradicable.

Cy Quadratures and

the Comparifon of Vhv'E.'i^Ts,
I.

PROPOSITION
lUppofing
)

dzP"—

a-^-cz""

equal to x, I fay, the Fluent of

a-\-cz''\

x
is

^

z^ or the

Area of the Curve,

whofe Abfcifla
be
pn
2

^, and Ordinate (?H-f;s"i"^ X
tn
cz°J

^z'^

\

will

m.m—
X
^

c^sz^^

tn.m

— \.m —

c'^z'"-

-

=-

/4-i./-f- 2.^^-3./+ 4

x^

'

&C
become
„^

Vov a-^-cz^f^ X dz^"

z, reduced to a Series, will

dz
of
a

1

pit'-'

I

zy^a

ra

-{-ma
Fluent
01
-.,.

,

m—

I

cz

n

,

tn

-\

x

m

i

a

m
I


n

2

,

c^z^^.

n^ csc.

v/hicli the

is

dz^"'
a

x pn
.

^
-{-

m

-4-

^^—r-—
pn-^n
cz
i ,

m

+ —~~— ^
1.2

c
j

z
3

rv?^ *^i''

tfz^

pn-\-zn

n
2
tl

X


p

ma
t'T'^

-H
But

m.m — —
^'^

X

w MM

^

2

f___i_^, ^c.

(

by the common Method

)

the Series

[

I20

]

^'L

4of

^!i±L-_SlLy

^c,

is

[by Carol. II. Projj.

I.

of the Summa-

tion

[X2I
8)

]

-I
1

1.

= ^i^—
/^
1

5,

I -f- z"-

==

X,

and

^—^ x
&c.
is

i

-''-

-f-

+

H n
.

^"^

;v'

^
\

lililII .13
j
.

3.

1

5.r^

-,

15

.

17

a;'^

equal ^

to the required ^

!Fluent in this Cafe

which

Series

more fimple and con-

verges

much

fafter,

than that refulting from the

common
*

Method.

PROPOSITION
The
Curve, whofe AbfciiTa
being given
AbfcifTa
is
3

II.

Fluent (Q) of a-^-cz^'l^ x dz^"~~^ Zj or the Area of the
is
2:,

and Ordinate
exacfl

a-hcz'''f^ x dz^""^

to find
2;,

(R) the

Area of the Curve, whofe
a-^-cz""?^ y.dz^"'^'""~~^
y.

alfo

and Ordinate

fz"-\-gz'"~'"-^hz'"'~^'^, &c. continued to r-fr and v being any whole pofitive Numbers.

.1

Terms

Let y.^z^''-\-Bz^''-''->r-Cz'"-'\ ^c.-^w(i (R) the Area fought. Then, by putting the be aflumed Equation in Fluxions, we have

^T^r+'

=

}= R;
and therefore by writing a-^-cz'^T x dz^'^'~^ Zj2inda-\-cz'^(^ x

dz

zvsjz

-^-g^

-^hz

,

&c. initead or

their

refpedlive Equals

Qjind R, and

dividing the

whole by z z^'"^

X a-^cz^'f^, ^c. there will come out

Hh

m-ir

[

122

3

Which

reduced into fimple Terms,

is

pn-\-

-df%

Hence, by making qn and pn-\-'vn-{-rn
comparing the homologous Terms,
-

n, the

two

greateft

Exponents, equal to each other, putting />-{-*uH-r-i-;;2=/=,

we

have q-=p-\-V'^r

and
i,

t-x 'K aBn q * ' 2Xc« t ^y.ctt ^c. Where, becaufe the Index of the firft Term in the above En, and that of the laftTerm^;? quation is pn-\-vn-\-rn «, the Number of Coefficients to be thus taken, exclufive of Wy will, the laft of thefe Cobe r-\-v w being it is manifeft,

df

p

dg
/

Kct

'

—qaAn p — lX<ra'

dh—q-—\
/

dl— — 2X aCfz —

-,

efficients

multiply'd by

— ^.
i;

=

QJS.
is

I.

Note.

When

p

as well as

a whole pofitive
finite

Number,
(as

the Fluent or Area fought will be had in

Terms, inde©'^.

pendant of

Q, by

taking

A = -^, B =

=^,

a-

bove) and continuing the Operation till fome one of the Coo, or the Series breaks ofFj as efficients B, C, &c. becomes is manifeil from the Nature of the foregoing Procefs»

=

CO-

[ ^^3 ]

COROLLARY L and &c. each = If y be taken = become =: then put = p-^v B = — =1^, &c. and R the Xf
i,

r, g^ h,

o,

and

e

be

',

will

f

e--{-m,
)

A

= —^,
of

therefore

(

Fluent

I

a-^cz^'f^
e

y^dz^"^ z
V
t

is

equal to
t-j-iwX en
e

— eJ^m —
p-\-m-\-i

afz"*

,

'—

^

e

^-j-wf— I

f-}-/«

'^

a" ap-

.
I

^
<71
I

..I

Q«v Ua^
.

^^

?^»^+^

X p-\-m'^z x ,f^, ('u),or-i.. p-{-m-\-s
.

^—- v^^^«—
p

X

I

X

a
f^n
('u)

.—1x ^-2
"T-

a^
f^iS^«

.. _^
^
'^

Q^
C^

/+!

Z+z"

^_,

x/— 2

/+/«+!

/-i-«?-f2/-f»;-j-J

;

where the Sign

+ or —
iv)
nj

,

before ~~-y obtains according as
i

V
jL.

is

an even or an odd Number, and where
fip;nifies

i^—fl^l- X ~-~:
,

the fame thine; as

— ^^ x -^ — ^^ x
i


>^

ca"'
'

^c, continued
• ,

to

Terms, and '
-

x .J /i-^+i
,

p-\-m-{-z

,\
to

x

y^.
p-fffi-T'i

(v) the fame as

^
,

x

p-f-m-\-i

p-i^m-f-z'
is

f"*"^.

-,

©r. continued
to

v

Fadlors

which Method of Notation
follows,

be underftood in what

COROLLARY
Hence may the Fluent
derived
rollary,
3

IL

for let

-

"""^"""'2;, be eafily oia-\-cz''f' x ^2;^

'u

and

we

ihall

be written inftead of 'y, in the lafl Coe-^m, and have ez=:p v, t

=

[

124
But

]
continued

&c.
to

for the

Value

fouffht.

j—'—ly.-^, &c.

V Terms, fignilies the Hime thing as the v firft Terms, from Unity, of the Series continued downwards or the contrary Way by the fame Law j and the hke holds good with
reoiard to

-r^—r- - -f^VX

(

v)

:

Therefore the

Fluent of
will,

li'\-cz''"^'

dz

"

z,

or the true

Vakie required,

be

;+ix^+2x/+3^il^
f+i Xf+2^^"i~3

/„,\

_+_ Qi!

V,

^tl^

s,

^+^-^

COROLLARY
But
if

IIL
aclet

the Fluent of ^H-<:2;"i"^ X ^2;^''~~^ii be required,

cordino- to

either of the above

any affigned Value of found Series

f,

independant of

Q^

be continued in

infinitiun^

or

till it

terminates, and

it

will

be

But the former of thefe equal to the true Value fought. Series will always terminate when ^ is a whole politive Number, and the latter when ^, or its equal e-\-m^ is a whole negative

Number

;

therefore in thefe
finite

two Cafes the Fluent may

be exadly had in

Terms.

CO-

[

125 3
IV.
z,

COROLLARY
a-\-cz''f''^^ %dz^**'^'""^^ z,

Moreover the Fluent of a-hcz^f"^'' x dz""^^
will

or

of

Terms of
whole

Q^nd
being
^*

algebraic Quantities,

from hence be given, in when both r and v are
x

pofitive

Numbers;

for a-^-cz^l""^^ [=za-\-czf*'
-{-

cz''-\-a\^)

= ^+<72;"r x Cz'""-^ rc'^^az'"'''
",

r x

^^ c^
,be taken

z"^^

J

= c% g = r
A
will

^c. if, /"" ^

in the general Propofition, there
a,

bz=r

x

^—^ x /"^
,B=-^^

a^,

Gff.

and thefe Values be fubftituted in thofe of A, B, C, D, E, &c.
as there found,
f

come out

=—

J r dc

^

—x
I

r— 2
,

li

^c. and therefore
into
_.

the Fluent fought

=
rXr

^

,

r—

x

a-hczT^'
«__
^•Xg

V + /—I
7^
'

/X/—
c^g^"
ff

^^
I

x
f

h ZXt—2


I

gXg

I

/— IX/— 2
rXr

/X/— IX/— 2

"^


3

I

Xr

2

2

X

X ^—3

"""
3 «r^!5


,

Xq

—2

^Xg^— I Xf

2X/--2X/— 3
J« 3H

/— IX/— 2X^

— —

^Xf IXf /X^-— IX/— 2X/^— 3
is

^

&c. where the

Law

of Continuation

manifefl.

But the fame thing may be had in a more commodious Form, by help of the firft Corollary For, by writing x
:

=

a+cz"", we
7^—

fhall get g'"=r^"~'^l

,

and therefore

z""^ z=i
x

iH=^!

.confequently

^:i:3'— x ^=^11:^'"
I
i

^2"—
and

and X
if

J mA-r-

a\

x

t"

=
I

..

a-^cz^'l

^ xaz

t

tt.

Now,

the Fluent of x

—a

\e
I

x

dx^x
;-

be reprefented by K, and
for a^ c^ Zy n, d,

that of

X

7/?-.

I

dx'"'^''x.

a\

x
in

^— by L, and

m^p,
i,

e^ i;,

Q2_ and R,
e

the forefaid Corollary,

^, i,

at,

p-,

I,

m-\-i, m-{-'i'{-r, r,
fhall

K

and

L
into

be refpedivcly fubftitui

ted,

we

have

"^Ji^""^"

+ -r^i^— x -^

^

r^"^"^ri

x^(r)+^-Kx-^g±;:-x--g±j;-x

But- fince

;f

—^ T"
two
^-

x -^^ is

= ^H-^
XI

z*"!"*

x dz^"^ *

;s ,

the

Fluents of thefe
that
1?,

Expreffions,

muft confequently be equal,
i

K

=—

X

—r,

Gff . (by

the fame Corollary).

Therefore,

ify be now put =»z-f-r,

g=m+e,
^
.

h=:e+f,
p-f-m-^2

F=^^
^
'

x

^^

x |±i

(r)

and

G=
K, be '
have

X

f-\-m-\-i

,\

(v) and thefe Values with that of

fubftituted

in

the

foregoing Equation,

&c. we
^

fhall

X
/^w

1

—j—
i&

—f—
iX;r
W2-I-I

^

— IX^—
g


2X.V''
tt;;;

— iX^—2X^— 3X;r5
t". t~.
I

(r) '
^

H-

^^"

jr,

r

"

^

en—n
^

cng

X

I

— lXf»"

— —-^"^ 4- .-zx.-2X_^
g

X^

,

.

ZXf^'a:^"

^

'

^

FGQ,x^"+^^
>

equal

to

the Fluent

of^Hh^'^+'x,
where
e

^^?»+'v»—
;^^

or the true Value required;

ftands
for

[
for

127

]

p-hv, X

for a-^cz"",

and QJbr the Fluent of a^+7z^\^ x
laft

d^f""^^ z, and where the

Term ^^^^/'^
v
is

is

with the Sign

+ or —

to be taken

,

according as

an even or odd

Number.

COROLLARY
Hence may
eafily derived
laft
j

V.

the Fluent of
for let

Corollary,

and

we

x ^2;^"""'^"-' ^ be -u be fubflituted inftead of v, in the fhall have v, f-=^m-\-r
a-^i-c

z^\""^''

e=p —

= ^^L- x 1+ =— — — -^— XI — -= H x -,^^- x But fmce -rA- x -P^ — / —v been -H-T— ^^. continued
(—1;)

=G,

and the Fluent fought

(r)

(

"u

)

z±=.

'

.

(

-u),

or

,

,

to

Fa(5tors (as

has

before
,

obferved) lignifies nothing

more than

j,

,

x
to

f

\

^^.

continued the contrary way, by the fame

Law,
.^x

v Fadors,

G will here be =^i^
like Reafon,
i

x ^'t^"-'

^

p+m—z

and, for the
"^'^^

- -^^ + .^^'.'irZt'. (-^) ZACX
g

IXr«"

S
.

*

^6

^^

= £i^

irx^+'X^V'
^X<?+IX«''

,

,

^_^j therefore
'^^

^

-^— x
«-«

'


^'*'^:;:Tx;c

"^

/^— IX/&— 2x-v^

(''^

X

C

128]

Fluent in

this Cafe.

COROLLARY
may

VL

In like Manner the Fluent of a^cz^'^'^^ x dz^"'^'^^''^z, r be fubftituted inftead of r, be determined 5 for let -+- v, (^c. then will c m r, ^=7/2 ^, h-=.e Hr-/^ f:=-

=p

+

jw

fx

m

2 ^

^'

p-\-m-\-i

p-j-m-f-z^

"
^
to

/qrix««^^

/+2X^
-*-

/+2X/+ 3Xa-^^^"^

cnga^

'—pTx^.

^-xX^^2Xc^«-

W=^—^
VIL

equal

the Fluent fought.

COROLLARY
oi a-\-c
z''\"~''^

Likewife, by proceeding in the fame Manner, the Fluent
y.dz^'^'~'""'~^ z, will be found,

and

is

equal to

/+iX«« ^

f-f^Xa

/+2X/+3X«^^^^"*"

^„^r+i

^

i_l±J^4.d^_djX^(^)^£^
p

where
^

.=
(r),

V,

f=.m
1


p

r,

g=.m-\-e^ hz=:f-^g,
(1;)
^
'

F
all

= ^ x ^—

x ^^^

G='^i^ x^i^—L x^i^^ 2
p

/

and

3

the reft as in the A pre-

ceding Corollaries.

COROLLARY
If
c

VITL

be negative and p^ p v, m -f- 1 and affirmative, or f , /», and p-^-v affirmative, and

^

m-\-r^i m -^p and
I

[
w+/>-|-r-f-i; negative,

129

]
to flow
till

and z be fuppofcd
till

a-{-cz''-

becomes nothing or

infinite, or

QJjeccmes

the Area of

the whole Curve, whofe Ordinate is a-\~cz''\^ x dz^"'" \ it h evident, from Corollary IV. that the Area of the whole Curve,

whofe Ordinate
fined

is

a-\-cz''r

x dz^"'^'^"'^^ will be truly de(i;)

by
^

-^

X ^-±^ X ^-±^
;

X

^

X "-t^ x "^P

(r)

x

z*=.

^-

where

s

is

=ip-\-?n-\-i, and gzr^p-^-m+v^ and

where v and r may

reprefent any

whole Numbers

pofitive

or negative, under the forementioned Limitations. Therefore if r be taken =o, and ^ />, then the Area of the whole

Curve, whofe Ordinate is Values of ^, p, and m-\-i are
7"

=— a—

bz^'f^
all

xdz^"^'"""^

,

when

the

pofitive, will

be equal to
it
is

^

jJt ^ ji"

{'^)

^ "^^

From whence

appears,
z,

that the Area of the

whole Curve, whofe Abfcifia

and

Ordinate

a^hz'^'T y.dz^'"^^ x A-f-B2;"-+-C2;^-"-f-D2;3", ^c,

will be truly reprefented
/•/+I./H-2-

by Qj<

A -i
;j

^-^

h

^ ^

Z \^
,/

"

s.s-\-i.s-j-2.o^

^

'

^^^ where A, B, C, ^r. fland J J

for

any de-

terminate Quantities,

COROLLARY

IX.
at pleafure,

^ 12 X we
-H - X
fore
fhall

A + B^j^-hCz^^+D^s",
^2;"-"— - X

Hence

if f

be put to denote any
C^c.

Number
be
/32;3n
»

and

the
^;s"l

then have Area of the

^ 123B= — A=i,
ii- X
X

taken

==

i—tlz
'

^c.

= 7+7il~%
and

^/,

6fr.

thereis

whole
,

Curve,
or

whofe Ordinate
r-^=^z^^

tf

xtf2;^

X H-/;s"|

.will be

Kk

Qx

[

I30
^
b^

]
A/+i./4-2.;i.^,.^-^2
^^

O x"l ^-'
£=fr.

-

-

^'^
I.^

X

""^
1

^•^+^-//+»

^^"/^

aHl
i^
'

^

I.2.J.i-j-I

which Value,
by
iv.au
^

if

w

be put
^-

t


,

I

.

2. 3

.

J.J-}-I.J-|-2

j,

will

be truly
:

ex-^

prellcd
a^l"
,

x

i

x

tj— ^
,

\

x

i.tiu

2./i./4-l./i4-2
1

-r.r

7~T~'n

,

_

-'— X

«^/^
.

,,3 ,

^c.

^-

as appears

from Propofition VI. of the Summation of Series ; and therewhere w or j is a whole pofitive Number, the Area from hence may be exadly obtained And hence alfo may the Area of the whole Curve, whofe Ordinate is
fore in all Cafes,
if


j

:

j===~t

',

he

eafily derived

for, fince

k^lz^\ maybe
/,

reduced to

^*

x

i

+^'
fhall

,

let-y be fubftituted inftead of

in

the forefaid general Expreilion, and the whole be divided
k^^

by

and then
nx)

we

have

-^-^

-j^into
iv.nv'

i

^^^^^

x

-rr\


.tu

— \,p.p\\
^c.

a^V"

— l.<iu—-2.^.^-}.s.s-^-i.s
;

i

.^-|-2

i.2.s.s-\-l
or"

bk^alf
Area

1.2.3
in this Cafe

+z

P
3 ,

for the true
-I- i»

s

being (as before

fpecified)

=/»-{-;«

COROLLARY
Alfo

X.
^

from hence the exadt Area of the whole Curve,.
is

whofe Ordinate
and

-

—^— \
i-f/«'f pofitive

, '

may be ^

deduced, '

when

s

t are both whole Numbers, tho' the latter fhould not happen to be the greater, as is required in the laft Co-

rollary

:

For the

Series

Qj5

i

*— x -^, ^c,

(univerfally

expreffing that Area)

may

in all fuch Cafes be

fummed, and by

[

131

]
Series,
is

by Corol.

I.

Prop.

VIL of the Summation of
l.f— 2
b-\-al

equal to

^^—
7-1

I.2.J--2./— 3

rr2>^^* TT^'

rrc Ti^

I

^^
being

I.f
'^••f

2

^ &

^^ 1.2.S — Z.J
I
.

-?

r

•>

r

->

X

,^

,

C^c.

w

and
that

P

as

hereunder fpecified

:

From
is

which
^

Area

of be

the

Curve,

whofe

Ordinate
and,

—^ —
"*
I

may
laft

eafily

obtained,
will
-.

by

pro-

ceeding as in the

Corollary,

PQJP X M-^al
'

fft.t

/

p.^—r[^


»

X

I

'

_

*-^


i.t

X

aJ ~T~ ^«4-«/
f}
•,

come out as ~~ m.m — .t —
I

follows,
i

./

1.2.
oj

s

— z.s —

X

a^/"^

ik+al\

TTTJ— ii\ 77 «/

X

— i.m— — 2 — 1+ -7—— X 2
m.m
• •

2./

—2./—
.

a^

l^

PQ

3

--f

2.

J— 3. J— 4
al
^>f

i^^^/J

,

m.iAj
I.J

I

fn.m—-i.'w
I. Z.J

1

.iy

TT

-H
.


3

a^/^

2. J

"
^^a''

;».»^-i.^-2...~i.^^2.^3
I. z. 3.

J— 2. J — 3. J —
till

^

^/^^.
t?^A^'

where both

Series
is

are to be continued

they break

off,

= —
i

/, '

and

P == =1=

^•^+1-^+2

m.m

— I.m—2.m-—^.m—4 —

H

xa..^+

^

and where
+2(/--i)
(j

w

put

.^ ^j^.^j^

laft
is

Value the prefixed Sign an odd or an even Number,

+ or —

i)

obtains, according as (

Note. In thefe two laft and the fiieeeeding Corollaries, k and / may denote any Quantities at Pleafure, provided the Quantities ^-h^/> bk-i-c^h and bk=^aly wherever they occur,

be

pofitive.

[

132

]

COROLLARY
a — bz^
is

XIL

Moreover the Fluent of a bzT' •x.dz"*^'^^ 2; x R, when is =0, or the Area of the whole Curve, whofe Abfcifla
z,

and Ordinate a
X

—bz^i^ % dz""~~^
Zj

x

R, fuppofing
pofitive

R

=

k-=^lz"\~~

2^"""*

and u and q any
^

Num-

bers,

may from hence
t±z

be determined

for ^^p/z^I"" xz^"'~'^

z being converted

to a Series,

and the Fluent taken,
^"
I

we have

R=-^ %tore

—^

X -4^ -H

^-

X

-^,

&c. and there=§'-f-z^,
will be

a


to

bz^l'^

^dz"""^^ x R,
««'

if

^ be put

equal ^

n

x§'

=±:

—r- x -yf-f-I
/t

H

2.q-\-Z

r— x

^^.

Wherefore if (as above) s be put =/>H-»2-l-i be taken to denote the Area of the whole Curve,
Ordinate
is

——-, and Q
k"^

'

whofe

a

bz^'l

x dz^"

^

,

and

-,

—-

^,

^

,^

^r. be

refpeftively fubftituted for

neral Expreffion at the end

A, B, C, 6fr. in the geof Corol. VIIL we fhall have

^//+i./+z.^:7yr7+i ^
be found.

^

^c.

for the

Area propofed to

COROLLARY
Therefore, if
this

XIL
S,

Area be denoted by
have

and
x

-^rr-

be put

=

x,

and

/

s^w. we fhall
(^c.

S=—
I

- =tz
q
S.q-\~l

^iiL±±l-I±l^^

But

it

appears,

from Prop.

VL of the
Sum-

[

^33 I
i

Summation of

Series, that
'
1

=1=

-^^
S

^•^"^'•^•^

-f-

Z .S. S-f-

+1:^ ^c.
'
1

is

„ , imiverfally equal to

=^=^

>^

i

"^

<W.pX
i.s.i-i^x

^U.IV
I
.

Lp-p-^-Lx"^
s
.

2

.

s-\-i

.

i:

^_j_

?1l^
J

—i::!i_i:^xiitt^^-_^ ^^^
therefore if
.r

bg the Value of

.r,

&c. what

it

will

be confidered as variable, and both Sides

of the
.^i
<7

Equation
I I

be
C'^rr

multiply 'd

by x^"
T I

x,
iv.px '^— ^^

we

lliall

have
coii-

I

V X X V

.

—f— =t

t.p.X
_''-

— -^
=±:

oj w.

=

— —— * -——rp V — X
•'^

a

—1— r±r

.

——
t

^,Ci7<:.

and

fequently

a;''

x -

j~^

-i

't^\z^''
»

^^' ^^"^^

^^ ^^^

Fluent of
fore,
if

^:^ X ,=t.^
I_l_,;v[

+ r^-^^r^..
the

There^

H

be taken to reprefent

Fluent of

x

I rt: !:^{-:^

^c. when ^

is

=

7-7,

it

is

evident, that S will be
^^

exadlly equal to

i:^~ir^*

^^^

order

for

the

more

ready determining the Value of
pends,
«
1

H, upon which
q

let

-^—
,

be put

=

that of S de^'^Lhl

I

,

y,

then will 1
I
.

"^

x
,

i z±i:

^c,
jj
-^

:a— J be changed to ir±=jl

x^y —

j/

x

i=t—^^ H

nx!py

nv.vj

\.p,p-\-\.y"-

^
laft

^..a;-x.cu;-2././+i.j^+2.^3

^^^ thcrcfore the Fluent of

this

2.3 ./.54"^-^H"^

Expreffion,
,

generated while

y from nothing, becomes

=
in

1_

,

will give the true

Value of

H

;

which Fluent may,
be either nothing,

many

Cafes, be
pofitive

had

in finite
\i

Terms, and by the Quadraov t

ture of the Conic-Sedions,

w

s

or a whole

Number.

LI

CO-

[

134

]

COROLLARY
But
if t

XIIL

5

be a whole negative Number, put

w=i —

f,

^

__. ^

q^

and
i-

S^z-"^- X

= ~, and +
/S

let

both Sides of the Equation

^
,

'bP

^-ifili^+l-f!,

^c.
i,

as

(found a-

bove) be divided by t.t-\-i .t-\-2.,...s

and there will be

^^ into —
nk"-

'

—*—
y-j-I./-i-I./-j-2./4-3....5

/./_j_,I.;_|_2...j_l

q.t.t-{-l.t\-2...S^\

P

p-\-''-

^c.

or

to

—-TTj_
'

multiply'd

by

-X^-i— x»'
I

_j^

^^^

2

,

^c.
is

q.t.t-\-\.t-\-z{nx3-\-\)

j4-I./4-I.^-|-2(w-j-l)

^-|-2./-|-2./'-f 3

(w)

which

Series

{by

Prop. V. of the Summation of Series)

equal to

I

j^. 1

.

2

3
.
.

4

H

,

^f.

But

- =±:
q

——
q-^\
it

-fis

^^i^,
z.q-\-Z

G"^.

if

^ be confidered
to
;

as

va-

riable,

will,

manifeft,
is

be

equal
/S

the

Fluent
like

of

when X
'-'

equal to

or 77

and the

may
.

be obferved with regard to the
Cj'r.

Series

- z±z
t

^
t -^ I

-f-

fP^^-''
2
.

/-j-

2

^^.

From whence

it

will appear, that the true

Value of

C 135 ]
S, will,

in

this

Cafe,

be =: t.tA-iJ-{-2.t-i-^('w) x -^.

multiply'd by the Fluent of
I
.

lu

\.x
'

•vo

X
J^


.

— 2.3.4(au—
,

—p

,

t

I

1).3'

I.

at/'

Z.x

"^

1

IX!

2 .^M

3

•-v''
'

taken in
thing,
is

*^^^TJTd-jlTT the forementioned Circumflance, when x from nobecome —rrcr+i.;^

2.^+2.|4_^

=

EXAMPLE
The
Fluent (Q.) of
b'^-\-%^\^

I.

x
x^

zz

being given,

'tis

required

to find the Fluent of

d'-^^zT

z^ z.

Here, by comparing
(Vid. Corol.
I.)

d^-i-z^'i^

x z^Zj with a~hczH

x dz^~^%

we have

az=ib'^,

c=i, n=z2,
^

and en
/

— [e-^m) =
i

or
^,

2e

— 1=5,

whence
""

=
-f-

m=-^ ^=1,
2,

3,

'u

=
^

p=i,
x
i

and
t

and confequently
^^+Z^|-XK^

ten
\h^'

X -^,

G^^.

=

XI

— 7^
J

QJ^

X - X -equal to

But fince/ is here a whole politive Numthe Value fought. ber, the true Value may be had independant of Q»_being (by
Corol. III.) equal to
''+^'
I

~xm-\-\

en

—n
is,

~
:;^

~
^

"-^^

x'-Ft
equal to

^.

^^x

continued

till

it

terminates 5

that

—i^Xilf!
,

\b^ 4.2^+ Z _J_ Z 5«' 5.32"'
.
,

^^4-zH^X 152'— 12«^-/^^4.8^ +
r\v

to

~— —<—

^^-

'

105

EX-

[

136

]

EXAMPLE
Where
In
'
,

11.

it

is

propofed to find the Fluent o^ i?'i—:\A'~'^x^^x,

this

Cafe

dz=:zi^en
lail:

— — 1= —^,whence e=: —
we have ^=:b\ c=:

i,

z=x,
t

72=3,

m= —

^,

and

(=e'-i-;«)=

i

Value being a whole Negative, indicates that the required Fluent may be exadly found in finite Terms. Therefore let thefe feveral Values be now fubflituted in the fecond general Expreflion in Corollary III. and we fhall have

which

,

^Jzzih:

^^^'

for the true

Value foudit.

EXAMPLE
Let (Q) the Fluent of
g'^-^-x'^]^
^

IIL x x
x.
^

x be given ^

to

f nd the Fluent of g'^-^-x'^f x x

Thefe Expreflions being com.pared with thofe
^c. we have
-jrrr^,,
^;

in Cor.

IL

=
,

^4,

c=i^ z=x, Jn=z- ?2=4, d=zj,
^,
f

pz=
a

e

=—
X

=

14^"^

^,

and

-?-

!

X

H .—
e-\-i
'

-774.-

10^+

10

^ 6

X

g^

^

^
6

X

-^-

10

— 14

X

—^ ^12

equal to the Value
J-

re-

quired.

EXAMPLE
Where (Q)
the the Fluent of x^
AbfcifTa
is

IV.


2;,

h^' xz'^z, or the Area of

Curve,
3

whofe

and Ordinate

z'^

/?^'^

x

[

137 ]

^3|~ x z^ being given ; 'tis required to find the Fluent of z^ Area of the Curve whofe AbfcifTa is alfo 2;, and z^°z, or the

Ordinate

z^

— i?^~ x
^=

z'°.

By comparing thefe Exprefiions with thofe in 'Corol. IV. ^J, ^=1, ^2=3, in=z-^ -^-, there will be f=i, a=: p
i;=2,
and

r=4,

12/ "^ = 7, = J, /=y>
"^3
<§"

=

^

,7, -^,^=2; 3-/^3
24

3

3

therefore,

by writing thefe Values

in the laft of the

E'

quations there given,

we

fhall

have

'^"^^^""^'^
24

x

z'^

— bA
15

13^^ Xs:^

1.

^^1

j^

13x10^^X2^
21

^^

13X10x7^9
21

21
.

X 18

X l8x

8g^^^ i3XioX7X4^^^Xg^—^^P 4X7Xioxi3X5X8^'^Q 8 "*" 9x12x15x18x21x24 24x21x18x15x12 9 for the true Fluent or Area fought j which therefore, when z 4X7x.ox.3x;x8i-'CL =.b, is barely ^ 9X12X15X18X21X24 ,24
•'

=

EXAMPLE
I

V.
'^

Let there be given (Q) the Fluent of i x\ X becomes o, or the Periphery of the

=
i

x

"•

j^jwhen

Circle,
i

whofe

Diameter
x""^^ Xy

is

Unity; to

find the exa6t

Fluent of

—xf"* x
m

when

x becomes
is

=o
1,

3

or the Area of the whole
oc"~~^.

Curve whofe Ordinate
In
this

i

x'(^^ x

= = p=i^,s {p-^m-^ri) = ^
Cafe ^
1,

c

z=zx^

n

=

i^

=—
q
r

-,

I,

{p-i-m-i-v)

=fu 3 and

therefore,

by

Corol.

Vin. we

fhall

have
-

1.3.5.7.9, ^c. to v Faftors, into 1.3.5.7.9, ^'^- ^o f Faaors. 2,4.6.8. 10. 12. 14. 16. 18.20.22, ^€. to r+1/ Factors.

^'

the Value fought.

Mm

EX-

[

138

]

EXAMPLE
The
comes
dinate

VI.
*tis

Fluent Q^f/6^-HA;='l

to find the

——— Fluent of h^^x^\
8
^

'

x x being given,

propofed

^^ 8

infinite,
is

^ % x^ x^ when Z)*H-a:* beor the Area of the whole Curve, whofe Or-

/j^-^x^i

%x^.

Here we have a=b*^ c=i, z=x, «=:2,

m=

2
,

^=r,

^

=
?

^,

r= — 2,

v=:2, sz=^,g=^', whence, by Cor. VIII.

there will be

^ x
O

^

(2) x

^ ^
x

(^2
-2-

)

x

Q

=

X
C

'-±I(2)x^
27

X

i:=L(2)xQ==^ X

X -11-

^ if^ ^ Q^^"i^^^^^^ t^ ^^^ ^x^<^ "^^-^ which was to be
found.
Note.

may alfo

The Area of this fame Curve, or of any Part of be found by Corollary VI.

it,

EXAMPLE
Where (K)
is

VIL

the Area of the whole Curve, whofe Ordinate

/3

2,3

1

^ being

fuppofed

given

;

tis

required

to

find
is

the

exadl

Area

of the whole Curve,

whofe Ordinate

Firft,

to determine
1 z^\^

the Area of the Curve

whofe Ordi«
quired,

nate isy3

x

/s^,

which

is

requifite for finding that re-

3

[

139

]

quired, let a-i-cz^i^ x dz^"~'^ and a-hcz"f"^'' x dz^"^'""'^^
(as exprefled in Corol. VIII.)

and/J

m=: —

be compared with J^ z^f X z^, and there will be a==fi^ c

-,

»?+r=-, d=i, pn

— i=o,

and

j&7z-f-'y«

— = — «=3, — 1=3
is^l"""'*

i,

j

whence r=i,/>

=
is

7,
3

'u=i,

j

(/>-f-^-f-i)

=

I,

and therefore (^
-

x L+-l(a,) x

^x^
'

=

^, ^

g

(p-^-m-hv)
(r) into

=*= -

——

)

-^


,,

equal to the exad; Area of the Curve, whofe

Ordinate

is

/3

z^\^

x

z^.

Let therefore
compar'd with
fhall

Qbe put==-§^
55

_^

and

let

'

be

now
we

(Vid. Corol. IX.) and

have a-=:J^^ b=zi^ ^

=

m = \,

3,

d^i,p=:^^,
5

k=h\ /=i, t^'-l,s{p-\-m^i)=ll^

w {f-^s) == o
^^'^

and therefore
^^^

f^^^^^xi— ^^
^^^"^^ required.

x

-^^T

IF^fe^'^

^^"^^

EXAMPLE
The fame
Ordinate
(hall
is-^

V[IL

being given as in the preceding Example, let it be required to find the exact Area of the whole Curve, whofe

—^

1.

^

^.^

.

Here,

by proceeding
'

as above,

we

5x11x17x23x29 of the whole Curve, whofe Ordinate
let

firfl

get *>

^±^^J4_x_3X9_ ^ Y^r^^ J

f^j.

t^e exad: Area

is^s^

z'^\^

x
•'

2;^,

which
%_

be denoted by Q., and then, by comparing

--^^

with

[

140
fhall

]
have <7=/3, b
s

with

f=i^L^$^, we

,n=\,

(/—

5) ==: I,

= n= d=i, /=^, i=b^, l=-i, t=% = ^^ and.» ^ and confequently ^ ^ + „^n—^ or
i,

2.

a

I

'

i

86^Kf^x 7P—3P _^ ^^^^Y
623645
^^'T'

to

the

required Area

in

this

x/^^-^/'^i'T

Cate.

EXAMPLE
Where
dinate
is

IX.

the Area of
h"

(Q) of the whole Curve, whofe Or;

2;"!^

X x^"""^ being given

'tis

required to find

that of the

whole Curve, whofe Ordinate

is

"~~„^ -^
/>

.

In

this

Cafe

we

have a=h''j ^==1,

^ = ^, d=i,

= -^,
i

Z^=a-", /=ri,

/=i, and

5(/>4-;^-f-i)

=

3

:

Therefore,
let

be-

ing

here a Values be written in

whole Number
Corol.

greater than

t,

thefe feveral

X. and we

fhall

have w==2,

V={^JI -f-

8,

and

- BQ.^-Xi^^

^^^ X

-r or

O

X

^^

,,„^

.

^-^

^ f
x
equal

x

1-

to the

exadl Area required.

EXAMPLE
Let
it

X.

be required to find the Area of the whole Curve,
is

whofe Ordinate

i

z'^\

^

x R, fuppofing

R=

i

z^\

*

Thefe

[

HI

]
tbofe. in Corollary

Thefe ExprefTions being compared with
XI.

we have ^=1,

bz=:i

n=2, ;«=
and -J^f;


is

-,

d=i, u=^-^

kz=:i

/=:i,^=^,$'=^, ^

=

1,

therefore

Q
v.

(the

Area
)

of the whole Curve whofe Ordinate
will here be

a


q

bx'^f^

dz^"~^^

=
9

I

'

,

and confequently ^
-I

-%
nk}-

x - -h

-^^
•f'/'Ti

x

-^, ok

&c.

=i-I---I
z^^
*"

^
i

^

25

49

h

-5-^,

81

>

&c. equal A

to

the true
is

Value fought.
I

But the Area of the Curve, whole Ordinate
is

X R,
that
is

alfo equal to the

Fluent of
in

i

z^'l

^

z x

R, or

R R,

is

==

5

where R,

the propofed Cir-

cumftance,
cle,

equal to - Part of the Periphery of the Ciris

whofe Radius
Series

Unity.
~{

Hence
\

it

appears, that the
is

Sum

of the

i -{-

^, &c.

equal to ^ Part

of the Square of the Periphery of the
ter
is

Circle,
i -i

whofe Diame-

Unity,

But the

Sum

of the

Series

^

~

"^

-I

~


16*

76

^, &c,
becaufe -

isjufl ~ Part of the

Square

of that Pe-

riphery,

-I

^

-I

^, &c, the

Sum
is

of the Squares

of the Reciprocals of the even Numbers,
*i-

=-x

i

-t-

-

1 -I- -1
9

^c, that

is

= - of the whole 4
XI.
'tis

Series.

EXAMPLE
Where
the
h^

R
(

Area

— s^n^

^M-S*l""^ x z, being ) of the whole Curve, S

=

whofe

propofed to find Ordinate is

xccR,

Nn

Here

[
Here, by proceeding

142

]

as in the laft
^,

Example,

we iLall have

^=/;% /^=i,
t

;2=:2,

m= —
^)

u =z^^ d=ic'^^k=zc'^^ ^=r,
accord-

=

-,

5^

=

-,

/>=!,

J=-, and Q=:^*i'5 whence,
o,
"

ing to Corol. XII.

H

being

— = the Fluent of —
110(1:
i
yl

and S

(

^J^ _^
when;;
is

]=

;

y

^7,

=
is

^^,^^->

or twice the

Arch of the
-t4-7T.

Circle,

whofe Diameter

Unity,

and verfed Sine

Therefore the Value here fought, will
faid

be exadily equal to the Meafure of the

Arch.

SCHOLIUM.
Tho* the chief Deiign of the preceding Propofitions is to exhibit the Relation of fuch Fluents, as can be expreffed in Terms of each other, and algebraic Quantities 5 yet from
thence a
nally,

Method may be
Infinite Series,

by

derived for finding Fluents origimuch preferable to that commonly
a-{-cz''\

made

ufe of.

Let the general Expreffion

x dz^"'^^
1;

X be propofed, in order to find the Fluent thereof. Take equal to any whole pofitive Number, and let p=e-\-v^
e-^-m^
%,

/=

x=a-{-cz"^ and

Q== the Fluent of
I. is

a-hcz^'f^ x dz^"""^

which, according to Prop.

=

^^

^"^

x

i


,

-j-^

x


x

.

_^^ X

-^^

X

'-4-,

^^. Then, by Prop. IL CoroL IL
en
m-\-\

the required Fluent

will

be truly defined by -1-^

tH!=l X
p—z

^"t^^=^

/— 3

('y).
^ ^

Hence,

to

find

the

Fluent
S

of

[ 143 ]

J+?^r X i/z"""
i^,
lafl

i, let there be taken

A=

''''"'''''

.,B=

_A x^Jix^, C==-B
and
fo

X

i^xi^, Dz^-c'x i±3x
of Terms {v) and
let

on

to

any

Number

the

of thofe Terms be denoted by
X
p-\-i

Q

-,

then take

tti,,!^^ S '
p

= — R x^x-^, T=— S X p^z X V= — T x^x^, &c, then A-f-B + C + D
X
'

^

R= — Q^
^, X
'

will

-f-Q+R+S+T+V+W,
Now
may
the chief Advantage
that, as

&c.
of

be the true Value fought.

this

Method

confifts in this,

at Pleafure, the Value thereof be fo affigned, or fuch a Number of Terms, A, B, C, &c, of the firil Series may be taken, as to make the fecond S+T, &c. converge exceeding faft, when the SeSeries ries refulting from the common Method diverges, or converBut this will appear ges fo flow, as to be intirely ufelefs. Let it be required to find better by an Example or two.

V may

be any

Number

R+

theFluentof

I

+2;^1"~

x

z,

when z=zi

(

expreffing the
is

length of ^ of the Periphery of the Circle, whofe Radius
Unity).

Here i-\-z^\'~^ x

i;,

being compared with

rt4-f:z°l

y.dz^"^^
zz=:i, en

z, there will
I,

or

we

fhall

have

p

(e-{-'v)

be^=i, <:=i, n=2, m-=z — \^d=.i^ 2e — i=o; whence, v be taken =6, = — = — x = A=i, B=
if
,

t

^,

2,

-I, C=:i,D=_i. E==l,
S

F(orQ)=-± R=^,,
&c. and confequently

= -, r = —, V = ^,W = ^,
is
'

A-t-B-4-C
ber,

Qj-R-f-S, &c, =0.785398^ which Numfound by taking only 8 Terms of the Series R-j-S-f-T,
right in the iaft Place,

&c.

and would have required,

at

leaft.

[
leafV, '
1

144

]
Series i

000000 Terms of the common
Again,
let
it

— - + -—-,
3
5

7

^c.
J

be

propofed to
taking
1^

find

the

Fluent

of

4-2^4,^ X z.

In

this Cafe,

=

4,

we

have az=zi,

B:^-ZA^, C = --.-ii5^, D(orQ)=-J-^l, R =
19
I

Q2*
7
AT '

e

2_^£!
21
A*

T

^^^"^

25^:*

V

6Tg^
29X
'

-ry

10

Vg^
AT

33

and A B^-C-f-Q^-R+S, will become 1.08942, i, fought J which if z be taken in finding whereof, no more than 6 Terms of the Series R-fS-j-T, &c. are requifite j and if 2 had been taken fmaller, the Befides thefe Conclufion would have been ftill more exad:. Ufes of the foregoing Method, another Confequence may have be derived therefrom, not altogether inconfiderable.
e^r.

+

=

&c. equal to the Fluent

We
;

proved that the Fluent of a-^-cz'^f^ x
equal to ^
,

dz

"^^

z,

is

univerfally

,

dx^
if

J"

pn

x

m
i

^^^

r— x

\

\-

Therefore

a be taken

p-T^ o,

=
i

^

j— —7— —m x m—i /

+

x

!

'P'T'^

——
c^a^"
•^"
,

Z7~
,

tsc,

^=1, <i=i,

then x being z=cz'^^

we fhall have ~
to the Fluent of
z'^'T

x

— -?
2;^"""^

h

-^
is

x

—p,

&c. equal

mn-\-pn

x

z, that *

== fnn-+-pn .^ ^^

5

whence

^+
of any
C^c.
eafily

-^
/>,

X

^\

^r.

= ^: From which the Sum
x

Infinite Series as

—let

-7

h

— x -- — x —

y

where m,

deduced;

and r denote any Quantities at Pleafure, is fince this Series may be changed to for,
-^
r

Z
P
r

-L.

Z
P
r

X

Z_l,
^
r

^c.

_l/

I, ^

and

— - be
r

fubflituted

for

I 145
for ^ p
fn-\-r

]

and
"*"

/;;,

In the
\

lafl;

Equation,
,

we

ihall
tn

have -—
P
^n-\-r

H

x
P
""

7+^
^V^,

£iff.

T —7+^ = —
m-\-r
""

m

tn-\-2r

^

1+^^

^^ -^


alfo

M-\~zr
""

^

ThP"

7+T^

-

.

Hence we

gather, that if the

Terms A,

B, C,

B:=^
of that

X A,

C=^

D,^^. of any
X B,

Infinite Series,

D=

^

be fo related that

X C, &c. the Value
_^"^
x

Series, will
is

be truly defined by

A

;

which

therefore

fi.nite

or infinite, according as
:

p

is

greater or lefs

than m-{-r.

Example

Let

it

be required to find the
i
>^

Sum
x

of the

Infinite Series -

&c. Then /'=4,
lue fought.

m =^ i,
let

+ 446468 + 468 ——
- x J -h - x | x J
J

x

o

10'

r= 2,
-,

and

-

==

== the Va-

Again,
will

the Series

-H
I

,

&c. then

3-4

A

=

234
B
^

propofed be

\-

~
' '

p=2i 'J'
more

^==ij ^^^ T-z ' 1.2

-^

2.3'

-y

= - A, C=z-B,&c.m==:j, ^^' i=T^—^-- xA) = Or, —m
/
r
'

i.

univerfally, let the Series ^

r^ ^-\-r. m-\-2 r. m-\-'^
thereof will
preflion
is

—j-m
r[n)

propounded be r r

~*

ttj m-\-zr. z«+3 r.m-{-^r{ny
i j

r-^~i
-i—


^

m.m-\-r.m -{-2 r {»)

——
^

^^' ^^^ the Value
;

come out

which

lafl

Ex-

the fame with that in Page 92 of

my Eflays, but found

in a different Manner^

Oo

PRO.

[

146 ]
III.

PROPOSITION
If X mid y
other,

be

two

'variable ^lantities a?iy

how

related to eacb'-

and

the Fluent

of y -s:^^ x be

take?2y

and

multiply' d^

by x^'~'^ X,

and

the Fluent of the Pr.oduB

be again taken

and multiplfd by x ~ x, and the Fluent of this laft ProduSf and there be made f^Fj be alfo taken, and fo on continually
-,

r-f-g D
'

=

s, '

5-f-h==t, tH-i
'

'

=

v, '

^c.
/(«)*

A=
g
-j-

5

— —^ —
r.t

r.i,'

r[n)

^,

r

j.t—!..ii

•j".(«)'

r

-t.s

— —
t.'V

r—'V,s--n}.t-''v[n)

&c. and

the

Sum of

all the Indices f -|-

h H- i, ^c.

be

denoted by p^ I fay, that Fluent whofe Place in the Prowill, when x becomes equal grejjion is denoted by n -f- 1,
to

any gi'ven
'.-

^antity

a,

be

equal

to

the

Fluent

of

"i- ^

+
-f-

-^ -^ -^
0^^^+"'

+

-^

+

-^ (^^-^^)^^^j^i^h

For let?/
is

+ R^?-t-^"_l_S;,^+3«^ ^^^
or y x-^^^ x be
its

a general Expreliion for any Quantity whatever) be affumed
y
',

=

then will

y x^'~^

x,

=^ x^~^^^^

x -h

Q^?4-'-{-«^-^^._j_

R^?+''+2'«-» X, &c. and therefore

Fluent

=—

j

h
by x^

-===n

——
I

-i

,

,

,^

,

w. which being mul-

tiply'd

Xy

and the Fluent taken, we have

,

_q£ZJ1
thod of Operation
that

J

^
is

2m
-,
,

^c.

From which Me-

it

evident, that the Fluent propofed, or
is

whofe Place

in the Progreffion

denoted by n-^-i^ will

be

C
be truly defined

H7

]

by-p^ll
r-A

u

^+^+^

-h

,

,

1-3-


j

n>

^'^is

which Value, by Prop. V.

of the Summation of

Series,

equal to

^
±>

X

——
j

q-\-r

-f-

——
^

q-\-r-\-m

-f-

—-—

1-

j

^^r-\-2»:

'

^c.

X

,

-f-

:

1

T—-^

q-t-s

q-\-j-f-M

q-\-s-j-2m

'

<SC,

C

X

.

H-

-^

-4-

Fie

h ^^=V^ pofed Circumflance, when x is
X --,

But

A

=

—T-r
a;

•>

*^^- ^^

thepro^

^,

will be equal to the Fluent

of
(if<r.

A

J-'- X X ?;.»+'—
fame manner

+

Q_xJ+'-+''-

+ Rx*+'+^'"-.
And
fecond Series
equal to the
IS

or of

A <3^~'^ x^a:^""^
it

X (fuppofing

and_y variable.)

in

the

will appear that the

B

X

—,

h -^,-1

+ ^^^—
(ic.

1

^,

^^.

