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Chapter 1. Problem Solutions
1. If the speed of light were smaller than it is, would relativistic phenomena be more or less
conspicuous than they are now?
3. An athlete has learned enough physics to know that if he measures from the earth a time
interval on a moving spacecraft, what he finds will be greater than what somebody on the
spacecraft would measure. He therefore proposes to set a world record for the 100m dash
by having his time taken by an observer on a moving spacecraft. Is this a good idea?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
All else being the same, including the rates of the chemical reactions that govern our brains and
bodies, relativisitic phenomena would be more conspicuous if the speed of light were smaller. If
we could attain the absolute speeds obtainable to us in the universe as it is, but with the speed of
light being smaller, we would be able to move at speeds that would correspond to larger fractions
of the speed of light, and in such instances relativistic effects would be more conspicuous.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Even if the judges would allow it, the observers in the moving spaceship would measure a longer
time, since they would see the runners being timed by clocks that appear to run slowly compared to
the ship's clocks. Actually, when the effects of length contraction are included (discussed in
Section 1.4 and Appendix 1), the runner's speed may be greater than, less than, or the same as that
measured by an observer on the ground.
Inha University Department of Physics
5. Two observers, A on earth and B in a spacecraft whose speed is 2.00 x 10
8
m/s, both set their
watches to the same time when the ship is abreast of the earth. (a) How much time must
elapse by A's reckoning before the watches differ by 1.00 s? (b) To A, B's watch seems to
run slow. To B, does A's watch seem to run fast, run slow, or keep the same time as his own
watch?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Note that the nonrelativistic approximation is not valid, as v/c = 2/3.
(a) See Example 1.1. In Equation (1.3), with t representing both the time measured by A and the
time as measured in A's frame for the clock in B's frame to advance by to, we need
from which t = 3.93 s.
(b) A moving clock always seems to run slower. In this problem, the time t is the time that
observer A measures as the time that B's clock takes to record a time change of t
o
.
s 00 1 255 0
3
2
1 1 1 1
2
2
2
0
. . · × ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
− − ·
,
_
¸
¸
− − · − t t
c
v
t t t
Inha University Department of Physics
7. How fast must a spacecraft travel relative to the earth for each day on the spacecraft to
correspond to 2 d on the earth?
9. A certain particle has a lifetime of 1.00 x10
7
s when measured at rest. How far does it go
before decaying if its speed is 0.99c when it is created?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
From Equation (1.3), for the time t on the earth to correspond to twice the time t
0
elapsed on the
ship’ s clock,
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The lifetime of the particle is t
0
, and the distance the particle will travel is, from Equation (1.3),
m/s, 10 60 2
2
3
so
2
1
1
8
2
2
× · · · − . , c v
c
v
relating three significant figures.
m 210
99 0 1
s 10 00 1 m/s 10 0 3 99 0
1
2
7 8
2 2
0
·
−
× ×
·
−
·
−
) . (
) . )( . )( . (
/ c v
vt
vt
to two significant figures.
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11. A galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major is receding from the earth at 15,000 km/s. If one
of the characteristic wavelengths of the light the galaxy emits is 550 nm, what is the
corresponding wavelength measured by astronomers on the earth?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
See Example 1.3; for the intermediate calculations, note that
,
/
/
c v
c v c c
o
o
o
+
−
· · ·
1
1
λ
ν
ν
ν ν
λ
where the sign convention for v is that of Equation (1.8), which v positive for an approaching
source and v negative for a receding source.
For this problem,
, .
.
.
050 0
m/s 10 0 3
km/s 10 50 1
8
7
− ·
×
×
− ·
c
v
so that
nm 578
050 0 1
050 0 1
nm 550
1
1
·
−
+
·
+
−
·
.
.
) (
/
/
c v
c v
o
λ λ
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13. A spacecraft receding from the earth emits radio waves at a constant frequency of 10
9
Hz.
If the receiver on earth can measure frequencies to the nearest hertz, at what spacecraft
speed can the difference between the relativistic and classical Doppler effects be detected?
For the classical effect, assume the earth is stationary.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
This problem may be done in several ways, all of which need to use the fact that when the
frequencies due to the classical and relativistic effects are found, those frequencies, while differing
by 1 Hz, will both be sufficiently close to v
o
= 10
9
Hz so that v
o
could be used for an
approximation to either.
In Equation (1.4), we have v = 0 and V = u, where u is the speed of the spacecraft, moving away
from the earth (V < 0). In Equation (1.6), we have v = u (or v = u in Equation (1.8)). The classical
and relativistic frequencies, v
c
and v
r
respectively, are
) / (
) / (
) / (
) / (
,
) / ( c u
c u
c u
c u
c u
o o r c
+
−
·
+
−
·
+
·
1
1
1
1
1
2
0
ν ν ν
ν
ν
The last expression for v
o
, is motivated by the derivation of Equation (1.6), which essentially
incorporates the classical result (counting the number of ticks), and allows expression of the ratio
.
) / (
2
1
1
c u r
c
−
·
ν
ν
Inha University Department of Physics
Use of the above forms for the frequencies allows the calculation of the ratio
9
9
2
10
Hz 10
Hz 1
1
1 1
−
· ·
+
− −
·
−
·
∆
) / (
) / (
c u
c u
o
r c
o
ν
ν ν
ν
ν
Attempts to solve this equation exactly are not likely to be met with success, and even numerical
solutions would require a higher precision than is commonly available. However, recognizing that
the numerator is of the form that can be approximated using the methods outlined
at the beginning of this chapter, we can use . The denominator will
be indistinguishable from 1 at low speed, with the result
2
1 1 ) / ( c u − −
2 2
2 1 1 1 ) / )( / ( ) / ( c u c u ≈ − −
,
9
2
2
10
2
1
−
·
c
u
which is solved for
km/s. 13.4 m/s 10 34 1 10 2
4 9
· × · × ·
−
. c u
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15. If the angle between the direction of motion of a light source of frequency v
o
and the
direction from it to an observer is 0, the frequency v the observer finds is given by
where v is the relative speed of the source. Show that this formula includes Eqs. (1.5) to (1.7) as
special cases.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The transverse Doppler effect corresponds to a direction of motion of the light source that is
perpendicular to the direction from it to the observer; the angle θ = tπ/2 (or t90
o
), so cos θ = 0,
and which is Equation (1.5).
For a receding source, θ = π (or 180
o
), and cos θ = 1. The given expression becomes
, /
2 2
1 c v
o
− · ν ν
,
/
/
/
/
c v
c v
c v
c v
o o
+
−
·
+
−
·
1
1
1
1
2 2
ν ν ν
which is Equation (1.8).
For an approaching source, θ = 0, cos θ = 1, and the given expression becomes
,
/
/
/
/
c v
c v
c v
c v
o o
−
+
·
−
−
·
1
1
1
1
2 2
ν ν ν
which is Equation (1.8).
θ
ν ν
cos ) / (
/
c v
c v
o
−
−
·
1
1
2 2
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17. An astronaut whose height on the earth is exactly 6 ft is lying parallel to the axis of a
spacecraft moving at 0.90c relative to the earth. What is his height as measured by an observer
in the same spacecraft? By an observer on the earth?
19. How much time does a meter stick moving at 0.100c relative to an observer take to pass the
observer? The meter stick is parallel to its direction of motion.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The astronaut’ s proper length (height) is 6 ft, and this is what any observer in the spacecraft will
measure. From Equation (1.9), an observer on the earth would measure
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The time will be the length as measured by the observer divided by the speed, or
ft 6 2 90 0 1 ft 6 1
2 2 2
. ) . ( ) ( / · − · − · c v L L
o
s 10 32 3
m/s 10 0 3 100 0
100 0 1 m 00 1 1
8
8
2 2 2
−
× ·
×
−
·
−
· · .
) . )( . (
) . ( ) . ( /
v
c v L
v
L
t
o
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21. A spacecraft antenna is at an angle of 10
o
relative to the axis of the spacecraft. If the
spacecraft moves away from the earth at a speed of 0.70c, what is the angle of the antenna
as seen from the earth?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
If the antenna has a length L' as measured by an observer on the spacecraft (L' is not either L or L
O
in Equation (1.9)), the projection of the antenna onto the spacecraft will have a length L'cos(10
o
),
and the projection onto an axis perpendicular to the spacecraft's axis will have a length L'sin(10
o
).
To an observer on the earth, the length in the direction of the spacecraft's axis will be contracted as
described by Equation (1.9), while the length perpendicular to the spacecraft's motion will appear
unchanged. The angle as seen from the earth will then be
.
) . (
) t a n (
a r ct a n
/ ) cos(
) s in (
a r ct a n
o
o
o
o
c v L
L
14
70 0 1
10
1 10
10
2 2 2
·
1
1
]
1
¸
−
·
1
1
]
1
¸
−
′
′
The generalization of the above is that if the angle is 00 as measured by an observer on the
spacecraft, an observer on the earth would measure an angle θ given by
2 2
1 c v
o
/
t a n
t a n
−
·
θ
θ
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23. A woman leaves the earth in a spacecraft that makes a round trip to the nearest star, 4 light
years distant, at a speed of 0.9c.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The age difference will be the difference in the times that each measures the round trip to take, or
( ) ( ) yr. 5 9 0 1 1
9 0
yr 4
2 1 1 2
2 2 2
· − − · − − · ∆ .
.
/ c v
v
L
t
o
25. All definitions are arbitrary, but some are more useful than others. What is the objection to
defining linear momentum as p = mv instead of the more complicated p = γmv?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
It is convenient to maintain the relationship from Newtonian mechanics, in that a force on an
object changes the object's momentum; symbolically, F = dp/d t should still be valid. In the
absence of forces, momentum should be conserved in any inertial frame, and the conserved
quantity is p = γmv, not mv
27. Dynamite liberates about 5.4 x 10
6
J/kg when it explodes. What fraction of its total energy
content is this?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
For a given mass M, the ratio of the mass liberated to the mass energy is
. .
) . (
) . (
11
2 8
6
10 0 6
m/s 10 0 3
J/kg 10 4 5
−
× ·
× ×
× ×
M
M
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29. At what speed does the kinetic energy of a particle equal its rest energy?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
If the kinetic energy K = E
o
= mc
2
, then E = 2mc
2
and Equation (1.23) reduces to
2
1
1
2 2
·
− c v /
(γ = 2 in the notation of Section 1.7). Solving for v,
m/s 10 60 2
2
3
8
× · · . c v
31. An electron has a kinetic energy of 0.100 MeV. Find its speed according to classical and
relativistic mechanics.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Classically,
m/s. 10 88 1
kg 10 11 9
J/eV 10 60 1 MeV 200 0 2 2
8
31
19
× ·
×
× × ×
· ·
−
−
.
.
. .
e
m
K
v
Relativistically, solving Equation (1.23) for v as a function of K,
.
) / (
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
,
_
¸
¸
+
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
+
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
c m K
c
K c m
c m
c
E
c m
c v
e e
e e
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With K/(m
e
c
2
) = (0.100 MeV)/(0.511 MeV) = 0.100/0.511,
m/s. 10 64 1
511 0 100 0 1
1
1 m/s 10 0 3
8
2
8
× ·
,
_
¸
¸
+
− × × · .
) . / ( ) . (
. v
The two speeds are comparable, but not the same; for larger values of the ratio of the kinetic and rest
energies, larger discrepancies would be found.
33. A particle has a kinetic energy 20 times its rest energy. Find the speed of the particle in terms of c.
¡¼Sol¡ ½
Using Equation (1.22) in Equation (1.23) and solving for v/c,
2
1
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
E
E
c
v
o
With E = 21E
o
, that is, E = E
o
+ 20E
o
,
. . c c v 9989 0
21
1
1
2
·
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
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35. How much work (in MeV) must be done to increase the speed of an electron from 1.2 x 10
8
m/s to 2.4 X 10
8
m/s?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The difference in energies will be, from Equation (1.23),
MeV 294 0
0 3 2 1 1
1
0 3 4 2 1
1
MeV 511 0
1
1
1
1
2 2
2 2
1
2 2
2
2
.
) . / . ( ) . / . (
) . (
/ /
·
1
1
]
1
¸
−
−
−
·
1
1
]
1
¸
−
−
− c v c v
c m
e
37. Prove that ½γmv
2
, does not equal the kinetic energy of a particle moving at relativistic speeds.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Using the expression in Equation (1.20) for the kinetic energy, the ratio of the two quantities is
.
/ 1
1
]
1
¸
− −
·
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1 1
1
2
1
1 2
1
c v
c
v
c
v
K
mv
γ
γ
γ
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39. An alternative derivation of the massenergy formula E
O
= mc
2
, also given by Einstein, is
based on the principle that the location of the center of mass (CM) of an isolated system
cannot be changed by any process that occurs inside the system. Figure 1.27 shows a rigid
box of length L that rests on a frictionless surface; the mass M of the box is equally divided
between its two ends. A burst of electromagnetic radiation of energy E
o
is emitted by one
end of the box. According to classical physics, the radiation has the momentum p = E
o
/c,
and when it is emitted, the box recoils with the speed v ≈ E
0
1Mc so that the total
momentum of the system remains zero. After a time t ≈ L/c the radiation reaches the other
end of the box and is absorbed there, which brings the box to a stop after having moved the
distance S. If the CM of the box is to remain in its original place, the radiation must have
transferred mass from one end to the other. Show that this amount of mass is m = E
O
1c
2
.
¡¼Sol¡ ½
Measured from the original center of the box, so that the original position of the center of mass
is 0, the final position of the center of mass is
. 0
2 2 2 2
·
,
_
¸
¸
−
,
_
¸
¸
+ −
,
_
¸
¸
+
,
_
¸
¸
− S
L
m
M
S
L
m
M
Expanding the products and canceling similar terms [(M/2)(L/2), mS], the result MS = mL is
obtained. The distance 5 is the product vt, where, as shown in the problem statement, v ≈ E/Mc
(approximate in the nonrelativistic limit M >> Elc
2
) and t ≈ L/c. Then,
.
2
c
E
c
L
Mc
E
L
M
L
MS
m · · ·
Inha University Department of Physics
41. In its own frame of reference, a proton takes 5 min to cross the Milky Way galaxy, which is
about 10
5
lightyears in diameter. (a) What is the approximate energy of the proton in
electronvolts?. (b) About how long would the proton take to cross the galaxy as measured by
an observer in the galaxy's reference frame?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
To cross the galaxy in a matter of minutes, the proton must be highly relativistic, with v ≈ c (but
v < c, of course). The energy of the proton will be E = E
o
γ, where E
O
is the proton's rest energy
and . However, γ, from Equation (1.9), is the same as the ratio L
O
/L, where L
is the diameter of the galaxy in the proton's frame of reference, and for the highlyrelativistic
proton L ≈ ct, where t is the time in the proton's frame that it takes to cross the galaxy.
Combining,
2 2
1 1 c v / / − · γ
eV 10 s/yr 10 3
s 300
ly 10
eV 10
19 7
5
9
· × × ≈ ≈ · · ) (
) (
) (
c ct
L
E
L
L
E E E
o
o
o
o o
γ
43. Find the momentum (in MeV/c) of an electron whose speed is 0.600c.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Taking magnitudes in Equation (1.16),
c
c c
c v
v m
p
e
/ .
) . (
) . )( / . (
/
MeV 383 0
600 0 1
600 0 MeV 511 0
1
2
2
2 2
·
−
·
−
·
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45. Find the momentum of an electron whose kinetic energy equals its rest energy of 511 keV
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
When the kinetic energy of an electron is equal to its rest energy, the total energy is twice the rest
energy, and Equation (1.24) becomes
c c c c m p c p c m c m
e e e
/ . ) / ( / ) ( , GeV 94 1 keV 511 3 3 or 4
2 2 2 4 4 4 4
· · · + ·
The result of Problem 129 could be used directly; γ = 2, v = ( /2)c, and Equation (1.17) gives
p = m
e
c, as above.
3
3
47. Find the speed and momentum (in GeV/c) of a proton whose total energy is 3.500 GeV
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Solving Equation (1.23) for the speed v in terms of the rest energy E
O
and the total energy E,
c c E E c v
o
963 0 500 3 938 0 1 1
2
. ) . / . ( ) / ( · − · − ·
numerically 2.888 x 10
8
m/s. (The result of Problem 132 does not give an answer accurate to three
significant figures.) The value of the speed may be substituted into Equation (1.16) (or the result of
Problem 146), or Equation (1.24) may be solved for the magnitude of the momentum,
c c c c E c E p
o
/ . ) / . ( ) / . ( ) / ( ) / ( GeV 37 3 GeV 938 0 GeV 500 3
2 2 2 2
· − · − ·
Inha University Department of Physics
49. A particle has a kinetic energy of 62 MeV and a momentum of 335 MeV/c. Find its mass (in
MeV/c
2
) and speed (as a fraction of c).
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
From E = mc
2
+ K and Equation (1.24),
Expanding the binomial, cancelling the m
2
c
4
term, and solving for m,
( )
2 2 4 2
2
2
c p c m K mc + · +
. /
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
MeV 874
MeV 62 2
MeV 62 MeV 335
2
c
c K c
K pc
m ·
−
·
−
·
The particle's speed may be found any number of ways; a very convenient result is that of Problem
146, giving
. . c c
K mc
pc
c
E
p
c v 36 0
MeV 62 MeV 874
MeV 335
2
2
·
+
·
+
· ·
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51. An observer detects two explosions, one that occurs near her at a certain time and another
that occurs 2.00 ms later 100 km away. Another observer finds that the two explosions
occur at the, same place. What time interval separates the explosions to the second
observer?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The given observation that the two explosions occur at the same place to the second observer means
that x' = 0 in Equation (1.41), and so the second observer is moving at a speed
m/s 10 00 5
s 10 00 2
m 10 00 1
7
3
5
× ·
×
×
· ·
−
.
.
.
t
x
v
with respect to the first observer. Inserting this into Equation (1.44),
ms. 97 1
m/s) 10 (2.998
m/s 10 00 5
1 ms 00 2
1
1
1
1
2 8
2 7
2
2
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
.
) . (
) . (
) / (
/ ) / (
·
×
×
− ·
− ·
−
−
·
−
−
·
′
c
t x
t
t c x
t c
x
t
ct x
tc
x
t
t
(For this calculation, the approximation is valid to three
significant figures.) An equally valid method, and a good cheek, is to note that when the relative
speed of the observers (5.00 x 10
7
m/s) has been determined, the time interval that the second
observer measures should be that given by Equation (1.3) (but be careful of which time it t, which
is to). Algebraically and numerically, the different methods give the same result.
) / ( ) / (
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 t c x ct x − ≈ −
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53. A spacecraft moving in the +x direction receives a light signal from a source in the xy plane.
In the reference frame of the fixed stars, the speed of the spacecraft is v and the signal
arrives at an angle θ to the axis of the spacecraft. (a) With the help of the Lorentz
transformation find the angle θ ' at which the signal arrives in the reference frame of the
spacecraft. (b) What would you conclude from this result about the view of the stars from a
porthole on the side of the spacecraft?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) A convenient choice for the origins of both the unprimed and primed coordinate systems is the
point, in both space and time, where the ship receives the signal. Then, in the unprimed frame
(given here as the frame of the fixed stars, one of which may be the source), the signal was sent at a
time t = r/c, where r is the distance from the source to the place where the ship receives the signal,
and the minus sign merely indicates that the signal was sent before it was received.
Take the direction of the ship's motion (assumed parallel to its axis) to be the positive xdirection,
so that in the frame of the fixed stars (the unprimed frame), the signal arrives at an angle 0 with
respect to the positive xdirection. In the unprimed frame, x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ . From
Equation (1.41),
,
/
) / ( cos
/
) / ( cos
/
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 c v
c v
r
c v
c r r
c v
vt x
x
−
+
·
−
− −
·
−
−
· ′
θ θ
and y’ = y = r sin θ. Then,
Inha University Department of Physics
55. A man on the moon sees two spacecraft, A and B, coming toward him from opposite
directions at the respective speeds of 0.800c and 0.900c. (a) What does a man on A
measure for the speed with which he is approaching the moon? For the speed with which
he is approaching B? (b) What does a man on B measure for the speed with which he is
approaching the moon? For the speed with which he is approaching A ?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) If the man on the moon sees A approaching with speed v = 0.800 c, then the observer on A will
see the man in the moon approaching with speed v = 0.800c. The relative velocities will have
opposite directions, but the relative speeds will be the same. The speed with which B is seen to
approach A, to an observer in A, is then
.
) / ( cos
/
,
/ / )) / ( (cos
s in
t a n
1
1
]
1
¸
+
−
· ′
− +
·
′
′
· ′
c v
c v
c v c v
x
y
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
2 2
2 2
1 sin
arctan and
1
(b) From the form of the result of part (a), it can be seen that the numerator of the term in square
brackets is less than sinθ , and the denominator is greater than cosθ , and so tan θ and θ’ < θ when
v ≠ 0. Looking out of a porthole, the sources, including the stars, will appear to be in the directions
close to the direction of the ship’ s motion than they would for a ship with v = 0. As v àc, θ’ à0,
and all stars appear to be almost on the ship’ s axis(farther forward in the field of view).
. .
) . )( . (
. .
/
c c
c V v
v V
V
x
x
x
988 0
900 0 800 0 1
900 0 800 0
1
2
·
+
+
·
′ +
+ ′
·
Inha University Department of Physics
(b) Similarly, the observer on B will see the man on the moon approaching with speed 0.900 c,
and the apparent speed of A, to an observer on B, will be
. .
) . )( . (
. .
c c 988 0
800 0 900 0 1
800 0 900 0
·
+
+
(Note that Equation (1.49) is unchanged if V
x
’ and v are interchanged.)
B
A
O’
V
x
’
v
S’ (moon)
S
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 2 Problem Solutions
1. If Planck's constant were smaller than it is, would quantum phenomena be more or less
conspicuous than they are now?
3. Is it correct to say that the maximum photoelectron energy KE
max
is proportional to the
frequency ν of the incident light? If not, what would a correct statement of the relationship
between KE
max
and ν be?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Planck’ s constant gives a measure of the energy at which quantum effects are observed. If Planck’ s
constant had a smaller value, while all other physical quantities, such as the speed of light, remained
the same, quantum effects would be seen for phenomena that occur at higher frequencies or shorter
wavelengths. That is, quantum phenomena would be less conspicuous than they are now.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
No: the relation is given in Equation (2.8) and Equation (2.9),
), (
max o
h h KE ν ν φ ν − · − ·
So that while KE
max
is a linear function of the frequency ν of the incident light, KE
max
is not
proportional to the frequency.
Inha University Department of Physics
5. Find the energy of a 700nm photon.
7. A 1.00kW radio transmitter operates at a frequency of 880 kHz. How many photons per
second does it emit?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The number of photons per unit time is the total energy per unit time(the power) divided by the
energy per photon, or
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
From Equation (2.11),
eV. 77 1
m 10 700
m eV 10 24 1
9 
6
.
.
·
×
⋅ ×
·
−
E
Or, in terms of joules,
J 10 84 2
m 10 700
m/s) 10 s)(3.0 J 10 63 6
19
9
8 34
−
−
−
× ·
×
× ⋅ ×
· .
. (
E
. photons/s 10 72 1
Hz) 10 s)(880 J 10 63 6
J/s 10 00 1
30
3 34
3
× ·
× ⋅ ×
×
· ·
−
.
. (
.
ν h
P
E
P
Inha University Department of Physics
9. Light from the sun arrives at the earth, an average of 1.5 x 10
11
m away, at the rate of 1.4 x 10
3
W/m
2
of area perpendicular to the direction of the light. Assume that sunlight is monochromatic
with a frequency of 5.0 x 10
14
Hz. (a) How many photons fall per second on each square meter
of the earth's surface directly facing the sun? (b) What is the power output of the sun, and how
many photons per second does it emit? (c) How many photons per cubic meter are there near
the earth?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) The number of photons per unit time per unit are will be the energy per unit time per unit area
(the power per unit area, P/A), divided by the energy per photon, or
). .
. /
2 21
14 34 
2 3
m s photons/( 10 2 4
Hz) 10 s)(5.0 J 10 (6.63
W/m 10 4 1
⋅ × ·
× ⋅ ×
×
·
ν h
A P
(b) With the reasonable assumption that the sun radiates uniformly in all directions, all points at the
same distance from the sun should have the same flux of energy, even if there is no surface to absorb
the energy. The total power is then,
, . ) . ( ) . ( ) / ( W 10 0 4 m 10 5 1 4 W/m 10 4 1 4
26 2 11 2 3 2
× · × × ·
−
π π
S E
R A P
where R
ES
is the mean EarthSun distance, commonly abbreviated as “1 AU,” for “astronomical
unit.” The number of photons emitted per second is this power divided by the energy per photon, or
. photons/s 10 2 1
Hz 10 0 5 s J 10 (6.63
J/s 10 0 4
45
14 34 
26
× ·
× ⋅ ×
×
.
) . )(
.
Inha University Department of Physics
11. The maximum wavelength for photoelectric emission in tungsten is 230 nm. What wavelength
of light must be used in order for electrons with a maximum energy of 1.5 eV to be ejected?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Expressing Equation (2.9) in terms of λ = c/ν and λ
0
= c/ν
0
, and performing the needed algebraic
manipulations,
(c) The photons are all moving at the same speed c, and in the same direction (spreading is not
significant on the scale of the earth), and so the number of photons per unit time per unit area is the
product of the number per unit volume and the speed. Using the result from part (a),
. .
.
) .
3 13
8
2 21
photons/m 10 4 1
m/s 10 0 3
m s photons/( 10 2 4
× ·
×
⋅ ×
nm. 180
m eV 10 24 1
m 10 230 eV 5 1
1 nm) 230
1
1
6
9
1
0
·
1
]
1
¸
⋅ ×
×
+ ·
1
]
1
¸
+ ·
+
·
−
−
−
−
.
) )( . (
(
) / (
max
max
hc
K
K hc
hc
o
o
λ
λ
λ
λ
Inha University Department of Physics
13. What is the maximum wavelength of light that will cause photoelectrons to be emitted from
sodium? What will the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons be if 200nm light falls
on a sodium surface?
15. 1.5 mWof 400nm light is directed at a photoelectric cell. If 0.10 percent of the incident
photons produce photoelectrons, find the current in the cell.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The maximum wavelength would correspond to the least energy that would allow an electron to be
emitted, so the incident energy would be equal to the work function, and
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Because only 0.10% of the light creates photoelectrons, the available power is (1.0x10
3
)(1.5x10
3
W)
= 1.5x10
6
W. the current will be the product of the number of photoelectrons per unit time and the
electron charge, or
nm 539
eV 3 2
m eV 10 24 1
6
·
⋅ ×
· ·
−
.
.
max
φ
λ
hc
where the value of φ for sodium is taken from Table 2.1.
From Equation (2.8),
eV. 3.9 eV 3 2
m 10 200
m eV 10 24 1
9
6
· −
×
⋅ ×
· − · − ·
−
−
.
.
max
φ
λ
φ ν
hc
h K
A 48 0
m eV 10 1.24
m 10 400 J/s 10 5 1
1
6 
9 6
µ
λ
λ
.
) )( . (
) (
/
·
⋅ ×
× ×
· · · ·
− −
e
hc
P
e
hc
P
e
E
P
e I
Inha University Department of Physics
17. A metal surface illuminated by 8.5 x 10
14
Hz light emits electrons whose maximum energy is
0.52 eV The same surface illuminated by 12.0 x 10
14
Hz light emits electrons whose maximum
energy is 1.97 eV From these data find Planck's constant and the work function of the surface .
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Denoting the two energies and frequencies with subscripts 1 and 2,
. ,
max, max,
φ ν φ ν − · − ·
2 2 1 1
h K h K
Subtracting to eliminate the work function φ and dividing by ν
1
 ν
2
,
s eV 10 1 4
Hz 10 5 8 Hz 10 0 12
eV 52 0 eV 7 19
15
14 14
1 2
1 2
⋅ × ·
× − ×
−
·
−
−
·
−
.
. .
. .
max, max,
ν ν
K K
h
to the allowed two significant figures. Keeping an extra figure gives
s J 10 6.64 s eV 10 14 4
34  15
⋅ × · ⋅ × ·
−
. h
The work function φ may be obtained by substituting the above result into either of the above
expressions relating the frequencies and the energies, yielding φ = 3.0 eV to the same two significant
figures, or the equations may be solved by rewriting them as
, ,
max, max, 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1
φν ν ν ν φν ν ν ν − · − · h K h K
subtracting to eliminate the product hν
1
ν
2
and dividing by ν
1
 ν
2
to obtain
eV 0 3
Hz) 10 5 8 Hz 10 (12.0
Hz) 10 eV)(12.0 52 0 Hz) 10 eV)(8.5 7 19
14 14
14 14
1 2
2 1 1 2
.
.
. ( . (
max, max,
·
× − ×
× − ×
·
−
−
·
ν ν
ν ν
φ
K K
(This last calculation, while possibly more cumbersome than direct substitution, reflects the result of
solving the system of equations using a symbolicmanipulation program; using such a program for
this problem is, of course, a case of "swatting a fly with a sledgehammer".)
Inha University Department of Physics
19. Show that it is impossible for a photon to give up all its energy and momentum to a free electron.
This is the reason why the photoelectric effect can take place only when photons strike bound
electrons.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Consider the proposed interaction in the frame of the electron initially at rest. The photon's initial
momentum is p
o
= E
o
/c, and if the electron were to attain all of the photon's momentum and energy,
the final momentum of the electron must be p
e
= p
o
= p, the final electron kinetic energy must be
KE = E
o
= pc, and so the final electron energy is E
e
= pc + m
e
c
2
. However, for any electron we
must have E
e
2
= (pc)
2
+ (m
e
c
2
)
2
. Equating the two expressions for E
e
2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2 c m c m pc pc c m pc c m pc E
e e e e e
+ + · + · + ·
( ). ) (
2
2 0 c m pc
e
·
or
This is only possible if p = 0, in which case the photon had no initial momentum and no initial
energy, and hence could not have existed.
To see the same result without using as much algebra, the electron's final kinetic energy is
pc c m c m c p
e e
≠ − +
2 4 2 2 2
for nonzero p. An easier alternative is to consider the interaction in the frame where the electron is
at rest after absorbing the photon. In this frame, the final energy is the rest energy of the electron,
m
e
c
2
, but before the interaction, the electron would have been moving (to conserve momentum), and
hence would have had more energy than after the interaction, and the photon would have had
positive energy, so energy could not be conserved.
Inha University Department of Physics
21. Electrons are accelerated in television tubes through potential differences of about 10 kV. Find
the highest frequency of the electromagnetic waves emitted when these electrons strike the
screen of the tube. What kind of waves are these?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
For the highest frequency, the electrons will acquire all of their kinetic energy from the accelerating
voltage, and this energy will appear as the electromagnetic radiation emitted when these electrons
strike the screen. The frequency of this radiation will be
Hz 10 4 2
s eV 10 14 4
V) 10 10 1
18
15
3
× ·
⋅ ×
×
· · ·
−
.
.
)( ( e
h
eV
h
E
ν
which corresponds to xrays.
23. The distance between adjacent atomic planes in calcite (CaCO
3
) is 0.300 nm. Find the smallest
angle of Bragg scattering for 0.030nm xrays.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Solving Equation (2.13) for θ with n = 1,
o
d
9 2
nm 0.300 2
nm 030 0
2
.
.
ar cs in ar cs in ·
,
_
¸
¸
×
·
,
_
¸
¸
·
λ
θ
Inha University Department of Physics
25. What is the frequency of an xray photon whose momentum is 1.1 x 10
23
kg m/s?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
From Equation (2.15),
Hz 10 0 5
s J 10 63 6
m/s) kg 10 m/s)(1.1 10 0 3
18
34
23  8
× ·
⋅ ×
⋅ × ×
· ·
−
.
.
. (
h
cp
ν
27. In See. 2.7 the xrays scattered by a crystal were assumed to undergo no change in wavelength.
Show that this assumption is reasonable by calculating the Compton wavelength of a Na atom
and comparing it with the typical xray wavelength of 0.1 nm.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Following the steps that led to Equation (2.22), but with a sodium atom instead of an electron,
m, 10 8 5
kg) 10 m/s)(3.82 10 (3.0
s J 10 63 6
17
26  8
34
−
−
× ·
× ×
⋅ ×
· · .
.
,
Na
Na C
cM
h
λ
or 5.8 x 10
8
nm, which is much less than o.1 nm. (Here, the rest mass M
Na
=3.82 x 10
26
kg was
taken from Problem 224.)
Inha University Department of Physics
29. A beam of xrays is scattered by a target. At 45
o
from the beam direction the scattered xrays
have a wavelength of 2.2 pm. What is the wavelength of the xrays in the direct beam?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Solving Equation (2.23) for λ, the wavelength of the xrays in the direct beam,
pm 5 1 45 pm)(1 426 2 pm 2 2 1 . ) cos . ( . ) cos ( · − − · − −
′
·
o
C
φ λ λ λ
to the given two significant figures.
31. An xray photon of initial frequency 3.0 x 10
19
Hz collides with an electron and is scattered
through 90
o
. Find its new frequency.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Rewriting Equation (2.23) in terms of frequencies, with λ = c/ν and λ’ = c/ν’ , and with cos 90
o
= 0,
C
c c
λ
ν ν
+ ·
′
and solving for ν’ gives
Hz 10 4 2
m/s 10 0 3
m 10 43 2
Hz 10 0 3
1 1
19
1
8
12
19
1
× ·
1
]
1
¸
×
×
+
×
·
1
]
1
¸
+ · ′
−
−
−
.
.
.
.
c
C
λ
ν
ν
The above method avoids the intermediate calculation of wavelengths.
Inha University Department of Physics
33. At what scattering angle will incident 100keV xrays leave a target with an energy of 90 keV?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Solving Equation (2.23) for cos φ,
432 0
keV 90
keV 511
keV 100
keV 511
1 1 1
2 2
. cos ·
,
_
¸
¸
− + ·
,
_
¸
¸
′
− + ·
′
− + ·
E
mc
E
mc
C C
λ
λ
λ
λ
φ
from which φ = 64
o
to two significant figures.
35. A photon of frequency ν is scattered by an electron initially at rest. Verify that the maximum
kinetic energy of the recoil electron is KE
max
= (2h
2
ν
2
/mc
2
)/(1 + 2hν/mc
2
).
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
For the electron to have the maximum recoil energy, the scattering angle must be 180
0
, and Equation
(2.20) becomes mc
2
KE
max
= 2 (hv) (h v'), where KE
max
= (hv  hv') has been used. To simplify the
algebra somewhat, consider
,
) / ( ) / ( ) / ( c
C C
νλ
ν
λ λ
ν
λ λ
ν
λ
λ
ν ν
2 1 2 1 1 +
·
+
·
∆ +
·
′
·
′
where ∆λ = 2λ
C
for φ = 180
o
. With this expression,
.
) / (
) / ( ) ( ) )( (
max
c
mc h
mc
h h
KE
C
νλ
ν ν ν
2 1
2 2
2 2
2
+
·
′
·
Using λ
C
= h/(mc) (which is Equation (2.22)) gives the desired result.
Inha University Department of Physics
37. A photon whose energy equals the rest energy of the electron undergoes a Compton collision
with an electron. If the electron moves off at an angle of 40
o
with the original photon direction,
what is the energy of the scattered photon?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
As presented in the text, the energy of the scattered photon is known in terms of the scattered angle,
not the recoil angle of the scattering electron. Consider the expression for the recoil angle as given
preceding the solution to Problem 225:
.
) cos (
s in
) cos ( ) cos )( / (
s in
) cos ( ) / (
s in
t a n
φ
λ
λ
φ
φ φ λ λ
φ
φ λ λ
φ
θ
−
,
_
¸
¸
+
·
− + −
·
− + ∆
·
1 1
1 1 1
C
C
For the given problem, with E = mc
2
, λ = hc/E = h/(mc) = λ
C
, so the above expression reduces to
.
) cos (
s in
t a n
φ
φ
θ
−
·
1 2
At this point, there are many ways to proceed; a numerical solution with θ = 40
o
gives φ = 61.6
0
to
three significant figures. For an analytic solution which avoids the intermediate calculation of the
scattering angle φ, one method is to square both sides of the above relation and use the trigonometric
identity sin
2
φ = 1  cos
2
φ = (1 + cos φ)(1 – cos φ) to obtain
φ
φ
θ
cos
cos
t a n
−
+
·
1
1
4
2
(the factor 1  cos φ may be divided, as cos φ = 1, φ = 0, represents an undeflected photon, and
hence no interaction). This may be reexpressed as
Inha University Department of Physics
or 1 2 1 4 1
2
), cos ( cos ) t a n )( cos ( φ φ θ φ − − · + · −
.
t a n
t a n
cos ,
t a n
cos
θ
θ
φ
θ
φ
2
2
2
4 1
4 3
2
4 1
2
1
+
+
· −
+
· −
Then with λ’ = λ + λ
C
(1 – cos φ) = λ
C
(2 – cos φ),
eV 335
40 4 3
40 4 1
keV) 511
4 3
4 1
2
2
2
2
·
+
+
·
+
+
·
′
· ′
) ( t a n
) ( t a n
(
t a n
t a n
o
o
E E E
θ
θ
λ
λ
An equivalent but slightly more cumbersome method is to use the trigonometric identities
2
2 1
2 2
2
2
φ
φ
φ φ
φ s in cos , cos s in s in · − ·
in the expression for tan θ to obtain
,
_
¸
¸
· ·
θ
φ
φ
θ
t a n
ar ct an , cot t a n
2
1
2
2 2
1
yielding the result θ = 61.6
o
more readily.
