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THE CUSTODY OF THE BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY.
ESSAYS
ON SEVERAL
Curious and Ufeful S u b j e c t s
InSpEcuLATivE and Mi X D
j.
MATHEMATICKS
lUuftrated
by a Variety of Examples,
By
r HO MAS SIMPSON.
L
Printed by
N D
for
Ifr
J.
H.
jthe
Wood fall, y«^.
Lamb
Nourse,
at
without TempkEar^
/
<
iCAOAHswa'^
(i)
T O
FRANCIS BLAKE,
O F
Twifel^ in the
County of Durham^ Efqj
SI
R,
S our
veral
private
Correfpondence
occafioned
my
Drawing up
fe
of the following Papers,
Right
I thence claim a Sort of a
to addrefs them to
You
:
But
I well
know
the
[
u
)
common Style of a Dedication would to You be highly offenfive } therefore all the Ufe I dare make of this Opportunity,
is,
to declare
Myfelf to be.
SIR,
Tqu^ moft Obliged^
Humble
Servant^
Tho. Simpson.
(V)
P
R E F A C
HE
me
a
to
Reader,
1 prefume,
will excufe me,
if^
him, in the ufual Way^ with the many weighty Reafons that induced
inftexid of acquaifitifig
publijh the Jollowing
Sheets,
I
fiall
take up no more oj his
concife
7ime than to give Account of the Nature and Ufethis Mifcellany, in
fuhefi of the feveral Papers that compofe the Order they are printed,
^he firfl,
then,
is
concerned in determining the Apparent
Place of the Stars arifing from the progreffive Motion of Light, and of the Earth in its Orbit j which, though it be a Matter of great Importance in AJironomy, and allowed one of
the fineji Difcoveries, yet
had
it not been
fully
and
demonfira^
tively treated of by any ^Author, or indeed thrown into any
Method of PraBice.
knowledge,
Now,
lafi
however,
I
mufl not omit to aC"
that in the
Royal Academy
Volume of the Memoirs of the c/ Sciences, for the Tear iji'j.
a
lately
vi
PREFACE.
j
hither a few Weeh htelj publified at Paris, and brought by Monfieur Clairaut, this Subje5i fince^ there is a Paper on
a very enwient Mathematician of that Academy to which in he fiibjoins a Set of PraBical Rules for the Aberration
RightAfcenfion a?id Declination only
Analogies are exadlly the
5
fame
as
thofe
wherein mojl of his iiiferted in this Book,
with which Br. Bevis favoured me : For which Rea/on I think it proper to aff'ure my Readers, that my Paper, together with the Dodfors Rules, were quite printed off, and in the Hands of feveral Friends, who defired them, before Chrift
mas
i7'?9.
confiderable
when lime
the Severity of the Seafon interrupted
for a
the Impreffion of this T^reatife,
The fecond Paper, treats of the Motion of Bodies affeBed by ProjeSiile and Centripetal Forces ; wherein the Invention many others of of Orbits and the Motion of Apfides, with the Firfi Book of Sir Ifaac the mofl confiderable Matters in
Newton'^ Principia,
'The 7'hird,
7iet
are fully afid clearly invejligated.
given, to
,
fhews how, from the Mean Anomaly of a Plafind its true Place in its Orbit, by three fever al
Methods
be
but what
may
befl
recommend
this
Paper,
will,
is
the
PraBical Rule
found of
in the annexed Scholium,
which
1
hope^^
Service,
Paths.,
The Fourth, i?2cludes the Motion and in re lifting Mediums, in which not only
Curve defcribed according
the
of ProjeBiles the Equation of the.
to any Law of Denfty, Refftance^ important Matters, upon this Head, in ^c. hut all the moll
Second Book of the a'ovenamed illufirious Author,
eafy,
are
determined in a new,
and comprehenfive Manner,
Velocities,
The Fifth,
confiders the Refiftances,
and Times of The
Vibration, of pendulous Bodies in Mcdiu??is,
PREFACE.
derable
life,
vii
^he Sixth, contains a new Method Jar the Solution of all Kinds of Algebraical Equations in Numbers ; which, as it is more general than any hitherto give?i, cannot but be of confiperhaps may be objeBed, that the Me^ thod of Fluxions, whereon it is founded, being a more exalted Branch of the Mathematicks, cannot be fo properly applied to
though
it
what
belongs to
common Algebra,
^he Seventh,
is illuftrated
by
Method of Increments fome familiar and ufeful Examples,
relates
to
the
,
which
The Eighth,
ing the
Differences.
is
a Jhort Inveftigation of a I'heorem Jor findSeries
Sum of a
of ^lantities by Means
of their
The Ninth,
ting the
exhibits
an
eafy
and general
Way
of Livefiiga
Sum
of a recurring
laft
Series,
Thefe three
Tapers
relate chiefly
to
the In'uentions of
Others
other
:
As
they are all
of Importance, and are required in
Farts of the Book,
untouched',
and
could not well leave the?n entirely if I Jhall be thought to have thrown any new
benefit
I
Light upon them, that may
young Froficients, 1 have
my End.
The Tenth, comprehends a 7iew and general Method for fifjding the Sum of any Series of Fowers whofe Roots are in
Arithmetical Frogreffion,
Advantage
to Series
which may be applied with equal of other Kinds,
The Eleventh,
remarkable
is
concerned about
Angular
Sedlions
andfome
i us
F roper ties
of the Circle,
viil
.
PREFACE.
Muller'i ingenious ^reatife on Conic SeBiojis
containing
7he Twefftb, Includes an eafy and expeditious Method of Reducing a Compound FraBion to Simple Ones ; the firfi Hints whereof I freely acknowledge to have received from
Mr.
and
Fluxions*
Hjc thirteenth and
Hyperbolical Curves,
laft,
is
a general ^adrature of a Froblem remarkable enough, ^s well
on account of its Difficulty, as its having exercifed the Skill of but as none of the Solutions hi^ feveral great Mathematicians
,
therto publifhed, thd fome of
them are very elegant
ones,
extend
farther than to particular Cafes, except that given in Phil. Tranfl
N°* 417. without Demon/iration, I flatter my elf that this which 1 have now offered, may claim an Acceptance, Jince it
is clearly ifivejiigated
f
by two different Methods,
been done by Others,
without re*
f
and the general ConflruBion rendered abundantly more fimple andft for PraC"
erring to
what hath
tice
than
it there is.
ESSAYS
On feveral Curious and Ufeful SubjeBs in Speculative and Mixt Mathematicks. Of the Apparent Places ofthe Fixed St ars,
ariling
from the Motion of Lights and the Motion of the Earth in its Orbit.
PROPOSITION
If the
Velocity ofthe
I.
Earth
in its Orbit bears any fenfhle
Pro^
portion to the Velocity of Light, every Star in the Heavens mufl appear dijlant from its true Place j and that by fo much
the more, as the Ratio of thofe Velocities approaches nearer to
that of Equality,
^^^ OR,
CG
if
while the Line
defcribed
is
by
Star
a Particle of Light
coming from a
in that Diredion, the
Eye of an
by the
and
Obferver at
T be
carry 'd,
Earth's Motion, thro'
TGj n
faid Star,
CT
be a
j
Tube made
Particle
ufe of in
ebferving
and a
of Light, from the
be
iufl
B
(2)
juft entering at
C
arrived at v, the
parallel to
End of Tube will
the
its
Axis; then
when
the
Eye
is
have acquired the Pofition v
D
TC,
:
and the
faid Particle will be at the
Point m,
becaufe
Earth's
where the Line
GT GC
:
:
C G interfeds the Axis of the Tube; T C m. Let now the Tube, by the
J
:
Motion,
be brought into the Pofition
::
Ew
,
then becaufe.
GT GC
:
Tw: Cn,
at G,. as
it
the Particle will be at n^
and
there=it
fore
is flill
in
the Axis of the
Tube
the
:
Therefore
when
en
ters the
Eye
it
has
all
Time
been in the Axis o£
muft confequently appear to have come in the Diredlion thereof, or to make an Angle with T H, the Line that the Earth moves m, equal to CTH, which is different Whence it is from what it really does, by the Angle evident that,, unlefs the Earth always moves in a Right Line diredly to or from a given Star (which is abfurd to fuppofe) that Star muft appear diftant from its true Place ; and the more fo, as the Velocity of the Earth (in refped; of that of Light) is increafed. And the fame muft neceffarily be the
the Tube,
GOT
:
Cafe
when
the Obfervation
is
made by
the naked Eye;
for
the Suppofition and Ufe of a Tube neither alters the real noE apparent Place of the Star, but only helps to a more eaiy De^
monftration.
PROi
3
)
PROPOSITION
T<3
II.
find the Path which a Star, thrd the afore/aid Caufe, in one entire Annual Revolution of the Earth , appears to defcribs^
LET
the
ATBA
Orbit
be of the
Earth I S the Sun in
one^
its
Focus; Fthe otherFtJCusj
T the Earth moving in
S D,
Orbit from A towards B 5, DT^aTangentatTj and
FE
Perpendiculars
thereto: Let be Part of an indefinite Plane parallel to that of
QwKRQ^
the EcHptick, pafling thro*
R the Centre of the
Stars
given
andtakeT.'ztoTRs
Orbit at T, to thafc
as the Velocity of the Earth
in
its
of a Particle of Light coming from the faid Star
:
Let
;
tm be parallel to wR; VnN perpendicular to A B
parallel
and
QR K^
it
toP»Vi Then from
that a
it
the foregoing Propofition
is
manifeft,
Ray of Light coming from
proceeded from
;;?,
R
to the Earth
atT,
will appear as if
where the Line
produced,, interfeds the faid parallel Plane; and therefore, becaufe T/« is parallel to ^n, and any Parallelogram, interfeaing two parallel Planes, cuts them alike in every
Tm,
refpea,
it
is
evident that
Km muft
D
ii Z
be equal to
T n,
and
02^
to
VwDj
wherefore fince
gad
P
are equal to
two
(4)
•two
Right Angles,
DSP and D«P
But
muft be equal,
alfo,
to
two Right Angles, and confequently
J) g
QRm
SD
(= VnD)
;
=
p
__ j^i? j?^
Tn
or R/;/, expreffing the Celerity of
or,
;
the Earth at S
T,
is
known
to be inverfely as
becaufe
the Ancrles
QRm being every where Proportion to FE, the Curve Q^K A conftant
ARE,
f/i,
D X J^^JE
is
every where the fame, diredly as
FE
wherefore
equal,
and
Km in
by
de
defcribed
the apparent Place of the Star in the faid parallel Plane,
it is
will,
manifeft, be llmilar in all RefpecSs to
AEB
But this Curve is known to be a Cirmuft likewife he a Circle, whofe Diacle; therefore Kiis divided by R, the true Place of the Star, in the meter fame Proportion as the Tranfverfe Axis of the Earth's Orbit is
fcribed
by the Point
E
:
QmK
QR
divided by. either of its Foci.
Wherefore, forafmuch
in this Cafe,
as a fmall
Part of the circumjacent Heavens may,
be con
Line joining the Eye and Star, it follows from the Principles of Orthographic Projection, that the Star w^ill be feen in the Heavens as describing an Ellipfis, whofe Center (as the Excentricity of the
fidered as a Plane pafling perpendicular to a
Orbit
is
but fmall) nearly coincides with the true Place of
except the faid Place be in the Pole or Plane of
;
•the Star,
the EcUptick
in
the former of vvhich Cafes the Star will
latter
appear to defcrlbe a Circle, and in the
great Circle of the Sphere,
an Arch of a
which by Reafon of its Smallnefs may be confidered as a Right Line. But thefe Conclufions will perhaps appear more plain from the next Propofition,
where
for the
Sake of Eafe and Brevity, the Earth
in
is
con
fidered as
,Ker real
moving
an Orbit perfedlly circular,
differ.
from which
Orbit does not greatly
PRO'
(
5
)
PROPOSITION
Having given, from Experiment^ Light to that of the Earth in its
of the Sun and a Star
5
III.
the Ratio of the Velocity of
Orbit, and the true Places
to find the
apparent Place of the Star
from
thence arifing,
LET
Orbit,
ArQA
S the Sun
be the Earth's
confidered as
;
^f
..^^'"^
\
a Circle
in
the Center there
of j r the Earth
mo
ving about the fame
Q
from A towards Qj^ re a Line, which
being produced, {hall
pafs thro' the Eclip
tick Place of the given Star
dicular, thereto
:

AS
parallel,
andyr
perpen
Let ef be perpendicular to the Plane of the
Ecliptick, fo that
r/ being
equal to
Sr
or Radius,
r^ may
be the Cofine of the Latitude of the given Star : This being premifed, it is manifeil that the true Place of the Star,
from the Earth, will be
pea
to the Ecliptick,
{
^re
=
C^S
r)
Sun and Star, is the Supplement of
Diredion rf and with RefLine r e therefore the Angle being the Difference of Longitudes of the given by the Queftion. Let rg, the Sine of
in the
in the
,
this
Angle, be denoted by b j
its
Cofine S^,
by
c
J
the Sine of the given Latitude, ovfe, by s
dius Sr, or
/r, by Unity
let
moving along/r,
5 and the Raand while a Particle of Light is the Earth be fuppofed to be carry'd in
j
C
its
'
(6)
its
p
Orbit from r to p, over a Diftance fignified by r ; and, being drawn, make r n and nm perpendicular theree,
pf
to
:
Then
::
becaufe of the exceeding Smallnefs of /> r
it
may
be
confidered as a RightLine;
and we
i
:
fhall c
:
have
i
(Sr):^
[rg)
r (pr):rb{= p n)
rb, to
;
and
^
: :
r c (= r «) (by the
Similarity of the Triangles prn, Srg)
whence as i (//»,) to> ; rbs =z {n m) the Sine of the Angle nfm : i (/ f ) fo is But fmce the Sine or Tangent of a very fmall Arch differs infenfibly from the Arch itfelf, thefe Values re and rb s may be taken as the Meafures of the Angles rfn, and nfm Hence
i
we
have, as the Semi Periphery
Ar Q^(=3i4i59, &c.)
is
to
64.8000 (the Seconds in 180 Degrees,) fo ° ^ ^
(the
(^c.
:
r^
to
^ \ 3.14159,^^,
°°'^
""
Number
of Seconds in the Angle rfn\) and as 3.14159
^_°°"'"'
^^
648000 :vrsb\
= nfm:
Therefore,
is
as
the Earth moves from r to
fcribing
p while
a Partiele of Eight
de
fj\
it
is
manifefl from
the aforefaid Propofition,
that the
Star
will appear
pafling through its true °°°^^ , Seconds; tick by , ^ J
3.14159,;^^.
removed from the great Circle Place, and the Pole of the Eclipand to have
its
Latitude
in?
creafed
by
y^^. Seconds. ^ Ef.l
C O R O
L.
HENCE
lipfis
its be the true Place of the Star, Parallel of Latitude ; and about as a Centre, the EI
if
C
SCF
fo,
F P S T F,
and Circle
FH
Q
S
OF
C,
5
be defcribed
that
FC
may be =^^^^^^
and
j
T
the Semi Conjugate
Axis, in proportion thereto^ as
to 1
and
if
the Angle
SCH
is
be taken equal to the DiiFerence of Longitudes of the Sun and
Star
5
then in the Point P, where the
elliptical
Periphery
interfered
by the Right Line
:
H QJalling
perpendicularly on
as
i.
FS, the
(Sine of
Star will appear to be pofited.
For
(Radius) \b
QC H)
:
CH
:
/5
xCH
= H d;
648000 3.i4i59,af
but by the Rela=
tion of the
two Curves,
CH:CT::^xCH(=H QJ^: P Qo
I
:
that
isj
by Conflrudion,
s
xb
648000
.
r
sb
3,i4i59,<i:^i.
C
z
(
8
:
)
= PQ^
.^^Pooo
r
again as
i
fHadius)
f (the
Cofitle
oF
dCHJii
"3 14159,^1^. V
fcH)' — ^^V
•
%^^22i:i =:C O ; which Expreffions "<^ r 3.14159,^..
.are
the very fame as thofe above determined.
C O R O
to purfue his Courfe
L.
II.
THEREFOREit follows,
be feen as moving from
;it
that while the
Sun appears
fo on,
thro' the Ecliptick, the Star will
F
towards
L
and
S,
and
and
'till
hath defcribed the whole elliptical that itsXatitude^will be the the leaft at
greateft
poffible,
Periphery
FLSTFi
its
Tj
apparent
Longitude the
'.fliewing the
when
the
Angle
SCH,
is
Diftance of the Sun and Star
right ones.
It
m
the Ecliptick,
equal to
two
alfo follows,
that the greater
defcribe, to
.Axis of the'Ellipfes, which all Stars appear to •equal, and found by Obfervation to amount
are
40
f
Se
/I
25 which conds of a great Circle, very nearly j the Term Rules hereto annext, being frequently occurs in the pradtical
20",
put for the half thereof.
Aberrations, or
It
follows moreover, that the greateft
Maxima,
in
j
Longitude, will be as theCofines
of the Latitudes inverfely
and the
Maxima
in Latitude, as
the Sines of the fame Latitudes directly.
C
O R O
L.
m.
for let
HENCE may
Star
alfo
be found the Stars apparent Right
;
Afcenfion and Declination
rallel of the Stars Declination,
ECP
be the Pa
P
the apparent Place of the
when
in that Parallel
;
make C
A
let
perpendicular to
CH,
ABD
tick,
toSF, and
BE
to
PC;
and
H K,
or the
Angle
HCK be any Diftance gone over
while the Star by
its
by the Earth
in the Eclip
apparent Motion moves thro' the
:
wcorrefponding Diftance
PL
Let
Km?iG
be parallel to
HC,
and
(9)
PC Then, forafmuch as KL parallel to HP, 'the Triangles GKL, CHP muft be equiangular, and thereLI to to HP, but KL fore G L C P :: K L H P
and
Lrv
to
:
is
:
:
;
is
2is
QJP, by the Property of the Curve ; whence CP LI Wherefore, the Sides G L,
: : :
it
will be
QT
:
I
L,
GL C P, QP
:
about the equal Angles
Triangles
GL
I,
C P Q^being proportional,
the
Angle
S
^,
F
m^
be finiilar, and therefore the and confequently the Right Line G I L a right one, Therefore, as the Angles the Locus of the Point G.
r,
GLI, C P Q^mufl
V
are
all
given, or continue invariable, let the A.ngle
SCK,
it
or the ecliptick Diftance of the
Sun and
Star be
what
;
will, the Ratio
of
to
the Ratio of
to
CG
C Cr
;?2
to
CG
j
will always be given
but
is
:
given
therefore the Ratio of
is
Cm
to
C
r
is
Ukewife given
Hence, becaufe r v
will be given.
parallel
C E,
the Ratio oi
Cm
to'Ev
But
E i;
is
the
Difference of the true and apparent Declinations; and
as the Sine
C
w,
of the Angle
HCK
:
Whence
it is
is
manifefl, that
as the Sine
the Aberration of Declination, at any Time,
the Sun's Elongation from either of the
is,
of
two Points wherein he
;
when
the true and apparent Declinations are the fame
and
therefore
Qm
will be to Eu, or
to Fi>,
AC
to
E
B, the greated
A^berration, as
the Sine
Polition,
QJH of P C Qj^
is
that
is,
as the Sine of
H CF
is
to
But
a§
PC Q,
to
being equal to the Angle of
it
is
given,
whofe Tangent,
obvious,
to the
Tangent of
laflly,
H C F,
QP
Q^H,
is
or as
CT
Star's
to
C
O,
or
(by Conftrud:ion) as the Sine of the
Laticude to
Radius:
Hence
the Angle
HCF
given,
from which, by
Help of
the foregoing
Theorem
or Proportion, the required
Aberration of Declination at any Time, and in any Cafe,
may
be readily obtained.
In like
manner other Proportions inay be
;
derived for find
ing the Aberration of Right Afcenfion
that
it
it
being eafy to prove
will be as the Sine of the Sun's Elongation
from where
he
D
(
'o
)
jie
is,
wlicn the true and apparent right Afcenfions are the
;
lame
but the
it
Method of Demonflration being
it.
the fame as
above,
will be needlefs to repeat
1 fliall therefore
now
proceed to illuftrate the foregoing
Doc
by the pradical Solutions of the feveral Problems depending thereon, as they were drawn up and communicated by
trine
Dr. JohnBevts, with fuitable Examples of feveral
Stars,
which,
among many
of,
others.
He
has carefully obferved with proper
firfl
Inftruments, and thereby, the
of any one that I
know
experimentally prov'd,
that the
Phoenomena
are univer
fally as
conformable to the Hypothefis in Right Afcenfions, a^
the Rev. Mr. Bradley , to whom we owe this great Difcoveryg, had before found, them to be in Declinations,
)
(
1»
PRACTICAL RULES
For Finding the
ABERRATIONS THE F X T STARS FROM
OF
I
The Motion of
in
Light, and of the Earth
its
I
Orbit^
N
and Righe
Longitude, Latitude, Declination,
Afcenfion.
SYMBOLS,
Aj
the Aberration at any given Time.
M,
the greateft Aberration, or
Maximum.
when
the Star's Apparent Longitude, Latitude;,
O/the
Sun's Place in the Ecliptick
Declination, or Right Afcenfion, being the fame as the True, tends to Excefs.
P, the Star's
Angle of
Pofition.
its nearsil
Zj the Sun's Elongation frpm
Syzygy wi^h^he
Star, at the
Time
of
02
For
the Abherration in
3 Signs after the Star's
Longitude.
1q find M,
E.
O
.
is
always
true Place in the Ecliptick.
P
CoJ. Star's Latit.
:
R O
Rad.
:
B.
I.
R U L
:
20", 25
:
M.
y
Ur/ce mlnoris^
Example
Log.
Cof. Ar.
in
OPERATION.
Com.
Star's Latit.
'
75**
13'
—_——_——__>—,
•
•
4 Log. 20", 25
0.5932 13064
=:Xog.
M
79", 36
.1,8996
P
Rad.
:
R O
B.
U.
T:o
find A»
RULE.
Shi. Sun's Elongat.
from
o —
in
M
:
A,
Example
Log.
Sin.
the fame Star.
OPERATION.
Sun's
Elongat. from
fLog.
M
Sin.
O
60'' 00'
.
79", 36
9937? 1.8996
— Log.
Rad.
=
1,0^.
A
68",y2
.—
1:1.8371
Otherwife, without .M.
RULE.
Co/
Star's Latit.
:
Sin, San's Elongat.
from
O
:
:
2o",25
:
A.
Same
Example
75°
13'
•
as before.
OPERATION.
Log.
Co/. Ar.
Com.
Star's Latit.
'4 Log. Sin. Sun's Elongat.
from
Q
2
60° 00'
+ Log.
2o",25
5/;;.
—
.......
i^
—
O^^S^
99375 1.3064
., ..
— Log.
Rad.
z=,
Log.
A
6
8
'',7
•——"—.
.n .^371
For
C
'3
)
For the Aberration
/;^
LAt t
i
u d
e,
G
is
always at the Sun's Oppofition to the Star.
PR
R<iit.
:
OJB^
:'
:
I.
_ Tofnd M.
M.
tjrjk tninorls.
S/wTSSrVLaVit.
2o",25
:
,^^^^_^
g x^aTpT E y in
75 ° 13'
'
Log. Sin.
j
Star's Latit.
r
;
—'^
Log. 2o",^g
Sin.
r^:' .!.:
:i
2
.
""^
'
'
Cy
'
'
'

^!
'
'•''~
9985+ 13064
11.2918
— Log.
Rad. == Log.
M.
i9",58
—
—»
>
P
Rad.
:
R O
B.
II.
To find
K
Sift.
Sun's Elongat.
from
O
'•
*
M'
:
A,
fame
Star.
Example G PE R
'^fjog. 6"z«.
in the
ATI O
IfF'^
H
c
Sun's Elongat.
from
.
f Log.
M
O
60°
00'————
9937S
1.
i9",58
2918
— Log.
Sin.
Rad.
z=z
Log.
A
i6",96
—
E
—
M.
—
from
*• "•
11,2293
Otherwife, without
R U L
Rad'^.
:
Sin.
Star's Latit.
X
Sin. Sun's Elongat.
20", 25

:
A.
——
,
_^_^.^,,„=,=^_.^ame
Exa.mple
13'
=
as
before.
_
O^pE
°
RATION.
O
60
°
Log. Sin.
4iog
Star's. Latit.. 75 {Log. Sin. Sun's Elongat. from
*
oo'
,__
2b'',
5
2
—
—
r
2 Log; 5/«.^^.
=
=Log.

A~i6'^,96''^=;^=^i»^^
" ^
'
—
—
——
9'
9854
9.937; 13064
21,2293
dthervvifej
"= E^
H
{
Otherwife,
,
J
.
}
RULE.
Co/ee. Star's Latit.
:
5/». Sun's Elongat.
from
G
: :
zo'\2$
:
A.

Same Example
as before.
OPERATION.
Log.
Co/ec.
Jr. Cam. Star's Latit.
75° 13'
00'
'
"
=
'
4 Log. Sin. Sun's Elongat.
from
.
©66°
—————
89.9S54
4 Log. 2o",25
—
9937S
13064.,
1. 2
= Log.
A
i6"96
—
29
For
the Aberration in
Declination.
To
P
Siw. Star's Latit.
:
R O
: :
B.
L
fnd
o.
RULE.
Rad.
Ta»g. P.
:
Taftg.
Z.
is
Then,
if the Star
(in refpeft
of that Pole of the Equator which
of the fame
Denomination
1.
as the Star's Latitude)
be in a Sign.
Afcending,
and P be acute,
Z
taken from the oppofite to
its
true Place^
gives
2.
J.
O,
Afcending, and
Defcending,
and
P be obtufe,.. Z added to its true Place, gives ©, P be acute, Z added to the oppofite to its P be
obtufe,
true Placed
gives
4.
G,
Defcending, and
its
Z taken
from
its
true Place, gives
Q
:
provided, that
if
Declination and Latitude be
both North, or both South
But,
one be North, and the other Souths then for
its
true P/ar^,, read oppofite to its true
Place, and vice <verfd.
Example
Log. Tang.
of Cafe
I.
in the Pole Star.
OPERATION.
— Log.
P 75°
Sin. Star's Latit.
2i' (acute; f" Log. Sin. 66° 04' North.
34'
•
Rad.
.
20.5827
9.9609:
= Log.
(afcending)
Tang. Tj
'](i'^
—
Latit. being
10.6218'
Therefore the
Star's Declin.
and
both N.
its
Place
I
«,s
«
,
—Z
j.
6 Signs
J»
24
55
_..—
216
34
'
—
'
.
J
(
15
)
%
Example
P 93®
of Cafe II. in
Draconis,
OPERATION. — Log.
Log. Tang.
50' (obtufe) \hog. Sin. Rad.
21.1739
9.9926
Sin. Star's Latit.
79° 28' (North)
'
= Log.7««f. Z
+Z =
'
86°
14'
—
\%&
11.1 81
true
Therefore the Star's Decl. snd Latit. being both North j Place (afcending)^
}2
3
29°
26
25
12'
14.
26
Ex A M
Log.
Ttfwj'o
P
I'
E of C^?/^ III.
ij
C7r/^ majpris.
OP ER
A T
I
O
N.
— Log.
P 38®
36' (acute)

Log. Sin. Rad.
(North)
Sin. Star's Latit.
54° 25'
—
.
.
19,9022

9.9102
=3 Log, Tang.
Z
/^^° 29
9.9920
Latit. being
»
Therefore, the Star's (defending) 6 Signs
+
DecL and
'
both North,
:
—
its
^
Place 7
s
o

Z
' '
f
I »
^^
"*"
14
29
43.
= Q.
07
Exam p l b
Log.
T^/wj".
of
C^^ IV.
in
y
C/r/^ minoriu
OPERATION.
P 94°
48'
(obtufe)
j
Log.
S'in.
Rad.
—
.
21. 075 9^^
"—Log.
Sin. Star's Latit.
75° 13' (North)
99854
1
= Log. Tang.
Z
Z
85
*="
22'
its
1.0905
o
r
Therefore, the Star's Decl. and Latit. being both North, Pkce (defcending)
true
7
s
4'
J
^7
5°
22
25
In each of thefe four Examples, the Declination and Latitude are of the fame" Denomination j it may fuffice to give one where they are of contrary Denominations,
Example
of Cafe III. in Aldebaran.
OP
E R A T
I
O
N.
^
Log. Tang. P 9 ® 40' (acute) j Log. Sin. Rad. Log. 5;w. Star's Latit. 5° 30' (South)
—
— —
1
.
1
—
19.2313;.
8.98 f 5
^ Log.
Ttfwg'^.Z
60®
38'
»=^°««»...=»u4>..^«~w^
I.
«..»
.
>»»——io.2498>'
Therefore^',
'
'
o
ThereFore, Star's Dec), being North, and Place (defccnding to S. Pole)
^
)
its,
Latit^ South,
its
1 ^s ^^o
3
,
^Z
'
2
CO 06
38
^^45
4^
PRO
^in.
B.
IL
T'o'find
U,
RULE.
Z
:
Sin.?
'.:
2o\2^
:
M.
~
"^
Example
Log.
5/;/.
in
y Ur/^ mlnons.
OPERATION.
Z
Jr. Com.
85° 22'
—
.
.
.
4 Log.
Sln^
P 94°
48''
f Log. 2o",25
—
—
—
.
=— ~
"
"
O.OO14
— —
—
99985
1.3064
ii
"
— Log.
Sin.
Rad.
= Log. M 2o",24 —
B.
III.
—
.3063
PRO
Rad.
:
Tofnd Ae
RULE.
Sin. Sun's Elongat.
from
Q
::
M
sj
:
A.
Example
Log.
Sin. Sun's Elongat.
in
Ur/^e majons.
4 Log.
M
OPERATION. —— from O 75
°
31
'
i8",04
—
9.9860
^
:
1.2560
.ri.2420
— Log.
Sin.
Rad. := Log.
A
i7",46
'
M.
Othervvife, without
RULE.
Rad.
X
^'»
Z
:
Sin. Sun's Elongat.
Same
O y^Sin. P Example as beforefrom
:
:
20',25
iA^
,
.
OPERATION.
Log.
5///.
Sun's Elongat. from
Q
75°
31'
——
.
—
_
9.9860
997SI 0I545
4 Log. } Log.
Sin. Sin,
P 38" 36'
Ar. Com.
7j
44° 29'
+ Log.
20",25
1,3064
—
2
Log. Sin. Rad.
= Log. A
i7",46
——
.
zi. 24.20
For
.
—
(

17
)
Hjw f^rtnin n iMi M—Ml
j
i
For
the Aberration
Z;^
R
L
i
gh T
Ascension,
P R O
Sin. Star's Latit.
:
JB.
To find o.
RULE.
Rad,
:
:
Cota7ig. P.
:
Tang. Z.
is
Then,
if the Star (In refpedl
of that Pole of the Equator which
be in a Sign
of the fams
Denomination
1
as the Star's Latitude)
Afcending,
and
2.
3.
Afcending, and
Defcending,
P be acute, Z added to its true Place, gives O P be obtufe, Z taken from its true Place, gives Oand P be acute, Z taken from the oppofite to its true
•
Place,
gives
4.
O.
Defcendingj
and
P
be obtufej
Z
added to the oppofite to
its
true Place^
gives
O
Example
Log.
Sin. Ar.
of Cafe
L
in Sinus,
OPERATION,
Com.
Star's Latit.
39"
32' (South.)
——

°
'
+
Log. Cotang.
fang.
P 4°
87°
18' (acute;
16'
0.1962 11.1238
= Log.
+Z
Z
Therefore the Star's true Place (afcending)
Example
of Cafe 11. in
s
Dracmis.
OPERATION.
Log.
Sin. Ar.
Com.
Star's Latit.
79° 28' (North)
—>>

—=—«=__
o
0.0074
8.8261
4 Log. Cotang. V 93°
50' (obtufe)
r=Log. T«K^.
Z
3°
54'—=
—
8.8335
Therefore the Star's true Place (afcending)
29
12
O
2C
18
Exa:
—
(
2
i8)
y
Dracofiis^
Example
of Ca/e III.
OPERATION,
Jr. Com. Star's Latit. 74° 28' (North)— *^ ' 4 Log. Coifrtw^. P S° 36' (acute)
Log.
, 1
Sift.
:
m
;^7
— —
"
'
'
—
•
^
"—
0.016211. 201
=:Log.Ta77g.
Z
86 ° 32'
^^2174
8^ 24°
23''
Therefore, the Star's true Place (defcending) f 6 Signs
Example
Jr. Com.
of Ca/e IV.
in
y Ur/ts minoriu
OPERATION.
'
Log.
Si7t.
Star's Latit.
75° 13' (North)
'^
'
0.0146
8.9241
jLog. Cotang.
P
94° 48'
(obtufe)
Therefore, the Star's true Place (defcending)
4^ Signs—
—10'
M.
:
IT
17" 50
o 04
58
P
Co/. Star's Decl.
R O
B.
IL
^0 find
RULE.
X Sin, Z Co/ P X Example in
:
Rad.
:
:
20", 25
M.
the Pole Star,
OPERATION.
Log. Co/ Jr. Com. Decl. 4 Log.
Sin.
87°
15"
Jr. Com.
4 Log. Co/ P.
jLog. 2o",25
—
Z
58'——
55'
'
•
" '.
'""^
—
—
'
439?
'
05605
3064
..^.,,=—..,.....^___^.„
_—..._„ 9.4030
—
I
« Log.
Sin, Rfid.
=: Log. M.
5
1
2",
1
6
=8
>
3 2",
1
6
'
12.7094
P R O
Ba
^
( ^9
)
P R O
B^ad,
:
B,
IIL
lojind A.
RULE.
Bin, Sun's Elongat.
from
O
:
^
M
:
A.
Example
Log.
Sun's Elongat.
in Lucida Aquila,
i"///.
JLog.
M
20", 18
—
OPERATION, from O 65° 24' »—=—=
.
,
'
'
^ ..^^_^^^
.. ^u,^.'
.
^ ..^,..,^^..^^^
—__
.,

•
9.9587
1.3049
f Log.
Sin,
Rfd, =;.Log.
A
i8",34
.:a...v..^^.=^=,.....==i
^
x, ~.^^ .
,.
.
^^ .2636
Otherwife, without
M«
RULE.
Cfl/ Star's_Decl.
X 5/«. Z
:
5/«. Sun's Elongat.
from
O X C*?/
P
:
:
2o",25
:
A,
Same
Example.
°
OPERATION,
Log.
Sin. Sun's Elongat.
from
O
65
24'
12'
^
~—=.=»»=====»=.»==.
—
"
4 Log. Co/I Ar. Com.
j
Star's
Decl. 8°
•
'
.
,
Log. Sin. Ar. Com.
Z
84° 36'
4 Log. Cof.
P 10°
55'
—
—
»=.,
99S?7 0.0045 0.0019
99921!
^
^..^^
= 2 Log.'i2«i. =sLog.
A
i8",34 "—
^
—
zi.ibiii,
Gl
N
E'
.
(
20
)
General Notes.
t
.
That
That
the Rules give the Values of
A
and M, always
in Seconds
of
a
Degree.
2.
O, A
lows
3.
if the Sun's Place be in that Semicircle of the Ecliptic which precedes mull be taken from the Star's True Longitude, Latitude, Declination, or
Right Afcenfion,
to
ihew the Apparent
;
but
if it
be in that Semicircle which
fol
O A mull
J
be added
That
>f, XT,
X, T, b
,
n
are Signs Afcending in refpeflof the
North
S5,
Pole,
and Defcending
=^)
in refpedl of the
South Pole of the Equator
:
And
Sit
^f
^»
f
»
are Afcending in refped
of the South Pole, and Defcending in
refpe<5l
of the North Pole of the Equator.
4.
defcribes,
That a Star may be fo pofited, that the fmall Ellipfe which it apparently may, by including, or approaching very near to the Pole of the World,
it
make
ing
;
fall
under very different Confiderations and Rules from any of the forego^
but as the bed Inftruments
have not difcovered any fuch
Stars, thofe Confi
derations and Rules
have been here omitted.
0/
0/
deMOTlON
anc^
ORBITS
I.
of Bodies
affeSied with Proje&ile
and
Centripetal Forces.
PROPOSITION
A Body being
Velocity
;
let
go from P,
at a given
Difiance
P
PS, from
S,
the Center of Force y in a given
I'o find the
DireBion
B, with a given
Conic SeBion it will defcribe,
and
the
the of Centripetal Force being as the Square of the Diftance inverfely^ and
Periodic
T^ime^
in cafe it returns,
Law
the abfoliite Force given,
LET ASF
the Section,
lefTer,
be the
greater Axis of
OCD the
up
and
H the
per Focus.
SuppofeSR
indefinitely near S P,
and the Area AS/?2 equal to the Area PS R i draw S B and
H
if
G
the
perpendicular to
given
BPG and m A F refpeaively
Tangent and R , n to S P and
:
freely defcend in
Let r be the Diftance that a Body would any given Time, m^ by an uniform Force,
equal to that aifeding the Projedile at any given Diftance
from the Centre, and let v be the Space that the Body would uniformly defcribe with the given Velocity at P, in the fame Time Call A F, ^ 3 O D, e the Latus
(^)
;
,
S
T
G
Redum,
.
(
22
)
Reaum,
or
^,
R
;
SP, d; PR,
to the
x,
the Periodic
i, s
:
Time,
P,.
and the Sine of S P B,
I
:
Radius
(
Then
it
will be as
5
:
:
.V
:
J .V
=R^
v
J
whence '^
= R/ X^ j
PS R,
;;;
will exprefs
equal x4.reas either of the infinitely fmall
it
S
A
:
And
will be
as
:
m
:
:
>:
:
^
the
its
Time
of the Projedile's
movino thro'
faid
P R,
or
that
of
defcribing either of the
:
WhereAreas by Pvadii drawn to the Centre of Force uniform freely defcend by fore the Diilances which Bodies ^ Forces being as the Squares of the Times, we have, as m t
.
J.
.
f~l_
the Square of that
freely defcend
Time,
to
~r the Diftance
a
Body would
from the Point
T
in the
fame
the
Time,
Time;
butasAS^^(ST^)::I^ r^^l^A;.,
it
Diflance
would
is,
freely
defcend from the Point
A
in that
that
in
the
Time
the
Projedile
is
defcribing
Am:
divided
Hence, becaufe
—^
the Area of the Triangle
A S;^/,
by
I
A S,
is
^ =A
m, we have
^7' =
^'
= ^
>
fmce^iii^
,
in the ultimate Ratio, or when
A« is
indefinitely
fmall, will be
=
the Latus Reftum,
let
the Curve
what
it
will.
Furthermore, fince S
P +P
as
i
H
:
is
A P F be = ^, or A F,
it
and the Angle
will be as
i
:
SPB
s ::
=HPG by the Property of the Curve,
:
d sd ^ ~d=zHG', but by another Property,
SB, and
or
5 i
s ::
a
— d sxa
:
BSxHGis=OCi
Value of ^r
X addd^ if
3
whence by
fubftituting this
in the other
Equation ^^tTT'^V
(""
^) ^^ §^^ ^
= »~^?
and
(
23
)
and
therefore e
=
>=r
—
,
i^
H
is
Tr*
and
PH =
''^^
— dy
from which,
as the
,
H
is
given hkewife
it
Angle P G is given, the Focus whence the Orbit may be readily cond
flruded,
infinite,
being,
when
d^nj
pofitive,
an ElHplis,
when
;
a Parabola,
and when negative,
or
an Hyperbola
wherefore, unlefs
'i;i;,
i—
^ be affirmative,
—^ greater
is
^jan
the Projedile can never return. Now,^ therefore,, putting
p
for the
Area of a Circle whofe Diameter
greater than
i;i;,
Unity, and
fuppoling^^
Curve,
the Area
dp ^^ x~
•v s
of the whole
(being an Eilipfe,) will be
dn^^
ioZjJl^tpae^',
Time of
fis,
but as the Area
is
^
is
to
^^
the
its
Defcription, {o
the Area of the whole Ellipdk
to
4^ X ^
i:
or
^^ x"
1.
"^^^
= P?
the
Time of
one:
intire
Revolution,
^ E.
C O R O
E C A U S E tlSi
fcribing the
,
L.
I,
the Square of the
is
Time of
,
de«
Area
RSP,
to
ilH^
the Square
of that Area, as (i) the Square of a conftant Particle of
Time
to
i;*j*^* ^
'^
this lail
Am ^ Time^ it
the Square of *
is
the Area
laft
defcribed in
evident that the Sqyare
named
will
{
24
)
'be
to
the
Latus
Redum
'^^'^; all
as
r/^V: m""
,
which
Proportion being conflant in
Center,
it
Cafes relating to the fame
oUows, that the principal Latera Recfta of the Orbits of different Bodies, about a common Centre of Force, are dired:ly as the Squares of the Areas defcribed by the revfpedive Bodies, in the fame Time.
C O R O
L.
II.
MOREOVER,
Ratio of
I, to
fince
BS
is
= ^ ^,
5:1
is
and
to
*!;,
R =:il;ill!^
we
have zl1= tt^t and ^^^ BS
^^
:
•.•
SB
it
in the conftant
Hence
appears,
that the Velocities
are, univerfally, in the fubduplicate
Ratio of the Parameters
diredly, and the Perpendiculars falling from the Center of Porce on Tangents to the Places of the Bodies, inverfely, and
therefore, in the
fame Orbit,
the Velocity will be, barely,
falling.
in the inverfe Ratio of the Perpendiculars fo
C O R O
L.
or
,
III.
s
I
NCE
tion,
P is =
to tfi,
m —r X a^i
zp
in
a conflant Propor
and d, be what they will; it follows, that the Periodic Times, about the fame Center of Force, whether in Circles or EUipfes, will be in the
let
i;,
s,
fefquiplicate
Ratio of the principal Axes.
C O R O
L.
(
25
)
G O R O
Sj
L.
IV.
of a nor
BECAUSE neither the Values
it
P
P
are affeded
by
let
follows, that the principal Axis, and the Periodic
Time
will be the fame, if the Velocity at
be the fame,
the Direcftion of the Projediile at that Point be what
it will..
C O R O
L.
V.
w
{d)
HEN
=
^/lL
,
dvv
(
= ^)
is
=
2^,
or,
which
is
the fame,,
when V
then
d being
the
mean Diflance
or Semi
Tranfverfe, the Point
P
will fall in one
Extreme of the Con
jugate Axis, and ^ ^/JI' the Velocity there, will be juft fufd ficient to retain a Body in a Circular Orbit at that Diftance
from the Center of Force j and
will,
it
this Velocity,
in relpecfc
of different Orbits,
Square Roots of the
is
obvious, be inverfely as the
:
mean
Diftances
Wherefore the Velocities
Centre, are
reci
Bodies in Circular Orbits about a
common
procally in the fubduplicate Ratio of the Radii.
C O R O
I
L.
VI.
F 'u be
j;
bs/±jy or the Square of the Velocity be jufl twice
as great as that v/hereby the Projedile
lar
might defcribe
a circu
Orbit at
its
own Diflance from the
Center of Force [CorN .)
becoming infinite, the Ellipfe degenerates into a Parabola, whofe principal Latus ReBiim h 4^^ J3. whence it appears, that the Velocity of a Body moving in a Pajabola is inverfely as the Square Root of its Diflance from the
then
^, the Tranfverfe,
Centre of ¥oizi, and that
it
wil! be, every where, to the
Ve
H
locity
(
.26
)
locity that
its
might carry the Projedile
in a circular Orbit,
at
own
Diftance from the Centre, as the Square Root of two,
to one.
C O R O
L.
f
VII.
B
be
UT
if
u
be greater than b
— ^^
,
the Trajedory
d
is
will
be an Hyperbola, whofe principal Axis
j^^ _
(=:
—
/^)
as
has been before intimated, and therefore e i=, ^l^li£\
hs/r
will
J
—
^'^J.,,
—
.
Hence, from the Nature of the HyperRadius,
'^^^^'^xs/dn^'v^rhh
zr bb
bola,
if
R
be affumed
for
(=^ j
will be the
Tangent of the Angle which the A
fymptote makes with the Axis, or the Supplement to i8o° of the utmoft Elongation the Projedile can poflibly have
from the lowefl Point of
its
Orbit.
PROP.
;
(
27
)
PROPOSITION
A
Body
is
II.
go from P, at a given Dijiance the Centre of Force^ in a given DireBion P
let
P C Jrom C
b,
with a githe abjolute
ven Celerity
being as any
;
To Jmd
its T!rajediory ? the centripetal Force
)
Tower («
of the Dijiance^
and
Force at
P
given,
ET R
be a Point
required
I'_j
in
the
Trajedory, and r another indefinitely near
it
and with the Centre C, let the Circular Arches F ef, R U., V n r, be defcribed, and having
drawn
let
C R ^, C rf,
(
&c.
CP = ^, CR = C U)=^, P^ = A, Rn
= Xy rn ^y^Kr = z, and s = the Sine of the Angle QVb to
{=IJ v)
the Radius
i
;
and
let
Vb (m)
that
be the Space
in
j
might be defcribed
freely defcend
(i)
and
a given Particle of
Time
Body
with the given Celerity
r
the
Diftance a
would
in that
Time, by an uniform Force
equal to that affedling the Projedile at
P
:
Then
the Space
which would be uniformly defcribed in that fame Time, with the Celerity acquired by defcending thro' the faid Diftance r, it is well known, will be equal to z r. But, from hence
to
1
1
(
28)
b^
let
to find the Celerity at
R, with the fame Velocity that the
another pro
given Projedile
is
let
go from P, towards
ceed from the fame Point, in a RightLine pafTing diredly
thro' the Center of
Force j and let the Celerity at U, or the Space that would be uniformly defcribed therewith in i,
the abovefaid Particle of
a"",
Time, be denoted by
is
i;
:
Then,
fo
is
as
the Centripetal Force at P,
to x"" ^ that
atU,
2r,
the Velocity that might be generated
by the former
in the
given Particle of Time,
to
^^, ^
a
that
which would be gene:
nerated by the latter in the fame
that
Time
Wherefore,
as i,
Time,
to
^^
»
fo
is
, the
Time
of defcribing Ui;,
to V, the Velocity acquired in this
Time
get
:
Whence, by muli?
tiplying
Means and Extremes, &c. we
v =ILJl!j.
,
and
therefore njv
 zilllet
—

_^
fomeconftant Quantity d; which
with
P,
.x
to determine,
U
coincide
be
=
a^
and
{.
V = m,
hence
and the Equation becomes
—
= zi±Lf.
d^
d=—
have
,.
^
E:
,
^4
>
which Value being
112
«
fubftituted above,
we
fhall
=^ + 2
« 4:
+
_ llllill
n^rxa""
this
is
.
and therefore
U
of
i
=
.
;;2
+ ^
'
„
But
like wife the Celerity
«+ Xa
the
firft
Projedile at
R
j
:
For
fince
both Bodies have the fame
equal Diftances from the
s/
Velocity at P, their Velocities, at
Centre, mull be equal
all
and therefore
j^^a.^^,^^
,
or
itjs
:
(
29
)
its
Equal
^^^+"
^
TVill
confequently be the
thro*
Time
of the
faid givfen Projedliles
moving
R r,
or of defcribing the
the Area
— = R Cr,
'—•
by Radii drawn
to the Centre of
Force
Wherefore, fince
is
the Area of the littleTriangle
VCb
that
might be uniformly defcribed in, i, the given Particle of Time, with the Velocity at P j and, becaufe the Areas are as the
Times,
it
will be, as i^^ to
2
i
(the faid
Time)
,
fo
is
""I,
to
2
^
^'
:
Hence we get smax
y =:
—
,
,
or,
rr.\^raxv^j
its
,,,
4r;.M3
by
fubftitating
inftead
of
known
Value, as above found.
But
as
Cr,
is
to r^.
whofe Fluent Fe
which, when
becaufe,
is
the Meafure of the angular
Motion
,
from
;
found, the Orbit
?e, or the
may
is
readily be conflruded
is
when
Angle
PCR,
given, as well as
:
CR,
of
the Pofition of the Point
is
R
alfo given
But
this
Value
A
indeed too
general Terms, or
tions,
i^
much compounded to admit of a Fluent in even by the Quadrature of the Conic Sec
except in certain particular Cafes, as where 72 is equal to as 3, or 5, or the Law of centripetal Force, 2,
the
5^^
firft
Power of
the Diftance diredly,
inverfely
5
or the
2\ 3^
Cafes,
or
Powers thereof
therefore, in
other
can
only be had by infinite Series, &c. or Curves of a fuperior
Order.
^
E.
I
J
C O R O
L,
,
(
30
)
C O R O
L.
I.
IF,the
inflead of the abfolute Celerity of the Projeaile at P,
Ratio thereof to that which
it
Ihould have to dei,
fcribe the Circle
Fe, be given, as
p
to
and not only the
fame Thing, but the Ratio between the Celerity at any other Diilance CR, and that which a Body muft have to defcjibe
a circular
Orbit at
that Diftance,
be required
to
:
It
will be, as a', the centripetal
Force
a
at P,
^%
that at
R
(or
U)
,
fo
is r,
the Diftance
thefe Forces
Body would
i,
freely defcend:
by the former of
Time,
in
the given
Particle of
to '^^, that
which
it
would defcend by
if
the latter in
the fam.e
Time
:
Therefore,
Uj
,
be taken equal to
it
is
—
that
and St h^ made perpendicular to
AC,
will
manifefl:,
U/,
being
indefinitely
fmall
be
the
Diftance
which a of Time,
Body muft move
over in
the
:
aforefaid Particle
to defcribe the Circle
is
UR
*"
But
U
t,
by the Pro.
perty of the Circle,
in that
"
Circumftance
= ^/^m—L
or
its
wherefore
we
have, as
y/
'
^'
>
fo
to
i;,
Equat^
/..ilf _£!:il!Z!
dy muft have
to
(above found)
,
is
the Velocity a
Bo
defcribe that Circle,
to
that with which,
the given Projectile arrives at
R
:
Therefore,
when x
C
s/'^^
and
R
coincides with P,
the Proportion
of
——
to
is
~a^,
^j
7~:?v
to
., v/hich there
given as
i,
is,
as
^ zrii
\
in,
is
to ^,
by Sappofiuon
s
whence, multiplying Extremes
(
31
)
and Means, itituted inftead of
tjemes
we
;;?,
get
in
which being fubthe Value of i;, it will become
m—p^^ra,
therefore this divided
for the
ner,
by
s/
:_
71
,
is
v//
^
Ratio that was
fubftituting
s
to be found.
And,
in
like
manget
by
for
m
"
in the
Value of A,
we
pa a X
.
V/ + 4_X;c/.^required,
~N
zx"\l>
,
.^
for
the other Quantitj
€ O R O
E N C E,
minifhed
if
L.
II.
the Angle
infinitum,
CP^
and
/>''
be fuppofed. to be di„
f
/;?
~
:r:
%o,
y''^'

x'zr
a\ ^,
the faid Value of v, be] taken
we
fhall
have
^"=f//x« + if ir+' X
the
^,
C=
C A)
the Height to
,
which
xhtx^
Body would
afcend,
if
projeded diredly upwards
t//x?2f if i '^+' xa^a.~KV , is the Dlfttmce^ i t mufl freely defcend to acquire the given Velocity v which Diflance, therefore, with an uniform Centripetal Force
fore,
whera n
the
— o^
will
he
the
—tl±
j
and with aForce
=:rr=
inverfely, as
Square
of
Dilfance,
1^,
2
— fp
at
But when ^ ic i ^
is
~ I,
or the Velocity of the Projedile
P
juft
fufficient'
~
C
to retain a
^[t
I
32 )
Body
in the circular Orbit
P ^, A P
then becomes
3};,
X^
_^ ^.
3
which
but
in the faid
two Cafes,
will be f a^
2
and
t?
refpedively
infinite
when ?2is=— 3.
L.
III.
C O R O
HEN
n\i
is
a
pofitive
Number,
I
the Velocity
" ,
at the
Centre C,
where x becomes
./
=
5,
will,
it
appears,
be barely equal to
1
is
r X 2ra
P" \
^
it
}
but,
when
n\
negative, or the
Law
of Centripetal Force more than the
will be infinite
its
5
firll:
Power of the
Diflance inverfely,
becaufe then, the Ino'^^') v/ill
dex being negative, x''\^ (or to the Denominator.
Equal
come
in=
C O R O
L.
IV.
is
O R E O V E R,
infinite,
when ;2+i
faid
negative,
alfo
and x
the
^
Velocity
will
become
/ 2r a X P^
fpecified,
tripetal
{
j
becaufe then, for the Reafon above
x''^^
is
will be
=5
;
And
therefore,
when
the
Cen
Force
a
inverfely,
city
/>
more than the firft Power of the Diflance Projedile moving from P with the given Velo(
v/'2^*
= ^''0
^^o"g the RightLine
PA,
will
af^
cend even
fignified
to an infinite Height,
and have
a.
Velocity there
by
^ ra x
r
as
p"
^ ^,
or in Proportion to the gi
ven Velocity,
^Z
/> '
4
47
^
^^
A
P^'ovided p'^ \
be
(
33
)
is
be
pofitivfl
',
for othcrwife the
Thing
impofllblej the Square
Root of
that Quantity being manifeftly fo,
C O R O
E N C E,
to
If the leaft
L.
V.
Velocity that can carry the Body
it
an
infinite
Height, or that which
would acquire
be required
;
:
by
freely defcending
/»"
from the fame Height,
fliall
By making
f^ =o, we
have/>r=
^Sf
which.
fubftituted in
for the
p
y2ar
j
gives
</r^ X
is
^zar
manifefl,
—2^ —^,
is
Value fought
and
this, it
to
^~2ar^
the Velocity a
Body mufl have
Therefore,
to deicribe the Circle
P e,
3,
as\/^i»
or the
^Q
Unity:
when n
is
lefsthan
—
Law
of Centripetal Force more than the Cube of the
lefs
Velocity will carry a Projediile to an infinite Height in a RightLine, than can retain it in a circular Orbit, was it turned into a proper Diredion.
Diftance inverfely, a
C O R O
L.
VL
WHEREFORE,
infinite
if it were required, how far a muft defcend by an uniform Force equal to Body
that afFeding the Projedile at the Point P, to acquire the fame Celerity that another Body, by freely falling from an
Height
(as
above) has at
its
Arrival to that Point;
,
then,
by fubflituting the Value
its
^/^
:
as
found in the
lafl
Article, inflead of
Equal, in
^^ (fee
And
Cor. 11.) there
comes
out
^~.
for the
Value fought
hence
it
appears, that
the Velocity with
wivch a Body,
falling freely
from an
in
K
finite
(34
jfinite
)
is
Height, would impinge on the Earth,
no
greater than
Gia
that
vity,
which another Body may acquire by an uniform
£qual to that at
its its
Surface, in falling freely thro' a Space
equal to
Semidiameter.
SCHOLIUM.
FROM
locity
the Ratio found in Corollary
I.
with which the Body arrives at from the Centre of Force, and that which it ought to have to defcribe a Circle at the fame Diftance, it will not be difficult
between the Veany Diftance {x)
what Cafes the Body will be compelled to fell to. the Centre, and in what other Cafes it will fly ad infi^ nitwn therefrom. For, firft, if the Body in moving from P, be acute, I fay, it will begins to defcend, or the Angle C P
to determine in
/^
continue to do fo
if the
'till it
actually falls into the Centre of Force,
Quantity
^
^ p' H^rxf^+T " 7^1 )
greater than
'''
'^^
^^^^^^
is
thereto, be not
fomewhere
Unity
j
or,
which
its
the fame in
efFe6t, unlefs
the
Body
has fomewhere a Velocity
a circular Orbit at
:
more than
to afcend,
fufficient to retain it in
own
Diilance from the Center of Force
it
For, if
it
ever begins
muft
the
be at a Point, as
Centre,
cuts
D, where
mufl be
a RightLine,
drawn
and
cified,
from
the Orbit perpendicularly,
as
there,
it is
manifeft, the Celerity
above fpeor
is
otherwife the
Body
will
ftill
continue to defcend,
clfe
mov€
in the Circle
DL
about the Center C, which
equally abfurd.
On
the contrary,, if the faid Quantity,
fo as to
in
approaching the Centre, increafes
Unity, or be every where fo
rior Diflances,
j
become
greater than
all infeis fuffi^
then, the Velocity at
being greater than
a
the Velocity that
cient
to
retain
Body
in
a circular Orbit at any fuch Difit
is
tance, the Projedile cannot,
evident,
be forced to the
Centre.
But
(
35
)
But, on the other hand, the Angle
obtufe,
it
C P ^,
being fuppofcd
if the faid
from a like Reafoning, that, Quantity be always greater than Unity, or the Body
will evidently appear
in
it
its
Recefs from the Center, has, in every Place thro* which a Velocity greater than
is
paffeth,
fufficient to retain it in
a circular Orbit at the Diftance of that Place
ter
from the Cen
of Force,
infinitum:
it
muft, of confequence, continue to afcend
ad
Now,
therefore,
Force thefe
different Cafes obtain, let the
fuppofed acute, or
what Laws of Centripetal Angle C P ^ be firft the Body moving towards the Centre, and
to
find in
w
in the abovefaid
Quantity
it
^ ^^
,
_£_><. ^L
—._,^
4 i
to be
infinitely
fmall; then
is
evident,
infinite,
that that Quantity will
become
negative
thefe
tre;
either
*/ .^1
,
or
according as «
is
a
Number,
Cafes,
it
or otherwife
5
wherefore,
in the latter
of
tv>^o
the
Body
3,
can never be forced into the Cen
neither can
twixt
—
^^
I
and
—
in the former,
as
is
when
n has any Value be
manifeft:
from above, becaufe
v^ ~jr
gi'c^^s^
than Unity (Redilinear Motion being here
will either
excepted
true,
:
)
Nor
of thefe Conclufions hold kfs
is
when
the Angle
CP
/^
obtufe
;
for
it
is
obvious,
that if the Projectile cannot be forced
to the Centre,
it
when
direded towards
it
with the
ieall
:
Obliquity,
never can,
when
if
the
Obliquity
is increafed
?z_i_ I
be either equal to or
i
;
lefs
But on the contrary, than 2, and p be
—
lefs
than^
then
the
faid
Value */
^zi.
not
beine
in
greater than Unity, the Projedile
to the Centre
3
muft inevitably be drawn
for, the afore mentioned general Exprefiion not
exceed ing^
,
(
36
)
<f,
exceeding Unity, neither at the given Diftance
leafl'
nor at the
i
afiignable Diflance, cannot at an intermediate Diftance
becaufe, in the Defcent of the Body, the Expreffion muft ei
ther increafe or decreafe continually,
there being
only one
But,
Dimenfion of the
variable Quantity (x)
concerned.
when p
fame,
is
greater than Unity, other Things continuing the
and once begins to afcend, it will continue to fly from the fame ad infinitum^ For, fince the Part D L, ^c, of the Trajediory, which it will
I Hiy,
the Body, if
it
efcapes the Centre,
D, is in every refpedl equal and fimilar to D R, &c. if another Body projeded upwards from P, in the oppofite Dirediion, with the fame Velocity, continues to afcend ad infinitum^ our firft Proje<ftile,
begin to defcribe on
its
leaving the loweft Point
after
it
has paffed the loweft Point, muft do fo too, and vice
therefore
/>*
verfa
',
^
—^
being there affirmative, and the
Angle QVb obtufe, the Quantity ^Z
p" f
~1~ X .^^±1
j
 ^
when X
firft ^
is
infinite, will alfa
be infinite
is
above Reafoning, the Pofition
that
manifeft.
when
n
is
greater than
—
3,
whence from the Hence we conclude, or the Law of Cendirecftly,
tripetal
lefs
Force, as any Power
of the Diftance
or
than the Cube thereof inverfely, the
fall into
Body cannot
pofii
bly
the Centre, except in a Right Line.
Aii^jfecondly,
that,
when
the Force
is,
as the
it
Cube, or more than the Cube
of the Diftance inverfely,
Centre, or
fly
muft
either be forced
it
to the
an
infinite
Diftance therefrom, unlefs
moves
in
in a Circle,
Furthermore, becaufet he abovefaid Quantity,
finite, in all
when x is
Cafes where n^i
is
negative,
it
2.vApp
follows,
greater than
^^
,
appears to be greater than Unity,
that in all
thofe
—
(
37
)
thofe Cafes, the
Body may
afcend, even to an infinite Height,
and actually will do fo, when « has any Value betwixt i becaufe then, tho* the Body ihould at firft approach and 3
—
,
towards the Centre,
its
Afcent cannot be anticipated by being
is
drawn
as has
into
it,
as
it
may, when the Value of n
fmaller,
been above fhewn.
Noie,
The fame Things may
laft
be otherwife determined by
Help of the
general Value of A, for if
//
pp
{
wfi
~x x x
— p^
made
J 2
s^ a""
if__4— X^AT,
the Square of
its
Divifor be
equal to nothing, the affirmative Roots of that Equation,
or Values of x, will give the greateft and leafl Diftances of
the Projedile from the Centre of Force, and therefore in thole
Cafes,
where
it is
found not to admit of two fuch Roots, the
it
Body muft
cither fall into the Centre, or fly
ad
infinitumi
F
R OP,
;
(
38
)
PROPOSITION
Power
of the Difiance,
III.
To find the Motion^ or Angular Difiance of the ApfideSy in Orbits nearly circular ; the centripetal Force being as any
LET ArP/^bethe
propofed
Orbit,
A and
the
P two
Places of
higher and
lower
Apfides, A^E^A,
and
nVbn, Circles defcribed with the Radii A C, C P about C, the Centre
of Force
j
let
r be
a Point in the Trajectory taken at Pleafure and let the Velocity of
the
Body
at the higher
Apfe be to that which
it
ought to
to
i
5
have to
calling
retain itfelf In the
Cirde
r,
A^ E,
,
as
^T^^,
A
^, i
AC,
ij re.y,
i
C
i
i~y
j,
by
fubftituting,
for a,
for
^ —
i
s
and
A: Then,
e for p,
—y
for
paaX
PC,
and y
for i, in
C._^_^,^__p.,.,^_ ^JT^+a
laft
the general Value of A, as found by the
Prob. the fame
it
is
manifeft, will
become
—
v/i— ^X)'
if
,
2
12
I
2X1—v''^^"3
for the Value of
A
in this particular Cafe
5
which by reducing
(
39
)
cing
733;^ and
/^
i—y«+3
j^^o fj^ple
Terms,
IS
'^i^^'+„j:7><'2>+iy'i+^^Xi»+3Xj'+«+3xi"b
jKv'l— ^
3
but, becaufe ^ and;',
fmall,
by the Nature of the Queftion, are very all the Terms wherein more than twoDimenfions of thefc
Quantities are concerned,
refped: of the reftj
may
be rejeded
as inconfiderable in
by doing which, our Equation becomes
5
A=
== ^ ^—y\/2ey—'njr3Xyy
'
'
which
(for
the above Reafon)
'
is
,
or
s/ zey^n^riXyy
i_x7=^==^ ^«+3 ^ yy
^+3
very nearly:
But the
Fluent of
,
when ^£oi_
becomes = 0, or
A=AfE
is
equal to a Semicircle whofe Radius
I
is
Unity, or to 180
180
Degrees; therefore ;;;=rx 180°= ^_p
Degrees,
is
the
Meafure of the Angle
AC P.
^E.I.
C O R O
L.
lefs
I.
WHEN
^
Force be,
/J°
as
n
is
equal to, or
than
—
3,
then the Value
either infi
^ of
it
the Angle
A C P,
becoming
nite or impoffible,
of Centripetal the Cube, or more than the Cube of the Diflance
inverfely.
follows, that if the
Law
(
inverfely,
40
)
more than one Apjide ^ muft inevita^ And, therefore, bly ciiher fall into the Centre of Force, or fly from it ad inwhich is agreeable to finitum^ unlefs it moves in a Circle
the Trajedory cannot have the Projedile in all fuch Cafes
;
the Sckolium aforegoing. or
be,
—
But,
if
n be equal to
i, o,
—
i,
2
J
then will the Angular Diflance of the two Apfides
90°:oo,
;
103°;
firft
55',
lafl
fpedively
the
and
180°: 00', reof which we are afTur'd of from
127°
:
17', or
other Principles.
C O R o
F
the
L.
ir.
Diftance
I
the
:
Law
Then,
of
of the Affides be given, and Centripetal Force from thence be re
(D)
quired
by making
for
—!l^
equal to
D, we
Hence,
ih^ll
have i^j —3, =«,
be 360°, or the
the Value fought
takes
:
if
D
Body
up one
intire
Revolution in
going from one Apfe to the other j then, muft the Law of Centripetal Force be reciprocally as that Power of the Diftance, whofe Exponent is 2 i j but, if either Apfe, from the
Return again, has mov'd be = 180° hforward only a very fmall Diftance, E, or
Time of
the
Body
leaving
it,
to
its
D
~,
the Force will then be inverfely as the
2}— Power
of the Diftance, very nearly.
SCHOLIUM.
F
X be any Diftance of the Projedile from the Centre of Force, and the Law, by which it tends towards the
2.%
fame Centre, be every where,
&c.
c, d^
cx^
^ dx^^ {e xP J^fxi^
;
&c.
^i,
m^ &c, being determinate Quantities
and
if
(41
if
)
a be the Diftance of one of the Apjides from that Centre, the angular Diftance of thofe Apfides will be
ca''\'^a'''^eaP \fa9
,
&c.
34«Xf «'^+3 + '»X^^^ + 3+^X<?«^
XI 80°.
From
//&^
MEAN ANOMALY
find
its
of a Planet given,
to
PLACE
in its
ORBIT.
LET
Sun
in
AOB
be the
given Orbit, S the
one of the Foci,
AC
Axis,
the SemiTranfverfe
CO the SemiCon
j.j
jugate,
AEHBA
and
let
a Cir
cle circumfcribing the Elliplis,
n be the
after or
Place of
the Planet at a
ny given Time
before
its
paffing.
;
A, the
v^^hich
Aphelion
thro'
draw
to
E«P
perpendicular
the Points
AB, and having joined
perpendicular to
E
S,
EC,
S;?,
and made
SD
ECD,
take the
Arch
EH
equal to
SD,
and the
to
Arch
Aa
equal to S C.
Then, the Sedor
is
ECH
com
being equal to the Triangle
ECS, A C H A
will be equal
ASEA
;
inafmuch
as the
former of thofe Areas
pounded of the Sedor and ECH, and the latter of the fame Sedor and the Triangle ECS: Wherefore, fmce the Area ASEA, is to AEBCA, half the Circle, as the Elliptical Area A/zSA, to the Semi^EUipfis A 72 B C A, by a known Relation of the two Curves if,
,
ACE
M
inftead
(
42
)
inftead of
as
is
A SEA,
:
its
Equal be
::
fubftltuted,
:
ACHA AEBA
to
A;2SA
we fhall havCj. knBA, but ACHA
B,
AEBA,
j
:
as the
Arch
it
AH
to
AE
the SemiCir:
cumference
:
:
and therefore
will be, as
A;^B A
A^zSA
AEB
AH:
F.adii
defcribed
by
Wherefore fince the Areas A;2BA, AtiSA, drawn to S, the Center of Force, are as
it
the
Times of
their Defcription,
will be, as the
Time of
defcribing
is to the A;zBA, given Time of defcribing A;2SA, fo is AEB to AH; which, therefore, is the given Mean Anomaly in this Pofition, or the Arch proportional to the Time of the Planet's moving
or that of
Half one Revolution,
thro'
A
?2,
Let
its
now A C ^ Sine E P equal
i,
C S=^, A H =
and
its
D,
AE
equal
E,
x,
Cofine
from the Similarity of the Triangles
have,
C P =_y. Then, CEP, CSD, we fliall
(SD),
and,
EC
,
:.
EP
:i
Aa (SC)
:
EH
con
fequently
AE
{
^xA^— AH,
it
is
orEfAfxA^,
equally*
=zD
;
which Equation,
manifefl,, will hold
whether the Arches
fame,
AE, A a,
Radius
:
and
AH,
be taken in De
grees or in Parts of the
let
But now,
in order to folve the
the required Arch, or Value of E,.be eftimated pretty
near the Truth,
and
let this
aflumed Value be denoted by
A^— E, D  A^ Tangent
of
its
its
Difference (5^)
from the Truth, by E3
and
~x
A^
:^
D E  i
X A^, the Error of the
the Equation, by
Rj make vr
parallel to
A B,
and
let
sb be a
to the Circle at the Point j:
Then,
as sb,
by reafon
Smallnefs,
may,
in this Cafe, be confidered as equal to e s
and becaufe of the Similarity of the Triangles Cks, srb^
2
^Q
(
+3
)
we
(hall
have as
j
i
{C s)
:
y [C
k)
:
:
E
:
y
x^ =:rl>,
= i f
or e r,
very nearly
whence
E = E + E,
there
and
P E ~x
j;
x E,
which Values therefore being
tion
fubflituted in the general
Equa
E {
XX
Aa T>
,
comes out
E { E f. x^Aa
(
f ^
yxExA^^D very nearly ^^^
5
wherefore
1
E—
~
'~''^'^
!
\
i\y
XAa
1
—\
J
.^
i*.
D — E — xyAa —I
—
or, '
f.(?y
R = i\ey
•";
;
nearly J
:
TT V Hence it appears, rr
J
that, if >
the Error of the Equation be divided
by i\ey,
and the
Quotient added
to,
or fubtraded
arife
Value of E, there will
from the firft or alTumed a new Value of that Quantity
:
much nearer the Truth than the former And if with this new Value, and thofe of x and y correfponding thereto, we proceed to a new Error, or compute the Value of R, and
that
for
of the
the
Divifor
i
+
^jy,
&c.
that
it
is
likewife
evident,
very
fame Reafons,
a
third
Value
of
E
may
Theorem, ftill nearer the Truth than the preceding, and from thence another, and fo another, &c. 'till we arrive to any Accuracy
be
found,
defired,
by the fame
each Operation, at
fo that in the
leaft,
doubling the
Number
of
moft excentric of the planetary Orbits Operations will be found fufficient to bring out the Antwo to lefs than a Second gle And when that is known, as EP and SP are then given, the Angle nSF may be eafily had; for, by the Property of Curve, it is
Places;
ACE
:
AC CO
:
::EP
(
:
P;,=
)
:
£^^,
and S
P
:
^^^
(P;.)
::
AC
Radius
^—^ =
the Tangent of AS;;,
^ E,
I.
Otherwife,
,
<
44
)
Otherwife,
Let Radius
EC = r
not
and the general Equation
AE

^ X A<? = AH,
then,
orE =
equal
D —^x A^be
to
again refumed.;
the Orbit
being
very ExcentriCj
E
will,
it is
evident,
be nearly
D
and,
confequently,
(x)
Therefore, if : the Sine of E, nearly equal to the Sine of be fubflituted for ^, and the faid Sine be dethe Sine of
D
D
noted by X (fignifying the
that
firft
Value of x)
it is
obvious,
D ~— XA
<2
will be nearer to the true Value of E,
han D, and, confequently, that the Sine of
(
D — ^ X
•
h.
a
of
which
I
I call
x)
nearer
to
x than i^x^ the
muft
be,
ilill,
Sine
D
wherefore
D •— —
x
A^
,
nearer
the
Truth, or the required Value of E, than
and, confequently,
its
D«—
ftill,
x
A
^
at,
Sine (which I call x)
nearer
than
(a:)
/
the Sine of
///
D —— xA ^ r
(or ^)
:
In like manner,
the
Sine of
D
and
///
xA^
will appear
to
be
nearer
x
than Xy
D
—^x A
^,
is
^,
nearer to the required
Value
than
D ——X A
^c. &c.
Whence
the following
Me
thod of Solution
manifeft.
Let 1.758 123, the Log. of (57.2958) the Number of Degrees in an Arch equal in Length to Radius, be added to the Logarithm
;
(45
)
Logarithm of the Excentricity, and from the Sum dedudt the Logarithm of Half the greater Axis 3 the Remainder will be a 4^^ Logarithm (L); which, being once computed, will
ferve in all Cafes of that Orbit
:
To
this
Logarithm add the
reckoned to
will be
Logarithmical Sine of the given
or
Mean Anomaly
Degrees
;
from the Aphelion
of
;
the
Sum, rejeding Radius,
in
the Logarithm
an Arch
which,
being
from the Mean Anomaly, and the Sine of the Remainder added to the faid Logarithm, the Sum, rejcding Radius, will be the Logarithm of a 2^ Arch ; which, in like manner, being taken from the Mean Anomaly, and the Sine of the Remainder added to the fame Logarithm, the Sum, rejed:ing Radius, will be the Logarithm of a 3"^ Arch from whence, by repeating the Operation in the very fame manner, a 4^'^ Arch will be found, and fo a 5'^, (^c. 'till we arrive to any affigned Exadnefs ; the Error in the Anomaly Excentri, or Angle ACE, which Angle is to be expreffed by the Difference of the Mean Anomaly and the laft of the faid Arches, being always much lefs than
taken
the Diiference of the faid
precedes
it,
Arch and that which immediately from which Angle the true Anomaly is had aS
in the above Cafe.
^E. I.
Otherwife,
retained, let
The foregoing Conftrudion being
Radius (AC)
Cofine ~b^
= 1,
and
the Sine of the given Anomaly
let E;;^
ACH
z=^,
^j
its
be the Sine of
E
H
:
Then
will
Qm
bx'E?n
=
x, the Sine of the Difference of thofe Angles,
'y
of Trigonometry
will be
but
EH
by the Elements being =ex, 'Em (by the fame)
^c. and Qm^::
i
ex^
—
4.
ll^,
— ilf^ ^
i^beyx
jj^i ^c, whence, by
Subflitution, ^c.
we
get
N
^
(46}
(47
inftead of
)
x and
y, their
refpedlive Values,
and contrading
the whole by Divifion, &c, there will
come
out
zae
into
i—.
v't*
4*2
which, when
za
e
3^
e
is
3
'48
very nearly
,
lO^J
not very large, will appear to be equal to
for this, converted to
— 4X
^ f
a Series,
121; <7^
\s2ae^i^^
*
,
ii^lil
_ ll!l!^ 10^3^,4.
3
{if<:.
from which,
rt
if the
32
former Series be
ij
ta
ken, there will remain only
^^
^ ^ ^^
—^ — »«
6b
Slf
xhe^^
&c.
Hence
is
deduced the following
PRACTICAL RULE
For finding the Equation of the Centre from the Mean
Anomaly
j^s Radius,
to
given.
the Cofine
Farts of the Excentricity of the Orbit, to
of the given Anomaly, fi is  a fourth Number y
which Number add
he
lefs
half the greater Axis, if the Anomaly than 90, or more than 270 Degrees, otherwife fubtradi
to
from
the
fame
:
Say, as the
is
Sum
or Remainder,
is to
Double
of the given Ano^ maly, to the Sine of afirfi Arch ; from three Times which Sine deduB the double Radius the Remainder will be the Sine of a /?cond Arch, whofe i Part^ taken from the former, leaves the
^
the Excentricity^ fo
the (Logarithmic) Sine
Equation fought.
(
48
)
muft be noted, that this Rule, in the Orbits of Saturn^ Jupiter, and the Moon, anfwers to a Second, and in thofe of the Earth and Fenus to lefs than j^ of a Second.
it
And
And,
in
thefe
two
laft,
the
Arch
firfl
found
will,
without
farther Correction, be fufliciently exadl to anfwer to the nicefl Obfervations,
the Error never amounting to above 2 or
is
3 Seconds
;
which
more
corredt than either tha^noted
Hyfol
pothecs of
Ward
or Bidlialdtis, as will appear
from the
lowing Examination of thofe Hypothefes, which, as they have been much celebrated, and come near the Truth in ma
ny Cafes, may here alfo deferve a particular Confideration. And, to begin with the latter, which fuppofes the Angle AF?2 made at F the upper Focus by the Aphelion and [n) the Planet to be the Mean Anomaly, and therefore
S/zF the Equation. Becaufe a the Sine and b the Cofine of the faid Angle are given, by the Nature of the Ellipfis,
.
S;2— L+iiiJlii
metry,
I 1
is
alfo given
5
whence, by
Plai?i Trigono^
it
will be, as
iiliiilf
:^::2^(SF):2^^X
S«F, which, put
in a Series,
^be
e\
equal to the Sine of
ee
i
^ zb
is
2
ae X
this
—
e
b \
2bb
—
i
x
ee\
'^
— ^bb xbe^,
3
Qfr.
and
taken from 2
aexi ^^
4
\^^^~ tllxee, ^c,
2
leaves
this
2^^ X
— ^ H ^ — ~ X
But now
423
AB,
:
^^,
^V.
for the Error of
Hypothefis.
for the other, where,
is
E;zP being
perpendicular to
AFE
fuppofed the
Mean Ano
maly.
will be as
::
e
SC and Cm ^ (the Sine of I (EC) (CF) ae^Qm^ the Sine of CEF^
Let
;
be perpendicular to
FE^ then it AFE, or CFE)
whence
Em^
its
—
^
e
(
its
:
49
)
i
.
Cofine,
= V'
i
e
(CF)
::
—
ae^x Again, as
(theSine of C;?^F)
b (the Sine of FC;/;)
alfo to
C m^
becaufe
CS
is
=FC
j
for
—,eb ^Ym, equal which Reafon S / is
double to ;;/C; wherefore
it
will be,
as^i~^^^{^^
v/
I
(E/)
:
^ae (S/)
::
i
(Radius) to
—
=
a'^ e'^
the
{eb
Tangent of
I
SEFj
_f_
which, in a
Series,
will
be
2aex
— eb^eafily
11^
^^
^% ^c. whence
i
the correlponding Sine
3
is
found
=
2ae x
i
— eb 4"^
b""
e^
A,aa
aa e
'i
&c. and this
.
taken from
zaex

—
that
bb
to— 1Hence
{
—
~Y
"^
^ X ^
^
>
gives 2ae iw
+ 7^
appear,
y^ee, G?c. for the
Error in this Cafe
it
will
the greateft Error of each of
thefe Hypothefes, in the
bit of
Or
/ //
up e^:^:;^ be about wards of .09, will
e
is
Mars^ where
'^
.^
5 or 6 Minutes, and Jn the other planetary OrbitSj according to the Squares of their
Excentricities
their
it
(in
Parts
of
own Semi Axis)
Aphelion
the
nearly;
alfo appears,
that towards
the
Circular
Hypothefis will be the more
corred, and near the Perihelion the other
5
and,
laftly,
that
both Hypothefes make the
Equation
too
large
in
the
higher, and too fmall in the lower, Part of the Orbit.
O
Having
,
(
so
)
two noted Hypothefes^^ (by many io much efteemed) differ from Truth, it may be proper to proceed now to give feme Examples of the preceding Methods, whereby the F.robkm is more corredly
thefe
folved,
Having iliewn how much
EXAMPLE
I.
LET
given
let
the Excentricity
of the propofed Orbit be
tI,
af
Mean Diflance or SemiTranfverfe Mean Anomaly. 72° 12.' 36' =72.21
the
the
firft
Axis, and the
Degrees
j
and;
the Anomaly Excenfri, by
It will be, as i, the
Method, be required
SemiTranfverfe, to .05, the Excentri^ city, fo is 57.2958, the Number of Deg. in an Arch, equal in wherefore,,, <^ j Length to Radius, t^ 2.86479 = the Arch
A
the general Equation, in refped; to this Orbit, will be
E
f
2.86479 X X =:D, and by writing therein the given Anoma.ly, inilead of D, it will, in this particular Cafe, become E \Now, becaufe. 2.86479 x x mull 2.86479 X a: = 72.21.
be
lefs
than 2.86479, E,
it is
evident, can neither be
;
much
I as
lefTer,
nor
much
greater,
at
eftimate
the
fame
Sine
than 70 Degrees 70 Degrees, and
that
i
therefore,
then
is
fay,
Radius,
to the
of
Angle,
fo
2.692
J
v/hence
E— D
2.86479, to
equal
2.86479 x x
0.482,,
which
is
the Error, or
firft
Value, of
R
:
Again, for the
Divifor i\.e y^ as Radius, to {y) the Coline of 70°, fo ey therefore i { e y z=: 1.0171, and is .05, [e) ,oiji
—
'j
_______
_
jf^jl
_ 0482 __ Q .5^ T r
1.0171
'
which,
being; taken o
;
70°, o ffives from /
it
69.536
for the next
Value of
E
wherefore,
will be,
^^
is
as
Radius, to the Sine
faid Coefficient
of 69.536, or 69° 32'
j
^'A,
the
2.86479, to 2.68401
from whence the
next
(5«
next Value of
)
;
R
is
found equal o.oiooi
and
this.,
divided
lall
by the next Value of j\~ey, or even by 1.0171, the
Value of
Value, and the Quotient taken from 6(^.536, leaves the true
E
(::=
69° 31'
34)
to lefs than a Second.
EXAMPLE
II.
LET
by the
the fame
J
Things be propofed,
as in the
preceding
Example and the Anfwer according
to the fecond
Me
thod be required.
The Value
laft
of L, or the Log. of the Arc
A^,
as
found
Example, being 457093, I add thereto the Logarithmic Sine of 72° 12' 36', or 72° .21', the Sum, rejecting Radius, is the Logarithm of 2.^73, the firft Arch, which fubtrad:ed from 72.21, the Remainder vs^ill be 69.48; to whofe Sine adding the faid Value of L, the Sum, deducing Radius, will be the Logarithm of 2.683, ^^^ fecond Arch 5 with which, repeating the Operation, the third Arch will come out 2.6838, c^*^. and this taken from 72.21, leaves
69.5261, &c. or 69° 31' 34" for the Anomaly Excentri
,
from whence the
TIrue
Anomaly
will
come
out 66° 52' 50".
EXAMPLE
rTT^
m.
;
HE
it
fame Things being given
by the
pradlical Rule,
J^
fo
is
will be, as Radius to the Cofine of
72°
12' 36",
.0625 ( = iof .05) to .0191; again, as if.oi9i, to 0.1, the double Excentricity, fo is the Sine of the fame Angle, to the Sine of 5° 21' 41 '; three times whofe Log. Sine, minus
double the Radius,
is
the Sine of 2'
48"; the
 Part
whereof
being taken from 5° 2i' 41", leaves 5° 20' 45" for the Equation of the Center, and :. this taken from 72 12' 36'
will
give
66° 52' 51", equal
to the True
Anomaly
very
nearly.
Of
(
52
)
Of
the
Motion of Projediles
in refifting
Mediums.
PROPOSITION
Siippofmg that a Body,
give?i Velocity^
It
let
I.
from a gheji Folnt^ with a direBly to or from a Centre^ towards which wuformly gravitates^ is refijied by a fimilar Medium^
go
of certain Powers of the Velocity, whofe
In
tn the Ratio
dices are
reprefcnted by the given
Numbers^
r,
s,
t^
&c.
And fuppofing the Fart of the whole Refjlance, at the faid given Point, correfponding to each of thofe Powers, as well as the Force of Gravity, to be given ; 'tis required to find
the Relation of the
Times, the Velocities^
and
the Spaces
gone over,
LE T P
in
I
be the given Point,
DPC
the Right Line
e,
which the Body moves, and D,
any two
:
Points therein indefinitely near to each other
Snp
/
pofe the Velocity at
P
to be
fufficient
to carry the
Body, uniformly, over a given Diftance g, in a given Time h and let m be the Space, which would be de,
fcribed
in the
fame Time with the Velocity, that
in that
would be generated
Time
in vacuo
by a Force
D
e
equal to the Body's fpecifick Gravity in the given
Meis
dium
;
let
the Part of the Refiftance, which
as
the r Power of the Celerity, at the aforefaid Point,
be fuch, that the Body in moving over a given Dif'
C
tance
that
b,
with
its
Velocity uniformly continued, would
from
take
Part alone,
its
away
meet with a Refiftance fufficient to Motion j or which is the fame, let b be whole
the
.(
53
)
the Diftance that might be defcribed with the Velocity at P in the Time that the Body would, by the faid Part alone, have
Motion deftroyed, was the Refiftance to continue the fame as at the firft Inftant ; and let the like Diftances, with
all
its
refpedt to the other Parts of the Refiftance, that are as the
Powers of the
Celerity,
whofe Indices
are,
5,
if,
Gfc.
be
f, d^
= a;, De=Fq='x, the Time &c, refpedively; la%, let D = T, and the Space the Body would move of defcribing P over in the given Time b, with the Velocity at D, = v.
Then
fcribing
it
PD
will be, as
g
:
i
b
i
:
x {? q)
:
i
^^ theTime of dethe Velocity deis
Fq, and
as ^
^
:
:
^ (P^)
^,
ilroyed
by
that Part of the Refiftance,
Celerity, in that
which
as the
r
Power of the
at
Time 3
therefore, the Velocity
D being
to the Velocity at P, as
v tog,
that deftroyed,
the fame Part, in the fame
will confequently
Time, from
the Body's leaving
,
by D^
be
^ X~=
e,
is
—zr;
becaufe this Part
:
of Refiftance
is
as the
r Power of the Velocity
to the
But the
Time
as
of defcribing
D
Time
of defcribing
P q,
^
to
v, therefore the Refiftance
arifing
from the afore
faid Part in defcribing
De, muft be
:^
x
i =llZ:l^',
from whence,
by Infpedion, that the other Parts of the Refiftance, or Quantities of Motion deftroyed
it
is
manifeft,
thereby, will be
~^
^
,
~^, &c.
But, the
And
therefore the
whole Velocity deftroyed by the Medium,
IS
in defaibing
D^^
±. bg
4to
'
_
"^
,
^c.
Time of
as
defcribing
D^, being
h
—
that of defcribing
P^
^
to
v,
will
P
be
—
54)
it
.
(
be reprefented by
hx
—
;
and therefore
will be, as h
:
m
— ^
:
,
the Part of Velocity generated or deftroyed in
Time, by the Force of Gravity, which added to, or taken from, the former Part, arifing from the Refiftance,
that
according as the
or Difference
rt
Body
{
is
in
its
Afcent or Defcent, the
Sum
it is
^
—
^
—
{
^
,
&c. muft,
manifeft, be equal to (
Hence we have x
=
—
.
v) the whole Decrement of Velocity
:
——
—"w
^
Moreover, becaufe T, the
equal to
Time of
.v ^
defcribing
D
^, is
found
—
,
we have
^=
.
,
which being
fubftituted in
ftead thereof in the other Equation,
^c. there will come
outT=
=t
?/z
J
—
r'^ ——_
_i_
.
^^.i.
iSc,
C O R O
L.
I.
H
nite,
ENCE,
when
the Refiftance
is
barely in the fimc, d,
ple Ratio of the Velocity, then
&c, being
infi
our Equations become
x
=

~'^'^
,
and
T
equal
~~
of
gg:=i^
~
:
b
Whence
and
>c
^ ^:=^
into
cr
,
^
'lilinto the
Hyp. Log.
'~ m
D
,
T = t^
'^^ Hyp. Log. of p = J r o ^
•X'
///
COR O
L,
,
(55 C O R O
)
L.
is,
II.
B
and
b_
UT, when
Velocity,
the Refiftance
as 2,
at
the Square of the
r being equal
to
and
c,
d,
&c.
infi
nite (as before) the Equations will be
equal to
b
T
equal
to
^
X Log. ^ t ~ ^
'
T^'*
b
Hence
if
a:
is
found equal to
,
wherein,
i
v be taken =0, we
for the
ihall
have
— X Hypb. Log.
but, if
+ X.
laftly,
^
Height of the whole
Afcent;
v^^^mb
be taken
=0, we
fhall
have
^ mb
acquire
equal to the greateft Velocity the
Body can
poflibly
by defcending ;
if
g be taken
= o,
there will
bex Log. ^^_^^
the
for
;
the
Diftance
gone over
when
Body
falls
from Reft
therefore, in that
Cafe the Log.
mb — 'W
"^^
being; o
=
^
b
,
if
« be put for the abfolute
Number
{>'
whofe Hyperbolic Log.
is
^ ^ we
^.
fhall get
^^~i =
T
In
and confequently v=^mb^^ X 7^J
Moreover, with refpecS to the Time, becaufe
Defcent of the Body
this Cafe,
is
the
=
mto
/^"^
the.
Time
it
felf will, in
be
/ ^
therefore,
.
the
Hyp. Log.
.
.^
X
^\—^
is
.
and
when
the
I
Body
defcends from Reft,
barely
=—
y^
—
1;
X Log
^lil^i^,
wherein,
if
the above
found Value of
be fubftituted^
it
wDl be
~
y^
—
x
Log,
(
' Los. '+1:^!
56
)
:
But, in the other Cafe,
t being = ^^^
two
v,
T
will be equal to
—
drawn
into the Difference of the
are
Circular Arcs,
whofe Tangents
g and
and whofe com
mon
And, in like manner, the Values of X and T may be exhibited by the Quadratures, &c. of the Conic Sedlions, in any other Cafe, where the Refiftance is barely as a fimple Power of the Velocity, whofe Exponent many Cafes, where the is a rational Number, and alfo, in Refiftance is in the Ratio of two different Powers, by Help
Radius
is
^mb.
of the
laft
Problem of
this Treatife.
C O R O
be IFedmby a Medium only,
taken
fimple
L.
III.
=
o, or the
Body be fuppofed
to be affedas a
and the Refiftance be barely
Power (r) of the Velocity; then x becoming equal
bg^"^^ v^'^^v^ and
Cafe, will therefore be
T=
=
^ bhg'^^'^ v
^
^^', x,
inthis
equal
._Jif
,
and
T
i,
bh^
'hH"^
'^
—
x
:.
Where,
r be taken
=0,
2,
3,
^c,
fucceffively,
will be
—
to
— 7p,
^
^,
^Log.^,
„ b + *^,©r. andTequal ^ x ^^f^, ^
^^ro
hh_
3
<i;
Log.
i,
'^
g^—'w
'l"^
^
^^^ refpedively
have ^
;
from whence, by
2g
exterminating v,
we
i
= V^
'^lU^
^~T
^*
^c,
^^,.=
^Log.
+ ix^, T:=^X^^^,
Times and Spaces
S
expreffing the Relation of the
Cafes, refpeaively.
in the faid
C
H
0
—
(
57^
SCHOLIUM.
N
Fluids void of Tenacity the Refiftance
is
I
in the
Du
plicate
Ratio of the Velocity
j
and
it
is
found,
that a
by moving over a Space, which is to I of its Diameter, as the Denfity of the Body, to that of the Medium, with its Velocity uniformly continued, would meet with a Refiftance fufficient to take away its whole Moin fuch Fluids,
Body
tion
:
Therefore,
if this
II.
lue of b^ in Cor.
Space be taken to reprefent the Vaby Help of the Theorems there given,
the Velocity, Time, or Space gone over, will be readily obFor an Inftance hereof, let a Ball, whofe Diameter tained.
of a Foot, and whofe Denfity is the fame with that of common Rain Water, be fuppofed to be projeded upwards
is i
Diredion perpendicular to the Horizon, with a Velocity fufficient to carry it uniformly over a Space of 300 Feet in one Second of Time j and let the Heighth of the Afcent, the Times of Afcent and Defcent, with the Velocity generated
in a
in Falling, be required.
is
to that of Air, as
860
Becaufe, the Denfity of RainWater, to i, b will, here, be (Xi X 860)
764.4 Feet i and fince the Velocity, which a Body would acquire in one Second of Time by freely defcending in 'vacuo,
is fufficient
to carry
it
uniformly over a Dillance of 32.2
as
Feet in that Time,
fpecifick Gravity
J
it
will be, as the abfolute Gravity, to the
or,
Feet, to (32.16
=)
860, to 859, fo is 32.2, the faid m, h being equal to the Time aboveif for g, b, b
mentioned
:
Wherefore,
I,
Values 300,
and m, their refpedive and 32.16, be fubflituted in theafore^ 764.4,
(hall have, firft,
faid I'heoremSj'
we
—
•
x Hyp. Log.
i f
^
{~x)
2'^,—
h
^
630 Feet
for the
whole Heighth of the Afcent,
is
X Arch, whofe Tang,
g^ and
Rad
^mb =
,
—
5.48 Seconds,
Qs..
;
(
58
)
.
conds, the whole
of Afcentj 3^ «— .21455; 4*^17 = 130, the Diftance that would be uniformly defcribed in one
Time
Second with the Velocity acquired by falling;
laftly,
^T" — ^^
h
X Log.
I
~ "^ ^ — nj — n =
''
' 1
6.85, the
Time of Defcent. But if the fame
Ball be fuppofed to
move in Water with the fame givenVelocity
then, the fpecifick Gravity in that Fluid being nothing, the Body may be confidered as moving by its innate Force only>
and, therefore, the
ber of
into the
Number
i
of Feet gone over,
will
in
any
Num,
Seconds,
denoted
by T,
(by Cor. III.) be
Hyp. Log. of
4 337.5T.
PROPOSITION
To find the
Refiftance
,
II.
and Denfity of a Medium, whereby a
Body, gravitating uniformly in the jDireBion of Parallel the Law oj ReLines, is made to defcribe a given Curve
n Power, partly as the fiftance being given, partly as the 2 n Power, partly as the 3 n Power, &c. of the Celerity
or
as ^
C » H^ C
and
2 «
J f
C
3 '',
&c.
where
C
denotes the
Celerity,
n, a, h, c,
&c. any determinate
^i antities.
L
the
ET ArC
Curve, and
be the propofed
AH
to
the Axis
thereof, or a Rightline in
Body
gravitates,
which which let
and
rn and em
and
1
ho. parallel,
Hr
m
hm
perpendicular, r and
\
\
1
being any two Points in the Curve taken indefinitely near to one ar,
nother
:
Suppofe the Body arrived to
with a Velocity in
the
(
59
)
,.
the Direcflion re,
reprefented
by v
let
AH;c,
let
Wh
(rn)
= Xy
hv,
Hr=:y,
nm
(re)
— y\ rm=zZy
rn
and
D
be as the
required Denfity.
Then,
fince the Velocity in the Direcftion
re
that in the Direction
will be
^
y
j
and therefore
'"^"t^"^
will be the
in that
Fluxion of the fame, or the Increafe
y
of Velocity
rm
5
wherefore, if from this
Diredion during the Time of defcribing we take the Part arifing from
the Refiftance of the
to Vy
Medium, which
is
4^ (becaufe
y
it
is
the Alteration of Velocity in the Diredion re, as
at
to
y
)
there will remain
^
y
for the other Part arifing
from the
therefore,
Force of Gravity, in the fame
Time and Diredion
is
;
the Refiftance in the faid Direction,
vity,
to the Force of
Gra
— to i j and, confeor, as , ti X y y quently, the abfolute Refiftance, in the Diredion r m, to the
as

—
r^ to
4^
as
—
i
:
Force of Gravity,
Velocity,
arifing
'~"^?,
to
But
(
~
the
)
the Part of
2~
from Gravity, being
be
expreflfed
as
j
Time
of
defcribing r m,
may
X
z=:
thereby
whence we have
21;'!;^;^
^= —
+
,
or
ij"^
yy, and
therefore in Fluxions
y*;^ =: o, or
—
=;
4^^ which
2
fubftituted in the fore*
X
goins Proportion
tie
°*
— ^ ^
•
:
i
X
gives 4r4^ 2 X X
to
i
for
the
Ra
of the
Refiftance to tke Gravity.
Moreover,
becaufs
the
(6o
the abfolutc Velocity
is
)
.— , the Refinance, by Suppofition,
y
will be as
D
,
into
a x
^
f
^
fz X —?—
.
zn
I
&c,
•
or,
becaufe
^
is
=:i.i
as
D
into
ax — i^x^—
2«
,
(^c,
which
Quantity muft therefore be
as?^, and confequently
D as
^
^
%E.L
COROLLARY.
H
€,
ENCE,
gle
if
the
Law
of Refiftance be only
j
as
a fin
Power («) of the Velocity
then,
by taking by
d,C^c, each
=
o,
and ^
=
i,
we
have
z
—~^
Xx when n
for the
Denfity
'in
that Cafe;
which, therefore,
is
=
2,
or the Refiftance diredly as the Square of the Velocity,
will
be barely
as
rr
Z.
X
•
X
EXAMPLE
I
of a
L
ET
it
be
required
to
find
the Denfity
fhall
Meequal
dium,
wherein
a
Body moving,
defcribe the
common
Parabola.
Here x being =:^,
we
have
at
—
(6i
li, i = VLLt and
iliews, that a
)
—
^=0
to
;
and
therefore
D=^oj which
muft move ia
Body,
defcribe this Curve,
Spaces entirely void of Refinance.
EXAMPLE
"^
IL
the Curve
is
O
find the Denflty, C^c.
when
a Circle^
and the Refiftancc
as the Square of the Celerity.
Becaufe x, in this Cafe,