Fluent of B^^^^ y^yx^'^^x,

&c. Therefore the

Sum of all
x

thefe Series will be equal to the Fluent of A^^""^ xjy^^'"

+
rt"^

B

^^

x^a:

^-I-C^^

x^a;

x^

&c, or or

^x

«'

«'

^

'

Note. That

all

the Fluents abovementioned arc fuppofed to
in the

be contemporaneous, or generated

fame Time.

C0=.

[

148

;]

COROLLARY
Fluent
,

1.

If the Fluent propofed be reprefented by

K, then,
x

fince tlae

of^^
^c.

x
,

^ + ^,
K
.

-^c.

is

= a'y
-l.

^+
,

^^

the Fluent of

aH

y,

^

^^^
-

&c,

on the Right-hand-fide of the Equation, will and will be found more commodious be equal to ; when the Relation of x and y cannot^ be than the former, exhibited, but by the Meafures of Angles and Ratios, .^f.
this lad Value,

alfo

^

COROLLARY
If
will
all
s

IL

the Indices

^

g, h^

&c. be equal to each other, then

= 2r,
'-

f=^r,-'V=z,Ar, p==f2-i-i xr,

A

(

^—rr]

=

-,,B I.2.3.4.. ..«^"

= ~-72A,..C = -^x^^A,D=— ^ 12'
I

X

^^^^

X

-— A,
1

&c. and confequently

K
"""

in this* Cafe, equal to

the 'Fluent of

.2,3.4. ...w X

^——^1^ ^
r"A:

"l^

•+"

7^-^^^ir 2
I

a^'^

r


f
.

(n-\-\) or to that of V
'

tuf^HJ^J^
I
.

/

2. 3 4
.

.

.

. .

7/

X^

which Equation, ^

if

r be

taken

=

i

,

will

SSfewtojj,

in

be the fame with that delivered by Sir Ifaac the eleventh JPropofition of his Book of Qua-

dratures.

EXAMPLE.
t.et
it

y

= a'^x'-?^
3

,

and /, g,

be

required to find

&c, each 2, and let the third Fluent of the Progreffion,
h,

=

gene-

C

H9
is
I

]
increafed to a. Here, accordr

generated while x, from nothing,
ing to Cor. II.

we

have

-i^lJili

a

x'-\^

y^xx

.2.3. ..«x^"

whofeFluentjUniverfallyexprelTed, is

~—€A~ ^

—.^{^ which

taking x=:ia, according to the foregoing Prefcript,
-^-r- for

we have

the true Vakie fought.

Here follow fome

iifeful

Theorems ^ extraBed out of the foregoing Propofitions^

THEORE

M
x

L

Let ^
I

= r4-'u,F=-4'

z^-\-2
z"" ,

x

-^

znj-f-^

-L--{r)^Gz=:^% ^ '*
Z'V-^-b

2

X

I

{v)y

X

z=z

a -\' c

and Q__equal to
or to

-^^

x

Hyp.

Log. k/
is

i-{-—

-\-

</—

J

—7= X Arch,

whofe Radius
is

i,andSinev^ni^, according
J 'vn r

as the

Value off

pofitive or

negative.

—T

ThenS=^V^x^-xH--?i^=ii^ ^ X bn zh— z.x
2/&

+
a"

T—

^^Trii^Ip^fL
zh

— z.zh —
2 1;

\.x'^

Z.zh

A..zh

6.Ar^ ^

'

vnc
FGQ«'^-f-''

2. ess"

Zf —2,21';— 4.C^Z^"

^

'

Note. That in this and the following Theorems, r and v may denote any whole pofitive Numbers and that the laft Term, when there are two Signs prefix'd, is to be taken =4- or -, according as v is even or odd,
-,

Pp

THEO«

THEOREM
Let
and the

IL

)6=r—

i;,

F=

— ^ x — ^:^^ x —
''

-^^J=L (;-)

reft as in

the preceding Theorem.

2r— ix««^
Zh 2.zh 2r 3.2r
4.
a:'
/

2r—i,a

\

5.«

^

'

dV K wca^

'y«—

^
?

XI

2v—\.a
-_

2v-—2.ez'*
is

+

2a;-2.2^-4.c-g-» V^)


2r

^"^ when r

greater

than V,
2r

F

will be

=

o,

and therefore, in that Cafe, S
3.«

is

barely
'

2^!?:^

— IX»«*
till it

^
terminates.

2r— 3.2r— 5.<i*

continued

THEOREM
Let/&='U— r,
'

III.

F=I 2

x

^ 4

x

J (r),

d^" G = I

x

^^^ x
3

^^^

("u),

and X and Q^as above.
21/

IX«<22^"
«I>

21/

3.*

-i-

2v

3.21;

^.a^

M
^

r-

I

I

-i

V rneC

>^

\/xz" X ^
C"
:

I

4-

zr

—2.x
i;

2r~2.2r—1^^ (^)

+ FGQ/'~'"

X

which,
^ 2
^a:''

when
x

is

greater than r, will be barely
I

=—

-

y/Ar^s"

x

2

1'— 1 X na^

[

151
till

3
it

— G=
I

zh—2.cx^
21/

^^^ continued

terminates,

bccaufe then

3.

o.

THEOREM.
S z^a-^cz'^l
X dz

IV.
z.

Put i;H-/«=^, and a-+-cz^=z.

Then

S

=
till

^x
it

i

-h

r— ,

(sc,

continued

terminates.

THEOREM
=«4-f2;"l

V.
z.

m X azvtt'—\
J

Let 'y4-»/=^, and a-^cz^'^x.

Then

S

=

enc
till it

x

i

— «— —-z—
-

i.ca"

e

— —
i.e

z.r^s;^'*

&c. continued

terminates.

Note. In the two laft Theorems m may reprefent any ber whatever, whole or broken, pofitive or negative.

Num-

THEOREM
S =^4-f;s"I

VI.

r—

s"-

X dz

I

— i;/?—
3

Putj&
(r),

^x X = r— 1;— F= = ^+f2;"3 and Q equal G =-X-XI
-,
(1;), A:

to
ly^a

X

Hyp. Log.

331=4,

or to

-^ x

ArCb, ^vhofe Radius

i,

and

[ 152 3
and Secant 4/- "-, according I—
negative.
?--

as the

Value of a

is

pofitive or

Ti^^n S

=:-^-^xH
I

^:::^—-

+
zt;
..

--^—1-^-_^- (r)
-45

r— i/Ffl

i x^
.

^KX;Vn

X

I

,.

^'v

— i.fz"
2
.

-j-

21/

Zl/— 2

i~in — i.2<y — 3.cs: -_ — 4 «*
.

Zo;

.

f'y) ^ '

GQ£^

a

THEOREM
S =a-\-cz"\
I
T-«

VII.
z,
21/4-5
/

^

y,az
2i;4-3

^7 Let^=r-4-i;+^, F = -f- x -^ x -^
2'u-f'i

(r),

\

G=:-x^
/-^
"
'

^ X ^

46
If)
^
^
/

(1;),

and X and Q^
b

is

in the precedent.

Then
\

=
I

x

i -{-


.

-f-


— 1.21/— ~

i
^
^.f'^s;*"

•—
<vna

AY x'^
r4-i
'

,

i;«

X

I ""~

.

2v i.cjs" 2'y— 2.a
'

-4-

zv —

^

X!2

2<z;— 2.21;—4.«* ^

a

'v-\-r
'

THEOREM
'T
1

VIIL

S ==^-{-C2;"l

X


2;.

^s;"^

Let
^^^
^^^

h^r-'p,
"^

x:=.a-^cz'',

and

Q.

=

the

Fluent

of

(which may be always had by the Meafures of An-

gks and Ratios.)

Then

(

153
4-

)

Then S=
r

,?«

IX fax

_^ x

^ ""'-^
^

1

— 2.«

^-i./.-a.;.>
-fr

z.r

3.

a*

Which, therefore, when />
r, will
till it

is

a

whole
i

pofitive

Number,
>

lefs

than

be barely

= __£f—-- x + ~^^

^^- continued

terminates.

THEOREM
'

IX.
any Integer not

S===E!£C4^"i2!I1^3

^ being

lefs

than r-H'u-hi.
•'^

2'

^

2.4.6.8

(r-f-<&)

*

Q== Periphery of the Circle, whofe Diameter is Unity. Then the required Fluent, when a-^bz"=o, or the Value of S generated while ^js", from Nothing, becomes =^, will
and

be accurately
1X3
.

=

^;

^^!j^

x

i =±:

Jj^ll^^

w—

I

.^ ^-}-i -a^/*

Series will always terminate in

wH-i Terms.
X.
any whole
pofitive

THEOREM
'S=^il:^i^t!!l^j
Number, not exceeding
Let ^,
"
J,

t being

r-f-i;.

\, 2

Q be as in the precedent, and wzzzs^t and P= =- ldlLi4-^Hx^.^-f-i.'^+^(^-i) «./« — 4(j—
and
i.m

H

let

«?=:r

j^ ^j^j^j^
^

2.z«—-3.OT--

i)

Q.q

laft

(
laft
is

154

)

Value,

let

the prefixed Sign -f- or

obtain, according

asf

an odd or an even Number.

Then

the Value of S, in the

abovementioned Circumftance, will be
m.t

J^Kj^iilQ^

^

I -i::

_^

— i.al

LL—.-—r \.s^2Ji=iZal

H

m.m

— — i.t—z.a^l^
\

.t

1.2.J--2.J— 3.^/5q=«/f

1.2.3 .J— 2.J— 3.J— 4Jirf:«/j

m .nu—^\
l.S

.al
^

— z.bk

m.m

— i.ou—

«X=p/|'""'
l.it;

'

l.Z.S
laft

— 2.J—

z.a^l^
'

p^

3.6"^^*

Note,

In the two
politive.

Theorems, the Value of bk-=^ul

muft be

An

(

'55

)

An

of the Curve defcribed by the Shadow oj an ObjeB on the Plane of the Horizon^ according to any given Declination of the Sun, and Elevation of the

INVESTIGATION

Fole.

be the Plane of the Horizon, P^the perpenHeight of the propofed Objed, and A «RHT A therequired Curve, defcribed by the Shadow of its Summit ; fuppoling P^B parallel to the Earth's Axis, and the Angles BPF, BPG, each equal to the Complement of the given Declina-

Let

fARHT

dicular

tion

Then, fince all the Rays intercepted at P, during one : whole apparent, diurnal Revolution of the Sun (fuppofmg the

Declination to continue invariable) make Angles with the Earth's Axis or PB/equal to (BPF) the faid Complement of Decli« nation, it is plain, that if thofe Rays had proceeded on with-

out Interruption, they would have formed a conical Surface J and therefore, as the required Curve is made by the Interfedion of this Surface and the Plane of the Horizon

PFKGD

ARHTA,

(

156

)

therefore,

Let, be now made parallel to the conjugate Axis of the faid Sedion, and cv to F G; putting FJ=h^ the Sine of the given Latitude (Af P) to the Radius i, =^, its Cohne c, the Sine of Declination J, and the Sine of its Complement (^PH or cFA) =p', then cHF being equal to the Sum, and PAf to the Difference of the Angles HfP and tPH, we fhall have ^^-4-^/> the Sine of fHF, and ^J cp z= Sine of PA <:, by the Elements of Trigonometry. ThereIt

ARHTA,

muft confequently be a Conic-Se6lion.

c?i

RT

=

=

=

fore feeing the Sine

of FcA,
plain
as

is

to Radius, as

P^

to

Pc

(=
;

r)
i :

we
y
;

— =—— — and bd— A^ = whence A H = 4- x Z^^ZTZ^TZ^ = -j^A_ ^^^_ ^ _^^P ^ dd—cc becaufe p^ = ^ b^^^^c^y^i^dd
Hf
^
,

(hall

have

(by

Trigonometry)
cp
:

as bd-\-cp

p

:

:

r

:

5

bb-^ccy.dd—cc

— ^%
^'"
:

and ^^-4-c*=i).
r;/; wherefore,
(

Moreover as^:j&::|

zzzvc or

by the Property of the Curve,
:

^ Fife

He X AO
it

^ ^
,

(
\

i

(^^Pc)

:

^
it

(-»')

:

:

|^(AH^)
greater than r,

^—y^

= RT^.

Hence

appears, that if

d be

or the Declination
tude, the

greater

Curve defcribed

will

than the Complement of Latibe an Elliplis, whofe tranfverfe

and conjugate Axes are
Parameter equal to
equal to the
infinite,

^r~^
:

^^d

refpedively,

and

its

—^-

Therefore

when

the Declination

is

Complement of

Latitude, then

-^—^ becoming
than the

the EUipfis will degenerate to a Parabola, whofe Pais
J

rameter

but

if the

Decrination be

lefs

Com-

plement

C 157 ]
plement of Latitude, then -jr—i being negative, the Curve
will

become an Hyperbola, whofe Tranfverfe and Conjugate
f
^ „

Axes are

and

^^


is

,

and

its

Parameter

=™

:

except

when d

=

Oy or the

Sun

in the

the Parameter
rates to a

~ becoming

Equinox, in which Cafe,
the Hyperbola degene-

infinite,

Right- line.

^ Determination
thefafieft,

of the Time of the Tear when Days lengthen according to apparent Time^ and to any ajjigned

Excentricity of the Earth's Orbit.

AP

Let A'uPOA be the Orbit of the Earth, its principal Axis, C the Centre, and S

the Sun, in one of the Foci j and, v being the Place of the Earth at the / be its Place at / Winter Solftice, let the Time required : Draw S v and S O, | and alfo On, perpendicular to AP j put- \ ing PC==^, SC=^, 50=2?, the Sine of \ *uSP, to the Radius i, =/«, its Cofine =«, and the Cofine of 'uSO, or the Sine of the Sun'sDifi:ance from the Equinodial Point at the required Time =rA:. Therefore, the Sine of 'uSO being

O

OB

XX, and the Angle PSO equal to the Difference of the two Angles i;SO and i;SP, the Cofine of PSO will be=;2A:

=x/i

'•^m^i
it

—XX,
as

by the Elements of Trigonometry
i

will be,

(Radius)

:

nx-^-m^i —xx

;

wherefore

-.

i

z {SO) :Sn

z=^nxz^mz^i-^xx. But, by the Property of the Curve, e a a-^z C« ^^^^^^3 whence (S«)=^^^^—'^=/?Ar2»
I
: : :

=

Rr

[

158
z

]

-i-mzyi — XX,
therefore
""^

/

'

= =a'\-?iex-{-m e^i —xx\
confequently
Alteration of

'"''

a-^-nex-^-me
;

Y

— —
I

xx

;

and

which

lafl

Ex-

preffion, fince the

Longitude,

or of the

An-

gle

PSO, in a given Particle of Time, is inverfely as the Square of Radius SO, will, it is manifeft, be alfo as the Alteration of Longitude, in a given Particle of Time, or in one whole Day
very nearly.

^
^

This being
the Ecliptic,

now

obtained, let

AC

denote

the Equinodlial, CB a Meridian, and C and r thofe two Points of the Ecliptic, wherein the Sun is at riling on the

AB

when the Difference of Minute of his riling is the the Hour and greateft poflible, and let Cn be the Difference of Declination in thofe Points ; putting Cr==y, and the Sine of CAB, the Sun's x (Sine d: Then as i (Radius i d greateft Declination
two
required Days,

=

:

:

of

AC)

:

dx

= Sine BC
:

;

therefore

its

Cofme
:

= y/i —
:
:

d'-x^

;

Again,

as

^i—xx

(Cofine of

A C)

i

(Radius)

lli=^
rCn,

(Co-Tang, of A)
therefore
its

:/^^
d^^

= Tangent
:

of

ACB,

or

Secant

= ^' l—XX
""^''''
its

Wherefore, becaufe the Tri-

angle

C r«, by
it

Reafon of

fmallnefs,
:

may
(C r)

be confider'd as
:

reailineal,

will be as

V^^^g
Jy^l

— XX

i

:

:

;;

Cn

= ^-I^^ —
\/l
<^'^*

equal to the Alteration of Declination, from Sun-rifing to SunLet this Alteration, rifing, on the faid two Days very nearly.
therefore,

be

now

represented byOi',

fuppofmg

HRO

to

be

[

159

3

be the Horizon, PH the Meridian, PR and PO Complements of Declination, at the Times abovementioned ; and let the Cofine of the Latitude (PH) be denoted by b : Then it will be as

^i-—d'x'- (Sine of

PO)

:

i

(Radius)

:

:

^i

bb

(Sine

of the

Latitude)
-,

:

y^-^^ == Sine
^i—d^x"-

of

POH

therefore
;

its

Cofine, or the Sine of

OR
.
:

y& is

= ^-^^^\
iph)
J
.

______
it

therefore

will be as

v^J^S -^
:

-bb

^j V\^f^

:

-M}r^^^)Q^^
^ '

^

R^

but

as

^x^d^x-y^^/b^—d-x-i-^d'^x^b^^^d^ the Arch of the Equator, meafuring the Angle RPO, or the Difference of the Semi-diyrnal Arches of the Sun on the two Days above fpecified. This Difference therefore, fince y^ by the former Part of the Problem, is found to be

y V

^a^z

.

.

dyV^—xxy(.^/l—hb

_d^ ^j—xx-A'^'T—rb

=

a-hnex-hme^i'--xx^\

will

be

^>^^^ +^^/iz:ffl" as vlizifl.><H

d^x^Xy/>—d'x'

I

where, if the Fluxion be taken, and made equal to Nothing, the required Value of x may, it is manifefl, be determined, let {e) the Excentricity of the Orbit and the Latitude of the
Place be what they will. But the Excentricity, as given from Obfervation being fmall, the greateil lengthening of Days, if the propofed Place be not very near the Frigid Zone, muil: be near the Time of the vernal Equinox, and the Value of x but fmall ; therefore, if the forefaid Expreffion be converted into a
Series,

of

e

and all the Terms wherein more than two Dimeniiqns and x are concerned, be neglected as inconiiderable, it will be

t

^60]
>^

he reduced to a a-i-z am e^^ -J--

i

— 2d* —
(^c,

</«

-p -f-

laenx^

where,

by taking the Fluxion,

K comes out =3

flX

I— 2</^—

Note, From the Equation foregoing, the greateft lengthening of Days at Lo7idon, will be found to be about 7 Days before the vernal Equinox.

A

Determination how far a heavy Body^ f^^^fy defcending from Refl^ falls from perpendicular^ by Means of the Earth's Rotation*

PROPOSITION!.
SUppoJing
beperjeBly Spherical^ and that a heavy its Surface in any given Latitude ; to find how far it will impinge from a perpendicular^ let fall jrom that Point to the Surface, thro' the
the
to

Earth

Body defcends from a given Point above

Caife above fpecified.

Let the Axis of the Earth be confidered as abfolutely at Reft, and let E A be the perpendicular Height from whence the Body is let fall, and by the Force of Gravity and the Motion acquired by
the Earth's Rotation, begins to defcribe the elliptical Area AGFA, in the Plane of the great Circle EEC, about C the

Centre of Force, while the Point E is carry'd by the Rotation of the Earth, in in its Parallel of Latitude E tf S from E
to-

(

i6i

)

towards a-, let F be the Place where the Ball falls, and FS the Dilbiice of that Place from the faid Parallel ; and let the Point a be the Pofition of E, at the Time when the Body impinges on the Surface at F. Therefore, fince the Velocity acquired by the Rotation of the Earth, and the Attra61:ion at the Point will be given both in Magare both given, the EUipfis nitude and Species (by Page 23 of my Effiys) whence and E« will be given, and confequently the required Diflance Va. But when the Height is fuppofed fmall in refped: to the Earth's Radius EC, as in the Cafe propofed, the Solution maybe, otherwife, more ealily inveftigated : For then S<2 being fmall in refpedl of FS, the latter of thefe may, without fenfible Error, be taken for Ya 3 but FS is to the verfed Sine £/>, of the Arch FE, as the Tangent of the given Latitude to

A

AF

EF

AE

Radius nearly.

But

FE

is

given from the

Time of

Defcent,

whence FS

will be given alfo.

Q. E.
II.

I.

PROPOSITION
Tl?

determine the

fame

all Bodies gravitate

as in the lafi Propojition ; fuppojing perpendicularly to the Surface of the

Earth.

Let ACDR, ^c. reprefent the Earth (whether under a ipherical or an oval Figure) AB, &c. its Axis coniidered as abfolutely at reft, and ;z R the given Parallel of LatiR/> tude ; let CRS be perpendicular to

D

S the given the Surface at R, Height, or Diftance defcended, and SO the Diredion in which the Body would fall was it not for the Earth's Then, as the Attradion, Rotation. S, ads in the Diredion S O, the Body, upon its exerted at leaving S f

R

(

i62

)

leaving S, will begin, thro' that Attraction and the
ceived from the Earth's Rotation, to
that

move

in a

Motion Curve Line

reS;;,

may, v^ithout fenfible Error, be confidered as Part of an Eilipiis, formed by ihe Interfeclion of the Conical Surface CK?iDp produced, and a Plane paffing through S and O; and will continue to defcribe the fame Areas, in equal Times,

about the Point
afide

O

or C, as

it

did before

its

leaving S (fetting

what

tradlion,

arifes from the Alteration of the Centre of At&c, which is too minute here, to require a particular

Point ;;; be fo taken in the given Parallel of Latitude, that the Area of the Se6tor C S r?n C, may be equal to the Area CS;^C, then will the Point w, it is
Confideration.)
if the

Hence

evident, be the Pofition of the Place

R,

at the

time

when

the

S Body impinges on the Surface at n. Now the Height being fmall, when compared with the Diameter of the Earth, the Curve S?i may be taken as a Semi-Parabola, whofe Vertex is S, and R?2 as a Right-line 3 whence the Area nSK72 is found

R

= SR X

- Rn,
3

and therefore S;^i;S=SR x - R«; which
3
.

is

alfo

the Area of the Sedor rC;zi;, becaufe CSrC being equal to CS;zC, let each of thefe be taken from CSi^C, and there reTherefore will nm hQ mains rCnv equal to S ;? 'U S
:

= -^^—
A^.

nearly,

and

fo

much

will the

Body

fall eafterly

of

the Perpendicular.

in proving the

B. The two foregoing Propofitions might be of Service Motion of the Earth, by the Defcent of heavy Bodies, provided the Experiment could be made with fufficient

Accuracy.

A

(

i63

)

A Demonstration of the Laiv of Motion that a Body dcflctfed
by

two Forces tending
equal
Tif/ies

to

two fixed Points^

ivill defer ibe
thoj'e

equal SoPoints.

lids in

about the Right-line joining

Let A and B be the two propofed Points, and C any Place of the Body, and let the Diredion of its Motion, at that Place, make any given Angle with the Plane ABC, or with any Right-line drawn in that Plane j and fuppofe the Body, upon its leaving C, to be impelled by any Forces whatever, tendq ing either to the Points A and B, or to any Parts of the Line AB, and let Ci; be the Right-line, which afterwards, by its compound Motion, it will proceed to defcribe, and let the motive Force, before the Impulfe at C, be relolved into two others, one in the Direction of a Right-line lying in the Plane ACB, and the other perpendicular thereto. Then, lince the laft of thefe is not at all afFedled by the Impulfe, ading in the Plane, the perpendicular Diftance of the Body, from the Plane at the end of a given Time, will, it is manifeft, be the fame, let the greatnefs of the Impulfe be what it will, and therefore in different Times, dre6:ly as thofe Times. But ACB'u, the Solid defcribed about the Line AB, being an oblique Pyramid, is known to be as the faid perpendicular Difiance, and therefore muft likewife be as the Time Hence it appears, that v/hether the Body be, or be not impelled at the Point C, the Magnitude or Content of the Solid defcribed aboat A B, will be the fame, and proportional to the Time in which it is defcribed Therefore, feeing no iingle Impulfe, however great, can affed: the equable Defcription of Solids about AB^ it is evident, that no
:
:

Num-

{

i64 r

Number

tinually to the Points

of fuch Impulfes can, nor any Forces tending conA and B. Q.. E. D.

N. B. The Proportion would have been equally true, and the Demonftration the very fame, had there been fuppofed and if inever fo many Forces tending to the fixed Line AB flead of the Solids defcribed about that whole Line, thofe de-,

fcribed about any given Part of

it

had been taken.

A

centripetal Force ^

hi what Cafes a Body, aBed on by a may continually defcend in a Jpiral Line towards the Centre^ and yet never Jo far as to approach it within a certain Diftance and alfo in what Cajes it may continuj

Determination

ally afcendj

yet never rife to a certain affignable Altitude.
at the

Mr. Mac-Laurin^

End of

his Treatife

has found, of the Diftance inverfely, a Body may wards the Centre, and yet never fo low as to come within a certain Circle, or may recede for ever from the Centre, yet never rife to a certain Height j which remarkable Circumftance had not been taken Notice of by any preceding Authors. But the fame Thing will alfo happen in an Infinity of other Cafes. For let C be the Centre of Force, and let the Body proceed

that if the

centripetal

Force be

of Fluxions, the 5th Power as continually defcend to-

any given Diredion P^, with a Velocity, which is to the Velocity v^hereby it might defcribe the Circle PBS, in the Ratio of /> to I J let R be any Point in the Trajedory 3 and

from P

in

make C^
pofed
as

perpendicular to Vq-,

putting

^P=i, C^=j,
we
fhall

CR

=^x, and PBSirrrA.

Then,
{ri)

if

the centripetal Force be fup-

any Power
spx

of the Diftance

have

A

=

and the Velocity of the Body

,/+3
y.

Wf-^ZTTl-^^'-P^^'

at

R,

will be to the Velocity

whereby

it

might defcribe

a Circle
at

[ ^65 ]
at the Dlilance to I, as
is

CR,

In the Ratio of

v/^*4-

A- ^ "i; — ^1:7
This being pre-

proved in Page 31 of

my

ElTays.

mifed,

let

x </P^-\
>^

r- x x^

— — —-r— he now taken =0,
p^s^
>

and

v//''

+ 4^
_

J^i

— 4^ ='

^"^ ^^^"' ^^^ Equations

being duly ordered,

we fhall have x

= ^+"+

«-{-i

^^P''\

'

and/*^'

»+3
(

^£jh^x^|«+'

=

/"*'^).

Wherefore, with

this

Value

of a:, as a Radius, conceive the Circle A /6H to be defcnbed, and let the Velocity at P be fuch, that />*i* (when poffible)

Tt

'

may

C

166

]

n^ay be

= i+^t^j
its

j

then

if

AC

be greater than CP,
it

and the Body upon
tinue to afcend
Circle

leaving

P begins

to afcend,

will con-

AD/^H
its

:

ad infinitum^ and yet never rife fo high as the For it cannot begin to defcend before it ar-

rives at

higher A/>y^, v^^hich (if it can properly be faid to will be the Value have any) v^ill be in that Circle, becaufe

AC
.

of X, when v//>^+

-^ x ^^-—/^i^— -^——

«+3

is

equal to Nothing
-,

:.

for if it fhould, it ever rife fo high as the Circle Ah¥{ Velocity there being juffc fufficient to retain it in that Circle, it would continue to move therein, and^ot defcend again By a pain the fame manner it afcended, which is abfurd.

Nor can
its

rity

of Reafoning

it

will appear, that if

AC

be

lefs
it

than CP,.
will conti-

and the Body upon

leaving

P

begins to defcend,

nue

to defcend for ever, but never fo

low

as to enter within the

Circle

AER.
the

It therefore

now

only remains to find in what

»+$
Cafes
is

forementloned Equation, p^

s^

=

2 4-^+^1

^

X p^

1""1"
1

^*

T,

poflible,

and in what Cafes

it is

not.

In

order
i==^'^)

to

which,

let

the Fluxion of

^+"+^x/
and you
will;

x-4-

be taken, confidering />

as variable,

have^^=:^ X

^^-

X

dl^l^
2

+1
I

;

which Fluxion
is

will

be pofi;

tive or negative,

according as ^^7—

pofitive or negative

be-

caufe ^-r"-r^^P
t'+S

\

j^uft be pofitive,

elfe i*

cannot be io.

But

[

i67

]

But
X

when/
I
i

is

=

i,

^"^

will be

=.

o,

and ^Az!±].^\"'^'

~=

which

lafl is

maniftftly the greateft or leafl Value,
;

poliible,
is

of that Expreffion

that

is,

the greatefl

when
lefs

«-f-3

negative, becaufe then the Fluxion, while

will be pofitive,

and afterwards negative

3

than i, but the lead when
is

p

«-f3

n-\-7

is

pofitive,

fince

then the Fluxion of ^:^^^^IA£.
:

X

^

is firft

negative and then pofitive

In the former of which
.4.1

«+3
Cafes only the Equation

^"^"+'^^'

x 7^ ==

-^'^

^an be

s, by the Nature of the Problem, muft be lefs than CP. Therefore fince it appears that the than I, or C^ forementioned Circumftances can only take Place, when the Value of «-f-3 is negative, or the Law of centripetal Force more than the Cube of the Diftance inverfely, let m 3 be fubflituted inftead of n, in order to reduce the Equation to a Form more commodious for this Cafe 5 then we ihall have

pofTible, feeing

——

^±^JllZl\ m
it is

=AC,

and 2+^xj)-—2

t"

^pz^z.^i^^^^

m

from what has been faid above, that the Root /•, let s be what it will, has two pofitive Values, one of them lefs than Unity, the other greater ; whereof the former (which gives AC greater than AP) muft be taken when the Body
evident,
afcends, but the latter

when

it

defcends,

Qc_^'

^'

An

[

i68

]

An

cajy

and general Way of

Invejiigating the

1-ckiting

to Co?ntoii7id' Inter eft

common Theore?ns and Annuities^ without being

obliged to fu?n up the

Terms of a geometrical Progrejjton.

Let R be the amount of one Found in one Year, viz. Principal and Intereil, P any Sum pu" out at Intereft for any Number n of Years^ a its Amount, A ny Annuity forborn ;^ Years, m its Amount, and v its VvordTi prefent Money, for the fame
.

m

Time.
Therefore, fince one Pound put out at Intereft, in the firft Year is increafed to R, it will be as i to R, fo is R, the Sum forborn the fecond Year, to R^, the amount of one Pound in two Years ; and therefore as i to R, fo is R^, the Sum forborn the
third Year, to R^, the

amount

in three

Years

:

Whence

it

ap-

pears that R",
is

or R, raifed to the

Power, whofe Exponent

of Years, will be the amount of one Pound in thofe Years But as 1 1, to its amount R", fo is P to (^) its amount in the fame Time; whence we have P x R"=^. Moreover, becaufe the amount of one Pound in n Years is R", its Increafe in that Time will be R" i ; but its Intereft for one fmgle Year, or the Annuity anfwering to that Increafe,
the
:

Number

is

R—-1
get

we

—^-_— = m.

3

therefore as

R—

i

to

R"


as

i,

fo

is

A iom.

Hence

Furthermore, lince

it

appears that one

Pound ready Money,

is

equivalent to R", to be received at the

Expiration of n Years,
(the

we
its

have

R"

to i,

fo

is


3

^---

Sum
I

in Arrear) to^?,

worth in Ready-Money

whence

.

— —
A
X

^-

==

V.

From which

three Theorems, or Equations,

the various Queftions relating to Compound-Intereft, Annuities in Arrear, and purchafing of Annuities, are, refpedively,
tefolved.

FINIS.

>;iJ'

MISCELLANEOUS

TRACTS
N

Some curious, and very
1

interefting

Subjects

N
and Specula-

1^

Mechanics, Physical-Astronomy,
tive

Mathematics;

wherein.
The
Equinox, the Nutation of the Earth's Axis, and the Motion of the Moon in her Orbit, are determined.
Preceffion of the

By
Member

THOMAS SIMPSON,
And
of the

F. R. S.

Royal Academy

of Sciences

at

Stockholm.

LONDON,
Printed for J.

Nourse

over-againft Katherine-Jireet'm ihcStrmid.

MDCCLVIL
J

T O T H E

RIGHT HONOURABLE

THE

EARL
the

OF
&c.

MACCLESFIELD,
President of

Royal

Society.

My

Lord,
Luftre,
to the public

of Learning may derive from the Patronage of the Great, it is to your Lordfhip's perfonal Acquirements,

WHATEVER Eye, Works

and extenfive Knowledge in the Mathematical Sciences, that my Ambition of defiring leave to prefix your Name to this Performance, is to be imputed And indeed. My Lord, an Author's natural Partiality permits me not to hope, or wilh, that any thing thefe Iheets contain, will meet with a more general Approbation, than what is due to the Propri:

ety of their being infcribed to

the Earl of

ACCLESFIELD.

A

%

Were

DEDI
Were your

ATI

Character,

O My

Lord,

lefs

confpicuous and diftinguifti'd,

the Obligati-

ons I have to your Lordlhip's Goodnefs, would, alone, be Motives fufficient to make me gladly embrace this Opportunity of publicly exprefling

my v/armeft

Gratitude, and

of

teftifying the perfect Efteem,
I

foundeft Deference, with which

and proam.

My

Lord,
Lordftiip's

Your

moft Obliged,

and ever Obedient

Humble

Servant

Thomas

Simplbn.

PREFACE.
n^HE Tracts,
-*~

or

Papers

eompofing the

Work

here

the Fiiblick,

different occafwns ; either^

were drawn up at fenjeral^ diftant tinies^ with a view to clear iip^ or fettle fome dif-

ofered to and upon

jicidt or controverted point in

Theory

conformity of with Obfervations^ or to extend a?idjacilitate the analytic-

Aflronomy,

to Jhew the

by fome improvements and applications^ that have not at alU or but fight ly^ been touched upon, at leaf by any E?2g-

method of computation,
lifd

Author.
ofthefe
is

The firft
whole work^

Papers, which

is

one

of the mofi

confiderable in the

concerned in determining the Preceffion of the Equinox,

and

the various inequalities thereof, with the different motions of nu'

tation of the Earth's Axis, arifing from the attraBion of the fun and moon-, wherein the late important difcovery ofDv. Bradley, relating

an apparent motion of the Fix'd Stars, unknown to former K^xouomers, isjhewn to be intirely confiflent with the Theory of Gravitation. This piece was drawn up about five years ago, in confequence of another on the fame fubjeB, by M. Silvabelle (a French Gentleman)
to

.

then delivered to me, for my opinion, fince printed in the Philofophical Tranfadtions. Thd I have particular reafonsfor mentioning this circumftance,

I would not be thought to
to

infinuate here, that

my

opinion

had

any weight with Thofe

I have,

whom the publication ofthat paper was owing indeed, no reafofi to believe it. Thd the author thereof had gone

through one part ofthefubje5i with fuccefs and perfpicidty , and though
his conclufions

were found pejfedlly conformable

to

vationSj

He neverthelefs
is,

appeared (andfill appears)

Dr. Bradley'^ objerto me: to have
very
difficult

greatly failed in
part,

a very material, and indeed

the only

that

the pofition

Moon
truly

i

of of which forces,

in the determination of the momentary alteration of the earth's axis, caifed by the forces of the Sun and

the quantities,

but not the

effeSis,

are

inveftigated.

Second Paper, contains the invefligation of an eafy, and very exaSi method, or rule, for finding the place of aV\2S\tX. in its Orbit, from a correBion of Dr. Ward'i circular hypothefis; by means of certain Equations applied to the motion about the upper focus oj the ellipfis.

The

From whence that table of Dr. Halley'5, entitled. Tabula pro expediendo calculo ^quationis centri Lunse, may be very readily cofiftruBed.

PREFACE.
ftru5fed.

even in the orbit ofNitvcuvy^ may fecond of the truths without repeating the operation. be Joiind within a The Third, Jhews the manner of transferrifig the motion of a Cometfro?n a parabolic, to an elliptic Orbit j being of great uj'e, when
this method^ the refult^

— By

a (new) Comet, are found to differJenjibly from thofe computed on the hypothe/is of a parabolic orbit. The Fourth, is an attempt tojhew^ frojn mathematical principles^ the advantage arifng by taking the mean of a number oJ obfervati^ ons, in practical Aflronomy ; wherein the odds that the refult, this
the obferved Places oj

way,

more exaB, thanfrom onefmgle obfervation^ is evinced^ and Apart of the utility of the method inpraBice, clearly made to appear. ix volume ofthe Philofothis, and of the yth paper, is infertedin the xl
is

phical Tranfadions

j

but the farther improve?7tents here added, will (I

hope) be afufficient apologyfor my printing the whole again, in this work. The Fifth, contains the deter?ninatio?2 of certain Fluents, a?2d the
refolution

offome very ufeful Equations, in the higher orders

oj fluxions^

by means of the meafures of angles and ratios, and the right fines, and verfed fines of circular arcs. The Sixth, treats of the refolution of algebraical equations, by the

wherein the grounds of that^ tnethod, as laid down by Sir Ifaac Newton, are invefligated and explained. The Seventh, exhibits the invefiigation of a general rule for the together with refolution of Ifoperimetrical Problems of all orders^ and application of the faid rule. fome examples of the ife

method offurd-divifors

-,

The Eighth
neral,

(and

laft) Part,

and very

i72terefting problems, in

comprehends the refolution of fome gemechanics ^;2^ phyfical Aftro-

nomys

wherein, amo7ig other particulars, the principal parts of the third, and ninth fedions of the firft Book of^ir Il'aac Newton's PrinBut what, Q\^\2i,are demonflrated, in a new, and very concife manner. apprehend, may beft recommend this part of the work, is the applicaI

of the general equations therein derived, to the determination of the lunar Orbit: In which I have exerted my utmoft endeavours to render the whole intelligible even to 'Thofe who have arrived but to a tolerable
tion

proficiency

in the higher geometry.

The greater part of what is here delivered on thisjubje£f,was drawn in the year 1750, agreeably to what is intimated at the conclufion of my Dod:rine of Fluxions, where the general equations are alfo given. The famous objeBion, about that time made to Sir Ifaac Newton 'j genelip

ral Law of Gravitation^ by that eminent mathematician
I

M.

Clairaut,

9f

PREFACE.
of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Par is, ivas a motive ftifficient to me (among maiiy Others) to endeavour to difcover^ whether the motion ofthe moon^s apogee, on which that objeBion had its whole weight and foundation^ coidd not be truly accountedfor without /uppofmg a change in the received law of gravitation, frotn the inverfe ratio of the fquares of the diftances. 'Thejiiccefs was anfwerahle to my hope s^ and fuch as induced me to look farther into other parts of the theory of the moons motion^ than Ifirfl intefided: but, before I had completed my defign, I received the honour of a vifit from M. Clairaut (jujl then arrived in England) of whom 1 learned, that he had a little before printed a piece on thatfubjeB a copy of which I afterwards received, as aprefent at fides his hands y wherein Ifoundmoji ofthe fame things demonfirated^ be to which I had not then extended my enquiry. Upon thisy feveral others, I at that time defijled from a farther profecution of the fubjedl being chiefly diverted therefrom by a call then fubpfling for a new edition of another worky in whichfome additions feemed wanting. But I cannot omit to obferve here, in juft ice to M. Clairaut, that, tho* he indeedfell into a mijlake, by too hajiily inferring a dejedi in the received law ofatinduce
^
-,

\

f

ofthe known methodsfor determining the effeSi of that attraBion, in the motion of the moons apogee, yet he was himfelf, thefirft who difcoveredthe true Jour ce, of that mijlake, and who Though there are fome * who laced the matter in a proper light :

traBion,from the

infufficiency

have^ both before andftnce, undertaken to give the true quantity of that motion, from fuch principles, only, as are laid down in the ninth fediion of
thefirft

Book ofthe Principia but that thefe Gentlemen, however they may have made their 7iumbers to agree, have been greatly deceived in their
:

calculations,

is

very certain^ fince a conftderable part of the jaid motion

depends on that part of the folar force aBing in the dirediion perpendicular to the Radius-ved:or, which is by them, either intirely difregarded, or the eff'eB thereof not made one twentieth part of what it really ought
to be.

— There are Others

indeed,

who have explained

the matter, upon

true prii2ciples, and with better fuccefs. Since M. Oi2Sx2^^\! s piece firft made its appearance, the moft eminent mathematicians, iii different parts

of Europe, have turned their thoughts that way. But thd what I now offer on thefame fubjeB, may, perhaps, appear of lefs value, after what has been already done by thefe great men, yet lam not very folicitous upon that account, as it will be founds that I have neither copied from
* Vid.WalmJlefsTJoeone dumouve?nent
Vol.

des apfides (tranflated into

Engliih)

and

47.N'' II. of the Philcfophkal TranJaSiiom,

their

PREFACE.
their thoughts^ nor detra^ed from their merit,
'fhe facility

thod

I have fallen upon^ will, Ifatter myfelf be allowed by
\x.

all,

of the mewho are

apprizd ofthe real dificulty ofthefubjeM-, and the extenlivenefs thereof not only determi?ies the will^ infome meafure^ appear from this^that motion of the apogee i?i thefame manner and with tbe Jame eafe, as the other equations y but utterly excludes^ at the fame time all terms of that
.^

^

dangerous [pedes (if I may fo exprefs myfelf) that have hitherto embarraffed the greatefi Mathematicians, and that would, after a great number of revolutions^ intirely change the figure of the orbit. It thereby appears^ that all the terms ^ or equations in general^ will be exprefj'ed
by fines

and

CO fines,

barely, without

any multiplication into the arcs
is

correfponding.

From
motion,

whence this important confeque?2ce

derived,

that the

mean

and the great eft
iinlefs

quaiitities oj thefeveral equations

will remain unchanged;

dfiurbed by the intervention of fome

foreign, or accide?2tal cauje.

In treating of this fubje5i, as well as in moft of the other parts of the mfuing work, I have chiefiy adhered to the analytic method of In veftigation, as being the moft direB andextenffve^ and befi adapted to thefe
abfirufe kinds of(peculations. Where a geometrical demonftration could be introduced, andfeemedpreferable^ I have given one : but, thd a pro-

blem, fometimes^ by this lafi method, acquires a degree ofperfpicuity and £lega?tce, not eafy to be arrived at any other way, yet I cannot be ofthe
opi?2ion

ofThofe who affeB to fioew a difiiketo every thing performed by means o/'fymbols and an algebraical Procefs j fince, fo far is the fynthetic vi\t\\\Qdifrom having the advantage in allcafes^ that there are innumerable enquiries into nature, as well as in abfiraBedfcience, where
it

cannot be at all applied,
it

(who perhaps extended

any purpofe. Sir Ifaac Newton himfelf as far as any man could) has even in the moft
to

fimple cafe of the lunar orbit (Princip. B.'i^.prop. 2.%) been obliged to call in the affiftance 0/" algebra; which he has alfo done^ in treating of the

motion of bodies in refifting mediums, and in various other places. it appears clear to me, that, it is by a diligent cultivation of the

And

Mo-

dern Analyfis, that Foreign Mathematicians have, of late, been able to pufh their R.tik3.Ychcsf}irther,in many particulars, than Sir Ifaac Newton and his Followers here, have done: thd it mufi be allowed, on the other hand, that thefame Neatnefs, ^/^^ Accuracy of Demonftration, is
not every-where
perhaps^ to too

found in thofe Axxihoxs ^ owing infome tneajiire, great a dfregardfor the Geometry of the Antients.
to be

I

A D

E^

A

DETERMINATION
OF THE

PRECESSION OF THE EQUINOX,
And
the different

Motions of the Earth's Axis,
Sun and Moon*

Arifing from the Attraction of the

F")^M"^HE Precession of

o

appear to ^^^^ ^ \Yh.olQ Jig72, lince the time of the moft ancient £m)§c2 A/irono7nerSj is phylically accounted for, from the attraftion of the Jun and ntoon on the protuberant matter about whereby the pofition of the faid equator the earth's equator the plane of the ecliptic is fubje6ted to a perwith refpeft to Were the earth to be perfectly fpherical and petual variation. of an uniform deniity, no change in the pofition of the terreftrial equator could be produced, from the attraftion of any remote body; becaufe the force of each particle of matter in the earth, to turn the whole earth about its center, in confequence of fuch attradion, would then be exactly counterbalanced by an equal, and contrary force. But as the earth, by reafon of
flars
-,

T

Q

whereby the fix'd have changed their places by more
the Equinox,

the centrifugal force of the parts thereof, ariling from the diurnal rotation, muft, to preferve an eqidlihfium, put on an oblate figure, and rife higher about the equatoreal parts than at

the poles, the adion of the fun on the faid equatoreal parts will have an effed; to make the plane of the terreftrial equator to coincide with that of the ecliptic : which would aftually be

B

brought

Of the

PreceJfto7i

of the Equinox^

brought to pafs (negle(5tmg other caufes) was the fun, or earth, to remain fix'd in either of the fclftices, and the diurnal rotation But, though both the motions of at the fame time to ceafe. tlie earth contribute to, prevent an effed: of that fort, yet, in confequence of this adlion of the fan, a new motion of rotation, about that diameter of the equator lying in the circle of the flm's declination, is produced j from which the preceffion of the equinox and the nutation of the earth's axis have their rife. The eftedt of the moon, as it is much more confiderable than
that of the fan, fo
is it

likewife liable to

fome

inequalities to

which

that

of the fun

is

not fubjed.

Were

the inclination of

the lunar orbit to the plane of the equator to remain, always,
that anfwer'd in the one cafe

nearly the fame, like that of the eanh, the fame calculations would aifo anfwer in the other

but that inclination

condnually varying, and, when the afccnding node is in the beginning of ^nes, is greater by above and therefore, as the force of {-ill part than the mean value j the moon to turn the earth about its center (other circumftances remaining the fame) is found, hereafter, to be as the fine of the double of the inclination, it is manifeil, that, in the faid pofition of the node, the motion of preceffion will go on much quicker than at the mean rate and confequently that an equation, depending on the place of the node, will neceiTarily arife. The determination of v/hich, as well as of the oiher motions of precefBon and nutation arifmg from the attraction both of the fun and moon, I fhail now proceed to fliew but in order to pave the way thereto, it will be proper to begia with premifing the fubfequent Lemmas.
is
-,

:

LE
S?/ppo/ing all
jbllicited parallel to the axis

MMA

I.

the particles

of a given fpheroid A!VdpO to Be Fp, by forces proportional to the di'
by the faid axis ^ in fiich fcrt

fiances

from a plane F KOpa pajing
urged in contrary direBions
effeci

that the two cppofite femi-Jphcroids, A'P/>, d?p,
ecjually
;

may

thereby be

it is

propofcd to determine
its

the

whole

of all the forces

to

turn the fpheroid about

center,.

Let

and the different Motions of the EartFs Axis.
r
^

3
Fig.
i.

a=z

— ON\aa~xx)
the area
figures).

of any iedion DQNEQfrom VAOpa Then, this fedlion being alfo an ellipfe, fimilar to PA/jj, we A'C' fliall have, by the property of the eliipfis, as A'O iaa)
L
.V

J^= y =1 = ON, the
]
:

fcmi-diam. area of the

OA'

(perpend, to the plane

PAO/^),

ellipfe

VhOpa,

force ad:ino; on a particle at the remotcli point A',
difc.

'

:

:

PO^

:

DN'^

:

:\he

area

FAOpa

{A)

to

DQNEQ^==:
Hence
all
it is

Ax

^^~"''"^

(by the property of fimilar

evident that

Ax

~

x

x 7 will be

the

fum of

the forces whereby the particles in the ellipfe

DQEQ^are

urged parallel to the axis Vp of the fpheroid; which quantity, drawn into [x) the length of the lever ON, will, confequently, exprefs the effecTt of ail the faid forces to and fo the fluent of turn the fpheroid about its center
:

A X ^^ aa

^^

X —xxxy.y. which ^
a

is

y^ x


15

x y (when x ^ '

=

a) ^

will truly exprefs

one half of the quantity fought.

COROLLARY.
If the mafs, or content of the fpheroid, which
is

^ x 2^ x 2

be denoted by S

\

then the force
its

A x — x 7,

whereby the

fpheroid tends to turn about

center, will be truly defined

by yS X ^ X 7, which therefore is juft yth part of what it would be, if all the particles were to ad: at the dillance of
the remoteft point A'.

LEMMA
Ka^

IL
2.