Inha University Department of Physics
39. A positron collides head on with an electron and both are annihilated. Each particle had a
kinetic energy of 1.00 MeV Find the wavelength of the resulting photons.
41. Show that, regardless of its initial energy, a photon cannot undergo Compton scattering
through an angle of more than 60
o
and still be able to produce an electronpositron pair. (Hint:
Start by expressing the Compton wavelength of the electron in terms of the maximum photon
wavelength needed for pair production.)
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The energy of each photon will he the sum of one particle's rest and kinetic energies, 1.511 MeV
(keeping an extra significant figure). The wavelength of each photon will be
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Following the hint,
pm 0.821 m 10 21 8
eV 10 51 1
m eV 10 24 1
13
6
6
· × ·
×
⋅ ×
· ·
−
−
.
.
.
E
hc
λ
,
min
E
hc
mc
hc
mc
h
C
2
2
2
2
· · · λ
where E
min
= 2mc
2
is the minimum photon energy needed for pair production. The scattered wave
length (a maximum) corresponding to this minimum energy is λ’
max
= (h/E
min
), so λ
C
= 2λ’
max
.
At this point, it is possible to say that for the most energetic incoming photons, λ ~ 0, and so 1  cos φ
= ½ for λ ' = λ
C
/2, from which cos φ = ½and φ = 60
o
. As an alternative, the angle at which the
scattered photons will have wavelength λ’
max
can m be found as a function of the incoming photon
energy E; solving Equation (2.23) with λ ' = λ'
max
)
Inha University Department of Physics
.
/
cos
max max
E
mc E hc
C C C
2
2
1
1 1 + · +
′
− ·
− ′
− ·
λ λ
λ
λ
λ λ
φ
This expression shows that for E >> mc
2
, cos φ = ½and so φ = 60
o
, but it also shows that, because
cos φ must always be less than 1, for pair production at any angle, E must be greater than 2mc
2
,
which we know to be the case.
43. (a) Show that the thickness x
1/2,
of an absorber required to reduce the intensity of a beam of
radiation by a factor of 2 is given by x
1/2
= 0.693/µ. (b) Find the absorber thickness needed to
produce an intensity reduction of a factor of 10.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) The most direct way to get this result is to use Equation (2.26) with I
o
/I = 2, so that
.
. ln
/
µ µ
µ
693 0 2
2 1
· · ⇒ ·
−
x e I I
x
o
(b) Similarly, with I
o
/I = 10,
.
. ln
/
µ µ
30 2 10
10 1
· · x
Inha University Department of Physics
45. The linear absorption coefficient for 1MeV gamma rays in lead is 78 m
1
. find the thickness
of lead required to reduce by half the intensity of a beam of such gamma rays.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
From either Equation (2.26) or Problem 243 above,
mm 9 8
m 78
693 0 2
1 
2 1
.
. ln
/
· · ·
µ
x
47. The linear absorption coefficients for 2.0MeV gamma rays are 4.9 m
1
in water and 52 in
1
in
lead. What thickness of water would give the same shielding for such gamma rays as 10 mmof
lead?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Rather than calculating the actual intensity ratios, Equation (2.26) indicates that the ratios will be
the same when the distances in water and lead are related by
m 106 0
m 9 4
m 52
m 10 10
or
1 
1 
3
O H
Pb
Pb O H
Pb Pb O H O H
2
2
2 2
.
.
) (
,
· × · ·
·
−
µ
µ
µ µ
x x
x x
or 11 cm two significant figures.
Inha University Department of Physics
49. What thickness of copper is needed to reduce the intensity of the beam in Exercise 48 by half.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Either a direct application of Equation (2.26) or use of the result of Problem 243 gives
m, 10 47 1
m 10 7 4
2
5
1  4
2 1
−
× ·
×
· .
.
ln
/
x
which is 0.015 mm to two significant figures.
51. The sun's mass is 2.0 x 10
30
kg and its radius is 7.0 x 10
8
m. Find the approximate gravitational
red shift in light of wavelength 500 nm emitted by the sun.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
In Equation (2.29), the ratio
6
1  4 2 8
30 2 11
2
10 12 2
m 10 0 7 m/s) 10 0 3
kg) 10 0 2 kg m N 10 67 6
−
−
× ·
× ×
× ⋅ ×
· .
) . ( . (
. )( / . (
R c
GM
(keeping an extra significant figure) is so small that for an “approximate” red shift, the ratio ∆λ/λ
will be the same as ∆ν/ν, and
pm. 1.06 m 10 1.06 ) 10 m)(2.12 10 500
12  6  9
2
· × · × × · · ∆
−
(
R c
GM
λ λ
Inha University Department of Physics
53. As discussed in Chap. 12, certain atomic nuclei emit photons in undergoing transitions
from "excited" energy states to their “ground” or normal states. These photons constitute gamma
rays. When a nucleus emits a photon, it recoils in the opposite direction. (a) The nucleus
decays by K capture to , which then emits a photon in losing 14.4 keV to reach its ground
state. The mass of a atom is 9.5 x 10
26
kg. By how much is the photon energy reduced from
the full 14.4 keV available as a result of having to share energy and momentum with the recoiling
atom? (b) In certain crystals the atoms are so tightly bound that the entire crystal recoils when a
gammaray photon is emitted, instead of the individual atom. This phenomenon is known as the
Mössbauer effect. By how much is the photon energy reduced in this situation if the ex cited
2576Fe nucleus is part of a 1.0g crystal? (c) The essentially recoilfree emission of gamma rays
in situations like that of b means that it is possible to construct a source of virtually mono
energetic and hence monochromatic photons. Such a source was used in the experiment described
in See. 2.9. What is the original frequency and the change in frequency of a 14.4keV gammaray
photon after it has fallen 20 m near the earth's surface?
Co
57
27
Fe
57
26
Fe
57
26
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) The most convenient way to do this problem, for computational purposes, is to realize that the
nucleus will be moving nonrelativistically after the emission of the photon, and that the energy of
the photon will be very close to E
∞
= 14.4 keV, the energy that the photon would have if the nucleus
had been infinitely massive. So, if the photon has an energy E, the recoil momentum of the nucleus
is E/c, and its kinetic energy is , here M is the rest mass of the nucleus.
Then, conservation of energy implies
) / ( /
2 2 2
2 2 Mc E M p ·
Inha University Department of Physics
.
∞
· + E E
Mc
E
2
2
2
This is a quadratic in E, and solution might be attempted by standard methods, but to find the
change in energy due to the finite mass of the nucleus, and recognizing that E will be very close
to E
∞
, the above relation may be expressed as
eV. 0 1 1.9 keV 10 9 1
m/s) 10 kg)(3.0 10 2(9.5
J/keV) 10 60 1 keV) 4 14
2 2
3 6
2 8 26 
16 2
2
2
2
2
× · × ·
× ×
×
·
≈ · −
−
∞
∞
.
. ( . (
Mc
E
Mc
E
E E
If the approximation E ≈ E
∞
, is not made, the resulting quadratic is
, 0 2 2
2 2 2
· − +
∞
E Mc E Mc E
which is solved for
.
1
]
1
¸
− + ·
∞
1 2 1
2
2
Mc
E
Mc E
However, the dimensionless quantity E
∞
/(Mc
2
) is so small that standard calculators are not able to
determine the difference between E and E
∞
. The square root must be expanded, using (1 + x)
1/2
≈ 1
+ (x/2)  (x
2
/8), and two terms must be kept to find the difference between E and E
∞
. This
approximation gives the previous result.
Inha University Department of Physics
It so happens that a relativistic treatment of the recoiling nucleus gives the same numerical result,
but without intermediate approximations or solution of a quadratic equation. The relativistic form
expressing conservation of energy is, with pc = E and before,
. ) ( , ) ( E E Mc Mc E E Mc E Mc E − + · + + · + +
∞ ∞
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
or
Squaring both sides, canceling E
2
and (Mc
2
)
2
, and then solving for E,
.
)) / ( (
)) / ( (
) (
,
_
¸
¸
+
+
·
+
+
·
∞
∞
∞
∞
∞ ∞
2
2
2
2 2
1
2 1
2
2
Mc E
Mc E
E
E Mc
E Mc E
E
From this form,
,
) / (
2 2
2
1
1
2 Mc E Mc
E
E E
∞
∞
∞
+
,
_
¸
¸
· −
givin g t h e s a me r es u lt .
(b) For t h is s it u a t ion , t h e a bove r es u lt a pplies , bu t t h e n on r ela t ivis t ic a ppr oxima t ion
is by fa r t h e ea s ies t for ca lcu la t ion ;
eV. 10 8 1
m/s) 10 kg)(3.0 10 2(1.0
J/eV) 10 6 1 eV 10 4 14
2
25
2 8 3 
19 2 3
2
2
−
−
∞
∞
× ·
× ×
× ×
· · − .
. ( ) . (
Mc
E
E E
(c) Th e or igin a l fr equ en cy is Hz. 10 48 3
s eV 10 14 4
eV 10 4 14
18
15
3
× ·
⋅ ×
×
· ·
−
∞
.
.
.
h
E
ν
From Equation (2.28), the change in frequency is
Hz. 6 7 Hz) 10 48 3
m/s) 10 (3.0
m 20 m/s 8 9
18
2 8
2
2
. . (
) )( . (
· ×
×
·
,
_
¸
¸
· − ′ · ∆ ν ν ν ν
c
gH
Inha University Department of Physics
55. The gravitational potential energy U relative to infinity of a body of mass m at a distance R
from the center of a body of mass M is U = GmM/ R. (a) If R is the radius of the body of
mass M, find the escape speed v, of the body, which is the minimum speed needed to leave it
permanently. (b) Obtain a formula for the Schwarzschild radius of the body by setting v
c
= c,
the speed of light, and solving for R. (Of course, a relativistic calculation is correct here, but it
is interesting to see what a classical calculation produces.)
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) To leave the body of mass M permanently, the body of mass m must have enough kinetic energy
so that there is no radius at which its energy is positive. That is, its total energy must be nonnegative.
The escape velocity v
e
is the speed (for a given radius, and assuming M >> m) that the body of mass
m would have for a total energy of zero;
. ,
R
GM
v
R
GMm
mv
e e
2
or 0
2
1
2
· · −
(b) Solving the above expression for R in terms of v
e
,
,
2
2
e
v
GM
R ·
and if v
e
= c, Equation (2.30) is obtained.
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
1. A photon and a particle have the same wavelength. Can anything be said about how their
linear momenta compare? About how the photon's energy compares with the particle's total
energy? About how the photon’ s energy compares with the particle's kinetic energy?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
From Equation (3.1), any particle’ s wavelength is determined by its momentum, and hence particles
with the same wavelength have the same momenta. With a common momentum p, the photon’ s
energy is pc, and the particle’ s energy is , which is necessarily greater than pc for a
massive particle. The particle’ s kinetic energy is
2 2 2
) ( ) ( mc pc +
( ) ( )
2
2
2 2 2
mc mc pc mc E K − + · − ·
For low values of p (p<<mc for a nonrelativistic massive particle), the kinetic energy is K ≈ p
2
/2m,
which is necessarily less than pc. For a relativistic massive particle, K ≈ pc – mc
2
, and K is less than
the photon energy. The kinetic energy of a massive particle will always be less than pc, as can be
seen by using E = (pc)
2
+ (mc
2
)
2
to obtain
. ) (
2 2 2
2Kmc K pc · −
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
3. Find the de Broglie wavelength of a 1.0mg grain of sand blown by the wind at a speed of 20 m/s.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
For this nonrelativistic case,
m; 10 3 3
m/s) kg)(20 10 0 1
s J 10 63 6
29
6
34
−
−
−
× ·
×
⋅ ×
· · .
. (
.
mv
h
λ
quantum effects certainly would not be noticed for such an object.
5. By what percentage will a nonrelativistle calculation of the de Broglie wavelength of a 100keV
electron be in error?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Because the de Broglie wavelength depends only on the electron's momentum, the percentage error
in the wavelength will be the same as the percentage error in the reciprocal of the momentum, with
the nonrelativistic calculation giving the higher wavelength due to a lower calculated momentum.
The nonrelativistic momentum is
s, m kg 10 71 1
J/eV) 10 eV)(1.6 10 kg)(100 10 1 9 2 2
22
19  3 31
/ .
. (
⋅ × ·
× × × · ·
−
−
mK p
nr
and the relativistic momentum is
( ) ( ) m/s, kg 10 79 1 MeV 511 0 100 0
1
22 2
2
2
2
2
⋅ × · + · − + ·
−
. / ) . ( . ( c mc mc K
c
p
r
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
7. The atomic spacing in rock salt, NaCl, is 0.282 nm. Find the kinetic energy (in eV) of a neutron
with a de Broglie wavelength of 0.282 nm. Is a relativistic calculation needed? Such neutrons
can be used to study crystal structure.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
A nonrelativistic calculation gives
keeping extra figures in the intermediate calculations. The percentage error in the computed de
Broglie wavelength is then
% . .
.
. .
/
) / ( ) / (
8 4
71 1
71 1 79 1
·
−
·
−
·
−
nr
nr r
r
r nr
p
p p
p h
p h p h
( )
eV 10 03 1
m) 10 eV)(0.282 10 6 939 2
m) eV 10 24 1
2 2
2
3
2 9  6
2 6
2 2
2
2
2 2
−
−
× ·
× ×
⋅ ×
· · · · .
. (
. ( ) ( /
λ
λ
mc
hc
mc
hc
m
p
K
(Note that in the above calculation, multiplication of numerator and denominator by c
2
and use of
the product hc in terms of electronvolts avoided further unit conversion.) This energy is much less
than the neutron's rest energy, and so the nonrelativistic calculation is completely valid.
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
9. Green light has a wavelength of about 550 nm. Through what potential difference must an
electron be accelerated to have this wavelength?
11. Show that if the total energy of a moving particle greatly exceeds its rest energy, its de Broglie
wavelength is nearly the same as the wavelength of a photon with the same total energy.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
If E
2
= (pc)
2
+ (mc
2
)
2
>> (mc
2
)
2
, then pc >> mc
2
and E ≈ pc. For a photon with the same energy,
E = pc, so the momentum of such a particle would be nearly the same as a photon with the same
energy, and so the de Broglie wavelengths would be the same.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
A nonrelativistic calculation gives
eV, 10 0 5
m) 10 eV)(550 10 511 2
m) eV 10 24 1
2 2
2
6
2 9  3
2 6
2 2
2
2
2 2
−
−
× ·
× ×
⋅ ×
· · · · .
(
. (
) (
) ( ) / (
λ
λ
mc
hc
mc
hc
m
p
K
so the electron would have to be accelerated through a potential difference of 5.0 x 10
6
V = 5.0 µV.
Note that the kinetic energy is very small compared to the electron rest energy, so the nonrelativistic
calculation is valid. (In the above calculation, multiplication of numerator and denominator by c
2
and
use of the product he in terms of electronvolts avoided further unit conversion.)
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
13. An electron and a proton have the same velocity Compare the wavelengths and the phase and
group velocities of their de Broglie waves.
15. Verify the statement in the text that, if the phase velocity is the same for all wavelengths of
a certain wave phenomenon (that is, there is no dispersion), the group and phase velocities
are the same.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Suppose that the phase velocity is independent of wavelength, and hence independent of the wave
number k ; then, from Equation (3.3), the phase velocity v
p
= (ω/k ) = u, a constant. It follows that
because ω = uk ,
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
For massive particles of the same speed, relativistic or nonrelativistic, the momentum will be
proportional to the mass, and so the de Broglie wavelength will be inversely proportional to the
mass; the electron will have the longer wavelength by a factor of (m
p
/m
e
) = 1838. From Equation
(3.3) the particles have the same phase velocity and from Equation (3.16) they have the same
group velocity.
.
p g
v u
dk
d
v · · ·
ω
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
17. The phase velocity of ocean waves is , where g is the acceleration of gravity. Find
the group velocity of ocean waves
π λ 2 / g
¡¼Sol¡ ½
The phase velocity may be expressed in terms of the wave number k = 2π/λ as
. , gk gk
k
g
k
v
p
· · · ·
2
or or ω ω
ω
Finding the group velocity by differentiating ω(k ) with respect to k ,
.
p g
v
k k
g
k
g
dk
d
v
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
1
· · · · ·
ω ω
Using implicit differentiation in the formula for ω
2
(k ),
, g v
dk
d
g
· · ω
ω
ω 2 2
so that
,
p g
v
k k k
gk g
v
2
1
2 2 2 2
2
· · · · ·
ω
ω
ω
ω ω
the same result. For those more comfortable with calculus, the dispersion relation may be expressed as
), ln ( ) ln ( ) ln ( g k + · ω 2
from which . ,
p g
v
k
v
k
dk d
2
1
2
1
and 2 · · ·
ω
ω
ω
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
21. (a) Show that the phase velocity of the de Broglie waves of a particle of mass m and de Broglie
wavelength λ is given by
2
1
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
h
mc
c v
p
λ
(b) Compare the phase and group velocities of an electron whose de Broglie wavelength is
exactly 1 x 10
13
m.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) Two equivalent methods will be presented here. Both will assume the validity of Equation
(3.16), in that v
g
= v.
First: Express the wavelength x in terms of v
g
,
19. Find the phase and group velocities of the de Broglie waves of an electron whose kinetic energy
is 500 keV.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
For a kinetic energy of 500 keV,
. .
/
978 1
511
511 500
1
1
2
2
2 2
·
+
·
+
·
−
·
mc
mc K
c v
γ
Solving for v,
, . ) . / ( ) / ( c c c v 863 0 978 1 1 1 1 1
2 2
· − · − · γ
and from Equation (3.16), v
g
= v = 0.863c. The phase velocity is then v
p
= c
2
/v
g
= 1.16 c.
.
2
2
1
c
v
mv
h
mv
h
p
h
g
g g
− · · ·
γ
λ
Inha University Department of Physics
Multiplying by mv
g
, squaring and solving for v
g
2
gives
.
) / ( ) (
1
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
1
−
1
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
+
·
h
c m
c
c h m
h
v
g
λ
λ
Taking the square root and using Equation (3.3), v
p
= c
2
/v
g
, gives the desired result.
Second: Consider the particle energy in terms of v
p
= c
2
lv
g
;
( )
( )
( )
( ) .
/
) (
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2 2
1
mc
hc
v c
mc
mc
mc pc E
p
+
,
_
¸
¸
·
−
·
+ ·
λ
γ
Dividing by (mc
2
)
2
leads to
that so
1
1
1
2 2 2
2
,
) / ( λ mc h v
c
p
+
· −
,
/ ) ( ) (
) (
) / (
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2
1
1
1 1
1
1
h mc mc h
mc h
mc h v
c
p
λ λ
λ
λ +
·
+
·
+
· −
which is an equivalent statement of the desired result.
It should be noted that in the first method presented above could be used to find λ in terms of v
p
directly, and in the second method the energy could be found in terms of v
g
. The final result is, or
course, the same.
Inha University Department of Physics
(b) Using the result of part (a),
, .
.
. (
c c v
p
00085 1
s J 10 63 6
m) 10 m/s)(1.0 10 kg)(3.0 10 1 9
1
2
34
13  8 31
·
,
_
¸
¸
⋅ ×
× × ×
+ ·
−
−
and v
g
= c
2
/v
p
= 0.99915c.
For a calculational shortcut, write the result of part (a) as
. .
.
(
c c
hc
mc
c v
p
00085 1
m eV 10 24 1
m) 10 eV)(1.00 10 511
1 1
2
6
13  3
2
2
·
,
_
¸
¸
⋅ ×
× ×
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
−
λ
In both of the above answers, the statement that the de Broglie wavelength is “exactly” 10
13
m
means that the answers can be given to any desired precision.
23. What effect on the scattering angle in the DavissonGermer experiment does increasing the
electron energy have?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Increasing the electron energy increases the electron's momentum, and hence decreases the electron's
de Broglie wavelength. From Equation (2.13), a smaller de Broglie wavelength results in a smaller
scattering angle.
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
25. In Sec. 3.5 it was mentioned that the energy of an electron entering a crystal increase, which
reduces its de Broglie wavelength. Consider a beam of 54eV electrons directed at a nickel
target. The potential energy of an electron that enters the target changes by 26 eV. (a) Compare
the electron speeds outside and inside the target. (b) Compare the respective de Broglie
wavelengths.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) For the given energies, a nonrelativistic calculation is sufficient;
m/s 36 4
kg 10 1 9
J/eV) 10 eV)(1.60 54 2 2
31
19 
.
.
(
·
×
×
· ·
−
m
K
v
outside the crystal, and (from a similar calculation, with K = 80 eV), v = 5.30 x 10
6
m/s inside the
crystal (keeping an extra significant figure in both calculations).
(b) With the speeds found in part (a), the de Brogile wavelengths are found from
or 0.167 nm outside the crystal, with a similar calculation giving 0.137 nm inside the crystal.
m, 10 67 1
m/s) 10 kg)(4.36 10 11 9
s J 10 63 6
10
6 31
34
−
−
−
× ·
× ×
⋅ ×
· · · .
. (
.
mv
h
p
h
λ
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
27. Obtain an expression for the energy levels (in MeV) of a neutron confined to a onedimensional
box 1.00 x 10
14
m wide. What is the neutron's minimum energy? (The diameter of an atomic
nucleus is of this order of magnitude.)
29. A proton in a onedimensional box has an energy of 400 keV in its first excited state. How
wide is the box?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The first excited state corresponds to n = 2 in Equation (3.18). Solving for the width L,
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
From Equation (3.18),
MeV. 5 20 J 10 28 3
m) 10 kg)(1.00 10 67 1 8
s) J 10 63 6
8
2 13 2
2 14  27
2 34
2
2
2
2
. .
. (
. (
n n n
mL
h
n E
n
· × ·
× ×
⋅ ×
· ·
−
−
−
The minimum energy, corresponding to n = 1, is 20.5 MeV
fm. 45.3 m 10 53 4
J/eV) 10 eV)(1.60 10 kg)(400 10 67 1 8
s) J 10 63 6
2
8
14
19  3 27
2 34
2
2
· × ·
× × ×
⋅ ×
· ·
−
−
−
.
. (
. (
mE
h
n L
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
31. The atoms in a solid possess a certain minimum zeropoint energy even at 0 K, while no such
restriction holds for the molecules in an ideal gas. Use the uncertainty principle to explain these
statements.
33. The position and momentum of a 1.00keV electron are simultaneously determined. If its
position is located to within 0.100 nm, what is the percentage of uncertainty in its momentum?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Each atom in a solid is limited to a certain definite region of space  otherwise the assembly of atoms
would not be a solid. The uncertainty in position of each atom is therefore finite, and its momentum
and hence energy cannot be zero. The position of an idealgas molecule is not restricted, so the
uncertainty in its position is effectively infinite and its momentum and hence energy can be zero.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The percentage uncertainty in the electron's momentum will be at least
%. 1 3 10 1 3
eV) 10 eV)(1.00 10 2(511 m) 10 00 1 4
m) eV 10 24 1
2 4
2 4 4
2
3 3 10
6
2
. .
. (
. (
) (
· × ·
× × ×
⋅ ×
·
∆
·
∆
·
∆
·
∆
−
−
−
π
π
π π
K mc x
hc
mK x
h
x p
h
p
p
Note that in the above calculation, conversion of the mass of the electron into its energy equivalent in
electronvolts is purely optional; converting the kinetic energy into joules and using h = 6.626 x 10
34
J· s will of course give the same percentage uncertainty.
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
35. How accurately can the position of a proton with v << c be determined without giving it more
than 1.00 keV of kinetic energy?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The proton will need to move a minimum distance
,
E
h
v t v
∆
≥ ∆
π 4
where v can be taken to be
that so
2 2
,
m
E
m
K
v
∆
· ·
pm. 0.144 m 10 44 1
eV) 10 MeV)(1.00 10 938 2 2
m eV 10 24 1
2 2
2 2 4
2
13
3 6
6
2
· × ·
× ×
⋅ ×
·
· ·
∆
· ∆
−
−
.
(
.
) (
π
π
π π
K mc
hc
mK
h
E
h
m
K
t v
(See note to the solution to Problem 333 above).
The result for the product v∆t may be recognized as v∆t ≥ h/ 2πp; this is not inconsistent with
Equation (3.21), ∆x ∆p ≥ h/ 4π . In the current problem, ∆E was taken to be the (maximum) kinetic
energy of the proton. In such a situation,
( )
, p v p
m
p
m
p
E ∆ · ∆ ·
∆
· ∆ 2 2
2
which is consistent with the previous result.
Inha University Department of Physics
37. A marine radar operating at a frequency of 9400 MHz emits groups of electromagnetic waves
0.0800 µs in duration. The time needed for the reflections of these groups to return indicates
the distance to a target. (a) Find the length of each group and the number of waves it contains.
(b) What is the approximate minimum bandwidth (that is, spread of frequencies) the radar
receiver must be able to process?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) The length of each group is
m. 24 s) 10 m/s)(8.0 10 0 3
5  8
· × × · ∆ . ( t c
The number of waves in each group is the pulse duration divided by the wave period, which is the
pulse duration multiplied by the frequency,
waves. 752 Hz) 10 s)(4900 10 0 8
6 8
· × ×
−
. (
(b) The bandwidth is the reciprocal of the pulse duration,
( ) MHz. 5 12 s 10 0 8
1 
8
. . · ×
−
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
. / / π ν 2 m C ·
39. The frequency of oscillation of a harmonic oscillator of mass m and spring constant C is
The energy of the oscillator is E = p
2
/2m + Cx
2
/2, where p is its
momentum when its displacement from the equilibrium position is x. In classical physics
the minimum energy of the oscillator is E
min
= 0. Use the uncertainty principle to find an
expression for E in terms of x only and show that the minimum energy is actually E
min
=
hν/2 by setting d E/d x = 0 and solving for E
min
.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
To use the uncertainty principle, make the identification of p with ∆p and x with ∆x, so that
p = h/ (4πx), and
. ) (
2
2 2
2
2
1
8
x
C
x m
h
x E E
,
_
¸
¸
+
,
_
¸
¸
· ·
π
Differentiating with respect to x and setting
, 0 · E
dx
d
, 0
1
4
3 2
2
· +
,
_
¸
¸
− Cx
x m
h
π
which is solved for
.
mC
h
x
π 2
2
·
Substution of this value into E(x) gives
.
m in
2 2 2 2
2
8
2
2
ν
π π
π
π
h
m
C h
mC
h C
h
mC
m
h
E · ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
+
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
·
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 4. Problem Solutions
1. The great majority of alpha particles pass through gases and thin metal foils with no deflections.
To what conclusion about atomic structure does this observation lead?
3. Determine the distance of closest approach of 1.00MeV protons incident on gold nuclei.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The fact that most particles pass through undetected means that there is not much to deflect these
particles; most of the volume of an atom is empty space, and gases and metals are overall
electrically neutral.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
For a "closest approach", the incident proton must be directed "headon" to the nucleus, with no
angular momentum with respect to the nucleus (an "Impact parameter" of zero; see the Appendix to
Chapter 4). In this case, at the point of closest approach the proton will have no kinetic energy, and
so the potential energy at closest approach will be the initial kinetic energy, taking the potential
energy to be zero in the limit of very large separation. Equating these energies,
m. 10 14 1
J 10 60 1
C) 10 60 1 79
C m N 10 99 8
4
1
or
4
13
13
2 19
2 2 9
initial
2
2
initial
−
−
−
× ·
×
×
⋅ × ·
,
_
¸
¸
·
·
.
.
. )( (
) / . (
,
m in
m in
K
Ze
r
r
Ze
K
o
o
πε
πε
Inha University Department of Physics
5. What is the shortest wavelength present in the Brackett series of spectral lines?
7. In the Bohr model, the electron is in constant motion. How can such an electron have a negative
amount of energy?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The wavelengths in the Brackett series are given in Equation (4.9); the shortest wavelength (highest
energy) corresponds to the largest value of n . For n →∞,
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
While the kinetic energy of any particle is positive, the potential energy of any pair of particles that
are mutually attracted is negative. For the system to be bound, the total energy, the sum of the
positive kinetic energy and the total negative potential energy, must be negative. For a classical
particle subject to an inversesquare attractive force (such as two oppositely charged particles or two
uniform spheres subject to gravitational attraction in a circular orbit, the potential energy is twice the
negative of the kinetic energy.
m 1.46 m 10 46 1
m 10 097 1
16 16
6
1  7
µ λ · × ·
×
· →
−
.
.
R
Inha University Department of Physics
9. The fine structure constant is defined as α = e
2
/2ε
o
hc. This quantity got its name because it
first appeared in a theory by the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld that tried to explain the
fine structure in spectral lines (multiple lines close together instead of single lines) by assuming
that elliptical as well as circular orbits are possible in the Bohr model. Sommerfeld's approach
was on the wrong track, but α has nevertheless turned out to be a useful quantity in atomic
physics. (a) Show that α = v
1
/c, where v, is the velocity of the electron in the ground state of
the Bohr atom. (b) Show that the value of α is very close to 1/137 and is a pure number with no
dimensions. Because the magnetic behavior of a moving charge depends on its velocity, the
small value of α is representative of the relative magnitudes of the magnetic and electric
aspects of electron behavior in an atom. (c) Show that αa
o
= λ
c
/2π, where a
o
is the radius of the
groundstate Bohr orbit and λ
c
is the Compton wavelength of the electron.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) The velocity v, is given by Equation (4.4), with r = r
1
= a
o
. Combining to find v
1
2
,
. , α
ε
ε
π
ε
πε
πε
· · ·
,
_
¸
¸
· ·
c h
e
c
v
h
e
me
h
m
e
ma
e
v
o
o o
o
o o
1
2
so
4
4
4
2
1
2 2
4
2
2
2 2
2
1
(b) From the above,
( )
( )( )( )
, .
. . / .
.
3
8 34 2 2 12
2
19
10 30 7
m/s 10 00 3 s J 10 63 6 m N C 10 85 8 2
C 10 60 1
−
− −
−
× ·
× ⋅ × ⋅ ×
×
· α
Inha University Department of Physics
so that 1/α = 137.1 to four significant figures.
A close cheek of the units is worthwhile; treating the units as algebraic quantities the units as given
in the above calculation are
.
] ][ [
]
]
1
[J]
m] [N
[s]
[m]
s J
] [N][m
[C
[C
2
2
2
·
⋅
·
Thus, α is a dimensionless quantity, and will have the same numerical value in any system of units.
The most accurate (November, 2001) value of 1/α is
, .03599976 137
1
·
α
accurate to better than 4 parts per billion.
(c) Using the above expression for α and Equation (4.13) with n = 1 for a
o
,
,
π
λ
π
π
ε
ε
α
2 2
1
2
2
2 2
C o
o
o
mc
h
me
h
hc
e
a · · ·
where the Compton wavelength λ
C
is given by Equation (2.22).
Inha University Department of Physics
11. Find the quantum number that characterizes the earth's orbit around the sun. The earth's mass
is 6.0 x 10
24
kg, its orbital radius is 1.5 x 10
11
m, and its orbital speed is 3.0 x 10
4
m/s.
13. Compare the uncertainty in the momentum of an electron confined to a region of linear
dimension a
o
with the momentum of an electron in a groundstate Bohr orbit.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
With the mass, orbital speed and orbital radius of the earth known, the earth's orbital angular
momentum is known, and the quantum number that would characterize the earth's orbit about the
sun would be this angular momentum divided by ;
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The uncertainty in position of an electron confined to such a region is, from Equation (3.22),
∆p > /2a
o
, while the magnitude of the linear momentum of an electron in the first Bohr orbit is
. .
.
. (
74
34
11 4 24
10 6 2
s J 10 06 1
m) 10 m/s)(1.5 10 kg)(3.0 10 0 6
× ·
⋅ ×
× × ×
· · ·
−
h h
mvR L
n
(The number of significant figures not of concern.)
;
o o
a a
h h
p
h
· · ·
π λ 2
the value of ∆p found from Equation (3.13) is half of this momentum.
Inha University Department of Physics
15. What effect would you expect the rapid random motion of the atoms of an excited gas to have
on the spectral lines they produce?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The Doppler effect shifts the frequencies of the emitted light to both higher and lower frequencies to
produce wider lines than atoms at rest would give rise to.
17. A proton and an electron, both at rest initially, combine to form a hydrogen atom in the
ground state. A single photon is emitted in this process. What is its wavelength?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
It must assumed that the initial electrostatic potential energy is negligible, so that the final energy of
the hydrogen atom is E
1
= 13.6 eV. The energy of the photon emitted is then E
l
, and the
wavelength is
nm, 91.2 m 10 12 9
eV 6 13
m eV 10 24 1
8
6
1
· × ·
⋅ ×
·
−
·
−
−
.
.
.
E
hc
λ
in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum (see, for instance, the back endpapers of the text).
Inha University Department of Physics
19. Find the wavelength of the spectral line that corresponds to a transition in hydrogen from the
n = 10 state to the ground state. In what part of the spectrum is this?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
From either Equation (4.7) with n = 10 or Equation (4.18) with n
f
= 1 and n
i
= 10,
nm, 92.1 m 10 21 9
m 10 097 1
1
99
100 1
99
100
8
1  7
· × ·
×
· ·
−
.
.
R
λ
which is in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum (see, for instance, the back endpapers of the text).
21. A beam of electrons bombards a sample of hydrogen. Through what potential difference must
the electrons have been accelerated if the first line of the Balmer series is to be emitted?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The electrons’ energy must be at least the difference between the n = 1 and n = 3 levels,
eV 1 12
9
8
eV) 6 13
9
1
1
1 1 3
. . ( · ·
,
_
¸
¸
− − · − · ∆ E E E E
(this assumes that few or none of the hydrogen atoms had electrons in the n = 2 level). A potential
difference of 12.1 eV is necessary to accelerate the electrons to this energy.
Inha University Department of Physics
23. The longest wavelength in the Lyman series is 121.5 nm and the shortest wavelength in the
Balmer series is 364.6 nm. Use the figures to find the longest wavelength of light that could
ionize hydrogen.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The energy needed to ionize hydrogen will be the energy needed to raise the energy from the ground
state to the first excited state plus the energy needed to ionize an atom in the second excited state;
these are the energies that correspond to the longest wavelength (least energetic photon) in the Lyman
series and the shortest wavelength (most energetic photon) in the Balmer series. The energies are
proportional to the reciprocals of the wavelengths, and so the wavelength of the photon needed to
ionize hydrogen is
nm. 13 91
nm 6 364
1
nm 5 121
1 1 1
1
1
2 1 2
.
. .
·
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
−
−
→ ∞ →
λ λ
λ
As a check, note that this wavelength is R
1
.
25. An excited hydrogen atom emits a photon of wavelength λ in returning to the ground state. (a)
Derive a formula that gives the quantum number of the initial excited state in terms of λ and
R. (b) Use this formula to find n
i
for a 102.55nm photon.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) From Equation (4.7) with n = n
i
, ,
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
2
1
1
1
i
n
R
λ
which is solved for
Inha University Department of Physics
.
/
1
1
1
2 1
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
−
R
R
R
n
i
λ
λ
λ
(b) Either of the above forms gives n very close (four place) to 3; specifically, with the product
λR = (102.55x10
9
m)(1.097x10
7
m
1
) = 1.125 rounded to four places as 9/8, n = 3 exactly.
27. When an excited atom emits a photon, the linear momentum of the photon must be balanced
by the recoil momentum of the atom. As a result, some of the excitation energy of the atom
goes into the kinetic energy of its recoil. (a) Modify Eq. (4.16) to include this effect. (b) Find
the ratio between the recoil energy and the photon energy for the n = 3 → n = 2 transition in
hydrogen, for which E
f
 E
i
= 1.9 eV. Is the effect a major one? A nonrelativistic calculation
is sufficient here.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) A relativistic calculation would necessarily involve the change in mass of the atom due to the
change in energy of the system. The fact that this mass change is too small to measure (that is, the
change is measured indirectly by measuring the energies of the emitted photons) means that a
nonrelativistic calculation should suffice. In this situation, the kinetic energy of the recoiling atom is
,
) / (
M
c h
M
p
K
2 2
2 2
ν
· ·
where m is the ftequency of the emitted photon and p = h/λ = hν/ c is the magnitude of the
momentum of both the photon and the recoiling atom. Equation (4.16) is then
Inha University Department of Physics
.
) (
,
_
¸
¸
+ · + · + · −
2 2
2
2
1
2 Mc
h
h
Mc
h
h K h E E
f i
ν
ν
ν
ν ν
This result is equivalent to that of Problem 253, where h ν = E
∞
. and the term p
2
/(2M) corresponds to
E
∞
 E in that problem. As in Problem 253, a relativistic calculation is manageable; the result would be
,
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
+ + · −
−1
2
1
2
1
1
ν
ν
h
Mc
h E E
i f
a form not often useful; see part (b).
(b) As indicated above and in the problem statement, a nonrelativistle calculation is sufficient. As in
part (a),
( )
( )
, .
.
,
/
9
6 2
2 2
10 01 1
eV 10 939 2
eV 9 1
2
and
2 2
−
× ·
×
·
∆
·
∆
∆
· ·
Mc
E
E
K
M
c E
M
p
K
or 1.0 x 10
9
to two significant figures. In the above, the rest energy of the hydrogen atom is from
the front endpapers.
Inha University Department of Physics
29. Show that the frequency of the photon emitted by a hydrogen atomin going from the level
n + 1 to the level n is always intermediate between the frequencies of revolution of the
electron in the respective orbits.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
There are many equivalent algebraic methods that may be used to derive Equation (4.19), and that
result will be cited here;
.
3
1
1 2
n
h
E
f
n
− ·
The frequency v of the photon emitted in going from the level n + 1 to the level n is obtained from
Equation (4.17) with n
i
= n + 1 and n
f
= n;
.