1s=^~^ ^^
"
,
'
yy, there will
'
•
ibe
K
=
yjF*
vaa —yy
,
.£Z
v y
.,
'
z
ay = vaa —
,
X
aa
=z
.
•
y y
,
yy
a
a'
—yy*
i
,
and x
,
*
=
as
3
«
aa
,
—y y
'^^
J

therefore the Deniity T
—^ J
will here
be,
,
or,
as th©
;
Tangent of the Diftance from the
higheft Point diredlly
vity,
as
3_y
to
2 a,
and the Refinance will be to Graor, a^ 3 Times the^ine of the fame
Diflance to twice the Radius.
SCHOLIUM
Medium be given, the Curve it be determined by the Conftrudiion of the foregoing fiuxional Equation So, in cafe of an uniform
the Density of the
felf
F
may
:
•Denflty,
and a Refiflance,
have
as the
Square of the Velocity,
T)
where we
D=
=
iL,
,
or
x k^ y y
,
f
x^
—
x.
X
will be
is
found
ll ^ Rll
D
' 13/. 3P 2P conilant, and the Refiftance barely as the Velocity,
^ £1l1
e^c.
And when
k
R
will
(
62
I
)
will be
«
=
 ^ X Log.  §,i  =frTo
.
'
P'
"
^
ther Cafe, being twiee the Radius of Curvature, or the Parameter at the Vertex j both which, and the true Value of Dj,
may
be
eafily
computed from the Velocity
at
A, and the
given Denfity of the
Medium,
PROPOSiriON
7he Centripetal Force being given, and the
as any
III.
Law
of Reftfiancei
fi2d the Denfity of a M'edium in each Part thereof whereby a Body may defer ibe a given Spiral about the Centre of Force.
Power
fnj of the V^bcity
5
to
L
and
ET R;«H
Spiral,
be
the
given
Points
R and m two
may
therein as near as
other,
be to each
and
C
the Centre of Force;
let
vature
RO be the Radius of Curmaking OD and at R
5
mp
Km,
and the Velocity,
perpendicular
to
RC,
and
calhng
RD,
as
s,
R C,
is
x; R/», x;
Z'y
the Centripetal Force,
C;
u
Eorafmuch,
RO
to
RD,
as the
abfolute Centripetal Force at P., to that, which tending to the Centre O, would he fufficient to retain the, Body in the.
Circle,
whofe Radius
is
R
O, and, becaufe the Centripetal
Forces in Circles, the Velocities being the fame, are inverfely D, it is manifeft, is the Radius of the Ciras the Radii j
R
cle
which might be defcribed with the Velocity and
Force
at
Centri*^
petal
R
:
Therefore,
fince the
Centripetal Force,
in
(
in Gircles,
is^
63
)
is
known
to be fuch, as
fufficient to generate or
in the
deftroy
is
all
the Velocity of the
moving Body,
Time
it
uniformly defcribing a Diflance equal to the Semi diameter
its
of
Orbit,
we
have,
s
(
RD
)
:
i {Km) ::v
:
f~ \
the
Velocity which the Centripetal Force would generate in another
Body
freely defcending
is
from Reft
;
the former
defcribing
will be
Rm
R, in the Time wherefore, by the Refolution
at
::
of Forces,
it
i {R m}: x {Rp)
^
f
:
^
,
the
"Vjelccky generated in the
fame Time, by the Hody
defcri"
bing
Rm, which,
therefore,
added to v the Excefs of the
Velocity at
is
R
above that at m, the
Sum ^^
away by
v
will,
it
manifeft, exprefs the Velocity taken
the Mediurai
in that
fame Time
:
But the
Velocities generated or
de~
ftroyed in equal Bodies, in equal Times, are as the Forces
by which they
are generated or deftroyed
3
.
and, therefore^
to
i,
it will be as ^^^ {is
u
:
JJif.,
or
as4
+ V X^
But,
fa
the Refiftance to the Centripetal Force.
the Velo
cities in Circles
being in the fubduplicate Ratio of the Ra
dii
and Centripetal Forces conjundly,
=:
v
will be as
^
C
j
C,
and confequently J^
•
—
, 1
j
—
5
whence, by Subftitution^
'
It
will
111
be as
is
2
X
A s 7
s
C
*
r i,
or,, as
2
x
{ s
x ^
j
{
i^
:
C, fo
the Refiftance to the Centripetal Force
but
C
is
the Centripetal Force, and therefore the required Refiftange
2
x ^
s
'
x
—. {^
2
z
~
2.T?J
is
5
which being divided by (^C^f) ^
th©
(
64
)
is
the
;/
Power of
the Velocity, becaufe the Refiftance
in
the Ratio thereof, and the Denficy of the
ly,
Medium conju.iawill,
it is
the Qaotient
~f i;^—
2
S z"
H
Z
;~;rzn
C
2
ma»^
Z
C
2.
Zj'
nifeft,
be as the Denfity of the Medium.
^ E, L
Ve
EXAMPLE.
locity, the Centripetal Force as fome Power, w, of the Diftance, and the Curve propofed the Logarithmic Spiral ;
LE T
and
s
the Refiftance be in the duplicate Ratio of the
Radius being
all
r,
let
c be the Cofine of the
comnion
:
Angle, which
the Ordinates
make with
the Spiral
Then
Jl^JlL.
JLL.
by the Nature of the Curve, being
:;= a:
(^
_
C R)
2C2:
:
will
be= ^^  ^, ^
2Z
and therefore Z5_tL 23
hence
ii^ _;
2r
,
^flLthe
lx^^^^
J
we
have, as
^^H
And
when
^
fo
is
the Refiftance to the Centripetal Force.
the Denfity of
c
Medium
will be as
'^~~'
'^
^^^t
is,,
and
m
are
given, reciprocally as the Diftances
from the Centre of Force:
But when
spears, that
m
is
—
3,
then
^—^^
becoming
o,
:
it
ap
the
Body
in this
Cafe muil move
in Spaces entire
ly void of Refiftance to defcribe the propofed Spiral
And,
of Centripetal Force being more than the therefore, the Cube of the Diftance inverlely, the Dcfcription of this Curve
Law
will,
it
is
manifeft, be impoflible
from any
refifting
Force
whatfoever.
Oi
;
(65
)
Of
the Motion and Reiiftance of Pendulous Bodies
in a
Medium.
I.
PROPOSITION
Suppofijig
two equal Pendulums, whqfe Babs are in Form of the Segfnents of Spheres, to be moving with equal Velocities
Medium, and the Ihicknefs of each Bob with Diameter of the Sphere from which it is formed, to he given ; To find the Ratio of their Refijiajtces.
in a refifting
the
ET AKBA
Side,
be
one
or Half,
of one
of the propofed Bobs, and E A K B F C E Half the whole Sphere whereof it is a Segment; and let the faid Segment be conceived to be divided into an indefinite
Number
of indefinitely fmall Lamince,
by
circular
Planes
perpendi
cular to the Axis
equidiflant
and
thofe
let
KC, and from each other A^BSA be one of
be
Lamince^ included
tween any two adjacent Planes, and n be the Thicknefs thereof, or the
of the faid Planes; calling
common
c
,
Diflance
AC,
a,
AD,
;
any Ordinate
RQ^^'i mv,
the Circle, ing a,
is
y, and
have
we
KD, x. Then, D R = ^cc—yy
S
by the Property of
which, Radius be
the Sine of the Angle that the Surface at
Q^makes
with
(66
with
)
mO
,
the Diredion of
flrikes againft
:
its
Motion, or the Incidence of the
Velocity being the fame,
Particles
it
Therefore, fince the refifling Force
is
of the Medium, on any
Surflice the
as the Number of Particles falling thereon, and the Square of the Sine of their common Incidence conjundily, the whole
Refiilance of that Part of the propofed Surface, reprefented
by Qju,
as the
will be as
^~ — xny
:
,
becaufe
ny
is
evidently
Number
aa
of Particles
Hence, by
talking the Fluent,
we
have l^x^^c
—
,
'j^ for the Refiftance
of A Q^; the Donc,
ble whereof,
fequently
1^
the
when
y
becomes equal
will
con
be
whole Refiftance of the
if
faid
Laminae
Which
to
Refiftance,
the Axis
KD
(x)
be,
now, fuppofed
be put inftead of n^ will, it is manifeft, be the Fluxion of the Refiftance of the propofed Segment
flow,
and
'x
AKBD:
But x being
:•
=;
^
— ^ aacc
'
by the Property
of the Circle x will
be=:
7=^77,
to
'^a
and confequently the
abovefaid
Fluxion
equal
^ a\ a a —
_
',
whofe Flu^_j and
c c
€nt Will be
therefore the
.,,
,
AKXCK ~
—
ADXJDC X 1
as the
I
+
_,
2
AD*
>
^Tjj^
Double thereof E. I. given Pendulum.
whole Refiftance of the
^
C O R O
L.
L
ENCE
that of
its
it
appears, that
the Refiftance of the whole
generating Sphere will be exprefs'd by
EK x KC,
is
or
to
the Area of the Semicircle
'of its Axis,
EKFE;
and therefore
circumfcribing Cylinder,
moving
in the Diredtion
exadly, as
i
to 2.
€ORO
Le
(
^7
)
C O R O
L.
11,
I
tity
F
the Refinance, as above found, be divided
&c. X
KD^ X
^—
its
I?
by 3.14159,
,
the folid Content, or
will,
it is
Quanmani
of Matter in the Pendulum, the Quotient
be as the Retardation of
j
fefl,
finance
and
this, if
its
Velocity arifing from that Rebe put for the Axis or Thicknefs o^
the Bob, and y/
greateft
Diameter, will be equal to —^
,
very nearly.
C O R Oh.
III.
HEREFORE,
J4d
if
^ be taken
= ^, we
Oiall
have
for the Retardation
of the Globe,
whofe Dia^
meter
is
dj and therefore the Retardation of the Pendulum of
its
to that
to ^,
circumfcribing
:
Sphere will
nearly.
be as
^
,
or as
2^^
^^j ^^1^
NoteJ If the Bobs of Pendulums be in other Forms than thofe of Segments of Spheres, the Refiflance will be readily
had ken
as
above
;
fince
it
is
evident,
that
AC
(a) being
ta=
for the
Normal of the
generating Curve
will be
K A,
as
the
is
Re=
fiftance
of the Lamina
let
AeBSA
what
"^^^ "
there
found,
that Curve be
it will.
LEMMA.
^he
Refiflance of
a Body in a Medium^
to. acquire
is to
the Force oj
Grathe
"vity^
as twice the Space
thrd which the Body
miift freely
to
fall by that Gravity
the given Velocity ^
Spact
(68)
Space ever which
''Time
ttike
it
might move with that Velocity in the
wherein the /aid Ref, fiance, uniformly continued^ would away the Body's whole Motion,
For the Velocity acquired by freely defcending from Reft, thro' any Space, is known to be generated in the Time that the Body, with the Velocity fo acquired, would move uni^ But the Forces, by which formly over double that Space the fame Motion would be uniformly generated er deflroyed, are [inverfely as the Times in which it might be generated
:
and therefore inverfely, as the Distances deicribed with the fame Velocity in thofe Times.
or deflroyed
3
P
Siippofing that
R O P O
S I
T
I
O N
II.
a heavy pendulous Body, ofciHating in a Cycloid, is refilled by an uniform Force, and at the fame time by a rare and fimilar Medium, in the duplicate Ratio of the Ve'To find the Excefs oj the Arc, defcribed in the whole locity ;
Defcent above the Arc, defcribed in the fubfequent Afce?it,
jind the Time oj one entire OJcillation,
ET ABD
the
be the whole Cycloid,
BC
its
Axis,
EB
Arc
defcribed in
the Defcent, and
BF
that de
fcribed
in the fubfequent
Afcent
;
draw
G H E,
F/, ^c.
R,
the
parallel to
A D,
let
S be any Place of
the Body, and h
C
the DIflance thro* which
it
69)
muft
freely defcend
in
'uaciio,
by a Force equal
to
its
fpecifick Gravity in the given
it
Me
dium, to acquire the fame Velocity as
be to the Force of Gravity, as
Space over which the
to
has in that PlacC'
is
Suppofe that Part of the Refiftance, which
/;?
uniform, to
let
its
i
;
and
d be the
Velocity
Body mufl move with
to
uniformly continued,
other Part, fufficient to
meet with a Refiftance from the take away its whole Motion j or,
which
fmall
is
to the
as
Arc S«,
b
fame EfFed:, let d be to the indefinitely the whole Motion of the Body at S, to
in
that deftroyed ling
by the Medium
^
;
moving
«, x.
thro'
S n
;
cal«
BD,
Body
y
B E,
R ^,
2; 3
ES, x; S
i,
Now,
the Force
of Gravity being reprefented by
the
is
that Part of
is
it
whereby
~)
: :
accelerated, at the Point S,
^—^ (=
as
%
And, by the preceding Lemma, we have, 11
^
:
2 2;
i 
for the latter Part of the Refiftance, or that in the dupli5
cate Ratio of the Velocity
which being added
^^r^,
to
m, the
«=^
former Part, and the whole taken from
gives
—^
m
'
for the
whole Force whereby the Body
:
is
accele
rated at the faid Point
Therefore the Velocity, there^ beipsg
that generated in
known
to be, as ^^22?,
_i
the
Time
x
of defcribing S n will be defined by ^7^
— —~
?n
,
i
—
. ;
which muft
therefore be equal to,
—^
the Fluxion
or Increafe of,
s/ 2 Zy the
aforefaid Velocity
Hence,
e
we
have
—^
,—
,
^—
,
^= ^
5
w^hich,
by writing
inftead
T
of
; •
(
70
}
of ^
—m
b, C?r.
becomes
^S ^JL^!±^
z
is
j. equal o;
from whence, by
folving the Equation,
found
Or,
= y—
if^ be
l±i:v
;,»^^ + ^r4^.
is
^^
put for (0.367878) the Number, whofe hyperbolical Loga«
rithm
^
I,
=
ip^
X
"^^^^ ^
its
"",!
,
.
But when the
its
Body
«
AT
arrives at
F, the Hight of
Afcent, z, or
C5'<:.
Equal
Z+XTTT V i
i^ i ^
folved,
becomes equal o
llfl
,
which Equation
gives
x=
2e >^±il.^
&c.
C^'iT.
= ,EBF5
therefore
FG
^
'
is
= 2^2^ + 4jl _iii,,
^^
=
its
2 ^^^ h
^ —~77
3
^'' (^y refuming 2
inftead of
are fuppo
Equal
2tf— :2^j)
which, becaufe
/«
m
and
~
Jed very fmall, will be 2
^ H
1^
very nearly.
^E.L
poffi
Moreover, fince the
bleDiftance S«,
is
Time
of defcribing the leaft
as 4=;.,
by
fubftituting
fhall
therein
the
yalue of z,
as
above found,
we
have
X777
red
^
>
\
i
^ + 77
:
~v
*
for the Fluxion of the requi
34^^
Time
But, becaufe
^ — + ^,
;c
^i?^.
the Square
of the Divifor of the
latter
Part or
Fador
thereof,
when x
becomes
1
(7'
becomes
)
=
2
^ * ^A'
H
—^^
&c,
appears,
from above, to
be equal to Nothing,
if
r be put to denote the Value of
it is
2^—
^
that
f. •^—f,
&c, or the Root of the Equation,
manifest
~7
^r+ —
^—
^^
^
rirX ^^^^
^^^^
^^ ^^"al o, and
confequently r
^^,
G?^.
=
^
.
which
being fubftituted inflead thereof, our faid Fluxion will be
come
mto
I—2
X f^ H 4 X
\^Zi
>
^
^
,+^rxT^^I^
and
laftly,
by converting
equal to
i— 2x~f, ^^j
"^
into a ra
tional Series,
——
JL
r
into i
^
^—7. *
.^,
&c.
is
Novr, the Fluent of
r, is
— — Ar[i
!,"^
"^ (^=: ~V s/rx
— xxJ
A
when
a^
=
known
to be equal to the Periphery of the Circle
whafe Diameter is Unity , wherefore, if that Periphery be put equal />, the required Fluent of our given Expreilion
4u
—
^
^
^+Tr^a.
^c. wHl then appear
to
,
(
72)
to
be
:
77 X
of
r,
'
+
3
J
+ TI72,
G?!?.
from
p.
118. of
my Book
Value of
Fluxions
;
which, by refloring the
known
.
will
become
^^^xii—
'
Xi{ 
—
£?<:.
feft,
=:^^^xi as the Time
+ 577 —
71,
^^. and
this
is, it is
mani
of one entire Ofcillation.
^. E.
/.
C O R O
L.
I.
WHEN
^mby
the Refiftance
^
it
is
infinite,
then
will be as 2 ^
F G becoming FG \\ m
: : :
barely equal
\
Hence
it
appears, that the Excefs of the Arc defcribed in the whole Defcent above that defcribed in the fubfequent Afcent, when
is
uniform,
is
to twice the
Length of the Pento the Force of
dulum, or
Gravity.
DBA,
as the refifting Force,
C O R O
UTj when m
^
[
L.
II.
is
=
c, or the Refiftance barely in the
j
duplicate Ratio of the Velocity
the faid Excefs will
be in the duplicate Ratio of the Velocity, or Arc defcribed
nearly.
C O R O
be confidered IFofmbeing by
refifted
L.
III.
as negative,
or the
Pendulum, inftead
an uniform Force, be accelerated
its
thereby,
fo as to continue
Vibrations in the fame given
Arcs
(72)
Arc
J
then,
fince
zmb
And,
{ i^"
(=
FG)
is
becomes
r= o,
—
?n
will be
= ^JJ
:
therefore,
it
manifeft, the
that
the
is
Force,
which ading uniformly on
counterballance a
it
given
Body,
fufficient to
Refiflance in the duplicate
vibrating in the
Ratio of the Velocity, or to keep
given Arc, mufl be to the
:
fame Pendulum, as 2 « ^ And, therefore, the Arcs, which a given Pen^Ifd nearly I dulum fo a(5tuated, will continue to defcribe, by different
Weight of
the
Forces, will be nearly as the Square Roots of thofe Forces.
e O R O
L.
IV.
is,
^ T T H E N both m and ^ are equal to nothing, that ^^ when the Ofcillations are performed without Reis
Time of Vibration will be barely />^ ^5 which Time, wherein a Body freely defcending from Relf, would fall thro' C B, Half the Length of the Pendulum, as
fiftance, the
to the
the Circumference of a Circle, to
its
Diameter.
G O R O
L,
V.
is
MOREOVER,
nal,
when only
J
=
o,
or the Refif
tance uniform^ the Vibrations will^ alfo, be Ifochro
and performed
in the very
fame Time
^as if
the Pen

dulum was not
at all refifted.
C O R O
L.
VI.
or the
UT
city
J
if ^^
be equal to nothing,
only,
in the
Pendulum be
refifted,
duplicate
will
Ratio of the Velothen
be
/> /^ ^
the
Time
of
Ofcillation
x
(
74
)
.
I 4
An
—
^
»
^c.
Therefore, the Excefs of the
in a
Time
of one whole Vibration,
Ratio of the Velocity,
kaft Arc poffible,
is
to
Medium refifting in the duplicate above the Time of Vibration in the the Time of Vibration in this Arc,
Unity
;
^^ ir^ ^
fmall, as
J^rra>
^^'
i
to
or,
becaufe
it
~
is
very
^^'
to
very nearly:
is
Hence
fliould
follov^^,
that
the faid Excefs,
in the duplicate
Ratio of the Arcs
I
very nearly, I fay Jhould follow ^ becaufe
that
Sir Jfaac
know
II.
very well,
Newton^
in
Princip.
Prop. 27. B.
makes
:
it
This I to be, nearly, confefs had made me more than a little fufped, that I might and yet upon reexamining have here fallen into an Error the.Procefs with more than ordinary Attention, I have not
the fimple Ratio of
the Arcs
;
been able to difcover any Miftake therein committed; but*
if
any fuch
ftiould occur to
my
Readers, I
ftiall
readily ac
knowledge
my
felf
obliged for the Difcovery.
SCHOLIUM.
IFa Circle,
"the
inftead of a Cycloid, the Ofcillations be performed in
the above Conclufions will
j
flill
hold, provided
Arc defcribed be but fmall
excepting thofe that relate
is
to the
Time
of Vibration, which
(hortned or prolonged,
independent of the Refiftance, from the particular Nature of
the Curve, according as a fmaller or greater Arc
.But, if to the
is
defcribed.
as
Time/^^^x
14^ —
is
^'^''^. found
above, be added
the Excefs of the
Time
b^
of Vibration in above the Time,
the Arch a, of a Circle whofe Radius
in the lead
Arc
poffible,
which, by f. 140. of
my Book
of
FluxioJiSj
(
75
)
Tluxions,
is
pb^x^^,
1
^c.
we
ftiall
then have
pb^ x
I
4_
Jll
—
ll, ^c.
for the
Time of
Ofcillation in the
Arc a of
Arcs of
that Circle nearly.
to determine,
how much
the
Hence it Times of
will not be difficult
Vibration, in fmall
Circles, are increafed or decreafed
Weights of the Atmofphere. For, if the Pendulum is kept in Motion, be always the fame, the
from the different the Force by which
Arc
defcribed,
hy Cor.
III.
will be as
s/ bdy that
if
is,
in the
fubduplicate Ratio, inverfely, of the Denfity of the
Medium,
a givea
or Height of the Barometer
:
Therefore,
h be put for
the Height of the Barometer, at the
Time when
i~j
Arc
c
is
defcribed, the
Length of the Vibration correfpondwill be
this there
ing to [y) any other Height thereof,
fore being fubftituted inftead of ^, and ^
—
~
inflead
of
d^
in the
above Expreffion, gives pb
x
i {
—
t
—:* &c
Height
j
for the
Time of
Vibration correfponding to this
is
laft
which,
when y =hy
pb''
x
i \
—
'—,
>
&c,
therefore
lb e b
the Difference
of the Times
of Vibration anfwering to
the two Heights of the Barometer h and y, if n be put equal
to
the
Difference
of
thofe
Heights,
fo
will
be
as
J—11.x
y
it is
ibbb
—
ThTd
>
^^' "^^^^y> excepting by
much
varied
thro' the different fpecific
in a rarer or denfer
Gravities of the
is
Pendulum, ^c.
eafy to be
Atmofphere; which
it is
comwill
puted.
However,
after all,
not to be fappofed, that the
Alteration in the
Time of
Vibration, above fpecified,
happen
(
76
)
liappen immediately upon the Rife or Fall of the
becaufe the Pendulum, thro' its vis viertice, Time before it can be brought to perform
either in a greater
Mercury j will be feme
Vibmiions,
its
or fmaller
Arc
:
And, indeed, the Alte
rations, both in the
Caufe, are fo
Time and Arc defcribed, from the above fmall, when compared with thofe arifmg from
as fcarcely to
Friaion and Expanfion,
Obfervation.
come under
the niceft
PROPOSITION
^iippoftng that
III.
a Cycloid, is rejifted by a rare and fimilar Medium in the Ratio of a given Power of (n) of the Velocity to fnd the Excefs of the Arc a heavy Body,
ofcillating
i?i
,
defcribed in the whole
fubfeqiient Afcent,
Dejcent above that defcribed in the
the
and
Number of
other
Ofcillations that will
be
performed bejore
any
lofl
given
Arc
its
is
defcribed,
or the Pendulum has
a given Part of
Motion,
its
LET
ABD
be the whole Cycloid,
firfl
BC
Axis,
EB
that
the given Arc defcribed in the
Defcent,
BF
defcribed in the fubfequent Afcent, and
FG
the required
_c
A^
Difference of thofe Arcs
arrived at
;
and, fuppofing the
Body
to
be
any Point
S,
let its
Velocity there be the fame as
it
%«> p
(
It
77
)
tliro*
would Arc ^S by an uniform Gravity equal
vity in the given
acquire in freely defcending from Reft
to
its
the
fpecifick
Gra
Medium
fuffer
;
and
with
let
d
be to the Length of
the Arc
the
B D,
as the faid Gravity to
the Refiftance,
the
which
that
it
Body
:
would
Velocity
freely
might acquire, from that Gravity,
by
falling
thro'
let
CB
If,
Draw
EHG,
SR, &c.
for
parallel
to
AD,
BS
and
a,
A%
and z, ftand
BD, BE,
B^, and
refpedively.
Therefore, the Velocity acquired in vacuo, being in the fubduplicate Ratio of the Diftance perpendicularly defcended
RT i
,
or
its
Equal \/
A — zz
(from the Property of the
;
Curve) will be as the Velocity at S
and therefore
— f ^ 4 ^
~
the Fluxion thereof, as the Increafe of that Velocity:
this Increafe
But
depends upon two Caufes
j
the one, the Force
of Gravity, and the other, the Refiftance of the Medium, If the Medium did not refift, A would be conftant, and
therefore the Increafe of the Velocity barely as
'^
wherefore, the other Part, arifing from the Refiftance, muft
~'
be
as
J
and, confequently, the refifting Force of the
Medium,
to that Part of the Gravity
^
by which the Body
is
accelerated, as
this Part
VA — zz.
^
:
v'A
— a;s
,
or,
a&Ato 2zz: But
as
of the Gravity being to the whole,
,
z
it
to b,
is
hy
the Property of the Curve
feft,
the Refiftance will,
mani
be
to the fpecific Gravity, as
A
to
2bz, Moreover, beis
caufe the Velocity, at the fame Point S,
to
the Velocity
which would be acquired by
along
freely defcending (as
above)
BC,
as
%/
A — zz
:
b
,
the Refiftance, with the for
mer of
thofe Velocities,
will be to the Refiftance with the
X
latter,
. >
(78
latter, as
)
A — zz!
2
to
^%
or, as
^
f_^^
^

to ^5 and, con
Icquently,
the Refinance at S,
to
the Force of
Gravity,
^
"
i
as
^^
— ^—
2 ^i
;
to
d
:
Wherefore,
it
will be as
•
—
:
d
i:
A
:
whence
^=
is

^^ ~''"
,
from which Equaof in
lion
A
may
be determined by the
known Methods
it
finite Series,
^c. be the
fuch as
be,
Medium what
much more
Error,
will
But, in a
the
very rare one,
fuppofed in the Propojition,
eafily effeded.
,
Thing may
then
otherwife,
at
its
For,
E e,
being,
greateft,
exceeding fmall
aa
in
—
zz
y
may, without
fenfible
be fubflituted
our
Equation for
A — zz
.
,
which done, we have
^
equal
'
"^
aa^^^
X
jrn db
Z
p^^^
is
^i^ej^
the Fluent of the latter Part
thereof,
when z
to
equal a, and n an even
""
Number,
will
be
found
come
5
out
intol^
db"
X ^.X ^ X
5
3
7
4
9
^<:. to
^ Fadors
2
and when z equal
i„
^,
and n an odd
Number,
^^. to
equal to
HIU^J^^^
;
_L x
f x f x f
"^ Fadors 2
from which two Expreflions, the Flu
ent of the faid Part, in any intermediate Cafe, where 7t is a Fradion, may, by Interpolation, be nearly obtained : But,
A
2
the Fluent of the contrary Side,
is
when
S coincides with
B
i
=
—
2
and when S and
'

e
coincide with E,
equal
BE2
—
—
(
79
)
BE
',
wherefore, if
s
z
be put for the Uncia of the Fluent, have
above found,
we
Ihall
—
.
•
equal
—L.ill
that
is
equal
BE+B.XBEB.^BE + B.XE,
2
2
^^^^^
12
^^^^^^ g^.^
in the a
nearly equal to
B
E,
we
get
E^ =
—
,
forefaid Circumftance,
ft
when
S coincides with
will,
it is
B
;
therefore
^'^_2
•>
the Double thereof,
nearly.
evident, be equal to
F G very
Let
fcent,
a;,
^ £.
the
is
7.
fore the
now, be Pendulum
Number of
:
Vibrations performed bein its
brought to defcribe,
whole De
any fmaller Arc (E) Then, fince (E) the Decrement of this Arc, in one entire Ofcillation, or while x is increafed
by
or
r
i,
or x,
is
found to be
=—
,
we
^
i
have
E—
JiJLjtn d^
2
^—^,
1
and therefore
n
.
a:=:
—
whence x^
—
S
2
X^
n
=^
_I
^E.l
L.
C O R O
"^
L
defcribed, in the
in
HE
Difference of the
two Arcs
is
De
fcent
and fubfequent Afcent,
the Ratio of the
is
fame Power of
Velocity.
either of thoie Arcs, as the Reiiftance
of the
COR O
L.
(80)
C O
Pv
O
L.
II.
HE
Number
Refiflance being in the duplicate Ratio of the
Celerity,
and the Lengths of the two Arcs given
j
the
of Ofcillations betwixt the Times of defcribing
thofe Arcs will continue the fame very nearly, let the cloid, or Length of the Pendulum, be what it will.
Cy
C O R O
the IFRatio
Refiftance be
L.
III.
either uniform,
or diredly in the
lefs
of any Power of the Velocity
than in the
fimple Ratio, as the fubduplicate, fubtriplicate, C^c. the Body will continue vibrating 'till it hath compleated
d a^—""
entire Ofcillations,
and then will have
entirely
loll all its
Motion.
C O R O
L.
in
IV.
WHEN
tio
more than the fimple Raof the Velocity, the Motion will be prolonged
the Refiftance
is
ad
irifinitum,
C O R O
L.
V.
LASTLY,
any two Arcs of the Cycloid, or fmall Arcs of a Circle, be taken in a given Ratio to each other, the Number of Vibrations performed between the Times of defcribing thofe Arcs, in one whole Defcent of
if
the Pendulum, will be nearly in the inverfe Ratio of that
Power of
either of the
faid
Arcs,
whofe Exponent
is
lefs
,
by Unity than that expreffing the Ratio
of the Refiftance
that
( 8i
that
is,
)
two Arcs, A, B, be taken in the fnm^ Ratio, as two other Arcs, C, D, the Number of Vibrations betwixt defcribing the two former, will be to the Number betwixt defcribing the two latter, in one whole Defcent of the PenduIf
lum,
as
C«—i
to
A«—
»,
or as
D«—
i
to
B«—
'.
From whence,
and the foregoing Conclufions, not only the Law, but the abfolute Refiftance of Mediums may be found, by obferving the Number of Vibrations performed therein by given Pendulums, in lofing given Parts of their Motion.
A
new Method
for the Solution
of Equations in
Numbers.
CASE
W/jen
only
I.
one
Equation
is
given, ajid one
^antity fxj
U
be determined.
^AKE
it
the Fluxion of the given Equation (be
the
it
what
the
will) fuppofing, X,
;
unknown,
to be the variai,
let
ble Quantity
and having divided the whole by
Quotient be reprefented by A.
as alfo in the
Eflimate the Value of x
pretty near the Truth, fubftituting the
fame
in the Equation,
Value of A, and
let
the Error,
or refultine
be divided by this numerical Value and the Quotient be fubtradted from the faid former of A,
in the former,
Number
Value oi X
Quantity
;
and from thence will
nearer to the
arife a
new Value
of that
much
Truth than the former, where
with proceeding as before, another new Value may be had, and fo another, ^c. 'till we arrive to any Degree of Accuracy defired.
Y
CASE
(
82
)
CASE
When
there are
II.
two Equations given^
(x a?jd y)
to
ajid as
many ^antities
be determined.
TAKE
the Fluxions of both the Equations, confidering
as variable,
X and y
and
in the
former colledl
all
the
Terms, affeded with
x^
under their proper Signs, and having
divided by x^ put the Quotient
=A
5
and
let
the remaining
Terms, divided by
y^ be reprefented
by
B
:
In like manner,
a:,
having divided the Terms
let
in the latter, a,
affeded with x^ by
divided
the Quotient be put
=
and the
reft,
by
_y,
= b,
and
AfTume the Values of x and y
and
fied
let
pretty near the Truth,
fubftitute in both the Equations, marking the Error in each,
thefe Errors,
whether
:
pofitive or negative,
be figni
by
R
and r
refpedtively
Subftitute likewife in the
Va
lues of
A, B,
a, b,
and
let
j^~_ ^^ and
^^~^g
be convert
ed into Numbers, and refpedively added to the former Values of X and y ; and thereby new Values of thofe Quantities
will be obtained
ration,
the true
I.
from whence, by repeating the OpeValues may be approximated ad libitum..
;
Note,
That every Equation
that the
is firft
to be fo reduced
by
Tranfpofition,
2.
Whole may
firft
be equal to Nothing.
That,
if after
the
Operation, the Value of
x or
y be not found to come out pretty nearly as aftumed, fuch Value is not to be depended on, but a new Eftimation made, and the Operation begun again.
——
(
83
)
3. That, the above Method, for the general part, when X and y are near the Truth, doubles the Number of Places at eaeh Operation, and only converges HovAy^ when the Di
vifor
A,
A^
aBy
at the
fame time converges
I.
to nothing,.
LET
—
300 a;
lue of X,
EXAMPLE — x^ — 1000 be given = o From 300 — 3^^
a:
j
to find a
Va
at,
the Fluxion of the
given Equation, having expunged x^ {Cafe L), there will be And, becaufe it appears by Infpedion, 3;fAr= : 300
A
that the Quantity
a,
300 a:
—
a; 3,
when ^
is
—
3,
will be
lefs
and when =4, greater than 1000, I eftimate x at 3.5, and fubftitute inflead thereof, both in the Equation and in the Value of A, finding the Error in the former = 7.12 c and the Value of the latter = 263.25 Wherefore, by taking
:
^^=:
.027 from 3.5 there will remain
3.473 for a
new
Value of X ; with which proceeding as before, the next Error, and the next Value of A, will come out .00962518 and 263.815 refpedively J and from thence the third Value
of
a;
=
3.47296351
5
which
is
true, at leaft, to
7 or 8
Places.
ET
\/
I
EXAMPLE X \/ — 2XX
\~
1
II.
\
s/
I
—
3a;3
.^
.
2=;
^
^
,
o.
This
in
Fluxions will be
therefore
—1=^
= =
4=
—^JllL^, and
—gx
EST5
A, here,
^^
,
wherefore
if
x be fuppofed
0.5
.5, it will
become
in
*~ 3545
•
And, by
fubftituting
in Head
of
at
the
given
(
84)
.204
j
given Equation,
the Error will be found
therefore
—^^
fore,
(equal
— ^57)
;
fubtraded from
.5,
gives .^^7 for
as be
the next Value of x
from whence, by proceeding the next following will be found .5516, &c.
EXAMPLE
ET
10
III.
there be given the Equations
= o,
and
AT
4
^ yy
•
f"^
•
—
y
+ ^ y^ — x^ —
=
o
j
12
•
to
find
x
a
I
and
y.
•
The
or
3^
Fluxions here being y
•
4^^^^^ and
•
if ^l^tl±^
+ V/— XX —
yy
7= V yy
'^
we
have
A
equal
^/yy
— xx B
,
equal
i
+
^
Wyy^xx
,
,
d
=
1+ i=r
Let
equal
,
and
i= =^
(&/.
II.)
—
a;
be fuppofed equal
.68, r equal
i.i,
—
5,
and^
equal
equal 6
.6,
A
—

;
then will
R
1.5,
B
equal
2.8,
a equal
"^
.
^ equal 9
;
therefore
^''^~
^=
.23,
and
^
~ ^^ =
.37,
and the new Values of
refpe(5lively
;
a:
and y equal to
5.23,
and 6.37
which
are as near the
Truth
as can be exhibited in three Places only, the next Values
coming out 5.23263 and 6.3689B.
Note,
When
it
Equations are given to be
folved
firft
in
all
this
manner,
rations,
will be convenient, that they be
of
re
duced to the moft
commodious Forms,
to facilitate the
Ope
whether into Fractions or Surds, or vice
the Equations in the
laft
'uerja
Por
Inftance,
Example had been
much
(
85
)
firfl
much
to
eafier folved,
20 y
— A*^ —
or,
I.
had they been
equal
o,
ing to Cafe
the
(as
loo = o, and y y x x \ 2^ x 144 by exterminating jy, and working accordwhereas, on the other hand, to have reduced
in the
—
reduced, out of Surds,
—
Equation,
is
preceding
Example,
out
of
Surds
ufual
in
other Methods)
would have rendered the
Trouble of Solution almoft infuperable.
L
'
'
ET
EXAMPLE. IV. 49XAr^^^, — 25x1^=,,
r^jxz
"^^'^
*
=0, and Six
y
7+:
Here, taking the Fluxions of both the Equations, and proceeding according to Cafe II. we have equal 49 x
A
i+^r
'
,,1"'
(86
;near the
)
Truth without fome Attention and Trouble ; yet^ •from the Nature of the Problem from whence thofe Equa;tions are derived, when that is known, the Trouble may be avoided, and the Thing effedled without any great Difficulty For inftance, tho' it is not eafy to perceive, that y and
:
X
are about
— and ^
lO
lO
in the laft
Example j
yet,
when
it is
known,
that i, a:, and yy are the Sides of a Plain Triangle, wherein Lines, drawn to bifadt each Angle and terminate in thofe Sides, are to one another, refpedlively, as 5, 7, and 9,
the
Thing then
.
appears evident
upon the
firit
Confideration.
EXAMPLE
— 1000=0,
have
V
y
:
L
,
ET
I
x'f'^yy
Here we
(hall
1
^L
y xyy , ^
:
= ^ X
Now,
Af''
x.y^y — 100 = 0. A z= i f L ^ x s B equal L :^, and b equal ^ fjV
and
a:
'
X^*f;t'^L
X.
it
appearing from the
firft
Equa
tion, that the greateft
of the two
required Quantities cannot
;
be
and from the firft and fecond together, that the Difference of ^' and y mult be
lefler
than 4, nor greater than 5
pretty large
j
otherwife
:
x"
f/''
could not be 10 times as
great as ;v^4greater
I therefore take x (which I fuppofe the ^" Number) equal 4.5, and y equal 2.5 i and then by
a Table of Logarithms, or otherwife,
find the next Values
;
of thefe Quantities to be 4.55 and 2.45
and the next
fol
lowing 4.551^,
(5*r.
and 2.4495,
(i?<r.
refped:ively.
m
I
I
I
I
I
(87)
Of
INCREMENTS. PROPOSITION
I.
/
//
///
I^,
n,
«,
n,
fj,
n^
fly
6cc.
be
a
Series
cf
l!erms in
a
de*
creaftng Arithmetical Progreffion, whofe
r
common Difference
is
n
;
and n n n
Multiplication
^xn, a FroduB arijing from the of any Number ^ r, of thofe TermSy imme.
.
.
diately fucceeding
each other ^
continually together
5
and if
each of the Fadiors in this ProduSl be increafed by the common Difference : I fay^ the ProduSi itfelf will be increafed
r
—
by r
thofe
nx
n n «
.
. . .
xn,
taken under the firfl Values of
^antities.
\^ O R,
equal to
£nce
to
», increafed
by the
common
Difference, be
comes equal
n
j
and
it
ny
is
increafed
by the fame Difference,
4
^c. &c.
manifefl, that the
new Value of
its
the faid Produd, arifing from fuch an Increafe of
r
Fadors,
—
,
will be equal to n
k n.
.
.
.
X n
under the
r
firfl
Values of
or given
I
thofe Quantities, from
_
_
which taking the former,
I
II
— ^^—^
II
II'
Value of that Product,
r
r
we
have n n n
r
,
..X n ^^n n n.
Increment
to r
,
**
—
^ into n
xnzr, n n
ncx
—
«.
—n
for the
which,
the
becaufe the Excefs of n above n
is
equal
times
to
.common
n nn.,
.
.
Difference, will confequently be equal
r
rnx
^ E,
D.
COROL
I
I
^ I
'
(88
)
COROLLARY.
I
s
I
N
be
II
III
'—
.
,
r
is
///
CE
the Increment of n n n
.
,
x n
//
proved to
=
r«
1
X «««.... X «
r
I
,
that
of
" ''"
:
'^^
•
mud
vx
/•
i
if
III
>—
^^
—
/"
confequently
\i^
nnn
/. e,
.
.
.
.
K
:
Whence,
to
fiiia
a Pro
duct of this kind from
its
Increment given, the following
Rule
Number of Fadors, by annexing to them the next inferior Term of the Progreffion, and divide the w^hole by the Number of Fadors, thus increafed, dravv^n into the common Difference.
is
derived,
Increafe the
i
—
Note^
greffion,
That
n flands for the
Term of
the propofed Pro
u^hofe Diftance
fcending Side,
from n is r i, when on the deand n v^hen on the afcending Side j the like
r
—
—
any other.
I.
is
to be underflood of
EXAMPLE
LE T
w, n, n^
a
Produd
or
Quantity,
exprcffing the Value of
;
i42i3H4H5flet
it
n be required
or,
which
is
the fame in effed,
be required to find an Expreflion
fo affeded, that increafing «
inflead of
«)
it
fhall
be
by i (or writing therein ii^i augmented by «fi. Then, if
Series
&c. be afTumed for a
of
Numbers
is
in Arithi,
metical Progreffion, whofe
ing to the above Notation,
common we fhall
to
Difference
accord
have n equal to the gi
ven Increment in this Cafej
which annexing ;?, the next inferior Term of the Progreffion, and dividing the Produ<5t fn»J by (2) the Number of Fadors, drawn into the com
mon
(89)
mon
is
Difference
,
there
comes out
i
n
??,
or  "^
'
^^
,
which
equal
1+213+4+5 ..,+«,
the Value propofed.
EXAMPLE
II.
LE T 1+ 8+27+64+125,
it
as
be required to find the Sum of a Series of Cubes, &c. Put n for the Num
ber of Cubes to be taken, S their required
Sum, and S
lafl in S,
the
next fucceeding Cube of the Series after the
or the
by augmenting fnj the NumThen, becaufe i is equal to the ber of Terms by Unity Root of the firft Term, and alfo equal to the common DifIncrement of S that will
arife
:
ference,
n{1 5
the
Root of the Term
S,
it is
manifeft, will be
=:;
or, if n, n, n, n^
&c. be put for a Series of
is
NumForm
bers
whofe
equal
common
Difference
i,
equal to
;z;
wherefore
S
is
nnn.
But to bring
j
this
Value of S
its
to the
of the Propofition
inflead thereof, let
Equal n
S,
—
1
x
^X«+ li
ox nnn\n be fubflituted
,
then
according to
K n nn
III
the Rule, will be
\
— where,
n n
'
for
nn
writing
its
Equal nn
—
2,
it
will
become ^
= t" =
""
^*
J
A
a
E X A M
(
90
)
EXAMPLE
ni.
a given
TO
which
find
the Unciae of a Binomial raifed to
Power.
Let a\~/f he the propofed Binomial, n the Exponent of and let B, C, &c, be the required Uncis, or, its Power,
is
the fame in efFsd:,
hi
a^if^''
be
=z
a"
{
B a"
i?^'''^^
The Equation
multiplied by a
\
If
becomes
a\
=•
wherefore, becaufe the Unciae of the Power, whofe Exponent
,
\
n
1
Ci,
I,
''
In+if'^l
manifeft,
G, ^c. E, F, D, B, C, B+i, CiB, D+C, E+D, F+E, G+F,^r.
Values of B, C, D, ^c. are fuch,
it is
that the
that increafing {n) the
increafed
Exponent by Unity,
they will be
by
and
i,
B, C, &c. refpedlively.
i,
But the Increment
of
B
being
=
the Value of B, or Increment of C, will
or the Increment of
.i
be
=
J
n
;
therefore G,
D, equal
«>.
to
—
therefore
D equal
n^
tij
n n n
to 7J therefore ' 2.3
r
ry
F equalto
1
n n n n
2.3.4.
6?c.
^c. where
n^
&c. itand for ;^— i, n
—
2, n
—
3,
C^c.
refpedively.
PROP.
2
I
2
.
2
I
I
:
(
91
)
PROPOSITION
Suppofmg
n, «, Hj
Tiy
II.
«,
&c.
to be
as in the
laft
Propolitlon
/ Jayy
I
if each
..
FaBor
n
in the Denominator of the FraSlion
nxnXnX'^.
II
II'
^^ diminified by the
common Difference^
y~^^
r
—
the Fradiion it elf will be increafed by
f
—
nn n
n
.
.
•
.
.
n
r
—
y^OR,
lince n,
dimlniflied
,
by the common Difference;
«,
becomes equal to n
and
diminiflied
by the fame
the faid Fracwill, it
firft
Difference, equal to «, &c. the
tion,
is
new Value of
its
arifing
from fuch a Diminution of
be
equivalent to
^
Fadors,
^
evident,
—
,
.
=.»«
under the
nnnn
I II
.
.
n — r
—
^
or given Values of thofe Quantities
creafe thereof
5
and therefore the Inn n n
mufl be
^
equal
^^
r
to
r
— —
n
'
s^
"
—
nnn
/
» r
—
n
I
«
I
I
I
I
{
92
)
ft
—
,
r
—
n
r
becaufe n
— wequat tor^.
tinnn
nn» n
.
,
.
.
n
—
r
—
^E.D.
w
be
«;
COROLLARY.
HE RE FORE,
lacrement
is
the Quantity, or Fraaion, whofc
"^
being
. .
„„„„\_
r
„
,
the
n
nnn
.
,
«
r
—
^
—
X
Quantity whofe Increment
is
muft confequently
.
.
nn
n
.
.
n
r
—
Value of a Fradion
^
:
.
Whence
to iind the
rnY^7inn
.
.
n
of
this
kind, from
Strike out
its
Increment given,
in
there
arifes
this
Ride.
the leaft Fadtor
the
Denominator
put
the
of the
given
Increment,
and
inilead
thereof
Redangle of the common Difference cf the Fadors into the Nuaiber of remaining Fadtors j the Refult will be the Value that was to be found.
EXAMPLE.
L
ET
it
be required to find the
Sum
of the
infinite
Series
~
23
4
J34
{
4S
+
^. ^^. or one
S6
finale ^
Fraction
93
tion (If poflible) that
fliall
)
exprefs the
Value
of,
&c.

+
as
34
—+ —
23
,
Here,
if
the required Fradlon be confidered
made
up, or generated by a continual and regular
Ad
dition of the
Terms, &c,
— — — of
j >
the propofed Se
ries,
then
^ being
the next fucceeding
faid
Term
of the Pro
greffion, or the
it felf,
Increment of the
Fradion, the Fradion
by the foregoing Rule,
will be
=
—=^=— = —
In hke manner will be found
I.I.I
1.2
2.3
3.4
4'5
1.2.3
2.34
3.4.5
2.2
1.2.3.4
^345
3
45'6
2.3.3
1.2.3.1.5^2.3.4.5.6
34S6.7*
*
>2.3.44'
•
1.2.34.5.6^2.3.4.5.6.7
34.5.6.7.8'
2.3.4.5.5*
N. B. That in finding the Value of any Quantity by the Methods foregoing, it ought to be well confidered, from
the Nature of the Queftlon, whether that Quantity confifts
barely of fuch Fradion, Produd:, or Produds,
as are fpe
dfied in the Proportions, or thofe joined to fome invariable Quantity (as is done in Fluxions) and Allowances is
to be
made
accordingly.
B
b
Jn
(
94
)
An
Livejligation of Sir Ifaac
Newton'^ theorem for finding
the
Sum
of a Series oj
a, b, Cy d,
:
Numbers
e,
by means of their Differej7ces.
LET Numbers
,_^J^e,
J, g, h, &c.
be the given
Series
of
Then, by taking each of them from the
next fucceeding, there will be
—
—
a{bj
—
b\c,
—
C'\d,
f^gi
fo^ the
iirfl
Differences:
Again^, taking
each of theie Differences from its fucceeding one, we have a 2b\c, b 2c^dj c 2d\e^ i— 2^+/j ^^* ^°^ ^^ ^^^
—
—
—
In like manner the third .Differences will cond Differences. 3<^ ^ 3^ be found 3^ ^j ^3 *— ^ ^ 3^ and the fourth, a 6^:— 4 J^, 3^ 3^+/j ^^4^f
— + — +
6
+
—
—
—
+ — +
^ .^ ^ c
the
firfl
_
^— 4 e +/,
^c. &c.
Let the
firfl
Difference of
Order be called D, the
of the third Order D,
firfl
of the fecond Order D,
then
the
firfl
C^c.
we
fhall
have
a^a,
2^+"D, ^ ^=:/?f.b, f = and from thence by Subftitution^
— +
d=:a^2b~{2C + b, &e.
a=a b = a'\i>
c)= a\2ty \D
J=:.^+3b
+ 3D + D f=^ + 4D + 6r) + 4DHD.
Law
of Continuation
is
where the
manifeft, the Unclae of
raifed
the Values of
c, d, e,
&c. being thofe of a Binomial,
to the fecond, third, fourth Powers, &c.
Therefore, if n be
the Value
put for the
+
£:
Number of Terms in + 4 ^c, whofe Sum we are
the propofed Series c \&
about to
find,
of
(95
of the next
Series,
)
lafl in
Term
in
the Progreflion after the
is
that
it
or that whofe Place
defined
{
by ;z+i,
will,
is
plain
,
be
equal
to
a
{'
?2
D
n x ^^^
D+
And
;2
X ^^ X
^— D
^
4.« X
~^X^^ X ^v^
j
D,
(Sfc.
fo
much
will
the {aid
Sum
be increafed by augmenting
;?,
the given
Number
firft
of Terms by Unity
the
which Sum,
therefore,
by the
of
two foregoing
Tropofitions^
isna^nx ^^^
D  « x 
X
EXAMPLE.
s
tical
UPPOSE
as 9,
1
a.
If,
Cj d,
&c.
to be a Series of Squares
are in
6, 25, 36, 6ff
;
whofe Roots
firft
Arithme
Progreflion
13, (^c.
Differences be 7, 9, 1 1, the fecond, 2, 2, 2, ^^. the third, o, o, ^c. &c.
then will the
Therefore a = 9,
D = 7, D =
2,
D = o, D =
o,
(s'f.
and
confequently na\nx'^~^i>y &c\ equal gm}4 «
nx~~ XJ
con
X
^^ X —^ X 2 = 9 + 16 + 25 + 36 4. 49, ^^.
Sum
tinued to n Terms.
In the fame manner the
drates^
of a Series of Cubes^ Biqua^
^c.
may
be found.
'M
.
(96)
An
eafy
and general Manner of inveftigating the
Sum
of any recurring
Series.
PROPOSITION.
Suppqfing p, q, r, tive or negative,
Series,
s,
&c.
to
be any Quantities, either pofv
and
A+B+C+D+E,
Terms A, B, C, &c.
&c. a recurring
are fo related,
or one whcfe
that any one of the?n, being multiplied by p, the next followOrder, by r, 6cc the Sum of all the i^g, ^' ^'^^ ^^^^ ^^
h
VroduBs, thus ariftng, Jloall be equal the Sum of juch a Series.
to
o
:
T'o
find {x)
E
^
CAUSE,
equal o,
by Suppofition,
o,
/»
A 4 ^Bfr C,
&c.
of
_
is
pB ^qQ^rD,
&c. &c.
\it is
&c. equal o, pC\qT>
evident, that the
J^ r E, &c, equal
f
Sum
p
A
+ qB
rC
{
sD,&c.
sE, &c.
J s
^
all thefe,
<
or,
pB + qC + rD + ^ C + ^ D+ rE + q E { rF \p D rG\^ qF pE
}
F, e?f
muft confe>
Gy
&c
quently be equal o.
{
]
sH,&c.
&c.
I &c.
&c.
C^c.
&
is
Where, becaufe
&c,
A + B + C+D,
&c.
^ x'A, C^D^E,
fiifl
= ^, BfCfD, = ;^A— B, &c. &c. the
acthe Lefthand will hepx,
Value of the
Column towards
thatof thefecond,
that of the
qxx^A; that of the third, rx^—A— B3 fourth, ^x^— A— B— C, &c. &c\ and therefore
pX
(97 ) ^j^_f^x:<r— Alrx^^ — A — B + jX^ — A— B— C,Gf<:. or ^a:4^a;— ^AlrAr — r y AiB f j;^ — 5x A fB[C,
&c.
=o
;
hence
^^^a+^xa+iT+.xa + e+c+.xa +b+c+p
EXAMPLE
I.
L
L
here
ET
the Series
ay
{
y""
{^—y ^c, (=
x')
be propofed,
Ci?r.
where p equal
e^^,
—
jv,
^
= ^>
r
— o,
j
= o,
K—ay^
B=yy,
thenwillA:=^A±Il><A±5Li£il, become ^^^
in this Cafe.
EXAMPLE
^'^
/»
II.
'I,
5'
h
=
+
^
^
^+
2;^,
^.
>
^^.
=
r
^.
where
=
2 ^3,
r=
being
=: I,
B
  4,
 6^
^r.
•
= o, / = o, ^c. Then A yA + ^><A + B,^_£^ _ ^x ^11
J
/
.
T
?» ^'''
become
~~
.
"^^

Cc
PROP.
(98
)
A
Method
for finding the
Sum
of a Series of
Powers, &'c.
PROPOSITION
To
fnd
the
Sum
of any Series of Powers whofe Roofs are in
as
Arithmetical Progrejjton,
tn X 3I/I''
»
. .
m{d\
dy
+
n^
m\^2d\
any
+.
^
''j
m^
and
being
Num^
ters whatfoever.
LET
ways equal
Ax
iBx
4C;c
&c.
+Dx
if poffible,
v'',
+
be al
Ex""^ hFa;""^,
to m\d^
—K,
..
^
712
m'\~2d^
:
and A, B,
C
&c> determinate Quantities
Then,
if
any other
Num,
ber in the Progreffion
^
d,
m \d,
2 d, ?n\'^
d
,
.
,
.
x~\di
x^2dy X \X
the
^d, &c. as
will
iiill
x \
be fubflituted inftead of
Equality
continue;
and we
fhall
hav€
^c.
K equal
;;2
+^
~\
m]2d^
atj^^
,
from
which taking the former Equation
^_;j;
'
there remains Ax^l«'
_^Bxxf^
,
—X
+CxArH^'
Side
is
—X
increafed
,^c,
= XA^^\
ty
s
(hewing
menting the
how much each Number of Terms in
,
the given Series
by augby Unifeveral
where, by tranfpofingxj^'
\
and throwing the
Powers oi X
d
into Series,
we have
«~^
X
(
99)
I
—
ICO
)
.
From which, by
come
out
equating the homologous Terms,
»
A will
=
.
,
v "*
^ = f>^=TT>
D=o,
E
=—
^
''^iJilL'^iilll^^^
2.3.4.^6
F=
O
'
G = " y^—'^X n~Z Xn—2, X n—\ X d 2.34.56.7.6
G?c.
its
H
fo

o,
&c,
wherefore the Values of A, B, C,
being
affigned, the
whole Expreffion, or
E\qual
at
4^'
be equal o, and confequently
Ax^4«
that
is,
—x
let a:
[,
B X^+
^^
— ^3 —K
<^<^.
—x\d',
and n be
what they
will, the forefaid
Sind
Increments of
A
a;
j^
x
j
Cx
«
—
yMc.
der the
above
:
m]d^ Jf.m'\2d^ , &'c. will, unaffigned Values of A, B, &c. be equal to
if
one another
Therefore,
,
K
be taken equal
Am
a*
,
f,
Bm
]
Cm
is
&c.
fo that
when x
equal m, or the pro
pofed Series
equal to Nothing,
:= o,
it
Ax
+B
that
it
(s'c.
K
may
be alfo
is
manifeft,
thefe
two Ex
preffions,
as they are increafed alike, will,
in all other Cir
eumftances, be equal
;
that
is,
let
x be what
&c.
will
A a:"
~Bm
2 j\
+
Ba:
?;2
\Cx
+Dx
,
,
^Am
faid
—C
^+
— 'Dm
will be
&c. under the
;;2
Values of A, B,
C, &c.
always equal to
j
4^'
j
m ^
+
3 ^1
...
a;
which Values being
therefore fubflituted,
there will be
^V^ + + iX'^'^
ii
— + ^^^
2
'
»x— .x»2^a.
23.4.5.6
34
+
—
(
101
«— 5 •—
'
)
«x«
•J
'
»;y«— ly;?— 2X//— ^y«— 4
2.34.^.5.7.5
5
a
X
— iX^— zV;/— —
'^
''^
2,
b"V.
i.
.^
«—
X
a
"^ '
2.3.4.5.6.7.8.5.6.
^
«~f'iX^i^
r3.4.5.6.7.8.g. 11.12.
,
eft*.
—
<^^
*""
2
'
3
4
"^
2.3.4.56
'^
^
^
, .
.
»
=
7n Y d\
+ W + 2 ^'
C D R O
+
^J 4 3 ^1
.
.
.
^
L.
I.
IT E N C E, JL
'
if
;2
be a whole polkive Number, and
then
all
m
n
b©
taken equal o
—
2
)
the
,
Terms
^€.
in thefecond Series
J^ nam "J1
3
vanishing
when
i§
//
j
1
>,y
all
4
even, and
thing,
but that where the Exponent of
odd,
.
m
JL
is
no^
when
'
we
. .
fhall,
^
in.
this
Cafe,
have
to
d j^2d
f
Ar 3 «
j
4^1
.
.
X
bardy equal
l! 4 l££!ll  l><!i:zii<iiziiiiLl!l2
2
,
(^r. the firft Series
laft
34
*till
2.34.5.6
it
continued
terminates,
provided that the
Termj
when
71
is
an odd Number, be rejeded*
C O R O
L.
11.
^^ THEREFORE,
VV
equal to 2, 3^
4,
equal to j, and by taking 5, &c. fucceliively^ we have
</
7t
D
d
I
—
(
102
.H^
)
^
2
2
142
i^42^
H3 44
+5
.
.
=:^+jL
3
+ 344^ + 5^...+Ar^=fLl.fI+42
o
1^423433+43^.^3
144^244^44444
.
..+^3 = il^fll^fl
.
•^'*'
«6
ir4
^.
4.A?4=li.
424 ^
.
.
5^2^ ll__^
3
30
i54_254.354_45
6
I
+ ^5.
..^.^^
=f±+^+H:_f:l
o
6
I
7220
c o R o
L.
4'
m
equal to
i?,
MOREOVER,
equal
to
i
,
if
^ be taken
general
and
m
our
Equation wilt become.
2
43
2
+4 ....4^
34
—d.''
=^+^ +—
^^^
'
>^^+^
l^gj
__^4. ^v.tx^2 2.3.4.5.6
^^^1^ g.^g
^^
^j^i^j^
&
'inereafed
by Unity, and the whole multiplied by
"
d''
give§
\2d
.
43
^ «
d^^''
+ ^d^"
'
.
.
.
.
+
dx^'
^
3
—
d^ into
?i
«
2
I
.„
—
I
wX« — X« 2x"
2.3.4.5.6
3.1
77fl
I
2
„^
3.4
.
«X «— X«32
2.3.4,56
'
^^
EXAMPLE
r.
LET
V> h^
it
be required to find the
Sum
of a Series,
conare,,
fifting
2,
of
100 Cube Numbers,
&c.
whofe Roots
^, 3,
Here
(
I03
)
Here
n
d,
the
a:
common
Difference of Roots, being equal ,
=
3,
and
=
o, let thefe Values be fubftituted in the
E4
quation in Cor,
lool
II.
and
it
will
become
the
(
\
—
2
in,
—4
J, i^
4
2
=
) ^
3
1878 12.5
,
Number
that
was
to be
found.
EXAMPLE
II.
L
fo
ET
;^
=
— ^^ = —
.
Then
l".
the Equation in
1^
the
I
lafl Corollary
will
become — + ~
I
2
T« 4. ^
.
^
.
.
4
'
4
'4
.
+.
'ITI
_!_'"
X
i^ + ^ + V
taking x equal 4,
5
f
>
^^
— ^
—
4
L.
•
very nearly
5
that,
it
will be
J_'
4
4,
'
3
4
lefs
41=
than
3.0731
which
if
differs
from the
true
Value by
more Terms had been ufed, the Anfwer J would ftill have been more exad: but never can come acat"
TcJoo
and
j
rately true,
when n
is
negative or a Fradion, becaufe then
infinittim.
both
Series
rua on ad
S
C
H O
Sum
L
I
U
M,
ufcful
""^IIE
in
Theorems,
finding the
alfo in
above found, are not only
of a Series of Powers, but
may
efpe
be of fervice
cially
as the
the Quadrature of Curves, &c.
true,
Conclufions will be accurately
fcientiiic.
and the
Thi.^'
Reafoning. thereupon
;
(
104
is
This
vvherein
I
fliall
endeavour to Ihew by the following Inftance
A C, being fuppofed a Curve, v^^hofe Equation yz (AB being equal z^ and CB equal y) the Area
A V^Q
is
required.
Ti
r
Let
Parts,
AB
as
be
divided
a^,
into
any Number,
of equal
cd^ (^c.
A^,
bc^
and from the Points of Divifion
raifed,
let
Perpendiculars
be
cutting the
r,
the Points,
2,
3,
Curve in ^c, and
^2,
r3,
let
having
J 4,
made
Kb^
£5*^.
/) i,
^c.
Bafe
parallel to
A B,
c d,
the
be,
&c,
Av^e7^^~^^~1^^
by d:
angles,
°^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Reaangles//^,
, J f
r<^j
be
reprefented
Then
/^
i,
C2, d 2,
(^c.
the Heights of thofe
Red2ZI'',
being Ordinates to the Curve, will be
d\
JJr'j &€. refpedively,
each of which
•.•
being multiplied
all
by
dj
the
,
common
Bife,
and the
d'
for
j
Sam
Td^
"
of
the Products
J'''
taken
will give
d
j
into
+3
hi,
... a
J' '\
{^ Apiq2r, &c.
cumfcribing Polygon
faid
CBA)
and
)
is
the Area of the whole cir
this Series,
according to the above
Theorem,
(
Cor. III.
equal to
d h
'''"
.+'
V
+
l
&c.
=^^—
^VH
^^'''"'^\
h
&c,
or,
becaufe ^x^rje;,
it
will
be^
—,
'^>.
Now,
if
from
this
the Diffe«
rence of the Infcribed and
circumfcribed Polygons, or the
(
f05
)
Redangle B D
= (/a "
be taken, there will remain
"
".
'
— ^^^,
is
for the
Area of the infcribed Polygon.
Hence,
it
manifeft, that, let
d be what
it
will,
the infcribed Polyfo fmall, aS
gon can never be
fo great,
nor the circumfcribed
^^ (= ^^4^7^
Of Angular
)
•
^"^
therefore this Expreffion
muft
be accurately equal to the required Curvilinear Area
A C B.
Sedions,
perties
and fome remarkable Proof the Circle.
PROPOSITION
^he Radius
as
L
of an Arc,
A C,
and
the Chords Sine, or CoJme
j
A r,
being given
AR=:»?xAr,
find the Chord, Sine, or Cofine of a Multiple of that Arc.
to
LET
RE
RH
be taken
= A R,
and the whole Arc
AH
as
be divided into as
many
equal Parts,
Ar,
rf
Cic.
there be Units in 2 ;« j and the Chords B r, B/] &c. are drawn as alfo the Radii r, and the Perpendiculars calling AC, i; Br, y, Cp, sc, rp, J E, ; rp,
C
CR, CH,
C
w, RE, Uj Ar%jz; and Then, becaufe any one of thofe Chords, as Bf is to B r  B R, the Sum of the 2 next it, as B C to B r, by a known Property of
the Circle,
AH*=Z:
X
—Br= BR
=
B^, and
we
}
fhall
have y x
B/ ~ B r
and
for the very
_y
X
B^
—BR=
{ B R, or ^^ x B/ fame Reafon, ^ x B R B/ B /6, ^c^c. Hence, it ap
—
pears, that the
Values of the Chords
Ee
B/, BR, ^c, (which
to
(
io6
)
to a Radius equal
A
B, will be Cofines of the Angles
A B/
A B R,
G?r. )
may
be readily had one
after another,
by
talaft
king continually the Produd of the laft by y, minus the but one, for the next following : And thus are had^
^3_3;,= BR,
jy6
— e^'^f
9;^*
— 2 =;BH,
&c.
^
^c.
And
;enerally, fuppofing g< >.^j>,„,jj
w^y,
A^"
^^By"
'
+ Cy"^^> ^^
,
^^'
to denote
anv one Chord of the foregoing Order, and any
Ay
—
(
^
I07
)
—
.
B^y
+
C/
,
&c. the next to
its
then the Chord
next following thefe will be A^''^^'
—
By'^'
+ Cy^^^
Ly—'+Ay''^+.
=
I,
^y'^, &c.
From which
will
(by the Method of Increments foregoing)
A
X
come
,
out
B=.n, C=:nx^^^, D^nx'^=^
^^
'^
E =
« X ^::^ X
—
X ^=Z , ^^. and
confequently
A
;;
 B;;
~
^Cy '^
^ rif
>^
&c.
=y"
^. ny ""'
•
^nx"~^^y ""'""^ri^ "
^
+ « X ~— X — X —
\mx^^^y
then
it
7
m,
,
^c.
it
wherein
n be taken equal to the given
Number
^' &c.
y
if
— my
Q?^.
till
will
become
but
equal
BR;
n be equal 2 m,
equal
will be ^'^
ny''~^^^^''_zi}_
2
^n — Ar^
tinued
caufe
BH;
where the
Series are
to be
conbefol
the Exponents
is
become
negative.
Hence
it
B/
equal 2 x, and the Arc
KWmx Af,
=
zx^""
lows, that the Chord
\
HB
will be
^mxTx'"""''
mx ^^ X 2a;I
""""^
^c, and therefore,
I
X
( :=
CE
2
)
the required Cofine being equal
H B,
we have
X r= ZE' ^
o
2
Z
'>.
^
2
1
k,
— X'2.x^
+
T
X
—^ X
—r~ X —rx 2x\
U
fhewing the Relation of the Cofmes ; from whence
—
(
loB
)
U
(
^ ^
X
I
—X
a;1
.
.
*
')
comes out
=:
^
2
a
T7ri^~"7
X —
,
— icx\in^2,K\ m — — X 2X
I
I
I
^
>^
m— ^
2
—
^
i
fn — 6 X 3 S X '^
—
2 AT
y
I
^d.
Furthermore, becaufe
y
,
~S
— ny
is
equal
CE, =
—y ^^y
+ X ——^—
«
^c
,
AE
will
— «X
^
^J
S
Cffr.
be equal to
fore
+i
;
and there
AExAB
^ 2
equal \q
^y"" ^^ny''~' —nx"^ y"^
if inftead
^c,
=
Z, where,
of j^,
its
Equal
z^^
n
^
(AB*
^
Ar*) be
fubftituted,
it
will
become
=fc
Z=
=±:
2;
:;=
nz~^ ^
nx'^'^z
^
,
^c. equal
2;
''^
^2^2r'^"~^=i:2;»
x.i^z:l.X2;"~'=^2/«x^^P^x^^f^x^"3=^2/» 3 3
._lf~^ y
as
/^"""^
X^^^^^ X
2^
'"""''
,
^c,
continued to
many Terms
as there are
Units in m.
^
£.
Z
Otherwife,
Let the Lines rp,
.and
RE,
x
:
be confidered in a flowing
then
State,
{mn)
:
as eq«al to
j
we

fhall
have v/
i
— a;x
this
(/r)
I
(Cr)
v/x
^l^^^
equal r/zj
that of
and
(
be
ing the Fluxion of the Arc
A r,
AR
equal
m x
Ar)
will be
—^^
^
which,
for the very
fame Reafon
that
—
( ^
. i
109
)
that
is
the Fluxion of the
A r,
mufl be equal
to
^
;
Whence,
equally multiplying the
two Deno>
minators by \/'^i,
we
get
^;r=^ = ^^,_ ;
there
ic
where,
either,
taking the Fluent on each Side,
comes
out,
Log.Xf v/lC^
I
= ^ X Log.
{
v/
^a:—,1,
or,
Log.
X — v^'X X —
X{v/X^
v/
I
= mhog.x — k/xx — I;
wherefore,
alfo
,
—
I
and x\ s/
/v
xx—
i
^'^
,
as
X—
corre
X^
—
I
and
—
~\
v^'at^c
—
i"'*
the
Numbers
equal
:
fponding to thofe
Logarithms muft be
Equations,
Hence,
by adding together the two
we
and
have 2
X=
x{\/xx
their
—
i^'"
X ^ \/
XX
i
— i'^,
=
by taking
Difference,
1
''^
'
2
;
v/X^
—
x{\/xx
— i'"^—
latter
at
""
X
— y/ XX —
from whence, by expanding the
Part of each of the Equations into Series,
and dividing the
whole by
2, there will
come out
X= x'^
{
mx ^^^
~^
X xx^ih^x~x"^^x'^^^=^ x^'^xxk^
&c, and
il^,
\/X^
"*
i
= \/xx^ 1
I
,
in^
mx""^'^
^^
mx
^~
X
^1:11
"V
~
^
X a; a:—
^f
.
the former of
which being
reduced into fimple Terms, givesX
=
^
^
JIL^ix^
as
+ ^X^^=iX2T» '"""',
found.
^<r.
the very
fame
above
And
the
latter,
by multiplying by */
— i,to
tak^
G
g
;
(no)
.
take
away
the imaginary Quantities, and fubftituting
their
U and
u inflsad of
Equals v/T^OT^, s/ I'^xx m
y
becomes
—
I
m—
^
X
I
1^tiu^
2
^
^4j
Pi
X
^— X y X
in like
—~
X
—
— uu^
m—
2
^
^^^ which,
manner, being redu
ced into fimple Terms, will be \J
— mu — m
x
23
^^^^^:l—Lx^Xus^mxJ:^X^
C O R O
X
L.
I.
BECAUSE
A
the
laft
Equation,
as appears
from the
Procefs, will hold as well
when
m
is
a Fra6:ion as
when a whole Number ; let m, or the Multiple Arch (= z» X r) be fuppofed indefinitely fmall j then will
AR mu
the
_;;^X^^^=^xa3 ^ 2.3 ^
+ ;wx^=^x^^^:^X2^5,
2.3
4.5
'
Gf^.
Sine of that Arch, or the
Arch
it
felf
(which
in this Cafe
may
9_^ii
2.3.4.5
be conlidered as equal to
.
it)
become
mu
~ll
Arch'
+
Ar
9X2^«^
2.34S67
^^^
is
and therefore the
will,
it
/ =:
A^ )
•"
whofe Sine
«,
is
manifeft, be
= « f
ll L
2.5
33"^
2..3.4.S
^
"*"
33?5
«^
I
335577«^
2.3.4.5.6.7.8^'
^^^
23'4Sf>7
"^
C O R O L.
(
XII
L.
)
C O R O
F Ar
II.
be fuppofed indefinitely fmall, and m indefinitely (=A) may great, fo that the Multiple Arch be a given Quantity ; then fince u may be confidered as
mxhr
equal to
Ar, niu
will be equal to
A, and
~^ mu — mx"" 23
^^
X ?*
or
3, '
^c, the Sine of A, equal to ^
m u — ^— 23
U
'
5
«
S
2.3.4.5
A—
—
2.3
4
~~
2.34S
—
25, G?f. in the Fadlors rejeded as indefinitely fmall in comparifon of
TTTTTT^ ^^ becaufe i, 9, 7' 2.3.4.5.0.7 ' m"^ .1, ;«*— 9, ^c, may here be
'
>
—
m%
B
2;cl
SCHOLIUM. — ^x — V xx — ECAUSE \/ = —m be found above ^mx —~ x Hwx —^ x^x
.V {
i^""
Ar;v
i'
is
to
univerfaily
2
a;
'
x
x
2
;f
I
,
&c.
{
it
"*
is
evident,
by
I
Infpedlion,
/«
,
that
—
—————
\/
X
{
XX
^ i^
f.
X ^
V XX
y
^i
<v
'
will
,
be
^
.\
2;<'i
}z«X2^1
+»2X —^ X 2
eftr.
and
my
"^
r^
in the
^ mx—^y
^,
^^ ^^. (by
in that
fubftituting
room of
and r r
of Unity)
let
r and
^ be what
they will
:
Therefore^ \i
y
^
my
r^
f
(
IlZ
)
mx !iZLl^.^^4^4.4_.,;^X^ K^^
J^'""^
r^+?/^X
^^ X
,j^
'^^r^
X
"^^^^
y""''^r\ &c, be fuppofed equal to fome
given Quantity
c^
there will be given Z'
^
%
y^
—
4rr
^
A.
2
_V
>^"^ "
—

—
I
^
3
•
iZ
A 4
>i«
r
H
alfo
=
c
and
therefore
2 »I
'
Z«
srf^
5
wherefore, the double
Redan gle
heing
of
7—
^^12.
,
f r r
of
into
J
4
/jrZZVrl"'
— ar^""
/
JL.
^
the Square
i
17^
IL\^ rA
will
be
=:
+
j:
4r
^"^
,
and
confequently
^y
;
yj.
4
^r
r\
,—
/
11. j^
rA
firft
=
\/ ^^
+4^
'
which iiqua
tion added to the
gives,
2X_L.4./iZj,rrl V ^ 2
1
=
2
I
c)^<:c
+ 4r^^s
and
fubtraded
therefrom,
x
2^4
2^4
1
2 /«
and thereI
Which
1
(
JI3
)
be ufeful and ferve as a Theorem for the Solution of certain Kind of adfe(5led Equations, comprehended
Which mav
in this
Form,
viz.
y
^my
,
"
r"
^
m
X ^—
y
+
r^ &c,
=c
'"
:
tion x3 f /^x
For an Inflance =/& be propofed
"'~~^
hereof,
let
the cubic Equa*
then, by comparing this
?>^
with
•=zb.
'3
or r r
2
;'
— my r % ^c, we have = y^x, mr"= — c^h, and confequently ^ =  4 x/ ^ 43,
,
2
4
I
27'
4
27
PROPOSITION
^ on
the
II.
Diameter
the
A B,
is
from any Point C,
O,
/;z
the Circle
AC
B, whofe Centre
the Perpendicular
Ck
be let
fall,
and
Arc
AC
A a,
be divided into any ISlumber,
m^
of equal Parts, as
a m, &c. and
if
the whole
Pe
riphery be alfo divided into the fame
Number of equal
c d,
Parts,
beginning at the Point a, as a b, be,
&c. and from
any Point P, in the Diameter
Lines be drawn
to the Points a,
A B,
b,
c.
or
AB
to
produced.
&c.
P^* X P^^ X P^*,
Squares of
all
thofe
&c.
the
continual
I fay, P^* x ProduB of the
Lines will be equal
AO
^ ""
:i=
AO^'
X 20i^ xOP^'^f PO""^to
I,
A PUT = O = Ok
of the Chords
fince
PO =
to n,
to ^,
io b,
2m =
=zto iu^x\^ V, and the Square of any one
^
AP
A a,
Ab, Ac, Ad, &c.
equal to
any one of the correfponding Arcs A a, reckoned forward a certain Number of Times, brings us to the plus a certain Numfame Point C, or, is equal to AC, or
zi Then, Ab, Abe, &c,
AC
G
g
ber
I
2
(
114
)
it
ber of
Times
the
whole Periphery,
appears from the
lafl
Fropofition that
^z^ ^nz
to
2
Z
n—^
z"^
OT^3
^ ,
^c, continued
is
m
Terms,
is
=AC%
will be
^
•
or
becaufe
AC*
m—
=
2
+
2/^
(ABxA^)it
nx
2
3
^
5;
n z
n— ; ^ m— 4. nx'^'^^z 2 let
:
—^xr^z
A ^,
«,
•
•
•
•
^2 + 2^ = o,
Chords you
ition
z
ftand for the Square of which of thofe
will
Wherefore,
the Roots of this Equa
being the Squares of the Chords
all pofitive,
Kb^
A
<:,
^c,
they mufl be
their
Sum =
x
the
Sum
,
of their
Produdls n x ^^=^, of their Solids n
^^ X ''^^
made
^c.
by
common AB, we
Algebra.
{hall
Now,
if
j^ be
perpendicular to
have AF^'
=t
+ A^*=t: AP x
= AP^f.^
2A^=
Y e" =
which
AP*
+ A^* APx—
x'a7I',
m
(
115
x
)
And, for the very fame &€, Reafons, P/^^^uH^xA^^ F c"" =:v \~ x x V C^^ therefore the continual Produd: of v \ x x Aa into v \ X X A^^ into ij i XX Ac"", &c. is equal to Pa^x
in
Species,
is
'Pe*:=z'v]x
A
e^^
:
P/^*xP^%
is
^<^.
But
in the
former of thefe Produds,
it
evident, that
when
the feveral Fad:ors are adually
firft
drawn
into one another, the Coefficient of the
eft
Term
or high
Power of
of
all
Vi will be
i
;
of the next inferior Power, the
Sum
the abovefaid Roots
Aa^,
A^%
&c. into x, of
the next following, the
(§c, and, therefore, the
Sum of all their Products into x^, Sum of thofe Roots being already
found
=
^
n,
their Produdls
=
n x '^^^j &c. we have v""
f.
?;
j^
nxv"^
H n x
—
2

x^v
lX^'U
X
, .
—
2
X
3
^
X3V
^nx — X
,
X
^
.
.
,
^ 2
\
2&XX
its
P/z^xP3*xPf%
I
&c.
Or, by fubftituting for v,
f
Equal
CO
;c
I*
it
will
4^
be
ToTP"
nxXi
'j^
xi""""
f
«x "—
X
2^' XAr'" = P^?^xP^^ X'Xl co^l'^— ....{ 2 P^% &c, (becaufe 2m^n)\ This in fimple Terms is
+
•
2
23'
+
^ X ^^— x.f:r3 '
;^ 3,
^
f.
;2 a;
—

« «
X ^—^ x^^
ef^.
*
4le
X
"^yx^
 «x Vx^^^^
^^'
l^P^^x
f
2
+^ X ^
^
Which
*
{
ii6
Hence
)
Which contrad:ed, by adding
becomes
efficients
firft,
i
together the
it
* *
^^
^c.
homologous Terms, appears, that the Co
do every where deflroy one another, except in the and the middlemoft of the faid Terms j and that the middle Term would likewife vanifli, if inftcad of
laft,
2
1
4
2^
X^
"\
the correfponding
Term
that
of the above Series
CO x^"" •\nx
X
1^
;;/,
x^
^^~^
,
or
where
;
the
Expothis
nent
of
a:
is
was
to
be
added
wherefore
Term
is
being
n x
^"~^
X
^"~^
^
into
x
^
(
=2
a: '")
as
eafy to perceive from the
\2bx'''
Law
of Continuation,
or,
we
have
I
+ A:^'^=P^^xP^^xP<r%G'f.
is
AO^'"
&c.
+ 20^xA0^^
Ok
becoming
xPO^H PO"^ = P^^xP^S
taken on the
other Side of
And, when the Point k
^PO^^ will
AO _0^, A O a^ xP^^ xP^r^ be equal to V
^^
2 O/^ X
—
O,
^^
,
xPO^
2).
&c.
% E.
C O R O
at
j
L.
will
I.
O = A O, and C be taken then IFxP3^xP^%^r.B =AC^f2AO«xPO^ P
i^
^
+
PO
we
^ "*
}
where, by taking the Square Root on each
Side,
have
P^xP^xPc,
^c,
=:A0^4P0«.
L.
II.
C O R O
if
A T C A BU A0, AO^^ — 20/^xA0^'xP0^'"=P^2O =
comes
into
;
then
being == o, and
y^
X
Vbj
^
(^c,
will
therefore
become
AO^^..2AO^
x
PO^*
(
1^7
)
PO^ + PO*^ =P^2
xP/52 xPt:2,
^c.
And P^
X
C O R O
L.
III.
HENCE
e>r.
manifeft, that if any Circle be divided into as many equal Parts as there
it
is
ABCD,
are
Units
m zm {m
being
any whole Number what
produced thro' A, any one of the Points of Divifion, a Point as P be affumed any where, either within or without the Circle,
foever)
and
if
in
the
Radius
O A,
PAx PCxPExPG,
^c.
will
be=
AO^c/3PO*'>
PBxPDxPFxPH, &c. sAC^+PC, and PA xPBxPCxPDxPE, efc. =AO'^wPO^'".
Hh
PROPe
H
(
1
ii8
)
Of
the Reduction
of
Compound
ones.
Fractions
into
more fimple
PROPOSITION.
m—
7o divide a Compound Fradlion, as
into as
many Jimple
ones as there are Units in
p
,
fuppojing
m
the
to
be
am
r
whole pojtfive Number, not exceeding p,
info binojnial
and
Denominator reducible
Fa&ors.
ET
—
a;
be any one of the given
Fadors
let
into
which the Denominator may be reduced, and
^
}
then,
by Redudion, we
.J^bxc^cx'{dx^ ....
QjcP—^\xP
rA+rB;e+rCA;*+rDAr3j^EAr* ....
+r/x/—
have
{
*A.B.^c.3_D.^
..txP^^^^
becaufer—.A:x/f^A:
Hence,

+ ^^%
by comparing the
^^ = a'{bx^cx\^c. homologous Terms, we get
.
__7i
or
B = =^'
.P

Xi, C===4^
if
— Ai,
^c,
la% .
=
wherefore
/j
+gr
^+_
J
^, 4
ji^, ^c.
^^S^..
....{
^ir*
/ir3
+ ^5^4
But,
—
(
^
^
r
; ,
119
)
But, becaufe
18
r^x xfhgx + t x + ^'^^ .... + Px/'' Q^^~'+x:^ we = ^+^^+^^* + ^^^
!^/+;.^^jr^^»fr/Ar3+riA:*
r?xP—'^
*
1
—fx— _« —bx—
*
gx^—hx^ —
cx^—dx^
ix^
—
Q^;^/'— •
YxP r
— ^•
— ex^
— xP^
and therefore /=^,^=:^+^,
l *
^= ^—^y^+f,^'
^
+ ^ + ^
~\
,
and
P =
— —^H —
4.•.
(ifr.
Whence /r=^,^r 2
z=,
ir'^
a\'br
+^r, hr^=. a^br ^ cr^^. P r ^ = ^ 4 ^ c r^ \{ir^, C^c, and
.
=^
+ ^r24.d?r3_f^r4.
all
. . .
..
Qj'
^"""^
;
wherefore (by adding
thefe Equations together) there will
.
be^r \gr^
p
^
h r^
f
P r^ = ^ ^
gives s
y.dr''
that of
for
s.
+ p— Q^/—
I
I
X br
laft
{
—2 X
,
fr
2
f />
—
3
5
which
=
:r=
=
Value
'"'^
being fubftituted in
—
——
_ ^_;
Numerator of one of the required fimple Fracfrom whence,, x tions ; whereof the Denominator is r anfwering to the other by Infpeaion, the Numerators For^ given Fadors or Denominators are ealily obtained be the faid Fadors if R AT, C^c, X, S X,
the
—
,
:
—
into
which
— T— a ^ b x +
R—
a;
^
ex"
{
dx^
Q^xP~^
be =a^bx\^
4 ^ ^ is
cx\C^c,
be put
reducible, or
X
S^x X T—x,C^c,
—
And ^^_^_^^^_^_^^j^^_^_^^^3
_^pi^
= A,
—
r*^ — B,>
^
^
.
(
I20
)
&c»
C^c,
it is
evident, that
—
,
f X ^^ —
r
will
be
7
,
,
A
t;
R ^
,
B.^S^
Ca>T^^
r^
^ P
EXAMPLE
ET
the
I.
==£^=^, bepropofed. 1—XX2—X Then will a — 2y ^ = — 3, c=i, ^=0,^ = 0, ^^. ^= ijp=Zy m = 2, R=i, S=2, T=o, &c» A=i, B = — I and therefore /i = i— — ^
l!Zi, Fraaion 2— 3^4^"^
*^
*^
—
,
— EXAMPLE
^
IL
then,
F
the given
Fradion be
I
paring a
—'^
•
•
•
fn— I
j
by com
lz:^zl>x"
^X
"
+ bx +^^* 4^^^
we have
•
.
Q^^"~^
{
x^
with
isia^Ar" 4;^^",
of the middle
a=
i,
^ = 2«,
all
the
Coefficient
Term
=
=5=^ ^,
and
the reft except the laft
=
',
wherefore
A (=
become
—
=
^
)
will in this Cafe
,
B=
1
,
Gfc.
A
(
121
)
A
General
Quadrature of Hyperbolical
Curves.
PROPOSITION
T^here are
two Curves
AC,
H D G,
having the fame com^
mon
Abfciffa
AB
y
{x) whofe Ordinates
B C and B D
ar^
x"\
and
To find the Area of
each } fuppojing r and n to be any whole pofittve Numbers^
and
the
Denom'mator
\
^ dx"
\
x"^" not reducible into
two binomial FaBors.
L
ET
n be taken in r as often as poffible, and the Remain« and let A a: B xr—nzt^ der be denoted by m
,
'^
—
+
be aflumed
=:
2«„^^»^I
;
"c
being any given Quantity
:
li
Then
;
(
122
)
Then,
to
by reducing
this
one Denomination,
we
Equation inihall have
J''"^!
\'
—
x*"^"4*
c
)
l+A
J
1
therefore
E=</D — C
But,
A=
r,
B=<^A, C=^B^A, / = </j./, j=
i,
—
D=^C— B,
J,
now
;
in order to conftrud; thefc feveral Cowefficients
with the Radius
dcfcribed
and Centre O, Fig,
id,
2. let
the Circle
AB be
take
Ok~
Ck
perpendicular to
A B,
meeting
r—
the Circle in C,
;//
to
72 ;
and
to the Arch A C, as and the Arch let the fame be divided into as many equal
,
CBU
Parts as there are Units in ^^^^
at the Points
R,
S,
T, &c.
and
let c
be
now
fuppofed
= C^
j
then will Qk^ Rr, ^c, the
Perpendiculars falling from thofe Points on the Diameter
A B,
be equal to the
fped:ively
:
faid
required Coefficients
For, lince the Arcs
AC, C
Circle
A, B, C, ^c, reR, ^c. are equal,
by a well known Property of the
Rr
(B)
is
= ~^
xCn = ^A), Si(C)=i£i^
_X/
(D) =
.C^(^^BA),
Hence,
^^^^^'.Rr(=^C — B)^c.
we
(
124
)
we
have
——
(•.•''
+
C^x^
+Rrx^
Cy^x^
'"""''
—
h
S.x^'^"'
T/x^'" +
i—dx"
\x
^^^^""^" ^'^"" 
and therefore—^^—^—^^—
= ^ ex
into
Rr
x
whofe Fluent, or
.
"x""
,
+ ^'y^~'" ^,l^'ll
the Fluent
T^^^^^'""
pks
of
^
firft
x
u^X^" + ^^+T/x^^
1
— dx^
this
^^jjl gi^g the Area in the
is
Cafe.
Xx'^^^
And
equally,
Method of Solution, it when the fecond Term of
manifeft,
will
is
hold
the Divifor
pofitive,
x^\ li k, inftead of Denominator i {Jx" being taken towards A, be taken at an equal Diftance on But the contrary Side, the Center from O towards B.
or the given
+
now
that
to
find the Fluent
of
——^tt^.'
^^^"^
^^^^^
abovenamed will be obtained, take A a to AC, as the Point a, let I to 72, and O^^X', and beginning at the whole Periphery be divided into as many equal Parts, ab, be, cd, &c. as there Units in «; letting fall the Perpendicular am, and putting b^ld (= Ok) and Om—f,
then, becaufe
(as
is
P^^ xP ^^ x P<^Ms =
i
—
2
/^
a;
''
+ x '%
and beis
proved in the Propofition preceding the
lafl)
caufe
i^2fx\xx (=0^^~20;«x0Ph0P^)
fhall,
Pi2% we
by feigning
i
— 2/Ari :vx equal
to
No
thing,
3
(
125
)
thing,
get
/h \^ fj
fi)
—
\
^x, and
/— s/"ff^i~x for
two of the (2
Quantity
i
imaginary binomial Fadors into which the faid
{
if
— 2 bx" x^'\ Equal f\~^ff^i^x reducible X f — ^ff— — ^ X ^^' Wherefore, / + v/77^ ^^ P^t = p, and / v///T^,
or
is
its
I
:
.ft
then will
2«Xi— '^/"X;' —
^
—
.
aa;
and
^ ^
w
—
,
Ar
2kXi— ^?''X$'a:
/^^^
/i:?/?
Propojitioriy
tn
—^— —I
—
be two of the fimple Fradtions into which
divided
j
may be
away
thefe
being
added toee)
ther
(
to
take
the
imaginary
Quantities
give
2»
into
r^Xp'']q"
+
i>ip"
q''
intoj^
X ?^
which, becaufe will be
pq
=/+ V ff—
— ^X/'^f?^
is
into
i
></+ v<//~iis=ij^
zn
into
i.f^^
i
— zfx^xx
Arch
as is.
But,
fmce
^
+^
..
the Cofine^ of the Multiple
that of /??xAi7, Gff.
AC
(=:;2xA^) and
^
Jg
if
manifeft from Page 109.
A/r:i
^—
AH
be taken
zz ^,
— m\Aa,
and.
I
X
A

<7,
and ^ ;^ be put
AH = G, and Oi; = Fi our Expreffion will be thus exhibited,. A^— x Y—±X — C/+ bxXCoLCU r tt — — — xX — ijut as xl —» ZJ X
Cof.^oF
Cof. of
:
.
H
/&
the Sine of
.
'ZCCX''
D

ri
Gf^. we have by the Elements of T^rtgonometry the Cofine cf 4 G r Cof. ofCH^ b¥\€G, and the Cof. ofCfzbgG ^^ b/F ^cJG^cgF and therefore our Expreilion will ftand thus,
A^is=A/,
AC—.AHr_CH,
^^
Y
Af^ Ff
',
E/
—
( 126
n
c c
)
\
i
I
— zfx ^ X X
cc inflead
*
where, by fubftituting
reduced to
into Xy
of b
.
b,
it is,
at length, ^^^^
^/F+^.F+rg G^/Gf..xi: G.^::£F
cn'X.
I
— zj^x ^x X
^^^
^^^^^
is
one of the n rational Fradlions, (whofe Denomi
nators are f «
x P ^ ^, cnx^b", c?2x^ c^^y
^
1
,
C^c,
)
into
which
the Quantity
whofe Fluent we
are feeking.
may
be divided.
Now,
or,
therefore, the Fluent of
X
^_^
,
being