Suppofe a body to re-vohe in the circumference of a circle AFdF^ Fig. whlljl the circle Itfelf tiirm uniformly about one of Its diameters
as a7i axis, with a very fow motlott ; It Is propofed to determine the law of the force, aBlng on the body In a dlreSiton perpendicular to the plane of the circle, necefjary to the continuation of

a

motion thus compounded.

B

2

Let

4
Fig. 2.

Of
Let

the Precejfwn

of the Equinox
of the circle, indefinitely

AF^Fand Afafht two

poiitions

and let R and r be the two correfponding poiitions of the bodyj let alfo the planes RD;z and mdc he perpendicular to AF^F and to the axis AOa j in which planes let there be dra^vn R;z and mvc perpendicular to DR and dm^ meeting the plane Araf (produced out) in n and c ; and let tliere be drawn rw^ parallel to the tangent R/;;?, meeting mc in If the velocity of the body along the circumference be ex'u. prefled by R;?2, the velocity in the perpendicular dirediion R;?, arifing from the motion of the circle about the axis A^, will be reprefented by R;z. And, if the body were to be fuffered to purfue its own direction from the point R, it would, by the compofition of thofe motions, arrive at the oppolite angle v of the parallelogram R;/-iv;z, in the fame time that it might move through R;;z by the motion R;/z alone ; and fo would fall fliort of the plane by the diflance cv It therefore appears that the required force, necelTary to keep the body in the plane, muft be fuch as is fufficient to caufe a body to move over the diftance c-v in the aforefaid time and that this force muft, therefore, be to the centrifugal force of the body in the circumference (whofe meafure is ef) as co to et ; fince the fpaces defcribed in
near to each other,
"-'*.
-,

equal times, are diredily as the accelerating forces.

Let
its

now
-,

the ratio of the angular celerity of the circle about

of the body in the circumference, be fuppofed as r to unity then, the latter of thefe celerities being reprefented by R;;z, the former will be defined by r X ^m y and confeaxis to that

quently the celerity (R/z) in the diredlion R??, by

rxR;/2X-^.
DR;z and

DR

Moreover, becaufe of the
dmc^
7IIC

limilarity of the triangles

it

will be, as
R/« X

DR
I

:

R/z

(rxR?//XvTp) OFV
y.
.

DR

\
: :

d7n{jyK-\-sm)
^
i

= r X —OFDR
v-Tp

1,

^ r X
,

'

^ —rrr; OF
R;;2

sm —

:

Trnt irom whence, taking away

r

i

the value of

mv

or R«,

we ^ cv :=^rx s:et

—OF _^—

:

which

is

* The lineola rr, lying in the plane of the circle, mufl be anfv/ered by a force tending to the center of the circle j with which we have nothing to do in the prcTent confideration.

in

a7td the different
in proportion to the

Motmis of

the

EartUs Axis,
et^

5
it's

meafure of the centrifugal force
to

or

equal
angles

n-j

as r

x sm

|Rw,
2r x

or,

becaufe of the fimilar
to

tri-

ORD
it is

and Rw?,

as

OD

OR. or OA.

evident that the body, to continue in the plane of the circle, mufi: be confiantly a6ted on, in a dire6tion per-

Hence

pendicular to the plane, by a force varying according to the cofine of the diftance of the body from the extremity of the

AR

axis

5

whofe

greateft value, at
2.r

the circle, as

to unity.

^ COROLLARY
/.

A, £.

is

to the centrifugal force in

L
bodies or corpufcles,

If,

inflead of one, a great

number of

touch one another and thereby form a continued ring to revolve at the fame time, and to be acfled on in the fame manner (that is to fay, by forces in the ratio of the diilances from the diameter FF perpendicular to the axis A<^), it is evident that they v^^ould all continue in the fame plane. And this will alfo be the cafe, when a number of con- Fig. centric rings ERG^G, &c. are fuppofed to perform their revolutions together about the common axis AE^'^?. For, alTuming /3 to denote the centrifugal force of a corpufcle in the outermoil ring AR'F^F, the centrifugal force of an equal corpufcle
fo as to

AF^F, were

3.

(R') in the ring

ERVG,

will be equal to

iG

x t^t

OF

'-

whence, by

the foregoing proportions, 2r

x

/3

X jr-r

will

be the force adl(3

ing perpendicular to the plane at

E

:

and 2r x

x

-^--

x -^^

(= 2r X
conftant,

/3

X

-rr-^

)

will be the true

meafure of the force ading
jG,

on a corpufcle
is
it

at

R'

;

which,

as r,

evidently as the diftance
follows, becaufe the

them from the diameter FF.
and
are all of

OA

Whence

negative, that the forces above

diftance below FF becomes and below that diameter muil

have contrary dired:ions.

COROLLARY
Whatever hath been
faid in the

IL
equally.

preceding Corollary holds

6

Of

the VreceJJto?!

of the 'Equinox^

equally, when the line or axis A^, about which the plane Is fuppofed to turn, hath a progrefhve motion, or is carried uniformly forward, parallel to itfelf ; provided the angular celerity about that axis continues the fame ^ as is evident from tlie reFig. 4.

foiution of forces.

Hence

it foilovv^s,

that,

if a circle E'ECd't^,

number of concentric be fuppofed to revolve uniformly about its center C, whilft the center itfelf and the right-line OC (which, to help the imagination, may be taken as the axis of a cone E'Of', whofe bafe is E'E^-t*') move uniformly in the plane Vciph!. about die point O j I fay, it follows that the forces neceilary to keep the particles in the plane, under fuch a compound m.otion, will be the very fame as if the circle v/as to turn about the line Ee* (perpendicular to the plane Yciph^^ at reft, with an angular celerity equal to that of the center C about the point O becaufe, the angle OCE'' being always a right one, the angular celerity of the moveable circle about the line EC^ (v/hich remains every-where parallel to itfelf) will, evidently, be equal to the angular celerity of the center of the circle about the point O. From whence and the preceding Corollary it is manifefl, that the forces v/hich, ad;ing parallel to PCO, are necefiary to retain
conlidered as compofed of an indefinite
rings,
:

the particles in the plane E'Etr, will be, every-where, as the
diftances
diftanQe

from the diameter E'C/, or the plane Vciph!.^ of the plane Yl'Eee from the center O be what

let
it

the

will.

COROLLARY

IIL

Conceive now OAPaph^d to be an homogenous fluid, revolving uniformly about the axis PO/>, under the form of an oblate fpheroid * ; whilft the axis itfelf is fuppofed to turn
about the center O, in the manner explained above
appear, from
fluid,
:

then

it

will

what

is

there delivered, that the particles of the

to continue in eqidlibrio
parallel to the axis,
;

among

themfelves, muft be fb-

licited

by

forces that are as the diftances

from the plane Ydphl
moteft point
* That the
late fpheroid

fuch, that the force

A

may be

defined by 2r/3i

ading at the where jS \by Corol.

reI.)

ef

my

particles will remain in equilibrio, under the form of an ob(v/hen the axis is at reft), is demonfiratcd in Part II. Se6l. 9. Deiirine and JppIicatioK of Fluxions.

reprefents

and

the different Motions of the

EartFs

A^cis,

7

reprefents the centrifugal force in the circumference Aa'ah! of the greatefl circle, and r the meafure of the angular motion of the axis itfelf, that of the rotation, about the axis, being

denoted by

tmity.
all

But

it

appears further,

from Lemma
\

7,

that

the efficacy of

the faid forces to turn the fpheroid about its center (making 7 here =27-/3) is truly defined by 2r(^x SxOA.

of the body will remain in equilibrio among themfelves, under the two different motions above explained, when the whole force producing the mo- Fig. tion of the axis, is expreiled by 2rj0 x y5 x OA. And, when the forces refped:ing the feverai particles are fuppofed to aft according to a different law, the effect produced by them will be the fame, provided their joint ejficacy^ to turn the body about its center, be the fame : iince the fame force mufl: be anfwered, or fatisfied with the fame kind and degree of motion in the whole body j if we except only, the exceeding fmall difference that will arife from the alteration of the fip-ure which figure will not be accurately a fpheroid, in this cafe, but nearly fuch, as the motion of the axis and, confequently, the forces producing it, are fuppofed very fmall. Neither will the axis continue to move in the fame plane, when the direction of the the motion proforces is not every-where parallel to the axis in the body being always about that diameter (A^) duced wherein the whole perturbating force may be conceived to acfb, as by a lever, to turn the body about its center. Laflly, it may be obferved here, that the time of revolution about the axis will not, in this cafe, continue accurately the fam.e ; fince a change of the figure mufi: neceffarily be attended with a change in the time of revolution. But this change of motion about the axis, when we regard the effeft of the perturbating forces of the fun and moon upon the earth, is fo extremely fmall, as to be quite inconfiderable, even in comparifon of the very flow motion of the axis above fpoken of.
it is

Whence

plain, that all the particles

4.

;

;

LEMMA
GG

III.

Suppofiig all the particles of a given ellipfe MFN//f? he urged by coinciding with a given diameter from a right-line

MN,

forces.

8

Of

the PreceJftGJt of the Equinox^

forces proportional to the difances from the aid line^ fuch that the force acting at a give?2 difiance a^ may be expreffed by a give?!
quantity
forces,

f

y

j

it is

required
ellipfe

to

find the whole
its

efiicacy

of

all thefc

.

to

turn the

about

center

O.

be fuppofed parallel to GG^ interfedling OT, perpenthen the force with which a particle, at ; any place V in that line, is urged in the diredion w\ parallel
If

BC

dicular thereto, in

D

to

OD,

will
it's

be expreffed by

— x Vic;,

or

— x OD

^

and concenter by

fequently
a

efficacy to turn the ellipfe about

its

- X OD X Ow,

or

2-

a

X OD x DV.
of a particle
:

Let there be taken
at

Qv ==:

DV
ig. 5.

;

and the

efficacy

v

will,

in like

manner,

be had equal to ^
former

- X OD x D"j a
V,
gives

which, added to that of the
Therefore, feeing

particle at

— x OD x DC.

the joint adllon of any two particles in DC, equally diflant from the middle one I, is expreffed by the fame quantity

— X OD X DC,
of the
particles;

tlie

efficacy

of

all

the particles muft confe-

quently be equal to that quantity drawn into half the

number

and

fo

is

truly

expounded by
all

— x^ODxDC".

By

the fame argument, the force of
to turn the ellipfe about
its

the particles in the line the contrary way, will

BD
be

center,

— x-ODxED'.

a

Therefore the difference of thefe two

values,

X 4-OD x BD^

— CD%

is

the

whole

force of all the

particles in the

(downwards) meter to
"

3

MN

line BC, to turn the ellipfe about its center which expreffion, if Yf the conjugate diabe drawn, bifedting BC in E, will become

-^xiODxBD + CDxBD — CD a
Put, now,

= ^ x OD x BC x DE.
a

OFr=^,

OH -=-g\
noted by

OM = FH (perpendicular to MN) =/,
d,

,v

and let OE and OD, confidered as variable, be deand j, refpe^ftively. Then, by the property of
the

and
the

the differmt Motions
it

of the Earth'' s Axis,
:

cllipfis,

will be, cc

:

dd

:

:

cc-^xx
.

BEl^= -^^^~-;

and confequently
gles) c '.f',\

BC

= —-— —
\

Alfo {fy ftmilar trian;

X -.y^z^

and

c

\

g w x

DE = ^.

Hence

our expreffion
ino;

- x OD

x

DE x BC,

derived above, by fubflitutcc

thefc values,

becomes - X ^~ X

fore the

whole

fluent of

— x —^ X cc

— xi^ x — xxWxxy,
of

x""

:

and there-

or of its equal
all

— X —{^ X cc
fluent, let
or,

— xxY xx^x^,

will be the force

the parti-

cles in the femi-ellipfe

A
is

MFN. In order to the finding of this be taken to denote the area of the femi-ellipfe,
~xcc
c

which

the fame, the fluent of
fluent

xA"^

x '—
c
a:''

;

then,

by comparifon, the whole

of
--c''

— x^<: — xx\''x
:

x^, when

xz=:Cy will be found to be
expreflion,

^x

whence
mufl:

that of our given

— x ^^ X

=

-^

X -^' X ^f ^

— xxCxx^ confequently A = ^ X ^fgA = ^ X ^FH X OH X ^
<:t

x-^-,

be
the

5

double of which, or

— x ^FHxOHx^^r^^MFN/M,
center.

is

thereellipfe

fore the true meafure of the

tends to

move about

^ COROLLARY
its

whole force whereby the E. /.

L

If the fame value be required by means of the angle included between the diameter and the principal axis AO^ (fuppofed to be given) ; then let PO/> and be drawn perproduced, in pendicular to OA, and TF to OT, meeting

MN

AOM

and let Fig. fuppofe L to be the interfedion ; (to the rathe iine and co-flne of the faid given angle Becaufe FL is dius I ) be denoted by m and n^ reipedtively. perpendicular to the tangent TQ, we have, by the property of the C

Q^

FR OA of AO and FH

6.

AOM

10
the
ellipfis,
:

Of
as

the Precejfwn

of the Equinox^
:
:

AO"^
But,
and,

:

AO'— OP^
I
:

OR OL
:

:

(AO^)

OLxOQ;

and confequently
72
:
:

AO'-— OP*
:

I

:

m
\
:

whence, by compolition,
:

FH X OH = mn x AO*— OP^
v^^e

OL OH OQj OT (FH) jnn OL x OQ(= AO* — OP*)
;
'.'.
\ : :

= OLxOQ.

:

OR

x

OQ

and

fo,

by

fubftituting this
the ellipfe^

value above,

get

— x — x AO^

— OP* X area of
IL

for another expreffion of the required force.

COROLLARY
Hence may be
roid, generated

eafily deduced the force by which the Ipheby the rotation of the ellipfe about its lel5er axe
its

Vp, tends to turn about

center,

when

all

the particles are

urged from a plane

GG paffing through the
it,

center,

by

forces

proportional to the diilances from the faid plane. fedion of the Ipheroid, parallel to the middle one

For, as any

hpa?,

is

alfo

an
as

ellipfe,

fimilar to

the area of that fedion will be in pro-

portion to
greater

the fquare of

OA be
fe6tion

aa

:

aa


denote by ^) its greater femi-axe, to the fquare of the femi-axe of the given ellipfe VApa fo that, if denoted by a, PO by ^, and the diflance of the faid from the center of the ipheroid by u, we ihall have, mi (^= fq. greater femi-axis of that fedion, by the
the area of
1 fhall

ApaV (which

OA

:

property of the circle)
tion.

:

:

^: ^x

^^"""
^

the area of the fec-

Moreover, by reafon of the iimilar figures,

we have

da

:

aa

^i?

:

:

aa-— iiu

:

^—^— y.aa
aa

ilu\,

the difference of

the fquares of the greater and lefTer femi-axes of the fedionc Therefore, by fubftituting thefe values in the above general
expreffion,
^

we

get

-^-

^

a

x

^
4.

x ^1=1^ x '^^^^m x
aa
I

^ x --^^^-^
aa
axis

{=lx '^ X "-i^=^ X ^x ±Zj£^Lt^ ^^ a aa aa
4^

for the force of all the

^

particles in that fedion to turn the

body about the common

of motion landing at right-angles to the plane PA/^/^. This quantity, drawn into ii^ will, therefore, be the fluxion of force of the
femi-^

and

the different Motions

of the Earth's Axis.
iy
j

1 1

femi-fpheroid in which that feftion "'^~
will be
of, or

whofe fluent, when u-=zay
:

= —x—x x Ox ~ the double where^— 4 — X mn aa — bbx -^-^, muft confequently be the
found
in

aa

15

y,

re-

quired force of the whole fpheroid

:

which

force,

as

Q^ —

is

known
alio

to exprefs the content, or mafs of the fpheroid, will

be truly defined by

— x — X ^^

^<^

X

S

;

S being put

(as

in the preceding

Lemmas)

to reprefent

the faid content or

mafs.

PROBLEM
71?

L
corpufcle^
it's

determine the

efficacy

of

the

funs attraBion^ on a
to

any where in the body of the earth,
center.

turn the earth about

Let CDHE reprefent the earth, C the center thereof, S that of the fun, and GCG a plane perpendicular to the line CS joining the centers of the earth and fun let D be the place of the corpufcle, and upon the diagonal SD let the parallelogram QCSD be conflituted ; producing to meet GCG in K.
-,

Fig. 7.

QD

If

F be taken

to denote the fun's abfolute force
at

on a

particle

at the center

C, his force on a particle

D will be F x ^;

which may be
redtion
its

DC
;

center)

refolved into two others, the one in the di(which has no effed: at all to turn the earth about and the other in the dire6:ion DQ, expreffed by
""^"^

PXqY5T^"S§'*

which the

force

jP,

in the parallel di-

redlion CS, being deducted, the remainder

Fx

— —
ny^^

will

be the true meafure of that part of the force in the diredion tends to change its pofition DQ, whereby the particle at refpedl to the plane GCG. with But this value is reducible

D

to

F X ^^^° sWscTsD
"^

+s!y-

.

^y^j,_ ^3
is

sc_SD
DK,

i^y reafon of the great diflance of the fun) C 2

nearly equal to

J

3

Of
DK,
will

the Precejfwn of the

Equinox^

become

=

Fx
will

;^r
its

—=
center.

S^^'sc*

^^^^^7'

which, drawn into

CK,

be as the required efficacy of

that force to turn the

body about

^E.

I.

COROLLARY
^A=:
a
I

L
earth.

If there be taken

i

7"

]

t ^=.
/3

= the iemi-equatoreal diameter of the = the time of the annual and the time of the the equa= of
revolution,

(SC) the diftance of the fun and earth,

diurnal revolution,
a particle at

the centrifugal force
tor,

arifing
:

from the diurnal revolution

then,

fmce-

:

^
iS

;

: :

/B

F, or

F= 4^ (by the known laws
DK Z^^Tr^ w'l^ GCG, will alfo be
and that the

of central forces)

it

is

evident that the force

which

a particle at

D tends
x ~^ X

from the plane
.

truly defined

by


i9

Hence
of the

it

appears that the faid
;

force

is

directly as the diftance
at the diftance

from the plane
earth's

value thereof,

femi-equatoreal

diameter,

is

truly defined

by

x i=;

being in proportion to the

centrifugal force at the equator, arifing

from the

diurnal rota-

tion, as thrice the fquare of the time of the diurnal revoluti-

on, to once the fquare of the time of the annual revolution.

COROLLARY
Fig. y.

IL
fuppofing
to repre-

Moreover, from hence the perturbating force of the moon,
or any other planet, will be given
fent the planet, as
its
it's
:

for,

aS

abfolute force (F) at the center C, will be

quantity of matter, applied to the fquare of the diftance

SC
-

:

and

fo

our general exprcfiion

DK 3FX7^

will here

become

—-r^;

which, becaufc the quantities of matter in bodies

of the fame denfity, are as the cubes of their femi-diameters, to remain the fame) will alfo fuppofing the pofition of be
j(

D

and
be
as the

the different Motioju

of the Earth's Axis,

1

cube of the femi-dlameter of the planet diredlly, and its diftance SC, inverlly or, which is the fame, as the cube of the fine of the apparent f^mi-diameter diredly, and the cube of the radius inverfly. Hence it is manifeft, that the perturbating forces of planets, of the fame denfity, are in proportion dire(flly as the cubes of the fines of their apparent femi-diameters, or as the cubes of the femi-diameters, themfelves, very near. Therefore the fun and moon, appearing under equal femi-diameters, have their perturbating forces in the fame ratio with their denfities.
the cube of
;

PROBLEM
ariftfig

II.

To determine the change of the pojition oj the terrefirial equator^ from the aBion of the fun on the whole mafs of the earthy

during any very fmall interval of time.

be the earth, under the form of an oblate be the plane of its equator, and HICL a plane pafTing through S the center of the fun, and making right-angles with the plane of the meridian HAPC^.
fpheroid
;

Let

OA?ap
let

Fig, ^.

AI^L

It

appears, by Corol.
particle

I.

to

Prop.

I.

that the relative force

of matter, any where in the earth, tends, through the adion of the fun, to recede from the plane GG,
perpendicular to

whereby a

HICL,

is dirc<5lly

as the diflance

from the by

faid

plane

-,

and that the

faid force, at the diflance {a)
is

of the femi/Q

cquatoreal diameter
It

from the plane,

truly defined

x

appears moreover,

from

Corol. 11. to

Lem.

III.

that a fphe-

roid, ad:ed on in this manner, tends, through the joint force of all the particles, to turn about its center with a force ex-

prefled

by

y — X mn ~x~
«

x —— —
aa

bb

xS
is

-,

y being

the force whercAvith a

5

particle, at

the diflance ^,
i3

urged from the plane
i3

GG. ThereS,

fore,

expounding y by

x |^, we have

x ||. x !!^f^ x

for the true

tends to turn about

meafure of the force whereby the whole earth its center^ through the fun's attradion.

But

1 4-

Of
Bat
roid
it

the Precejfwn of the
to

Equinox^
II. that,
if

is

proved, in CoroL III.
revolving about
its

hem.

a fphe-

OAVdp
b}^

axis P/»,

be

at the

fame time

afted on

forces tending to generate a
it

angles to the former,

will,

new motion, at right confequence of fuch a6tion, in

have another motion, about the line Aa ^ whereof the celerity will be in proportion to that of the former motion about the axis (P/>), as r to i ; the whole force with which the fpheroid tends to turn about its center, v/hereby this motion is produced, being exprelTed by 2r(^ x-Sxa. Let this force, therefore, be made equal to that found above, by which the earth tends to turn about its center by which means we have
:

i!:i

== 1^ X ^?^i2ii^H^
yy
5&-

J

and therefore r

5

= iTT HHJi^flR, -^^x
aa
Pj),

From whence

appears that the earth, in confequence of the fun's attradiion, has a motion about the line ha (lying in the plane of the fun's declination) whereof the celerity will be in
it

proportion to that of the diurnal motion about the axis
_|r-r

as

2T r

X

^ - ^

^

— H— aa
and

to imity -^

:

where

/

and

T

exprefs the re^

fpeftive times of the diurnal,

the greateft,

leail

femi-diameters of the earth, and

n the fines of the fun's

and annual revolutions, a and b 7n and declination and polar dif^ance.

PROBLEM
I'd

IIL

the earth's axis^ caufed by the fun,

determine the precejjlon of the equinox^ and the mitatio7i of during any very fmall interval of time ; 072 the fuppoftion of an uniform denfity of all the parts of
the earth.

Fig. 9.

Let t2;D<7^ be the ecliptic, on the furface of the fphere ; and let j^AC^y be the pofition of the equator, when S is the fun's place in the ecliptic, and SA his declination.
It is evident,

from the

laft

proportion, that the angle

j£i;

A/2,

or

^Ab,

defcribed by the equator about the point

A,
is

in

any

very fmall time t\ by means of the fun's attrad:ion,
portion to
f

in pro-

— X 360")

the angle defcribed in the fame time, by

means

and

the differe?it

Motmis of
as

the Earth'' s Axis,
"^

1

means of the diuraal motion,
nity
;

-|^ x ^" ^ aa iTT
by 360° x

is

to

u-

and therefore

is

truly defined

-^ x ^l^ifiz^, ill
aa

or

I^X/^w;?; 36o''x—
to

fuppofing ^~— (for
k.

the fake of bre(p. fpherics)
as

vity)

be denoted by
tf

But

it

will

be
:

fine
s23

of
:

(or J23)

:

fin.

£:A

(:: fin. \C:^Aa
i/;^^

fm.

A<^

ii::^

= 360° X —^ X
oD

^a)

:

:

angle

X •'^^^>

the quantity of

the preceffion required.

and ac be taken as arcs of 90 degrees each j fo that T>c may be the meafure of the angle a ; we (hall alfo fin. AC (co-fin. £3A) have (/>. fpherics) as Rad. fin. CKc
Again,
if
: :
:

i^Aa)

:

fin.Cc

::

angle

r^A^ C«;=36o°x-^Xy^,^;^x^i^,
:

the required nutation, or the decreafe of the inclination of the E. L equator to the ecliptic.

^ COROLLARY.
:


(:
:

de

fin. tCs

be made perpendicular to aAy it will be, A fin. CA) tang. £3 A : Radius
:

as

^^ Cc
:

:

alfo, iC^a

:

^e

::

Rad.

:

iin.a:

whence, by compoundi£^<2
:

ing
fin.

thefe
<^.

proportions,
it

we

have

Cc

:

:

tang.

i^A

:

From which

appears, that the quantity of the pre-

any very fmall time, is to that of the nutation correfponding, as the tangent of the fan's right afcenfion to the fine of the inclination of the equator to the ecliptic.
eefiion, for

P
To determine
earth's axis,

ROBLE

M

IV.

the precejjion of the equijiox^

and the

nutation of the

caufed by the fun, from the time of his appearing in the equtnoBial point, to his arrival at any given diflance therefrom^

Every thing being fuppofed as in the preceding Problem, put the fine of the angle £3 :^=j^, its co-fine =^, the arch ^'^=i%y

Fig= 9,

i6
its
^vcit

Of

the PreceffioJi of the Equinox^
its

=

AT,

cofine

=

y,

and the length of the femiit

periphery

^'D^z^e:

then, p. fphericiy

will be, co-fin.

ASxco-fin.iivA {—yxRad.)
px

^y,

and

fin.

AS i=-£j)

=

whence, by multiplying thefe two equations together, wc : have fin. AS x co-fin. AS x co-fin. aA(z=zm?7X co-fin. £: A) zr= pxy : and fo, by fubflituting this value for its equal, our expreffion for the nutation, during the time / (given by the
lall

Problem)

will here

be reduced to 360°

x

-^ X kpxy.
is

But the time wherein the

fun's longitude t2;S
;

augmented
in

by the

particle

z

will be

Tx—

which being wrote

the

room of /, we thence have 360° x -~ X
fubftituting

— X xyz

:

and

this,

by

v/ 1

xXy

and V i-xx

,

inftead of their equals

y

and z, will be farther transformed

760° to ^

xA^X— ^ xx. 47
e

Whole
tity

fluent,

36o®x~?^x-^—

,

is

confcquently the true quan-

of the nutation that was to be determined.

Again, with regard to the precefiion of the equinox, the increafe thereof (l?y the Corol. to the precedent) being in proportion to the corresponding decrement of the inclination of the to the fine of t^j, equator to the ecliptic, as the tangent of i^i;

A

or, in fpecies, as

^^
-

to /,

it

therefore appears (by multi-

plying the fluxion of the nutation by

JLxhx —r^—
4.T
e

^i


xx

— p^
I.

-^

)

that 360°

x

I

XXJ

will be the fluxion of the quantity -1 J

under con-

fideration
is

;

whofe

fluent,

which
itfelf.

is

'J

*^

60° x -4^ x 4I

— x ^^——^— 2
/

therefore the preceflion

^E.

COROL.

and

the different Motions

of the EartUs Axis,

1

COROLLARY
X being =

L
point

When

the fun arrives at the
I,

folftitial

D, the value of
precefli-

and that Qiz-=. \e^ the quantity of the

on becomes

barely equal to 360°
will

x 4^ x -^

;

whofe quadruple,

36o°x-~X%

be the whole of the annual preceffion,

depending on the fun ; which, in numbers (by making /=r i, co-fine of 23° 2 8^', a z=^ 231, 366^, q =: .91723

T=
^
it

=
)

= 270,

and k

(= flU-

= -—) comes out

2

^!'

i"

.

But

will appear

from what follows

hereafter, that this quantity,

derived on the hypothefis of an uniform denfity of all the parts of the earth, ought to be reduced to about 1 4^ ', to agree

with obfervations.

COROLLARY
found to be 360° x
-^
:

II.
is

Since the preceflion during ^th of the annual revolution

4^ x-?, we 4I 4
the
:

have

as \e

:

z

-,'.

360°

x 4T x

(360°

X 4^ X — X 2;)

mean

preceffion during the time

of defcribing the arch
preceffion,

which being taken from the true

36o°x-4^X — X^

— xs/ — xx,
i

the remainder,

360° X -^ X
tion

—X

x\/i
;

— XX
which
',

will confequently

be the equa-

of the preceffion
is,

ceffion, as

that

as

— x\/ — XX
1

therefore

z,

or as

— 2x\/i — xx
— (or rather
1

is

to the

mean
:

pre2Z',

fin.

2z

:

2z.

But the mean
is

preceffion, in the

time of defcribing the arch z,
by CoroL
I.

2 1'' j"'x

41''x )

Therefore the equation correfponding will be
fin. 22;
;

2,1" n'"

—- X
as
it

r=

i''42"'

X fin.

2z, v^hen the denfity

is

taken

uniform
will

but when taken to correfpcnd with the obferfine

vation,

be

— l^ x

2z=:

i"i o" x fine 2z.

Hence
it

D

1

Of the
it

Precejffion

of the Equinox^
(when

appears, that the greateft equation of the prcceflion
is

mid- way between the equinox and foiftice) is i"io'"; and that the general equation (which is fubtradive in the firft and third quadrants of the ecliptic) will be in proportion to the faid greateft equation, as the fine of twice the fun's diilance from the equinodlial point is to the radius.
the fun
in the

COROLLARY
fally,

IIL
is,

Furthermore, becaufe the quantity of the nutation
equal to 360° x-4^

unlver-

x -^9

it

will therefore be the greateft

pofiible,
fible
:

when
it

the fun
it

is

in the foiftice

and x

is

the

greatefi:

pof»

after

which

will dccreafe, according to the
j

fame law

whereby
other
is

before increafed

'till,

on the

fun's arrival at the

equino(fl:ial point, it intirely vanifhes, and the inclination thereby reftored to its firft quantity. It is alio evident that the quantity of the nutation will, in all circumftances, be in proportion to the preceflion, during ^th of the fun's revolution,

as


e

to ^, or as
1

^
q

to

— ^

,

that

is,

as the ^ product

under the

fquare of the fine of the fun's longitude and the tangent of the

two planes of the equator and According the length of an arch of 90 degrees.
inclination of the

ecliptic^

is

to

portion (taking the faid preceffion

=

to

which prothe
greatefi:

'th of

14^)

nutation comes out ontfecond, very near 5 the inclination of the two planes decreafing from the time of the fun's leaving the
equinodlial points, to his arrival at the folftices,
nodlial points.
It

and that

in the

duplicate ratio of the fine of his difi:ance firom the faid equi-

may be obferved that, in order to avoid trouble, the quantities p and q are taken as conjiant j the error, or difference thence
arijingfcarcely amounting to -r^^^-^th part of the whole value..

SCHOLIUM.
Sir

Isaac Newton,

in finding the preceflion

of the equi-

nox, confiders the protuberant matter about the earth's equator,, as a ring of moons, revolving uniformly round the center of the

and

the different Motions

of the Earth's Axis.

1

9

the earth in 24 hours ; and by virtue of that aflumption, from the motion of the lunar nodes, before determined, he infers the motion of the nodes of the faid ring, and from thence the

We have proceeded upon other and by a very different method ^ and it may be worth v^^hile to remark here, that, as the preceffion of the equinox is deducible from the motion of the nodes of a fatellite, fb, on the contrary, the motion of the nodes of a fatellite may be very eafily deduced, as a Corollary, from our general formula^ for the preceflion of the equinox.
preceflion of the equinox.
principles,

Thus

if

that the figure

the value of b be fuppofed indefinitely fmall (fo of the earth, or fpheroid, may be conceived as

flat as poflible) v^^e fhall

have ^

(:rr

ffJU-j =.

\ j

and the ex7,

preffion in Corol.

I.

will then

become 360" x -^ X

exhibit-

ing the motion of the node of a ring, or of a number of concentric rings, during the time (T) of one whole revolution of the body about the fun (vid. Corol. I. to Lent. II.) But it will alfo appear, from the articles here referred to, that the place of a 4tellite, moving in a circular orbit, will always be found
in

a

ring or plane revolving in the
360''

manner there

Ipecified.

Hence

x —? X 5' v^rill like wife exprefs the motion of the node

of a fingle moon, or fatellite, in the time (T) of one whole revolution of the primary planet: which value, when the inclination
to the ecliptic
is

but fmall, will be equal to 360° x -4^, nearly.

Hefice the
bify is

mean motion of

in proportion to the

a fatellite^ in a circular or^ mean motion of the primary planet about
the node of

periodic time of the primary planet.
let

thefuny as ^ths of the periodic time of the fatellitey is to the whole It follows moreover, that,

a planet have ever fo many fatellites, the mean motions ef the nodes of them all will be in proportiony direBly as the times of revolution of the fatellites themfelves-y and, confequently, the periodic times of the nodes, inverfly, as the periodic times of the refpeBive
fatellites,

D

2

The

20

Of

the Precejfion

of the Equinox^

The proportions ufed by Sir Isaac Newton, in inferring the preceiTion of the equinox from the motion of the lunar node, agree exadtly with thofe above determined; it may, therefore, feem the more ftrange that there fliould be fo wide a difference between the conclufion derived, in Corol. I. of the
Problem, and that brought out by that celebrated Author who makes the quantity of the annual preceffion, depending on the fun, to be no more than g" j'" 20''': which is not the But to give the Reader half of what it is here found to be. particular, and to difcover the what fatisfadion I can in this error (if any fuch £hould have crept into my calculations) I in order fhall now attempt the folution by a different method premifc the two following to which it will be requilite to
laft
:

Lem?nas.

LEMMA
in the circumference

IV.
of a given circle diameters IL, as an axis,
;

If every particle

AloL

tends to turn the circle about one of its

by a force proportional to the fquare of the difiance therejrom
is

it

circle
If,

propofed to find the whole force of about that diameter.

all the particles ,

to

turn the

EH
Fig. 10.

from any point E in the circumference, there be drawn perpendicular to the given diameter IL, the force of a particle at E will, by hypothefisy be defined by EH^ ; which quantity, drawn into (E;«) the fluxion of the arch IE, will
therefore be the fluxion of the quantity to be determined.
E;«, becaufe of
to

But

the fimilar triangles Ez««,

2^^. EH

and
is

But

EH X E«

EOH, will be equal therefore the fluxion fought=OAxEHxEw. ° whence it is the fluxion of the area IHE
:

evident, that the force

the particles in the whole cirx area of the circle, or cumference, will be truly defined by

of

all

OA

OA X OA X the femi-circumference, or OA'x ~ the number ofparticks,

^ £.

/.

COROLLARY.
A
is

Since the force of a pardcle at

expreffed by

OA*,

it

fol-

lows that the force of all the particles in the whole circumference will be equal to half the force of an equal number of particles adling at the difl:ance of the highefl: point A.

LEMMA

and

the cliffere?2t

Motmis of

the

EartFs Axis.

21

LEMMA
To determine
the

V.

AVaOpy
angidar

mome?2twn of rotation of a given fpheroid revohiftg uniformly about its axis P/>, with a given

celerity.

be an ordinate to the generating ellipfis AVap^ of rotation Vp : make (perpendicular toP/>) ^j OF(=:Op)=bi ON=:^; EN=^-j and let p denote the femi-periphery of the circle whofe radius is unity.
parallel to the axis

Let

ENF

=

AO

2px, the periphery of the FiV. n, N. Therefore 2px x 2y will be the meafure of the furface generated by the ordinate EF, in the revolution of the ellipfis about its axis Fp : which, drawn into
it

Then

will be, as

i

:

2/

:

:

;v

:

circle generated

by the

point

the fquare of the diftance

ON,

gives 4pyx^ for the

momentum
:

of rotation of all the particles in the faid furface fo that the fluent of ^pyx^x will be the true meafure of the force to be determined.

Now, by the

property of the

ellipfis,

we have x" =z — x bb~yy ;
by
fubftituting

and confequently xx

=

"^^^^^

*•

whence,
equal

~ X Fyy —

y'^'y

in the

room of

its

x'^x,

our fluxion

is

transformed to
is

—j—xbYy

y'^y-

whofe

fluent,

when y =z

b,

found equal to -^^.

Since

i^

COROLLARY.
is

known

to exprefs the

mafs or content of the

fpheroid, the
its

axis appears, therefore, to
-f-ths

if

highefl:

of rotation of any fpheroid about be jufl: the fame as would arife, of the whole mafs was to revolve at the difl:ance of the point (A) from the axis of motion.

momentum

V. To determine the alteration of the pojition of the terreflrial equator^ arifmgfrom the aBion of the fun on the whole mafs of the
earthy during

PROBLEM

an infant of time.

Let

22
Fig. 12.

Of
Let
j

the Precejfwn

of the Equinox^

be the earth, under the form of an oblate fphethe plane of its equator, and HICL a plane thro* S the center of the fun, making right-angles with paffing the plane of the meridian HAPC/> and with the plane GG. It is found, 171 Prob. I. that the force whereby a particle, at any point E in the equator AEL^I, tends from the plane GG, is in proportion to that refped;ing the higheil point A, as the diroid
let

OAP^/

AI^L be

ftance

EF

to the diftance

AK,

or as
;

ED

to

AO

(fuppofing

EF

parallel to

AK, and

ED to AO)

whence

it is

evident that the

force on the particle at E, in a diredion perpendicular to the

plane of the equator, muft be to the force on a particle at A, to AO, that in the like diredion, in the very fame ratio of to the radius. is, in the ratio of the coline of the arch

ED AE

But

this,

by CoroL I.

Lem.

11.

appears to be the law of the

forces under which a ring of

particles

AEL^I, detached from

may continue in equilibrio^ in the fame plane, under a twofold motion about the center O, and about the line Aa as
the earth,

an

axis.

Imagine now this ring to be exceeding denfe, fo that its momentum of rotation about its center O, may be equal to that of the earth itfelf, or fo that the two bodies may equally endeavour to perfevere in the fame flate and diredion of motion, in oppolition to any new force impreffed. Then it is evident, that, were the forces whereby the two bodies tend to turn about the line LI, through the fun s attradion, to be alfo equal, the fame effed, or alteration of motion, would be produced in both ; and confequently, that the effeds produced, when the forces applied are unequal, will be in proportion diredly as the forces. Now the force whereby a particle at A is urged from
the plane
rol.

GG,

is

found to be

fiXr^x

^

(by Prop.

L

Co-

I.)

',

which,

in a diredion perpendicular to the plane
/3

of the

equator or ring, will be

x

^ ^aO^AO^^^tT^^'^*
at

Therefore, the force ading on a particle
redion,

E, in a

like di-

being

expreffed

by

jS

x J^ X ^/z X -tq,
IL

the effed

thereof to turn the ring about the line

will be expreffed

by

and the
by
/3

different Motions
;

of the Earth's Axis,
as the fquare

23
di-

X 7~; X mn x -j-^

which being

of the

ED, it follows (from the Corol. to Lem.lV.) that, if Mbe taken to denote the mafs of the ring, the whole force by which the ring tends to move about the line LI, as an axe, through the a6lion of the fun on all the particles, will be truly defined
fiance

by

iS

X Y^ X mna x ~M.
on a

Again,

becaufe

/3

x ^^ X ^«

is

the

force a(5ting

particle at

A,

in a direction perpendicular to

the plane of the ring,

it is

evident,

from

Corol. I. to

Lem. IL

that the ring will, in confequence of that force, have a motion

about the line ha as an axe ; whofe celerity will be to the celerity of the other motion about the center, in the proportion

of r to
ing

I,

or of

-^^ x w«

to

i 3

becaufe,

/S

x t—^ x mn be-

=

/S

X 2r, r

will here

be

= ~^l- x mn.
of the ring)
:

Therefore, if

N

be afTumed to denote the
its
/9

fun's force to turn the earth
the above obfervation) have,

about

center,

wc

fhall

(from

X lY^ X mna x ^M (the force
:

N

: :

-^=y.mn

(the

motion of the ring)
earth
itfelf,

-—rr

=

the required motion of the

about the fame line Ka.
by the Corol. to Lem. V. that the mafs

But it appears,

(M) of the
^; which.

ring (to have an equal

momentum) muft

be juft jths of the mafs

(S ) ofthe earth : theref. our laft expreffion is equal to

by

fubftituting

iS

x ;JS; X ^^-^^

X S,
.

in the

room of its equal

N,
was

at laft

becomes

-^^ x

^"^^^—

being exaBly the fame as

before found in Prop. II.

The

afcertaining of

only real difficulty in the fubjed:; fince, that every thing that follows after is purely mathematical ; nothing more being required than to take the fum, or fluent of thofe
inftantaneous alterations, in order to have the
for

which is the being once known,

whole alteration, any finite time propofed ; as is aftually done in Prop. IV. which therefore it will be needlefs to repeat.
S

C

H O-

24
From

Of

the PreceJJion of the Equinox^

SCHOLIUM.
Fi<T. 12.

this lafl

method

it

will not

be very

difficult to deter-

mine what the

refult

ought to be, when the
is

denfity, inftead

of

being every-whcre the fame,

fuppofed to increafe or decreafe the furface to the center, according to a given law. For, from let Ny as above, be taken to denote the force whereby the earth tends to turn about its center, by the adjon of the fun (the determination of which will be given by-and-by) j and let My alfo as before, exprefs the quantity of matter in an exceeding denfe ring, at the equator, having the fame time of revolution, and momentum of rotation with the earth itlelf ; then it will appear, from the lafl Problem, that, let the figure and denfity of the earth be what they will, the celerity of the angular motion about the aforefaid line A^, will be to that about
y

o

the axis, in the ratio of

—^r-r-

to

i.

Now,

if

the

momentum

of the earth about its axis (which I fhall denote by i?) be computed (by taking the fum of the produds of all the particles by the fquares of their, refpe6tive, diftances from the axis) the will be known ; becaufe the momentum of the ring value of (by the fame rule) being z=iMxay we have

M

Mx^*=R;
A^, and

and confequently
between the

— = 4^
rr-

J

^o that, the general proportion
line

celerities

of the two motions y about the

the

axe Ypy will be that

f -^^^ unity.

and i?, accordBut now, in order to find thefe values of hypothefis of denfity, we mufi: look back to the third ing to any and fifth Lemmas-, from the latter of which it appears, that the
value of the

N

be truly
ter,

momentum (i?), when the denfity is uniform, will a being the femi-equatoreal diamedefined by -^^
;

and b the femi-axis of the fpheroid, and p the meafure of the periphery of the circle whofe radius is unity.

Now

let

us fuppofe the fpheroid, inftead of being every-

where of the fame denfity, to be compofed of elliptical Jlrata y whofe denfities vary according to any given law of the diftances

oUnoh frata from

the center of the fpheroid.

Then,

and
(Iratum,

the different Motto7ts of the Earth's Axis.

25

Then, putting z -=. the femi-cquatoreal diameter of any fuch and fuppofing the correfponding femi-axis to be in pro-

portion thereto, as

w

to

i

(whicli proportion

may

be aiTumed,
in the

either, as conftant or variable),

we

fliall,

by writing z

room of

a.

and

wz

in the

room of

b^

have

— x wz^
;

5

whofc

be the whereof the femi-equatoreal momentum of the ftratum or fhell, diameter is 2;, and thicknefs (at that diameter) z on the former fuppofition, that the fpheroid is every- where of the fame denfity. But in the prefent cafe this momentum mufl; be drawn
fluxion, or indefinitely fmall increment, will, therefore

into the quantity, which, according to hypothefis, expreffeth the

quantity

meafure of the denfity anfwering to the value of z; which then will the product we will reprefent by j

D

-^- X

flux. WAT 5

be the general fluxion of the
is

momentum,
lafl:

when

the denfity

variable
z=z a,

:

and therefore the fluent of this

expreflion,

when z

and

w

= -,

will be the true value

of the required momentum (R) in the prefent cafe. (frojn After the fame manner, the correfponding value of for, retaining the above noLem. III.) may be determined tation and fuppofitions, it is evident (from thence) that the laid

N

:

value of

N

(which

is

there exprefi^ed by
will here,

--

x

xa

b''

x

S,

or
y a

-21x—
^

as
is^

xZ^^^^xi^)
2
;

^

by ^
-^

fubfl:itution,

become
x

4^ xwz'^ -^ w'^z^
wz^

and confequently that ^

- x ^^ x D
a
IS

flux,

w'^z^ will
is

be the required fluxion of the value ot

N
Sit

:

where -

a confl:ant quantity (by hypothefis), the force
difiiance,
/3

being proportional to the

and the meafure thereof {y)

the given difliance a^ equal to
II.

X
is

;|^.,

as has

been before

Ihewn, in Prop.

above laid down, it will appear evident, that the angular celerity of the motion about the line Aa (fuppofing that about the axis to be denoted by

Now

from the whole of what

E

unity)

26
•I

Of

the Precejfion of the

Equinox

unity) will be truly defined ^
•'

which, therefore, will is affigned. and

^n"entofDxft.x^^^-:„v * fluent of i) X flux, wz.^ be known, when the relation of z, w,
by i!!gf -^211

D

If

w

Jlrata
rr

ai-e

be fuppofed conftant, or, which is the fame, if all the conceived to be iimilar to one another, then our exMl
1-

preffion will

become

^

'imntt

x

w

it;'

X

fluent of Z)

X

flux,

jk^

^ ^ a.ent c i; 2TT

x Hux.
aa

?

=

2TT

y^y.-^^ = g;xT=^=4^x'"" "
zf

""-^^

2

FT

(becaufe ^

w = —j
whence

:

which conclulion appears

to

be the very fame with

that found
it is

when

the denlity was fuppofed uniform.

From

evident that an increafe or decreafe of deniity, in

going towards the center, makes no fort of difference here provided the furfaces of the (everaX Jirafa are all Iimilar to one another and to* the furface of the eartli. If indeed tht Jirata are dijjimilar^ the cafe will be otherwife ^ as will be feen by the following example which ought not be looked upon as a matter of mere Ipeculation iince it will appear, in the fequel, that the preceffion of the equinox cannot be accounted for, ib as to agree with the fhcenomenon^ upon the fuppofition of an
:
-,

uniform denfity of all the parts of the earth ; the refult, this way, coming out about |d part greater than the real quantity, determined by obfervation.
Let then, as before, the greateft femi-diameter of any flratum be denoted by 2;, and let the leafh femi-diameter (lying in the axe of the earth) be in proportion thereto as i As'*' to unity J alfo let the denfity be fuppofed to increafe, in approach-


x

ing the center of the earth, in the ratio of
as to vary according to

tt

— —
17

i


a"
i

j

fo

fome power
i
.

that the meafure thereof at the center,
face, in

any given

ratio

of tt to

of the diftance, and may be to that at the furThen, by taking A, cp, and "u, as
(2;'")

conftant quantities, and writing
inftead of their equals

i

Az;^,

and

tt

— — x—
_________
"V

tt

a"

w

and D,

we

fhall

here have

B

and

the different Motions

of the EartUs Axis^
(p

27

DX

flux.

WZ^

IV^X^ ^=:'7r

— — IX -^ X + 5 X 2X2^+*;^,
TT

nearly (becaufe, to render the calculus lefs laborious, the terms involving X^ and X^ may be here negle6ted as inconliderable)

the fluent of

which

=
(T

TT

X

2X^+5—
we
X

when z ^z^ a^ will be found ^^=TxM^X2X.^+S w-f^4-5 2X^H-5.
expreffion,
^i

+^+S
in

^

'y

Moreover
TT
I

have,

this

cafe,

D X fluxion
X2;^++i;

+ ?>+5

^

of wz^
TTI

rzr

;;;-

X

^Z'^Z

5

+

f'

X

=W-

X

X

nearly (becaufe 5 (p X Xz''^*, as the earth is nearly fpherical, is inconliderable in refpedl of ^z^^z) ; whereof the
52:^2;,

+

fluent,

when 2;=:<3',
two
fluent

will

be had

= — Z^H^^^L.^
tt^^
i_

'"'^

'j ^

xaK

Now
on

let thefe

values be fubfl:ituted in the general expreflSflux,

7,mntt

sf Dy.