) ( ) (
1
]
1
¸
+
+
− ·
1
]
1
¸
−
+
·
∆
·
2 2
2
1
1
2 2
1
2 1
1
1
n n
n
h
E
n n
h
E
ν
This can be seen to be equivalent to the expression for v in terms of n and p that was found in the
derivation of Equation (4.20), but with n replaced by n + 1 and p = 1. Note that in this form, ν is
positive because E
l
is negative. From this expression
,
n n
f
n n
n n
f
n n
n n
hn
E
<
1
1
]
1
¸
+ +
+
·
1
1
]
1
¸
+ +
+
− ·
1 2 1 2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
3
1
ν
as the term in brackets is less than 1. Similarly,
Inha University Department of Physics
,
) )( ( ) )( (
) (
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
3
1
1 1
1
2
+ +
>
1
]
1
¸
+ +
·
1
]
1
¸
+ +
+
− ·
n n
f
n
n n
f
n
n n
n h
E
ν
as the term in brackets is greater than 1.
31. A µ
−
muon is in the n = 2 state of a muonic atom whose nucleus is a proton. Find the
wavelength of the photon emitted when the muonic atom drops to its ground state. In what
part of the spectrum is this wavelength?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
For a muonic atom, the Rydberg constant is multiplied by the ratio of the reduced masses of the
muoninc atom and the hydrogen atom, R' = R (m'/m
e
) = 186R, as in Example 4.7; from
Equation (4.7),
nm, 0.653 m 10 53 6
m 10 097 1 186
3 4 3 4
10
1  7
· × ·
×
·
′
·
−
.
) . (
/ /
R
λ
in the xray range.
e p e
m m m m 1836 207 · · ,
µ e
p
p
m
m m
m m
m 186 ·
+
· ′
µ
µ
Inha University Department of Physics
33. A mixture of ordinary hydrogen and tritium, a hydrogen isotope whose nucleus is
approximately 3 times more massive than ordinary hydrogen, is excited and its spectrum
observed. How far apart in wavelength will the H
α
lines of the two kinds of hydrogen be?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The H
α
lines, corresponding to n = 3 in Equation (4.6), have wavelengths of λ = (36/5) (1/R). For a
tritium atom, the wavelength would be λ
T
= (36/5) (1/RT), where RT is the Rydberg constant
evaluated with the reduced mass of the tritium atom replacing the reduced mass of the hydrogen atom.
The difference between the wavelengths would then be
The values of R and RT are proportional to the respective reduced masses, and their ratio is
.
1
]
1
¸
− ·
1
]
1
¸
− · − · ∆
T
T
T
R
R
1 1 λ
λ
λ
λ λ λ λ
.
) (
) (
) / (
) / (
H e T
T e H
T e T e
H e H e
T
m m m
m m m
m m m m
m m m m
R
R
+
+
·
+
+
·
Using this in the above expression for ∆λ,
,
) (
) (
H
e
H e e
H T e
m
m
m m m
m m m
3
2
λ λ λ ≈
1
]
1
¸
+
−
· ∆
where the approximations m
e
+ rn
H
≈ m
H
and m
T
≈ 3m
H
have been used. Inserting numerical values,
nm. 0.238 m 10 38 2
kg) 10 67 1 3
kg) 10 11 9 2
m 10 097 1
5 36
10
27
31
1  7
· × ·
×
×
×
· ∆
−
−
−
.
. (
. (
) . (
) / (
λ
Inha University Department of Physics
35. (a) Derive a formula for the energy levels of a hydrogenic atom, which is an ion such as He
+
or Li
2+
whose nuclear charge is +Ze and which contains a single electron. (b) Sketch the
energy levels of the He' ion and compare them with the energy levels of the H atom. (c) An
electron joins a bare helium nucleus to form a He
+
ion. Find the wavelength of the photon
emitted in this process if the electron is assumed to have had no kinetic energy when it
combined with the nucleus.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) The steps leading to Equation (4.15) are repeated, with Ze
2
instead of e
2
and Z
2
e
4
instead of e
4
,
giving
,
2 2 2
4 2
1
8 n h
e Z m
E
o
n
πε
′
− ·
where the reduced mass m' will depend on the mass of the nucleus.
(b) A plot of the energy levels is given below. The scale is close, but not exact, and of course there
are many more levels corresponding to higher n. In the approximation that the reduced masses are
the same, for He
+
, with Z = 2, the n = 2 level is the same as the n = 1 level for Hydrogen, and the n
= 4 level is the same as the n = 2 level for hydrogen.
Inha University Department of Physics
The energy levels for H and He
+
:
(c) When the electron joins the Helium nucleus, the electronnucleus system loses energy; the
emitted photon will have lost energy ∆E = 4 (13.6 eV) = 54.4 eV, where the result of part (a) has
been used. The emitted photon's wavelength is
nm. 22.8 m 10 28 2
eV 4 54
m eV 10 24 1
8
6
· × ·
⋅ ×
·
∆ −
·
−
−
.
.
.
E
hc
λ
Inha University Department of Physics
39. The Rutherford scattering formula fails to agree with the data at very small scattering angles.
Can you think of a reason?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Small angles correspond to particles that are not scattered much at all, and the structure of the atom
does not affect these particles. To these nonpenetrating particles, the nucleus is either partially or
completely screened by the atom's electron cloud, and the scattering analysis, based on a pointlike
positively charged nucleus, is not applicable.
37. A certain ruby laser emits 1.00J pulses of light whose wavelength is 694 nm. What is the
minimum number of Cr
3+
ions in the ruby?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The minimum number of Cr
3+
ions will he the minimum number of photons, which is the total
energy of the pulse divided by the energy of each photon,
ions. 10 49 3
m/s) 10 s)(3.0 J 10 63 6
m) 10 J)(694 00 1
18
8 34
9 
× ·
× ⋅ ×
×
· ·
−
.
. (
. (
/ hc
E
hc
E λ
λ
Inha University Department of Physics
43. What fraction of a beam of 7.7MeV alpha particles incident upon a gold foil 3.0 x 10
7
m
thick is scattered by less than 1
o
?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The fraction scattered by less than 1
o
is 1  f, with f given in Equation (4.31);
41. A 5.0MeV alpha particle approaches a gold nucleus with an impact parameter of 2.6 x 10
13
m.
Through what angle will it be scattered?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
From Equation (4.29), using the value for 1/4πε
o
given in the front endpapers,
11.43, m) 10 6 2
C) 10 60 1 79 C m N 10 (8.99
J/MeV) 10 eV)(1.60 0 5
2
13
2 19 2 2 9
13 
· ×
× ⋅ ×
×
·
−
−
. (
. )( )( /
. (
cot
θ
keeping extra significant figures. The scattering angle is then
.
.
t a n ) . ( cot
o
10
43 11
1
2 43 11 2
1 1
·
,
_
¸
¸
· ·
− −
θ
Inha University Department of Physics
45. Show that twice as many alpha particles are scattered by a foil through angles between 60
o
and 90
o
as are scattered through angles of 90
o
or more.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Regarding f as a function of 0 in Equation (4.31), the number of particles scattered between 60
o
and
90
o
is f (60
o
)  f (90
o
), and the number scattered through angles greater than 90
o
is just f (90
o
), and
,
) ( cot
) ( cot ) ( cot
) (
) ( ) (
2
1
1 3
45
45 30
90
90 60
2
2 2
·
−
·
−
·
−
o
o o
o
o o
f
f f
so twice as many particles are scattered between 60
o
and 90
o
than are scattered through angles
greater than 90
o
.
, . ) . ( cot
. (
. )( (
) / . )( . (
cot cot
16 0 5 0
J/MeV) 10 MeV)(1.6 7 7
C) 10 6 1 79
C m N 10 m)(9.0 10 0 3 m 10 90 5
2 4
1
2 4
2
2
13 
2 19
2 2 2 9 7 3  28
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
·
,
_
¸
¸
×
×
×
⋅ × × × ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
·
−
−
o
o o
K
Ze
nt
K
Ze
nt f
π
θ
πε
π
θ
πε
π
where n, the number of gold atoms per unit volume, is from Example 4.8. The fraction
scattered by less than 1
o
is 1  f = 0.84.
Inha University Department of Physics
47. In special relativity, a photon can be thought of as having a “mass” of m = E
ν
/c
2
. This
suggests that we can treat a photon that passes near the sun in the same way as Rutherford
treated an alpha particle that passes near a nucleus, with an attractive gravitational force
replacing the repulsive electrical force. Adapt Eq. (4.29) to this situation and find the angle of
deflection θ for a photon that passes b = R
sun
from the center of the sun. The mass and radius
of the sun are respectively 2.0 x 10
30
kg and 7.0 x 10
8
m. In fact, general relativity shows that
this result is exactly half the actual deflection, a conclusion supported by observations made
during solar clipses as mentioned in Sec. 1.10.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
If gravity acted on photons as if they were massive objects with mass m = E
v
/c
2
, the magnitude of
the force F in Equation (4.28) would be
;
2
r
m GM
F
s un
·
the factors of r
2
would cancel, as they do for the Coulomb force, and the result is
, cot cos s in
s un
s un
GM
b c
m GM b mc
2
2
2
and
2
2
2
2 · ·
θ θ θ
a result that is independent of the photon’ s energy. Using b = R
sun
,
. . deg .
) . )( / . (
t a n t a n
7 8 0 10 43 2
m) 10 m/s)(7.0 10 (3.0
kg 10 0 2 kg m N 10 67 6
2 2
4
8 8
30 2 2 11
1
2
1
′ ′ · × ·
,
_
¸
¸
× ×
× ⋅ ×
·
,
_
¸
¸
·
−
−
− −
s un
s un
R c
GM
θ
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 5 Problem Solutions
1. Which of the wave functions in Fig. 5.15 cannot have physical significance in the interval
shown? Why not?
3. Which of the following wave functions cannot be solutions of Schrödinger's equation for all
values of x? Why not? (a) ψ =A sec x; (b) ψ = A tan x; (c) ψ = A exp(x
2
); (d) ψ = A exp(x
2
).
¡¼Sol¡ ½
Figure (b) is double valued, and is not a function at all, and
cannot have physical significance. Figure (c) has discontinuous
derivative in the shown interval. Figure (d) is finite everywhere
in the shown interval. Figure (f) is discontinuous in the shown
interval.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The functions (a) and (b) are both infinite when cos x = 0, at x = ±π/2, ±3π/2, …±(2n+1)π/2 for
any integer n, neither ψ = A sec x or ψ = A tan x could be a solution of Schrödinger's equation
for all values of x. The function (c) diverges as x → ±∞, and cannot be a solution of Schrödinger's
equation for all values of x.
Inha University Department of Physics
5. The wave function of a certain particle is ψ = A cos
2
x for π/2 < x < π /2. (a) Find the value of A.
(b) Find the probability that the particle be found between x = 0 and x = π/4.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Both parts involve the integral ∫cos
4
xdx , evaluated between different limits for the two parts.
Of the many ways to find this integral, including consulting tables and using symbolic
manipulation programs, a direct algebraic reduction gives
[ ] [ ]
[ ] , cos cos ) cos ( cos
) ( cos cos ) cos ( ) (cos cos
x x x x
x x x x x
4 2 4 1 2 2 1
2 2 2 1 2 1
8
1
2
1
8
3
2
1
4
1
2
4
1
2
2
1
2 2 4
+ + · + + + ·
+ + · + · ·
where the identity cos
2
θ = ½(1+cos 2θ) has been used twice.
(a) The needed normalization condition is
[ ] 1 4 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
8
1
2
1
8
3
2
2
2
4 2
2
2
· + + ·
·
∫ ∫ ∫
∫ ∫
+
−
+
−
+
−
+
−
+
−
∗
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
cos cos
cos
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
ψ ψ
xdx xdx dx A
xdx A dx
The integrals
2
2 4
1
2
2
2
2 2
1
2
2
4 4 and 2 2
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
s in cos s in cos
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
+
−
+
−
+
−
+
−
· ·
∫ ∫
x dx x x dx x
are seen to be vanish, and the normalization condition reduces to
. ,
π
π
3
8
or
8
3
1
2
·
,
_
¸
¸
· A A
Inha University Department of Physics
(b) Evaluating the same integral between the different limits,
[ ] , s in s in cos
/ /
4
1
32
3
4 2
4
0
32
1
4
1
8
3
4
0
4
+ · + + ·
∫
π π π
x x x dx x
The probability of the particle being found between x = 0 and x = π/4 is the product of this
integral and A
2
, or
( ) ( ) 46 0
4
1
32
3
3
8
4
1
32
3
2
. · + · +
π
π
π
A
7. As mentioned in Sec. 5.1, in order to give physically meaningful results in calculations a wave
function and its partial derivatives must be finite, continuous, and singlevalued, and in addition
must be normalizable. Equation (5.9) gives the wave function of a particle moving freely (that is,
with no forces acting on it) in the +x direction as
) )( / ( pc Et i
Ae
− −
· Ψ
h
where E is the particle's total energy and p is its momentum. Does this wave function meet all the
above requirements? If not, could a linear superposition of such wave functions meet these
requirements? What is the significance of such a superposition of wave functions?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The given wave function satisfies the continuity condition, and is differentiable to all orders with
respect to both t and x, but is not normalizable; specifically, Ψ
∗
Ψ = A
*
A is constant in both space and
time, and if the particle is to move freely, there can be no limit to its range, and so the integral of
Ψ
∗
Ψ over an infinite region cannot be finite if A ≠ 0.
Inha University Department of Physics
A linear superposition of such waves could give a normalizable wave function, corresponding to a
real particle. Such a superposition would necessarily have a non zero ∆p, and hence a finite ∆x; at
the expense of normalizing the wave function, the wave function is composed of different
momentum states, and is localized.
9. Show that the expectation values <px> and <xp>) are related by
<px>  <xp> = / i
This result is described by saying that p and x do not commute, and it is intimately related to
the uncertainty principle.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
It's crucial to realize that the expectation value <p x> is found from the combined operator ,
which, when operating on the wave function Ψ(x, t), corresponds to "multiply by x,
differentiate with respect to x and multiply by /i," whereas the operator corresponds
to "differentiate with respect to x, multiply by /i and multiply by x." Using these operators,
x p ˆ ˆ
p x ˆ ˆ
, ) ( ) ˆ ( ˆ ) ˆ ˆ (
1
]
1
¸
Ψ
∂
∂
+ Ψ · Ψ
∂
∂
· Ψ · Ψ
x
x
i
x
x i
x p x p
h h
where the product rule for partial differentiation has been used. Also,
. ) ˆ ( ˆ ) ˆ ˆ (
1
]
1
¸
Ψ
∂
∂
·
,
_
¸
¸
Ψ
∂
∂
· Ψ · Ψ
x
x
i x i
x p x p x
h h
Inha University Department of Physics
Thus
Ψ · Ψ −
i
p x x p
h
) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (
and
i
dx
i
dx
i
xp px
h h h
· Ψ Ψ · Ψ Ψ >· − <
∫ ∫
∞
∞ −
∞
∞ −
* *
for Ψ(x, t) normalized.
11. Obtain Schrödinger’ s steadystate equation from Eq.(3.5) with the help of de Broglie’ s relation
ship λ = h/ mv by letting y = ψ and finding ∂
2
ψ/ ∂x
2
.
¡¼Sol¡ ½
Using λν = v
p
in Equation (3.5), and using ψ instead of y ,
. cos cos
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
λ
π πν π ψ
x
t A
v
x
t A
p
2 2 2
Differentiating twice with respect to x using the chain rule for partial differentiation (similar to
Example 5.1),
, s in s in
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
−
,
_
¸
¸
− − ·
∂
∂
λ
π πν
λ
π
λ
π
λ
π πν
ψ x
t A
x
t A
x
2 2
2 2
2 2
ψ
λ
π
λ
π πν
λ
π
λ
π
λ
π πν
λ
π ψ
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
−
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
−
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
∂
∂ x
t A
x
t A
x
cos cos
Inha University Department of Physics
The kinetic energy of a nonrelativistic particle is
) ( , U E
h
m
m
h
m
p
U E KE − ·
,
_
¸
¸
· · − ·
2 2
2
2
2 1
that so
2
1
2
λ
λ
Substituting the above expression relating
ψ
λ
ψ
2 2
2
1
and
x ∂
∂
, ) ( ) ( ψ ψ
π
ψ
λ
π ψ
U E
m
U E
h
m
x
− − · − − ·
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
∂
∂
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 8 2
h
which is Equation (5.32)
Inha University Department of Physics
13. One of the possible wave functions of a particle in the potential well of Fig. 5.17 is sketched
there. Explain why the wavelength and amplitude of &P vary as they do.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The wave function must vanish at x = 0, where V →∞. As the potential energy increases with
x, the particle's kinetic energy must decrease, and so the wavelength increases. The amplitude
increases as the wavelength increases because a larger wavelength means a smaller momentum
(indicated as well by the lower kinetic energy), and the particle is more likely to be found
where the momentum has a lower magnitude. The wave function vanishes again where the
potential V →∞; this condition would determine the allowed energies.
Inha University Department of Physics
15. An important property of the eigenfunctions of a system is that they are orthogonal to one
another, which means that
m n dV
m n
≠ ·
∫
∞ +
∞ −
0 ψ ψ
Verify this relationship for the eigenfunctions of a particle in a onedimensional box given by
Eq. (5.46).
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The necessary integrals are of the form
dx
L
x m
L
x n
L
dx
L
m n ∫ ∫
·
∞ +
∞ − 0
2 π π
ψ ψ s in s in
for integers n, m, with n ≠ m and n ≠ m. (A more general orthogonality relation would
involve the integral of ψ
n
*
ψ
m
, but as the eigenfunctions in this problem are real, the
distinction need not be made.)
To do the integrals directly, a convenient identity to use is
)], cos ( ) [cos ( s in s in β α β α β α + − − ·
2
1
as may be verified by expanding the cosines of the sum and difference of α and β. To show
orthogonality, the stipulation n ≠ m means that α ≠ β and α ≠ β and the integrals are of the form
Inha University Department of Physics
,
) (
s in
) (
) (
s in
) (
) (
cos
) (
cos
0
1
0
·
1
]
1
¸
+
+
−
−
−
·
1
]
1
¸
+
−
−
·
∫ ∫
∞ +
∞ −
L
o
L
m n
L
x m n
m n
L
L
x m n
m n
L
dx
L
x m n
L
x m n
L
dx
π
π
π
π
π π
ψ ψ
where sin(n  m)π = sin(n  m)π = sin 0 = 0 has been used.
17. As shown in the text, the expectation value <x> of a particle trapped in a box L wide is L/2,
which means that its average position is the middle of the box. Find the expectation value <x
2
>.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Using Equation (5.46), the expectation value <x
2
> is
. s in dx
L
x n
x
L
x
L
n ∫
,
_
¸
¸
· > <
0
2 2 2
2 π
See the end of this chapter for an alternate analytic technique for evaluating this integral using
Leibniz’ s Rule. From either a table or repeated integration by parts, the indefinite integral is
. s in cos s in s in s in
1
]
1
¸
+ − −
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
·
∫ ∫
u u
u
u
u u
n
L
du u u
n
L
dx
L
x n
x 2
8
1
2
4
2
4 6
2 3
3
3
3
2 2
π π
π
where the substitution u = (nπ/L)x has been made.
Inha University Department of Physics
This form makes evaluation of the definite integral a bit simpler; when x = 0 u = 0, and when x
= L u = nπ. Each of the terms in the integral vanish at u = 0, and the terms with sin 2u vanish at
u = nπ, cos 2u = cos 2nπ = 1, and so the result is
As a check, note that
wh ich is t h e expect a t ion va lu e of <x
2
> in t h e cla s s ica l limit , for wh ich t h e
pr oba bilit y dis t r ibu t ion is in depen den t of pos it ion in t h e box.
.
) (
1
]
1
¸
− ·
1
]
1
¸
−
,
_
¸
¸
· > <
2 2
2
3
3
2
2
1
3
1
4 6
2
π
π π
π
n
L
n n
n
L
L
x
n
, lim
3
2
2
L
x
n
n
· > <
∞ →
19. Find the probability that a particle in a box L wide can be found between x = 0 and x = L/ n
when it is in the nth state.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
This is a special case of the probability that such a particle is between x
1
and x
2
, as found in
Example 5.4. With x
1
= 0 and x
2
= L,
. s in
n L
x n
n L
x
P
L
L
1 2
2
1
0
0
·
1
]
1
¸
− ·
π
π
Inha University Department of Physics
21. A particle is in a cubic box with infinitely hard walls whose edges are L long (Fig. 5. 18). The
wave functions of the particle are given by
K
K
K
3, 2, 1
3, 2, 1
3, 2, 1
,
,
,
s in s in s in
·
·
·
·
z
y
x
z z x
n
n
n
L
z n
L
y n
L
x n
A
π π π
ψ
Find the value of the normalization constant A.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
The normalization constant, assuming A to be real, is given by
. s in s in s in
* *
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
·
· ·
∫ ∫ ∫
∫ ∫
dz
L
z n
dy
L
y n
dx
L
x n
A
dxdy dz dV
L
z
L y L
x
0
2
0
2
0
2 2
1
π
π
π
ψ ψ ψ ψ
Each integral above is equal to L/2 (from calculations identical to Equation (5.43)).
The result is
2 3 3
2
2
or 1
2
/
,
_
¸
¸
· ·
,
_
¸
¸
L
A
L
A
Inha University Department of Physics
23. (a) Find the possible energies of the particle in the box of Exercise 21 by substituting its wave
function ψ in Schrödinger's equation and solving for E. (Hint: inside the box U = 0.)
(b) Compare the groundstate energy of a particle in a onedimensional box of length L with that of
a particle in the threedimensional box.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) For the wave function of Problem 521, Equation (5.33) must be used to find the energy. Before
substitution into Equation (5.33), it is convenient and useful to note that for this wave function
. , , ψ
π ψ
ψ
π
ψ
ψ
π ψ
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
L
n
z L
n
y L
n
x
z
y
x
− ·
∂
∂
− ·
∂
∂
− ·
∂
∂
Then, substitution into Equation (5.33) gives
, ) ( 0
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
· + + + − ψ ψ
π
E
m
n n n
L
z y x
h
and so the energies are
). (
, ,
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
z y x n n n
n n n
mL
E
z y x
+ + ·
h π
(b) The lowest energy occurs when n
x
= n
y
= n
z
= 1. None of the integers n
x
, n
y
, or n
z
can be zero,
as that would mean ψ = 0 identically. The minimum energy is then
,
min
2
2 2
2
3
mL
E
h π
·
which is three times the groundstate energy of a particle in a onedimensional box of length L.
Inha University Department of Physics
25. A beam of electrons is incident on a barrier 6.00 eV high and 0.200 nm wide. Use Eq. (5.60)
to find the energy they should have if 1.00 percent of them are to get through the barrier.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Solving equation (5.60) for k
2
,
1  10
9
2
m 10 15 1 100
m 10 200 0 2
1 1
2
1
× ·
×
· ·
−
. ) ln (
) . (
ln
T L
k
Equation (5.86), from the appendix, may be solved for the energy E, but a more direct expression is
( )
eV 95 0
J/eV 10 6 1 kg 10 1 9 2
m 10 15 1 s J 10 05 1
eV 00 6
2 2
19 31
2
1 10 34
2
2
2
.
) . )( . (
) . )( . (
.
) (
·
× ×
× ⋅ ×
− ·
− · − · − ·
− −
− −
m
k
U
m
p
U KE U E
h
27. What bearing would you think the uncertainty principle has on the existence of the zeropoint
energy of a harmonic oscillator?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
If a particle in a harmonicoscillator potential had zero energy, the particle would have to be at rest
at the position of the potential minimum. The uncertainty principle dictates that such a particle
would have an infinite uncertainty in momentum, and hence an infinite uncertainty in energy. This
contradiction implies that the zeropoint energy of a harmonic oscillator cannot be zero.
Inha University Department of Physics
29. Show that for the n = 0 state of a harmonic oscillator whose classical amplitude of motion is A,
y = 1 at x = A, where y is the quantity defined by Eq. (5.67).
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
When the classical amplitude of motion is A, the energy of the oscillator is
. ,
k
h
A h k A
ν
ν · · so
2
1
2
1
2
Using this for x in Equation (5.67) gives
, 1 2
2
2
· · ·
k
m
k
h m
y
ν
π
ν ν π
h
where Equation (5.64) has been used to relate ν, m and k .
31. Find the expectation values <x> and <x
2
> for the first two states of a harmonic oscillator.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
Th e expect a t ion va lu es will be of t h e for ms
dx x dx x
∫ ∫
∞
∞ −
∞
∞ −
ψ ψ ψ ψ * *
2
and
It is far more convenient to use the dimensionless variable y as defined in Equation (5.67). The
necessary integrals will be proportional to
, , , , dy e y dy e y dy e y dy y e
y y y y
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
∞
∞ −
−
∞
∞ −
−
∞
∞ −
−
∞
∞ −
−
2 2 2 2
4 3 2
Inha University Department of Physics
The first and third integrals are seen to be zero (see Example 5.7). The other two integrals may
be found from tables, from symbolicmanipulation programs, or by any of the methods
outlined at the end of this chapter or in Special Integrals for Harmonic Oscillators, preceding
the solutions for Section 5.8 problems in this manual. The integrals are
. , π π
4
3
2
1
2 2
4 2
· ·
∫ ∫
∞
∞ −
−
∞
∞ −
−
dy e y dy e y
y y
An immediate result is that <x> = 0 for the first two states of any harmonic oscillator, and in fact
<x> = 0 for any state of a harmonic oscillator (if x = 0 is the minimum of potential energy). A
generalization of the above to any case where the potential energy is a symmetric function of x,
which gives rise to wave functions that are either symmetric or antisymmetric, leads to <x> = 0.
To find <x
2
> for the first two states, the necessary integrals are
;
) / (
*
/
/ /
k
E
m
h
m
dy e y
m
m
dx x
y
o
0
2 2 2 3
2
2 3 2 1
0
2
4
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
· · ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
·
∫ ∫
∞
∞ −
−
∞
∞ −
ν π
ν π
ν π
ν π
ν
ψ ψ
h
h
h
.
) / (
*
/
/ /
k
E
m
h
m
dy e y
m
m
dx x
y
1
2 2 2 3
4
2 3 2 1
1 1
2
4
2 3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
· · ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
·
∫ ∫
∞
∞ −
−
∞
∞ −
ν π
ν π
ν π
ν π
ν
ψ ψ
h
h
h
Inha University Department of Physics
33. A pendulum with a 1.00g bob has a massless string 250 mm long. The period of the pendulum
is 1.00 s. (a) What is its zeropoint energy? Would you expect the zeropoint oscillations to be
detectable? (b) The pendulum swings with a very small amplitude such that its bob rises a
maximum of 1.00 mm above its equilibrium position. What is the corresponding quantum number?
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) The zeropoint energy would be
In both of the above integrals,
dy
m
dy
dy
dx
dx
ν π 2
h
· ·
has been used, as well as Table 5.2 and Equation (5.64).
, .
) . (
.
eV 10 07 2
s 00 1 2
s eV 10 14 4
2 2
1
15
15
0
−
−
× ·
⋅ ×
· · ·
T
h
h E ν
which is not detectable.
(b) The total energy is E = mgH (here, H is the maximum pendulum height, given as an uppercase
letter to distinguish from Planck's constant), and solving Equation (5.70) for n,
( )
. .
.
. ) . )( . (
/
28
34
2 3
10 48 1
2
1
s J 10 63 6
s 00 1 m/s 80 9 kg 10 00 1
2
1
× · −
⋅ ×
×
· · − ·
−
−
T h
mgH
h
E
n
ν
Inha University Department of Physics
37. Consider a beam of particles of kinetic energy E incident on a potential step at x = 0 that is
U high, where E > U (Fig. 5.19). (a) Explain why the solution De
ik’ x
(in the notation of
appendix) has no physical meaning in this situation, so that D = 0. (b) Show that the
transmission probability here is T = CC*v‘ /AA*v
1
= 4k
1
2
/(k
1
+ k’ )
2
. (c) A 1.00mA beam of
electrons moving at 2.00x10
6
m/s enters a region with a sharply defined boundary in which the
electron speeds are reduced to 1.00x10
6
m/s by a difference in potential. Find the transmitted
and reflected currents.
¡ ¼Sol¡ ½
(a) In the notation of the Appendix, the wave function in the two regions has the form
, ,
x k i x k i
II
x ik x ik
I
De Ce Be Ae
′ − ′ −
+ · + · ψ ψ
1 1
where
.
) (
,
h h
U E m
k
mE
k
−
· ′ ·
2 2
1
The terms corresponding to exp(ik
1
x) and exp(ik’ x) represent particles traveling to the left;
this is possible in region I, due to reflection at the step at x = 0, but not in region II (the
reasoning is the same as that which lead to setting G = 0 in Equation (5.82)). Therefore, the
exp(ik’ x) term is not physically meaningful, and D = 0.
Inha University Department of Physics
(b) The boundary condition at x= 0 are then
. , C
k
k
B A C k i B ik A ik C B A
1
1 1
or
′
· −
′
· − · +
Adding to eliminate B, so 1 2
1
, C
k
k
A
,
_
¸
¸ ′
+ ·
.
) (
*
*
,
2
1
2
1
1
1
4
and
2
k k
k
AA
CC
k k
k
A
C
′ +
·
′ +
·
(c) The particle speeds are different in the two regions, so Equation (5.83) becomes
.
) ) / ((
) / (
) (
*
*
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
4 4
+ ′
′
·
′ +
′
·
′
·
′
·
k k
k k
k k
k k
k
k
AA
CC
v
v
T
I
II
ψ
ψ
For the given situation, k
1
/k’ = v
1
/v’ = 2.00, so T = (4x2)/(2+1)2 = 8/9. The transmitted current
is (T)(1.00 mA) = 0.889 mA, and the reflected current is 0.111mA.
As a check on the last result, note that the ratio of the reflected current to the incident current
is, in the notation of the Appendix,
*
*
AA
BB
v
v
R
I
I
· ·
+
−
1
2
1
2
ψ
ψ
Eliminating C from the equations obtained in part (b) from the continuity condition as x = 0,
T
k k
k k
R
k
k
B
k
k
A − · ·
,
_
¸
¸
+ ′
− ′
·
,
_
¸
¸ ′
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸ ′
− 1
9
1
1
1
so 1 1
1
1
1 1
) / (
) / (
,
Inha University Department of Physics
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
Whether in Cartesian (x, y , z ) or spherical coordinates, three quantities are needed to describe the
variation of the wave function throughout space. The three quantum numbers needed to describe
an atomic electron correspond to the variation in the radial direction, the variation in the azimuthal
direction (the variation along the circumference of the classical orbit), and the variation with the
polar direction (variation along the direction from the classical axis of rotation).
Chapter 6 Problem Solutions
1. Why is it natural that three quantum numbers are needed to describe an atomic electron
(apart from electron spin)?
3. Show that
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
For the given function,
is a solution of Eq. (6.14) and that it is normalized.
o
a r
e
a
r R
2
2 3
0
10
2
/
/
) (
−
·
and
2
2 5
0
10
,
/
/
o
a r
e
a
R
dr
d
−
− ·
Inha University Department of Physics
10
2
2
2 2 5
10
2
2
2 1
2
1 2 1
R
a r
a
e
a
r
r
r a
dr
dR
r
dr
d
r
o
o
a r
o
o
o
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
− − ·
,
_
¸
¸ − /
/
This is the solution to Equation (6.14) if l=0 ( as indicated by the index of R
10
),
2
2 2
2
2
4
or
4
2 2
me
h
a
h
me
a
o
o
o
o
ε π
πε
· · ,
which is the case, and
1
2
2 2
8
or
1 2
E
a
e
E
a
E
m
o o
o
· − · − ·
πε
,
h
again as indicated by the index of R
10
.
To show normalization,
,
/
∫ ∫ ∫
∞
−
∞
−
∞
· ·
0
2
0
2 2
3 0
2
2
10
2
1 4
du e u dr e r
a
dr r R
u a r
o
o
where the substitution u=2r/a
o
has been made. The improper definite integral in u is known to
have the value 2 and so the given function is normalized.
Inha University Department of Physics
5. In Exercise 12 of Chap. 5 it was stated that an important property of the eigenfunctions of a
system is that they are orthogonal to one another, which means that
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
From Equation (6.15) the integral, apart from the normalization constants, is
m n dV
m n
≠ ·
∫
∞
∞ −
0 ψ ψ
*
l l m m
m m d
l l
′ ≠ Φ Φ
∫ ′
for
2
0
φ
π
*
Verify that this is true for the azimuthal wave functions of the hydrogen atom by calculating
l
m
Φ
,
*
φ φ
π
φ φ
π
d e e d
l l
l l
m i im
m m ∫ ∫
′ −
′
· Φ Φ
2
0
2
0
It is possible to express the integral in terms of real and imaginary parts, but it turns out to be
more convenient to do the integral directly in terms of complex exponentials:
[ ] 0
1
2
0
2
0
2
0
·
− ′
·
·
′ − ′
′ − ′ ′ −
∫ ∫
π
φ
π
φ
π
φ φ
φ φ
) (
) (
) (
l l
l l l l
m m i
l l
m m i m i im
e
m m i
d e d e e
The above form for the integral is valid only for m
l
≠ m
l
’ , which is given for this case. In
evaluating the integral at the limits, the fact that e
i2πn
= 1 for any integer n ( in this case (m
l
’ – m
l
))
has been used.
Inha University Department of Physics
7. Compare the angular momentum of a groundstate electron in the Bohr model of the
hydrogen atom with its value in the quantum theory.
9. Under what circumstances, if any, is L
z
equal to L?
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
In the Bohr model, for the groundstate orbit of an electron in a hydrogen atom, λ = h/ mv = 2πr,
and so L = pr = . In the quantum theory, zeroangularmomentum states (ψ spherically
symmetric) are allowed, and L = 0 for a groundstate hydrogen atom.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
From Equation (6.22), L
z
must be an integer multiple of ; for L to be equal to L
z
, the product
l(1+1), from Equation(6.21), must be the square of some integer less than or equal to l. But,
or any nonnegative l, with equality holding in the first relation only if l = 0. Therefore, l(l + 1) is
the square of an integer only if l = 0, in which case L
z
= 0 and L = L
z
= 0.
2 2
1 1 ) ( ) ( + < + ≤ l l l l
Inha University Department of Physics
11. What are the possible values of the magnetic quantum number m
l
of an atomic electron
whose orbital quantum number is l = 4?
13. Find the percentage difference between L and the maximum value of L
z
for an atomic
electron in p, d , and f states.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
From Equation (6.22), the possible values for the magnetic quantum number m
l
are
m
l
= 0, ±1, ±2, ±3, ±4,
a total of nine possible values.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The fractional difference between L and the largest value of L
z
, is, for a given l,
.
) (
) (
max ,
1
1
1
1
+
− ·
+
− +
·
−
l
l
l l
l l l
L
L L
z
% .
% .
% .
13 13 0  1 and 3 state, a For
18 18 0  1 and 2 state, a For
29 29 0  1 and 1 state, a For
4
3
3
2
2
1
· · ·
· · ·
· · ·
l f
l d
l p
Inha University Department of Physics
15. In Sec. 6.7 it is stated that the most probable value of r for a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom
is the Bohr radius a
o
. Verify this.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
Using R
10
(r) from Table 6.1 in Equation (6.25),
The most probable value of r is that for which P(r) is a maximum. Differentiating the above
expression for P(r) with respect to r and setting the derivative equal to zero,
. ) (
/
o
a r
o
e
a
r
r P
2
3
2
4
−
·
o
o
a r
o
o
a r
a
r
r
e
a
r
r
a
r P
dr
d
o
,
, ) (
/
0 and
or 0
2
2
4
2
2
2
3
· ·
·
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
−
for an extreme. At r = 0, P(r) = 0, and because P(r) is never negative, this must be a
minimum. dp/ dr → 0 as r → ∞, and this also corresponds to a minimum. The only
maximum of P(r) is at r = a
o
, which is the radius of the first Bohr orbit.
Inha University Department of Physics
17. Find the most probable value of r for a 3d electron in a hydrogen atom.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
Using R
20
(r) from Table 6.1 in Equation (6.25), and ignoring the leading constants (which
would not affect the position of extremes),
o
a r
e r r P
3 2 6 /
) (
−
·
The most probable value of r is that for which P(r) is a maximum. Differentiating the above
expression for P(r) with respect to r and setting the derivative equal to zero,
o
o
a r
o
a r
a
r
r
e
a
r
r r P
dr
d
o
9 0 and
3
2
6
or 0
3
2
6
6
5
3 2
6
5
,
, ) (
/
· ·
·
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
−
for an extreme. At r = 0, P(r) = 0, and because P(r) is never negative, this must be a
minimum. dP/d r → 0 as r → ∞, and this also corresponds to a minimum. The only
maximum of P(r) is at r = 9a
o
, which is the radius of the third Bohr orbit.
Inha University Department of Physics
19. How much more likely is the electron in a groundstate hydrogen atom to be at the distance
a
o
from the nucleus than at the distance 2a
o
?
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
For the ground state, n = 1, the wave function is independent of angle, as seen from the functions
Φ(φ) and Θ(θ) in Table 6.1, where for n = 1, l = m
l
, = 0 (see Problem 614). The ratio of the
probabilities is then the ratio of the product r
2
(R
10
(r))
2
evaluated at the different distances.
Specially,
47 1
4
4 1 2
2
1
2
2 2 2
2 2
.
) / ( ) / (
) / (
) (
/ ) / (
/
· · · ·
−
−
−
−
e
e
e
e a
e a
dr a P
dr a P
o o
o o
a a
o
a a
o
o
o
85 1
4
4 2
2
2
4
2
2 2 2
2 2
.