(
P^O)
—
I
into
the
Arch meafuring the
,
Angle P aO. and that of ^
—^—
:
equal to the fame
2/X\XX
Arch
into
—
n
,
plus
(A
O
P^)
or the Hyperbolical
Lo
garithm of ^q
cfF
j
the Fluent of
+ 6,F+cgG 6rGXx+i. GcFX:cx
c
X
I
— 2/ X
^
^
^h^t
\~
XX
is
of thofe
)
Fradlions
be
=^—~x (0^:P^) + ^{4x(P^0),
en
n
J
^
whofe
Denominator
en X V a^
n
^
will
n
c
/»
Or, >
into
= —rrrA
(P^O)
:
i^to
(O ^
:
P ^), H
rfVr
i
Fradions,
From whence the Fluents of the reft of the which make up the required Value, whoie
Denominators are ncxV b'^^ ncxVd'^y &c. are determined by Infpedtion , iince the Manner of Conftruction muft necefTarily be the fame in all of them. Next,
,
from hence
to
find the Fluent
of
—
z=i
very fame Reafon that
AH
was taken
— mXAa
:
For the
In find
ing
(
^^
128
)
ins;
the Fluent of
*—."'
—
:
,
let
AH
be (now) ta
ken
then
into
=
min
xAm,
and
into
let
Hb
be perpendicular to
AB;
— _^
(
(O <^
P ^)
,
+
v.
pr
H
P^O
',
)
(ifc.
^c. &c, will confequently be the Vabeing
lue fought
but
A H —AC
=AH, HbxO k^
O ^xO>^
faid
C/^X
— 0/6
will be
AOxH^,
and ^
+ C>l
^c.
X
*^
HA=0/&xAO,
VFi (O^
:
and therefore the
Value equal
&c,
of
P^)
+ ^
*~'
(
:
P^O
)
&c,
that
Now, from
the
two foregoing *^
is
Fluents
^x
ex
u.X^ + ^T.x^"
be taken
readily determined
5
and, if
TO
per
zzmxha,
or
will
C^c,
A C Q^^ ^
come
that
is, if,
x AC, and
Q^
pendicular to
AB,
Gfc,
out=^ {Oa:Va)
for the
^
that
I,
+
(P^O)
^c,
fame Reafon
TAQJs made = wrxAtf, TAQJje
or
made
mxKb^
II II
TAQ^mxAc, T AQ^mxAdy
I,,
QJ3^= QCJ^=
I
QjCi be
,
^c
fall
— mxab,
on the
I
let
and the Perpendiculars Q^, Diameter AB, it will be
Q^,
&c.»
«
X ^^
—
(
129
\
) ^^
Qji
(X}i
{O a
V a)
V
O O
n
n
VaO)
I
{O
b
'
b) ^
{•
P^O)
»X^k
into
— QJ
<(
{Oc
:
Vc)
P^)
Oji
//"
ii/i
{Od
:
{
VcO) On On —?dO) P^O)
nil
&c.
This therefore added to
continued
tive,
'till
J
ax^'
r
— ny^c
+
•
RfYx
r
ziiX.<:
&C.
or negafirfl
is
the Denominators
become nothing
(as
above found)
for the
let
will be the required Area in the
in the other,
Cafe.
But
Area
where the Ordinate
—^
•
,
X be put
,
equal to ^, or y
=
^
—y
yy
1
thea
j
« 4
\
will
be
I
+ «+'
^^
=P
J
«
f J
2 «
'
and X
and
therefore
—
^— , or the Fluxion of the propofed Area
ABDHEA,
that
fion
equal to
,
and confequently
of
BF G
D
^
equal to
;
which Expref
being the very fame in
Form
with the Fluxion of
in the
the Area
ABC
it
is
manifefl,
that if P,
fore
going Conflru(5t2on, inftead of being taken at the Diflance
X from the Centre, be put
therefrom, as at P,
at the
Diflance
all
—
(=
^)
and the Signs of
the Indices
of
x
be changed,
will
tiic
Expreffion fhewing the faid Area
ABC,
in
give that of
BF
G D,
or the
Value required
this
L
1
Cafe
«
,
—
(
13°
is
)
Cafe
:
Which
!
therefore
r—n
£L
+
?p<^
Qji
_ ^y^, —
r
3
«
<sc,
into
1,
plus
—Vt
But
into
iOa
'.
Va)
'\'
d;2
as
(
P^ O
to
)
^s^^.
^r.
)
>
OP
{x)
being to
O^
( i ),
Oa
OP
(
—
the Triangles
OV a,
and
O^
P,
will be limilar,
and therefore the Angle
:
P jO = O P^, and
Oa
r
:
P^,
r
OP
— 2«
P^, ^c, S/X
r
wherefore the fald Area will be
3
—
—
«
,
&c, into
at"
Ci
0;2
(
r
Qjz
(OP
p^) 4P/^)
OP/z)1
/'//^j
"J
—
into <
Q^ (OP — qJ (OP qJ (OP
^qJ?'
(
^O'n
(
OP^)
p^)
+ On
(
OPc)
PJ)4_0'^ (OP^)
op
Ve)^0"n (— OP^)
^
C O R O
L.
I.
JS.
L
H
ENCE
the Area of a Curve, whofe AbfcijfTa
is
x,
and Ordinate
:
—
;
may
be eafilv
obtained
For,
let
the Radius of the Circle
A
B,
denoted by
g, the reft as before
then, fince every
now be Term in
ji)
the required Area
mud confiit
of the fime
Number
(r
of
Dimenfions, by fubftituting the feveral Powers of ^ for thofe of AO, or Unity in our former Area, it will become
C/^
(
13^
)
I
(
132
)
£!Z!
into
into
^+
:
^iiX.?!^'
_
^'^^"'•"',
©.. 4^^;
C^c\
0^2 (O ^
P ^)
+
O
;2
(P ^ O)
+
II.
(^c.
for the
Area in
this Cafe.
C O R O
E
L.
N C E,
alfo,
may
the Area of a Curve, whofe
Ab
fciiTa is
z, and Ordinate
—
——
p
{•
——
r
p
I
.
,
where
be
p
denotes any
Number
:
at
pleafure,
and r and n
t
x^ a''
as above,
JL
eafily derived
For, putting
z
"
^
~g, and
z z^
d^f X
^
^
i
or
/ =. d
X g
r
^
>we
have
=;
_^Kr—
wherefore,
fciffa
if in
the foregoing Area, anfvvering to the
''
Ab
X,
and
Ordinate
i
"
.,,
ni
n
^'
^^^^^ Values
of
dy gy
Xy bc rcfpcd vc ly fubftituted, and the whole be
multiplied
by ^
,
it
will
become the Area
in the prefent
Cafe, *
which
therefore will
be
"'^
^XP—p "
pXCk
>
into
^ + r—n
'till
^—^^
H
C
..
^'^^
contmued
the
Denominators become nothing or negative.
H
(
^33
:
)
(
(
Qj2
Q^h
xpp
Q_;?
in\
'Oji
H
pX^k
~Cti
FaO)^ {OA Pa) hOn P O (OA F6)^^On PcO) (OA Pr) + OJ'z > (OA P^) + On (— P^O) O A P O — O (— P ^ O
:
(
Z^
)
:
(
:
(
:
.
;2
)
Where, according
_1_
to the foregoing
_P
J
Conftmdion,
AO
(hould
=
a
"
,
Ok=:
f
/x ^
'^
,
and
PO = z
its
^
''
i
but fince each
Term
in
the Area,
,
when adually
divided by the
common
Numerator and Denominator by one fmgle Dimenfion or Power of Lines exhibited in the Circle whofe Ratios do not at all depend on. the Magnitude of that Circle, it matters not, whether AO, Oky and PO be taken exadlly equal to thofe as Quantities, or to others in the fame Proportion,
Divifor
Ck
will be affedted boch in
,
___^
a,
f/,,
L
Xtf,
or
and ^1
"
i,
^,
and
"
^j
,
provided
like
is
the reft of the Conftrudion be retained. hold in the Area of the Curve whofe
'P^i
The
will
AbfcifTa
z^
and Ordinate
2 p.
,
which by proceeding
p .fa ^
r.
1
«
p ^
\
f
z
Z P
f^
in the
fame Manner, from the fecond Cafe, will Gome out
'till
the
Denominator becomes nothing or negative,
Mm
+
A
(
^4
;
:
)
Qji 0^2
(OP
{OV
(
?a)
f.
0;z
(
^PO)
^
t"
F6)
P
c
)
— oil
+
O
;i
{
PO P
)
—
4f
Q^;/
OP
:
(
O
X
in <
«'^•
)
Oji
— Q^'
L
{OF (OP
Area
:
Fd) {0
Pf)
72
(—dPO
(— ^ P O
>
)
:
—O
r
?^
)
Hence,
to
find the
ABC A
of a Curve,
whofe
Abfcifiii
is
z,
and Ordinate
a^^=±fa^' «^f
2/
=..
,
or the
A
rea
BFGD
.P
of that whofe Abfcifla
p—i
(fee
is 2;
(=
A B) and
we
have
Ordinate
—
71
the foregoine F?V.)>
this
Con
iirudion.
dius
From the
I,
Centre
O
of the Circle
is—
take the Point k in the Diameter
ACB, whofe RaAB^ towards
or B, according as the Sign
of/^^~' z^
is.
— or {^fo that
to
Ok may=
k
in that
^, and draw the Perpendicular
and
Diameter, meeting, the Circle in
I
Ck to the Point Cj make A a 10
n,
A C,
as
to n,
A C Qj:o A C,
equal to
as r
and
C R,,
equal
take
RS, ST, ^c. each
Point a,
let
ACj
??,
and, beginning at the
the
whole
Circle be divided into as
in
many
Farts a& there
are Units
as
a
by
bcy cdy ^c.
OF
^c,
=
the
"Z.
"
,
and each of the Arches
into the
QJ3
,
QCK.
«,
^
Arch a b
Remainder of r divided by
the Perpendiculars
and draw
Sj,
P <?, O ^, P^, Ob^ ^c. and
Qji,
Rr,
Tt, ^c,
Oj/j
Q^n, &c, to the Diameter
AB;.
then.
{
135
)
then will the Areas
be
refpedively
as
above exhibited.
in all
pofitive
And
it
mufl be obferved,
that this Solution holds
^,
Cafes where
f
is
lefs
than 2
and r and n whole
Numbers.
NoU.
bolical
That
(OP
in
:
Logarithm of
—
any
Va
,
)
is
put to denote the hyper(
and
^
P
O)
the Meafure of
the Angle ^
is
PO
Parts of Radius or
other.
Unity
5
the like
to be underflood of
—
(
—
,
13^
)
^S
C
H O
L
I
U
M.
THE
above Solution being fomewhat intricate, others by infinite Series, where they will converge, may
>
be thought preferable
Difficulty in
but
as
the greateft,
if
not the only.
lies
what has been here
delivered,
in finding
the Fluent of
be
proper
a
(
V^r^
any thing
.,
.
<"
,
,,,.,,..
on
this
'
"
""^^
)
before
is
offered
Hciid
to
add
different
Method whereby
in the
the
faid
Fluent
of
,n\x
m—
I
— zbx^ 4,
may,
Form
it
flands above, be
more
eafily inveftigated.
In order thereto,
the
firfl
Conftrudion of the Points
being premifed
C^c.
 d,
,
C, R,
B, C,
S,
i'h,
a, by c,
&c, &c.
let
the
Sines of
the Arches
AC, A^, A 6, Ac,
their
be called
\ e,
i
D, E, &c, and
:
Cofines
i
/^,
 c,
^c,
refpedively
Then, becaufe
— cx^xx
x^""
,
is=:P^%
dx
^xx=^b'^y
i—ex^xx^'^c^y
&c, and
it
P^^xP^^ X
i
Fc^X P ^%
Sum
&c.
of
C^c.
=1 — 2b x"" ^
of
i
follows,
the .^Logarithms
cx^xx,
i
— dx~\xx,
that the
muft be equal to the Logarithm of
^2bx'' ^x^"
and thereforeFluxions
garithm.
X
=
XX — ax^i XX — cx\'i ""^'"'"~ ~^"'~' the Fluxion of i"
Gf^r.the
,
1
^^^
+ _^.ll^::iiL,
~
Sum of their
that
2
!J
.i
"
Lo
\
X
Hence, by taking each^de of the Equation from
il^, and dividing the whole by x, we have i/^
XXX
^—'''
C
X
—J" I
+
—
—
—
( 137
)
— —rr»
^
^^'
=
,
5
this
Equation be*
.,
.V
ing multiplied
by x"
and the former by
and the
4'
Pfoduds added
together, there will be b into ^
~^^i
I
— cx~\xx
,
— ——
1
i
I
, ax\xx^
^c, 4 X
*
into
——
I
i
cx~\xx
U
«
i
dx^xx
,
&c.
(
=. IE!i><ii.fZ.'
)
=
"^'''.
Now
to
reduce
«" X ,;:;.
Let
,
+
vSt+T.
+G;tf
^^ t° lower Dimenfions;
A
A?
+Ba?
C
^^«^^/A;+i
•^
.JL£±V
AT AT
be alTumed
=
^
i2
x.^'
I
'
x^.^
^
^^.
XT^
CX\XX
iL^JLzil"^', then, by bringing the Equation into one
XX''
ex {'I
Denomination,
and equating
the
like
Terms, we have
&c,
A = ff, B = fA— I, C = fB — A, D = ^C — B,
and
a
u
=
—
J
:
But, thefe Equations,
it
is
manifeft, (from
known
Property of the Circle) likewife exprefs the Rela
tioa of the Colines of the Arches
therefore
A^, 2
A a, 3A^,
firfl
&c,
(A
=
B
f
C) being the Coline of the
of thole
Arches, and
that of the fecond ,
the Values of C,
D, E,
&c, which entirely depend on
thefe,
mult confequently be
equal to the Colines of the reft of thofe Arches refpectively
;
and
17
therefore
t
equal to the Coline
i
of ^
xAa,
and 
=
that of »
—
x A^. Wherefore^
if
Aa^
+
B
Nn
—
—
:
(
138
)
Sx'^
in like
+ Cx''''^...
kx^+"lx+"s+j^^+^,
he.
Manner, affuraed
Bat'^
{
=
G?f.
12
x
*''~'/7''' , xx—ax\l
and
Ax"~"
C?r.
i
Cx'\
= _ J_ X "'"^r^"
fame Reafon, that A,
&c.
C,
ty
it
follows, for the very
v, will be
B,
—
the
Cofines of the Arches
A ^,
/,
2A^, sA^, nx^by and« — ixA^, and A,
S,
B,
C,
c.
thofe of
A ^,
\
2
A ^,
we
L_
3
A
a;
^, ;?
y A c,
?z
—
i
x
A
2
^c,
^c.
refpedlively
and
fhall,
by adding together the
'x ^J~'^.^ {"^ Ji\xx
""^
faid Equations,
have
x
'"""
—d
dx^xx
f
I
(^c,
=
a;''"^
X
A
4
A
1
A,
efr.
{
a:
XB
+B
B
4
4'B, &c,
'tx^^
+ ;.«4 xC 4 C + C,
,
Gf.. G?r.
+ ^if;±£^^
an
Bat, A,
A, A, &c. being the Cofines of the
therefore the Roots of
I
dx{x X
Arches
Ka, Ab, Ac, &c. and
Equation, exprefling the Relation of the Cofine of an Arch, to that of another Arch « times as great, wherein the fecond
Term
is
always wanting
{vit^e p.
io6.) their
Sum muft
;
thereis
fore be equal to nothing,
by
common
is
Algebra
which
evifor,
dent even by Infpe6tion, when n then eveiy one of the Points a, h,
inp
an even
Number;
c,
&c, above
AB
hav
another Point, of the fame Conftrudtion, diametrically oppofite to it, the Sines, as well as the Cofines, anfwerii g
to thole Foiais,
mufl be equal and contrary, and therefore
dcftroy
—
(
deitr oy
^39
)
each other.
In like
2
manner B, B, B,
2
C^c,
being
the Cofines of 2
A ^,
A ^,
A^
is
,
^c,
or
the Roots of
fuch another Equation, they muft alfo dcftroy one another,
fcft:.
G?r.
Hence our Equation
reduced to
^^^'" cx\xx
—
t
I
.
f
x"^^ x
\—cx\^xx
III
.
I
— d 1. — dx^x X
z
,
C^'f. =:
I
+ — dx^xx +
X
///
'^ ^^ x—'exf'xx

+
Cs?<:.
But
lince ^
is
found to be the Coline of «xA a
or
—
i
(
14°
i'
)
or AC,
't
tliat
of «
x
A b or ABC,
;2
that
of a x
A c or ABCBC,n
i;
^c.
^c.
..^
—
"J
=: that
of
u. I
X
A ^,
—
i;
=: that of
—
=
i
x A^„
^
we
^
have
t := f
^
i^
&c.
3
= Ok—b^
and
—B C
^
v
V
r=.
— BD— —
z
»
^c. and therefore
z
— cx
fj
— dx
2
"iZZTx^^^x
^C, or X
J
X i_,^^^^
— j?.vfxv» — ex
cJ
*
_ ^y — BC — f^c — cx\xx — ^.v
I
bx—^V> — \h
***"
2
,
r
j^^x\xx'^ i^ex~^xx' ^^'
— dx\xx 2 — ex
I
f,_s
fubHituted,
inflead
thereof in
x "~^' x .1" ^!^^
;
,
^^.
=
_J^JJL£^II1_ l—zbx"\x^^
2 B,
("as
abovefound) and the whole divided by
wc
fliall
have
._;^^^ 4
C
D E ,_^,^.^, 4 ,_,^^;,^
.
^
7=7^^'
2 ^
^^"^
=
''"d.
."/."""^J"
"*~
confequently
J
_
I
^
«
I
^«2
I—iTArfATA?
I— ^.YfATAr "T
i_^^__^^~r
^"^
,£;?<;.
Let now
kx"'^
fx\xx'
+
*
Ba;'^~3
+CAr«4
•
.
? •
/;<:
+i + ^JJ^^jXX CXfl
I
be affumed
•
= ^^^"CXfl x^ —
5 '
then,' >
by Redudion, ^c, we
A,
fliall
get
A=
C,
B = c A, C == ^ B
from the a.
D=
i:
CB, ^c. ^c, where
it
appears,
forenamed Property of the Circle, that A, B, C,
,
,
.
i,
.—
.
'y,
are the Sines of
A ^^
2
A
<7,
3
A ^,
.
.
,
;;/
x
A
tf,
;^
—
A^
—
(
HI
if
)
A a refpeaively.
.....
nifeft,
/at
Hence,
.
A ^ ^"^
+
B ^ '^3
—r~ — dx~\i
+ C^

'^"^
+
•
J
H XX — xa\'i be put r
i
'
.
=
x^
*
It IS
ma
that A,
'T^hb
, , .
iS, fc
.
.
.
.
/,
—
i;
will be the Sines of
refpedtively,
2Kby
&c.
.mxhb
it is
and
m — i xAb
C
A b,
^c.
Therefore, as
evident
from the above Reafons, that
A { A,
mull
X
all
&c, and
be
6
+ 6,
— iXAa
^c. and
,
+C
,
^c.
^c.
equal to Nothing
of m'
,
we
have
\—zbx"\zx"
X Sine ofTfiXAa— Sine
I
— cx^xx
;»rXSine of
mX^i — Sine
I
oi
m
"^
—
i
X.A*^
<^x\xx
),
^c. which, becaufe
will
AH
^
become
^"+—
by Conflrudion ^H;.x.^sine(A H.4 .).
is
=
/«
X A <3
(
^H/.x^+^^XO^H^XQ^
I
C
XfX X
'
^^^
being f
Wherefore, the Fluents '
of
1
— —
i^; CXfXX
and
I
ffATjXX
(FaiOa) y
\
f•
2fL
^
j,,
(P^O)
and
^
(P^O)
refpedively,
that of
H_hXf]^\am>o^b
kBX
l
— t±hxo_^^^ — CX\ XX
^c.
&c.
or
its
Equal ^
:
—±!±!1IL±,
oj>_
,
muft confequently be
^<:. £5'^.
=
ili (Va
Oa)
was
/p^O),
which
is
the very fame as
before found.
Having thus
next to lay
far
effeded what was propofed,
it
remains
down
a
Method
more
for finding the aforefaid Areas
ABC, B F G D,
in a
eafy
O
Manner, by Approximation and o
.
«
—
(
142
)
and
this,
infinite
Series,
when
that can be done.
In order to
k^
the foregoing Conftrudion of the Points
flill
P, and C,
being
to
retained, let
CR, RS, ST, TU, ^c,
T/, ^c. perpendicular
,
be each equal
to
AC,
and
r
,
R r,
Sj,
AB.
Then
^"
will
,£14. Rry^^^
S.x^"^^'^
T/x^3/^3/
"'
^
ua,x^4;^^4^
^
^^^
^^
infinitum,
or
^ into
£!_ 4 R^x^Z^^
+
s^x^_!^i!^
^
tsc.
is
be
= A B C A,
or the Area of the Curve
whofe AbfcifTa
,
z.
and Ordinate
—
—
tn
«
^^
^
—r—in
i
and
»K
^
«
into
r
£L —
4
R^x.^.^
,
^Ss.^K'^
r— 2«
r
^ ^HX^Eflll r—^n
+
±^;
f
&c. or
H
^c,
— H iil^S^
f
Z^E!X£2lflIy
r
+ 4«
= B F G D,
or the Area of the Curve
P——P — H
v^^hofe AbfcifTa
is
r
1
2r,
and Ordinate
The
Reafons whereof, from the former Part of the fore
going Solution, will appear manifefl:.
F
I
N
I
S.
ERRATA.
—
.
_j
•
p
1.
AGE?.
r.
1.
17. for
^r xt&dgr,
\/»«
p. 28.
I.
14.
r.
2
for
*,
=
,
2
?*
V
"t*
ZZZZ
« 41
1,
1.
18.
for a^'v''
^v^i;*,
1. laft,
^f.
r.
_—^
1.
1.
X«
1.
^
p. 31.
r.
5.
for ihe
Ratio,
T.
nxihich is to Unity in the Ratio,
p. 32.
18. for than,
/i',?^
as, p.
42.
24. for
Ks
0?
r.
ks,
r.
1.
25. for cvr
1.
r.
jr,
p. 48.
2. for S
C
r.
I
C,
p. 49.
L
r.
16. for 5
6
7
or %, p. 51.
r,
19. for §2
p.
50
1.
r.
51 52.
for
1,
penult, for
52 51
r.
51 52, p. 53.
1.
20. for
,
57.
24.
Specifck
Gramty
g
Specifick
g
1.
Gravity in Air, p. 61
12.
r.
io. for
^
for
r.
"^'t^
i
^'
^"^
'
^'
'^'
^
1.
'"°
^'^*
p. 76.
1.
for o/^K
r.
n,
p. 85.
1.
10. for
—
1.
•
r,
,
p. 93.
penult, for
p. 103^
""
Allo'wances
1.
Alk<wance,
r.
p. loi.
1,
]. laft,
2,3, ^<r.
r.
1,2,3, <^c.
1.
2.
forjv=:o
a=:ioo,
3.
for
Or.
,
II.
Cor. lil. p. 104.
2.
24. for«Ar'^
r.
x'^^"\ L
^<? r. flrf,
penult, for
dx^ r.dz"
1.
1
p. 105.
for
p.
</2«
r.
1.
dtc"
,
1.
15^.
for
r.
and
T^5
for are r. ^f,
1.
8
at
for
AH
r.
r.
A
'
R,
"^
u 3.
24. for
1
02
aP i*
I'SiA
::::::
p. 13 !,
kit, for
«
Lately PubliJIjed^
I'
XjL
in Natural A COURSE of LECTURES lsh am, D. Richard He by
Philofophy^
the late
iVf.
Profeflbr of Fhyfick and Natural Philofophy of Dublin. In Odavo. Price Five Shillings.
in
the
Univerfity
Publiflied
by
BRYAN ROBINSON,
added, by
M.D.
PROBLEMS,
1.
To
which
are
Way
of Appendix^ feveral Curious
by the Editor.
de Defcriptione Linearum Curva
Exercitatio Geometrica
4to.
rum,
Audore
Printed for
GULIELMO BRACKENRIDGE,
Eccleftee
Anglicans Preshytero,
z.tt\\Q
J,
Nourse,
Lamb
without T'empleBar.
MATHEMATICAL
DISSERTATIONS
On
a
Variety
of
PHYSICAL
and
SUBJECTS.
Containing,
ANALYTICAL
other Particulars,
among
A Demonftratlon
Axis.
of
the true Figure
A new
Theory of AftronomicalRe
which the Earth, or any Planet muft acquire from its Rotation about an
fradions, with exaft Tables deduced
therefrom.
A A
of the Attradlion at the Surfaces of Bodies
general Inveftigation
A
new and very exa£l Method for approximating the Roots of Equations in
Numbers
;
that quintuples
nearly fpherical.
the
Number
of Places at each
Ope
Determination of the meridional Parts, and the Lengths of the feveral Degrees of the Meridian, according to the true Figure of the
Earth.
ration,
Several
new Methods
for the
Summa
tion of Series.
Some new and very
Fluxions.
ufeful
An
Inveftigation of the Height of the
ments in the inverfe
Method
Improveof
Tides in the Ocean.
THE WHOLE
In a general and perfpicuous Manner.
5)^
THOMAS SIMPSON.
LONDON:
Woodward,
Printed for
Moon, between at the Half T. the two "Tempk'Gates in Fketjireet, i743«
(iii)
T O
Martin Folkgs^ Efquire^
PRESIDENT
OF THE
ROYALSOCIETY.
S I Ry Could not have wilh'd for a greater Honour than your condefcending to
receive thefe Sheets under
your Pro
teftion
able,
:
As
every Man
is
in juftice anfwer
both to his Patron and the Publick, for what he prefumes to print, I hope I have taken care that they may not be
wholly
(
iv
)
If they wholly unworthy your perufal. ihall have the good Fortune to meet with your Approbation, I need not be anxious In the about their Reception elfewhere. mean time, Sir, I moft earneftly defire,
that this Addrefs
may
be underftood as an
the Favours
undeferving,
humble Acknowledgment of which I a Stranger, however have received at your Hands ; Ihall always remember with
Gratitude.
and which I
the fincereft
I
am.
Sir,
Your moft
obliged
Humble Servant,
Thomas
Simpson.
(
V)
ts fo natural when a Work of this kind appears in the Worlds to ask What there is new in it ? arid the greater of thofe who Jet up for fudges, are Jo extreamly bent to depreciate every Thing to which they can frame the leajl Pretence of an Objediion, that an Author, without any Imputation of Vanity, may fometimes be allowed to fet fo?'th the Merits of his own Performance, in order to give his lefs difcerning Readers a true RepreJ'entation thereof : And this I hope will be thought a reafonable Apology for what I have to offer in behalf of the feveral Particulars that compoj'e this Mijcellany.
IT Fart
The Firf, which is one of the mofl confiderable Papers in the whole Work, is concerned in determining the Figure which a Planet, or an homogenous Fluid, mufl acquire from its Potation about an Axis wherein the true Figure, under juch a Rotation,
,
is
not only univerfally demonjlrated, but the particular Species
in which ; proved that the Gravitation at any Point in the Surface, is accurately as a Perpendicular to the Surface at that Point, producedfrom thence to the Axis of Revolution and that it is impoffible for the Parts of the Fluid ever to come to an Equilibrium among themfelves, when the Motion about the Axis is fo great as to exceed a certain afjignable ^antity ; with feveral other Particulars never before touched upon by Any. I mufi own that, fince my firfl drawing up this Paper, the World has been obliged with fomething very curious on this Head, by that celebrated Mathematician Mr, MacLaurin, in which many of the b fame
it is
,
thereof, according to any affigned
Time of Revolution
(
vi
)
Jatne things ^ dre demonftrated.
before the Royal Society
*",
ajid
But what There offer was read' the greater Part of this Work
printed off, many Months before the Publication of that Gentleman's Book ; jor which Reafon 1 pall think myfelf feciire jrom ajiy Imputations of Plagiarifm, ejpecially as there is not the lead Likenefs between our two Methods.
The fecond Paper,
contains a general Inve(ligation of the At
traSlion at the Surfaces
of Bodies nearly Jpherical.
the Heights of the Tides in the Ocean,
The Third, confders
The Fourth, exhibits a very eafy Method for finding the Length of a Degree of the Meridian, and the meridional Parts anfwering to
a?2y given
Latitude, accordifigto the true fpheroidal Figure of the
Earth.
The Fifth, includes the Invefligation of the Curve deferibed by a Ray of Light in pafjing thro' an elafiic Medium, whofe Denfty either refpeSis a plane, orfpherical Surface, and varies according to any given Law : Whence are derived fome practical, and very ufeful Cdnclufwns, relating to the RefraSlion which the Light of
the HeavenlyBodies fuffers in its Paffage thro' the Earth's Atmofphere j with exaB Tables thereof laid down by the help of very
accurate Obfervations.
of the Summation of Series j which, befides Matters intirely new, is much more general containing feveral and extenfve than any Ihing I have hitherto met with, for the
The Sixth,
treats
fame Purpofe.
The Seventh,
exhibits
a new Method for finding the Values of
Series by Approximation.
* It was read before the RoyalSociety in March or Jpril, 1741, and been printed in the Philofophical Tranfaftions, had not I defired, the contrary.
had
The
(
vxi)
The Eighth comprehends the Invejligation of fome very nfeful Theorems for approximating the Roots of Equations in Numbers, much more exa5l than any Thing hitherto publificd j whereby the
J
Number
of Places is tripled,
;
quadrupled, or even quintupled, at
eafy
each Operation
to
which are added, fome
and proper Appli
cations, in illufration thereof.
mechanic ^adratures, or the Method of approximating the Areas of Curves, by Means of equidijlant This Method was originally an Invention of Sir Ordinates. Ifaac Newton's, ftnce profecuted by Mr. De Moivre, Mr. Stirling, and Others : However, as I here afjume nothing to myfelf but a Liberty of putting the Matter infuch a Light, as Ijudge
The Ninth,
relates to
will be moji plain andJatisfaBory to the Reader, Ifee no Reajon why I may not be allowed the fame Privilege as Others.
The Tenth, is concerned in finding and comparing of Fluents, and contains a great Variety of new and ufeful Improvements, being one of the mofl confiderable Papers in the whole Work,
The Eleventh, is an eafy Invefiigation of the Paths of Shadows^ on the Plane of the Horizon. The Twelfth, contains a Determination of the Time of the Tear when Days lengthen the fafteft, according to any affigned Excentricity of the Earth's Orbit.
The
Thirteenth, fhews
how much
the Defcent
of Bodies,
is
affeBed by the Earth's Rotation.
a Demonjlration of the Law of Motion, that a Body defleBed by two Forces^ tending to two fix'd Points, de~ fcribes equal Solids in equal Times, about the RightLine joining
TheFourteenth,
is
thofe Points.
oe Th
—
—
—
—
(
viii
)
The Fifteenth, JJoews in what Cafes a Body ^a^ed on by a centripetal Force, may continually dejcend towards the Centre^ yet never jo far as to come within a certain T)ijlance\ and in what other Cafes it ?nay continually afcend, yet never rife to a certain finite
Altitude,
The Sixteenth and laji comprehends an
,
eafy
and general Inve/ii
gation of all the principal Theorems relating to Compound Intereji and Annuities^ without being obliged to fum up the Terms oj a
geometrical Frogrejfion,
Thefe fix
general
laft
Papers,
tho'
more fmple in themfelves, and of lefs
Xjfe thaiifome of the preceding, may never thelefs be look' a upon as entertaining Speculations, and therefore not prove unac
ceptable.
ERRATA.
PAGE
«"
I.
^at"!
2.
L
lall,
and p.
r.
3.
1.
2.
for
«
',
%^ read
1.
a
—
«
;
p. 4.
1.
10. for
p. 20.
Xa"
x^\
,
«"
—
p.
;t"
x«"
x^
p. 5.
3. dele the
Semicolon
j
21. ioT nvhereof, i^c. read nuhereofthe^imeofKe'volutioncanhefoJhortyasofthaty ixihofe equaioreal Diameter is to its Jxis, as 2.7 198 to Unity, p. 38. 1. 12. iox pajjtng, r.
p. 47.
1.
faffing thro^
p. 41. ; 26. for iy,
1.
4. for Spherodial,
r.
Spheroidal', p. 42.
r.
1.
9. fox
Part,
r.
Partsi
X.
be
;
61.
1.
21. for could,
could
R,x. k;
p. 70. I. 14. for in, r. to ; p. 73. 1. 16. for %, r bers put a Semicolon ; p. 81. 1. 15. for }«"rt:«''", r. rfca"}"^''"
have been ; p. 64. 1. 17. for z ; p. 78. 1. 8. ahex Num1.
' P ^^ ^ ^S^r 9. for 613, r. 61.3;
/k{2m, r. q\ztn
;
p. 99.
I.
laft,
X.
for a"^, x. a'^x'^i p. 105.
p.
r.
122.
1.
20. for independant,
independent;
p.
r.
128.
1.
8, for l
— _aLi
^
^tfc,
—
I
J—, &c.
r.
p.
136.
149.
I.
5. fox Negative,
negative
Number
p.
1.
145.
I.
Z.
for/3r,
r.
p\zr
i.
',
p
1.
12. dele the upper
r. to
Vinculum;
p. 151.
5.
forc:«>
=:Ar; p. i6i.
19. {ox gravitate,
gravitate.
[x]
A Mathematical
DISSERTATION
ON THE
F
I
G U R E
E
ART
L E
M M AT,
to
UPPOSING AC perpendicular
A^B, and
a Corpufcle at C to be attraBed towards every Point or Particle in the Line B, by Forces in the reciprocal duplicate Patio of the Hijiances : T'o find the Ratio of the whole compounded Force, whereby the Corpufcle is urged in the DireBion C, Let
A
A
A
[=^3
/
Let kC:=.d, AB=:Ar, ^ Bbz=. x: Therefore B
O=
an<r
^/*
+
x^
;
confequently jrjr^ will
be as the Force of a Particle at B, in the Direftion B C j but d^^ x^\i
y\
d'\x^
d^J^xY
in the
cacy of that Particle
pofed Direction A C; wherefore ^=====4
d'\x'
d'x
is
pro*
the Fluxion of the
whole Force j whofe Fluent
^x^^
fore, the
AB
+
;f'^—
CAxBC
is,
thereI.
Force
itfelf.
a E.
IL
LEMMA
SUppoJing
inclined to each other, at the common vertex A, their Jirji or fecond Axes, in an indefnit ely mall angle r of B'y to find the attraSlion of the aid Cuneus, whereby a Cor
Apr V
a Cuneus of uniformly denfe Matter^ comprlzd between two equal andfimilar elliptical lanes EA,
F
ADB
A,
f
A
pufcle at
urged in the Direction of the Axis r. E and meh^ two Ordinates to the Axis A B, indefiLet nitely near to each other, and let A B ^, B C r=: z, C f =: z^
is
A
f
D
ABorA
C D •=.y, and
to
=
Angle formed by the two Planes> and let the Equation of the Ellipfi? be y^^z=:fz—'Z^'^gz' (which will anfwer either to the tranfverfe, or conjugate, Axis, according as the Value of g^
the Radius
i,
the Sine of the
=
d',
is
taken negative or pofitive)
Now,
it
will be, as 11
d
:i
a^z:, d
^ a
—
2;,
the Diftance
of the two Planes at the Ordinate propofed Matter at that Ordinate
D C,
j
or the
Depth of the
>
into
fz — z" — g J^ '^""^^. y^ z'\'\fz _;2^_^S*
z
sj
which
<
therefore drawrj,
DCxCf i~ACx AD
S
the
the Attradlion of the Particles in the
the preceding
furfaceDCr^D
^
{hy
Lemma)
gives
^
z''
V
^
—
z" '\
f z ^
—g
Z^
A^?^=
I7IB
for the
Fluxion of half the Force required. But whtnfz^^z^^
gz" becomes=<?, z will be
writing
=
f
= AB =^
gz
I
;
therefore
it
by
i+^x^
inftead of
y in
the faid Fluxion,
will be
<?+^2;l4 b ^c, the Fluent
—
3^'^'
^

M^l^
2.4.6^3
will
"'^^ ^7
~
2a 2i^
2.4^^
whereof,
when z becomes
_
=
a,
be
ad
^
I
^ ^x
—J+I
^^. which, becaufe ^ x
i
+^1"^.
is=/)c.i
+^r= /x
— ^+ £'
eifr.
will
be
= ^/
^
.
Lemma
I4l
X
E
MM
A
j
'
III.
TH E
when
a""
Fluent
of'
a'^—x^r
% a:™
x bein^
pofed to find the Fluent of ^^
—
—
given ; tis prop^^'^"+^"^ x ;c"P +
x''\^
"^
^
becomes s=: o
fuppojing
p and v
to
be
whole poftive Numbers,
Let
Q==^»
—
^"1'"
+
'
H
Af^n,
and
let
E,
F,G,H, ^c,
denote
;^
the Fluents
^«v
of
^"
^"'
AT
X'^T X a:''"— ' x^
^n __ ^np ^ ^^m
+ ni
x
—
;(;np yA;''"
+
refpedively
:
Then
(^ being {=zrn
%
rn X
^n
"X
x'"'—''
x^'f'
>i y.
^
tf"
—
?z
x"^)
— =r
X
:x:"''
x ^"
—
'
a;""
—w
}~ ^
^
'^
^^
a;''"—'
x
?2 <2"
X ^"
^,
— x^T
if,
x ^'"'~'
a:
rtm+i
^"
—
iX:"p
^^^
— a:™ +
''
inflead of
their
a""
—
a:"!""
x
a:'^'^—' X,
and
—
a;"!""
><
a:"""
f"^ ;^
Equals E and f
be here fubftituted,
X F
}
we
r
fhall
whence
Q =: r »
>
^"
E
—
get
r
Qj=:rna''E
I »/
—
rtm\iKn
+
1
x « x F,
and confeI
quently
or
F
=
nxr{m\
which
therefore
n "C
when ^ZITPl^
'
1
O
becomes =:o, will be
= 4^——
{if^.
.
And
it
is
manifeft,
by Infpedion, from the very fame Reafons
!l±12ifJl> rtmfz
that
G
is
==
>
H = "^^^ +
r
^
771+7,
"^
.
or
^ G =: r + }?i+ iy.r + m +
H=
tf"
1

r
— =
^ / \^ + fn+iy.r + ?n+ 2Xr + w +
.^
,
.
>
and therefore the Fluent of
3
+''"—' a:"P X a:™
7, ^
at',
(in this
Cirumftance) putting r\m
r
. . . .
Will be
^ X ^
r r + x^+ 2
I
^
+
1;
—
^
•
Now
if
this
Fluent be denoted by P, and ;c^^+^«~
by K, the Fluent
[f
cnt of
a""
]
is
—
A"
X
K
a;" ;v
will,
it
evident, be
a''
= r^v ~—y.
a;,
««
which taken from
a'^
P,
that
of
— ^"^ xK^"
'
leaves
^—T
^TXT
^nl""
^°^
its
^^^ Fluent of a^
— ;c"1%K^"a:;
x
— —
^n
^Ka:"a; or
Equal, ^ "
'
— ^"^ +
Ki;
of
therefore
a""
the Fluent of ^"
—
:v""'"^
x
K
a: is
to the Fluent
x''^
xKa;
as fiiiiif!
to ij and, for the very
fame
reafons, will
the Fluent of
as
'^TffqrT"
:
^n— A;"i'" + \Ki be tothatof <2"— H'""*''xKii
to I, G?r.
whence
it
manifeftly appears that the
Fluent of ^^^"^^^^^^'"^^x
will be exprelTed ^
K^,or of ^^"IT^'^+Pj.^rn+vn.i ^
by ^ P x
y
^
+ z;r;) — I
^
.orbyE^
^
x»?+i. ^ +
,
2.
q'h6. q
+ 7.
m+3 m^p r + m + vhp
^' x qhvhl ^ ^^1_ .... 4±£_ + ^^^ into ^— qq+\.q + 2.q + +
?
'y
qiVi2
.
.^
^
z.
^
+ 4.^
r\
5
^
^' ^*
I,
T?
*«
T
COROLLARY,
If
be taken equal to the Fluent of iHT Part of the Periphery of the Circle whofe Radius
E
""
'
x
i,
or ^
is
Unity,
and
I
—
:
s^\
'^= V,
y.
and th^ Fluent of
i
—
ss\
^
s x ^i?^* ^^^
or of
—r_
v"^ s ='^,
when
i— j j
is
r= o and
i,
if
and w, whole
l—ss\^
Numbers be
—
•^4
required: Then,
',
by writing
for ^5 4,
forr;
ztu
I
43 for
m
I,
for
§}
t,
for/* 3 and w, for
v
in the general
Expreffion foregoing,
we
fhall
have d
E
^'^'^'^
a
2. 4. 6.
8.
10.
13
T~
^'^
^
^^.
'"
2 zvt2t.
for the Fluent in this Cafe.
B
CORO
L
[6]
COROLLARY.
Hence, may the Fluent of rr—^y. P
1
ss\
IL
^'jQ 1;^"—=* i^j
i;^"
pr„^2n_4
ss Is=ro, and n any whole pofitive ^c, when i alfo determined j for let the Value of w (in the laft Corollary) be fucceffively expounded by i, 2, 3, C^c. and i, 71 that of t, at the fame time, by n, n 2, &c. and
j6^
Number, be
—
—
I
then
it is
evident, the Fluents of
I
j4
J^'
I. 3 5
x
7
^r;^".?,
—
I
ssl
1
t ^ i;^"—^ i*
r
&c.
will
come
out
^E
>c
— X —^i2_Zii:i^lzziiii 2n^2
2;^
2,. A., n 2. 4. 6
o M
T
^
je
gf^.
i.,..;....^,,3j<j_^
2.4 d...
refpedlively
2?Z
^g
^
ij^.....^..xi.M
2.4.6
2?Z{2,
+2
; which therefore, being multiplied by their proper Coefficients P, Q, R, ^c. and added together, give d Ea I. 3. 5. zn I xP + i.^. 5.»..2?z 3X 3 Q^ n:, E X I. 3.
.
.
.
—
—
<;
2. 4. 5.
8.
.
.
2;z
+2
'
^^'
2.4.
6. 8.
.
.
.
2«12
(^c. for the
'2/2
I
2 72
LXzn
3
'
2
72
LXZn
3X2
72
—
Fluent fought.
LEMMA
SJJppofrtg
Axis
IV.
P A S ET O
Qin
CB
to be
any Spheroid, generated by
the Rotation
P
S
j
S E about its lejjer of an EUipfis P to find the AttraBion thereof exerted on a Corpifcle,
its
A
at any given Point
Surface.
Let
to
Q^R L
B V of
and
r be perpendicular, and r
L
parallel
P
Sj and
let
the Square of any Ordinate
B C of
the ge
nerating Ellipfis, be to the Square of the correfponding
dinate
the Circle
Or
Fvl Sy P,
P
S, in
defcribed from the fame
i
Centre O, about the Axis
any given Ratio of
f:
B
to
[7]
b Q_of the QJI be the Axis of a Sedlon propofed Solid, formed by the Interfedion of a Plane paffing through the Point Q^perpendicularly to the Plane of the generating Ellipfis 3 and let P R, =: ^, the
:
to
I
;
let
Q^ H
O=
PASO
OR
Sine
of the Angle fine =(7, (Xrr=zx^
R QJI
its
Radius i, =:f its Qocorrefponding Ordinate r a=^y;
to the
,
(.^VT^TR^trF)' = a,
fince
Q^
and
Therefore QJ^ is=^x, \px, and Erzz=:qx a^ whence
y. T
y
B C=zR^— b—z bp x —p^ x^ B x% and confequently f B />^ ^^5^^ —B/^ ^% (^= B C^— r^)^=z2aq x— 2 A/ ;^
= ^^ —
Q^ H
2
Ap X — p^
i,
—
R T (=: Tf B v.b)~K% andr L=/x, we have 0^^=b
x'^
—
z>
p""
—
—
a;^"
or,
becaufe^^ (^^ is=:
/
is=^^— A/x2;<:
x'^
—B/^a;^;
which Equation being only of two Dimenfions, fhews the Curve 3 Q, whereto it pertains, to be an Elliplis.
[8]
Let now a Plane be fuppofed to revolve about Q^^as a Centre, always continuing perpendicular to the Plane of the and (Xjn k be /? E, and let generating Ellipfis P two Pofitions of that Plane indefinitely near to each other;
QJ
Q H
and fuppofing
QF
the Point Q, QJT of a Circle whofe Centre is Q, and Radius Unity j the Sine of that Arch, be denoted by Sy its Cofine
to be a Tangent to the Ellipfis P Q_S at perpendicular thereto, and F b an Arch
le t
G
b,
(Vi— jj)
by 'u, and, hm, the Fluxion of that Arch, by^: Then, fince is the Difference of the two Angles B QJT, the Angle B Qjr, and the Sine and Cofine of the lafi: of thefe two
R
Q^
equal refpedtively
to
7=^, and ^=^,5
B OR, and
we
its
fhall
have
y'""'i
—
the Sine of
^jiM==
Cofine,
by
the Elements of Trigonometry 5 which Values being therefore fubftituted infi:ead of /> and q in the Equation above found, it
becomes j^
= V ^H"
2
s *\/a^\A'
^' ^ ^
— :v^— B
of/,
'e
—
'
"li
*
'
at^
x ^qrfz'
Hence
by writing 2
inftead
inftead of d,
at the
and Bx
fe
i:^j^l inftead of ir, in the Theorem ^ «^ + A^
End
2 %
of the
2.
4 B
cond Lemma,
we
fhall get
2
e s
y^
^^(A^j
av—sA\"
^^jA^
1 1,
'
,
2. 4. 6.
3. 5.
B^
^
av—sA\''
7,
.
cifc.
Ihewing; the Ra
^^1A^ 7 tio of the Force wherewith the Corpufcle at QJs urged in Qj)r k Q, by the Attraftion of the Cuneus the Diredion of Matter included between the two Ellipfes, whofe Axes are Q^H and Q^^; from whence, by the Refolution of Forces, the Attraction of that Cuneus in the Diredions
H
QJF
and
Q^T
will be
had equal
to
zesv
x^"A^^
[?]
35
2.
"^^A^z^*?;
^c.
and 2
^ J J
X
a" [
A^j'
4 B
— ^A'
G?(r.
"3
35
it is
^^
+ A^
refpedlvely
:
which Ex
preffions are,
manifeft,
as the
Fluxions of the whole
Solid, in thofe
Force, exerted by the Part
Q^ P Q^f the
noW, another Plane Q^K to revolve about the fame Point Q, and with the fame Velocity as the former, but in a contrary Diredion, fo as to meet and coincide with it in the Perpendicular Q^T then v in this Cale becoming the Attradion of the Part 'u, the Fluxion of C^A K Q, in the forefaid Diredlions QJ^ and QJT, (by
birections.
Suppofe,
—
,
writing
V
inllead of j
nj)
will be
2,e s
v
% a
A^
C
"
2 
2.
7^"
2.
4
B
— av — iAI^
^z^A
^^
^^„^
and
,
.'
2j.,
.
« «^
+
,
,
,r
Ai'
2 ^~
3
fore,
4 B
X
35
if thefe
—aV— ^' + A;
J Al'^
&c.
/« , reipectively ^ ^
•
:
Where
Fluxions be
added to thofe of the former
Part in the like Diredions, and
Zlav—sAVit,
be changed to
av
\ s
Al
J
which
*
is
equal to
we
{hall
s
have 2
A\
e s
v
6
y,
»T~TTiT ^ jA'i' into
•
„
av —
.
>c
5Ai+ ^ =Tir— a\A'\
— — ^ avUsA^'' anj — X a^J^A3.5. av — A'
2.4B
Z
14.
.
2. 4. l,
B'
3 5 7
.
&c. and 2
e s^
x.
2 z ^^4AM' into
^
.
3
'
2.4B
av \'S A \ ~\av—s Ai'
""
2.4.6B*
av\sAr\av—sAr
""
IT
^K^
s
3^7"
G
'T^W
mbn
therefore,
^c. for the Fluxion of both Parts together, in thefe DirecBut, fince the Triangles Qj6 tions. and are fimilar,
e will be to
(r=
m n)
:
as
i
:
V i— ^j
3
by
fubfti
tuning
y^—^
inftead
of
e,
the foregoing Expreffions will
2vss^
become
,
a'^A'V ±
2.4.B
^^'^o
^
av\sA^''^av—sA^
^ ^^+A^ _____ _______
,
i—j^r
.
35
.
.i
^
2^
J
x^^lA*^'
2
2.4B
avisAfXav
— jAI^
(^c.
Fluents of which, when s becomes :== i, will, it is whole required Forces, whereby the Corpufcle is urged in the Diredtions and QJT: Therefore, in order to find thofe Fluents (which is by far the moft difficult Part of the Propofition) let r be put equal to the quadrantal Arc, 3
manifeft, be as the
The
QF
Arc.
F
'
h
e,
and
let
l^lZ±Et
i—ssh
'
.
fdl!ui.E±Iri°
Z'57
2«i3
%
—=^==^=>
^^1A^'^
x
Which
IS
a general
Term
to the
firftof the
two Expreffions, beaflumedi then the fame, by
expanding ^'ujjAl^"
av
— jAI'"
into a
Series,
&c. will
2.4.6.... 2/Zl2xB"j
""
become 4
^rTFr
77^^
—:rri:~=ii
2 n
into2/7fl^n^x
2;22;z
2;?
— 12;^— 2
2^2
«;.
—
I
2?2
—2
—3
t^4
A
4
But
it is
evident,
from CoroL
II. to
Lemma
III. that
the Fluent
of this Series (by writing
g:4'6....2/g+2xB'^^ J ^ ^^+A^1 3.5.7....2;^j3
for
for d; r for
E
J
2 /^^^^
P
j
^
^
^
i^TZl ^ i^JHf
2
•
3
X
^—3
X
/3^
A3, for
Q, &c.)
2. 4. 6. ... 2
will
be
2 X
^__Ujl1^5 
^Jl^;^ ^ 2.4.6,...2«J2 ^
4
,
2
+AH^
?2
j
B'^
~J^+A^^
i^zi.^
2
2
72
4rB"
345
3
..2HT~ xl^=?^— 3A3x_3_ — I^I
" 3.5.7..
""
,
'"'° ^
^+ fi^2^:^i
2
^""^
T
^
2 «
2/2
X
3 —^ X 2n — rx5'»5A5
A.
2;z
X
^^
ny^r
2/2—1x27^—3
&C,
=
/2
^==^into
I
2na^^'A

+ 2^2^n —
I
i
x ^^"3 As
+2
2
»

2
3
[li]
4rB"
&C.
•==
,
X 2
7z
A^
into
.Ja_.
^^"—2
\
72
I
X ^^n4 A'f
7;_i
I
;z
— 2,
2
2 ^ //
4rB"y2.^A^7
tf^lAf'
•
—
^
_„
,
^r A a
""T^
::
Y
tf

~\A'I,
znl^
3,
ci?^\
— — nJ^^
B"
2
1
y^
,
*
Let n be
now expounded ^
by
2,
fucceffively,
then
will
—^.^;i=:=
4^A^2:
into
2«B"
2^241 X 2;zl3
4rA^
.
become
/^
V^'
'
+ A^
> ^ ""3.5
2B
V^'+A^
ift.
'
46^ 4r A
.
5.7
6?^.
—— V^^A^
'
6B3
X
&c. for the Fluents of the
2d.
79
o
'jd. >
Terms of
the forefaid general Expreffion, refpedtivelyj
and
therefore the required Fluent of that
is
whole Expreffion,
or the Force whereby the Corpufcle
urged in the Diredlion
into
O F 2B

will
be
,
truly
defined
by
7^;== drawn
.
8 B4 6B3 _ A 4 ioB5 &c. And, m the 9ii ^^^3 35 57 79 fame Manner, the Force in the Diredtion Q^T will come out
^
— — — 4B^
Ara"
~i
J
B
3
B^
B^
4rA^
yaJ^A'
by Writ
V^'lA^
I
35
.
57
79
— —B
5
.
1
3
B3 — — — 4 B+ &c. Which Values, — 9' ^ 7
B^
^_^
ing
I [
B
X ^ and
i ~\
B\^ x
RjH^f^
for their
Equals
•
A
,
and
4rb
a, will
^
i+Bi
become
X K'—i)h\^ 7 B^^l^ R^
2B
><
+
^
— — 4B^ p 6B3
57
,
35
79
4rxR^ — ^x i+BI^
^c, and
.
I
J.
'^ B
3
y
———
B^
B3
'
R^+B^i^.
35
57
79
[ ^3 ]
&c,
f
4>^x'H^.
y/RijB^^
~
X
i
—
_
3
1S
4 1, ^c. refpedively.
7
But,
3
feeing
I
—
4'
»
cj^.
is
=

r>
S
57
^——
,
6?^.
79*
^
"R
=B""'^x —B^fTTB 2
I
1
X B^f? 3^5»
Series expreffing
i,
^
£5?c.
where B*
B
E
I
,
efr.
is
a
known
is
the Arch
(Q)
of a Circle, whofe Radius
it is
and Tangent
B^, the faid Forces will,
I,
manifefl:,
be truly defined by
I.
2r A
B*—
jB^
4
V^«^+A*
V^^+A^ ^
1
si
/«^+A'
ri T7 I. Q. E. T
i+BxQ^B"
«»
r orefpedively.
COROLLARY
Hence,
being
if
L
RD
be made perpendicular to QJT, then,
will
=«,
,
RT=A, RD
DT
===
,.
be
=
'^
Q^
jt—.,
Q_D
=
and confequently the Attradion ^ ^ in the forefaid Diredlions and QT, as ^ B i_B 4B^ 2B 6B^ 8B^ on A ff\T\\ —:> ~ <3C. and (Qi/) x h, v^^^ ^ 9II 1.3 3.5 5.7 7.9^ 57
/ v«^+A»
and
v«^+A^'
—
Q^
,
3S
79
___________________
z
^c,
+
(DT) x
—
 4
— ,^^.oras(RD)x^i=— D
^<_^
and
[
H
H
]
a,Kl
ly.
(QD)
+^"?^"''
X
(DT)
X
jlf^Q^,
refpeffive
Therefore, fince B is conftant, it follows, that the Force v/hereby a Corpufcle at any Point Q, in the Surface of a given Spheroid, is attradted in the Direction of the Tangent Q_F, will be limply as D.
R
COROLLARY
=
face, will
IL
If B be taken o, or the Spheroid be fuppofed to degenerate to a Sphere, the Attradion, perpendicular to the Sur
become
as 3
(^D
f
3
TD
3
or as  of the
3
Ra
Therefore it follows, that the Attradion any Point Q, in the Surface of a Spheroid P A S E P, in the Diredion Q_F, of the Tangent, is to the Attraction at the Surface of a Sphere of any given Radius, as (R D) x
at
..
dius of that Sphere.
I
^^ ^Yi2it Radius ^ and moreover, that the 3 2B^ Attradion in the perpendicular Direction QJT, is to the Attraction at the Surface of the fame Sphere, as (T D) x
I
3BxQr3B^
^Q
i_
^^B^
+
(OP)
X
^
+ ^^^^
2
i
'
to
i of the fame Radius
3
;
B^
or,becaufe(TD) x
2l=J^ _i (Qp)
(QP)
v
;"Tb
x
g,
B^
.^
^
(QJ)
titv,
X
^^
f
X i±l2i^=iJL^asthis
lall
Qimn
to  of that Radius.
3
CO
[
^5]
IIL
COROLLARY
But when the given Spheroid is nearly Globular, B will be very fmall, and therefore all the Terms in the foregoing Series, wherein two or more Dimenfions of B are concerned may be negledled, as inconfiderable ; and then the Attraction in the Directions (^F and QT, after proper Redudion,
will,
in
;
this
Cafe, be
as
^
^ """ —R and
30
30
d R
re
fpedlively
ll
tion
from whence it is eafy to determine, that the Poof the Line QJ^, wherein the Corpufcle gravitates or
is
endeavours to defcend,
fuch that
O
at
is
every where, to
O T,
as 3 to 5, as
Mr.
Stirling has found.
CO
[i6]
COROLLARY
Hence
it
IV.
follows, that the Attradliori at any Point Q^^in the
Surface of a Spheroid, not differing
to the Attrad:ion of a Sphere
much from a Sphere, is upon the fame Axis, as lo R"*
It alfo follows, that
^
3
BR' HB/^*,
to 10 R'' nearly.
the
Attradion of fuch a Spheroid in going towards the Poles, increafes or decreafes in the duplicate Ratio of the SineComplement of the Diftance from the Pole ; and that at the Poles themfelves (where in an oblate Spheroid it is the greateft, and in an Oblong the leaft) it will be to the Attra(fi:ion of a Sphere, having the fame Axis as 4 Times the Diameter of the greateft Circle of that Spheroid, increafed by the Axis, to 5 Times that Axis ; and laftly, that the greatell Difference of Attraction, on the Surface of fuch a Spheroid, will be to the Difference between the Attradion at its Pole, and at the Surface of the forefaid Sphere, as i to 4 very nearly.
PROPOSITION
a IFare Fluid
or freely difpofed to move^
I.
Body of homogeneous Matter^ whofe Particles and ?nutually attract each 0
ther in the duplicate Ratio of their Difla?ices inverfely, revohes about an Axis^ and all the Parts thereof retain the
fame
Situation ^ moith refpeB to each other
,
I fay,
the
Form
which that Fluid mufi be under, to preferve this Equilibrium of its Parts, is that of an oblate Spheroid.
For,
at
let
PS
be the Axis about which the propofed Fluid
revolves, and QJT a Perpendicular to the Surface perpendicular to P S any Point Q^^making Q^, and R and QT, and F Q/, parallel to R D. Therefore, fince the
PA SEP
D
i
abfolute centrifugal Force,
3
whereby
a Corpufcle at
Q^ndeavours
[t7]
vours to recede from the Centre R, in the DIredlion Q^, is known to be as Qj^^that Part of it by which the Corpufcle is urged in the Diredlion Q/, of the Tangent, or tends to Hide along the Surface, will, by the Refolution of Forces,
R
p F
be as D. Therefore, as all the Particles remain quiefcent with Regard to each other, the Attradion exerted on the Corpufcle in the contrary Direction
R
QF^
to preferve this Equili
R 5 brium, mujfl, it is but the Attradion of an oblate Spheroid, in this Direftion aptherefore the pears, from Corol. I. to Lem. IV. to be as R Q^E. D. A, is an oblate Spheroid. Figure PQAS E
manifeft, be in the fame Ratio of
D
D
:
E
PRO
[
i8
]
PROPOSITION
II,
T
^
H E fame
the
being fuppofed as in the laft Propojition and time of Revolution^ the AttraBion at the Surface
,
of the Fluids when at Reft under a fpherical Figure^ toge^ ther with the Diameter of that Sphere being given ; to find the particular Spheroid which the Fluid retains by means of that Rotation^ and alfo the Gravitation at any Point Qlfn the Surface thereof
The foregoing Conftrudion being retained, let the time of Rotation be denoted by /», and let the given Attraction at the Surface of the propofed Fluid, when at reft under the Form of a Sphere, be fiich, that a Projectile or revolving Body may thereby defcribe a circular Orbit, whofe Radius is equal to the Radius of that Sphere, in a given Tinie n Putting P O R, the Attraction at the Surface of the b, propofed Sphere the Semi Diameter of that Sphere d, and the Proportion of the Square of the equatoreal Diameter E, to the Square of the Axis PS, as if B to Unity. Then, lince the centrifugal Forces of equal Bodies, moving in Circles, are known to be univerfally as the Radii of thofe Circles, applied to the Squares of the Times of Revolution,
=
RO =
:
=f
=
A
we
ihall
have
as
4
:
^
:
:/:
4^
x (R
Q)
the Force
with which a Particle of Matter at Q, thro' the Rotation of the Fluid, endeavours to recede from the Centre R, in the Direction Q^z^ from whence, by the Refolution of Forces,
the Forces in the Directions
fame Caufe, will be
—
and QJ', (QJ)) x ^, and
QJ
ariling
from the
x
—
(R D)
~jAr
refpedtively.
But the Attradion in thefe two Directions,
fuppofing
Q
to be the
Arch of
a Circle,
whofe Radius
is
i,
and
[
19]
and Tangent B% will be to (/) the Attradion at the Surface of the Sphere, whofe Semidiameter is d, as (QJT) x
^M+(C)D)x H^''V°'
to
1,
and
as
(RD)
x
^
ceding
^P
to
:
—
refpectively,
by Corollary
II.
to the pre
Lemma
defined
And
therefore the
whole compounded Force,
whereby
rightly
a Corpufcle at
QJs
x
urged in thefe Diredions will be
by
^ I
(QT)

x
5^=^ h (QJD)
B.
x
,^BxQ.3B^
2B^
(QD) x ^, and >f '^^ 3«^' ^
The
lafl
x
(RD)
^
x
'+«'<'^'>"
2B^
^
~(RD)
pufcle
X ^r
of which Expreffions, that the Cor
remain at reft, and all the Parts of the Fluid in Equilibrio, muft, it is manifeft, be equal to nothing j therefore
may
^i
or
^
abfolute
is
= ~rt
and confequently the Gravitation,
perpendicular Diredion
Force in
the
QJ,
.
as
(QT)
X
^^=^ x/,
or barely as
dW
(QT)
x 1!=:5B^
fjom
whence, by help of a Table of Sines and Tangents, C^c. not only the Value of B, but the Gravitation anfwering to any
.2,
afligned
Value of ^
may
readily be determined.
But when
^
is
fmall, the
fame Things
may
be effedted in a more ge
neral
Manner j
for then our
Equation ^i^""^^ ^ 2B^
— r= ^
3«
be found
^
maybe J
reduced to
the Series .^5x6«^ 2OT* ^^ 4X7/S*
35 .57 .79 converging fufficiently fwift,
4t"
1
rr,<^'^.=^» where,
B
will
3^r
J
=
ly.
i^
^i^,
8X49^
I
'
£?r. or
—^1^^ very near14;»*— 30«^
[20]
Iv.
Therefore the Ratio of the equatoreal Diameter to the
will,
Axis
in this Cafe,
be
i
as
i {
^^^!Z^^„z *to
i, or,
if^
as Sir
I.
be very fmall, barely as
Ifaac Newtofj and
+
^
to Unity, the
fame
Mr.
Stirling have
made
it.
Q^.
COROLLARY
Becaufe
I.
3+BxQ^3B_
as
,^j^g
Lefthandfide of our foregoing
Equation) never (let
Quantity,
B
it
appears from the Nature of the Exprellion, can be v^hat it will) exceed a certain aflignable
is
manifeft that
if
^
Limit,
be fo given, as to ex
ceed
that Quantity,
the
Problem
this
will
let
become
B"
impoflible.
x^
Wherefore, to determine
Fluxion of
=
and the
is
IEtl2Q=l35
(^mj<2=l±)
which
be
put=oj
Q=: o,
and we fhall get 9 A:^7 a:3— if;c* x 9+^:* x where x is found 2.5293 ; whence the corre
fpondlng Values of
— and ^Z
=
i
tB,
come out 0.58053, Cifc.
and 2.7198, ^c. refpedively. Hence it appears, that it is impoflible for the Parts of the Fluid to continue at Reft ^mong themfelves, when the Motion round the Axis is fo
great, that
^
exceeds
0.58053, ^c.
or, that
any Spheroid
ftiould be affumed whereof the Ratio of the equatoreal Diameter to the Axis is greater than that of 2.7198 to Unity. But if the Motion be greater than is here fpecified, the Fluid will contradl its Axis, and continue riiing higher and higher
towards
[21
]
towards the Equator, till, by increafing its equatoreal Diame^ ter and Time of Revolution, the Parts thereof either come to an equilibriums or begin to fly off.
COROLLARY
If,
IL
inftead of the time of Revolution, the Quantity of
its
Mo
Axis be given, fo as to be to the Quantity of Motion in a folid Sphere of the fame Mafs and Denfity, revolving in the forementioned Time ;2, in any givea Ratio of r to Sj then, becaufe the Quantities of Motion in equal Spheroids of the fame Denfity about their Axis, are to one another in a Ratio compounded of the direct Ratio of the Radii of their greatefl Circles, and the inverfe Ratio of the Times of
tion of the Fluid about
their Revolution,
we
fhall
have
as
—
:

—
^
i
:
s
i
r^
and
confequently
'
AO
X
=:=
^^. But (becaufe the MafTes are equal)
is
^l
(P
O
A O^)
:^
di,
and therefore
^(=A0)^
"^
d
X ifB'^i whence
m^n
% i^LifJ' and
=r
"!_
which Value being
ral
fubflituted for
—
""
,
i
in the foregoing gene
Equation,
we have
^^^
=
gj^xTfB'l*
^^^ there
fore
l+^ii^^^lxi+BJ ==
B^
^
3f
.
from
whence
it
will
be
eafy to determine the Spheroid
cles
which a Fluid, whofe
Parti
Reil among themfelves, mull: affume when the Motion about its Axis is increafed or decreafed in any given Ration becaufe the abfolute Motion after fuch Increafe or Deare
at
creafe
is given, and will be no ways affeded by the Adion of the Particles upon one another while the Figure of the Fluid is changing.
F
CO
[
22
]
III.
COROLLARY
Bat
(fince
31BxQ.3B^x i+B'^^
l^^^j^
^^^^ g
that
^
nothing and
infinite,
will
be
]
=
B^
o)
it
is
evident
the Vakie
it
of
3jB2<_^3B^xx{B
^^^ never,
y
let
B
be what
if
it
will,
exceed
a certain finite Quantity
and therefore
the given Motion
will be impoffible
be fuch that ^—7 exceeds that Quantity,
for
reo;ard
the Parts of the Fluid ever to become quiefcent with to each other : Wherefore to determine this Limit, let
A^bsput
= B^,
and the Fluxion of
3+^^xCl 3 ^x iH^'3
^^
taken and made
=
o,
and the Equation, duly ordered, will
be
out
x'^^2/\.x\2y
y^Q::r^S^^
— 27^=05
that
where x
will
come
= 75 very
come
nearly,
it
and the correfponding Value of ^appears,,
= 0.92705.
poffibly
Hence
to
the
Particles
cannot
an Equilibrium among themfelves,
is
when
exceeds
the
Motion round the Axis
fly
fo great,
that
—
0.92705, but will either
the Axis in Infinitum,
off or cpntinue to recede
from
Becaufe the Values
given,
it
COROLLARY of B andQ^hen —
IV:
is
given, are alio
B^.Q.
follows. that the Gravitation
(QJD^
r^j^^^^y
Point in the Surface of the given Spheroid or Fluid, will be, accurately, as a Perpendicular to the Surface at that Point, produced till it meets the Axis of the Figure. Therefore the Gravi
[23]
Gravitation or Force wherewith a Corpufcle tends to defcend at the Equator, is to the Gravitation at either of the Poles, as
the equatoreal Diameter to the Axis inverfely,
COROLLARY
,
V.
Hence, if the Spheroid be nearly globular, then QT, which by the Property of the EUipfis, is univerfally equal to
Gravitation from the Equator to the Pole, is in the Duplicate Ratio of the Sine Complement of the Uiflance from the Pole very nearly.
iHB xR^fB3^' will here become i B Whence it appears that' the Increafe of ly.
+
xRh j^,
B^^
near
COROLLARY
as
I
VL
Moreover, becaufe the Ratio of the equatoreal Diameter to the Axis, when the Spheroid is nearly globular,. becomes nearly
^^—r
it
to
is
I,
the Excefs of that Diameter above the
Axis, will,
evident, be to the Axis as
^^
:
to /«%
or
(becaufe the Forces by
which Bodies
Circles, are in the duplicate
are retained in equal Ratio of the Times inverfely) as
of the centrifugal Force at the Equator to the mean Force J of Gravity. Therefore, fince the Ratio of the centrifugal Force, in different Circles, is compounded of the direct Ratio of the Diameter, and the inverfeduplicate Ratio of the Time, it follows that the forefaid Excefs, in Figures nearly fpherical, will be as the Diameter diredly, and the Denlity and Square df the time of Revolution inverfely.
A
[
H
3
A
TABLE
Momentum of
i: i: i: i:
jJoewing the
Time of Revolution,
and
the
Rotation of a Planet or given Fluid^ accord^ ing to the Ratio of its Axis and equatoreal Diameter.
1,01
1,05
1,5
2
[
25
]
of m (one entire Revolution of the Earth about its Axis) 1436 Minutes ; therefore by writing thefe Values in the Ratio of
1
—
'
"^ 14^^— 3o«^"
:
•
^
(^s
:
above
found)
it
will
become
as
I, or as 231 230 1.00435 Diameter and Axis of the Earth.
for the Ratio
of the equatorcal Wherefore, as the former of
latter
thefe
is
about 8000 Miles,
it
mufl exceed the
to
by 34

Miles, and the Gravitation at the Equator will be to the Gra
Hence it will not be difficult to determine how much Pendulum Clocks are accelerated or retarded from the Alteration of Gravitation when tranfported into different Latitudes for the number of Vibrations performed by a given Pendulum, in any given Time being in the Subduplicate Ratio of the Force by which it is actuated, we have as 230 \/ 2:1 J o^ ^s 460 461 fo is the Number of Vibrations of any Pendulum at the Equator^ in any given Time, to the number of Vibrations of an equal Pendulum at either of the Poles in the fame Time. Hence it will be as 460 i fo is 86400, the Seconds in 24 Hours to 188, the Seconds which a Clock would gain per Diem (from the Caufe under Coniideration) when removed from
vitation at the Poles as
230
231.
;
^
:
:
j
:
:
:
the Equator to either of the Poles 5 and therefore, hnce it is proved that the Gravitation increafes as the Square of the Sine of the Latitude, the Time which a Pendulum will gain or lofe per Diem^ by being tranfported out of any one given Latitude to another, is to 188 Seconds as the Difference of the Squares of the Sines of thofe Latitudes to the Square of
the Radius. The above Proportions, as likewife that of the Axis and equatoreal Diameter, are derived from a Suppolition that all the Matter in the Earth is homogeneous (or nearly foj) bat if the Parts next the Centre fhould be much denfer than thofs nearer the Surface, the Conclufions will be pretty much affedcd
thereby, as will appear from
tlie
following Propofitions.
G
LEM^
[
26
]
LEMMA.
whofe Denfity a^ bout the Surface is equals but in the lower Parts thereof greater, according to any Law of the Difiances from the Centre, if the Excefs of its ^ajjtity of Matter above the ^antity of Matter which it would contain, were all its Parts only of the fame De?fity with thofe near the Surface, be to this lafi jpecified ^lantity of Matter 'tis required to find the Atin any given Ratio of ^ to i
every where nearly
,
Na
Spheroid
K^V^Y h.
nearly globular^
traction at any Place
Q^n
the Surface
of fuch Spheroid,
The
draw
O
foregoing Conftrudion being retained, join QO, and then, fince the Attraction which B parallel to j
RD
a Sphere, whofe Denfity at equal Diftances from the Centre is the fame, exerts on a Corpufcle above its Surface, is known to be as the Quantity of Matter in that Sphere apply 'd to the
Square of the Diftance from
its
Centre,
it is
manifeft, that if
the Attraction at the Surface
of a Sphere, whofe uniform
Denfity
dius
(as
is
defined
in
by Unity, be reprefented by  of the Ralafl
the
Propofition)
the
Attraction
of
the
fore
[
forefaid
27]
on
or
a
Excefs of Matter,
^
Corpufclc at Qj_ will
.^
be
reprefented by
o?sr—
>
by
Jl^rr^;
or laftly,
by
^
and
+
^R
nearly.
Whence, by
the Refolution of
in the
Forces, the Attradion of the faid Matter,
QT
and
QJ,
will be
^
H
l^ and
Diredions
 /»
x (B
O)
30
nearly
;
which being
therefore refpedively added to
^"R^4
3BR+BP
R
—
A
T?
X
(R D)
the Attraction in the fame Diredions, of
the Spheroid coniidered as homogeneous, (fee Corol. III. Lem.
IV.) there will ^
I
arile
~
and />,x(BO){
—+ ^ B
3
2
3R x (R D)
J—
^
}_
_
3
^
_]
10
^
j
30R
,^_ '
for
the
whole Forces
but
whereby the Corpufcle being to R D, as
is
OT
urged in thofe Diredions
OB
to
TR,
or as
B h
thefe Forces will be as
(R D) x
—
to iiB, the latter of
very nearly.
Q^E.
I.
PROPOSITION
IF a
III.
Fluid nearly globular, whofe Fienfity about the Surface is every where nearly equal, but in the lower Farts thereof, greater according to any Law of the Biflances from the Centre, be revolving uniformly about an Axis 3 Ifay, the Figure of that Fluid under fuch a Rotation, is that of an oblate Spheroid nearly.
The Truth of this is manifefl from the firil Propofition and the preceding Lemma for, fmce the Attradion of a Spheroid, whofe Denfity varies according to the fame Law, is, in
,
the
[ 28 ]
the Direilion of the Tangent QF, nearly as R D, by the Lemma, what hath been proved in that Propofition, with regard
to an uniform Fluid, holds alfo in this Cafe.
P
/*~f~^
Pv
O P O
S
1
T
I
O N
IV.
HE
fame hehig fuppofed as in the
Jaji Propofition^
and
the Ratio of the centrifugal Force at the Equator E, J_ to the G?avity being given [as v : i ) j to fi?id the Ratio of the
A
equatorial Diameter to the Axis of the Spheroid or Fluid, the Surjace and alfo the Gravitation at any Point
Q^n
thereof
Let the fame Conftrudion be iliill retained Then, fince the abfolate centrifugal Force at (preferred to the Centre R, is known to be as R Q2_the Forces ariling therefrom in the Directions and QT, will, it is manifeft, be to the Force of Gravity as (RD)
:
Q^
'
x^, to
fore
it
I,
and
as
(QJD) x
^
:
^
to
i
refpedively.
is
Where•
will be, as
(R D) X ^ R
the
3
I
:
: '
fo
(R D) X ^ ^ ^
3
(
'
^
to
IS
)
the
^
Attraction
\
in
Diredion
f.10
Q^F
per
Lemma
3
<—— H 3R
—
30 R'
^, that in the Direction
QJT ; whence by multiplying Extreams and Means, and rejeding all the Terms where more than one Dimenlion of B is found as inconhderable (becaufe the Spheroid is fuppofed
nearly globular)
ly the Proportion
I f
v/e
fhall get
B
=
5^
r/
><J
.
^^d confequent
of the equatoreal Diameter to the Axis, as
^I^^ll
to Unity.
Moreover, by fubftituting
this
Value
of B, in the Expreflion for the Attradion in the Diredion
QT, we
have
±^^
+ ^^^
x
if
+ i+
^,
from
[^9]
from which deducing
j
—
^^
x
/»{i
(= QD
x
—— x
Lttl^, &c,}
the centrifugal Force in the oppofite Direction,
there remains
^^^
{ i f^
xrx
—
i^
—^
1
—
il—
6Rx2 + s^
I.
for the Gravitation,
QJE.L
COROLLARY
tor,
is
Hence it appears that the Gravitation, in going towards the Pole, increafes as the Square of the Sine of the Latitude, and
that the greateft Difference thereof, at the Pole and to
to the centrifugal Force at the Equator, as 5 o />. It alfo appears, that the greater the
tov^^ards
+ 20p
Equai
4
f I
Den
the Centre, v^ith Refpedl to that at the SurFigure approach to a Sphere, and the greater vs^ill be the Difference of the Gravitation at the Equator and Pole j and that if p be conceived to become infinite, or the Attraction to tend to the Centre of the Fluid only, and not to all the Parts thereof as fome have fuppofed (vs^ith refpe(fl to the Earth) the Difference of Gravitation at the
iity is
face, the nearer v^ill the
Pole and Equator, will be equal to twice the centrifugal Force at the Equator, and the Ratio of the equatoreal Diamemeter to the Axis of the Earth, only as 579 to 578.
H
CO
[
30]
II.
COROLLARY
given as
i
If the Ratio of the equatoreal Diameter to the Axis be
{i; to i, there will
be given iiil^ii£=i«u,
and confequently p
= 1!—1^. SCHOLIUM.
Ratio of the greatefl and leaft Diameters of Jupiter is^ according to Mr. Pound's, Obfervations, as 13 to 12, and the centrifugal Force at the Equator of Jupiter^ to the mean Force of Attraction, as i to 10 ; therefore, the Quantity of Matter in that Planet, will, according to the foregoing Hypothecs, be greater by juft one half, than it would if the Denfity was not greater towards the Centre, than it is nearer the There might, indeed, be other Hypothefes alTumed, Surface. that would bring out the Conclufions a little different, but as no Hypothelis, for the Law of Variation of Denfity, can (from the Nature of the Thing) be verified either by Experiments, made on Pendulums in different Latitudes, or an adhial Menfuration of the Degrees of the Meridian, I fhall infift no further on this Matter, but content myfelf with having proved in general, that the greater the Denfity is towards the Centre, the lefs will the Planet differ from a Sphere, and the greater will be the Variation of Gravitation at its Surface.
The
A
[31
A
]
GENERAL
INVESTIGATION
OF THE
Attraction
of
at the
Surfaces
Bodies
the Planes
nearly fpherical.
LEMMA.
SXJppoJing
of two Curves
ABDEA, AprvA,
A
nearly circular, having both the fame Equation y^=fx hx3 ix4, &c. to be inclitied to each other at x^fgx^ their common Vertex A, in an indefiiiitely fmall Angle B r
+
+
fo as
between them the indefinitely fmall Cuneus of uniformly denfe Matter to find the AttraBion that Cuneus exerted on a Corpufcle at A, or the Ratio of of the Force by which that Corpufcle is urged in the Dire5iion
to include
ADBEprvAi
BA.
Since the Equation of either Curve is y''=^fx x'^^g at^jhx'i\ix'^, &c, by putting f^x^gxhhx^, &c. == o and
reverting the Series,
—
we
fhall get
Ar=:—£^
f ===f^j
&c.
=
f^fg^fg^ ^^' f
But
tiie
V'+3 ^f"'g^ ^^' equal to the Axis A B. Curve being fuppofed nearly circular, and the Equation of the Circle agreeing, in Curvature, with it at the Ver^ xx, the reft of the Terms ^a;% ix'^, ix^, in lex being /x the giv^en Equation, muft be fmall in refped of the two firft and therefore all the Terms wherein two or more Dimenfions of 3
[32]
of the Quantities, g^ /, k^ &c. are found may be reje«5led, will become ==f{fg{hf^h and then C &c. which let be reprefented by a, and let ijhj^kf^^ and m c reprefent any two Ordinates indefinitely near to each z, and the Sine of x) =z, Cc other : Putting B C {a the given Angle formed by the two Planes, to the Radius r,
as inconfiderable,
AB
D
—
z^ the Diftance of z : e :e:: a or the Thicknefs of the prothe Planes at the Ordinate C,
=<?i then it will be
as
i
—
= x a—
D
pofed Matter at that Ordinate
5
which drawn
therefore into
I71B
DCxCf ACxA ^,
face
expreffing the Force of the
eyz
(vid.
Particles in
the Sur
DCcmD
L
p
i.
dves
—==r~=
for the
Attradion
of the Matter included between the Ordinates
by writing /a;
e

—
,
DC and mc, which,
equal ^, becomes
.
x'^\gx^\h x'^^^&c. for
1.
its
%
x'^
Xf— x\gx
a^
\hx''\ix^,
.
iffc.
'^
,
ij.
.it
a^z
a
^^^l^
—g a — h —
for
X*X/— Ar4
gAT
+ z^AT^+fAT^
i a^
;
wherein
a
—z
and
fub
,
flituted,
their
a\ &c. be Equals x and /,
k
—
effc.'*
refpe(fVively
it
will
become ez
[ 33 ]
ex X a
i — K^X a — ga — ^«% &c. — a\z\gXa — z{hxa — ,^c. — a\'X.\gy, a—« J^hY,a—z^ l^c^ a—%'\ a— s X a — g a — h
2'
____rT*
fi ^
a^y iSc.
,
I
a
^x '^^^^^2^^'^±^J^^^£z!^^ which, being con—gx,—hscAZa — z — izy, ^aa — laz\z^j &c. ^
e %''
verted to an infinite Series, at length becomes
z
ia\z
—a
^c.
The
above
a x /? x za •xg\z z\z Fluent whereof, when z
—
—
—a x =
is
i
^,
x ''^aa—i^az\zz^ will be ^ ^ x
if
~"
3
Tjrf.
"^ ^7^.
be
35
~ "^7^' ^^' where,
fubftituted,
the Value of ^,
arife
as
2
found,
there
will
2. 4.
efx
nj
'
.
z.^g
3.5I.
2.4.6/7/
7.
2.4. 6.8 ?'/^
3. 5 7. 9
3"^
Q^E.
6.8. IP
i/^
"^
3S7.9^^
PROPOSITION.
SUppo/ing
Equation
Bz"^
PASEPO
the
is
rated by
—Cz3—
QJl L
/i? ^^ a Solid nearly fpherical, geneRotation of arty oval Figure PAS, whofe included in this general Form y*=a^ Az z^
— —
Dz"!,
^c.
T^o find
the attraBive Force
of that
its
Solid exerted on a Corpufcle, at any given Poi?it
Q^n
Surface.
and C B r be perpendicular, and r L parallel to the Axis P S, about which the Solid is generated j and let Qjl be the Axis of any Sedion, b Q_of that Solid, formed by the Interfection of a Plane paffing thro' the given Point perpendicularly, to the Plane of the generating Curve Putting R Q== a, R B 2;, B C =;', the Sine of the Angle R QJI, to the Radius i =/>, itsCofine=^, x, and its correfponding Ordinate raz=u. Then, by plain Trigonometry, we ihall have x, and rL=px==:z ; q
Let
Q^ H
Q
:
=
PASO
Q^ =
Q^=
I
which
[
34]
which Value of z being fubftituted in the Equation of the Ap x given Curve, it will become y'^ (== B O) == ^^ ^a x^B/)^ x^ C/3 x^y &c. whence u" {=B C^ B r^) =^* p"^ x^ aa{2 aqx q^x^=z C/>3 a;3, ^c, j^px p^ x'^ Kp X X i H B/^ x x^ Cp'^x^ D/*^^, Gfc. Let 2 a q
—
— — — — — —
two
;
—
,
—
—
— — —
—
now
as
a Plane be conceived
to
revolve about
the Point
Q
a Centre,
continuing always perpendicular to the Plane
PA
be
and let H, and Qjji k, S of the generating Curve Pofitions of that Plane indefinitely near to each
and, fuppofing
Q^
be an Arch of a Centre is Q^ and Semidiameter Unity, let h m, of that Arch be denoted by e : Then by writing 'Qp^ for g^ Cp"^ for h, &c. in the above y^
other
to
¥h
Circle
whofe
the Fluxion
—
2.
—
2aq Ap for Lemma^ we
^
—
ihall
have
e
into
IJLIU^Ii
^
^.
^^ f
^Tl
_3.
5
._Kp^
£^^
3
4.6C />^ XZflf—A^'""
3 5 7:
2.4.6. 8D/)^ x
zag
— Kf^
^^
35v79
is impelled in the the Force wherewith the Corpufcle at Attradion of the Cuneus of Matter by the Direiiion and k. But, to reincluded between the two Sections
QH
Q
QH
Q
F be Expreffion to a more commodious Form, let duce the generating Curve at the Point Q^and a Tangent to b, of the Angle perpendicular to it, and let the Sine v : Therefore, fince the s, and its Cofine Q^G Q^F B
this
Q
QT
=
=
G
Fluxion of the Ordinate
B C, when B R
to Unity, the
or
2; is
=
o,
is
to the
Fluxion of
PB
as
^
;
Tangent of theAngje
its
R QT
and
is
will be
A =— 2«
2a
.
confequently ' "
:
Sine
as the
A
y'4^« + A=
its
Cofinc ==
Wherefore,
Angle
B OR
the Difference of the two Angles
^
,
of that
.1 Ande
°
will be
'11
1
za^v
— .fA
.
B QJ,
,
.
R QJT,
Cofine
r^
,
and
r
the Sine zas4'vA
,
its
y'4«fi}A
V^aa\A'
fore
,
(by the Elements of Trigonometry) which Values being there
[
35 ]
fore refpedively fubilituted for
preffion
2.
p
and q
m
X
the forefald
^esv.
2 a
Ex
of the
Force,
it
will
become
X C —
^aa^ aa^
^
AesB X zav
3.5
— jA'"
1
2 a'v
— ^
—
2.A..6es'^
3 5 7
v
—
A'
X4««+^'^'*
4««+ A A2
2.4. 6. S es^
3 5 7
D
9
r
,
&c.
But, by the Refolution of
4.aa{AA
Forces,
as
i
(Q^)
^
:
s
{G b)
35
:
:
Co
is
the
faid
Force to
''4^«4AA y'4^«JAA
i'
>
'
2aV'^sA''
the Direaion
— ^^^^7^X2^^;—
QT
j
jA'*,
a?,
^^.
is
the Force
in
and
as
i
to
fo
the fame Force to
L
to
36
]
=^%= xliii3Ai_^x77^;=}A"yff X 35735 /4a^4AA
2av
Let
—
3
^7A'', ^iT. that in the
it
is
Diredion
QF;
ties are,
manifeft, as the Fluxions of the
which Qaantiwhole Force
P Qj^of the Solid in thofe Directions. another Plane QJl, be fuppofed to revolve about the fame Point Q»_and with the fame Velocity as the former, but in a contrary Diretlion, fo as to meet and coincide with it in the Perpendicular Qjiv ; then 1;, in this Cafe, bev, the Fluxion of the coming Negative or
exerted by the Part
QH
now
—
PartQKAQ
in the faid Diredions, will
be
^^^^a'
3 5
^ _^x_4f
Mi£_
X
35
and
35 v/4«a AA 3 thefe Fluxions be adJed to thofe refpedively ; wherefore if of the former Part in the like Directions, and c be fubftitu
=:^^ +
X
iM:<±A:
_ £i4B^__2^.,_,A.,^.,
2 X
c c \
ted inftead of 2 ^,
we
fhall
have
V^f
c
J
A'
+A A
1^"
— ^2.
4.B
rr~ y.c'v^i s^A^ h
.
6 c ~^
2. 4.
>^
3
.
<^'
A J4A3 j3,
_
^c. and
»•
jj^'y
2.
35 v/rf{AA Fluxions of the whole Force in thofe Diredions &c. for the G, and m h n are fimilar, e (== m h) But, fince the Triangles
.
X
4 B
•
X 2
Ac
'U i
—
2
4.
6
J
C
——
'u^{
X 357 /
<;3
^cv A^ j%
Q^
;
will be
=
'i^
or
^
and confequently the faid Expreilions,
^,
yi
ss
by writing
^
inflead of
will
become
^
^
^^
x
3.5
2.
1
357
4B
1
/
f
"
A'x
I
—
^
K.
.
^—
'
X 2
A
.
c
^* 1;^
\
—r —
j^
.
2 > 4 6

c
X
J J
2.
35
3
^ ^ 3/
L 37 ]
A^ cs'^v^h c'^ i 1;"^, ^c. refpedlively^ the Fluents whereof, when s =z i, fuppofing the length (r) of the Arch Y he given, may be eafily had from the Lemma in Page 4. and will be
3
l^L^
2.5
into 
x"?TA^— 4
2.7
^
^'+ TV
><
^'+
7 X
A
3
+
C
9
2.4.7.5
II
As _h gi:ixA3<:M2.
'
^'^'^'^
2. 4. g. 7
x
^'
1
Ac^— — x A^
13
+—
9
52. II
x
M
^
'
jiii4:3. 2.4. 1 1.
^ AV^f
^
^f 2.4. 6.
^ X ^^
'
^^. and
1.
9.
/c^jA^
7^=
2.5
into
— X A^— ^xAV+^^xc3f.4^xA3c43iixAf3
5.3
7.5
2.3
9.7
5l.xA4<:4i::AxA^^3_jII.
ii^i^iJL
2. 4. 7.
x ^
6F
s
9
2.
7
13. II
ASC
+ — X A3<:3_{_iilil:lxA<:5, 2.4.9.7
2.9
,
Sfc.
where the
Law
it
is
of
^
Continuation
dent,
is
manifeit
:
And
thefe Fluents do,
evi
of the abfolute Forces, whereby the Corpufcle is urged in the Directions and QF; from which, by the Compolition of Forces, both the Diredion of Gravitation and the Force in that Direction, may be eafily determined, Q.E.I.
refped:ively exprefs the Ratio
QT
K
To
I S8]
7^ determine
the height
of
any Planet, caufed hy the Satellite or other re?note Body.
Let P S be the Planet, taken
it
at Attraction of a
the
Tides
as a perfedt Sphere, except by therefrom through the Caufe under {o much as Confideration (which will caufe no fenfible Error in the Solube the propofed Satellite 5 let the Diflance tion) and let B the two Bodies, in Semidiameters of the former, be C of reprefented by V, and the Quantity of Matter in the former Let be to the Quantity of Matter in the latter, as i to f?i E S A P be a Sedion of the Planet formed by a Plane paffing P any Point in the Perimeter of that the Centres O and C,
dljfFers
H
O
:
Q
Sedion,
thereto
5
FQ/a
make
Tangent
at that Point,
and
Q^T
to
perpendicular
QR and 0£ perpendicular
O C,
and
RD
to
Qji
putting
y
to reprefent the accelerative
TherePlanet at Q, in the Diredion fore, fince the Attradlons or accelerative Forces of Bodies, are linown to be as the Quantities of Matter in thofe Bodies di
Qj,
and x
=OR
=r^
Force of the
:
redly, and the Squares of the Diftances from their Centres inverfely,
we
fliall
have
as
^^
:
^^,
or as
i
:
:
:
fo isy*:
to
[39]
fft
Xo
==r,
the
f
the accelerative Force of the Satellite at the Point
Q,
for
becaufe
CQ_and
but
it is
QR
may be
the
taken as
equal
;
and
very
fame Reafon,
accelerative
will be
^;
is,
^^ + ^, ^c.
manifeft, as the
Force
at
E
of
the
Difference
thofe
two
whole Force whereby a
Particle of Matter at Q. tends to recede from E, or to alter its Situation, with refped: to the Body of the Planet.
this
A
Now
be refolved into two others, one in the Dired:ion of the Tangent QF, and the other Perpendicular thereto ; whereof the former, which is nearly expounded by
Force may
^^ X R D,
fhews
how much
that Particle,
by the Attraction
of the Satellite, is urged in the Diredion F Wherefore, this Force appearing to be in the fimple Ratio of D, the Attraction of the Planet in the contrary Direction Q/i as it is every where equal to it, muft confequently be in the Ratio of and therefore the Figure of the Planet a Spheroid by J what is proved in Page 14. Let therefore the Square of the Diameter P S, to the Square of the Diameter E, be now affumed as i : to i { B, then the Forces exerted, by the Planet in the Directions QJT and
:
Q
R
RD
A
Q,yi wili be to one another, nearly as appears from Page 13.
:
to ^^^^
x
RD,
as
Hence we have
fore
as  to
B
= =^,
and
^^ x R D whereconfequently OP — OA=^xOP.
:
:
"^^ x
RD
/':
;
a E.i.
COROLLARY
I.
Hence it appears, that the Forces of the Planets, or aiy remote Bodies, to produce Tides at the Earth's Surface, are
to
C4o]
to one another as the Quantities of
Matter in thofe Bodies
di
redly, and the Cubes of their Diftances inverfely, or as their iDeniities and the Cubes of their apparent Diameters, conjundtlyj and this, it is evident, holds equally, whether the
Earth be confidered
verfally fc,
as
partly covered
with Water, or uni
COROLLARY
If
<^
IL
Feet, '
be taken
= 60,
m=i—. 40'
and
OP = 21 120000
and thefe Values be fubftituted in the foregoing Theorem, there will come out 6. 11 Feet, for the height of the Tides which would arife from the Attraction of the. Moon, was the whole Body of the Earth quite covered with Water. Hence it follows, that tho' the Tides when forced up Rivers, and into narrow Inlets, are found in fome Places, at certain particular Times, to rife to a height greater than 40 Feet, yet in the Main Ocean, the greateft Alteration of the height of the Surface of the Water that can poffibly happen, when the Forces of the Sun and Moon are both united together to produce the Effed:, and the Moon is in its Perige, will never exceed II Feet; nor can it be quite fo much, fince, even in the great Paciiick Ocean, it muft be lefs than it would, was the whole Earth quite covered with Water,
Jo
[
41 \
7^ determine
the
the
Length of a Degree of
Meridian, and the meridional Parts anfwering to any given Latitude, according to
the true fpherodicalViG\jVi^ of the 'Earth,
Let P O S be the Axis, A O the femiequatoreal Diameter, and P B A S a Meridian of the Earth ; and from any Point B in that Meridian, perpendicular to the Tangent B Q, draw B T meeting PS in T j and upon the Diameter P S
defcribe the Semicircle
PO=i, AO = ^,
Br
to
PS, and
i;;/,
P i; ^ S, making O v parallel to T B, BC, and Qr^, each to AO^ putting OC==:v, Br{Cd)=:x, (P'=i\b, the
Sin€ {O71) of the Latitude of the Pla<;e B, to the Radius i^
^^c^
^==
in
and the meridional Diftance anfwering to that Latitude, Parts of the Axis P O, Then by the Property of the
.c,
=^
:
Ellipfis,
we
;
have
BCz=:d^i^xx, CT=d^x, and
BT==
Br
(^)
d^/T+Jx^
but as
BT CT
:
:
:
O
j
(i)
:
O
?i
{s)
.;
whence x
<°C)
= ;=, CB(VT^^)=5@
L
and
=
i
42
Onv, B
:
:
fs
.
Therefore, becaufe the Triangles
it
Qr
are
fimilar,
will
be
as
^i —ss
{nv)
:
i
(Ov)
.=
(Br)
1
:
.,
"^^^^
(B
rzz:
B Q, and as
==
^^Z"^" (BC) :^(AO)
r
;
:
—
we
^:r^
Q)
:
—— =
—— —
^A±
•
but
==
may
be reduced to
ihall
J^—
of which Fluent bein^
the
(
taken,
have y equal to ^i^^^^ into
Brigean
Log. of
I^,
But
— ^i^^^
into
the
{Brigemi)
Log. of
^^~^ d — hzs
axis
:
as 3.
14 159, &c. X 2
<:/,
the Meafure of the whole
Periphery of the Earth at the Equator, in Part of the SemiP O, is to 21600, the Meafure of the fame Periphery in Geographical Miles, fo is this Value of ^, to 3958 x Log..
l
—,
s
— ^^7— d
X jLog.
°

d
— — bis
zi
, '
the Value of "^ in Geogray ^
phical Miles, or the meridional Parts required.
Aloreover, becaufe the Fluxion '
^
(
\d^^bsmxi^ss'l
:
,
,
^
y
)
of
the
Arch
A B,
is
to the Fluxion
(• 1
is s^
)
of the correfponding
circular
Arch^^u, whofe Sine '
as
d^
„
—bj^'^
.
,.3
to
i,
it
is
evi
dent that the length of that Degree of the Meridian,, whofe,
Middle
Circle
is
B, will be to ^ ^^^ length of a Degree of the S in the fame Ratio of
,
,
P^
,3
to
i
very nearly,
and
[
43
6q^
,
^
] fuch Parts (or Miles) where
and therefore
is
equal to