-^^-T X-^ 21 1

fluent

-r^

wz^
7;

of

T-r;

D

xjiux. wz^

— w^z^ —
;

5

t. U ^y which means
•'

'^

t.

it

bea^

comes

^^ X 2X^'''. ^ —J, X 211 ^,^^_j_2X'y5r-i-5
1

But,

when z =^
2X^"'',
^'''~'
;

w (= -J
fo,

h \

will be

:=

I

Xa^y

and w* =:
w^^

i

whence we have
by

2X^'f'

=1 —
lafl:

=1

aa

— =

nearly

and

aa

fubfl:itution,

our

formula becomes
it

3^
^

X

"^^^"+^^"+^ X ^^=^'. Whence
is

appears that the

required motion, in this cafe,
lity is

to the motion,

when

the den."^
.

"'"

fuppofed uniform, in the proportion of .Ij ^^ ^ ^ ^^^

to unity.

— From
5

+ 5x^/5r-hs
Corollaries

this proportion

a great

may be drawn
hereafter.

but thefe will be,

number of more properly,

confidercd

E

2

PRO-

2 8

Of

the Precejfwn of the Equinox^

PROBLEM
'To

VI.
alfo

find the quantity of the preceffion of the equinox^ and

that of the nutation of the earth's axis, caufed by the moony during the time of ha a re-volutio7i in her orbit.

f

Fig. 13.

Let

yPN^E

be the orbit of the

moon (on
V? *^ in

the furface of
j

the fphere) interfering the ecliptic

FiiiiDE^
paffing
palTeth
it it

to be the pofition
at

and fuppofe of the equator, on the moon's
:25

N

F, and
e
:

fhDea
let

the pofition thereof

when

ihe re-

moreover the quantity of the annual the fun (given by Prob. IV.) be denoted preceffion arifing from by ^; and let the ratio of the denfities of the moon and fun be expreffed by that of m to unity : then, taking t to reprefent the given time in w^hich the moon is moving from F to e, the mean quantity of the preceffion, arifing from the fun, in that
again at
time, will be

~x^

-

and

therefore,

fince

the perturbating

forces of the fun
Corol. II.)
it is

and

moon

are as the denfities (by Prob. I.
to the plane of her

evident that the preceffion (E^) caufed by the

moon,
orbit,
bit's

in the

fame time, with refped:
truly exprefied

own

would be

by

tn

%~%A,

were the or-

be always the fame as that of the ecliptic to the equator but, fince the magnitude, as well as the pofition, of the angle E varies, with the place of the
inclination to the equator to
:

node,

the faid quantity my.

— A
v.

muft therefore be dimi-

nifhed in the ratio of the co-fine of E to the co-fine of
pears '

by the
-^

faid Prob. IV.) '

and then

we ffiall get o

^
'p
it

^ (as

ap»-

X £2:^, co-lin.
<Y'

for the true value of the preceffion E^, caufed

by the moon,
will be re-

with refpedt to her

own

orbit.

But now,

in order to refer this to the ecliptic,
all, that,

quifite to obferve firft
earth's axis, at the

of end of every half revolution, on the
as

the inclination of the
return,

of the fun or moon again into the plane of the equator, is reflored to its former quantity (by Corol. III. to Prob. IV.) it follows, feeing the angles E, f, F, are thus equal, that the

f

triangles,

and
triangles

the different Motions of the Earth's Axis,

29

and D/P will alfo be equal and alike, in all DE -\- DP a femiand fo, DE -\- T>e being may be taken as quadrantal, or arcs circle, both DE and T)e of 90° each whence, if V?R, the meafure of the angle <y>, be fuppofed to meet dED in r, it will be, as Jin. ED (radius)

DE^

refpeds

;

=

=

:

:>.
•^

.

(E) ^
'

:

:

E.
a

f \

^ T

X ^2i2:^) /
co-iin.
qr'

:

ED.

= ^ X i^il^i^X
1

co-f. nr
:

rad.

alfo,

wtA
-Tfr-x
1

as Jin. {^) '.Jin. ^T> fin. E X cn-fin. E X co-fin. vE
-:

(co-fin.
,i

^yE)
.

:

:

ED^
•'

ya

z=z

lin. -T
:

X

co-lin.

sv'

X

rad.

,

^v r i the required quantity of the ^ ^
j

preceffion

= -Tf^x

And, as>?. r (radius) mrA fin. E X co-fin.E X

:

fin.

DR
, ,

(f^E)

:

:

ED^ (RDr)
f
-

:

Rr
r-

fin.

-=;fT-

tE

the correlpondino: quantity of

r

the nutation, or the decreafe of the inclination of the equator
to the ecliptic.

^ E. L COROLLARY.
illi^
rad.
fin.

It

is

evident from hence that the quantity of the nutation

is

preceffion, as to that of the *

to ^2l^i-l_, or as fin.T to

—1-—i2C—fin. 'yh.

^

that

is,

as the line

of

T
'

to the co-tangent ^
:

of

moreover (becaufe Jin. E ijin. <pN ^^2. :7&. <pE, p.fpherics) that the former of thefe quantities
^Y'E.
It appears
:

N
is
,

ir ^ ^ alio truly explicable

1-111by

^'^^ -rp-

x

fin.Nx

fin.

vN

expreffion will be

of ufe

co-fin. V X rad. in the following Problem.
I


x

co-fin,

E
:

-.

.

which

PROBLEM
To determine
the nutation of the earth's axis,

VII.

the precejjion of the equinox^

and

the quantity

of

caufed by the moon, during the

time of half a revolution of the node of the mooris orbit.

Things being fuppofed as in the preceding Problem, let the Fig. node from the equinodial point be denoted by Zy its fine by x, and its co-fine by y 3 let alfo the fine of the angle N<^E be put b, the fine of a, its cofine
diftance fy'N of the

\^,

=

=

N

30

Oj

the Precejfton of the Equinox^

^, Its co-fine =: dy the femi-perip!iery V? t^ =r the time of half a revolution of the node R.

N=
If
ricSj

=

T
it

^,

and

fpQ^e

fuppofed perpendicular to

NE,

will be, p.fphe-

as co-fin.

N^

(y)

:

radius (i)

:

:

co-tang.
h,

N

[

—j

:

tang.

N^Q^==:

;

let this

be denoted by
its

then the fecant of the

fame an Me
co-fine

will be

== \/ i-^hh,

fine

=

,

and

its

=:

:

whence, by the known rules

for finding

the fine and co-fine of the difference of two angles, the fine

of E<T>0 will

alfo

be had

= —— -/i+M
we

,

and

its

cofine

:=--

-4^=.
\/i-\-hh

Whence,
:

agairij p.
:

Jpbencs,

have, as

fin.

N^Qj^fin.E^Q

:

co-fin.N

co-fin.E r^^^.^"" ^ ^ ^

=: bd ^^-^=^bd'--acy',

alfo,

as co-fin.

N«pQ_:
*

co-fin. E<)'^Qj,: co-tang.

N^p (^)

:

cotang.

^E = J+7^

x

-^

X
lafl

= e£±l2ex

becaufe h

= -.
cy

But, by the Corol. to the
tation for the time t,
is

Problem, the quantity of the nu-

expreffed by

^A x —

'-

-.=;t-

;

which,
will

in algebraic

terms (by fubflituting the above values),

become

^^ x ''^^^"^'y.

But the time

r,

during which

the longitude (z) of the node is increafed by z, being to R the time of half a revolution of the node, as z to ^, its value will
therefore be

expounded by

i?

x

f.,

or

its

equal

R

x

and

fo

by

fubflituting this value,
laft

and writing \/i

— xx
7AR

,k/T^
in the

room of y^ our
bdxx

expreflion will be reduced to ^=:tfluent f"^^
.

x

c

-^

x

^/i-xx

,

- acxx ; whofe

T

X — \bd- bds/ i-xx- \acxx
eb

(=

and
7AR (= ——^

the different Motions of the

RartVs Axis.
x
verfcd fine 2z) '
Is

3

X

7be

X ^^x verled

fine

z

-.ac
*

I

confequently the meafure of the nutation, or the decreafe of the inclination of the equator to the ecliptic, caufed by the moon, from the time of the node's coinciding with the equinodtial
point
^Y^,

to

its

arrival at the pofition

N.

Again, with regard to the preceflion of the equinox, the increafe thereof being in proportion to the decrement of the inclination, as the co-tangent of <Y>E to the fine of N«Y^E (by
the Corollary to the precedent)
^ "^ or, in

ipecies, as

^

"^

^-^

(or

cx

^

^^

y)

to a^

its

fluxion will therefore be

had by mul•'

tiplyin? that

of the nutation,

o^iven above,

into

^-IC-i—Llllff^

and

fo

is

found to be
.

.^—- X -4- X

T

abe

sf X

— XX -^-bb — ^^ X cdx — abc^X'^
is

i

— xx

-,

whofe
/wAR

fluent,

which

abe T X —r X abd^z-^-bb

— aa x —
cdx

{abc^'z

-^abc^xs/ 1

— XX
N ar-

(=: ^^^p=^x—r-xdd-~ccxabz-\-bb-aaxcdxf.z-^abccxf.2
mufl: confequently be the preceffion
rives at the other equinodlial point
itfelf.

But, at the end of half a revolution,

when
both

the node

dy

this,

and the ex-

preffion for the nutation, will

being then

=

o,

and z

=

e

j

become much more fimple, x whence the nutation will be =z
3

^^ X ^X2bd = ^—- X -^ — mAR — iAR _
X dd—^cc z=
-77

and the preceflion equal to
ice (bccaufe cc
-{-

-r=r-

XI

dd =:

i).

COROLLARY
what
it

L

It appears from hence, that the mean preceffion of the equinox, arifing from the adtion of the moon, is in proportion to

would otherwife

be, if the moon's orbit
i

cide with the ecliptic, as

was

to coin-

j^cc to

tmity

:

whence the

true

value

32

Of

the Precejfion of the Equinox^

value thereof is to that depending on the fun, in a ratio compounded of the ratio of the denfity of the moon to the deniity

of the fun, and the aforefaid
u?iitv.

ratio

of

i

{cc (or 0,988) to

COROLLARY
of the node,
_ .J

IL

It appears likewife, that the

in half a revolution
tity

whole quantity of the nutation, is to the correiponding quanto

of the preceffion,

as

-^

dd

^cCy

or as umty to

c

^ X~ a 1

;

that

is,

as the radius to the excefs

of the co-

tangent, above half the tangent of the orbit's inclination,

drawn

into (1.5708) the meafure of half the periphery of the circle This proportion, in numbers, fupv/hofe diameter is unity.

poUng

the

mean
as

inclination

of the orbit to be 5°

8',

will

be

found to be

10 to 174, very near,

COROLLARY
node

IlL

Moreover, feeing the preceffion in half a revolution of the

— ;kAR x — xdd —
is

^^^~~xdd
%

{cc,

wc

have, z^ e

\

z

::

^^^-~~%dd—~cc
preceffion

-{cc,

the quantity of the

mean

during the time in which the node moves over the arch 2;, or This being fubtradcd from the true preceffion, found *T*N. above, the remainder
•^=T—
1

X -4- X abe

/^^

— aax cdx — \ahc'x\/ — xx
1

will

confe-

,

true above the

quently be the equation of the preceffion^ or the excefs of the mean : which equation or excefs, if we negledt

(whofe value, by reafon of the 1 of <:^, never amounts to ^th of a fecond) will evifmallnefs dently be at its greateil value at the end of -^th of a revoluthe term
tion,

— ~abc^x\/ — xx
bb

on the node's

arrival at the folllice

5

when

it

becomes

•^?=-

X
X

—- X

— aaxcdy

and,

is

therefore, in proportion to

•^=r-

,

the whole, or greateft quantity of the nutation,

during half a revolution of the node, as bb

— aa

:

2ab, or
as

and
as
I
:

the different
lab

Motions of the EartFs Axis.
as the radius to the tangent
ecliptic.

33

hb

— aa

,

that

Is,

of double

the inclination of the equator to the

COROLLARY

IV.

Furthermore, fince the value of c (the fine of the orbit's inclination) is but fmall, the laft term of the general exprefTion for the nutation, as well as that for the excefs of the true preceffion above the mean, may be rejefted, without producing any conliderable error ; whence the nutation is re-

duced

to

^^^

X

X

I

— \/ — XX,
1

and the preceffion

to

^^^ X

T

— X — aax
bb
abe

cdx.

Hence
<p,
will

it

appears that the deleav-

creafe of the inclination,

from the time of the node's

ing
( I

— v^i — xx)

the

equinodial

point

be as the verfed fine

of the node's true longitude

and that the

excefs of the true preceffion above the the fine (x) of the fame longitude.

mean,

will be always as

SCHOLIUM.
The quantity of the annual preceffion of the equinox arifing from the force of the fun, is found in Prob. IV, to be 21" ']'" ; upon the fuppolition of all the parts of the earth beIf, therefore, this ing homogenous, and in a llate of fluidity. quantity be taken from (50'') the whole, obferved, annual preceffion, ariling from the fun and moon conjundly, the remainder 28'' 53'" will confequently be the mean annual preceffion depending on the moon; which being increafed in the ratio of

1000

to

988 (according toProb.VII. Corol.I.)

gives 2c['i/!^'\ for

the quantity of the preceffion, if the orbit of the moon were Hence it will be to coincide with the plane of the ecliptic. (by the fame CoroL) as 21 "7"' is to 2 9'' 14", fo is the denfityof the

fun to the denlity of the moon, according to this hypothefts. But it is evident from experience (whether we regard the proportion of the tides, or the accurate obfervations of Dr. Bradley) that the denfity of the moon in refped: to that of the fun^

cannot be

io fmall as

it is

here affigned.

F

It

;4

Of the
It is true,

Precejfton of the Equinox^

there is no way of knowing the exaB ratio of the of the two luminaries ; iince theory, for want of fuffiAnd as to the method, by obferving cient data, fails us here. and comparing the fprhig and neap tides * (whether we regard the quantities or times of them) it cannot be otherwife than very precarious j confidering the many obilacles and intervening caufes by which they are perpetually, more or lefs, influenced and difturbed. Upon the whole it therefore feems to me, that the beft method to fettle this point (as far as the nature of the fubic<ft will allow of) is from the obfer'ved quantity of the nutation itfelf J agreeable to what has been hinted on this head by that celebrated Aftronomer, to whofe accurate obfervations we owe this important difcovery.
denfities

Let

us, therefore, take

g

to denote the greatefl: nutation
-,

of the

and then, if^ be taken to given by obfervation reprefent the iliean annual preceffion, given in like man?ier, it
earth's axis, as

will appear (by Prob. VII. Corol. II.) that i^i

x -\ X ^

is

the

part of the faid annual preceffion

whence the remaining
be

part,
5

owing
g\

to the fun,

depending on the moon muft neceflarily

y — -^ X^ (= 3^/ ~
VII
Corol
fo

Therefore

we

have (by Pro^

blem

I)
is

as

^

x ^,^
•'

to If/zii?!, or as

—p-^
of
"^

X

— 900

^r- to I,

the denflty of the

moon

to the denfity

the fun J which, in numbers (making g come 1 8''), will out as 2,09 to I. But if the value of g be fuppofed only a fecond or two greater or lefs than 1 8'', the refult will be fenlibly different, as may be feen in the annexed Table ; wherein, belides the ratio of the deniities, are alfo exhibited the mean

=

depending on the forces of the fun and moon, refpeftively ; together with the greateft equation of the faid preceffion, as given by Problem VII Corollary III
quantities of the annual preceffion,

*

Sir

to ij and

Isaac Newtok, by this method, makes the proportion M. Daniel Bernoulli, only as 2^ to i.

to

be

as 4|-

Greateft

and

the different Motions

of the Earth's Axis,

35

36
values,

Of
win be
is,

the Precejffto?t
as the difference

of the Equmox^

node's prefent diftance
grees, that
as

between the verfed fine of the from ^y, and the verfed fine of 90 dethe co-fine of the node's diftance from

^

Therefore, to find the nutation at any given time,

it

will be,

of the 7iode s diflance from the nearejl iqninociial pointy fo is the greateft nutation to the nutation fought. Which, to have the true obliquity of the equator to the ecliptic, muft be added, when the node is in any of the fix
the radius is to the co-fine

As

afcending

figns'\'V, twt,

K

,

T> ^

>

H

;

but, otherwife, fubtrafted.

The following Table, fhewing by infpedtion, as well the equation of the precefiion, as that of the obliquity of the ecliptic, is computed from the proportions here laid down j upon fuppofition that the greateft quantity of the nutation is 1 9 feconds.
Ihe
iiquaiion oi the x'recelfion

Equinox.

and

the different Motions

of the Earth's Axis,
where
For,

37

will interfeft the circumference of the ellipfe in the point

the pole of the equator {p)
firft,
it is

is,

at that

time, poiited.

from what has been already remarked, that AE and BE will be the greatcft and leaft diftances of the tv/o poles, as being equivalent to the refpedive inclinations of the two from v/hence and CoroL planes, the equator and the ecliptic IV. it is manifeft, that ER or E/> will be the true diftance of the
clear,
:

faid poles,

from
fine
:

^

is

when the verfed fine of the node's diftance (APS) AR. Moreover, by conJiruBion^ CP AB \ the con: : :

2EP
:

:

co-fin.

EP
:

i

that

is,

in fpecies,
:

b.

And,
:

p. fpherics, tang.
a.

PEC
: :

CP AB tang. PC {: PEC
:
:

:

^^IIl^
:

:

PC,
aa

nearly)

rad. (i)

Therefore, by compounding thefe two

proportions,
2.ab

we

have

PEC AB
:

°^
:

ab :: bb

-.

: which proportion, for finding the angle PEC, is the very fame with that determining the greateft difference of the mean, and true longitudes, as given by CoroL III. Whence it eafily

follows, that the angle

KEp

will exprefs the difference of the

mean and
angle

true longitudes, at the given pofition of the
:

node;
:

fince, as the radius

fine

APS

(:

:

PD RS
:

:

:

PF

:

Rp)

:

the

PEC
ratio

:

The

of

the angle RE/>, as it ought to be, by CoroL IF. CF to AB is here determined to a geometrical

no-ways depending, either, on the denfity of the moon, or on any other phyfical hypothefis. Plaving now laid down the general proportions for the nutation of the earth's axis, and the precefiion of the equinox, I
exa(5tnefs, as

fhall

much
1°.

here fubjoin the neceffary rules for determining how the declinations and right-afcenfions of the ftars are af-

fedled by thofe inequalities.

fion, arifing
.

For the alteration of aftar's declination, and right-afcenfrom the nutation of the earth's axis it will be
-,

As

the radius is to the fine

of the fiars

right-ajcenjioriy

fo

is

the nutation (or the given alteration of the equators inclination to the ecliptic) to the alteration of the fiars declination^ caifed by
the nutation
;

And^ as
of
its

the co-tangent

of
is

the far s declination is to the co-fine

right-afcenfon, fo

the nutation to

the alteration of the
2°.

fiars right-afcenfon, correfponding,

For

38
2°.

Of
For the
cenfion, arifing

the Precejfton
alteration

of the Equinox^
ftar's

of the

declination

and
;

right-af-

from the

preceffion of the equinox

it

will

be

As

the co-fecant of the obliquity

of the

ecliptic

is

to the

co-fne

of the Jlars right-afcenfion^ fo is the precejjion of the equinox (cr the alteration of the far s longitude) to the alteration of the ftars
declination^

caufed by the precefjion
s

;

And as
its

the co-fine of the far

declination

is to

the co-tangent

of

angle of poftion^ fo is the alteration of declination^ found by the laji proportion^ to the alteration of right-afcenfioji, anfwering thereto.

Any
fee

one, but

little

acquainted with the fphere, will eaiily
additive,

when
it

thefe equations are

and when fubtrad;ive
reafons

:

nor will

be
are

at all difficult to

comprehend the

upon

founded ; they being nothing more than fo many particular cafes of the general relation fubfifting between the fluxions of the lides and angles of a Ipherical' triangle *. It will not, however, be improper to rem.ark here, that, when the quantity of the preceffion, in the fecond of the preceding cafes, amounts to fome minutes^ it will be neceifary, in order to have the concluiion fufficiently exa6i:, to make ufe of the mean right-afcenfion, at the middle of the given interval 3 which, from the given right-afcenfion at the beginning of the interval, may be eftimated near enough for the purpofe, in moil cafes, without the trouble of a calculation but in other cafes, and when the utmoft exad:nefs is required, it will be necelTary to repeat

which they

:

the operation.

not be improper to obferve likewife, that, belides the equations depending on the polition of the lunar nodes, computed above, there is a fmali motion of nutation and preceffion '.iriiing from the moon's declination y whereof the greateft quantity is to the greateft quantity of that depending on the fun, in a ratio compounded of the ratio of the denfities of the two bodies, that of their periodic times, and that of the fines of the inclinations of their refpe6tive orbits to the plane of the equaIt tor,

may

nearly

(as

appears by Prob. IV. and VI.)

Whence

it is

evident, that this part of the nutation, depending on the moon's,

any circumflance, amount to more than about -^th of a fecond y a quantity too fmall to merit attention in the practice of Aflronomy.
declination, cannot, in

* See

my

De^rine of Fluxions, Part

11.

Se^.

I.

Remarks^.

and

the different Motions of the

EartFs Axis,

39

Remarh

on

fome Particulars
i7i

in the preceding Theory
to

a7td Galctilatio7ts \
certain diffictdties
arife,

order

explain

and

objeBions that

and obviate may thence

the be obferved, IT may confidered theineffects along,
fately
;

firft

place, that

of the fun and

we have, all moon fepabe no-ways
too

and, confequently, have fuppofed
efpecially,
as

them
This

to

influenced or difturbed by each other.

may feem

bold an affumption

-,

it is

known

that the tides,

are produced by the very fame forces, depend upon, and are greatly varied by, the different politions of the two lu-

which

minaries.

To remove this objection, let ^SM|£i; reprefent the plane Fig. of the earth's equator its interfeftion with the plane of the ecliptic, ^yS the right-afcenlion of the fun, and the right-afcenfion of the moon and let the forces of the two bodies to turn the earth about its center, in thofe pofitions, be reprefented by and P, refpecftivcly. Thefe forces may be confidered as acfling perpendicular to the plane of the equator in the points S and M, and will be equivalent to, and have the fame effedt with, one fingle force, But, equal to them both, a(5ling in their center of gravity N. by mechanics, the force y-j-JP, afting at N, will (if the radius

16.

^O^^

tM

-,

^

OP
ing

be drawn through

N)

be equivalent, to another force, ad:-

ing at P, expreffed

by/+Fx-^, orJ+Fx
SB and MC,
to

^

(fuppof-

NQ, PR,

as alfo

be perpendicular to

TOf25). But the quantity of the precefHon, during a given moment of time, is known to be as the force, and as the fine of the jight-afcenfion, conjundly (by Prob. III.) from whence the two quantities arifing from the fun and moon, confidered feparately, are expounded by /x SB, and JPxMC, refpe6tively. But, fuppoiing both bodies to ad together, or, which is the
-,

fame, fuppofing one fingle force, expreffed by

y -(- F X -p^-?
to

40
to
a(5l

Of
at P,

the Precejfton of the Equinox^

the quantity of the precefTion will then (by the

very fame rule) be truly defined

hyf-\-Fx -p^x PR,

or

its

by the property of the center of gravity, is known to be equal to^x SB -j- jpx MC. Hence it is manifeil that, whether the forces of the luminaries be joined together, or treated apart, the refult will be the
quantity,

equaiy-|-Fx

NQ^

which

fame.

The
orbit,

next

difficulty,

relates to the excentricity

of the lunar

Fig. 17.

and the inequality of the motion in that orbit ; which may be thought fufficient to occafion a fenfible deviation from rules founded on a fuppolition that pays no regard to them. In order to clear up this point alfo, imagine ADBE to be an ellipfe, in which the moon is fuppofed to revolve, about the center of the earth, placed in the lower focus F of the ellipfe let AB be the tranfverfe axis of the ellipfe, perpendicular to moreover let there which, through F, draw the ordinate IH other lines DE, de^ through the focus F, to be drawn any two
:

;

make

a very fmall (given) angle

DF^with
moon,

each other.
the diftance

The
ftance
;

perturbating force of the
I.

at

DF,

will (by Prop.

CoroL II.) be, inverjly^ as the cube of that di-

and the time of defcribing the given angle DF^^ will, it is well known, be direBly as the fquare of the fame diftance. Therefore, by compoiition, the quantity of the moon's adion,
ratio

during the time of defcribing this angle, will be in the fimple of the faid diftance, inverjly. Hence it appears, that the fum of the forces employed, during the times of defcribing the
oppolite angles

DF^, EF^,
4-

Vv^ill

be truly defined by pr^

+ w*
fo fhall
:

or

its

equal

FE
-r,,,

FD
„,^
.

Upon AB

FE

— FH

let fall

the perpendiculars

:

FI (FH)
:

— FD
or

FD

(p'Jim. triang.)

confequently FE x FD — FH x FD =

:

:

DN and EM FM FN (p.
:

;
:

ellipfe)

FE

:

FH X FE
of the

~-

FD X FE,
it

2FExFD
that

=FHxFE + FD:
FF
-4"^

therefore, as

appears
is,

from hence

FD

,

the meafure

fald forces,

every- where, equal to the conflant quantity

and
tity -i-.,

the different Motions
it is

of the Earth's Axis.

41

evident that the excentricity of the orbit and the
effe(fl

polition

of the apogee have no

on the motion of the

earth's axis.

may, perhaps, arife, with regard to the addition of the forces employed by the moon in oppofite parts of her orbit ; which ftep may be looked upon as arbitrary but the reafon upon which it is founded will be clear, by coniidering that the moon's inclination to the plane of the equator, and that, in oppoiite points of her orbit, is always the fame therefore, the very fame efFed; in the alteration of the pofition of the equator will be produced, whether the whole force employed during the defcription of the correfponding oppofite angles, be equally, or unequally, divided, with refped to the faid angles ; fmce the faid force ads with the fame advantage, or under the fame circumftance of declination, in both cafes. Another difficulty that may arife, is in relation to our having made the effeft of the fun's force to be about f part lefs than the quantity refulting from calculations founded on hydroftatical principles and the hypothefis of an uniform denfity of all the parts of the earth. But, that the ph^^nometion cannot be truly accoiirxted for, upon this hypothefis, appears from the concurrence ot all for, whether we regard the menfuraexperiments in general tion of the degrees of the earth, the accurate obfervations of Dr. Bradley, or the proportions and times of the tides, the cafe is the fame, and requires a much lefs eife(ft from the adion of the
objedlion
:

An

;

:

from, or can confifl with, the faid hypothefis. But if the denfity of the earth, inflead of being uniform, is fuppofed to increafe from the furface to the center (as there is the greateft reafon to imagine it does), then xh.Q ph(^?tomenon may be eafily made to quadrate with the principles of gravitation ; and that according to innumerable fuppofitions, refpefting the law whereby the denfity may be conceived to increafe. Thus, conformable to the hypothefis laid down in the Scholium after Prob. V. the motion of the equino6tial points will be in proportion to the motion of the fame points when the
fun than
refults
,

^""

denfity

is

fuppofed uniform, as

to i, that

is,

G

as

42
as
I

Of

the Precejfton

of the Equinox^
I
:

""
;

^~

is

to

therefore,

V -{(?
/^'PXTT
;

+5X

by making

i

^/ir

4- 5
J

__

(agreeable to

what has been above
-

obferved),

we

fhall

have

^

^

..

=—

:

by means

of which equation, the relation of
innumerable ways.
TT

tt, (p,

figned, as to give the true quantity of the preceffion,

and v may be ib afand that

=

As one
let

inftance

hereof, let us fuppofe

2,

or that the denfity at the center

at the furface;
or,

and

the value of

which comes

to the fame, let

is juft double to that be fuppofed very great, the Jirata in the lower parts
(p

of the

earth, be fuppofed very nearly fpherical, or orbicular
'^

then our equation will become
becaufe
ly
\

^+?' + 5X2z;-f

=—
5

j

which,
,

3

(p is

fuppofed very great, will be
is

—^— r= —

near-

whence v

given

=

5

:

fo that, according to this

hypo-

thefis,

the decreafe of denlity, in going from the center of the

earth to the furface, will be in the quintuplicate ratio of the
diftances

from the

center.

can imagine that we pretend here to afcertain the all that ftrudlure and denfity of the interior parts of the earth is attempted, is to fhew (which indeed is all that can be done) that the preceffion of the equinox may be truly accounted for upon the principles of gravitation^ though not in the hypothecs of an uniform denfity of all the parts of the earth, unlefs by affuming the difference of the leafl and greateft diameters much fmaller than it is found to be, either, from hydroftatical principles, or by an actual mcnfuration of the degrees of the
:

No One

earth's meridian.

There remains

yet another particular that I cannot avoid tak;

which is the wide difference to be found between our conclufion, in Prob. IV. Corol. I. and that brought out by Sir Isaac Newton (in Prop.^^)* Book III. of his Pri?icii)ia) from the very lame data,
I

ing fbme further notice of

am

and
I

the differ e?it Motions
is

of the Earths Axis,
upon
3

43
but

am
I

lenlible that this

a delicate point to touch

then

know

likewife, that I

might leave

my Readers

difiatisfied,

endeavour to point out the caufes of the faid difhad, myfelf, a ftrong fufpicion that I had, ference. fomewhere, fallen into an error ; which put mc upon attemp!:ing the folution by different methods, as the moil proper way to arrive at certainty, and to difcover the millake, if any j'uch had crept into my calculations. Two of the^e methods I have given; the others feemed unneceffary. The exad: concurrence of them ail, firif made me think, that it was not impolTible bat there might be a fault in that Author's folution ; and occafioned my looking into his method with a more particular attention than I had before regarded it with. What, at firft, feemed moft doubtful to me was his hypothecs, that the motion of the nodes of a ring would be the fame wtoether the ring were fluid, or whether it conffied of a hard rigid ?natter * ; this, I fay, did not feem at all clear, at firfl ; but upon recoUeding the demonflration of my fecond Lemma (wherein this point is fully, though not diredlly, proved) I was foon convinced that the fault (if fuch there was) mufl be owing to fomething elfe. In the next place, his third Lemma did not appear to me In this Lemma fo well grounded as the two preceding ones.

were not

I to

At

firfl I

fubtlety expatiated
fents the

* The celebrated mathematician M. D'Alembert, who has with great on Sir Isaac Newton's folution of this Problem, repreabove
hypothefis, as

fluid ftate, the particles, or

and the fame plane
centres places dans

(il eft

and fays, that, when the ring is in a will not have their centers in one certain que des lunes ifolees Tt'auroient pas toujours leurs
ill

founded

;

detached

moons

un mime plan). Now if, by this, we are to underftand, that the deviation from a plane is fomething fenfible in comparifon of the nutation in queftion, what is advanced i^ repugnant to what is demonftrated in our fecond Lemma. But if an exceeding fmall deviation (depending on the fecond term of a feries) be only intended (and fuch it muft be, if any thing at all), fuch a fuppofition will make nothing againft our Author's aflumption; as, in phyfical fubje<Sts, a perfedl: accuracy is not to be expelled. This learned gentleman himfelf allows, that, the confidering of all the particles (or the ring of moons) as being in the fame plane, produces np error in the conclufion from whence it might, with fome reafon, be imagined, that the hypothefis itfelf could not be other wife than true. And it feems farther plain to me, that, whatever lights that Author's overfights in the folution of this Problem are capable of being placed, his real miftakes are two only.
:

G

2

he

Of

the Frecejfion of the Equi?tox^

he determines, that the motioji of the whole earth about its axcy arijing fromJhe motion of all the particles will be to the motion oj a rtng about the fame axe^ in a proportion compounded op the proportion oj the tnatter in the earth to the matter in the ring^ and oj the Mmtber 925725 to the number 1 000000. This proportion is, indifputably, true, in the fenfe of the Author but a difference between the quantity of motion, fo conthere is lidered, and the momentum whereby a body, revolving round an axis, endeavours to perfevere in its prefent ftate of motion,
,
:

force imprelTed. Now it feems clear kind of mome?2tum that ought to be regarded, in computing the alteration of the body's motion, in confequence of any fuch force. And here every particle is to be conlidered as ad:ing by a lever terminating in the axis of motion fo that, to have the whole momentum fought, the moving force of each particle mufi: be multiplied into the length of the lever by which it fuppofed to adl whence the momentum of each particle will be proportional to the fquare of the diftance from the axis of motion ; as it is known to be in finding the centers of percuffion of bodies, which depend on the very fame principles. Now, according to this way of proceeding, it will be found,, that the momentum of the whole earth (taken as a Iphere) will be to the momentum of a very flender ring, of the fame diameter, revolving in the fame time, about the fame axe, in a proportion compounded of the proportion of the matter in the earth to the matter in the ring, and of the number 800000 to
in oppofition to

any

new
lafi:

to

me,

that

it is

this

:

:

the

number
to

1

000000.

Which

proportion, therefore, differs

from

that of Sir

800000

Isaac Newton, given above, in the ratio of 925725: fo that, if his refult, which is ci'y"'2d^,
in this ratio,

be increafed

then have 10'' 33''', for the quantity of the annual preceffion of the equinox, arifing from the force of the fun 3 allowing for the above-mentioned diffliall

we

ference.
It

appears further,
it

there affumes
earth, at
its

by perufing his 3 9th Propoiition, that he as a principle, that, if a ring, encompaffing the

or begin, to

equator AI^^L (but detached therefrom) was to tend, move about its diameter LI with the fame accelerative

and
tivc force,

the different Motions

of the Earth's Axis*
whereby the earth
itfelf

45

or angular celerity, as that
S)

tends to
the fun

move about
(at
;

the fame diameter, through the action of that then the motion of the nodes of the ring
Fig. 8.

and of the equator would be exadly the fame. Now this would indeed be the cafe, were not the cffeds of thefe forces \vhereby the two bodies tend to move about the diameter LI,
and interrupted by the other motions about the axe of rotation P/>, and that according to a different ratio, depending on the different figures of the earth and ring. A fphere, let the dire(ftion of its rotation be which way it
to be influenced
is, let it move about what diameter it will, has always the fame momentum^ provided it has the fame angular celerity but the momentum of a very Hender ring, revolving about one of its diameters, appears (hy hem. W.) to be only the half of what it would be, if the revolution was to be performed in a plane, about the center of the ring. Whence it is evident, that the ring Alah, to acquire the fame motion of preceffion and nutation with the earth's equator, ought to

will, that

:

I

tend to move about the diameter LI with an accelerative force double to that whereby the earth itfelf tends to move about the fame diameter, through the adlion of the fun fmce, in this cafe, the quantities of motion, or the momenta, generated in the two bodies, during any very fmall particle of time, would be exactly proportional to the refpedlive momenta of rotation, whereby the bodies endeavour to perfevere in their prefent ftate and diredion of motion, in oppofition to any new force imHence it follows that all conclufions, relating to the preffed. change of the pofition of the earth's axe, drawn from the principle above fpecified, mufl be too little by jufl one half 5 and confequently that the quantity of the annual preceflion of the equinox, arifing from the adion of the fun, ought to be the double of I o'' 33''' J which is 21" 6'", and agrees, to a third, with what we before found it to be^ by two different methods.
:

A.

A

exad Method for finding the Place of a Planet in its orbit, from aCorredion of Ward's hypothefn^ by means of One, or more Equations,
very

applied to the motion about the upper focus.
I

a.

I

S'

.^^Je^ET ABPC be the
^'

ellipfes in

which the planet revolves

about the fun in the lower focus S j let F be the up^v and m any two places of the pla^-^^"^^ per focus, and net indefinitely near to each other ; and let FM, F;/;, SM, ^m be drawn, as likewife MN, perpendicular to the greater

^

M

axis

AP

:

from the center F, with the

radius

FD =

i ,

let

the

circumference of a circle DE(? be defcribed, and from its interperpendicular to AP put draw (ediion with
:

EH AO FM 0B(— OC)=^, OF(=OS)=:f, FM=://, (=OP)~^, FH = X, EH = y, DE = z, and E*? = % then SM being = AP — FM) =z 2a — Ui by the nature of the ellipfes, and
:

(

FN (= FH X FM = xu, we have, by a known property of ^^ triangl es, SM -f FM x SM— FM {2a x 2a— 2u) = 2SF x ON
\

j

(4<:
'^

X
^

c -{- xii)

:

from which equation u (FM)

is

found

=

- (becaufe bb
a
-{-

=iaa

a

cc)

:

whence
^^
^\

-\-

ex

ex

SM (= 2«
~.


we

u) '

is alfo

had

in terms of x. beine ^ ^

=

a-\- ex

Now

the area
:

EF^

being expreffed by \%
: :
:

(= FE x tE^ ),

have FE' ( i ) FM' ii the area MF/« =: {-i; x FMl\ Therefore, the angle SM;« being equal to FMA, or F;«A S;;zxwM x (by the nature of the curve) we alio have

FM Mw

:

SM) : : the area (|i; (or the area of the triangle SM;«
:

FM

=
.

x FMI) of
-^%

the triangle

YM.m
, ,

:

x

FM x SM (Elem. 23. 6.)
X I — a-a=T==T^~" a-\- ex\


-^

^b^i. y.aa-\~ec-\-

laex

=T=V a -y
cx\

,

,

x

\)p-c^k

"*^

^

"T

=

^

.

"*^

^

+

,

= the

fluxion of the area

ASM.

In order to find the
fluent

A very exaB Mjhod for findings
fluent hereof, let
G?^.
..

&c.

47
7.CX
-

^—,, be refolved
cx\
firil:

into the feries

a 4-

—— a
_

«'

,

,

(whereof the two

terms

will,

here, be fufficient)

by

which means our
which, becaufe
'^^2

fluxion will

become

{b z-\-will

4-

— —
-

yz=z
^y

—^

j—

^,

and xz ^= j/,

be reduced to
be

X

^;

whofe

fluent will therefore

t!

ily exprefl:ed

by {b'z
-Ixy

a- i!^ X iz

+ ^ x area DHE — -^, or — -^ (becaufe the area DHE ~ ^DE
^^b'z

M coincides with P,
{

X

DP — [HP X EH =iz
and z
will

is

This expreflion, ixyj. ::rr the femi-circumference
(fuppofing

when

DEK
i

= f)y
—L
:

become

tl^tll~t^
1
1-

^

= +
have,
:

-^ )
2^^

:r= the area

of the femi-ellipfis

ABP. Therefore we
the area

as

2

4^fl'

3^

(=
:

ASM)
-:

:

p

(=

the length of an arch of 180°)

z

—z-,

= the

length of an arch (A) exprefling the planet's

mean anomaly

from which equation, z
fin.

=A

-|

-|

-—

=A

-|-

^x
=
;

2z -{- -^^ X
:

fin.

2^1

(becaufe xy,

or co-fin.

z x fin.

2J

vfin.2z) where the two lafl: terms being very fmall in comparifon of the others (and, therefore, z nearly r^= A), we may,
infl:ead

of

fin.

z and

fin.

2Zj fubfi:itute
'

fin.

which means we have z-=r.A~\

—^xfin.2A + -^xfin. A^^
j^a^d
'

^ and

fin.

2^

by

3fiV

From whence

it

appears, that, in order to have the angle

AFM

at the upper focus, the mean anomaly (A) of the planet at the time given, mufi: be increafed by the quantity, or correc-

tion

-^ X

fin. 2

A + -^

X finTAl^
in

But

to exprefs the value of this corre(5lion

fcconds of
it

a degree

(which in pradice

is

the mofi:

commodious)

will

48
is

A very
will be, as

exaSi

Method for

findijig

3,1416 (the length of an arch of 180 degrees) to 648000 (the number of feconds in that arch) fo is
xfin.

2A
3

^a-d
1

+ -^xfin. Ap to 51567 x-^xfin. 2A +
'

^a'^d

^

375 1 3 x-iT^xfin. A' a'd
:

= the number

of feconds in the

faid

corredion

the logarithm of the latter term of

which

will,

therefore, be

=

5,

1383

log.

^

+3

c

log.

1-

a

3 log. fin.
c —

A

;

and
fin.

that

of the former

= 4,7123 —

log.

d

-\-

2 log.

-|- log.

2A. But, to render thefe expreiTions ftill more convenient of d^ by reafon of its fmallnefs, may be, either, intirely negleded, or elfe fo alTumed, to be nearly a mean of what it is known to be in the planetary orbits. Aefor pradiice, the log.

cordingly, by affiiming the excentricity c
diftance

= — of the mean
8

(which is a fmall matter lefs than the excentricity of Mars^ but fomething greater than thofe of the Moon, Saturn,

and Jupiter), the value of ^

(=

i

-f"

j will

be

=
be

1,0032,

and

its

logarithm

= 0,0014.
by

Whence

the log. of the former
5,
1

part of our correction,

fubflituting this value, will

369

+
and

3 log.
that

~

+

3 log- fin.
latter

A=

3

x i,7i23+log.i.

+

log.f.

A

of the

= 4,7109 + 2 log.—
at length,

-\- log.

fm. 2

A

:

which, expreffed in words

give the following

PraBical Rules,

To the fum of the conftant logarithm 1,7123 and the of the excentricity in parts of the mean diftance, add the log. fine of the mean anomaly j the fum (rejeCling the radius) being tripled, will give the log. of the firil equation (in feconds) to be added to the mean anomaly. 2°. To the fum of the conftant log. 4,7109 and twice the log. of the excentricity, add the log. line of twice the mean anomaly ; the fum (rejedling the radius) will be the log. of the fecond equation ; to be added or fubtrafted, according as the Here mean anomaly is lefs, or greater than 90 degrees.
1°.

log.

the Place of

a Planet in

its

Orhit.

49

Here, and in what follows, the anomaly is to be always reckoned from, or to the aphelion, the neareft way ; in which the feconds may be omitted, in computing the propofed corrections. Which corrections being made, the true anomaly, or angle at the lower focus, will be had from the common
proportion, by faying, as the aphelion-diftance
helion-diftance, fo
is
is

to the peri-

the tangent of half the
the ufe of the

mean anomaly,

thus correcfled, to the tangent of half the true anomaly fought.

As an example of
let

the excentricity be fuppofed

method here laid down, =. 0,048219 (being that afand
let

ligned, by Dr. Halley, mean anomaly be 45".

to the orbit of Jupiter)

the

Then, log. excent.

.

.

=^ ^^Z' ^°^ ^d cqu. 2,0773 0,3955 log. fin. 2 anom. 10,0000 9,8494 2^ ^^' ii9t' "2^0773 0,2449 5^-'' firft equ_^= 0,7347 From 1,978537 =: log. of perihelion-dift. 0,951781, fubtr. 0,020452 =r log. of the aphelion-dift. 1,0482 1 9 ;
log. for iflequ.

=

+

conit. log.

.

.

2,6832 1,7123

2 log. excent.
-\- Q.QVi'^AQg.
.

.

.

.

.

.

3,3664 4,7109

log. fin.

anom.

.

.

=

the rem. i,958o85,willbea(3d) conft.log. for thisorbit: to which add 9,617596 =z log. tang. 7 cor. anom. 22° 3 1' 2 ;",

9,57568 whofe double, 41°
quired.

fo fhall

1

=

log. tang. { true
is

15' 20",

anomaly 20° 37' 40": therefore the true anomaly rej

The fame
be,

excentricity being retained

let

the

mean anomaly
.
.

now, fuppofed 120 degrees. Then, log. fm. anom. 9,9375
log. for firft equat.

log. fm. 2

firft

equat.

= 10"

Hence 120°
anomaly.

+ 10" —
Y

0,3955 0,3330 0,9990
1'

log. for

9,9375 2d equation 2,0773 1037' 2,0148 2d equat.

anom.

=

43i"

=119° 58' 267'

= the

cor.

Therf

log. tang.
-\-

cor.

anom. 59°59'i3t"
.
.

10,238331

=

third confl. log. for this orbit
log. tang.

.

.

1,958085

Y true anom. ^y° 32' 10"

H

10,196416

Whence

CO

A very
Whence
greateft that

exaEl

Method for finding
itfelf is

the anomaly

given

=

3*

25°

4' 20".

If the excentricity be afllimed

=

Dr.

Halley

gives to the lunar orbit) the

0,066777 (being the two

conftant logarithms, to be added to the fines of the

mean anowhence
if

maly and of its double, will be 0,5369 and 2,3601
the faid anomaly be taken

= 50°
^

:

(at

which, according to the

Do5iors

pro expediendo calculo cequationis centri lunce, the whole correcflion is a maximum) the former part of the faid 18^', and the latter part correcftion will be found 225I-":
'Table y

=

=

therefore die

fum of both

is

244'',

or 4'

^'',

agreeing, exa(5tly,

with the quantity given in the liable. And in the very fame manner, the proper corrections correfponding to other anomalies and excentricities may be computed 3 the error ne^'cr amounting to above a fingle fecond in any of the planets, except Mars and Mercury : in the place of Mars^ the greateft error will be two or three fecond s j and in that of Mercury^ As to the Earth and Venus ^ the feabout as many minutes. cond equation, alone, will be fufficient to give their places to

lefs

than a fecond.
obtain

To
fary

a

farther
is

when

the orbit
only)
a

very eccentrical,

the two

firfi;

make

be necefof a greater number of terms of ufe of
correcftion,

which

will

we may
(=:

(inftead

the feries -^
a

— -^ + ^^ — ^^^ ^c.
a
a

'
.

,

V
/

by
.

^ -{

cx\

which means the fluxion
defcribed about the focus
will

{{b'-z
S,

-J-===^ a cx\

+

J J

of the area

MSA

which

is

proportional to the time,

be here reprefented by

'\b'^z -\-

\F X e'y'z


;

2.e'>>y''xz

+

'^e^y'x^z

\e^y'^x'^%

&c. (fup(fin. z\^)

pofmge
•=.
fin,
'^

=—
\

'.

But

it

is

well

known

that

y"^

~ z

co-fin.

2z whence y'^x [=. y^ x co-fin. 2;) ^ co~ co-fin. z co-fin. 2z X co-fin. z \ co-fin. z -^ co-fin. z 32; * \ co-fin. 32; j and therefore y'x'
\ co-fin.

=

=

=

* This, and

all

that follows to the farr.e purpofe,

application of the

Theorem,
is

That
to

the re£iangle

(the radius being unity)

equal

half the

fum

is nothing more than the of the co-fines of any ttvo angles of the co-fmes of the fum and

difference of ihofe angles.

the Place

of a Planet in

its

Orbit,

c r

=
fin.

I

2z — i
y'^x'^

co-fin.

2;

X co-fin. z

co-fin. 22;

—\
:z

alfo

— yV

=:

V co-fin.

co-fin. 3 2;

— yV

— —^
e"-

-\

co-fin. 32;

co-fin. 42;

x =—
\

co-fin.
\

z =: ^

co-fin.

-t" ^ co\z: whence

co-fin. 42;

x

co-fin.

z =:

i co-fin.

z

co-fin. 52;.

Which

values being

now

fiib-

ftituted for their equals,

our fluxion, above given, will become

j l^'-z

-f-

-^^'


f"-

2f^

X -|2; co-f. z -V X 32;co-f. 32;-!- 3(f^ 4^5 X 2;co-f.2; jV X 32;co-f. 32^
confequently,
the
fluent

into

X jz

|-

x x

22:
c

2;


^

co -fin. 2z
--'~

x

42: co-f.42;

-g-^

— ^fin.22:--2d-3x-|f2;^^'-f.3i-f3g X iz — j\fm.4.z — X — &c. := \F 2% —
X ^z
46'5'

and,

thereof

x ^zco-L^z -\-&c. =: ^^z -f- li?^ into
into

ifine2;
i^'''

j'w^^^g

-g^'-

fine, 52;
^ii^-

.

+ P~+ 7^ X
J

+

T^'

X ^

T^^

fin. 32;

— l^fin.

+

1.^^

X
-f

^

i^'fin.

^z

-|-

42;

'~ fin.