) ( ) (
) (
) (
/ ) (
/
· · · ·
−
−
−
−
e
e
e
e a
e a
dr a P
dr a P
o o
o o
a a
o
a a
o
o
o
Similarly,
Inha University Department of Physics
21. The probability of finding an atomic electron whose radial wave function is R(r) outside
a sphere of radius r
o
centered on the nucleus is
(a) Calculate the probability of finding a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom at a distance greater
than a
o
from the nucleus.
(b) When a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom is 2a
o
from the nucleus, all its energy is potential
energy. According to classical physics, the electron therefore cannot ever exceed the distance
2a
o
from the nucleus. Find the probability r > 2a
o
for a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
(a) Using R
10
(r) for the 1s radial function from Table 6.1,
∫
∞
o
r
dr r r R
2
2
) (
, ) (
/
du e u dr e r
a
dr r r R
u
a
a r
o
a
o
o
o
∫ ∫ ∫
∞
−
∞
−
∞
· ·
2
2 2 2
3
2
2
2
1 4
where the substitution u = 2r/a
0
has been made.
Using the method outlined at the end of this chapter to find the improper definite integral
leads to
( ) [ ] [ ] %, . 68 68 0 10
2
1
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
· · · + + − ·
−
∞
−
∞
−
∫
e u u e du e u
u u
Inha University Department of Physics
(b) Repeating the above calculation with 2 a
0
as the lower limit of the integral,
( ) [ ] [ ] % , . 24 24 0 26
2
1
2 2
2
1
2
1
4
4
2
4
2
· · · + + − ·
−
∞
−
∞
−
∫
e u u e du e u
u u
23. Unsold's theorem states that for any value of the orbital quantum number l, the probability
densities summed over all possible states from m
l
= 1 to m
l
= +1 yield a constant independent of
angles θ or φ that is,
This theorem means that every closed subshell atom or ion (Sec. 7.6) has a spherically symmetric
distribution of electric charge. Verify Unsold's theorem for l = 0, l = 1, and l = 2
with the help of Table 6. 1.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½For l = 0, only m
l
= 0 is allowed, Φ(φ) and Θ(θ) are both constants (from Table 6.1)),
and the theorem is verified.
For l = 1, the sum is
constant
2 2
· Φ Θ
∑
+
− ·
l
l m
l
, s in cos s in
π
θ
π
θ
π
θ
π 4
3
4
3
2
1
2
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
2 2 2
· + +
Inha University Department of Physics
. ) cos ( cos s in s in
2 2 2 2 4
1 3
16
10
2
1
4
15
2
1
2
16
15
2
1
2 − + + θ
π
θ θ
π
θ
π
The above may he simplified by extracting the commons constant factors, to
]. s in cos s in ) cos [( θ θ θ θ
π
4 2 2 2 2
3 12 1 3
16
5
+ + −
Of the many ways of showing the term in brackets is indeed a constant, the one presented here,
using a bit of hindsight, seems to be one of the more direct methods. Using the identity sin
2
θ =
1  cos
2
θ to eliminate sin θ ,
, ) cos cos ( cos ) cos ( ) cos cos (
s in cos s in ) cos (
1 2 1 3 1 12 1 6 9
3 12 1 3
4 2 2 2 2 4
4 2 2 2 2
· + − + − + + − ·
+ + −
θ θ θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
and the theorem is verified.
In the above, Φ*Φ= 1/2π, which holds for any l and m
l
, has been used. Note that one term
appears twice, one for m
l
= 1 and once for m
l
= 1.
For l = 2, combining the identical terms for m
l
= ±2 and m
l
= ±1, and again using Φ*Φ= 1/2π,
the sum is
Inha University Department of Physics
25. With the help of the wave functions listed in Table 6.1 verify that ∆l = ±1 for n = 2 àn = 1
transitions in the hydrogen atom.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
In the integral of Equation (6.35), the radial integral will never. vanish, and only the angular
functions Φ(φ) and Θ(θ) need to be considered. The ∆l = 0 transition is seen to be forbidden, in that
the product
π
θ φ θ φ
4
1
00 0 00 0
· Θ Φ Θ Φ
∗
)) ( ) ( ( )) ( ) ( (
is spherically symmetric, and any integral of the form of Equation (6.35) must vanish, as the
argument u = x, y or z will assume positive and negative values with equal probability amplitudes.
If l = 1 in the initial state, the integral in Equation (6.35) will be seen to to vanish if u is chosen
appropriately. If m
l
= 0 initially, and u = z = r cos θ is used, the integral (apart from constants) is
0
3
2
0
2
≠ ·
∫
θ θ θ
π
d s in cos
If m
l
= ±1 initially, and u = x = r sin θ cos φ is used, the θ integral is of the form
0
2
0
2
≠ ·
∫
π
θ θ
π
d s in
and the φ integral is of the form
0
2
0
2
2
0
≠ · ·
∫ ∫
t
π φ φ φ φ
π π
φ
d d e
i
cos cos
and the transition is allowed.
Inha University Department of Physics
27. Verify that the n = 3 → n = 1 transition for the particle in a box of Sec. 5.8 is forbidden
whereas the n = 3 → n = 2 and n = 2 → n = 1 transitions are allowed.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The relevant integrals are of the form
. s in s in dx
L
x m
L
x n
x
L π π
∫
0
The integrals may be found in a number of ways, including consulting tables or using symbolic
manipulation programs (see; for instance, the solution to Problem 515 for sample Maple
commands that are easily adapted to this problem).
One way to find a general form for the integral is to use the identity
)] cos( ) [cos ( s in s in β α β α β α + − − ·
2
1
and the indefinite integral (found from integration by parts)
2
1
k
k x
k
k x x
dx k x
k k
k x x
dx k x x
cos s in
s in
s in
cos + · − ·
∫ ∫
to find the above definite integral as
,
) (
cos
) (
) (
s in
) (
) (
cos
) (
) (
s in
) (
L
L
x m n
m n
L
L
x m n
m n
Lx
L
x m n
m n
L
L
x m n
m n
Lx
0
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1
¸
+
+
+
+
+
−
−
−
+
−
−
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
Inha University Department of Physics
where n ≠ m
2
is assumed. The terms involving sines vanish, with the result of
.
) (
) cos (
) (
) cos (
1
]
1
¸
+
− +
−
−
− −
2 2 2
2
1 1
2 m n
m n
m n
m n L π π
π
If n and m axe both odd or both even, n + m and n  m are even, the arguments of the cosine
terms in the above expression are evenintegral multiples of π, and the integral vanishes. Thus,
the n = 3 → n = 1 transition is forbidden, while the n = 3 → n = 2 and n = 2 → n = 1 transitions
are allowed.
To make use of symmetry arguments, consider that
dx
L
x m
L
x n
x dx
L
x m
L
x n L
x
L L
∫ ∫
·
,
_
¸
¸
−
0 0
2
π π π π
s in s in s in s in
for n ≠ m, because the integral of L times the product of the wave functions is zero; the wave
functions were shown to be orthogonal in Chapter 5 (again, see Problem 515). Letting u=L/ 2 – x,
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
−
·
L
u n n
L
u L n
L
x n π π π π
2
2
s in
) ) / ((
s in s in
This expression will be ± cos ( nπu/L ) for n odd and ±sin ( nπu/L ) for n even. The integrand is
then an odd function of u when n and m are both even or both odd, and hence the integral is zero.
If one of n or m is even and the other odd, the integrand is an even function of u and the integral
is nonzero.
Inha University Department of Physics
29. Show that the magnetic moment of an electron in a Bohr orbit of radius r
n
is proportional to
31. Find the minimum magnetic field needed for the Zeeman effect to be observed in a
spectral line of 400nm wavelength when a spectrometer whose resolution is 0.010 nm is
used.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
From Equation (6.39), the magnitude of the magnetic moment of an electron in a Bohr orbit is
proportional to the magnitude of the angular momentum, and hence proportional to n. The
orbital radius is proportional to n
2
(See Equation (4.13) or Problem 428), and so the magnetic
moment is proportional to .
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
See Example 6.4; solving for B,
n
r
n
r
T 34 1
C) 10 6 1
m/s) 10 0 3 kg 10 1 9 4
m) 10 (400
m 10 010 0 4
19
8 31
2 9 
9
2
.
. (
. )( . ( .
·
×
× ×
×
×
·
∆
·
−
− −
π π
λ
λ
e
mc
B
Inha University Department of Physics
1. A beam of electrons enters a uniform 1.20T magnetic field. (a) Find the energy difference
between electrons whose spins are parallel and antiparallel to the field. (b) Find the wavelength
of the radiation that can cause the electrons whose spins are parallel to the field to flip so that
their spins are antiparallel.
(a) Using Equations (7.4) and (6.41), the energy difference is,
Chapter 7 Problem Solutions
eV 10 39 1 T 20 1 eV/T 10 79 5 2 2 2
4 5 − −
× = × = = = ∆ . ) . )( . ( B B E
B s z
µ µ
(b) The wavelength of the radiation that corresponds to this energy is
Note that a more precise value of AB was needed in the intermediate calculation to avoid
roundoff error.
mm 93 8
eV 10 39 1
m eV 10 24 1
4
6
.
.
.
=
×
⋅ ×
=
∆
=
−
−
E
hc
λ
3. Find the possible angles between the z axis and the direction of the spin angularmomentum vector S.
For an electron, and so the possible angles axe given by , ) / ( , ) / ( h h 2 1 2 3 ± = =
z
s s
o o
3 125 7 54
3
1
2 3
2 1
. , . a r ccos
) / (
) / (
a r ccos =
=
±
h
h
¡¼sol¡ ½
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
Inha University Department of Physics
5. Protons and neutrons, like electrons, are spin ½particles. The nuclei of ordinary helium
atoms, , contain two protons and two neutrons each; the nuclei of another type of helium
atom, , contain two protons and one neutron each. The properties of liquid and liquid
are different because one type of helium atom obeys the exclusion principle but the other
does not. Which is which, and why?
He
4
2
He
4
2
He
3
2
He
3
2
atoms contain even numbers of spin½ particles, which pair off to give zero or integral
spins for the atoms. Such atoms do not obey the exclusion principle. atoms contain odd
numbers of spin ½particles, and so have net spins of and they obey the exclusion
principle.
He
4
2
He
3
2
, ,
2
5
2
3
2
1
or
7. In what way does the electron structure of an alkali metal atom differ from that of a halogen
atom? From that of an inert gas atom?
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
An alkali metal atom has one electron outside closed inner shells: A halogen atom lacks one
electron of having a closed outer shell: An inert gas atom has a closed outer shell.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
Inha University Department of Physics
9. How many electrons can occupy an f subshell?
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
For f subshell, with l = 3, the possible values of m
l
are ±3, ±2, ¡ ¾1 or 0, for a total of 2l +1=7
values of m
l
. Each state can have two electrons of opposite spins, for a total of 14 electrons.
11. If atoms could contain electrons with principal quantum numbers up to and including n = 6,
how many elements would there be?
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The number of elements would be the total number of electrons in all of the shells. Repeated use
of Equation (7.14) gives
2n
2
+ 2 (n  1)
2
+... + 2 (1)
2
= 2 (36 + 25 + 16 + 9 + 4 + 1) = 182.
In general, using the expression for the sum of the squares of the first n integers, the number of
elements would be
which gives a total of 182 elements when n = 6.
( ) )], )( ( [ ) )( ( 1 1 2 1 1 2 2
3
1
6
1
+ + = + + n n n n n n
Inha University Department of Physics
13. The ionization energies of Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs are, respectively, 5.4, 5.1, 4.3, 4.2, and
3.9 eV. All are in group 1 of the periodic table. Account for the decrease in ionization energy
with increasing atomic number.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
All of the atoms are hydrogenlike, in that there is a completely filled subshell that screens
the nuclear charge and causes the atom to "appear" to be a single charge. The outermost
electron in each of these atoms is further from the nucleus for higher atomic number, and
hence has a successively lower binding energy.
15. (a) Make a rough estimate of the effective nuclear charge that acts on each electron in the
outer shell of the calcium (Z = 20) atom. Would you think that such an electron is relatively easy or
relatively hard to detach from the atom? (b) Do the same for the sulfur (Z = 16) atom.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
(a) See Table 7.4. The 3d subshell is empty, and so the effective nuclear charge is
roughly +2e, and the outer electron is relatively easy to detach.
(b) Again, see Table 7.4. The completely filled K and L shells shield +10e of the nuclear
charge of = 16e; the filled 3s
2
subshell will partially shield the nuclear charge, but not
to the same extent as the filled shells, so +6e is a rough estimate for the effective
nuclear charge. This outer electron is then relatively hard to detach.
Inha University Department of Physics
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
Cl

ions have closed shells, whereas a Cl atom is one electron short of having a closed shell
and the relatively poorly shielded nuclear charge tends to attract an electron from another atom
to fill the shell. Na
+
ions have closed shells, whereas an Na atom has a single outer electron
that can be detached relatively easily in a chemical reaction with another atom.
17. Why are Cl atoms more chemically active than Cl

ions? Why are Na atoms more
chemically active than Na
+
ions?
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The Li atom (Z = 3) is larger because the effective nuclear charge acting on its outer electron
is less than that acting on the outer electrons of the F atom (Z = 9). The Na atom (Z = 11) is
larger because it has an additional electron shell (see Table 7.4). The Cl atom (Z = 17) atom is
larger because has an additional electron shell. The Na atom is larger than the Si atom (Z = 14)
for the same reason as given for the Li atom.
19. In each of the following pairs of atoms, which would you expect to be larger in size? Why?
Li and F; Li and Na; F and Cl; Na and Si.
Inha University Department of Physics
¡ ¼sol¡ ½The only way to produce a normal Zeeman effect is to have no net electron spin;
because the electron spin is ±½, the total number of electrons must be even. If the total number
of electrons were odd, the net spin would be nonzero, and the anomalous Zeeman effect would
be observable.
21. Why is the normal Zeeman effect observed only in atoms with an even number of electrons?
23. The spinorbit effect splits the 3P → 3S transition in sodium (which gives rise to the yellow
light of sodiumvapor highway lamps) into two lines, 589.0 nm corresponding to 3P
3/2
→3S
1/2
and 589.6 nm corresponding to 3P
1/2
→3S
1/2
. Use these wavelengths to calculate the effective
magnetic field experienced by the outer electron in the sodium atom as a result of its orbital
motion.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
See Example 7.6. Expressing the difference in energy levels as
, for solving
1 1
2
2 1
B hc B E
B
;
− = = ∆
λ λ
µ
T 5 18
m 10 6 589
1
m 10 0 589
1
eV/T 10 5.79 2
m eV 10 24 1
1 1
2
9 9 5 
6
2 1
.
. .
.
=
×
−
× × ×
⋅ ×
=
− =
− −
−
λ λ µ
B
hc
B
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25. If , what values of l are possible?
2
5
= j
¡¼sol¡ ½
The possible values of l are . 2 and 3
2
1
2
1
= − = + j j
27. What must be true of the subshells of an atom which has a
1
S
0
ground state?
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
For the ground state to be a singlet state with no net angular momentum, all of the
subshells must be filled.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
For this doublet state, L = 0, S = J = ½. There axe no other allowed states. This state has
the lowest possible values of L and J , and is the only possible ground state.
29. The lithium atom has one 2s electron outside a filled inner shell. Its ground state is
2
S
1/2
.
(a) What are the term symbols of the other allowed states, if any? (b) Why would you think the
2
S
1/2
state is the ground state?
Inha University Department of Physics
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The two 3s electrons have no orbital angular momentum, and their spins are aligned
oppositely to give no net angular momentum. The 3p electron has l = 1, so L = 1, and
in the ground state J = ½. The term symbol is
2
P
1/2
.
31. The aluminum atom has two 3s electrons and one 3p electron outside filled inner shells.
Find the term symbol of its ground state.
33. Why is it impossible for a 2
2
D
3/2
state to exist?
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
A D state has L = 2; for a 2
2
D
3/2
state, n = 2 but L must always be strictly less than n , and so
this state cannot exist.
35. Answer the questions of Exercise 34 for an f electron in an atom whose total angular
momentum is provided by this electron.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
(a) From Equation (7.17),
. ,
2
7
2
5
2
1
= ± = l j
(b) Also from Equation (7.17), the corresponding angular momenta are h h
2
63
2
35
and
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(c) The values of L and S are . The law of cosines is h h
2
3
and 12
, cos
LS
S L J
2
2 2 2
− −
= θ
where θ is the angle between L and S; then the angles are,
and
o
132
3
2
2 3 12 2
4 3 12 4 35
=
− =
− −
a r ccos
) / (
) / ( ) / (
a r ccos
o
0 60
2
1
2 3 12 2
4 3 12 4 63
. a r ccos
) / (
) / ( ) / (
a r ccos =
=
− −
(d) The multiplicity is 2(1/2) + 1 = 2, the state is an f state because the total angular momentum
is provided by the f electron, and so the terms symbols are
2
F
5/2
and
2
F
7/2
.
37. The magnetic moment µ
J
of an atom in which LS coupling holds has the magnitude
where µ
B
= e©¤/2m is the Bohr magneton and
B J J
µ µ g ) ( 1 + = ϑ ϑ
1) 2ϑ(ϑ
1) Σ(Σ 1) Λ(Λ 1) ϑ(ϑ
+
+ + + − +
+ = 1
J
g
Inha University Department of Physics
is the Landé g factor. (a) Derive this result with the help of the law of cosines starting from the
fact that averaged over time, only the components of µ
L
and µ
S
parallel to J contribute to µ
L
. (b)
Consider an atom that obeys LS coupling that is in a weak magnetic field B in which the
coupling is preserved. How many substates are there for a given value of J ? What is the energy
difference between different substates?
In the above, the factor of 2 in 2µ
B
relating the electron spin magnetic moment to the Bohr
magneton is from Equation (7.3). The middle term is obtained by using S cos α + S cos β = J.
The above expression is equal to the product µ
J
because in this form, the magnitudes of the
angular momenta include factors of h. From the law of cosines,
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
(a) In Figure 7.15, let the angle between J and S be α and the angle between J and L be β.
Then, the product µ
J
has magnitude
+ = + = + α µ α µ µ β µ α µ cos cos cos cos
J
S
1 J S J L S 2
B B B B B
S J 2
S J L
2 2 2
−
− −
= α cos
and so
) J(J
) S(S ) L(L ) J(J
1 2
1 1 1
J 2
S J L
J
S
2
2 2 2
+
+ + + − +
=
− −
= α cos
Inha University Department of Physics
(b) There will be one substate for each value of M
J
, where M
J
= J ... J , for a total of 2J + 1
substates. The difference in energy between the substates is
and the expression for µ
J
in terms of the quantum numbers is
re whe 1 ( or J
J
, ) ,
B J B J J
g g µ µ µ µ + = = ϑ ϑ h
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
1 2
1 1 1
1
+
+ + + − +
+ =
ϑ ϑ
Σ Σ Λ Λ ϑ ϑ
J
g
B M g E
J B J
µ = ∆
39. Explain why the xray spectra of elements of nearby atomic numbers are qualitatively very
similar, although the optical spectra of these elements may differ considerably.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The transitions that give rise to xray spectra are the same in all elements since the transitions
involve only inner, closedshell electrons. Optical spectra, however, depend upon the possible
states of the outermost electrons, which, together with the transitions permitted for them, are
different for atoms of different atomic number.
Inha University Department of Physics
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
From either of Equations (7.21) or (7.22),
E = (10.2 eV) (Z  1)
2
= (10.2 eV) (144) = 1.47 keV.
The wavelength is
41. Find the energy and the wavelength of the K
α
xrays of aluminum.
nm 0.844 m 10 44 8
eV 10 7 14
m eV 10 24 1
10
3
6
= × =
×
⋅ ×
= =
−
−
.
.
.
E
hc
λ
ϒ…sol¡ ½
In a singlet state, the spins of the outer electrons are antiparrallel. In a triplet
state, they are parallel
43. Distinguish between singlet and triplet states in atoms with two outer electrons.
Inha University Department of Physics
1. The energy needed to detach the electron from a hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV, but the energy
needed to detach an electron from a hydrogen molecule is 15.7 eV. Why do you think the latter
energy is greater?
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The nuclear charge of +2e is concentrated at the nucleus, while the electron charges' densities
are spread out in (presumably) the 1s subshell. This means that the additional attractive force
of the two protons exceeds the mutual repulsion of the electrons to increase the binding energy.
3. At what temperature would the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a hydrogen sample
be equal to their binding energy?
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
Using 4.5 eV for the binding energy of hydrogen,
Chapter 8 Problem Solutions
K 10 5 3
eV/K 10 8.62
eV 5 4
3
2
or eV 5 4
2
3
4
5 
× =
×
= = .
.
. T k T
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5. When a molecule rotates, inertia causes its bonds to stretch. (This is why the earth bulges at
the equator.) What effects does this stretching have on the rotational spectrum of the molecule?
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The increase in bond lengths in the molecule increases its moment of inertia and accordingly
decreases the frequencies in its rotational spectrum (see Equation (8.9)). In addition, the higher the
quantum number J (and hence the greater the angular momentum), the faster the rotation and the
greater the distortion, so the spectral lines are no longer evenly spaced.
Quantitatively, the parameter I (the moment of inertia of the molecule) is a function of J, with I
larger for higher J. Thus, all of the levels as given by Equation (8.11) are different, so that the
spectral lines are not evenly spaced. (It should be noted that if I depends on J, the algebraic steps
that lead to Equation (8.11) will not be valid.)
7. The J=0àJ=1 rotational absorption line occurs at 1.153x10
11
Hz in
12
C
16
O and at 1.102x10
11
Hz in
?
C
16
O. Find the mass number of the unknown carbon isotope.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
From Equation (8.11), the ratios of the frequencies will be the ratio of the moments of inertia. For
the different isotopes, the atomic separation, which depends on the charges of the atoms, will be
essentially the same. The ratio of the moments of inertia will then be the ratio of the reduced masses.
Denoting the unknown mass number by x and the ratio of the frequencies as r, r in terms of x is
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16 12
16 12
16
16
+
⋅
+
⋅
=
x
x
r
Solving for x in terms of r,
r
r
x
3 7
48
−
=
Using r = (1.153)/(1.102) in the above expression gives x = 13.007, or the integer 13 to three
significant figures.
9. The rotational spectrum of HCI contains the following wavelengths:
12.03 x 10
5
m, 9.60 x 10
5
m, 8.04 x 10
5
m, 6.89 x 10
5
m, 6.04 x 10
5
m
If the isotopes involved are
1
H and
35
Cl, find the distance between the hydrogen and
chlorine nuclei in an HCl molecule.
Inha University Department of Physics
The average spacing of these frequencies is ∆v = 0.616 x 10
12
Hz. (A leastsquares fit from a
spreadsheet program gives 0.6151 if c = 2.998 x 10
8
m/s is used.) From Equation (8.11), the
spacing of the frequencies should be ∆v = /2πI ; Solving for I and using ∆v as found above,
The reduced mass of the HCI molecule is (35/36)rn
H
, and so the distance between the nuclei is
(keeping extra significant figures in the intermediate calculation gives a result that is
rounded to 0.130 nm to three significant figures).
2 47
12
34
m kg 10 73 2
Hz 10 6151 0 2
s J 10 055 1
2
⋅ × =
×
⋅ ×
=
∆
=
−
−
.
) . (
.
π
ν π
h
I
nm 129 0
kg) 10 67 1 35
m kg 10 73 2 36
27
2 47
.
. (
) . (
=
× ×
⋅ × ×
= =
−
−
µ
I
R
¡¼sol¡ ½
The corresponding frequencies are, from ν = c/λ , and keeping an extra significant figure,
in multiplies of 10
12
Hz:
2.484, 3.113, 4.337, 4.947
Inha University Department of Physics
11. A
200
Hg
35
Cl Molecule emits a 4.4cm photon when it undergoes a rotational transition
from j = 1 to j = 0. Find the interatomic distance in this molecule.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
Using ν
1→0
= c/λ and I = m’ R
2
in Equation (8.11) and solving for R,
For this atom, m’ = m
H
(200x35)/(200 + 35), and
c m
R
′
=
π
λ
2
2
h
or 0.22 nm to two significant figures.
nm 223 0
m/s 10 0 3 kg 10 67 1 2
m 10 4 4 s J 10 055 1
8 27
2 34
.
) . )( . (
) . )( . (
=
× ×
× ⋅ ×
=
−
− −
π
R
Inha University Department of Physics
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
Equation (8.11) may be reexpressed in terms of the frequency of the emitted photon when
the molecule drops from the J rotational level to the J  1 rotational level,
For large J, the angular momentum of the molecule in its initial state is
Thus, for large J,
the classical expression.
.
I
J
J J
π
ν
2
1
h
=
− →
J J J J J L h h h ≈ + = + = / ) ( 1 1 1
, , I L
I
L
ω
π
ν = ≈ or
2
13. In Sec. 4.6 it was shown that, for large quantum numbers, the frequency of the radiation
from a hydrogen atom that drops from an initial state of quantumnumber n to a final state of
quantum number n  1 is equal to the classical frequency of revolution of an electron in the
nth Bohr orbit. This is an example of Bohr's correspondence principle. Show that a similar
correspondence holds for a diatomic molecule rotating about its center of mass.
Inha University Department of Physics
15. The hydrogen isotope deuterium has an atomic mass approximately twice that of
ordinary hydrogen. Does H
2
or HD have the greater zeropoint energy? How does this
affect the binding energies of the two molecules?
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The shape of the curve in Figure 8.18 will be the same for either isotope; that is, the
value of k in Equation (8.14) will be the same. HD has the greater reduced mass, and
hence the smaller frequency of vibration v
o
and the smaller zero point energy. HD is the
more tightly bound, and has the greater binding energy since its zeropoint energy
contributes less energy to the splitting of the molecule.
17. The force constant of the
1
H
19
F molecule is approximately 966 N/m. (a) Find the
frequency of vibration of the molecule. (b) The bond length in
1
H
19
F is approximately 0.92
nm. Plot the potential energy of this molecule versus internuclear distance in the vicinity
of 0.92 nm and show the vibrational energy levels as in Fig. 8.20.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
(a) Using m'= (19/20)m
H
in Equation (8.15),
Hz 10 24 1
19
20
kg 10 1.67
N/m 966
2
1
14
27 
× =
×
= .
π
ν
o
Inha University Department of Physics
(b) = 4.11 X 10
20
J. The levels are shown below, where the vertical
scale is in units of 10
20
J and the horizontal scale is in units of 10
11
m.
m
k
E
o
′
= h
2
1
19. The lowest vibrational states of the
23
Na
35
Cl molecule are 0.063 eV apart. Find the
approximate force constant of this molecule.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
From Equation (8.16), the lower energy levels are separated by ∆E = h v
o
, and v
o
= ∆E /h.
Solving Equation (8.15) for k ,
∆
′ = ′ =
h
E
m m k
o
2
2 ) ( πν
Inha University Department of Physics
Using m’ = m
H
(23· 35)/(23 + 35),
or 2.1 x10
2
N/m to the given two significant figures.
N/m 213
s eV 10 4.14
J/eV) 10 eV)(1.60 (0.063
kg) 10 67 1
58
35 23
15 
19 
27
=
⋅ ×
×
×
⋅
=
−
. ( k
21. The bond between the hydrogen and chlorine atoms in a
1
H
35
Cl molecule has a force
constant of 516 N/m. Is it likely that an HCl molecule will be vibrating in its first excited
vibrational state at room temperature? Atomic masses are given in the Appendix.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½Using
An individual atom is not likely to he vibrating in its first excited level, but in a
large collection of atoms, it is likely that some of these atoms will be in the first excited state.
It's important to note that in the above calculations, the symbol "k " has been used for both a
spring constant and Boltzmann's constant, quantities that are not interchangeable.
,
36
35
and
H o
m m
m
k
h E = ′
′
= = ∆ h ν
At room temperature of about 300 K,
k T = (8.617 x 10
5
eV/K) (300 K) = 0.026 eV.
eV 371 0 J 10 94 5
35
36
kg 10 67 1
N/m 516
s) J 10 055 1
20
27
34
. .
.
. ( = × =
×
⋅ × = ∆
−
−
−
E
Inha University Department of Physics
Chapter 9 Problem Solutions
1. At what temperature would one in a thousand of the atoms in a gas of atomic hydrogen be
in the n=2 energy level?
2 8
1 2
· · ) ( , ) ( ε ε g g
k T k T
e e
n
n
/ / ) (
) (
) (
1 1 2
3
1
2
4 4
1000
1
ε ε ε
ε
ε
· · ·
− −
K 10 43 1
4000 eV/K 10 62 8
eV 6 13 4 3
4000
4 3 1
4
5
1
× ·
×
·
−
,
_
¸
¸
·
−
.
) )(ln . (
) . )( / (
ln
) )( / ( ε
k
T
eV 6 13 and 4
1 1 2
. , / − · · ε ε ε
Then,
where
3. The 3
2
P
l/2
first excited sate in sodium is 2.093 eV above the 3
2
S
1/2
ground state. Find the ratio
between the numbers of atoms in each state in sodium vapor at l200 K. (see Example 7.6.)
9
5
10 86 4
K 1200 eV/K 10 62 8
eV 09 2
1
3
−
−
× ·
,
_
¸
¸
×
−
,
_
¸
¸
.
) )( . (
.
exp
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
multiplicity of Plevel : 2L+1=3, multiplicity of Slevel : 1
The ratio of the numbers of atoms in the states is then,
Inha University Department of Physics
5. The moment of inertia of the H
2
molecule is 4.64¡ ¿10
48
kg· m
2
. (a) Find the relative popula
tions of the J=0,1,2,3, and 4 rotational states at 300 K. (b) can the populations of the J=2 and
J=3 states ever be equal? If so, at what temperature does this occur?
I
J J
J J g
J
2
1
1 2
2
h ) (
, ) (
+
· + · ε 0
0
·
· J
ε
) (
) (
) (
] . )[ (
) )( . )( . (
) . (
exp ) (
exp ) (
) (
exp ) (
) (
) (
1
1
23 2 48
2 34
1
2 2
749 0 1 2
K 300 J/K 10 38 1 m kg 10 64 4 2
s J 10 06 1
1 2
2
1 2
2
1
1 2
0
+
+
− −
−
+
+ ·
1
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
× ⋅ ×
⋅ ×
− + ·
1
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
− + ·
,
_
¸
¸
+
− + ·
·
J J
J J
J J
J
J
Ik T
J
Ik T
J J
J
J N
J N h h
Applying this expression to J=0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 gives, respectively, 1 exactly, 1.68, 0.880, 0.217,
and 0.0275.
(b) Introduce the dimensionless parameter . Then, for the populations of the J=2 and J=3 states
to be equal,
7
5
6 and
7
5
7 5
6 12 6
ln ln , · · · x x x x
Using , and solving for T, ) / (  ) / ( Ik T x 5 7 7 5 and 2
2
ln ln / ln · − · h
¡¼sol¡ ½
(a)
Inha University Department of Physics
K 10 55 1
4 1 J/K 10 38 1 m kg 10 64 4 2
s J 10 05 1 6
5 7 2
6
3
23 2 48
2 34
2
× ·
× ⋅ ×
⋅ ×
·
·
− −
−
.
) . ln ( ) . )( . (
) . (
) / ln ( Ik
T
h
7. Find and v
rms
for an assembly of two molecules, one with a speed of 1.00 m/s and
the other with a speed of 3.00 m/s.
v
(m/s) 24 2 00 3 00 1
(m/s) 00 2 00 3 00 1
2 2
2
1
2
1
. ] . . [
. ) . . (
· + ·
· + ·
rms
v
v
9. At what temperature will the average molecular kinetic energy in gaseous hydrogen equal
the binding energy of a hydrogen atom?
k T KE
2
3
·
solving for T with
1
E KE − ·
K 10 05 1
eV/K 10 62 8
eV 6 13 3 2
3
2
5
5
1
× ·
×
·
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
−
.
) . (
) . )( / (
k
E
T
¡¼sol¡ ½
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
For a monatomic hydrogen, the kinetic energy is all translational and
Inha University Department of Physics
11. Find the width due to the Doppler effect of the 656.3nm spectral line emitted by a gas of
atomic hydrogen at 500 K.
m k T v / 3 ·
pm 15.4 m 10 54 1
m/s 10 0 3
kg 10 67 1 K 500 J/K 10 38 1 3
m 10 3 656 2
3
2
11
8
27 23
9
· × ·
×
× ×
× ·
· ∆
−
− −
−
.
.
) . / ( ) )( . (
) . (
/
c
m k T
λ λ
13. Verify that the average value of 1/v for an idealgas molecule is . / k T m π 2
)] / ( : [ a dv ve
av
2 1 Note
0
2
·
∫
∞
−
> <
· ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
·
·
∫
∫
∞
−
∞
v k T
m
m
k T
k T
m
dv ve
k T
m
N
N
dv v n
v N v
k T mv
1
2
2
2
4
2
4
1
1 1 1
2 3
0
2
2 3
0
2
π π
π
π
π
/
/
/
) (
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
For nonrelativistic atoms, the shift in wavelength will be between +λ(v/ c) and λ(v/ c) a n d
t h e widt h of t h e Dopplerbr oa den ed lin e will be 2λ(v/ c). Us in g t h e r ms s peed
fr om KE=(3/ 2)k T = (1/ 2)mv
2
, , an d
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The average value of 1/v is
Inha University Department of Physics
17. How many independent standing waves with wavelengths between 95 and 10.5 mm can
occur in a cubical cavity 1 m on a side? How many with wavelengths between 99.5 and 100.5
mm? (Hint: First show that g(λ)dλ = 8πL
3
dλ/λ
4
.)
Similarly, the number of waves between99.5mm and 100.5mm is 2.5x10
2
, lower by a
factor of 10
4
.
ν
ν π
ν ν d
c
L
d g
3
2 3
8
· ) (
λ
λ
π
λ
λ
λ
π
ν ν λ λ d
L
d
c c
c
L
d g d g
4
3
2
2
3
3
8 8
·
,
_
¸
¸
· · ) ( ) (
6
4
3
10 5 2 mm 0 1
mm 10
m 1 8
× · · . ) . (
) (
) (
) (
π
λ λ d g
Therefore the number of standing waves between 9.5mm and 10.5mm is
l9. A thermograph measures the rate at which each small portion of a persons skin emits
infrared radiation. To verify that a small difference in skin temperature means a significant
difference in radiation rate, find the percentage difference between the total radiation from skin
at 34
o
and at 35
o
C.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The number of standing waves in the cavity is
Inha University Department of Physics
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
By the StefanBoltzmann law, the total energy density is proportional to the fourth power of
the absolute temperature of the cavity walls, as
The percentage difference is
4
T R σ ·
% . . 3 1 013 0
K 308
K 307
1 1
4
1
2
4
1
4
2
4
1
4
1
4
2
4
1
· ·
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
−
·
−
T
T
T
T T
T
T T
σ
σ σ
For temperature variations this small, the fractional variation may be approximated by
013 0
K 308
K 1
3 3
3
4
3
4
4
.
) (
· ·
∆
·
∆
·
∆
·
∆
T
T
T
T T
T
T
R
R
21. At what rate would solar energy arrive at the earth if the solar surface had a temperature
10 percent lower than it is?
%) ( . ) . )( . ( 66 kW/m 92 0 90 0 kW/m 4 1
2 4 2
· ·
ϒ…sol¡ ½
Lowering the Kelvin temperature by a given fraction will lower the radiation by a factor
equal to the fourth power of the ratio of the temperatures. Using 1.4 kW/m
2
as the rate at
which the sun’ s energy arrives at the surface of the earth
Inha University Department of Physics
23. An object is at a temperature of 400
o
C. At what temperature would it radiate energy twice as
fast?
) ( ] ) [(
/
C 527 K 800 K 2 673 K 273 400 2
4 1 4 4 o
T T · × · · +
25. At what rate does radiation escape from a hole l0 cm
2
in area in the wall of a furnace
whose interior is at 700
o
C?
W 51 m 10 10 K 973 K W/(m 10 67 5
2 4 4 4 2 8 4
· × ⋅ × · ·
− −
) ( ) ))( . ( ' A T P σ
27. Find the surface area of a blackbody that radiates 100 kW when its temperature is 500
o
C. If
the blackbody is a sphere, what is its radius?
4
T Ae P σ ·
2 2 2
4 4 2 8
3
4
cm 494 m 10 94 4
K 273 500 K W/(m 10 67 5 1
W 10 100
· × ·
+ ⋅ ×
×
· ·
−
−
.
) ) ))(( . )( ( T e
P
A
σ
ϒ…sol¡ ½
To radiate at twice the radiate, the fourth power of the Kelvin temperature would need to double.
Thus,
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The power radiated per unit area with unit emissivity in the wall is P=σT
4
. Then the
power radiated for the hole in the wall is
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
The radiated power of the blackbody (assuming unit emissivity) is
Inha University Department of Physics
The radius of a sphere with this surface area is, then,
cm 27 6 4 4
2
. / · · · π π A r r A
31. The brightest part of the spectrum of the star Sirius is located at a wavelength of about 290
nm. What is the surface temperature of Sirius?
K 10 0 1
m 10 290
K m 10 898 2 K m 10 898 2
4
9
3 3
× ·
×
⋅ ×
·
⋅ ×
·
−
− −
.
. .
ma x
λ
T
33. A gas cloud in our galaxy emits radiation at a rate of 1.0x10
27
W. The radiation has its
maximum intensity at a wavelength of 10 µm. If the cloud is spherical and radiates like a
blackbody, find its surface temperature and its diameter.
C 17 K 290 K 10 9 2
m 10 10
K m 10 898 2
o 2
6 
3
· · × ·
×
⋅ ×
·
−
.