;
of every Degree of the Equator contains 60.
Q^^
I'
COROLLARY
If
will
L
^ very
we
confider the Earth as
bs nearly
=
(it
really is) nearly fpherical,^
i,
and confequently the Value of
395^11 x Log.
jy
fmall, in w^hich Cafe
^
^ becomes
^"fe^,
nearly
;
and confequently
= 3958
x Log.
= 70 i6^r — ygi6h:
—^
^
But
if v^e confider jt as a perfedl
Sphere,. then ^.iii^ x Log.
i4^
d
—
will be
=
it
o,
and therefore y
is
=
3958 x Log.
h zs is
f
equal to 7916 multithe Logarithmic Tangent of half the Diftance from plied by the remoteft Pole (Radius being i) Therefore, if this Product, or the meridional Parts anfwering to the given Latitude, when the Earth is coniidered as a perfed: Sphere, be denoted by Q, it is manifefl that the meridional Parts anfwering to the fame Latitude, when the Earth is taken as a Spheroid, will be defined
I, as
which Value,
eafy to prove,
=
by 0^^7916^5, or Q^^— 68.5^ ; becaufe iiz^'s: being to 231 to 230, (as has been before determined) ygi6lfs is
68.5J.
COROLLA RY
Moreover, becaufe the Earth
is
11^
nearly fpherical,
b
^y
will be nearly
=:
60XJ+
\\b
—
2= 60 x 14.
~
bss^%
— 22
xi
it
 x b
—
b$^.
^c,
= 60 X —
I
^4
^
—
3
^c* whence
appears that the
length
[ 44'kn2;th
]
of a Degree of the Meridian increafes, from the Equator to the Pole, in the duplicate Ratio of the Sine of the Latitude very nearly.
EXAMPLE.
be required to find the meridional Parts anfwering to 50° Latitude, every Degree of the Equator being fuppofed to Here the artificial or logacontain 60 Geographical Miles. Tangent of (70°) half the Diftance from the remotefi: rithmic Pole is 0,438934, which being multiply'd by 7916, gives 3474,6 for the meridional Parts anfwering to 50° Latitude, confidering the Earth as a perfed Spheres But as Radius to the Sine of 50, fo is 68. 5 to 52.5 j which taken from The like 3474.6, leaves 3422.1 for the true Value required. of any other.
Let
it
SCHOLIUM.
the foregoing Conclufions, the Ratio of the EquatoDiameter and Axis of the Earth may be determined, by knowing (from Experiment) the Ratio of the Lengths of two Degrees of the Meridian For if the Sines of the Latitudes in the Middle of thofe Degrees, be denoted by s and S, and the Lengths of the Degrees themfelves be to one another, as i to ny then, from what has been found above, it will be as
real
:
From
^
•
^
•
•
T^^3
•
jj
!ca73
;
whence n x
^^—
/^S^i"'"
= ^d—bs^lK
''
:
and therefore «l x dd
by Subftitution,
.,
\\b x m— ^S^ x ;?T=if^
—
b^i^r^dd
—b
f^
but<^^=ifi^j whence,
bs^, therefore/^=3
and d ( iT^'')
=
1+
P^r
From
whence
Axis
as
it
appears, that the equatoreal Diameter will be to the
I
H
^^^
'
to
i.
But wken the Meafures
differs
of the two Degrees are nearly equal, or the Figure
but
little
C
little
45
3
from
a Sphere,
n will be nearly
=
i,
and therefore,
i
inflead of n
nearly,
we
fubflitute
iHw,
2
v/e {hall
have ;z!=
all
4
—
3
if
and confequently b
in
m
(becaufe
of the Denominator,
3xS^— ;^ which m enters, may be
.
the
Terms
rejected as
inconfider able) Therefo re,
will be as
I
in
this
Cafe,
I
the required Ratio
to
3>cS^r
I
,
h
to I, or as
4
very
3XS^
nearly.
A TABLE fiewing the length of a Degree of the Meridian^
m fuch
Farts (or Miles) whereof every Degree of the Equator contains 6o.
[46]
DETERMINATION
O
F
THE
a
Refraction which
Ray
fufFers in its Paflage to the
Light Earth,
of
I.
PROPOSITION
STJppofmg
greatejl horizontal Refraction
the Velocity of Light, in refpeB to the Velocity Jufficient to retain a Body in a circular Orbit about the Earth jujl above its Surface, to be very great : Ifay, the
that would
to
arife
from
the
AttraBion of the Earth, Square of the latter of thofe
will be
57°
17' 44",
as the
Velocities, to the
Square of the
former very
nearly^
For, fince the Earth's Attradllon is in the inverfe duplicate Ratio of the Diftance from its Centre (O), the Curve
DA
wliich a Particle of Light would defcribs thereby (fetting all other Caufes afide) will, it is known, be one of the ConicSedions
and
C
and
therefore, fince
47
]
is
the Velocity of Light
fuppofed very
it muft be an Hyperbola ; whofe SemiTranfverfe, and Semi Conjugate Axis (A C and C P) if the Ratio of the faid Velocities be »y A O AO put as « to I, will be ^,_^ and refpedively (as is i
great in refped to the propofed circular Velocity,
—
it
proved in Page 153 of
if the
my Book
of Fluxions.)
will be as
Afymptote
•'
^
CB
I
be defcribed, '
,
—= —
wX
Therefore,
AO
to
/«^
AO
•
nn
, or as
2
I
to
— —
n^/ttn
fo
is
Radius, to the Tanp;ent of
PC
B, the total Refradbon of the
Ray
duced.
5
But
lince
n
is
here very ^ ereat, «/«»
•'
—
AD
=
—
fo
indefinitely prois
nearly
•'
=
therefore, the
Tangent of a very fmall Arch being
nearly equal to the
Arch
itfelf,
—^
i,
will be the
Meafure of
the Angle
BC
P, to the Radius
as i to
in Parts of that Radius;
to
i,
is
hence
we have
—^,
or as
nn
^y° ly' 44"
the Degrees, &c. in an Arch equal to the Radius, to the Refradion, or Degrees, C^c. in the forefaid Arch, whofe length is
^.
Q. E. D.
SCHOLIUM.
It is found, both from the Periodic Time of the Moon and from Experiments of Pendulums, that the Velocity fufhcient
to
retain
a
Body
in
a circular Orbit about the Earth, juft
above its Surface (fetting afide all Refiftance, &c.) muft be fuch as would carry it uniformly over a Space of 4.95 Miles
Therefore, if Light, according to Obfervation, moves thro' a Space equal to the Semi Diameter of the Magnus Orbis in 8 Minutes time, and the Sun's Parallax by i o Seconds of a Degree, the Velocity of Light muft be to the Velocity I
per Second.
[
4.8
3
Velocity above narncd, nearly as
as
34090
35"^
to
i
:
Hence we have
34090'=
:
r
:
:
S^^ ij' 44"
:
18'', for the Horizontal,
Whence it ap. or greatefl Refraction ariiing from Gravity. the Rtfradion obferved pears, that but a very fmall Part of in the Sun, Moon and Stars, can be owing to the forefaid
even fhould the Velocity of Light, in reality, be much lefs than it is at prefent fuppofed. And therefore in all Pradical Enquiries, about the Refraftion of the Heavenly Bodies, the Confidcration of Gravity may be entirely negleded, as altogether too minute to caufe any Itnfible Alteration.
Caufe,
P
TJ?
R.
O
P
O
S I
T
I
O N
11.
hwefligafe the Cur^e, 'which a Ray of Light , or any movifjoBody, isoill defcribe by any given Force^ continually urging it perpendicularly towards a gi'ven Flane.
Let E G L be the given Plane, A E the required Curve, and 1; any two Points therein indefinitely near to each other ; and let the Force by which the Body or Particle is urged towards E G, be reprefented by the Ordinates B D, ^c. of any given Curve SDL, whofe Axis A G is perpendicular to
H
BG
;
(Ji'aw
AB=:;^,
R H B, vrkn and Qj\ S parallel to E G, and put BH=i, BD=;Q:^AH = Hr (=B^)=i,
;^,
[
49
]•
wr=:jf, the Area ASDB=j, the Sine of the Angle to the Radius i, =/^, its Cofine f , and the Velocity at the Therefore as i Point b g bg^ the Velocity at A in the Dired:ion AQ; which, becaufe the Motion in the Direction of the Ordinate is not at all affeded by the Force ading in the Direction r, muft alfo be the Velocity at in the Direction R ; wherefore that in the Diredion r
A=^:
=
:
GAH
:
\
\
H
H
H H
will be
4^, whofe Fluxion 4^
be
as
is
making y
is,
conftant,
will
.therefore
Q_x
—^ that
as
the Force by
which
the Motion
fcribing
accelerated at
H, drawn
H
i;
:
Hence, by putting
= Qi' (==BD«i) =
Fluent on both
tity
fides,
—
J,
and
bg y confequently,
j f
^ = .^
B
into the time of de
we
have ^lllii yy by taking the
K^r— ==
fome conftant Quan
d
'j
which
o,
to determine, let
coincide with
^,
being
=
^
^.^
•
will
'^^j
become
=
but
= Xj
5I1I
:
will be
= —^,
=
and confequently
. .
,
~ —4^ =
^.^
2 S
"^"^
j
A
;
then
s
being there
j +
Wherefore jK
given in
, and z
=
from whence
when
s is
Terms of
x, the
be alfo given.
Values of y and z will Q:.E. I.
COROLLARY
(•
,
L
Becaufe the Value of s at all equal DiHances from the given is to Plane E L is the fame, and (b) the Sine of B A
H
ai
=
^—
)
the Sine of
r Hi;,
as
*/
i
h
A to
i, it
follows, that the Sines of Refradion, or of the Angles,
N
which anv
I 50 I
(having the fame Velocity at A)» any two Rays AE, the Perpendiculars F E, T K, at entering the given; make with Plane or Surface E L, will be to one another as the Sines of Therefore if the Refradlionthe given Angles E A G, K A G. in any one Cafe, or anfwering to any one Angle K A G, be given from Experiment, the Refradions in all other Cafes willfrom hence be given, let the accelerating Force be what it^
will.
AK
C O R O
But tween
if
LL A R Y
IL
the Force whereby the Particle, in its PafTage bdL is accelerated, be the Attraction of an. increafes interjacent Medium, whofe Denfity in going from
AQ_and E
G
QS
according to fome given
Law, not only
:
For, let the Curve itfelf will be had flant, or taken every where, the, fam.e ^ then
rative
the fame Thing, butB k ht fuppofed con.
(BD)
the accele.
Force of the Medium, or the indefinitely little Area BD;?/^, will, it is evident, be as the Difference of Denfities in' B and ^, and confequently the Sum of all thefe indefinite,
little
Areas, or the
whole
curvilinear
Area
A S D B,
as
the
Therefore fince s is as Difference of Denfities in A and B, this givep Difference of Denfities, the Nature of .the Curve^ will be readily had from the Equations foregoing. And hence it appears, that, if the Denfity in S be nothing, and that in givenj the Refraction will alfo be given or remain invariable, let AG, the height of the Medium, and the Law of Denfity be what they will, and therefore is the fame as it would be, was the Ray to be refradted immediately out of a Va.,
EL
Q
cuum
into the faid giyen Denfity.
COROLLARY
J
IIL
Hence may alfo be found the Law of Denfity, whereby a Ray of Light fhall defcribe a given Curve: For if b be
taken
ta;ken
=
i,
fo
that
A
may
be the principal Vertex of the
Curve, y will then become barely
•
•
= 4==, and y
2
s
therefore
s
=
.,
which
is
as
the Denfity required,
EXAMPLE
Let tlie given Curve be a Circle
j/
:
I.
IS
=
Then ^ being =y/2rA:
)
xx,
and
is
s
(= ^4^i^
,
=
^
=ir
:
There
fore the Denfity
as
or as the Square of the
Tan

g^nt of the Diflance from the highefl Point.
EXAMPLE
Curve
IL
Suppofe the Denfity to increafe uniformly to find the Here by writing x inftead of j, in the former of the :
in Cor.
two Equations,
IIL
we have y
to the
yz=g^ 2 X
like
= Yf^
2
,
X
and therefore
Parabola2j the
'j
which anfwers
common
of any other,
PROPOSITION
'To
IIL
article of Light or any moving find the Curve which a defcribe by any given Force ^ continually urging it direBly towards a given Centre,
T
Body will
Let
AR
be the Centre to which the Body or Particle is urged, the required Curve, v and n any two Points therein inone another, and
O
definitely near to
A F,
i;
T Tangents
at
A
and
t
and V
;
52
1 and from be defer!
to
which
let
tho Centre
O
let
O F and O T be perpendicular, the Circles A ^ H, kn, and B
i;
vbed
at
Let the Velocity at A be reprefented by Am, and that by A r, and let the Force whereby the Body is urged towards the Centre O, at any Diftance O B therefrom, be deiined by the Ordinates B D, B D of any given Curve S P D:
:
1?
Putting ;c', P'u
AO = a, Am=g, Ar = v, B D = Q»_0 == vn=zZ3 the Area ABDS=j, and the Sine of = Then by the or OAF to the Radius RAB
=
1;
^t*,
i,
^.
Refolution of Forces,
a(fting in
it
will be
2.s
z
:
x
:
:
Qj
^, theForce
at
the Diredion
v ;z, whereby the Motion
into
v
is
acce
lerated or retarded,of
which therefore drawn
gives
— the Time
Velocity
defcribing n
v
^
= —
(
z;)
the Alteration of
[
locity
in
S3
]
by taking the BDP^)= — — = ^ ^— whence = ^g""—
s,
that
Time
:
Hence we have
2 s.
vv =:
—
Qjc:
(=
and,
Fluent on both
fides,
J
i
i;
Wherefore
becaufe
the Velocity, be the Law of Force what it will, is known to be inverfely as a Perpendicular falling from the Centre of Force to the Tangent, we {hall have I? a (FO) : g (Am) : :
But
as
V
r or
:
:
:
vp p
:
n =i ^===^M^=======^ and
^
as
OP
:/)«::
I
(Radius) to
^ ^
^ "l^
^^
,
the Fluxion or
Decrement of the Angle A 1; ; from which, when the Relation of X and s is given, the Curve itfelf will be given.
CL.E.
L
COROLLARY
If the Curve
L
AR
being
paffing thro' an elaftic
Medium, and
be that formed by a Ray of Light in the Refradion be requi
red
5
then
OT
= Vg'—zs*
V
€t P*
b £L ^ S
its
,
Fluxion will be
(
g^—2s\l:
)
which divided hy
^t^ ^^^^,,
,
^^^X
==
T
'u
gives
==
^
,
,
^
=
7=r
X
——
i
for the Fluxion
of
the Refradtion, where
Denfities in
s is
to be defined
AE
and
B 17,
for the very
by the Difference of fame Reafon as in the
iaft Propofition.
COROLLARY
Hence, becaufe the Refraction
IL
(9^
x
——

)
which a Ray
of Light
fuffers in paffing thro'
O
any given Stratum of the Medium.
[54]
dium,
B vp k,
appears to be as, ^^^ the
OT
Tangent of
Inciit
dence on the Surface of that Stratum and
is
^— conjundlly,
2s,
manifeft that if =r— , as well as g^
OT
—
be every where
that Ray,
nearly.
nearly the fame, the whole Refradion or total Bending of will be as the Tangent of the Angle
RAB,
very
and the Denlity of the
Medium
at the
Surface
AE
SCHOLIUM.
Conclulion will be found to afford a fhort and very ufeful Theorem for determining the Refradlion which the Light of the heavenly Bodies fuffers in paffing thro* the Earth's Atmofphere, by the help of one Obfervation only, in all Cafes where the Zenith Diftance is not very great : For let E, &c. reprefent the Surface or a great Circle of the B, Earth ^ then, becaufe the Atmofphere at a fmall Height that Surface, in Comparifon of the SemiDiameter above A O, muft be extreamly rarer than at the Surface itfelf, the Refradlion beyond fuch Height will, at mofl, be but very fmall, and therefore the Curvature, which any Rays R'yA, C f A, fuffer below B ^ i;, may be confidered as their total But thefe Refradions being found by ExperiRefradions. will be ment to be but fmall, the Angles 'uAB and nearly equal, and therefore, if not very large, their Tangents will likewife be nearly equal j from whence, and what has been faid in the laft Corollary, it plainly appears that, let the Law of Denfity of the Atmofphere be what it will, the Re~ fraftions of the Sun, Moon and Stars, at all Altitudes except very fmall ones, will be neatly as. the Tangents of their apparent Zenith Diftances drawn into the refpedtive Denfity of the Atmofphere, at the Places and Times, for which fuch Refracftions are to be determined 3 and therefore if the Denfity be the
laft
The
A
A
AvO
the fame, are fimply as the Tangents of their Zenith Diftances. But now to eftimate in fome fort, how near this Proportion comes to Truth, and how far it may be relied on j let any two
convenient Altitudes, i. e. that are neither very fmall nor Suppofe one of 20, and the very near each other be alfumed. other of 40 Degrees, and let^^ w L, &c. be a Circle, or fpherical Surface dividing the Atmofphere into two Parts fo that the Denfity at that Surface may be equal but to half the Den
A. Now the Height of this Surface above A E, the Surface of the Earth, from the known Properties of Air, and Experiment made on the Tops of very high Hills, cannot be more
fity at
than about
c
1
Miles, or
^ of
:
the Earth's Radius*
i
Therefore
we
have, as
h
= 20) the
^
(Ow;)
(AO)
:
:
the Cofineof
:
(RAE
which
being
leafl given Altitude to
the Sine of 69°
48',
[S6]
being increafed by
of the Ray
nearly.
A it\
in
And
Minute on Account of the Curvature 69° 49', for the Angle 1^; A very the fame manner the Angle Of A, correi
gives
fponding to the other given Altitude, will be found 49° ^^', Now it hath been proved, that if the Angles of Incidence 1; A, f A, continued every where invariable, or equal to themfelves, the Refraftions would be to one another exadily as the Tangents of thofe Angles; therefore, becaufe the Difference of the Tangents of i;AB and &c. is but little, and the Refradion above and below the Surfacey^ ':£;L, nearly equal, therefore may 69° 49', and 49° : ^^\ be taken as mean Incidences, and then the Refradions, anfwering thereto, will be to one another as the Tangents of thofe Angles, or as i to 0.4372; which Proportion being much nearer the Truth than that of I to .4338, ariling immediately from the Theorem, the Error, in the confequent Term of this laft Proportion, cannot, it is plain, be much greater than (.0034) the Difference between .4372 and .4388; which, fhould it be even double that Quantity, would fcarce caufe an Error in the Refradion itfelf of a fingle Second. Nor is it in this one particular Cafe only, that the Rule anfwers fo exadly, the Error here being nearly as great, if not greater, than it can be in any other Cafe, where the leafl of the two propofed Altitudes is not lefs than 20 Degrees, as is eafy to fee from the Reafons
O
OwA,
:
foregoing.
by any Means we can Refradion correfponding to any one given Altitude, not lefs than about 20°, the Refradion at all higher Altitudes, for the fame Denfity of the Atmofphere, may be had from the forefaid Proportion, and that to a fingle Second. And this is to be the more relied on in Pradice, as it does not depend on any particular Hypothefis, for the Law of Denfity of the Atmofphere. The Refradions in fmall Altitudes, which remain to be confidered, are not fo certain and eafy to come at, nor indeed, If to be computed at all but by Virtue of fome Hypothefis.
Hence
it
appears, that if
come
at the true
3
the
[57]
the Denfity of the Atmofphere, in going from the Earth, be fuppofed to decreafe uniformly (which Law will be found to anfwer better to Experiment than the commonly received one, founded on the Elafticity of Air) and h be put for A B the height of the whole Atmofphere, in Parts of the Earth's Radius, and k be aflumed equal to the greatefl Value of j, correfpond
ing to this Height, then will j be to ^ Fluxion of Refradion ( found in Cor.
as ^
I. )
to ^, 'and the will
become
abgkx
=, and
is
'hgx
therefore to
as
,
the Fluxion of the Angle
AOi;,
i^
—^—
k
to, or, if a be
taken
=
I
i,
and
^== i,
as
to
^ x
^"^"^

5
which,
becaufe
;^
X and
2s are always nearly the fame, will be as
to
/&
very nearly.
Wherefore, becaufe the Angle
i;HB
is
equal
to
P
[58
to both the Angles
]
OuH, HOv, the Fluxion thereof, or of the Refradion, will be equal to the Fluxions of both that them two, and is, therefore, to the Fluxion of 1; H, in the conftant Ratio of ^ to b k, therefore the Fluents themfelves (corrected by their proper conlknt Quantities) muft be in
—
'u
—
the fame conftant Ratio, that
is,
Excefs
of
OAF
above
O
H,
the Refraction will be to the as k to b k. But, fince
—
OT
is
found above to be
=
Oi;H
,
or
is
^===
(
becaufe
b
a=i, g=J,
(
&c\) the Sine of
X
I
given
=
it
=^j— j =/^
I
b{k, very nearly.
Therefore
will be
as
to
I
b\k
to the
Diftance,
is the Sine of any apparent Zenith : : fo Sine of an Arc, the Difference between
which Arc and the Zenith Diftance, multiplied by
give the Refraction fought
fraction
j^
will
Proportion, the Re; from which may, in any Cafe, be determined, when b and k are given from Experiment 5 both which may be had from two
Obfervations.
be pretty large, then the Difference of the two Arcs meafuring the Angles OAF, 1; H, being nearly equal to the Difference of their Sines into Radius, applied to' (c) the Coiine of the former, the Refradtion will be barely
if the Altitude
But
—
x k
{=
^
~
X 7—7,) and therefore
in
any fuch Cafe, the
Value of k
may be found from one Obfervation only. For an Inilance hereof, let us fuppofe the Refraction at the Alti1' 30"!; tude of 30 Degrees to be given from Experiment, then the length of an Arc of i' 30"!, in Parts of the Ra
=
dius,
being
we
have
= ,00044 and — = .00044, 1.732
y^
,
the Tangent of 60°,
== 1.732,
and
therefore
^
= .000253.
By help of may be alfo
3
v/hich,
the Refractions at very fmall Altitudes
found,
when
the RefraCtion anfwering to any one ^uch
[59]
Suppofe, for Example, the horizontal Refradion, co: r^fponding to the above Value of X', to be given 33', 'id let the Refradion, at the apparent Altitude
fur.h Altitude
is
given.
=
fame time, be required Becaufe b x h k^ the Difference of the Sines of the Angles OAF, Oi;H, here becomes =.h—kz=z\.'iit verfed Sine of the Complement of Oi'H to a right Angle, the Arc correfponding to this verfed Sine, or, which is the fame, the Difference of the Arcs meafuring the of
5°, at the
:
—
faid Angles,
v^^ill
be nearly
•
= ^^2 x h —
,
k^
by the Nature of
will be equal to
in Parts of
the Circle
;
and therefore
,__^
x ^/a x h
—k
c
'J
(.0096)
the
3
Arc meafuring the given Refradlion whence
f \
the Radius
hi
f_
=
>^
.00009216,
) J
and h
— =
k
fore
.00004608
1 h
^
——
k
is
= .00110 becaufe = 0002 DO and oy = ^^ — very Wherefore from the H
or
1390
'
therefore
nearly. ^
going Proportion,
we have
of %6°
the Sine
this
Rule
,
As
i
to
Radius
to the Sine
to
58'!, Jo is the Sine
.9986, (^c. or as of any given Ze
nith Dijiance
of an Arc^
^
of the Difference
of which Arc and the Zenith Dijiance, is the RefraBion fought which in the Cafe above propofed, comes out 9' 10". And in this Manner were the two following Tables computed, the firff from the above Numbers, adapted to the mean Denfity of the Atmofphere, and the other from Numbers fomewhat larger, to anfwer when the Refradions are the greateft.
',
Ap.
C
60]
>
[6i
rial
]
Objedlion (that I forefee) the Tables are liable to, is their being founded on a Suppofition, that the Denfity of the Atmofphere decreafes uniformly ; which is not only very diffe
from what hath been hitherto commonly received, but feemingly contrary to Experiment, whereby it is proved, that the Dejtfity of Air decreafes as the compj'ejjiiig Force : But it may be anfwered, that, tho' this is allowed to be true in Air containing the fame Degree of Heat, yet it cannot be fuppofed to hold in the Earth's Atmofphere, fmce the upper Re_gion thereof is known to be much colder, and consequently
rent
the Elafticity there much lefs than at the Earth's Surface But, a convincing Proof that this Law of Denlity canftot obtain in our Atmofphere, is, that the mean horizontal Refradiion computed therefrom, according to the known refractive Power, and fpecifick Oravity of Air, will be found to come out no lefs
:
than 52 Minutes, which
is
greater
by almoft 
of a
whole
Degree than it ought to be ; whereas, if the fame Refra(flipn be calculated from the Hypothecs of a Denfity decreafing uniformly, and compared with Obfervations, the Difference will not be near fo confiderable. This fhev/s the Tables to be much exader, than they could had they been computed from the common Hypothefis I mean, in very fmall Altitudes ; for the Refractions in high Altitudes, it has been proved, will be but by different Laws of Denfity, and therefore little affeded
;
them according to even fo near, that if the Refradion at any Altitude not lefs than about 7 Degrees be truly given from Experiment, the Refradlions, com.puted from thence, according to the two Hypothefes forenamed, for any higher Altitude, will never differ from one another by more than about 2 Seconds. From whence we may infer^ that as the Hypothefis on which the abovefaid Tables are founded is much the exader of the two, the Error arifins; therefrom cannot in any fuch Altitude amount to more than a iingle Second.
the fame, compute
;
come out very near what Hypothefis you
will
Q_
OF
[62]
OF THE
SUMMATION
i? ai^ fI
of
SERIES.
I.
PROPOSITION
be any Power 2i^Xy either whole or broken^ pojitive (n) of the Binomial
b an— X f c a"— 2 x^ { d an— 3, &c.
or negati've, and the Terms thereof be refpeBively multiplied by any Series of ^antities p, q, r, s, &c. and the Differences of thefe ^lanfities be continually taken, and the firfl Diffe
rence (q^p) of the frji Order ^
jlyjl
(r
be denoted by
D, and
the
of the fecond Order, by D, &c. I fay^ the Series pan H q b a"— » x 4 re an— 2 x^, &c. thence arifng.
n
— 2q}p)
/'^//3^=pxaHxl fDbxxafxl
—
1
lDcx* x atxl
.
^
>
—— —
:
rn
+Ddx3xatxl
For,
i4
n—
,
6cc.
n
let
P X ^fA:l" h
Q^ x a\x\
x
H R a:* x
a\x^
—
S
;v3
X a^x^^~~^^ &c. be afTumed
y.
= p a^
a^—Sx\
,
\
qna'^—^x
r n
aT^^2x^{snx
<3C.
{=pan
\'qba^—^x^rca'^—^x'^\sda^—lx^, C^c.) then, by conthe feveral Powers 0^ a\x to fimple Terms, and verting
tranfpofing
fhall
pa^^qna n—
»
x\rn x ^^^ a n— i
x'^^
&c.
we
have
*P
[63]
2
'
—pa^ —
will be
qna^^^
x
— r « x ^^^
—
p,
a^^^ x^^ &c.
From whence, by
equating the homologous Terms, there
P=/>, (X=znxq
X
3
R=«x^^—^xr
py
2q\p^ S
is
=
n X
n
—
2
xj
5'
=
c,
G?^.
— 3^+3^ ^^' ^^t w = — = D, — 2§'+/>=D, ^c and
/>
^,
nx
r
confe
quQnily pa^^gba^— ^x\ re a^— 2 x'^'isda^'^^ x^, &c.
=px
x^
a^x\ {D a X X
a{x\
\r'Dex'i
a\x\
^D
^
c
x"^
x
a{x\
it is
{
Dd
in
x
xahxl
laft
,&c.wheve
evident, that the
finite
Value of pa^h Terms, when the
are equal.
q/>aT^—i
&c. will be always had
Differences of the Quantities />,^,r, &c\
Q. E. D.
COROLLARY
k^zm, k\2Wy &c. then
I.
Hence, if the Values of p, q, r, s, &c. be refpedively expounded by the Terms of any Arithmetical Progreffion kj k~\~m^
&c. each
=
p
being
=^,
i)=tn^ and D, D, D,
o,
we
fhall
have k a^\k~^?n x ba^—^x{k{2m x
aixl^i
ca'^—^x'^^ C^c. barely
=^x
mbxy,
^t^Yl*^""^,
or
kx
a^x\^{
mnxx a^x^^"^,
C O
[64]
C O R O
But
if
LL A R Y
q^ r,
II.
the Values of
/>,
^c. be defined by y>
"ttt''
^n~", ^c.
(the Reciprocals of that Progreffion) then
I'
D being
3
—
7n
m. 2
m
J''
—m
J
.
2
w
.
w
D=:t—Tj
7/
'"^
^
'
?
',
—
,
T]
^^'
we
fhall
have
V
»
/»0xXafx\
~~i
—[n—
,
— rn— _^ m.zmcx^ Y.a\'x\
;
—
*
m zm
.
.
'^max^ X <^+.y
,
,
— —rfl—?
;
i
.
z
m
.
T^m
.
^me x^Xa\x\
,
ij
—
;n
—
'
r^
'
— — 7n
j ^
a~fx\
k
^
Izz.
ff
y,
A.k^m.k^zm.i\^m.^'\'/\.m
f
pi
IX B
<2}A
mx
<3jAr
«
2XC
ZK^
«{"*
«
—
3
X
D
the
/^{^^
i3z«
firfl
^^ ^ff
~ry where
third,
A
denotes the
Term, B the
fecond,
C
and
fo on.
Therefore, if
^ being
=—
,
COROLLARY IIL == — ^=i, and
?i
be taken
i,
a:=2;J", then
i,
<:
= +!, d = ^i,
k\A^m
»;
C^c.
we
i}^;'"
have ^
— x^
^^
,im
k\zm
k\im
2 B i+2»^
^X
ilz'^
k
m
z«a:
^^^^
ifj:'"
%"
,3c
>^+3'»
wrz™.
4D
4447W
l+z""
ijis™
^._5A_x^^, ^^ i+«"'
Rf5«7
^.. or
C5r.
.^=puttinp;
[/fxi+2"»
,,—
^
f
T ,—^,
by
+ Q=—
^Q^
4

+
/«
+ ^^
^20.
{42;w
,
CO
[
65]
IV.
i
COROLLARY
Moreover,
j,ave
when n
is
taken
;=—
and
^=i, we
(hall
p^qx^rx^sx^^tx\
///
^^\
j
&c. and
= r+l^ — 7=p + 7=p confequently (by writing — x of
(^c.
inftead
&c. (hewing the Value of the
tinued in infinitum.
Series p'\qx{'rx'^,
&c. con
COROLLARY
But
if
V.
the Value of only a finite Number {li) of Terms be wanted, let the remaining Part of the Series be reprefented P^nHQxn+i_{R;cn+2, and the Difference of the Coefficients P, Q, R, ^c, be continually taken ; and let the
firft
Difference of the
firft
Order be denoted by E, the
firfl
Difference of the fecond Order by E, ^c, ^c. Then, for the
very fameReafons xhsX p\qx\rx^, &c.
is
=
P
^^
f~
Da: __
.
^*
&c.
Gfc.
will
P4Q^+R^% ^c.
be
= ^
I
4
—°x
=^ 4 ==i>
l'—x\
1
—=
;*'j
and therefore
P^nf Q^n+i HR^cn+z^ ^c.
=
.
^^
^
J=»*
^,
1
—
«
f^1
==r^, &c. which taken from
I
X\
~—H
'
"
ii?(7.
leaves
firfl
H
Terms of the
^^
f
.
—
,
&c,
equal
to the
Series propofed.
R
CO
[66
]
COROLLARY
Hence may
Series
^
VL
[n) of
the
Sum
i
of any
Number
Terms of
is
the
H
alfo
%
\
— +
for
4> ^^fince
where z
indetermi(^c,
is
nate,
be
found;
px { qx"^^
rx'^,
let
z be
written therein inftead of
,
and
it
will
become
equal to the Value fought, which therefore,
nite,
when
;z
is
infi
or the whole Series
/ //
is
taken, will be barely
=
^
///
«
—
il
z
—
1
«—
ij
EXAMPLE L + "7^» ^^Where ai^^ —
7"^
t>eing
= ^4^1%
gal ^
'tis
propofed to find the
Sum
^'^^
of the
infinite Series
zax
•—
"T^ + "Vl"'
firft
Here /being
=
9,
^=16, ^=25,
Differences will be 7, 9, 11, 13, ^c, the fecond 2, 2, 2, ^^. and the third, fourth, ^c, each e
j:=36, ^c. the
qual
to nothing
whence by
o; 2, D, Gf^. 7, thefe Values, with thofe of n and p, fubftituting
:
Therefore
D=
D=
=
iBc, in the general
Equation,
we
have o
^H
i
f^
4
[67]
was
to be found.
EXAMPLE
Where x
being
lefs
IL
than
i,
'tis
required to find the
the infinite Series ih2A;+3^^{4A;^,
&c.
In
this
Sum of Cafe,/>=i,
In Hke
is
qx=2y r=2j ^c. D=:i,
IV.) i42;^+3^% &c.
D=o,
^c, and therefore (by Cor.
=rT
^3 ,
+
=^ =r=^.
Manner
it
will be found, that
'XX
'
ih^x^gx^'iiGx^, &c.
+
^^z
+ —
2 X^
and that i'\Sxh2yx''{'64.x^,
6 x^
(^c,
SCHOLIUM.
The
foregoing Conclufions are not only ufeful in finding
the Values ,of Series, which are. in their own Nature exactly fumible, but may alfo be applied to very good Purpofe in the Quadrature of Curves, and in approximating the Values of fuch Series, whofe exadl Values cannot be determined. Let it, for example, be required to approximate the Value of the
Series li! _i if!
4.6.8.11^^4.6.8.10.13 4.7 4.6.9 3. 5 exprefiing the Area of the redangular Hyperbola, whofe
fciffa is X,
—^
i £ili4 _. ±.3i5£I. _ju
tl±2ll. &c.
Abeffed:
and principal Diameter Unity. which, let a few of the leading Terms firft) be coUedled into one Sam, and let the Coefficients of a few of the firft of the
In order to
(fuppofe the four the Differences of
remaining Terms,
which
(in this Cafe) are ^
'
4.6.8. II*
4^,
41^^^, 4.6.8.10.13*
4#^^^^, ^c. 4.6.8.10.12.15'
or
[ 68 1
or 0.0142, 0.00841, 0.00546, 0.00379, &c. be continually taken ( as in the Margin )
.01420
.00841
00579
—
.00546 .00295
J.00284I— 00128, &c. .00156, ^c.
— —
.00379, y<. .00167, ^c.
Then, the
of
the
iirft
firft
Difference
of /, q^ r, s, the 0.01420, 0.00841, 0.0284, 0.00156, &c. be refpcclively fubftituted in the geneilead
—
—0.00579, of fecond Order +0.00284, of the —0.00156, ^c. &c. D, D, D, &c. above Values 0.00546, 0.00379, &c. — 0.00579,
the
third
III
Order
being
if in
/
U
ral
Equation p ^ ^
(as
—
>,
qx^rx"^
^
—
I
sx^.
&c.
= J
&c.
found in Corol. IV.)
we
fhall get
+ 0.00546;^  0.00379x3,
2.
&c.
— ^i^ (^^^^ 0.01420
0.00579 X
i\x
——
Dx
II
r^
D, i"=^
i\x\
^^x\
rz
0.00841A,*
3.5.7. 9
;y^
V
0.01420
0.00284^^
4. 6.8. 10. 12. i5»
^^'
^
i+x
^
"^
'ilrA^
o^ooi^
i+x\
'
>^'3.579^
4.6.8. 10. 12. 15
^^^ confequently — ^ &C. = — v/7x ^
X^
to
H^'
f^iiiZi^
4.6.8.10.13
£i3,5Zl. i4.6.8.11
<>°H^o^
ljx
^
l^
10
gl^^^Zi^
I
+
Jfj
{
^^^_1^ &c. which added
i+x
x ^x ^
xi
3
+
'
— ^i_f!
14
'
36'
the
Sum
of the four
firft
whole propounded found in Numbers,
will
Ai^
Series
that
Terms, will give the Value of the which Value may now be eafily of x being given j for let x=i, then
;
*
^.x
X ^^^^T~~
"*~
—====I—
J
&;C.
=—
^
O.OOQO, &c.
therefore the
and^Tv/^x^3
4
— 10
— — 414
^ 36
= 1.6806, and
^
Value of the whole Series will be 1.6806, which is more exadt, than if 20 Terms of the original Series had been taken. Again,
3
let
[
69
i
let
^:
[
mediately be
that ^
I
7°
firit,
]
let
fl:iewR.
And
_f
2 m\1
z=i^
and
i
;;z,
=22,
fa
5
^
m\i
^sfr.
^_
,
Ci?^.
may become

h
3
,
(expreffing the length of
is
of the Periphery of the
Circle,
(i
whofe Radius
I
7
5
V
— A__l — ^
3
X'
Unity) then the Value (0.7440 117) of
I
9
,
L) the
»
J
fix
firft
^
Terms
&c.
thereof
being; colied:ed there will
remain
—
^,
Therefore.
firfl:
feeing the Value of
(the
13,
Denominator of the
remain
ing
Term)
is
here
=
andQ(=: ^j^j=
i,
we
flaall,
by writing
4,
17'
thefe Values in the above Equation, have
&C.— 1 xi4— +i^+3j^, 19 17 13
= 0.04138735
for the
0.0025641 H 0.0D00024
\
+ +
2.
'
^^.
15
=o.o3846ic J T J
f
0.0003016 0.0000007
this
+ +
1
0.0000476 0.0000002
;
+
i,
{
0.0000091 0.000000
and
added to 0.74401 17, gives 0.785399
Series
if
Value of the whole
which
let
is
true in the iafl
origi
Place, and
nal Series
fo that the
more exad: than
had been taken.
propounded
Series
00000 Terms of the
Again,
a:=
and mz=zi^
,
may
be
^c\
(expreffing the hyperbolical
Logarithm of 2) then the
Sum
i
(0.634523809)
of the 8
firfl
Tjerms being taken, the remainr
ing Part of the Series will ^
be9
^
10
—h —
II
12
ij^
——
have
,
&c. Therefore k being here
=
4
9,
and
Q== , we
fhall
+ z^ X y^ + A5^ 41^ + ».A,B,C,2D,cE,F«j
1^,
^
^
ISc.
^
4
[
71
]
0.000252525 4 0.000031565 0.002777777 0.000004856 h 0.000000867 H 0.000000177 f•40.000000038 4 0.000000009 4 0.G00000002 .3= 0.058623367; and confequently 0.693 147176 equal to the whole Value required; which errs but 4 in the laft Place and would have required, at leafl:, looooooo Terms of the
original Series.
initial
P
+
But
after all
iiril
it
Terms
are always
to
may not appear why a few be taken, feeing the Series
jit
for.
the Value, of
±z''
x^
— ^
are
^^^ &c. holds uniwill
;
verfally, let the
is.
Value of k be what
but the Reafon
taken, the fafter will the Series expreffing the Value of the remaining Terms converge, fo that by firfl collecting a proper Number of initial Terms (which will be. greater or lefler, according as a greater or lefler Degree of Accuracy is required) the fame Conthis,
firft
the
more Terms there
cluiion will be brought out with a great deal lefs Trouble,
than
this
if the Value of the whole Series was to be found by Method, as upon Trial will plainly appear,
.
PROPOSITION
aix, decreafed by the v fir/i
IL
SUppoJing an{ba"ix{can^2x2{dan3x3, &c.
to he as in the lafi Propofition, and r any whole pojitive JS)u??iber, and that S is equal to the n4r Power of the Binomial
Terms
V
:
I fay,
x"
the
.
Sum of
da
the
Sertes
5cc.
ci
'
——
^
i.2.3...r
4. —:;
.
ba
X
i
ca
^x^
2.3.4....r}i
3.4L5....r+2
^^
4.5.6...rf3
(whether finite or ^
infinite) will '
be
=^=
«{ixk2x«+3....«+^xxv
^n+i"! n\r x ^"4^—^ at.
For the;2fr Power of a\x being
^ «4r X ^"^^T
2
..
i,
X ^"+'""^ x\ '
C^c,
if
from the fame the r
firil
[
72
]
Terms be taken,there will remain ^E]^^¥^h^^ 2 2
I
. .
.
^«1^^'''''
.
.
.r
"*
J
.2.3
r+I
1.2.3
n\:
r+ 2
na
\
>
^^«
;;2Hr
x«hr
^'^— ^.^^
—
i
i
^X'
x
1.2.3...^
f2ifziif__l =:;z4r X
i.2.3.,..rf2
«
7z
— — +
r
n
1. 2. 3.4.. ..^{i
^~"
i
....724
1
x
a;''
"
x
^
^
—
—
2
i ,
'^^
I
«^
^
"^
I
2.3.4....^+!
? .3.4.s...r+2
Gf^:.
=85
n—
^f
2.3 4....r+i
therefore
c
==
7
i^l
=
,
—
X«+2X«3
A^
1.2.3... .r
n\r%x''
—:is=—
^
n
1
^
1,2.3. ..r
%
,
^c.
n—
^^
1
n— 2
if
H _if
^.3.4.. .r+i
1—

, '
S'^.
3.4.5. ...rt2
Q, E. D. ^
C O R O LLA RY
Therefore
«
it
I.
"^"^ follows that "^+^1 r—
— n+iXA•^'\''^
is
=—
I
i
I
—
2
,
""T
5
n+2
——
,,
n+i
4
i
,
C^'^
^nat
^+ix«+2Xa;^
_f!_ I1.2^^
^^
^
J
J^_JL_,
3.4
G?^.
and
that
2.3
,:nFr+''.''+'H^x»"+'.H^x^
»lX«+2X«+3Xr3
/+V
IS
=
1.2.3
,;2
.
3
<
4
3
'
4
•
5
CO
in)
COROLLARY
Hence may
&c. (=zahx\
H.
the Value of a^^h^a^'^^x^ca^^^x^'+'da^'^ix^
when the Terms thereof are refpedlively di) vided by any Series of figurate Numbers (as i, 3, 6, 10, 15, &c. or as I, 4, 10, 20, 35, &c.) be alfo eafily ' derived :
For, fince
it is
found
tliat
—^1l.2.3...r
^^"""'
f
^
.
z.3.4...ri
4 __tf""*"^* ^^ 3.4.5. ...r+2
^'be
''
^ nT^T^Z^^^Zj^n^'
1.2.3
^^'
^^^ whole Equation
multiply'd by
^
and
we
fhall
have
^
t
'•+IX^ z
.
r+lX^XV^ 2 3
I
i.2.3....nxS
Y
S
«4.i
I
^
«iX«+2X«+3
i,
«+r X x'J
n\z
«^3
g^^
^
^
are
2
^
3
^*
;
where
rhi, rfi x
Series^
^,
{ifr.
known
to
reprefent
una verfally any
of
figurate
Numbers.
EXAMPLE
Let there he given r
find the
"^
L
^^' =^ ^
—^
"^
^j
f
—
^'
\to
exad Value of
is
^
i.c2.
H .^
2.2^^
^,
J.Sf''
&c.
Then,
fliail
becaufe r
=
i,
a=.c^
x=:z, and
;z
=
;—,
2'
we
in
^qp^j^_«n+r
this
Cafe have 2±4._»}lXAr
;i:^p_,^
2.^^2x^—«p
«
fX—»
which was
to be found,
EX
[74]
JSX
Let
£5?/:.
AMPLE
a^x^
II.
it
be required to find the Value of ^ ^ I
—h ^^
4
H
^^" *
lo
\
or of the fifth
Power of
by
i,
when
the
Terms
thereof
in
are refpeclively divided
order that
10, 20, 35, &c. the above general Series (for figurate
4,
Now,
Numbers)
let
may agree with
(1, 4, 10,
20) the particular one here given,
the Value of rf i be fo taken, that the fecond Terms of both Series may be equal, and then the reft will be fa of Courfej therefore r, in this Cafe, being 3, ?2 5, and
=
=
n[r
the three
firft
Terms of
^ix^
expanded
a^
+
I
8^7;^!
28
S
A% we have 8=^1^1^
«\f
— ^a^x— 28^^a% and
in a Series
=<3^
2/41
x.^ w+3
»42
3
c6 ^
"V^*'
Value that was to be found.
PROPOSITION
TJppo/ing
Series,
IIL
axPHbxP+"fcxP+^"f^xP+3n^ &c. to he any is given j and thefinite or infinite^ whofe Sum
A
Terms thereof to be refpeBively multiply' d by the Therms r, rin, r 2n, &c. of any arithmetical ProgreJJion, whofe common Difference is n 5 to find the Sum ( B ) of all the
+
ProduBs, or the Value of the Series raxPjrfn xbxP+*^ hr+2n X cxP+^^, &c. thence arifing.
Becaufe ax^^^bx^^^cx^'^^^
will
^c.
is
given
= A,
there
be
given a i^ Vb x'+'' \c x'^''' ,
Fluxion being taken and divided
=A;c"Pj whofe by x^^'^^^x, we have ra x^
^c.
^rhn X
^;fP+"'4 rf2 « x cx^^"^, &c,
= r—p x Ah A—
L
75 ]
=B
B
}
where, becaufe
finite
always had in
alfo.
given in finite Terms, A will be Terms, and confequently the Value of
is
A
CLE.
I.
COROLLARY.
Hence,
the Series
qual
for
the very fame Reafons that (B)
x,
the
Sum
is
of
e^
ra x^\r\n x l?x'^^{r{2n
will
cx^~^^^^ C^c.
tor—/xAfi^,
.— , and
(C)
the
Sum
of
the Series
rsax^hr\n.s\N'^x^^{r{2n.s{2n.cx^^,
&c.
be
=s—px
^c.
Bi
(D) the
Sum
of the
.
Series
.
r.s.t,
ax^^ r^n.sin ,t\n\ ^;cP+"fri2 n.s{2 n
t{2n cx^"^^^,
=7=7 X C i ^,
&c, &c. &c,
EXAMPLE
Let there be
ffiven
L
Series
the
Sum
of the
.
'.7
,
x
—~
3
~i fL, 5
is
&c. exprelling the Arc of a Circle, whofe Radius
x,
i,
and Tangent
of the
and
let
it
be required to find the
3
— ^f^ll — 2fl!4_ ^^ />=i, = ^==3, and A = ^^~, we have B (= r—p x A — ^) = A4 ;^ Value
infinite Series
Sum
(B)
3^; ^
iil!
9
S
7
Becaufe, in this Cafe,
72
2,
2
for the
fought.
EXAMPLE
Having given the Sum of the
IL
x
infinite Series
— —J
—
f^
H
—
C^c. equal to
(A)
the hyperbolical Logarithm of
t76]
I f. Afi
to' find
J
(
C
)
the
Sum
^c.
of" the infinite Series
2.2Af
^
— Ul—
A
f
lii!
liiij
Here/> being
=
i,
«=i,
px
r=2, ^=2
(vid. Corol.)
and
A = ^^, we have B (=:r
^) = A +
C
Gonfequently
6=4 + ==^, and (=^ x B + ?A) = A 4 ^ H =^
";
therefore
which was
to be found.
LEMMA.
J'o
divide a Compound FraSfiojty as
ones,
^+^ ^
^T^ ^ '^t^
—±
^^^U as
many Jimpk
Juppofmg
b,
as there are Factors in its Denominator
^
&c. to be unequal Numbers, and a, a, a, ^c. any Numbers, either equal or unequal, and that the Number of FaBors in the Numerator is lejs than the Number of FaSiors in the Denominator,
b, b,
Let A,, B, C, D, ^c.
reprefent the
unknown invariable Nuii
merators of the required Frad:ions to which ^±i2i^xl]i±tf!
may be
reduced,
.
or,
which
is
the fame
/
in efFed,
//
let yj—
,i
B ^^ C
,
J
D _,
n) ^^. ^
«4a; r

X ^+Ar X fl+Jf, ^c, r r
.
^hen by
i
b\x b^x^b^xy^k^Xi^c. b\x h2^x multiplying the whole Equation by ^ i x, we fhall have
.
b\x
X B
bArX X
b^x
C
b\x X
l^x
D
«j
a\x
X a \x, &c.
yy
^.
iJ^x
b{x
X b{x, ^c.
it
fince the Equation holds univerfally, be the
Value of x what
[77]
it
will, let
X be taken ==
—
/
the
Terms affeded by /^h^
(hall
o, and then, all vanifhing out of the Equation,
^,
/^
or
//
f
at
=
we
have
A
^c. ^x^ of that of the required Fradions, whofe Denominator is From whence the Numerators anfwering to the reft ^{a:
h
= ~—~—^~—~ — — —
ixt>
1>,
for
the
Numerator
:
of the Denominators or Facftors,. ^IAr, /^fAr, &c. may be found by Infpedlion, and will be had (as the foregoing is) by taking the Quantity conjoined with x in the Fador propofed, and fubftituting the fame, with its Sign changed, inftead of at, in every other Fador of the Fradion given i and fo we have
a
—^X«
/
II
//
hXa
I
—
II
b,
Cfff.
I
,
a
////// —bxa—ixa—
I
B,
&c.
i
i^b%b—by.b—b,^c.
,
"^'^
l
II
b^bxb^bxb—b,
p^
>
^c.
II
b
HI
+x
.
a^b X a
7i I
."*"
w l^bxh^hxb'^b,^c.
7i
—b X a—~
II
II
b,Z^c.
^
a{xXa\'XXa\xXa\x, &'c
•
/ //
^
///
b{x
b\xy(.b{xxb{xX.b{'X, ^c,
Q^E.L
COROLLARY.
If the Number of Fadors in the Denominator of the propofed Fradion be greater by two, at leaft, than the Number of thofe in the Numerator, it will appear, by conceiving
/
//
^T^
^1^
x^b
x+b
x{b
Xx+bXx + b,
&c.
(== o) to be reduced to one Denomination, that AfBSC+D, &c. will be the Sum of the Coefficients of the higheft Power of X in the Numerator, and therefore equal to nothing.
U
PRO
[78
]
PROPOSITION
Having
,
IV.
Infinite
given
mfn
(
S
)
the
,
m42n
Sum of m+jn
the
Series
^
tn
mlAn
Fluent of
—m—
I
=r^
{which may be always had from the
to find the
^^^ ^„
drature of the ConicSeB ions) 'ttspropofed
Infinite Series
Sum of the
t^^^^l'.p
i^c.
^
+ .+^.x.j
/^o
»,i^..
+
a\zn
X ^42« X f42«,
_i_ fl43« X
/+2«Xji2«Xr+2«, ^f.
— ;+3'^Xf43«X^+3«,£ffc.
n, any
^+3« X C'\'hn, &c.
"^^^
*
&c. fiippofng '^^^j
qual whole Numbers
unequal^
^^,
a,
^^^, &c.
reprefent any une^
b, c,
m,
"Numbers equal or
Fatlors in each Numerator of the Series to be the fame, and lefs than the Number of FaBors in the Denominator, this laft Nmnber being aljo Juppofed
and
the
Number of
the
fame
in every T!erm.
^^^^
q
— ^Xr
pXs
&c.
—
f,
^c.
*
/>
—
f
Xr
— yXJ—
i^c.
£fff.
x,
f,
&c.
j^ »
*
^^rX^— rXf— r>
^__r
__
q
»
a—sxi>—sXc—s,
X?— rXJ— r,
^r.
^_j xj— ^Xr—
^^ ^^
then, from the preceding
Lemma,
it
will appear that
to
/'
'
—p^,
firft
— ,, — ,—
^idL_^
q
,
^c. are the fimple Fractions
Series
\.
is
which the
will
Term of the
r
reducible, that
^^7.
is
pqt's,
^
'
,
be
iSf'.
=—
p
it
^
—
s
J
And
in the
fame Manner
will
appear, that the zd, 3d, 4th ^
will be equal to
^c^ Terms of the
fa id Series
[79]
/+2«
^{^n
f^^"
s^zn
"^
/2
—
/+3«
—
I
I
j43«
—
{
'*43«
—
f+S"
—
I
^+3»
Therefore the
~
Sum
n
of
all
thefe, or
2n I ^
the whole Series,
A
.
X 
2!:

zn
^
—
^,
.
ad
&c
c
>>•
X 
I
+
I
4_
^"^
^_
_«_
2n
5n
f
An
^«1_
_j_
^^.
&C. But unce
—
01
,
+
n
J^h^
f
zn
j
^
m2n
,
_. osc.
.
is
given
=

_ S,
and
A
I
X 
±
:;4
^ 1
p4"2i^
—
»
^^ "^^y ^^ reduced
to
—A
I
x
5^.
^—
p
p4*^
^1
h tj—
J
^'^.
it
is
evident that
A
^
«»
.
x 7 ^~ j—
_4_
4 _^ , /}2«
^c.
Will be equal to "r
x
in
S
—
equal
^
m2n
—
'
»
^+
will
m\zn
— — p n
p
,
;
and
the lame
Manner
B
B
X 
r ^
{_

—
^c.
appear
to
~V
^
^
m
"^
mjn
im\tt
q—
^
q
m
—
,
G?r.
and therefore the
Sum
of the whole Series propounded
is
[8o]
A_
,
q
Z
m
m
g
m4n
7
g
m42n
'
g^^
p
—
n
n
mfn
B
c
^
f
f____
«?[«
,
1___
«2«
m42n
q
.
.
^
^_
^
r
«
g
£
When
A
m ^
g
m+n
^
m42n
'^
^
—n
,
t
^c.
all
the Signs thereof are given affirmative, and equal to
i_cr^
m
+
m+n
_J_
m}2n
[
will be defined
8^ ]
2;"""
by 4r
I
><
A+ B
«"
•
4.
C
^"~"'"±
n
m4n
D
z
2n
B
,
C
«.
m
m\Zft
D
COROLLARY
But
if the Series to
py.p\ny,p\'2n,
IL
this
be fummed, be comprifed in
;
Form
^c.
+
r> i p'^ny.p\2nXp\'in,
—
of Factors in the Denominator of
uHi, *
and the number ^c ^c. each Term be denoted by
)
we
fliall
B
= — 'uA,
therefore
^
*
A (== ny^zny^'^n,.. nj = 1.2.3.4...1; C = 'ux^^^A,D=—'ux^^^x^^^ A, &c,
have
^
.n}
*
and
the
Sum
^
of
the
whole
Series
equal
to
—
V S
—^
""
.
.
I.2.3.4...T;X«''a?
+"
I
——
OT
+ 2«
.
.....
.
p—fz
'vz'^^
1.2.3
'vXn"
p
— 2n — 3n rzix^— 4^
the
faid L
1.2 .3...'yX«'aP
 —— V X '^— X 2 —
V,
^n
«""^"
.
«""
J
_
.
{ 'U
X
'V—l
X
p
p{
h^
>
^^'
when
;
all
the
Signs of
Series
are
given
affirmative
z
'
but
equal
to
3
^_,
2
X S
«
4'u
h
X
.2:
'^^^^
z«{"'^
X
i.2.3.4....'z;X'k''
;>
2
X
p
p\ft
—
i
—
•
4 ^ X
change
—311
^z^z
3
^2
/
s
— zn
j__
_^a
—
^^^ ^^^^
^Yity
^
/+«
X
H2«
alternately
[8a]
alternately, in
which Cafe the Sign
f
or
—
before i4x"~"l
obtains according as
^^^
is
an even or an odd Number.
COROLLARY
Laftly, let
IIL
Series
z be taken
=
i,
and the
propounded be
p^Z»Xq{ 2nXr{2n, ^c. pXq K rXs, &7. '^ p{nX q{»X. }{», ^'c BfC &c. then, fince the Sum of all the Coefficients A \ D, &c. will be o (fy the Coroh to the precedmg Lemma) when the Number of Factors in the Denominator of each Term is greater by two, at leaft, than the Number of thofe in the ' B C A 4have ^ ^>^^Numerator, we fhall, in this Cafe,
=
+
^
^+
;
c
fore,
2
m
g
m+n
'
alfo equal to
p—'tt
nothing
and there
by expunging
i
fubftituting
out of the general Expreffion, and inftead of 2;, we have
this
B
X 
4
]
+ TTPrr^^
^—p
I
g X ^ X / X
•4y
c
X
r
X X
</,
/,
^c. ^c.
P
r
P'T"
pt»
r—p
I
P+2n
s
d
I.
EXAMPLE
Let there be given the
or the Arc of a Circle,
Series 
—
^^
i,
\r
—
,
C^c,
2;,
whofe Radius
35
is
and Tangent
6«*
and
let
the
Sum
of the Series
— — 1^
57
*
—  ^'^^• ^9
be
[83]
be required.
Expreffions,
Here,
by comparing
we have m=zi^ «
=
thefe with
2,
<z=:2.
/>
=
the general
3,
$'
=
5,
/»='. ?»=3. A (=g)=^.B=(f^^)=^C=o,
C^c.
and confequently
^x — S+ +
jj^g
^xS — —
H
s'
X s~3 g or s+g^ gq^^j ^^
Value fought.
EXAMPLE
Let there
~ "^ 7" "^ be given
the
II.
Sum
of
the Infinite
Series
T
"^ ^^^^.expreflingthehyperbohcLogarithmof
i—x
4
to find the
U^
JL«3
Sum
2
of the
^^
7 Z' 5.6.7.8
Infinite Series
—
'
^
X
{
1.2.3.4
2.3.4.5
J
7
3.4.5.6
H
^
=
4.5.6.7
.y
2,
"IS
r=3,
XS
or
to
=
^
1
4, /
=
*
Here m=.i. nz=ii. ^ />=i, »
(by Corol.
2
o,
1
^^. therefore
^
II.)
2
—
.
ll
I.2.3X
+
2
'7
—1
2
*

1.2.3
X
^
X
*
i
\
^
4
^,
3
— ^' X SH4^
6;v'^
36*
I2;r*
^
f
7^ OJf^
is
the Value
that
was
be founds which therefore, when x=ii^ or the
is

propofed Series ^ ^
equal to 11
—
•
{
—
?
1
1.2.3.4
^,^c. will be barely
•'^
2.3.4.5
 ^ His
34'S6'
1,
or
^.
III.
EXAMPLE
Where
it
required to find the
i
—1
1.2.4.7
^
1
L~
2.3.5.8
L_ ^
3469
\
45'7io
—
Sum
of the
In
Infinite Series
this Cafe,
^^^
we
have
[ have
84]
p=i, q=2, r=4, s=y, B ( ,_,,^1,,^_, )
^*
V
= =^,C
90'
*
Vi—.4x2—4x7—4 /
GfiT.
1—7 X
2— 7 X 4—7/
and therefore (by Corol. IIL)
I
^
^_
^90
_L X
^2^3*4 +
4I
 f 
 "H ^ 6
5
— ^xHjf.^ = ^^ the Value
is
5400
required.
EXAMPLE
Let there be given
(
IV.
S
)
the hyperboHcal Logarithm of
^, z'
E—
to find the
_l_
Sum
of the Series
^
1.2.3
H^
^^
2.3.4
+
39^
34S
may be ^ _5i^ A^^l ^c. This ^ i + ^:^ >h ^^ h ^, ^^. and + ii^ ^ h — , &c, 4 x — ^^ 57fl ^^^ and — h — + — ^c. Now the Sum of the former of
Series
refolved into
4.5.6
56.7
i:i1.2.3
1.2.3
2.3.4
34S
4 50
^
2 .3.4
that
is,
into
1
345
^^S
2.3.4
3.4.5'
,
1.2.
2.3
3.4'
as
thefe,
I
by proceeding
X.
in the foregoing Examples,, will
be
1^
4
— — —
II
_
.
f.
i
—
H
—
,
and that of the
latter
equal to
3^^"^^
which Values
XS
therefore, added together, give
for the
^
I
—
propounded. In the other Series be determined, when the Denominators thereof come under the general Form in the Propofition, and the lall: Differences of its Numerators are equal, provided the number of Differences before you come to the laft, be always lefs
ries
Sum of the whole Sefame manner may the Sum of any
%
than
the
number of Fadors
3
in
•
the
Denominator of each
Term.
.
EX
[
85]
V.
Series
EXAMPLE
Let there be given the
I
Sum
of the
z
h—
5
4^
^
9
f
—
'3
,
&c. (which
is
equal to half the
I
Sum
of the hy
perbolic
Logarithm of
i,
ii^^''
and the Length of the Arc whofc
let
it
{
Radius
the
J
is
and Tangent z) and
Infinite Series
be required to find
59I7
Sum
12J!.
of the
J
^
1.5.13
a;+
^
[
HI
13.17.25
17.21.29'
—
9I321
^—
then
^c.
Put
=
y, ^^
or
2;
=
x
y^
^
:
'
becaufe the Numerators
may
•'
be reduced to
^ 32
i
~ x 8,— x '32
4.
8xi2;2;*— XI2X '
32
162;^,— X 16 x ^
32
20
2;", *
'^^^
&c. the
Series itfelf
will
be changed to °
where
^
m
^
being
fhall
=
— x —^ iS»3 32
i^
i
=
8, '
we
have
= p = ^ = r=i3, <?=4, A = ^, B == ^, C = ^ and
n
^j
ij
S9'^7
9I32'
,
&c.
5,
10
32
there
'
,
32
fore
[86
]
PROPOSITION
Vppofmg the
V.
Sum of
,
the
Infinite
Series
bx fcx
k
k+l
Hdx
U'hofe
fex
refpeBively divided by
^c. when the Terms thereof are thoje of any arithmetical ProgreJJion,
is
common Difference
m,
to be
given j
'tis
propofed to
''^'''
find the
a\?n
Sum of
the Infinite Series
"''
.
''+°r+r^+°'^:;
aAr^m X a\zmy^c. Xdx
"^
X a\m X a'\'m,^\. X ex p^mXq\mXr\my ^c.
p, q,
a, a,
r,
a{Zm X
p\zmy.q{zmXr{2my i^c.
&c. fuppo/ing
bers^
s,
&c.
to reprefent
any unequal Num
and
a,
^c. any Numbers equal or unequal^ and
Term^
that the
is lefs
Number of FaSlors in the Numerator of each than the Number of FaBors in the Denominator,
. .
k
p
Let the Values of the
Series
„,
,
t^
r
^ £Vp\m
'
kf1
,
k+zl
y
^
f
^^'
Af^
p\zm
k ix
I
,
k+1 ex
*
i
,
.k+zl dx ^
i
n
»
f^^
k bx.
k+l ex
—
dx
1
,
k+2l
*
j
j—
—
>
^*"
re
(which are fuppofed given) be denoted by P,
fpeaiveiy , and ^ i
^
Q^
R, &c.
q.i
let
A = !^=^%^,B=p^%i: — — —p.r—f.i— p— q.r
q
p, iSc.
f, <Sc.
&c. Then
/fo
it
will
appear from the foregoing
Lemma,
that
4. f, ?}o
^, r^o'
°'
.
~,
j}°
6?r. are the fimple
Fraaions into which
evi
—.— ^°'
'
A
//
c.^^'
izfc.
f\0.q^0.r\0,
niav be refolved '
y.
and therefore
it is
dent, that the
».^
iirfl:
Term
ro
of the propofed Series will be equal
A?^ ^y
it
kb X
p\0
^^ B h X
f~l~0
^^ Qh X
Ab X
/
^^ B ^
AT
^^ Cbx
r
Af/,
q.
and
in the
fume Manner
3
will appear, that the fecond
and
third;
[87]
third
Terms, &c,
^^^^'^"^
will be equal to
^ifLJl^?i^_._f.£liLi!
k.4zl
&c. and
fore the
+ ^^ ^
is
k+zl
^j j^^JL, r\zm
&c. &c.
Thfire
whole
A^.
p
Series
+
'
Bh
?
H
Ch k
h
n&x''
p^m
S'h^" B^;.*^!",
r\im
s\)
i
/2A»
q\i^zm
T"

C^;.rirz
.
D^;.^+^^
s\zm
^^^
r
V.
(^c.
Which, becaufe the Value (A x
k+3l
,
^^7.)
of the
iirft
Column towards
&c,
the LeftHand
is
= APj
P+d'
of the fecond,
AP4BCt+CR+DS,
= B Q,
&c, will therefore become
Q^E.
1.
J.
COROLLARY
k
If the Series
propofed be
^^
p. q.r,
i3'c.
4will
ex
k+i
'
p'^m.qJ^m.r\:n,
^
^f.
+ B= —
p
,
'.,
&C' then
&c.
A be = q—p.r—p.s—p,^'c. t^
the. Series as a
q.r
— —
q.s
y,
^c.
,
&c
and the Value of
bove exhibited.
^
O*^
[88]
COROLLARY
But
^•^
IL
'c
',
,
if
the
Series
propofed
*•
be
,
*
p .p\m .p\2m,
rxjc.
.
_
k4l
L.
^^ kl2l
&c. and the
Num
ber of Fadors in the Denominator of each Term be denoted by n\i ; then q becoming =zp\i7i, r^p^zm^ s=p\yn^ &c.
we ll:iall have A
^
i/t.zm.'^m.^ftt
nm
,
Q
B
«
__
— zm. —
I
m.m.zm....n
_=— —
I
B == —
^
:
m.m.zm.'^m
«
i
— xm
^
^^, or A ==
1
.
zfi^m^
2. 3.4.. .»X/»"
*
=
2
^, C=^
'
X
«r^A,
2
'
D=1
""
>
2
A
,
&c.
and
X 12
therefore
the
^c.
whole
Series
3
p_«Q4.x ^'12 R
1.2.3.4.5
X
2
S,
«X»z"
EXAMPLE
Where
the
I.
Sum
of the Series
Circle,
f^
—^+
this
S^^
f^
—
fl,
^^.
(expreffing the
Arch of a
{
whofe Radius
In
T
is i,
and Tan
gent x) being given,
I3S
i

I.C.I 3S7
.'
——
c .1 .n 579
it is
required to find the
,
^c.
Sum of the Series Cafe we have/'=i, >
I
.

_ i + ^,
5
©A
7
( ^
— 7 + y. = .^) R = ^ _ ^ +
.*'
'
^
PAT =
/
OJ
G?*^
^ 0== r
^^
^.
9
&c.
5
7
(^riiifll) and therefore by Cor.
^
II.
/ P«Q.+»x
\
^
R, fcf.A
'^
i.2.3...«x«?'^
[
89]
liflLL^ 3^— s*"
—
5*"
8
equal
to
24.**
the Value fought.
Let the Sum of the
X
EXAMPLE — +
Series
;v
11.
f
—
5
f
3
— 7
,
^r.
= the
Sx'^
Hyp. Log. of \/Hifl be
1
given, and let
it
be required to find
6x^
1
the
Sum of
the Series
—^ +
zx
1.3.5
'1
^
/\.x^
1
357
579
79I1
= 2,/=i, ^==3, ^=5, — 1 R r— ^^g — c r— 4P=^+^ + ^,. CL= ^ + ^c. (^=^) and R = ^ +
&c. Here, a being
i
f^,
A (= jz~r:})
''""''
"1
=
5
f^
l!,
^c, (==Z=:iLj
have
1! , ^J,
we
^^
^
i, '
v^ill
4 i^l357
f
_^fL_
579
'
e^^.
(==AP+BQHCR) ^
^
/
equal to
^^{2^^— 3xP43Ar~A;3
8jf*
^j^jcjj
therefore,
'
when
a:
=
become barely
=
.
PROPOSITION
STJppofing n
'tis
.
VL
—
r
to
reprefent
required to find
n.px
I
the
.x'^
any whole pojitive Number, Sian of the Infinite Series
,
n.n\i.p,p{l
X
».??{
1
.n\2.p .p^i.p{2_^
^
—Z.
.r
.z.r,7\i
I.2.3.r.»"jI.rj2
^ n_±±J^\'^\3PP+\t^\^^^'\
X
dejiote
^c, where
r,
p and
any Sluantities at pleajure.
is
The
pofition
Solution of this Problem
eafily derived
from Pro
L
For
the propofed Series
may
Z
be confidered as generated
[9o]
nerated
by a refpedive Multiplication of
expanded in a
Series,
the
Terms of
Series
i,
1+^'
«
by thofe of the
^c. therefore
if
X
^,
 X
laft
t X
^,
the DifFe
rences of thefe
to the
Method
there propofed;
Quantities be continually taken, according then the iirft Difference of
the
firft
Order being
= ^^, of thefecond ^^^^
n
of the third
=
n
A—I
x
— ——
r
j
r
'
r
x
— —
.r
r\i
'I
—
x
«•
,
,
&c.
it is
evident,
from
what
is
there
proved, that the
Sum
of the whole propofed
Series, putting
— r=§',
f
will be truly defined
:
by
>~^p.
I^atI
—
t
—
!
^^~
I
,
Gfc. or
I
.r
.Z.r.rfi
f
^?^
'••I}*'
.
q.q—i.p.p+t.x''
1. 2.
^lx\^
f
r.rf
I
.
l_^;
Sil
—
LLL.f£iHiLitti^5l_^
£Vj>^^
which, when
fl',
ot»—
is
a whole pofitive Number, will always terminate in ^H i Terms ; and therefore in all fuch Cafes, its exad Value will from hence be obtained. QJ^ !•
Note.
When
two Signs
,
are prefixed to one
Term,
as
above,
the upper takes place when all the Signs of the propofed Series are given affirmative but the lower when they are given
•+
and
—
alternately.
CO
[91
]
COROLLARY
Therefore i£p be taken ==
i
,
L
i
we lliall have
t
— 4 ^:^±1:^'
r+l.l__;
H
r.rJi'''i2.i_L.'
r. r2 rj 2 .r+ 3 .
.
1
T; *
^ ,
^(T.
COROLLARY
But
if
IL
then
p be taken
I
=
w,
and
r=i,
we
fliall
have
—
«±3'
4
.
4
.
33' EH'x 10
9
n.n
:)c4,
^^.
i»
49 ==^
into
I
«.«
—
+^i
—
2.
a'
i^»
J
— X
;:I^
——
^
1+^ «.«— 3 .«*— 1 ,«*;—
1.4.9
6?f.
2L_
1.4.9. 16
—
X
I
+X
I
fl,
COROLLARY
Infinite Series
r
IIL
Alfo from the foregoing general Expreffion, the
asiHx^^^ r
A^zm
i
—
Sum of any
2
x
—[—
rfm
5<
<£>
X
a;
 X
is
r\m
?— X
X ^ X ^i^ X ^^i^ X 21/ V 3 1;
jc^j
©'r.
where
:
n—r
m
a whole pofitive
Number may
be
ealily derived
For
this Series
may be changed
toi^x— 47^
X
£ «
[92]
'+'
^ X
,
&c. and therefore by writing
,
—
and
~ inftead m
_
I
of p, n and r in that Expreffion,
we
fhall
have
^ x

r.'v
"
+*
r
.r\m ^v
Qj)^ '
»
.
zv
j
.
i~Tx\^
{n .px
f.
__
qq—m.q—zm.p.p^nj.p\2n}.x l_
r.rf «.rf2»z.<i/.2'c/.3i/.iT:;f[^
.f2\m.p.p\'u.x'^
r. r{
__
cv
^^
ft
i_
f2
.}i\'m .n\'Zm.p.p^'V.p\'2'v.x'^
«j
'
«
.
'u
.
2
1;
r.r«. i^{"2z«.'y 2i'.3i/
.
EXAMPLE
Let
it
I.
be required to find the
:>c*{
Sum
of the Infinite Series
i^2^xa;H — X — X
^p;^2_j_
in
i6;<;3,
—x—x^
x
x^,
&c. or
i f
4 at
Gf^.
Corollary
II.
then by comparing this Series with that we fhall have n=:2, and confequently
to
X ih iiL
I
x\
= ==j equal the Value fought. EXAMPLE IL
Sum
of the Infinite Series
1.3.10.13Z+
2.4.4.7
Let
I
it
be propofed to find the
i.ioz''
2.4 I.3.5.7IO.I3. 16.1
+
—
(«
1
.3.5. 10. 13 .16 «^
2.4.6.4.7.10
9^
z^y
^^^ then/being
and
5'
r
=
2.4.6.8.4.7. 10.13
4,
?72
= i,i;=2,;?=io,
we
I
=
2,
x
=
— r)=s6,
have
!Z+
fhall.
^ ^
by
fubfiituting thefe Values in Corollary III.
6.1
Z"
x
,6.3.1.3
4.7.2.4
27
^
I
4.2
Ifg^
<2
,
 X , l\Z 4 be found.
I
—
/J
4 7— X 112
—
X
IfK'f
"i+='l
^
for the
Value that was to
ijZ5;
PRO
[93
]
PROPOSITION
TO
determine the
VII.
i
Sum of
any Infinite Series, as
^ ^^ x
where (v)
o?^^'
o/'
the
two Divifors
Number, and the Difference (n and 0716 of the Multiplyers ( n
alfo.
—
)
r,
r)
a whole pofitive between the other (r)
v,
is
a whole pofitive Number
Put
i^
X
^!
X
^i^
X
=^
J
> X
let
d
= e,f+^.e =/, ?±f
I i
X
f=g/:^j ^g^b.
_j^2
'
&c. and
^^
S z=
^
ni/
"•Hh^ZZ+t ^ X X 4r.rfi.'v.'V\l
^^
we
^^^ ^^
whole »T v^ w
Equation being multiplied by ^x^"~^,
fh all have
t:
dSx^~'^
= ^;vv—
where
prefs
^xex
Terms
\
J X /^^v+i
_
—^ ^
o^v+2 Af^
it is
evident that
dx^^\
i firil
ex^, fx"^^^, gx'^+^j &c. exa;'"^""^
the
that remain of the Binomial i
expanded, after the
fore, to
v
—
Terms are taken away. Where
deduce the true Value of the Series d x^—'^
ex"', &c. (according to Prop. I.) let the v i Terms of the Binomial, which are not above exprefled, be denoted by
—
f.
—
x
AhBxhCx^hDx^
wards by the fame
thofe
bx^'—^icx''^,
(^c.
and
let
the Series
^/^v— 1__^ X ex''h"£^ x/^v+i^
be continued dovi^nall
Law
that
it is
continued upwards, fo that
Terms may be taken
in
5
and then, from fuch Continua
tion, there will arife
^=^
x '=^4~ x ^=±^.,..'=^ x
Aa
A
[
94
]
A
<~
H ^^^^ X
r
^^
^*
X b A'V— 3
+
'^ X
r
c a:^— 2
,
equal
to
—
<z/_j_i
;
—
<!/}
—
a/J2
^^
X
n
f Arv2^
by
writing
Q=
"^
;;=:::;4:t
^i:::^ ^ ^=^^1
fides
^^^^
—
:
Which
we
X X
r
being therefore added to both °
of the
Equation,
—
fliall
have ^S:^^—'
3:^,
''=^
p— vfz
H
f
r
—
'L'ji
f
+ Q_x A + '^_^t' x Bx X Ca:% ^c. =QA + '^=^' X QBx X QC;c+ dx^ — — X
K
c
x"'
^
^
^ X ^>'*^H^jj xfx^\\ &c. which
laft
Expreffion, on
the Righthandfide, may be confidered as generated by a refpedive Multiplication of the Terms of the two following Lines
A
^
+
r
Bx
f
6 x^""^
n
H
cx'^'^^,&c,
—
o'jt
^"^
—
2
«
—
fz
—
""^expanded, whereof the former is the Binomial i a;' and the latter one regular Infinite Series, continued throughLet, therefore, the Differences of out by the fame Law.
""^'^^
the
Terms of
firffc
to the
be continually taken {according forementioned Propojition) and then, the firft Difference
this laft Series
of the
,_!n^'i'
_i_
Order
X
being
'"~\
x
Q,
of the
fecond,
T
.7^L "—
Q,
Eat
^^.
we
«
fhall
have
=%p_}_,_v
CT^
x
r.Ti
——
r
r
—
[95
r
]
ex^.
is
—
X r;^v— 2
f
^x^—
'
4
y.
&c.
alfo
(by
what
to
is
there
demonjlrated)
which,
]_
therefore,
equal
JS^v—
x",
+ Q_x
Whence
A
H
X Ba;{
£
dx
\
x
C
&c.
S comes out equal to ~;^rr multiply'd into the Diffe
rence of the two following Series 7z::^p+iv X
«
I
.X.+
I
4
'v^l.r
— —— —
r.
«
r
X
C;fr,
njifz
e?^.
A
4
.+
1
Bx
is
_j_
n^i.n^'vY2
^
^^
^^^ whereof the
latter
to
be
continued to as many Terms, as there are Units in i; i, and the former till it terminates; which, as n r is a whole pofitive Number, will always come to pafs in ;z rfi Terms.
—
—
—
Q^E.
I.
COROLLARY
Hence may the Sum of
the Series
^
i
I.
\
n.p
—
X X
»«+?•/+
r.rjl.o'.i'Ji
^..
_ 'HH^^H'H
Qat
I
r.r^i.rJ^z.v .<v\i.'v\z
X
x3, ^.'.'where the '
Signs change alternately,
be eafily deduced ; for let a: be fubflituted inftead of x^ in the foregoing general Expreffion,
V
—
and then
B
1+^
we
fliall
have
:zi=
ip4i—v
X
I
r
nj^l
r—nj\~\.r
'^fi.^
— ^+2 ^+2
V
2
J_ ,1 ifA1
,
'
fl^;f
An — 4—
1;4I
'+'
X
B
xi
^
^ ^^3
^^^
^^^ ^j^^ required Value in
this
Cafe.
Therefore,
generally,
the
Sum
of the Series
I
I
.
1
n.p
r.nf
,
96
]
.
t!.n^i.p.p\i
r.r\l.'V .v^l
«.«4l.?/2./>./i4i.*42
r.rji.rjz.i/.o'jl.'fJz
""
xK,
&c\
;;
will
be
x
truly
reprefented
by
x
i=Px\
1;42
J,;
—*—
r.p
—
x'fI
j^
——
,
n
— —
r.7i
;
\.p
I
—vX\.p — —
'
x'^
,
,,_,,,„,_x.«;z./.;+i/'^+^/'^f3
^
__/,
viv
a;%G?^. '
fed Series are {is
+ ^iz4±f=::LJ;"^—+"^—+^ x 1.2 — =t equal where h —— x —— x 3^— — Fadors, which ^^^ continued ./— of the propoonly when the Value the Sign — the fame and and —
I
:±.
^z:!±i:EHii X X r—.roX\
.
1
^
fji'^
'V\Z'
1
/
•
1
i.
is
to
.
!•'
;
X'+I
'
2.^—^42
;
;
'
•
i
J
;;
qjJi^\,p
^^2
"j
tl
'V^^Z.p
1;2
^+3
to
i
in
lafl
.'.—.+3
i^;f 3
prevails
Signs
at
alternately,
t',
time,
an even Number.
COROLLARY
Moreover from hence the
I r±:
IL
Series
Sum
.
of any Infinite
as
—^ X X H
n.p
.
n.n\m .p
,
.p\'njij
^
X
n .nArm.nXzm.t .pAr'M .pXznu X^z±z ±if }
^^
X
x^\
&c. where
eafily
— and ^^^
j
are
whole
pofitive
Numbers, may
be reduced to
be
derived
'^^
for
fmce
"
this Series
may
"
X X
— —^i.— mm
r r
.
"
^
'^
,
1}
.
—4,
nj
X ^%"^r. let, '
,A mm
ov
lu
ID
?t,
and
—
be refpedtively fubftituted for
72
r,
p and
i;,
in the
preceding Corollary, and let
— ^=^3
^^
r^m — ^^
=
s,
p
— v{w=zf.
and
n\
=
k
;
then
will
hx
[97]
It/—"y
hx
X
:x\
">
I
=t:^
s.iu
ir^zv
fs
.s^m
X
.nv. 2<u;
y.y
—
IV
w.j'
V
zm.t.i\'wJ\2iu
x'
s.s\m,s^2m.'w.znv.^'nj
X
i k\m i\zm
.
.
i.t
I
XX
.
t
.
s
.s\*n .n» .ziu
X
'
/j^u
.
t\ z
.Tfiv
<
a:^
s.s\^m. s\2m
,
.nju.
z^w
X
is
Ar3
^c.
be the true Value required
tinued
it
till it
where the
firft
Series
to
be confin
terminates, and the fecond to ^^^^^
Terms
Cafe
does not terminate before)
h being equal to
t.k
^'^•^+.^
X
3'"^H^"
,
C^c. continued to
Fadors, in
the Signs of the
at the
which Value, the Sign
—
obtains only
when
is,
propofed Series change alternately, and ^
fame time,
an even Number.
EXAMPLE
Let
it
I.
be required to find the
,
2.10
1. 12
y.X'A
—
Sum
of the
Infinite Series
2. 3.
1. 2.
10.13
12. 15
^ X x^
..3.4.,o..3..6
1. 2. 5.
^^^_
12. IC. 18
^j^
'
by comparing
fliall
this Series
with that in the
"^^
laft
Corollary,
we
;
have
«=2, ^=1, /=io, 'u=i2, m=zi^
and 'Z£;=3
therefore
pofitive
—
=
4,
is
and
=
i
;
which two lafi being whole
Numbers
mible
:
Therefore
tuted above,
andwe
I
an Indication that the Series is exadly fuall thefe feveral Values be now fubftifhall have ^=1, s= 2, /=i, k i,
let
—
,
=—
ArT
and
y&
{ ^^ X ^^^ IX— 4X0
V
X 9ii^)
7x1/
X
= ^j and 7'
I
therefore
I.I
—2.3
X
is
X
81*—
.
^"ir X 7Xl +
27x6^7^:
iTx\
+^
— I.I — 2.3
T
XX
i^x^X
.— 17^^
^
the true Value required.
Bb
EX
[
98
]
EXAMPLE
Where
it
is
II.
propofed to
find
the
Sum
of the
Series
3
.
3456.5_:7:9JI ^
/"V,
^c.
This
Series
may be
re
duced to
^e
^=
X
i
H
—
^
x ^ H f^?4X
;c%
£?<:.
>^
"^j ^'^^
or to
^
J
_l_li.5
^ ^ 4_
i^5^
by writing x
with
i
=
n.p
Therefore, by comparing this
laft Series
f
X
a;
+ liHi^i^i^tli
4^) =^45,
X x\ &c,
jrsia,
we
have «
1,
=
3,
r=i,/»
=
5,
V=b, iW=I, «=2,
S=
!f=I,
^=1, h \^~^ X
1
and therefore
fi^iS^^ xi+ "' 2 X
8xox.^
6 ^^, '
I—
A?
_2x_nox^ ^^—1x0x2x4
^^_
i^x\
fa;
^j^_iAL_ ^ T•»
__ix2
x ^) y
— — =: i+M X
?
T
114
1.0
i^^^^ X 1.2.6.8
^^""^
y, '''
^r. which
laft
Equation ^
fhall
being multiplied by a\ and the Value of a; reftored,
"'^
we
have
„i4
=
^^
4 —5 X
1.6
^(T.
which was
to be found,
In this Example [s\m) one of the Fadors in the Value of h o, it may feem, at firft Sight, as if both the Expreflions being multiplied by h would intirely vaniih ; but upon confidering that in the former of thefe Expreffions there is a Term which
=
has the fame s\m in
its Denominator, it is evident that that adual Multiplication by the Value of h, will Term, after an be no ways affeded by s\??i, tho' all the reft of the Terms
iiitirely
vanifh
o
j
fo that the
Sum
of the Series
is
as truly
de
termined.
[99]
terminedasifj+w was a
appear if that Series be
real
Quantity; which will manifeflly
^z''
firft
reduced to
x
i {
at the
fee
&c. whofe Sum is found almoll: by bare fame time as we fee the extent of
^ f ^ 2.4
2
firft
x x^
InfpecStion.
this
Hence
alfo
Method, we
to
how
needful
it
is
(for avoiding
Trouble)
reduce
every Series to the moft commodious Form, about to determine its Value.
before
we
fet
Of
the Values of
Series
hy Approximation.
I.
CASE
LET
~~^
ax
the Series ax^^bx^'^'' i.r;f"'+^"}^;^"'+3n^ ^^^
let
.
'
be propounded, and
proximation
for
p_^^
be affumed as an
Ap
the
Value thereof.
^
Then,
by
the
ihall
writing
z=.a x^ \bx^'^^
to
^c.
and reducing
whole
have
Equation
\r
one
Denomination,
^c»
we
b
and therefore
P
^ax H P X
confequently,
= n^^ and
fwift,
'
,
KSC.}
when
the Series converges
is
fufficiently
^"^^
„
ax^ '^bx^'^^ hcx^'^^^^ ^r.
nearly.
equal to
or

V'
A
b
jCj
[
lOO
]
CASE
II.
TH
'
E
I "
Series
»
propounded
^^ allumed
as
,
being
as
lall
as
above,
let
^^ m
mn
i~4.pj^
nearly
Cafe,
equal
thereto
j
then,
by proceeding
in
the
we
05
fhall
have
ax
*
m
m42n ro^ ^ m+n ^bx^\cx^ ,^^.7
,
7
4^Px^+"i^PA;"'+'^G?^.>
=
whence, by
comparing the hke Terms,
P
= ^,
1
h:=b
»
— ^, and
mln
there
^^
^,
fore
^^
+,
/
=
CASE
V~
r
III.
=
^v
X
mi*
""""i
mjn
^n
L^^ +^^"^+^", ^^^+"
•
t.
p
nVn
be affumed as nearly equal to ax"^
^r. (the
Series
firfl
propounded)
then by following the above Method of Operation, there will bd cc be ad bb\aY.bc ad 11 by.ac r) P, ^<:— Will come out ^7 ri ^*— n. '
— ac—00
=
— ^ — 00 = ac
,
—
—
ac
— bb
=
A, and therefore
m+n m ax Y A X r+P^"+'<^
.
•
where P and
O
are as above fpecified.
CO
C
'°' 1
COROLLARY.
Hence
it
appears, that
the
true Value of the Series ax"^
is
^bx^'^^
^cx^^'^^^\dx^^^'^,&c.
to
;c'"
nearly equal to
—r^t
more nearly equal
x fi+^^'l^i:^, and ftill nearer equal to
EXAMPLE
Let the
Series
I.
x
—~ ^
is
i
—,^^.expreffing the length
of the Arc whofe Radius
then,
<^
and Tangent
x^ be propofed
in
this Cafe,
m
being
=
i,
nz=i^^ az=i^ b
=—
;
,
3
=
•^,
&c. the Value of the
Series,
by writing
thefe Values
in the fecond of the foregoing Expreffions, will
come out equal to
(x X
—
^
2
1
\x X
^4^
nearly.
""3
5
EXAMPLE Suppofe x+'^^x""^^^^^ X — '2 ^r 23
to be c
IL
^^3_f^ril X
the Series propounded
j
then a being
= ^—
n
3
23
^
^
AT
^^ 234' = ^=^^,
i,
X ^^^x^, &€,
X ^^^,
&€.
the
Value of the
Scries
will
be
^^"^"6
— I—
nearly, or '
—  ~—~~ more nearly. «— I— 2 X\ K — X—^—X^ Cc EXn
226.
"^
,
x4ix^
I
•'
[
102
]
EXAMPLE
Laftlyjet^ ** 1.2
1
III,
2.3.4
2.3.4.5.6
—
r
„ 2.3.4.5.6.7.8*
''\
&c.
expreffing the verfed Sine of the Arc x to the Radius i, be propofed ; then the Value thereof, by proceeding as above, will
come out
more

x
^^
nearly,
or

x
.^J^eeo^^^i^.*
nearly.
Of
the Roots of
Eqjjations by Approximation.
Let there be given the Equation ax+bx^fcx^fdx*, ^c, y, where axfbx^'Hcx^ldx'^, ^c, reprefents any Infi
=
nite or converging Series
,
to
find the Value oj x.
appears ITpropofed Series
nearly
from the preceding Pages, that the Value of the
will be nearly defined
by _^,
.
but more
jl ^
by
iM^5^Z>L£
^nd
flill
nearer by
'"+^ ><fl,;
;
wherein
fore,
if
P and Qftand for^^ and ^^^tt
thefe three Expreffions be
fhall
refpedlively
there
put,
to y^
we
have,
firft,
a'^x=iay
—
fucceffively, equal
byx,
and therefore
x
= —^rr = —=^
'+7
nearly. Secondly ^ 3^1/^^
ac xa:*
=
hy
— cyXy
or b
—y
x x^\ax
^
^^^=:A, and
+ ^ =y + ^ = B,
it
;
whence, by putting
be
will
A
;^*
h 2 B
;^
[
103
_,
]
—y, •"
and therefore Af=!=ir*/ J'
A*
a:'
"^
bI*
a"
""
B
"a
^^^^ ^^^^
or,
nearly„
^_
,
Thirdly, axi b\a P x
/^4tfP—
therefore
a:
Qy = C
and
Q^*j^ "^^^^
—
—•P>r^=:;f,
it
by writing
5
= ^^
H ^
= D, —
^
will be
Cx*H2 T>x i=y
:
ftill
nearer
Which
three
Expreffions will ferve as fo
many
general
Theorems
for the
Value of X, and may be ufed at Pleafure, according or greater Degree of Accuracy is required.
as a lefTer
COROLLARY
If there be given
J5*
I.
2.3.4
2.3.4.5.6
2.3.4.5.6.7.8'
(expreffing the Relation between the verfed Sine (y) &c. and the Arc (z) of a Circle, whofe Radius is Unity) then, by
=y
putting z^ssA*, i t> t
fore
it
will be
^—
2
2.3.4
^
i
, ,G?^.==y, .. 6' 2. 3.4.5.
therefubfli
a being here
=
,
^
=
—
,
&c. we
{
Ihall,
by
tuting thefe Values
above,
have x
nearly.
^^10
y^"
—
40;;
= z^) = 10 Or =
a: (
y
2;^
378^33j— /378— 3ayi
M 5i2;>x 3o{i,3y
more
nearly.
COROLLARY
But
if the
IL
x""
Equation given be x
— i^
^
11
+
^"J:ly,"J:ly,"J:±x\&c.
of an Annuity,
?i
345
= ^^^
nXn\l
^ ^
x
s is
i,
x^
(where
the Value
of
Interefl
Number correfponding) we
the
of Years, and i^x the Rate
n
• •
^{r2
ihall^
by writing
—»
[
'•.+:x+^,
^
"^
X04
If,
]
&c,mCic:xdofa\
c,
&c.

in the laft
of the three
get
"'^
_L
•
•
= — '±^i±l}<y=C,'2 — ^^ = D, and X = ylT^^D ^ C C C
general
ExprePuons,
and putting
^"^f j'
y,
'
20
5
very nearly.
COROLLARY
Laflly, if the given Equation be
a:
IIL
.r^
H
^^^—^
234
W
1
X ^^^ X ^^^
K
;^%
^<:.
+ 'inl^^^fmi x ^^ 23 = then = tf=i,
2
j^'
;
will
/^
2
X
^—^, GV. which
3
Values being fubftituted above.
we
Hiall
have
A = 1+, B = s+^^x.y c = 1— ^ix«2Xj> 6 6 12 2
and
;^
D = i+fizl^j
4
equal to
I
^—7__
L^y
nearly, but
more nearly
equal to^/JL'
{
^
t>^^^ ^i^^ nearer equal to
y/— +^
—
^.
drate,
Hence we have a ready Method for finding the Cube, Biquareprefent &c. Root of any given Quantity for let
;
Q
k be taken nearly equal to the required and Root thereof, and let ?z be the given Lidex, that is, if the CubeRoot be required, let ?z be 3, if the Biquadrate, 4, C^c. and let the true Root be reprefented by >^Hz, that is, let
that Quantity,
let
y^
+
_j_
2;i"be
= Q^
X
Therefore
i+j
X
=
>r> ^^^d,
by expanding
J
71
,
we have 1+72 x
,
v ;z x
xj^,cjc.=~^j there
fore Y
^
f
X
j^s&c
—
+ ^^^
and, by putting 
==
x,
and
^,— = J,
we have x
«*H
quently the Value of x is as there determined required Value of ^4/^ a: (^4 2;) is alfo given
23.
it
t
105 ]
confer
%^^^x^. &c, the very fame as above, and
j
whence the
EX A MPLE
Let
Arc, whofc Radius
is
L
{z) of
the circular
be required to find the length
i,
and verfed Sine : Here, by writing
 inflead of y, in Corollary I.
we
fhall
have
z
equal
to
Ck/
^
~~ v/
^9x29
2^ j
J
,
o^^2
nearly,
oc
/y7^3v/ilEx^7^23iSi2x6i3A
fince the Arc,
1.047 1 98 ^^'^ nearly. Thereis
fore,
whofe verfed Sine
,
is
equal to  of
the Semicircle, it is manifefl that the length of the whole Semicircle, according to the foregoing Numbers, ought to be
3. 14 1 6 nearly,
or
3.141594 more
is
nearly.
Now
3.
the true
length of
the Semicircle
known
to
be
therefore the Error in the former of thefe Values,
14 15926, C^c. is lefs than
than
lefs,

— — Part 40000

of the whole, and in the
if
latter
lefs
——
Contrue,
2000000
as for
Part.
And
the verfed Sine
firfl
taken had been
Inftance, that of 15 Degrees
clufions would.
(=1
— y/ 1 — ^)
the
Ml, have been much more exad, and
at leaft, to 9 or 10 Places, it fcarcely poffible to find
which is fo very near, that I believe out more eafy and exacl Approxi
mations for the Arp of a Circle, than thofe above given.
D
d
EX
[
io6 ]
II.
EXAMPLE
Where
fuppofing the Value of an Annuity for lo Years to be
8 Years Purchafe, 'tis required to find the Rate of Intereft. By comparing the Values here given with thofe in Corol. 11.
we
"""
have nc=:io, '
20
/
^=8,
'
therefore y ^
V 2
^"'^y
(.
\«x«i/
^
)
==3 _i_
no'
c
c
f^i^^
V 15
550'
s i
550*
Pf.
=
i
=
ifg.
^"d confequently
§ + v/f^l^
.
Now
for the Rate of Intereft required very nearly. according to Dr. Halley's Theorem, the Rate will be 1.042798, which is alfo very near the Truth, but notfoex
1.042775
ad as the
former, which
is
right in
all its Places..
EXAMPLE
Where
caufe
it it
m.
CubeRoot of
is
is
required to extrad the
10.
Be
appears that the
Root required
a
little
greater than
2, let the
lue of ky
y
will be
=
Value thereof be reprefented by 2+2?, or the Vain Corol. III. be taken then, « being 3,
=25
;
=
^j
C
= ^,
;
and
D
=^
therefore (by the
firft
of the Approximations there given) x will
come out f—^j
=
.0768, G?f. nearly
or (by the laft) equal to (v/
7^*^— 7^)
.077217 ftill nearer: Hence (k^kx) thQ Value fought, will be 2.154, or 2.154434 more nearly.
EXAMPLE
Let Here,
it
IV.
Root of 125000.' as the required Root appears, by Infpedion, to befomething greater than 10, let the fame be denoted by 10 {z,
firft
be required to extradl the
furfolid
that
IS, let ioh2;l 125000 j then, by proceeding as in the Example, we fhall have ^=0.05, A i, 6 0.525, from whence, by the fecond Theorem (In Corol. III.) the required Value will come out 10.45636, which is very near the Truth, but if the laft Theorem had been ufed, the Anfwer would have, ftill, been more exadl.
that
=
laft
=
=
EXAMPLE
Where
ceive,, is let
V.
there
is
given the Equation z^ { z^ h
Since the Value of
2;,
z
= ga
,
to*
find the Root thereof.
it is
eafy to per
greater than 4, let it be denoted by ^\x„ Value be fubftituted inftead of z in the given Equation, and it will become 84 f 57^ f 1 3 ^^f x^== 90, or 57A;f 13 a:* 4^:3=65 which being compared with the general Equation ax\ifx^'^cx'^{dx^j &c..=z y, we thence 6 3 wherei, d=zOj &c. and ^ have. ^=57, 3=13, c
not
much
and
this
=
=
fore,
by the
firft
Approximation, the Value of x
will be 0.1028, and therefore that of
if a greater
to the laft
z 4.1028 nearly But Degree of Exaftnefs be defired, then, according, of the three Approximations, laid down in the ge:
=
(= —xT" )
neral Propofition,
we fhallhave P
(^^)
=—
iA,
q (^)
is
= J,,
C (^^aV^y)
^ (v' ^' 4;^
= Z^,
D
(^^) = ^, and.
therefore
— §)
==0.102832355 which
true to the laft Place.
Let Here,
2;
EXAMPLE be given = 1000 3002; —
2;3
VL
j
to find a Value of z,.
as
it
appears
=3,
will be lefs,
^beput
=
3.5l;>f5
z^, when^ by Infpedion, that 3002 and when z=4., greater than 1000, let. and then by writing this Value inftead of
—
[
of
.::;
io8
we
]
{hall
— = — 7.125, 2io6x— — 8x3 =;— = — and^r=: — we have a being here = 2106, (= —=^) = — .oo2703633,andconfequently 2 = 3.472963 —
A'3
in
the given Equation,
or
^
have 263.25^^— lo.^jc*
57,
84^;^
^y. therefore
84,
j^"
a
very nearly.
the Root of any high Equation is fought according to this Method, it will be convenient, and fhorten the Operation very much, to negle6l all the Powers of the con
Note.
When
verging Quantity at, which, in fubflituting for the true Root (2) would rife higher than the 2d, 3d, or 4th Dimenfion, according as you would work by the lit, 2d, or 3d Theorem,
or as a lelTer or greater Degree of Accuracy
is
required.
is once approximated, a greater Exadnefs be ftill deemed nectirary, the Operation may be repeated till you arrive as near the Truth as you defire, as will appear from the following.
Note
alfo,
That
if,
after the
Value of the Root
EXAMPLE
Wherein
2;5H 2
VII.
z+H 3 2.3+4 .2^15 2; being given =5;432i ; 'tis required to find the Value of 2;, according to the firfl ApHere, becaufe it is eafy to perceive that % is proximation. greater than 8, and lefs than 9, write 8f;^=2; ; and then by involving 84x, and neglediing all the Powers of x above the 2048o.vH5 120;;^, 2i'^=:4096 2d, we fliall have 2:5=32768 92 A;{24;f% 2;=64f 1 6 a;Ha;% +2048^^+3 84^:% 2;3izr:5 1 1
+
2+
and therefore 42792
25221X+
1'
25221 a: 4 5964^:^=54321, that is, 5964;^^= 11529 J which, by ilriking off two Fi{
gures in each
Term
(to
•>
fhorten the Operation) will be 252;:
cqA;^= lie O J7"
I
nearly, J
confequently ^ J
nearly.
:;=o.4i, and 2;=; 8.41
252X252+115X59 / Let, therefore, 8.41 t a: be
\
a;
1'?—}!^—
f
1
now
[
109
]
now
afTumed z j then, by repeating the Operation, we iliali have 30479^f6876x^==:i 35.92 whence (according to the
;
=
forefaid
Theorem) we have =^J^^5'^^^
30479I
= .004454
8.41, nearly.
gives
+6876X135.92
f__fZ__ V
aa\by
\
J
for a
new Value of
x,
which, therefore, added to
the true Value of
8.414454,
equal to
z very
Of
the
Areas of Curves, &c.
by Approximation,
I.
PROPOSITION
fiall nearly exhibit the included
a, Suppofiig a b c to be a fmall Portion of any Curve a b f i, and B b, Co, three equidijiant Ordinafes j to find an Exprejfion in 'Terms of thofe Ordinates, and the common Difia?2ce B, that
A
A
Area
its
A C c b a A,
Axis
parallel to the given
LET
A
a
common Parabola,
having
propofed Curve,
Ordinates, be defcribed thro' the three Points ^, b^ r, of the or rather, to avoid confufing the Figure, let
that Curve itfelf reprefent a Portion of fuch a Parabola; join
A and
C with a RightLine, and make S 3 parallel thereto, produand C <r to meet S /5 in S and T, and drawing v m /sr, cing from any Point v, in the
T
T
S. Parabola, parallel to Then vm, by the Pro
A
perty of the Parabola being to S ^, as 3 m^, to b S^,
or,
in the duplicate Ratio
S
^
of b m, the Space b a^b, included by the Parabola and the RightLines S^,
^
[no]
and S^,
will
be  of the Parallelogram bra^b, for the fame
3
Reafon that a Pyramid, whofe Sedlions made by a Plane parallel to the Bafe, are in a duplicate Ratio of their Diftances
from the Vertex,
is
known
to be  of
its
circumfcribins; Prifm.
Wherefore, feeing
B^ x 2 A B is
equal to the Area of
A C T^ S A,
and Aa\Cc x AB to that of AC^rr^A, the former of thefe Qaantities muft exceed the Parabolic Area ACcbaA by juft half what the latter wants of it 5 and therefore twice the former added to once the latter, will be juft three times this Area, and confequently the Area
itfelf
equal to
—^^^
—^^—^
x
AB
j
which
Quantity, lince a Parabola admits of infinite Variation of Curvature, fo as to nearly coincide with any Curve for a fmall Diftance, muft be equal alfo to the Area fought very nearly. Q. E. I.
COROLLARY.
Hence may the Area of
the whole Curve be alfo nearly
found J for let the AbfcifTa be divided into any even Number of equal Parts, at the Points B, C, D, &c. according as a lefler or greater Degree of Accuracy is required, and let B b^ Cc, T>dj &c. be Ordinates to the Curve at thofe Points j then,
for the
fame Reafon that
will
—^^—^Li
3
x
AB
is
the Area of
ACcbaA,
and
the
3
c^+4P ^+E^ xCD, betheAreaofCEf^^C,
3
F^+4F/+G^
^
EP^
that of
EGg/eE,
&c, &c.
or
3
But
Sum
of
all
thefe
Areas
taken
together,
x
~Aa\^Bb\2Cc\j:^Dd\2Ee\^Fj^2Gg, &c. is the Area of the whole Curve: Hence it appears, that if to four times the Sum of the 2d, 4th, and 6th Ordinates, &c. be added the Double of all the reft, but the firft and laft, and the Sum be
in
[ III
increafed
]
by
thefe
two
fingle Ordinates,
and multiply *d by 
of the
fought.
common
Diflance,
the Product will be the Area
EXAMPLE
Suppofing
L
to be a Quadrant of a Circle, whofe Raand A^, B^, Cc, D^, E^, five Ordinates thereto, whofe common Diftance is Unity; to find the Area A^<:^EA. '^ Here, by the Property of the ^ d^^^ Curve, A a being 8, B ^
AQ,^
8,
dius
AQ^is
AB
=
=
—
v/63
=
793725.
_Cf =v/"6^
=77459M^i=v/55=74i62, E^ = v/ 48 == 6.9282, we have
4 X B/^+Dif2C<:4A^iE^ x
AT?
=
eafily
30.6113; which, by the
is
foregoing Corollary,
fought.
the Area
^
may
A
From whence
found
;
the Area of the whole Quadrant
be
for,
taking
13.8564
(= E ^ x  A E)
the
A ^ E, from 30.6 1 1 3 there remains 1 6.7549 Area of the Sed:or Kae K^ the treble whereof, fince A E is E Q, will be the Area of the whole Quadrant, which therefore is to its circumfcribing Square, 350.78538, G?r. to I nearly, the fame as it is known to be by other Methods.
rea of the Triangle
for the
=
the Area of any Part of a Curve near the Vertex, where the Ordinates are very oblique to the Curve, is
Note.
When
propofed to be found, the Solution by this the leafi: exadt : Therefore, in all fuch Cafes
3
Method
it
will
be
will be conve
nient
[
nient, iiiftead
^^2
]
of
fiicli
Ordinates, to
make
ufe of Lines parallel
to the Axis, as in the following.
EXAMPLE
Where ahcde
11.
being a SemiHyperbola, whofe AbfcilTa 20j 20, and SemiTranfverfe Atf is 10, Ordinate to find an Expreffion for the Area A^f EA, in 'tis required Numbers, that fliall be true, at leaft, to 3 or 4 Places. fuppofe divided I Firft, into 4 equal Parts, at the Points
AE
O^
AE
B, C, and D, and B /^, C ^r, ^, ^c. the Axis AO, produced parallel to conjugate Axis meet the to of the Hyperbola in the Points
D
Therefore, by the P, Q2_R, S. Property of the Curve, AE^ (400)
'
OP (25) ES^— O^^ (500) OQ^(ioo) qV Yb'—Oa' O^:: OR(225):R^— O^; whence P^=20. 766, Q£==22. 913,
:
:
:
—
:
:
:
E
B^
=
D
9.2 34,
fequently
— 7.0 87, 0^ =3.900, ^ez=zQ; 10 2 x 7.087 4 x 9.234 + 3.900
Cf
{f
C
B
A
R^= 26. 1003 therefore A^= 10,
f
and cono
into
^=:
127.8 equal to the Area fought.
EXAMPLE
EGDHLE
tation of
IIL
to be a Solid, generated by the RoSuppofe A, viz. either a any ConicSe6tion about its Axis Spheroid, or Conoid ; and let the Content of Cone, Sphere, of that Solid be required. any Fruftum Here if p be put for the Area of a Circle, whofe Diameter is Unity, and a Curve z,% a b c be fuppofed, whofe Ordinates
D
EFGHKLE
A^.
[
"3]
A^,
be as
&c. fhall every where the Areas/ x EL%/» x FK%
Blfj
&c. of the correfponding Sections, then the Area of that Curve will, it is manifeft, be as
the required Content of the pro
But this Curve pofed Fruftum always a Portion of the common Parabola, except in the parabolic Conoid, where it degenerates to a Rightline, and therefore its Area, fuppofmg will be, exadly, equal to
:
is
AB
=BC,
A<a:[4B^fCc X 7fequently
;
and conof the
the Content
Fruftum, equal
toELM^^lFK^
4GH^xg/' X
therefore to
AC;
x/» x
which
is
EL*
AC,
the Content of the circumfcribing
Cyhnder,
tion,
if
as
EL*f4FK^fGH*
EGDHLE
AC
be fuppofed DC, be taken, will become as
is
=
to
6EL^
or
This Proporand the whole Solid
to
ELS'4GH
where 4 GH^
as the Solid
is
equal to
EL% 2EL%
6EL^
3EL%
according
Cone, parabolic Conoid, or Semifpheroid. Hence it appears that a Cone, a parabolic Conoid, a Semifpheroid and a Cylinder, having the fame common Bafe and Altitude, are to one another as 2, 3, 4 and 6 refpectively.
a
Ff
LEM
[
iH
]
LEMMA.
If hi any Series of ^antiiies a, b, c, d,
the Vncice of the Values 0/ A, B, C, D, &c. may be thofe of a Binomial raifed to the i/?, 2^, 3^, 4/^, ^c. Towers, Ifay^ the Value of any Term in that Series, whofe Diftance from the x A4 n x Bi n x fir is denoted by n, will be ahn
ft
A=b— a, B=c— 2b+a, D=d— 3ch3b—a, E=e — 4d j^dc —4bia, F=f— 5e+iod — ioc45b—a, ^c.fothat
e,
&c.
there he taketi
^^
^^
l=!Cnx ^=1x^=^x^:33 D, ^c.
3
234'
\
fmce b^^a is=:A, by Tranfpolition, have
For,
t— 2^l^ = B,
^^r.
we
fhall,
= zb — <zfB — ^b a {C d =z = 4.d — 6^44^ — tffD ^ f z= ^ — lod IOC — 5
c
b
=:a^ A
^ c
e
e
{
^ f
f
E,
&c.
&c.
&c,
where, by taking the Value of
tion,
b, as
andVubftituting
it
in the reft,
found in the firll Equathere comes out
.
A+B = 3^ — 3A — a C ^d — 6 H4Al3^fD f =z — 10^430^ — 5A — 4^1 E,
(7=^1^
e
2
2
\
z=z
c
^ e
&c.
in
e?c.
c,
&c,
which the Value of
here found, being fubftituted,
we
next have
["5]
f = ^ e^iod {&c.
&c.
^==4^ —
I
a
— 8A — 6BfD
6 a
+i5AiioB
&c.
{
E,
In like manner the Values of ^, y, &c. are found to be tfH4 6 BH4CtD and rtl5 1 o B4 1 o Ci5DfE,©*<rWhere the Unciae, in the Value of each of the Terms d, c, J, &c. are, it is manifeft, thofe of a Binomial raifed to that Power, whofe Index is equal to the Number denoting the Diftance of that Term from the firft in the Series j therefore the Value of that Term, whofe Diftance from the firft is de
A+
A+
noted by n, will be
ainAh — x
^^ x B, &c.
II.
QJ). D.
PROPOSITION
Suppofing
abode, &c. to B b, C c, D d, E e, G?<7.
the
be a Curve of any kind, and A a, given Ordinates thereto, at equal Dijiances, but not very far from each other to approximate
y
Area of
the
Curve by me am of
thofe Ordinate^.
T A^=^, LEQc—c,Tid=d,^c.
B^==/^,
C, &c. z=p, and A the number of given Ordinates,
B=B
—a=.A, + 2^j^=B, — d— 3^43^ a=Cy — a=zD, 4 iH6 —
qual to
;2
Aa,Bbj &c.
1
5
e
putting
e
b
c
c
bi
&c. Then that Ordinate, whofe Place from the firft is denoted by n^ or whofe
[
ii6
]
Diftance from the
firfl is
n times the
by the foregoing Lemma, be ^ f ;2
I
common Diftance, B A { x —
;^
will,
»
X
— —
2