52 (fuppofing

all

more than five dimenfions, to be This expreflion, when z =z p (= the femi-cirdifregarded). {e^- -\- \e^ &c. x p =z cumference AEK) becomes i^' x i
fuch terms wherein
e rifes to

U'pxi

— eer^ — ~~L= =
/i — —
^^^2;

+

^/'^ ^ ^
v^^^'

=:

i^al^p

^^

=

the area

of the femi-ellipfe ABP.

ABP)
(area

:


:
:

Hence

it

will be,

as ^al?p

(area

-^^'x-^^3_^i.^5 xfin.2;

1^' xj^^fin.22; &c.
:

ASM)
j4j

p

(the length of

an arch of 180°)

2;

-—

— x|-<f3-4-ifS
arch
fubfi:ituting

xfin.2;

X- fin. 22;
we have

&c.

= the length
:

of the

exprefiing the planet's

mean anomaly

whence, by

/=

-,

i

A= z—
32

i-^-e^xi'fe^rm.z

jfe'^ fin. 22; -f- I

+
x

T^^

3fir..f.r. .^ifX ^fi^ fin. 32; —~ ^^— x fin. 42; -\--'— x

fine

20

Sz.

Now,
afilime

to find
its

the fines of

multiples,

from hence the value of 2r, in terms of A and we may, for a firfl: approximation,
ife^ fm.

i-\-£^

z

-f-

jfe^{m.2z ^c.

as

equal to

ye'fm. 2 A X T>3 fin. A T+J? X ^fi^ fin. 3 A GrV. which laft quantity being denoted by ^, we fhall have A A -|- Q;_ z Q, and confequently 2; But 2

7+7

+

H

=

=

^2
But
co-iin.
fin.

A very exaB Method for jindmg
A

=

z

(= fin. A + Q)
fin.

=
=

fin.

Ax

co-fin.

A -f- Qx co-fin. A,

Q -f

fin.

Qx

nearly (becaufe

Q^being

very fmall, its co-fine will differ infenfibly from the radius, and the fine very little from the arch itfelf). In the fame

f 2A -f- 2(ix co-f 2A, fin. 32; manner, f 2z (= f 2 A -|- 2Q) r= f. 3 A -j- 3 Qx co-f. 3 A, ^c. Which values being therefore fubflituted in the given equation,
it

A = z — ^— ^^ 7+7 X lyg^co-f A -f -^-//co-f 2 A — 7+ 17 X iy^3 co-f 3 a ^c.
will

become

But the
into

terms having more than five dimenfions € be negleded) will be barely of \fe'>> x co-fin. ^y^-'fin. 2A lyV X co-fin. x fin.2A tV/'^^ >^
(if all

fin.

Ax — — =— = A 3A fame manner x — 0^= — In — K — — ^fe^ x 2A X -^>3fin.A + T>Tin. 2A 4A x x A fin.3A — fin.A — tV/ — Q^qual — + X A x And, 3A X Q1= ^ A x X — A. The fum of which = -^/"e^ X 5A be -V/^^fin.A — r\fe^im.iA — -'^feHm.^A +_Jwfe^ — —Q 5A which added x A— A=:z — + — A, &c.) — py x 3A — X ^elffm.A-^ i//fin.2A + 7+

—Q
-f-

iirft

term of the

feries,

i

-j-^^

X

Yy^^co-fin.

A, drawn

=

finTA.

the

-fe'o.o-im.'zk

^J^^co-fin.

^fe-^im.i

'^^

fin.

-f-

-/-/V5

fin.

5 A-f-fin.

Iafi:ly,

i

t^'

i/^'3 co-fin.

-f/^' co-fin. 3 co-fin. 3 fe^'

to

fin.

fin.

all

i/^' fin. 2 will

fin.

;

to

2;

(or

its

equal,

2;

i

-)-f^

^fe^

fin.

jfe'' fin.

2

gives

i

^'

TTfi'

^e^

lelfnn.

I7-Rf
we
I

X ^fin.4A -f -\f-\.-J-fe^ x fin.5A. From whence

have

z


all

K

-^

1

-f ^'^ x

i^!/fin.

A + ^/fin. 2 A


5,

— -^ X

i<?*/fin.3A -|-

i^Vin.4A

— 3ZlZfin.5A, very near

the quantities

terms having more than three dimenfions of ^, i and^ may be ufed indifferently, for each other, without producing any errors but fuch as confiil of more than five dimenfions of the converging quantity e.
becaufe in
But, fince

5A
by

= 5S — 2oS3

it

is

known
-j-

that fin. 3

A

= 3S —

S^,

and

fin.

i6S^ (S being the fine of

A) we

Ihall,

fubfi:ituting thefe values in

the 2d, 4th, and 6th terms (after proper

the Place of
proper reduction) have

a Planet in
r=

its

Orbit,
x
\e'^f^^^

c

3

2;

A -|-

i

-|- 4^^'

— IZfZss

+

i^'/xfin.

2A

+

^-^xfin.4A.

Hence

it

appears that

180x60x60

X i+4^^x f ^ys^— 2^/S5

+ i/fl 2 A + ifZlf. 4A

will exprefs the number of feconds, to be added to the mean anomaly, in order to have the angle at the upper focus of the elliplis, correfponding to that anomaly. From vv^hence is deduced the following method of calculation.

AFM

Let

by

the logarithm of half the lelTer axis divided the log. of the eccentricity divided by half the greater,

F denote

the log. of the fum of the fquares of half the greater axis and twice the eccentricity divided by the fquare of half the greater axis.
half the greater axis,

E G

Take P

= 1,71277 + E + |F -f 0^1,14130+ E+i-F, R = 4,71236 + 2E 4- F, S = 4,50824 4- 4E 4- 2F
;

-lG,

then the logarithms of four equations (in feconds), to be applied to the mean anomaly (A), will be
3

R+
S

X P 5 X

-|- log, fin.

A

log, rad .

A -[- log- ^in. 4 A
log. fin. 2
firfi: is

Q+

log. fin.

— —

A

log. rad.

log. rad.
log. rad.

always to be added, and the fecond always fubtradted ; the other two being to be added, or fubtrad:ed, according as the fines of their refpediive arguments,

Of which

equations the

2A and 4A, are pofitive, or The two principal of thefe
given
laid
5

negative.

equations agree with thofe before and are the fame, in effect, with the two equations

(without demonftration) by Sir Isaac Newton, 3 1 fi: Propofition of the firfi: book of his Frincipia. The latter of which, in the haws of the Moons Motion^ prefixed to that Work, feems to be reprefented, as defective J it being there aflerted, that, the inequality in the tnotion

down

in the

Scholium to the

of a planet about the upper focus, confifis of three parts j as if the nature of the fubjedt admitted of jufi: that number, and no

more

54
more
leries,
j

Avery
whereas the
are without
ration,

exaSi
parts,

Method for finding
or equations arifing in the confideinfinite
is

number, being the terms of an
the

converging quantity. Sir Isaac Newton has given two terms of this feries, which are right but the new equation added by his Commentator^ is not fo; the fign thereof, the coefficient, and the law by which
;

wherein the eccentricity

increafes and decreafes, being ought to be.
it

ail

different

from what they

This equation

(exprefi"ed according to the

above notation,
lefi^er

where
e

i

reprefents half the greater axis,

the eccentricity, and
~e^

A

f

half the

axis,

the

mean anomaly) he makes
But
it

to

be

X

fin.

A

I

'

X

co-fin.

A.

ought
is

to be

4-

^^"^^-^^

x

f^fin.4A

(=

-^ X

fin.4A, nearly), as

fhewn above;

this

feries, and the next in order by Sir Isaac Newton j who appears, more than once*, to have been difadvantageoufly (I might fay, unfairly) reprefented, and that, under the covers of his own book a circumfiiance that cannot be attended to without feme concern and diflike, by thofe Avho entertain a due regard for the merit of an Author to whom the mathematical world is fo

being the 3d term of the general

after thofe given

:

much
I

indebted.

fingle example of the ufe of the wherein I fliall fuppofe the eccentrij city to be tVVVVV parts of the femi-tranfverfe axis (the fame as is affigned by Dr. Halle y to the orbit of Mercury). Here,
fliall

now

put

down one

equations above derived

then,
-flog.!

— =—
ee)

we have E

whence P

=

F (=;= log.\/i ee 1)313^35 0,009406; G (= log. i-f-4d'f):=z 0,068024 J 1,046 ; 03=0,4533 R 3,3302; 1,744:
==:
J

=

=

S=

* In the 28th Propofition of

his third
is

book,

it

is

found that the moon's

diftance from the earth in the fyzigics

to thediftance in the quadratures (fet-

ting afide the confideration of eccentricity) as 6g to 70 ; which is confirmed by what is demonftrated in a fubfequent part of this our Work, as well as by the
calculations of others
ftion,
;

ncvcrthclefs the truth of this proportion
is

is

called in

and a new one

laid

down, which makes the

faid diftances to
p.

quebe in

the proportion of

59

to 6c.

See

Laws

of the Moon's Motion,

11 and 12.

which

the Place of

a Planet in

its

Orbit.

55

which values

will fcrve in all

cafes belonging to this orbit.

Whence, fuppofing
1,0460 9^8842

the given anomaly to be 50°,

we have

0,4530 9^8842
0,3372
5

3>3302 9>9933
3^3235

1,744 9>534
1^278.

0,9302
3

2,7906

1,6860

Of which

refulting logarithms, the

numbers correlponding

are

6i7f, 48^, 2106', and 19; whereof the firft and third being added, and the other tv/o fubtra6ted, we have 50® 44' 16" for the corrected anomaly, or the angle at the upper focus j whereof the half is 25^22' 8''
Therefore log. tang. 25° 22'
-[- log.
8''

of the

ratio

of the

gr.

and

leaft difc.

956759338 1,8185730
9,4945068.

=
Which

log. tang.

~

true
is

anomaly ij° 20'

28''

conclufion
this

true to a fecond.

Nor

will the error, in

any part of

orbit,

amount

to

more than about two or
ilill

three feconds.

— If you would have the refuit depended on to a
be fuppofed

fingle fecond, or if the orbit

than that of Mercury, then the
ufe.

more eccentrical following method may be of
is

Say, as half the greater axis of the eliipfis
tricity,

to the eccenline

fo

is

the fine of the

angle J which fubtradt from the
line

mean anomaly to the mean anomaly, and

of an

to the log.

of the remainder (which I call the eccentric anomaly) add the fum of the log. of the eccentricity and the conftant log. 1,758123 the aggregate (rejecting the radius) will be the logarithm of an angle, in degrees and decimal parts y which, fubtraded from the angle firfl found, leaves a corrediion to be added (under its proper ('^gn) to the mean anomaly: with
:

which corredied anomaly, let the whole operation be repeated, if needful, by always adding the laf^ correction to the mean
anomaly.
iipfis is

Then

it

will be,
is

as the greater femi-axis

of

tlie el-

the tangent of the corrected anomaly to the tangent of the angle at the upper focus of the elliplis
to the leiTer, fo

v/hence the angle

at

the lower focus>orthe true anomaly,

may
alfa

56
alfo

A very exaSi Method for finding
be known by the

common

proportion, and that to any

affigncd degree of cxadlnefs.

This method,

in all the planets, except

Mars and Mercwy^

anfwers to a fecond, at one operation. In the former of thefe two, the error, when greateft, will amount to about three or four feconds ^ and in the latter, to nearly as many minutes
in

which
is

cafe,

three operations will be neceffary

:

to avoid that trouble, the following calculation

may

but in order be ufed

which
to lefs

even in the orbit of Mercury, than half a fecond, without repeating the operation.
fo exadt as to anfwer,

twice the log. of the eccentricity, the log. fecant of the angle firfl found (as above), and the log. co-fnie of the

Add together

mean anomaly once corof which angles the feconds may be negledled). The aggregate (fubtra6ting twice the radius) will be the log. of a fraction to be added to unity, when the iaid fum of anomabut otherwife, fubtraded therelies is between 90 and 270° from then the log. of this fum, or remainder being fubtradled from the log. of the firfl: correction, you will have the log. of the true correction to be added (under its proper iign) to the

fum of
reded

the eccentric anomaly and

(in all

-,

:

mean anomaly
Thus,
pie).

given.

for example, let the

the eccentricity be

= 0,20589

mean anomaly be 70
(as in

j

and

let

the preceding exam-

Here, fm.

mean anom. 70°
firft

9,9729858

log. eccent
.*.

ang.

found

= ii°9'j33
anomaly
:

ilSil^iH
9,286621
13

whence 58° 50^67
whofe
-|-

= the

eccentric

fine
.
.

=
which
1

the log. proper for the orbit
log.

of

1

0^,0952
equal,
firfV

9593^3552 1,0717583 1,0041135:

angle, or

its

1° 9',33,

leaves the

lo* 5^71 , being fubtraCted from corredion 1° 3',62 63',62.

=

Moreover,

the Place of

a Planet

in

its

Orbit.

57
50',

Moreover, by adding together 70°, have 129° 53', whofe co-fine -[- fee. 11° 9' ang. firil found

1° 3',

and 58°

wc

.

.

.

9,8070 10,0083
2,6272 2,4425

+ twice

log. eccent

=

log.

of 0,0272
firft

Log.

=
whofe
-j- log.

cor.

63^62

....

log. log.

1,0272
true cor. 61^,9

1,80359 0,01187

... 1,79172
Z:' ^

Now the mean anom. + true cor. = 71* i' g, 7
log. tang.
. .

0.4638087
1,990594a

z

o

n

=

of the femi-conjugate axis of
70''

......

log. tang,

38^,82

10,4544027

And the
-}- log.

log. tang,

of the half hereof, 35°i9',4i of the
gr.

of the

ratio

and

leaft diftances

=

log. tang,

of 25^ i',o2
2^,04, or 50° 2! 2",
is

9,8504350 1,8185730 9,6690080

whofe double 50°
quired.

the true anomaly re-

A DE-

A

DETERMINATION
Difference

OF THE between the Motion of

a

Comet

in

an

Elliptic,

and a Parabolic Orbit.

Fig. 19.

K"^)**^ET PNG be a parabola, and PBH a very excentrical g= L =g ellipfis, having the fame focus S, and vertex P vs^ith
^^^ parabola let moreover and n be confidered as cotemporary pofitions of tv70 bodies, in thefe orbits,, moving from the perihelion P at the fame time, about the fun in the focus S. Make NBC perpendicular to PSO, and call PC, X PS, Cj and the greater axis of the ellipfis, a : then

t^kjHt

-,

N

',

the

leiTer axis will

and the ordinate

= 2s/'cx7^c-, BC = J 2v
be

the parameter
^
1

=

Ifiuli^^

(by the proper-*

X
I

I

— -1= 2cV'
CN
^

-.1

X

L
la

^j nearly.
la

This

lafl

taken from

(:=

2c^x^^,

by the nature of the parabola)

leaves

fV x— a

+ — = ^Nj
a

which being multiplied by x and the
I
I

fluent found,

we

thence
or

have ex^ x

—^

H
:

for the meafure of the area

NPB,

NPi;, very near

which fubtraded from the area
2c'x''

NSP (=

CN X 4-PC
c^x-"

X <^+-f ^)>

— CN X |CS = 2rx^ X \x — X ———— = X +
leaves
c^x""
<r

'-.x^^c

=

|Ar

the
4^,

area

I'PS.

Moreover, the parameter of the parabola being

and
that

of the Difference of Motwt
that of the ellipfis z=r IfiZllff^
is

of a Cornet^ &c.
to

59
fo

we have >/ a,c

J — ""
c'x^

^'\

the parabolic area

NSP

{c^x^y,c-\-^~x) to the correfpondingj

or cotemporary elliptical area ?2SP r=:
=r. c'x^

^
c^'x''

i

—x
^

Xc-\-

'-x

X

I

X

c^-\--\^

(nearly)

=

xc-{-\x
Cx^ x

——
2a

~
5c^

i

which fubdudled from the area ^'PS,

leaves

^

c=

the area

i;S;z.

be fuppofed perpendicular to the tangent NA, Let now then SM, SN, and SA will be all meeting the axis In ; equal to each other, by the nature of the parabola; and con-

NM

M

fequently the angle
(to the radius
I
:

PMN equal to half PSN
be denoted by %
{zex"^)
5

;

Vv^hofe
it

tangent
be, as

i )

let
:

:

whence

v/ill

2i

:

:

MG (2c) CN
la
|- S-t;

and confequently x

=

cz'

Which
-=. czy,

value being fubftituted in the area v%n^ it will become -7-7 CC 2f*z4 C^Z 1 J.l- J' - fV
la

vided by
f

= — XI — ^ — (=: ^yic -^ x = x + ^«
5^
1A

t2J^ J ^iid this di*

jc*

i

),

gives

—x

^-~ Z*
I _|_

—^ — z*
'

-^ for

the meafure of the angle ^St^, in parts of the
If

zz|
( i).

radius

Therefore,

^

be put

= 3437 =:

the

number of
i

minutes in an arch equal to the radius, and u =.
it is

+ zzj
faid

evident that

—y^mu
a

will exprefs the
-^

meafure of the

angle in minutes of a degree. To find noW the ratio ^n to SN, which flill remains to be determined, we have (by TriT gonometry) Ni; ^ ^
^
V
-K

=

fin.B
^

,

x

BN
2;

-nXT

fin.

-.

fin.B'i;]:'

fin.

—AFC x BN — AFb
r-^^
^^

tjxt

lin.

==:

r—z-^

co-fm.

M M

X

BN

==

tang. o
I

M x BN ==
:

x

ex''

x -^^ n

=

2;

x

C2r

x --i-

a
it

•=.

—X

+
1

^rsr.

Alfo (fuppofing nb perpendicular to

Si;)

will be, as

(radius)

-

(the arch meafuring the angle
I a

/zS-u)

6o
\\ c
y.

Of

the Difference of

Motion of a Comet
«/^

i-\-zz (== Sw, nearly)

:

= —x +
i
:

z;s

:

whence,

again,

by

fimiiar triangles,

i

:

;s (:

CM
to

:

CN)
Ni?

:

:

— x \-\-%z
1+2:2;,
to
is

(nb)
gives

:

hv =z

x
z^

i

+

;s2; ;

this

added
:

= ^^x

N^
I

=—X

-|- 2;

X

I

-\-

zz

which therefore

SN
re-

[ex

-j- 2;2;) as

—xu'\-z
S;2

to unity;

and confequently the

quired proportion of
unity.

(or S^) to

SN,

as

i

—-x

z^

-|- 2; to

From
puted

this laft

concluHon, and that derived above, exhibitis

ing the value of the angle NS;z, the following Table

com-

column, the co5 met's longitude from the perihelion, as given from the hypothefis of a parabolic orbit (either by Dr. Halley's Table, or any other of the like kind) ; againft which, in the third column, you have the logarithm of a number of minutes (expreiTed in the fecond column) from which fubtradling the logarithm of the ratio of the greater axe of the ellipfe divided by the perihelion diftance, the remainder will be the logarithm of a number of minutes to be added to, or fubtra(fted from the aforefaid longitude, as the Table directs : whereby the comet's longitude, for the fame time, in the elliptic orbit will be given. And if, from the logarithm found in the fourth column, the logarithm of the fame ratio be alfo fubtraded, the remainder, abating 10, will be the logarithm of a quantity to be taken from the logarithm of the comet's diftance from the fun, computed according to the aforefaid hypotheiis.
is

whofe ufe

thus

:

Find, in the

firfc

;

Thus, for example, let the greater axis of the ellipfls be fuppofed 35,727, and the perihelion diftance m: 0,5825' (anfwering to the orbit of the comet of the year eighty-two) ; and let the longitude from the perihelion, according to Dr.

=

Halley's Table, computed

for a parabolic orbit,

be 44^

3' 20'-,

correfponding to which, the logarithm of the diflance from the fUA

in
fun
given

an

elliptic

and a

parabolic Orbit,
log.

6i
be-

is

=0,065838.

Here, then, the

of

'h^il21

ing r=: 1,7877, this value is to be fubtraded from both the logarithms 2,9228 and 9,0555, {landing againft 44", in the third and fourdi columns of the annexed Table from whence
:

two quantities 13',65 and 0,001853 ^ which being fubtradted from 44° 3' 20", and 0,065838, the required longitude from the perihelion is given from thence 43° 49' 41", and the logarithm of the comet's diftancc from the fun =: 0,063985.
wiJl be found the

=

The fame Table, not only furnifhes an eafy way, for deducing the motion in an elliptic orbit, from the motion in a parabolic one, but may be farther ufeful in determining, in fome degree, the fpecies of the ellipHs which a new comet defcribes, when the obfervations thereon are found to diifer fenfibly from the places computed according to the hypothefis of a parabolic orbit.

Of the

Difference of Motion of a Comet

An Attempt
Taking
the
in pradical

to

fhew the Advantage
of a

arifing

by

Mean

Number

of Cbfervatior.s,

Afironomy.

^5^^^ HOUGH the method pradlifed by AJlronomers, in order to diminiih the errors ariiing from the imperV ^ ^
si^"?s^
fe^tion of inftruments

and of the organs of
feveral obfervations, is

fenfe,

by

taking the
that I

mean of

of very
it

great utility, and almofi: univerlally followed, yet has

not,

know

of,

been hitherto fubjeded to any kind of demon-

ftration.
is attempted to be thrown on the in order to the applimathematical principles fubjed:, from cation of which, it feemed ncceflary to lay down the following

In this EiTay, fome light

:

fuppoiitions.
1. That there is nothing in the ccnflrudiion, or poiition of the inllirument whereby the errors are conftantly made to tend the fame way, but that the refpedtive chances for their hap-

pening in excefs, and in defect, are either accurately, or nearly, the fame. 2. That there are certain affignable limits between which all thefe errors may be fuppofed to fall ; which limits depend on the goodnefs of the inftrument and the fkill of the obferver. Thefe particulars being premifed, I fhall deliver what I have to offer on the fubj^dt, in the following Proportions.

PROPOSITION
Siippofing that the feveral chances

I.

for the different errors that

anv

Ji'igle ohfervatioii

can admit

of]

the feries

r""^ r~% r~^ where the exponents denote the quantities and

are exprejj'ed by the tei'ms of r~% r% r\ r% r^ r""
-,

qualities

of the re-

IpeBive errors, and the terms themfehes, the refpeBive cha?icesfor their happening ; it is prcpofed to determine the probability y or
oddsy

Of
obfervations^

the

Advantage
takmg

arifi^ig^

6cc.

65

odds^ that the errors by

the mea?i of

a given number (n) of
(

exceeds not a given quantity

)

It

is

evident from the lav^s of chance, that,
all

if

the given

feries
-\-r'"\

r""

-|-r-3-j-r~='+r-^+r°-f-^'+^'+^^
the chances in one obfervation,

be raifed to the «th power, the terms of the feries thence ariling w^ill truly exhibit all the different chances in all the propofed (n) obfervaBut in order to raife this power, with the greatefl: facitions.
expreffing
lity,

our given

feries

may be

reduced to r~'"x

(by the

fumming up the terms of a geometrical prowhereof the nth power (making w z=i2v -\- ) will greffion) be r"""^ X 1 —- r™r x i—-n~''j which expanded, becomes ^ " ^ ^^iu — ^ " ^ ^^w— «i;| nv jj^w — nv ^— _f_ "^ ^^^ " I 2

known

rule for
-,

1

n-v

I

!!_

^ '

X

into i4-7zr-^
'

-..-L—.—i—r^ — .— —^—r '12 'i2 '12
-\-

1*2*3
^

^

*

3

-\

i

!

3

4

Now, to find from hence the fum of all the chances, whereby the excefs of the pofitive errors above the negative ones, can amount to a given number m precifely, it will be fufficient (inftead of multiplying the former feries by the whole of the latter) to multiply by fuch terms of the latter only, as are neceflary to the producftion

of the given exponent m^ in queftion.

term (r"""^) of the former feries, is to be multerm of the fecond whofe exponent is nv -\- jn, tiplied by in order that the power of r, in the product, may be r*" : but it is plain, from the law of the feries, that the coefficient of

Thus

the

firfl:

that

this

term (putting jiv-^-m^izq) will be

— .^^i^.^-i-^.^^^^(^),
x r^

q being the

number of fadtors

j

and, confequently, that the pro-

dud

under confideration vdll be

1 .1±1 .1±1 ."^^ {a)

1234

wr'*'""', Again, the fecond term of the former feries being the exponent of the correfponding term of the 'latter muft therefore be -\- nv -\- m {z=: q w), and the term it-

—w

K

felf,

65

Of the Advantage
felf,

arifmg by "taking the
'iv)

Mean

- .'!-±J- J!-±2.
'-,

in

X r?~'^;

which, drawn into

— ;/r—
In
nent

gives

-^.^.^±i (^
third

— ^)
3

x nr^

for the fecond

term required.
like
is ;;^,

manner the
will

term of the produ6t whofe expo-

be found,
all

^.^±i.dl3(^— 2i£;)x-.^=-^r-.

the terms, having the fame, given exponent, will confequently be

And

12
^^^

'11

the

fum of

12
12
n n-\-\

3

4

3

4^^
(

123

From which
I,

nA-n nA-'l
4

^12 w— ^^12
\
^

n

I

«

—2
3

general expreflion,

2 ^c, fucceflively, the fum of -f- 2, chances whereby the difference of the politive and negative errors can fall within the propofed limits (-{- m^ m) will be found which divided by the total of all the chances, or

by expounding

;;?

by

o, -f- i,^ the feveral

:

be the true meafure of the the advantage, by taking the mean of feveral obfervations, might be made to appear but this will be fhewn more properly in the next Propofition which is better adapted, and to which this is premifed, as a ljemma»
I I

r-"^x

— H"x —

rj""*,

will

probability fought.

From whence

REMARK.
or the chances for the politive, and the negative errors be fuppofed accurately the fame j then our exprefTion, by expunging the powers of r, will be the very fame with that Hiewing the chances for throwing n -^ q points, precifely, with n dice, each die having as many faces {iv) as the refult of any one finglc obfervation can come out different ways. Which may be made to appear, independent of any kind

If r be taken

^m,

of a Nujnher ofObfervations htpraSilcalAftronomy.
kind of calculation, from the bare confideration, that the chances for throwing, precifely, the number m^ with n dice, i) whereof the faces, of each, are numbered 3, o, +1, -f-^j -|-3.... muil; be the I, 'u, 2, very fame as the chances whereby the pofitive errors can exceed the negative ones by that precife number: but the former are, evidently, the fame as the chances for throwing precifely

+

with the fame n dice', when they are numbered in the common way, v/ith the terms of the natural progreffion i, 2, 3, 4, 5, and fo onj becaufe the number upon each face being, here.^ increafed by v-^i^ the whole incrcafe upon all the (n) faces will be expreffed by
the
'v -\- i

number

xn-\-m

(or;z

+

^)

'u

-j- I

X ?z

;

fo that there will be, now^ the very
•\-

fame chances

for the

number v-\- \y.n

m^ as there was before for the

number m j fince the chances for throwing any faces affigned will continue the fame, however thofe faces are numbered.

PROPOSITION

11.

Suppojing the refpeBive chances for the different errors, which any Jingle obfervation can admit of to be erpreffed by the terms of y"^-"" J^c^ j^ i,r° ^^r'^-z the feries r~'" -\- 2r'-'" -\-

(whereof the coeffcients^from the middle one ('U-f-i decreaje both ways, according to the terms of an arithmetical pro__j_

2;r'^— I _|_

j^-v

grejjion)

-,

it

is

error, by takitig the

propofed to find the probability, or odds, that the mean of a given 7iumber {t) of obfervations,
).

exceeds not

a given quantity (—

Following the method laid down in the preceding propofition, the fum, or value of the feries here propofed will appear
to be
-

I—
and

—-

(being the fame with the fquare of the
-

geometrical progreffion r~^ x i the power thereof whofe exponent

r^ -\- r^ -{- r -{is

+^'")-

t

w=

(by making n

'u

+

i) will therefore
^

be

r~''"

nr"

-J"

— 1 .^nlr^'^'^ — G?c. into + nr + -^ '12
n

x

i

r'^\"

x

i

= — ^T"
2 t,

^^^

n

i

I

K

2

68

Of the Advantage
*—^r
2
'

arljing by leaking the

Mean
° the

+ — .licl .1x2^3 4- ^c.
I

Which two

feries's beiner

2

'

3

fame with thofe

in

the preceding

that the exponents in the former of

Problem (excepting only, them are expreffed in terms

of /j inllead oi n) it is plain, that, if q be here put z=.tV'\- m (inflead of iiv -\- m) the conclufion there brought out will aniwer equally here 5 and confequently that the fum of all the chances, whereby the excefs of the politive errors, above the
negative ones, can

amount

to the given

number

niy

precifely,

will here, alfo, be truly defined

by

4-—

'12?— — k4-2/ 12
.

[q]
^-^^

X r"
\ v.

3

n

n-\-i

...^

3

— .Jj—.—l—lq

123^^

2'K^)

— ^12
X
.

r"^

12

3^^'^'l2

3

But this general expreffion, as feveral of the factors in the numerators and denominators mutually deftroy each other, may
be transformed to another more commodious.

Thus
will

the quantity

-.^i^.^i^

(^), in

the

firft

line,

by

breaking the numerator and denominator, each mto two parts,

become
2
.

I.

3

.

4

n.n-{-i,n-{-2.fi-\-2

?

which, by equal

divifion, is

reduced to
q

?+l.^ + 2.g+3
I
.

^
n

n


I
/>

J
____

2

.

3
^-l-I


I

y+« — I.y-f^— 2.y + » — 3
1
.

__

-f,

2

.

3

«-I

— — 12*3^
2 p

/

V
^''

fuppofing

p

z=z q -\'

n

z=z

tv -^

?n -\- n.

In the

very fame manner, by making q^^=q

p'z=:q

-]-

n (=/>

— w)

it

appears that

— w, and —.—tl^lT^ —
(^q

^w)

of a Number of Obfervations in praSikalAflronomy

6g

=

^

.-

'-

— —
- (n
2 3

i)

^c.

Confequently our whole
p"' ==.

given expreffion (making p" ^=.
will be transformed to

p

— aw,

i)

p -^ ywy

&c.)

'

I


+

/*


I
1

J
^

/>—
^

/>—
3

3

^^

X

«r'"

2

~

.2

X
^ 3

^ (n
^

— '12 X —
l)
I

*r?

I

2

3

123
-,

be continued till fome of the fadors become nothing, or negative and which, when r == i is the very fame with that exhibiting the number of chances for p points, precifely, on n dice, having each w faces.
expreffion
is

Which

to

,

And,
cefs
it

in this cafe,

where the chances

for the errors in
is

ex-

and

in defed: are the fame, the folution

the moil iimple

can be ; lince, from the chances above determined, anfwering to the number p precifely, the fum of the chances for all the inferior numbers to />, may be readily obtained, being given

(from the method of increments) equal to

^~

^

~

'^

J*

,tiz3. {n)

I

2 2

3

I

2t

3^'j2
The
dif3

_Clz:i.£r=£.£j:^
I

3^^I2
{„)

X l."-zzl.".z:l^&c.

ference between which and half (ic;") the fum of all the chances (which difference I fhall denote by D) will confequently be the true number of the chances whereby the errors in excefs (or in defed) can fall within the given limit {m) : fo
that

^

will be the true meafure of the required probability,

that the error,

by taking the mean of

t obfervations,

exceeds

not the quantity

propofed.

But

70

Of the Adva7itage

ariftng hy I'alwtg the

Mean

But now, to illuftrate this by an example, from whence the utility of the method in pradice may clearly appear, it will be neceilary, in the firft place, to affign fome number for i;, expreffing the limits of the errors to which any obfervation is Thefe limits indeed (as has been before obferved) fubjecfl. depend on the goodnefs of the inftrument, and the ilcill of the
obferver

here fuppofe, that every obfervation may be relied on, to five feconds ; and that the chances for the fe:

but

I fhall

veral errors

-|-i, -]-2, included within the limits thus afTigned, -|- '^\ _|- ^\ ^\ are refpeftively proportional to the terms of the feries 1, 2, 3, Which feries is much better adapted, 4, 5, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, I.
_|-

— 5, — 4, — 3, — 2, — 1,0,
;

highly reafonable to fuppofe, that the chances for the refpeftive errors decreafe, in proportion as the errors themfelves increafc. Thefe particulars being premifed, let it be now required to

than

if all

the terms were to be equal

fince

it

is

find

what the probability, or chance for an error of i, 2, 3, 4, or 5 feconds will be, when, inflead of relying on one, the mean of fix obfervations is taken.

=

Here,
12,

"o being 5, and / w(z=zv-\-\)=zb^ 2xAp

=

=

6,

we

fhall

(z=-tij-\-n-\-77i)

have n (:= it) ^=L\i-\-7n:

but the value of m^ if we firfl feek the chances whereby the error exceeds not one fecond, will be had from the equation

—=+

I

;

where

either fign

may be
is

ufed (the chances being

the fame) but the negative one

/=

whence we have
3o,

m (=
^c.

— =—6
/)

the mod;
;

commodious

:

and therefore />

=

from
36,

/=24,

Which

values being fubfi:ituted in
it

the general exprefiion

above determined,
(j2) X 12 J \

will

become ^.M.13/j2):

1:1,

— ._Z
==:

+^.^.il (12) '123^'^

X 66^17.1^.15 (j2)

123^'

X220
:

299576368: andthisfubtradedfrom 108839 1 168 (=-i-x6"), therefore leaves 7888 1480, for the value of Z) correfponding the required probability that the error, by taking the mean of fix obfervations, exceeds not a {m^e. fecojtd, will be truly meafured by the fradion y

^^^^'^Soo
1088391168

^^^ confequently the odds
^^.jj

of a Number of
will be as

Obfervatio7is inpraEiicalAflro7totny.
to

7
i.
is

788814800

299576368, or nearly

as

2^

to

But the odds, or proportion, when one
taken, '
is

fingle obfervation

only as 16 to 20, or as
•'

— to 10
let

o

i.

To
Avithin
iliall

determine, now, the probability that the refult comes

two feconds of the

truth,
:

be made

p"

z=. 18, Gfr.


.

r-

— 12 and our whence D = 10523 36079407
m (=


;

2t)r=z

/? 30, general expreffion will here

therefore

=— = /=
2

;

fo

24,

come out

11 761.

Confequently

^°^^^"^,^ will be the true meafure of the probability fought ^ 108839116S

JO

and the odds, or proportion of the chances, will therefore be that of 10523 1 1 76 1 to 36079407, or as 29 to I, nearly. But
the proportion, or odds, when a iingle obfervation is taken,- is only as 2 to I : fo that the chance for an error exceeding two
feconds,
is

from one

as not P^^^ ^^ great, from the mean of fix, fingle obfervation. And it will be found in the fame

—^^

manner, that the chance for an error exceeding three feconds is not here —-— part fo great as it will be from one obfervation Upon the whole of which it appears, that, the taking only. mean of a number of obfervations, greatly diminifhes of the the chances for all the fmaller errors, and cuts off almolT: all which lafl: confideration alone is poffibility of any large ones to recommend the ufe of the method, not only to fufficient AJlronomerSy but to all Others concerned in making experiments,, or obfervations of any kind, which will allow of being repeated under the fame circumflances.
:

In the preceding calculations, the different errors to which any obfervation is fuppofed fubjedt, are retrained to whole quantities, or a certain, precife, number of feconds ; it being impoffible, from the moft exad: infiiruments, to take off the

But I ihall now fhew how the chances may be computed, when the error admits of any value whatever, whole or broken, Vv'ithin the proquantity of an angle to a geometrical exaBnejs.

pofed limits, or when the refult of each obfervation pofed to be accurately known.

is

fup-

Let

v?)

72
Fig. 20.

Of the Advantage arifing
Let, then, the line

by 'Taking the

Mean

whole extent of the given interval, within which all the obfervations are fuppofed to fall ; and conceive the fame to be divided into an exceeding great number of very fmall, equal particles, by perpendiculars
reprefent the

AB

terminating in the fides

AD, BD of an ifofceles triangle ABD, formed upon the bafe AB and let the probability or chance whereby the refult of any obfervation tends to fall within any
:

of thefe very fmall intervals N//, be proportional to the correthen, fince iponding area NM;;z;z, or to the perpendicular thefe chances (or areas) reckoning from the extremes A and B, increafe according to the terms of the arithmetical progreffion J, 2, 3, 4, &c, it is evident that the cafe is here the fame only, as the number with that in the latter part of Prop. 11.

NM^

-,

V
all

(expreffing the particles in
(finite)

AC

or

BC)
or
its

is

indefinitely great,

quantities joined to

nj,

multiples, with the

figns

of addition or fubtra(ftion, will here vaniili, as being noBy which means the general exthing in comparifon of 'u.
prefiion

(X^^ /-^^ .-^1 p

{?i)


2

-


I

^.^

.-^^

{n)

x n

-\-

p

—ip
I


3

/

\
'^

^
;?)

j^

^

^_ZZl

^c.

)

there determined,
1

will

2

3
.

^

/

here

become

A A A — i-,I-,£.(n)xn, &c. = 123^^
.

(

123
,

i.2.3-4(«)

——

X ^«

.

n/"

+
p'

n.-^=:lf^--n.-—^.-=^f\

I.//.

«

«

2^//,„

^^c.

(wherein
3'u,

p =! fv'^ m,
and

^=p

'u,

p"

^=P


2

2^',

p" =.p


,

^c.)

therefore, the value of

D in the prefent cafe, being
4- n.^
'

i^u"


is

^-7-r
1
.

X

^^
-^

2

.

3

(??)

— n.V^^^^^ ^

— —
.

/J '

21^1

^c.

it

evident

that the probability [

-\

of the

error's

not exceed-

ing the quantity

(in taking the

mean of

/

obfervations) will

be truly defined by
2
I
.

p
3 («)

2

.

V\

P V

'12
curvilineal area

P V

^

&c.
cor-

which may be reprefented by the

CNFE,

refponding

©

of a Niu7iherof Obfervatmis
fefponding to the given value or

m praSiicalAfironomy,
abfciffa

73

CN

(=: ~j.

Now,

though the numbers i;, /, and m are, all of them, here fuppofed to be indefinitely great, yet they may be exterminated, and the value of the expreffibn determined, from their know^a
relation to each other.

For

if the

given ratio of

to

1;,

or of

which is the fame, if the error in queftion be fuppofed the x part of the greatell error then, in being tvx, p {-=2 tv^ m) will be
exprefied
that o?

CN to

CA, be
-,

by

x

to i, or,

=

=

/1;

X tvx,
:

and therefore

z=.

tx i'^ x; which
laft

let

be de-

noted by y
will

then, by fubllitution, our

general expreflion

become

l.2.3(«)

X
I

n
I

n


2

I

.;'—
3

3I

,

^C,

which feries is to be continued 2, ^c. become negative. y

till

the quantities y^

y

i,

above delivered, let it be now required to find the probability, or odds that the error, by taking the mean of fix obfervations, exceeds not a fingle fecond fuppofing (as in the former example) that the greateft error, that any obfervation can admit of, is limited to five

As an example of what

is

',

feconds.

Here

t

being :=:i6, n (:=

2/f)

=

12,

and ^ ==

-I,

we

have

y

{z=.

fy,i

— = 4,8
at)

j

and therefore the meafure of the
i

probability fought will

be equal to

-

X

4,8r-~. 12 X3,8i'^+

66x2781"—

22ox7;8l'^

+ 495x^"
error exceeds

=r 0,7668,

nearly

:

fo that the odds, that the

not a fingle fecond, will be as 0,7668 to 0,23325 which is more than three to one. But the proportion, when one fingle obfervation is relied on, is only as 36 to 64, or as 9 to 16.

In the fame manner, taking x

= -,
L

it

will be^ found,

that

the

'rr

4

Of the Advantage arijingfrom leaking

the

Meajt

the odds, of the error's not exceeding two feconds, when the mean of fix obfervations is taken, will be as 0,985 to 0,015., nearly, or as 6^\ to i ; whereas the odds on one fingle ob-

only as 64 to 36, or as i J to 1 fo that the an error of two feconds is not -\th part fo great, from the mean of fix, as from one iingle obfervation. And it
fervation,
is
:

chance

for

will farther appear,

by making x

= ^,

that the probability of

an error of three feconds, here, is not T-^';rFth part fo great as from one fingle obfervation fo that in this, as well as in the former hypothecs, almofl all poffibility of any large error is And the cafe will be found the fame, \vhatever bycut off. pothefis is affumed to exprefs the chances for the errors to which any fingle obfervation is fubjecft.
:

the fame general expreflion by which the foregoing proportions are derived, it will be eafy to determine the odds,
that the

From

mean of

a given

number of
z= ^, and

obfervations

is

nearer

to the truth than one fingle obfervation, taken indifferently.

For, if

z be put

(=

i

x)

J

= -,

then,

y

being-

=

tZj

the quantity

i.2%{n)

^y"''~^'y'~^^''

+ ^''^'y'~'^^"'
falls

^^- (^xprefrmg

the probability that the refult
greatef} limit) will here,

within the diflance

z of the

by

fubflitution,

become

-- xz" 72 X z 51 4- nJ^——^ I.2.3(«) ^ !n cafe of one fingle obfervation (when
.

X 2;
/

— =
2

2.s\ ,

^c. which,
is

i,

and nz=z.2)

barely 2;% and its fluxion by 2ZZ, the produd:
y-rrXZ"'^'Z
3 («)
^

^zz

:

therefore, if

we now

multiply

?2

.

1.2.

Z

s\

.

ZZ

-i'

72

/-^-^^ . Z

-—2S\ .ZZj&C.
'

will give the fluxion of the probability that the refult
fervations
is

of t ob~
con»-\-2

farther

from the

truth, or nearer to the limits,

than one fingle obfervation taken indifferently.
fequently

And
-

the fluent thereof,

which

is

——
2
.

into

3 (^)

ofa Number of Obfervatlons infraStkalAJlronomy.

75

-XI
G?c, will,

n

s

;]«+!

^n-fz

Z — 2S

n-f-2

»

+

I

when

2;

=

«-j-2
i,

'l

2

"

n

-\-

I

'

72

+2

be the true meafure of the proba-

bility itfelf.

be found odds that the mean of fix,
;z

and

=

Which,

in the cafe above propofed,

12, will

= 0,245,
is

where

/

=

6,

^^d, confequently, the nearer to the truth than one

fingle obfcrvation, as

y^^

to 245, or as 151 to 49.

L2

A DE-

DETERMINATION
OF
Certain Fluents, and the
very ufeful

Resolution of fome
the higher Orders of

Equations

in

Fluxions

by means of the Meafures of Angles and Ratios, and the Right-fines and Verfed;

fines

of circular Arcs.
to treat the matter here propofed with
it

^^ N order

due

^ ^ Owww
I

perfpicuity,

will be necelTary, previous thereto, to

give a demonftration of the

two fubfequent Lemmas,
I.

LEMMA
the co-fines of the
Fig. 21.

The double of the reBangle contained under the co-ftnes of any two arcs, fuppofing the radius to be unity ^ is equal to the Jim of
fum, and
difference

of

thofe arcs.

For,

let

AB

and

BD

(== BE) be the two
;

Cn
nm

their refpedive co-fines

likewife let

their

parallel to

Fm
by

= Hm

fum AE, and CF that of their BG. Then, Dn being
;

arcs, and CG and CH be the co-fine of difference AD making

and confequently that
: :
:

fimilar triangles,

=z CB X 2Cm

=

CB C G CB X CH-fCF.
:

2Cm :=z CH + CF but, Cn C m whence CG x 2Cn
:

= En,
;

;

it

follows that

^E.D.
and n any

LEMMA
If

IL

A

be any arch of a circle whofe radius is unity,
;

whole pofitive number
cofin.

then will

Af =r -\

into co-fin.

nA'\-n

co-fin.

n

2

.

A+

;^

.

^-^

€o-fin.n^^.K^nX^.''-^co-fin,n^t,h-\-^c. continued
*-• ''--

to

*The Refolution

of certain fluxionary Equations^
terms
J

8cc.

77

to

1-ti,
;

07' {-?i

-[-

I

according as n

is

an

oddy or e'wen

numis

ber

in the latter of which cafes the half

o?2ly,

of the

laft

term

to be taken.

For, by the preceding

+
by

cof.

A—A
3

Lemma, 2
-f
-

cof. A|'

=

=

cof.

A -j- A
-[-

cof.

2A

I

2 cof

A, gives

2^

A

=r cof

A + 2 cof A
again,

x cof A]^ pof A
^^'^'

=
-,

i

which equation multiplied
cof

2A x

2 cof

A

2 cof

^"''^' ^'^

== ^^^' 3^^
(hall

+3

^^^'

^•

Multiply,

cof

3A X

2 cof

A

by 2 cof A fo 4~ 3 ^^^ A X

2^

X cof

2 cof

A

=

A]"^

=
4A

cof

"^
2A 2^

I^^^^^?^ /.; 3 ^^^* ° ^'^•^ cof 2 A In the fame manner we have, -[-3.

+

= cof 4A + 4 cof

X cof A| ^ =cof 5 A -j-5cof 3A -|"iocof A, 25x cof A] ^— cof 6A 4-6cof4A -fiscof 2A +10, 2^ X cof AP =::C0f 7A +7Cof 5A +2ICof 3A +35Cof A,
^c, where the law of continuation
ner,

&c.
is

manifeft ; the numeral coefficients being the fame, and generated in the very fame man-

with thofe of a binomial raifed to the 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, ^€. powers, fucceffively ; except in the laft term, when the exponent n is even, in which cafe one half only of the correspondent (or middle) term of the involved binomial is conHence the propofition is manifeft. cerned.
l^he
'

fame

otherivife.

If the co-fine of

A

=

--


A be denoted

by

x^

it

is

well

known

that
fo

Multiply the whole equation by v/

ij

fliall

Av/^:^

whence, by taking

— = =^^ = VI X V — = V ,JZif "'-^ VI the we have A\/ — = hyp.
XX

XX

I

-^ l-{-xx

fluent,

i

log.

X

-[-

s/xx

I

.

Let

N be the number whofe hyperbolical logarithm

78

T*he Refvlutlcn

of certain fluxmiary Equations,
](

garithm
log.
a:

is

i

;

then, fince hyp.
I
,

g.

N^*^''^

'

(= AV- i)

+ \/xx —

it is

evident that
I

or

M'

=X

-{-

\/xx

N --= x-\is

(by making

M = N"^^^).
found

= hyp, s/xx —
i,

From
.

which equation x (the

co-fine of

A)

M^ — M-^

(and from thence (s/i
;

— xx)
by the

the line of
bye).

= A = \/ —

i

K

but

this lafl

Now
fore

feeing

that

2 cof

have 2

cof.

A

T

=

A = M^ -f- M~^'^, v/e thereM^ + M"^]" = M^'^^M-""^ +

by expanding M-^ -\- M^''^|" and uniting, in pairs, the correfpondent terms {jviz. the iirfl: and laft, the fecond and lafl but

M^ +
And

But M"^ -f- M""^, the iirft of thefe pairs, is one, and fo on). the double of the co-fine pf ?iA ; for the very iame reafon that M~^ was found to exprefs the double of the co-fine of A.
thus, A"—^--'^-\-

A~"+^-a
;2

will appear to exprefs the

dou-

ble of the co-fine
therefore be
2.72

of

—2
2"
.

.

A, &c.

And

our equation will
z=z
.

reduced to
.

x

cof

A

|"

2 cof. ;;A

-]-

cof
cof.

71

—2 A
I"*

-\-

271

Cof W

—4
.

A

-\-

&C.

OV

to

A
71

=
-\-

""'
-i

cof.

A

71

cof
.

;2

2
-.-

.

A

-\-

72

COf.

«

4

.

A

+
where,

n

^^


72

- cof

72

—6

.