.
T
Assuming unit emissivity, the radiation rate is
2
4
D
P
A
P
T R
π
σ · · ·
where D is the cloud’ s diameter. Solving for D,
m 10 9 8
K 290 K W/m 10 (5.67
W 10 0 1
11
2 1
4 4 2 8 
27
4
× ·
,
_
¸
¸
⋅ ×
×
· · .
) )(
.
/
π πσT
P
D
¡¼sol¡ ½
From the Wien’ s displacement law, the surface temperature of Sirius is
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
From the Wien’ s displacement law, the surface temperature of cloud is
Inha University Department of Physics
35. Find the specific heat at constant volume of 1.00 cm
3
of radiation in thermal equilibrium at
1000 K.
4
4
4
T V VaT Vu U
c
σ
· · ·
The specific heat at constant volume is then
J/K 10 03 3
m 10 0 1 K 1000
m/s 10 998 2
K W/m 10 67 5 16
16
12
3 6 3
8
4 2 8
3
−
−
−
× ·
×
×
⋅ ×
·
·
∂
∂
·
.
) . ( ) (
.
) . (
V T
c T
U
c
V
σ
37. Show that the median energy in a freeelectron gas at T=0 is equal to ε
F
/2
2/3
=0.630ε
F
.
ε ε ε ε
ε ε
d d
F M
∫ ∫
·
0
2
1
0
ε
ϒ…sol¡ ½
The total energy(U) is related to the energy density by U=Vu , where V is the volume.
In terms of temperature,
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
At T=0, all states with energy less than the Fermi energy ε
F
are occupied, and all states with
energy above the Fermi energy are empty. For 0≤ε≤ε
F
, the electron energy distribution is
proportional to . The median energy is that energy for which there are many occupied
states below the median as there are above. The median energy ε
M
is then the energy such that
Inha University Department of Physics
Evaluating the integrals,
F F F M
ε ε ε ε ε 63 0 or
2 3
2
1
M
2 3
3
1
2 3
3
2
. ) ( , ) ( ) (
/ / /
· · ·
39. The Fermi energy in silver is 5.51 eV. (a)What is the average energy of the free electrons in
silver at O K? (b)What temperature is necessary for the average molecular energy in an ideal
gas to have this value? (c)What is the speed of an electron with this energy?
eV 31 3
5
3
0
. · ·
F
ε ε
(b) Setting (3/2)kT=(3/5)ε
F
and solving for T,
K 10 56 2
eV/K 10 8.62
eV 51 5
5
2
5
2
4
5 
× ·
×
· · .
.
k
T
F
ε
(c) The speed in terms of the kinetic energy is
m/s 10 08 1
kg 10 11 9 5
J/eV 10 602 1 eV 51 5 6
5
6 2
6
31
19
× ·
×
×
· · ·
−
−
.
) . (
) . )( . (
m m
KE
v
F
ε
43. Show that, if the average occupancy of a state of energy ε
F
+∆ε is f
l
at any temperature, then
the average occupancy of a state of energy ε
F
∆ε is f
2
=1f
1
. (This is the reason for the symmetry
of the curves in Fig.9.10 about ε
F
.)
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
(a) The average energy at T=0 K is
Inha University Department of Physics
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
Using the FermiDirac distribution function
1
1
1
+
· ∆ + ·
∆ k T
F FD
e
f f
/
) (
ε
ε ε
1
1
2
+
· ∆ − ·
∆ − k T
F FD
e
f f
/
) (
ε
ε ε
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
2 1
·
+
+
+
·
+
+
+
· +
∆
∆
∆ ∆ − ∆ k T
k T
k T k T k T
e
e
e e e
f f
/
/
/ / / ε
ε
ε ε ε
45. The density of zinc is 7.l3 g/cm
3
and its atomic mass is 65.4 u. The electronic structure of zinc
is given in Table 7.4, and the effective mass of an electron in zinc is 0.85 m
e
. Calculate the Fermi
energy in zinc.
eV 11 J 10 78 1
kg/u 10 66 (65.4u)(1. 8
kg/m 10 13 7 2 3
kg 10 11 2(0.85)(9.
s J 10 626 6
8
2 3
2
18
3 2
27 
3 3
31 
2 34
3 2
2
· × ·
,
_
¸
¸
×
×
,
_
¸
¸
×
⋅ ×
·
,
_
¸
¸
·
−
−
.
)
) . )( (
)
) . (
) (
/
/
*
π
π
ρ
ε
Zn
Zn
F
m
m
h
¡¼sol¡ ½
Zinc in its ground state has two electrons in 4s subshell and completely filled K, L, and M shells.
Thus, there are two free electrons per atom. The number of atoms per unit volume is the ratio of
the mass density ρ
Zn
to the mass per atom m
Zn
. Then,
Inha University Department of Physics
47. Find the number of electron states per electronvolt at ε=ε
F
/2 in a 1.00g sample of copper at O K.
Are we justified in considering the electron energy distribution as continuous in a metal?
ε ε ε
2 3
2
3
/
) ( ) (
−
·
F
N
n
At ε=ε
F
/2,
The number of atoms is the mass divided by the mass per atom,
( )
F
N
n
F
ε
ε
8
3
2
·
21
27
3
10 48 9
kg/u 10 66 1 u 55 63
kg) 10 00 1
× ·
×
×
·
−
−
.
) . )( . (
. (
N
states/eV 10 43 1
eV 04 7
10 48 9
8
3
2
21
21
× ·
×
·
,
_
¸
¸
.
.
.
F
n
ε
with the atomic mass of copper from the front endpapers and ε
F
=7.04 eV. The number of
states per electronvolt is
and the distribution may certainly be considered to be continuous.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
At T=0, the electron distribution n(ε) is
Inha University Department of Physics
49. The BoseEinstein and FermiDirac distribution functions both reduce to the Maxwell
Boltzmann function when e
α
e
ε/ k T
>>1. For energies in the neighborhood of k T, this
approximation holds if e
α
>>1. Helium atoms have spin 0 and so obey BoseEinstein statistics
verify that f(ε)=1/e
α
e
ε/ k T
≈Ae
ε/ kT
is valid for He at STP (20
o
C and atmospheric pressure, when
the volume of 1 kmol of any gas is=22.4 m
3
) by showing that of A<< l under these circumstances.
To do this, use Eq(9.55) for g(ε)dε with a coefficient of 4 instead of 8 since a He atom does not
have the two spin states of an electron, and employing the approximation, find A from the
norma1ization condition n(ε)dε=N, where N is the total number of atoms in the sample. (A
kilomole of He contains Avogadro’ s number No atoms, the atomic mass of He is 4.00 u and
∫
∞
−
·
0
2a a dx e x
x
/ / π
α
ϒ…sol¡ ½
Using the approximation f(ε)=Ae
ε/ k T
, and a factor of 4 instead of 8 in Equation (9.55),
Equation (9.57) becomes
ε ε π ε ε ε ε ε
ε
d e
h
Vm
A d f g d n
k T /
/
) ( ) ( ) (
−
· ·
3
2 3
2 4
Integrating over all energies,
ε ε π ε ε
ε
d e
h
Vm
A d n N
k T
∫ ∫
∞
−
∞
· ·
0 3
2 3
0
2 4
/
/
) (
Inha University Department of Physics
.
The integral is that given in the problem with x= ε and a=k T,
2 3
3
3
3
2 3
2
2
2 4
/
/
) (
) (
mkT
h
V
A
k T
h
Vm
A N π
π
π · ·
2 3 3
2
/
) (
−
· mkT h
V
N
A π
2
3
0
) (
/
k T
d e
k T
π
ε ε
ε
·
∫
∞
−
, so that
Solving for A,
Using the given numerical values,
which is much less than one.
, 10 56 . 3
)] K 293 )( J/K 10 1 kg/u)(1.38 10 66 . 1 )( u 00 . 4 ( 2 [ ) s J 10 626 . 6 (
kg/kmol 22.4
kmol 10 022 . 6
6
2 / 3 23  27 3 34
1 26
−
− − −
−
× ·
× × × ⋅ ×
×
· π A
Inha University Department of Physics
51. The FermiDirac distribution function for the free electrons in a metal cannot be
approximated by the MaxwellBoltzmann function at STP for energies in the neighborhood of
k T. Verify this by using the method of Exercise 49 to show that A>1 in copper if
f(ε)≈Aexp(ε/k T). As calculated in Sec. 9.9 N/ V=8.48x10
28
electrons/m
3
for copper. Note that
Eq.(9.55) must be used unchanged here.
¡ ¼sol¡ ½
Here, the original factor of 8 must be retained, with the result that
, 10 50 . 3
)] K 293 )( J/K 10 38 . 1 )( 10 11 . 9 ( 2 [ ) s J 10 63 . 6 )( m 10 48 . 8 (
) 2 (
2
1
3
2 / 3 23 31 3 34 3 26
2
1
2 / 3 3
× ·
× × × ⋅ × × ·
·
− − − − −
−
π
π k T m h
V
N
A
e
Which is much greater than one, and so the FermiDirac distribution cannot be approximated
by a MaxwellBoltzmann distribution.
5.
Two observers, A on earth and B in a spacecraft whose speed is 2.00 x 108 m/s, both set their watches to the same time when the ship is abreast of the earth. (a) How much time must elapse by A's reckoning before the watches differ by 1.00 s? (b) To A, B's watch seems to run slow. To B, does A's watch seem to run fast, run slow, or keep the same time as his own watch?
¡¼Sol¡½ Note that the nonrelativistic approximation is not valid, as v/c = 2/3. (a) See Example 1.1. In Equation (1.3), with t representing both the time measured by A and the time as measured in A's frame for the clock in B's frame to advance by to, we need
2 2 1 − 1 − v = t 1 − 1 − 2 = t × 0.255 = 1.00 s t − t0 = t c2 3 from which t = 3.93 s. (b) A moving clock always seems to run slower. In this problem, the time t is the time that observer A measures as the time that B's clock takes to record a time change of to.
Inha University
Department of Physics
7.
How fast must a spacecraft travel relative to the earth for each day on the spacecraft to correspond to 2 d on the earth?
¡¼Sol¡½ From Equation (1.3), for the time t on the earth to correspond to twice the time t0 elapsed on the ship’s clock, v2 1 3 1 − 2 = , so v = c = 2.60 × 108 m/s, 2 2 c relating three significant figures. 9. A certain particle has a lifetime of 1.00 x107 s when measured at rest. How far does it go before decaying if its speed is 0.99c when it is created?
¡¼Sol¡½ The lifetime of the particle is t0, and the distance the particle will travel is, from Equation (1.3), vt = vt 0 1 − v /c
2 2
=
( 0.99)( 3.0 × 108 m/s)(1.00 × 10− 7 s) 1 − ( 0.99)
2
= 210 m
to two significant figures.
Inha University
Department of Physics
v 1. what is the corresponding wavelength measured by astronomers on the earth? ¡¼Sol¡½ See Example 1.0 × 108 m/s so that λ= λ = λo 1 − v /c 1 + 0. for the intermediate calculations.050 = (550 nm) = 578 nm 1 + v /c 1 − 0. A galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major is receding from the earth at 15.050.000 km/s. c 3.8).050 Inha University Department of Physics . ν νo ν 1 + v /c where the sign convention for v is that of Equation (1.3. note that c c νo 1 − v /c = = λo . For this problem.11. If one of the characteristic wavelengths of the light the galaxy emits is 550 nm. which v positive for an approaching source and v negative for a receding source.50 × 107 km/s =− = −0.
In Equation (1. while differing by 1 Hz.6). assume the earth is stationary. The classical and relativistic frequencies. A spacecraft receding from the earth emits radio waves at a constant frequency of 109 Hz. If the receiver on earth can measure frequencies to the nearest hertz. 1 + ( u /c ) νr = νo 1 − (u /c ) 1 − (u /c )2 = νo 1 + (u /c ) 1 + (u /c ) The last expression for vo. where u is the speed of the spacecraft. 2 νr 1 − (u /c ) Inha University Department of Physics .6). all of which need to use the fact that when the frequencies due to the classical and relativistic effects are found. which essentially incorporates the classical result (counting the number of ticks).13. ¡¼Sol¡½ This problem may be done in several ways. moving away from the earth (V < 0). is motivated by the derivation of Equation (1. at what spacecraft speed can the difference between the relativistic and classical Doppler effects be detected? For the classical effect. we have v = u (or v = u in Equation (1. will both be sufficiently close to vo = 109 Hz so that vo could be used for an approximation to either. are ν0 νc = . we have v = 0 and V = u.8)).4). vc and vr respectively. those frequencies. In Equation (1. and allows expression of the ratio νc 1 = .
2 2c which is solved for u = 2 ×10−9c = 1.34×104 m/s= 13. we can use 1 − 1 − (u /c )2 ≈ (1/ 2)(u /c )2 .Use of the above forms for the frequencies allows the calculation of the ratio ∆ν νc − ν r 1 − 1 − (u /c )2 1 Hz = = = 9 = 10−9 νo νo 1 + (u /c ) 10 Hz Attempts to solve this equation exactly are not likely to be met with success. The denominator will be indistinguishable from 1 at low speed. recognizing that the numerator 1 − 1 − (u /c )2 is of the form that can be approximated using the methods outlined at the beginning of this chapter. Inha University Department of Physics . with the result 1 u2 = 10−9 .4km/s. and even numerical solutions would require a higher precision than is commonly available. However.
1 + v /c 1 + v /c Inha University Department of Physics . cos θ = 1.7) as special cases. θ = π (or 180o).8). The given expression becomes ν = νo which is Equation (1. θ = 0. Show that this formula includes Eqs. so cos θ = 0. For an approaching source. For a receding source. and cos θ = 1. 1 − v 2 /c 2 1 − v /c = νo . If the angle between the direction of motion of a light source of frequency vo and the direction from it to an observer is 0. the frequency v the observer finds is given by 1 − v 2 /c 2 ν = νo 1 − (v /c ) cos θ where v is the relative speed of the source. which is Equation (1. 1 − v /c 1 − v /c which is Equation (1.8).15.5) to (1. and the given expression becomes 1 − v 2 /c 2 1 + v /c ν = νo = νo . (1.5). and ν = νo 1 − v 2 /c 2 . ¡¼Sol¡½ The transverse Doppler effect corresponds to a direction of motion of the light source that is perpendicular to the direction from it to the observer. the angle θ = ±π/2 (or ±90o).
6 ft 19.00 m) 1 − (0.100)2 t= = = = 3.100)(3. How much time does a meter stick moving at 0. and this is what any observer in the spacecraft will measure.90)2 = 2. What is his height as measured by an observer in the same spacecraft? By an observer on the earth? ¡¼Sol¡½ The astronaut’s proper length (height) is 6 ft.90c relative to the earth. ¡¼Sol¡½ The time will be the length as measured by the observer divided by the speed. An astronaut whose height on the earth is exactly 6 ft is lying parallel to the axis of a spacecraft moving at 0.100c relative to an observer take to pass the observer? The meter stick is parallel to its direction of motion. or L Lo 1 − v 2 /c 2 (1.0 × 10 m/s) Inha University Department of Physics . From Equation (1.9).32 × 10− 8 s 8 v v (0.17. an observer on the earth would measure L = Lo 1 − v 2 /c 2 = ( 6 ft ) 1 − (0.
while the length perpendicular to the spacecraft's motion will appear unchanged. and the projection onto an axis perpendicular to the spacecraft's axis will have a length L'sin(10o).70)2 The generalization of the above is that if the angle is 00 as measured by an observer on the spacecraft.21.9). A spacecraft antenna is at an angle of 10o relative to the axis of the spacecraft. To an observer on the earth. If the spacecraft moves away from the earth at a speed of 0.70c. what is the angle of the antenna as seen from the earth? ¡¼Sol¡½ If the antenna has a length L' as measured by an observer on the spacecraft (L' is not either L or LO in Equation (1. an observer on the earth would measure an angle θ given by tan θ = tan θo 1 − v 2 /c 2 Inha University Department of Physics . the length in the direction of the spacecraft's axis will be contracted as described by Equation (1.9)). L ′ cos(10o ) 1 − v 2 /c 2 1 − (0. The angle as seen from the earth will then be tan(10o ) L ′ sin(10o ) arctan = arctan = 14o. the projection of the antenna onto the spacecraft will have a length L'cos(10o).
9 2 = 5 yr. A woman leaves the earth in a spacecraft that makes a round trip to the nearest star. not mv 27. ¡¼Sol¡½ The age difference will be the difference in the times that each measures the round trip to take. or ∆t = 2 Lo 4 yr 1 − 1 − v 2 /c 2 = 2 1 − 1 − 0. v 0.23.9 ( ) ( ) 25. symbolically.0 × 108 m/s)2 Inha University Department of Physics .4 x 106 J/kg when it explodes. the ratio of the mass liberated to the mass energy is M × (5. All definitions are arbitrary. momentum should be conserved in any inertial frame. at a speed of 0. In the absence of forces. and the conserved quantity is p = γmv. What fraction of its total energy content is this? ¡¼Sol¡½ For a given mass M. Dynamite liberates about 5.4 × 106 J/kg) = 6. F = dp/dt should still be valid. M × (3.9c. in that a force on an object changes the object's momentum. but some are more useful than others.0 × 10−11. What is the objection to defining linear momentum as p = mv instead of the more complicated p = γ mv? ¡¼Sol¡½ It is convenient to maintain the relationship from Newtonian mechanics. 4 lightyears distant.
me c 2 me c 2 1 = c 1− = c 1− v = c 1− E m c 2 + K 1 + K /(m c 2 ) .7).23) for v as a function of K.88 × 108 m/s.11 × 10− 31 kg 2 = 1. Solving for v.60 × 10−19 J/eV 9. At what speed does the kinetic energy of a particle equal its rest energy? ¡¼Sol¡½ If the kinetic energy K = Eo = mc2. Relativistically. v = 3 c = 2.100 MeV. ¡¼Sol¡½ Classically. then E = 2mc2 and Equation (1. v = 2K = me 2 × 0.29.60 × 108 m/s 2 31. Find its speed according to classical and relativistic mechanics. e e 2 2 Inha University Department of Physics . An electron has a kinetic energy of 0.200 MeV × 1.23) reduces to 1 =2 2 2 1 − v /c (γ = 2 in the notation of Section 1. solving Equation (1.
22) in Equation (1. Find the speed of the particle in terms of c. larger discrepancies would be found. that is.511.With K/(mec2) = (0.100) /(0. 21 2 2 2 Inha University Department of Physics .511) The two speeds are comparable. 33.9989c .100/0. ¡¼Sol¡½ Using Equation (1.100 MeV)/(0. but not the same. 1 + ( 0.23) and solving for v/c. for larger values of the ratio of the kinetic and rest energies. 1 v = 3. E = Eo + 20Eo. 1 v = c 1 − = 0.511 MeV) = 0. A particle has a kinetic energy 20 times its rest energy.64 × 108 m/s. v E = 1− o c E With E = 21Eo.0 × 108 m/s × 1 − = 1.
294 MeV 2 2 1 − ( 2. 1 1 m ec − 2 2 2 2 1 − v 2 /c 1 − v1 /c 2 1 1 = ( 0. How much work (in MeV) must be done to increase the speed of an electron from 1.0) 1 − (1. 2 c 2 γ − 1 2 c 2 1 − 1 − v 2 /c 2 Inha University Department of Physics .0) 37. does not equal the kinetic energy of a particle moving at relativistic speeds.23).511 MeV ) − = 0.4 / 3.35. ¡¼Sol¡½ Using the expression in Equation (1.2 / 3.20) for the kinetic energy.2 x 108 m/s to 2. from Equation (1. Prove that ½γmv2.4 X 108 m/s? ¡¼Sol¡½ The difference in energies will be. the ratio of the two quantities is 1 γmv 2 2 K 1 v2 γ 1 v2 1 = = .
According to classical physics. 2 2 2 2 Expanding the products and canceling similar terms [(M/2)(L/2). mS].27 shows a rigid box of length L that rests on a frictionless surface. v ≈ E/Mc (approximate in the nonrelativistic limit M >> Elc2) and t ≈ L/c. the box recoils with the speed v ≈ E01Mc so that the total momentum of the system remains zero. is based on the principle that the location of the center of mass (CM) of an isolated system cannot be changed by any process that occurs inside the system. If the CM of the box is to remain in its original place. Then. MS M E L E m= = = . Show that this amount of mass is m = EO 1c2. After a time t ≈ L/c the radiation reaches the other end of the box and is absorbed there. An alternative derivation of the massenergy formula EO = mc2. A burst of electromagnetic radiation of energy Eo is emitted by one end of the box. the result MS = mL is obtained. so that the original position of the center of mass is 0. the mass M of the box is equally divided between its two ends. the final position of the center of mass is M L M L − m + S − + m − S = 0. the radiation has the momentum p = Eo/c. The distance 5 is the product vt. Figure 1. also given by Einstein. L L Mc c c 2 Inha University Department of Physics . the radiation must have transferred mass from one end to the other. as shown in the problem statement. which brings the box to a stop after having moved the distance S. and when it is emitted. ¡¼Sol¡½ Measured from the original center of the box.39. where.
γ. (b) About how long would the proton take to cross the galaxy as measured by an observer in the galaxy's reference frame? ¡¼Sol¡½ To cross the galaxy in a matter of minutes. of course). with v ≈ c (but v < c. a proton takes 5 min to cross the Milky Way galaxy.600c. where EO is the proton's rest energy and γ = 1/ 1 − v 2 /c 2. ¡¼Sol¡½ Taking magnitudes in Equation (1. Lo Lo 105 ly 9 E = Eoγ = Eo ≈ Eo ≈ (10 eV ) × (3 × 107 s/yr ) = 1019 eV L ct c ( 300 s ) 43. where L is the diameter of the galaxy in the proton's frame of reference. The energy of the proton will be E = Eoγ.41.600) 2 = 0. However. (a) What is the approximate energy of the proton in electronvolts?. p= mev 1 − v /c 2 2 = ( 0. and for the highlyrelativistic proton L ≈ ct.9). In its own frame of reference. is the same as the ratio LO/L. Find the momentum (in MeV/c) of an electron whose speed is 0. where t is the time in the proton's frame that it takes to cross the galaxy. Combining.383 MeV /c Inha University Department of Physics . which is about 105 lightyears in diameter.511 MeV /c 2 )( 0.600c ) 1 − (0. the proton must be highly relativistic. from Equation (1.16).
94 GeV /c /2)c. p = (E /c )2 − (Eo /c )2 = (3.37 GeV/c Inha University Department of Physics .24) becomes 4 4 4mec 4 = mec 4 + p 2c 2 . or Equation (1. v = ( p= mec. Find the momentum of an electron whose kinetic energy equals its rest energy of 511 keV ¡¼Sol¡½ When the kinetic energy of an electron is equal to its rest energy.23) for the speed v in terms of the rest energy EO and the total energy E. the total energy is twice the rest energy. or p= 3(mec 2 ) /c = 3( 511 keV /c ) = 1.938 GeV/c )2 = 3.45. γ = 2.24) may be solved for the magnitude of the momentum.963c numerically 2. v = c 1 − ( Eo / E ) = c 1 − ( 0. and Equation (1. and Equation (1. as above.938 /3.17) gives 3 The result of Problem 129 could be used directly.16) (or the result of Problem 146).888 x 108 m/s.500) 2 = 0. 3 47.500 GeV ¡¼Sol¡½ Solving Equation (1.500 GeV /c )2 − (0.) The value of the speed may be substituted into Equation (1. Find the speed and momentum (in GeV/c) of a proton whose total energy is 3. (The result of Problem 132 does not give an answer accurate to three significant figures.
(mc 2 + K )2 = m 2c 4 + p 2c 2 = ( 335 MeV )2 − ( 62 MeV )2 = 874 MeV /c 2 . 2c 2 K 2c 2 ( 62 MeV ) The particle's speed may be found any number of ways.49. Expanding the binomial. ¡¼Sol¡½ From E = mc2 + K and Equation (1. E 874 MeV + 62 MeV mc 2 + K m= ( pc )2 − K 2 Inha University Department of Physics .24).36c . a very convenient result is that of Problem 146. and solving for m. Find its mass (in MeV/c2) and speed (as a fraction of c). A particle has a kinetic energy of 62 MeV and a momentum of 335 MeV/c. cancelling the m2c4 term. giving v = c2 p pc 335 MeV =c =c = 0.
is to note that when the relative speed of the observers (5.41). the different methods give the same result. Inserting this into Equation (1. same place.97 ms.00 × 10−3 s with respect to the first observer. = ( 2. Another observer finds that the two explosions occur at the.998 × 108 m/s) 2 (For this calculation. An observer detects two explosions. x2 x2 t− 2 1− 2 2 ( x /t )2 tc c t t′ = =t = t 1− 2 2 2 2 c2 1 − ( x /ct ) 1 − x /c t = 1. which is to).00 × 107 m/s)2 Inha University Department of Physics .51. and so the second observer is moving at a speed x 1. (2.00 × 105 m v= = = 5.00 ms ) 1 − (5. one that occurs near her at a certain time and another that occurs 2. and a good cheek. What time interval separates the explosions to the second observer? ¡¼Sol¡½ The given observation that the two explosions occur at the same place to the second observer means that x' = 0 in Equation (1.) An equally valid method. Algebraically and numerically.00 x 107 m/s) has been determined.3) (but be careful of which time it t.00 × 107 m/s t 2.00 ms later 100 km away. the time interval that the second observer measures should be that given by Equation (1.44). the approximation is 1 − (x /ct)2 ≈ 1 − (x 2 / 2c 2t 2 )valid to three significant figures.
the signal arrives at an angle 0 with respect to the positive xdirection. From Equation (1. in the unprimed frame (given here as the frame of the fixed stars. Then. so that in the frame of the fixed stars (the unprimed frame).53. A spacecraft moving in the +x direction receives a light signal from a source in the xy plane. Inha University Department of Physics . 2 x′ = x − vt 2 = r cos θ − ( −r /c ) 1 − v /c 2 2 =r cosθ + (v /c ) 1 − v /c 2 2 . In the unprimed frame. (a) With the help of the Lorentz transformation find the angle θ ' at which the signal arrives in the reference frame of the spacecraft. the speed of the spacecraft is v and the signal arrives at an angle θ to the axis of the spacecraft. and the minus sign merely indicates that the signal was sent before it was received. in both space and time. x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ . where r is the distance from the source to the place where the ship receives the signal. one of which may be the source). (b) What would you conclude from this result about the view of the stars from a porthole on the side of the spacecraft? ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) A convenient choice for the origins of both the unprimed and primed coordinate systems is the point. where the ship receives the signal. Take the direction of the ship's motion (assumed parallel to its axis) to be the positive xdirection.41). Then. 1 − v /c and y’ = y = r sin θ. the signal was sent at a time t = r/c. In the reference frame of the fixed stars.
A man on the moon sees two spacecraft. and all stars appear to be almost on the ship’s axis(farther forward in the field of view). Looking out of a porthole.800 c. The relative velocities will have opposite directions.900c.800)( 0. and the denominator is greater than cosθ .900) 1 + vV x Inha University Department of Physics .800c and 0. cosθ + (v /c ) (b) From the form of the result of part (a). (a) What does a man on A measure for the speed with which he is approaching the moon? For the speed with which he is approaching B? (b) What does a man on B measure for the speed with which he is approaching the moon? For the speed with which he is approaching A ? ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) If the man on the moon sees A approaching with speed v = 0. is then ′ Vx + v 0. but the relative speeds will be the same. As v àc. sinθ 1 − v 2 /c 2 and θ ′ = arctan . including the stars. to an observer in A. the sources.900 Vx = = c = 0. coming toward him from opposite directions at the respective speeds of 0. it can be seen that the numerator of the term in square brackets is less than sinθ .800c. The speed with which B is seen to approach A.800 + 0. A and B. x ′ (cos θ + (v /c ))/ 1 − v 2 /c 2 55. then the observer on A will see the man in the moon approaching with speed v = 0.988c . ′ /c 2 1 + ( 0. θ’ à0. and so tan θ and θ’ < θ when v ≠ 0. y′ sinθ tanθ ′ = = . will appear to be in the directions close to the direction of the ship’s motion than they would for a ship with v = 0.
(b) Similarly.800 c = 0. to an observer on B.900)(0. the observer on B will see the man on the moon approaching with speed 0.900 + 0.800) (Note that Equation (1. will be 0.900 c.988c. 1 + (0.) S’(moon) S B Vx’ O’ v A Inha University Department of Physics . and the apparent speed of A.49) is unchanged if Vx’ and v are interchanged.
If Planck’s constant had a smaller value. KEmax = hν − φ = h(ν − νo ).9). while all other physical quantities. quantum effects would be seen for phenomena that occur at higher frequencies or shorter wavelengths. such as the speed of light. what would a correct statement of the relationship between KEmax and ν be? ¡¼Sol¡½ No: the relation is given in Equation (2. KEmax is not proportional to the frequency. So that while KEmax is a linear function of the frequency ν of the incident light. 3. Is it correct to say that the maximum photoelectron energy KEmax is proportional to the frequency ν of the incident light? If not.Chapter 2 Problem Solutions 1. That is. Inha University Department of Physics . If Planck's constant were smaller than it is.8) and Equation (2. would quantum phenomena be more or less conspicuous than they are now? ¡¼Sol¡½ Planck’s constant gives a measure of the energy at which quantum effects are observed. remained the same. quantum phenomena would be less conspicuous than they are now.
77 eV.5. 1. or P P 1. A 1.00kW radio transmitter operates at a frequency of 880 kHz. Find the energy of a 700nm photon.84 × 10−19 J −9 700 × 10 m 7.11).72 × 1030 photons/s .63 × 10 J ⋅ s)(880 × 10 Hz) Inha University Department of Physics . ( 6. 9 700 × 10 m Or.00 × 103 J/s = = = 1. in terms of joules. −34 3 E hν (6.63 × 10−34 J ⋅ s)(3. ¡¼Sol¡½ From Equation (2.0 × 108 m/s) E = = 2.24 × 10− 6 eV ⋅ m E = = 1. How many photons per second does it emit? ¡¼Sol¡½ The number of photons per unit time is the total energy per unit time(the power) divided by the energy per photon.
0 × 1014 Hz) (b) With the reasonable assumption that the sun radiates uniformly in all directions.0 x 1014 Hz. Inha University Department of Physics . and how many photons per second does it emit? (c) How many photons per cubic meter are there near the earth? ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) The number of photons per unit time per unit are will be the energy per unit time per unit area (the power per unit area.63 × 10.5 x 1011 m away. The total power is then.4 x 103 W/m2 of area perpendicular to the direction of the light. P/A). an average of 1.34 J ⋅ s)( 5.34 J ⋅ s)(5. all points at the same distance from the sun should have the same flux of energy. or 4. Assume that sunlight is monochromatic with a frequency of 5.” The number of photons emitted per second is this power divided by the energy per photon. divided by the energy per photon. Light from the sun arrives at the earth.” for “astronomical unit. (a) How many photons fall per second on each square meter of the earth's surface directly facing the sun? (b) What is the power output of the sun.63 × 10. even if there is no surface to absorb the energy. hν (6.9.0 × 1026 W.2 × 1021 photons/(s ⋅ m2 ). 2 ( P / A )4πRE −S = (1.5 × 1011 m )2 = 4.2 × 1045 photons/s .0 × 1014 Hz ) = 1. where RES is the mean EarthSun distance.0 × 1026 J/s (6. at the rate of 1.4 × 103 W/m 2 = = 4. commonly abbreviated as “1 AU. or P /A 1.4 × 103 W/m 2 )4π (1.
9) in terms of λ = c/ν and λ0 = c/ν0. Using the result from part (a).4 × 1013 photons/m3.(c) The photons are all moving at the same speed c. What wavelength of light must be used in order for electrons with a maximum energy of 1.24 × 10− 6 eV ⋅ m −1 −1 = 180 nm. and in the same direction (spreading is not significant on the scale of the earth). hc λ K λ= = λ0 1 + max o (hc / λo ) + K max hc (1.0 × 10 m/s 11. Inha University Department of Physics .5 eV )( 230 × 10− 9 m ) = ( 230 nm) 1 + 1. 4. 8 3. and so the number of photons per unit time per unit area is the product of the number per unit volume and the speed.5 eV to be ejected? ¡¼Sol¡½ Expressing Equation (2.2 × 1021 photons/(s ⋅ m 2 ) = 1. The maximum wavelength for photoelectric emission in tungsten is 230 nm. and performing the needed algebraic manipulations.
hc 1. and hc 1. find the current in the cell.9 eV. or P P Pλ (1.13.24 × 10−6 eV ⋅ m λmax = = = 539 nm φ 2.5x106 W. From Equation (2. the available power is (1.10% of the light creates photoelectrons.6 eV ⋅ m Inha University Department of Physics .5 mW of 400nm light is directed at a photoelectric cell.24 × 10− 6 eV ⋅ m K max = hν − φ = −φ = − 2. −9 λ 200 × 10 m 15.1.3 eV where the value of φ for sodium is taken from Table 2.24 × 10.0x103)(1.5 × 10− 6 J/s )( 400 × 10−9 m ) I =e =e =e = (1e ) = 0. so the incident energy would be equal to the work function. 1.5x103W) = 1. ¡¼Sol¡½ Because only 0.8).48 µA E hc / λ hc 1. the current will be the product of the number of photoelectrons per unit time and the electron charge. If 0.3 eV = 3. What is the maximum wavelength of light that will cause photoelectrons to be emitted from sodium? What will the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons be if 200nm light falls on a sodium surface? ¡¼Sol¡½ The maximum wavelength would correspond to the least energy that would allow an electron to be emitted.10 percent of the incident photons produce photoelectrons.
97 eV From these data find Planck's constant and the work function of the surface .64 × 10. K max. a case of "swatting a fly with a sledgehammer".1 = h ν1 − φ . ¡¼Sol¡½ Denoting the two energies and frequencies with subscripts 1 and 2.7 eV)(8.34 J ⋅ s The work function φ may be obtained by substituting the above result into either of the above expressions relating the frequencies and the energies.) Inha University Department of Physics .5 × 1014 Hz) − (0.52 eV h= = = 4.5 × 1014 Hz to the allowed two significant figures. K max.0 x 1014 Hz light emits electrons whose maximum energy is 1. while possibly more cumbersome than direct substitution. subtracting to eliminate the product hν1ν2 and dividing by ν1 . K max. A metal surface illuminated by 8.1 ν 2 (19.1 19.1 ν 2 = hν1ν 2 − φν 2 .0 × 1014 Hz − 8. reflects the result of solving the system of equations using a symbolicmanipulation program. Subtracting to eliminate the work function φ and dividing by ν1 .5 x 1014 Hz light emits electrons whose maximum energy is 0.2 ν1 − K max.ν2 to obtain K max. Keeping an extra figure gives h = 4. using such a program for this problem is.5 × 1014 Hz) (This last calculation.14 × 10−15 eV ⋅ s = 6. yielding φ = 3.52 eV The same surface illuminated by 12. of course.7 eV − 0.ν2.2 ν1 = hν 2ν1 − φν1.0 eV to the same two significant figures.17.0 × 1014 Hz − 8. or the equations may be solved by rewriting them as K max.52 eV)(12.1 × 10−15 eV ⋅ s ν 2 − ν1 12.2 = hν 2 − φ .0 × 1014 Hz) φ= = = 3.0 eV ν 2 − ν1 (12. K max. 2 − K max.
in which case the photon had no initial momentum and no initial energy. An easier alternative is to consider the interaction in the frame where the electron is at rest after absorbing the photon. but before the interaction. the final energy is the rest energy of the electron. ( ) ( ( ) 2 ) 2 = ( pc )2 + 2( pc ) mec 2 + mec 2 . In this frame. This is the reason why the photoelectric effect can take place only when photons strike bound electrons. and hence could not have existed. The photon's initial momentum is po = Eo/c. ¡¼Sol¡½ Consider the proposed interaction in the frame of the electron initially at rest. and if the electron were to attain all of the photon's momentum and energy. and hence would have had more energy than after the interaction.19. and the photon would have had positive energy. mec2. the final momentum of the electron must be pe = po = p. and so the final electron energy is Ee = pc + mec2. However. the electron's final kinetic energy is 2 p 2c 2 + mec 4 − mec 2 ≠ pc for nonzero p. Equating the two expressions for Ee2 or 2 Ee = ( pc )2 + mec 2 = pc + mec 2 0 = 2( pc ) me c 2 . ( ) ( ) 2 This is only possible if p = 0. To see the same result without using as much algebra. Inha University Department of Physics . so energy could not be conserved. the electron would have been moving (to conserve momentum). Show that it is impossible for a photon to give up all its energy and momentum to a free electron. the final electron kinetic energy must be KE = Eo = pc. for any electron we must have Ee2 = (pc)2 + (mec2)2.
4 × 1018 Hz h h 4. What kind of waves are these? ¡¼Sol¡½ For the highest frequency. ¡¼Sol¡½ Solving Equation (2.21. and this energy will appear as the electromagnetic radiation emitted when these electrons strike the screen.14 × 10−15 eV ⋅ s which corresponds to xrays.9 2d 2 × 0. The distance between adjacent atomic planes in calcite (CaCO3) is 0. Electrons are accelerated in television tubes through potential differences of about 10 kV.300 nm Inha University Department of Physics . The frequency of this radiation will be E eV (1e )(10 × 103 V) ν = = = = 2. the electrons will acquire all of their kinetic energy from the accelerating voltage.030 nm o θ = arcsin = arcsin = 2. 23.300 nm. λ 0.13) for θ with n = 1. Find the smallest angle of Bragg scattering for 0. Find the highest frequency of the electromagnetic waves emitted when these electrons strike the screen of the tube.030nm xrays.