C
/~,
.
n
\ny.
—
I
X
n
—
X
—
Q.X
+«
if
x

D, ^c. Wherefore,
np^
x^
the Diftance of this Ordinate from the Point A, be put
=
and  be fubilituted above inftead of
,
its
equal
(ii)
nj>
we
fhall
have a\
A.V
,
h
—
B.\
x
P
P
—
.Y
p f2/
\
—
x
X—p ——
2p
x
.
—
X
4
p
3P
I t^, ^c. equal ^
2p
to that Ordinate,
whofe correfponding Abfciffa
p
is
x
;
which
reduced to fimple Terms, will be a]—^ ' r
—xr
zp'
^
2p
C^c.
Hence
it is
manifeft that a\j
+^—'^ +
g^,
the Equation of a parabolic Curve, which, beG, will pafs thro' all the giinp defcribed to the AbfciiTa Therefore the Area of this ven Points a^ b, c, d, &c. Curve, which by the common Methods is found to be a; x
^c. ==^',
is
A
^+
Ax
2^
+
Bx^
6p^
Bx ^p
Cx^
'
Cx6p^
24/3
"^">>"!VMnBHmi
[
"7
J
Area,
5, 6, 7,
equal
to
lXl_±J_£±
—_
^
x
:
Moreover,
if
Area,
&c. be the Number of Ordinates given, then the required by proceeding in the fame manner, will come out
90
^ ^»
Tss
^ ^
^^
^^
and
tively
y+^^^i'7c+27^J+27e+z^e/+^.g
;
^^^
^^^^^^^
firfl
where
at,
in each Cafe, denotes the Diftance of the
and laft Ordinates.
Note.
When
hended
in this
S,
Form, viz.y
'
the Equation of the given Curve is compreQf Ra: hSA,=+TA;3, (^c, where
=
&c. may fignify any determinate Quantities whatCurve defcribed thro' the given Points a, b^ c, &c. (as above) will be the very Curve given Therefore, in this Cafe, the required Area may be exadly had, by making ufe only of as many Ordinates as there are Terms in the Value of ^', or as there are are Units in the Index of the higheft Power of X in that Equation, increafed by one.
ever, the
:
Q^R,
EXAMPLE
Let
I.
be the Centre, a the Vertex, and an AfTympthe equilateral Hyperbola abed, and, fuppoling'O A, tote of a, and AD, each equal to Unity; let it be required to find the Area comprehended by the Curve, the AlTymptote, and
O
OD
A
the Ordinates
Aa
and D^.
b
= .6666,
•
Here,
if
only three Ordinates be ufed, then a being i, c =.5, by the Property of the Curve, we fhall have
=
\
'
X
I
= .6944,
^c,
for the
Area fought.
But
if four
Gg
Ordi
[
ii8
]
i,
Ordinatesbe taken, then ^ beino;
^
^
—
= ^=
will
.7r, r
=
.6,
fl^=.c
g
>^
I
=.6937,
^<^.
be the Area fought
O
A K«
which Value is fomething nearer than the former, the true Area being .693 14, &c.
EXAMPLE
The fame
Let
its
11.
being fuppofed as in the preceding Example,
'tis
required to find the length of the
Arch a d.
RP
(
^
)
be any Ordinate to the Hyperbola,
O R {x)
correfponding Abfciffa, and
R ^= x
j
then y being
=

by the Property of the Curve, we
fhall
have
y
= ^^^, and
\s/x^^y^=)x^\ ^ —^ equal to the Fluxion ,qf the Curve. Wherefore, if we now fuppofe another Curve YiQklm^ whofe Ab^
fcifla is X.
and Ordinate </
i
+
A>
the Meafure of the Area
exprefs the
of this Curve, will, it is manifeft, alfo of the required Arch a d^ the Fluxions fame. Hence, if A be divided, as in ample, into any Number of equal Parts
Length
D
of both being the the foregoing Ex(fuppofe 3) by the
X
Ordi
[ 119 ]
Ordinates
fubftituted
Bk, C /, &c. and
in
the
foregoing
134 for the Arch ner, to find a Curve whofe Area fhall be as the Value fought, not only the Lengths of Curves, but any other Quantities, whofe Fluxions are given, may be approximated, even when the given Fluxions are fo complicated, as to render a Solution by
out
1.
the Values of thefe Ordinates be Corollary, there will come required. By proceeding in this Man
Infinite Series very troublefome, if not impradicable.
Cy Quadratures and
the Comparifon of Vhv'E.'i^Ts,
I.
PROPOSITION
lUppofing
)
dzP"—
a^cz""
equal to x, I fay, the Fluent of
a\cz''\
x
is
^
z^ or the
Area of the Curve,
whofe Abfcifla
be
pn
2
^, and Ordinate (?Hf;s"i"^ X
tn
cz°J
^z'^
\
will
m.m—
X
^
c^sz^^
tn.m
— \.m —
c'^z'"

=
/4i./f 2.^^3./+ 4
x^
'
&C
become
„^
Vov a^cz^f^ X dz^"
z, reduced to a Series, will
dz
of
a
1
pit''
I
•
zy^a
ra
{ma
Fluent
01
.,.
,
m—
I
cz
n
,
tn
\
x
m
—
i
a
m
I
—
n
2
,
c^z^^.
n^ csc.
v/hicli the
is
dz^"'
a
x pn
.
^
{
m
4
^^—r—
pn^n
cz
i ,
m
—
+ —~~— ^
1.2
c
j
z
3
rv?^ *^i''
tfz^
pn\zn
n
2
tl
X
—
p
ma
t'T'^
H
But
m.m — —
^'^
X
w MM
^
2
f___i_^, ^c.
(
by the common Method
)
the Series
[
I20
]
^'L
4of
^!i±L_SlLy
^c,
is
[by Carol. II. Projj.
I.
of the Summa
tion
[X2I
8)
]
I
1
1.
= ^i^—
/^
1
5,
I f z"
==
X,
and
^—^ x
&c.
is
i
''
f
+
H n
.
^"^
;v'
^
\
lililII .13
j
.
3.
1
5.r^
,
15
.
17
a;'^
equal ^
to the required ^
!Fluent in this Cafe
which
Series
more fimple and con
verges
much
fafter,
than that refulting from the
common
*
Method.
PROPOSITION
The
Curve, whofe AbfciiTa
being given
AbfcifTa
is
3
II.
Fluent (Q) of a^cz^'l^ x dz^"~~^ Zj or the Area of the
is
2:,
and Ordinate
exacfl
ahcz'''f^ x dz^""^
to find
2;,
(R) the
Area of the Curve, whofe
a^cz""?^ y.dz^"'^'""~~^
y.
alfo
and Ordinate
fz"\gz'"~'"^hz'"'~^'^, &c. continued to rfr and v being any whole pofitive Numbers.
.1
Terms
Let y.^z^''\Bz^''''>rCz'"'\ ^c.^w(i (R) the Area fought. Then, by putting the be aflumed Equation in Fluxions, we have
^T^r+'
=
}= R;
and therefore by writing a^cz'^T x dz^'^'~^ Zj2inda\cz'^(^ x
dz
zvsjz
^g^
^hz
,
&c. initead or
their
refpedlive Equals
Qjind R, and
dividing the
whole by z z^'"^
X a^cz^'f^, ^c. there will come out
Hh
mir
[
122
3
Which
reduced into fimple Terms,
is
pn\
df%
Hence, by making qn and pn\'vn{rn
comparing the homologous Terms,

—
n, the
two
greateft
Exponents, equal to each other, putting />{*uHri;;2=/=,
we
have q=p\V'^r
—
and
i,
tx 'K aBn q * ' 2Xc« t ^y.ctt ^c. Where, becaufe the Index of the firft Term in the above En, and that of the laftTerm^;? quation is pn\vn\rn «, the Number of Coefficients to be thus taken, exclufive of Wy will, the laft of thefe Cobe r\v w being it is manifeft,
df
p
dg
/
Kct
'
—qaAn p — lX<ra'
dh—q—\
/
dl— — 2X aCfz —
—
—
,
efficients
multiply'd by
— ^.
i;
=
QJS.
is
I.
Note.
When
p
as well as
a whole pofitive
finite
Number,
(as
the Fluent or Area fought will be had in
Terms, inde©'^.
pendant of
Q, by
taking
A = ^, B =
=^,
a
bove) and continuing the Operation till fome one of the Coo, or the Series breaks ofFj as efficients B, C, &c. becomes is manifeil from the Nature of the foregoing Procefs»
=
CO
[ ^^3 ]
COROLLARY L and &c. each = If y be taken = become =: then put = p^v B = — =1^, &c. and R the Xf
i,
r, g^ h,
o,
and
e
be
',
will
f
e{m,
)
A
= —^,
of
therefore
(
Fluent
I
a^cz^'f^
e
y^dz^"^ z
V
t
is
equal to
tjiwX en
e
— eJ^m —
p\m\i
afz"*
,
'—
—
^
e
—
^jwf— I
f}/«
—
'^
a" ap
.
I
^
<71
I
..I
Q«v Ua^
.
^^
?^»^+^
X p\m'^z x ,f^, ('u),ori.. p{m\s
.
^— v^^^«—
p
X
I
X
a
f^n
('u)
.—1x ^2
"T
a^
f^iS^«
.. _^
^
'^
Q^
C^
/+!
Z+z"
^_,
x/— 2
/+/«+!
/i«?f2/f»;jJ
;
where the Sign
+ or —
iv)
nj
,
before ~~y obtains according as
i
V
jL.
is
an even or an odd Number, and where
fip;nifies
i^—fl^l X ~~:
,
the fame thine; as
— ^^ x ^ — ^^ x
i
—
>^
ca"'
'
^c, continued
• ,
to
Terms, and '

x .J /i^+i
,
p\m{z
,\
to
x
y^.
pfffiT'i
(v) the fame as
^
,
x
pfm\i
pi^mfz'
is
f"*"^.
,
©r. continued
to
v
Fadlors
which Method of Notation
follows,
be underftood in what
COROLLARY
Hence may the Fluent
derived
rollary,
3
IL
for let

—
"""^"""'2;, be eafily oia\cz''f' x ^2;^
'u
and
we
ihall
be written inftead of 'y, in the lafl Coe^m, and have ez=:p v, t
—
=
[
124
But
]
continued
&c.
to
for the
Value
fouffht.
j—'—ly.^, &c.
V Terms, fignilies the Hime thing as the v firft Terms, from Unity, of the Series continued downwards or the contrary Way by the fame Law j and the hke holds good with
reoiard to
—
r^—r  f^VX
(
—
v)
:
Therefore the
Fluent of
will,
li'\cz''"^'
dz
"
z,
or the true
Vakie required,
be
;+ix^+2x/+3^il^
f+i Xf+2^^"i~3
/„,\
_+_ Qi!
V,
^tl^
s,
^+^^
COROLLARY
But
if
IIL
aclet
the Fluent of ^H<:2;"i"^ X ^2;^''~~^ii be required,
cordino to
either of the above
any affigned Value of found Series
f,
independant of
Q^
be continued in
infinitiun^
or
till it
terminates, and
it
will
be
But the former of thefe equal to the true Value fought. Series will always terminate when ^ is a whole politive Number, and the latter when ^, or its equal e\m^ is a whole negative
Number
;
therefore in thefe
finite
two Cafes the Fluent may
be exadly had in
Terms.
CO
[
125 3
IV.
z,
COROLLARY
a\cz''f''^^ %dz^**'^'""^^ z,
Moreover the Fluent of ahcz^f"^'' x dz""^^
will
or
of
Terms of
whole
Q^nd
being
^*
algebraic Quantities,
from hence be given, in when both r and v are
x
pofitive
Numbers;
for a^cz^l""^^ [=za\czf*'
{
cz''\a\^)
= ^+<72;"r x Cz'""^ rc'^^az'"'''
",
r x
^^ c^
,be taken
z"^^
J
= c% g = r
A
will
^c. if, /"" ^
in the general Propofition, there
a,
bz=r
x
^—^ x /"^
,B=^^
a^,
Gff.
and thefe Values be fubftituted in thofe of A, B, C, D, E, &c.
as there found,
f
come out
=—
J r dc
—
^
—x
I
r— 2
,
li
^c. and therefore
into
_.
the Fluent fought
=
rXr
^
,
r—
x
ahczT^'
«__
^•Xg
V + /—I
7^
'
/X/—
c^g^"
ff
^^
I
x
f
h ZXt—2
—
I
gXg
—
I
/— IX/— 2
rXr
/X/— IX/— 2
"^
—
3
I
Xr
—
2
2
X
X ^—3
"""
3 «r^!5
—
,
Xq
—2
^Xg^— I Xf
2X/2X/— 3
J« 3H
/— IX/— 2X^
— —
^Xf IXf /X^— IX/— 2X/^— 3
is
—
—
^
&c. where the
Law
of Continuation
manifefl.
But the fame thing may be had in a more commodious Form, by help of the firft Corollary For, by writing x
:
=
a+cz"", we
7^—
fhall get g'"=r^"~'^l
,
and therefore
z""^ z=i
x
iH=^!
.confequently
^:i:3'— x ^=^11:^'"
I
i
^2"—
and
and X
if
—
J mAr
a\
x
t"
=
I
..
a^cz^'l
^ xaz
t
tt.
Now,
the Fluent of x
—a
\e
I
—
x
—
dx^x
;
be reprefented by K, and
for a^ c^ Zy n, d,
that of
X
—
7/?.
I
dx'"'^''x.
a\
x
in
^— by L, and
m^p,
i,
e^ i;,
Q2_ and R,
e
the forefaid Corollary,
—
^, i,
at,
—
—
p,
I,
m\i, m{'i'{r, r,
fhall
K
and
L
into
be refpedivcly fubftitui
ted,
we
have
"^Ji^""^"
+ r^i^— x ^
^
r^"^"^ri
x^(r)+^Kx^g±;:xg±j;x
But fince
;f
—^ T"
two
^
x ^^ is
= ^H^
XI
z*"!"*
x dz^"^ *
;s ,
the
Fluents of thefe
that
1?,
Expreffions,
muft confequently be equal,
i
K
=—
X
—r,
Gff . (by
the fame Corollary).
Therefore,
ify be now put =»zfr,
g=m+e,
^
.
h=:e+f,
pfm^2
F=^^
^
'
x
^^
x ±i
(r)
and
G=
K, be '
have
X
f\m\i
,\
(v) and thefe Values with that of
fubftituted
in
the
foregoing Equation,
&c. we
^
fhall
X
/^w
1
—j—
i&
—f—
iX;r
W2II
^
— IX^—
g
—
2X.V''
tt;;;
— iX^—2X^— 3X;r5
t". t~.
I
(r) '
^
H
^^"
jr,
r
"
^
en—n
^
cng
X
I
— lXf»"
— —^"^ 4 .zx.2X_^
g
—
X^
—
,
.
ZXf^'a:^"
^
'
^
FGQ,x^"+^^
>
equal
to
the Fluent
of^Hh^'^+'x,
where
e
^^?»+'v»—
;^^
or the true Value required;
ftands
for
[
for
127
]
phv, X
for a^cz"",
and QJbr the Fluent of a^+7z^\^ x
laft
d^f""^^ z, and where the
Term ^^^^/'^
v
is
is
with the Sign
+ or —
to be taken
,
according as
an even or odd
Number.
COROLLARY
Hence may
eafily derived
laft
j
V.
the Fluent of
for let
—
Corollary,
and
we
x ^2;^"""'^"' ^ be u be fubflituted inftead of v, in the fhall have v, f=^m\r
a^ic
z^\""^''
e=p —
= ^^L x 1+ =— — — ^— XI — = H x ,^^ x But fmce rA x P^ — / —v been HT— ^^. continued
(—1;)
=G,
and the Fluent fought
(r)
(
"u
)
z±=.
'
.
(
u),
or
,
,
to
Fa(5tors (as
has
before
,
obferved) lignifies nothing
more than
j,
,
x
to
f
\
^^.
continued the contrary way, by the fame
Law,
.^x
v Fadors,
G will here be =^i^
like Reafon,
i
x ^'t^"'
^
p+m—z
and, for the
"^'^^
 ^^ + .^^'.'irZt'. (^) ZACX
g
IXr«"
S
.
*
^6
^^
= £i^
*«
irx^+'X^V'
^X<?+IX«''
,
,
^_^j therefore
'^^
^
^— x
««
'
/«
^'*'^:;:Tx;c
"^
/^— IX/&— 2xv^
(''^
X
C
128]
Fluent in
this Cafe.
COROLLARY
may
VL
In like Manner the Fluent of a^cz^'^'^^ x dz^"'^'^^''^z, r be fubftituted inftead of r, be determined 5 for let + v, (^c. then will c m r, ^=7/2 ^, h=.e Hr/^ f:=
—
=p
—
+
jw
fx
—
m
—
2 ^
^'
p\m\i
pjmfz^
"
^
to
/qrix««^^
/+2X^
*
/+2X/+ 3Xa^^^"^
cnga^
'—pTx^.
^xX^^2Xc^«
W=^—^
VIL
equal
the Fluent fought.
COROLLARY
oi a\c
z''\"~''^
Likewife, by proceeding in the fame Manner, the Fluent
y.dz^'^'~'""'~^ z, will be found,
and
is
equal to
/+iX«« ^
ff^Xa
/+2X/+3X«^^^^"*"
^„^r+i
^
i_l±J^4.d^_djX^(^)^£^
p
where
^
.=
(r),
—
V,
f=.m
1
—
p
r,
g=.m\e^ hz=:f^g,
(1;)
^
'
F
all
= ^ x ^—
x ^^^
G='^i^ x^i^—L x^i^^ 2
p
/
and
3
the reft as in the A pre
ceding Corollaries.
COROLLARY
If
c
VITL
be negative and p^ p v, m f 1 and affirmative, or f , /», and p^v affirmative, and
^
m\r^i m ^p and
I
[
w+/>rfi; negative,
129
]
to flow
till
and z be fuppofcd
till
a{cz''
becomes nothing or
infinite, or
QJjeccmes
the Area of
the whole Curve, whofe Ordinate is a\~cz''\^ x dz^"'" \ it h evident, from Corollary IV. that the Area of the whole Curve,
whofe Ordinate
fined
is
a\cz''r
x dz^"'^'^"'^^ will be truly de(i;)
by
^
^
X ^±^ X ^±^
;
X
^
X "t^ x "^P
(r)
x
z*=.
^
where
s
is
=ip\?n\i, and gzr^p^m+v^ and
where v and r may
reprefent any
whole Numbers
pofitive
or negative, under the forementioned Limitations. Therefore if r be taken =o, and ^ />, then the Area of the whole
Curve, whofe Ordinate is Values of ^, p, and m\i are
7"
=— a—
bz^'f^
all
xdz^"^'"""^
,
when
the
pofitive, will
be equal to
it
is
^
jJt ^ ji"
{'^)
^ "^^
•
From whence
appears,
z,
that the Area of the
whole Curve, whofe Abfcifia
and
Ordinate
a^hz'^'T y.dz^'"^^ x AfB2;"+C2;^"fD2;3", ^c,
will be truly reprefented
/•/+I./H2
by Qj<
A i
;j
^^
h
^ ^
Z \^
,/
"
s.s\i.sj2.o^
^
'
^^^ where A, B, C, ^r. fland J J
for
any de
terminate Quantities,
COROLLARY
IX.
at pleafure,
^ 12 X we
H  X
fore
fhall
A + B^j^hCz^^+D^s",
^2;""—  X
Hence
if f
be put to denote any
C^c.
Number
be
/32;3n
»
and
the
^;s"l
then have Area of the
^ 123B= — A=i,
ii X
X
taken
==
i—tlz
'
^c.
= 7+7il~%
and
^/,
6fr.
thereis
whole
,
Curve,
or
whofe Ordinate
r^=^z^^
tf
—
xtf2;^
X H/;s"
.will be
Kk
Qx
[
I30
^
b^
]
A/+i./42.;i.^,.^^2
^^
O x"l ^'
£=fr.


^'^
I.^
X
""^
1
^•^+^//+»
^^"/^
aHl
i^
'
^
I.2.J.ijI
which Value,
by
iv.au
^
if
w
be put
^
t
—
,
I
.
2. 3
.
J.J}I.J2
j,
will
be truly
:
ex^
prellcd
a^l"
,
x
i
x
tj— ^
,
\
x
—
i.tiu
—
2./i./4l./i42
1
r.r
7~T~'n
,
_
'— X
«^/^
.
,,3 ,
^c.
^
as appears
from Propofition VI. of the Summation of Series ; and therewhere w or j is a whole pofitive Number, the Area from hence may be exadly obtained And hence alfo may the Area of the whole Curve, whofe Ordinate is
fore in all Cafes,
if
—
j
:
j===~t
',
he
eafily derived
for, fince
k^lz^\ maybe
/,
reduced to
^*
x
i
+^'
fhall
,
lety be fubftituted inftead of
in
the forefaid general Expreilion, and the whole be divided
k^^
by
and then
nx)
we
have
^^
j^into
iv.nv'
i
^^^^^
x
rr\
—
•
.tu
— \,p.p\\
^c.
a^V"
— l.<iu—2.^.^}.s.s^i.s
;
i
.^2
i.2.s.s\l
or"
bk^alf
Area
1.2.3
in this Cafe
+z
P
3 ,
for the true
I i»
s
being (as before
fpecified)
=/»{;«
COROLLARY
Alfo
X.
^
from hence the exadt Area of the whole Curve,.
is
whofe Ordinate
and

—^— \
if/«'f pofitive
, '
may be ^
deduced, '
when
s
t are both whole Numbers, tho' the latter fhould not happen to be the greater, as is required in the laft Co
rollary
:
For the
Series
Qj5
i
*— x ^, ^c,
(univerfally
expreffing that Area)
may
in all fuch Cafes be
fummed, and by
[
131
]
Series,
is
by Corol.
I.
Prop.
VIL of the Summation of
l.f— 2
b\al
equal to
^^—
71
I.2.J2./— 3
rr2>^^* TT^'
rrc Ti^
—
I
^^
being
I.f
'^••f
—
2
^ &
^^ 1.2.S — Z.J
I
.
?
r
•>
r
>
X
,^
,
C^c.
w
and
that
P
as
hereunder fpecified
:
From
is
which
^
Area
of be
the
Curve,
whofe
Ordinate
and,
—^ —
"*
I
may
laft
eafily
obtained,
will
.
by
pro
ceeding as in the
Corollary,
PQJP X M^al
'
fft.t
/
p.^—r[^
—
»
X
I
'
_
*^
—
—
i.t
X
aJ ~T~ ^«4«/
f}
•,
come out as ~~ m.m — .t —
I
•
follows,
i
./
1.2.
oj
s
— z.s —
—
X
a^/"^
ik+al\
TTTJ— ii\ 77 «/
X
— i.m— — 2 — 1+ 7—— X 2
m.m
• •
2./
—2./—
.
a^
l^
PQ
3
f
2.
J— 3. J— 4
al
^>f
i^^^/J
,
m.iAj
I.J
I
fn.m—i.'w
I. Z.J
—
1
.iy
TT
H
.
—
3
a^/^
2. J
"
^^a''
;».»^i.^2...~i.^^2.^3
I. z. 3.
J— 2. J — 3. J —
till
^
^/^^.
t?^A^'
where both
Series
is
are to be continued
they break
off,
= —
i
/, '
and
P == =1=
^•^+1^+2
m.m
— I.m—2.m—^.m—4 —
H
xa..^+
^
and where
+2(/i)
(j
w
put
.^ ^j^.^j^
laft
is
Value the prefixed Sign an odd or an even Number,
+ or —
i)
obtains, according as (
Note. In thefe two laft and the fiieeeeding Corollaries, k and / may denote any Quantities at Pleafure, provided the Quantities ^h^/> bkic^h and bk=^aly wherever they occur,
be
pofitive.
[
132
]
COROLLARY
a — bz^
is
XIL
Moreover the Fluent of a bzT' •x.dz"*^'^^ 2; x R, when is =0, or the Area of the whole Curve, whofe Abfcifla
z,
—
and Ordinate a
X
—bz^i^ % dz""~~^
Zj
x
R, fuppofing
pofitive
R
=
k=^lz"\~~
2^"""*
and u and q any
^
Num
bers,
may from hence
t±z
be determined
for ^^p/z^I"" xz^"'~'^
z being converted
to a Series,
and the Fluent taken,
^"
I
we have
R=^ %tore
—^
X 4^ H
^
X
^,
&c. and there=§'fz^,
will be
a
—
to
bz^l'^
^dz"""^^ x R,
««'
if
^ be put
equal ^
n
x§'
=±:
—r x yffI
/t
H
2.q\Z
r— x
^^.
Wherefore if (as above) s be put =/>H»2li be taken to denote the Area of the whole Curve,
Ordinate
is
——, and Q
k"^
'
whofe
a
—
bz^'l
x dz^"
^
,
and
,
—
—
^,
^
,^
^r. be
refpeftively fubftituted for
neral Expreffion at the end
A, B, C, 6fr. in the geof Corol. VIIL we fhall have
^//+i./+z.^:7yr7+i ^
be found.
^
^c.
for the
Area propofed to
COROLLARY
Therefore, if
this
XIL
S,
Area be denoted by
have
and
x
^rr
be put
=
x,
and
/
s^w. we fhall
(^c.
S=—
I
 =tz
q
S.q\~l
^iiL±±lI±l^^
But
it
appears,
from Prop.
VL of the
Sum
[
^33 I
i
Summation of
Series, that
'
1
=1=
^^
S
^•^"^'•^•^
f
Z .S. Sf
+1:^ ^c.
'
1
is
„ , imiverfally equal to
=^=^
>^
i
"^
<W.pX
i.s.ii^x
^U.IV
I
.
Lpp^Lx"^
s
.
2
.
s\i
.
i:
^_j_
?1l^
J
—i::!i_i:^xiitt^^_^ ^^^
therefore if
.r
bg the Value of
.r,
&c. what
it
will
be confidered as variable, and both Sides
of the
.^i
<7
Equation
I I
be
C'^rr
multiply 'd
by x^"
T I
x,
iv.px '^— ^^
we
lliall
have
coii
—
I
V X X V
.
—f— =t
t.p.X
_''
— ^
=±:
oj w.
=
— —— * ——rp V — X
•'^
a
—
—1— r±r
.
——
t
^,Ci7<:.
and
fequently
a;''
x 
j~^
i
't^\z^''
»
^^' ^^"^^
^^ ^^^
Fluent of
fore,
if
^:^ X ,=t.^
I_l_,;v[
+ r^^^r^..
the
There^
H
be taken to reprefent
Fluent of
x
I rt: !:^{:^
^c. when ^
is
=
77,
it
is
evident, that S will be
^^
exadlly equal to
—
i:^~ir^*
^^^
order
for
the
more
ready determining the Value of
pends,
«
1
H, upon which
q
let
^—
,
be put
=
—
that of S de^'^Lhl
I
,
y,
then will 1
I
.
"^
x
,
i z±i:
^c,
jj
^
:a— J be changed to ir±=jl
x^y —
j/
x
i=t—^^ H
nx!py
nv.vj
—
\.p,p\\.y"
^
laft
^..a;x.cu;2././+i.j^+2.^3
^^^ thcrcfore the Fluent of
this
2.3 ./.54"^^H"^
Expreffion,
,
generated while
y from nothing, becomes
=
in
1_
,
will give the true
Value of
H
;
which Fluent may,
be either nothing,
many
Cafes, be
pofitive
had
in finite
\i
Terms, and by the Quadraov t
ture of the ConicSedions,
w
—
s
or a whole
Number.
LI
CO
[
134
]
COROLLARY
But
if t
XIIL
—
5
be a whole negative Number, put
w=i —
f,
^
__. ^
—
q^
and
i
S^z"^ X
= ~, and +
/S
let
both Sides of the Equation
^
,
'bP
^ifili^+lf!,
^c.
i,
as
(found a
bove) be divided by t.t\i .t\2.,...s
—
—
and there will be
^^ into —
nk"
'
—*—
yjI./iI./j2./43....5
/./_j_,I.;__2...j_l
q.t.t{l.t\2...S^\
P
p\''
^c.
or
to
—TTj_
'
multiply'd
by
X^i— x»'
I
_j^
^^^
2
,
^c.
is
q.t.t\\.t\z{nx3\\)
j4I./4I.^2(wjl)
^2./2./'f 3
(w)
which
Series
{by
Prop. V. of the Summation of Series)
equal to
I
j^. 1
.
2
3
.
.
4
H
,
^f.
But
 =±:
q
——
q^\
it
fis
^^i^,
z.q\Z
G"^.
if
^ be confidered
to
;
as
va
riable,
will,
manifeft,
is
be
equal
/S
the
Fluent
like
of
when X
''
equal to
or 77
and the
may
.
be obferved with regard to the
Cj'r.
Series
 z±z
t
^
t ^ I
f
fP^^''
2
.
/j
2
^^.
From whence
it
will appear, that the true
Value of
C 135 ]
S, will,
in
this
Cafe,
be =: t.tAiJ{2.ti^('w) x ^.
multiply'd by the Fluent of
I
.
lu
\.x
'
•vo
X
J^
—
.
— 2.3.4(au—
,
—p
,
t
I
1).3'
I.
at/'
Z.x
"^
1
IX!
2 .^M
3
•v''
'
taken in
thing,
is
*^^^TJTdjlTT the forementioned Circumflance, when x from nobecome —rrcr+i.;^
2.^+2.4_^
=
EXAMPLE
The
Fluent (Q.) of
b'^\%^\^
I.
x
x^
zz
being given,
'tis
required
to find the Fluent of
d'^^zT
z^ z.
Here, by comparing
(Vid. Corol.
I.)
d^iz^'i^
x z^Zj with a~hczH
x dz^~^%
we have
az=ib'^,
c=i, n=z2,
^
and en
/
— [e^m) =
i
or
^,
2e
— 1=5,
whence
""
=
f
m=^ ^=1,
2,
3,
'u
=
^
p=i,
x
i
and
t
and confequently
^^+Z^XK^
ten
\h^'
—
X ^,
G^^.
=
XI
— 7^
J
QJ^
X  X equal to
But fince/ is here a whole politive Numthe Value fought. ber, the true Value may be had independant of Q»_being (by
Corol. III.) equal to
''+^'
I
—
~xm\\
en
—n
is,
~
:;^
~
^
"^^
x'Ft
equal to
^.
^^x
continued
till
it
terminates 5
that
—i^Xilf!
,
\b^ 4.2^+ Z _J_ Z 5«' 5.32"'
.
,
—
^^4zH^X 152'— 12«^/^^4.8^ +
r\v
to
~— —<—
^^
'
105
EX
[
136
]
EXAMPLE
Where
In
'
,
11.
it
is
propofed to find the Fluent o^ i?'i—:\A'~'^x^^x,
this
Cafe
dz=:zi^en
lail:
— — 1= —^,whence e=: —
we have ^=:b\ c=:
i,
z=x,
t
72=3,
m= —
^,
and
(=e'i;«)=
—
i
Value being a whole Negative, indicates that the required Fluent may be exadly found in finite Terms. Therefore let thefe feveral Values be now fubflituted in the fecond general Expreflion in Corollary III. and we fhall have
which
,
^Jzzih:
^^^'
for the true
Value foudit.
EXAMPLE
Let (Q) the Fluent of
g'^^x'^]^
^
IIL x x
x.
^
x be given ^
to
f nd the Fluent of g'^^x'^f x x
Thefe Expreflions being com.pared with thofe
^c. we have
jrrr^,,
^;
in Cor.
IL
=
,
^4,
c=i^ z=x, Jn=z ?2=4, d=zj,
^,
f
pz=
a
e
=—
X
=
—
14^"^
^,
and
?
!
X
H .—
e\i
'
774.
10^+
10
^ 6
X
g^
^
—
^
6
X
^
10
— 14
X
—^ ^12
equal to the Value
J
re
quired.
EXAMPLE
Where (Q)
the the Fluent of x^
AbfcifTa
is
IV.
—
2;,
h^' xz'^z, or the Area of
Curve,
3
whofe
and Ordinate
z'^
—
/?^'^
x
[
137 ]
^3~ x z^ being given ; 'tis required to find the Fluent of z^ Area of the Curve whofe AbfcifTa is alfo 2;, and z^°z, or the
—
Ordinate
z^
— i?^~ x
^=
z'°.
By comparing thefe Exprefiions with thofe in 'Corol. IV. ^J, ^=1, ^2=3, in=z^ ^, there will be f=i, a=: p
i;=2,
and
r=4,
12/ "^ = 7, = J, /=y>
"^3
<§"
—
=
^
,7, ^,^=2; 3/^3
24
3
3
therefore,
by writing thefe Values
in the laft of the
E'
quations there given,
we
fhall
have
'^"^^^""^'^
24
x
z'^
— bA
15
13^^ Xs:^
—
1.
^^1
j^
13x10^^X2^
21
—
^^
13X10x7^9
21
21
.
X 18
X l8x
8g^^^ i3XioX7X4^^^Xg^—^^P 4X7Xioxi3X5X8^'^Q 8 "*" 9x12x15x18x21x24 24x21x18x15x12 9 for the true Fluent or Area fought j which therefore, when z 4X7x.ox.3x;x8i'CL =.b, is barely ^ 9X12X15X18X21X24 ,24
•'
=
EXAMPLE
I
V.
'^
Let there be given (Q) the Fluent of i x\ X becomes o, or the Periphery of the
=
i
x
"•
j^jwhen
Circle,
i
whofe
Diameter
x""^^ Xy
is
Unity; to
find the exa6t
Fluent of
—xf"* x
m
when
x becomes
is
=o
1,
3
or the Area of the whole
oc"~~^.
Curve whofe Ordinate
In
this
i
x'(^^ x
= = p=i^,s {p^m^ri) = ^
Cafe ^
1,
c
z=zx^
n
=
i^
=—
q
r
,
I,
{pimiv)
=fu 3 and
therefore,
by
Corol.
Vin. we
fhall
have

1.3.5.7.9, ^c. to v Faftors, into 1.3.5.7.9, ^'^ ^o f Faaors. 2,4.6.8. 10. 12. 14. 16. 18.20.22, ^€. to r+1/ Factors.
^'
the Value fought.
Mm
EX
[
138
]
EXAMPLE
The
comes
dinate
VI.
*tis
Fluent Q^f/6^HA;='l
to find the
——— Fluent of h^^x^\
8
^
'
x x being given,
propofed
^^ 8
infinite,
is
^ % x^ x^ when Z)*Ha:* beor the Area of the whole Curve, whofe Or
/j^^x^i
%x^.
Here we have a=b*^ c=i, z=x, «=:2,
m=
2
,
^=r,
^
=
?
^,
r= — 2,
v=:2, sz=^,g=^', whence, by Cor. VIII.
there will be
^ x
O
^
(2) x
^ ^
x
(^2
2
)
x
Q
=
X
C
'±I(2)x^
27
X
i:=L(2)xQ==^ X
X 11
^ if^ ^ Q^^"i^^^^^^ t^ ^^^ ^x^<^ "^^^ which was to be
found.
Note.
may alfo
The Area of this fame Curve, or of any Part of be found by Corollary VI.
it,
EXAMPLE
Where (K)
is
VIL
the Area of the whole Curve, whofe Ordinate
/3
—
2,3
1
^ being
fuppofed
given
;
tis
required
to
find
is
the
exadl
Area
of the whole Curve,
whofe Ordinate
Firft,
to determine
1 z^\^
the Area of the Curve
whofe Ordi«
quired,
nate isy3
x
/s^,
which
is
requifite for finding that re
3
[
139
]
quired, let aicz^i^ x dz^"~'^ and ahcz"f"^'' x dz^"^'""'^^
(as exprefled in Corol. VIII.)
and/J
m=: —
be compared with J^ z^f X z^, and there will be a==fi^ c
,
»?+r=, d=i, pn
— i=o,
and
j&7zf'y«
— = — «=3, — 1=3
is^l"""'*
i,
j
whence r=i,/>
=
is
7,
3
'u=i,
j
(/>f^fi)
=
I,
and therefore (^

x L+l(a,) x
^x^
'
=
^, ^
g
(p^mhv)
(r) into
=*= 
——
)
^
—
,,
equal to the exad; Area of the Curve, whofe
Ordinate
is
/3
z^\^
x
z^.
Let therefore
compar'd with
fhall
Qbe put==§^
55
_^
and
let
'
be
now
we
(Vid. Corol. IX.) and
have a=:J^^ b=zi^ ^
=
m = \,
3,
d^i,p=:^^,
5
k=h\ /=i, t^'l,s{p\m^i)=ll^
w {f^s) == o
^^'^
and therefore
^^^
f^^^^^xi— ^^
^^^"^^ required.
x
^^T
IF^fe^'^
^^"^^
EXAMPLE
The fame
Ordinate
(hall
is^
V[IL
being given as in the preceding Example, let it be required to find the exact Area of the whole Curve, whofe
—^
1.
^
^.^
.
Here,
by proceeding
'
as above,
we
5x11x17x23x29 of the whole Curve, whofe Ordinate
let
firfl
get *>
^±^^J4_x_3X9_ ^ Y^r^^ J
f^j.
t^e exad: Area
is^s^
z'^\^
x
•'
2;^,
which
%_
be denoted by Q., and then, by comparing
^^
—
with
[
140
fhall
]
have <7=/3, b
s
with
f=i^L^$^, we
,n=\,
(/—
5) ==: I,
= n= d=i, /=^, i=b^, l=i, t=% = ^^ and.» ^ and confequently ^ ^ + „^n—^ or
i,
2.
a
I
'
i
86^Kf^x 7P—3P _^ ^^^^Y
623645
^^'T'
to
the
required Area
in
this
x/^^^/'^i'T
Cate.
EXAMPLE
Where
dinate
is
IX.
the Area of
h"
(Q) of the whole Curve, whofe Or;
—
2;"!^
X x^"""^ being given
'tis
required to find
that of the
whole Curve, whofe Ordinate
is
"~~„^ ^
/>
.
In
this
Cafe
we
have a=h''j ^==1,
^ = ^, d=i,
= ^,
i
Z^=a", /=ri,
/=i, and
5(/>4;^fi)
=
3
:
Therefore,
let
be
ing
here a Values be written in
whole Number
Corol.
greater than
t,
thefe feveral
X. and we
fhall
have w==2,
V={^JI f
8,
and
 BQ.^Xi^^
•
^^^ X
r or
O
X
^^
,,„^
.
^^
—
^ f
x
equal
x
1
to the
exadl Area required.
EXAMPLE
Let
it
X.
be required to find the Area of the whole Curve,
is
whofe Ordinate
i
z'^\
^
x R, fuppofing
R=
i
z^\
*
Thefe
[
HI
]
tbofe. in Corollary
Thefe ExprefTions being compared with
XI.
we have ^=1,
bz=:i
n=2, ;«=
and J^f;
—
is
,
d=i, u=^^
kz=:i
/=:i,^=^,$'=^, ^
=
1,
therefore
Q
v.
(the
Area
)
of the whole Curve whofe Ordinate
will here be
a
—
q
bx'^f^
dz^"~^^
=
9
I
'
,
and confequently ^
I
%
nk}
x  h
^^
•f'/'Ti
x
^, ok
&c.
=iII
z^^
*"
^
i
^
25
49
h
5^,
81
>
&c. equal A
to
the true
is
Value fought.
I
But the Area of the Curve, whole Ordinate
is
X R,
that
is
alfo equal to the
Fluent of
in
i
z^'l
^
z x
R, or
R R,
is
==
5
where R,
the propofed Cir
cumftance,
cle,
equal to  Part of the Periphery of the Ciris
whofe Radius
Series
Unity.
~{
Hence
\
it
appears, that the
is
Sum
of the
i {
^, &c.
equal to ^ Part
of the Square of the Periphery of the
ter
is
Circle,
i i
whofe Diame
Unity,
But the
Sum
of the
Series
^
~
"^
I
~
—
16*
76
^, &c,
becaufe 
isjufl ~ Part of the
Square
of that Pe
riphery,
I
^
I
^, &c, the
Sum
is
of the Squares
of the Reciprocals of the even Numbers,
*i
=x
i
t

1 I 1
9
•
^c, that
is
=  of the whole 4
XI.
'tis
Series.
EXAMPLE
Where
the
h^
R
(
Area
— s^n^
^MS*l""^ x z, being ) of the whole Curve, S
=
whofe
propofed to find Ordinate is
xccR,
Nn
Here
[
Here, by proceeding
142
]
as in the laft
^,
Example,
we iLall have
^=/;% /^=i,
t
;2=:2,
m= —
^)
u =z^^ d=ic'^^k=zc'^^ ^=r,
accord
=
,
5^
=
,
/>=!,
J=, and Q=:^*i'5 whence,
o,
"
ing to Corol. XII.
H
being
— = the Fluent of —
110(1:
i
yl
and S
(
^J^ _^
when;;
is
]=
;
y
^7,
=
is
^^,^^>
or twice the
Arch of the
t47T.
Circle,
whofe Diameter
Unity,
and verfed Sine
Therefore the Value here fought, will
faid
be exadily equal to the Meafure of the
Arch.
SCHOLIUM.
Tho* the chief Deiign of the preceding Propofitions is to exhibit the Relation of fuch Fluents, as can be expreffed in Terms of each other, and algebraic Quantities 5 yet from
thence a
nally,
Method may be
Infinite Series,
by
derived for finding Fluents origimuch preferable to that commonly
a{cz''\
made
ufe of.
Let the general Expreffion
x dz^"'^^
1;
X be propofed, in order to find the Fluent thereof. Take equal to any whole pofitive Number, and let p=e\v^
e^m^
%,
/=
x=a{cz"^ and
Q== the Fluent of
I. is
ahcz^'f^ x dz^"""^
which, according to Prop.
=
^^
^"^
x
i
—
,
j^
x
—
x
.
_^^ X
^^
X
'4,
^^. Then, by Prop. IL CoroL IL
en
m\\
the required Fluent
will
be truly defined by 1^
tH!=l X
p—z
^"t^^=^
/— 3
('y).
^ ^
Hence,
to
find
the
Fluent
S
of
[ 143 ]
J+?^r X i/z"""
i^,
lafl
i, let there be taken
A=
''''"'''''
.,B=
_A x^Jix^, C==B
and
fo
X
i^xi^, Dz^c'x i±3x
of Terms {v) and
let
on
to
any
Number
the
of thofe Terms be denoted by
X
p\i
Q
,
then take
tti,,!^^ S '
p
= — R x^x^, T=— S X p^z X V= — T x^x^, &c, then AfB + C + D
X
'
^
R= — Q^
^, X
'
will
fQ+R+S+T+V+W,
Now
may
the chief Advantage
that, as
&c.
of
be the true Value fought.
this
Method
confifts in this,
at Pleafure, the Value thereof be fo affigned, or fuch a Number of Terms, A, B, C, &c, of the firil Series may be taken, as to make the fecond S+T, &c. converge exceeding faft, when the SeSeries ries refulting from the common Method diverges, or converBut this will appear ges fo flow, as to be intirely ufelefs. Let it be required to find better by an Example or two.
V may
be any
Number
R+
theFluentof
I
+2;^1"~
x
z,
when z=zi
(
expreffing the
is
length of ^ of the Periphery of the Circle, whofe Radius
Unity).
Here i\z^\'~^ x
i;,
being compared with
rt4f:z°l
y.dz^"^^
zz=:i, en
—
z, there will
I,
or
we
fhall
have
p
(e{'v)
be^=i, <:=i, n=2, m=z — \^d=.i^ 2e — i=o; whence, v be taken =6, = — = — x = A=i, B=
if
,
t
^,
2,
I, C=:i,D=_i. E==l,
S
F(orQ)=± R=^,,
&c. and confequently
= , r = —, V = ^,W = ^,
is
'
AtB4C
ber,
QjRfS, &c, =0.785398^ which Numfound by taking only 8 Terms of the Series RjSfT,
right in the iaft Place,
&c.
and would have required,
at
leaft.
[
leafV, '
1
144
]
Series i
000000 Terms of the common
Again,
let
it
—  + —,
3
5
7
^c.
J
be
propofed to
taking
1^
find
the
Fluent
of
42^4,^ X z.
In
this Cafe,
=
4,
we
have az=zi,
B:^ZA^, C = .ii5^, D(orQ)=J^l, R =
19
I
Q2*
7
AT '
e
2_^£!
21
A*
T
^^^"^
25^:*
V
6Tg^
29X
'
ry
10
Vg^
AT
33
and A B^CfQ^R+S, will become 1.08942, i, fought J which if z be taken in finding whereof, no more than 6 Terms of the Series RfSjT, &c. are requifite j and if 2 had been taken fmaller, the Befides thefe Conclufion would have been ftill more exad:. Ufes of the foregoing Method, another Confequence may have be derived therefrom, not altogether inconfiderable.
e^r.
+
=
&c. equal to the Fluent
—
We
;
proved that the Fluent of a^cz'^f^ x
equal to ^
,
dz
"^^
z,
is
univerfally
,
dx^
if
J"
pn
x
m
i
^^^
r— x
\
\
Therefore
a be taken
pT^ o,
=
i
^
j— —7— —m x m—i /
+
x
!
'P'T'^
——
c^a^"
•^"
,
Z7~
,
tsc,
^=1, <i=i,
then x being z=cz'^^
we fhall have ~
to the Fluent of
z'^'T
x
— ?
2;^"""^
h
^
is
x
—p,
&c. equal
mn\pn
x
z, that *
== fnn+pn .^ ^^
5
whence
^+
of any
C^c.
eafily
^
/>,
X
^\
^r.
= ^: From which the Sum
x
Infinite Series as
—let
7
h
— x  — x —
y
where m,
deduced;
and r denote any Quantities at Pleafure, is fince this Series may be changed to for,
^
r
Z
P
r
L.
Z
P
r
X
Z_l,
^
r
^c.
_l/
—
I, ^
and
—  be
r
fubflituted
for
I 145
for ^ p
fn\r
]
and
"*"
/;;,
In the
\
lafl;
Equation,
,
we
ihall
tn
have —
P
^n\r
H
x
P
""
7+^
^V^,
£iff.
T —7+^ = —
m\r
""
m
tn\2r
^
1+^^
^^ ^
—
alfo
M\~zr
""
^
ThP"
7+T^

.
Hence we
gather, that if the
Terms A,
B, C,
B:=^
of that
X A,
C=^
D,^^. of any
X B,
Infinite Series,
D=
^
be fo related that
X C, &c. the Value
_^"^
x
Series, will
is
be truly defined by
A
;
which
therefore
fi.nite
or infinite, according as
:
p
is
greater or lefs
than m{r.
Example
Let
it
be required to find the
i
>^
Sum
x
of the
Infinite Series 
&c. Then /'=4,
lue fought.
m =^ i,
let
+ 446468 + 468 ——
 x J h  x  x J
J
x
o
—
10'
r= 2,
,
and

==
== the Va
Again,
will
the Series
H
I
—
,
&c. then
34
A
=
234
B
^
propofed be
—
\
~
' '
p=2i 'J'
more
^==ij ^^^ Tz ' 1.2
^
2.3'
y
=  A, C=zB,&c.m==:j, ^^' i=T^—^ xA) = Or, —m
/
r
'
i.
univerfally, let the Series ^
r^ ^\r. m\2 r. m\'^
thereof will
preflion
is
—
—jm
r[n)
propounded be r r
~*
ttj m\zr. z«+3 r.m{^r{ny
i j
r^~i
i—
—
^
m.m\r.m {2 r {»)
——
^
^^' ^^^ the Value
;
come out
which
lafl
Ex
the fame with that in Page 92 of
my Eflays, but found
in a different Manner^
Oo
PRO.
[
146 ]
III.
PROPOSITION
If X mid y
other,
be
two
'variable ^lantities a?iy
how
related to eacb'
and
the Fluent
of y s:^^ x be
take?2y
and
multiply' d^
by x^'~'^ X,
and
the Fluent of the Pr.oduB
be again taken
and multiplfd by x ~ x, and the Fluent of this laft ProduSf and there be made f^Fj be alfo taken, and fo on continually
,
rfg D
'
=
—
s, '
5fh==t, tHi
'
'
=
v, '
^c.
/(«)*
A=
g
j
5
— —^ —
r.t
r.i,'
r[n)
^,
r
j.t—!..ii
—
•j".(«)'
r
—
t.s
— —
t.'V
r—'V,sn}.t''v[n)
&c. and
the
Sum of
all the Indices f 
h H i, ^c.
be
denoted by p^ I fay, that Fluent whofe Place in the Prowill, when x becomes equal grejjion is denoted by n f 1,
to
any gi'ven
'.
^antity
a,
be
equal
to
the
Fluent
of
"i ^
+
f
^ ^ ^
0^^^+"'
+
^
+
^ (^^^^)^^^j^i^h
For let?/
is
+ R^?t^"_l_S;,^+3«^ ^^^
or y x^^^ x be
its
a general Expreliion for any Quantity whatever) be affumed
y
',
=
then will
y x^'~^
x,
=^ x^~^^^^
x h
Q^?4'{«^^^._j_
R^?+''+2'«» X, &c. and therefore
Fluent
=—
j
h
by x^
===n
——
I
•
i
,
,
,^
,
w. which being mul
tiply'd
Xy
and the Fluent taken, we have
—
,
_q£ZJ1
thod of Operation
that
J
^
is
2m
,
,
^c.
From which Me
it
evident, that the Fluent propofed, or
is
whofe Place
in the Progreffion
denoted by n^i^ will
be
C
be truly defined
H7
]
byp^ll
rA
u
^+^+^
h
,
,
13
—
j
n>
^'^is
which Value, by Prop. V.
of the Summation of
Series,
equal to
^
±>
X
——
j
q\r
f
——
^
q\r\m
f
——
—
1
j
^^r\2»:
'
^c.
X
,
f
:
1
T—^
qts
q\jfM
q\sj2m
'
<SC,
C
X
.
H
^
4
Fie
h ^^=V^ pofed Circumflance, when x is
X ,
But
A
=
—Tr
a;
•>
*^^ ^^
thepro^
^,
will be equal to the Fluent
of
(if<r.
A
J' X X ?;.»+'—
fame manner
+
Q_xJ+'+''
+ Rx*+'+^'".
And
fecond Series
equal to the
IS
or of
A <3^~'^ x^a:^""^
it
X (fuppofing
and_y variable.)
in
the
will appear that the
B
X
—,
h ^,1
+ ^^^—
(ic.
1
^,
^^.
Fluent of B^^^^ y^yx^'^^x,
&c. Therefore the
Sum of all
x
thefe Series will be equal to the Fluent of A^^""^ xjy^^'"
+
rt"^
B
^^
x^a:
^IC^^
x^a;
x^
&c, or or
—
^x
«'
«'
^
'
Note. That
all
the Fluents abovementioned arc fuppofed to
in the
be contemporaneous, or generated
fame Time.
C0=.
[
148
;]
COROLLARY
Fluent
,
1.
If the Fluent propofed be reprefented by
K, then,
x
fince tlae
of^^
^c.
x
,
^ + ^,
K
.
^c.
is
= a'y
l.
^+
,
^^
—
the Fluent of
aH
y,
^
^^^

&c,
on the Righthandfide of the Equation, will and will be found more commodious be equal to ; when the Relation of x and y cannot^ be than the former, exhibited, but by the Meafures of Angles and Ratios, .^f.
this lad Value,
alfo
^
COROLLARY
If
will
all
s
IL
the Indices
^
g, h^
&c. be equal to each other, then
= 2r,
'
f=^r,'V=z,Ar, p==f2ii xr,
A
(
^—rr]
=
,,B I.2.3.4.. ..«^"
= ~72A,..C = ^x^^A,D=— ^ 12'
I
X
^^^^
X
— A,
1
&c. and confequently
K
"""
in this* Cafe, equal to
the 'Fluent of
.2,3.4. ...w X
^——^1^ ^
r"A:
"l^
•+"
7^^^^ir 2
I
a^'^
r
—
f
.
(n\\) or to that of V
'
tuf^HJ^J^
I
.
/
2. 3 4
.
.
.
. .
7/
X^
which Equation, ^
if
r be
taken
=
i
,
will
SSfewtojj,
in
be the fame with that delivered by Sir Ifaac the eleventh JPropofition of his Book of Qua
dratures.
EXAMPLE.
t.et
it
y
= a'^x'?^
3
,
and /, g,
be
required to find
&c, each 2, and let the third Fluent of the Progreffion,
h,
=
gene
C
H9
is
I
]
increafed to a. Here, accordr
generated while x, from nothing,
ing to Cor. II.
we
have
i^lJili
—
a
—
x'\^
y^xx
.2.3. ..«x^"
whofeFluentjUniverfallyexprelTed, is
~—€A~ ^
—.^{^ which
taking x=:ia, according to the foregoing Prefcript,
^r for
we have
the true Vakie fought.
Here follow fome
iifeful
Theorems ^ extraBed out of the foregoing Propofitions^
THEORE
M
x
L
Let ^
I
= r4'u,F=4'
z^\2
z"" ,
x
^
znjf^
L{r)^Gz=:^% ^ '*
Z'V^b
2
X
I
{v)y
X
z=z
a \' c
and Q__equal to
or to
^^
x
Hyp.
Log. k/
is
i{—
\
</—
J
—7= X Arch,
whofe Radius
is
i,andSinev^ni^, according
J 'vn r
as the
Value off
pofitive or
negative.
—T
—
ThenS=^V^x^xH?i^=ii^ ^ X bn zh— z.x
2/&
+
a"
T—
^^Trii^Ip^fL
zh
— z.zh —
2 1;
\.x'^
Z.zh
—
A..zh
—
6.Ar^ ^
'
vnc
FGQ«'^f''
—
2. ess"
Zf —2,21';— 4.C^Z^"
^
'
Note. That in this and the following Theorems, r and v may denote any whole pofitive Numbers and that the laft Term, when there are two Signs prefix'd, is to be taken =4 or , according as v is even or odd,
,
—
Pp
THEO«
THEOREM
Let
and the
IL
)6=r—
i;,
F=
— ^ x — ^:^^ x —
''
•
^^J=L (;)
reft as in
the preceding Theorem.
2r— ix««^
Zh 2.zh 2r 3.2r
4.
a:'
/
2r—i,a
\
—
—
5.«
^
'
dV K wca^
'y«—
^
?
•
XI
2v—\.a
_
2v—2.ez'*
is
+
•
2a;2.2^4.cg» V^)
—
2r
^"^ when r
greater
than V,
2r
F
will be
=
o,
and therefore, in that Cafe, S
3.«
is
barely
'
2^!?:^
— IX»«*
till it
^
terminates.
2r— 3.2r— 5.<i*
continued
THEOREM
Let/&='U— r,
'
III.
F=I 2
x
^ 4
x
J (r),
d^" G = I
x
^^^ x
3
^^^
("u),
and X and Q^as above.
21/
IX«<22^"
«I>
21/
3.*
i
•
2v
—
3.21;
^.a^
—
M
^
r
I
I
i
V rneC
>^
\/xz" X ^
C"
:
I
4
zr
—2.x
i;
2r~2.2r—1^^ (^)
+ FGQ/'~'"
X
which,
^ 2
^a:''
when
x
is
greater than r, will be barely
I
=—

y/Ar^s"
x
2
1'— 1 X na^
[
151
till
3
it
— G=
I
zh—2.cx^
21/
—
^^^ continued
terminates,
bccaufe then
3.
o.
THEOREM.
S z^a^cz'^l
X dz
IV.
z.
Put i;H/«=^, and a+cz^=z.
Then
S
=
till
^x
it
i
—
h
r— ,
(sc,
continued
terminates.
THEOREM
=«4f2;"l
V.
z.
m X azvtt'—\
J
Let 'y4»/=^, and a^cz^'^x.
Then
S
=
enc
till it
x
i
— «— —z—

i.ca"
e
— —
i.e
z.r^s;^'*
&c. continued
terminates.
Note. In the two laft Theorems m may reprefent any ber whatever, whole or broken, pofitive or negative.
Num
THEOREM
S =^4f;s"I
VI.
r—
s"
X dz
I
— i;/?—
3
Putj&
(r),
^x X = r— 1;— F= = ^+f2;"3 and Q equal G =XXI
,
(1;), A:
to
ly^a
X
Hyp. Log.
331=4,
or to
^ x
ArCb, ^vhofe Radius
i,
and
[ 152 3
and Secant 4/ ", according I—
negative.
?
as the
Value of a
is
pofitive or
Ti^^n S
=:^^xH
I
^:::^—
+
zt;
..
^—1^_^ (r)
45
r— i/Ffl
i x^
.
^KX;Vn
X
I
—
,.
^'v
— i.fz"
2
.
j
21/
Zl/— 2
i~in — i.2<y — 3.cs: _ — 4 «*
.
Zo;
.
f'y) ^ '
GQ£^
a
THEOREM
S =a\cz"\
I
T«
VII.
z,
21/45
/
^
y,az
2i;43
^7 Let^=r4i;+^, F = f x ^ x ^
2'uf'i
(r),
\
G=:x^
/^
"
'
^ X ^
46
If)
^
^
/
(1;),
and X and Q^
b
is
in the precedent.
Then
\
=
I
x
i {
—
.
f
—
— 1.21/— ~
i
^
^.f'^s;*"
•—
<vna
AY x'^
r4i
'
,
i;«
X
I ""~
.
2v i.cjs" 2'y— 2.a
'
—
4
zv —
^
X!2
2<z;— 2.21;—4.«* ^
a
'v\r
'
THEOREM
'T
1
VIIL
*«
S ==^{C2;"l
X
—
2;.
^s;"^
Let
^^^
^^^
h^r'p,
"^
x:=.a^cz'',
and
Q.
=
the
Fluent
of
(which may be always had by the Meafures of An
gks and Ratios.)
Then
(
153
4
)
Then S=
r
,?«
IX fax
_^ x
^ ""'^
^
1
— 2.«
^i./.a.;.>
fr
z.r
—
3.
a*
Which, therefore, when />
r, will
till it
is
a
whole
i
pofitive
Number,
>
lefs
than
be barely
= __£f— x + ~^^
^^ continued
terminates.
THEOREM
'
IX.
any Integer not
S===E!£C4^"i2!I1^3
^ being
lefs
than rH'uhi.
•'^
2'
^
2.4.6.8
(rf<&)
*
Q== Periphery of the Circle, whofe Diameter is Unity. Then the required Fluent, when a^bz"=o, or the Value of S generated while ^js", from Nothing, becomes =^, will
and
be accurately
1X3
.
=
^;
^^!j^
•
x
i =±:
Jj^ll^^
w—
I
.^ ^}i a^/*
Series will always terminate in
wHi Terms.
X.
any whole
pofitive
THEOREM
'S=^il:^i^t!!l^j
Number, not exceeding
Let ^,
"
J,
t being
rfi;.
\, 2
Q be as in the precedent, and wzzzs^t and P= = ldlLi4^Hx^.^fi.'^+^(^i) «./« — 4(j—
and
i.m
H
let
«?=:r
—
j^ ^j^j^j^
^
2.z«—3.OT
i)
Q.q
laft
(
laft
is
154
)
Value,
let
the prefixed Sign f or
—
obtain, according
asf
an odd or an even Number.
Then
the Value of S, in the
abovementioned Circumftance, will be
m.t
J^Kj^iilQ^
^
I i::
_^
— i.al
LL—.—r \.s^2Ji=iZal
H
m.m
— — i.t—z.a^l^
\
.t
1.2.J2.J— 3.^/5q=«/f
1.2.3 .J— 2.J— 3.J— 4Jirf:«/j
m .nu—^\
l.S
.al
^
— z.bk
m.m
— i.ou—
«X=p/'""'
l.it;
'
l.Z.S
laft
— 2.J—
z.a^l^
'
p^
3.6"^^*
Note,
In the two
politive.
Theorems, the Value of bk=^ul
muft be
An
(
'55
)
An
of the Curve defcribed by the Shadow oj an ObjeB on the Plane of the Horizon^ according to any given Declination of the Sun, and Elevation of the
INVESTIGATION
Fole.
be the Plane of the Horizon, P^the perpenHeight of the propofed Objed, and A «RHT A therequired Curve, defcribed by the Shadow of its Summit ; fuppoling P^B parallel to the Earth's Axis, and the Angles BPF, BPG, each equal to the Complement of the given Declina
Let
fARHT
dicular
tion
Then, fince all the Rays intercepted at P, during one : whole apparent, diurnal Revolution of the Sun (fuppofmg the
Declination to continue invariable) make Angles with the Earth's Axis or PB/equal to (BPF) the faid Complement of Decli« nation, it is plain, that if thofe Rays had proceeded on with
out Interruption, they would have formed a conical Surface J and therefore, as the required Curve is made by the Interfedion of this Surface and the Plane of the Horizon
PFKGD
ARHTA,
(
156
)
therefore,
Let, be now made parallel to the conjugate Axis of the faid Sedion, and cv to F G; putting FJ=h^ the Sine of the given Latitude (Af P) to the Radius i, =^, its Cohne c, the Sine of Declination J, and the Sine of its Complement (^PH or cFA) =p', then cHF being equal to the Sum, and PAf to the Difference of the Angles HfP and tPH, we fhall have ^^4^/> the Sine of fHF, and ^J cp z= Sine of PA <:, by the Elements of Trigonometry. ThereIt
ARHTA,
muft confequently be a ConicSe6lion.
c?i
RT
=
=
=
fore feeing the Sine
of FcA,
plain
as
is
to Radius, as
P^
to
Pc
(=
;
r)
i :
we
y
;
— =—— — and bd— A^ = whence A H = 4 x Z^^ZTZ^TZ^ = j^A_ ^^^_ ^ _^^P ^ dd—cc becaufe p^ = ^ b^^^^c^y^i^dd
Hf
^
,
(hall
have
(by
Trigonometry)
cp
:
as bd\cp
p
/»
:
:
r
:
5
bb^ccy.dd—cc
— ^%
^'"
:
and ^^4c*=i).
r;/; wherefore,
(
Moreover as^:j&::
zzzvc or
by the Property of the Curve,
:
^ Fife
He X AO
it
^ ^
,
(
\
i
(^^Pc)
:
^
it
(»')
:
:
^(AH^)
greater than r,
^—y^
= RT^.
Hence
appears, that if
d be
or the Declination
tude, the
greater
Curve defcribed
will
than the Complement of Latibe an Elliplis, whofe tranfverfe
and conjugate Axes are
Parameter equal to
equal to the
infinite,
^r~^
:
^^d
refpedively,
and
its
—^
Therefore
when
the Declination
is
Complement of
Latitude, then
^—^ becoming
than the
the EUipfis will degenerate to a Parabola, whofe Pais
J
rameter
but
if the
Decrination be
lefs
Com
plement
C 157 ]
plement of Latitude, then jr—i being negative, the Curve
will
become an Hyperbola, whofe Tranfverfe and Conjugate
f
^ „
Axes are
and
^^
—
is
,
and
its
Parameter
=™
:
except
when d
=
Oy or the
Sun
in the
the Parameter
rates to a
~ becoming
Equinox, in which Cafe,
the Hyperbola degene
infinite,
Right line.
^ Determination
thefafieft,
of the Time of the Tear when Days lengthen according to apparent Time^ and to any ajjigned
Excentricity of the Earth's Orbit.
AP
Let A'uPOA be the Orbit of the Earth, its principal Axis, C the Centre, and S
the Sun, in one of the Foci j and, v being the Place of the Earth at the / be its Place at / Winter Solftice, let the Time required : Draw S v and S O,  and alfo On, perpendicular to AP j put \ ing PC==^, SC=^, 50=2?, the Sine of \ *uSP, to the Radius i, =/«, its Cofine =«, and the Cofine of 'uSO, or the Sine of the Sun'sDifi:ance from the Equinodial Point at the required Time =rA:. Therefore, the Sine of 'uSO being
O
OB
XX, and the Angle PSO equal to the Difference of the two Angles i;SO and i;SP, the Cofine of PSO will be=;2A:
=x/i
'•^m^i
it
—XX,
as
by the Elements of Trigonometry
i
will be,
(Radius)
:
nx^m^i —xx
;
wherefore
.
i
z {SO) :Sn
z=^nxz^mz^i^xx. But, by the Property of the Curve, e a a^z C« ^^^^^^3 whence (S«)=^^^^—'^=/?Ar2»
I
: : :
=
Rr
[
158
z
]
imzyi — XX,
therefore
""^
/
'
= =a'\?iex{m e^i —xx\
confequently
Alteration of
'"''
a^nex^me
;
Y
— —
I
xx
;
and
which
lafl
Ex
preffion, fince the
Longitude,
or of the
An
gle
PSO, in a given Particle of Time, is inverfely as the Square of Radius SO, will, it is manifeft, be alfo as the Alteration of Longitude, in a given Particle of Time, or in one whole Day
very nearly.
^
^
This being
the Ecliptic,
now
obtained, let
AC
denote
the Equinodlial, CB a Meridian, and C and r thofe two Points of the Ecliptic, wherein the Sun is at riling on the
AB
when the Difference of Minute of his riling is the the Hour and greateft poflible, and let Cn be the Difference of Declination in thofe Points ; putting Cr==y, and the Sine of CAB, the Sun's x (Sine d: Then as i (Radius i d greateft Declination
two
required Days,
=
:
:
of
AC)
:
dx
= Sine BC
:
;
therefore
its
Cofme
:
= y/i —
:
:
d'x^
;
Again,
as
^i—xx
(Cofine of
A C)
i
(Radius)
lli=^
rCn,
(CoTang, of A)
therefore
its
:/^^
d^^
= Tangent
:
of
ACB,
or
Secant
= ^' l—XX
""^''''
its
Wherefore, becaufe the Tri
angle
C r«, by
it
Reafon of
fmallnefs,
:
may
(C r)
be confider'd as
:
reailineal,
will be as
V^^^g
Jy^l
— XX
i
:
:
;;
Cn
= ^I^^ —
\/l
<^'^*
equal to the Alteration of Declination, from Sunrifing to SunLet this Alteration, rifing, on the faid two Days very nearly.
therefore,
be
now
represented byOi',
fuppofmg
HRO
to
be
[
159
3
be the Horizon, PH the Meridian, PR and PO Complements of Declination, at the Times abovementioned ; and let the Cofine of the Latitude (PH) be denoted by b : Then it will be as
^i—d'x' (Sine of
PO)
:
i
(Radius)
:
:
^i
bb
(Sine
of the
Latitude)
,
:
y^^^ == Sine
^i—d^x"
of
POH
therefore
;
its
Cofine, or the Sine of
OR
.
:
y& is
= ^^^^\
iph)
J
.
______
it
therefore
will be as
v^J^S ^
:
bb
^j V\^f^
:
M}r^^^)Q^^
^ '
^
R^
but
as
^x^d^xy^^/b^—dxi^d'^x^b^^^d^ the Arch of the Equator, meafuring the Angle RPO, or the Difference of the Semidiyrnal Arches of the Sun on the two Days above fpecified. This Difference therefore, fince y^ by the former Part of the Problem, is found to be
•
•
y V
^a^z
.
.
•
dyV^—xxy(.^/l—hb
_d^ ^j—xxA'^'T—rb
=
ahnexhme^i'xx^\
will
be
^>^^^ +^^/iz:ffl" as vlizifl.><H
d^x^Xy/>—d'x'
I
where, if the Fluxion be taken, and made equal to Nothing, the required Value of x may, it is manifefl, be determined, let {e) the Excentricity of the Orbit and the Latitude of the
Place be what they will. But the Excentricity, as given from Obfervation being fmall, the greateil lengthening of Days, if the propofed Place be not very near the Frigid Zone, muil: be near the Time of the vernal Equinox, and the Value of x but fmall ; therefore, if the forefaid Expreffion be converted into a
Series,
of
e
and all the Terms wherein more than two Dimeniiqns and x are concerned, be neglected as inconiiderable, it will be
t
^60]
>^
he reduced to a aiz am e^^ J
i
— 2d* —
(^c,
</«
p f
laenx^
where,
by taking the Fluxion,
K comes out =3
flX
I— 2</^—
Note, From the Equation foregoing, the greateft lengthening of Days at Lo7idon, will be found to be about 7 Days before the vernal Equinox.
A
Determination how far a heavy Body^ f^^^fy defcending from Refl^ falls from perpendicular^ by Means of the Earth's Rotation*
PROPOSITION!.
SUppoJing
beperjeBly Spherical^ and that a heavy its Surface in any given Latitude ; to find how far it will impinge from a perpendicular^ let fall jrom that Point to the Surface, thro' the
the
to
Earth
Body defcends from a given Point above
Caife above fpecified.
Let the Axis of the Earth be confidered as abfolutely at Reft, and let E A be the perpendicular Height from whence the Body is let fall, and by the Force of Gravity and the Motion acquired by
the Earth's Rotation, begins to defcribe the elliptical Area AGFA, in the Plane of the great Circle EEC, about C the
Centre of Force, while the Point E is carry'd by the Rotation of the Earth, in in its Parallel of Latitude E tf S from E
to
(
i6i
)
towards a, let F be the Place where the Ball falls, and FS the Dilbiice of that Place from the faid Parallel ; and let the Point a be the Pofition of E, at the Time when the Body impinges on the Surface at F. Therefore, fince the Velocity acquired by the Rotation of the Earth, and the Attra61:ion at the Point will be given both in Magare both given, the EUipfis nitude and Species (by Page 23 of my Effiys) whence and E« will be given, and confequently the required Diflance Va. But when the Height is fuppofed fmall in refped: to the Earth's Radius EC, as in the Cafe propofed, the Solution maybe, otherwife, more ealily inveftigated : For then S<2 being fmall in refpedl of FS, the latter of thefe may, without fenfible Error, be taken for Ya 3 but FS is to the verfed Sine £/>, of the Arch FE, as the Tangent of the given Latitude to
A
AF
EF
AE
Radius nearly.
But
FE
is
given from the
Time of
Defcent,
whence FS
will be given alfo.
Q. E.
II.
I.
PROPOSITION
Tl?
determine the
fame
all Bodies gravitate
as in the lafi Propojition ; fuppojing perpendicularly to the Surface of the
Earth.
Let ACDR, ^c. reprefent the Earth (whether under a ipherical or an oval Figure) AB, &c. its Axis coniidered as abfolutely at reft, and ;z R the given Parallel of LatiR/> tude ; let CRS be perpendicular to
D
S the given the Surface at R, Height, or Diftance defcended, and SO the Diredion in which the Body would fall was it not for the Earth's Then, as the Attradion, Rotation. S, ads in the Diredion S O, the Body, upon its exerted at leaving S f
R
(
i62
)
leaving S, will begin, thro' that Attraction and the
ceived from the Earth's Rotation, to
that
move
in a
Motion Curve Line
reS;;,
may, v^ithout fenfible Error, be confidered as Part of an Eilipiis, formed by ihe Interfeclion of the Conical Surface CK?iDp produced, and a Plane paffing through S and O; and will continue to defcribe the fame Areas, in equal Times,
about the Point
afide
O
or C, as
it
did before
its
leaving S (fetting
what
tradlion,
arifes from the Alteration of the Centre of At&c, which is too minute here, to require a particular
Point ;;; be fo taken in the given Parallel of Latitude, that the Area of the Se6tor C S r?n C, may be equal to the Area CS;^C, then will the Point w, it is
Confideration.)
if the
Hence
evident, be the Pofition of the Place
R,
at the
time
when
the
S Body impinges on the Surface at n. Now the Height being fmall, when compared with the Diameter of the Earth, the Curve S?i may be taken as a SemiParabola, whofe Vertex is S, and R?2 as a Rightline 3 whence the Area nSK72 is found
R
= SR X
 Rn,
3
and therefore S;^i;S=SR x  R«; which
3
.
is
alfo
the Area of the Sedor rC;zi;, becaufe CSrC being equal to CS;zC, let each of thefe be taken from CSi^C, and there reTherefore will nm hQ mains rCnv equal to S ;? 'U S
:
= ^^—
A^.
nearly,
and
fo
much
will the
Body
fall eafterly
of
the Perpendicular.
in proving the
B. The two foregoing Propofitions might be of Service Motion of the Earth, by the Defcent of heavy Bodies, provided the Experiment could be made with fufficient
Accuracy.
A
(
i63
)
A Demonstration of the Laiv of Motion that a Body dcflctfed
by
two Forces tending
equal
Tif/ies
to
two fixed Points^
ivill defer ibe
thoj'e
equal SoPoints.
lids in
about the Rightline joining
Let A and B be the two propofed Points, and C any Place of the Body, and let the Diredion of its Motion, at that Place, make any given Angle with the Plane ABC, or with any Rightline drawn in that Plane j and fuppofe the Body, upon its leaving C, to be impelled by any Forces whatever, tendq ing either to the Points A and B, or to any Parts of the Line AB, and let Ci; be the Rightline, which afterwards, by its compound Motion, it will proceed to defcribe, and let the motive Force, before the Impulfe at C, be relolved into two others, one in the Direction of a Rightline lying in the Plane ACB, and the other perpendicular thereto. Then, lince the laft of thefe is not at all afFedled by the Impulfe, ading in the Plane, the perpendicular Diftance of the Body, from the Plane at the end of a given Time, will, it is manifeft, be the fame, let the greatnefs of the Impulfe be what it will, and therefore in different Times, dre6:ly as thofe Times. But ACB'u, the Solid defcribed about the Line AB, being an oblique Pyramid, is known to be as the faid perpendicular Difiance, and therefore muft likewife be as the Time Hence it appears, that v/hether the Body be, or be not impelled at the Point C, the Magnitude or Content of the Solid defcribed aboat A B, will be the fame, and proportional to the Time in which it is defcribed Therefore, feeing no iingle Impulfe, however great, can affed: the equable Defcription of Solids about AB^ it is evident, that no
:
:
Num
{
i64 r
Number
tinually to the Points
of fuch Impulfes can, nor any Forces tending conA and B. Q.. E. D.
N. B. The Proportion would have been equally true, and the Demonftration the very fame, had there been fuppofed and if inever fo many Forces tending to the fixed Line AB flead of the Solids defcribed about that whole Line, thofe de,
fcribed about any given Part of
it
had been taken.
A
centripetal Force ^
hi what Cafes a Body, aBed on by a may continually defcend in a Jpiral Line towards the Centre^ and yet never Jo far as to approach it within a certain Diftance and alfo in what Cajes it may continuj
Determination
ally afcendj
yet never rife to a certain affignable Altitude.
at the
Mr. MacLaurin^
End of
his Treatife
has found, of the Diftance inverfely, a Body may wards the Centre, and yet never fo low as to come within a certain Circle, or may recede for ever from the Centre, yet never rife to a certain Height j which remarkable Circumftance had not been taken Notice of by any preceding Authors. But the fame Thing will alfo happen in an Infinity of other Cafes. For let C be the Centre of Force, and let the Body proceed
that if the
centripetal
Force be
of Fluxions, the 5th Power as continually defcend to
any given Diredion P^, with a Velocity, which is to the Velocity v^hereby it might defcribe the Circle PBS, in the Ratio of /> to I J let R be any Point in the Trajedory 3 and
from P
in
make C^
pofed
as
perpendicular to Vq,
putting
^P=i, C^=j,
we
fhall
CR
=^x, and PBSirrrA.
Then,
{ri)
if
the centripetal Force be fup
any Power
spx
of the Diftance
have
A
=
and the Velocity of the Body
,/+3
y.
Wf^ZTTl^^'P^^'
at
R,
will be to the Velocity
whereby
it
might defcribe
a Circle
at
[ ^65 ]
at the Dlilance to I, as
is
CR,
In the Ratio of
v/^*4
A ^ "i; — ^1:7
This being pre
proved in Page 31 of
my
ElTays.
mifed,
let
x </P^\
>^
—
r x x^
— — —r— he now taken =0,
p^s^
>
and
v//''
+ 4^
_
J^i
— 4^ ='
^"^ ^^^"' ^^^ Equations
being duly ordered,
we fhall have x
= ^+"+
«{i
^^P''\
'
and/*^'
»+3
(
^£jh^x^«+'
=
/"*'^).
Wherefore, with
this
Value
of a:, as a Radius, conceive the Circle A /6H to be defcnbed, and let the Velocity at P be fuch, that />*i* (when poffible)
Tt
'
may
C
166
]
n^ay be
= i+^t^j
its
j
then
if
AC
be greater than CP,
it
and the Body upon
tinue to afcend
Circle
leaving
P begins
to afcend,
will con
AD/^H
its
:
ad infinitum^ and yet never rife fo high as the For it cannot begin to defcend before it ar
rives at
higher A/>y^, v^^hich (if it can properly be faid to will be the Value have any) v^ill be in that Circle, becaufe
AC
.
of X, when v//>^+
^ x ^^—/^i^— ^——
«+3
is
equal to Nothing
,
:.
for if it fhould, it ever rife fo high as the Circle Ah¥{ Velocity there being juffc fufficient to retain it in that Circle, it would continue to move therein, and^ot defcend again By a pain the fame manner it afcended, which is abfurd.
Nor can
its
rity
of Reafoning
it
will appear, that if
AC
be
lefs
it
than CP,.
will conti
and the Body upon
leaving
P
begins to defcend,
nue
to defcend for ever, but never fo
low
as to enter within the
Circle
AER.
the
It therefore
now
only remains to find in what
»+$
Cafes
is
forementloned Equation, p^
s^
=
2 4^+^1
^
X p^
1""1"
1
^*
T,
poflible,
and in what Cafes
it is
not.
In
order
i==^'^)
to
which,
let
the Fluxion of
^+"+^x/
and you
will;
x4
be taken, confidering />
as variable,
have^^=:^ X
^^
X
dl^l^
2
+1
I
;
which Fluxion
is
will
be pofi;
tive or negative,
according as ^^7—
pofitive or negative
be
caufe ^r"r^^P
t'+S
\
j^uft be pofitive,
elfe i*
cannot be io.
But
[
i67
]
But
X
when/
I
i
is
=
i,
^"^
will be
=.
o,
and ^Az!±].^\"'^'
~=
which
lafl is
maniftftly the greateft or leafl Value,
;
poliible,
is
of that Expreffion
that
is,
the greatefl
when
lefs
«f3
negative, becaufe then the Fluxion, while
will be pofitive,
and afterwards negative
3
than i, but the lead when
is
p
«f3
n\7
is
pofitive,
fince
then the Fluxion of ^:^^^^IA£.
:
X
^
is firft
negative and then pofitive
In the former of which
.4.1
«+3
Cafes only the Equation
^"^"+'^^'
x 7^ ==
^'^
^an be
s, by the Nature of the Problem, muft be lefs than CP. Therefore fince it appears that the than I, or C^ forementioned Circumftances can only take Place, when the Value of «f3 is negative, or the Law of centripetal Force more than the Cube of the Diftance inverfely, let m 3 be fubflituted inftead of n, in order to reduce the Equation to a Form more commodious for this Cafe 5 then we ihall have
pofTible, feeing
——
^±^JllZl\ m
it is
=AC,
and 2+^xj)—2
t"
^pz^z.^i^^^^
m
from what has been faid above, that the Root /•, let s be what it will, has two pofitive Values, one of them lefs than Unity, the other greater ; whereof the former (which gives AC greater than AP) muft be taken when the Body
evident,
afcends, but the latter
when
it
defcends,
Qc_^'
^'
An
[
i68
]
An
cajy
and general Way of
Invejiigating the
1ckiting
to Co?ntoii7id' Inter eft
common Theore?ns and Annuities^ without being
obliged to fu?n up the
Terms of a geometrical Progrejjton.
Let R be the amount of one Found in one Year, viz. Principal and Intereil, P any Sum pu" out at Intereft for any Number n of Years^ a its Amount, A ny Annuity forborn ;^ Years, m its Amount, and v its VvordTi prefent Money, for the fame
.
m
Time.
Therefore, fince one Pound put out at Intereft, in the firft Year is increafed to R, it will be as i to R, fo is R, the Sum forborn the fecond Year, to R^, the amount of one Pound in two Years ; and therefore as i to R, fo is R^, the Sum forborn the
third Year, to R^, the
amount
in three
Years
:
Whence
it
ap
pears that R",
is
or R, raifed to the
Power, whofe Exponent
of Years, will be the amount of one Pound in thofe Years But as 1 1, to its amount R", fo is P to (^) its amount in the fame Time; whence we have P x R"=^. Moreover, becaufe the amount of one Pound in n Years is R", its Increafe in that Time will be R" i ; but its Intereft for one fmgle Year, or the Annuity anfwering to that Increafe,
the
:
Number
—
is
R—1
get
we
—^_— = m.
3
therefore as
R—
i
to
R"
—
as
i,
fo
is
A iom.
Hence
Furthermore, lince
it
appears that one
Pound ready Money,
is
equivalent to R", to be received at the
Expiration of n Years,
(the
we
its
have
R"
to i,
fo
is
—
3
^
Sum
I
in Arrear) to^?,
worth in ReadyMoney
whence
.
— —
A
X
^
==
V.
From which
three Theorems, or Equations,
the various Queftions relating to CompoundIntereft, Annuities in Arrear, and purchafing of Annuities, are, refpedively,
tefolved.
FINIS.
>;iJ'
MISCELLANEOUS
TRACTS
N
Some curious, and very
1
interefting
Subjects
N
and Specula
1^
Mechanics, PhysicalAstronomy,
tive
Mathematics;
wherein.
The
Equinox, the Nutation of the Earth's Axis, and the Motion of the Moon in her Orbit, are determined.
Preceffion of the
By
Member
THOMAS SIMPSON,
And
of the
F. R. S.
Royal Academy
of Sciences
at
Stockholm.
LONDON,
Printed for J.
Nourse
overagainft KatherineJireet'm ihcStrmid.
MDCCLVIL
J
T O T H E
RIGHT HONOURABLE
THE
EARL
the
OF
&c.
MACCLESFIELD,
President of
Royal
Society.
My
Lord,
Luftre,
to the public
of Learning may derive from the Patronage of the Great, it is to your Lordfhip's perfonal Acquirements,
WHATEVER Eye, Works
and extenfive Knowledge in the Mathematical Sciences, that my Ambition of defiring leave to prefix your Name to this Performance, is to be imputed And indeed. My Lord, an Author's natural Partiality permits me not to hope, or wilh, that any thing thefe Iheets contain, will meet with a more general Approbation, than what is due to the Propri:
ety of their being infcribed to
the Earl of
ACCLESFIELD.
A
%
Were
DEDI
Were your
ATI
Character,
O My
Lord,
lefs
confpicuous and diftinguifti'd,
the Obligati
ons I have to your Lordlhip's Goodnefs, would, alone, be Motives fufficient to make me gladly embrace this Opportunity of publicly exprefling
my v/armeft
Gratitude, and
of
teftifying the perfect Efteem,
I
foundeft Deference, with which
and proam.
My
Lord,
Lordftiip's
Your
moft Obliged,
and ever Obedient
Humble
Servant
Thomas
Simplbn.
PREFACE.
n^HE Tracts,
*~
or
Papers
eompofing the
Work
here
the Fiiblick,
different occafwns ; either^
were drawn up at fenjeral^ diftant tinies^ with a view to clear iip^ or fettle fome dif
ofered to and upon
jicidt or controverted point in
Theory
conformity of with Obfervations^ or to extend a?idjacilitate the analytic
Aflronomy,
to Jhew the
by fome improvements and applications^ that have not at alU or but fight ly^ been touched upon, at leaf by any E?2g
method of computation,
lifd
Author.
ofthefe
is
The firft
whole work^
Papers, which
is
one
of the mofi
confiderable in the
concerned in determining the Preceffion of the Equinox,
and
the various inequalities thereof, with the different motions of nu'
tation of the Earth's Axis, arifing from the attraBion of the fun and moon, wherein the late important difcovery ofDv. Bradley, relating
an apparent motion of the Fix'd Stars, unknown to former K^xouomers, isjhewn to be intirely confiflent with the Theory of Gravitation. This piece was drawn up about five years ago, in confequence of another on the fame fubjeB, by M. Silvabelle (a French Gentleman)
to
—
.
then delivered to me, for my opinion, fince printed in the Philofophical Tranfadtions. Thd I have particular reafonsfor mentioning this circumftance,
I would not be thought to
to
infinuate here, that
my
opinion
had
any weight with Thofe
I have,
whom the publication ofthat paper was owing indeed, no reafofi to believe it. Thd the author thereof had gone
—
through one part ofthefubje5i with fuccefs and perfpicidty , and though
his conclufions
were found pejfedlly conformable
to
vationSj
He neverthelefs
is,
appeared (andfill appears)
Dr. Bradley'^ objerto me: to have
very
difficult
greatly failed in
part,
a very material, and indeed
the only
that
the pofition
Moon
truly
i
of of which forces,
in the determination of the momentary alteration of the earth's axis, caifed by the forces of the Sun and
the quantities,
but not the
effeSis,
are
inveftigated.
Second Paper, contains the invefligation of an eafy, and very exaSi method, or rule, for finding the place of aV\2S\tX. in its Orbit, from a correBion of Dr. Ward'i circular hypothefis; by means of certain Equations applied to the motion about the upper focus oj the ellipfis.
The
From whence that table of Dr. Halley'5, entitled. Tabula pro expediendo calculo ^quationis centri Lunse, may be very readily cofiftruBed.
PREFACE.
ftru5fed.
even in the orbit ofNitvcuvy^ may fecond of the truths without repeating the operation. be Joiind within a The Third, Jhews the manner of transferrifig the motion of a Cometfro?n a parabolic, to an elliptic Orbit j being of great uj'e, when
this method^ the refult^
— By
a (new) Comet, are found to differJenjibly from thofe computed on the hypothe/is of a parabolic orbit. The Fourth, is an attempt tojhew^ frojn mathematical principles^ the advantage arifng by taking the mean of a number oJ obfervati^ ons, in practical Aflronomy ; wherein the odds that the refult, this
the obferved Places oj
way,
more exaB, thanfrom onefmgle obfervation^ is evinced^ and Apart of the utility of the method inpraBice, clearly made to appear. ix volume ofthe Philofothis, and of the yth paper, is infertedin the xl
is
—
phical Tranfadions
j
but the farther improve?7tents here added, will (I
hope) be afufficient apologyfor my printing the whole again, in this work. The Fifth, contains the deter?ninatio?2 of certain Fluents, a?2d the
refolution
offome very ufeful Equations, in the higher orders
oj fluxions^
by means of the meafures of angles and ratios, and the right fines, and verfed fines of circular arcs. The Sixth, treats of the refolution of algebraical equations, by the
wherein the grounds of that^ tnethod, as laid down by Sir Ifaac Newton, are invefligated and explained. The Seventh, exhibits the invefiigation of a general rule for the together with refolution of Ifoperimetrical Problems of all orders^ and application of the faid rule. fome examples of the ife
method offurddivifors
,
The Eighth
neral,
(and
laft) Part,
and very
i72terefting problems, in
comprehends the refolution of fome gemechanics ^;2^ phyfical Aftro
nomys
wherein, amo7ig other particulars, the principal parts of the third, and ninth fedions of the firft Book of^ir Il'aac Newton's PrinBut what, Q\^\2i,are demonflrated, in a new, and very concife manner. apprehend, may beft recommend this part of the work, is the applicaI
—
of the general equations therein derived, to the determination of the lunar Orbit: In which I have exerted my utmoft endeavours to render the whole intelligible even to 'Thofe who have arrived but to a tolerable
tion
proficiency
in the higher geometry.
The greater part of what is here delivered on thisjubje£f,was drawn in the year 1750, agreeably to what is intimated at the conclufion of my Dod:rine of Fluxions, where the general equations are alfo given. The famous objeBion, about that time made to Sir Ifaac Newton 'j genelip
ral Law of Gravitation^ by that eminent mathematician
I
M.
Clairaut,
9f
PREFACE.
of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Par is, ivas a motive ftifficient to me (among maiiy Others) to endeavour to difcover^ whether the motion ofthe moon^s apogee, on which that objeBion had its whole weight and foundation^ coidd not be truly accountedfor without /uppofmg a change in the received law of gravitation, frotn the inverfe ratio of the fquares of the diftances. 'Thejiiccefs was anfwerahle to my hope s^ and fuch as induced me to look farther into other parts of the theory of the moons motion^ than Ifirfl intefided: but, before I had completed my defign, I received the honour of a vifit from M. Clairaut (jujl then arrived in England) of whom 1 learned, that he had a little before printed a piece on thatfubjeB a copy of which I afterwards received, as aprefent at fides his hands y wherein Ifoundmoji ofthe fame things demonfirated^ be to which I had not then extended my enquiry. Upon thisy feveral others, I at that time defijled from a farther profecution of the fubjedl being chiefly diverted therefrom by a call then fubpfling for a new edition of another worky in whichfome additions feemed wanting. But I cannot omit to obferve here, in juft ice to M. Clairaut, that, tho* he indeedfell into a mijlake, by too hajiily inferring a dejedi in the received law ofatinduce
^
,
\
f
ofthe known methodsfor determining the effeSi of that attraBion, in the motion of the moons apogee, yet he was himfelf, thefirft who difcoveredthe true Jour ce, of that mijlake, and who Though there are fome * who laced the matter in a proper light :
traBion,from the
infufficiency
have^ both before andftnce, undertaken to give the true quantity of that motion, from fuch principles, only, as are laid down in the ninth fediion of
thefirft
Book ofthe Principia but that thefe Gentlemen, however they may have made their 7iumbers to agree, have been greatly deceived in their
:
calculations,
is
very certain^ fince a conftderable part of the jaid motion
depends on that part of the folar force aBing in the dirediion perpendicular to the Radiusved:or, which is by them, either intirely difregarded, or the eff'eB thereof not made one twentieth part of what it really ought
to be.
— There are Others
indeed,
who have explained
the matter, upon
true prii2ciples, and with better fuccefs. Since M. Oi2Sx2^^\! s piece firft made its appearance, the moft eminent mathematicians, iii different parts
of Europe, have turned their thoughts that way. But thd what I now offer on thefame fubjeB, may, perhaps, appear of lefs value, after what has been already done by thefe great men, yet lam not very folicitous upon that account, as it will be founds that I have neither copied from
* Vid.WalmJlefsTJoeone dumouve?nent
Vol.
des apfides (tranflated into
Engliih)
and
47.N'' II. of the Philcfophkal TranJaSiiom,
their
PREFACE.
their thoughts^ nor detra^ed from their merit,
'fhe facility
thod
I have fallen upon^ will, Ifatter myfelf be allowed by
\x.
all,
of the mewho are
apprizd ofthe real dificulty ofthefubjeM, and the extenlivenefs thereof not only determi?ies the will^ infome meafure^ appear from this^that motion of the apogee i?i thefame manner and with tbe Jame eafe, as the other equations y but utterly excludes^ at the fame time all terms of that
.^
^
dangerous [pedes (if I may fo exprefs myfelf) that have hitherto embarraffed the greatefi Mathematicians, and that would, after a great number of revolutions^ intirely change the figure of the orbit. It thereby appears^ that all the terms ^ or equations in general^ will be exprefj'ed
by fines
and
CO fines,
barely, without
any multiplication into the arcs
is
correfponding.
From
motion,
whence this important confeque?2ce
derived,
that the
mean
and the great eft
iinlefs
quaiitities oj thefeveral equations
will remain unchanged;
dfiurbed by the intervention of fome
foreign, or accide?2tal cauje.
In treating of this fubje5i, as well as in moft of the other parts of the mfuing work, I have chiefiy adhered to the analytic method of In veftigation, as being the moft direB andextenffve^ and befi adapted to thefe
abfirufe kinds of(peculations. Where a geometrical demonftration could be introduced, andfeemedpreferable^ I have given one : but, thd a pro
blem, fometimes^ by this lafi method, acquires a degree ofperfpicuity and £lega?tce, not eafy to be arrived at any other way, yet I cannot be ofthe
opi?2ion
ofThofe who affeB to fioew a difiiketo every thing performed by means o/'fymbols and an algebraical Procefs j fince, fo far is the fynthetic vi\t\\\Qdifrom having the advantage in allcafes^ that there are innumerable enquiries into nature, as well as in abfiraBedfcience, where
it
cannot be at all applied,
it
(who perhaps extended
any purpofe. Sir Ifaac Newton himfelf as far as any man could) has even in the moft
to
fimple cafe of the lunar orbit (Princip. B.'i^.prop. 2.%) been obliged to call in the affiftance 0/" algebra; which he has alfo done^ in treating of the
motion of bodies in refifting mediums, and in various other places. it appears clear to me, that, it is by a diligent cultivation of the
And
Mo
dern Analyfis, that Foreign Mathematicians have, of late, been able to pufh their R.tik3.Ychcsf}irther,in many particulars, than Sir Ifaac Newton and his Followers here, have done: thd it mufi be allowed, on the other hand, that thefame Neatnefs, ^/^^ Accuracy of Demonftration, is
not everywhere
perhaps^ to too
found in thofe Axxihoxs ^ owing infome tneajiire, great a dfregardfor the Geometry of the Antients.
to be
I
A D
E^
A
DETERMINATION
OF THE
PRECESSION OF THE EQUINOX,
And
the different
Motions of the Earth's Axis,
Sun and Moon*
Arifing from the Attraction of the
F")^M"^HE Precession of
o
appear to ^^^^ ^ \Yh.olQ Jig72, lince the time of the moft ancient £m)§c2 A/irono7nerSj is phylically accounted for, from the attraftion of the Jun and ntoon on the protuberant matter about whereby the pofition of the faid equator the earth's equator the plane of the ecliptic is fubje6ted to a perwith refpeft to Were the earth to be perfectly fpherical and petual variation. of an uniform deniity, no change in the pofition of the terreftrial equator could be produced, from the attraftion of any remote body; becaufe the force of each particle of matter in the earth, to turn the whole earth about its center, in confequence of fuch attradion, would then be exactly counterbalanced by an equal, and contrary force. But as the earth, by reafon of
flars
,
T
Q
whereby the fix'd have changed their places by more
the Equinox,
the centrifugal force of the parts thereof, ariling from the diurnal rotation, muft, to preferve an eqidlihfium, put on an oblate figure, and rife higher about the equatoreal parts than at
the poles, the adion of the fun on the faid equatoreal parts will have an effed; to make the plane of the terreftrial equator to coincide with that of the ecliptic : which would aftually be
B
brought
Of the
PreceJfto7i
of the Equinox^
brought to pafs (negle(5tmg other caufes) was the fun, or earth, to remain fix'd in either of the fclftices, and the diurnal rotation But, though both the motions of at the fame time to ceafe. tlie earth contribute to, prevent an effed: of that fort, yet, in confequence of this adlion of the fan, a new motion of rotation, about that diameter of the equator lying in the circle of the flm's declination, is produced j from which the preceffion of the equinox and the nutation of the earth's axis have their rife. The eftedt of the moon, as it is much more confiderable than
that of the fan, fo
is it
likewife liable to
fome
inequalities to
which
that
of the fun
is
not fubjed.
Were
the inclination of
the lunar orbit to the plane of the equator to remain, always,
that anfwer'd in the one cafe
nearly the fame, like that of the eanh, the fame calculations would aifo anfwer in the other
but that inclination
condnually varying, and, when the afccnding node is in the beginning of ^nes, is greater by above and therefore, as the force of {ill part than the mean value j the moon to turn the earth about its center (other circumftances remaining the fame) is found, hereafter, to be as the fine of the double of the inclination, it is manifeil, that, in the faid pofition of the node, the motion of preceffion will go on much quicker than at the mean rate and confequently that an equation, depending on the place of the node, will neceiTarily arife. The determination of v/hich, as well as of the oiher motions of precefBon and nutation arifmg from the attraction both of the fun and moon, I fhail now proceed to fliew but in order to pave the way thereto, it will be proper to begia with premifing the fubfequent Lemmas.
is
,
:
LE
S?/ppo/ing all
jbllicited parallel to the axis
MMA
I.
the particles
of a given fpheroid A!VdpO to Be Fp, by forces proportional to the di'
by the faid axis ^ in fiich fcrt
fiances
from a plane F KOpa pajing
urged in contrary direBions
effeci
that the two cppofite femiJphcroids, A'P/>, d?p,
ecjually
;
may
thereby be
it is
propofcd to determine
its
the
whole
of all the forces
to
turn the fpheroid about
center,.
Let
and the different Motions of the EartFs Axis.
r
^
3
Fig.
i.
a=z
— ON\aa~xx)
the area
figures).
of any iedion DQNEQfrom VAOpa Then, this fedlion being alfo an ellipfe, fimilar to PA/jj, we A'C' fliall have, by the property of the eliipfis, as A'O iaa)
L
.V
J^= y =1 = ON, the
]
:
fcmidiam. area of the
OA'
(perpend, to the plane
PAO/^),
ellipfe
VhOpa,
force ad:ino; on a particle at the remotcli point A',
difc.
'
:
:
PO^
:
DN'^
:
:\he
area
FAOpa
{A)
to
DQNEQ^==:
Hence
all
it is
Ax
^^~"''"^
(by the property of fimilar
evident that
Ax
~
x
—
x 7 will be
the
fum of
the forces whereby the particles in the ellipfe
DQEQ^are
urged parallel to the axis Vp of the fpheroid; which quantity, drawn into [x) the length of the lever ON, will, confequently, exprefs the effecTt of ail the faid forces to and fo the fluent of turn the fpheroid about its center
:
A X ^^ aa
^^
X —xxxy.y. which ^
a
is
y^ x
—
15
x y (when x ^ '
=
a) ^
will truly exprefs
one half of the quantity fought.
COROLLARY.
If the mafs, or content of the fpheroid, which
is
^ x 2^ x 2
be denoted by S
\
then the force
its
A x — x 7,
whereby the
fpheroid tends to turn about
center, will be truly defined
by yS X ^ X 7, which therefore is juft yth part of what it would be, if all the particles were to ad: at the dillance of
the remoteft point A'.
LEMMA
Ka^
IL
2.
Suppofe a body to revohe in the circumference of a circle AFdF^ Fig. whlljl the circle Itfelf tiirm uniformly about one of Its diameters
as a7i axis, with a very fow motlott ; It Is propofed to determine the law of the force, aBlng on the body In a dlreSiton perpendicular to the plane of the circle, necefjary to the continuation of
a
motion thus compounded.
B
2
Let
4
Fig. 2.
Of
Let
the Precejfwn
of the Equinox
of the circle, indefinitely
AF^Fand Afafht two
poiitions
and let R and r be the two correfponding poiitions of the bodyj let alfo the planes RD;z and mdc he perpendicular to AF^F and to the axis AOa j in which planes let there be dra^vn R;z and mvc perpendicular to DR and dm^ meeting the plane Araf (produced out) in n and c ; and let tliere be drawn rw^ parallel to the tangent R/;;?, meeting mc in If the velocity of the body along the circumference be ex'u. prefled by R;?2, the velocity in the perpendicular dirediion R;?, arifing from the motion of the circle about the axis A^, will be reprefented by R;z. And, if the body were to be fuffered to purfue its own direction from the point R, it would, by the compofition of thofe motions, arrive at the oppolite angle v of the parallelogram R;/iv;z, in the fame time that it might move through R;;z by the motion R;/z alone ; and fo would fall fliort of the plane by the diflance cv It therefore appears that the required force, necelTary to keep the body in the plane, muft be fuch as is fufficient to caufe a body to move over the diftance cv in the aforefaid time and that this force muft, therefore, be to the centrifugal force of the body in the circumference (whofe meafure is ef) as co to et ; fince the fpaces defcribed in
near to each other,
"'*.
,
equal times, are diredily as the accelerating forces.
Let
its
now
,
the ratio of the angular celerity of the circle about
of the body in the circumference, be fuppofed as r to unity then, the latter of thefe celerities being reprefented by R;;z, the former will be defined by r X ^m y and confeaxis to that
quently the celerity (R/z) in the diredlion R??, by
rxR;/2X^.
DR;z and
DR
Moreover, becaufe of the
dmc^
7IIC
limilarity of the triangles
it
will be, as
R/« X
DR
I
:
R/z
(rxR?//XvTp) OFV
y.
.
DR
\
: :
d7n{jyK\sm)
^
i
•
= r X —OFDR
vTp
1,
^ r X
,
'
^ —rrr; OF
R;;2
sm —
•
:
Trnt irom whence, taking away
r
i
the value of
mv
or R«,
we ^ cv :=^rx s:et
—OF _^—
:
which
is
* The lineola rr, lying in the plane of the circle, mufl be anfv/ered by a force tending to the center of the circle j with which we have nothing to do in the prcTent confideration.
in
a7td the different
in proportion to the
Motmis of
the
EartUs Axis,
et^
5
it's
meafure of the centrifugal force
to
or
equal
angles
—
nj
as r
x sm
Rw,
2r x
or,
becaufe of the fimilar
to
tri
ORD
it is
and Rw?,
as
OD
OR. or OA.
evident that the body, to continue in the plane of the circle, mufi: be confiantly a6ted on, in a dire6tion per
Hence
pendicular to the plane, by a force varying according to the cofine of the diftance of the body from the extremity of the
AR
axis
5
whofe
greateft value, at
2.r
the circle, as
to unity.
^ COROLLARY
/.
A, £.
is
to the centrifugal force in
L
bodies or corpufcles,
If,
inflead of one, a great
number of
touch one another and thereby form a continued ring to revolve at the fame time, and to be acfled on in the fame manner (that is to fay, by forces in the ratio of the diilances from the diameter FF perpendicular to the axis A<^), it is evident that they v^^ould all continue in the fame plane. And this will alfo be the cafe, when a number of con Fig. centric rings ERG^G, &c. are fuppofed to perform their revolutions together about the common axis AE^'^?. For, alTuming /3 to denote the centrifugal force of a corpufcle in the outermoil ring AR'F^F, the centrifugal force of an equal corpufcle
fo as to
AF^F, were
3.
(R') in the ring
ERVG,
will be equal to
iG
x t^t
OF
'
whence, by
the foregoing proportions, 2r
x
/3
X jrr
will
be the force adl(3
ing perpendicular to the plane at
E
:
and 2r x
x
^
x ^^
(= 2r X
conftant,
/3
X
rr^
)
will be the true
meafure of the force ading
jG,
on a corpufcle
is
it
at
R'
;
which,
as r,
evidently as the diftance
follows, becaufe the
them from the diameter FF.
and
are all of
OA
Whence
negative, that the forces above
diftance below FF becomes and below that diameter muil
have contrary dired:ions.
COROLLARY
Whatever hath been
faid in the
IL
equally.
preceding Corollary holds
6
Of
the VreceJJto?!
of the 'Equinox^
equally, when the line or axis A^, about which the plane Is fuppofed to turn, hath a progrefhve motion, or is carried uniformly forward, parallel to itfelf ; provided the angular celerity about that axis continues the fame ^ as is evident from tlie reFig. 4.
foiution of forces.
Hence
it foilovv^s,
that,
if a circle E'ECd't^,
number of concentric be fuppofed to revolve uniformly about its center C, whilft the center itfelf and the rightline OC (which, to help the imagination, may be taken as the axis of a cone E'Of', whofe bafe is E'E^t*') move uniformly in the plane Vciph!. about die point O j I fay, it follows that the forces neceilary to keep the particles in the plane, under fuch a compound m.otion, will be the very fame as if the circle v/as to turn about the line Ee* (perpendicular to the plane Yciph^^ at reft, with an angular celerity equal to that of the center C about the point O becaufe, the angle OCE'' being always a right one, the angular celerity of the moveable circle about the line EC^ (v/hich remains everywhere parallel to itfelf) will, evidently, be equal to the angular celerity of the center of the circle about the point O. From whence and the preceding Corollary it is manifefl, that the forces v/hich, ad;ing parallel to PCO, are necefiary to retain
conlidered as compofed of an indefinite
rings,
:
the particles in the plane E'Etr, will be, everywhere, as the
diftances
diftanQe
from the diameter E'C/, or the plane Vciph!.^ of the plane Yl'Eee from the center O be what
let
it
the
will.
COROLLARY
IIL
Conceive now OAPaph^d to be an homogenous fluid, revolving uniformly about the axis PO/>, under the form of an oblate fpheroid * ; whilft the axis itfelf is fuppofed to turn
about the center O, in the manner explained above
appear, from
fluid,
:
then
it
will
what
is
there delivered, that the particles of the
to continue in eqidlibrio
parallel to the axis,
;
among
themfelves, muft be fb
licited
by
forces that are as the diftances
from the plane Ydphl
moteft point
* That the
late fpheroid
fuch, that the force
A
may be
defined by 2r/3i
ading at the where jS \by Corol.
reI.)
ef
my
particles will remain in equilibrio, under the form of an ob(v/hen the axis is at reft), is demonfiratcd in Part II. Se6l. 9. Deiirine and JppIicatioK of Fluxions.
reprefents
and
the different Motions of the
EartFs
A^cis,
7
reprefents the centrifugal force in the circumference Aa'ah! of the greatefl circle, and r the meafure of the angular motion of the axis itfelf, that of the rotation, about the axis, being
denoted by
tmity.
all
But
it
appears further,
from Lemma
\
7,
that
the efficacy of
the faid forces to turn the fpheroid about its center (making 7 here =27/3) is truly defined by 2r(^x SxOA.
of the body will remain in equilibrio among themfelves, under the two different motions above explained, when the whole force producing the mo Fig. tion of the axis, is expreiled by 2rj0 x y5 x OA. And, when the forces refped:ing the feverai particles are fuppofed to aft according to a different law, the effect produced by them will be the fame, provided their joint ejficacy^ to turn the body about its center, be the fame : iince the fame force mufl: be anfwered, or fatisfied with the fame kind and degree of motion in the whole body j if we except only, the exceeding fmall difference that will arife from the alteration of the fipure which figure will not be accurately a fpheroid, in this cafe, but nearly fuch, as the motion of the axis and, confequently, the forces producing it, are fuppofed very fmall. Neither will the axis continue to move in the fame plane, when the direction of the the motion proforces is not everywhere parallel to the axis in the body being always about that diameter (A^) duced wherein the whole perturbating force may be conceived to acfb, as by a lever, to turn the body about its center. Laflly, it may be obferved here, that the time of revolution about the axis will not, in this cafe, continue accurately the fam.e ; fince a change of the figure mufi: neceffarily be attended with a change in the time of revolution. But this change of motion about the axis, when we regard the effeft of the perturbating forces of the fun and moon upon the earth, is fo extremely fmall, as to be quite inconfiderable, even in comparifon of the very flow motion of the axis above fpoken of.
it is
Whence
plain, that all the particles
4.
;
;
LEMMA
GG
III.
Suppofiig all the particles of a given ellipfe MFN//f? he urged by coinciding with a given diameter from a rightline
MN,
forces.
8
Of
the PreceJftGJt of the Equinox^
forces proportional to the difances from the aid line^ fuch that the force acting at a give?2 difiance a^ may be expreffed by a give?!
quantity
forces,
f
y
j
it is
required
ellipfe
to
find the whole
its
efiicacy
of
all thefc
.
to
turn the
about
center
O.
be fuppofed parallel to GG^ interfedling OT, perpenthen the force with which a particle, at ; any place V in that line, is urged in the diredion w\ parallel
If
BC
dicular thereto, in
D
to
OD,
will
it's
be expreffed by
— x Vic;,
or
— x OD
^
and concenter by
fequently
a
efficacy to turn the ellipfe about
its
 X OD X Ow,
or
2
a
X OD x DV.
of a particle
:
Let there be taken
at
Qv ==:
DV
ig. 5.
;
and the
efficacy
v
will,
in like
manner,
be had equal to ^
former
 X OD x D"j a
V,
gives
which, added to that of the
Therefore, feeing
particle at
— x OD x DC.
the joint adllon of any two particles in DC, equally diflant from the middle one I, is expreffed by the fame quantity
— X OD X DC,
of the
particles;
tlie
efficacy
of
all
the particles muft confe
quently be equal to that quantity drawn into half the
number
and
fo
is
truly
expounded by
all
— x^ODxDC".
By
the fame argument, the force of
to turn the ellipfe about
its
the particles in the line the contrary way, will
BD
be
center,
— xODxED'.
—
a
Therefore the difference of thefe two
values,
X 4OD x BD^
— CD%
is
the
whole
force of all the
particles in the
(downwards) meter to
"
3
MN
line BC, to turn the ellipfe about its center which expreffion, if Yf the conjugate diabe drawn, bifedting BC in E, will become
^xiODxBD + CDxBD — CD a
Put, now,
= ^ x OD x BC x DE.
a
OFr=^,
OH =g\
noted by
OM = FH (perpendicular to MN) =/,
d,
,v
and let OE and OD, confidered as variable, be deand j, refpe^ftively. Then, by the property of
the
and
the
the differmt Motions
it
of the Earth'' s Axis,
:
cllipfis,
will be, cc
:
dd
:
:
cc^xx
.
BEl^= ^^^~;
and confequently
gles) c '.f',\
BC
= —— —
\
Alfo {fy ftmilar trian;
X .y^z^
and
c
\
g w x
DE = ^.
Hence
our expreffion
ino;
 x OD
x
DE x BC,
derived above, by fubflitutcc
thefc values,
becomes  X ^~ X
fore the
whole
fluent of
— x —^ X cc
— xi^ x — xxWxxy,
of
x""
:
and there
or of its equal
all
— X —{^ X cc
fluent, let
or,
— xxY xx^x^,
will be the force
the parti
cles in the femiellipfe
A
is
MFN. In order to the finding of this be taken to denote the area of the femiellipfe,
~xcc
c
which
the fame, the fluent of
fluent
—
xA"^
x '—
c
a:''
;
then,
by comparifon, the whole
of
c''
— x^<: — xx\''x
:
x^, when
xz=:Cy will be found to be
expreflion,
^x
whence
mufl:
that of our given
— x ^^ X
=
^
X ^' X ^f ^
— xxCxx^ confequently A = ^ X ^fgA = ^ X ^FH X OH X ^
<:t
x^,
be
the
5
double of which, or
— x ^FHxOHx^^r^^MFN/M,
center.
is
thereellipfe
fore the true meafure of the
tends to
move about
^ COROLLARY
its
whole force whereby the E. /.
L
If the fame value be required by means of the angle included between the diameter and the principal axis AO^ (fuppofed to be given) ; then let PO/> and be drawn perproduced, in pendicular to OA, and TF to OT, meeting
MN
AOM
and let Fig. fuppofe L to be the interfedion ; (to the rathe iine and coflne of the faid given angle Becaufe FL is dius I ) be denoted by m and n^ reipedtively. perpendicular to the tangent TQ, we have, by the property of the C
Q^
FR OA of AO and FH
6.
AOM
10
the
ellipfis,
:
Of
as
the Precejfwn
of the Equinox^
:
:
AO"^
But,
and,
:
AO'— OP^
I
:
OR OL
:
:
(AO^)
OLxOQ;
and confequently
72
:
:
AO'— OP*
:
I
:
m
\
:
whence, by compolition,
:
FH X OH = mn x AO*— OP^
v^^e
OL OH OQj OT (FH) jnn OL x OQ(= AO* — OP*)
;
'.'.
\ : :
= OLxOQ.
:
OR
x
OQ
and
fo,
by
fubftituting this
the ellipfe^
value above,
get
— x — x AO^
— OP* X area of
IL
for another expreffion of the required force.
COROLLARY
Hence may be
roid, generated
eafily deduced the force by which the Ipheby the rotation of the ellipfe about its lel5er axe
its
Vp, tends to turn about
center,
when
all
the particles are
urged from a plane
GG paffing through the
it,
center,
by
forces
proportional to the diilances from the faid plane. fedion of the Ipheroid, parallel to the middle one
For, as any
hpa?,
is
alfo
an
as
ellipfe,
fimilar to
the area of that fedion will be in pro
portion to
greater
the fquare of
OA be
fe6tion
aa
:
aa
—
—
denote by ^) its greater femiaxe, to the fquare of the femiaxe of the given ellipfe VApa fo that, if denoted by a, PO by ^, and the diflance of the faid from the center of the ipheroid by u, we ihall have, mi (^= fq. greater femiaxis of that fedion, by the
the area of
1 fhall
ApaV (which
OA
:
property of the circle)
tion.
:
:
^: ^x
^^"""
^
the area of the fec
Moreover, by reafon of the iimilar figures,
we have
da
:
aa
^i?
:
:
aa— iiu
:
^—^— y.aa
aa
—
ilu\,
the difference of
the fquares of the greater and lefTer femiaxes of the fedionc Therefore, by fubftituting thefe values in the above general
expreffion,
^
we
get
^
^
a
x
^
4.
x ^1=1^ x '^^^^m x
aa
I
^ x ^^^^
aa
axis
{=lx '^ X "i^=^ X ^x ±Zj£^Lt^ ^^ a aa aa
4^
for the force of all the
^
particles in that fedion to turn the
body about the common
of motion landing at rightangles to the plane PA/^/^. This quantity, drawn into ii^ will, therefore, be the fluxion of force of the
femi^
and
the different Motions
of the Earth's Axis.
iy
j
1 1
femifpheroid in which that feftion "'^~
will be
of, or
whofe fluent, when u=zay
:
= —x—x x Ox ~ the double where^— 4 — X mn aa — bbx ^^, muft confequently be the
found
in
aa
15
y,
re
quired force of the whole fpheroid
:
which
force,
as
Q^ —
is
known
alio
to exprefs the content, or mafs of the fpheroid, will
be truly defined by
— x — X ^^
—
^<^
X
S
;
S being put
(as
in the preceding
Lemmas)
to reprefent
the faid content or
mafs.
PROBLEM
71?
L
corpufcle^
it's
determine the
efficacy
of
the
funs attraBion^ on a
to
any where in the body of the earth,
center.
turn the earth about
Let CDHE reprefent the earth, C the center thereof, S that of the fun, and GCG a plane perpendicular to the line CS joining the centers of the earth and fun let D be the place of the corpufcle, and upon the diagonal SD let the parallelogram QCSD be conflituted ; producing to meet GCG in K.
,
Fig. 7.
QD
If
F be taken
to denote the fun's abfolute force
at
on a
particle
at the center
C, his force on a particle
D will be F x ^;
which may be
redtion
its
DC
;
center)
refolved into two others, the one in the di(which has no effed: at all to turn the earth about and the other in the dire6:ion DQ, expreffed by
""^"^
PXqY5T^"S§'*
which the
force
jP,
in the parallel di
redlion CS, being deducted, the remainder
Fx
— —
ny^^
will
be the true meafure of that part of the force in the diredion tends to change its pofition DQ, whereby the particle at refpedl to the plane GCG. with But this value is reducible
D
to
F X ^^^° sWscTsD
"^
+s!y
.
^y^j,_ ^3
is
sc_SD
DK,
i^y reafon of the great diflance of the fun) C 2
nearly equal to
J
3
Of
DK,
will
the Precejfwn of the
Equinox^
become
=
Fx
will
;^r
its
—=
center.
S^^'sc*
^^^^^7'
which, drawn into
CK,
be as the required efficacy of
that force to turn the
body about
^E.
I.
COROLLARY
^A=:
a
I
L
earth.
If there be taken
i
7"
]
t ^=.
/3
= the iemiequatoreal diameter of the = the time of the annual and the time of the the equa= of
revolution,
(SC) the diftance of the fun and earth,
diurnal revolution,
a particle at
the centrifugal force
tor,
arifing
:
from the diurnal revolution
then,
fmce
:
^
iS
;
: :
/B
F, or
F= 4^ (by the known laws
DK Z^^Tr^ w'l^ GCG, will alfo be
and that the
of central forces)
it
is
evident that the force
which
a particle at
D tends
x ~^ X
from the plane
.
truly defined
by
—
i9
Hence
of the
it
appears that the faid
;
force
is
directly as the diftance
at the diftance
from the plane
earth's
value thereof,
femiequatoreal
diameter,
is
truly defined
by
x i=;
being in proportion to the
centrifugal force at the equator, arifing
from the
diurnal rota
tion, as thrice the fquare of the time of the diurnal revoluti
on, to once the fquare of the time of the annual revolution.
COROLLARY
Fig. y.
IL
fuppofing
to repre
Moreover, from hence the perturbating force of the moon,
or any other planet, will be given
fent the planet, as
its
it's
:
for,
aS
abfolute force (F) at the center C, will be
quantity of matter, applied to the fquare of the diftance
SC