A

4-

(^c.

when

the exponent

is

even (the number of terms in

M^^j-M^",

expanded, being odd) there will be a middle term (no- ways effected by or A) which being an abfolute number, muft be taken fingly, and confequently, only the half thereof when the whole feries is divided by 2, as is the cafe in the conclufion. E. D,

M

^

COROL-

by

Means of the Meafures of Angles and

Ralios,

^9

COROLLARY.
If Qj5e taken to reprefent an arch of 90 degrees, and the complement (Qj^— A) of the arch A be put B ; then, by fabflituting fin. B for cof. A, and Q^^j— B for A in our ge-

=

neral equation,

we fhall
n

have

lin. B|"

=—

into cof. ?;Q

— «B

4- n
-j~

cof.

n

— 2.Q

2 .B-j-;?.-—

^ cof n-^.^-n-A .B

&c. being a general expreffion for any power of the Jlne But this exof an arch (as the former was of the co-line). preffion may be reduced to a form fomewhat more commodious, regard being had to the different interpretations of ;?, Thus, if n be exwith refped: to even, and odd numbers. pounded by any term of the feries 4, 8, 12, 16, ^c it is evident that ;^Q (in the firft term) v\all be an even multiple of the
; and that n 2 (in the fecond term) will be an odd one, and fo on, alternately. But it is well known, that fubtrafting, or cafting off any multiple of the femi-periphery no-ways afFe(fls the value of the fine, or co-fme ; except, that fuch value, when the multiple is an odd one, will be changed from pofitive to negative (and vice verjd). Hence our lafl equa-

fcmi-periphery

.

Q

tion will

be reduced to
2
.

fin.

Bf =: —
cof.

into

cof.

nB

n

cof.

— n—
for

B
71

-f-

?i

n n

—4
»

.

B


71

&c.

— =
.

\n •—n'j

-

into cof. ?zB

—-

coi n
.

—2

.

B

___

_______
cof.

-X-

~

—4
;z

And,
terpreted

the fame rcaibns, the equation,

when
&c.
cof.
7i

is

in-

by any term of the
lin.

feries 2, 6, 10, 14,

will ap-

pear to be

&'

=

--

into

cof. 72B -\-

71

— 2 .B
i, 5,

-—

"

71

.

cof n -- 4
n
is

.

B

-f-

^c.

But,
9, 13,

when
^c.

expounded by any of the odd numbers

we

iliall

then (by rejeding the multiples of the femi-

8o

n'he Refoliition of certain fluxtonary Equations^.
,

femi-periphery, &c.) have SnTB]"

— =—
'


into
cof.

j

Q — ;zB
^

n

cof.

Qj—

fi

2

.

B

-|-

n

.

cof.

Qj^ n — 4 B
.
.


fin.

into fin* ?2B

H

— 4.B — &c.
Lafiily,

2

n

fin.

?2

2

B

-J"

?2

be expounded by any term of the feries 3, 7, II, 15, &c. the refult, or feries, will be the fame as in the preceding cafe, only the figns of all the terms mufl be changed
if
?2

to their contraiy.

may be otherwife, more dire(ftly, means of the two following Theorems 3 whereInveftip-ated, by of the Demonftration is obvious, from that of Lemma /*.
But
all

thefe different cafes

1°.

two

double of the 7'eBangle contained under the fines of any arcs J fuppofmg the radius to be unity ^ is equal to the difference

Tbe

of

the co-fi7ies ofthefunty
2°.

and

difference

of

thofe arcs.

And the

and

the fine

of the other , is equal to the difference
arcs.
fin.

double of the re51angle under the co-fne of the one of the fetes of the

fumy and difference of the faid

Hence
-f-

it

follows,

that

cof

B~B

(by 'Theor. I.)

=—
fin.
fi^^-

B x

2

fin.

B

= — cof B + B
+
3B
'

cof 2B

whence

,

multiplying the whole equation by 2fin.B,

we have

2^xfin.Bl^
^^^^^

'Theor. II.) T=z

= — cof 2B X 2fin.B + — 3B
fin.

2

B

r=z


2B

fin.

+
B

g

(by

-f- 3

B*

Whence,

again,

by equal
3 fin.

multiplication, 2^

xfm.
cof

Bl"^

=:

X 2

fin.

B

= +
cof

4B

— —

fin.

3B x

2 fin.

+

B

^^£'*

rejn I.) ==.

4B

—-4 cof 2B
Bp

+

3 ^^^'^ (^y

'^^^^^''

-\- 3.

In like manner, 2+xfin.

=:fin.5B

— 5fin.3B-(-iofin.B;

and 25xfiri7Bl^r=
Fig. 21.

— cof6B+6cof4B— J5cof 26 + 10,©^^.
:

* Byfim.A's,

And BC

(i)

BC(i):BG:: DE (2D«) D/.(CF — CH) = 2D«xBG: CG DE (2D«) Ep (EH— DF} = 2CG x D«. Whence,
:

:

:

:

hy

Means of the Meafures of Angles and
Whence,
univerfally^ iin. B]'

Ratios.

8

1

=—
^-^vs\.

>^

+

fin. ;?B

-|- 72

fin.

«


2

2

.

B

4^ ^

-

n

when n

is

an odd number

;

and
«
.

iin. Bl"

+

cof.

«B
is

+

no-oi.

n

.

B
:

+

cof.

— 4 B + ^c. =— X &c. n— 4 B
.
.

4-

when n

an even number

where the number of terms,
t'z -f- i
;

in

the former cafe, will be li-i, and in the latter

in

which cafe the half, only, of "the laft term is to be taken and is always politive, as well as the laft term in the former cafe whereby the figns of all the other terms (as they change alternately) will be known.
:

If a,

iG,

y,
"
72.

(5"

Mbc
.^^^^^,

alTumed to exprefs the terms
I

(i, «,

n

.

1^1^,

&c.) of

-|-

I

raifed to the 72th

power

term) it is evident that the fecond cafe of our general equation (wherein n is even) will fland « Tl"""^ thus, iin. Bf into -^ a cof. n 2. A 4- /3 cof 72

{M being the middle, or greateil

=—
.

.

A

+

y cof

72

—4

A +

^ cof

72— 6 .A

+ t-^-

By the fame method of proceeding, an expreifion exhibiting the continual produd: of the co-lines, or lines of any number
of unequal arches,

may
I.)

be derived.

A—B
X
2 cof

For

(l?y
;

Lemma

cof

Ax

2 cof

B
2

whence cof

C

+

cof

A

—BX

A

x

2 cof B 2 cof

x

= cof A + B + cof cof C = cof A+ B
(^^^

C

(by equal multiplication)

r= cof

A 4- B -f- C

— + cof A — B + C cof —A + B + C
cof

A+B

the Le?n?na)

;

whence, again (by equal multiplication

M

^72^ the

Lemma) we
have

8 2

"The Refolution

of certain fluxionary Equations^

have

cof.

A

x

2

cof.

B x

2 cof.

C x

2 cof.

D

=

cof.

cof.
,

A+B+C—
A-t-B-C+D

cof.A+B-C-D

A+B+C+D + ^^^ A_B^c+D + ^°^- A-B+C-D cof-A+B+C-D cof. -A+B+C+D
from which the law of continuation
is

cof.

manifeft.

To determine
number.
If
is

the jiuent

PROBLEM of ———=; n
X X
n
.

I.

VI

being any odd affirmative

XX

A

be affumed to denote the arch of a
radius
i
,

circle,

whofe
^

fine

X and

it is

well

known
alfo

that

A=

VI
a;"


XX

:

and,

by the Corol. to

Lem.
;z

II,

it

appears that

=+—
.

—1«—

K

iin.

nA

;z

lin.

—2

.

A

-[-

^

-

- fii^-«

—4
2
1

A flJlI.

Hence we have

-

—^-—

VI
Axf./zA--;zAxf.;z

— XX

(=: x^'A

)

==

+ -L

X

— 2.A + ;»z.^.=iAxf.« — 4.A(^±i).

But the fluxion of any arch, multiplied by the fine (the radius being unity) is equal to the fluxion of the verfed-fine : therefore the fluxions of the verfed-fines of the arches nA^
n

2

.

A, n

fin.

n — 2. A, n — 4. Ax
:

—4

.

A, &c.

will be

nA x iin. nA,

n

—2

.

Ax
;.

An. «

—4
into

.

A, &c. reipedively

and confequently the
fluxions

faid verfed-fines, the true fluents
is

whence

it

of thefe manifefl: that the true fluent of our

whole expreflion ^

will

be

+ 2 ——
n

— xverf.fm.wA
n
^
.

«

X

verfed-fin. n
n
n

—2
2

.

A

H

'

«— 6

23
I

n

— 2_ — 4 .lUi ^ verfed-fin. n — 4 A 2
—6
.

^ —2
of
the

X verfed-iin. n

A

(

li-^ )
2
^

.

Wherein,

\

hy

Means of the Meafures of Angles and

Ratios.

83

the figns
tains,

\

and

-—IK

1 ,

before

|

the former, or

latter

obis

according as

—^^

expreffing die

number of

terms,

odd or even.

To find
number.

the fluent

PROBLEM n of --^——
n
j

11.

being any e'ven affirmative

By
to

the preceding Problem

—- ^
V
i'~-'

.;

=A

5

and, by the CoroL

XX

Lem. IL
cof.

x"

=

-]-

—\
2
.

x
-|-

a

— X — A 7X n—4 Therefore -^— (= x^k) = ± 3" X —
nK
jQ

cof.;^

cof.

.

A

ir^*

'

VI

XX

21

osAxcof./^A

-— iSAxcof.«-2.A-f-?A Xcof.;?-4.A
:

+ tMA.

But the fluxion of any arch, multiplied by the co-line, is equal to the fluxion of the fine, drawn into the radius whence
it

n

—4

follows that nk.
.

A

X cof

of the arches nK^ confequently that

—4 n—
n
;?A

x

cof.
.

nh^

n


.

2

.

A X

.

cof n-

—2

.

A,

A, ^c. are the fluxions of the

iines

2

.

A, n

—4
X

A, ^c, refpedively j and,

~«_, f-xfin.

"

4.JI
^'
will

\a^
/

«

— —

fin.;2

—2

.

A

-I

2L_

7.-4

x

An.

«

— 4.A
:

^xfm.^^==^.A.. + -iMA
where a ==
i,
/S

be the true fluent fought
^^^^, ^
-i-

=

«,

7

=

^X

= 7 X i^,
,

Gff . and wherein the fign
as

+ or —

before

obtains
is

according

\.n

J^

i^

exprefling the

number of

terms,

odd, or even.

M

2

COROL-

84

Tie Refolution of certain fluxionary Equatiom\

COROLLARY
Since the value
2

L
to

(M) of

the middle term of the binomial
is

-|-

iT,
^

expanded in a
-4- T
'

feries,

known
feries,

be —yj^-^^yj!—!.
evident that the

—M

,

by the law of the
to
it

it

is

term next adjacent

(on either fide) will be expreffed by

Mx —^^>
fame manner,

or by
it

Mx—^5

making

m =. {n.
term to

And,
this

in the

will appear that the next

laffc

will

be expreffed by J r
Tn-\-i

Mx—^x^^: m-\-i m-\-2
^

and the next

to that,

by '

and fo on. Therefore, by fubflitut; m-\-2 ing thefe values above, and inverting the order of the terms, the general fluent, there given, will here be transformed to

M X —^ X ^ X ^~ m-^2

-xfm.2A
.m-\-2

+ -^x-7ixifin.4A

^x
*
5

m-\-2
feries is to

,

xif.oA-j

——
m-\-i

X

—— X—--X —-^xK.oA w+3 ot+4
m-\'2
till it

&c. where the

be continued

terminates

and

where the value of the general multiplicator — will be truly (and
2"

mofl commodioufly) expreffed by

— x -^ x
^n

-^-

x ^^.
>

For

M

beins:

^

=

I.

2

——
.

if the

numerator

• •

'Z

.

A.

hereof be multiplied by ^^ ^^ i 2 ^^ 3 3 t^ 2.1, and the denominator, at the fame time, by its equal 1.2
. •

.

.3.4
n.n

^n

—2
.3

.

—.i.»-^2.«—

I
1

.

T^j

we

fhall

then have

M=
n^

3-2.

1.2.3.4.5.6.7

4«xi.2.3.4....?« 1.2.3.4 M , ... ,. ., ,, which divided by 2" gives
.

—=
%

1. 2. 3. 4... i« XI. 2. 3. 4... ^«* n 1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8

-—

—-—

=

2.4.6,8....«X2.4.6.8...»;

^•3-5'7 2.4.6.8

n'—\
«

CORO

L-

by

Means of the Meafures of Angles and Ratios,

Hence may
for this

the fluent

COROLLARY IL — xx be oi
x'^ks/
\

likewife deduced}
;

expreffion

may
J

be changed to

— VI
>^


XX
firfl

,

or to

VI

—~—
XX


VI
XX

whereof the
x -I-

fluent of the

term

is

already found rrr -- x
•'

A

^
is

X

fin.

—— ^ 246 ^ x^^ X 2A H
n

-

|fin.4A, ^V. And, by

making n

z=.

n-\-2^ and

the fecond term

-^
v'l

— —

m

^=. \ri (^=:
(

m-\""

\),
-

the fluent of
in

=
J T

XX

\

VI

— xx/
S
c

)

the fame
^'

manner

given equal to

2 — x— 2

x-g"2


^,

^

X

X 4 X A— -J^ X 2A, ©<:.=- 240 + A — ^ilxfin.2A + ^±ix-^x|-fin.4A, ^r.
fin.

w'

'

4-

1.

n A-\ «

i±I

I

+2

Whence,

by adding the
J

fluents of

both terms together,
n

we

have, after

proper reduction

^.

1.3.5.7 2.4.6.8

I

«.«-j-2

A— fizilxf. A — fLziIxf.2A-]
X<
,

=^:z^xlf.4A—

,

'f=^=^

L

xifin.6A+ "•"^^^^^^^^^I^XjCn.SA.g.. /«-j-2 .»2 + 3 m-|-4 +5
. .

W2

where the law of continuation is manifefl:, the differences (6, arith10, 14, &c.) of the numbers i, 7, 17, 3u&c, being in
metical progreffion.

COROLLARY
VI
XX

IIL

Moreover, from hence the fluent of —^'^— x e+fx''+gx^-{-bx^

^c. may be

eafily

deduced

:

for,

putting

7 X '7 ^"5

J

o

^

86
r=

T^e Refolution of certain Jluxionary Equations^
^,

the fluent of the

firll

term

v/i-

X

^,

is

given, by Co-

roLI,=zqexA
and
that

^xfin. 2A

+ -^x^^ X Ifm.AAefc.
^-^
^

of the fecond term f
fm.
'.i±-L

A—
^

^' X
A

fore the fluent

— — x fx) = ""^ x afx \\/i-^xx «4 y 2A + ThereX -^ X of whole be found = q
^

-2

^*^

i-fin.4Ae?^.

the

expreflion will
'

X

m -\-

—- X fin. 2 A
I

-I
'

m

-\- 1

x<^

^/X A— ^ti X
!L±i
K-l-2

fin.

2A

+

^
«

x'-^^X^fm.^A&c. m
-\-

m—

I

2

X

-4- X |-fm.4AGf..

x^+^FxA-^i±lxf2A+^"x'4:ix|f4AG?I ^+3 ^+4 »^+3 «+4
n-\-2
^

which, by making r

+4

«+6

&c. will be reduced to

+ +

^9'

m

-{- 1

A !L_.^^4.^L±i./r + ^.o-5 + ^^.

+
.

y?^

+ ^^ +
m
-\-2
I

^^- X

xfin.2A
,

m-\-Z

»2

m -— »2 + I eq-\--~—.
.

——

—mr--fr-\—~.—^—.s:s,<^c.x^i,A.A
r
I

7;z-|-2

?/z4-i

r J>

^>ir..A

;w

I

171—'2

m-\-\
2
OT -|'

m
'« -|-3
'

m
?w

TTZ-j-I

W-j-2

/K+3 .€q-\r

./r
-f 4

+ G?r.x}f.6A

SCHOLIUM.
From
thofe of
^/:

the fluents determined in the preceding Propofltion,
„^4,.i^_x.
-,

\/^

— bz^ X

z'"f-^i^-"z,

and

.^z^

^JH]?

gz'^^ -|- i'z^^ (iff. (where m denotes any whole po4-y^^ number, and p any pofltive number whatever, whole or broken) may be ealily deduced, by means of a proper transfor-

X

^

+

iitive

mation

:

by
matlon be

Means of the Meafures of Angles and Ratios,
:

87

for,

\/ a


by

bz^ being

= a'\l/
I

I?
1
,

let

there

a

made— =;^^ a
confequently,

or 2;^= -^a:^; then
b

2'"^

+ ^=-^
b

xa:^'"+^
fides,

and

taking

— '+1 the
b

fluxion

on both

=

—l^ +
-^

i

2

X

—.x^'^x. Therefore our

firft

expreffion,

v: «
will be transformed to

bic

—^^^ x
.

la

XX

(fuppofing n
will

=

2;;z) j

whofe

fluent (by Problem

IL

Corollary I.)

be given

=

^'Z-S-1 2.4.6.8

^^—
n

v.

^^_ V
pb'"-^^

A-^f.2A+^.!^xK.4A m-\-i w + m-\-2
'

i

^

m-\-i

^.^,^^^{.6A m4-2 m-\-2
^

-f-

^c. where

A

reprefents the arch

whofe

flne

is

v

,

the

radius being unity.

In the fame manner the fluent of our fecond expreflion,

y/a

— bz^ X z'^^+'^^'z,
5-7
«
;z

will be given (by CoroL

IL) equal to

J- 3-


-|-

r

^

2«'""T"'
ph'

2.4.6.8

2

m+\

A^^fin.2A+
X 1 fin.
Laftly,

"^-""^ x^fm.4A-,"-"-^'"-^7
fi„.

^^^a

formed

to
ph

J^

+ '"•"— '^'-^•"'-31 ^ i X -^fzf + + &c. — X —^-^ X ^ + + + >yi—xx
6A
e
^2;^^^

8A

_

g?,.

hz^f

will

be

trans-

bT^

.

"^^

.

=^a:^
b

^

-^r-^'''

^'^^ ^^^d

the

^

bb

'

fluent thereof (by CoroL III.) will therefore be given equal to

tX
P^''^'^

/_,^x-4-+/rx4x^+^ixf;x^^.,xf.2A

88

Tthe Refolution

of certain fluxionary Rquat'iom^

X

f^x—— X—— +/r X -r X -J-x
'''^''^
,

—— &c. X f f.AA
»

wherein q ^
/

:=:

2.

4..

6. 8

n

r=zgx^-^y 5=irx^-i-^\ ^
n-^2

=

+4

J

X "-±4, &C.
n -\.o

When v

becomes equal

to the radius, or unity,

A

will

be an arch of 90 degrees ; and therefore, the lines of all the arches 2 A, 4 A, 6 A, &c. being then equal to nothing, the
fluent of

— will,
n—2

in that circumftance,

be barely

=

^'•^'^'^

2.4.6.8
\/a

"~^ X -^^ X
/,r+'
xz^'^

A.

Moreover,

the fluent of


+

I?z^
^

+ if-'z

will then

become

^'^'^'^

"~^
«-f-2

X -;^— X P^ \2
f
'

2a"'

A

;

and that of


'

z*"/*

+

-iP

2.4.6.8
^i.

^a — bz^
"•

x e +fz^+gz^f

+ bz^^
^^
*

——

«-f2*
;

Z-

*^n-\~2'n-{-4.' ^^
o'

«-j-2j?

+ 4*« + 6'

><

!!!l.i pl/"-^-i

XA

where

^

= 2.4.6 '^'f
i

n—i
«
'

^^^ where,

if

m

=:

o, q mufl:

be taken ^r

PROBLEM
To determine
the radius
ofl

III.

the fluent

which jnz, nz^ pz^

Sec. are

of zxcoflmzy.cof.nzY. cof.pz Sec, in any given multiples ofl the arch z

-,

the circle being unity.

72Z, C pz, &c. and find (by the of co-fines of the multiples of z, to exprefs the continual produd (cof A xcof B xcof.C, &c.) of the co-fines propounded which feries let be denoted by

Make A

= mz, B =
feries

=

method on p.%i) a

;

^Xcof.a2;4-cof /3z-|-cof.72;-f cof.Jlz^^f^:.
conftant quantities)
:

(a, a, jS, &c. being then will our given expreifion become

az

by

Means of the Meafures of Angles
az
fin.

ajtd Ratios,
its

89

az X
fm. a%

cof.

-|" cof. jGz -|- cof.

yz -\- cof. Sz C^c. and
fin.S'x

fluent will

therefore (by proceeding as in Prob. II.) appear to be

=^

into

0z

1^

fin.yz

i

n^

Thus,

for
;

be required

example, then will

let

the fluent of

cof.

A X cof B (=

x cof. mz X cof. 7iz Qoi.fnz x cof.^^z)
2;

=

-ixcof A-f-B -j-cof A
therefore, in this cafe,

and confequentlv the
fin.

— B = — xcof n,z -\-m — n,z: and ^ z=zm — w. =— foueht = —
?;^-),

o(.-=.m -\-n^

fluent

'"•"^+"-'^

into

\

m

—«

.

z

were
(==

In like manner, if the fluent of i; x cof.mz x cof. nz x cof.pz to be required ; then would cof mz x cof. nz x cof.pz
cof.

A X cof B X cof C)
-\-

eof.m

+ n —p.z
.

and therefore the
fin.

fluent
Cm.

m-\-n — p

m-^n — p.z

=— cof m — n -\-p'Z fought = — ° 4
— n-\-p.z
«-{-p
^

into cof.

m

-\-

n

-\-

p .z -^
.
-,

-\- cof.

-m-\- 72 -\-p z
^ -\-n -\,

into

^"'^

^

m
-\-

,

'

m m—

fin.

—n

— n-{~m-\-p
m \-

p

f

'

+
'

.

z

By when
Thus,

the very fame

method the

fluent

may be
it

fome, or
if there

all

of the

fa(ftors are fines (iiiftead

be given z

x cof mz x fin. nz,
which
90""
is

determined of co-flncs). may be wrote

z X cof mz X cof 90°

nz',

=—

into cof. 90° -J"

m

—n

.

z

-{-

cof
.

m
;

-\-

n .z
fo

=~

into fin.

n

— m ,z
in
-1-

"-Y-

fm. n

-\-

m z
will

and

the fluent (by proceeding as

Problem

I.) '
-\-

come out

=
N

— into 2

~^
I^? ^
.

n-^ m

—^

verfed-fin. n

m

.

z

n

-\-

m

PRO-

90

T^e Refolutmt of certain fluxionary Equations

From

the equation
b^

PROBLEM IV. + -4 + -^ + "4
^j'

"I"

"^

+ ^^' = o
j

(wherein a,
pofed

f , d,

&c.

denote conjlant quantities)

// is

pro-

to find the
j^

value of

y

in terms of z.

AiTume = aM'"^ + /SM"* + yW"" + M?« &c. in which M denotes the number whofe hyperbolical logarithm fniuM""" + /z^iGM"^ + pzyW"" &c. y m'zoM'"'' + y + p^zyM^'' &c.
is

unity

:

tlien will

r=z

r=r

^z'z'iSM''^

Which

values being fubflituted in the given equation,

we have

^aM'"«+
cm'-aM!"''

^/3M"^
'^^^'/SM'^

-!-j-

ayMJ'^'&c.-

hnoMr^^ 4- hn^yV"''
dm^oNt'^

bpyM^^ &c,
([sfc

+ cp^yMP"" &c. + dn^^M"' ^^^^M^^ +
-j-

we have &c. := o, a -\- bn -\- en* -j- dn^ ^c, o, &c. that is, the re0, a \' bp '\- cp^ 4- dp^ &c. quired values of mj n, p, &c. will always be the roots of an equation, a -j^ bx ~\- cx^ -\- dx^ C^c. =z o, wherein the given quantities are the fame, in every term, with thofe in the fluxional equation propounded. Therefore, when thefe roots are known, the value of y will alfo be known : in which the coefficients a, /3, y, ^, &c. may denote any conftant quantities at
equating the homologous terms,

From whence, by
-]-

a

=

bm -^ cm^

-|- dm'^

=

pleafure

When
dx'^

+

as is evident from the procefs. fome of the roots of the equation a 4" bx ~\- cx^- -\ex^ &c. =r o, happen to be impoffible, the values of
;

the correfponding terms of the feries aM""^ yW''' iGM"^ -\- JM?** &c. will then be expreffed by means of the fmes and co-lines of circular arcs. Thus, for example, let the fluxio-

+

+

nary equation propounded be jy
I

— ^ =r o

;

then

we
i,

fhall

have
^>

— x^ =^0

and

— v/ —

;

whereof the four
I j

roots are i,

-]-'

v^

and, thefe being fubflituted for m^ n^ /, and

by
^,

Means of the Meafures of Angles
y
will

aitd Ratios.

9r

refpedtlvely,

here

become

=

aM^

+

/9M-*= ^f-

y]Vt+»"^" Jp ^M-*^^"'.

terms yM^"^-' I k § whereby the fum of the

— =

+

Now, to take away the imaginary M"'^'^-', we may write k -\- I =z y, and
faid

;

terms will be

=:

k

xM^^^yM''''^-'

+

/

X M^^^'
:

— M-^"^^ = 2k X cof.
(putting h

z

+ -7?= X
a,

fin.

z

(vid. p. 78)

whence

:= -7=^)

we have y
where
In
pleafure.
like

= aM'^ +
jG,

^,

2h x fm. 2; j 2/^ X cof. 2; denote any conflant quantities, at and k

iGM"^

+

+

manner, fuppofing the equation given to be _y
fhall

+ -^
roots
-^-J

=
are

o,

we

have

i

+ dx^ = o

-,

whereof the three

^""^, ^""s

x -^ +

^ — -,
and
t
s,

and

d~^ x -^

—v—
— 1\/n,

which,

if J

be put

= ^""^,
g^M"^"

:= d"^ x
{s~Y t\/"

commodioufiy expreffed by

V4
i,

-^, will

be more
i :

and ^s

And thefe values we fhall have_y

being fubftituted in the room of m,

+ m''"'^'"'^' + rM''""'*^-^ = which, by reafon«M-'" + M'^^ x jGM'"^~^ + yW'''^-'

and /,

=

;

ing as in the preceding

cafe, is

reduced to ^

= exMT'^

-f-

M*'*

X 2^ X

fin.

tz

-{-

2k X

cof. tz.

From

the equation

PROBLEM V. + + +
^>'

-^

-^

-4

^^- == AM/^*' 4"
-,

BM^^
Cj

denote the

^0 determine the njalue of y fuppofmg number whofe hyperbolical logarithm is unity, and &c. A, B, C, &c. any confiant quantities,

+ CM*"^ &c.

M

to

a, b,

PM^'^ Affuming y y =z pzFM^''

=

+ C^?^
N2

-f.

RM''^

6?r.

we have

+ ^^QM?" + rzRM'^ &c, y =p^zBm^ + qzQ^^^ + r'-zVs.W ^C
which

92

I'he Refolution

of certain fluxionary Equations^
it

which

values being fubftituted in the given equation,

becomes

From whence, by comparing

the homologous terms,
::^ Q—

we

have

p
a
Jf.

^
hp J^
cp"- -\-

dp''

cJcJ

^

+ h + ':f + df ^^'^
is

?

R —-

^

J^ br J^

cr"-

+ dr^

&c

,

&c. whereby one value of y

known.
it

But the value or

fluent

thus found, in order to render

general, mufi: be corred:ed by the value of y found in the preceding Problem, that is, by the quantity cxM""'^ -]- I3M^'^ -X- yM^'^ &c. wherein m, ?i\ p\ &c. denote the roots of the

equation a
laft

-]- I?x -\- ex'' -\-

^^^ ^^all

=

"^^

^^^

^5

/^'

7y

^^- ^^7

conflant quantities.

For, fmce

the terms arifmg from this

part of the value of y, by fubftituting in the given equation, do mutually deftroy one another, the other terms affedled

with P, Q, R, &Ci will be no-ways influenced thereby, but remain exactly the fame as above determined.

COROLLARY.
If the equation given be m'y
-}-

^
:

=
-f-

AM^^ -f BM?^
c
i,

-|-

CM''^

+ DM^^ &c.
z=: o) '

then {a being

= m\ =

and
;

by d, e,
,

&c. each

we

have
;

P

= mm
•\-


pp

,

Q ^=^ nun

-J-

&c.
'

qq

and

AT

==

+
'

m\/^^i
mm -j- pp
m?n
-j-

and confequently y r= aM'"*^—
rnm
qq

-}-

X

cof.

mz
it

+ -A^ + -5.^ mm
'

C^c.

pp

'

-{ qq

(fee

Ex.

L

to

Prob. F.J
-j-

Hence

follows, that, if the equation given

be m"y

~

AW'^'^-'-y KM-^^'^-'-y A'Mp-^^-f MM-^^-^-' &c.) 2 A' X cof. dz &c. the value of y (by fubftir= 2 A X cof TTZ z ^ Z =r, TT tUting TT =:/>, ^ :=^ S y g f A B, A'= C, A'= D, &c.) will come out ;= 2hx fin. ;;22:
2

{—

+
,

Z

=

=

2.

,

Z

Z

1

+

by

Means of the Meafures of Angles and Ratios,
cof.

93

+ ^k X + 2^ X
Which

m:^ 4'

^^^"" ~'

mm

cof.

wz

-4

— WW —
^

+
X

5r!r

^^--^^c, = 7«w —
tttt

2^

x fin. mz
£2; £?<:.

cof. it^

A

Ti'Tv

mm — ff
-^^^

X cof

equation (wherein h and k may denote any conftant quantities) is of fingular ufe in determining the figure of the
lunar orbit.

In like manner,
this
-\-

when

the general equation propounded
-\-

is

of
^-

form, ay
Y)-z'"~~'^

^ ^- \ ^l

|: ^^. =:: A2;-

+ B2;— + C2;—
^

ing Pz""
ftituting

&c. the value of y may be determined, by affumfrom whence, by fub-j- Q^-' -j" R^j^""" ^c. ; in the given equation, and comparing the homologous

=7
,

terms, there will be

had P

=—
a

Q

= ——-—
a
a

,

R

=

a

always terminate, provided v is any pofitive integer 3 and where, if to the value of y thus deteryM^'' &c.) mined, the corredion or feries (oM'"^ iSM"* found by Prob. IV. be added, the general value of y will be

&c. where the

feries will

+

+

obtained.

PROBLEM
To determine
form,
the lvalue

VI.
this

of y in any fuxionary equation of
5

1

+ 4 + 4 + -^ + 4' = ^
ofz

faPpoM ^
known

io repre-

fent any quantity exprejfed in terms
1°.

a?id

coefficiejtts.

yX

denotes a iiPM--^^ (wherein fo variable quantity, and p a conflant one, to be determined) =: flu. i;PM-^% or (by taking the fluxions) fhall jxM-^^ zPM~f'' ; whence, dividing the M--^^ ;' X pzM-f''

Make y

= W"" x
we

flu.

P

:

=

whole by
2°.

zM.-^'^y

have -^
flu.

— py =z P.
zQM -g^^
py x
then our
lafl:

Make P

=

M?^ x

equa;

tion will be transformed to

^

M"^^

=

flu,

zQM-^^

whence.

94

^-

Refolution of certain fluxlonary Equations^
fluxions,

whence, by taking the

4

py

y.

M""?^

-1-

4-

^y

by dividing the whole by i;M^^.
3°.

Make,

now, Q^^== M^^ x

flu.

zRM-''^

s

then will
or

A —^-[.^.4- +/27

X

M-*"^

=

fiuent

of i;RM-''^,

2-_^ + ^.Z.+^2yxM— +^~/.+^4+j^2)'
rzM-''^

X

-

=
+

zRM-'-^
5^^

"^^

or,

laftly,

.21— ^-j-^r-j-^.^L-L
'

/^

-f-

/^

/^ry =:

i?.

4°.
in the

Make,

again,

R

= M^^ x
fo fliall 4;'

flu.

iSM^^^
5'

and proceed

fame manner ;

— / + + ^+-^«4j —
'\-p(l^-\'prs-\-qrs
is

pq-\-pr-\-ps-\-qr-\-qs-\-rs.^
pqrsy

— p^^

.^

-|-

=z S

:

from whence the law of continuation

manifefl.

Let, now, the feveral terms of the equation

~ — p-\~9~\~^~\~^

.

^ &c. = S
a,

be compared with the correlponding terms of the
:

pqr -*- /^5 &c. =r: f, &c. &c. Whence, from the genejis of equations, it is evident, that />, ^, r, &c. are the roots of an equation x'^ -fo) ax"^ -|~ ^^^ ^^ ° (oi*' ^ ~h <^''^"~^ 4" bx""'"^ &c. wherein the given quantities are the very fame with thofe in the equation propounded. Therefore, when the values of thefe roots are found (by any of the known methods) the values of R, P, and y may alfo be found, one from another, fucceffively. E* L
-}^,

+ -^ &c. == A — pr ps qr &c. = — — pq + +
given one,
-q:

fo fhall

p

-{•

g

-{-

f &c.

=r:

+ + =

''<^''

=

Q^

^

The

hy

Means of the Meafures ofAngles and Ratios,
'The

95

fame

otherwife.
flu.

Let

(if poffible)

2;AM-?^

+

y

= AM'^^ x
flu.
fliail
'^^

zAM-f"

+ BxM?^ x
:

flu.

CM^" X

i;AM-^^ &c. (A, B, C, &c.
be determined)

&c. being

confliant quantities to

p, q, r, then, by

takino; the fluxions,
•4-

we

have
flu.

== / AM^^ X flu

.

i;

AM--f

+ A A + ^BM?« X

i;AM- ?^

+

(^r.

4^=^'AM^^xfl.2;AM-^^+/»AA+^4-fBM?^xfl.2;AM-?'=eJ'f.
-|-3=/3AM^-xflu.2;AM-^-+/)^'AA+-^^— -\-^

+ &c. 4::=/>^AM^-xflu.i;AM-^«+/.3AA + ^^+^ + M ^c.

+ + + ~ + ^f--\-bqA-^ xBl___^^ ^Kn U' + ^r+¥-r^ x^ + Iri J^ ar^ ^as^ br xD X C +
g'
-\-\- c
J^

Which values being fubfliltuted in the given equation, and the homologous terms being compared, we fliall thereby gtt p^-\-ap^ bq" -\- cq aq^ d o, Cic. ~r bp"- -\- cp -\- d z=z o, ^^

-\- bs -\- c

p'--\-ap-\-ipxA-{-q''-^aq-{-i?xB-{-r'--{-ar-{-l?xC-{-s^-]-as-]-l?xD=o

p-{-axA-\-q~^axB'-\-r-\'axC'-\'S-\-axD o. A+B+C +D

=

=

o

the former of thefe equations, p^ -\- ap^ -f- bp"" q^ -]- aq'^ -f- bq"" -|- cq -\- d :=: o, c^^. it appears evident, that />, ^, r, &c. are the roots of the equation
-]- cp

Now, from \- d z=z
-|ax"^
-]-

o,

x''

bx^

-\-

ex

-\-

d

^==.

o

(or,

more

generally, of

x^ -f- /^:>i:"~^ 4" b%''~^ &c. :=z Oj n denoting the order to which the fluxions afcend in the given equation) j which roots being

known methods) the values of &c. will be obtained. But to find from thence and p, q, the' remaining equations, the values of A, B, C, &c. let the laft of thefe equations multiplied by a^ be fubtracled from the preceding one, fo fhall pa -\- qB -}- rC -{' sD z= o moreover, let this new equation multiplied by a, be fubtracted from the iafl but tv/o, and from the remainder let bA -j- bB -\- bC -fo be again fubtrad:ed, whence will be had />*A '\- q^'B bD
therefore found (by any of the
r,
:

=

gG
-^

T*he Refolutton

of certain Jluxionary Equations^
:

rC
I,

-\-

s^D

=o

and, in the fame manner, from the

iirft

equation, will be
caufe

had p^A

+ ^^B

-|-

and not o, forms the latter C D z= o, Now, from each of the equations (A -]- B qB r^C j^D rC 4- 5D r:= o, p'K o, pK ^B let the precedp^A -\- ^^B -1- r^C -\-~ i^D 1 ) thus derived, fo fhall ing one multiplied by p, be fubtraded

r'C -\- j''D ==: i (bepart of that equation).

+

+

=

+

+

+ + + =
o, o,
i.

:

— p .B q — p q^
q
*

-Y

r— /.C

~\- s
-[- s

— p .V> =

-V ^

q

—p

.

q'B

+ r—p

— p .rC
.

r'C

-\- s

= — p /D =
.

—p

sD

.

Moreover, from each of thefe laft equations, let the preceding one multiplied by q^ be in like manner fubtrafted ; whence
will

be had
r

— p.r — q .C — .rC r —p
,r

q

Again, from the
plied

laft

by

r,

be fubtrad:ed

— p.s — q .D =o, — p.s — q sD the preceding one mu of — p.s — q — r.D then
-]- s -]- s
.

=z= I.

thefe,

let

lti^

j

will s

.s

=
as

I,

and confequently

D r= — z=^ — r —q p
s
.

:

whence

it is

s

.

s

manifefl by infpedion (becaufe
s is

p

is

the fame with refped: to A,
,

to

D, &c.)
^

that

A = ==:-i=.
P—
?•/*

B

=
q

r.kc.

— p.qr^ .hz—
r
^y (

,

C =:
r

—p r —
.


q
.

,

^c.

From whence

the value of
will

=

&c.

AM^^^xflu.zAM-^^+BM^^xflu.zAM-J^&c.)
let

be known,

the orders of fluxions in the equation afcend to what height they will.— Thus, for example, let the equation propounded

^^ "^
^

-\-

^y

=

M''^ : in which cafe, a being
x"

=
-,

o, ^

= »?%

=

&c.

=

o,

&c. our general equation,
o,

+

ax''~^ -|- ^a:"~* -\- cx''~^

will therefore

become

x^

two

roots

(p and qj are
)

m\/

-y m' := o whereof the from m\/ i ; i, and


I

whence
7-=r 2mV — I

A (= — q^ p
^
:

=
A
is

s=r=.

and

B (-

2;«v/—

q—P
X

alfo,

becaufe

here

= M"*, we have y = AM^'

by
X
flu.

Means of the Meafures of Angles and
iM"'"^''

Ratios.

97

+ BM?"= X

flu.

tMi^'-i''

=
q^

(by fubflituting the values of
•K^-^-p^

/»,

A, and B).

But

in order

to render

the folution general,

the value of^ thus

found mull, always, be corrected, or augmented by the quantity aM^^ ff^^"" -\' yMr"" ^c. (given by Prob. IV.) w^here a. denote any confl:ant quantities whatever, /3j Ji h ^c. may pofitive, or negative. Other infl:ances of the ufe of exponential quantities, and of the meafures of angles and ratios, in the refolution of fluxionary equations of diflferent kinds, might be given ; but I fhall conclude here, with obferving, that A, in this lafl: folution, may denote any q^uantity wherein both y and z enter, as well as one in which % is alone concerned independent of ^.

+

AN

An Investigation ofaGEN eral Rule
Orders.

for

the Rcfolution of Ifoperimetrical Problems of all

LEMMA.
r-^p'^up POSING «, y, ^ S A determinate quantities.
13,

I

g,

(sc.

iobeafermofrn-

^',
, 7
I

/^;

^',

^r

/3
i

^'',

andthati^^j^.^^n^

K\

S'\

T'
r^'

^r^ any qua?Jti-)

y

\and given
quantities;

>tiescompcfedof] S

It is prcpofed to

find an equation for the relation of

a,
"^"^-

^c. fo that
^7

the quantity

^+ ^+ ^ 4-_C" + C'
the

/3,

y,

J",

#^^^ ^^
quan-^

maximum
S'''&c.

or

minimum, at
7^"

titics i?

+

+ +
ie'

+

i^'"

+

fame time that the other IR^'" &c. S -\- S'-\-S'+ S''

+
all

S'''

and T-Vr-\~r'-\-r'^-\-r'"&c. are
S,

of

them given, or fuppofed to remain invariable.

any correfponding terms of the feR" ries's -V R:' C" &c. R 5^'' ^' S''' 4- '5"'.^^. ^4R'" &c. S S' 4- S'' ^'''^ -^ "J"'" _j_ ^^. refpeilively, expreffed in terms of u, any one of the propofed quantities a., (3, y, ^, s &c. moreover let the fluxion of ^(a being variable) be denoted by qa.; that ofi? by

^+ ^ + + + +
q;'

Let 9j R,

I' denote

C+ +

+R

+ +

ra

i

that of
is

^ by q^
5
4"
T''"

;

that

R by y[i,
_^+
y^'

It
G?<r.

evident that the quantity

cannot be a maximum or minimum,
J[- i^-^' (5V.

when i^
4-

C + C + C + C' ^' 4"
-|-"

&c.

&'c.

^''

R"

+ ^4- S" +
is

""h

r" &c.

and

r+

T'
the

4- T"

-\-l""

&c. are given
a

quantities, unlefs the part

^^|_ ^_j_^-j_ ^'

maximum

or minimum,^

when

parts

An
parts
-]-

Inv efligat ion of a general Rule
'S

^

&;c.

^g

5 + R-\'K \ K\

-\-S-\-B'
;

-\-

S'\

and

becaufe the terms in thefe parts may be alone made variable, while the other terms are fiippofed to remain the fame, whereby the whole fums,

T'

+ T" are given quantities
R'''

T -^ T

4- R"" &c. 6' y r' _|- r" &c. will remain the fame, and the quantity ^-j-|" ^' ^' -\- ^' &c. will be a maximum or mirmnum, when the

R

+ R' -y R" +
^4-

+ +r +

+

^

But when ^-1" ^ or minimum^ and i? -|- i^ _(- i^' _|_ 7^''^ 4- ^' is a 5' 4- r, and ?4- r 4- r'4- T"' are given (or ^ _i- ^ Gonflant) quantities, their fluxions will be, all of them, equal to nothing whence we have thefe equations,
part
Is

^+^ + C maximum
j

fo.

+C

+

qu
rii
5/<!

-^^ qtx.-\-

4- ^« 4"
4"
•^'^

q^ 4" fy / /?4~ ^'V
"^'^

^zi

+

4~ /a 4-

4"

-^'V

//3

4- t"y

=o =o ^ =O
^=^

In order
thefe

now

to exterminate the

fluxions

ii,

a,

/3,

^, let

equations be

refpedtively

multiplied by

i,

e^J] g,

(yet

unknown) and
together;

let all

the

produ cts thence arifing be added

whence

will be

had q

-\-

er A-

fs

~\-

gt x u

-\-

q-V(^^+M-gt X ^4-/ -i-^r
Make, now,
q
-\-

4/^-'4-^^'

X

/3

-\-q'-\-er"-\-fs"-]-gt'xy

er -\-fs -\- gt
^^'

o> 'Vfi' -V Z'^' o, -V gt_ From whence, there being as many equations as quantities, e, J] g, to be determined, the values of thofe quantities will always be given from thence, in terms of the quantities q, r^s^ /,

/

4-

qJ-er \Js

= ~ =

o,

^

q, r\ /, /;

q\ r\ /,

/' (exclufive

of^,

r,

j,

/,).

Now,
-V-gfx

fee?^

ing

all

the ter ms o f the equation q 4- er

•\-

f'T

4"

q-V^r+fs+gtxc^+q

±f!:±ll+g£^± q^rer"-Yfs"J^gfx y
er -j-y74- g Tmuft alfo be o J^fyfux. S-\-gxJIux.T=o); where
-\-

rrr o, after the iirft [q -\- er-\-p -\-gtx u) do thus adiualjy vani£h (by their coefficients being taken equal to nothing), it is

evident, jherefore,

that q

{ovfux,

^+ efux. R

=

O

2

e.

1

oo
e^f,

An Invsjligation of a general
g being
quantities

Rule
q^ r, j, t.

depending
they

intirely

upon

Sec.

(exclufive of
ble,

q, r, s, /),

muft

neceilarily

be

invariafor

or continue of the fame value, let which terms you will of the correfponding

q, r, j, ?,

ftand

feries's,

q" -\-q"'h.<z.
,

r" -\- r"" Sec. becaufe the quantities q, r, j, /; q, / /, r\ s\ t\ (on which e, f, g, depend) have themfelves a
minate
^--\-

/,

q\

deter-

value

each,
is

in

the

required
or

circumftance,

when

^ + ^' &c.
T

a

maximum,

minimum.
__

PROPOSITION.
SuppoFing
/?, S,

y and u to be two flowing ^c. are quantities exprejfed
'tis

quafitities^

and that
u^

^
and

in

terms of y,

given

coeflicietitSj

propofed

to fifid

an equation,

exprefling the

of y and u (or of ^, R, *S, T, &c.) fo that the flucorrefpojiding to a given value of y, fldall be a ent of maximum or minimum, and the fluents of Ry, Sy, 7y, ^f. all of them, at the fa??2e time, equal to given quantities.
relation
^jfj

&c. be the different values cf '^^ that will arife, when_y is, fuccelTively, expounded by the terms of a given arithmetical progrelTion whole common diilerence is the indefinitely fmall quantity/ (a, /3, y, ^, Sec. denoting the rebe Sec. fpeftlve values of u), and Jet R, R\ R", R^" Let
.^,

^, ^',

^,

,

the

correfponding values

known that the fum of all -|- ^y-\- ^'y &c. will be
the quantities Ry
-\-

Then of R, Sec. Sec. the quantities ^y -j-

it

is

well

=

^y

-]-

^y
all

fluent of ^ j/

;

and the fum of

R^y-\- R^'y-\-R!"y-\- R^'"y Sec.

=

^-|-}G^ &c- (becaufe &c. or -^ ^y y is conftant) will be a maximum or mini^num, and the quanS'y Rj, &c. Sy R^y \tities Ry SJ Sj, ScCi at the fame time equal to given ones, when the relation

Ry, &c.

But, by the

Lemma,

it

appears, that

^

fluent of

^'

^

+ +

^'

Rj +

+ Cy + C/ + + +

+

f

R, S, Y, Sec.) is exprefl^ed by the equaof ^ and u (or of tion, ^iix.^^ ex ^ux.R-\-fxRux. 'S-{-gx^ux. where ^, Sec. denote (unknown) confl:ant quantities; and where, g.

^

T^o

:

in taking the fluxions of

^, R^

Sy

T",

&c. the quantity u

is,

alone.

for the

Refolutiort

of

Ifoperimetrleal

Problems.

loi
are

alone, to be confidered as variable ^
lues of^, entering

becaufe the fucce 01 ve va-

refpedtlvely into
,

^, ^, ^^

^\

6cc.

being (by hypothefis) fuch as fuccefTively arife from the terms of a given arithmetical progreflion. Hence we have the following
conftant quantities

GENERAL RULE
for
the Rejolution of Ifoperi metrical Problems of all orders,

'Take thefluxions of all the propofed exprefjions (as well that refpeBing the maximum or 7ninimum^ as of the others whofe fluents

are

to be

fluxion,
itfelf)

given quantities^ maki?ig that quantity^ and likewife its invariable, whereof the fluxion (as well as the quantity enters into the /aid expreflions and, having divided every-J

of the other quantity made variable, let the quantities hence arifing, joined to general coeflicients \, e, g, ^c. be united into o?iefum, and the whole be made equal to nothing :
the fluxion

where by

f

from which

equation (wherein the values of e,f g, &c. may be ei~ ther pofitive, or negative, or nothing, as the cafe requires), the re^

quired relation of the two variable quantities will be truly exhibited.

the ufe of the rulehtve, laid down by an example, Fig. X and j be fuppofed to reprefent the ordinate (P^J and abfcilTa (^PJ of a curve and fuppofe AFRG to be ancurve, having the fame abfciffa, whofe ordinate PR is, other every- where, z=z ax"'y"; 'tis required to find the relation of x and y, fo that the area BFGC, anfwering to a given value ofBC, ffiall be a maximum or minimum, at the fame time that the corlet

To illuftrate

22.