1 nm.22). (Here.0 × 108 m/s)(3.1 × 10.63 × 10−34 J ⋅ s = = = 5.1 x 1023 kg m/s? ¡¼Sol¡½ From Equation (2. In See. cp ( 3.Na h 6. λC .7 the xrays scattered by a crystal were assumed to undergo no change in wavelength. the rest mass MNa =3. but with a sodium atom instead of an electron.26 kg) or 5.8 × 10−17 m. What is the frequency of an xray photon whose momentum is 1. Show that this assumption is reasonable by calculating the Compton wavelength of a Na atom and comparing it with the typical xray wavelength of 0. 2.82 x 1026 kg was taken from Problem 224. cM Na (3.8 x 108 nm.0 × 108 m/s)(1. which is much less than o.82 × 10.23 kg ⋅ m/s) ν = = = 5.0 × 1018 Hz h 6.15).25.63 × 10− 34 J ⋅ s 27.1 nm.) Inha University Department of Physics . ¡¼Sol¡½ Following the steps that led to Equation (2.
2 pm.426 pm)(1 − cos 45o ) = 1. c c = + λC ν′ ν and solving for ν’ gives −1 1 2.0 x 1019 Hz collides with an electron and is scattered through 90o.2 pm − (2. ¡¼Sol¡½ Rewriting Equation (2. −1 Inha University Department of Physics .43 × 10−12 m 1 λC 19 ν′ = + = + = 2.29. An xray photon of initial frequency 3. with λ = c/ν and λ’ = c/ν’ . A beam of xrays is scattered by a target. What is the wavelength of the xrays in the direct beam? ¡¼Sol¡½ Solving Equation (2. the wavelength of the xrays in the direct beam. λ = λ ′ − λC (1 − cos φ ) = 2. At 45o from the beam direction the scattered xrays have a wavelength of 2.5 pm to the given two significant figures.0 × 10 Hz The above method avoids the intermediate calculation of wavelengths. and with cos 90o = 0.4 × 10 Hz 19 8 c ν 3.23) for λ. 31.0 × 10 m/s 3.23) in terms of frequencies. Find its new frequency.
432 cos φ = 1 + − = 1+ − E λC λC E′ 100 keV 90 keV from which φ = 64o to two significant figures. To simplify the algebra somewhat. With this expression. and Equation (2. At what scattering angle will incident 100keV xrays leave a target with an energy of 90 keV? ¡¼Sol¡½ Solving Equation (2. ¡¼Sol¡½ For the electron to have the maximum recoil energy. A photon of frequency ν is scattered by an electron initially at rest. Verify that the maximum kinetic energy of the recoil electron is KEmax = (2h2 ν2/mc2)/(1 + 2hν/mc2). Inha University Department of Physics . mc 2 mc 2 λ λ′ = 1 + 511 keV − 511 keV = 0. ν′ =ν = = = λ′ 1 + ( ∆λ / λ ) 1 + ( 2λC / λ ) 1 + ( 2νλC /c ) where ∆λ = 2λC for φ = 180o. 1 + ( 2νλC /c ) mc 2 Using λC = h/(mc) (which is Equation (2.20) becomes mc2 KEmax = 2 (hv) (hv').22)) gives the desired result. the scattering angle must be 1800. 2(h ν )(hν ′) 2(hν )2 /(mc 2 ) KE max = = .33. where KEmax = (hv .hv') has been used. consider λ ν ν ν . 35.23) for cos φ.
If the electron moves off at an angle of 40o with the original photon direction. not the recoil angle of the scattering electron. so the above expression reduces to sin φ tanθ = . the energy of the scattered photon is known in terms of the scattered angle. one method is to square both sides of the above relation and use the trigonometric identity sin2 φ = 1 . there are many ways to proceed.6 0 to three significant figures. Consider the expression for the recoil angle as given preceding the solution to Problem 225: sin φ sin φ sin φ tan θ = = = .cos φ may be divided. λ = hc/E = h/(mc) = λC. φ = 0. represents an undeflected photon. and hence no interaction). λC ( ∆λ / λ ) + (1 − cos φ ) ( λC /λ )(1 − cos φ ) + (1 − cos φ ) 1 + (1 − cos φ ) λ For the given problem. as cos φ = 1.cos2 φ = (1 + cos φ)(1 – cos φ) to obtain 1 + cos φ 4 tan 2 θ = 1 − cos φ (the factor 1 . 2(1 − cos φ ) At this point.37. For an analytic solution which avoids the intermediate calculation of the scattering angle φ. with E = mc2. a numerical solution with θ = 40 o gives φ = 61. This may be reexpressed as Inha University Department of Physics . A photon whose energy equals the rest energy of the electron undergoes a Compton collision with an electron. what is the energy of the scattered photon? ¡¼Sol¡½ As presented in the text.
1 − cos φ = 2 sin 2 2 2 2 in the expression for tan θ to obtain 1 φ 1 cot . 2 − cos φ = . tan θ = Inha University Department of Physics . φ = 2 arctan 2 2 2 tan θ yielding the result θ = 61.6 o more readily. or 2 3 + 4 tan2 θ 1 − cos φ = . 1 + 4 tan2 θ 1 + 4 tan2 θ Then with λ’ = λ + λC(1 – cos φ) = λC(2 – cos φ). λ 1 + 4 tan 2 θ 1 + 4 tan 2 ( 40o ) ′=E E =E = ( 511 keV) = 335 eV λ′ 3 + 4 tan 2 θ 3 + 4 tan 2 ( 40o ) An equivalent but slightly more cumbersome method is to use the trigonometric identities φ φ φ sin φ = 2 sin cos .(1 − cos φ )( 4 tan 2 θ ) = 1 + cos φ = 2 − (1 − cos φ ).
821 pm E 1. (Hint: Start by expressing the Compton wavelength of the electron in terms of the maximum photon wavelength needed for pair production.cos φ = ½ for λ ' = λC /2. h 2hc 2hc λC = = = .21 × 10−13 m = 0. A positron collides head on with an electron and both are annihilated. so λC = 2λ’max . the angle at which the scattered photons will have wavelength λ’max can m be found as a function of the incoming photon energy E. The scattered wavelength (a maximum) corresponding to this minimum energy is λ’max = (h/Emin ). λ ~ 0. Show that. regardless of its initial energy. from which cos φ = ½ and φ = 60o. Each particle had a kinetic energy of 1. mc 2mc 2 E min where Emin = 2mc2 is the minimum photon energy needed for pair production. As an alternative. a photon cannot undergo Compton scattering through an angle of more than 60o and still be able to produce an electronpositron pair.51 × 106 eV 41.511 MeV (keeping an extra significant figure).) ¡¼Sol¡½ Following the hint.00 MeV Find the wavelength of the resulting photons.24 × 10−6 eV ⋅ m λ= = = 8. 1. and so 1 . solving Equation (2.23) with λ ' = λ'max) Inha University Department of Physics . The wavelength of each photon will be hc 1.39. ¡¼Sol¡½ The energy of each photon will he the sum of one particle's rest and kinetic energies. it is possible to say that for the most energetic incoming photons. At this point.
693 I = I oe − µx ⇒ x 1/2 = = . of an absorber required to reduce the intensity of a beam of radiation by a factor of 2 is given by x1/2 = 0. cos φ = ½ and so φ = 60o. (a) Show that the thickness x1/2. ln10 2. so that ln 2 0. µ µ (b) Similarly.693/µ. which we know to be the case. with Io/I = 10. 43. λC λC λC 2 E This expression shows that for E >> mc2.′ ′ λmax − λ λmax hc / E 1 mc 2 cos φ = 1 − = 1− + = + . µ µ Inha University Department of Physics .26) with Io/I = 2. for pair production at any angle. (b) Find the absorber thickness needed to produce an intensity reduction of a factor of 10. E must be greater than 2mc2.30 x1/10 = = . ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) The most direct way to get this result is to use Equation (2. because cos φ must always be less than 1. but it also shows that.
ln 2 0.0MeV gamma rays are 4.9 mm µ 78 m 1 47. The linear absorption coefficient for 1MeV gamma rays in lead is 78 m1. The linear absorption coefficients for 2. µ Pb 52 m 1 −3 = (10 × 10 m ) = 0.106 m µ H2O 4. ¡¼Sol¡½ From either Equation (2. find the thickness of lead required to reduce by half the intensity of a beam of such gamma rays.9 m1 in water and 52 in 1 in lead.693 x 1/ 2 = = = 8. or x H2O = x Pb or 11 cm two significant figures. What thickness of water would give the same shielding for such gamma rays as 10 mm of lead? ¡¼Sol¡½ Rather than calculating the actual intensity ratios.45.26) indicates that the ratios will be the same when the distances in water and lead are related by µ H 2O x H2O = µ Pb x Pb .9 m 1 Inha University Department of Physics . Equation (2.26) or Problem 243 above.
4 1 4. 51. ¡¼Sol¡½ Either a direct application of Equation (2.26) or use of the result of Problem 243 gives ln 2 x 1/ 2 = = 1.0 × 10 m/s) (7.47 × 10−5 m.49.0 × 10 m ) (keeping an extra significant figure) is so small that for an “approximate” red shift.12 × 10− 6 2 8 2 4 1 c R (3.06 × 1012 m = 1. the ratio GM (6.67 × 10−11 N ⋅ m2 / kg)(2.6 ) = 1.29).0 × 1030 kg) = = 2. the ratio ∆λ/λ will be the same as ∆ν/ν.0 x 108 m.06 pm. and ∆λ = λ GM c 2R = (500 × 10− 9 m)(2. Find the approximate gravitational red shift in light of wavelength 500 nm emitted by the sun. The sun's mass is 2.0 x 1030 kg and its radius is 7. ¡¼Sol¡½ In Equation (2. Inha University Department of Physics .12 × 10.015 mm to two significant figures. What thickness of copper is needed to reduce the intensity of the beam in Exercise 48 by half.7 × 10 m which is 0.
What is the original frequency and the change in frequency of a 14. which then emits a photon in losing 14. is to realize that the nucleus will be moving nonrelativistically after the emission of the photon.5 x 1026 kg. (a) The 57 Co nucleus 27 57 decays by K capture to 26 Fe . When a nucleus emits a photon. instead of the individual atom. 2. for computational purposes. This phenomenon is known as the Mössbauer effect.4keV gammaray photon after it has fallen 20 m near the earth's surface? Sol¡½ (a) The most convenient way to do this problem.4 keV available as a result of having to share energy and momentum with the recoiling atom? (b) In certain crystals the atoms are so tightly bound that the entire crystal recoils when a gammaray photon is emitted. the recoil momentum of the nucleus 2 2 2 is E/c. certain atomic nuclei emit photons in undergoing transitions from "excited" energy states to their “ground” or normal states. and its kinetic energy is p / 2M = E /(2Mc ) . As discussed in Chap.4 keV to reach its ground state. conservation of energy implies ¡¼ Inha University Department of Physics . These photons constitute gamma rays. Such a source was used in the experiment described in See. By how much is the photon energy reduced from 26 the full 14.cited 2576Fe nucleus is part of a 1. Then.53. here M is the rest mass of the nucleus.9. By how much is the photon energy reduced in this situation if the ex. 12. and that the energy of the photon will be very close to E∞ = 14.0g crystal? (c) The essentially recoilfree emission of gamma rays in situations like that of b means that it is possible to construct a source of virtually monoenergetic and hence monochromatic photons. it recoils in the opposite direction.4 keV. the energy that the photon would have if the nucleus had been infinitely massive. So. The mass of a 57 Fe atom is 9. if the photon has an energy E.
and recognizing that E will be very close to E∞. E2 Inha University Department of Physics . the resulting quadratic is E 2 + 2Mc 2E − 2Mc 2E ∞ = 0.+ E = E∞ . .9 × 103 eV. This approximation gives the previous result.26 8 2 2(9.60 × 10−16 J/keV) = = 1. but to find the change in energy due to the finite mass of the nucleus. and solution might be attempted by standard methods.(x2/8). 2Mc 2 This is a quadratic in E.9 × 106 keV = 1. using (1 + x)1/2 ≈ 1 + (x/2) . which is solved for E E = Mc 2 1 + 2 ∞2 − 1. the above relation may be expressed as 2 E2 E∞ E∞ − E = ≈ 2Mc 2 2Mc 2 (14.5 × 10 kg)(3. and two terms must be kept to find the difference between E and E∞. is not made. the dimensionless quantity E∞/(Mc2) is so small that standard calculators are not able to determine the difference between E and E∞.0 × 10 m/s) If the approximation E ≈ E∞. Mc However. The square root must be expanded.4 keV) 2 (1.
It so happens that a relativistic treatment of the recoiling nucleus gives the same numerical result, but without intermediate approximations or solution of a quadratic equation. The relativistic form expressing conservation of energy is, with pc = E and before,
E 2 + (Mc2 )2 + E = Mc 2 + E∞ , or E 2 + (Mc 2 )2 = Mc 2 + E∞ − E . Squaring both sides, canceling E2 and (Mc2)2, and then solving for E, 2 1 + ( E ∞ /(2Mc 2 )) E ∞ + 2Mc 2E ∞ E = = E∞ 2 1 + (E /(Mc 2 )) . 2(Mc + E ∞ ) ∞ From this form, 2 E∞ 1 E∞ − E = , 2Mc 2 1 + E ∞ /(Mc 2 ) giving the same result.
(b) For this situation, the above result applies, but the nonrelativistic approximation is by far the easiest for calculation; 2 E∞ (14.4 × 103 eV)2 (1.6 × 10−19 J/eV) E∞ − E = = = 1.8 × 10− 25 eV. 2 3 8 2 2Mc 2(1.0 × 10 kg)(3.0 × 10 m/s) E∞ 14.4 × 103 eV (c) The original frequency is ν = = = 3.48 × 1018 Hz. −15 h 4.14 × 10 eV ⋅ s From Equation (2.28), the change in frequency is (9.8 m/s 2 )( 20 m ) gH ∆ ν = ν ′ − ν = 2 ν = ( 3.48 × 1018 Hz) = 7.6 Hz. 8 2 c (3.0 × 10 m/s)
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55. The gravitational potential energy U relative to infinity of a body of mass m at a distance R from the center of a body of mass M is U = GmM/R. (a) If R is the radius of the body of mass M, find the escape speed v, of the body, which is the minimum speed needed to leave it permanently. (b) Obtain a formula for the Schwarzschild radius of the body by setting vc = c, the speed of light, and solving for R. (Of course, a relativistic calculation is correct here, but it is interesting to see what a classical calculation produces.) ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) To leave the body of mass M permanently, the body of mass m must have enough kinetic energy so that there is no radius at which its energy is positive. That is, its total energy must be nonnegative. The escape velocity ve is the speed (for a given radius, and assuming M >> m) that the body of mass m would have for a total energy of zero; 1 2GM 2 GMm mv e − = 0, or v e = . 2 R R (b) Solving the above expression for R in terms of ve, R= 2GM
2 ve
,
and if ve = c, Equation (2.30) is obtained.
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Chapter 3. Problem Solutions
1. A photon and a particle have the same wavelength. Can anything be said about how their linear momenta compare? About how the photon's energy compares with the particle's total energy? About how the photon’s energy compares with the particle's kinetic energy?
¡¼Sol¡½ From Equation (3.1), any particle’s wavelength is determined by its momentum, and hence particles with the same wavelength have the same momenta. With a common momentum p, the photon’s energy is pc, and the particle’s energy is ( pc )2 + (mc 2 )2 , which is necessarily greater than pc for a massive particle. The particle’s kinetic energy is K = E − mc 2 =
(pc )2 + (mc 2 )
2
− mc 2
For low values of p (p<<mc for a nonrelativistic massive particle), the kinetic energy is K ≈ p2/2m, which is necessarily less than pc. For a relativistic massive particle, K ≈ pc – mc2, and K is less than the photon energy. The kinetic energy of a massive particle will always be less than pc, as can be seen by using E = (pc)2 + (mc2)2 to obtain
( pc )2 − K 2 = 2Kmc 2.
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63 × 10−34 J ⋅ s λ= = = 3.511)2 MeV /c = 1.0mg grain of sand blown by the wind at a speed of 20 m/s. Problem Solutions 3. By what percentage will a nonrelativistle calculation of the de Broglie wavelength of a 100keV electron be in error? ¡¼Sol¡½ Because the de Broglie wavelength depends only on the electron's momentum. the percentage error in the wavelength will be the same as the percentage error in the reciprocal of the momentum.79 × 10− 22 kg ⋅ m/s.3 × 10− 29 m. h 6.71 × 10− 22 kg ⋅ m /s.6 × 1019 J/eV) = 1.Chapter 3. Find the de Broglie wavelength of a 1.0 × 10 kg)(20 m/s) quantum effects certainly would not be noticed for such an object. −6 mv (1.100 + (0. ¡¼Sol¡½ For this nonrelativistic case. (K + mc ) − (mc ) 2 2 2 2 = ( 0. with the nonrelativistic calculation giving the higher wavelength due to a lower calculated momentum. The nonrelativistic momentum is pnr = 2mK = 2( 9.1 × 10−31 kg)(100 × 103 eV)(1. Inha University Department of Physics . and the relativistic momentum is pr = 1 c 5.
6 × 10 eV)(0. The atomic spacing in rock salt.282 × 10 m) (Note that in the above calculation. multiplication of numerator and denominator by c2 and use of the product hc in terms of electronvolts avoided further unit conversion. Find the kinetic energy (in eV) of a neutron with a de Broglie wavelength of 0.282 nm. NaCl.) This energy is much less than the neutron's rest energy.71 = = = 4.71 7. is 0. Is a relativistic calculation needed? Such neutrons can be used to study crystal structure.8 % .03 × 10− 3 eV 2 2 2 6 9 2 2m 2mc 2mc λ 2(939. Problem Solutions keeping extra figures in the intermediate calculations.282 nm. h / pr pnr 1. ¡¼Sol¡½ A nonrelativistic calculation gives p 2 (hc /λ )2 (hc )2 (1. The percentage error in the computed de Broglie wavelength is then (h / pnr ) − (h / pr ) pr − pnr 1. Inha University Department of Physics .Chapter 3.79 − 1. and so the nonrelativistic calculation is completely valid.24 × 10−6 eV ⋅ m) 2 K = = = = = 1.
multiplication of numerator and denominator by c2 and use of the product he in terms of electronvolts avoided further unit conversion. its de Broglie wavelength is nearly the same as the wavelength of a photon with the same total energy. E = pc.Chapter 3. so the momentum of such a particle would be nearly the same as a photon with the same energy. 9.9 m) 2 so the electron would have to be accelerated through a potential difference of 5.) 11. ¡¼Sol¡½ If E2 = (pc)2 + (mc2)2 >> (mc2)2. Problem Solutions Green light has a wavelength of about 550 nm. For a photon with the same energy. then pc >> mc2 and E ≈ pc.24 × 10− 6 eV ⋅ m) 2 K = = = = = 5. and so the de Broglie wavelengths would be the same. 2m 2mc 2 2(mc 2 )λ2 2( 511 × 103 eV)(550 × 10. Inha University Department of Physics . so the nonrelativistic calculation is valid.0 x 106 V = 5. Through what potential difference must an electron be accelerated to have this wavelength? ¡¼Sol¡½ A nonrelativistic calculation gives p 2 (hc / λ )2 (hc ) 2 (1.0 × 10−6 eV. Note that the kinetic energy is very small compared to the electron rest energy. Show that if the total energy of a moving particle greatly exceeds its rest energy. (In the above calculation.0 µV.
dω vg = = u = v p.3).3) the particles have the same phase velocity and from Equation (3. It follows that because ω = uk. and so the de Broglie wavelength will be inversely proportional to the mass. Problem Solutions 13. dk Inha University Department of Physics . From Equation (3. An electron and a proton have the same velocity Compare the wavelengths and the phase and group velocities of their de Broglie waves. ¡¼Sol¡½ For massive particles of the same speed. 15. and hence independent of the wave number k. the group and phase velocities are the same. a constant. if the phase velocity is the same for all wavelengths of a certain wave phenomenon (that is.16) they have the same group velocity. the momentum will be proportional to the mass.Chapter 3. then. there is no dispersion). from Equation (3. relativistic or nonrelativistic. ¡¼Sol¡½ Suppose that the phase velocity is independent of wavelength. the electron will have the longer wavelength by a factor of (mp/me) = 1838. Verify the statement in the text that. the phase velocity vp = (ω/k) = u.
Chapter 3. Problem Solutions 17. dω dk 1ω 1 = . where g is the acceleration of gravity. For those more comfortable with calculus. or ω = gk or ω 2 = gk. dω 2ω = 2ωv g = g . dk g gk ω2 ω 1 vg = = = = = vp. Find the group velocity of ocean waves ¡¼Sol¡½ The phase velocity may be expressed in terms of the wave number k = 2π/λ as ω g vp = = . k k Finding the group velocity by differentiating ω(k) with respect to k. The phase velocity of ocean waves is gλ / 2π . dω 1 1 1 g 1ω 1 vg = = g = = = v p. the dispersion relation may be expressed as 2 ln(ω ) = ln(k ) + ln(g ). from which 2 ω k 2k 2 Inha University Department of Physics . so that 2ω 2ωk 2ωk 2k 2 the same result. dk 2 k 2 k 2k 2 Using implicit differentiation in the formula for ω2(k). and v g = = v p.
¡¼Sol¡½ 1 K + mc 2 500 + 511 = = = 1. 21. Find the phase and group velocities of the de Broglie waves of an electron whose kinetic energy is 500 keV. v = c 1 − (1/γ )2 = c 1 − (1/1.Chapter 3. Both will assume the validity of Equation (3.863c . Problem Solutions 19. (a) Show that the phase velocity of the de Broglie waves of a particle of mass m and de Broglie wavelength λ is given by 2 mc λ vp = c 1 + h (b) Compare the phase and group velocities of an electron whose de Broglie wavelength is exactly 1 x 1013 m. 2 vg h h h λ= = = 1− 2. in that vg = v.978. For a kinetic energy of 500 keV. The phase velocity is then vp = c2 /vg = 1. and from Equation (3.863c.978)2 = 0. ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) Two equivalent methods will be presented here.16 c. γ = 2 2 2 511 mc 1 − v /c Solving for v. vg = v = 0.16). p mv g γ mv g c Inha University Department of Physics .16). First: Express the wavelength x in terms of vg.
3). 2 2 2 ( λm ) + (h /c ) h Taking the square root and using Equation (3. λ 2 ( ) Dividing by (mc2)2 leads to c2 1 1− 2 = . It should be noted that in the first method presented above could be used to find λ in terms of vp directly. 2 2 2 2 2 2 vp 1 + h /(mcλ ) h (mcλ ) + 1 1 + (mcλ ) /h which is an equivalent statement of the desired result. the same. so that v p 1 + h 2 /(mc λ )2 c2 1 h 2 (mcλ )2 1 −1 = = 2 = . squaring and solving for vg2 gives mλc 2 h 2 2 vg = = c 1 + . or course. 2 −1 Second: Consider the particle energy in terms of vp = c2 lvg. gives the desired result.Multiplying by mvg. Inha University Department of Physics . vp = c2/vg. The final result is. E 2 = ( pc )2 + mc 2 γ mc 2 ( ) 2 2 = 1−c ( )2 (mc 2 )2 2 /v 2 p 2 hc = + mc 2 . and in the second method the energy could be found in terms of vg.
vp = c 1 + −34 6. and hence decreases the electron's de Broglie wavelength.00085c .00085c .1 × 10− 31 kg)(3.99915c. 2 2 2 23. the statement that the de Broglie wavelength is “exactly” 1013 m means that the answers can be given to any desired precision.(b) Using the result of part (a).13). What effect on the scattering angle in the DavissonGermer experiment does increasing the electron energy have? ¡¼Sol¡½ Increasing the electron energy increases the electron's momentum. a smaller de Broglie wavelength results in a smaller scattering angle. vp = c 1 + −6 hc = c 1 + 1. From Equation (2.24 × 10 eV ⋅ m In both of the above answers.00 × 1013 m) = 1.0 × 108 m/s)(1.63 × 10 J⋅s and vg = c2/vp = 0. write the result of part (a) as mc 2λ (511 × 103 eV)(1. (9. Inha University Department of Physics .0 × 1013 m) = 1. For a calculational shortcut.
(b) With the speeds found in part (a).5 it was mentioned that the energy of an electron entering a crystal increase. (b) Compare the respective de Broglie wavelengths. Consider a beam of 54eV electrons directed at a nickel target. a nonrelativistic calculation is sufficient. Inha University Department of Physics .36 × 10 m/s) or 0.Chapter 3.167 nm outside the crystal.67 × 10−10 m. 2K 2( 54 eV)(1. with K = 80 eV). the de Brogile wavelengths are found from h h 6.30 x 106 m/s inside the crystal (keeping an extra significant figure in both calculations). ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) For the given energies. which reduces its de Broglie wavelength.36 m/s − 31 m 9. and (from a similar calculation. The potential energy of an electron that enters the target changes by 26 eV. In Sec.11 × 10 kg)(4.63 × 10− 34 J ⋅ s λ= = = = 1.60 × 1019 J/eV) v = = = 4. 3. −31 6 p mv ( 9.137 nm inside the crystal. Problem Solutions 25.1 × 10 kg outside the crystal. (a) Compare the electron speeds outside and inside the target. v = 5. with a similar calculation giving 0.
Chapter 3.00 x 10 14 m wide.00 × 1014 m) 2 The minimum energy. Problem Solutions 27. corresponding to n = 1.5 MeV. Solving for the width L.67 × 10− 27 kg)(400 × 103 eV)(1.63 × 10−34 J ⋅ s) 2 = n 2 3.18).18). Obtain an expression for the energy levels (in MeV) of a neutron confined to a onedimensional box 1.28 × 10−13 J = n 2 20.67 × 10− 27 kg)(1.60 × 1019 J/eV) = 4. A proton in a onedimensional box has an energy of 400 keV in its first excited state. is 20.53 × 10−14 m = 45. Inha University Department of Physics . 8mL 2 8(1.3 fm. What is the neutron's minimum energy? (The diameter of an atomic nucleus is of this order of magnitude.5 MeV En = n 2 h2 =n 2 (6.) ¡¼Sol¡½ From Equation (3. h2 ( 6. 29. How wide is the box? ¡¼Sol¡½ The first excited state corresponds to n = 2 in Equation (3.63 × 10− 34 J ⋅ s) 2 L =n =2 8mE 2 8(1.
Problem Solutions 31. while no such restriction holds for the molecules in an ideal gas. = (1.1 × 10− 2 = 3. The position and momentum of a 1. The position of an idealgas molecule is not restricted. Inha University Department of Physics .100 nm. what is the percentage of uncertainty in its momentum? ¡¼Sol¡½ The percentage uncertainty in the electron's momentum will be at least ∆p h h hc = = = p 4πp∆x 4π∆x 2mK 4π∆x 2(mc )2 K 4π (1. If its position is located to within 0.otherwise the assembly of atoms would not be a solid. The uncertainty in position of each atom is therefore finite.626 x 1034 J·s will of course give the same percentage uncertainty. Use the uncertainty principle to explain these statements. The atoms in a solid possess a certain minimum zeropoint energy even at 0 K.00 × 103 eV) Note that in the above calculation.00 × 10−10 m) 2(511 × 103 eV)(1. conversion of the mass of the electron into its energy equivalent in electronvolts is purely optional.00keV electron are simultaneously determined. and its momentum and hence energy cannot be zero. so the uncertainty in its position is effectively infinite and its momentum and hence energy can be zero.Chapter 3. 33.1 %.24 × 10− 6 eV ⋅ m) = 3. ¡¼Sol¡½ Each atom in a solid is limited to a certain definite region of space . converting the kinetic energy into joules and using h = 6.
4π∆E where v can be taken to be 2K 2 ∆E v = = . ∆E was taken to be the (maximum) kinetic energy of the proton. m m which is consistent with the previous result. = 1.144 pm. ∆ p2 p ∆E = = 2 ∆p = 2v∆p. ∆x ∆p ≥ h/4π . In such a situation. so that m m 2K h h hc v ∆t = = = m 4π∆E 2π 2mK 2π 2(mc 2 )K 2π 2( 938 × 106 MeV)(1.24 × 10−6 eV ⋅ m = 1. this is not inconsistent with Equation (3.00 keV of kinetic energy? ¡¼Sol¡½ The proton will need to move a minimum distance h v∆t ≥ v . ( ) Inha University Department of Physics .Chapter 3. In the current problem. How accurately can the position of a proton with v << c be determined without giving it more than 1.44 × 10−13 m = 0. The result for the product v∆t may be recognized as v∆t ≥ h/2πp.21). Problem Solutions 35.00 × 103 eV) (See note to the solution to Problem 333 above).
5 MHz. (b) What is the approximate minimum bandwidth (that is. (8. (8.0 × 108 m/s)(8. spread of frequencies) the radar receiver must be able to process? ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) The length of each group is c∆t = (3. which is the pulse duration multiplied by the frequency.37. (a) Find the length of each group and the number of waves it contains. (b) The bandwidth is the reciprocal of the pulse duration.0 × 10−8 s)1 = 12.0800 µs in duration. The time needed for the reflections of these groups to return indicates the distance to a target. A marine radar operating at a frequency of 9400 MHz emits groups of electromagnetic waves 0.0 × 105 s) = 24 m.0 × 10− 8 s)(4900 × 106 Hz) = 752 waves. Inha University Department of Physics . The number of waves in each group is the pulse duration divided by the wave period.
8π m h Inha University Department of Physics . Problem Solutions 39. where p is its ν = C /m / 2π .Chapter 3. 4π m x which is solved for h x2 = . make the identification of p with ∆p and x with ∆x. In classical physics the minimum energy of the oscillator is Emin = 0. Differentiating with respect to x and setting dx h2 1 − 2 3 + Cx = 0. and h 2 1 C 2 E = E(x ) = 2 2 + x . Use the uncertainty principle to find an expression for E in terms of x only and show that the minimum energy is actually Emin = hν/2 by setting dE/dx = 0 and solving for Emin . so that p = h/ (4πx). 2π mC Substution of this value into E(x) gives h 2 2π mC C h h C hν + E min = 2 2 2π mC = 2π m = 2 . ¡¼Sol¡½ To use the uncertainty principle. The frequency of oscillation of a harmonic oscillator of mass m and spring constant C is The energy of the oscillator is E = p2/2m + Cx2/2. 8π m x 2 d E = 0. momentum when its displacement from the equilibrium position is x.
3.14 × 10−13 m. Problem Solutions 1. taking the potential energy to be zero in the limit of very large separation. at the point of closest approach the proton will have no kinetic energy. and so the potential energy at closest approach will be the initial kinetic energy. K initial rmin Ze 2 = .60 × 10 = = (8. with no angular momentum with respect to the nucleus (an "Impact parameter" of zero. The great majority of alpha particles pass through gases and thin metal foils with no deflections.00MeV protons incident on gold nuclei.60 × 10 J o initial Inha University Department of Physics . Equating these energies. see the Appendix to Chapter 4).99 × 10 N ⋅ m / C ) = 1. and gases and metals are overall electrically neutral. most of the volume of an atom is empty space. To what conclusion about atomic structure does this observation lead? ¡¼Sol¡½ The fact that most particles pass through undetected means that there is not much to deflect these particles. Determine the distance of closest approach of 1. 4πε K −13 1. ¡¼Sol¡½ For a "closest approach". the incident proton must be directed "headon" to the nucleus. In this case.Chapter 4. 4πεormin or −19 1 Ze 2 C) 2 9 2 2 (79 )(1 .
46 µm 7 1 R 1. the potential energy is twice the negative of the kinetic energy. For n →∞. Inha University Department of Physics .097 × 10 m 7. the sum of the positive kinetic energy and the total negative potential energy.5. the electron is in constant motion. What is the shortest wavelength present in the Brackett series of spectral lines? ¡¼Sol¡½ The wavelengths in the Brackett series are given in Equation (4. the shortest wavelength (highest energy) corresponds to the largest value of n. the total energy. the potential energy of any pair of particles that are mutually attracted is negative. λ→ 16 16 = = 1.46 × 10− 6 m = 1. must be negative. In the Bohr model.9). How can such an electron have a negative amount of energy? ¡¼Sol¡½ While the kinetic energy of any particle is positive. For the system to be bound. For a classical particle subject to an inversesquare attractive force (such as two oppositely charged particles or two uniform spheres subject to gravitational attraction in a circular orbit.
4). where v. so = = α. 4πεoma o h 2ε o 4ε o h 2 c 2ε oh c 4πεom πme 2 (b) From the above. This quantity got its name because it first appeared in a theory by the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld that tried to explain the fine structure in spectral lines (multiple lines close together instead of single lines) by assuming that elliptical as well as circular orbits are possible in the Bohr model. Sommerfeld's approach was on the wrong track. (1. is the velocity of the electron in the ground state of the Bohr atom. (c) Show that αao = λc/2π.60 × 10−19 C)2 α = = 7. is given by Equation (4. (b) Show that the value of α is very close to 1/137 and is a pure number with no dimensions. e2 e2 e4 v1 e2 1 2 v1 = = = 2 . (a) Show that α = v1/c.The fine structure constant is defined as α = e2/2εohc. Because the magnetic behavior of a moving charge depends on its velocity. but α has nevertheless turned out to be a useful quantity in atomic physics. with r = r1 = ao. the small value of α is representative of the relative magnitudes of the magnetic and electric aspects of electron behavior in an atom. ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) The velocity v.85 × 10−12 C 2 / N ⋅ m 2 )(6. 2(8.63 × 10−34 J ⋅ s )(3. Combining to find v12 .00 × 108 m/s ) Inha University Department of Physics .30 × 10−3. 9. where ao is the radius of the groundstate Bohr orbit and λc is the Compton wavelength of the electron.
2001) value of 1/α is 1 = 137.1 to four significant figures. e 2 h 2ε o 1 h λ αao = = = C. α is a dimensionless quantity.22). and will have the same numerical v alue in any system of units. α accurate to better than 4 parts per billion. The most accurate (November.03599976. treating the units as algebraic quantities the units as given in the above calculation are [C2 ] [C2 ] [m] [J][s] [s] [N][m 2 ] = [N ⋅ m] = 1. [J] Thus.so that 1/α = 137. 2ε ohc πme 2 2π mc 2π where the Compton wavelength λC is given by Equation (2. Inha University Department of Physics . (c) Using the above expression for α and Equation (4. A close cheek of the units is worthwhile.13) with n = 1 for ao.
06 × 10−34 J ⋅ s (The number of significant figures not of concern.5 x 1011 m.0 × 1024 kg)(3. h h 1. its orbital radius is 1.) 13. L mvR (6. The earth's mass is 6. ¡¼Sol¡½ With the mass.11. orbital speed and orbital radius of the earth known. λ 2πao ao the value of ∆p found from Equation (3.6 × 1074. and the quantum number that would characterize the earth's orbit about the sun would be this angular momentum divided by .0 x 1024 kg. ∆p > /2ao . and its orbital speed is 3.22). Compare the uncertainty in the momentum of an electron confined to a region of linear dimension ao with the momentum of an electron in a groundstate Bohr orbit. while the magnitude of the linear momentum of an electron in the first Bohr orbit is h h h p= = = .0 x 104 m/s. Inha University Department of Physics . the earth's orbital angular momentum is known.0 × 104 m/s)(1. Find the quantum number that characterizes the earth's orbit around the sun.5 × 1011 m) n= = = = 2. ¡¼Sol¡½ The uncertainty in position of an electron confined to such a region is.13) is half of this momentum. from Equation (3.
both at rest initially. What is its wavelength? ¡¼Sol¡½ It must assumed that the initial electrostatic potential energy is negligible.12 × 10−8 m = 91. for instance.6 eV. What effect would you expect the rapid random motion of the atoms of an excited gas to have on the spectral lines they produce? ¡¼Sol¡½ The Doppler effect shifts the frequencies of the emitted light to both higher and lower frequencies to produce wider lines than atoms at rest would give rise to. − E1 13.15.6 eV in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum (see. A single photon is emitted in this process. The energy of the photon emitted is then El.2 nm. so that the final energy of the hydrogen atom is E1 = 13. combine to form a hydrogen atom in the ground state.24 × 10−6 eV ⋅ m λ= = = 9. the back endpapers of the text). and the wavelength is hc 1. A proton and an electron. Inha University Department of Physics . 17.
Inha University Department of Physics .1 nm. A beam of electrons bombards a sample of hydrogen.18) with nf = 1 and ni = 10.21 × 10−8 m = 92. the back endpapers of the text). A potential difference of 12. 100 1 100 1 λ= = = 9. 7 1 99 R 99 1. for instance.097 × 10 m which is in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum (see.1 eV is necessary to accelerate the electrons to this energy.19. 21. Through what potential difference must the electrons have been accelerated if the first line of the Balmer series is to be emitted? ¡¼Sol¡½ The electrons’ energy must be at least the difference between the n = 1 and n = 3 levels. In what part of the spectrum is this? ¡¼Sol¡½ From either Equation (4. Find the wavelength of the spectral line that corresponds to a transition in hydrogen from the n = 10 state to the ground state. 1 8 ∆ E = E 3 − E1 = −E1 1 − = (13.7) with n = 10 or Equation (4.1 eV 9 9 (this assumes that few or none of the hydrogen atoms had electrons in the n = 2 level).6 eV) = 12.
which is solved for (a) From Equation (4. n λ i Inha University Department of Physics . λ λ∞→ 2 121.13 nm.55nm photon. ¡¼Sol¡½ The energy needed to ionize hydrogen will be the energy needed to raise the energy from the ground state to the first excited state plus the energy needed to ionize an atom in the second excited state.7) with n = ni . note that this wavelength is R1. Use the figures to find the longest wavelength of light that could ionize hydrogen.6 nm. 25. and so the wavelength of the photon needed to ionize hydrogen is −1 −1 1 1 1 1 = λ= + + = 91. The energies are proportional to the reciprocals of the wavelengths. (b) Use this formula to find ni for a 102. The longest wavelength in the Lyman series is 121.5 nm 364. ¡¼Sol¡½ 1 1 = R 1 − 2 .5 nm and the shortest wavelength in the Balmer series is 364. (a) Derive a formula that gives the quantum number of the initial ex cited state in terms of λ and R.6 nm 2 →1 As a check. these are the energies that correspond to the longest wavelength (least energetic photon) in the Lyman series and the shortest wavelength (most energetic photon) in the Balmer series.23. An excited hydrogen atom emits a photon of wavelength λ in returning to the ground state.