:
and
fo
our general exprcfiion
DK 3FX7^
will here
become
—r^;
which, becaufc the quantities of matter in bodies
of the fame denfity, are as the cubes of their femidiameters, to remain the fame) will alfo fuppofing the pofition of be
j(
D
and
be
as the
the different Motioju
of the Earth's Axis,
1
cube of the femidlameter of the planet diredlly, and its diftance SC, inverlly or, which is the fame, as the cube of the fine of the apparent f^midiameter diredly, and the cube of the radius inverfly. Hence it is manifeft, that the perturbating forces of planets, of the fame denfity, are in proportion dire(flly as the cubes of the fines of their apparent femidiameters, or as the cubes of the femidiameters, themfelves, very near. Therefore the fun and moon, appearing under equal femidiameters, have their perturbating forces in the fame ratio with their denfities.
the cube of
;
PROBLEM
ariftfig
II.
To determine the change of the pojition oj the terrefirial equator^ from the aBion of the fun on the whole mafs of the earthy
during any very fmall interval of time.
be the earth, under the form of an oblate be the plane of its equator, and HICL a plane pafTing through S the center of the fun, and making rightangles with the plane of the meridian HAPC^.
fpheroid
;
Let
OA?ap
let
Fig, ^.
AI^L
It
appears, by Corol.
particle
I.
to
Prop.
I.
that the relative force
of matter, any where in the earth, tends, through the adion of the fun, to recede from the plane GG,
perpendicular to
whereby a
HICL,
is dirc<5lly
as the diflance
from the by
faid
plane
,
and that the
faid force, at the diflance {a)
is
of the femi/Q
cquatoreal diameter
It
from the plane,
truly defined
x
—
appears moreover,
from
Corol. 11. to
Lem.
III.
that a fphe
roid, ad:ed on in this manner, tends, through the joint force of all the particles, to turn about its center with a force ex
prefled
by
y — X mn ~x~
«
x —— —
aa
bb
xS
is
,
y being
the force whercAvith a
5
particle, at
the diflance ^,
i3
urged from the plane
i3
GG. ThereS,
fore,
expounding y by
x ^, we have
x . x !!^f^ x
for the true
tends to turn about
meafure of the force whereby the whole earth its center^ through the fun's attradion.
But
1 4
Of
Bat
roid
it
the Precejfwn of the
to
Equinox^
II. that,
if
is
proved, in CoroL III.
revolving about
its
hem.
a fphe
OAVdp
b}^
axis P/»,
be
at the
fame time
afted on
forces tending to generate a
it
angles to the former,
will,
new motion, at right confequence of fuch a6tion, in
have another motion, about the line Aa ^ whereof the celerity will be in proportion to that of the former motion about the axis (P/>), as r to i ; the whole force with which the fpheroid tends to turn about its center, v/hereby this motion is produced, being exprelTed by 2r(^ xSxa. Let this force, therefore, be made equal to that found above, by which the earth tends to turn about its center by which means we have
:
i!:i
== 1^ X ^?^i2ii^H^
yy
5&
J
and therefore r
5
= iTT HHJi^flR, ^^x
aa
Pj),
From whence
appears that the earth, in confequence of the fun's attradiion, has a motion about the line ha (lying in the plane of the fun's declination) whereof the celerity will be in
it
proportion to that of the diurnal motion about the axis
_rr
as
2T r
X
^  ^
^
— H— aa
and
to imity ^
:
where
/
and
T
exprefs the re^
fpeftive times of the diurnal,
the greateft,
leail
femidiameters of the earth, and
n the fines of the fun's
and annual revolutions, a and b 7n and declination and polar dif^ance.
PROBLEM
I'd
IIL
the earth's axis^ caufed by the fun,
determine the precejjlon of the equinox^ and the mitatio7i of during any very fmall interval of time ; 072 the fuppoftion of an uniform denfity of all the parts of
the earth.
Fig. 9.
Let t2;D<7^ be the ecliptic, on the furface of the fphere ; and let j^AC^y be the pofition of the equator, when S is the fun's place in the ecliptic, and SA his declination.
It is evident,
from the
laft
proportion, that the angle
j£i;
A/2,
or
^Ab,
defcribed by the equator about the point
A,
is
in
any
very fmall time t\ by means of the fun's attrad:ion,
portion to
f
in pro
— X 360")
the angle defcribed in the fame time, by
means
and
the differe?it
Motmis of
as
the Earth'' s Axis,
"^
1
means of the diuraal motion,
nity
;
^ x ^" ^ aa iTT
by 360° x
is
to
u
and therefore
is
truly defined
^ x ^l^ifiz^, ill
aa
or
I^X/^w;?; 36o''x—
to
fuppofing ^~— (for
k.
the fake of bre(p. fpherics)
as
vity)
be denoted by
tf
But
it
will
be
:
fine
s23
of
:
(or J23)
:
fin.
£:A
(:: fin. \C:^Aa
i/;^^
fm.
A<^
ii::^
= 360° X —^ X
oD
^a)
:
:
angle
X •'^^^>
the quantity of
the preceffion required.
and ac be taken as arcs of 90 degrees each j fo that T>c may be the meafure of the angle a ; we (hall alfo fin. AC (cofin. £3A) have (/>. fpherics) as Rad. fin. CKc
Again,
if
: :
:
i^Aa)
:
fin.Cc
::
angle
r^A^ C«;=36o°x^Xy^,^;^x^i^,
:
the required nutation, or the decreafe of the inclination of the E. L equator to the ecliptic.
^ COROLLARY.
:
1£
(:
:
de
fin. tCs
be made perpendicular to aAy it will be, A fin. CA) tang. £3 A : Radius
:
as
^^ Cc
:
:
alfo, iC^a
:
^e
::
Rad.
:
iin.a:
whence, by compoundi£^<2
:
ing
fin.
thefe
<^.
proportions,
it
we
have
Cc
:
:
tang.
i^A
:
From which
appears, that the quantity of the pre
any very fmall time, is to that of the nutation correfponding, as the tangent of the fan's right afcenfion to the fine of the inclination of the equator to the ecliptic.
eefiion, for
P
To determine
earth's axis,
ROBLE
M
IV.
the precejjion of the equijiox^
and the
nutation of the
caufed by the fun, from the time of his appearing in the equtnoBial point, to his arrival at any given diflance therefrom^
Every thing being fuppofed as in the preceding Problem, put the fine of the angle £3 :^=j^, its cofine =^, the arch ^'^=i%y
Fig= 9,
i6
its
^vcit
Of
the PreceffioJi of the Equinox^
its
=
AT,
cofine
=
y,
and the length of the femiit
periphery
^'D^z^e:
then, p. fphericiy
will be, cofin.
ASxcofin.iivA {—yxRad.)
px
^y,
and
fin.
AS i=£j)
=
whence, by multiplying thefe two equations together, wc : have fin. AS x cofin. AS x cofin. aA(z=zm?7X cofin. £: A) zr= pxy : and fo, by fubflituting this value for its equal, our expreffion for the nutation, during the time / (given by the
lall
Problem)
will here
be reduced to 360°
x
^ X kpxy.
is
But the time wherein the
fun's longitude t2;S
;
augmented
in
by the
particle
z
will be
Tx—
which being wrote
the
room of /, we thence have 360° x ~ X
fubftituting
— X xyz
:
and
this,
by
v/ 1
—
xXy
and V ixx
,
inftead of their equals
y
and z, will be farther transformed
760° to ^
xA^X— ^ xx. 47
e
Whole
tity
fluent,
36o®x~?^x^—
,
is
confcquently the true quan
of the nutation that was to be determined.
Again, with regard to the precefiion of the equinox, the increafe thereof (l?y the Corol. to the precedent) being in proportion to the corresponding decrement of the inclination of the to the fine of t^j, equator to the ecliptic, as the tangent of i^i;
A
or, in fpecies, as
^^

to /,
it
therefore appears (by multi
plying the fluxion of the nutation by
JLxhx —r^—
4.T
e
^i
—
xx
— p^
I.
^
)
that 360°
x
I
XXJ
will be the fluxion of the quantity 1 J
under con
fideration
is
;
whofe
fluent,
which
itfelf.
is
'J
*^
60° x 4^ x 4I
— x ^^——^— 2
/
therefore the preceflion
^E.
COROL.
and
the different Motions
of the EartUs Axis,
1
COROLLARY
X being =
L
point
When
the fun arrives at the
I,
folftitial
D, the value of
precefli
and that Qiz=. \e^ the quantity of the
on becomes
barely equal to 360°
will
x 4^ x ^
;
whofe quadruple,
36o°x~X%
be the whole of the annual preceffion,
depending on the fun ; which, in numbers (by making /=r i, cofine of 23° 2 8^', a z=^ 231, 366^, q =: .91723
T=
^
it
=
)
= 270,
and k
(= flU
= —) comes out
2
^!'
i"
.
But
will appear
from what follows
hereafter, that this quantity,
derived on the hypothefis of an uniform denfity of all the parts of the earth, ought to be reduced to about 1 4^ ', to agree
with obfervations.
COROLLARY
found to be 360° x
^
:
II.
is
Since the preceflion during ^th of the annual revolution
4^ x?, we 4I 4
the
:
have
as \e
:
z
,'.
360°
x 4T x
—
(360°
X 4^ X — X 2;)
mean
preceffion during the time
of defcribing the arch
preceffion,
which being taken from the true
36o°x4^X — X^
— xs/ — xx,
i
the remainder,
360° X ^ X
tion
—X
x\/i
;
— XX
which
',
will confequently
be the equa
of the preceffion
is,
ceffion, as
that
as
—
— x\/ — XX
1
therefore
z,
or as
— 2x\/i — xx
— (or rather
1
is
to the
mean
:
pre2Z',
fin.
2z
:
2z.
But the mean
is
preceffion, in the
time of defcribing the arch z,
by CoroL
I.
2 1'' j"'x
41''x )
Therefore the equation correfponding will be
fin. 22;
;
2,1" n'"
— X
as
it
r=
—
i''42"'
X fin.
2z, v^hen the denfity
is
taken
uniform
will
but when taken to correfpcnd with the obferfine
vation,
be
— l^ x
2z=:
—
i"i o" x fine 2z.
Hence
it
D
1
Of the
it
Precejffion
of the Equinox^
(when
appears, that the greateft equation of the prcceflion
is
mid way between the equinox and foiftice) is i"io'"; and that the general equation (which is fubtradive in the firft and third quadrants of the ecliptic) will be in proportion to the faid greateft equation, as the fine of twice the fun's diilance from the equinodlial point is to the radius.
the fun
in the
COROLLARY
fally,
IIL
is,
Furthermore, becaufe the quantity of the nutation
equal to 360° x4^
unlver
x ^9
it
will therefore be the greateft
pofiible,
fible
:
when
it
the fun
it
is
in the foiftice
and x
is
the
greatefi:
pof»
after
which
will dccreafe, according to the
j
fame law
whereby
other
is
before increafed
'till,
on the
fun's arrival at the
equino(fl:ial point, it intirely vanifhes, and the inclination thereby reftored to its firft quantity. It is alio evident that the quantity of the nutation will, in all circumftances, be in proportion to the preceflion, during ^th of the fun's revolution,
as
—
e
to ^, or as
1
^
q
to
— ^
,
that
is,
as the ^ product
under the
fquare of the fine of the fun's longitude and the tangent of the
two planes of the equator and According the length of an arch of 90 degrees.
inclination of the
ecliptic^
is
to
portion (taking the faid preceffion
=
to
which prothe
greatefi:
'th of
14^)
nutation comes out ontfecond, very near 5 the inclination of the two planes decreafing from the time of the fun's leaving the
equinodlial points, to his arrival at the folftices,
nodlial points.
It
and that
in the
duplicate ratio of the fine of his difi:ance firom the faid equi
may be obferved that, in order to avoid trouble, the quantities p and q are taken as conjiant j the error, or difference thence
arijingfcarcely amounting to r^^^^th part of the whole value..
SCHOLIUM.
Sir
Isaac Newton,
in finding the preceflion
of the equi
nox, confiders the protuberant matter about the earth's equator,, as a ring of moons, revolving uniformly round the center of the
and
the different Motions
of the Earth's Axis.
1
9
the earth in 24 hours ; and by virtue of that aflumption, from the motion of the lunar nodes, before determined, he infers the motion of the nodes of the faid ring, and from thence the
We have proceeded upon other and by a very different method ^ and it may be worth v^^hile to remark here, that, as the preceffion of the equinox is deducible from the motion of the nodes of a fatellite, fb, on the contrary, the motion of the nodes of a fatellite may be very eafily deduced, as a Corollary, from our general formula^ for the preceflion of the equinox.
preceflion of the equinox.
principles,
Thus
if
that the figure
the value of b be fuppofed indefinitely fmall (fo of the earth, or fpheroid, may be conceived as
flat as poflible) v^^e fhall
have ^
(:rr
ffJUj =.
\ j
and the ex7,
preffion in Corol.
I.
will then
become 360" x ^ X
exhibit
ing the motion of the node of a ring, or of a number of concentric rings, during the time (T) of one whole revolution of the body about the fun (vid. Corol. I. to Lent. II.) But it will alfo appear, from the articles here referred to, that the place of a 4tellite, moving in a circular orbit, will always be found
in
a
ring or plane revolving in the
360''
manner there
Ipecified.
Hence
x —? X 5' v^rill like wife exprefs the motion of the node
of a fingle moon, or fatellite, in the time (T) of one whole revolution of the primary planet: which value, when the inclination
to the ecliptic
is
but fmall, will be equal to 360° x 4^, nearly.
Hefice the
bify is
mean motion of
in proportion to the
a fatellite^ in a circular or^ mean motion of the primary planet about
the node of
periodic time of the primary planet.
let
thefuny as ^ths of the periodic time of the fatellitey is to the whole It follows moreover, that,
a planet have ever fo many fatellites, the mean motions ef the nodes of them all will be in proportiony direBly as the times of revolution of the fatellites themfelvesy and, confequently, the periodic times of the nodes, inverfly, as the periodic times of the refpeBive
fatellites,
D
2
The
20
Of
the Precejfion
of the Equinox^
The proportions ufed by Sir Isaac Newton, in inferring the preceiTion of the equinox from the motion of the lunar node, agree exadtly with thofe above determined; it may, therefore, feem the more ftrange that there fliould be fo wide a difference between the conclufion derived, in Corol. I. of the
Problem, and that brought out by that celebrated Author who makes the quantity of the annual preceffion, depending on the fun, to be no more than g" j'" 20''': which is not the But to give the Reader half of what it is here found to be. particular, and to difcover the what fatisfadion I can in this error (if any fuch £hould have crept into my calculations) I in order fhall now attempt the folution by a different method premifc the two following to which it will be requilite to
laft
:
Lem?nas.
LEMMA
in the circumference
IV.
of a given circle diameters IL, as an axis,
;
If every particle
AloL
tends to turn the circle about one of its
by a force proportional to the fquare of the difiance therejrom
is
it
circle
If,
propofed to find the whole force of about that diameter.
all the particles ,
to
turn the
EH
Fig. 10.
from any point E in the circumference, there be drawn perpendicular to the given diameter IL, the force of a particle at E will, by hypothefisy be defined by EH^ ; which quantity, drawn into (E;«) the fluxion of the arch IE, will
therefore be the fluxion of the quantity to be determined.
E;«, becaufe of
to
But
the fimilar triangles Ez««,
2^^. EH
and
is
But
EH X E«
EOH, will be equal therefore the fluxion fought=OAxEHxEw. ° whence it is the fluxion of the area IHE
:
evident, that the force
the particles in the whole cirx area of the circle, or cumference, will be truly defined by
of
all
OA
OA X OA X the femicircumference, or OA'x ~ the number ofparticks,
^ £.
/.
COROLLARY.
A
is
Since the force of a pardcle at
expreffed by
OA*,
it
fol
lows that the force of all the particles in the whole circumference will be equal to half the force of an equal number of particles adling at the difl:ance of the highefl: point A.
LEMMA
and
the cliffere?2t
Motmis of
the
EartFs Axis.
21
LEMMA
To determine
the
V.
AVaOpy
angidar
mome?2twn of rotation of a given fpheroid revohiftg uniformly about its axis P/>, with a given
celerity.
be an ordinate to the generating ellipfis AVap^ of rotation Vp : make (perpendicular toP/>) ^j OF(=:Op)=bi ON=:^; EN=^j and let p denote the femiperiphery of the circle whofe radius is unity.
parallel to the axis
Let
ENF
=
AO
2px, the periphery of the FiV. n, N. Therefore 2px x 2y will be the meafure of the furface generated by the ordinate EF, in the revolution of the ellipfis about its axis Fp : which, drawn into
it
Then
will be, as
i
:
2/
:
:
;v
:
circle generated
by the
point
the fquare of the diftance
ON,
gives 4pyx^ for the
momentum
:
of rotation of all the particles in the faid furface fo that the fluent of ^pyx^x will be the true meafure of the force to be determined.
—
Now, by the
property of the
ellipfis,
we have x" =z — x bb~yy ;
by
fubftituting
and confequently xx
=
"^^^^^
*•
whence,
equal
~ X Fyy —
y'^'y
in the
room of
its
—
x'^x,
our fluxion
is
transformed to
is
—j—xbYy
—
y'^y
whofe
fluent,
when y =z
b,
found equal to ^^.
Since
i^
COROLLARY.
is
known
to exprefs the
mafs or content of the
fpheroid, the
its
axis appears, therefore, to
fths
if
highefl:
of rotation of any fpheroid about be jufl: the fame as would arife, of the whole mafs was to revolve at the difl:ance of the point (A) from the axis of motion.
momentum
V. To determine the alteration of the pojition of the terreflrial equator^ arifmgfrom the aBion of the fun on the whole mafs of the
earthy during
PROBLEM
an infant of time.
Let
22
Fig. 12.
Of
Let
j
the Precejfwn
of the Equinox^
be the earth, under the form of an oblate fphethe plane of its equator, and HICL a plane thro* S the center of the fun, making rightangles with paffing the plane of the meridian HAPC/> and with the plane GG. It is found, 171 Prob. I. that the force whereby a particle, at any point E in the equator AEL^I, tends from the plane GG, is in proportion to that refped;ing the higheil point A, as the diroid
let
OAP^/
AI^L be
ftance
EF
to the diftance
AK,
or as
;
ED
to
AO
(fuppofing
EF
parallel to
AK, and
ED to AO)
whence
it is
evident that the
force on the particle at E, in a diredion perpendicular to the
plane of the equator, muft be to the force on a particle at A, to AO, that in the like diredion, in the very fame ratio of to the radius. is, in the ratio of the coline of the arch
ED AE
But
this,
by CoroL I.
Lem.
11.
appears to be the law of the
forces under which a ring of
particles
AEL^I, detached from
may continue in equilibrio^ in the fame plane, under a twofold motion about the center O, and about the line Aa as
the earth,
an
axis.
Imagine now this ring to be exceeding denfe, fo that its momentum of rotation about its center O, may be equal to that of the earth itfelf, or fo that the two bodies may equally endeavour to perfevere in the fame flate and diredion of motion, in oppolition to any new force impreffed. Then it is evident, that, were the forces whereby the two bodies tend to turn about the line LI, through the fun s attradion, to be alfo equal, the fame effed, or alteration of motion, would be produced in both ; and confequently, that the effeds produced, when the forces applied are unequal, will be in proportion diredly as the forces. Now the force whereby a particle at A is urged from
the plane
rol.
GG,
is
found to be
fiXr^x
^
(by Prop.
L
Co
I.)
',
which,
in a diredion perpendicular to the plane
/3
of the
equator or ring, will be
x
^ ^aO^AO^^^tT^^'^*
at
Therefore, the force ading on a particle
redion,
E, in a
like di
being
expreffed
by
jS
x J^ X ^/z X tq,
IL
the effed
thereof to turn the ring about the line
will be expreffed
by
and the
by
/3
different Motions
;
of the Earth's Axis,
as the fquare
23
di
X 7~; X mn x j^
which being
of the
ED, it follows (from the Corol. to Lem.lV.) that, if Mbe taken to denote the mafs of the ring, the whole force by which the ring tends to move about the line LI, as an axe, through the a6lion of the fun on all the particles, will be truly defined
fiance
by
iS
X Y^ X mna x ~M.
on a
Again,
becaufe
/3
x ^^ X ^«
is
the
force a(5ting
particle at
A,
in a direction perpendicular to
the plane of the ring,
it is
evident,
from
Corol. I. to
Lem. IL
that the ring will, in confequence of that force, have a motion
about the line ha as an axe ; whofe celerity will be to the celerity of the other motion about the center, in the proportion
of r to
ing
I,
or of
^^ x w«
to
i 3
becaufe,
/S
x t—^ x mn be
=
/S
X 2r, r
will here
be
= ~^l x mn.
of the ring)
:
Therefore, if
N
be afTumed to denote the
its
/9
fun's force to turn the earth
the above obfervation) have,
about
center,
wc
fhall
(from
X lY^ X mna x ^M (the force
:
N
: :
^=y.mn
(the
motion of the ring)
earth
itfelf,
—rr
=
the required motion of the
about the fame line Ka.
by the Corol. to Lem. V. that the mafs
But it appears,
(M) of the
^; which.
ring (to have an equal
momentum) muft
be juft jths of the mafs
(S ) ofthe earth : theref. our laft expreffion is equal to
by
fubftituting
iS
x ;JS; X ^^^^
X S,
.
in the
room of its equal
N,
was
at laft
becomes
^^ x
^"^^^—
being exaBly the fame as
before found in Prop. II.
The
afcertaining of
only real difficulty in the fubjed:; fince, that every thing that follows after is purely mathematical ; nothing more being required than to take the fum, or fluent of thofe
inftantaneous alterations, in order to have the
for
which is the being once known,
whole alteration, any finite time propofed ; as is aftually done in Prop. IV. which therefore it will be needlefs to repeat.
S
C
H O
24
From
Of
the PreceJJion of the Equinox^
SCHOLIUM.
Fi<T. 12.
this lafl
method
it
will not
be very
difficult to deter
mine what the
refult
ought to be, when the
is
denfity, inftead
of
being everywhcre the fame,
fuppofed to increafe or decreafe the furface to the center, according to a given law. For, from let Ny as above, be taken to denote the force whereby the earth tends to turn about its center, by the adjon of the fun (the determination of which will be given byandby) j and let My alfo as before, exprefs the quantity of matter in an exceeding denfe ring, at the equator, having the fame time of revolution, and momentum of rotation with the earth itlelf ; then it will appear, from the lafl Problem, that, let the figure and denfity of the earth be what they will, the celerity of the angular motion about the aforefaid line A^, will be to that about
y
o
the axis, in the ratio of
—^rr
to
i.
Now,
if
the
momentum
of the earth about its axis (which I fhall denote by i?) be computed (by taking the fum of the produds of all the particles by the fquares of their, refpe6tive, diftances from the axis) the will be known ; becaufe the momentum of the ring value of (by the fame rule) being z=iMxay we have
M
Mx^*=R;
A^, and
and confequently
between the
— = 4^
rr
J
^o that, the general proportion
line
celerities
of the two motions y about the
the
axe Ypy will be that
f ^^^ unity.
and i?, accordBut now, in order to find thefe values of hypothefis of denfity, we mufi: look back to the third ing to any and fifth Lemmas, from the latter of which it appears, that the
value of the
N
be truly
ter,
momentum (i?), when the denfity is uniform, will a being the femiequatoreal diamedefined by ^^
;
and b the femiaxis of the fpheroid, and p the meafure of the periphery of the circle whofe radius is unity.
Now
let
us fuppofe the fpheroid, inftead of being every
where of the fame denfity, to be compofed of elliptical Jlrata y whofe denfities vary according to any given law of the diftances
oUnoh frata from
the center of the fpheroid.
Then,
and
(Iratum,
the different Motto7ts of the Earth's Axis.
25
Then, putting z =. the femicquatoreal diameter of any fuch and fuppofing the correfponding femiaxis to be in pro
portion thereto, as
w
to
i
(whicli proportion
may
be aiTumed,
in the
either, as conftant or variable),
we
fliall,
by writing z
room of
a.
and
wz
in the
room of
b^
have
— x wz^
;
5
whofc
be the whereof the femiequatoreal momentum of the ftratum or fhell, diameter is 2;, and thicknefs (at that diameter) z on the former fuppofition, that the fpheroid is every where of the fame denfity. But in the prefent cafe this momentum mufl; be drawn
fluxion, or indefinitely fmall increment, will, therefore
into the quantity, which, according to hypothefis, expreffeth the
quantity
meafure of the denfity anfwering to the value of z; which then will the product we will reprefent by j
D
^ X
flux. WAT 5
be the general fluxion of the
is
momentum,
lafl:
when
the denfity
variable
z=z a,
:
and therefore the fluent of this
expreflion,
when z
and
w
= ,
will be the true value
of the required momentum (R) in the prefent cafe. (frojn After the fame manner, the correfponding value of for, retaining the above noLem. III.) may be determined tation and fuppofitions, it is evident (from thence) that the laid
N
:
value of
N
(which
is
there exprefi^ed by
will here,

x
xa
—
b''
x
S,
or
y a
21x—
^
as
is^
xZ^^^^xi^)
2
;
^
by ^
^
fubfl:itution,
become
x
4^ xwz'^ ^ w'^z^
wz^
and confequently that ^
 x ^^ x D
a
IS
flux,
—
w'^z^ will
is
be the required fluxion of the value ot
N
Sit
:
where 
a confl:ant quantity (by hypothefis), the force
difiiance,
/3
being proportional to the
and the meafure thereof {y)
the given difliance a^ equal to
II.
X
is
;^.,
as has
been before
Ihewn, in Prop.
above laid down, it will appear evident, that the angular celerity of the motion about the line Aa (fuppofing that about the axis to be denoted by
Now
from the whole of what
E
unity)
26
•I
Of
the Precejfion of the
Equinox
unity) will be truly defined ^
•'
which, therefore, will is affigned. and
^n"entofDxft.x^^^:„v * fluent of i) X flux, wz.^ be known, when the relation of z, w,
by i!!gf ^211
D
If
w
Jlrata
rr
aie
be fuppofed conftant, or, which is the fame, if all the conceived to be iimilar to one another, then our exMl
1
preffion will
become
^
'imntt
x
w
—
it;'
X
fluent of Z)
X
flux,
jk^
^ ^ a.ent c i; 2TT
x Hux.
aa
?
=
2TT
y^y.^^ = g;xT=^=4^x'"" "
zf
""^^
2
FT
(becaufe ^
w = —j
whence
:
which conclulion appears
to
be the very fame with
that found
it is
when
the denlity was fuppofed uniform.
From
evident that an increafe or decreafe of deniity, in
going towards the center, makes no fort of difference here provided the furfaces of the (everaX Jirafa are all Iimilar to one another and to* the furface of the eartli. If indeed tht Jirata are dijjimilar^ the cafe will be otherwife ^ as will be feen by the following example which ought not be looked upon as a matter of mere Ipeculation iince it will appear, in the fequel, that the preceffion of the equinox cannot be accounted for, ib as to agree with the fhcenomenon^ upon the fuppofition of an
:
,
uniform denfity of all the parts of the earth ; the refult, this way, coming out about d part greater than the real quantity, determined by obfervation.
Let then, as before, the greateft femidiameter of any flratum be denoted by 2;, and let the leafh femidiameter (lying in the axe of the earth) be in proportion thereto as i As'*' to unity J alfo let the denfity be fuppofed to increafe, in approach
—
x
ing the center of the earth, in the ratio of
as to vary according to
tt
— —
17
i
—
a"
i
j
fo
fome power
i
.
that the meafure thereof at the center,
face, in
any given
ratio
of tt to
of the diftance, and may be to that at the furThen, by taking A, cp, and "u, as
(2;'")
conftant quantities, and writing
inftead of their equals
i
—
Az;^,
and
tt
— — x—
_________
"V
tt
a"
w
and D,
we
fhall
here have
B
and
the different Motions
of the EartUs Axis^
(p
27
DX
flux.
WZ^
—
IV^X^ ^=:'7r
— — IX ^ X + 5 X 2X2^+*;^,
TT
nearly (becaufe, to render the calculus lefs laborious, the terms involving X^ and X^ may be here negle6ted as inconliderable)
the fluent of
which
=
(T
TT
X
2X^+5—
we
X
when z ^z^ a^ will be found ^^=TxM^X2X.^+S wf^45 2X^H5.
expreffion,
^i
+^+S
in
^
'y
Moreover
TT
I
have,
this
cafe,
D X fluxion
X2;^++i;
+ ?>+5
^
of wz^
TTI
rzr
—
;;;
X
^Z'^Z
5
+
f'
X
=W
X
X
nearly (becaufe 5 (p X Xz''^*, as the earth is nearly fpherical, is inconliderable in refpedl of ^z^^z) ; whereof the
52:^2;,
+
fluent,
when 2;=:<3',
two
fluent
will
be had
= — Z^H^^^L.^
tt^^
i_
•
'"'^
'j ^
xaK
Now
on
let thefe
values be fubfl:ituted in the general expreflSflux,
7,mntt
sf Dy.
^^T X^ 21 1
fluent
r^
—
wz^
7;
of
Tr;
D
xjiux. wz^
— w^z^ —
;
5
t. U ^y which means
•'
'^
t.
it
bea^
comes
^^ X 2X^'''. ^ —J, X 211 ^,^^_j_2X'y5ri5
1
But,
when z =^
2X^"'',
^'''~'
;
w (= J
fo,
h \
will be
:=
I
—
Xa^y
and w* =:
w^^
i
whence we have
by
2X^'f'
=1 —
lafl:
=1
aa
— =
nearly
and
aa
fubfl:itution,
our
formula becomes
it
3^
^
X
"^^^"+^^"+^ X ^^=^'. Whence
is
appears that the
required motion, in this cafe,
lity is
to the motion,
when
the den."^
.
"'"
fuppofed uniform, in the proportion of .Ij ^^ ^ ^ ^^^
to unity.
— From
5
+ 5x^/5rhs
Corollaries
this proportion
a great
may be drawn
hereafter.
but thefe will be,
number of more properly,
confidercd
E
2
PRO
2 8
Of
the Precejfwn of the Equinox^
PROBLEM
'To
VI.
alfo
find the quantity of the preceffion of the equinox^ and
that of the nutation of the earth's axis, caufed by the moony during the time of ha a revolutio7i in her orbit.
f
Fig. 13.
Let
yPN^E
be the orbit of the
moon (on
V? *^ in
the furface of
j
the fphere) interfering the ecliptic
FiiiiDE^
paffing
palTeth
it it
to be the pofition
at
and fuppofe of the equator, on the moon's
:25
N
F, and
e
:
fhDea
let
the pofition thereof
when
ihe re
moreover the quantity of the annual the fun (given by Prob. IV.) be denoted preceffion arifing from by ^; and let the ratio of the denfities of the moon and fun be expreffed by that of m to unity : then, taking t to reprefent the given time in w^hich the moon is moving from F to e, the mean quantity of the preceffion, arifing from the fun, in that
again at
time, will be
~x^

and
therefore,
fince
the perturbating
forces of the fun
Corol. II.)
it is
and
moon
are as the denfities (by Prob. I.
to the plane of her
evident that the preceffion (E^) caufed by the
moon,
orbit,
bit's
in the
fame time, with refped:
truly exprefied
own
would be
by
tn
%~%A,
were the or
be always the fame as that of the ecliptic to the equator but, fince the magnitude, as well as the pofition, of the angle E varies, with the place of the
inclination to the equator to
:
node,
the faid quantity my.
— A
v.
muft therefore be dimi
nifhed in the ratio of the cofine of E to the cofine of
pears '
by the
^
faid Prob. IV.) '
and then
we ffiall get o
^
'p
it
^ (as
ap»
X £2:^, colin.
<Y'
for the true value of the preceffion E^, caufed
by the moon,
will be re
with refpedt to her
own
orbit.
But now,
in order to refer this to the ecliptic,
all, that,
quifite to obferve firft
earth's axis, at the
of end of every half revolution, on the
as
the inclination of the
return,
of the fun or moon again into the plane of the equator, is reflored to its former quantity (by Corol. III. to Prob. IV.) it follows, feeing the angles E, f, F, are thus equal, that the
f
triangles,
and
triangles
the different Motions of the Earth's Axis,
29
and D/P will alfo be equal and alike, in all DE \ DP a femiand fo, DE \ T>e being may be taken as quadrantal, or arcs circle, both DE and T)e of 90° each whence, if V?R, the meafure of the angle <y>, be fuppofed to meet dED in r, it will be, as Jin. ED (radius)
DE^
refpeds
;
=
=
:
:>.
•^
.
(E) ^
'
:
:
E.
a
f \
^ T
X ^2i2:^) /
coiin.
qr'
:
ED.
= ^ X i^il^i^X
1
cof. nr
:
rad.
alfo,
wtA
Tfrx
1
as Jin. {^) '.Jin. ^T> fin. E X cnfin. E X cofin. vE
:
(cofin.
,i
^yE)
.
:
:
ED^
•'
ya
z=z
lin. T
:
X
colin.
sv'
X
rad.
—
,
^v r i the required quantity of the ^ ^
j
preceffion
= Tf^x
And, as>?. r (radius) mrA fin. E X cofin.E X
:
fin.
DR
, ,
(f^E)
:
:
ED^ (RDr)
f

:
Rr
r
fin.
=;fT
—
tE
the correlpondino: quantity of
r
the nutation, or the decreafe of the inclination of the equator
to the ecliptic.
^ E. L COROLLARY.
illi^
rad.
fin.
It
is
evident from hence that the quantity of the nutation
is
preceffion, as to that of the *
to ^2l^il_, or as fin.T to
—1—i2C—fin. 'yh.
^
that
is,
as the line
of
T
'
to the cotangent ^
:
of
moreover (becaufe Jin. E ijin. <pN ^^2. :7&. <pE, p.fpherics) that the former of thefe quantities
^Y'E.
It appears
:
N
is
,
ir ^ ^ alio truly explicable
1111by
^'^^ rp
x
fin.Nx
fin.
vN
expreffion will be
of ufe
cofin. V X rad. in the following Problem.
I
—
x
cofin,
E
:
.
.
which
PROBLEM
To determine
the nutation of the earth's axis,
VII.
the precejjion of the equinox^
and
the quantity
of
caufed by the moon, during the
time of half a revolution of the node of the mooris orbit.
Things being fuppofed as in the preceding Problem, let the Fig. node from the equinodial point be denoted by Zy its fine by x, and its cofine by y 3 let alfo the fine of the angle N<^E be put b, the fine of a, its cofine
diftance fy'N of the
\^,
=
=
N
30
Oj
the Precejfton of the Equinox^
^, Its cofine =: dy the femiperip!iery V? t^ =r the time of half a revolution of the node R.
N=
If
ricSj
=
T
it
^,
and
fpQ^e
fuppofed perpendicular to
NE,
will be, p.fphe
as cofin.
N^
(y)
:
radius (i)
:
:
cotang.
h,
N
[
—j
:
tang.
N^Q^==:
—
;
let this
be denoted by
its
then the fecant of the
fame an Me
cofine
will be
== \/ i^hh,
fine
=
—
,
and
its
=:
:
whence, by the known rules
for finding
the fine and cofine of the difference of two angles, the fine
of E<T>0 will
alfo
be had
= —— /i+M
we
,
and
its
cofine
:=
4^=.
\/i\hh
Whence,
:
agairij p.
:
Jpbencs,
have, as
fin.
N^Qj^fin.E^Q
:
cofin.N
cofin.E r^^^.^"" ^ ^ ^
=: bd ^^^=^bd'acy',
alfo,
as cofin.
N«pQ_:
*
cofin. E<)'^Qj,: cotang.
N^p (^)
:
cotang.
^E = J+7^
x
^
X
lafl
= e£±l2ex
becaufe h
= .
cy
But, by the Corol. to the
tation for the time t,
is
Problem, the quantity of the nu
expreffed by
^A x —
'
.=;t
;
which,
will
in algebraic
terms (by fubflituting the above values),
become
^^ x ''^^^"^'y.
But the time
r,
during which
the longitude (z) of the node is increafed by z, being to R the time of half a revolution of the node, as z to ^, its value will
therefore be
expounded by
i?
x
f.,
or
its
equal
R
x
and
fo
by
fubflituting this value,
laft
and writing \/i
— xx
7AR
,k/T^
in the
room of y^ our
bdxx
expreflion will be reduced to ^=:tfluent f"^^
.
x
c
^
x
^/ixx
,
 acxx ; whofe
T
X — \bd bds/ ixx \acxx
eb
(=
and
7AR (= ——^
the different Motions of the
RartVs Axis.
x
verfcd fine 2z) '
Is
3
X
7be
X ^^x verled
fine
z
—
.ac
*
I
confequently the meafure of the nutation, or the decreafe of the inclination of the equator to the ecliptic, caufed by the moon, from the time of the node's coinciding with the equinodtial
point
^Y^,
to
its
arrival at the pofition
N.
Again, with regard to the preceflion of the equinox, the increafe thereof being in proportion to the decrement of the inclination, as the cotangent of <Y>E to the fine of N«Y^E (by
the Corollary to the precedent)
^ "^ or, in
ipecies, as
^
"^
^^
(or
cx
^
^^
y)
to a^
its
fluxion will therefore be
had by mul•'
tiplyin? that
of the nutation,
o^iven above,
into
^ICi—Llllff^
and
fo
is
found to be
.
.^— X 4 X
T
abe
sf X
— XX ^bb — ^^ X cdx — abc^X'^
is
i
— xx
,
whofe
/wAR
fluent,
which
abe T X —r X abd^z^bb
— aa x —
cdx
{abc^'z
—
^abc^xs/ 1
— XX
N ar
(=: ^^^p=^x—rxdd~ccxabz\bbaaxcdxf.z^abccxf.2
mufl: confequently be the preceffion
rives at the other equinodlial point
itfelf.
But, at the end of half a revolution,
when
both
the node
dy
this,
and the ex
preffion for the nutation, will
being then
=
o,
and z
=
e
j
become much more fimple, x whence the nutation will be =z
3
^^ X ^X2bd = ^— X ^ — mAR — iAR _
X dd—^cc z=
77
and the preceflion equal to
ice (bccaufe cc
{
r=r
XI
dd =:
i).
COROLLARY
what
it
L
It appears from hence, that the mean preceffion of the equinox, arifing from the adtion of the moon, is in proportion to
would otherwife
be, if the moon's orbit
i
cide with the ecliptic, as
—
was
to coin
j^cc to
tmity
:
whence the
true
value
32
Of
the Precejfion of the Equinox^
value thereof is to that depending on the fun, in a ratio compounded of the ratio of the denfity of the moon to the deniity
of the fun, and the aforefaid
u?iitv.
ratio
of
i
—
{cc (or 0,988) to
COROLLARY
of the node,
_ .J
IL
It appears likewife, that the
in half a revolution
tity
whole quantity of the nutation, is to the correiponding quanto
of the preceffion,
as
^
dd
•
—
^cCy
or as umty to
c
^ X~ a 1
;
that
is,
as the radius to the excefs
of the co
tangent, above half the tangent of the orbit's inclination,
drawn
into (1.5708) the meafure of half the periphery of the circle This proportion, in numbers, fupv/hofe diameter is unity.
poUng
the
mean
as
inclination
of the orbit to be 5°
8',
will
be
found to be
10 to 174, very near,
COROLLARY
node
IlL
Moreover, feeing the preceffion in half a revolution of the
— ;kAR x — xdd —
is
^^^~~xdd
%
{cc,
wc
have, z^ e
\
z
::
^^^~~%dd—~cc
preceffion
{cc,
the quantity of the
mean
during the time in which the node moves over the arch 2;, or This being fubtradcd from the true preceffion, found *T*N. above, the remainder
•^=T—
1
X 4 X abe
/^^
— aax cdx — \ahc'x\/ — xx
1
will
confe
,
true above the
quently be the equation of the preceffion^ or the excefs of the mean : which equation or excefs, if we negledt
(whofe value, by reafon of the 1 of <:^, never amounts to ^th of a fecond) will evifmallnefs dently be at its greateil value at the end of ^th of a revoluthe term
tion,
— ~abc^x\/ — xx
bb
on the node's
arrival at the folllice
5
when
it
becomes
•^?=
X
X
— X
— aaxcdy
and,
is
therefore, in proportion to
•^=r
—
,
the whole, or greateft quantity of the nutation,
during half a revolution of the node, as bb
— aa
:
2ab, or
as
and
as
I
:
the different
lab
Motions of the EartFs Axis.
as the radius to the tangent
ecliptic.
33
hb
— aa
,
that
Is,
of double
the inclination of the equator to the
COROLLARY
IV.
Furthermore, fince the value of c (the fine of the orbit's inclination) is but fmall, the laft term of the general exprefTion for the nutation, as well as that for the excefs of the true preceffion above the mean, may be rejefted, without producing any conliderable error ; whence the nutation is re
duced
to
^^^
X
—
X
I
— \/ — XX,
1
and the preceffion
to
^^^ X
T
— X — aax
bb
abe
cdx.
Hence
<p,
will
it
appears that the deleav
creafe of the inclination,
from the time of the node's
;»
ing
( I
— v^i — xx)
the
equinodial
point
be as the verfed fine
of the node's true longitude
and that the
excefs of the true preceffion above the the fine (x) of the fame longitude.
mean,
will be always as
SCHOLIUM.
The quantity of the annual preceffion of the equinox arifing from the force of the fun, is found in Prob. IV, to be 21" ']'" ; upon the fuppolition of all the parts of the earth beIf, therefore, this ing homogenous, and in a llate of fluidity. quantity be taken from (50'') the whole, obferved, annual preceffion, ariling from the fun and moon conjundly, the remainder 28'' 53'" will confequently be the mean annual preceffion depending on the moon; which being increafed in the ratio of
1000
to
988 (according toProb.VII. Corol.I.)
gives 2c['i/!^'\ for
the quantity of the preceffion, if the orbit of the moon were Hence it will be to coincide with the plane of the ecliptic. (by the fame CoroL) as 21 "7"' is to 2 9'' 14", fo is the denfityof the
fun to the denlity of the moon, according to this hypothefts. But it is evident from experience (whether we regard the proportion of the tides, or the accurate obfervations of Dr. Bradley) that the denfity of the moon in refped: to that of the fun^
cannot be
io fmall as
it is
here affigned.
F
It
;4
Of the
It is true,
Precejfton of the Equinox^
there is no way of knowing the exaB ratio of the of the two luminaries ; iince theory, for want of fuffiAnd as to the method, by obferving cient data, fails us here. and comparing the fprhig and neap tides * (whether we regard the quantities or times of them) it cannot be otherwife than very precarious j confidering the many obilacles and intervening caufes by which they are perpetually, more or lefs, influenced and difturbed. Upon the whole it therefore feems to me, that the beft method to fettle this point (as far as the nature of the fubic<ft will allow of) is from the obfer'ved quantity of the nutation itfelf J agreeable to what has been hinted on this head by that celebrated Aftronomer, to whofe accurate obfervations we owe this important difcovery.
denfities
Let
us, therefore, take
g
to denote the greatefl: nutation
,
of the
and then, if^ be taken to given by obfervation reprefent the iliean annual preceffion, given in like man?ier, it
earth's axis, as
will appear (by Prob. VII. Corol. II.) that i^i
x \ X ^
is
the
part of the faid annual preceffion
whence the remaining
be
part,
5
owing
g\
to the fun,
depending on the moon muft neceflarily
y — ^ X^ (= 3^/ ~
VII
Corol
fo
Therefore
we
have (by Pro^
blem
I)
is
as
^
x ^,^
•'
to If/zii?!, or as
—p^
of
"^
X
— 900
^r to I,
the denflty of the
moon
to the denfity
the fun J which, in numbers (making g come 1 8''), will out as 2,09 to I. But if the value of g be fuppofed only a fecond or two greater or lefs than 1 8'', the refult will be fenlibly different, as may be feen in the annexed Table ; wherein, belides the ratio of the deniities, are alfo exhibited the mean
=
depending on the forces of the fun and moon, refpeftively ; together with the greateft equation of the faid preceffion, as given by Problem VII Corollary III
quantities of the annual preceffion,
*
Sir
to ij and
Isaac Newtok, by this method, makes the proportion M. Daniel Bernoulli, only as 2^ to i.
to
be
as 4
Greateft
and
the different Motions
of the Earth's Axis,
35
36
values,
Of
win be
is,
the Precejffto?t
as the difference
of the Equmox^
node's prefent diftance
grees, that
as
between the verfed fine of the from ^y, and the verfed fine of 90 dethe cofine of the node's diftance from
^
Therefore, to find the nutation at any given time,
it
will be,
of the 7iode s diflance from the nearejl iqninociial pointy fo is the greateft nutation to the nutation fought. Which, to have the true obliquity of the equator to the ecliptic, muft be added, when the node is in any of the fix
the radius is to the cofine
As
afcending
figns'\'V, twt,
K
,
T> ^
>
H
;
but, otherwife, fubtrafted.
The following Table, fhewing by infpedtion, as well the equation of the precefiion, as that of the obliquity of the ecliptic, is computed from the proportions here laid down j upon fuppofition that the greateft quantity of the nutation is 1 9 feconds.
Ihe
iiquaiion oi the x'recelfion
Equinox.
and
the different Motions
of the Earth's Axis,
where
For,
37
will interfeft the circumference of the ellipfe in the point
the pole of the equator {p)
firft,
it is
is,
at that
time, poiited.
from what has been already remarked, that AE and BE will be the greatcft and leaft diftances of the tv/o poles, as being equivalent to the refpedive inclinations of the two from v/hence and CoroL planes, the equator and the ecliptic IV. it is manifeft, that ER or E/> will be the true diftance of the
clear,
:
faid poles,
from
fine
:
^
is
when the verfed fine of the node's diftance (APS) AR. Moreover, by conJiruBion^ CP AB \ the con: : :
2EP
:
:
cofin.
EP
:
i
that
is,
in fpecies,
:
b.
And,
:
p. fpherics, tang.
a.
PEC
: :
CP AB tang. PC {: PEC
:
:
:
^^IIl^
:
:
PC,
aa
nearly)
rad. (i)
Therefore, by compounding thefe two
proportions,
2.ab
we
have
PEC AB
:
°^
:
ab :: bb
—
.
: which proportion, for finding the angle PEC, is the very fame with that determining the greateft difference of the mean, and true longitudes, as given by CoroL III. Whence it eafily
follows, that the angle
KEp
will exprefs the difference of the
mean and
angle
true longitudes, at the given pofition of the
:
node;
:
fince, as the radius
fine
APS
(:
:
PD RS
:
:
:
PF
:
Rp)
:
the
PEC
ratio
:
The
of
the angle RE/>, as it ought to be, by CoroL IF. CF to AB is here determined to a geometrical
noways depending, either, on the denfity of the moon, or on any other phyfical hypothefis. Plaving now laid down the general proportions for the nutation of the earth's axis, and the precefiion of the equinox, I
exa(5tnefs, as
fhall
much
1°.
here fubjoin the neceffary rules for determining how the declinations and rightafcenfions of the ftars are af
fedled by thofe inequalities.
fion, arifing
.
For the alteration of aftar's declination, and rightafcenfrom the nutation of the earth's axis it will be
,
As
the radius is to the fine
of the fiars
rightajcenjioriy
fo
is
the nutation (or the given alteration of the equators inclination to the ecliptic) to the alteration of the fiars declination^ caifed by
the nutation
;
And^ as
of
its
the cotangent
of
is
the far s declination is to the cofine
rightafcenfon, fo
the nutation to
the alteration of the
2°.
fiars rightafcenfon, correfponding,
For
38
2°.
Of
For the
cenfion, arifing
the Precejfton
alteration
of the Equinox^
ftar's
of the
declination
and
;
rightaf
from the
preceffion of the equinox
it
will
be
As
the cofecant of the obliquity
of the
ecliptic
is
to the
cofne
of the Jlars rightafcenfion^ fo is the precejjion of the equinox (cr the alteration of the far s longitude) to the alteration of the ftars
declination^
caufed by the precefjion
s
;
And as
its
the cofine of the far
declination
is to
the cotangent
of
angle of poftion^ fo is the alteration of declination^ found by the laji proportion^ to the alteration of rightafcenfioji, anfwering thereto.
Any
fee
one, but
little
acquainted with the fphere, will eaiily
additive,
when
it
thefe equations are
and when fubtrad;ive
reafons
:
nor will
be
are
at all difficult to
comprehend the
upon
founded ; they being nothing more than fo many particular cafes of the general relation fubfifting between the fluxions of the lides and angles of a Ipherical' triangle *. It will not, however, be improper to rem.ark here, that, when the quantity of the preceffion, in the fecond of the preceding cafes, amounts to fome minutes^ it will be neceifary, in order to have the concluiion fufficiently exa6i:, to make ufe of the mean rightafcenfion, at the middle of the given interval 3 which, from the given rightafcenfion at the beginning of the interval, may be eftimated near enough for the purpofe, in moil cafes, without the trouble of a calculation but in other cafes, and when the utmoft exad:nefs is required, it will be necelTary to repeat
which they
:
the operation.
not be improper to obferve likewife, that, belides the equations depending on the polition of the lunar nodes, computed above, there is a fmali motion of nutation and preceffion '.iriiing from the moon's declination y whereof the greateft quantity is to the greateft quantity of that depending on the fun, in a ratio compounded of the ratio of the denfities of the two bodies, that of their periodic times, and that of the fines of the inclinations of their refpe6tive orbits to the plane of the equaIt tor,
may
nearly
(as
appears by Prob. IV. and VI.)
Whence
it is
evident, that this part of the nutation, depending on the moon's,
any circumflance, amount to more than about ^th of a fecond y a quantity too fmall to merit attention in the practice of Aflronomy.
declination, cannot, in
* See
my
De^rine of Fluxions, Part
11.
Se^.
I.
Remarks^.
and
the different Motions of the
EartFs Axis,
39
Remarh
on
fome Particulars
i7i
in the preceding Theory
to
a7td Galctilatio7ts \
certain diffictdties
arife,
order
explain
and
objeBions that
and obviate may thence
the be obferved, IT may confidered theineffects along,
fately
;
firft
place, that
of the fun and
we have, all moon fepabe noways
too
and, confequently, have fuppofed
efpecially,
as
them
This
to
influenced or difturbed by each other.
may feem
bold an affumption
,
it is
known
that the tides,
are produced by the very fame forces, depend upon, and are greatly varied by, the different politions of the two lu
which
minaries.
To remove this objection, let ^SM£i; reprefent the plane Fig. of the earth's equator its interfeftion with the plane of the ecliptic, ^yS the rightafcenlion of the fun, and the rightafcenfion of the moon and let the forces of the two bodies to turn the earth about its center, in thofe pofitions, be reprefented by and P, refpecftivcly. Thefe forces may be confidered as acfling perpendicular to the plane of the equator in the points S and M, and will be equivalent to, and have the fame effedt with, one fingle force, But, equal to them both, a(5ling in their center of gravity N. by mechanics, the force yjJP, afting at N, will (if the radius
16.
^O^^
tM
,
^
OP
ing
be drawn through
N)
be equivalent, to another force, ad:
ing at P, expreffed
by/+Fx^, orJ+Fx
SB and MC,
to
^
(fuppof
NQ, PR,
as alfo
be perpendicular to
TOf25). But the quantity of the precefHon, during a given moment of time, is known to be as the force, and as the fine of the jightafcenfion, conjundly (by Prob. III.) from whence the two quantities arifing from the fun and moon, confidered feparately, are expounded by /x SB, and JPxMC, refpe6tively. But, fuppoiing both bodies to ad together, or, which is the
,
fame, fuppofing one fingle force, expreffed by
y ( F X p^?
to
40
to
a(5l
Of
at P,
the Precejfton of the Equinox^
the quantity of the precefTion will then (by the
very fame rule) be truly defined
hyf\Fx p^x PR,
or
its
by the property of the center of gravity, is known to be equal to^x SB j jpx MC. Hence it is manifeil that, whether the forces of the luminaries be joined together, or treated apart, the refult will be the
quantity,
equaiyFx
NQ^
which
fame.
The
orbit,
next
difficulty,
relates to the excentricity
of the lunar
Fig. 17.
and the inequality of the motion in that orbit ; which may be thought fufficient to occafion a fenfible deviation from rules founded on a fuppolition that pays no regard to them. In order to clear up this point alfo, imagine ADBE to be an ellipfe, in which the moon is fuppofed to revolve, about the center of the earth, placed in the lower focus F of the ellipfe let AB be the tranfverfe axis of the ellipfe, perpendicular to moreover let there which, through F, draw the ordinate IH other lines DE, de^ through the focus F, to be drawn any two
:
;
make
a very fmall (given) angle
DF^with
moon,
each other.
the diftance
The
ftance
;
perturbating force of the
I.
at
DF,
will (by Prop.
CoroL II.) be, inverjly^ as the cube of that di
and the time of defcribing the given angle DF^^ will, it is well known, be direBly as the fquare of the fame diftance. Therefore, by compoiition, the quantity of the moon's adion,
ratio
during the time of defcribing this angle, will be in the fimple of the faid diftance, inverjly. Hence it appears, that the fum of the forces employed, during the times of defcribing the
oppolite angles
DF^, EF^,
4
Vv^ill
be truly defined by pr^
+ w*
fo fhall
:
or
its
equal
FE
r,,,
FD
„,^
.
Upon AB
FE
— FH
let fall
the perpendiculars
:
FI (FH)
:
— FD
or
FD
(p'Jim. triang.)
confequently FE x FD — FH x FD =
:
:
DN and EM FM FN (p.
:
;
:
ellipfe)
FE
:
FH X FE
of the
~
FD X FE,
it
2FExFD
that
=FHxFE + FD:
FF
4"^
therefore, as
appears
is,
from hence
FD
,
the meafure
fald forces,
every where, equal to the conflant quantity
and
tity i.,
the different Motions
it is
of the Earth's Axis.
41
evident that the excentricity of the orbit and the
effe(fl
polition
of the apogee have no
on the motion of the
earth's axis.
may, perhaps, arife, with regard to the addition of the forces employed by the moon in oppofite parts of her orbit ; which ftep may be looked upon as arbitrary but the reafon upon which it is founded will be clear, by coniidering that the moon's inclination to the plane of the equator, and that, in oppoiite points of her orbit, is always the fame therefore, the very fame efFed; in the alteration of the pofition of the equator will be produced, whether the whole force employed during the defcription of the correfponding oppofite angles, be equally, or unequally, divided, with refped to the faid angles ; fmce the faid force ads with the fame advantage, or under the fame circumftance of declination, in both cafes. Another difficulty that may arife, is in relation to our having made the effeft of the fun's force to be about f part lefs than the quantity refulting from calculations founded on hydroftatical principles and the hypothefis of an uniform denfity of all the parts of the earth. But, that the ph^^nometion cannot be truly accoiirxted for, upon this hypothefis, appears from the concurrence ot all for, whether we regard the menfuraexperiments in general tion of the degrees of the earth, the accurate obfervations of Dr. Bradley, or the proportions and times of the tides, the cafe is the fame, and requires a much lefs eife(ft from the adion of the
objedlion
:
An
;
:
from, or can confifl with, the faid hypothefis. But if the denfity of the earth, inflead of being uniform, is fuppofed to increafe from the furface to the center (as there is the greateft reafon to imagine it does), then xh.Q ph(^?tomenon may be eafily made to quadrate with the principles of gravitation ; and that according to innumerable fuppofitions, refpefting the law whereby the denfity may be conceived to increafe. Thus, conformable to the hypothefis laid down in the Scholium after Prob. V. the motion of the equino6tial points will be in proportion to the motion of the fame points when the
fun than
refults
,
^""
denfity
is
fuppofed uniform, as
—
to i, that
is,
G
as
42
as
I
Of
the Precejfton
of the Equinox^
I
:
—
""
;
^~
is
to
therefore,
V {(?
/^'PXTT
;
+5X
by making
i
—
^/ir
4 5
J
__
(agreeable to
what has been above

obferved),
we
fhall
have
—
^
^
—
..
=—
:
by means
of which equation, the relation of
innumerable ways.
TT
tt, (p,
figned, as to give the true quantity of the preceffion,
and v may be ib afand that
=
As one
let
inftance
hereof, let us fuppofe
2,
or that the denfity at the center
at the furface;
or,
and
the value of
which comes
to the fame, let
is juft double to that be fuppofed very great, the Jirata in the lower parts
(p
of the
earth, be fuppofed very nearly fpherical, or orbicular
'^
then our equation will become
becaufe
ly
\
^+?' + 5X2z;f
=—
5
j
which,
,
3
(p is
fuppofed very great, will be
is
—^— r= —
near
whence v
given
=
5
:
fo that, according to this
hypo
thefis,
the decreafe of denlity, in going from the center of the
earth to the furface, will be in the quintuplicate ratio of the
diftances
from the
center.
can imagine that we pretend here to afcertain the all that ftrudlure and denfity of the interior parts of the earth is attempted, is to fhew (which indeed is all that can be done) that the preceffion of the equinox may be truly accounted for upon the principles of gravitation^ though not in the hypothecs of an uniform denfity of all the parts of the earth, unlefs by affuming the difference of the leafl and greateft diameters much fmaller than it is found to be, either, from hydroftatical principles, or by an actual mcnfuration of the degrees of the
:
No One
earth's meridian.
There remains
yet another particular that I cannot avoid tak;
which is the wide difference to be found between our conclufion, in Prob. IV. Corol. I. and that brought out by Sir Isaac Newton (in Prop.^^)* Book III. of his Pri?icii)ia) from the very lame data,
I
ing fbme further notice of
am
and
I
the differ e?it Motions
is
of the Earths Axis,
upon
3
43
but
am
I
lenlible that this
a delicate point to touch
then
know
likewife, that I
might leave
my Readers
difiatisfied,
endeavour to point out the caufes of the faid difhad, myfelf, a ftrong fufpicion that I had, ference. fomewhere, fallen into an error ; which put mc upon attemp!:ing the folution by different methods, as the moil proper way to arrive at certainty, and to difcover the millake, if any j'uch had crept into my calculations. Two of the^e methods I have given; the others feemed unneceffary. The exad: concurrence of them ail, firif made me think, that it was not impolTible bat there might be a fault in that Author's folution ; and occafioned my looking into his method with a more particular attention than I had before regarded it with. What, at firft, feemed moft doubtful to me was his hypothecs, that the motion of the nodes of a ring would be the fame wtoether the ring were fluid, or whether it conffied of a hard rigid ?natter * ; this, I fay, did not feem at all clear, at firfl ; but upon recoUeding the demonflration of my fecond Lemma (wherein this point is fully, though not diredlly, proved) I was foon convinced that the fault (if fuch there was) mufl be owing to fomething elfe. In the next place, his third Lemma did not appear to me In this Lemma fo well grounded as the two preceding ones.
were not
—
I to
At
firfl I
fubtlety expatiated
fents the
* The celebrated mathematician M. D'Alembert, who has with great on Sir Isaac Newton's folution of this Problem, repreabove
hypothefis, as
fluid ftate, the particles, or
and the fame plane
centres places dans
(il eft
and fays, that, when the ring is in a will not have their centers in one certain que des lunes ifolees Tt'auroient pas toujours leurs
ill
founded
;
detached
moons
un mime plan). Now if, by this, we are to underftand, that the deviation from a plane is fomething fenfible in comparifon of the nutation in queftion, what is advanced i^ repugnant to what is demonftrated in our fecond Lemma. But if an exceeding fmall deviation (depending on the fecond term of a feries) be only intended (and fuch it muft be, if any thing at all), fuch a fuppofition will make nothing againft our Author's aflumption; as, in phyfical fubje<Sts, a perfedl: accuracy is not to be expelled. This learned gentleman himfelf allows, that, the confidering of all the particles (or the ring of moons) as being in the fame plane, produces np error in the conclufion from whence it might, with fome reafon, be imagined, that the hypothefis itfelf could not be other wife than true. And it feems farther plain to me, that, whatever lights that Author's overfights in the folution of this Problem are capable of being placed, his real miftakes are two only.
:
G
2
he
Of
the Frecejfion of the Equi?tox^
he determines, that the motioji of the whole earth about its axcy arijing fromJhe motion of all the particles will be to the motion oj a rtng about the fame axe^ in a proportion compounded op the proportion oj the tnatter in the earth to the matter in the ring^ and oj the Mmtber 925725 to the number 1 000000. This proportion is, indifputably, true, in the fenfe of the Author but a difference between the quantity of motion, fo conthere is lidered, and the momentum whereby a body, revolving round an axis, endeavours to perfevere in its prefent ftate of motion,
,
:
force imprelTed. Now it feems clear kind of mome?2tum that ought to be regarded, in computing the alteration of the body's motion, in confequence of any fuch force. And here every particle is to be conlidered as ad:ing by a lever terminating in the axis of motion fo that, to have the whole momentum fought, the moving force of each particle mufi: be multiplied into the length of the lever by which it fuppofed to adl whence the momentum of each particle will be proportional to the fquare of the diftance from the axis of motion ; as it is known to be in finding the centers of percuffion of bodies, which depend on the very fame principles. Now, according to this way of proceeding, it will be found,, that the momentum of the whole earth (taken as a Iphere) will be to the momentum of a very flender ring, of the fame diameter, revolving in the fame time, about the fame axe, in a proportion compounded of the proportion of the matter in the earth to the matter in the ring, and of the number 800000 to
in oppofition to
any
new
lafi:
to
me,
that
it is
this
:
:
the
number
to
1
000000.
Which
proportion, therefore, differs
from
that of Sir
800000
Isaac Newton, given above, in the ratio of 925725: fo that, if his refult, which is ci'y"'2d^,
in this ratio,
be increafed
then have 10'' 33''', for the quantity of the annual preceffion of the equinox, arifing from the force of the fun 3 allowing for the abovementioned diffliall
we
ference.
It
appears further,
it
there affumes
earth, at
its
by perufing his 3 9th Propoiition, that he as a principle, that, if a ring, encompaffing the
or begin, to
equator AI^^L (but detached therefrom) was to tend, move about its diameter LI with the fame accelerative
and
tivc force,
the different Motions
of the Earth's Axis*
whereby the earth
itfelf
45
or angular celerity, as that
S)
tends to
the fun
move about
(at
;
the fame diameter, through the action of that then the motion of the nodes of the ring
Fig. 8.
and of the equator would be exadly the fame. Now this would indeed be the cafe, were not the cffeds of thefe forces \vhereby the two bodies tend to move about the diameter LI,
and interrupted by the other motions about the axe of rotation P/>, and that according to a different ratio, depending on the different figures of the earth and ring. A fphere, let the dire(ftion of its rotation be which way it
to be influenced
is, let it move about what diameter it will, has always the fame momentum^ provided it has the fame angular celerity but the momentum of a very Hender ring, revolving about one of its diameters, appears (hy hem. W.) to be only the half of what it would be, if the revolution was to be performed in a plane, about the center of the ring. Whence it is evident, that the ring Alah, to acquire the fame motion of preceffion and nutation with the earth's equator, ought to
will, that
:
I
tend to move about the diameter LI with an accelerative force double to that whereby the earth itfelf tends to move about the fame diameter, through the adlion of the fun fmce, in this cafe, the quantities of motion, or the momenta, generated in the two bodies, during any very fmall particle of time, would be exactly proportional to the refpedlive momenta of rotation, whereby the bodies endeavour to perfevere in their prefent ftate and diredion of motion, in oppofition to any new force imHence it follows that all conclufions, relating to the preffed. change of the pofition of the earth's axe, drawn from the principle above fpecified, mufl be too little by jufl one half 5 and confequently that the quantity of the annual preceflion of the equinox, arifing from the adion of the fun, ought to be the double of I o'' 33''' J which is 21" 6'", and agrees, to a third, with what we before found it to be^ by two different methods.
:
A.
A
exad Method for finding the Place of a Planet in its orbit, from aCorredion of Ward's hypothefn^ by means of One, or more Equations,
very
applied to the motion about the upper focus.
I
a.
I
S'
.^^Je^ET ABPC be the
^'
ellipfes in
which the planet revolves
about the fun in the lower focus S j let F be the up^v and m any two places of the pla^^^"^^ per focus, and net indefinitely near to each other ; and let FM, F;/;, SM, ^m be drawn, as likewife MN, perpendicular to the greater
^
M
axis
AP
:
from the center F, with the
radius
FD =
i ,
let
the
circumference of a circle DE(? be defcribed, and from its interperpendicular to AP put draw (ediion with
:
EH AO FM 0B(— OC)=^, OF(=OS)=:f, FM=://, (=OP)~^, FH = X, EH = y, DE = z, and E*? = % then SM being = AP — FM) =z 2a — Ui by the nature of the ellipfes, and
:
(
FN (= FH X FM = xu, we have, by a known property of ^^ triangl es, SM f FM x SM— FM {2a x 2a— 2u) = 2SF x ON
\
j
(4<:
'^
X
^
c { xii)
:
from which equation u (FM)
is
found
=
 (becaufe bb
a
{
=iaa
a
—
cc)
:
whence
^^
^\
\
ex
ex
SM (= 2«
~.
—
we
u) '
is alfo
had
in terms of x. beine ^ ^
=
a\ ex
Now
the area
:
EF^
being expreffed by \%
: :
:
(= FE x tE^ ),
have FE' ( i ) FM' ii the area MF/« =: {i; x FMl\ Therefore, the angle SM;« being equal to FMA, or F;«A S;;zxwM x (by the nature of the curve) we alio have
FM Mw
:
SM) : : the area (i; (or the area of the triangle SM;«
:
FM
=
.
x FMI) of
^%
the triangle
YM.m
, ,
:
x
FM x SM (Elem. 23. 6.)
X I — aa=T==T^~" a\ ex\
—
^
^b^i. y.aa\~ec\
laex
=T=V a y
cx\
—
,
,
x
\)pc^k
"*^
^
"T
=
^
.
"*^
^
+
,
= the
fluxion of the area
ASM.
In order to find the
fluent
A very exaB Mjhod for findings
fluent hereof, let
G?^.
..
&c.
47
7.CX

^—,, be refolved
cx\
firil:
into the feries
a 4
—— a
_
«'
,
,
(whereof the two
terms
will,
here, be fufficient)
by
which means our
which, becaufe
'^^2
fluxion will
become
{b z\will
4
— —

yz=z
^y
—
—^
j—
^,
and xz ^= j/,
be reduced to
be
X
^;
whofe
fluent will therefore
t!
ily exprefl:ed
by {b'z
Ixy
a i!^ X iz
—
+ ^ x area DHE — ^, or — ^ (becaufe the area DHE ~ ^DE
^^b'z
M coincides with P,
{
X
DP — [HP X EH =iz
and z
will
—
is
This expreflion, ixyj. ::rr the femicircumference
(fuppofing
when
DEK
i
= f)y
—L
:
become
tl^tll~t^
1
1
^
= +
have,
:
^ )
2^^
:r= the area
of the femiellipfis
ABP. Therefore we
the area
as
2
4^fl'
3^
(=
:
ASM)
:
:
p
(=
the length of an arch of 180°)
z
—
—z,
= the
—
length of an arch (A) exprefling the planet's
mean anomaly
from which equation, z
fin.
=A