AD^y

refponding area
hypothefis,

BDEC

is

equal to a given quantity.
is

Here, by

the fluent of ax'^y"y

to be a

maximum

or minimum,

equal to a given quantity: taking, therefore, the fluxions of both exprefllons, j&:c. (making x alone variable, according to the rule), we thence get max'^~^y'y eyz=.o:

and that

of^

whence Ar'"-y
i^.

=

""75

^^^ confequently

ax"'y''

(==

PR)

=
it is

Therefore, feeing

PR

is

in a confl:ant ratio to

P^,

evident, that both the curves will

that they will be both hyperbolas,
as the values

of the exponents

m—

be of the fame kind ; and or both parabolas, according i, and n (in the general equation

i0 2
tion
•^

An
x "'""')'''

Invejiigation of a general Rule
)

=— ma
If

are

like^
i

or unlike^
fofitive^

with regard to pofiive

and negathe.

m

be

the equation gives a mini-

i =0, or when mum', li negative-, a maximwn\ but when //? m-=:zo, the equation fails j in which cafes there will be neither a maximum^ nor a minimum.

For another example,

let

the fluxions given

be^ and

^i*;

the

fluent of the former (anfwering to a given value of y) being to be a minimum-, and that of the latter, at the fame time, equal
to a given quantity.
either,

Here {x being concerned independently,

of its fluent x or fluxion x) let the fluxions of both expreffions be taken, making x alone variable j whence, afl:er
dividing
-|-^r=ro
:

by

ic,

we

have

—^

and

i

:

therefore, in this cafe

|f ) j and conv/hence x^=^aS y~^^ y (fuppoflng <s fequently xz=^2aS y^^ j being an equation aniwering to the common parabola. The fame concluflon may be otherwife derived

=—

(without fecond-fluxions) by afluming

•=zV',
yy-'S'

whereby our
andJ/^':

two given

exprefllons will be transformed to
rule,
;

from
i?

whence, by the
(

we

get ^^v)y -p ey
.v

=:.0',

and therefore

~

)

=

a^-

y~^

whence

=

^^y~^-y^

and confequently x :=

2a" y^.,
Fig. 23.

the fame as before.

If the abfcijfa (JF) of a curve A^lC be denoted by x, and by y, and p be taken to exprefs the meafure the ordinate of the circumference of a circle whofe diameter is unity j it is

P^

well
line

known

A^,

that the feveral fluxions, of the abfcifla ^^P, curvefuperficies of the generated folid (by a roarea

JP^

tation about the axis
fpectively,

AP), and of

the folid

itfelf,

will be, re-

reprefented by

fy'"x:

if therefore,

.v, \/xx-\-y'yi yx, 2py \/xx~\-yyy and the fluxions of thefe diflerent expreflions be

taken,

as

before (making

x alone
^^''

variable)
'""'"^

we
''

fl^iall

get

i

-]-

7^ +fy + ^My} +
tion for determining the

"" °'

^^""""^^

^''"''

relation of

x and

v,

when any one
area,
all.

of thofe

five

quandties {viz. the
)

abfcifla,

curve-line,

iupcrflcies,

or folid

is

a maxi?num or minimum^

and

or

for the RefGhitmi of Ifoperimetrkal Problems,
or any

103

number of the
;

others, at the
coefficients

quantities
fitive,

wherein the

f,

fame time, equal to given /,' g^ and h^ may be po-

negative, or nothing, as the cafe propofed

may

require.

Thus, for inilance, if the length of the curve only be given, and the area correiponding is required to be a maximum^ our
equation will then
y'

become

—rrr

:

4;

/y

=

o,

or ax''

=
-,

X XX -^-yy (by making a^=z

j)

whence x

= -——
"

_r--

x^ =r:y ; anyy, or 2ax fwering to a circle ; which figure is, therefore, more capacious than any other under equal bounds.
If, together v/ith the ordinate (which, here, is always fuppofed given) the abfcilTa, at the end of the fluent, be given likewife, and the fuperficies generated by the rotation of the curve about its axis be a minimum ^ then, from the fame equa-

and confequently xz=za

— \/aa —

tion,

we
^

fhall

have

i

4-7-'
yy

-rr'—,

—=

o,

whence (makino- a

^=z

— —) xh found = V g
log.
:

— aa

,

and from thence x z=

ax hvp. '^
when

which equation,

by being

im.poffible

y

fhews that the curve (which is here the catenaria) cannot poflibly meet the axis about which the folid and confequently, that the cafe will not admit of is generated any jninimtmi, unlefs the firft, or leaft given value of ^, exceeds a certain affignable magnitude.
is lefs

than

a,

;

of the above-fpecified quantities are given, and the contemporary fluent of fome other expreflion, as
any,
or
all
is required to be a maximum or fninimum^ our equation (by taking the fluxion of this laft expreffiorij and

When

xx-^yyY xy^y ^~"^"^
it

joining

to the former) will then be
-\- fy

4-^+ -:
/;z=:t,

A

— — 4- =
;
",
'

xx -\-yy^~^ X
o

±nxy'^jf^~'"*

^y"

which,

when

be that defining the folid of the the length of the axis, only, is fiance leaft ref fuppofed to be given (without farther reilrictions) will be exi,

and«
;

=—
and

will

this,

when

preiTed

104prefTed

yi^""

Invejligatkri of a ge?ie?'al

Ruk
2yf x =. d %

by xx -VjjT'' x
;

— 2xyy'

-|-

^

=

o?

o^

XX -\- vv\ being the cafe iirft conlidered by Sir Isaac NewIf both the length and the folid content be given, the ton. o; but equation will be 2xyf x xx -\- yy]'"" -\- d -\- hy"" if, befides thefe, the fuperiicies is given likewife, it will then

=
o.

be— 2.v;:y\ xx-^y^-^
Thus,
in like

+ ^+ 7J—-j +/^/ = = — — and n=z'—, manner, by alTuming
;^;
,

we have ,^~—~=

+

d-\-

/— ,^ 4 j5' + ,/
^

.

~+

^V^

= o;

being the general equation of the curva of the fwiftefi defcent ; which, when e^ f, ^, and h are all of them taken equal to
nothing, will

become

—+

</;

which

is

the cafe confi-

dered by

many Others, anfwering to the cycloid. When the length of the arch defcribed in the whole defcent (along with the values of x and y) is given, the equation will then be
1.

-—T=s^-\-d-X- -.-===-.
s/xk-\-yj
'
'

y

^x

'^xx-\-yy

=0,

or e-\-y '-^

^ xx^ :=id\xx-\-yy. ^-^
'

And

thus may the relation of x andjy be determined in any other cafe, and under any number of reflricftions; provided only, enters into the feveral that one of thefe quantities,

expreffions given.
as

— When both x and^ are concerned,
the
it

as well

their fluxions,

confideration

becomes more complito
arrive
at a

cated j nor does

feem practicable

General
if

Rule, to anfwer equally in fuch cafes.

Neverthclefs,

the

ultimate values of a: and ^ are fuppofed given, or the required curve is to pafs through two given points, without being confined to farther limitations,

minimum (which
can occur)
\

cafe

is

the chief,

except that of the maximum or and the moft ufeful that

then the method of folution
of the given
exprejjion

may be

as follows

Take

the fluxion

maximum

(whofe fluent is to be a or minimum) making x alone variable j and^, having dilet

vided by X,

the quotient be denoted by u.

Take J again^ the fluxion of the fame exfreffon^ making x, alone^
'variable J

which divide by x: then will

this lajl quotient

=

lu

Fram

fof- the Refolutmi

of

Ifope7^im2t7ical Problems,
?/,

105
x

From which
and
J)'

equation the value of

and the

relation of

will be determined.

example, if the expreffion propounded (whofe fluent, correfponding to any given values of ;c and^', is to be a
for

Thus,

minimum) were

to

be/^4-

p-^x—
yy

;

then the fluxion thereof,

when X
X alone

alone
is

is

made

variable,

being^^-^A; x —~, and,
yy

when

made
yy

variable, equal to

^^,weherehavey-[-<§"''^x^

=
u

ziy

and

^^ = u
»

;

the

latter

of which, divided by the former,
log.

gives

= -fT~~
gx X
yy

whence hyp.

u

= hyp. log.f-\-gxY^
f -\c

-\-

hyp. log. d {d being any conftant quantity).

Confequentlv

=
f

dxf-\-gx\'^',
-{-

which value being

fubftituted in the equati-

on

~- = u,

we

thence have

gx

,'

x

x""

=
and
:^Z_

-i^^-'j/%

ovf-\-gx'f X X

z=: cy~^y

(making

==
-^

^—
^

)y

confequently by taking the fluent again,
:=: 2cy^
',

we have
a;

~^
4-5

expreffing the general relation of
'

andj)',

fuppoflng
i

them both

to begin to

be generated together.

If

f=

and
as

g ==

Oj

the fluxion propounded will
firfl

become

-^

(the

fame

of the former examples) ; and here, x being ==: 2cyi, anfwering (as before) to the comcy~yy X will be mon /^r^^oA/. But li =. o and ^ =z i, then our given
in the

fluxion will

f become ^, and yy
or x^

=

the refulting equation will be

|jvt-

=: 2rjs

=

a'y^ [a being

8d^ put =z -^ ]

-,

which

alfo

The very anfwers to a parabola^ but of an higher order. fame concluflons v/ill, in like manner, be brought out by making y and y^ fucceflively, variable (inflead of x and x).
For, here, the two fluxions refulting (after having divided by

y

P

and

io6

An

iTweftigation of
to

a general Rule ^ &c.

and y) appear

be

T^'^^r"'''
latter

=

«>

^nd

ZS^ =
have IIi^

U

:

whence, dividing the

by the former,

we

= ii;

hyp. log. y^and therefore conilant quantity). {a being any

+

hyp. log. a hyp. log. u Confequently, ay-^=^ u

=

f^g^%-iy^'
^

andj+^j^

X ^

=

cy-^^y

{/ being
again,

= put =
have

La).
3

Hence,
^ ;

by taking the

fluent

we

X

/+ ^^1 —
4,?

3/

__- 2cy^, the very

fame

as before.

Of

Of

Reduction of Algebraic Method of Surd Divisors ;
the
is

Equations,

by the

containing an Exit

planation of the Grounds of that Method, as
laid

down by

Sir

Isaac

Newton

in his

Uni-

verfal Arithmetick.

^)^)5()8(HE redu6lion of equations by furd divifors, which is looked upon, by many, as a very intricate kind of T /peculation, is founded on the fame principles with the method of extra<fting the roots of common quadratic equations, by compleating of the fquare, with this difference only, that the fquares on both fides of the equation are, here, affected by the unknown quantity ; whereas, in the common method, the fquare on the right-hand fide is a quantity intirely known. What we, therefore, have to do, is, to feparate, and fo order the terms of the equation given, that both

O ^ ^wwS

Jides thereof

may (tf pofjtble)
If the given
^AT* -j- ta: -|- J

be complete fquares.

= + px^ xx + Tpx+^^ —Ax^B\^=zX^^px'-\-qx^-irrx-\-s{=:o)i
x^
-f-

Case

I.

equation be
o,

a biquadratic one, let It be and let there be afTumed

that

is,

let

the values of the quantities

^, ^and B

be fuppofed
in every

fuch, that the coefficients of the powers of ;c,

when >:x-\-^px-\-^

and

Ax -|- B

are fquarcd, fhall agree, or

be the fame,

term, with thofe of the equation given. Then, the faid quantities being a(5lually fquared, our equation will become
x^

^ px'

-{•

z^"-

*

*1
s.

+ i/>V+ /% -{-^X^^'+px' + qx'-^rx + -^AAx'^zABx^B' J
ip"^,

equating the coefHcients of the homologous powers, and putting a =. q ^pp, we have,

From whence, by
I-

2.
3.

— — ^* = 2^-f p^— 2AB = ^^B' =
r,
s,

or, or,

2^= ^^ + « p^= 2AB

or,

C = ^" +

-}^-

r

;

P

2

Now,

io8

Of the
Now,
if

Redu51io?t of Algebraic Equations^

the value of

^,

as given

by the

firfl

2AB z= jQ, fubftituted in the other two, we fliall get '^pA" <', fuppofing f^ -B" r {ccp, and {ccA' and I A' := s In which equations the unknown quantities laoi. ^

—+

=

= —

equation

,

be

ailumed fquares are only concerned, and from which their values might be found. But as the refulting equation, when one of the quantities is exterminated, rifes to the fixth dimeniion, and would, perhaps, require more trouble to reduce it than, even, the original one propounded, little advantage would be reaped therefrom. Inll:ead, therefore, of proceeding farther in a direft manner, it may be of ufe to try, whether fome property, or relation of thefe quantities cannot from hence be difcovered, whereby we may be enabled to guefs at their values j which may be afterwards tried by means of the equations here exhibited.
appertaining to the latter of the
tvv^o

Firfl, then,

it is

evident, if both

A

and B

are either integers
-\-

or rational quantities, that the equation x^

-^px

-]-

A^ -|- B f (= x'^ -{- px'
reduced to
x'' -j-

-\-

qx^

A^rx)

=o

Q]

will,

even

after

it is

-p^

+

0^5^ ^^

~h ^j be intirely free from

In which cafe,' the method of rational divifirs taking place, a redudlion by means of furd quantities, or divifors, as they do not naturally arife in the coniideration^ cannot be of ufe. But the relation of the given quantities
radical quantities.

py §'3 ^j ^ (which we fhall always, hereafter, confider as inteand B fhall be radical gers) may be fuch, that the values of

A
;

quantities,

the

commenfurate to each other in which cafe, where method of rational dii'ifors fails, we may aflume \/ n for the common radical divifor, and exprefs the quantities themfelves by k\/ n, and Is/ n\ that is, we may make A ^v/;?, Is/ n means our two equations, derived by which and B

= above, be changed — =
3

=

will

to \pk'n

\ot.len

/;z"

^,

or to l^pK"

— = — = -, and
ikln
2>^/

/3,

and

\li'ii' -}-

'^n

+

all

ir

z=r.

—^

refped:ively.

Now,

fince n

is

fuppofed to be an integer,
/^

hence (confidering

and

/ alfo

as integers,

from or the halves of
it is

plain

fuch

by the
fiich) that '

Method of Surd
muft be
n

Divifors,
or, at leafl,

log
the

— n

and

--

inteo;ers likewifc, °

halves of Integers
are here feeking)

and confequently that n (whofe value we ; ought to be fome common integral divifor
to k

of

and 2^. Moreover, with regard
jG

and

/,

it

is

evident from the
(k)

firft

of thofe equations {Ipk
be fome divifor of

— 2/= ^\

;

-^ i

that the former

ought

to

and

that,

if the quotient

be

taken from ypk^ the remainder
ble of
/.

[\pJz

— ^J

will be the

dou-

It farther appears,

from the equations

^= —^^, and^=
72k'-

B' -^
that

s,

by fubflituting for A' and B'
/^

their equals

and

jil^,

^will be -— ^iiL_, and
2

=: j^ZI!. From the former
n

be known, when 72 and k are known ; bymeans whereof and the other equation, / may be, a fecon'd time, found j and the agreement, or coincidence of this value with that before determined for /, will prove the folution in all refpefts becaufe then the conditions of three original equations 2Q_- A a, /Q^^ 2AB r, B' -[- s) will be all compleatiy fulfilled. It is true indeed, that no immediate regard, in the conclufion, is had to the fecond of thofe equations ; but then it ought to be obferved, that the

of which

^
-,

v/ill

+

+ Q^=

equation {~pk

—^

whereby

/ is,

the

iirft

time, found,

is

a

confequence thereof, being derived from that, and the iirfl: equadon, conjundly and it is known, that, whatever values
:

are difcovered for

unknown

quantities,

by means of equati-

ons derived from others, fuch values do equally anfwer the conditions of the original equations propounded.
Seeing the method of folution, above traced out, depends

upon the alTuming proper

divifors

of ft 2^, and

-^,

for the

values

no
divlfors

Of the ReduSlion
values of

of Algebraic Equations^
therefore be expedient,
into lefs ccmpafs,
firft

n and

^,

it

may

of

all,

in order to bring the

work

to rejedl fuch

of thofe quantities (if we can by any means difcover them) which wc know are not for our purpofe. And this may, in fome meafure, be effected, from the confideration of the properties of even and odd numbers.
In order to v/hich

Q^j=

^

'^

being previoufly trans-

formed

to nle

sQ^jry), it is evident, from thence, that // (by putting q 4/*, and confequently its equal 4^^*, p be an odd number p"will likewife be an odd number j becaufe an even number (4/") fubtradled from the fquare of an odd one, always, leaves odd. Therefore, feeing 4/^* x 71 is here an odd number, both ?2 and 4/^' muft be odd (for the produ(^ of two even numbers, or of Whence an odd one and an even one, is even, and not odd).
^

—(=

2Q..:7-a)

= 2Q^— ^ + {^'=1^' —

it follows, becaufe 2^ ' is odd, that 2k mufl be odd too confequently k the half of an odd number.

j

and

feeing /, w, and ik are all of them odd numbers (when/> is fuch) they may, therefore, be expreffed by 2^-f-i,

Now,

2/^ -[- I,

in

and 2C -\- ly refpe<ftiveiy ; ^, by and c being integers : confequence of which affumption the equation 4«^^ =/* 4./, will, by fubftitution, be changed to S^c* -|- ^bc -f- 2b

-}- 4<7*

-f

4*^

1^

-|_

c* _j_ f

4^ + = 4^^ + — + — 4/>

=

^

J

or 2^c*
to

-\it

2bc -\-

^» _|_ ^

J,

From whence
known
fo,

is

mani-

fefl,

as all the terms,

but ^by are
:

be integers, that

\b muft be an integer likewife
ber,
it

and

b being an even

num-

follows that «, or 2/^+1, muft be the double of an Thereeven number (or a multiple of 4) increafed by unity.
all

fore

the divifors of
fafely rejefted,

/3

and 2^ that have not
not for the purpofe.

this property

may be

as

In like manner, if p be eveuy the fame limitations will take place, provided that r is odd ; which will be the cafe when is the half of an odd number (For, when Q^s an integer, and B' (= s) being integers, their A^ rrr 4^"^

Q

— f)

Q^—

product A'B' will be an integer, and confequently the fquare root thereof AB (being rational) will likewife be an integer;

and

hy the
and
even,
fo, r,

Method of Surd

Divifors,

1

1

/Q^nd 2AB
as given

being both even numbers, their diffe-

rence

by the equation />Q^3=

2AB

-f- r,

would be

Therefore, feeing B', or its equal nl\ is here equal to the fquare of half of an odd number (Q) joined to an integer ( i), in the fame manner as 7ili' was in the preceding cale ; it is evident, from the reafoning there laid down, that the value of n is fubjecfl to the very fame reftridti-

and not odd).

might be pointed out, from the properties of even and odd numbers, were the thing worth purfuing farther. What is already delivered on this head is fufficient for the purpofe, and for the underffanding I fhall therefore, from the feveral of Sir Isaac Newton
ons here,
as there.

— Other
:

limitations

conclufions above derived,

now

lay

down

the fubfequent

RULE
for
the reduSfion

of an equation {x^ +/^-' of four dinienfions.

-f-

qx'^-\-rx -|-

j

= o)
the?i

Make

Dt-=.q

^p^^

/3

r= r -— 4a/, and

^=s — -Jaa;

put for n fome common integral divifor of (^ and 2^, that is neither a fquare^ nor divifble by a fquare^ and ivhich being divided by 4, Put alfo for kfojne difhall leave unity, if either p or r be odd.
vifor of ^j if

p

^^ even, or half of the odd divifor if p be odd

take the quotient from \pk, a?id call half the remainder L
.

Make
of the

i^^::

""^^
,

and

try if
-,

n divides
it

^^ —

s,

and

the root

fo happen, then the propofed equation, by means of the values thus determined, will be reduced to
quotient be equal to I

if

Kx

-f- y/.v -(-

^^== +_\/ ny,kx-\- 1.

That the divifor n ought not here to be a fquare, is evident from what has been already remarked, fince both A and B would then be rational quantities ? and that it ought not to be diviiible by a fquare, will alfo appear, if it be confidered that k and / in the equations k\/ n B, are A, and l\/ n to be taken the greateft, and n the leall, that the cafe will ad-

=

=

mit

of.

No

i-i

2

Of the
No
jG

Refoluiion of Algehrdic Equdtio7is^
is

regard in this Rule

had
Sir

to that circumilance,

inwhidb
depends

happens to be nothing.
k
alfo

Isaac

Newton
of
in
tliic

here directs,

io take

equal

to

noihing.

The
,

reafqii

v^^hich

on the equation
'Ipk'

{pli

— ikl =

which

cafe

becomes

farily,

Is/ n
cefs,

(= v/QL—
J,

our given equation

\/

Iccoi

= ^.y^^ — here reduced — wherein a given = —
^)
^
>

2/('/=: o ; where one root, or value of k mull:, neceC be nothing. Therefore Q^ being =:;=: 'a, we have

^^ ^^^^'

^y ^

dired- pro-

is

to

x'' -[-

-^px -]- {cc

=

is

q

-Ipp.

The

celebrated

mathematician

Maclaurin, who,

in his

Treatife of Algebj^a^ has

commented largely on the difcoveries of our Author, feems to reprefent this part of the General Rule^ as not well grounded; laying down, at the fame time, two
Rules, in order to fupply the defe6l.

new

Which

Rules,

I

muft confefs, to me appear unneceffary; Unce it is certain, that the method of folution, as laid down by Sir Isaac Nlwton, is more dired: and eligible in this particular cafe than in any other. It mufl be allowed, indeed, that the manner of applying the Rule, in this cafe, is left fomewhat obfcure ; but as to his directling, to

take ^

=

o,

when

/3

==: o,

it

cannot, I

am

fully

perfuaded, admit of any well-grounded objection.

For, though

o, when does not neceffarily follow that k mull: be jG r=r o," yet the taking of k thus -.= o, involves no abfurdity The truth is, feeing one value of /e (at leaft) will be nothing. there are three different values that k may admit of (as apit

"

=

pears by the fubfequent note *) ; all of which v/ill, equally, fulfil the feveral conditions required, and bring out the very

fame conclufion.

Thus

the

value of ^,

in

the

equation

* If the fquare of half the fecond of the original equations, 2Q_ a •=. A A, s z=. BB, be fabtraited from the produ6l of the other ^ == 2AB, Q(^ pQ^r~

two,

there will be
«-S'

obtained the equation
;

wherein the unknown quantity Q_is alone concerned ; V X i^'^ which equation being of three dimenfions, the root Q^, and confcquently i

Qj

— -i?Q2

-f- -^pr

s

x Q_-|-

^^ o

(—-^

)

will

dmit of three different values.

— From

this

equation
;

it

alfo
is

appears, that
a.

Q_muft always be a divifor of the quantity as ciicumftance taken notice of by our Author.

— ^rr

which

by the
x^-{- 2x^

Method of Surd
S^-'^^^
I

Divifors>

113

— 37^* —
;

may be o, 3 or 4

== '^ (propofed by this gentleman) or, which comes to the fame, the equation itfelf
to x^ -\-

may be reduced

x

— 19 = + 6\/ 10,
-^^

x'-\-

x

-j-


2.

= + v/
All

5

X 3^

+ ~>

°^*

+ ^ — 3= + v/ 2 X 4^ +

but one and the fame equation, as will appear by fquaring both fides of each, and properly tranfpofingj from whence the given equation x'^ -\-2x'' 37^' -j- I =0, will in every cafe emerge. The fecond of 38^ thefe equations is that brought out by Mr. Maclaurin ; but the firft, which is that found by our Author's Rule, is not only more commodious, but eafier to be determined, being derived by a diredl, and very fhort procefs. And fo much for equations of four dimenlions.
are, in
efFedt,

which

Case.
it

II.
-\-

If
px^

the equation to be reduced is
-\-

be x^

there be affumed

=

F+l^T+^^+Rl' — A^^+ Ba; + CI*
(= o)
;

qx^ -f- rx^

-^

sx^ -\- tx

offix dimenfions^ q ; and \- v

=

let
let

x^ -^px^ \- qx^-\-rx^ -^sx' -\-tx-\-'v

which, by in-

volution and tranfpofition, will give

^x*

—rx' —sx"

—tx

— 'uJ
;

213*^^; -j- ^^

.

From whence, by
1.

equating the coefficients of the homologous powers, and writing oc q ^pp, we have,

= —

2.

3.

4.
5.

/R 4- Qlr- ^ = 2AC 2QR — t == 2BC
R^

20^3— a r= A^ 2R p(Xr^ ^

+

= 2AB
i

;

+ B'

— = C\
i;

(r= ±A*-|-Ta) as given by the firft be fubflituted for Q, in the fecond, we of thefe equations, ^ == 2 AB ; and confequently fhall get 2R i/A' tP^
If

now

the value of

Q

R

which 4/a) r liG (by putting /3 together that of Q, being fubftituted in the three value, remaining equations, we fliall have,
i-/A'
:
'

= AB — + + + with

— —

CL.

I.

Of the ReduBion
2.A^B

of Algebraic Equations^

— |aa, vi'—t — be reduced and =v — - ^ = 2AC + B^ MB — :/A^ +i-A^ + A'B —^i>A^ +-^0A'+ aAB — ±j&aA'— = 2BC, and
which, by putting y
9
^
-f/'/S,

i^aA'+-ia/3— /=2BC, +TiSA'+«AB 3.A^B^-lM'B+i^AB+-j^V/A^— i^/SA^+i/B— = e:
'z;

— i/A'

— —

^=: 7
to

|a/3,

{jGiQ,

will

ic^A'

^^

A^B^~ l/A'B + f^^^
tively.

+ tV/^A^-

-:/iSA^—

6

= C^

refpec-

Now, if the values of A, B and C are fuch, as to admit of fome common furd-divifor, let that divifor (as in the preceding
Cafe) be denoted by %/ n, and the quantities themfelves by k\/^, l\/li, and ms/ n, refpedively: then, fubftitution being

made and

every equation divided by n^

we

fhall have,

3.

nkT^kpnkn^
it

^kl-^-^,fnk'-^\p^k^—^
/,

= m\
ought to be
^,

From whence
all

appears (fince k^

and
is

m

are here confidered
?;,

as integers, or as the halves of fuch) that ^,

and

5

to

of them divifible by n-, or, be fome common integral
^ ^.

which

the fame, that n ought

divifor

of the quantities

17,

and

Furthermore, with refped to the limitations to which k is fubjed, let the feveral terms in the former part of the iirft of our three equations, in which k is found (in order to abbreviate the work) be denoted by Fk j then will the equation itfelf

be changed

to jR^

—-=

2.km

+

/'.

And,

in the very

fame

* Sir Isaac Newton directs to take w, fome common divifor of 2<f, ?t, and 2d (inftead of ^, >j, and 5); but this makes no difference, becaufe all are alfo dlvifors of 2K and 2^; nor are there any divifors of divifors ot" ^ and 24" and 2^, but what will likewife be divifors of K and fi, if we (as Sir Isaac has done) admit into the confideration fuch fractions as have the powers 2 for their denominator ; which arife from the value of i/», in the affumed- equation, being a fradiion of this kind, when p is an odd number.
fl

mannera.

hy the

Method of Surd

Divifors.
X.o

i

r 5

manner, our other two equations will be changed

Gk

=

2/;;;,

and

Hk

=r w%

refpedively.

Let

now

the fquare of half the fecond of thefe equations be
firll:

fubtracted from the produ6t of the

and
2n

third,

then will
;

Pffi-

_ ™ - ^f + ii _ ^fiV + £i" _
n
n
^

nn

"^

which, by dividing the whole by
will,
at

2/^,

length,

become
n
^

= ^km^ and putting X = —
i"I
nn
^

^5

^jj^,

*

*

n

n

*

k

where
n
(as ^

^,

1?,

and

^

being

all divifible

by

their

is

fhewn above) '

it is

manifeft that


7.nn

common

divifor

(in order that jn ^
alfo to

may

be an integer, or the half of an integer) ought divifible by its divifor ky that is, k ought to be fome

divifor

be of

the quantity ^


inn
in the fourth
^

Again, with regard to
-]- ^r)^

as

given

be fubfbituted

/QlH" ^Q.>r"
(becaufe

— 4/Q fecond of by by which means we have 2QAB = = 2^^' iOnkl — /'Q^+ r(ij— = 2nlm
/,

let

the value of

R

(=r

AB

the

the five original equations,
t

;

°^

A
it is

z=z

ks/ n,

B z=
2m

I\/

?2y

C
-,

== m\/ n), and confer

quently
integer,

^^~" ^j<-

=::::

— 2^Q

where 2m

— 2y^Q^eing an
—^=
--^

evident that
/

^^"~ -^^
divifor

mufl: be an integer alfo,

and, confequently,

fome

of the quantity

being found in numbers, the value of R (= AB ^^^ T^) will be had likewife ; and T^ then, by means of the three laft of the five original equations, the value of m may be alfo found, three feveral ways, and

From whence

— TpQ, + = — t/Q +
by
fubftituting for

/

the truth of the folution thereby confirmed
ons,

:

for thefe equati-

A, B, and C, their equals /^v/ ;?, />/;/, do become R' and f?2\/ n-, v =: nm"", 2QR f 2nim, s and fK -^ inkm -\- nil ; from the firll of which
-

Q^—

=

— =

Q^

m

n6
m

Of the

ReduElion of Algebraic Equations
y

=J
m

from the fecond,
-^

7n

= -^
which

-.-i- ;

and from.

the third,

= ^^"^
;

7"

^

~

^
•*

values, therefore^

when Q, R, ^^. among themlelves
-}- rx^ -\- sx"" -\-

are rightly afTumed, will

be all found equal and our given equation, x^ -\- px^ -j- qx''

tx

-\-

v

A^^4-B;c
As
fame

+ C|' =
A;c^

rr^ Oi

or x'

-j- ^px'' -\-

Qx_-\- R|^


+

o, will

then be reduced to x'

Q^+ R (==+
to even
as

+ Bx + C) = + v/Tz xI^^+^T-f^.

+

^px""

to the limitations in the divifors to

be tried, with reipedt and odd numbers, the reafoning thereon is the very
in

the preceding Cafe 3 v/hich, therefore, it will be One circumftance there is, indeed, that unnecefTary to repeat.

merits a particular regard, and that is, when A --= o ; in which o, and the cafe k (or one value of k at leafl) will alfo be

=

For, k being redu6tion will be performed by a dired: procefs. are firft innothing, the three equations wherein k, /, and

m

troduced,, will

become

whence /\/«==\/— ^, ^^ \'n) ^= O5 ^s it ought

— — ^=l\ — — = ms/ n = \/— and
n
n
0,

2lmy and
n

-zzz

m'^x

to be.

confequently X (== Therefore, by fubftitut-

their ing thefe values, and writing alfo infl'ead of Q^and equals ^ob and |iS, the equation given, is here reduced to

R

y^ _[- Lpx":

+ \ux +
+

i/3

— ±xs/'^^± v/^^.
+ +

Case HI. If
x'^

+

P^^ -V 9^^

the equation is of eight dimsnjions^ let ^^^ "1~ ^^^ ^~ '"^^ -\^^' '\- z

+

Then, by aifuming x^ Ar tP^' Q^ /';^7 4_ qx^ x^ D]' Cx B^* Ax' _f2J (== o) and proceeding -Y tx' -\- vx'' 4- 'ze;;c two former Cafes, we fhall have here,.

+

+

+

+

wx R^

=o

it

be
'.

+
^;f^

Sf -—
Jp
in
^;<^:^

+

as

the

1

.

2Q^j- a

2.
3.

4.
5.

= A% 2R + pQ^zr ^ = 2AR, 2S + /R 4- Q2j— = 2AC + BB, /S + 2QR — /... = 2AD + 2BC, = 2BD + CC, 2QS_+ RR —
.
.

.

j

1;

.

.

6.

by

the

Method of Surd
6. 7.

Divifors.

117

2RS
SS

— w — 2CD, — X — DD.
?i,

Put

now

(as

before)

A

== k*/

B

r=r

/v/

/?,

C

= ;«v^
:

;?,

D R

ris/ n\ put alfo (to Ihorten the work) (^3= Q[« -[" !«> r=: R'?? -]- 'jG, S 1= S« v'J^J ^^^^^ is, let the quotients of

3=

+

common divifor «, be Q.', and the remainders ^a, ^iS, and {-7, refpedively then, to determine thefe laft, which mufl be firft known, before n can be known, let fubftitution be made in the lecond and third equations, every-where difregarding fuch terms wherein n and Thus, fubftitution being made in the its powers are involved. ikln-y fecond equation, we have 2^'?z -|- jQ -[-/Q^+t/'^ ^ where the homologous terms, in which n enters not, are /3, the others, therefore, being here difregarded, r ~pu^ and -{- ~poc r o, or/3==r -pa,. In the very we have (3 s 0'y fame manner, from the third equation, y+l/iS-l-^aa jxx. and confequently y := s ^p[3 Let fubftitution be now made in the fourth, fifth, fixth, and feventh equations (ftill difregarding all fuch terms as would involve the. powers of n)y and there will come out,
Q, R, and
R',
S,

when

divided by the

and

S',

— =

:

— = —
Tpy

=

I.

+

^ocf3

— f=^

4-

iyy

—^
+
j:/3/3

=
would

^

-^

Now,

as all the other terms, that

arife in thefe

equati-

ons (befides thofe put down) are affeded with ;^, and are therefore diviiible thereby, it is manifeft that the four quantities

Tpy

+ T«/3 —

/,

^oiy

~

Vy

J:(By

here brought out, muft likewife be, all the fame common divifor n, when the equation given is caparIf, therefore, no fuch common divifor ble of being reduced. (under the reftricflions fpecified in the preceding Cafes, dependbeing an odd number) can be difcovered ing on p, r, t, or (v/hich vdll moft comnxoniy happen) the work will then be at

z, and -^yy of them, divifible by

~ w,

w

an end;

From
upon

the fame

method of

operation,

which may be looked:
cible:

as a fort

of examination, whether the equation be redu-

1 1

Of the
clble or not,

Refolution of Algebraic Equations^
the quantities to

to be a

we may find all common diviibr, when
let

which n ought
is

the equation given
-\- p>f-'~'^ -\- qx"^~"^

of lo, 12,
^x^"~'^ •\-

or a greater

number of dimenfions.
there be given

Thus,

sx'^'~^ -\- tx~'~^

&c.

=

x''-'

Ar

o, and let there be gflumed
'

x'-\-^px'
7/

~'+Q5+I^ X x'-^--\-R'n-\-Yl3 X at^-s-j- S^l^-I^ x'-%^,\
-f
Ix'-^-

X /iX'-^'

+

?/2X'-^

&c]

'

=

X''

+ px"-'—' -\- qx^'-" &C.

then,

by fquaring
a;^'

tranfpofing

terms of
a,
-\

this

~o(.^x'~^' &c, and 4" qx-'~^ &c. it will appear, that the -l-/.v^^~^ equation, in which ?i enters not, will be
x' ~\- \px'~''

+ Q^+

jG-j

y

-^

iP^ Wx^-^J^^poc

xx-^

1-^/3

(,
Di.

^ 1
1/7^ (

el
f/>^

~iJ
^c.

—/J

{/?/3|

all the quantities a, determined, by alTuming the coefficients /3, -y, C^c. will be equal to nothing thus v/e have '/>/», jQ =r r '/>a, q

From

the former half of which terms,

thefe quantities being

^r. And then, known, the coefficients of the remaining terms will like wife be known 5 which ought, all of them, to be divifible by n^ in order that the reduction may fucceed j that is, they ought to be fuch, as to admit of a common divifor [n) under the reil:rid:ions before fpecifed. For example, if the equation given were to be of twelve dimenlions, as x^^ -|-^;c" -{- qx^° -|- j'x^ 4- sx"^ -j- tx"^ -\- iw^ -{- ax'' -|- bx'^-^-cx^' -\-dx'' -^-ex-^-fz^. o, v/e ffiould have a,=q Ipp, r \pc6, yz^s ~p(i ja«, S ~. t -afi, and f^ \py £ 1; ~p^ ^a,y 7iGjG ; and the coefficients of the other fix terms (whereof n ought to be a common divifor) would be
i

7= —

f//3

:

^caa,

J

= —
2f

4^7/

= — —

4o;jG,

= — = —


b,

-:/s

+ >^ + -l^y—

^,

{ccs-{--\(^^-\-\yy

}^[^,

J^±y^— c,

Thefe operations, for finding of n, as this fort of redu6lion feldom poffible in high equations, will moft commonly end the work. If fuch a value, however, fhould be found for n, as to anfwer ail the conditions above fpecified, it is not by puris

fuing the fame

method of

divifors,

laid

down

in

the refolution

of

by the

Method of Surd

Divifors,

119

of the preceding Cafes, that the vakies of k, /, ^c. can from thence be determined, without a prodigious deal of trouble. There are indeed various other means of trying thefe quantities, by alTuming fome of them, and finding the others from thence and fo proceeding on, changing the values continually, till all the conditions of the feveral equations, arifing from the com-

homologous exceedingly laborious, and
parifon of the
redu(^l:ions
little,

terniP,

are fulfilled.

feeing; after all,

But as this is the ufe of fo great
is

(as

the fagacious Ai^thor himfelf obferves)
I fhall, therefore, defift here.

very

there not being,

perhaps, one cafe in a thoufand in

which they can fucceed 3

s^ttm.

T II E

THE

R E

S

O L U T
OF
Problems
in

I

O

Some General

Mechanics, and

Physical Astronomy.

PROBLEM
Fig. 24.

I.

vohe about a
it is

(conneSled together) to reSuppofe a fyftem of bodies A, B, center^ or axis (P), with a given angular celerity ;

C

propofed

to

find the momentum (k) which, acfing at a given
the center, jhall be jiifi fiifficieni tofiop, Cr take

difiance

QP^from

away

the whole motio?i

of the fyfiem.

^^^^F the given angular celerity of the fyfiem, at any di^ ^ fiance PG from the axis, be denoted by v, the celeof the feveral bodies A, B, and C will be truly ^^^? Ap Pp pp
I

rities

expreffed by

p^X'u, dttX'^j and •p^X'u,
it

refpedively.

Hence

(by the property of the Lever)
is

will be, as

PQ^s

to

AP,

fo

(-^ xvxji)
the

the

momentum
And,

of the body A,
acting at

to Q-p-^rpQ

x

vxA,

momentum, which
adion of A.
acting at

Q,

is

a jufl counter-

poife to the

in the very fame manner, the

momentum,

Q,

fufficient to take

away the motion of

Whence it is B, appears to be y^-r—r— xvxB; and fo on. ^ ^ QP X Pvj,manifefl, that the fum of all thef, mufl be the true momenturn required
j

or that k ^=z

vx

-p-r-.

775

9. E.

L

COROLLARY
is

I.

If the motion of the fyfiem

that

which might be pro-

duced by any given momentums a, b, c (or forces capable of producing thofe momentums) ading on the bodies A, B, C, in
directions

I'he Refolution

of fo7ne General Problems^
AP, BP, and AP

i2i

diredions perpendicular to

CP
its

;

then (by the
at

property of the lever) the force a
the fame
^,
efFecft

x -rypj ading
it

Q, having
as the force

to turn the fyftem about

axis,

ad:ing at the diftance
at

AP, ^c.

foUow^s that the force,

which, by ading

Q,

is

fufficient to deftroy the vi^hole

moti-

on of the fyftem,

will here

be^x-^

+ ^X^ + cX-^:
general equation,

which being

fubftituted in the

room of i, our

in the laft article, will

become<ur:rPGx

/^t^ +
i

^^^,^+^^^P
;

ilaewing the angular celerity at the diftance

PG, produced
which

in

the fyftem by the adlion of the given forces
therefore, in proportion to the celerity

celerity is^

{~\

that the given force

(or

momentum)
as

a

is

capable of producing in the fmgle body
^

A,

X

—AxPG

^xAP4-^xBP4-fxCP X A^^ApqrBirB P-+CxCP-

^° ""^^y-

COROLLARY
If the

IL

momentum k be given equal to that of the whole fyftem (A, B, C) in a dire(ftion perpendicular to the line pafling through the common center of gravity then the ; of the lever (PQ) by which k adis, may be determinlength

PGQ

G

ed from hence.
fented by
i?,

For, the celerity of the point

G being

repre-

the

momentum

laft

named

will,

by the property

of the center of

gravity,

which being

fubftituted in the

be rightly defined room of
;

byuxA + B-j-Cj
ky

we

thence get

QP

^

==

A + B-fCxGP

r-^

exhibiting the diftance of ^

the center of percujfion (Q,) at which an immovable obftacle receives the whole force of the ftroke.

COROLLARY
R

IIL

If a ftngle body S, equal to the fum of all the bodies A, B, C, be fuppofed to revolve (independent of the others) about the fame center, with the common angular celerity of the

12 2

The
the fyflem,

Refolution

offome General Problems

its

momentum

— x-uxS, or|j^X'uxA +B
gp

5P

^
-f C,

will be in proportion to the
pofition) as

momentum
X
4-

k (given by the Pro*

QP^X SP

to

B

4-

^ ^^^^" have SP

ing thefe two quantities equal to each other,

we

=

AxA Pl+BxBP --hCxCP-^
B -f C X QP axis of motion, when the

^^^ ^^^
^

^.^^^^^ ^^ ^^^
^

^.
-^

A+

g ^^^^

mentum
S,

k,

or

when

equal to the moequal forces, applied to the fmgle body at
its
is

momentum

and

to the fyftem at
celerities in

angular

both, about the

Q, can take away, or produce equal common axis of motion P.
IV;

C O ROLL A RY
Hence,
1

if the point
.„
1

n

..

lait

equation will

QJ)e fuppofed to coincide with S, our / aTaP- -{- B X BP^ + C X CP cp become br z=^^ a .j. jj _l c
'

fhewing the diilance of the center of gyration^ or the place of the body S, where the fame force can take away, or produce the whole motion of the fyftem A, B, C, as can take away, or produce the motion of the fmgle body S, equal to the fum of all the former, and revolving with the fame angular
celerity*

COROLLARY
But
if the point

V.

common center of gravity be drawn perpendicular to the horizontal line TP j then, the force of gravity by which the whole fyftem is urged in the dire(flion Qg perpendicular to the horizon, being the fum of all the weights ( A -|- B -f- C) it is plain that the part of it acting in a diredion perpendicular to PS, whereby the motion about the center is accelerated, will
(^be taken
in the Sj

G

of the fyftem, and

Qg

and

be A-)-B-j-C

X

p^. But the force whereby the weight
is

S, in
is

a dired:ion perpendicular to the fame PS,
equal to S
-j-

accelerated,

x |^

= A-fB-fC x ^

(becaufe S

= A+B
and

C, and

~ z= ^).

Therefore, feeing the forces a<^ing at S

in Mechanics a?id Phyfical AJlronofny,

123

and

Q^re

here equal,

it

is

evident,

from CoroL
celerity

III. that the

diftance SP, fo that the
in the fingle

fame angular

body

as in the fyftem, will

may be produced be truly exhibited by
-!-

the general equation ^
derived

br

=

^ — A+B^-CxQP

r~

there

the point S thus determined being the center of ofcilj and the fame with the center of percuffion, found in Cor. II. having its diftance from the axis, equal to a third proportional to the diftance of the center of gravity and that of
lation,

gyration, determined in CoroL IF.

COROLLARY
A ~[- B -|- C
X p^ and

VI.

Hence, alio, the prelTure on the axis of fufpenfion P may be deduced : for, lince the angular celerities, produced in the fyftem, and in the Ungle body S, by the equal forces
S

x -p^>

are the fame,

it

is

manifeft

that the abfolute celerity produced in

G, during any given
;

time, will be but the -5^ part of that produced in S

PC

fo that

only the -5- part of the gravity of the fyftem
accelerating
axis

PG

is

employed
lofl

in

its

motion, the other part -^^ being
-,

cs

on the

of fuipeniion

which

axis will therefore, in a direction

perpendicular to /^o p

PG,

fuftain a force exprefTed
is

by

A + B -f- C

^
is

pT^

^

"pF*
j

-^^^ t^is

not the only force by which the axis

affecfted

fince,

belides the other part of the force of gravity
in the diredlion

(A

+ B + C X ^)
For,
if

GP,

the centrifugal force,

adting in the fame direcftion, is to be taken into the confideration J whereof the quantity will be the fame, as if the whole

mafs of the fyftem was to be placed in
gravity G.

its

common

center of
Fig. 25,

upon PS the perpendiculars Aa, Bb, Cc be let fall J then, the centrifugal forces of the feveral bodies A, Bj C being as the mafles drawn into the relpediive diftances from the center P, the eifed: of thofe forces in the diredion PQ,

R

2

will

124
which

^^^ Refolution offome General Problems
will therefore be

expreiled

by

A x P^

+ B x P^ + ^ X P^»
is

(by the property of the center of gravity)

known

to

be

equal to

A + B + C x PG.
:

But the prefTure on the axis may be otherwife deduced, infor the angular celerity dependent of the center of ofcillation (which is generated in the fyflem about its center of gravity the lame with the angular celerity about the point of fufpenfion P) is intirely the effed of the adlion on the point of fufpeniion j and the momentum, or force, fufficient to produce that celerity, is found (by the Propofition) to be

G

„^^AxAG--+BxBG'_+C_xCG^.

^^^;^j^

;^

^^

^^

^^f^,^^^

^^_
as

mentum
A

i;

x

A

-|-

B

AxAG- + B^BG-+CxCG-

+

C,
^^

generated in

the

fyftem,

+ B-f-CxPG

p^_

rh,,,^ov^ the force ad-

ing on the axis of fulpenfion, in a direction perpendicular to PG, muft be to the force employed in accelerating the motion of the fyflem (in the like dire&on), in the fame proportion

above ipecified
force of gravity

j

fo that, to have the true meafure of each, the muft be divided in that ratio whence (taking
:

^^5

^
is

AxAG--hBxBG- + CxCG;\ A + B+CxPG /
to

.^

^^.^^

^^^ ^^

GS

+ PG

(PS)

GS,

fo

dicular to

PG,

the force of gravity, in a diredion perpento the force ading on the axis of fufpenfion,
is

in the like direction.

That the proportion here determined is the fame with that found above, and the point S, the center of ofcillation, is thus

made

to appear.

Since AP^

= GP^ -f GA'" -— 2GP x Ga, BP^ = GP^ + GB^ + 2GP X Gb, CP^ — GP' + GC' — 2GP X Gc,

2GP

it

is

evident that

above) will be

-f

xAxG^ — BxG^ + CxG^ = A-f-B + C X GP' + A X GA^-f B X GB^ + C X GC\
C
X

A x AP' + ^ X BP' + C x CP' (as given = A -f B -fC X GP^ + A X GA^ + B x G B^
barely^,
all

GC

^

becaufe (from the property of the center of gravity)
tities

A X G^ — B X G^ 4" ^ ^ ^^

the quan-

deflroy one another.

Hence, by

in

Mechanics and Phyjjcal Ajlronomy,

125

by
y
.

fubftituting the quantity here found, inflcad of its equal {inCor,
)

get we ^ or

=
B X GB^

A
=-

=

r^P Or

-\

I

AxGA^ +
A

+

+B

+ + CxGP

B + C C X GC^

X
J

GP
^ r .^ and confequently ^ ^

diftance of the center of ofcillation, or percuflion from GA'- 4. B X GB" 4- C x GC" , r ^ ^u V the center or gravity , the

(SG) the

= Ax

^

A-fB + CxGP
that,

—~

I'ery fame as above.

Hence

it

alfo appears,

if

the plane

of the motion remains unchanged, the rectangle under SG and GP will be a conftant quantity and that, if S be made the point of fufpenfion, then P will become the center of ofcil;

lation

;

and,

laftly,

that the ofcillations will be performed in

the

fliorteft

time poffible,

when SG and

GP
—j~

are equal to

one
,

another, and equal, each, to

J^SE^^^^SE^ A B ^
4"

it

being well known, that the fum of two lines, whofe red:angle is given, will be a minimum when the lines themfelves are equal to each other.