9 eV.16) to include this effect. n = 3 exactly. Is the effect a major one? A nonrelativistic calculation is sufficient here.097x107 m1) = 1. the linear momentum of the photon must be balanced by the recoil momentum of the atom. with the product λR = (102. When an excited atom emits a photon. 27. specifically. (a) Modify Eq.1 λR ni = 1 − = . (4. Equation (4.Ei = 1. the kinetic energy of the recoiling atom is p 2 (h ν /c ) 2 K = = .55x109 m)(1. some of the excitation energy of the atom goes into the kinetic energy of its recoil. In this situation. As a result.125 rounded to four places as 9/8. (b) Find the ratio between the recoil energy and the photon energy for the n = 3 → n = 2 transition in hydrogen. 2M 2M where m is the ftequency of the emitted photon and p = h/λ = hν/c is the magnitude of the momentum of both the photon and the recoiling atom. λR λR − 1 (b) Either of the above forms gives n very close (four place) to 3. the change is measured indirectly by measuring the energies of the emitted photons) means that a nonrelativistic calculation should suffice. ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) A relativistic calculation would necessarily involve the change in mass of the atom due to the change in energy of the system. for which Ef . The fact that this mass change is too small to measure (that is.16) is then −1/ 2 Inha University Department of Physics .
2 2 2Mc 2Mc This result is equivalent to that of Problem 253. In the above.hν = hν 1 + . (h ν )2 ( ) Inha University Department of Physics . a relativistic calculation is manageable. (b) As indicated above and in the problem statement.9 eV K = = = 1. the result would be −1 1 Mc 2 . As in part (a). and K = ∆E = 1. the rest energy of the hydrogen atom is from or 1.01 × 10− 9 . 2 6 2M 2M ∆E 2Mc 2 939 × 10 eV 9 to two significant figures. a nonrelativistle calculation is sufficient. see part (b). As in Problem 253. and the term p2/(2M) corresponds to E∞ . Ei − E f = hν + K = hν + p2 (∆E /c )2 .E in that problem. E f − Ei = hν 1 + 1 + 2 hν a form not often useful.0 x 10 the front endpapers. where hν = E∞.
Note that in this form. Similarly. 2E 1 fn = − 1 3 . ν is positive because El is negative.17) with ni = n + 1 and nf = n. 2 h h n (n + 1)2 (n + 1) n This can be seen to be equivalent to the expression for v in terms of n and p that was found in the derivation of Equation (4. From this expression 2 n2 + 1n 2E1 n + 1 n 2 2 ν =− 3 2 = fn 2 < fn . Show that the frequency of the photon emitted by a hydrogen atom in going from the level n + 1 to the level n is always intermediate between the frequencies of revolution of the electron in the respective orbits.20).19). Inha University Department of Physics . and that result will be cited here. h n The frequency v of the photon emitted in going from the level n + 1 to the level n is obtained from Equation (4.29. ∆E 1 1 2E1 n + 1 2 ν= = − 2 = − 2 . ¡¼Sol¡½ There are many equivalent algebraic methods that may be used to derive Equation (4. hn n + 2n + 1 n + 2n + 1 as the term in brackets is less than 1. but with n replaced by n + 1 and p = 1.
(n + 1 )(n + 1) 2E1 (n + 1 )(n + 1) 2 2 ν=− = fn +1 > fn +1. as in Example 4. 3 2 2 h(n + 1) n n as the term in brackets is greater than 1. m µm p m µ = 207me . R' = R (m'/me) = 186R. 31. Find the wavelength of the photon emitted when the muonic atom drops to its ground state. A µ− muon is in the n = 2 state of a muonic atom whose nucleus is a proton. the Rydberg constant is multiplied by the ratio of the reduced masses of the muoninc atom and the hydrogen atom.653 nm. In what part of the spectrum is this wavelength? ¡¼Sol¡½ For a muonic atom.097 × 10 m ) in the xray range. 7 1 R′ 186(1.53 × 10−10 m = 0. 4/3 4 /3 λ= = = 6.7).7. from Equation (4. m p = 1836me m′ = = 186me mµ + m p Inha University Department of Physics .
λ RT The values of R and RT are proportional to the respective reduced masses. The difference between the wavelengths would then be R λ ∆ λ = λ − λT = λ 1 − T = λ 1 − .33. Inserting numerical values. m (m − mH ) 2me ∆λ = λ e T ≈λ . have wavelengths of λ = (36/5) (1/R). A mixture of ordinary hydrogen and tritium. corresponding to n = 3 in Equation (4. a hydrogen isotope whose nucleus is approximately 3 times more massive than ordinary hydrogen. me (me + m H ) 3m H where the approximations me + rnH ≈ mH and mT ≈ 3mH have been used. (36 / 5) 2(9. (1.097 × 107 m1 ) 3(1. the wavelength would be λT = (36/5) (1/RT).67 × 10− 27 kg) Inha University Department of Physics .38 × 10−10 m = 0. For a tritium atom. RT memT /(me + mT ) mT (me + mH ) Using this in the above expression for ∆λ. How far apart in wavelength will the Hα lines of the two kinds of hydrogen be? ¡¼Sol¡½ The Hα lines. where RT is the Rydberg constant evaluated with the reduced mass of the tritium atom replacing the reduced mass of the hydrogen atom.6).238 nm. and their ratio is R m m /(me + mH ) m H (me + mT ) = e H = . is excited and its spectrum observed.11 × 10− 31 kg) ∆λ = = 2.
Find the wavelength of the photon emitted in this process if the electron is assumed to have had no kinetic energy when it combined with the nucleus. with Ze2 instead of e2 and Z2e4 instead of e4. (a) Derive a formula for the energy levels of a hydrogenic atom. giving m ′Z 2e 4 1 En = − . and the n = 4 level is the same as the n = 2 level for hydrogen. but not exact. (b) A plot of the energy levels is given below. which is an ion such as He + or Li2+ whose nuclear charge is +Ze and which contains a single electron. In the approximation that the reduced masses are the same. Inha University Department of Physics . (b) Sketch the energy levels of the He' ion and compare them with the energy levels of the H atom. (c) An electron joins a bare helium nucleus to form a He + ion.15) are repeated. 2 8πεoh 2 n 2 where the reduced mass m' will depend on the mass of the nucleus. The scale is close. the n = 2 level is the same as the n = 1 level for Hydrogen. ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) The steps leading to Equation (4.35. and of course there are many more levels corresponding to higher n. for He +. with Z = 2.
− ∆E 54.The energy levels for H and He +: (c) When the electron joins the Helium nucleus. the electronnucleus system loses energy.4 eV.8 nm.4 eV Inha University Department of Physics . where the result of part (a) has been used. the emitted photon will have lost energy ∆E = 4 (13. The emitted photon's wavelength is hc 1.24 × 10− 6 eV ⋅ m λ= = = 2.6 eV) = 54.28 × 10−8 m = 22.
based on a pointlike positively charged nucleus. which is the total energy of the pulse divided by the energy of each photon.00 J)(694 × 109 m) = = = 3. and the structure of the atom does not affect these particles.0 × 10 m/s) 39. E Eλ (1.49 × 1018 ions. What is the minimum number of Cr3+ ions in the ruby? ¡¼Sol¡½ The minimum number of Cr3+ ions will he the minimum number of photons. the nucleus is either partially or completely screened by the atom's electron cloud. − 34 8 hc / λ hc ( 6. The Rutherford scattering formula fails to agree with the data at very small scattering angles. Can you think of a reason? ¡¼Sol¡½ Small angles correspond to particles that are not scattered much at all. Inha University Department of Physics .63 × 10 J ⋅ s)(3.00J pulses of light whose wavelength is 694 nm. and the scattering analysis. To these nonpenetrating particles.37. is not applicable. A certain ruby laser emits 1.
The scattering angle is then 1 o θ = 2 cot −1(11.99 × 109 N ⋅ m 2 /C2 )(79)(1.43 43.31). θ (5.0 x 107 m thick is scattered by less than 1 o? ¡¼Sol¡½ The fraction scattered by less than 1 o is 1 .6 × 10−13 m) = 11. with f given in Equation (4.7MeV alpha particles incident upon a gold foil 3.43. using the value for 1/4πεo given in the front endpapers. Inha University Department of Physics . Through what angle will it be scattered? ¡¼Sol¡½ From Equation (4. 11.29). What fraction of a beam of 7.41.f.6 x 1013 m. A 5.60 × 1013 J/MeV) cot = ( 2.60 × 10−19 C)2 keeping extra significant figures.43) = 2 tan −1 = 10 . 2 (8.0 eV)(1.0MeV alpha particle approaches a gold nucleus with an impact parameter of 2.
o 2 o 1 f ( 90 ) cot ( 45 ) so twice as many particles are scattered between 60o and 90o than are scattered through angles greater than 90o.0 × 10− 7 m)(9. The fraction scattered by less than 1 o is 1 .5o ) = 0. and the number scattered through angles greater than 90o is just f (90o). the number of particles scattered between 60o and 90o is f (60o) .0 × 109 N ⋅ m2 /C 2 )2 ( 79)(1.f (90o). the number of gold atoms per unit volume. × 13 ( 7. and f ( 60o ) − f ( 90o ) cot 2( 30o ) − cot 2 ( 45o ) 3 − 1 = = = 2.90 × 10 28 m3)(3. is from Example 4.7MeV)(1.6 × 10 J/MeV) 2 where n. 45.6 × 10−19 C) 2 cot2 (0. Show that twice as many alpha particles are scattered by a foil through angles between 60o and 90o as are scattered through angles of 90o or more.f = 0.8.2 Ze 2 1 Ze 2 2θ cot cot 2 θ f = πnt = πnt 4πε K 4πε K 2 2 o o 2 2 = π (5. Inha University Department of Physics .16.31). ¡¼Sol¡½ Regarding f as a function of 0 in Equation (4.84.
28) would be GM sunm F = .10.87′′. (4. as they do for the Coulomb force.0 × 1030 kg ) −1 ( 6. The mass and radius of the sun are respectively 2. Adapt Eq. In special relativity.0 × 10 m) = 2.47. 1. with an attractive gravitational force replacing the repulsive electrical force.0 × 10 m/s)(7. 2 θ = GM 2 tan −1 2 sun c R sun −11 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 )( 2.0 x 10 8 m. general relativity shows that this result is exactly half the actual deflection.43 × 10− 4 deg = 0. 2 r 2 would cancel. ¡¼Sol¡½ If gravity acted on photons as if they were massive objects with mass m = Ev/c2. and the result is the factors of r θ θ θ c 2b 2mc b sin = 2GM sun m cos and cot = .29) to this situation and find the angle of deflection θ for a photon that passes b = Rsun from the center of the sun. This suggests that we can treat a photon that passes near the sun in the same way as Rutherford treated an alpha particle that passes near a nucleus. Inha University Department of Physics .67 × 10 = 2 tan 8 8 (3. a conclusion supported by observations made during solar clipses as mentioned in Sec.0 x 1030 kg and 7. the magnitude of the force F in Equation (4. a photon can be thought of as having a “mass” of m = Eν/c2. 2 2 2 GM sun a result that is independent of the photon’s energy. Using b = Rsun. In fact.
Chapter 5 Problem Solutions 1. (b) ψ = A tan x. ¡¼Sol¡½ The functions (a) and (b) are both infinite when cos x = 0. and cannot have physical significance. … ±(2n+1)π/2 for any integer n. 5. neither ψ = A sec x or ψ = A tan x could be a solution of Schrödinger's equation for all values of x.15 cannot have physical significance in the interval shown? Why not? ¡¼Sol¡½ Figure (b) is double valued. Inha University Department of Physics . Figure (c) has discontinuous derivative in the shown interval. Figure (d) is finite everywhere in the shown interval. at x = ±π/2. and is not a function at all. Figure (f) is discontinuous in the shown interval. Which of the wave functions in Fig. The function (c) diverges as x → ±∞. (d) ψ = A exp(x2). (c) ψ = A exp(x2). ±3π/2. Which of the following wave functions cannot be solutions of Schrödinger's equation for all values of x? Why not? (a) ψ =A sec x. and cannot be a solution of Schrödinger's equation for all values of x. 3.
(a) Find the value of A. The wave function of a certain particle is ψ = A cos2x for π/2 < x < π /2. (a) The needed normalization condition is +π /2 ∗ 2 +π /2 4 ∫−π /2 ψ ψdx = A ∫−π / 2 cos xdx = A2 The integrals [∫ 3 +π / 2dx 8 −π / 2 + 1 +π / 2cos 2 xdx 2 −π / 2 ∫ + 1 +π /2 cos 4 xdx 8 −π / 2 ∫ ]= 1 ∫ +π /2 cos 2x dx −π / 2 = 1 sin 2x −π /2 2 3 1 = A 2 π . and the normalization condition reduces to or A= 8 . ¡¼Sol¡½ Both parts involve the integral ∫cos4 xdx. 8 +π / 2 and ∫ +π / 2 cos 4xdx −π / 2 = 1 sin 4x −π /2 4 +π / 2 are seen to be vanish. evaluated between different limits for the two parts.5. (b) Find the probability that the particle be found between x = 0 and x = π/4. Of the many ways to find this integral. 3π Inha University Department of Physics . 4 1 2 8 2 8 where the identity cos2 θ = ½(1+cos 2θ) has been used twice. including consulting tables and using symbolicmanipulation programs. a direct algebraic reduction gives cos 4 x = (cos 2 x )2 = [12 (1 + cos 2x )]2 = 1 [1 + 2 cos 2x + cos 2( 2x )] 4 = 1 [ + 2 cos 2x + 1 (1 + cos 4x )] = 3 + 1 cos 2x + 1 cos 4x .
and in addition must be normalizable. could a linear superposition of such wave functions meet these requirements? What is the significance of such a superposition of wave functions? ¡¼Sol¡½ The given wave function satisfies the continuity condition.(b) Evaluating the same integral between the different limits. Does this wave function meet all the above requirements? If not. ∫0 π /4 cos4 xdx = The probability of the particle being found between x = 0 and x = π/4 is the product of this integral and A2. continuous. and singlevalued. Equation (5. or 1 [83 x + 14 sin 2x + 32 sin 4x ]π/4 = 3π + 1 . and so the integral of Ψ∗Ψ over an infinite region cannot be finite if A ≠ 0. with no forces acting on it) in the +x direction as Ψ = Ae −(i /h)(Et − pc ) where E is the particle's total energy and p is its momentum.9) gives the wave function of a particle moving freely (that is. there can be no limit to its range.1. in order to give physically meaningful results in calculations a wave function and its partial derivatives must be finite. 5. Inha University Department of Physics . but is not normalizable. specifically. and is differentiable to all orders with respect to both t and x. 0 32 4 A2 (3π + 1 ) = 38π (3π + 1 ) = 0. Ψ∗Ψ = A*A is constant in both space and time. As mentioned in Sec.46 32 4 32 4 7. and if the particle is to move freely.
¡¼Sol¡½ ˆˆ It's crucial to realize that the expectation value <px> is found from the combined operator px . h ∂ h ∂ ( xp )Ψ = x ( pΨ) = x ˆˆ ˆ ˆ Ψ = x Ψ. multiply by /i and multiply by x. and it is intimately related to the uncertainty principle. at the expense of normalizing the wave function. t)." Using these operators. Such a superposition would necessarily have a non. and is localized. i ∂x i ∂x where the product rule for partial differentiation has been used. the wave function is composed of different momentum states. and hence a finite ∆x. corresponds to "multiply by x.<xp> = /i This result is described by saying that p and x do not commute. Show that the expectation values <px> and <xp>) are related by <px> . 9. which.zero ∆p. Also. corresponding to a real particle.A linear superposition of such waves could give a normalizable wave function. differentiate with respect to x and multiply by /i. when operating on the wave function Ψ(x. h ∂ h ∂ ( px )Ψ = p( xΨ ) = ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ( xΨ ) = Ψ + x Ψ . i ∂x i ∂x Inha University Department of Physics ." whereas the operator xp corresponds ˆˆ to "differentiate with respect to x.
∂ψ x 2π 2π x = − A sin 2πνt − 2π − A sin 2πνt − 2π . t) normalized. x = A cos 2πνt − 2π x .5) with the help of de Broglie’s relationship λ = h/mv by letting y = ψ and finding ∂2ψ/∂x2 . = ∂x λ λ λ λ 2 2 ∂ 2ψ 2π x 2π 2π x 2π = A cos 2πνt − 2π − = A cos 2πνt − 2π = − ψ λ λ λ λ λ λ ∂x 2 Inha University Department of Physics .(3.1).Thus h Ψ i ∞ h h ∞ h and < px − xp >= ∫−∞ Ψ * Ψdx = ∫−∞ Ψ* Ψdx = i i i for Ψ(x. ( px − xp )Ψ = ˆ ˆ ˆˆ 11. Obtain Schrödinger’s steadystate equation from Eq. ¡¼Sol¡½ Using λν = vp in Equation (3. and using ψ instead of y. ψ = A cos 2π t − v p λ Differentiating twice with respect to x using the chain rule for partial differentiation (similar to Example 5.5).
32) λ ∂x 2 h2 h so that p2 h 1 KE = E − U = = .The kinetic energy of a nonrelativistic particle is (E − U ) λ2 h 2 ∂ 2ψ 1 and 2 ψ Substituting the above expression relating ∂x 2 λ 2 2 2 ∂ψ 8π m 2m 2π = − ψ = − ( E − U )ψ = − 2 ( E − U )ψ . 2m λ 2m 2 1 = 2m Inha University Department of Physics . which is Equation (5.
Explain why the wavelength and amplitude of &P vary as they do. ¡¼Sol¡½ The wave function must vanish at x = 0. this condition would determine the allowed energies. the particle's kinetic energy must decrease. where V →∞. As the potential energy increases with x. The wave function vanishes again where the potential V →∞. and so the wavelength increases. One of the possible wave functions of a particle in the potential well of Fig.13. 5.17 is sketched there. and the particle is more likely to be found where the momentum has a lower magnitude. The amplitude increases as the wavelength increases because a larger wavelength means a smaller momentum (indicated as well by the lower kinetic energy). Inha University Department of Physics .
the distinction need not be made. with n ≠ m and n ≠ m. (A more general orthogonality relation would involve the integral of ψn*ψm. the stipulation n ≠ m means that α ≠ β and α ≠ β and the integrals are of the form Inha University Department of Physics . m.15. An important property of the eigenfunctions of a system is that they are orthogonal to one another. which means that ∫ +∞ ψ ψ dV −∞ n m =0 n ≠m Verify this relationship for the eigenfunctions of a particle in a onedimensional box given by Eq. a convenient identity to use is sin α sin β = 1 [cos(α − β ) − cos(α + β )]. 2 as may be verified by expanding the cosines of the sum and difference of α and β. (5.) To do the integrals directly. ¡¼Sol¡½ The necessary integrals are of the form +∞ 2 L nπx mπx ∫−∞ψ nψ mdx = L ∫0 sin L sin L dx for integers n. To show orthogonality. but as the eigenfunctions in this problem are real.46).
the expectation value <x2> is 2 L n πx < x 2 >n = ∫0 x 2 sin 2 dx . ¡¼Sol¡½ Using Equation (5.46). 2 2 3 3 3 u u2 u 1 − sin 2u − cos 2u + sin 2u . 4 4 8 6 Inha University Department of Physics .m)π = sin(n .∫−∞ψ nψ mdx +∞ = 1 L ∫0 L (n − m )πx (n + m )πx cos − cos dx L L L L (n − m )πx L (n + m )πx = sin − sin = 0.m)π = sin 0 = 0 has been used. (n − m )π L (n + m )π L o where sin(n . the expectation value <x> of a particle trapped in a box L wide is L/2. which means that its average position is the middle of the box. From either a table or repeated integration by parts. the indefinite integral is nπx L L 3 ∫ x sin L dx = nπ ∫ u sin udu = n π where the substitution u = (nπ/L)x has been made. 17. As shown in the text. Find the expectation value <x2>. L L See the end of this chapter for an alternate analytic technique for evaluating this integral using Leibniz’s Rule.
With x1 = 0 and x2 = L. for which the probability distribution is independent of position in the box. Each of the terms in the integral vanish at u = 0. P0L 1 2nπx 1 x = − sin = . ¡¼Sol¡½ This is a special case of the probability that such a particle is between x1 and x2. as found in Example 5. cos 2u = cos 2nπ = 1.This form makes evaluation of the definite integral a bit simpler. and the terms with sin 2u vanish at u = nπ. n →∞ 3 which is the expectation value of <x2 > in the classical limit. when x = 0 u = 0. note that L2 2 lim < x >n = .4. L 0 n L 2nπ L Inha University Department of Physics . Find the probability that a particle in a box L wide can be found between x = 0 and x = L/n when it is in the nth state. and when x = L u = nπ. and so the result is 3 2 L (nπ )3 nπ 1 2 2 1 < x >n = − . 19. =L − L nπ 6 4 3 2n 2π 2 As a check.
¡¼Sol¡½ The normalization constant. 3. 3. K Find the value of the normalization constant A. 18). 3. 2.K L L L n z = 1.21.43)). assuming A to be real. A particle is in a cubic box with infinitely hard walls whose edges are L long (Fig. The result is A =1 2 2 L 3 or 2 A= L 3/ 2 Inha University Department of Physics . 2. L L L Each integral above is equal to L/2 (from calculations identical to Equation (5. 2. is given by ∫ψ * ψ dV = 1 = ∫ψ * ψdxdydz n yπy L n πx L n πz L = A 2 ∫0 sin 2 x dx ∫0 sin 2 dy ∫0 sin 2 z dz . The wave functions of the particle are given by n x = 1. 5.K n xπ x n z πy n z πz ψ = A sin sin sin n y = 1.
= − 2 ψ. Inha University Department of Physics . ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) For the wave function of Problem 521. 2 2mL (b) The lowest energy occurs when nx = ny = nz = 1. or nz can be zero. Before substitution into Equation (5. = − 2 ψ. None of the integers nx.33) gives E ψ = 0. as that would mean ψ = 0 identically.nz = (n x + n y + n z ).) (b) Compare the groundstate energy of a particle in a onedimensional box of length L with that of a particle in the threedimensional box. The minimum energy is then 2mL which is three times the groundstate energy of a particle in a onedimensional box of length L.23. (Hint: inside the box U = 0. it is convenient and useful to note that for this wave function 2 2 2 n yπ 2 ∂ 2ψ nx π 2 ∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ n zπ 2 = − 2 ψ. L2 h2 π 2h 2 2 2 2 and so the energies are En x . Equation (5.33).33) must be used to find the energy.n y . substitution into Equation (5. E min = 3π 2h 2 2 − π2 2 2 2 (n x + n y + n z ) + ψ 2m . ny. (a) Find the possible energies of the particle in the box of Exercise 21 by substituting its wave function ψ in Schrödinger's equation and solving for E. ∂x 2 L ∂y 2 L ∂z 2 L Then.
05 × 10− 34 J ⋅ s)(1. may be solved for the energy E.1 × 10−31 kg)(1. (5.25. What bearing would you think the uncertainty principle has on the existence of the zeropoint energy of a harmonic oscillator? ¡¼Sol¡½ If a particle in a harmonicoscillator potential had zero energy. Inha University Department of Physics .86). ¡¼Sol¡½ Solving equation (5. The uncertainty principle dictates that such a particle would have an infinite uncertainty in momentum.200 × 10− 9 m ) Equation (5.60) for k2.15 × 1010 m 1 2L T 2( 0.60) to find the energy they should have if 1.00 percent of them are to get through the barrier.95 eV = 6.00 eV high and 0. A beam of electrons is incident on a barrier 6.00 eV − 2( 9. This contradiction implies that the zeropoint energy of a harmonic oscillator cannot be zero.200 nm wide.6 × 10−19 J/eV ) 27. but a more direct expression is p2 ( hk 2 )2 E = U − KE = U − =U − 2m 2m ((1. and hence an infinite uncertainty in energy.15 × 1010 m−1))2 = 0. from the appendix. 1 1 1 k2 = ln = ln(100) = 1. Use Eq. the particle would have to be at rest at the position of the potential minimum.
so A = . the energy of the oscillator is 1 1 hν kA 2 = hν . (5. −∞ ∞ and ∞ 2 ∫−∞ x ψ * ψ dx It is far more convenient to use the dimensionless variable y as defined in Equation (5. ¡¼Sol¡½ The expectation values will be of the forms ∫−∞ xψ * ψ dx ∫ 2 ∞ ye − y dy . 2 2 k Using this for x in Equation (5. Find the expectation values <x> and <x2> for the first two states of a harmonic oscillator. 31. h k k where Equation (5.67). y = 1 at x = A.67).29. −∞ Inha University Department of Physics . where y is the quantity defined by Eq.64) has been used to relate ν. ¡¼Sol¡½ When the classical amplitude of motion is A.67) gives 2πmν hν mν 2 y= = 2π = 1. −∞ ∫ 2 ∞ y 3e − y dy . −∞ ∫ 2 ∞ y 4e −y dy . The necessary integrals will be proportional to ∫ 2 ∞ y 2e −y dy . m and k. Show that for the n = 0 state of a harmonic oscillator whose classical amplitude of motion is A.
and in fact <x> = 0 for any state of a harmonic oscillator (if x = 0 is the minimum of potential energy).8 problems in this manual. 2 k 4π 2mν 2 Inha University Department of Physics . the necessary integrals are ∫ ∞ x 2ψ o *ψ 0dx −∞ 2mν = h = h 1/2 h 2πmν 3/ 2 ∫ ∞ 2 −y2 y e dy −∞ π (1/ 2)hν E = = 0. or by any of the methods outlined at the end of this chapter or in Special Integrals for Harmonic Oscillators. leads to <x> = 0. To find <x2> for the first two states. from symbolicmanipulation programs. The other two integrals may be found from tables. ∫−∞ ∫−∞ 2 4 An immediate result is that <x> = 0 for the first two states of any harmonic oscillator.7). A generalization of the above to any case where the potential energy is a symmetric function of x.The first and third integrals are seen to be zero (see Example 5. k 2π 3/ 2mν 2 4π 2mν 2 1/2 ∫ ∞ x 2ψ 1* ψ1dx −∞ 2mν = h = h h 2πmν 3/ 2 ∫ 2 ∞ 2y 4e − y dy −∞ 2π 3 /2mν 2 3 π ( 3/ 2)hν E1 = = . The integrals are 2 2 ∞ 1 ∞ 3 y 2e −y dy = π. preceding the solutions for Section 5. which gives rise to wave functions that are either symmetric or antisymmetric. y 4e − y dy = π.
E 1 mgH (1.00 s ) 1 n= − = = − = 1.07 × 10−15 eV. dx dx = dy = dy h dy 2πmν has been used. What is the corresponding quantum number? ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) The zeropoint energy would be 1 h 4. A pendulum with a 1.80 m/s 2 )(1.14 × 10−15 eV ⋅ s E 0 = hν = = = 2. The period of the pendulum is 1.64).48 × 1028.00g bob has a massless string 250 mm long.70) for n. as well as Table 5. H is the maximum pendulum height. and solving Equation (5.00 s. (a) What is its zeropoint energy? Would you expect the zeropoint oscillations to be detectable? (b) The pendulum swings with a very small amplitude such that its bob rises a maximum of 1.63 × 10 J ⋅ s Inha University Department of Physics . (b) The total energy is E = mgH (here.00 s) which is not detectable. −34 hν 2 h /T 2 6. 33.In both of the above integrals.2 and Equation (5. given as an uppercase letter to distinguish from Planck's constant).00 × 10− 3 kg )( 9.00 mm above its equilibrium position. 2 2T 2(1.
this is possible in region I. 2mE 2m ( E − U ) .00x106 m/s enters a region with a sharply defined boundary in which the electron speeds are reduced to 1.82)).00mA beam of electrons moving at 2. 5. where E > U (Fig. Find the transmitted and reflected currents. (c) A 1. the wave function in the two regions has the form ψ I = Aeik1x + Be −ik1x . due to reflection at the step at x = 0. (b) Show that the transmission probability here is T = CC*v‘/AA*v1 = 4k12/(k1 + k’)2.37. Consider a beam of particles of kinetic energy E incident on a potential step at x = 0 that is U high. Inha University Department of Physics . and D = 0. the exp(ik’x) term is not physically meaningful. k′ = . so that D = 0.19). Therefore. (a) Explain why the solution Deik’x (in the notation of appendix) has no physical meaning in this situation. but not in region II (the reasoning is the same as that which lead to setting G = 0 in Equation (5.00x106 m/s by a difference in potential. ¡¼Sol¡½ (a) In the notation of the Appendix. where k1 = ψ II = Ce ik ′x + De −ik ′x . h h The terms corresponding to exp(ik1x) and exp(ik’x) represent particles traveling to the left.
889 mA. k1 k′ Adding to eliminate B. so T = (4x2)/(2+1)2 = 8/9. and the reflected current is 0. 2 AA * k1 (k1 + k ′ )2 ((k1 /k ′) + 1)2 ψ I v1 For the given situation. so Equation (5. R= ψ I − v1 ψ I + v1 2 2 = BB * AA * Eliminating C from the equations obtained in part (b) from the continuity condition as x = 0.111mA.(b) The boundary condition at x= 0 are then A + B = C. As a check on the last result. note that the ratio of the reflected current to the incident current is.83) becomes 2 ψ II v ′ CC * k ′ 4k1k ′ 4(k1 /k ′) T = = = = .00.00 mA) = 0. 2 ′ A k1 + k AA * (k1 + k ′) (c) The particle speeds are different in the two regions. The transmitted current is (T)(1. k′ ik1A − ik1B = ik ′C or A − B = C . so k 1 2 C 2k1 CC * 4k1 = . (k /k ′) − 1 1 k′ k′ A 1 − = B 1 + . 2 A = 1 + C . so R = 1 k (k /k ′) + 1 = 9 = 1 − T k1 1 1 Inha University Department of Physics . k1/k’ = v1/v’ = 2. and = . in the notation of the Appendix.
and the variation with the polar direction (variation along the direction from the classical axis of rotation). the variation in the azimuthal direction (the variation along the circumference of the classical orbit). 3. d 2 R10 = − 5 / 2 e −r /ao . y. dr a0 and R10 (r ) = e −r / 2ao 3 /2 2 Inha University Department of Physics . (6.14) and that it is normalized. three quantities are needed to describe the variation of the wave function throughout space. Why is it natural that three quantum numbers are needed to describe an atomic electron (apart from electron spin)? ¡¼ sol¡½ Whether in Cartesian (x. z) or spherical coordinates. The three quantum numbers needed to describe an atomic electron correspond to the variation in the radial direction.Chapter 6 Problem Solutions 1. Show that a0 is a solution of Eq. ¡¼sol¡½ For the given function.
∫0 R10 r dr = a 3 ∫0 r e 2 o where the substitution u=2r/ao has been made. and E = − 2 . 2 2me 2 = .1 d 2 dR10 2 1 r 2 −r /ao e r = − 5 /2 2 2r − 2 dr dr ao r ao r 1 2 R10 = 2− a r ao o This is the solution to Equation (6. ao h 2 4πεo which is the case. 4 ∞ 2 − 2r /ao 1 ∞ ∞ 2 2 dr = ∫0 u 2e −udu.14) if l=0 ( as indicated by the index of R10). To show normalization. The improper definite integral in u is known to have the value 2 and so the given function is normalized. 2m 1 e2 E =− = E1 8πεoao or ao = 4π 2εoh 2 me 2 Inha University Department of Physics . or h2 ao again as indicated by the index of R10.
15) the integral. It is possible to express the integral in terms of real and imaginary parts. the fact that ei2πn = 1 for any integer n ( in this case (ml’ – ml)) has been used.5. apart from the normalization constants. 5 it was stated that an important property of the eigenfunctions of a system is that they are orthogonal to one another. In Exercise 12 of Chap. Inha University Department of Physics . which means that Verify that this is true for the azimuthal wave functions Φml of the hydrogen atom by calculating 2π * ∫ Φml Φml′ dφ for ml ≠ ml′ 0 ∞ * ∫−∞ψ nψm dV = 0 n ≠ m ¡¼sol¡½ From Equation (6. which is given for this case. but it turns out to be more convenient to do the integral directly in terms of complex exponentials: ∫0 2π e −imlφe imlφdφ = = ′ ∫0 2π i (ml′ −ml′ )φ e dφ 1 ′ ′ 2π e i(ml −ml )φ 0 = 0 i (ml′ − ml ) [ ] The above form for the integral is valid only for ml ≠ ml’. In evaluating the integral at the limits. is 2π * 2π −im φ im ′φ ∫0 Φml Φml′dφ = ∫0 e l e l dφ .
In the quantum theory. must be the square of some integer less than or equal to l. But. the product l(1+1).7. l 2 ≤ l (l + 1) < (l + 1)2 or any nonnegative l. if any. Lz must be an integer multiple of . and so L = pr = . and L = 0 for a groundstate hydrogen atom. Therefore. Inha University Department of Physics . l(l + 1) is the square of an integer only if l = 0. is Lz equal to L? ¡¼sol¡½ From Equation (6. ¡¼sol¡½ In the Bohr model. 9.21). for the groundstate orbit of an electron in a hydrogen atom.22). from Equation(6. zeroangularmomentum states (ψ spherically symmetric) are allowed. in which case Lz = 0 and L = Lz = 0. with equality holding in the first relation only if l = 0. λ = h/mv = 2πr. Under what circumstances. Compare the angular momentum of a groundstate electron in the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom with its value in the quantum theory. for L to be equal to Lz.
±1. l = 3 and 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 = l (l + 1) − l l =1− . l = 1 and 1 For a d state. ±3.18 = 18% = 0. and f states. is. a total of nine possible values. for a given l. ±2. l = 2 and 1 For a f state. What are the possible values of the magnetic quantum number ml of an atomic electron whose orbital quantum number is l = 4? ¡¼sol¡½ From Equation (6.13 = 13% Inha University Department of Physics .11. d. ±4. ¡¼sol¡½ The fractional difference between L and the largest value of Lz. Find the percentage difference between L and the maximum value of Lz for an atomic electron in p. the possible values for the magnetic quantum number ml are ml = 0. L − L z .29 = 29% = 0.22). l (l + 1) l +1 = 0. 13.max L For a p state.
25). and this also corresponds to a minimum. Differentiating the above expression for P(r) with respect to r and setting the derivative equal to zero. 4r 2 − 2r /ao P (r ) = 3 e . d 4 2r 2 − 2r /ao e P (r ) = 3 2r − = 0.1 in Equation (6.15.7 it is stated that the most probable value of r for a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom is the Bohr radius ao. Inha University Department of Physics . which is the radius of the first Bohr orbit. At r = 0. dp/dr → 0 as r → ∞. The only maximum of P(r) is at r = ao. In Sec. and because P(r) is never negative. Verify this. ¡¼sol¡½ Using R10(r) from Table 6. ao or for an extreme. P(r) = 0. ao The most probable value of r is that for which P(r) is a maximum. dr ao ao r2 r = ao and r = 0. this must be a minimum. 6.
and ignoring the leading constants (which would not affect the position of extremes). ¡¼sol¡½ Using R20 (r) from Table 6. Find the most probable value of r for a 3d electron in a hydrogen atom. and because P(r) is never negative. this must be a minimum. The only maximum of P(r) is at r = 9ao. d P (r ) = dr 2r 6 6r = 3ao 5 5 2r 6 − 2r /3ao 6r − e = 0. Differentiating the above expression for P(r) with respect to r and setting the derivative equal to zero. 9a o or for an extreme.17. At r = 0. and this also corresponds to a minimum.1 in Equation (6. dP/dr → 0 as r → ∞. P(r) = 0. 3ao and r = 0.25). Inha University Department of Physics . which is the radius of the third Bohr orbit. P (r ) = r 6e − 2r / 3ao The most probable value of r is that for which P(r) is a maximum.
the wave function is independent of angle. n = 1.1. where for n = 1. Specially. 2 P (ao )dr aoe o o e −2 e2 = = = = 1. How much more likely is the electron in a groundstate hydrogen atom to be at the distance ao from the nucleus than at the distance 2ao? ¡¼sol¡½ For the ground state. = 0 (see Problem 614).85 P ( 2ao )dr ( 2a o )2 e − 2( 2ao )/ao ( 4)e − 4 4 − 2a /a Inha University Department of Physics . l = ml. 2 P (ao )dr a oe o o e −2 4 = = = = 1. The ratio of the probabilities is then the ratio of the product r2 (R10 (r))2 evaluated at the different distances.47 P (ao / 2)dr (ao / 2)2 e − 2(ao / 2) /ao (1/ 4)e −1 e − 2a /a Similarly.19. as seen from the functions Φ(φ) and Θ(θ) in Table 6.
all its energy is potential energy.68 = 68%. The probability of finding an atomic electron whose radial wave function is R(r) outside a sphere of radius ro centered on the nucleus is ∫ ∞ ro R (r ) r 2dr 2 (a) Calculate the probability of finding a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom at a distance greater than ao from the nucleus. Find the probability r > 2ao for a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. ∫ao R(r ) r dr = a 3 ∫ao r e 2 o where the substitution u = 2r/a0 has been made. According to classical physics. (b) When a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom is 2ao from the nucleus.1. ∞ 4 ∞ 2 − 2r /ao 1 ∞ 2 2 dr = ∫2 u 2e −udu . the electron therefore cannot ever exceed the distance 2ao from the nucleus. 2 [ ] Inha University Department of Physics .21. Using the method outlined at the end of this chapter to find the improper definite integral leads to 1 ∞ 2 −u 1 −u 2 ∫2 u e du = 2 − e u + 2u + 2 2 [ ( )] ∞ 2 = 1 −2 e 10 = 0. ¡¼sol¡½ (a) Using R10(r) for the 1s radial function from Table 6.