—

—
=A

^x
=
;
2z { ^^ X
:
fin.
2^1
(becaufe xy,
or cofin.
z x fin.
2J
vfin.2z) where the two lafl: terms being very fmall in comparifon of the others (and, therefore, z nearly r^= A), we may,
infl:ead
of
fin.
z and
fin.
2Zj fubfi:itute
'
fin.
which means we have z=r.A~\
—^xfin.2A + ^xfin. A^^
j^a^d
'
^ and
fin.
2^
by
3fiV
From whence
it
appears, that, in order to have the angle
AFM
at the upper focus, the mean anomaly (A) of the planet at the time given, mufi: be increafed by the quantity, or correc
tion
^ X
fin. 2
A + ^
X finTAl^
in
But
to exprefs the value of this corre(5lion
fcconds of
it
a degree
(which in pradice
is
the mofi:
commodious)
will
48
is
A very
will be, as
exaSi
Method for
findijig
3,1416 (the length of an arch of 180 degrees) to 648000 (the number of feconds in that arch) fo is
xfin.
2A
3
^ad
1
+ ^xfin. Ap to 51567 x^xfin. 2A +
'
^a'^d
^
375 1 3 xiT^xfin. A' a'd
:
= the number
of feconds in the
faid
corredion
the logarithm of the latter term of
which
will,
therefore, be
=
5,
1383
—
log.
^
+3
c
log.
1
a
3 log. fin.
c —
A
;
and
fin.
that
of the former
= 4,7123 —
log.
d
\
2 log.
 log.
2A. But, to render thefe expreiTions ftill more convenient of d^ by reafon of its fmallnefs, may be, either, intirely negleded, or elfe fo alTumed, to be nearly a mean of what it is known to be in the planetary orbits. Aefor pradiice, the log.
cordingly, by affiiming the excentricity c
diftance
= — of the mean
8
(which is a fmall matter lefs than the excentricity of Mars^ but fomething greater than thofe of the Moon, Saturn,
and Jupiter), the value of ^
(=
i
f"
—
j will
be
=
be
1,0032,
and
its
logarithm
= 0,0014.
by
Whence
the log. of the former
5,
1
part of our correction,
fubflituting this value, will
369
+
and
3 log.
that
~
+
3 log fin.
latter
A=
3
x i,7i23+log.i.
+
log.f.
A
of the
= 4,7109 + 2 log.—
at length,
\ log.
fm. 2
A
:
which, expreffed in words
give the following
PraBical Rules,
To the fum of the conftant logarithm 1,7123 and the of the excentricity in parts of the mean diftance, add the log. fine of the mean anomaly j the fum (rejeCling the radius) being tripled, will give the log. of the firil equation (in feconds) to be added to the mean anomaly. 2°. To the fum of the conftant log. 4,7109 and twice the log. of the excentricity, add the log. line of twice the mean anomaly ; the fum (rejedling the radius) will be the log. of the fecond equation ; to be added or fubtrafted, according as the Here mean anomaly is lefs, or greater than 90 degrees.
1°.
log.
the Place of
a Planet in
its
Orhit.
49
Here, and in what follows, the anomaly is to be always reckoned from, or to the aphelion, the neareft way ; in which the feconds may be omitted, in computing the propofed corrections. Which corrections being made, the true anomaly, or angle at the lower focus, will be had from the common
proportion, by faying, as the apheliondiftance
heliondiftance, fo
is
is
to the peri
the tangent of half the
the ufe of the
mean anomaly,
thus correcfled, to the tangent of half the true anomaly fought.
As an example of
let
the excentricity be fuppofed
method here laid down, =. 0,048219 (being that afand
let
ligned, by Dr. Halley, mean anomaly be 45".
to the orbit of Jupiter)
the
Then, log. excent.
.
.
=^ ^^Z' ^°^ ^d cqu. 2,0773 0,3955 log. fin. 2 anom. 10,0000 9,8494 2^ ^^' ii9t' "2^0773 0,2449 5^'' firft equ_^= 0,7347 From 1,978537 =: log. of periheliondift. 0,951781, fubtr. 0,020452 =r log. of the apheliondift. 1,0482 1 9 ;
log. for iflequ.
=
+
conit. log.
.
.
2,6832 1,7123
2 log. excent.
\ Q.QVi'^AQg.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3,3664 4,7109
log. fin.
anom.
.
.
=
the rem. i,958o85,willbea(3d) conft.log. for thisorbit: to which add 9,617596 =z log. tang. 7 cor. anom. 22° 3 1' 2 ;",
9,57568 whofe double, 41°
quired.
fo fhall
1
=
log. tang. { true
is
15' 20",
anomaly 20° 37' 40": therefore the true anomaly rej
The fame
be,
excentricity being retained
let
the
mean anomaly
.
.
now, fuppofed 120 degrees. Then, log. fm. anom. 9,9375
log. for firft equat.
log. fm. 2
firft
equat.
= 10"
Hence 120°
anomaly.
+ 10" —
Y
0,3955 0,3330 0,9990
1'
log. for
9,9375 2d equation 2,0773 1037' 2,0148 2d equat.
anom.
=
•
43i"
=119° 58' 267'
•
•
= the
cor.
Therf
log. tang.
\
cor.
anom. 59°59'i3t"
.
.
10,238331
=
third confl. log. for this orbit
log. tang.
.
.
1,958085
Y true anom. ^y° 32' 10"
H
10,196416
Whence
CO
A very
Whence
greateft that
exaEl
Method for finding
itfelf is
the anomaly
given
=
3*
25°
4' 20".
If the excentricity be afllimed
=
Dr.
Halley
gives to the lunar orbit) the
0,066777 (being the two
conftant logarithms, to be added to the fines of the
mean anowhence
if
maly and of its double, will be 0,5369 and 2,3601
the faid anomaly be taken
= 50°
^
:
(at
which, according to the
Do5iors
pro expediendo calculo cequationis centri lunce, the whole correcflion is a maximum) the former part of the faid 18^', and the latter part correcftion will be found 225I":
'Table y
=
=
therefore die
fum of both
is
244'',
or 4'
^'',
agreeing, exa(5tly,
with the quantity given in the liable. And in the very fame manner, the proper corrections correfponding to other anomalies and excentricities may be computed 3 the error ne^'cr amounting to above a fingle fecond in any of the planets, except Mars and Mercury : in the place of Mars^ the greateft error will be two or three fecond s j and in that of Mercury^ As to the Earth and Venus ^ the feabout as many minutes. cond equation, alone, will be fufficient to give their places to
—
lefs
than a fecond.
obtain
To
fary
a
farther
is
when
the orbit
only)
a
very eccentrical,
the two
firfi;
make
be necefof a greater number of terms of ufe of
correcftion,
which
will
we may
(=:
(inftead
the feries ^
a
— ^ + ^^ — ^^^ ^c.
a
a
'
.
,
V
/
by
.
^ {
cx\
which means the fluxion
defcribed about the focus
will
{{b'z
S,
J===^ a cx\
+
J J
of the area
MSA
which
is
proportional to the time,
be here reprefented by
'\b'^z \
\F X e'y'z
—
;
2.e'>>y''xz
+
'^e^y'x^z
—
\e^y'^x'^%
&c. (fup(fin. z\^)
pofmge
•=.
fin,
'^
=—
\
'.
But
it
is
well
known
that
y"^
~ z
cofin.
2z whence y'^x [=. y^ x cofin. 2;) ^ co~ cofin. z cofin. 2z X cofin. z \ cofin. z ^ cofin. z 32; * \ cofin. 32; j and therefore y'x'
\ cofin.
=
—
=
—
=
—
* This, and
all
that follows to the farr.e purpofe,
application of the
Theorem,
is
That
to
the re£iangle
(the radius being unity)
equal
half the
fum
is nothing more than the of the cofines of any ttvo angles of the cofmes of the fum and
difference of ihofe angles.
the Place
of a Planet in
its
Orbit,
c r
=
fin.
I
2z — i
y'^x'^
cofin.
2;
X cofin. z
cofin. 22;
—\
:z
alfo
— yV
=:
V cofin.
cofin. 3 2;
— yV
—
— —^
e"
\
cofin. 32;
cofin. 42;
x =—
\
cofin.
\
z =: ^
cofin.
t" ^ co\z: whence
cofin. 42;
x
cofin.
z =:
i cofin.
z
cofin. 52;.
Which
values being
now
fiib
ftituted for their equals,
our fluxion, above given, will become
j l^'z
f
^^'
—
f"
2f^
X 2; cof. z V X 32;cof. 32;! 3(f^ 4^5 X 2;cof.2; jV X 32;cof. 32^
confequently,
the
fluent
—
into
X jz
—

—
x x
22:
c
2;
—
^
co fin. 2z
'~
—
x
42: cof.42;
g^
— ^fin.22:2d3xf2;^^'f.3if3g X iz — j\fm.4.z — X — &c. := \F 2% —
X ^z
46'5'
and,
thereof
x ^zcoL^z \&c. =: ^^z f li?^ into
into
ifine2;
i^'''
j'w^^^g
g^'
fine, 52;
^ii^
.
+ P~+ 7^ X
J
+
T^'
X ^
—
T^^
fin. 32;
— l^fin.
+
1.^^
X
f
^
—
i^'fin.
^z

42;
'~ fin.
52 (fuppofing
all
more than five dimenfions, to be This expreflion, when z =z p (= the femicirdifregarded). {e^ \ \e^ &c. x p =z cumference AEK) becomes i^' x i
fuch terms wherein
e rifes to
U'pxi
— eer^ — ~~L= =
/i — —
^^^2;
+
^/'^ ^ ^
v^^^'
—
=:
i^al^p
^^
=
the area
of the femiellipfe ABP.
ABP)
(area
:
—
:
:
Hence
it
will be,
as ^al?p
(area
^^'x^^3_^i.^5 xfin.2;
—
1^' xj^^fin.22; &c.
:
ASM)
j4j
p
(the length of
an arch of 180°)
2;
—
— x<f34ifS
arch
fubfi:ituting
xfin.2;
X fin. 22;
we have
&c.
= the length
:
of the
exprefiing the planet's
mean anomaly
whence, by
/=
,
i
A= z—
32
i^e^xi'fe^rm.z
—
jfe'^ fin. 22; f I
+
x
T^^
3fir..f.r. .^ifX ^fi^ fin. 32; —~ ^^— x fin. 42; \'— x
fine
20
Sz.
Now,
afilime
to find
its
the fines of
multiples,
from hence the value of 2r, in terms of A and we may, for a firfl: approximation,
ife^ fm.
i\£^
z
f
jfe^{m.2z ^c.
as
equal to
ye'fm. 2 A X T>3 fin. A T+J? X ^fi^ fin. 3 A GrV. which laft quantity being denoted by ^, we fhall have A A  Q;_ z Q, and confequently 2; But 2
7+7
+
—
—
H
=
=
^2
But
coiin.
fin.
A very exaB Method for jindmg
A
=
z
(= fin. A + Q)
fin.
=
=
fin.
Ax
cofin.
A f Qx cofin. A,
Q f
fin.
Qx
nearly (becaufe
Q^being
very fmall, its cofine will differ infenfibly from the radius, and the fine very little from the arch itfelf). In the fame
f 2A f 2(ix cof 2A, fin. 32; manner, f 2z (= f 2 A  2Q) r= f. 3 A j 3 Qx cof. 3 A, ^c. Which values being therefore fubflituted in the given equation,
it
A = z — ^— ^^ 7+7 X lyg^cof A f ^//cof 2 A — 7+ 17 X iy^3 cof 3 a ^c.
will
become
But the
into
terms having more than five dimenfions € be negleded) will be barely of \fe'>> x cofin. ^y^'fin. 2A lyV X cofin. x fin.2A tV/'^^ >^
(if all
fin.
Ax — — =— = A 3A fame manner x — 0^= — In — K — — ^fe^ x 2A X ^>3fin.A + T>Tin. 2A 4A x x A fin.3A — fin.A — tV/ — Q^qual — + X A x And, 3A X Q1= ^ A x X — A. The fum of which = ^/"e^ X 5A be V/^^fin.A — r\fe^im.iA — '^feHm.^A +_Jwfe^ — —Q 5A which added x A— A=:z — + — A, &c.) — py x 3A — X ^elffm.A^ i//fin.2A + 7+
—Q
f
iirft
term of the
feries,
i
j^^
X
Yy^^cofin.
A, drawn
=
finTA.
the
fe'o.oim.'zk
^J^^cofin.
^fe^im.i
'^^
fin.
f
//V5
fin.
5 Affin.
Iafi:ly,
i
t^'
i/^'3 cofin.
f/^' cofin. 3 cofin. 3 fe^'
to
fin.
fin.
all
i/^' fin. 2 will
fin.
;
to
2;
(or
its
equal,
2;
i
)f^
^fe^
fin.
jfe'' fin.
2
gives
i
^'
TTfi'
^e^
lelfnn.
I7Rf
we
I
X ^fin.4A f \f\.Jfe^ x fin.5A. From whence
have
z
—
all
K
^
1
f ^'^ x
i^!/fin.
A + ^/fin. 2 A
—
5,
— ^ X
i<?*/fin.3A 
i^Vin.4A
— 3ZlZfin.5A, very near
the quantities
terms having more than three dimenfions of ^, i and^ may be ufed indifferently, for each other, without producing any errors but fuch as confiil of more than five dimenfions of the converging quantity e.
becaufe in
But, fince
5A
by
= 5S — 2oS3
it
is
known
j
that fin. 3
A
= 3S —
S^,
and
fin.
i6S^ (S being the fine of
A) we
Ihall,
fubfi:ituting thefe values in
the 2d, 4th, and 6th terms (after proper
the Place of
proper reduction) have
a Planet in
r=
its
Orbit,
x
\e'^f^^^
c
3
2;
A 
i
 4^^'
— IZfZss
+
i^'/xfin.
2A
+
^^xfin.4A.
Hence
it
appears that
180x60x60
X i+4^^x f ^ys^— 2^/S5
+ i/fl 2 A + ifZlf. 4A
will exprefs the number of feconds, to be added to the mean anomaly, in order to have the angle at the upper focus of the elliplis, correfponding to that anomaly. From vv^hence is deduced the following method of calculation.
AFM
Let
by
the logarithm of half the lelTer axis divided the log. of the eccentricity divided by half the greater,
F denote
the log. of the fum of the fquares of half the greater axis and twice the eccentricity divided by the fquare of half the greater axis.
half the greater axis,
E G
Take P
= 1,71277 + E + F f 0^1,14130+ E+iF, R = 4,71236 + 2E 4 F, S = 4,50824 4 4E 4 2F
;
lG,
then the logarithms of four equations (in feconds), to be applied to the mean anomaly (A), will be
3
R+
S
X P 5 X
 log, fin.
A
—
log, rad .
A [ log ^in. 4 A
log. fin. 2
firfi: is
Q+
log. fin.
— —
A
—
log. rad.
log. rad.
log. rad.
always to be added, and the fecond always fubtradted ; the other two being to be added, or fubtrad:ed, according as the fines of their refpediive arguments,
Of which
equations the
2A and 4A, are pofitive, or The two principal of thefe
given
laid
5
negative.
equations agree with thofe before and are the fame, in effect, with the two equations
(without demonftration) by Sir Isaac Newton, 3 1 fi: Propofition of the firfi: book of his Frincipia. The latter of which, in the haws of the Moons Motion^ prefixed to that Work, feems to be reprefented, as defective J it being there aflerted, that, the inequality in the tnotion
down
in the
Scholium to the
of a planet about the upper focus, confifis of three parts j as if the nature of the fubjedt admitted of jufi: that number, and no
more
54
more
leries,
j
Avery
whereas the
are without
ration,
exaSi
parts,
Method for finding
or equations arifing in the confideinfinite
is
number, being the terms of an
the
converging quantity. Sir Isaac Newton has given two terms of this feries, which are right but the new equation added by his Commentator^ is not fo; the fign thereof, the coefficient, and the law by which
;
wherein the eccentricity
increafes and decreafes, being ought to be.
it
ail
different
from what they
This equation
(exprefi"ed according to the
above notation,
lefi^er
where
e
i
reprefents half the greater axis,
the eccentricity, and
~e^
A
f
half the
axis,
the
mean anomaly) he makes
But
it
to
be
—
X
fin.
A
I
'
X
cofin.
A.
ought
is
to be
4
^^"^^^^
x
f^fin.4A
(=
^ X
fin.4A, nearly), as
fhewn above;
this
feries, and the next in order by Sir Isaac Newton j who appears, more than once*, to have been difadvantageoufly (I might fay, unfairly) reprefented, and that, under the covers of his own book a circumfiiance that cannot be attended to without feme concern and diflike, by thofe Avho entertain a due regard for the merit of an Author to whom the mathematical world is fo
being the 3d term of the general
after thofe given
:
much
I
indebted.
fingle example of the ufe of the wherein I fliall fuppofe the eccentrij city to be tVVVVV parts of the femitranfverfe axis (the fame as is affigned by Dr. Halle y to the orbit of Mercury). Here,
fliall
now
put
down one
equations above derived
then,
flog.!
— =—
ee)
we have E
whence P
=
F (=;= log.\/i ee 1)313^35 0,009406; G (= log. if4d'f):=z 0,068024 J 1,046 ; 03=0,4533 R 3,3302; 1,744:
==:
J
—
=
=
S=
* In the 28th Propofition of
his third
is
book,
it
is
found that the moon's
diftance from the earth in the fyzigics
to thediftance in the quadratures (fet
ting afide the confideration of eccentricity) as 6g to 70 ; which is confirmed by what is demonftrated in a fubfequent part of this our Work, as well as by the
calculations of others
ftion,
;
ncvcrthclefs the truth of this proportion
is
is
called in
and a new one
laid
down, which makes the
faid diftances to
p.
quebe in
the proportion of
59
to 6c.
See
Laws
of the Moon's Motion,
11 and 12.
which
the Place of
a Planet in
its
Orbit.
55
which values
will fcrve in all
cafes belonging to this orbit.
Whence, fuppofing
1,0460 9^8842
the given anomaly to be 50°,
we have
0,4530 9^8842
0,3372
5
3>3302 9>9933
3^3235
1,744 9>534
1^278.
0,9302
3
2,7906
1,6860
Of which
refulting logarithms, the
numbers correlponding
are
6i7f, 48^, 2106', and 19; whereof the firft and third being added, and the other tv/o fubtra6ted, we have 50® 44' 16" for the corrected anomaly, or the angle at the upper focus j whereof the half is 25^22' 8''
Therefore log. tang. 25° 22'
[ log.
8''
of the
ratio
of the
gr.
and
leaft difc.
956759338 1,8185730
9,4945068.
=
Which
log. tang.
~
true
is
anomaly ij° 20'
28''
conclufion
this
true to a fecond.
Nor
will the error, in
any part of
orbit,
amount
to
more than about two or
ilill
three feconds.
— If you would have the refuit depended on to a
be fuppofed
fingle fecond, or if the orbit
than that of Mercury, then the
ufe.
more eccentrical following method may be of
is
Say, as half the greater axis of the eliipfis
tricity,
to the eccenline
fo
is
the fine of the
angle J which fubtradt from the
line
mean anomaly to the mean anomaly, and
of an
to the log.
of the remainder (which I call the eccentric anomaly) add the fum of the log. of the eccentricity and the conftant log. 1,758123 the aggregate (rejecting the radius) will be the logarithm of an angle, in degrees and decimal parts y which, fubtraded from the angle firfl found, leaves a corrediion to be added (under its proper ('^gn) to the mean anomaly: with
:
which corredied anomaly, let the whole operation be repeated, if needful, by always adding the laf^ correction to the mean
anomaly.
iipfis is
Then
it
will be,
is
as the greater femiaxis
of
tlie el
the tangent of the corrected anomaly to the tangent of the angle at the upper focus of the elliplis
to the leiTer, fo
v/hence the angle
at
the lower focus>orthe true anomaly,
may
alfa
56
alfo
A very exaSi Method for finding
be known by the
common
proportion, and that to any
affigncd degree of cxadlnefs.
This method,
in all the planets, except
Mars and Mercwy^
anfwers to a fecond, at one operation. In the former of thefe two, the error, when greateft, will amount to about three or four feconds ^ and in the latter, to nearly as many minutes
in
which
is
cafe,
three operations will be neceffary
:
to avoid that trouble, the following calculation
may
but in order be ufed
which
to lefs
even in the orbit of Mercury, than half a fecond, without repeating the operation.
fo exadt as to anfwer,
twice the log. of the eccentricity, the log. fecant of the angle firfl found (as above), and the log. cofnie of the
Add together
mean anomaly once corof which angles the feconds may be negledled). The aggregate (fubtra6ting twice the radius) will be the log. of a fraction to be added to unity, when the iaid fum of anomabut otherwife, fubtraded therelies is between 90 and 270° from then the log. of this fum, or remainder being fubtradled from the log. of the firfl: correction, you will have the log. of the true correction to be added (under its proper iign) to the
fum of
reded
the eccentric anomaly and
(in all
,
:
mean anomaly
Thus,
pie).
given.
for example, let the
the eccentricity be
= 0,20589
mean anomaly be 70
(as in
j
and
let
the preceding exam
Here, fm.
mean anom. 70°
firft
9,9729858
log. eccent
.*.
ang.
found
= ii°9'j33
anomaly
:
ilSil^iH
9,286621
13
whence 58° 50^67
whofe

= the
eccentric
fine
.
.
=
which
1
the log. proper for the orbit
log.
of
1
0^,0952
equal,
firfV
9593^3552 1,0717583 1,0041135:
angle, or
its
1° 9',33,
leaves the
lo* 5^71 , being fubtraCted from corredion 1° 3',62 63',62.
=
Moreover,
the Place of
a Planet
in
its
Orbit.
57
50',
Moreover, by adding together 70°, have 129° 53', whofe cofine [ fee. 11° 9' ang. firil found
1° 3',
and 58°
wc
.
.
.
9,8070 10,0083
2,6272 2,4425
+ twice
log. eccent
=
log.
of 0,0272
firft
Log.
=
whofe
j log.
—
cor.
63^62
....
log. log.
1,0272
true cor. 61^,9
1,80359 0,01187
... 1,79172
Z:' ^
Now the mean anom. + true cor. = 71* i' g, 7
log. tang.
. .
0.4638087
1,990594a
z
o
n
=
of the femiconjugate axis of
70''
......
log. tang,
38^,82
10,4544027
And the
} log.
log. tang,
of the half hereof, 35°i9',4i of the
gr.
of the
ratio
and
leaft diftances
=
log. tang,
of 25^ i',o2
2^,04, or 50° 2! 2",
is
9,8504350 1,8185730 9,6690080
whofe double 50°
quired.
the true anomaly re
A DE
A
DETERMINATION
Difference
OF THE between the Motion of
a
Comet
in
an
Elliptic,
and a Parabolic Orbit.
Fig. 19.
K"^)**^ET PNG be a parabola, and PBH a very excentrical g= L =g ellipfis, having the fame focus S, and vertex P vs^ith
^^^ parabola let moreover and n be confidered as cotemporary pofitions of tv70 bodies, in thefe orbits,, moving from the perihelion P at the fame time, about the fun in the focus S. Make NBC perpendicular to PSO, and call PC, X PS, Cj and the greater axis of the ellipfis, a : then
t^kjHt
,
N
',
the
leiTer axis will
and the ordinate
= 2s/'cx7^c, BC = J 2v
be
the parameter
^
1
=
Ifiuli^^
(by the proper*
X
I
I
— 1= 2cV'
CN
^
.1
X
L
la
^j nearly.
la
This
lafl
taken from
(:=
2c^x^^,
by the nature of the parabola)
leaves
fV x— a
+ — = ^Nj
a
which being multiplied by x and the
I
I
fluent found,
we
thence
or
have ex^ x
—^
H
:
for the meafure of the area
NPB,
NPi;, very near
which fubtraded from the area
2c'x''
NSP (=
CN X 4PC
c^x"
X <^+f ^)>
— CN X CS = 2rx^ X \x — X ———— = X +
leaves
c^x""
<r
'.x^^c
=
Ar
the
4^,
area
I'PS.
Moreover, the parameter of the parabola being
and
that
of the Difference of Motwt
that of the ellipfis z=r IfiZllff^
is
of a Cornet^ &c.
to
59
fo
we have >/ a,c
J — ""
c'x^
^'\
the parabolic area
NSP
{c^x^y,c\^~x) to the correfpondingj
or cotemporary elliptical area ?2SP r=:
=r. c'x^
^
c^'x''
i
—x
^
Xc\
'x
X
I
X
c^\\^
(nearly)
=
xc{\x
Cx^ x
——
2a
~
5c^
i
which fubdudled from the area ^'PS,
leaves
^
2«
c=
the area
i;S;z.
be fuppofed perpendicular to the tangent NA, Let now then SM, SN, and SA will be all meeting the axis In ; equal to each other, by the nature of the parabola; and con
NM
M
fequently the angle
(to the radius
I
:
PMN equal to half PSN
be denoted by %
{zex"^)
5
;
Vv^hofe
it
tangent
be, as
i )
let
:
:
whence
v/ill
2i
:
:
MG (2c) CN
la
 St;
and confequently x
=
cz'
Which
=. czy,
value being fubftituted in the area v%n^ it will become 77 CC 2f*z4 C^Z 1 J.l J'  fV
la
vided by
f
= — XI — ^ — (=: ^yic ^ x = x + ^«
5^
1A
t2J^ J ^iid this di*
jc*
i
),
gives
—x
^~ Z*
I __
—^ — z*
'
^ for
the meafure of the angle ^St^, in parts of the
If
zz
( i).
radius
Therefore,
^
be put
= 3437 =:
the
number of
i
minutes in an arch equal to the radius, and u =.
it is
+ zzj
faid
evident that
—y^mu
a
will exprefs the
^
meafure of the
angle in minutes of a degree. To find noW the ratio ^n to SN, which flill remains to be determined, we have (by TriT gonometry) Ni; ^ ^
^
V
K
=
fin.B
^
„
,
x
BN
2;
nXT
=±
fin.
.
fin.B'i;]:'
fin.
—AFC x BN — AFb
r^^
^^
tjxt
lin.
==:
r—z^
cofm.
M M
X
BN
==
tang. o
I
M x BN ==
:
x
ex''
x ^^ n
=
2;
x
C2r
x i
a
it
•=.
—X
+
1
^rsr.
Alfo (fuppofing nb perpendicular to
Si;)
will be, as
(radius)

(the arch meafuring the angle
I a
/zSu)
6o
\\ c
y.
Of
the Difference of
Motion of a Comet
«/^
i\zz (== Sw, nearly)
:
= —x +
i
:
z;s
:
whence,
again,
by
fimiiar triangles,
i
:
;s (:
CM
to
:
CN)
Ni?
:
:
— x \\%z
1+2:2;,
to
is
(nb)
gives
:
hv =z
—
x
z^
i
+
;s2; ;
this
added
:
= ^^x
N^
I
=—X
 2;
X
I
\
zz
which therefore
SN
re
[ex
j 2;2;) as
—xu'\z
S;2
to unity;
and confequently the
quired proportion of
unity.
(or S^) to
SN,
as
i
—x
z^
 2; to
From
puted
this laft
concluHon, and that derived above, exhibitis
ing the value of the angle NS;z, the following Table
com
column, the co5 met's longitude from the perihelion, as given from the hypothefis of a parabolic orbit (either by Dr. Halley's Table, or any other of the like kind) ; againft which, in the third column, you have the logarithm of a number of minutes (expreiTed in the fecond column) from which fubtradling the logarithm of the ratio of the greater axe of the ellipfe divided by the perihelion diftance, the remainder will be the logarithm of a number of minutes to be added to, or fubtra(fted from the aforefaid longitude, as the Table directs : whereby the comet's longitude, for the fame time, in the elliptic orbit will be given. And if, from the logarithm found in the fourth column, the logarithm of the fame ratio be alfo fubtraded, the remainder, abating 10, will be the logarithm of a quantity to be taken from the logarithm of the comet's diftance from the fun, computed according to the aforefaid hypotheiis.
is
whofe ufe
thus
:
Find, in the
firfc
;
Thus, for example, let the greater axis of the ellipfls be fuppofed 35,727, and the perihelion diftance m: 0,5825' (anfwering to the orbit of the comet of the year eightytwo) ; and let the longitude from the perihelion, according to Dr.
=
Halley's Table, computed
for a parabolic orbit,
be 44^
3' 20',
correfponding to which, the logarithm of the diflance from the fUA
in
fun
given
an
elliptic
and a
parabolic Orbit,
log.
6i
be
is
=0,065838.
Here, then, the
of
'h^il21
ing r=: 1,7877, this value is to be fubtraded from both the logarithms 2,9228 and 9,0555, {landing againft 44", in the third and fourdi columns of the annexed Table from whence
:
two quantities 13',65 and 0,001853 ^ which being fubtradted from 44° 3' 20", and 0,065838, the required longitude from the perihelion is given from thence 43° 49' 41", and the logarithm of the comet's diftancc from the fun =: 0,063985.
wiJl be found the
=
The fame Table, not only furnifhes an eafy way, for deducing the motion in an elliptic orbit, from the motion in a parabolic one, but may be farther ufeful in determining, in fome degree, the fpecies of the ellipHs which a new comet defcribes, when the obfervations thereon are found to diifer fenfibly from the places computed according to the hypothefis of a parabolic orbit.
Of the
Difference of Motion of a Comet
An Attempt
Taking
the
in pradical
to
fhew the Advantage
of a
arifing
by
Mean
Number
of Cbfervatior.s,
Afironomy.
^5^^^ HOUGH the method pradlifed by AJlronomers, in order to diminiih the errors ariiing from the imperV ^ ^
si^"?s^
fe^tion of inftruments
and of the organs of
feveral obfervations, is
fenfe,
by
taking the
that I
mean of
of very
it
great utility, and almofi: univerlally followed, yet has
not,
know
of,
been hitherto fubjeded to any kind of demon
ftration.
is attempted to be thrown on the in order to the applimathematical principles fubjed:, from cation of which, it feemed ncceflary to lay down the following
In this EiTay, fome light
:
fuppoiitions.
1. That there is nothing in the ccnflrudiion, or poiition of the inllirument whereby the errors are conftantly made to tend the fame way, but that the refpedtive chances for their hap
pening in excefs, and in defect, are either accurately, or nearly, the fame. 2. That there are certain affignable limits between which all thefe errors may be fuppofed to fall ; which limits depend on the goodnefs of the inftrument and the fkill of the obferver. Thefe particulars being premifed, I fhall deliver what I have to offer on the fubj^dt, in the following Proportions.
PROPOSITION
Siippofing that the feveral chances
I.
for the different errors that
anv
Ji'igle ohfervatioii
can admit
of]
the feries
r""^ r~% r~^ where the exponents denote the quantities and
are exprejj'ed by the tei'ms of r~% r% r\ r% r^ r""
,
qualities
of the re
IpeBive errors, and the terms themfehes, the refpeBive cha?icesfor their happening ; it is prcpofed to determine the probability y or
oddsy
Of
obfervations^
the
Advantage
takmg
arifi^ig^
6cc.
65
odds^ that the errors by
the mea?i of
a given number (n) of
(
exceeds not a given quantity
—
)
It
is
evident from the lav^s of chance, that,
all
if
the given
feries
\r'"\
r""
r3jr~='+r^+r°f^'+^'+^^
the chances in one obfervation,
be raifed to the «th power, the terms of the feries thence ariling w^ill truly exhibit all the different chances in all the propofed (n) obfervaBut in order to raife this power, with the greatefl: facitions.
expreffing
lity,
our given
feries
may be
reduced to r~'"x
(by the
fumming up the terms of a geometrical prowhereof the nth power (making w z=i2v \ ) will greffion) be r"""^ X 1 — r™r x i—n~''j which expanded, becomes ^ " ^ ^^iu — ^ " ^ ^^w— «i; nv jj^w — nv ^— _f_ "^ ^^^ " I 2
known
rule for
,
1
nv
I
!!_
^ '
X
into i47zr^
'
..L—.—i—r^ — .— —^—r '12 'i2 '12
\
1*2*3
^
^
*
3
\
i
!
3
4
Now, to find from hence the fum of all the chances, whereby the excefs of the pofitive errors above the negative ones, can amount to a given number m precifely, it will be fufficient (inftead of multiplying the former feries by the whole of the latter) to multiply by fuch terms of the latter only, as are neceflary to the producftion
of the given exponent m^ in queftion.
term (r"""^) of the former feries, is to be multerm of the fecond whofe exponent is nv \ jn, tiplied by in order that the power of r, in the product, may be r*" : but it is plain, from the law of the feries, that the coefficient of
Thus
the
firfl:
that
this
term (putting jiv^m^izq) will be
— .^^i^.^i^.^^^^(^),
x r^
q being the
number of fadtors
j
and, confequently, that the pro
dud
under confideration vdll be
1 .1±1 .1±1 ."^^ {a)
1234
—
wr'*'""', Again, the fecond term of the former feries being the exponent of the correfponding term of the 'latter muft therefore be \ nv \ m {z=: q w), and the term it
—
—w
K
felf,
65
Of the Advantage
felf,
arifmg by "taking the
'iv)
Mean
 .'!±J J!±2.
',
in
—
X r?~'^;
which, drawn into
— ;/r—
In
nent
gives
^.^.^±i (^
third
— ^)
3
x nr^
for the fecond
term required.
like
is ;;^,
manner the
will
term of the produ6t whofe expo
be found,
all
^.^±i.dl3(^— 2i£;)x.^=^r.
the terms, having the fame, given exponent, will confequently be
And
12
^^^
'11
the
fum of
12
12
n n\\
3
4
3
4^^
(
123
—
From which
I,
nAn nA'l
4
^12 w— ^^12
\
^
n
I
«
—2
3
„
general expreflion,
2 ^c, fucceflively, the fum of f 2, chances whereby the difference of the politive and negative errors can fall within the propofed limits ({ m^ m) will be found which divided by the total of all the chances, or
—
by expounding
;;?
by
o, f i,^ the feveral
—
:
be the true meafure of the the advantage, by taking the mean of feveral obfervations, might be made to appear but this will be fhewn more properly in the next Propofition which is better adapted, and to which this is premifed, as a ljemma»
I I
r"^x
— H"x —
rj""*,
will
probability fought.
From whence
REMARK.
or the chances for the politive, and the negative errors be fuppofed accurately the fame j then our exprefTion, by expunging the powers of r, will be the very fame with that Hiewing the chances for throwing n ^ q points, precifely, with n dice, each die having as many faces {iv) as the refult of any one finglc obfervation can come out different ways. Which may be made to appear, independent of any kind
If r be taken
^m,
of a Nujnher ofObfervations htpraSilcalAftronomy.
kind of calculation, from the bare confideration, that the chances for throwing, precifely, the number m^ with n dice, i) whereof the faces, of each, are numbered 3, o, +1, f^j 3.... muil; be the I, 'u, 2, very fame as the chances whereby the pofitive errors can exceed the negative ones by that precife number: but the former are, evidently, the fame as the chances for throwing precifely
—
—
—
—
+
—
with the fame n dice', when they are numbered in the common way, v/ith the terms of the natural progreffion i, 2, 3, 4, 5, and fo onj becaufe the number upon each face being, here.^ increafed by v^i^ the whole incrcafe upon all the (n) faces will be expreffed by
the
'v \ i
number
xn\m
(or;z
+
^)
'u
j I
X ?z
;
fo that there will be, now^ the very
•\
fame chances
for the
number v\ \y.n
m^ as there was before for the
number m j fince the chances for throwing any faces affigned will continue the fame, however thofe faces are numbered.
PROPOSITION
11.
Suppojing the refpeBive chances for the different errors, which any Jingle obfervation can admit of to be erpreffed by the terms of y"^"" J^c^ j^ i,r° ^^r'^z the feries r~'" \ 2r''" \
(whereof the coeffcients^from the middle one ('Ufi decreaje both ways, according to the terms of an arithmetical pro__j_
2;r'^— I __
j^v
grejjion)
,
it
is
error, by takitig the
propofed to find the probability, or odds, that the mean of a given 7iumber {t) of obfervations,
).
exceeds not
a given quantity (—
Following the method laid down in the preceding propofition, the fum, or value of the feries here propofed will appear
to be

I—
and
—
(being the fame with the fquare of the

geometrical progreffion r~^ x i the power thereof whofe exponent
r^ \ r^ { r {is
+^'")
t
w=
(by making n
'u
+
i) will therefore
^
be
r~''"
nr"
J"
— 1 .^nlr^'^'^ — G?c. into + nr + ^ '12
n
x
i
—
r'^\"
x
i
= — ^T"
2 t,
•
^^^
n
i
•
I
K
2
68
Of the Advantage
*—^r
2
'
arljing by leaking the
Mean
° the
+ — .licl .1x2^3 4 ^c.
I
Which two
feries's beiner
2
'
3
fame with thofe
in
the preceding
that the exponents in the former of
Problem (excepting only, them are expreffed in terms
of /j inllead oi n) it is plain, that, if q be here put z=.tV'\ m (inflead of iiv \ m) the conclufion there brought out will aniwer equally here 5 and confequently that the fum of all the chances, whereby the excefs of the politive errors, above the
negative ones, can
amount
to the given
number
niy
precifely,
will here, alfo, be truly defined
by
4—
'12?— — k42/ 12
.
[q]
^^^
X r"
\ v.
3
n
n\i
...^
3
— .Jj—.—l—lq
123^^
2'K^)
— ^12
X
.
r"^
12
3^^'^'l2
3
But this general expreffion, as feveral of the factors in the numerators and denominators mutually deftroy each other, may
be transformed to another more commodious.
Thus
will
the quantity
.^i^.^i^
(^), in
the
firft
line,
by
breaking the numerator and denominator, each mto two parts,
become
2
.
I.
3
.
4
n.n{i,n{2.fi\2
?
which, by equal
divifion, is
reduced to
q
?+l.^ + 2.g+3
I
.
^
n
n
—
I
/>
J
____
2
.
3
^lI
—
I
y+« — I.yf^— 2.y + » — 3
1
.
__
f,
—
2
.
3
«I
— — 12*3^
2 p
/
V
^''
fuppofing
p
z=z q \'
n
z=z
tv ^
?n \ n.
In the
very fame manner, by making q^^=q
p'z=:q
]
n (=/>
— w)
it
appears that
— w, and —.—tl^lT^ —
(^q
^w)
of a Number of Obfervations in praSikalAflronomy
6g
=
^
.
'
— —
 (n
2 3
i)
^c.
Confequently our whole
p"' ==.
given expreffion (making p" ^=.
will be transformed to
p
— aw,
—
i)
p ^ ywy
&c.)
'
I
—
+
/*
—
I
1
J
^
/>—
^
/>—
3
3
^^
X
«r'"
2
~
.2
X
^ 3
^ (n
^
— '12 X —
l)
I
*r?
I
2
3
123
,
be continued till fome of the fadors become nothing, or negative and which, when r == i is the very fame with that exhibiting the number of chances for p points, precifely, on n dice, having each w faces.
expreffion
is
Which
to
,
And,
cefs
it
in this cafe,
where the chances
for the errors in
is
ex
and
in defed: are the fame, the folution
the moil iimple
can be ; lince, from the chances above determined, anfwering to the number p precifely, the fum of the chances for all the inferior numbers to />, may be readily obtained, being given
(from the method of increments) equal to
^~
^
~
'^
J*
,tiz3. {n)
I
2 2
3
I
2t
3^'j2
The
dif3
_Clz:i.£r=£.£j:^
I
3^^I2
{„)
X l."zzl.".z:l^&c.
ference between which and half (ic;") the fum of all the chances (which difference I fhall denote by D) will confequently be the true number of the chances whereby the errors in excefs (or in defed) can fall within the given limit {m) : fo
that
—
^
will be the true meafure of the required probability,
that the error,
by taking the mean of
t obfervations,
exceeds
not the quantity
—
propofed.
But
70
Of the Adva7itage
ariftng hy I'alwtg the
Mean
But now, to illuftrate this by an example, from whence the utility of the method in pradice may clearly appear, it will be neceilary, in the firft place, to affign fome number for i;, expreffing the limits of the errors to which any obfervation is Thefe limits indeed (as has been before obferved) fubjecfl. depend on the goodnefs of the inftrument, and the ilcill of the
obferver
here fuppofe, that every obfervation may be relied on, to five feconds ; and that the chances for the fe:
but
I fhall
veral errors
i, ]2, included within the limits thus afTigned,  '^\ _ ^\ ^\ are refpeftively proportional to the terms of the feries 1, 2, 3, Which feries is much better adapted, 4, 5, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, I.
_
— 5, — 4, — 3, — 2, — 1,0,
;
highly reafonable to fuppofe, that the chances for the refpeftive errors decreafe, in proportion as the errors themfelves increafc. Thefe particulars being premifed, let it be now required to
than
if all
the terms were to be equal
fince
it
is
find
what the probability, or chance for an error of i, 2, 3, 4, or 5 feconds will be, when, inflead of relying on one, the mean of fix obfervations is taken.
=
Here,
12,
"o being 5, and / w(z=zv\\)=zb^ 2xAp
=
=
6,
we
fhall
(z=tij\n\77i)
have n (:= it) ^=L\i\7n:
but the value of m^ if we firfl feek the chances whereby the error exceeds not one fecond, will be had from the equation
—=+
I
;
where
either fign
may be
is
ufed (the chances being
the fame) but the negative one
/=
whence we have
3o,
m (=
^c.
— =—6
/)
the mod;
;
commodious
:
and therefore />
=
from
36,
/=24,
Which
values being fubfi:ituted in
it
the general exprefiion
above determined,
(j2) X 12 J \
will
become ^.M.13/j2):
—
1:1,
— ._Z
==:
+^.^.il (12) '123^'^
X 66^17.1^.15 (j2)
123^'
X220
:
299576368: andthisfubtradedfrom 108839 1 168 (=ix6"), therefore leaves 7888 1480, for the value of Z) correfponding the required probability that the error, by taking the mean of fix obfervations, exceeds not a {m^e. fecojtd, will be truly meafured by the fradion y
^^^^'^Soo
1088391168
^^^ confequently the odds
^^.jj
of a Number of
will be as
Obfervatio7is inpraEiicalAflro7totny.
to
7
i.
is
788814800
299576368, or nearly
as
2^
to
But the odds, or proportion, when one
taken, '
is
fingle obfervation
only as 16 to 20, or as
•'
— to 10
let
o
i.
To
Avithin
iliall
determine, now, the probability that the refult comes
two feconds of the
truth,
:
—
be made
p"
z=. 18, Gfr.
—
.
r
— 12 and our whence D = 10523 36079407
m (=
—
;
2t)r=z
/? 30, general expreffion will here
therefore
=— = /=
2
;
fo
24,
come out
11 761.
Confequently
^°^^^"^,^ will be the true meafure of the probability fought ^ 108839116S
JO
and the odds, or proportion of the chances, will therefore be that of 10523 1 1 76 1 to 36079407, or as 29 to I, nearly. But
the proportion, or odds, when a iingle obfervation is taken, is only as 2 to I : fo that the chance for an error exceeding two
feconds,
is
from one
as not P^^^ ^^ great, from the mean of fix, fingle obfervation. And it will be found in the fame
—^^
manner, that the chance for an error exceeding three feconds is not here —— part fo great as it will be from one obfervation Upon the whole of which it appears, that, the taking only. mean of a number of obfervations, greatly diminifhes of the the chances for all the fmaller errors, and cuts off almolT: all which lafl: confideration alone is poffibility of any large ones to recommend the ufe of the method, not only to fufficient AJlronomerSy but to all Others concerned in making experiments,, or obfervations of any kind, which will allow of being repeated under the fame circumflances.
:
In the preceding calculations, the different errors to which any obfervation is fuppofed fubjedt, are retrained to whole quantities, or a certain, precife, number of feconds ; it being impoffible, from the moft exad: infiiruments, to take off the
But I ihall now fhew how the chances may be computed, when the error admits of any value whatever, whole or broken, Vv'ithin the proquantity of an angle to a geometrical exaBnejs.
pofed limits, or when the refult of each obfervation pofed to be accurately known.
is
fup
Let
v?)
72
Fig. 20.
Of the Advantage arifing
Let, then, the line
by 'Taking the
Mean
whole extent of the given interval, within which all the obfervations are fuppofed to fall ; and conceive the fame to be divided into an exceeding great number of very fmall, equal particles, by perpendiculars
reprefent the
AB
terminating in the fides
AD, BD of an ifofceles triangle ABD, formed upon the bafe AB and let the probability or chance whereby the refult of any obfervation tends to fall within any
:
of thefe very fmall intervals N//, be proportional to the correthen, fince iponding area NM;;z;z, or to the perpendicular thefe chances (or areas) reckoning from the extremes A and B, increafe according to the terms of the arithmetical progreffion J, 2, 3, 4, &c, it is evident that the cafe is here the fame only, as the number with that in the latter part of Prop. 11.
NM^
,
V
all
(expreffing the particles in
(finite)
AC
or
BC)
or
its
is
indefinitely great,
quantities joined to
nj,
multiples, with the
figns
of addition or fubtra(ftion, will here vaniili, as being noBy which means the general exthing in comparifon of 'u.
prefiion
(X^^ /^^ .^1 p
{?i)
—
2

—
I
^.^
.^^
{n)
x n
\
p
—ip
I
—
•
3
/
\
'^
^
;?)
j^
^
^_ZZl
^c.
)
there determined,
1
will
2
3
.
^
/
here
become
A A A — i,I,£.(n)xn, &c. = 123^^
.
(
123
,
i.2.34(«)
——
X ^«
—
.
n/"
+
p'
n.^=:lf^n.—^.=^f\
I.//.
«
—
«
2^//,„
^^c.
(wherein
3'u,
p =! fv'^ m,
and
^=p
—
'u,
p"
^=P
—
2
2^',
p" =.p
—
,
^c.)
therefore, the value of
D in the prefent cafe, being
4 n.^
'
i^u"
—
is
^7r
1
.
X
^^
^
2
.
3
(??)
— n.V^^^^^ ^
—
— —
.
/J '
21^1
^c.
it
evident
that the probability [
—
\
of the
error's
not exceed
ing the quantity
(in taking the
mean of
/
obfervations) will
be truly defined by
2
I
.
p
3 («)
2
.
V\
P V
'12
curvilineal area
P V
^
&c.
cor
which may be reprefented by the
CNFE,
refponding
©
of a Niu7iherof Obfervatmis
fefponding to the given value or
m praSiicalAfironomy,
abfciffa
73
CN
(=: ~j.
Now,
though the numbers i;, /, and m are, all of them, here fuppofed to be indefinitely great, yet they may be exterminated, and the value of the expreffibn determined, from their know^a
relation to each other.
For
if the
given ratio of
—
to
1;,
or of
which is the fame, if the error in queftion be fuppofed the x part of the greatell error then, in being tvx, p {=2 tv^ m) will be
exprefied
that o?
CN to
CA, be
,
by
x
to i, or,
=
=
/1;
X tvx,
:
and therefore
—
z=.
tx i'^ x; which
laft
let
be de
noted by y
will
then, by fubllitution, our
general expreflion
become
l.2.3(«)
X
I
n
I
n
—
2
I
.;'—
3
3I
,
^C,
which feries is to be continued 2, ^c. become negative. y
—
till
the quantities y^
y
—
i,
above delivered, let it be now required to find the probability, or odds that the error, by taking the mean of fix obfervations, exceeds not a fingle fecond fuppofing (as in the former example) that the greateft error, that any obfervation can admit of, is limited to five
As an example of what
is
',
feconds.
Here
t
being :=:i6, n (:=
2/f)
=
12,
and ^ ==
I,
we
have
y
{z=.
fy,i
— = 4,8
at)
j
and therefore the meafure of the
i
probability fought will
be equal to
—

X
4,8r~. 12 X3,8i'^+
66x2781"—
22ox7;8l'^
+ 495x^"
error exceeds
=r 0,7668,
nearly
:
fo that the odds, that the
not a fingle fecond, will be as 0,7668 to 0,23325 which is more than three to one. But the proportion, when one fingle obfervation is relied on, is only as 36 to 64, or as 9 to 16.
In the fame manner, taking x
= ,
L
it
will be^ found,
that
the
'rr
4
Of the Advantage arijingfrom leaking
the
Meajt
the odds, of the error's not exceeding two feconds, when the mean of fix obfervations is taken, will be as 0,985 to 0,015., nearly, or as 6^\ to i ; whereas the odds on one fingle ob
only as 64 to 36, or as i J to 1 fo that the an error of two feconds is not \th part fo great, from the mean of fix, as from one iingle obfervation. And it
fervation,
is
:
chance
for
will farther appear,
by making x
= ^,
that the probability of
an error of three feconds, here, is not T^';rFth part fo great as from one fingle obfervation fo that in this, as well as in the former hypothecs, almofl all poffibility of any large error is And the cafe will be found the fame, \vhatever bycut off. pothefis is affumed to exprefs the chances for the errors to which any fingle obfervation is fubjecft.
:
the fame general expreflion by which the foregoing proportions are derived, it will be eafy to determine the odds,
that the
From
mean of
a given
number of
z= ^, and
obfervations
is
nearer
to the truth than one fingle obfervation, taken indifferently.
For, if
z be put
(=
i
—
x)
J
= ,
then,
y
being
=
tZj
the quantity
i.2%{n)
^y"''~^'y'~^^''
+ ^''^'y'~'^^"'
falls
^^ (^xprefrmg
the probability that the refult
greatef} limit) will here,
within the diflance
z of the
by
fubflitution,
become
 xz" 72 X z 51 4 nJ^——^ I.2.3(«) ^ !n cafe of one fingle obfervation (when
.
—
—
—
X 2;
/
— =
2
2.s\ ,
^c. which,
is
i,
and nz=z.2)
barely 2;% and its fluxion by 2ZZ, the produd:
yrrXZ"'^'Z
3 («)
^
^zz
:
therefore, if
we now
multiply
?2
.
1.2.
Z
s\
.
ZZ
i'
72
/^^^ . Z
—2S\ .ZZj&C.
'
will give the fluxion of the probability that the refult
fervations
is
of t ob~
con»\2
farther
from the
truth, or nearer to the limits,
than one fingle obfervation taken indifferently.
fequently
And

the fluent thereof,
which
is
——
2
.
into
3 (^)
ofa Number of Obfervatlons infraStkalAJlronomy.
75
XI
G?c, will,
n
s
;]«+!
^nfz
Z — 2S
nf2
»
+
I
when
2;
=
«j2
i,
'l
2
"
n
\
I
'
72
+2
be the true meafure of the proba
bility itfelf.
be found odds that the mean of fix,
;z
and
=
Which,
in the cafe above propofed,
12, will
= 0,245,
is
where
/
=
6,
^^d, confequently, the nearer to the truth than one
fingle obfcrvation, as
y^^
to 245, or as 151 to 49.
L2
A DE
DETERMINATION
OF
Certain Fluents, and the
very ufeful
Resolution of fome
the higher Orders of
Equations
in
Fluxions
by means of the Meafures of Angles and Ratios, and the Rightfines and Verfed;
fines
of circular Arcs.
to treat the matter here propofed with
it
^^ N order
due
^ ^ Owww
I
perfpicuity,
will be necelTary, previous thereto, to
give a demonftration of the
two fubfequent Lemmas,
I.
LEMMA
the cofines of the
Fig. 21.
The double of the reBangle contained under the coftnes of any two arcs, fuppofing the radius to be unity ^ is equal to the Jim of
fum, and
difference
of
thofe arcs.
For,
let
AB
and
BD
(== BE) be the two
;
Cn
nm
their refpedive cofines
likewife let
their
parallel to
Fm
by
= Hm
fum AE, and CF that of their BG. Then, Dn being
;
arcs, and CG and CH be the cofine of difference AD making
and confequently that
: :
:
fimilar triangles,
=z CB X 2Cm
=
CB C G CB X CHfCF.
:
2Cm :=z CH + CF but, Cn C m whence CG x 2Cn
:
= En,
;
;
it
follows that
^E.D.
and n any
LEMMA
If
IL
A
be any arch of a circle whofe radius is unity,
;
whole pofitive number
cofin.
then will
Af =r \
into cofin.
nA'\n
cofin.
n
—
2
.
A+
;^
.
^^
€ofin.n^^.K^nX^.''^cofin,n^t,h\^c. continued
*• ''
to
*The Refolution
of certain fluxionary Equations^
terms
J
8cc.
77
to
1ti,
;
07' {?i
[
I
according as n
is
an
oddy or e'wen
numis
ber
in the latter of which cafes the half
o?2ly,
of the
laft
term
to be taken.
For, by the preceding
+
by
cof.
A—A
3
Lemma, 2
f

cof. A'
=
=
cof.
A j A
[
cof.
2A
I
2 cof
A, gives
2^
A
=r cof
A + 2 cof A
again,
x cof A]^ pof A
^^'^'
=
,
i
which equation multiplied
cof
2A x
2 cof
A
2 cof
^"''^' ^'^
== ^^^' 3^^
(hall
+3
^^^'
^•
Multiply,
cof
3A X
2 cof
A
by 2 cof A fo 4~ 3 ^^^ A X
2^
X cof
2 cof
A
=
A]"^
=
4A
cof
"^
2A 2^
I^^^^^?^ /.; 3 ^^^* ° ^'^•^ cof 2 A In the fame manner we have, [3.
+
= cof 4A + 4 cof
X cof A ^ =cof 5 A j5cof 3A "iocof A, 25x cof A] ^— cof 6A 46cof4A fiscof 2A +10, 2^ X cof AP =::C0f 7A +7Cof 5A +2ICof 3A +35Cof A,
^c, where the law of continuation
ner,
&c.
is
manifeft ; the numeral coefficients being the fame, and generated in the very fame man
with thofe of a binomial raifed to the 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, ^€. powers, fucceffively ; except in the laft term, when the exponent n is even, in which cafe one half only of the correspondent (or middle) term of the involved binomial is conHence the propofition is manifeft. cerned.
l^he
'
fame
otherivife.
If the cofine of
A
=

—
—
A be denoted
by
x^
it
is
well
known
that
fo
Multiply the whole equation by v/
—
ij
fliall
Av/^:^
whence, by taking
— = =^^ = VI X V — = V ,JZif "'^ VI the we have A\/ — = hyp.
XX
XX
I
^ l{xx
•
fluent,
i
log.
X
[
s/xx
I
.
Let
N be the number whofe hyperbolical logarithm
78
T*he Refvlutlcn
of certain fluxmiary Equations,
](
garithm
log.
a:
is
i
;
then, fince hyp.
I
,
g.
N^*^''^
'
(= AV i)
+ \/xx —
it is
evident that
I
or
M'
=X
{
\/xx
—
N = x\is
(by making
M = N"^^^).
found
= hyp, s/xx —
i,
From
.
which equation x (the
cofine of
A)
M^ — M^
(and from thence (s/i
;
— xx)
by the
the line of
bye).
= A = \/ —
i
K
but
this lafl
Now
fore
feeing
that
2 cof
have 2
cof.
A
T
=
A = M^ f M~^'^, v/e thereM^ + M"^]" = M^'^^M""^ +
by expanding M^ \ M^''^" and uniting, in pairs, the correfpondent terms {jviz. the iirfl: and laft, the fecond and lafl but
M^ +
And
But M"^ f M""^, the iirft of thefe pairs, is one, and fo on). the double of the cofine pf ?iA ; for the very iame reafon that M~^ was found to exprefs the double of the cofine of A.
thus, A"—^'^\
A~"+^a
;2
will appear to exprefs the
dou
ble of the cofine
therefore be
2.72
of
—2
2"
.
.
A, &c.
And
our equation will
z=z
.
reduced to
.
x
cof
A
"
2 cof. ;;A
]
cof
cof.
71
—2 A
I"*
\
271
Cof W
—4
.
A
\
&C.
OV
to
A
71
=
\
""'
i
cof.
A
71
cof
.
;2
2
.
.
A
\
72
COf.
«
4
.
A
+
where,
n
^^
—
72
 cof
72
—6
.
A
4
(^c.
when
the exponent
is
even (the number of terms in
M^^jM^",
expanded, being odd) there will be a middle term (no ways effected by or A) which being an abfolute number, muft be taken fingly, and confequently, only the half thereof when the whole feries is divided by 2, as is the cafe in the conclufion. E. D,
M
^
COROL
by
Means of the Meafures of Angles and
Ralios,
^9
COROLLARY.
If Qj5e taken to reprefent an arch of 90 degrees, and the complement (Qj^— A) of the arch A be put B ; then, by fabflituting fin. B for cof. A, and Q^^j— B for A in our ge
=
neral equation,
we fhall
n
have
lin. B"
=—
into cof. ?;Q
— «B
4 n
j~
cof.
n
— 2.Q
—
2 .Bj;?.—
^ cof n^.^nA .B
&c. being a general expreffion for any power of the Jlne But this exof an arch (as the former was of the coline). preffion may be reduced to a form fomewhat more commodious, regard being had to the different interpretations of ;?, Thus, if n be exwith refped: to even, and odd numbers. pounded by any term of the feries 4, 8, 12, 16, ^c it is evident that ;^Q (in the firft term) v\all be an even multiple of the
; and that n 2 (in the fecond term) will be an odd one, and fo on, alternately. But it is well known, that fubtrafting, or cafting off any multiple of the femiperiphery noways afFe(fls the value of the fine, or cofme ; except, that fuch value, when the multiple is an odd one, will be changed from pofitive to negative (and vice verjd). Hence our lafl equa
fcmiperiphery
—
.
Q
tion will
be reduced to
2
.
fin.
Bf =: —
cof.
into
cof.
nB
n
cof.
— n—
for
B
71
f
?i
n n
—4
»
.
B
—
71
&c.
— =
.
\n •—n'j
—

—
into cof. ?zB
—
coi n
.
—2
.
B
___
_______
cof.
X
~
—4
;z
And,
terpreted
the fame rcaibns, the equation,
when
&c.
cof.
7i
is
in
by any term of the
lin.
feries 2, 6, 10, 14,
will ap
pear to be
&'
=

into
—
cof. 72B \
71
— 2 .B
i, 5,
—
"
71
.
cof n  4
n
is
.
B
f
^c.
But,
9, 13,
when
^c.
expounded by any of the odd numbers
we
iliall
then (by rejeding the multiples of the femi
8o
n'he Refoliition of certain fluxtonary Equations^.
,
femiperiphery, &c.) have SnTB]"
— =—
'
[«
—
into
cof.
j
Q — ;zB
^
n
cof.
Qj—
fi
—
2
.
B

n
.
cof.
Qj^ n — 4 B
.
.
—
fin.
into fin* ?2B
H
— 4.B — &c.
Lafiily,
2
—
n
fin.
?2
—
2
B
J"
?2
be expounded by any term of the feries 3, 7, II, 15, &c. the refult, or feries, will be the fame as in the preceding cafe, only the figns of all the terms mufl be changed
if
?2
to their contraiy.
may be otherwife, more dire(ftly, means of the two following Theorems 3 whereInveftipated, by of the Demonftration is obvious, from that of Lemma /*.
But
all
thefe different cafes
1°.
two
double of the 7'eBangle contained under the fines of any arcs J fuppofmg the radius to be unity ^ is equal to the difference
Tbe
of
the cofi7ies ofthefunty
2°.
and
difference
of
thofe arcs.
And the
and
the fine
of the other , is equal to the difference
arcs.
fin.
double of the re51angle under the cofne of the one of the fetes of the
fumy and difference of the faid
Hence
f
it
follows,
that
cof
B~B
(by 'Theor. I.)
=—
fin.
fi^^
B x
2
fin.
B
= — cof B + B
+
3B
'
•
cof 2B
whence
,
multiplying the whole equation by 2fin.B,
we have
2^xfin.Bl^
^^^^^
'Theor. II.) T=z
= — cof 2B X 2fin.B + — 3B
fin.
2
B
r=z
—
2B
fin.
+
B
g
(by
f 3
B*
Whence,
again,
by equal
3 fin.
multiplication, 2^
xfm.
cof
•
Bl"^
=:
X 2
fin.
B
= +
cof
4B
— —
fin.
3B x
2 fin.
+
B
^^£'*
rejn I.) ==.
4B
—4 cof 2B
Bp
+
3 ^^^'^ (^y
'^^^^^''
\ 3.
In like manner, 2+xfin.
=:fin.5B
— 5fin.3B(iofin.B;
and 25xfiri7Bl^r=
Fig. 21.
— cof6B+6cof4B— J5cof 26 + 10,©^^.
:
* Byfim.A's,
And BC
(i)
BC(i):BG:: DE (2D«) D/.(CF — CH) = 2D«xBG: CG DE (2D«) Ep (EH— DF} = 2CG x D«. Whence,
:
:
:
:
hy
Means of the Meafures of Angles and
Whence,
univerfally^ iin. B]'
Ratios.
8
1
=—
^^vs\.
>^
+
fin. ;?B
 72
fin.
«
—
2
2
.
B
4^ ^
•

n
when n
is
an odd number
;
and
«
.
iin. Bl"
+
cof.
«B
is
+
nooi.
n
—
.
B
:
+
cof.
— 4 B + ^c. =— X &c. n— 4 B
.
.
4
when n
an even number
where the number of terms,
t'z f i
;
in
the former cafe, will be lii, and in the latter
in
which cafe the half, only, of "the laft term is to be taken and is always politive, as well as the laft term in the former cafe whereby the figns of all the other terms (as they change alternately) will be known.
:
If a,
iG,
y,
"
72.
(5"
Mbc
.^^^^^,
alTumed to exprefs the terms
I
(i, «,
n
.
1^1^,
&c.) of

I
raifed to the 72th
power
term) it is evident that the fecond cafe of our general equation (wherein n is even) will fland « Tl"""^ thus, iin. Bf into ^ a cof. n 2. A 4 /3 cof 72
{M being the middle, or greateil
=—
.
.
A
—
+
y cof
72
—4
A +
^ cof
72— 6 .A
+ t^
By the fame method of proceeding, an expreifion exhibiting the continual produd: of the colines, or lines of any number
of unequal arches,
may
I.)
be derived.
A—B
X
2 cof
For
(l?y
;
Lemma
cof
Ax
2 cof
B
2
whence cof
C
+
cof
A
—BX
A
x
2 cof B 2 cof
x
= cof A + B + cof cof C = cof A+ B
(^^^
C
(by equal multiplication)
r= cof
A 4 B f C
— + cof A — B + C cof —A + B + C
cof
A+B
the Le?n?na)
;
whence, again (by equal multiplication
M
^72^ the
Lemma) we
have
8 2
"The Refolution
of certain fluxionary Equations^
have
cof.
A
x
2
cof.
B x
2 cof.
C x
2 cof.
D
=
cof.
cof.
,
A+B+C—
AtBC+D
cof.A+BCD
A+B+C+D + ^^^ A_B^c+D + ^°^ AB+CD cofA+B+CD cof. A+B+C+D
from which the law of continuation
is
cof.
manifeft.
To determine
number.
If
is
the jiuent
PROBLEM of ———=; n
X X
n
.
I.
VI
being any odd affirmative
XX
A
be affumed to denote the arch of a
radius
i
,
circle,
whofe
^
fine
X and
it is
well
known
alfo
that
A=
VI
a;"
—
XX
:
and,
by the Corol. to
Lem.
;z
II,
it
appears that
=+—
.
—1«—
K
iin.
nA
—
;z
lin.
—2
.
A
[
^
•

 fii^«
—4
2
1
A flJlI.
Hence we have

—^—
VI
Axf./zA;zAxf.;z
— XX
(=: x^'A
)
==
+ L
X
— 2.A + ;»z.^.=iAxf.« — 4.A(^±i).
But the fluxion of any arch, multiplied by the fine (the radius being unity) is equal to the fluxion of the verfedfine : therefore the fluxions of the verfedfines of the arches nA^
n
—
2
.
A, n
fin.
n — 2. A, n — 4. Ax
:
—4
.
A, &c.
will be
nA x iin. nA,
n
—2
.
Ax
;.
An. «
—4
into
.
A, &c. reipedively
and confequently the
fluxions
faid verfedfines, the true fluents
is
whence
it
of thefe manifefl: that the true fluent of our
whole expreflion ^
will
be
+ 2 ——
n
— xverf.fm.wA
n
^
.
«
X
verfedfin. n
n
n
—2
2
.
A
H
'
—
«— 6
23
I
n
—
— 2_ — 4 .lUi ^ verfedfin. n — 4 A 2
—6
.
^ —2
of
the
X verfediin. n
A
(
li^ )
2
^
.
Wherein,
\
hy
Means of the Meafures of Angles and
Ratios.
83
the figns
tains,
\
and
—
—IK
1 ,
before
—

the former, or
latter
obis
according as
—^^
expreffing die
number of
terms,
odd or even.
To find
number.
the fluent
PROBLEM n of ^——
n
j
11.
being any e'ven affirmative
By
to
the preceding Problem
— ^
V
i'~'
.;
=A
5
and, by the CoroL
XX
Lem. IL
cof.
x"
=
]
—\
2
.
x

a
— X — A 7X n—4 Therefore ^— (= x^k) = ± 3" X —
nK
jQ
cof.;^
cof.
.
A
ir^*
'
VI
XX
21
osAxcof./^A
— iSAxcof.«2.Af?A Xcof.;?4.A
:
+ tMA.
But the fluxion of any arch, multiplied by the coline, is equal to the fluxion of the fine, drawn into the radius whence
it
n
—4
follows that nk.
.
A
X cof
of the arches nK^ confequently that
—4 n—
n
;?A
x
cof.
.
nh^
n
—
.
2
.
A X
.
cof n
—2
.
A,
A, ^c. are the fluxions of the
iines
2
.
A, n
—4
X
A, ^c, refpedively j and,
~«_, fxfin.
"
4.JI
^'
will
\a^
/
«
— —
fin.;2
—2
.
A
I
2L_
7.4
x
An.
«
— 4.A
:
^xfm.^^==^.A.. + iMA
where a ==
i,
/S
be the true fluent fought
^^^^, ^
i
=
«,
7
=
^X
= 7 X i^,
,
Gff . and wherein the fign
as
+ or —
before
obtains
is
according
\.n
J^
i^
exprefling the
number of
terms,
odd, or even.
M
2
COROL
84
Tie Refolution of certain fluxionary Equatiom\
COROLLARY
Since the value
2
L
to
(M) of
the middle term of the binomial
is

iT,
^
expanded in a
4 T
'
feries,
known
feries,
be —yj^^^yj!—!.
evident that the
—M
,
by the law of the
to
it
it
is
term next adjacent
(on either fide) will be expreffed by
Mx —^^>
fame manner,
or by
it
Mx—^5
making
m =. {n.
term to
And,
this
in the
will appear that the next
laffc
will
be expreffed by J r
Tn\i
Mx—^x^^: m\i m\2
^
and the next
to that,
by '
and fo on. Therefore, by fubflitut; m\2 ing thefe values above, and inverting the order of the terms, the general fluent, there given, will here be transformed to
M X —^ X ^ X ^~ m^2
xfm.2A
.m\2
+ ^x7ixifin.4A
^x
*
5
m\2
feries is to
,
xif.oAj
——
m\i
X
—— X—X —^xK.oA w+3 ot+4
m\'2
till it
&c. where the
be continued
terminates
and
where the value of the general multiplicator — will be truly (and
2"
mofl commodioufly) expreffed by
— x ^ x
^n
^
x ^^.
>
For
M
beins:
^
=
I.
2
——
.
if the
numerator
•
• •
'Z
.
A.
hereof be multiplied by ^^ ^^ i 2 ^^ 3 3 t^ 2.1, and the denominator, at the fame time, by its equal 1.2
. •
—
—
.
—
•
.3.4
n.n
^n
—2
.3
.
—.i.»^2.«—
Y«
—
I
1
.
T^j
we
fhall
then have
M=
n^
32.
1.2.3.4.5.6.7
4«xi.2.3.4....?« 1.2.3.4 M , ... ,. ., ,, which divided by 2" gives
.
—=
%
1. 2. 3. 4... i« XI. 2. 3. 4... ^«* n 1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8
—
•
——
=
2.4.6,8....«X2.4.6.8...»;
^•35'7 2.4.6.8
n'—\
«
CORO
L
by
Means of the Meafures of Angles and Ratios,
Hence may
for this
the fluent
COROLLARY IL — xx be oi
x'^ks/
\
likewife deduced}
;
expreffion
may
J
be changed to
— VI
>^
—
XX
firfl
,
or to
VI
—~—
XX
—
VI
XX
whereof the
x I
fluent of the
term
is
already found rrr  x
•'
A
^
is
X
fin.
—— ^ 246 ^ x^^ X 2A H
n

fin.4A, ^V. And, by
making n
z=.
n\2^ and
the fecond term
—
^
v'l
— —
m
^=. \ri (^=:
(
m\""
\),

the fluent of
in
=
J T
XX
\
VI
— xx/
S
c
)
the fame
^'
manner
given equal to
—
2 — x— 2
xg"2
—
^,
^
X
X 4 X A— J^ X 2A, ©<:.= 240 + A — ^ilxfin.2A + ^±ix^xfin.4A, ^r.
fin.
w'
'
4
1.
n A\ «
i±I
I
+2
Whence,
by adding the
J
fluents of
both terms together,
n
we
have, after
proper reduction
^.
1.3.5.7 2.4.6.8
—
I
«.«j2
A— fizilxf. A — fLziIxf.2A]
X<
,
=^:z^xlf.4A—
—
,
'f=^=^
L
xifin.6A+ "•"^^^^^^^^^I^XjCn.SA.g.. /«j2 .»2 + 3 m4 +5
. .
W2
where the law of continuation is manifefl:, the differences (6, arith10, 14, &c.) of the numbers i, 7, 17, 3u&c, being in
metical progreffion.
COROLLARY
VI
XX
IIL
Moreover, from hence the fluent of —^'^— x e+fx''+gx^{bx^
^c. may be
eafily
deduced
:
for,
putting
7 X '7 ^"5
J
o
^
86
r=
T^e Refolution of certain Jluxionary Equations^
^,
the fluent of the
firll
term
v/i
X
^,
is
given, by Co
roLI,=zqexA
and
that
^xfin. 2A
+ ^x^^ X Ifm.AAefc.
^^
^
of the fecond term f
fm.
'.i±L
A—
^
^' X
A
fore the fluent
— — x fx) = ""^ x afx \\/i^xx «4 y 2A + ThereX ^ X of whole be found = q
^
2
^*^
ifin.4Ae?^.
the
expreflion will
'
X
m \
— X fin. 2 A
I
I
'
m
\ 1
x<^
^/X A— ^ti X
!L±i
Kl2
fin.
2A
+
^
«
x'^^X^fm.^A&c. m
\
m—
I
2
X
4 X fm.4AGf..
x^+^FxA^i±lxf2A+^"x'4:ixf4AG?I ^+3 ^+4 »^+3 «+4
n\2
^
which, by making r
+4
«+6
&c. will be reduced to
+ +
^9'
m
{ 1
A !L_.^^4.^L±i./r + ^.o5 + ^^.
+
.
y?^
+ ^^ +
m
\2
I
^^ X
xfin.2A
,
m\Z
»2
m — »2 + I eq\~—.
.
——
—
—mrfr\—~.—^—.s:s,<^c.x^i,A.A
r
I
7;z2
?/z4i
r J>
^>ir..A
;w
I
171—'2
m\\
2
OT '
m
'« 3
'
m
?w
TTZjI
Wj2
/K+3 .€q\r
./r
f 4
+ G?r.x}f.6A
SCHOLIUM.
From
thofe of
^/:
the fluents determined in the preceding Propofltion,
„^4,.i^_x.
,
\/^
— bz^ X
z'"f^i^"z,
and
.^z^
^JH]?
gz'^^  i'z^^ (iff. (where m denotes any whole po4y^^ number, and p any pofltive number whatever, whole or broken) may be ealily deduced, by means of a proper transfor
X
^
+
iitive
mation
:
by
matlon be
Means of the Meafures of Angles and Ratios,
:
87
for,
\/ a
—
by
bz^ being
= a'\l/
I
I?
1
,
let
there
a
made— =;^^ a
confequently,
or 2;^= ^a:^; then
b
2'"^
+ ^=^
b
xa:^'"+^
fides,
and
taking
— '+1 the
b
fluxion
on both
=
—l^ +
^
i
2
X
—.x^'^x. Therefore our
firft
expreffion,
v: «
will be transformed to
—
bic
—^^^ x
.
la
XX
(fuppofing n
will
=
2;;z) j
whofe
fluent (by Problem
IL
Corollary I.)
be given
=
^'ZS1 2.4.6.8
^^—
n
v.
^^_ V
pb'"^^
A^f.2A+^.!^xK.4A m\i w + m\2
'
i
^
m\i
^.^,^^^{.6A m42 m\2
^
f
^c. where
A
reprefents the arch
whofe
flne
is
v
—
,
the
radius being unity.
In the fame manner the fluent of our fecond expreflion,
y/a
— bz^ X z'^^+'^^'z,
57
«
;z
will be given (by CoroL
IL) equal to
J 3
—

r
^
2«'""T"'
ph'
2.4.6.8
2
m+\
A^^fin.2A+
X 1 fin.
Laftly,
"^""^ x^fm.4A,""^'"^7
fi„.
^^^a
formed
to
ph
J^
+ '"•"— '^'^•"'31 ^ i X ^fzf + + &c. — X —^^ X ^ + + + >yi—xx
6A
e
^2;^^^
8A
_
g?,.
hz^f
will
be
trans
bT^
.
"^^
.
=^a:^
b
^
^r^'''
^'^^ ^^^d
the
^
bb
'
fluent thereof (by CoroL III.) will therefore be given equal to
tX
P^''^'^
/_,^x4+/rx4x^+^ixf;x^^.,xf.2A
88
Tthe Refolution
of certain fluxionary Rquat'iom^
X
f^x—— X—— +/r X r X Jx
'''^''^
,
—— &c. X f f.AA
»
wherein q ^
/
:=:
2.
4..
6. 8
n
r=zgx^^y 5=irx^i^\ ^
n^2
=
+4
J
X "±4, &C.
n \.o
When v
—
becomes equal
to the radius, or unity,
A
will
be an arch of 90 degrees ; and therefore, the lines of all the arches 2 A, 4 A, 6 A, &c. being then equal to nothing, the
fluent of
—
— will,
n—2
in that circumftance,
be barely
=
^'•^'^'^
2.4.6.8
\/a
"~^ X ^^ X
/,r+'
xz^'^
A.
Moreover,
the fluent of
—
+
I?z^
^
+ if'z
will then
become
^'^'^'^
"~^
«f2
X ;^— X P^ \2
f
'
2a"'
A
;
and that of
„
—
'
z*"/*
+
iP
—
2.4.6.8
^i.
^a — bz^
"•
x e +fz^+gz^f
+ bz^^
^^
*
——
«f2*
;
Z
*^n\~2'n{4.' ^^
o'
«j2j?
+ 4*« + 6'
><
!!!l.i pl/"^i
XA
where
^
= 2.4.6 '^'f
i
n—i
«
'
^^^ where,
if
m
=:
o, q mufl:
be taken ^r
PROBLEM
To determine
the radius
ofl
III.
the fluent
which jnz, nz^ pz^
Sec. are
of zxcoflmzy.cof.nzY. cof.pz Sec, in any given multiples ofl the arch z
,
the circle being unity.
72Z, C pz, &c. and find (by the of cofines of the multiples of z, to exprefs the continual produd (cof A xcof B xcof.C, &c.) of the cofines propounded which feries let be denoted by
Make A
= mz, B =
feries
=
method on p.%i) a
;
^Xcof.a2;4cof /3zcof.72;f cof.Jlz^^f^:.
conftant quantities)
:
(a, a, jS, &c. being then will our given expreifion become
az
by
Means of the Meafures of Angles
az
fin.
ajtd Ratios,
its
89
az X
fm. a%
cof.
" cof. jGz  cof.
yz \ cof. Sz C^c. and
fin.S'x
fluent will
therefore (by proceeding as in Prob. II.) appear to be
•
=^
into
0z
1^
fin.yz
i
n^
Thus,
for
;
be required
example, then will
let
the fluent of
cof.
A X cof B (=
x cof. mz X cof. 7iz Qoi.fnz x cof.^^z)
2;
=
ixcof AfB jcof A
therefore, in this cafe,
<«
and confequentlv the
fin.
— B = — xcof n,z \m — n,z: and ^ z=zm — w. =— foueht = —
?;^),
o(.=.m \n^
fluent
'"•"^+"'^
into
\
m
;«
—«
.
z
were
(==
In like manner, if the fluent of i; x cof.mz x cof. nz x cof.pz to be required ; then would cof mz x cof. nz x cof.pz
cof.
A X cof B X cof C)
\
eof.m
+ n —p.z
.
and therefore the
fin.
fluent
Cm.
m\n — p
m^n — p.z
=— cof m — n \p'Z fought = — ° 4
— n\p.z
«{p
^
into cof.
m
\
n
\
p .z ^
.
,
\ cof.
m\ 72 \p z
^ \n \,
into
^"'^
^
m
\
,
'
m m—
fin.
—n
— n{~m\p
m \
p
f
'
+
'
.
z
By when
Thus,
the very fame
method the
fluent
may be
it
fome, or
if there
all
of the
fa(ftors are fines (iiiftead
be given z
x cof mz x fin. nz,
which
90""
is
determined of coflncs). may be wrote
z X cof mz X cof 90°
—
nz',
=—
into cof. 90° J"
m
—n
.
z
{
cof
.
m
;
\
n .z
fo
—
=~
into fin.
n
— m ,z
in
1
"Y
fm. n
\
m z
will
and
the fluent (by proceeding as
Problem
I.) '
\
come out
=
N
— into 2
~^
I^? ^
.
n^ m
—^
verfedfin. n
m
.
z
n
\
m
PRO
90
T^e Refolutmt of certain fluxionary Equations
From
the equation
b^
PROBLEM IV. + 4 + ^ + "4
^j'
"I"
"^
+ ^^' = o
j
(wherein a,
pofed
f , d,
&c.
denote conjlant quantities)
// is
pro
to find the
j^
value of
y
in terms of z.
AiTume = aM'"^ + /SM"* + yW"" + M?« &c. in which M denotes the number whofe hyperbolical logarithm fniuM""" + /z^iGM"^ + pzyW"" &c. y m'zoM'"'' + y + p^zyM^'' &c.
is
unity
:
tlien will
r=z
r=r
^z'z'iSM''^
Which
values being fubflituted in the given equation,
we have
^aM'"«+
cm'aM!"''
^/3M"^
'^^^'/SM'^
!j
ayMJ'^'&c.
hnoMr^^ 4 hn^yV"''
dm^oNt'^
bpyM^^ &c,
([sfc
+ cp^yMP"" &c. + dn^^M"' ^^^^M^^ +
j
we have &c. := o, a \ bn \ en* j dn^ ^c, o, &c. that is, the re0, a \' bp '\ cp^ 4 dp^ &c. quired values of mj n, p, &c. will always be the roots of an equation, a j^ bx ~\ cx^ \ dx^ C^c. =z o, wherein the given quantities are the fame, in every term, with thofe in the fluxional equation propounded. Therefore, when thefe roots are known, the value of y will alfo be known : in which the coefficients a, /3, y, ^, &c. may denote any conftant quantities at
equating the homologous terms,
From whence, by
]
a
=
bm ^ cm^
 dm'^
=
pleafure
When
dx'^
+
as is evident from the procefs. fome of the roots of the equation a 4" bx ~\ cx^ \ex^ &c. =r o, happen to be impoffible, the values of
;
the correfponding terms of the feries aM""^ yW''' iGM"^ \ JM?** &c. will then be expreffed by means of the fmes and colines of circular arcs. Thus, for example, let the fluxio
+
+
nary equation propounded be jy
I
— ^ =r o
;
then
we
i,
fhall
have
^>
— x^ =^0
and
— v/ —
;
whereof the four
I j
roots are i,
—
]'
v^
—
and, thefe being fubflituted for m^ n^ /, and
by
^,
Means of the Meafures of Angles
y
will
aitd Ratios.
9r
refpedtlvely,
here
become
=
aM^
+
/9M*= ^f
y]Vt+»"^" Jp ^M*^^"'.
terms yM^"^' I k § whereby the fum of the
— =
+
Now, to take away the imaginary M"'^'^', we may write k \ I =z y, and
faid
;
terms will be
=:
k
xM^^^yM''''^'
+
/
X M^^^'
:
— M^"^^ = 2k X cof.
(putting h
z
+ 7?= X
a,
fin.
z
(vid. p. 78)
whence
:= 7=^)
we have y
where
In
pleafure.
like
= aM'^ +
jG,
^,
2h x fm. 2; j 2/^ X cof. 2; denote any conflant quantities, at and k
iGM"^
+
+
manner, fuppofing the equation given to be _y
fhall
+ ^
roots
^J
=
are
o,
we
have
i
+ dx^ = o
,
whereof the three
—
^""^, ^""s
x ^ +
^ — ,
and
t
s,
and
d~^ x ^
—v—
— 1\/n,
which,
if J
be put
= ^""^,
g^M"^"
:= d"^ x
{s~Y t\/"
commodioufiy expreffed by
—
V4
i,
^, will
be more
i :
and ^s
And thefe values we fhall have_y
being fubftituted in the room of m,
+ m''"'^'"'^' + rM''""'*^^ = which, by reafon«M'" + M'^^ x jGM'"^~^ + yW'''^'
and /,
=
;
ing as in the preceding
cafe, is
reduced to ^
= exMT'^
f
M*'*
X 2^ X
fin.
tz
{
2k X
cof. tz.
From
the equation
PROBLEM V. + + +
^>'
^
^
4
^^ == AM/^*' 4"
,
BM^^
Cj
denote the
^0 determine the njalue of y fuppofmg number whofe hyperbolical logarithm is unity, and &c. A, B, C, &c. any confiant quantities,
+ CM*"^ &c.
M
to
a, b,
PM^'^ Affuming y y =z pzFM^''
=
+ C^?^
N2
f.
RM''^
6?r.
we have
+ ^^QM?" + rzRM'^ &c, y =p^zBm^ + qzQ^^^ + r'zVs.W ^C
which
92
I'he Refolution
of certain fluxionary Equations^
it
which
values being fubftituted in the given equation,
becomes
From whence, by comparing
the homologous terms,
::^ Q—
we
have
p
a
Jf.
^
hp J^
cp" \
dp''
cJcJ
^
+ h + ':f + df ^^'^
is
?
R —
^
J^ br J^
cr"
+ dr^
&c
,
&c. whereby one value of y
known.
it
But the value or
fluent
thus found, in order to render
general, mufi: be corred:ed by the value of y found in the preceding Problem, that is, by the quantity cxM""'^ ] I3M^'^ X yM^'^ &c. wherein m, ?i\ p\ &c. denote the roots of the
equation a
laft
] I?x \ ex'' \
^^^ ^^all
=
"^^
^^^
^5
/^'
7y
^^ ^^7
conflant quantities.
For, fmce
the terms arifmg from this
part of the value of y, by fubftituting in the given equation, do mutually deftroy one another, the other terms affedled
with P, Q, R, &Ci will be noways influenced thereby, but remain exactly the fame as above determined.
COROLLARY.
If the equation given be m'y
}
^
:
=
f
AM^^ f BM?^
c
i,

CM''^
+ DM^^ &c.
z=: o) '
then {a being
= m\ =
and
;
by d, e,
,
&c. each
we
have
;
P
= mm
•\
—
pp
,
Q ^=^ nun
J
—
&c.
'
and
AT
==
+
'
m\/^^i
mm j pp
m?n
j
and confequently y r= aM'"*^—
rnm
qq
}
X
cof.
mz
it
+ A^ + 5.^ mm
'
C^c.
pp
'
(fee
Ex.
L
to
Prob. F.J
j
Hence
follows, that, if the equation given
be m"y
~
AW'^'^'y KM^^'^'y A'Mp^^f MM^^^' &c.) 2 A' X cof. dz &c. the value of y (by fubftir= 2 A X cof TTZ z ^ Z =r, TT tUting TT =:/>, ^ :=^ S y g f A B, A'= C, A'= D, &c.) will come out ;= 2hx fin. ;;22:
2
{—
+
,
Z
=
=
2.
,
—
Z
Z
—
1
+
by
Means of the Meafures of Angles and Ratios,
cof.
93
+ ^k X + 2^ X
Which
m:^ 4'
^^^"" ~'
mm
cof.
wz
4
— WW —
^
+
X
5r!r
^^^^c, = 7«w —
tttt
2^
x fin. mz
£2; £?<:.
cof. it^
A
Ti'Tv
mm — ff
^^^
X cof
equation (wherein h and k may denote any conftant quantities) is of fingular ufe in determining the figure of the
lunar orbit.
In like manner,
this
\
when
the general equation propounded
\
is
of
^
form, ay
Y)z'"~~'^
^ ^ \ ^l
: ^^. =:: A2;
+ B2;— + C2;—
^
ing Pz""
ftituting
&c. the value of y may be determined, by affumfrom whence, by fubj Q^' j" R^j^""" ^c. ; in the given equation, and comparing the homologous
=7
,
terms, there will be
had P
=—
a
Q
= ———
a
a
,
R
=
a
always terminate, provided v is any pofitive integer 3 and where, if to the value of y thus deteryM^'' &c.) mined, the corredion or feries (oM'"^ iSM"* found by Prob. IV. be added, the general value of y will be
&c. where the
feries will
+
+
obtained.
PROBLEM
To determine
form,
the lvalue
VI.
this
of y in any fuxionary equation of
5
1
+ 4 + 4 + ^ + 4' = ^
ofz
faPpoM ^
known
io repre
fent any quantity exprejfed in terms
1°.
a?id
coefficiejtts.
yX
denotes a iiPM^^ (wherein fo variable quantity, and p a conflant one, to be determined) =: flu. i;PM^% or (by taking the fluxions) fhall jxM^^ zPM~f'' ; whence, dividing the M^^ ;' X pzMf''
Make y
= W"" x
we
flu.
P
:
—
=
whole by
2°.
zM.^'^y
have ^
flu.
— py =z P.
zQM g^^
py x
then our
lafl:
Make P
=
M?^ x
equa;
tion will be transformed to
^
M"^^
=
flu,
zQM^^
whence.
94
^
Refolution of certain fluxlonary Equations^
fluxions,
whence, by taking the
4
py
y.
M""?^
1
4
—
^y
by dividing the whole by i;M^^.
3°.
Make,
now, Q^^== M^^ x
flu.
zRM''^
s
then will
or
A —^[.^.4 +/27
X
M*"^
=
fiuent
of i;RM''^,
2_^ + ^.Z.+^2yxM— +^~/.+^4+j^2)'
rzM''^
X

=
+
zRM'^
5^^
•
"^^
or,
laftly,
.21— ^j^rj^.^LL
'
/^
f
/^
/^ry =:
i?.
4°.
in the
Make,
again,
R
= M^^ x
fo fliall 4;'
flu.
iSM^^^
5'
and proceed
fame manner ;
— / + + ^+^«4j —
'\p(l^\'prs\qrs
is
pq\pr\ps\qr\qs\rs.^
pqrsy
— p^^
.^

=z S
:
from whence the law of continuation
manifefl.
Let, now, the feveral terms of the equation
~ — p\~9~\~^~\~^
.
^ &c. = S
a,
be compared with the correlponding terms of the
:
pqr * /^5 &c. =r: f, &c. &c. Whence, from the genejis of equations, it is evident, that />, ^, r, &c. are the roots of an equation x'^ fo) ax"^ ~ ^^^ ^^ ° (oi*' ^ ~h <^''^"~^ 4" bx""'"^ &c. wherein the given quantities are the very fame with thofe in the equation propounded. Therefore, when the values of thefe roots are found (by any of the known methods) the values of R, P, and y may alfo be found, one from another, fucceffively. E* L
}^,
+ ^ &c. == A — pr ps qr &c. = — — pq + +
given one,
q:
fo fhall
p
{•
g
{
f &c.
=r:
+ + =
''<^''
=
Q^
^
The
hy
Means of the Meafures ofAngles and Ratios,
'The
95
fame
otherwife.
flu.
Let
(if poffible)
2;AM?^
+
y
= AM'^^ x
flu.
fliail
'^^
zAMf"
+ BxM?^ x
:
flu.
CM^" X
i;AM^^ &c. (A, B, C, &c.
be determined)
&c. being
confliant quantities to
p, q, r, then, by
takino; the fluxions,
•4
we
have
flu.
== / AM^^ X flu
.
i;
AMf
+ A A + ^BM?« X
i;AM ?^
+
(^r.
4^=^'AM^^xfl.2;AM^^+/»AA+^4fBM?^xfl.2;AM?'=eJ'f.
3=/3AM^xflu.2;AM^+/)^'AA+^^— \^
+ &c. 4::=/>^AM^xflu.i;AM^«+/.3AA + ^^+^ + M ^c.
+ + + ~ + ^f\bqA^ xBl___^^ ^Kn U' + ^r+¥r^ x^ + Iri J^ ar^ ^as^ br xD X C +
g'
\\ c
J^
Which values being fubfliltuted in the given equation, and the homologous terms being compared, we fliall thereby gtt p^\ap^ bq" \ cq aq^ d o, Cic. ~r bp" \ cp \ d z=z o, ^^
\ bs \ c
p'\ap\ipxA{q''^aq{i?xB{r'{ar{l?xC{s^]as]l?xD=o
p{axA\q~^axB'\r\'axC'\'S\axD o. A+B+C +D
=
=
o
the former of thefe equations, p^ \ ap^ f bp"" q^ ] aq'^ f bq""  cq \ d :=: o, c^^. it appears evident, that />, ^, r, &c. are the roots of the equation
] cp
Now, from \ d z=z
ax"^
]
o,
x''
bx^
\
ex
\
d
^==.
o
(or,
more
generally, of
x^ f /^:>i:"~^ 4" b%''~^ &c. :=z Oj n denoting the order to which the fluxions afcend in the given equation) j which roots being
known methods) the values of &c. will be obtained. But to find from thence and p, q, the' remaining equations, the values of A, B, C, &c. let the laft of thefe equations multiplied by a^ be fubtracled from the preceding one, fo fhall pa \ qB } rC {' sD z= o moreover, let this new equation multiplied by a, be fubtracted from the iafl but tv/o, and from the remainder let bA j bB \ bC fo be again fubtrad:ed, whence will be had />*A '\ q^'B bD
therefore found (by any of the
r,
:
=
gG
^
T*he Refolutton
of certain Jluxionary Equations^
:
rC
I,
\
s^D
=o
and, in the fame manner, from the
iirft
equation, will be
caufe
had p^A
+ ^^B

and not o, forms the latter C D z= o, Now, from each of the equations (A ] B qB r^C j^D rC 4 5D r:= o, p'K o, pK ^B let the precedp^A \ ^^B 1 r^C \~ i^D 1 ) thus derived, fo fhall ing one multiplied by p, be fubtraded
r'C \ j''D ==: i (bepart of that equation).
+
+
=
+
+
+ + + =
o, o,
i.
:
— p .B q — p q^
q
*
Y
r— /.C
~\ s
[ s
— p .V> =
V ^
q
—p
.
q'B
+ r—p
— p .rC
.
r'C
\ s
= — p /D =
.
—p
sD
.
Moreover, from each of thefe laft equations, let the preceding one multiplied by q^ be in like manner fubtrafted ; whence
will
be had
r
— p.r — q .C — .rC r —p
,r
q
Again, from the
plied
laft
by
r,
be fubtrad:ed
— p.s — q .D =o, — p.s — q sD the preceding one mu of — p.s — q — r.D then
] s ] s
.
=z= I.
thefe,
let
lti^
j
will s
.s
=
as
I,
and confequently
D r= — z=^ — r —q p
s
.
:
whence
it is
s
.
s
manifefl by infpedion (becaufe
s is
p
is
the fame with refped: to A,
,
to
D, &c.)
^
that
A = ==:i=.
P—
?•/*
B
=
q
r.kc.
— p.qr^ .hz—
r
^y (
,
C =:
r
—p r —
.
—
q
.
,
^c.
From whence
the value of
will
=
&c.
AM^^^xflu.zAM^^+BM^^xflu.zAMJ^&c.)
let
be known,
the orders of fluxions in the equation afcend to what height they will.— Thus, for example, let the equation propounded
^^ "^
^
\
^y
=
M''^ : in which cafe, a being
x"
=
,
o, ^
= »?%
=
&c.
=
o,
&c. our general equation,
o,
+
ax''~^  ^a:"~* \ cx''~^
will therefore
become
x^
two
roots
(p and qj are
)
m\/
—
y m' := o whereof the from m\/ i ; i, and
—
—
I
whence
7=r 2mV — I
—
A (= — q^ p
^
:
=
A
is
s=r=.
and
B (
2;«v/—
q—P
X
alfo,
becaufe
here
= M"*, we have y = AM^'
by
X
flu.
Means of the Meafures of Angles and
iM"'"^''
Ratios.
97
+ BM?"= X
flu.
tMi^'i''
=
q^
(by fubflituting the values of
•K^^p^
/»,
A, and B).
But
in order
to render
the folution general,
the value of^ thus
found mull, always, be corrected, or augmented by the quantity aM^^ ff^^"" \' yMr"" ^c. (given by Prob. IV.) w^here a. denote any confl:ant quantities whatever, /3j Ji h ^c. may pofitive, or negative. Other infl:ances of the ufe of exponential quantities, and of the meafures of angles and ratios, in the refolution of fluxionary equations of diflferent kinds, might be given ; but I fhall conclude here, with obferving, that A, in this lafl: folution, may denote any q^uantity wherein both y and z enter, as well as one in which % is alone concerned independent of ^.
+
—
AN
An Investigation ofaGEN eral Rule
Orders.
for
the Rcfolution of Ifoperimetrical Problems of all
LEMMA.
r^p'^up POSING «, y, ^ S A determinate quantities.
13,
I
g,
(sc.
iobeafermofrn
^',
, 7
I
/^;
^',
^r
/3
i
^'',
andthati^^j^.^^n^
K\
S'\
T'
r^'
^r^ any qua?Jti)
y
\and given
quantities;
>tiescompcfedof] S
It is prcpofed to
find an equation for the relation of
a,
"^"^
^c. fo that
^7
the quantity
^+ ^+ ^ 4_C" + C'
the
/3,
y,
J",
#^^^ ^^
quan^
maximum
S'''&c.
or
minimum, at
7^"
titics i?
+
+ +
ie'
+
i^'"
+
fame time that the other IR^'" &c. S \ S'\S'+ S''
+
all
S'''
and TVr\~r'\r'^\r'"&c. are
S,
of
them given, or fuppofed to remain invariable.
any correfponding terms of the feR" ries's V R:' C" &c. R 5^'' ^' S''' 4 '5"'.^^. ^4R'" &c. S S' 4 S'' ^'''^ ^ "J"'" _j_ ^^. refpeilively, expreffed in terms of u, any one of the propofed quantities a., (3, y, ^, s &c. moreover let the fluxion of ^(a being variable) be denoted by qa.; that ofi? by
^+ ^ + + + +
q;'
Let 9j R,
I' denote
C+ +
+R
+ +
ra
i
that of
is
^ by q^
5
4"
T''"
;
that
R by y[i,
_^+
y^'
It
G?<r.
evident that the quantity
cannot be a maximum or minimum,
J[ i^^' (5V.
when i^
4
C + C + C + C' ^' 4"
"
&c.
&'c.
^''
R"
+ ^4 S" +
is
""h
r" &c.
and
r+
T'
the
4 T"
\l""
&c. are given
a
quantities, unlefs the part
^^_ ^_j_^j_ ^'
maximum
or minimum,^
when
parts
An
parts
]
Inv efligat ion of a general Rule
'S
^
&;c.
^g
5 + R\'K \ K\
\S\B'
;
\
S'\
and
becaufe the terms in thefe parts may be alone made variable, while the other terms are fiippofed to remain the fame, whereby the whole fums,
T'
+ T" are given quantities
R'''
T ^ T
4 R"" &c. 6' y r' _ r" &c. will remain the fame, and the quantity ^j" ^' ^' \ ^' &c. will be a maximum or mirmnum, when the
R
+ R' y R" +
^4
+ +r +
+
^
But when ^1" ^ or minimum^ and i?  i^ _( i^' __ 7^''^ 4 ^' is a 5' 4 r, and ?4 r 4 r'4 T"' are given (or ^ _i ^ Gonflant) quantities, their fluxions will be, all of them, equal to nothing whence we have thefe equations,
part
Is
^+^ + C maximum
j
fo.
+C
+
qu
rii
5/<!
^^ qtx.\
4 ^« 4"
4"
•^'^
q^ 4" fy / /?4~ ^'V
"^'^
^zi
+
4~ /a 4
4"
^'V
//3
4 t"y
=o =o ^ =O
^=^
In order
thefe
now
to exterminate the
fluxions
ii,
a,
/3,
^, let
equations be
refpedtively
multiplied by
i,
e^J] g,
(yet
unknown) and
together;
let all
the
produ cts thence arifing be added
whence
will be
had q
\
er A
fs
~\
gt x u
\
qV(^^+Mgt X ^4/ i^r
Make, now,
q
\
4/^'4^^'
X
/3
\q'\er"\fs"]gt'xy
er \fs \ gt
^^'
o> 'Vfi' V Z'^' o, V gt_ From whence, there being as many equations as quantities, e, J] g, to be determined, the values of thofe quantities will always be given from thence, in terms of the quantities q, r^s^ /,
/
4
qJer \Js
= ~ =
o,
^
q, r\ /, /;
q\ r\ /,
/' (exclufive
of^,
r,
j,
/,).
Now,
Vgfx
fee?^
ing
all
the ter ms o f the equation q 4 er
•\
f'T
4"
qV^r+fs+gtxc^+q
±f!:±ll+g£^± q^rer"Yfs"J^gfx y
er jy74 g Tmuft alfo be o J^fyfux. S\gxJIux.T=o); where
\
rrr o, after the iirft [q \ er\p \gtx u) do thus adiualjy vani£h (by their coefficients being taken equal to nothing), it is
evident, jherefore,
that q
{ovfux,
^+ efux. R
=
O
2
e.
1
oo
e^f,
An Invsjligation of a general
g being
quantities
Rule
q^ r, j, t.
depending
they
intirely
upon
Sec.
(exclufive of
ble,
q, r, s, /),
muft
neceilarily
be
invariafor
or continue of the fame value, let which terms you will of the correfponding
q, r, j, ?,
ftand
feries's,
q" \q"'h.<z.
,
r" \ r"" Sec. becaufe the quantities q, r, j, /; q, / /, r\ s\ t\ (on which e, f, g, depend) have themfelves a
minate
^\
/,
q\
deter
value
each,
is
in
the
required
or
circumftance,
when
^ + ^' &c.
T
a
maximum,
minimum.
__
PROPOSITION.
SuppoFing
/?, S,
y and u to be two flowing ^c. are quantities exprejfed
'tis
quafitities^
and that
u^
^
and
in
terms of y,
given
coeflicietitSj
propofed
to fifid
an equation,
exprefling the
of y and u (or of ^, R, *S, T, &c.) fo that the flucorrefpojiding to a given value of y, fldall be a ent of maximum or minimum, and the fluents of Ry, Sy, 7y, ^f. all of them, at the fa??2e time, equal to given quantities.
relation
^jfj
&c. be the different values cf '^^ that will arife, when_y is, fuccelTively, expounded by the terms of a given arithmetical progrelTion whole common diilerence is the indefinitely fmall quantity/ (a, /3, y, ^, Sec. denoting the rebe Sec. fpeftlve values of u), and Jet R, R\ R", R^" Let
.^,
^, ^',
^,
,
the
correfponding values
known that the fum of all  ^y\ ^'y &c. will be
the quantities Ry
\
Then of R, Sec. Sec. the quantities ^y j
it
is
well
=
^y
]
^y
all
fluent of ^ j/
;
and the fum of
R^y\ R^'y\R!"y\ R^'"y Sec.
=
^}G^ &c (becaufe &c. or ^ ^y y is conftant) will be a maximum or mini^num, and the quanS'y Rj, &c. Sy R^y \tities Ry SJ Sj, ScCi at the fame time equal to given ones, when the relation
Ry, &c.
But, by the
Lemma,
it
appears, that
^
fluent of
^'
^
+ +
^'
Rj +
+ Cy + C/ + + +
+
f
R, S, Y, Sec.) is exprefl^ed by the equaof ^ and u (or of tion, ^iix.^^ ex ^ux.R\fxRux. 'S{gx^ux. where ^, Sec. denote (unknown) confl:ant quantities; and where, g.
^
T^o
:
in taking the fluxions of
^, R^
Sy
T",
&c. the quantity u
is,
alone.
for the
Refolutiort
of
Ifoperimetrleal
Problems.
loi
are
alone, to be confidered as variable ^
lues of^, entering
becaufe the fucce 01 ve va
refpedtlvely into
,
^, ^, ^^
^\
6cc.
being (by hypothefis) fuch as fuccefTively arife from the terms of a given arithmetical progreflion. Hence we have the following
conftant quantities
GENERAL RULE
for
the Rejolution of Ifoperi metrical Problems of all orders,
'Take thefluxions of all the propofed exprefjions (as well that refpeBing the maximum or 7ninimum^ as of the others whofe fluents
are
to be
fluxion,
itfelf)
given quantities^ maki?ig that quantity^ and likewife its invariable, whereof the fluxion (as well as the quantity enters into the /aid expreflions and, having divided everyJ
of the other quantity made variable, let the quantities hence arifing, joined to general coeflicients \, e, g, ^c. be united into o?iefum, and the whole be made equal to nothing :
the fluxion
where by
f
from which
equation (wherein the values of e,f g, &c. may be ei~ ther pofitive, or negative, or nothing, as the cafe requires), the re^
quired relation of the two variable quantities will be truly exhibited.
the ufe of the rulehtve, laid down by an example, Fig. X and j be fuppofed to reprefent the ordinate (P^J and abfcilTa (^PJ of a curve and fuppofe AFRG to be ancurve, having the fame abfciffa, whofe ordinate PR is, other every where, z=z ax"'y"; 'tis required to find the relation of x and y, fo that the area BFGC, anfwering to a given value ofBC, ffiall be a maximum or minimum, at the fame time that the corlet
To illuftrate
22.
AD^y
refponding area
hypothefis,
BDEC
is
equal to a given quantity.
is
Here, by
the fluent of ax'^y"y
to be a
maximum
or minimum,
equal to a given quantity: taking, therefore, the fluxions of both exprefllons, j&:c. (making x alone variable, according to the rule), we thence get max'^~^y'y eyz=.o:
and that
of^
—
whence Ar'"y
i^.
=
""75
^^^ confequently
ax"'y''
(==
PR)
=
it is
Therefore, feeing
PR
is
in a confl:ant ratio to
P^,
evident, that both the curves will
that they will be both hyperbolas,
as the values
of the exponents
m—
be of the fame kind ; and or both parabolas, according i, and n (in the general equation
i0 2
tion
•^
An
x "'""')'''
Invejiigation of a general Rule
)
=— ma
If
are
like^
i
or unlike^
fofitive^
with regard to pofiive
and negathe.
m
—
be
the equation gives a mini
i =0, or when mum', li negative, a maximwn\ but when //? m=:zo, the equation fails j in which cafes there will be neither a maximum^ nor a minimum.
—
For another example,
let
the fluxions given
be^ and
^i*;
the
fluent of the former (anfwering to a given value of y) being to be a minimum, and that of the latter, at the fame time, equal
to a given quantity.
either,
Here {x being concerned independently,
of its fluent x or fluxion x) let the fluxions of both expreffions be taken, making x alone variable j whence, afl:er
dividing
^r=ro
:
by
ic,
we
have
—^
and
i
:
therefore, in this cafe
—
f ) j and conv/hence x^=^aS y~^^ y (fuppoflng <s fequently xz=^2aS y^^ j being an equation aniwering to the common parabola. The fame concluflon may be otherwife derived
=—
(without fecondfluxions) by afluming
—
•=zV',
yy'S'
whereby our
andJ/^':
two given
exprefllons will be transformed to
rule,
;
from
i?
whence, by the
(
we
get ^^v)y p ey
.v
=:.0',
and therefore
~
)
=
a^
y~^
whence
=
^^y~^y^
and confequently x :=
2a" y^.,
Fig. 23.
the fame as before.
If the abfcijfa (JF) of a curve A^lC be denoted by x, and by y, and p be taken to exprefs the meafure the ordinate of the circumference of a circle whofe diameter is unity j it is
P^
well
line
known
A^,
that the feveral fluxions, of the abfcifla ^^P, curvefuperficies of the generated folid (by a roarea
JP^
tation about the axis
fpectively,
AP), and of
the folid
itfelf,
will be, re
reprefented by
fy'"x:
if therefore,
.v, \/xx\y'yi yx, 2py \/xx~\yyy and the fluxions of thefe diflerent expreflions be
taken,
as
before (making
x alone
^^''
variable)
'""'"^
we
''
fl^iall
get
i
]
7^ +fy + ^My} +
tion for determining the
"" °'
^^""""^^
^''"''
relation of
x and
v,
when any one
area,
all.
of thofe
five
quandties {viz. the
)
abfcifla,
curveline,
iupcrflcies,
or folid
is
a maxi?num or minimum^
and
or
for the RefGhitmi of Ifoperimetrkal Problems,
or any
103
number of the
;
others, at the
coefficients
quantities
fitive,
wherein the
f,
fame time, equal to given /,' g^ and h^ may be po
negative, or nothing, as the cafe propofed
may
require.
Thus, for inilance, if the length of the curve only be given, and the area correiponding is required to be a maximum^ our
equation will then
y'
become
—rrr
:
4;
/y
=
o,
or ax''
=
,
X XX ^yy (by making a^=z
j)
whence x
= ——
"
_r
x^ =r:y ; anyy, or 2ax fwering to a circle ; which figure is, therefore, more capacious than any other under equal bounds.
If, together v/ith the ordinate (which, here, is always fuppofed given) the abfcilTa, at the end of the fluent, be given likewife, and the fuperficies generated by the rotation of the curve about its axis be a minimum ^ then, from the fame equa
and confequently xz=za
— \/aa —
—
tion,
we
^
fhall
have
i
47'
yy
rr'—,
—=
o,
whence (makino a
^=z
— —) xh found = V g
log.
:
— aa
,
and from thence x z=
ax hvp. '^
when
which equation,
by being
im.poffible
y
fhews that the curve (which is here the catenaria) cannot poflibly meet the axis about which the folid and confequently, that the cafe will not admit of is generated any jninimtmi, unlefs the firft, or leaft given value of ^, exceeds a certain affignable magnitude.
is lefs
than
a,
;
of the abovefpecified quantities are given, and the contemporary fluent of fome other expreflion, as
any,
or
all
is required to be a maximum or fninimum^ our equation (by taking the fluxion of this laft expreffiorij and
When
xx^yyY xy^y ^~"^"^
it
joining
to the former) will then be
\ fy
4^+ :
/;z=:t,
A
— — 4 =
;
",
'
xx \yy^~^ X
o
•
±nxy'^jf^~'"*
^y"
which,
when
be that defining the folid of the the length of the axis, only, is fiance leaft ref fuppofed to be given (without farther reilrictions) will be exi,
and«
;
=—
and
will
this,
when
preiTed
104prefTed
yi^""
Invejligatkri of a ge?ie?'al
Ruk
2yf x =. d %
by xx VjjT'' x
;
— 2xyy'