The fame method
upon the
axis

laid

down

above, for finding the preflure

of fufpenfion at reft, anfwers equally when that axis is fuppofed to have a motion, or v/hen the fyflem, or body, has a progrefiive motion, as well as an angular one (as is the cafe of a cylinder, which, in its defcent, is made to revolve about its axis, by means of a rope wrapped about it, whereof one end is made fafl at the place from whence the jnotion commences) the momentum of the rotation about the center of gravity, generated in a given particle of time, being always as the force producing it, drawn into the diftance of the point where the force a6ts, from the center of gravity, as well when that point is in motion, as when it is at
:

refl.

Another thing

it

may

be proper to take notice

of,

which

is,

that in the foregoing confiderations the bodies

A, B,

C

are fup-

pofed to be very fmall 3 fo as to have all their parts, nearly, at the fame diflance from the axis of motion. But, to have the conclufion accurately true, every particle of matter in the fyflem

ought

126

The Refolutkn of foffte General Problems
ought to be confidered, and treated, as a diftlnd: body from whence, by means of the method offuxionSy the fum of all the momenta will be truly found but this relating merely to matters of calculation, I have no defign to touch upon it here. I Ihall only add, that the center of ofcillation may be otherwife,. veiy readily, computed, fro^n Corol. I. even in cafes where the forces ading on the bodies A, B, C have any given relation to For, if a, b^ c be taken to reprefent the, refpeceach other. tive, meafures of the faid forces (or the momenta they would produce in a given time) it is evident, yrc/;? thence that the angular celerity that would be generated in the fyftem (at the diftance i, from the center, during the fame time) will be truly ex: : ^

prefTed by ^ ^
fingle

^
,

A X A?
S,

+BXBP +CxCP

,

z=i

:

which, in cafe of a

body

aded on by the

force

J,

becomes

^—^).
lormer,
r

Therefore, by putting this

laft

X SP ==t (or O X OF value equal to the
J

we
at

U CT> have SP

=

'

s^

A X AP ' + B X BF' + C X CP' . x AP + ^ x BP + . x CP '

fhewing
fingle

what

diftance

body S mufl: foree j, the fame angular celerity as the fyftem from the adion of all the other forces given.

from the point of fufpenfion the be placed, to acquire, by means of the
itfelf acquires,

LEMMA.
If a given angle AOB be divided into two parts AOC, BOC,, produB (orfolid) contained under the fquare of the fine (CD) of the one part AOC, and the fine (CE) of the other BOC, will be a maximum, when the tangent FC of the former part is double the tangent GC of the latter or when the fine of the difference of
the
^

the parts i is one-third

of the fine of the whole given angle.
the former part be denoted by x, it is well known that [x) the

Fig. 26.

For, if the fine
celerity

(CD) of
latter

and that (CE) of the

by^,

of x\ increafe (fuppofing

C to move
(

be in proportion to the celerity

— y)

from

A

to

B)

will

of

^'s decreafe,

as the

co-line

in
co-fine of

Mechanics and Phyjical AJiro7iomy,
to the co-fine

12 j
-4-..

FCD
:

of

GCE

3

that

is,

as

-^ to

But,

when

x'^y is

a

maximum^ we have 2xxy
:

confequently x
:

—y
it is

-f- x'^y

=

FC

GC

o,
:

and
-/—

:

x

:

2y.

Hence, by equality, -j^
Let, now,

: X : 2y; and therefore to bifed: FC in H, and

FC = 2GC.
let

HM
by

and

FH = jFG,
be and

FO

then, fince

proved that

FC

= 2GC,
;

GN

be drawn be perpendicular to
it

OH

follows that

= |GN
AGO,

and that
but

:

HM and GN are
is

HM,

fimilar triangles^
fines

muft likewifc

of the angles

to the equal radii

OH and OG

HOM
latter

whence the

part of the

Lemma

alfo manifeft.

PROBLEM
Suppofe
that

IL

a plane

ABC,

direSiion reprejented by /^B, is

moving with a velocity and aBed en by a medium^ or fuidy

direBions parallel thereto

whofe particles move with a velocity represented by DB, and in to determine the effeB of the fluid j

on the plane ^ in the direBion of its ^notion BH, and alfo what the angle of inclination mufi be^ that the effeB may be

ABD

the greateji

pofjible.

Becaufe a particle, impinging on the plane at B, moves thro' the fpace DB in the time that the plane itfelf, from ahc^ arrives
at the pofition
faid

Fig. 27.

ABC,

it is

evident that the diflance (D^) of the
at

particle

from the plane (produced),
fluid

the beginning of

that time, will be the meafure of the relative celerity where-

with the particles of the
perpendicular thereto
;

approach the plane in a diredlion

and, confequently, that the force of the

being well known is always as the fquare of the relative celerity with which the particles approach it, in a perpendicular direction). Hence, by the refolution of forces, it will be, as the radius, is to the £ne of the anfliream in that direction, will be as
'

D^

(it

that the force of a ilream

upon any

plane-furface,

gle

ABH

(or

abW),

fo is

the force

D^\

to

its

required efficacy

in the propofed direction

BH.
More-

J

28

'the Refolution

offome General Problems
latter part

of the Problem, the angle ^BD, which the diredlions of the two motions make with each other, being given, as well as the fides B^, BD containing it, the remaining angle BbT> will from thence be known, as likewife X^b : and fo D^ being the fine of the angle

Moreover, with regard to the

Dbe, to the given radius D3, th e effect (D^l' x
therefore be a
',

fin.

abH)
is

will

maximum^ when

fin. T>be\

x fin.

ab¥L

a maxi-

mum that is (by the Lemma) y when the fine of the difference of the angles T>bej abHy is equal to - part of the fine of the whole given angle BbD : from whence the difference being The geometrigiven, the angles themfeives will be known. cal confirudion from hence, is extremely eafy j for, having from the center by with any radius, defcribed the arch mr, on

rb produced (if necelTary)

let fall

the perpendicular

mp

\

take

pq=.\
in
s
J
:

of mpy and draw

qs parallel to /r,

cutting the circle

then bifeft the arch 7ns by the line baey and the thing is done for the fine sv of Sr (or of the difference of the angles Dbe, abH) is by conftrudion {=^pq) =. \ oi mp the fine of the whole given angle B^D > as it ought to be, by the Lemma.
But, if you had rather have a general

Theorem
and
let

expreffed

in algebraic terms, then let the velocity {bB) of the plane

put
7ny

=

be

ay

and

that

(DB) of the

fluid

==

b

;

the fine, and

co-fine of the given angle

DB^

(to the radius

i )

be denoted by

and

», refpe(5tively

to bYcy put

bF

=

j

alfo,

having drawn

Xy

and

BF

=

v

;

then, fince
to the
is

BFL perpendicular FB and FL are
common
(=r 2BF)
(jy)
:

tangents of the angles

F^B and FbLy
Lemmay
and
that

^F,

it

appears, by the

FL
:

=

radius

2y;

whence (fuppofing

LR

DQ^o
^R (BL
^
:

be perpendicular to B^Q,

we
:

have (by fimilar triangles) as Bb (a)

BF
'

:

BL

BR
Bb

== 1^, and
a
[a]
:

therefore

fo,

^F

(x)

: :

of DQ^eing mb, and that
fim. triang.)

— B^) 'MLZ^, BL LR = 3^. But — we have of ^Q =
z=z
a
{i^y)
71b

(3^)

Al-

the value
again,

a,

by

mb
nh

:

nb

—a

:

:

-^

:

^2LZlf3^

and confequently
nb

Zyy-aa^^—^Y^lxy,

—a

or

'^yy

— ^ yy ^ xx ^ -—^ x 3xy
a

(be-

in Mechanics a?7cl Phyfical
(becaufe ^•^ yy

j/]Jli^07t07ny.

iic^

+ xx

=:

ad)

j

whence y
\

-4- "

nu)

" ^ x—

=:

2,

and from thence,
the root, 1.
j/

by completing the fquare and
^
\.
'

y extracting

—J

.i

^

''^"~ "
7nb

4

—Ax ~ ^
"^
/.

equal to
re-

the tangent of the angle /'BF,

the

quired angle abW, or

ABH.

^ £.

complement of the

COPvOLLARY
when
regard
Is

I.

If the given angle DB<^ be a right-one (which

Is

the cafe

wind ftriking againft the falls of a being =:i, and /z o, our expreiTion for the tangent of /^BF (which here is equal to the angle of
had
to the

windmill);

then,

m

=

inclination

ABD)

will

become

^ 2 -f -^ ^
-}-

;

and

this,

if

a be taken z=

o, or the plane
to

be fuppofed

at reft,

will

be

=

But if the an angle of 54° 44'. -~ of the velocity of the medium or ftream, then the angle of inclination ABD will be found from hence equal to 58° 14', 61° 27', or 66° 58',
\/2, barely; anfwering
velocity of the plane be fuppofed |, ~, or

of the plane is, the greater alfo will be the angle of inclination. Hence it appears that the fails of a windmill, that the effed: may be the
refpe6llvely
;

fo that, the greater the velocity

greateft,

ought

to be

more turned towards the wind

tream parts where the motion is fwifteft, nearer to the axis of motion ; in fuch fort, that the tangent of the angle formed by the direftion of the wind and
the
fail,

In the exthan in the parts

may

be, every- where,

equal to

^2

-f-

2_.

•\-

—r,

the velocity a being
axis

proportional to

the diflance from the

of motion.

C O R O L-

130

^The Refolution

offome General Problems
IL

COROLLARY
If,

DB^), the angle DBA, which the diredion of the flream makes with the plane, be
inftead of the angle (or

DBH

given
a

J

then

it

will appear, that the effed will, in this cafe,

maximum^ when

the line of the angle

ABH, made

be by the

plane and the direction of its motion, is to the fine of the faid given angle DBA, in the given proportion of yBD to ^b. For, the force in the perpendicular direction FB being exprelTed by

D3
to

,

its

effect in the diredion

BH

will, therefore,
~

be defined

by D^

X -^, or

its

equal

'
.

^—
is

(fuppoling

meet D^'E

in E).

B^) being fuppofed

Now DB and the angle given from given, DE

BA produced DBE (as well as
But
it is

thence.

well known, that the fquare of one part of a given line, drawn into the other part, will be a maximum^ when the former part Confequently D^ mufl here be the is the double of the latter. double of E<?5 which laft, or its equal BF, will therefore be

= 4^DE.

B^ fm.DBA :: And, radius BD DEj by compounding of which, we have the proportion above laid down. But that proportion, it may be obferved, can only take place when B^ is equal to, or greater than \ of DE for, when B^ is lefs than j- of DE, E^ (which is always lefs than B^) cannot be equal to ~ of DE ; but will approach the
But, fm.
:

B3F

radius

:

:

BF (|DE)

:

:

:

:

nearefl to
will be a

it,

when BF

coincides with B^, that
a right-one
;

is,

when

the

angle Fffl, or

ABH

is

and

in this cafe, the effecft

motion is perbe a rightone (which pofition appears from hence to be the mofl advantageous, becaufe DE then becomes DB) it follows that the fine of the angle ABH, which the required direction makes with the plane, will be to the radius, as y part of the velocity of the flream is to the velocity of the plane for fail). Hence, if the force of the wind be capable of producing a degree of celerity in a fhip, greater than j part of its own celerity, it is evident that the fhip may run fwifter uppendicular to the plane.

maximum^ when the

direftion of the

If the given angle

DBA

=

on

in Mechanics a7td Phyjical AJlronorny,

131

on an oblique wind "*.

courfe, tlian

when

flie

fails

diredly before the

PROBLEM
Siippofe that

III.

A,

fiifpended at the ends thereof^ is
;

a thread AC?iC^^ having two equal weights A, hung over two tacks C, C, in

the fame horizontal line

and that
^

to the

middle point of the thread
.

(n) equally dijlant from the tacks another given weight B is fixedy which is permitted to defend by its own gravity^ fo as to caufe the other two weights^ at the fame time to afcend : it is propofed to find the law of the velocity by which the faid weights afcend and fiance of the air, the weight of defend; abfiraSfing from the ref
^

the thready

and

the friBion on the tacks.
Fig. 28.

Let V denote the velocity of B (meafured by the diftance might be uniformly gone over in one fecond of time), the meafure of the velocity and let b (= 32^ feet) which gravity can generate in a falling body, in orq fecond a^ 'En z=^ Xy Cn putting CE y, and the tenlion of the
that

=

=
:

=

thread

r=:

w

then

beins: the

time in which

B

would, unii

formly, defcribe the diftance x,
to ~, fo
to,
is

we

fhall have, as

(fecond)

is

b (the velocity generated

by

gravity in one fecond)

,

the velocity generated (or deftroyed)

by

gravity in the

time


V
it

Moreover
vVyy —

will be, as

BC

(y)

:

'En {s/yy

aci)

w

v

\

= the velocity with which the
^^

weights A,

A afcend;
j^

Whofe fluxion

~ ^^ ^ ^^ + yy^yy — a a

^"^-^

^^yy-oaXj_v-^aavi\
yy^

^j^^^..

/

fore the increafe

of that velocity,

in the

time

:

but

v/ere

* In the above
force the greatell,

treated as a given quantity

confiderations the velocity of the plane (or fail) is, al! along, becaufe the fame direction that gives the effective ;

when

the velocity

is

given,

muft
is

necelTarily

give

the

velocity the greateft poffible,

when

the force, alone,

given.

S 2

not

I

2

The Refoluiion offome General Problems
not the ftring to a6t on the faid weights, their velocity (inftead of being increafed) would be diminifhed, and that by the quantity

-— (as

is

found above).

Therefore the whole alteration of
arifing

motion arifing from the tenlion of the ftring is to that from the adtion of gravity, in the proportion of
_1
:v>
I

— ^^ X

jt; j-

aav
y^

^^ _^

^

^^^^ confequently, the tenfion of

the ftring {w) will be to the weight of the body A, in the fame
proportion
:

whence we have

1

1

w = Ax
.

.

yy

— aa

y.
;

yvv

-1-

aavvy
-.

i

-\--

Again,

will be (by the refolution of forces) as C?i [y) is to [x), fo is 2i£' (the double of the tenfion of the thread) to
it

the y v/eight B

^^,

effecft

of that tenfion to retard the defcent of the
gravity (B), the
B's

J

which being fubtraded from the

remainder

B

— ——
y

will be the force

by which ^
to

motion
fo
is
(

is

accelerated.

Hence we

have, as

B

is

B

— -^^,

the velocity that would be generated by the gravity in the

time ~, to that {y) generated in the fame time, by the force

B

-.

From whence, by
ny

multiplying extreams and means,
2

we get vv^z^bx ^

=r— =.bx

^-

A x—

^-r-^
rty''

!6y

(by fubflituting the value of w) z=z bx

n

h
-\-

—^ X
f_
X
z=z
^J
'"'"

1

- (becaufe yy
yy
.

= xx) =^ bx
yy
^

^
^

g—

— ^^

^^^^ confequently,

by taking the

fluent,

~ 2
1

bx

— -%-^ a
3

^ n
ibmx

+ %-- X — A- d fd beine the necef° B
*

fary corred:ion)
T

which equation,
iby

if

—^
^
-,

be put
.

= m,
,

will

be

reduced to

i;

= y^j

— —-— idm 4— aa m -^
1
.

mewing

the true ve.
.

yy

'

-^^

locity

i72

Mechanics and Phyftcal A/lronomy.

1 1

3

locity

of the b ody

B
)

j

^J

f ihmx
f/i

-\-

—.— + iby — aa
-^
I
.

whence
.„
i/i

tliat

of the body
9. E.

A

{=-.

1(hii\

Will alfo be

yy

/

known.

L

COROLLARY
If the
iirft

L

x and j, when the motion commences, and ^, refped-ively j then, -j being o, when .V ^=f-> and^' ^, we fhall have o ihg 4- 2.dm, 2.bmf and confequently idm == 2bmf-\- 2hg fo that the general vavalues of

be expreiled by

/

=

=

=

-,

w -j-i

.yy

— aa
is

m-{.i .yy

— aa
weifrht

deftroyed by the other weights A, A, may be eafily determ.ined for, fince the velocity, at the loweft point of the defcent, vanlilies, or becomes equal to nothi ng, we fliall, in that circumflance, have
:

From B can

v^^hence the greateft diftance through

which the

defcend, before

its

whole motion

2b f72

yx — /'

ni'xx —
by X

\/xx-\-aa)

— f,f\we have ni'xx — f
•'

bxy — g= o, or ?n x x f-\- g {:= y =z r= s/ XX -\-gg^ ff which, fquared, gives -\- 2?ng xx f= xx —ff: whence, dividing

2

-^

-\-

2mg =^

x-\-f-y and con-

fequently x ^

=
it

^w^—
I

— mm

^

-^?n?n.f
^

exhibitino^

° the diftance of the

point n below the horizontal line
is

deftroyed, and

all

the weights begin to
this

CC, when the whole motion move the contrary

can only happen when m is lefs than unity, or when the weight B is lefs than the fum of the other two for, if m be equal to unity, x will be infinite J andj if ;w be greater than unity, the value of a^ will come out negative ; w^hich Ihews the thing to be impofhble, or that the weight B muft continually defcend; except when m is lefs than unity, or B lefs than 2A in which laft cafe, it appears
: :

way.

But

muft be obferved, that

that the bodies will ofcillate, backwards and forwards, continually; in

fuch

fort,

that the

two extream
•'

dillances

from the
i -{-

horizontal line

CC

will be exprefted ^

by f and
"^

-^

——
I

mm mm
^^
?}mi

./

whereof the

latter,

w^hen

f=

o,

will

become

-

J

/j.

"The Refolutton

of fome General Problems
from the
line

— — X CC —
^!1.

J mm CC, when the motion commences from

fliewing the loweft defcent of n,

I

that line.

ing
rr=:

f and
firfl

^^^
'

--

—— equal

to each other,

— By makwe y = mg.
get
it

-^ X^, o^y S

B

:

2A.

From which

appears, that>

of the weight B be fuch, that E/z is to C;? in the given proportion of B to 2 A, no motion at all will enWhence it is evifue, but the weights remain in eqi/ilibrio. that, if the motion commences from any point below dent, that here determined, the weight B will firft of all afcend, ^^^~"
if

the

pofition

till

the diftance from

CC

is
I

—^-^;

after

which

it

will

trim

again defcend, to

its iiril

dirtance/'s

and

fo on,

backwards and

forwards, continually.

COROLLARY

IL

If C;2C, in the firft poiition of B, be fuppofed to coincide with the horizontal-line CEC, and the body B be impelled from thence with any given celerity c (meafured, as above, by the fpace that would be uniformly gone over in one fecond of when x =: o and y :=: a^ we <:, then, v being time)
',

=

fhail,
,

by fubflituting
hibmx
^hy
-

thefe
\
i

values in

the general equation'
/

(i;

= yj
,

— ——- 2dm 4—

obtam

,

J
is

,

and confequently
1 2bmx
2by X- 2ba

= aJ — 2dm = mc^
.

iba

c

-

+ 2dm
fo that
,

maa
;

-\- 2.ba

i?

here

1=

yJ

-—
.

-\~

mc^
5

,

.

,

m

-\- \

yy

— aa

v/hicn,

when

^

^

=

o, or,

when ^w
,
,

the bodies are not afted on by gravity, will
,^_

become v

=
\

^_
>7

-4- I

.

— aa
^
.

_/\n(]

in tj^s cafe, the time

of moving thro' E72
ni

(whereof the nuxion

p

,

.

is

"^

X

=

xT m-\-\ yy

—r^
7}rcy

.

— aa = x"^

-^i .xx AXX
-\-

Jna'^

==
aa

77i'^cy

—^

may

be readily found, by means of an hyperbola^ whofetranfverfe

in Mechanics
verfe

and

Phyjical AJlronomy.

i ? ^ j:)

and conjugate axes are

—?r

and 2^;

it

being

In

propori^x)

tion to the time of moving uniformly over the

fame diftance

with the given
its

celerity at

E, as the arch of the hyperbola

Is

to

ordinate x,

PROBLEM
Siippojing
^

JV.

about

its axis,

a fpherical body of ice or any other matter^ re"johi}7g to be reduced to a fiate of fluidity ; to determine
arifing.
Fig. 29.

the change
It is

of figure thence

demonllrable, that the figure of an homogeneous fluid, revolving about an axis (PS), having all its particles quiefcent with regard to each other,

ipherold

OAPES

(fee Art.i<:)^

of my DoBrine ofFhixions)

muft be that of an oblate and
;

that the particular fpecies of fuch fpheroid, anfwering to any gi-

ven time of revolution

p,

v/iii

be truly defined by the equation
i
:

p

— qJ==J^ xA3-f
/if

3

where

i

+

//

:

:

PS^

;

AE'';

PS

be-

3^

ing the

and AE the equatoreal diameter 5 alio A the circular arch, whofe radius is unity, and tangent t-j and q z=. the time wherein a folid fphere, of the fame magnitude and denfity with the fpheroid, mufl revolve, fo that the centrifugal force at the equator thereof, may be exaftly equal to the ataxis,

=

traction,

or

gravity.

Now

it

is

evident,

that,

whatfoever

figure a fluid, revolving about an axis, at any time hath, the

momentum of rotation about the axis will be no-ways changed, with the figure, by the aftion of the particles on each other fo that the momentum of our propofed fluid, arifing from the fphere of ice, will, at all times, be the very fame with that of the fphere itfelf. From whence it may be eafily proved, that the time wherein one intire revolution of the fluid, confidered as a fpheroid, might be uniformly performed, muil AE, and put be always as AE^ therefore, if we make e d ^= the diameter of the fphere (or of the fluid, when AE z=z PS) it follows that the faid time*v/ill be truly expreiTed
:
:

=

* At

Art. 399. of

my
j}
J

Fluxions,

this

time

is,

by miftake,

put

down
is

= -^XJ (inflead of — X
rendered erroneous,

whereby the remaining part of

that Article

^'J

I

-^6

He
by

Refoluiion of fome General Problems
s

—X

5

(fuppofing

to denote

the given time of revoluthe
IT?
'-

tion

of the
beinp;

body,
put

when under
/

form of a fphere)
\
)

:

which
in

(— q^
is

the time whereare
in

the

revolution

performed,
thence have

when
^-^

the particles

equihbno,

we

fhall

But, becaufe

PS (=:

Vi-\-tty
roid will therefore be as

=
A
XT'


,

= -\ x —
and that of
equal to

\
)

—^

— (= AE'
3

=— — Vi-ftt
-^
-7.

the mafs of the fphe-

x PS)^

the fphere, as d'

:

which two

quantities being

made

each other,

we

have

=
its
3.^

And,

this

value
*yC

being
,

rj

i

wrote in the room of

equal,

we
I

have ^-^
,^

—~
ft

P^

.,.

.

~

'J/

=
the

X
,.

r,

or

3-r ^^ ^^xA —

X

_

-\- tt\'

= -^.
2?

From

which equation the value of /, and the fpheroid The fpheroid thus determined, i^ that itfelf, will he known. which the fluid might remiain in equilibrio, were the parunder
refolution of
ticles to be,

particles,

in their recefs

once, quiefcent with refpe6l to each other but the from the axis, do, through the cen:

trifugal

not immediately destroyed, on the fluid's aflximing the figure, or degree of oblatenefs above determined ; the equatoreal parts ftill continuing to recede from the axis, till the gravitation, by degrees, prevails, and in the end quite overcomes the faid motion. After which the equatoreal parts will begin to
force, acquire a
axis,
is

motion from the

which

fubfide,

and again approach the
:

axis, in the

very fame

manner

they before receded therefrom and fo wiU continue ofcillating, backwards and forwards, ad infinitum. But if the flAiid is fuppofed to have fome degree of tenacity, the ofcillations will be, every time, contradted, and the parts of the fluid v/ill then converge to an ev|uilibrium, under the form above determined.

L E M-

in Mechanics

and

Phyfical AJlronomy,

137
a
right-

LEMMA.
Suppojing a body to move with an uniform celerity, in
line

AD

J

to
it

by which

determine the rate of increafe of the relative celerity recedes from a given point C, out of that line.

Make CA
let

(perpendicular to

AD)
:

=
it

a,

and

AB

== x

,

and

Fig, 30.

the meafure of the body's celerity, or the fpace gone over in

a given time g, be denoted by c

then will
is

exprefs the

time of defcribing k (or B^)
c

j

and

well known, that

X

^

(r=

£•

X -r7^

)

will be the true meafure of the cele-

rity

with which

CB

increafes

j

whofe

^^

fluxion,

-

^,

is

therefore the (uniform) increafe of that celerity, in the time

:

hence

it

will be, as

:

^

(the time given)
xx-\-(ia\^

£*

(r=
xx-^aa\^

X ACl \
^

CB|

r— J the required increafe, that would uni-

formly

arife in

the given time

g : which

increafe, lince

reprefents the paracentric velocity of the

body

(in a diredion

perpendicular to CB) will be, always, expreifed by the fquare of the meafure of the body's paracentric velocity, applied to the diftance (BC) from the given point, or center.

COROLLARY.
It is evident

from hence, that

if a force,

which

in the given

time g is fufficient to generate the faid increafe of velocity, be fuppofed to urge the body towards the center C, and thereby defledt it from its redlilineal motion, the celerity with which CB increafes will then be uniform ; becaufe the force applied, each moment of time, is juft fufficient to deilroy the increafe that would arile, in the fame moment, from the body's being

motion uniformly in a right-line. If the direction (Bb) of the motion is perpendicular to CB, the body, thus ad:ed on (as no celerity is generated in the dire&ion. CB), will mov§ in the circumference of a circle. Confequently
fufFered to continue
its

T

the

138

The Refolution offome General Problems
the force above determined is the fame with the centrifugal force in a circle, when the diilance from the center, and the

angular celerity are the fame.

But

all this

may be made

to appear in a different
:

manner,

by fuppoiing B^ exceeding
dicular to

fmall

for,

if

bE be made perpen-

CB (produced), BE will then exprefs the length whereby CB would be uniformly augmented, in the time \^—
and therefore eb^ the excefs of Cb above of defcribing Bb CE, Yv'ill be the fpace through which the force mull: caufe the body to defcend, in order that the increafe of the diflance from the center C may be the fame as would uniformly arife with
;

the

firil

celerity,

at

B.

But

it

is

evident that this excefs eb
is

(which, by the property of the
'

circle,

= -^q^>

alfo exprelTes the effed:

of the

force, neceffary to caufe a

^^""CbJ body
fame
have,
is

to revolve in the circumference of a circle EeJ\ with the

angular

celerity.

—To

determine,

from hence, the

velocity

which
as i

this force

would generate

in the given time g,

we

(the fquare of the time of defcribing B^, or B^)

to

s:\ ^ '
ball

fo

is

-7^ 2CB

to {

V2CB

'^ L^.

x^ /

}

the fpace through which the ^ ^
faid

might
s:
;

fall,

by means of the

force, in

the given

time
is,

the double of which, -^-^-==1 (or its equal

-^

—==1 J

therefore, the true meafure of the velocity fought j becaufe the diftance gone over by a falling body is but the half of that which might be defcribed in the fame time, with the velocity acThe quantity here determinquired at the end of the defcent. ed (as has been before obferved) is the meafure of the force by

with an uniform ceif a force, lefs or greater than this, be fuppofed to a(5l:, lerity the difference will caufe an increafe or decreafe of celerity in

which the body
:

is

made

to recede

from

C

the line

CB, proportional

to the faid difference.

PRO.

in Mechanics

and

Phyjical AJlronomy*
V.

139

PROBLEM
Suppofe that

a body^ let go from a given place A, in a given with a given celerity^ is continually folicited towards a direSiion^ given point C^ by a given centripetal force j to determine the path

ABP
circle

in which the body will move.

From

ADK

the center C, through A, let the circumference of a be defcribed j and, fuppofing B to reprefent the

Fig. 31.

place of the body, 'the radius

CD

of the

circle

:=: a, •=z x^
. . . .

the radius veBor

CB
.

rrr 2;, the arch AD, meafuring the angle ACB put< the time of defcribing the angle ACB /, the meaf of the celerity v/ith which the line CB incr. =:r v, auy the meaf. of the celer. with which the area ACB incr. ^the meafure of the centripetal force ^; where, by the meafure of a celerity, I mean the fpace that would be uniformly defcribed with that celerity in a given time g J and by the meafure of a force, I underftand the meafure of the celerity that might be uniformly generated by
. . .
. .

= = =

the force, in the fame given time.

preffed

Since the celerity with which the area ACB increafes is exby an, it is evident that the paracentric velocity of the radius vekor CB, at the middle point {b), will be exprelTed by
,

and that of the body
divided

itfelf

by


1

-,

the fquare of which
true meafure of the
it

laft,

by

x, will give

i^ for the

centrifugal force (by the

Lemma)

whence

appears that

(^^ — Q)
is

the excefs thereof above the centripetal force

^,

that force

whereby the
'.:

celerity

v

is

accelerated

:

therefore

we

have

g:i

i^ — Q (the meafure of the
is

celerity

gene-

rated in the given time
velocity of the

body

g)
,

:

v.

But, becaufe the paracentric

that

of the point
2

D

(defcribing the
circular

X

1

40

7^^ Refolution offome General Problems
circular arch

AD)

will

be

—x
:

-, or

^^

;

and

fo

we

have
di-

g

:

f ::

^^

(the diftance defcribed in the time

g)

:

z (the
A-

flance defcribed in the time t)

whence, by equality, -^^-^^

Q

:

V

::

^^
XX

:

z

;

and confequently v ^
''

= ^—^
x^

Qx
-—
and

X^ik

la'u

Again, the fpaces z and k (defcribed in the fame time) being in the fame proportion as the celerities
'u,

with
ex-

which thev
•'

are defcribed,

we

alfo

have v

=

_ff!lf .

Xo

xx%

terminate

1;

and v out of
-zc;,

this^

and the preceding equation,
then
lui.
1?

make
%


Q
I

3=

(or

w

==

— —+1)5
^ Ox
I

= —:—
la'-u
;

,

and

2autv-\-2auw

A^a^u'^=.^=^1—

x^

—— la u
x'^z,

0^*2:

luky.\—ix}

z=:

X
its

a

•—
2a X

— w|
may
''

(by writing: £>
^

^

—— w
^

for

equal x) -1 ^

which

equation ^

be reduced to tt -4
zz

—=
aa


aa
uzz

>

- -

a

^au'^Xi-vA

and 2?, or of x and z, according to any value of zi. But in the cafe propounded, wherein no force is fuppofed to adt, belides that tending to the center C, the celerity au with which the area ACB increafes, will be a conftant quantity 5 and therefore, u being here o, our
expreffing the general relation of

w

=

equation becomes

—= — w
I

zz

4«* X

I

— w]

^

:

from whence,

when Q^s given in terms of ^xz may be determined,
Hence,
if

(or

w), the relation of

w

and

COROLLARY!.
the centripetal force, by which a body defcribes
reft,

when

be known, the increafe of that force, fuppofed to have a motion round the center of force, may be eafily deduced for, let the angular motion of the orbit, be to that of the body in the orbit, in the conftant ratio of ^ to i 3 then, the whole angular celerity of
a given orbit at

the orbit

itfelf is

:

the

in Mechanics

and Phyfical Ajlronomy,

141

the body, here, being in proportion to the angular celerity when the orbit is quiefcent, as /« -|- i to i, the centrifugal
force here, will therefore be to that
bit,

(~^)
to
i

in the quiefcent or-

in the duplicate ratio

o^ m -^

\

(hy the

Lemma), and
it

fo will be truly exprelTed

by m-\-

i\

x

i^. From whence

appears, that

mm -{-2m
muft be

x ^^-^

is

the increafe of the centri:

which quanwhereby the centripetal force ought to be likewife increafed, in the moveable orbit fo that difference of the two forces, whereby the motion of the the body in the line CB is accelerated, may be the fame here, as in the quiefcent orbit ; in which cafe the value of CB itfelf, in all contemporay politions, muft neceffarily be the fame. Hence
tity,

fugal force arifing from the motion of the orbit
therefore,

that

;

it

appears, that the increafe of the centripetal force, in order

moveable orbit, will be always inverfely cube of the diflance ; and will, moreover, be to the centrifugal force in the quiefcent orbit (in all contemporary poiitions), in the conftant ratio of mm -\- 2m to i.
to the defcription of a
as the

COROLLARY
to

IL

If the centripetal force (Q) be fuppofed, inverfely, as the fquare of the diftance, and the given value thereof, at the lower apfe A, be to the centrifugal force there, in any given ratio of i e

I ;

then, as the general value (^^-~-j of the centrifugal

force, will, at

A, become

will be exprelTed

= -^, by — x —
i

the centripetal force there

e;

and confequently that

at

B

by

•'ax
e

X —:,

or

its

equal ^

a

1— x

i

—M

.

Wnicn

value

being fubftituted for Q, our equation here becomes

aw
fluent,

—w
get

:

whence, multiplying by

w

and taking the

we

—r^ •= ew "-- — (where, the angle CAB being
fuppofed

'The Refoluiion
Fig. 32.

of fome General Problems
is

fuppofed a right-one, no corre(flIon

necefTary)

-,

have

2;

=W

aw

—J lew — IVW
is

fo that

we

or

— ^
ez

= "7=
is

^ s/ 2£W

WW

~

-

^^^ ^^^ ^^^ of

thefe quantities

known

to exprefs the fluxion of a circular

arch (A)^ w^hofe verfed-fine

w

and radius

^

therefore

~ bea

z A, it follows that the arches z and A, ov a e (which are in the fame proportion with their radii a, e) mufl be fimilar, and confequently their verfed-fines, AF and w^ in the fame proportion above fpecified, or as ^ to ^ ; whence we have
\
-.'.

ing=

:

A

^^

= -xAF,
^

AT?

^-u

that

^

IS,

AF AC — CF AC AF i_^=..x^. But_=_^^
T3
^

CD
therefore
i

I

-p^ (fuppoiing CB
^
i

BE

perpendicular to

AC)

j

CF — — AC = x — -^, and (= BD) = X CB — CE from which
^
;

confequently

BC — AC

and therefore I e e AE BDj which is a known property of the conic fections, with refpe(fl to lines drawn from the focii. Hence it appears, that the trajeilory will be an ellipfe^ parabola^ or hy-

away

e

x BD,
:-.

fo fhall
:

BD

equal quantities take

^

x BD =: ^ X AE,

:

perbola^ according as the antecedent

i

f is greater,

equal

to,

or

lefs

than the confequent

e

;

or according, as the centripetal

force at

A,

is

greater, equal to, or lefs than half the force fuffi-

cient to retain the

body

in the circular orbit

ADK. — As to the
:

particular fpecies of the curve, correfponding to

lue of

AO AO

:

any given vadetermined for, if from hence, very ealily ^, be made to reprefent the femi-tranlverfe axis, then will OC (: AE BD, p, conies) e e; therefore, by
it
is,
:

divifion,

AO AC
:

— — — whence AO COROLLARY IIL
: : :
1

\

::

i

e

\

i

2e

-,

is

known.

If to the foregoing force, varying in the inverfe ratio of

the fquare of the diftance, another force, which is inverfely as the cube of the diftance, be joined (which, at A, is to the

F'S. 33.

former part in any given ratio of j to i e)^ the place of a body, thus a6ted on, may be found in the fame conic feclion A'PRS, above determined, fuppoiing it to have a motion about

in

Mechanics and Phyfical Aflronomy.
which
7n
is

143
in

about the focus C,

to

that

of the body
in
-|- i

the
ra'-io

fediion (referred to the

fame point C)
(byCorol.I.)

the conftant

of

to

I

J

the value of
:

being == v/ 1

that

mm-\-2m

j

:: s

:

i

— If the centripetal force

i

,

or fuch,

cube of the diftance inverfely, the curve A'B will degenerate to a right-line ; in which the body will continue to move with an uniform velocity, while the line itfelf BA' (always touching the circle in A') is fo carried along by the motion of the radius CA', that the angle ACA' fliall be to the angle A'CB, in the conflant proportion above fpecified ; the ratio of the centripetal, and centrifugal forces at A (and confequently in every other pofition) being exprefied by that of
be barely
as the
i to
I

-|- ^.

COROLLARY
If the centripetal force to be as any
tance,

IV.

power of the

dif-

whofe exponent

is 72^

and the given value thereof,

at
i j

A, be

in proportion to the centrifugal force

(— jj a
J
i
,

as r to

we

fliall

then have
a^w

our equation, -r—
a'tu

= -— x — =: —— x aO_ =1 — w
O
4.ru^

x"

4.ru^

;

and here
.

...
,,

will

become
by w.

z=z I

—w—
-|


~,

p-

:

which

beino; multiplied

and the fluent taken, we thence get
I

—-r

=

w


«

Zlj\~
*

and confequently
_
;

z =^

-f- I

n-\-i

from whence the

value of

2;,

by

infinite feries,

or the quadrature of curves,

may
is

be found.

But when r
nearly circular,

differs

but

little

from

unity,

and the

orbit

r

- (becaufe
vj\

of the fmallnefs of w)
v>^ill

44
will

^^^ Refolution offome General Problems
be
nearly
I

equal

to

ry,i-\-n-{-z,Wy and
n
-\'
2.
,

there-

fore -^T-

= —
nearly
j

w

w 4- 3
*'ig-

.

i£^,

— — — and confequently z=— = —7— — w.
rw =.
^^
i

—r—

r

I

«
33«

-f-

3

" T" 3
let
is

Put

/ ==

^-^, and

A :=
-|- 3

\/^

+ 3X2;,
ADK,

that

is,

A realways
to
i
:

prefent an arch
to the arch

A'D of
r=z
;z

the circle

which
s/n

AD

(or z)^ in the conftant ratio oi

-f- 3

then

AA

being

x

zi;,

our equation, by fubftituting
Z'

thefe values, will

become

^ = — w^
w

which

differs in

no*

thing from that

f

^ =ze — w)
is

refolved in Corol. II, excepting

it is

only, that y^ and J^ are here ufed, inftead of z and e : whence manifeft, that the value of (there reprefented by ^ x verfed-line of z) will here be truly expreifed

hyfx

verfed-line of
it

A: from whence and what
pears, that the place of the

there demonftrated,

alfo

ap-

be in the periphery of a given ellipfe A'BR, revolving about its focus C, with an angular celerity, which is to that of the body in the ellipfe, in the conwill
ftant ratio

body

of the arch

AA' to

to n/;z -\- 2'

And

it is

3 evident, that the motion of the apfides

the arch A'D, or as

i

— \/n

-{-

focus C, in the fame given ratio

be to the motion of the body in the ellipfe, referred to the and that the angle defcribed j by the body in moving from one apfide to the other (becaufe
will

AD

is

always ==

A'D x

^

V « -|- 3/

^

)

will be

=

1

80° x

-~= ==
V « -f- 3
Sir

All which conclufions, as well as thofe derived in
the preceding CorolIarieSj exacflly agree with

what

Isaac

has demonflrated, by a very different method, in the As firfl book of his Principia. to the motion of the apjides of the lunar orbit, with the other inequalities depending on the fun's adlion, thefe require the ufe of o. her principlesj and the folution of the following
third and ninth Sessions of the

Newton

PRO-

in Mechanics

and

Phyjical AJl^^onomy*

145

PROBLEM
T^he fame being fuppofed as in the laft

VI.
Problem,

and that,

bejides

the force tending to the center
is

whofe meafure R, aBs continually on the body, in a direBion perpendicular

C,

another force.,

to the radius-'ueBor

EC

;

// is

propofedto determine the curve

ABP
Fig. 3i>

which the

body, fo adied on,

will defcribe.

Every thing in the preceding Problem being retained, have nothing more to do here, than to get an equation for Uy by means of the nev7 force, whereon the increafe or decreafe of u intirely depends. In order to this, we

we

have, as g (the given time)
rated in the time g, to

is

to

/,

fo

is

R, the velocity gene-

the velocity generated in the time g in a direction perpendicular to BC whence the cort, refportding increafe of the celerity au, with which the area
:

_,

ACB
will

is

generated, will be exprelTed

by

x —,

that
t

is,

x—
:

be

=

ait.

But, as

it

has been proved that

g

i

:',

z,

we

have


g

= ——
laau
-

:

and therefore aU

= —^,
\aau
•'

or 2uii

=

=—— \—w\
fluent,

rr

(becaufe x
^

= —^ \—w'
^^'^
I

.

Hence, by taking the
(c^

we have

u" z=i

c"^

-\- flu.

being put for the

v}[

neceflary corredlion,

or the value of u^

when 2
uw

=

0).
,

which

1-1

.

equation,

and that!

11

fiV

—A

1

w — =—
I

From \ Q.
J

tierived

may

by the preceding Problem, the relation of u, w, and z be determined, when the law of the forces Q^nd R is

afligned.

^E.L

U

CO-

'The Refolution

offome General Problems

COROLLARY
If the forces

^and K

are fuppofed to be in proportion to

T—
and

)

the centrifugal force at A, as

A

to i,

and

n

to. i,

re-

foediively

(A and

n

being any variable quantities whatever),

if the celerity {aii) v^ith

which the
firft

area

ACB

increafes

be
as

fuppofed in proportion to {ac) the

value thereof at A,

2

"

to

1 ;

then, QJ)eing =r=

:^—

,

R =r li'-^,
aa

and ur=ic S
will

^

our two equations, by fubftituting thefe values,

become
Tz
.

2 rr: I -4-nu.
'

z=r.,

and.

ay.i—w\
w\
-,

— zz

-\

aa

=

22

x


%x.

a'-'Ex

i

—w\

'

orr=i+flu.-^:^,and^+'ze;=i--^x-^
I

^^

making

AC

unity

which

laft

2S zz 2x1— zt/l equation will be rendered
'
'

— —z^zrrKv
^
flill

more commodious, by writing
will be

r for
"!!

2

its

equal ~~
I

210.

w 3:

whence

had

^ +'i£^ (— 2z
I—
i^;^

I

— 2iXi—

into

S

— Ax
w

2 2X1— wl / Ex i^ x 7-—^"^ ^^^^ which the
a/I

,,

~^)^..J—

values of
affigned :

and 2 may be found, when thofe of A and n are by means whereof the time (fj of defcribing the an-

gle Zy will alfo be

known, from the equation
1

—=
I I

——
..^

(a-

bove derived): which by fubftituting
equals u and ^

c 2^

and

wl

for their

,

«fl'

gives f °

=:^x 7177=^" 2^ Xi — 2f
ztl

exemplify the ufe of the equations here derived, by the of a cafe on which the determination of the lunar orbit depends, let the force A, whereby the body is iblicited towards the center, be confidered, as compofed of two parts j whereof
refolution

To

the principal (3

x i-—^')

is

in the inverfe duplicate-ratio
is

of the

diftance j the other part,

which

fuppofed fmall in comparifon

of the former, being

as the diftance

f—^ Jdiredly, drawn into

in
to a feries
fines
(

Mechamcs and
P' x cof. pz

Phyjical AJlronomy,
qz -j- R'x cof. rz,

147

Sec.) of co~ of multiples of the arch 2:, joined to fmall, given, coefficients P', Q', R', &c. and let the force n, a6ling in the perpendicular direcflion, be alfo fuppofed, as the diflance directly, drawn into a feries (Pxfm./;s -l-Q^fin.^2;-j-Rxfin.r2; -^ &c.) of fines of multiples of the fame arch, joined to fmall, given, coefficients P, Q, R, &c. According to thefe afiiimptions, by
cof.

+ Q' x

fubHituting hy,i—w{'

-—- x ¥coLpz-[-(XsoL qz &c.

and

xPfm./>2;+Qfi.n.§'2;&c. for their equals

A
zz

and n, our
-X'

two
i-

equations,
J-

S
I

= +2
i

fluent
I

-^^5

,

and

It

w

=.

I


J

—AX
_|_

wV"" --

n X ^x
-(-

i~wV^->

will here
1

become
,

^ __
i^

2 fluent

P z {in.pz
2
b

Q^fin. qz &c. x

%v^

and

+

'Z£;z=

-1

ii^to

— Fcof pz-{-Qicp^' 9^ ^c. x i-^w\
i

— — X P fm.pz-^Q^n. qz &c. x
Now,
order to a
firfl

Wi

^

the orbit being fuppofed nearly circular,

we may,

in

approximation, negle(ft

w

in

both the

facftors

I w^~^ and i—wV'^, by which mean? S will become

as being very fmall in relpedl

=

i-f-2

flu. /i;

of unity; fm, pz-^-Qz
(fee

fin.
/>.

qz &c.

=

i

-\-d

2P -— x cof.

pz

2Q

-^

x

cof.

qz &c.

82.)

where ^, reprefenting the
be taken

necefl!*ary

corredion to the fiu-

ent,

mufl:

= — +Y"
2P

2Q

&c. fo that

2 may be =1,

when 2;=o.
cond equation
(where

This value of E being now

fubfl:ituted in the fe-

^ + w = -^ xS—3
fin.

Fcof.pz

—Q^of qz &c.

~xP

pz-{-Q^n. qz &c. on account of the fmall-

* This ajfumption is not the lefs general by the multiples of 7. being taken the fame in the one value^ enters ; becaufe, if any 7miltiple of z, here as in the value of the other ^ it is butfuppofing the correfponding coefficient in this lajl, to vanot into

A

nijh or become equal to nothing.

U

2

nefs

148

T!he Refolution

of fome General Problems

nefs of

),

there

cometh out

where the general

multiplicator

^niaybe

alfo omitted, as differ-

ing very little from unity: this being done, and the fluent being taken, according to the method on p. 92,we thence find w=i i -\'d

^b+c^coLz--^
Q^'--.

-^
l—pp ^
I

^~^^its

where P
cof.
2;,

=7+?,
by which
that

i^ j|_ Q'^
is

&c. and where the term a

the fluent

correded, mufl: have

coefiicient fo taken,
is,

w

and z may

have their origin together, that P" O'
1^

a muft be made

qq

Having thus found a value nearly equal to w, we may by help thereof, proceed now to a fecond approximation, by fubfliituting

that value for

w,

in the fadlors

i

-wl

^

and

i

w^

,

wherein it w (whofe reciprocal is the diilance the terms in the value of i cf the body from the center of force) may be expreffed by the

was before negledled j and,to facilitate the computation,


i

general feries of cofines, ex
(as
it

—Bcof —
jG^;

Ccof.^2;

—Dcof

Sz6ic.

appears from above, that the value of

w

will conflfl: of

fuch):
will

by which means the fame terms before determined be again brought out, together with a number of others,
But, iince the former operato difcover the

ferving as a farther corredion.
tion
is

form of the ferithan to be regarded for its exadnefs, I fhall have no farther reference thereto, but proceed to determine the value of the feveral quantities ^, B, C &c. Je fiovo, by a method fome^ thing difl^erent from that ufed above.
es,
Firfl:,
I

made, more with a view

then,
I

from the equation

— w=:ex

BcoCPz — C
-^

cof.

yz

— &c.
cof.

will be
-]-

had
&c.

===—-)-

1

XB

cof.

I3z'\-C

yz &c.

and

in Mechanics

and
^

Phyjical AJlronomy,
/32;+C
cof. >/s

149

and

I— 'k;I'~'^=z

-^-f-~T ^

cof.

&c.

+ &c.

which

laft vahie being multiplied by Yz ing to the purport of our firft equation,

x fin. /x (accord2 i -|- 2 fluent

Pi; fin. ^2-|-Q^fin.

qz &c.

x

i

=

w'""^),

and a proper regard
the

being,

at

the fajne time,

had

to the Theorems on p. 80,

produd: will ftand thus,
£^ X fin./>2;+
or thus,

^ X—

Bfin^iG^^.

2;+B fin. iQ+/.r&I

whereof the

fluent will

be

In the very fame manner, the terms arifing from the mul