^
=
o?
o^
XX \ vv\ being the cafe iirft conlidered by Sir Isaac NewIf both the length and the folid content be given, the ton. o; but equation will be 2xyf x xx \ yy]'"" \ d \ hy"" if, befides thefe, the fuperiicies is given likewife, it will then
—
—
=
o.
be— 2.v;:y\ xx^y^^
Thus,
in like
+ ^+ 7J—j +/^/ = = — — and n=z'—, manner, by alTuming
;^;
,
we have ,^~—~=
+
d\
/— ,^ 4 j5' + ,/
^
.
~+
^V^
= o;
being the general equation of the curva of the fwiftefi defcent ; which, when e^ f, ^, and h are all of them taken equal to
nothing, will
become
—+
</;
which
is
the cafe confi
dered by
many Others, anfwering to the cycloid. When the length of the arch defcribed in the whole defcent (along with the values of x and y) is given, the equation will then be
1.
—T=s^\dX .===.
s/xk\yj
'
'
y
^x
'^xx\yy
=0,
or e\y '^
^ xx^ :=id\xx\yy. ^^
'
And
thus may the relation of x andjy be determined in any other cafe, and under any number of reflricftions; provided only, enters into the feveral that one of thefe quantities,
expreffions given.
as
— When both x and^ are concerned,
the
it
as well
their fluxions,
confideration
becomes more complito
arrive
at a
cated j nor does
feem practicable
General
if
Rule, to anfwer equally in fuch cafes.
Neverthclefs,
the
ultimate values of a: and ^ are fuppofed given, or the required curve is to pafs through two given points, without being confined to farther limitations,
minimum (which
can occur)
\
cafe
is
the chief,
except that of the maximum or and the moft ufeful that
then the method of folution
of the given
exprejjion
may be
as follows
Take
the fluxion
maximum
(whofe fluent is to be a or minimum) making x alone variable j and^, having dilet
vided by X,
the quotient be denoted by u.
Take J again^ the fluxion of the fame exfreffon^ making x, alone^
'variable J
which divide by x: then will
this lajl quotient
=
lu
Fram
fof the Refolutmi
of
Ifope7^im2t7ical Problems,
?/,
105
x
From which
and
J)'
equation the value of
and the
relation of
will be determined.
example, if the expreffion propounded (whofe fluent, correfponding to any given values of ;c and^', is to be a
for
Thus,
minimum) were
to
be/^4
p^x—
yy
;
then the fluxion thereof,
when X
X alone
alone
is
is
made
variable,
being^^^A; x —~, and,
yy
when
made
yy
variable, equal to
^^,weherehavey[<§"''^x^
=
u
ziy
and
^^ = u
»
;
the
latter
of which, divided by the former,
log.
gives
—
= fT~~
gx X
yy
whence hyp.
u
= hyp. log.f\gxY^
f \c
\
hyp. log. d {d being any conftant quantity).
Confequentlv
=
f
dxf\gx\'^',
{
which value being
fubftituted in the equati
on
~ = u,
we
thence have
gx
,'
x
x""
=
and
:^Z_
i^^'j/%
ovf\gx'f X X
z=: cy~^y
(making
==
^
^—
^
)y
confequently by taking the fluent again,
:=: 2cy^
',
we have
a;
~^
45
expreffing the general relation of
'
andj)',
fuppoflng
i
them both
to begin to
be generated together.
If
f=
and
as
g ==
Oj
the fluxion propounded will
firfl
become
^
(the
fame
of the former examples) ; and here, x being ==: 2cyi, anfwering (as before) to the comcy~yy X will be mon /^r^^oA/. But li =. o and ^ =z i, then our given
in the
fluxion will
f become ^, and yy
or x^
—
=
the refulting equation will be
jvt
=: 2rjs
=
a'y^ [a being
8d^ put =z ^ ]
,
which
alfo
The very anfwers to a parabola^ but of an higher order. fame concluflons v/ill, in like manner, be brought out by making y and y^ fucceflively, variable (inflead of x and x).
For, here, the two fluxions refulting (after having divided by
—
y
P
and
io6
An
iTweftigation of
to
a general Rule ^ &c.
and y) appear
be
T^'^^r"'''
latter
=
«>
^nd
ZS^ =
have IIi^
U
:
whence, dividing the
by the former,
we
= ii;
hyp. log. y^and therefore conilant quantity). {a being any
—
+
hyp. log. a hyp. log. u Confequently, ay^=^ u
=
f^g^%iy^'
^
andj+^j^
X ^
=
cy^^y
{/ being
again,
= put =
have
La).
3
Hence,
^ ;
by taking the
fluent
we
X
/+ ^^1 —
4,?
3/
__ 2cy^, the very
fame
as before.
Of
Of
Reduction of Algebraic Method of Surd Divisors ;
the
is
Equations,
by the
containing an Exit
planation of the Grounds of that Method, as
laid
down by
Sir
Isaac
Newton
in his
Uni
verfal Arithmetick.
^)^)5()8(HE redu6lion of equations by furd divifors, which is looked upon, by many, as a very intricate kind of T /peculation, is founded on the fame principles with the method of extra<fting the roots of common quadratic equations, by compleating of the fquare, with this difference only, that the fquares on both fides of the equation are, here, affected by the unknown quantity ; whereas, in the common method, the fquare on the righthand fide is a quantity intirely known. What we, therefore, have to do, is, to feparate, and fo order the terms of the equation given, that both
O ^ ^wwS
Jides thereof
may (tf pofjtble)
If the given
^AT* j ta:  J
be complete fquares.
= + px^ xx + Tpx+^^ —Ax^B\^=zX^^px'\qx^irrx\s{=:o)i
x^
f
Case
I.
equation be
o,
a biquadratic one, let It be and let there be afTumed
that
is,
let
the values of the quantities
^, ^and B
be fuppofed
in every
fuch, that the coefficients of the powers of ;c,
when >:x\^px\^
and
Ax  B
are fquarcd, fhall agree, or
be the fame,
term, with thofe of the equation given. Then, the faid quantities being a(5lually fquared, our equation will become
x^
^ px'
{•
z^"
*
*1
s.
+ i/>V+ /% {^X^^'+px' + qx'^rx + ^AAx'^zABx^B' J
ip"^,
equating the coefHcients of the homologous powers, and putting a =. q ^pp, we have,
From whence, by
I
2.
3.
— — ^* = 2^f p^— 2AB = ^^B' =
r,
s,
or, or,
2^= ^^ + « p^= 2AB
or,
C = ^" +
}^
r
;
P
2
Now,
io8
Of the
Now,
if
Redu51io?t of Algebraic Equations^
the value of
^,
as given
by the
firfl
2AB z= jQ, fubftituted in the other two, we fliall get '^pA" <', fuppofing f^ B" r {ccp, and {ccA' and I A' := s In which equations the unknown quantities laoi. ^
—+
—
=
= —
—
equation
,
be
ailumed fquares are only concerned, and from which their values might be found. But as the refulting equation, when one of the quantities is exterminated, rifes to the fixth dimeniion, and would, perhaps, require more trouble to reduce it than, even, the original one propounded, little advantage would be reaped therefrom. Inll:ead, therefore, of proceeding farther in a direft manner, it may be of ufe to try, whether fome property, or relation of thefe quantities cannot from hence be difcovered, whereby we may be enabled to guefs at their values j which may be afterwards tried by means of the equations here exhibited.
appertaining to the latter of the
tvv^o
Firfl, then,
it is
evident, if both
A
and B
are either integers
\
or rational quantities, that the equation x^
^px
]
A^  B f (= x'^ { px'
reduced to
x'' j
\
qx^
A^rx)
=o
Q]
—
will,
even
after
it is
p^
+
0^5^ ^^
~h ^j be intirely free from
In which cafe,' the method of rational divifirs taking place, a redudlion by means of furd quantities, or divifors, as they do not naturally arife in the coniideration^ cannot be of ufe. But the relation of the given quantities
radical quantities.
py §'3 ^j ^ (which we fhall always, hereafter, confider as inteand B fhall be radical gers) may be fuch, that the values of
A
;
quantities,
the
commenfurate to each other in which cafe, where method of rational dii'ifors fails, we may aflume \/ n for the common radical divifor, and exprefs the quantities themfelves by k\/ n, and Is/ n\ that is, we may make A ^v/;?, Is/ n means our two equations, derived by which and B
= above, be changed — =
3
=
will
to \pk'n
\ot.len
/;z"
^,
or to l^pK"
— = — = , and
ikln
2>^/
/3,
and
\li'ii' }
'^n
+
all
—
ir
z=r.
—^
refped:ively.
Now,
fince n
is
fuppofed to be an integer,
/^
hence (confidering
and
/ alfo
as integers,
from or the halves of
it is
plain
fuch
by the
fiich) that '
Method of Surd
muft be
n
Divifors,
or, at leafl,
log
the
— n
and

inteo;ers likewifc, °
halves of Integers
are here feeking)
and confequently that n (whofe value we ; ought to be fome common integral divifor
to k
of
and 2^. Moreover, with regard
jG
and
/,
it
is
evident from the
(k)
firft
of thofe equations {Ipk
be fome divifor of
— 2/= ^\
—
;
^ i
that the former
ought
to
and
that,
if the quotient
—
be
taken from ypk^ the remainder
ble of
/.
[\pJz
— ^J
will be the
dou
It farther appears,
from the equations
^= —^^, and^=
72k'
B' ^
that
s,
by fubflituting for A' and B'
/^
their equals
and
jil^,
^will be — ^iiL_, and
2
=: j^ZI!. From the former
n
be known, when 72 and k are known ; bymeans whereof and the other equation, / may be, a fecon'd time, found j and the agreement, or coincidence of this value with that before determined for /, will prove the folution in all refpefts becaufe then the conditions of three original equations 2Q_ A a, /Q^^ 2AB r, B' [ s) will be all compleatiy fulfilled. It is true indeed, that no immediate regard, in the conclufion, is had to the fecond of thofe equations ; but then it ought to be obferved, that the
of which
^
,
v/ill
+
—
+ Q^=
equation {~pk
—^
whereby
/ is,
the
iirft
time, found,
is
a
confequence thereof, being derived from that, and the iirfl: equadon, conjundly and it is known, that, whatever values
:
are difcovered for
unknown
quantities,
by means of equati
ons derived from others, fuch values do equally anfwer the conditions of the original equations propounded.
Seeing the method of folution, above traced out, depends
upon the alTuming proper
divifors
of ft 2^, and
^,
for the
values
no
divlfors
Of the ReduSlion
values of
of Algebraic Equations^
therefore be expedient,
into lefs ccmpafs,
firft
n and
^,
it
may
of
all,
in order to bring the
work
to rejedl fuch
of thofe quantities (if we can by any means difcover them) which wc know are not for our purpofe. And this may, in fome meafure, be effected, from the confideration of the properties of even and odd numbers.
In order to v/hich
Q^j=
^
'^
being previoufly trans
formed
to nle
sQ^jry), it is evident, from thence, that // (by putting q 4/*, and confequently its equal 4^^*, p be an odd number p"will likewife be an odd number j becaufe an even number (4/") fubtradled from the fquare of an odd one, always, leaves odd. Therefore, feeing 4/^* x 71 is here an odd number, both ?2 and 4/^' muft be odd (for the produ(^ of two even numbers, or of Whence an odd one and an even one, is even, and not odd).
^
—(=
2Q..:7a)
= 2Q^— ^ + {^'=1^' —
—
it follows, becaufe 2^ ' is odd, that 2k mufl be odd too confequently k the half of an odd number.
j
and
feeing /, w, and ik are all of them odd numbers (when/> is fuch) they may, therefore, be expreffed by 2^fi,
Now,
2/^ [ I,
in
•
—
•
and 2C \ ly refpe<ftiveiy ; ^, by and c being integers : confequence of which affumption the equation 4«^^ =/* 4./, will, by fubftitution, be changed to S^c*  ^bc f 2b
} 4<7*
f
4*^
1^
_
c* _j_ f
4^ + = 4^^ + — + — 4/>
=
^
J
or 2^c*
to
\it
2bc \
^» __ ^
J,
From whence
known
fo,
is
mani
fefl,
as all the terms,
but ^by are
:
be integers, that
\b muft be an integer likewife
ber,
it
and
b being an even
num
follows that «, or 2/^+1, muft be the double of an Thereeven number (or a multiple of 4) increafed by unity.
all
fore
the divifors of
fafely rejefted,
/3
and 2^ that have not
not for the purpofe.
this property
may be
as
In like manner, if p be eveuy the fame limitations will take place, provided that r is odd ; which will be the cafe when is the half of an odd number (For, when Q^s an integer, and B' (= s) being integers, their A^ rrr 4^"^
Q
— f)
Q^—
product A'B' will be an integer, and confequently the fquare root thereof AB (being rational) will likewife be an integer;
and
hy the
and
even,
fo, r,
Method of Surd
Divifors,
1
1
/Q^nd 2AB
as given
being both even numbers, their diffe
rence
by the equation />Q^3=
2AB
f r,
would be
Therefore, feeing B', or its equal nl\ is here equal to the fquare of half of an odd number (Q) joined to an integer ( i), in the fame manner as 7ili' was in the preceding cale ; it is evident, from the reafoning there laid down, that the value of n is fubjecfl to the very fame reftridti
and not odd).
—
might be pointed out, from the properties of even and odd numbers, were the thing worth purfuing farther. What is already delivered on this head is fufficient for the purpofe, and for the underffanding I fhall therefore, from the feveral of Sir Isaac Newton
ons here,
as there.
— Other
:
limitations
conclufions above derived,
now
lay
down
the fubfequent
RULE
for
the reduSfion
of an equation {x^ +/^' of four dinienfions.
f
qx'^\rx 
j
= o)
the?i
Make
Dt=.q
—
^p^^
/3
r= r — 4a/, and
^=s — Jaa;
put for n fome common integral divifor of (^ and 2^, that is neither a fquare^ nor divifble by a fquare^ and ivhich being divided by 4, Put alfo for kfojne difhall leave unity, if either p or r be odd.
vifor of ^j if
p
^^ even, or half of the odd divifor if p be odd
take the quotient from \pk, a?id call half the remainder L
.
Make
of the
i^^::
""^^
,
and
try if
,
n divides
it
^^ —
s,
and
the root
fo happen, then the propofed equation, by means of the values thus determined, will be reduced to
quotient be equal to I
if
Kx
f y/.v (
^^== +_\/ ny,kx\ 1.
That the divifor n ought not here to be a fquare, is evident from what has been already remarked, fince both A and B would then be rational quantities ? and that it ought not to be diviiible by a fquare, will alfo appear, if it be confidered that k and / in the equations k\/ n B, are A, and l\/ n to be taken the greateft, and n the leall, that the cafe will ad
=
=
mit
of.
No
ii
2
Of the
No
jG
Refoluiion of Algehrdic Equdtio7is^
is
regard in this Rule
had
Sir
to that circumilance,
inwhidb
depends
happens to be nothing.
k
alfo
Isaac
Newton
of
in
tliic
here directs,
io take
equal
to
noihing.
The
,
reafqii
v^^hich
on the equation
'Ipk'
{pli
— ikl =
which
cafe
becomes
—
farily,
Is/ n
cefs,
(= v/QL—
J,
our given equation
\/
Iccoi
= ^.y^^ — here reduced — wherein a given = —
^)
^
>
2/('/=: o ; where one root, or value of k mull:, neceC be nothing. Therefore Q^ being =:;=: 'a, we have
^^ ^^^^'
^y ^
dired pro
is
to
x'' [
^px ] {cc
=
is
q
Ipp.
The
celebrated
mathematician
Maclaurin, who,
in his
Treatife of Algebj^a^ has
commented largely on the difcoveries of our Author, feems to reprefent this part of the General Rule^ as not well grounded; laying down, at the fame time, two
Rules, in order to fupply the defe6l.
new
Which
Rules,
I
muft confefs, to me appear unneceffary; Unce it is certain, that the method of folution, as laid down by Sir Isaac Nlwton, is more dired: and eligible in this particular cafe than in any other. It mufl be allowed, indeed, that the manner of applying the Rule, in this cafe, is left fomewhat obfcure ; but as to his directling, to
take ^
=
o,
when
/3
==: o,
it
cannot, I
am
fully
perfuaded, admit of any wellgrounded objection.
For, though
o, when does not neceffarily follow that k mull: be jG r=r o," yet the taking of k thus .= o, involves no abfurdity The truth is, feeing one value of /e (at leaft) will be nothing. there are three different values that k may admit of (as apit
"
=
—
pears by the fubfequent note *) ; all of which v/ill, equally, fulfil the feveral conditions required, and bring out the very
fame conclufion.
Thus
the
value of ^,
in
the
equation
* If the fquare of half the fecond of the original equations, 2Q_ a •=. A A, s z=. BB, be fabtraited from the produ6l of the other ^ == 2AB, Q(^ pQ^r~
—
—
two,
there will be
«S'
obtained the equation
;
wherein the unknown quantity Q_is alone concerned ; V X i^'^ which equation being of three dimenfions, the root Q^, and confcquently i
—
Qj
— i?Q2
f ^pr
—
s
x Q_
^^ o
(—^
)
will
dmit of three different values.
— From
this
equation
;
it
alfo
is
appears, that
a.
Q_muft always be a divifor of the quantity as ciicumftance taken notice of by our Author.
— ^rr
which
by the
x^{ 2x^
Method of Surd
S^'^^^
I
Divifors>
113
— 37^* —
;
may be o, 3 or 4
== '^ (propofed by this gentleman) or, which comes to the fame, the equation itfelf
to x^ \
may be reduced
x
— 19 = + 6\/ 10,
^^
x'\
x
j
—
2.
= + v/
All
5
X 3^
+ ~>
°^*
^°
+ ^ — 3= + v/ 2 X 4^ +
—
but one and the fame equation, as will appear by fquaring both fides of each, and properly tranfpofingj from whence the given equation x'^ \2x'' 37^' j I =0, will in every cafe emerge. The fecond of 38^ thefe equations is that brought out by Mr. Maclaurin ; but the firft, which is that found by our Author's Rule, is not only more commodious, but eafier to be determined, being derived by a diredl, and very fhort procefs. And fo much for equations of four dimenlions.
are, in
efFedt,
which
—
—
Case.
it
II.
\
If
px^
the equation to be reduced is
\
be x^
there be affumed
=
F+l^T+^^+Rl' — A^^+ Ba; + CI*
(= o)
;
qx^ f rx^
^
sx^ \ tx
offix dimenfions^ q ; and \ v
=
let
let
x^ ^px^ \ qx^\rx^ ^sx' \tx\'v
which, by in
volution and tranfpofition, will give
—
^x*
—rx' —sx"
—tx
— 'uJ
;
213*^^; j ^^
.
From whence, by
1.
equating the coefficients of the homologous powers, and writing oc q ^pp, we have,
= —
2.
3.
4.
5.
/R 4 Qlr ^ = 2AC 2QR — t == 2BC
R^
20^3— a r= A^ 2R p(Xr^ ^
+
= 2AB
i
;
+ B'
— = C\
i;
(r= ±A*Ta) as given by the firft be fubflituted for Q, in the fecond, we of thefe equations, ^ == 2 AB ; and confequently fhall get 2R i/A' tP^
If
now
the value of
Q
R
which 4/a) r liG (by putting /3 together that of Q, being fubftituted in the three value, remaining equations, we fliall have,
i/A'
:
'
= AB — + + + with
—
— —
CL.
I.
Of the ReduBion
2.A^B
of Algebraic Equations^
— aa, vi'—t — be reduced and =v —  ^ = 2AC + B^ MB — :/A^ +iA^ + A'B —^i>A^ +^0A'+ aAB — ±j&aA'— = 2BC, and
which, by putting y
9
^
f/'/S,
i^aA'+ia/3— /=2BC, +TiSA'+«AB 3.A^B^lM'B+i^AB+j^V/A^— i^/SA^+i/B— = e:
'z;
— i/A'
—
— —
^=: 7
to
a/3,
{jGiQ,
will
ic^A'
^^
A^B^~ l/A'B + f^^^
tively.
+ tV/^A^
:/iSA^—
6
= C^
refpec
Now, if the values of A, B and C are fuch, as to admit of fome common furddivifor, let that divifor (as in the preceding
Cafe) be denoted by %/ n, and the quantities themfelves by k\/^, l\/li, and ms/ n, refpedively: then, fubftitution being
made and
every equation divided by n^
we
fhall have,
3.
nkT^kpnkn^
it
^kl^^,fnk'^\p^k^—^
/,
= m\
ought to be
^,
From whence
all
appears (fince k^
and
is
m
are here confidered
?;,
as integers, or as the halves of fuch) that ^,
and
5
to
of them divifible by n, or, be fome common integral
^ ^.
which
the fame, that n ought
divifor
of the quantities
17,
and
Furthermore, with refped to the limitations to which k is fubjed, let the feveral terms in the former part of the iirft of our three equations, in which k is found (in order to abbreviate the work) be denoted by Fk j then will the equation itfelf
be changed
to jR^
—=
2.km
+
/'.
And,
in the very
fame
* Sir Isaac Newton directs to take w, fome common divifor of 2<f, ?t, and 2d (inftead of ^, >j, and 5); but this makes no difference, becaufe all are alfo dlvifors of 2K and 2^; nor are there any divifors of divifors ot" ^ and 24" and 2^, but what will likewife be divifors of K and fi, if we (as Sir Isaac has done) admit into the confideration fuch fractions as have the powers 2 for their denominator ; which arife from the value of i/», in the affumed equation, being a fradiion of this kind, when p is an odd number.
fl
mannera.
hy the
Method of Surd
Divifors.
X.o
i
r 5
manner, our other two equations will be changed
Gk
=
2/;;;,
and
Hk
=r w%
refpedively.
Let
now
the fquare of half the fecond of thefe equations be
firll:
fubtracted from the produ6t of the
and
2n
third,
then will
;
Pffi
_ ™  ^f + ii _ ^fiV + £i" _
n
n
^
nn
"^
which, by dividing the whole by
will,
at
2/^,
length,
become
n
^
= ^km^ and putting X = —
i"I
nn
^
^5
^jj^,
*
*
n
n
*
k
where
n
(as ^
^,
1?,
and
^
being
all divifible
by
their
is
fhewn above) '
it is
manifeft that
—
7.nn
common
divifor
(in order that jn ^
alfo to
may
be an integer, or the half of an integer) ought divifible by its divifor ky that is, k ought to be fome
divifor
be of
the quantity ^
—
inn
in the fourth
^
Again, with regard to
] ^r)^
as
given
be fubfbituted
/QlH" ^Q.>r"
(becaufe
— 4/Q fecond of by by which means we have 2QAB = = 2^^' iOnkl — /'Q^+ r(ij— = 2nlm
/,
let
the value of
R
(=r
AB
the
the five original equations,
t
;
°^
A
it is
z=z
ks/ n,
B z=
2m
I\/
?2y
C
,
== m\/ n), and confer
quently
integer,
^^~" ^j<
=::::
— 2^Q
where 2m
— 2y^Q^eing an
—^=
^
evident that
/
^^"~ ^^
divifor
mufl: be an integer alfo,
and, confequently,
fome
of the quantity
—
being found in numbers, the value of R (= AB ^^^ T^) will be had likewife ; and T^ then, by means of the three laft of the five original equations, the value of m may be alfo found, three feveral ways, and
From whence
— TpQ, + = — t/Q +
by
fubftituting for
/
the truth of the folution thereby confirmed
ons,
:
for thefe equati
A, B, and C, their equals /^v/ ;?, />/;/, do become R' and f?2\/ n, v =: nm"", 2QR f 2nim, s and fK ^ inkm \ nil ; from the firll of which

Q^—
=
—
— =
Q^
m
n6
m
Of the
ReduElion of Algebraic Equations
y
=J
m
from the fecond,
^
7n
= ^
which
.i ;
and from.
the third,
= ^^"^
;
7"
^
~
^
•*
values, therefore^
when Q, R, ^^. among themlelves
} rx^ \ sx"" \
are rightly afTumed, will
be all found equal and our given equation, x^ \ px^ j qx''
tx
\
v
A^^4B;c
As
fame
+ C' =
A;c^
rr^ Oi
or x'
j ^px'' \
Qx_\ R^
—
+
o, will
then be reduced to x'
Q^+ R (==+
to even
as
+ Bx + C) = + v/Tz xI^^+^Tf^.
+
^px""
to the limitations in the divifors to
be tried, with reipedt and odd numbers, the reafoning thereon is the very
in
the preceding Cafe 3 v/hich, therefore, it will be One circumftance there is, indeed, that unnecefTary to repeat.
—
merits a particular regard, and that is, when A = o ; in which o, and the cafe k (or one value of k at leafl) will alfo be
=
For, k being redu6tion will be performed by a dired: procefs. are firft innothing, the three equations wherein k, /, and
m
troduced,, will
become
whence /\/«==\/— ^, ^^ \'n) ^= O5 ^s it ought
—
— — ^=l\ — — = ms/ n = \/— and
n
n
0,
2lmy and
n
zzz
m'^x
to be.
confequently X (== Therefore, by fubftitut
their ing thefe values, and writing alfo infl'ead of Q^and equals ^ob and iS, the equation given, is here reduced to
R
y^ _[ Lpx":
+ \ux +
+
i/3
— ±xs/'^^± v/^^.
+ +
Case HI. If
x'^
+
P^^ V 9^^
the equation is of eight dimsnjions^ let ^^^ "1~ ^^^ ^~ '"^^ \^^' '\ z
+
Then, by aifuming x^ Ar tP^' Q^ /';^7 4_ qx^ x^ D]' Cx B^* Ax' _f2J (== o) and proceeding Y tx' \ vx'' 4 'ze;;c two former Cafes, we fhall have here,.
+
+
+
—
+
wx R^
=o
it
be
'.
+
^;f^
Sf —
Jp
in
^;<^:^
+
as
the
1
.
2Q^j a
2.
3.
4.
5.
= A% 2R + pQ^zr ^ = 2AR, 2S + /R 4 Q2j— = 2AC + BB, /S + 2QR — /... = 2AD + 2BC, = 2BD + CC, 2QS_+ RR —
.
.
•
.
j
1;
.
.
6.
by
the
Method of Surd
6. 7.
Divifors.
117
2RS
SS
— w — 2CD, — X — DD.
?i,
Put
now
(as
before)
A
== k*/
B
r=r
/v/
/?,
C
= ;«v^
:
;?,
D R
ris/ n\ put alfo (to Ihorten the work) (^3= Q[« [" !«> r=: R'?? ] 'jG, S 1= S« v'J^J ^^^^^ is, let the quotients of
3=
+
common divifor «, be Q.', and the remainders ^a, ^iS, and {7, refpedively then, to determine thefe laft, which mufl be firft known, before n can be known, let fubftitution be made in the lecond and third equations, everywhere difregarding fuch terms wherein n and Thus, fubftitution being made in the its powers are involved. iklny fecond equation, we have 2^'?z  jQ [/Q^+t/'^ ^ where the homologous terms, in which n enters not, are /3, the others, therefore, being here difregarded, r ~pu^ and { ~poc r o, or/3==r pa,. In the very we have (3 s 0'y fame manner, from the third equation, y+l/iSl^aa jxx. and confequently y := s ^p[3 Let fubftitution be now made in the fourth, fifth, fixth, and feventh equations (ftill difregarding all fuch terms as would involve the. powers of n)y and there will come out,
Q, R, and
R',
S,
when
divided by the
and
S',
— =
—
:
— = —
Tpy
—
—
=
I.
+
^ocf3
— f=^
4
iyy
—^
+
j:/3/3
=
would
^
^
Now,
as all the other terms, that
arife in thefe
equati
ons (befides thofe put down) are affeded with ;^, and are therefore diviiible thereby, it is manifeft that the four quantities
Tpy
+ T«/3 —
/,
^oiy
~
Vy
J:(By
here brought out, muft likewife be, all the fame common divifor n, when the equation given is caparIf, therefore, no fuch common divifor ble of being reduced. (under the reftricflions fpecified in the preceding Cafes, dependbeing an odd number) can be difcovered ing on p, r, t, or (v/hich vdll moft comnxoniy happen) the work will then be at
z, and ^yy of them, divifible by
~ w,
—
w
an end;
From
upon
the fame
method of
operation,
which may be looked:
cible:
as a fort
of examination, whether the equation be redu
1 1
Of the
clble or not,
Refolution of Algebraic Equations^
the quantities to
to be a
we may find all common diviibr, when
let
which n ought
is
the equation given
\ p>f'~'^ \ qx"^~"^
of lo, 12,
^x^"~'^ •\
or a greater
number of dimenfions.
there be given
Thus,
sx'^'~^ \ tx~'~^
&c.
=
x'''
Ar
o, and let there be gflumed
'
x'\^px'
7/
~'+Q5+I^ X x'^\R'n\Yl3 X at^sj S^l^I^ x'%^,\
f
Ix'^
X /iX'^'
+
?/2X'^
&c]
'
=
X''
+ px"'—' \ qx^'" &C.
then,
by fquaring
a;^'
tranfpofing
terms of
a,
\
this
~o(.^x'~^' &c, and 4" qx'~^ &c. it will appear, that the l/.v^^~^ equation, in which ?i enters not, will be
x' ~\ \px'~''
+ Q^+
jGj
y
^
iP^ Wx^^J^^poc
xx^
1^/3
(,
Di.
^ 1
1/7^ (
el
f/>^
~iJ
^c.
—/J
{/?/3
all the quantities a, determined, by alTuming the coefficients /3, y, C^c. will be equal to nothing thus v/e have '/>/», jQ =r r '/>a, q
From
the former half of which terms,
thefe quantities being
^r. And then, known, the coefficients of the remaining terms will like wife be known 5 which ought, all of them, to be divifible by n^ in order that the reduction may fucceed j that is, they ought to be fuch, as to admit of a common divifor [n) under the reil:rid:ions before fpecifed. For example, if the equation given were to be of twelve dimenlions, as x^^ ^;c" { qx^°  j'x^ 4 sx"^ j tx"^ \ iw^ { ax''  bx'^^cx^' \dx'' ^ex^fz^. o, v/e ffiould have a,=q Ipp, r \pc6, yz^s ~p(i ja«, S ~. t afi, and f^ \py £ 1; ~p^ ^a,y 7iGjG ; and the coefficients of the other fix terms (whereof n ought to be a common divifor) would be
i
7= —
f//3
—
:
^caa,
J
= —
2f
4^7/
= — —
4o;jG,
= — = —
—
—
—
—
—
b,
—
—
:/s
+ >^ + l^y—
^,
{ccs{\(^^\\yy
—
}^[^,
J^±y^— c,
Thefe operations, for finding of n, as this fort of redu6lion feldom poffible in high equations, will moft commonly end the work. If fuch a value, however, fhould be found for n, as to anfwer ail the conditions above fpecified, it is not by puris
fuing the fame
method of
divifors,
laid
down
in
the refolution
of
by the
Method of Surd
Divifors,
119
of the preceding Cafes, that the vakies of k, /, ^c. can from thence be determined, without a prodigious deal of trouble. There are indeed various other means of trying thefe quantities, by alTuming fome of them, and finding the others from thence and fo proceeding on, changing the values continually, till all the conditions of the feveral equations, arifing from the com
homologous exceedingly laborious, and
parifon of the
redu(^l:ions
little,
terniP,
are fulfilled.
feeing; after all,
But as this is the ufe of fo great
is
(as
the fagacious Ai^thor himfelf obferves)
I fhall, therefore, defift here.
very
there not being,
perhaps, one cafe in a thoufand in
which they can fucceed 3
s^ttm.
T II E
THE
R E
S
O L U T
OF
Problems
in
I
O
Some General
Mechanics, and
Physical Astronomy.
PROBLEM
Fig. 24.
I.
vohe about a
it is
(conneSled together) to reSuppofe a fyftem of bodies A, B, center^ or axis (P), with a given angular celerity ;
C
propofed
to
find the momentum (k) which, acfing at a given
the center, jhall be jiifi fiifficieni tofiop, Cr take
difiance
QP^from
away
the whole motio?i
of the fyfiem.
^^^^F the given angular celerity of the fyfiem, at any di^ ^ fiance PG from the axis, be denoted by v, the celeof the feveral bodies A, B, and C will be truly ^^^? Ap Pp pp
I
rities
expreffed by
p^X'u, dttX'^j and •p^X'u,
it
refpedively.
Hence
(by the property of the Lever)
is
will be, as
PQ^s
to
AP,
fo
(^ xvxji)
the
the
momentum
And,
of the body A,
acting at
to Qp^rpQ
x
vxA,
momentum, which
adion of A.
acting at
Q,
is
a jufl counter
poife to the
in the very fame manner, the
momentum,
Q,
fufficient to take
away the motion of
Whence it is B, appears to be y^r—r— xvxB; and fo on. ^ ^ QP X Pvj,manifefl, that the fum of all thef, mufl be the true momenturn required
j
or that k ^=z
vx
pr.
—
775
•
9. E.
L
COROLLARY
is
I.
If the motion of the fyfiem
that
which might be pro
duced by any given momentums a, b, c (or forces capable of producing thofe momentums) ading on the bodies A, B, C, in
directions
I'he Refolution
of fo7ne General Problems^
AP, BP, and AP
i2i
diredions perpendicular to
CP
its
;
then (by the
at
property of the lever) the force a
the fame
^,
efFecft
x rypj ading
it
Q, having
as the force
to turn the fyftem about
axis,
ad:ing at the diftance
at
AP, ^c.
foUow^s that the force,
which, by ading
Q,
is
fufficient to deftroy the vi^hole
moti
on of the fyftem,
will here
be^x^
+ ^X^ + cX^:
general equation,
which being
fubftituted in the
room of i, our
in the laft article, will
become<ur:rPGx
/^t^ +
i
^^^,^+^^^P
;
ilaewing the angular celerity at the diftance
PG, produced
which
in
the fyftem by the adlion of the given forces
therefore, in proportion to the celerity
celerity is^
{~\
that the given force
(or
momentum)
as
a
is
capable of producing in the fmgle body
^
A,
X
—AxPG
^xAP4^xBP4fxCP X A^^ApqrBirB P+CxCP
^° ""^^y
COROLLARY
If the
IL
momentum k be given equal to that of the whole fyftem (A, B, C) in a dire(ftion perpendicular to the line pafling through the common center of gravity then the ; of the lever (PQ) by which k adis, may be determinlength
PGQ
G
ed from hence.
fented by
i?,
For, the celerity of the point
G being
repre
the
momentum
laft
named
will,
by the property
of the center of
gravity,
which being
fubftituted in the
be rightly defined room of
;
byuxA + BjCj
ky
we
thence get
QP
^
==
A + BfCxGP
r^
exhibiting the diftance of ^
the center of percujfion (Q,) at which an immovable obftacle receives the whole force of the ftroke.
COROLLARY
R
IIL
If a ftngle body S, equal to the fum of all the bodies A, B, C, be fuppofed to revolve (independent of the others) about the fame center, with the common angular celerity of the
12 2
The
the fyflem,
Refolution
offome General Problems
its
momentum
— xuxS, orj^X'uxA +B
gp
5P
^
f C,
will be in proportion to the
pofition) as
momentum
X
4
k (given by the Pro*
QP^X SP
to
B
4
^ ^^^^" have SP
ing thefe two quantities equal to each other,
we
=
AxA Pl+BxBP hCxCP^
B f C X QP axis of motion, when the
^^^ ^^^
^
^.^^^^^ ^^ ^^^
^
^.
^
A+
g ^^^^
mentum
S,
k,
or
when
equal to the moequal forces, applied to the fmgle body at
its
is
momentum
and
to the fyftem at
celerities in
angular
both, about the
Q, can take away, or produce equal common axis of motion P.
IV;
C O ROLL A RY
Hence,
1
if the point
.„
1
n
..
lait
equation will
QJ)e fuppofed to coincide with S, our / aTaP { B X BP^ + C X CP cp become br z=^^ a .j. jj _l c
'
fhewing the diilance of the center of gyration^ or the place of the body S, where the fame force can take away, or produce the whole motion of the fyftem A, B, C, as can take away, or produce the motion of the fmgle body S, equal to the fum of all the former, and revolving with the fame angular
celerity*
COROLLARY
But
if the point
V.
common center of gravity be drawn perpendicular to the horizontal line TP j then, the force of gravity by which the whole fyftem is urged in the dire(flion Qg perpendicular to the horizon, being the fum of all the weights ( A  B f C) it is plain that the part of it acting in a diredion perpendicular to PS, whereby the motion about the center is accelerated, will
(^be taken
in the Sj
G
of the fyftem, and
Qg
and
be A)BjC
X
p^. But the force whereby the weight
is
S, in
is
a dired:ion perpendicular to the fame PS,
equal to S
j
accelerated,
x ^
= AfBfC x ^
(becaufe S
= A+B
and
C, and
~ z= ^).
Therefore, feeing the forces a<^ing at S
in Mechanics a?id Phyfical AJlronofny,
123
and
Q^re
here equal,
it
is
evident,
from CoroL
celerity
III. that the
diftance SP, fo that the
in the fingle
fame angular
body
as in the fyftem, will
may be produced be truly exhibited by
!
the general equation ^
derived
br
=
^ — A+B^CxQP
r~
there
the point S thus determined being the center of ofcilj and the fame with the center of percuffion, found in Cor. II. having its diftance from the axis, equal to a third proportional to the diftance of the center of gravity and that of
lation,
gyration, determined in CoroL IF.
COROLLARY
A ~[ B  C
X p^ and
VI.
Hence, alio, the prelTure on the axis of fufpenfion P may be deduced : for, lince the angular celerities, produced in the fyftem, and in the Ungle body S, by the equal forces
S
x p^>
are the fame,
it
is
manifeft
that the abfolute celerity produced in
G, during any given
;
time, will be but the 5^ part of that produced in S
PC
fo that
only the 5 part of the gravity of the fyftem
accelerating
axis
PG
is
employed
lofl
in
its
motion, the other part ^^ being
,
cs
on the
of fuipeniion
which
axis will therefore, in a direction
perpendicular to /^o p
PG,
fuftain a force exprefTed
is
by
A + B f C
^
is
pT^
^
"pF*
j
^^^ t^is
not the only force by which the axis
affecfted
fince,
belides the other part of the force of gravity
in the diredlion
(A
+ B + C X ^)
For,
if
GP,
the centrifugal force,
adting in the fame direcftion, is to be taken into the confideration J whereof the quantity will be the fame, as if the whole
mafs of the fyftem was to be placed in
gravity G.
its
common
center of
Fig. 25,
upon PS the perpendiculars Aa, Bb, Cc be let fall J then, the centrifugal forces of the feveral bodies A, Bj C being as the mafles drawn into the relpediive diftances from the center P, the eifed: of thofe forces in the diredion PQ,
R
2
will
124
which
^^^ Refolution offome General Problems
will therefore be
expreiled
by
A x P^
+ B x P^ + ^ X P^»
is
(by the property of the center of gravity)
known
to
be
equal to
A + B + C x PG.
:
But the prefTure on the axis may be otherwife deduced, infor the angular celerity dependent of the center of ofcillation (which is generated in the fyflem about its center of gravity the lame with the angular celerity about the point of fufpenfion P) is intirely the effed of the adlion on the point of fufpeniion j and the momentum, or force, fufficient to produce that celerity, is found (by the Propofition) to be
G
„^^AxAG+BxBG'_+C_xCG^.
^^^;^j^
;^
^^
^^
^^f^,^^^
^^_
as
mentum
A
i;
x
A

B
AxAG + B^BG+CxCG
+
C,
^^
generated in
the
fyftem,
+ BfCxPG
p^_
rh,,,^ov^ the force ad
ing on the axis of fulpenfion, in a direction perpendicular to PG, muft be to the force employed in accelerating the motion of the fyflem (in the like dire&on), in the fame proportion
above ipecified
force of gravity
j
fo that, to have the true meafure of each, the muft be divided in that ratio whence (taking
:
^^5
^
is
AxAGhBxBG + CxCG;\ A + B+CxPG /
to
.^
^^.^^
^^^ ^^
GS
+ PG
(PS)
GS,
fo
dicular to
PG,
the force of gravity, in a diredion perpento the force ading on the axis of fufpenfion,
is
in the like direction.
That the proportion here determined is the fame with that found above, and the point S, the center of ofcillation, is thus
made
to appear.
Since AP^
= GP^ f GA'" — 2GP x Ga, BP^ = GP^ + GB^ + 2GP X Gb, CP^ — GP' + GC' — 2GP X Gc,
—
2GP
it
is
evident that
above) will be
f
xAxG^ — BxG^ + CxG^ = AfB + C X GP' + A X GA^f B X GB^ + C X GC\
C
X
A x AP' + ^ X BP' + C x CP' (as given = A f B fC X GP^ + A X GA^ + B x G B^
barely^,
all
GC
^
becaufe (from the property of the center of gravity)
tities
A X G^ — B X G^ 4" ^ ^ ^^
the quan
deflroy one another.
Hence, by
in
Mechanics and Phyjjcal Ajlronomy,
125
by
y
.
fubftituting the quantity here found, inflcad of its equal {inCor,
)
get we ^ or
=
B X GB^
A
=
=
r^P Or
\
I
AxGA^ +
A
+
+B
+ + CxGP
B + C C X GC^
X
J
GP
^ r .^ and confequently ^ ^
diftance of the center of ofcillation, or percuflion from GA' 4. B X GB" 4 C x GC" , r ^ ^u V the center or gravity , the
(SG) the
= Ax
^
AfB + CxGP
that,
—~
—
I'ery fame as above.
Hence
it
alfo appears,
if
the plane
of the motion remains unchanged, the rectangle under SG and GP will be a conftant quantity and that, if S be made the point of fufpenfion, then P will become the center of ofcil;
lation
;
and,
laftly,
that the ofcillations will be performed in
the
fliorteft
time poffible,
when SG and
GP
—j~
are equal to
one
,
another, and equal, each, to
J^SE^^^^SE^ A B ^
4"
it
being well known, that the fum of two lines, whofe red:angle is given, will be a minimum when the lines themfelves are equal to each other.
The fame method
upon the
axis
laid
down
above, for finding the preflure
of fufpenfion at reft, anfwers equally when that axis is fuppofed to have a motion, or v/hen the fyflem, or body, has a progrefiive motion, as well as an angular one (as is the cafe of a cylinder, which, in its defcent, is made to revolve about its axis, by means of a rope wrapped about it, whereof one end is made fafl at the place from whence the jnotion commences) the momentum of the rotation about the center of gravity, generated in a given particle of time, being always as the force producing it, drawn into the diftance of the point where the force a6ts, from the center of gravity, as well when that point is in motion, as when it is at
:
refl.
Another thing
it
may
be proper to take notice
of,
which
is,
that in the foregoing confiderations the bodies
A, B,
C
are fup
pofed to be very fmall 3 fo as to have all their parts, nearly, at the fame diflance from the axis of motion. But, to have the conclufion accurately true, every particle of matter in the fyflem
ought
126
The Refolutkn of foffte General Problems
ought to be confidered, and treated, as a diftlnd: body from whence, by means of the method offuxionSy the fum of all the momenta will be truly found but this relating merely to matters of calculation, I have no defign to touch upon it here. I Ihall only add, that the center of ofcillation may be otherwife,. veiy readily, computed, fro^n Corol. I. even in cafes where the forces ading on the bodies A, B, C have any given relation to For, if a, b^ c be taken to reprefent the, refpeceach other. tive, meafures of the faid forces (or the momenta they would produce in a given time) it is evident, yrc/;? thence that the angular celerity that would be generated in the fyftem (at the diftance i, from the center, during the fame time) will be truly ex: : ^
prefTed by ^ ^
fingle
^
,
A X A?
S,
+BXBP +CxCP
,
z=i
:
which, in cafe of a
body
aded on by the
force
J,
becomes
^—^).
lormer,
r
Therefore, by putting this
laft
X SP ==t (or O X OF value equal to the
J
—
we
at
U CT> have SP
=
'
s^
A X AP ' + B X BF' + C X CP' . x AP + ^ x BP + . x CP '
fhewing
fingle
what
diftance
body S mufl: foree j, the fame angular celerity as the fyftem from the adion of all the other forces given.
from the point of fufpenfion the be placed, to acquire, by means of the
itfelf acquires,
LEMMA.
If a given angle AOB be divided into two parts AOC, BOC,, produB (orfolid) contained under the fquare of the fine (CD) of the one part AOC, and the fine (CE) of the other BOC, will be a maximum, when the tangent FC of the former part is double the tangent GC of the latter or when the fine of the difference of
the
^
the parts i is onethird
of the fine of the whole given angle.
the former part be denoted by x, it is well known that [x) the
Fig. 26.
For, if the fine
celerity
(CD) of
latter
and that (CE) of the
by^,
of x\ increafe (fuppofing
C to move
(
be in proportion to the celerity
— y)
from
A
to
B)
will
of
^'s decreafe,
as the
coline
in
cofine of
Mechanics and Phyjical AJiro7iomy,
to the cofine
12 j
4..
FCD
:
of
GCE
3
that
is,
as
^ to
But,
when
x'^y is
a
maximum^ we have 2xxy
:
confequently x
:
—y
it is
f x'^y
=
FC
GC
o,
:
and
/—
:
x
:
2y.
Hence, by equality, j^
Let, now,
: X : 2y; and therefore to bifed: FC in H, and
FC = 2GC.
let
HM
by
and
FH = jFG,
be and
FO
•
then, fince
proved that
FC
= 2GC,
;
GN
be drawn be perpendicular to
it
OH
follows that
= GN
AGO,
and that
but
:
HM and GN are
is
HM,
fimilar triangles^
fines
muft likewifc
of the angles
to the equal radii
OH and OG
HOM
latter
whence the
part of the
Lemma
alfo manifeft.
PROBLEM
Suppofe
that
IL
a plane
ABC,
direSiion reprejented by /^B, is
moving with a velocity and aBed en by a medium^ or fuidy
direBions parallel thereto
whofe particles move with a velocity represented by DB, and in to determine the effeB of the fluid j
on the plane ^ in the direBion of its ^notion BH, and alfo what the angle of inclination mufi be^ that the effeB may be
ABD
the greateji
pofjible.
Becaufe a particle, impinging on the plane at B, moves thro' the fpace DB in the time that the plane itfelf, from ahc^ arrives
at the pofition
faid
Fig. 27.
ABC,
it is
evident that the diflance (D^) of the
at
particle
from the plane (produced),
fluid
the beginning of
that time, will be the meafure of the relative celerity where
with the particles of the
perpendicular thereto
;
approach the plane in a diredlion
and, confequently, that the force of the
being well known is always as the fquare of the relative celerity with which the particles approach it, in a perpendicular direction). Hence, by the refolution of forces, it will be, as the radius, is to the £ne of the anfliream in that direction, will be as
'
D^
(it
that the force of a ilream
upon any
planefurface,
gle
ABH
(or
abW),
fo is
the force
D^\
to
its
required efficacy
in the propofed direction
BH.
More
J
28
'the Refolution
offome General Problems
latter part
of the Problem, the angle ^BD, which the diredlions of the two motions make with each other, being given, as well as the fides B^, BD containing it, the remaining angle BbT> will from thence be known, as likewife X^b : and fo D^ being the fine of the angle
Moreover, with regard to the
Dbe, to the given radius D3, th e effect (D^l' x
therefore be a
',
fin.
abH)
is
will
maximum^ when
fin. T>be\
x fin.
ab¥L
a maxi
mum that is (by the Lemma) y when the fine of the difference of the angles T>bej abHy is equal to  part of the fine of the whole given angle BbD : from whence the difference being The geometrigiven, the angles themfeives will be known. cal confirudion from hence, is extremely eafy j for, having from the center by with any radius, defcribed the arch mr, on
—
rb produced (if necelTary)
let fall
the perpendicular
mp
\
take
pq=.\
in
s
J
:
of mpy and draw
qs parallel to /r,
cutting the circle
then bifeft the arch 7ns by the line baey and the thing is done for the fine sv of Sr (or of the difference of the angles Dbe, abH) is by conftrudion {=^pq) =. \ oi mp the fine of the whole given angle B^D > as it ought to be, by the Lemma.
But, if you had rather have a general
Theorem
and
let
expreffed
in algebraic terms, then let the velocity {bB) of the plane
put
7ny
=
be
ay
and
that
(DB) of the
fluid
==
b
;
the fine, and
cofine of the given angle
DB^
(to the radius
i )
be denoted by
and
», refpe(5tively
to bYcy put
bF
=
j
alfo,
having drawn
Xy
and
BF
=
v
;
then, fince
to the
is
BFL perpendicular FB and FL are
common
(=r 2BF)
(jy)
:
tangents of the angles
F^B and FbLy
Lemmay
and
that
^F,
it
appears, by the
FL
:
=
radius
2y;
whence (fuppofing
LR
DQ^o
^R (BL
^
:
be perpendicular to B^Q,
we
:
have (by fimilar triangles) as Bb (a)
BF
'
:
BL
BR
Bb
== 1^, and
a
[a]
:
therefore
fo,
^F
(x)
: :
of DQ^eing mb, and that
fim. triang.)
— B^) 'MLZ^, BL LR = 3^. But — we have of ^Q =
z=z
a
{i^y)
71b
(3^)
Al
the value
again,
a,
by
mb
nh
:
nb
—a
:
:
^
:
^2LZlf3^
and confequently
nb
Zyyaa^^—^Y^lxy,
—a
or
'^yy
— ^ yy ^ xx ^ —^ x 3xy
a
(be
in Mechanics a?7cl Phyfical
(becaufe ^•^ yy
j/]Jli^07t07ny.
iic^
+ xx
=:
ad)
j
whence y
\
4 "
nu)
" ^ x—
=:
2,
and from thence,
the root, 1.
j/
by completing the fquare and
^
\.
'
y extracting
—J
.i
^
''^"~ "
7nb
4
—Ax ~ ^
"^
/.
equal to
re
the tangent of the angle /'BF,
the
quired angle abW, or
ABH.
^ £.
complement of the
COPvOLLARY
when
regard
Is
I.
If the given angle DB<^ be a rightone (which
Is
the cafe
wind ftriking againft the falls of a being =:i, and /z o, our expreiTion for the tangent of /^BF (which here is equal to the angle of
had
to the
windmill);
then,
m
=
inclination
ABD)
will
become
^ 2 f ^ ^
}
;
and
this,
if
a be taken z=
o, or the plane
to
be fuppofed
at reft,
will
be
=
But if the an angle of 54° 44'. ~ of the velocity of the medium or ftream, then the angle of inclination ABD will be found from hence equal to 58° 14', 61° 27', or 66° 58',
\/2, barely; anfwering
velocity of the plane be fuppofed , ~, or
of the plane is, the greater alfo will be the angle of inclination. Hence it appears that the fails of a windmill, that the effed: may be the
refpe6llvely
;
fo that, the greater the velocity
greateft,
ought
to be
more turned towards the wind
tream parts where the motion is fwifteft, nearer to the axis of motion ; in fuch fort, that the tangent of the angle formed by the direftion of the wind and
the
fail,
In the exthan in the parts
may
be, every where,
equal to
^2
f
2_.
•\
—r,
the velocity a being
axis
proportional to
the diflance from the
of motion.
C O R O L
130
^The Refolution
offome General Problems
IL
COROLLARY
If,
DB^), the angle DBA, which the diredion of the flream makes with the plane, be
inftead of the angle (or
DBH
given
a
J
then
it
will appear, that the effed will, in this cafe,
maximum^ when
the line of the angle
ABH, made
be by the
plane and the direction of its motion, is to the fine of the faid given angle DBA, in the given proportion of yBD to ^b. For, the force in the perpendicular direction FB being exprelTed by
D3
to
,
its
effect in the diredion
BH
will, therefore,
~
be defined
by D^
X ^, or
its
equal
'
.
^—
is
(fuppoling
meet D^'E
in E).
B^) being fuppofed
Now DB and the angle given from given, DE
BA produced DBE (as well as
But
it is
thence.
well known, that the fquare of one part of a given line, drawn into the other part, will be a maximum^ when the former part Confequently D^ mufl here be the is the double of the latter. double of E<?5 which laft, or its equal BF, will therefore be
= 4^DE.
B^ fm.DBA :: And, radius BD DEj by compounding of which, we have the proportion above laid down. But that proportion, it may be obferved, can only take place when B^ is equal to, or greater than \ of DE for, when B^ is lefs than j of DE, E^ (which is always lefs than B^) cannot be equal to ~ of DE ; but will approach the
But, fm.
:
B3F
radius
:
:
BF (DE)
:
:
:
:
nearefl to
will be a
it,
when BF
coincides with B^, that
a rightone
;
is,
when
the
angle Fffl, or
ABH
is
and
in this cafe, the effecft
motion is perbe a rightone (which pofition appears from hence to be the mofl advantageous, becaufe DE then becomes DB) it follows that the fine of the angle ABH, which the required direction makes with the plane, will be to the radius, as y part of the velocity of the flream is to the velocity of the plane for fail). Hence, if the force of the wind be capable of producing a degree of celerity in a fhip, greater than j part of its own celerity, it is evident that the fhip may run fwifter uppendicular to the plane.
maximum^ when the
—
direftion of the
If the given angle
DBA
=
—
on
in Mechanics a7td Phyjical AJlronorny,
131
on an oblique wind "*.
courfe, tlian
when
flie
fails
diredly before the
PROBLEM
Siippofe that
III.
A,
fiifpended at the ends thereof^ is
;
a thread AC?iC^^ having two equal weights A, hung over two tacks C, C, in
the fame horizontal line
and that
^
to the
middle point of the thread
.
(n) equally dijlant from the tacks another given weight B is fixedy which is permitted to defend by its own gravity^ fo as to caufe the other two weights^ at the fame time to afcend : it is propofed to find the law of the velocity by which the faid weights afcend and fiance of the air, the weight of defend; abfiraSfing from the ref
^
the thready
and
the friBion on the tacks.
Fig. 28.
Let V denote the velocity of B (meafured by the diftance might be uniformly gone over in one fecond of time), the meafure of the velocity and let b (= 32^ feet) which gravity can generate in a falling body, in orq fecond a^ 'En z=^ Xy Cn putting CE y, and the tenlion of the
that
=
=
:
=
thread
r=:
w
then
—
beins: the
time in which
B
would, unii
formly, defcribe the diftance x,
to ~, fo
to,
is
we
fhall have, as
(fecond)
is
b (the velocity generated
by
gravity in one fecond)
—
,
the velocity generated (or deftroyed)
by
gravity in the
time
—
V
it
Moreover
vVyy —
will be, as
BC
(y)
:
'En {s/yy
—
aci)
w
v
\
= the velocity with which the
^^
weights A,
A afcend;
j^
Whofe fluxion
~ ^^ ^ ^^ + yy^yy — a a
^"^^
^^yyoaXj_v^aavi\
yy^
^j^^^..
/
fore the increafe
of that velocity,
in the
time
—
:
but
v/ere
* In the above
force the greatell,
treated as a given quantity
confiderations the velocity of the plane (or fail) is, al! along, becaufe the fame direction that gives the effective ;
when
the velocity
is
given,
muft
is
necelTarily
give
the
velocity the greateft poffible,
when
the force, alone,
given.
S 2
not
I
2
The Refoluiion offome General Problems
not the ftring to a6t on the faid weights, their velocity (inftead of being increafed) would be diminifhed, and that by the quantity
— (as
is
found above).
Therefore the whole alteration of
arifing
motion arifing from the tenlion of the ftring is to that from the adtion of gravity, in the proportion of
_1
:v>
I
— ^^ X
jt; j
aav
y^
^^ _^
^
^^^^ confequently, the tenfion of
the ftring {w) will be to the weight of the body A, in the fame
proportion
:
whence we have
1
1
w = Ax
.
.
yy
— aa
y.
;
yvv
1
aavvy
.
i
\
Again,
E«
will be (by the refolution of forces) as C?i [y) is to [x), fo is 2i£' (the double of the tenfion of the thread) to
it
the y v/eight B
^^,
effecft
of that tenfion to retard the defcent of the
gravity (B), the
B's
J
which being fubtraded from the
remainder
B
— ——
y
will be the force
by which ^
to
motion
fo
is
(
is
accelerated.
Hence we
have, as
B
is
B
— ^^,
—
the velocity that would be generated by the gravity in the
time ~, to that {y) generated in the fame time, by the force
B
.
From whence, by
ny
multiplying extreams and means,
2
we get vv^z^bx ^
=r— =.bx
^
A x—
^r^
rty''
!6y
(by fubflituting the value of w) z=z bx
—
n
h
\
—^ X
f_
X
z=z
^J
'"'"
1
—
 (becaufe yy
yy
.
= xx) =^ bx
yy
^
^
^
g—
— ^^
^^^^ confequently,
by taking the
fluent,
~ 2
1
bx
— %^ a
3
^ n
ibmx
+ % X — A d fd beine the necef° B
*
fary corred:ion)
T
which equation,
iby
if
—^
^
,
be put
.
= m,
,
will
be
reduced to
i;
= y^j
— —— idm 4— aa m ^
1
.
mewing
the true ve.
.
yy
'
^^
locity
i72
Mechanics and Phyftcal A/lronomy.
1 1
3
locity
of the b ody
B
)
j
^J
f ihmx
f/i
\
—.— + iby — aa
^
I
.
whence
.„
i/i
tliat
of the body
9. E.
A
{=.
1(hii\
Will alfo be
yy
/
known.
L
COROLLARY
If the
iirft
L
x and j, when the motion commences, and ^, refpedively j then, j being o, when .V ^=f> and^' ^, we fhall have o ihg 4 2.dm, 2.bmf and confequently idm == 2bmf\ 2hg fo that the general vavalues of
be expreiled by
/
=
—
=
—
=
•
,
w ji
.yy
— aa
is
m{.i .yy
— aa
weifrht
deftroyed by the other weights A, A, may be eafily determ.ined for, fince the velocity, at the loweft point of the defcent, vanlilies, or becomes equal to nothi ng, we fliall, in that circumflance, have
:
From B can
v^^hence the greateft diftance through
which the
defcend, before
its
whole motion
2b f72
yx — /'
ni'xx —
by X
\/xx\aa)
— f,f\we have ni'xx — f
•'
bxy — g= o, or ?n x x f\ g {:= y =z r= s/ XX \gg^ ff which, fquared, gives \ 2?ng xx f= xx —ff: whence, dividing
—
2
—
—
^
\
2mg =^
x\fy and con
fequently x ^
=
it
^w^—
I
— mm
^
^?n?n.f
^
exhibitino^
° the diftance of the
point n below the horizontal line
is
deftroyed, and
all
the weights begin to
this
CC, when the whole motion move the contrary
can only happen when m is lefs than unity, or when the weight B is lefs than the fum of the other two for, if m be equal to unity, x will be infinite J andj if ;w be greater than unity, the value of a^ will come out negative ; w^hich Ihews the thing to be impofhble, or that the weight B muft continually defcend; except when m is lefs than unity, or B lefs than 2A in which laft cafe, it appears
: :
way.
But
muft be obferved, that
that the bodies will ofcillate, backwards and forwards, continually; in
fuch
fort,
that the
two extream
•'
dillances
from the
i {
horizontal line
CC
will be exprefted ^
by f and
"^
^
——
I
mm mm
^^
?}mi
./
whereof the
latter,
w^hen
f=
o,
will
become

J
/j.
"The Refolutton
of fome General Problems
from the
line
— — X CC —
^!1.
J mm CC, when the motion commences from
fliewing the loweft defcent of n,
I
that line.
ing
rr=:
f and
firfl
^^^
'

—— equal
•
to each other,
— By makwe y = mg.
get
it
^ X^, o^y S
•
•
B
:
2A.
From which
appears, that>
of the weight B be fuch, that E/z is to C;? in the given proportion of B to 2 A, no motion at all will enWhence it is evifue, but the weights remain in eqi/ilibrio. that, if the motion commences from any point below dent, that here determined, the weight B will firft of all afcend, ^^^~"
if
the
pofition
till
the diftance from
CC
is
I
—
—^^;
after
which
it
will
trim
again defcend, to
its iiril
dirtance/'s
and
fo on,
backwards and
forwards, continually.
COROLLARY
IL
If C;2C, in the firft poiition of B, be fuppofed to coincide with the horizontalline CEC, and the body B be impelled from thence with any given celerity c (meafured, as above, by the fpace that would be uniformly gone over in one fecond of when x =: o and y :=: a^ we <:, then, v being time)
',
=
fhail,
,
by fubflituting
hibmx
^hy

thefe
\
i
values in
the general equation'
/
(i;
= yj
,
— —— 2dm 4—
obtam
,
J
is
,
and confequently
1 2bmx
2by X 2ba
= aJ — 2dm = mc^
.
iba
c

+ 2dm
fo that
,
maa
;
\ 2.ba
i?
here
1=
yJ
—
.
\~
mc^
5
,
.
,
m
\ \
yy
— aa
v/hicn,
when
^
^
=
o, or,
when ^w
,
,
the bodies are not afted on by gravity, will
,^_
become v
=
\
^_
>7
4 I
.
— aa
^
.
_/\n(]
in tj^s cafe, the time
of moving thro' E72
ni
(whereof the nuxion
p
,
.
is
"^
X
=
xT m\\ yy
—r^
7}rcy
.
— aa = x"^
—
^i .xx AXX
\
Jna'^
==
aa
77i'^cy
—^
may
be readily found, by means of an hyperbola^ whofetranfverfe
in Mechanics
verfe
and
Phyjical AJlronomy.
i ? ^ j:)
and conjugate axes are
—?r
and 2^;
it
being
In
propori^x)
tion to the time of moving uniformly over the
fame diftance
with the given
its
celerity at
E, as the arch of the hyperbola
Is
to
ordinate x,
PROBLEM
Siippojing
^
JV.
about
its axis,
a fpherical body of ice or any other matter^ re"johi}7g to be reduced to a fiate of fluidity ; to determine
arifing.
Fig. 29.
the change
It is
of figure thence
demonllrable, that the figure of an homogeneous fluid, revolving about an axis (PS), having all its particles quiefcent with regard to each other,
ipherold
OAPES
(fee Art.i<:)^
of my DoBrine ofFhixions)
muft be that of an oblate and
;
that the particular fpecies of fuch fpheroid, anfwering to any gi
ven time of revolution
p,
v/iii
be truly defined by the equation
i
:
p
— qJ==J^ xA3f
/if
3
where
i
+
//
:
:
PS^
;
AE'';
PS
be
3^
ing the
and AE the equatoreal diameter 5 alio A the circular arch, whofe radius is unity, and tangent tj and q z=. the time wherein a folid fphere, of the fame magnitude and denfity with the fpheroid, mufl revolve, fo that the centrifugal force at the equator thereof, may be exaftly equal to the ataxis,
=
traction,
or
gravity.
Now
it
is
evident,
that,
whatfoever
figure a fluid, revolving about an axis, at any time hath, the
momentum of rotation about the axis will be noways changed, with the figure, by the aftion of the particles on each other fo that the momentum of our propofed fluid, arifing from the fphere of ice, will, at all times, be the very fame with that of the fphere itfelf. From whence it may be eafily proved, that the time wherein one intire revolution of the fluid, confidered as a fpheroid, might be uniformly performed, muil AE, and put be always as AE^ therefore, if we make e d ^= the diameter of the fphere (or of the fluid, when AE z=z PS) it follows that the faid time*v/ill be truly expreiTed
:
:
=
* At
Art. 399. of
my
j}
J
Fluxions,
this
time
is,
by miftake,
put
down
is
= ^XJ (inflead of — X
rendered erroneous,
whereby the remaining part of
that Article
^'J
I
^6
He
by
Refoluiion of fome General Problems
s
—X
5
(fuppofing
to denote
the given time of revoluthe
IT?
'
tion
of the
beinp;
body,
put
when under
/
form of a fphere)
\
)
:
which
in
(— q^
is
the time whereare
in
the
revolution
performed,
thence have
when
^^
the particles
equihbno,
we
fhall
But, becaufe
PS (=:
—
Vi\tty
roid will therefore be as
=
A
XT'
—
,
= \ x —
and that of
equal to
\
)
—^
— (= AE'
3
=— — Viftt
^
7.
the mafs of the fphe
x PS)^
the fphere, as d'
:
which two
quantities being
made
each other,
we
have
—
=
its
3.^
And,
this
value
*yC
being
,
rj
i
wrote in the room of
equal,
we
I
have ^^
,^
—~
ft
P^
.,.
.
~
'J/
=
the
—
X
,.
r,
or
3r ^^ ^^xA —
—
X
_
\ tt\'
= ^.
2?
From
which equation the value of /, and the fpheroid The fpheroid thus determined, i^ that itfelf, will he known. which the fluid might remiain in equilibrio, were the parunder
refolution of
ticles to be,
particles,
in their recefs
once, quiefcent with refpe6l to each other but the from the axis, do, through the cen:
trifugal
not immediately destroyed, on the fluid's aflximing the figure, or degree of oblatenefs above determined ; the equatoreal parts ftill continuing to recede from the axis, till the gravitation, by degrees, prevails, and in the end quite overcomes the faid motion. After which the equatoreal parts will begin to
force, acquire a
axis,
is
motion from the
which
fubfide,
and again approach the
:
axis, in the
very fame
manner
they before receded therefrom and fo wiU continue ofcillating, backwards and forwards, ad infinitum. But if the flAiid is fuppofed to have fome degree of tenacity, the ofcillations will be, every time, contradted, and the parts of the fluid v/ill then converge to an evuilibrium, under the form above determined.
L E M
in Mechanics
and
Phyfical AJlronomy,
137
a
right
LEMMA.
Suppojing a body to move with an uniform celerity, in
line
AD
J
to
it
by which
determine the rate of increafe of the relative celerity recedes from a given point C, out of that line.
Make CA
let
(perpendicular to
AD)
:
=
it
a,
and
AB
== x
,
and
Fig, 30.
the meafure of the body's celerity, or the fpace gone over in
a given time g, be denoted by c
then will
is
—
exprefs the
time of defcribing k (or B^)
c
j
and
well known, that
X
—
^
(r=
£•
X r7^
)
will be the true meafure of the cele
rity
with which
CB
increafes
j
whofe
^^
fluxion,

—
^,
is
therefore the (uniform) increafe of that celerity, in the time
—
:
hence
it
will be, as
—
:
^
(the time given)
xx\(ia\^
£*
(r=
xx^aa\^
X ACl \
^
CB
r— J the required increafe, that would uni
formly
arife in
the given time
g : which
increafe, lince
reprefents the paracentric velocity of the
body
(in a diredion
perpendicular to CB) will be, always, expreifed by the fquare of the meafure of the body's paracentric velocity, applied to the diftance (BC) from the given point, or center.
COROLLARY.
It is evident
from hence, that
if a force,
which
in the given
time g is fufficient to generate the faid increafe of velocity, be fuppofed to urge the body towards the center C, and thereby defledt it from its redlilineal motion, the celerity with which CB increafes will then be uniform ; becaufe the force applied, each moment of time, is juft fufficient to deilroy the increafe that would arile, in the fame moment, from the body's being
motion uniformly in a rightline. If the direction (Bb) of the motion is perpendicular to CB, the body, thus ad:ed on (as no celerity is generated in the dire&ion. CB), will mov§ in the circumference of a circle. Confequently
fufFered to continue
its
—
T
the
138
The Refolution offome General Problems
the force above determined is the fame with the centrifugal force in a circle, when the diilance from the center, and the
angular celerity are the fame.
But
all this
may be made
to appear in a different
:
manner,
by fuppoiing B^ exceeding
dicular to
fmall
for,
if
bE be made perpen
CB (produced), BE will then exprefs the length whereby CB would be uniformly augmented, in the time \^—
and therefore eb^ the excefs of Cb above of defcribing Bb CE, Yv'ill be the fpace through which the force mull: caufe the body to defcend, in order that the increafe of the diflance from the center C may be the fame as would uniformly arife with
;
the
firil
celerity,
at
B.
But
it
is
evident that this excefs eb
is
(which, by the property of the
'
circle,
= ^q^>
alfo exprelTes the effed:
of the
force, neceffary to caufe a
^^""CbJ body
fame
have,
is
to revolve in the circumference of a circle EeJ\ with the
angular
celerity.
—To
determine,
from hence, the
velocity
which
as i
this force
would generate
in the given time g,
we
(the fquare of the time of defcribing B^, or B^)
to
s:\ ^ '
ball
fo
is
7^ 2CB
to {
V2CB
'^ L^.
x^ /
}
the fpace through which the ^ ^
faid
might
s:
;
fall,
by means of the
force, in
the given
time
is,
the double of which, ^^==1 (or its equal
^
—==1 J
therefore, the true meafure of the velocity fought j becaufe the diftance gone over by a falling body is but the half of that which might be defcribed in the fame time, with the velocity acThe quantity here determinquired at the end of the defcent. ed (as has been before obferved) is the meafure of the force by
—
with an uniform ceif a force, lefs or greater than this, be fuppofed to a(5l:, lerity the difference will caufe an increafe or decreafe of celerity in
which the body
:
is
made
to recede
from
C
the line
CB, proportional
to the faid difference.
PRO.
in Mechanics
and
Phyjical AJlronomy*
V.
139
PROBLEM
Suppofe that
a body^ let go from a given place A, in a given with a given celerity^ is continually folicited towards a direSiion^ given point C^ by a given centripetal force j to determine the path
ABP
circle
in which the body will move.
From
ADK
the center C, through A, let the circumference of a be defcribed j and, fuppofing B to reprefent the
Fig. 31.
place of the body, 'the radius
CD
of the
circle
:=: a, •=z x^
. . . .
the radius veBor
CB
.
rrr 2;, the arch AD, meafuring the angle ACB put< the time of defcribing the angle ACB /, the meaf of the celerity v/ith which the line CB incr. =:r v, auy the meaf. of the celer. with which the area ACB incr. ^the meafure of the centripetal force ^; where, by the meafure of a celerity, I mean the fpace that would be uniformly defcribed with that celerity in a given time g J and by the meafure of a force, I underftand the meafure of the celerity that might be uniformly generated by
. . .
. .
= = =
the force, in the fame given time.
preffed
Since the celerity with which the area ACB increafes is exby an, it is evident that the paracentric velocity of the radius vekor CB, at the middle point {b), will be exprelTed by
,
—
and that of the body
divided
itfelf
by
—
1
,
the fquare of which
true meafure of the
it
laft,
by
x, will give
i^ for the
centrifugal force (by the
Lemma)
whence
appears that
(^^ — Q)
is
the excefs thereof above the centripetal force
^,
that force
whereby the
'.:
celerity
v
is
accelerated
:
therefore
we
have
g:i
i^ — Q (the meafure of the
is
celerity
gene
rated in the given time
velocity of the
body
—
g)
,
:
v.
But, becaufe the paracentric
that
of the point
2
D
(defcribing the
circular
X
1
40
7^^ Refolution offome General Problems
circular arch
AD)
will
be
—x
:
, or
^^
;
and
fo
we
have
di
g
:
f ::
^^
(the diftance defcribed in the time
g)
:
z (the
A
flance defcribed in the time t)
whence, by equality, ^^^^
Q
:
V
::
^^
XX
:
z
;
and confequently v ^
''
= ^—^
x^
Qx
—
and
X^ik
la'u
Again, the fpaces z and k (defcribed in the fame time) being in the fame proportion as the celerities
'u,
with
ex
which thev
•'
are defcribed,
we
alfo
have v
=
_ff!lf .
Xo
xx%
terminate
1;
and v out of
zc;,
this^
and the preceding equation,
then
lui.
1?
make
%
—
Q
I
3=
(or
•
w
==
— —+1)5
^ Ox
I
= —:—
la'u
;
,
and
2autv\2auw
•
A^a^u'^=.^=^1—
x^
—— la u
x'^z,
0^*2:
luky.\—ix}
z=:
X
its
a
•—
2a X
— w
may
''
(by writing: £>
^
^
—— w
^
for
equal x) 1 ^
which
equation ^
be reduced to tt 4
zz
—=
aa
—
aa
uzz
>
 
a
^au'^XivA
and 2?, or of x and z, according to any value of zi. But in the cafe propounded, wherein no force is fuppofed to adt, belides that tending to the center C, the celerity au with which the area ACB increafes, will be a conftant quantity 5 and therefore, u being here o, our
expreffing the general relation of
w
=
equation becomes
—= — w
I
zz
4«* X
I
— w]
^
:
from whence,
when Q^s given in terms of ^xz may be determined,
Hence,
if
(or
w), the relation of
w
and
COROLLARY!.
the centripetal force, by which a body defcribes
reft,
when
be known, the increafe of that force, fuppofed to have a motion round the center of force, may be eafily deduced for, let the angular motion of the orbit, be to that of the body in the orbit, in the conftant ratio of ^ to i 3 then, the whole angular celerity of
a given orbit at
the orbit
itfelf is
:
the
in Mechanics
and Phyfical Ajlronomy,
141
the body, here, being in proportion to the angular celerity when the orbit is quiefcent, as /«  i to i, the centrifugal
force here, will therefore be to that
bit,
(~^)
to
i
in the quiefcent or
in the duplicate ratio
o^ m ^
\
(hy the
Lemma), and
it
fo will be truly exprelTed
by m\
i\
x
i^. From whence
appears, that
mm {2m
muft be
x ^^^
is
the increafe of the centri:
which quanwhereby the centripetal force ought to be likewife increafed, in the moveable orbit fo that difference of the two forces, whereby the motion of the the body in the line CB is accelerated, may be the fame here, as in the quiefcent orbit ; in which cafe the value of CB itfelf, in all contemporay politions, muft neceffarily be the fame. Hence
tity,
fugal force arifing from the motion of the orbit
therefore,
that
;
it
appears, that the increafe of the centripetal force, in order
moveable orbit, will be always inverfely cube of the diflance ; and will, moreover, be to the centrifugal force in the quiefcent orbit (in all contemporary poiitions), in the conftant ratio of mm \ 2m to i.
to the defcription of a
as the
COROLLARY
to
IL
If the centripetal force (Q) be fuppofed, inverfely, as the fquare of the diftance, and the given value thereof, at the lower apfe A, be to the centrifugal force there, in any given ratio of i e
—
I ;
then, as the general value (^^~j of the centrifugal
force, will, at
A, become
will be exprelTed
= ^, by — x —
i
the centripetal force there
e;
and confequently that
at
B
by
•'ax
e
X —:,
or
its
equal ^
a
1— x
i
—M
.
Wnicn
value
being fubftituted for Q, our equation here becomes
aw
fluent,
—w
get
:
whence, multiplying by
w
and taking the
we
—r^ •= ew " — (where, the angle CAB being
fuppofed
'The Refoluiion
Fig. 32.
of fome General Problems
is
fuppofed a rightone, no corre(flIon
necefTary)
,
have
2;
=W
aw
—J lew — IVW
is
—
fo that
we
or
— ^
ez
= "7=
is
^ s/ 2£W
WW
~

^^^ ^^^ ^^^ of
thefe quantities
known
to exprefs the fluxion of a circular
arch (A)^ w^hofe verfedfine
w
and radius
^
therefore
~ bea
z A, it follows that the arches z and A, ov a e (which are in the fame proportion with their radii a, e) mufl be fimilar, and confequently their verfedfines, AF and w^ in the fame proportion above fpecified, or as ^ to ^ ; whence we have
\
.'.
ing=
:
A
^^
= xAF,
^
AT?
^u
that
^
•
IS,
AF AC — CF AC AF i_^=..x^. But_=_^^
T3
^
CD
therefore
i
I
—
•
p^ (fuppoiing CB
^
i
BE
perpendicular to
AC)
j
CF — — AC = x — ^, and (= BD) = X CB — CE from which
^
;
confequently
BC — AC
and therefore I e e AE BDj which is a known property of the conic fections, with refpe(fl to lines drawn from the focii. Hence it appears, that the trajeilory will be an ellipfe^ parabola^ or hy
away
—
e
x BD,
:.
fo fhall
:
BD
—
equal quantities take
^
x BD =: ^ X AE,
:
perbola^ according as the antecedent
i
—
f is greater,
equal
to,
or
lefs
than the confequent
e
;
or according, as the centripetal
force at
A,
is
greater, equal to, or lefs than half the force fuffi
cient to retain the
body
in the circular orbit
ADK. — As to the
:
particular fpecies of the curve, correfponding to
lue of
AO AO
:
any given vadetermined for, if from hence, very ealily ^, be made to reprefent the femitranlverfe axis, then will OC (: AE BD, p, conies) e e; therefore, by
it
is,
:
divifion,
AO AC
:
— — — whence AO COROLLARY IIL
: : :
1
\
::
i
e
\
i
2e
,
is
known.
If to the foregoing force, varying in the inverfe ratio of
the fquare of the diftance, another force, which is inverfely as the cube of the diftance, be joined (which, at A, is to the
F'S. 33.
former part in any given ratio of j to i e)^ the place of a body, thus a6ted on, may be found in the fame conic feclion A'PRS, above determined, fuppoiing it to have a motion about
—
in
Mechanics and Phyfical Aflronomy.
which
7n
is
143
in
about the focus C,
to
that
of the body
in
 i
the
ra'io
fediion (referred to the
fame point C)
(byCorol.I.)
the conftant
of
/«
to
I
J
the value of
:
being == v/ 1
that
mm\2m
j
:: s
:
i
— If the centripetal force
—
i
,
or fuch,
cube of the diftance inverfely, the curve A'B will degenerate to a rightline ; in which the body will continue to move with an uniform velocity, while the line itfelf BA' (always touching the circle in A') is fo carried along by the motion of the radius CA', that the angle ACA' fliall be to the angle A'CB, in the conflant proportion above fpecified ; the ratio of the centripetal, and centrifugal forces at A (and confequently in every other pofition) being exprefied by that of
be barely
as the
i to
I
 ^.
COROLLARY
If the centripetal force to be as any
tance,
IV.
power of the
dif
whofe exponent
is 72^
and the given value thereof,
at
i j
A, be
in proportion to the centrifugal force
(— jj a
J
i
,
as r to
we
fliall
then have
a^w
our equation, r—
a'tu
= — x — =: —— x aO_ =1 — w
O
4.ru^
x"
4.ru^
;
and here
.
...
,,
will
become
by w.
z=z I
—w—

—
~,
p
:
which
beino; multiplied
and the fluent taken, we thence get
I
—r
=
w
—
«
Zlj\~
*
and confequently
_
;
z =^
—
f I
n\i
from whence the
value of
2;,
by
infinite feries,
or the quadrature of curves,
may
is
be found.
But when r
nearly circular,
differs
but
little
from
unity,
and the
orbit
r
—
 (becaufe
vj\
of the fmallnefs of w)
v>^ill
44
will
^^^ Refolution offome General Problems
be
nearly
I
equal
to
ry,i\n{z,Wy and
n
\'
2.
,
there
fore ^T
= —
nearly
j
w
w 4 3
*'ig
.
i£^,
— — — and confequently z=— = —7— — w.
rw =.
^^
i
—r—
r
I
«
33«
f
3
•
" T" 3
let
is
Put
/ ==
^^, and
A :=
 3
\/^
+ 3X2;,
ADK,
that
is,
A realways
to
i
:
prefent an arch
to the arch
A'D of
r=z
;z
the circle
which
s/n
AD
(or z)^ in the conftant ratio oi
f 3
then
AA
being
x
zi;,
our equation, by fubftituting
Z'
thefe values, will
become
^ = — w^
w
which
differs in
no*
thing from that
f
^ =ze — w)
is
refolved in Corol. II, excepting
it is
only, that y^ and J^ are here ufed, inftead of z and e : whence manifeft, that the value of (there reprefented by ^ x verfedline of z) will here be truly expreifed
hyfx
verfedline of
it
A: from whence and what
pears, that the place of the
there demonftrated,
alfo
ap
be in the periphery of a given ellipfe A'BR, revolving about its focus C, with an angular celerity, which is to that of the body in the ellipfe, in the conwill
ftant ratio
body
of the arch
AA' to
to n/;z \ 2'
And
it is
3 evident, that the motion of the apfides
the arch A'D, or as
i
— \/n
{
focus C, in the fame given ratio
be to the motion of the body in the ellipfe, referred to the and that the angle defcribed j by the body in moving from one apfide to the other (becaufe
will
AD
is
always ==
A'D x
^
V «  3/
^
)
will be
=
1
80° x
~= ==
V « f 3
Sir
All which conclufions, as well as thofe derived in
the preceding CorolIarieSj exacflly agree with
what
Isaac
has demonflrated, by a very different method, in the As firfl book of his Principia. to the motion of the apjides of the lunar orbit, with the other inequalities depending on the fun's adlion, thefe require the ufe of o. her principlesj and the folution of the following
third and ninth Sessions of the
Newton
—
PRO
in Mechanics
and
Phyjical AJl^^onomy*
145
PROBLEM
T^he fame being fuppofed as in the laft
VI.
Problem,
and that,
bejides
the force tending to the center
is
whofe meafure R, aBs continually on the body, in a direBion perpendicular
C,
another force.,
to the radius'ueBor
EC
;
// is
propofedto determine the curve
ABP
Fig. 3i>
which the
body, fo adied on,
will defcribe.
Every thing in the preceding Problem being retained, have nothing more to do here, than to get an equation for Uy by means of the nev7 force, whereon the increafe or decreafe of u intirely depends. In order to this, we
we
have, as g (the given time)
rated in the time g, to
is
to
/,
fo
is
R, the velocity gene
the velocity generated in the time g in a direction perpendicular to BC whence the cort, refportding increafe of the celerity au, with which the area
:
_,
ACB
will
is
generated, will be exprelTed
by
—
x —,
that
t
is,
—
x—
:
be
=
ait.
But, as
it
has been proved that
g
i
:',
z,
we
have
—
g
= ——
laau

:
and therefore aU
= —^,
\aau
•'
or 2uii
=
=—— \—w\
fluent,
rr
(becaufe x
^
= —^ \—w'
^^'^
I
.
Hence, by taking the
(c^
we have
u" z=i
c"^
\ flu.
—
being put for the
v}[
neceflary corredlion,
or the value of u^
when 2
uw
=
0).
,
which
11
.
equation,
and that!
11
fiV
—A
1
w — =—
I
From \ Q.
J
tierived
may
by the preceding Problem, the relation of u, w, and z be determined, when the law of the forces Q^nd R is
afligned.
^E.L
U
CO
'The Refolution
offome General Problems
COROLLARY
If the forces
^and K
are fuppofed to be in proportion to
T—
and
)
the centrifugal force at A, as
A
to i,
and
n
to. i,
re
foediively
(A and
n
being any variable quantities whatever),
if the celerity {aii) v^ith
which the
firft
area
ACB
increafes
be
as
fuppofed in proportion to {ac) the
value thereof at A,
2
"
to
1 ;
then, QJ)eing =r=
:^—
,
R =r li'^,
aa
and ur=ic S
will
^
our two equations, by fubftituting thefe values,
become
Tz
.
2 rr: I 4nu.
'
z=r.,
and.
ay.i—w\
w\
,
— zz
\
aa
=
22
x
—
%x.
a''Ex
i
—w\
'
orr=i+flu.^:^,and^+'ze;=i^x^
I
^^
making
AC
unity
which
laft
2S zz 2x1— zt/l equation will be rendered
'
'
— —z^zrrKv
^
flill
more commodious, by writing
will be
r for
"!!
2
its
equal ~~
I
210.
w 3:
whence
had
^ +'i£^ (— 2z
I—
i^;^
I
— 2iXi—
—
into
S
— Ax
w
2 2X1— wl / Ex i^ x 7—^"^ ^^^^ which the
a/I
•
,,
~^)^..J—
values of
affigned :
and 2 may be found, when thofe of A and n are by means whereof the time (fj of defcribing the an
gle Zy will alfo be
known, from the equation
1
—=
I I
——
..^
(a
bove derived): which by fubftituting
equals u and ^
c 2^
and
wl
for their
—
,
«fl'
gives f °
=:^x 7177=^" 2^ Xi — 2f
ztl
exemplify the ufe of the equations here derived, by the of a cafe on which the determination of the lunar orbit depends, let the force A, whereby the body is iblicited towards the center, be confidered, as compofed of two parts j whereof
refolution
To
the principal (3
x i—^')
is
in the inverfe duplicateratio
is
of the
diftance j the other part,
which
fuppofed fmall in comparifon
of the former, being
as the diftance
f—^ Jdiredly, drawn into
in
to a feries
fines
(
Mechamcs and
P' x cof. pz
Phyjical AJlronomy,
qz j R'x cof. rz,
147
Sec.) of co~ of multiples of the arch 2:, joined to fmall, given, coefficients P', Q', R', &c. and let the force n, a6ling in the perpendicular direcflion, be alfo fuppofed, as the diflance directly, drawn into a feries (Pxfm./;s lQ^fin.^2;jRxfin.r2; ^ &c.) of fines of multiples of the fame arch, joined to fmall, given, coefficients P, Q, R, &c. According to thefe afiiimptions, by
cof.
+ Q' x
fubHituting hy,i—w{'
— x ¥coLpz[(XsoL qz &c.
and
xPfm./>2;+Qfi.n.§'2;&c. for their equals
A
zz
and n, our
X'
two
i
equations,
J
S
I
= +2
i
fluent
I
^^5
,
and
—
It
w
=.
I
X£
J
—AX
__
wV"" 
n X ^x
(
i~wV^>
will here
1
become
,
^ __
i^
2 fluent
P z {in.pz
2
b
Q^fin. qz &c. x
%v^
and
+
'Z£;z=
1
ii^to
— Fcof pz{Qicp^' 9^ ^c. x i^w\
i
— — X P fm.pz^Q^n. qz &c. x
Now,
order to a
firfl
Wi
^
the orbit being fuppofed nearly circular,
we may,
in
approximation, negle(ft
w
in
both the
facftors
I w^~^ and i—wV'^, by which mean? S will become
as being very fmall in relpedl
=
if2
flu. /i;
of unity; fm, pz^Qz
(fee
fin.
/>.
qz &c.
=
i
\d
—
2P — x cof.
pz
2Q
^
x
cof.
qz &c.
82.)
where ^, reprefenting the
be taken
necefl!*ary
corredion to the fiu
ent,
mufl:
= — +Y"
2P
2Q
&c. fo that
2 may be =1,
when 2;=o.
cond equation
(where
This value of E being now
fubfl:ituted in the fe
^ + w = ^ xS—3
fin.
Fcof.pz
—Q^of qz &c.
~xP
pz{Q^n. qz &c. on account of the fmall
* This ajfumption is not the lefs general by the multiples of 7. being taken the fame in the one value^ enters ; becaufe, if any 7miltiple of z, here as in the value of the other ^ it is butfuppofing the correfponding coefficient in this lajl, to vanot into
A
nijh or become equal to nothing.
U
2
nefs
148
T!he Refolution
of fome General Problems
nefs of
—
),
there
cometh out
where the general
multiplicator
^niaybe
alfo omitted, as differ
ing very little from unity: this being done, and the fluent being taken, according to the method on p. 92,we thence find w=i i \'d
^b+c^coLz^
Q^'.
^
l—pp ^
I
^~^^its
where P
cof.
2;,
=7+?,
by which
that
i^ j_ Q'^
is
&c. and where the term a
the fluent
correded, mufl: have
coefiicient fo taken,
is,
w
and z may
have their origin together, that P" O'
1^
a muft be made
Having thus found a value nearly equal to w, we may by help thereof, proceed now to a fecond approximation, by fubfliituting
that value for
w,
in the fadlors
i
wl
^
and
i
w^
,
wherein it w (whofe reciprocal is the diilance the terms in the value of i cf the body from the center of force) may be expreffed by the
was before negledled j and,to facilitate the computation,
—
i
general feries of cofines, ex
(as
it
—Bcof —
jG^;
Ccof.^2;
—Dcof
Sz6ic.
appears from above, that the value of
w
will conflfl: of
fuch):
will
by which means the fame terms before determined be again brought out, together with a number of others,
But, iince the former operato difcover the
ferving as a farther corredion.
tion
is
form of the ferithan to be regarded for its exadnefs, I fhall have no farther reference thereto, but proceed to determine the value of the feveral quantities ^, B, C &c. Je fiovo, by a method fome^ thing difl^erent from that ufed above.
es,
Firfl:,
I
made, more with a view
then,
I
from the equation
— w=:ex
BcoCPz — C
^
cof.
yz
— &c.
cof.
will be
]
had
&c.
===—)
1
XB
cof.
I3z'\C
yz &c.
and
in Mechanics
and
^
Phyjical AJlronomy,
/32;+C
cof. >/s
149
and
I— 'k;I'~'^=z
^f~T ^
cof.
&c.
+ &c.
which
laft vahie being multiplied by Yz ing to the purport of our firft equation,
x fin. /x (accord2 i  2 fluent
Pi; fin. ^2Q^fin.
qz &c.
x
i
—
=
w'""^),
and a proper regard
the
being,
at
the fajne time,
had
to the Theorems on p. 80,
produd: will ftand thus,
£^ X fin./>2;+
or thus,
^ X—
Bfin^iG^^.
2;+B fin. iQ+/.r&I
whereof the
fluent will
be
In the very fame manner, the terms arifing from the mul