6) has a spherically symmetric distribution of electric charge. 2 ∫4 2 2 [ ( )] [ ] 23. For l = 1. only ml = 0 is allowed. 1. the probability densities summed over all possible states from ml = 1 to ml = +1 yield a constant independent of angles θ or φ that is. ∞ 1 ∞ 2 −u 1 1 u e du = − e −u u 2 + 2u + 2 4 = e − 4 26 = 0.1)). and the theorem is verified. ml = −l ∑Θ +l 2 Φ = constant 2 This theorem means that every closed subshell atom or ion (Sec.24 = 24% . and l = 2 with the help of Table 6.(b) Repeating the above calculation with 2 a0 as the lower limit of the integral. Φ(φ) and Θ(θ) are both constants (from Table 6. 7. ¡¼sol¡½For l = 0. Verify Unsold's theorem for l = 0. 2π 4 2π 2 2π 4 4π Inha University Department of Physics . l = 1. the sum is 1 3 1 3 1 3 3 sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = . Unsold's theorem states that for any value of the orbital quantum number l.
For l = 2. using a bit of hindsight. 2π 16 2π 4 2π 16 The above may he simplified by extracting the commons constant factors. 16π Of the many ways of showing the term in brackets is indeed a constant. seems to be one of the more direct methods. combining the identical terms for ml = ±2 and ml = ±1. which holds for any l and ml. the one presented here.cos2 θ to eliminate sin θ . the sum is 2 1 15 1 15 1 10 sin4 θ + 2 sin2 θ cos2 θ + (3 cos2 θ − 1)2 . ( 3 cos 2 θ − 1)2 + 12 sin 2 θ cos2 θ + 3 sin 4 θ = ( 9 cos4 θ − 6 cos 2 θ + 1) + 12(1 − cos 2 θ ) cos 2 θ + 3(1 − 2 cos 2 θ + cos4 θ ) = 1. Φ*Φ= 1/2π. has been used. to 5 [(3 cos2 θ − 1)2 + 12 sin2 θ cos2 θ + 3 sin4 θ ]. and again using Φ*Φ= 1/2π. Inha University Department of Physics . and the theorem is verified. one for ml = 1 and once for ml = 1.In the above. Note that one term appears twice. Using the identity sin2 θ = 1 .
Inha University Department of Physics . ¡¼sol¡½ In the integral of Equation (6. as the argument u = x. in that the product 1 ( Φ0 (φ )Θ00(θ ))∗ (Φ 0 (φ )Θ00 (θ )) = 4π is spherically symmetric. and any integral of the form of Equation (6. The ∆l = 0 transition is seen to be forbidden. and only the angular functions Φ(φ) and Θ(θ) need to be considered. the integral in Equation (6. and u = x = r sin θ cos φ is used.35). the radial integral will never. y or z will assume positive and negative values with equal probability amplitudes. vanish. and u = z = r cos θ is used. the integral (apart from constants) is π 2 cos 2 θ sin θdθ = ≠ 0 ∫0 3 If ml = ±1 initially.25.35) must vanish. the θ integral is of the form and the φ integral is of the form π 2 ∫0 sin θdθ = 2 ≠ 0 π ∫ 2π ±i φ e cos φdφ 0 = ∫ 2π cos2 φdφ 0 =π ≠0 and the transition is allowed.35) will be seen to to vanish if u is chosen appropriately.1 verify that ∆l = ±1 for n = 2 à n = 1 transitions in the hydrogen atom. If l = 1 in the initial state. With the help of the wave functions listed in Table 6. If ml = 0 initially.
Verify that the n = 3 → n = 1 transition for the particle in a box of Sec.27. 2 Lx (n + m )πx L2 (n + m )πx − sin + cos 2 2 (n + m )π L L (n + m ) π 0 Inha University Department of Physics .8 is forbidden whereas the n = 3 → n = 2 and n = 2 → n = 1 transitions are allowed. One way to find a general form for the integral is to use the identity sin α sin β = 1 [cos(α − β ) − cos(α + β )] 2 and the indefinite integral (found from integration by parts) x sin kx 1 x sin kx cos kx ∫ x cos kxdx = k − k ∫ sin kxdx = k + k 2 to find the above definite integral as L Lx (n − m )πx L2 (n − m )πx sin + cos (n − m ) L L (n − m )2 π 2 1 . including consulting tables or using symbolicmanipulation programs (see. ¡¼sol¡½ The relevant integrals are of the form nπx mπx L x sin sin dx. for instance. 5. ∫0 L L The integrals may be found in a number of ways. the solution to Problem 515 for sample Maple commands that are easily adapted to this problem).
Thus. because the integral of L times the product of the wave functions is zero. while the n = 3 → n = 2 and n = 2 → n = 1 transitions are allowed. with the result of L2 cos(n − m )π − 1 cos(n + m )π − 1 − . To make use of symmetry arguments. consider that L L nπx mπx L nπx mπx sin dx = ∫0 x sin sin dx x − sin ∫0 2 L L L L for n ≠ m. and the integral vanishes. If one of n or m is even and the other odd. n + m and n . the arguments of the cosine terms in the above expression are evenintegral multiples of π. The terms involving sines vanish. Letting u=L/2 – x. see Problem 515). and hence the integral is zero.m are even. Inha University Department of Physics .where n ≠ m2 is assumed. sin nπx nπ (( L / 2) − u ) nπ nπu = sin = sin − L L 2 L This expression will be ± cos ( nπu/L ) for n odd and ±sin ( nπu/L ) for n even. the integrand is an even function of u and the integral is nonzero. The integrand is then an odd function of u when n and m are both even or both odd. the wave functions were shown to be orthogonal in Chapter 5 (again. the n = 3 → n = 1 transition is forbidden. 2π 2 (n − m )2 (n + m )2 If n and m axe both odd or both even.
29.6 × 10 C) Inha University Department of Physics . and so the magnetic moment is proportional to rn . solving for B.010 × 10−9 m 4π ( 9.13) or Problem 428). the magnitude of the magnetic moment of an electron in a Bohr orbit is proportional to the magnitude of the angular momentum.39). ∆ λ 4πmc 0. Find the minimum magnetic field needed for the Zeeman effect to be observed in a spectral line of 400nm wavelength when a spectrometer whose resolution is 0. 31. The orbital radius is proportional to n2 (See Equation (4. Show that the magnetic moment of an electron in a Bohr orbit of radius rn is proportional to rn ¡¼sol¡½ From Equation (6.0 × 108 m/s) B = 2 = = 1.010 nm is used.34 T 9 2 −19 e λ (400 × 10 m) (1. ¡¼sol¡½ See Example 6.4. and hence proportional to n.1 × 10−31 kg )( 3.
Chapter 7
1.
Problem Solutions
A beam of electrons enters a uniform 1.20T magnetic field. (a) Find the energy difference between electrons whose spins are parallel and antiparallel to the field. (b) Find the wavelength of the radiation that can cause the electrons whose spins are parallel to the field to flip so that their spins are antiparallel. ¡¼sol¡½ (a) Using Equations (7.4) and (6.41), the energy difference is,
∆E = 2µsz B = 2µB B = 2(5.79 × 10−5 eV/T)(1.20 T) = 1.39 × 10−4 eV
(b) The wavelength of the radiation that corresponds to this energy is hc 1.24 × 10− 6 eV ⋅ m λ= = = 8.93 mm ∆E 1.39 × 10− 4 eV Note that a more precise value of AB was needed in the intermediate calculation to avoid roundoff error. 3. Find the possible angles between the z axis and the direction of the spin angularmomentum vector S. ¡¼sol¡½ For an electron, s = ( 3 /2)h, sz = ±(1/ 2)h, and so the possible angles axe given by ± (1/ 2)h 1 o o arccos = arccos = 54.7 , 125.3 3 ( 3 / 2)h
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5. Protons and neutrons, like electrons, are spin ½ particles. The nuclei of ordinary helium atoms, 4 He , contain two protons and two neutrons each; the nuclei of another type of helium 2 3 , contain two protons and one neutron each. The properties of liquid 4 atom, 2 He 2 He and liquid 3 2 He are different because one type of helium atom obeys the exclusion principle but the other does not. Which is which, and why? ¡¼sol¡½ 4 2 He atoms contain even numbers of spin½ particles, which pair off to give zero or integral 3 spins for the atoms. Such atoms do not obey the exclusion principle. 2 He atoms contain odd numbers of spin ½ particles, and so have net spins of 1 , 3 or 5 , and they obey the exclusion 2 2 2 principle. 7. In what way does the electron structure of an alkali metal atom differ from that of a halogen atom? From that of an inert gas atom? ¡¼sol¡½ An alkali metal atom has one electron outside closed inner shells: A halogen atom lacks one electron of having a closed outer shell: An inert gas atom has a closed outer shell.
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9. How many electrons can occupy an f subshell? ¡¼sol¡½ For f subshell, with l = 3, the possible values of ml are ±3, ±2, ¡¾1 or 0, for a total of 2l +1=7 values of ml. Each state can have two electrons of opposite spins, for a total of 14 electrons. 11. If atoms could contain electrons with principal quantum numbers up to and including n = 6, how many elements would there be? ¡¼sol¡½ The number of elements would be the total number of electrons in all of the shells. Repeated use of Equation (7.14) gives 2n2 + 2 (n  1)2 +... + 2 (1)2 = 2 (36 + 25 + 16 + 9 + 4 + 1) = 182. In general, using the expression for the sum of the squares of the first n integers, the number of elements would be
2(1 n(2n + 1)(n + 1)) = 1 [n( 2n + 1)(n + 1)], 6 3
which gives a total of 182 elements when n = 6.
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Inha University Department of Physics . K. Rb. This outer electron is then relatively hard to d etach.4. 5. Na. so +6e is a rough estimate for the effective nuclear charge. but not to the same extent as the filled shells. and 3. 5.4. Would you think that such an electron is relatively easy or relatively hard to detach from the atom? (b) Do the same for the sulfur (Z = 16) atom. (b) Again. 4. and Cs are.13. 15. 4. All are in group 1 of the periodic table. see Table 7. the filled 3s2 subshell will partially shield the nuclear charge. and the outer electron is relatively easy to detach. in that there is a completely filled subshell that screens the nuclear charge and causes the atom to "appear" to be a single charge. (a) Make a rough estimate of the effective nuclear charge that acts on each electron in the outer shell of the calcium (Z = 20) atom. ¡¼sol¡½ (a) See Table 7.2. The 3d subshell is empty. The ionization energies of Li. The completely filled K and L shells shield +10e of the nuclear charge of = 16e. and so the effective nuclear charge is roughly +2e.4. respectively. ¡¼sol¡½ All of the atoms are hydrogenlike. The outermost electron in each of these atoms is further from the nucleus for higher atomic number.3. and hence has a successively lower binding energy.1. Account for the decrease in ionization energy with increasing atomic number.9 eV.
F and Cl. ¡¼sol¡½ The Li atom (Z = 3) is larger because the effective nuclear charge acting on its outer electron is less than that acting on the outer electrons of the F atom (Z = 9). which would you expect to be larger in size? Why? Li and F. Na and Si. 19.17. The Na atom (Z = 11) is larger because it has an additional electron shell (see Table 7. Why are Cl atoms more chemically active than Cl.ions? Why are Na atoms more chemically active than Na+ ions? ¡¼ sol¡½ Cl. Li and Na. Na+ ions have closed shells.4).ions have closed shells. The Cl atom (Z = 17) atom is larger because has an additional electron shell. The Na atom is larger than the Si atom (Z = 14) for the same reason as given for the Li atom. whereas a Cl atom is one electron short of having a closed shell and the relatively poorly shielded nuclear charge tends to attract an electron from another atom to fill the shell. Inha University Department of Physics . whereas an Na atom has a single outer electron that can be detached relatively easily in a chemical reaction with another atom. In each of the following pairs of atoms.
79 × 10.5 eV/T 589.6 × 10−9 m Inha University Department of Physics . the total number of electrons must be even.21.6. Expressing the difference in energy levels as 1 1 ∆ E = 2µ B B = hc − . because the electron spin is ± ½. Use these wavelengths to calculate the effective magnetic field experienced by the outer electron in the sodium atom as a result of its orbital motion. 23. ¡¼sol¡½ See Example 7.5 T 2 × 5.0 nm corresponding to 3P3/2 → 3S1/2 and 589.0 × 10−9 m 589. and the anomalous Zeeman effect would be observable. The spinorbit effect splits the 3P → 3S transition in sodium (which gives rise to the yellow light of sodiumvapor highway lamps) into two lines. the net spin would be nonzero. solving for B . Why is the normal Zeeman effect observed only in atoms with an even number of electrons? ¡¼ sol¡½ The only way to produce a normal Zeeman effect is to have no net electron spin. If the total number of electrons were odd.6 nm corresponding to 3P1/2 → 3S1/2 . 589.24 × 10−6 eV ⋅ m 1 1 = − = 18. λ λ 1 2 hc 1 1 B = − 2 µB λ1 λ2 1.
29. all of the subshells must be filled. Its ground state is 2S1/2 . There axe no other allowed states.25. If j= 5 2 . and is the only possible ground state. (a) What are the term symbols of the other allowed states. What must be true of the subshells of an atom which has a 1S0 ground state? ¡¼sol¡½ For the ground state to be a singlet state with no net angular momentum. 27. This state has the lowest possible values of L and J . S = J = ½. The lithium atom has one 2s electron outside a filled inner shell. what values of l are possible? 1 2 ¡¼sol¡½ The possible values of l are j + = 3 and j − 1 2 = 2. if any? (b) Why would you think the 2S 1/2 state is the ground state? ¡¼sol¡½ For this doublet state. L = 0. Inha University Department of Physics .
and their spins are aligned oppositely to give no net angular momentum. 2 2 35 2 (b) Also from Equation (7. the corresponding angular momenta are h and 63 2 h Inha University Department of Physics . and in the ground state J = ½ . 35. for a 2 2D3/2 state. so L = 1. Why is it impossible for a 2 2D3/2 state to exist? ¡¼sol¡½ A D state has L = 2. Find the term symbol of its ground state.17). The 3p electron has l = 1. and so this state cannot exist. ¡¼sol¡½ (a) From Equation (7.17). The aluminum atom has two 3s electrons and one 3p electron outside filled inner shells. 33. The term symbol is 2P1/2 . Answer the questions of Exercise 34 for an f electron in an atom whose total angular momentum is provided by this electron. n = 2 but L must always be strictly less than n. ¡¼ sol¡½ The two 3s electrons have no orbital angular momentum. j =l ± 1 2 = 5.31. 7.
0o 2 12( 3 / 2) 2 (d) The multiplicity is 2(1/2) + 1 = 2. the state is an f state because the total angular momentum is provided by the f electron. ( 35 / 4) − 12 − ( 3/ 4) 2 arccos = arccos − = 132o 2 12( 3 / 2) 3 and (63/ 4) − 12 − ( 3/ 4) 1 arccos = arccos = 60. 2LS where θ is the angle between L and S.(c) The values of L and S are 12h and 23 h. 37. The law of cosines is J 2 − L2 − S 2 cos θ = . and so the terms symbols are 2F5/2 and 2F7/2 . The magnetic moment µ J of an atom in which LS coupling holds has the magnitude µJ = ϑ ϑ + 1)g J µ B ( where µ B = e ©¤/2m is the Bohr magneton and gJ = 1 + ϑ(ϑ + 1) − Λ(Λ + 1) + Σ(Σ + 1) 2ϑ(ϑ + 1) Inha University Department of Physics . then the angles are.
the product µJ has magnitude S 2 µB S cos α + µB L cos β = µB J + µB S cos α = µB J 1 + cos α J In the above.3). The above expression is equal to the product µJ because in this form.is the Landé g factor. L − J −S cos α = − 2J S and so S L −J −S J(J + 1) − L(L + 1) + S(S + 1) cos α = = 2 J 2J(J + 1) 2J 2 2 2 2 2 2 Inha University Department of Physics .15. How many substates are there for a given value of J ? What is the energy difference between different substates? ¡¼sol¡½ (a) In Figure 7. the factor of 2 in 2µB relating the electron spin magnetic moment to the Bohr magneton is from Equation (7. only the components of µ L and µ S parallel to J contribute to µ L . the magnitudes of the angular momenta include factors of h. The middle term is obtained by using S cos α + S cos β = J. (b) Consider an atom that obeys LS coupling that is in a weak magnetic field B in which the coupling is preserved. let the angle between J and S be α and the angle between J and L be β. (a) Derive this result with the help of the law of cosines starting from the fact that averaged over time. From the law of cosines. Then.
J . whe re ϑ(ϑ + 1) − Λ(Λ + 1) + Σ(Σ + 1) 2ϑ(ϑ + 1) (b) There will be one substate for each value of MJ. or µJ = ϑ(ϑ + 1)g J µB . for a total of 2J + 1 substates. The difference in energy between the substates is ∆ E = g J µB M J B gJ = 1 + 39. however. where MJ = J . ¡¼sol¡½ The transitions that give rise to xray spectra are the same in all elements since the transitions involve only inner. closedshell electrons. Explain why the xray spectra of elements of nearby atomic numbers are qualitatively very similar. are different for atoms of different atomic number. which. Inha University Department of Physics . together with the transitions permitted for them. Optical spectra..and the expression for µJ in terms of the quantum numbers is µJ h = J gJ µ B .. although the optical spectra of these elements may differ considerably. depend upon the possible states of the outermost electrons.
844 nm 3 E 14.2 eV) (144) = 1.41.1)2 = (10.21) or (7. the spins of the outer electrons are antiparrallel. they are parallel Inha University Department of Physics .7 × 10 eV 43.44 × 10−10 m = 0. ϒ… sol¡½ In a singlet state.2 eV) (Z . E = (10. ¡¼ sol¡½ From either of Equations (7.22). Distinguish between singlet and triplet states in atoms with two outer electrons. Find the energy and the wavelength of the Kα xrays of aluminum. The wavelength is hc 1. In a triplet state.24 × 10−6 eV ⋅ m λ= = = 8.47 keV.
5 × 104 K 5 2 3 8.Chapter 8 Problem Solutions 1. 3 2 4.5 eV or T = = 3.6 eV. 3.7 eV. Why do you think the latter energy is greater? ¡¼sol¡½ The nuclear charge of +2e is concentrated at the nucleus. At what temperature would the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a hydrogen sample be equal to their binding energy? ¡¼sol¡½ Using 4. This means that the additional attractive force of the two protons exceeds the mutual repulsion of the electrons to increase the binding energy.62 × 10 eV/K Inha University Department of Physics . but the energy needed to detach an electron from a hydrogen molecule is 15. while the electron charges' densities are spread out in (presumably) the 1s subshell.5 eV kT = 4.5 eV for the binding energy of hydrogen. The energy needed to detach the electron from a hydrogen atom is 13.
the faster the rotation and the greater the distortion. (This is why the earth bulges at the equator.5.) What effects does this stretching have on the rotational spectrum of the molecule? ¡¼sol¡½ The increase in bond lengths in the molecule increases its moment of inertia and accordingly decreases the frequencies in its rotational spectrum (see Equation (8.9)).153x1011 Hz in 12C16O and at 1. Thus. with I larger for higher J. For the different isotopes. the higher the quantum number J (and hence the greater the angular momentum). ¡¼sol¡½ From Equation (8. Denoting the unknown mass number by x and the ratio of the frequencies as r. the ratios of the frequencies will be the ratio of the moments of inertia.11) are different. the parameter I (the moment of inertia of the molecule) is a function of J. so the spectral lines are no longer evenly spaced. The J=0àJ=1 rotational absorption line occurs at 1.102x10 11 Hz in ?C16O. Find the mass number of the unknown carbon isotope. (It should be noted that if I depends on J. When a molecule rotates. will be essentially the same. r in terms of x is Inha University Department of Physics .11) will not be valid. which depends on the charges of the atoms. the atomic separation. The ratio of the moments of inertia will then be the ratio of the reduced masses. In addition. the algebraic steps that lead to Equation (8. so that the spectral lines are not evenly spaced. all of the levels as given by Equation (8.) 7. Quantitatively. inertia causes its bonds to stretch.11).
find the distance between the hydrogen and chlorine nuclei in an HCl molecule. 6. The rotational spectrum of HCI contains the following wavelengths: 12.03 x 105 m.04 x 105 m.04 x 105 m If the isotopes involved are 1H and 35Cl.89 x 105 m. or the integer 13 to three significant figures.007. 6. x= 9. 8.102) in the above expression gives x = 13.153)/(1.x ⋅ 16 r = x + 16 12 ⋅ 16 12 + 16 Solving for x in terms of r.60 x 105 m. 48r 7 − 3r Using r = (1. 9. Inha University Department of Physics .
4.129 nm (keeping extra significant figures in the intermediate calculation gives a result that is rounded to 0.947 The average spacing of these frequencies is ∆v = 0. and keeping an extra significant figure. 3.130 nm to three significant figures).) From Equation (8. the spacing of the frequencies should be ∆v = /2πI . and so the distance between the nuclei is R= I = µ 36 × ( 2. from ν = c/λ .337.73 × 10− 47 kg ⋅ m 2 2π∆ν 2π ( 0. 4.6151 if c = 2.¡¼sol¡½ The corresponding frequencies are. h 1. (A leastsquares fit from a spreadsheet program gives 0. in multiplies of 1012 Hz: 2.998 x 108 m/s is used.616 x 1012 Hz.055 × 10−34 J ⋅ s I = = = 2. Inha University Department of Physics . Solving for I and using ∆v as found above.67 × 10 − 27 kg) = 0.113.484.6151 × 1012 Hz ) The reduced mass of the HCI molecule is (35/36)rnH.73 × 10−47 kg ⋅ m 2 ) 35 × (1.11).
and (1.223 nm −27 8 2π (1.11) and solving for R. A 200Hg35Cl Molecule emits a 4. Find the interatomic distance in this molecule.22 nm to two significant figures. Inha University Department of Physics . ¡¼sol¡½ Using ν1→0 = c/λ and I = m’ R2 in Equation (8.67 × 10 kg)(3.0 × 10 m/s) or 0.055 × 10− 34 J ⋅ s)(4.4 × 10− 2 m) R= = 0.11.4cm photon when it undergoes a rotational transition from j = 1 to j = 0. m’ = mH(200x35)/(200 + 35). hλ R2 = 2πm ′c For this atom.
13. In Sec. 4.6 it was shown that, for large quantum numbers, the frequency of the radiation from a hydrogen atom that drops from an initial state of quantum number n to a final state of quantum number n  1 is equal to the classical frequency of revolution of an electron in the nth Bohr orbit. This is an example of Bohr's correspondence principle. Show that a similar correspondence holds for a diatomic molecule rotating about its center of mass.
¡¼ sol¡½
Equation (8.11) may be reexpressed in terms of the frequency of the emitted photon when the molecule drops from the J rotational level to the J  1 rotational level, hJ ν J →J −1 = . 2πI For large J, the angular momentum of the molecule in its initial state is L = h J ( J + 1) = hJ 1 + 1/ J ≈ hJ Thus, for large J, L ν ≈ , or L = ωI , 2πI the classical expression.
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15. The hydrogen isotope deuterium has an atomic mass approximately twice that of ordinary hydrogen. Does H2 or HD have the greater zeropoint energy? How does this affect the binding energies of the two molecules? ¡¼sol¡½ The shape of the curve in Figure 8.18 will be the same for either isotope; that is, the value of k in Equation (8.14) will be the same. HD has the greater reduced mass, and hence the smaller frequency of vibration vo and the smaller zero point energy. HD is the more tightly bound, and has the greater binding energy since its zeropoint energy contributes less energy to the splitting of the molecule. 17. The force constant of the 1H19F molecule is approximately 966 N/m. (a) Find the frequency of vibration of the molecule. (b) The bond length in 1H19F is approximately 0.92 nm. Plot the potential energy of this molecule versus internuclear distance in the vicinity of 0.92 nm and show the vibrational energy levels as in Fig. 8.20. ¡¼sol¡½ (a) Using m'= (19/20)mH in Equation (8.15), νo = 1 2π 20 = 1.24 × 1014 Hz  27 1.67 × 10 kg 19 966 N/m
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k = 4.11 X 1020 J. The levels are shown below, where the vertical m′ scale is in units of 1020 J and the horizontal scale is in units of 1011 m. (b) Eo = 1 h 2
19. The lowest vibrational states of the 23Na35Cl molecule are 0.063 eV apart. Find the approximate force constant of this molecule. ¡¼sol¡½ From Equation (8.16), the lower energy levels are separated by ∆E = hvo, and vo = ∆E /h. Solving Equation (8.15) for k, ∆E k = m ′( 2πνo )2 = m ′ h
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14 × 10 eV ⋅ s or 2. quantities that are not interchangeable. The bond between the hydrogen and chlorine atoms in a 1H35Cl molecule has a force constant of 516 N/m. 36 36 = 5. Is it likely that an HCl molecule will be vibrating in its first excited vibrational state at room temperature? Atomic masses are given in the Appendix.67 × 10− 27 kg 35 At room temperature of about 300 K.617 x 105 eV/K) (300 K) = 0.371 eV 1.60 × 1019 J/eV) 23 ⋅ 35 − 27 = 213 N/m k= (1.94 × 10− 20 J = 0. ∆ E = (1.063 eV)(1.026 eV.67 × 10 kg) 15 58 4.Using m’ = mH (23·35)/(23 + 35). 516 N/m Inha University Department of Physics . ¡¼sol¡½ Using ∆E = hνo = h k m′ and m ′ = mH 35 . the symbol "k" has been used for both a spring constant and Boltzmann's constant. 21.1 x102 N/m to the given two significant figures.055 × 10−34 J ⋅ s) k T = (8. It's important to note that in the above calculations. (0. but in a large collection of atoms. An individual atom is not likely to he vibrating in its first ex cited level. it is likely that some of these atoms will be in the first excited state.
g (ε1 ) = 2 Then. n(ε 2 ) 1 = = 4 e −(ε2 −ε1)/kT = 4 e 3ε1 /kT n(ε1 ) 1000 (3/ 4)(13. 6 eV ) 1 (3/ 4)(−ε 1 ) T = = = 1. At what temperature would one in a thousand of the atoms in a gas of atomic hydrogen be in the n=2 energy level? ¡¼ sol¡½ g(ε 2 ) = 8. ε 2 = ε1 / 4.6 eV The 3 2Pl/2 first excited sate in sodium is 2. and ε1 = − 13.43 × 10 4 K −5 k ln 4000 (8. 2. multiplicity of Slevel : 1 The ratio of the numbers of atoms in the states is then.6. (see Example 7.62 × 10 eV/K )(ln 4000 ) where 3.62 × 10 − 5 eV/K )(1200 K ) 1 Inha University Department of Physics .) ¡¼sol¡½ multiplicity of Plevel : 2L+1=3.09 eV 3 = 4. Find the ratio between the numbers of atoms in each state in sodium vapor at l200 K.093 eV above the 3 2S1/2 ground state.Chapter 9 Problem Solutions 1.86 × 10 − 9 exp − (8.
Inha University Department of Physics .38 × 10 − 23 J/K )(300 K ) = (2J + 1)[0. 0.217. Then. (b) can the populations of the J=2 and J=3 states ever be equal? If so. εJ 2 J (J + 1)h 2 N (J ) = ( 2J + 1) exp − h = (2J + 1) exp − 2IkT N (J = 0 ) 2IkT J (J + 1)h 2 = 2I ε J =0 = 0 J ( J +1) (1.880. respectively. The moment of inertia of the H2 molecule is 4. at what temperature does this occur? ¡¼ sol¡½ (a) g (J ) = 2J + 1. 0.06 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s)2 = (2J + 1) exp − 2(4.64¡¿1048 kg·m2. 2. x6 = 5 7 and 6 ln x = ln 5 7 Using . and 4 gives.2.5. and 0. 5x 6 = 7x 12 .68. 749]J ( J +1) J ( J +1) Applying this expression to J=0.1. 3.ln ( 7/5) and solving for T. for the populations of the J=2 and J=3 states to be equal.0275.64 × 10 − 48 kg ⋅ m 2 )(1. (b) Introduce the dimensionless parameter .3. (a) Find the relative populations of the J=0. 1 exactly. 1. ln x = − h 2 / 2IkT and ln ( 5/7 ) = . and 4 rotational states at 300 K. 1.
Find v and vrms for an assembly of two molecules.64 × 10 kg ⋅ m )(1.4) 7.00 m/s and the other with a speed of 3.24 (m/s) 9.6 eV) = 1.05 × 105 K − = 3 k (8.38 × 10 J/K) ln(1.05 × 10 − 34 J ⋅ s)2 = = 1. the kinetic energy is all translational and KE = 3 kT 2 solving for T with KE = − E1 T = 2 E1 (2 / 3)(13.00) = 2. one with a speed of 1.00 + 3.55 × 10 3 K − 48 2 − 23 2( 4. ¡¼sol¡½ v = 1 (1.00 (m/s) 2 vrms = 1 [1.6h2 T = 2Ik ln(7 / 5) 6(1.00 2 2 + 3.00 m/s.00 2 ] = 2 . At what temperature will the average molecular kinetic energy in gaseous hydrogen equal the binding energy of a hydrogen atom? ¡¼sol¡½ For a monatomic hydrogen.62 × 10− 5 eV/K) Inha University Department of Physics .
2 ∞ [Note : ∫0 ve −av dv = 1/( 2a )] ¡¼sol¡½ 1 1 ∞1 = n (v )dv The average value of 1/v is v N ∫0 v 1 m = 4πN N 2πkT m = 4π 2πkT 3/ 2 3/ 2 ∫ 2 ∞ ve − mv / 2kT dv 0 kT = m 2m 1 =2 πkT <v > Inha University Department of Physics .11.54 × 10−11 m = 15. and ∆λ = 2λ 3kT /m c −9 3(1. the shift in wavelength will be between +λ(v/c) and λ(v/c) and the width of the Dopplerbroadened line will be 2λ(v/c).38 × 10−23 J/K)(500 K)/(1.4 pm 13. Find the width due to the Doppler effect of the 656. Using the rms speed from KE=(3/2)kT = (1/2)mv2. Verify that the average value of 1/v for an idealgas molecule is 2m /πkT . v = 3kT /m .3nm spectral line emitted by a gas of atomic hydrogen at 500 K.3 × 10 m) 3.67 × 10−27 kg) = 2(656.0 × 108 m/s = 1. ¡¼ sol¡½ For nonrelativistic atoms.
5 mm can occur in a cubical cavity 1 m on a side? How many with wavelengths between 99.0 mm ) = 2. To verify that a small difference in skin temperature means a significant difference in radiation rate.5mm and 10. lower by a factor of 104.5mm and 100. A thermograph measures the rate at which each small portion of a persons skin emits infrared radiation. How many independent standing waves with wavelengths between 95 and 10.5 × 10 6 4 (10 mm ) Similarly. l9.5x102. Inha University Department of Physics .5mm is 8π (1 m)3 g( λ )dλ = (1.5 mm? (Hint: First show that g(λ)dλ = 8πL3 dλ/λ4.5 and 100. find the percentage difference between the total radiation from skin at 34o and at 35oC.) ¡¼sol¡½ The number of standing waves in the cavity is 8πL3ν 2 g(ν )dν = dν c3 2 g ( λ)dλ = g (ν)dν = 8πL3 c c 8πL3 dλ = 4 dλ c 3 λ λ2 λ Therefore the number of standing waves between 9.17.5mm is 2. the number of waves between99.
Using 1. the total energy density is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature of the cavity walls.90)4 = 0.¡¼ sol¡½ By the StefanBoltzmann law.4 kW/m 2 )(0.4 kW/m2 as the rate at which the sun’s energy arrives at the surface of the earth (1. as R = σT 4 The percentage difference is σT14 − σT 24 σT14 = T14 − T 24 T14 T 307 K = 1− 2 = 1− = 0.92 kW/m 2 (= 66%) Inha University Department of Physics .013 = 1. 3% T 308 K 1 4 For temperature variations this small. At what rate would solar energy arrive at the earth if the solar surface had a temperature 10 percent lower than it is? ϒ… sol¡½ Lowering the Kelvin temperature by a given fraction will lower the radiation by a factor equal to the fourth power of the ratio of the temperatures. the fractional variation may be approximated by ∆ R ∆(T 4 ) 3T 3∆T ∆T 1K = = =3 =3 = 0.013 R T 308 K T4 T4 21.
the fourth power of the Kelvin temperature would need to double. At what rate does radiation escape from a hole l0 cm2 in area in the wall of a furnace whose interior is at 700oC? ¡¼sol¡½ The power radiated per unit area with unit emissivity in the wall is P=σT4.67 × 10−8 W/(m 2 ⋅ K 4 ))( 973 K )4 (10 × 10− 4 m 2 ) = 51 W 27. 2[( 400 + 273) K]4 = T 4 T = 673 × 21/ 4 K = 800 K(527 o C) 25.67 × 10−8 W/(m 2 ⋅ K 4 ))((500 + 273)K )4 = 4. what is its radius? ¡¼sol¡½ The radiated power of the blackbody (assuming unit emissivity) is P = Ae σT 4 P 100 × 103 W A= = eσT 4 (1)(5. At what temperature would it radiate energy twice as fast? ϒ… sol¡½ To radiate at twice the radiate. If the blackbody is a sphere.23. 94 × 10− 2 m 2 = 494 cm2 Inha University Department of Physics . Find the surface area of a blackbody that radiates 100 kW when its temperature is 500oC. Thus. Then the power radiated for the hole in the wall is P ' = σT 4 A = (5. An object is at a temperature of 400oC.
Solving for D.9 × 10 2 K = 290 K = 17 o C 10 × 10 . A = 4πr 2 r = A / 4π = 6. the radiation rate is R = σT 4 = = A πD 2 where D is the cloud’s diameter. find its surface temperature and its diameter. The brightest part of the spectrum of the star Sirius is located at a wavelength of about 290 nm.9 × 1011 m Inha University Department of Physics .898 × 10 − 3 m ⋅ K T = = 2.0x1027 W.The radius of a sphere with this surface area is.0 × 10 27 W = π (5.67 × 10 8 W/m 2 ⋅ K 4 )(290 K )4 1 /2 = 8. then. What is the surface temperature of Sirius? ¡¼ sol¡½ From the Wien’s displacement law. If the cloud is spherical and radiates like a blackbody. the surface temperature of Sirius is 2.6 m P P Assuming unit emissivity. ¡¼sol¡½ From the Wien’s displacement law. D= P πσT 4 1. A gas cloud in our galaxy emits radiation at a rate of 1.0 × 104 K −9 λmax 290 × 10 m 33. the surface temperature of cloud is 2. The radiation has its maximum intensity at a wavelength of 10 µm.898 × 10− 3 m ⋅ K T = = = 1.27 cm 31.898 × 10− 3 m ⋅ K 2.
35. Find the specific heat at constant volume of 1.00 cm3 of radiation in thermal equilibrium at 1000 K.67 × 10 − 8 W/m 2 ⋅ K 4 ) = (1000 K )3(1. Show that the median energy in a freeelectron gas at T=0 is equal to ε F/22/3 =0. The median energy is that energy for which there are many occupied states below the median as there are above. For 0≤ε≤εF. and all states with energy above the Fermi energy are empty.630εF. ϒ… sol¡½ The total energy(U) is related to the energy density by U=Vu. U = Vu = VaT 4 = V The specific heat at constant volume is then ∂U 16σ 3 cV = = T V ∂T c 4σ T 4 c 16( 5. In terms of temperature. where V is the volume.998 × 108 m/s = 3 . the electron energy distribution is proportional to ε . ¡¼sol¡½ At T=0.03 × 10 −12 J/K 37. The median energy εM is then the energy such that ∫0 εM ε dε = 1 εF 2 0 ∫ ε dε Inha University Department of Physics .0 × 10 − 6 m 3 ) 2 . all states with energy less than the Fermi energy εF are occupied.
63 ε F 2 39. (This is the reason for the symmetry of the curves in Fig.10 about εF. if the average occupancy of a state of energy εF+∆ε is fl at any temperature.51 eV T = = = 2.) Inha University Department of Physics . Show that. 31 eV 5 (b) Setting (3/2)kT=(3/5)εF and solving for T. then the average occupancy of a state of energy εF∆ε is f2=1f1.08 × 10 6 m/s 43. The Fermi energy in silver is 5.Evaluating the integrals.9.11 × 10 − 31 kg) = 1.56 × 104 K 5 5 k 5 8. 3 or ε M = ( 1 )3/ 2 ε F = 0. 2 εF 2 5. (a)What is the average energy of the free electrons in silver at O K? (b)What temperature is necessary for the average molecular energy in an ideal gas to have this value? (c)What is the speed of an electron with this energy? ¡¼sol¡½ (a) The average energy at T=0 K is ε 0 = 3 ε F = 3.51 eV )(1.51 eV.62 × 10 eV/K (c) The speed in terms of the kinetic energy is v = 2KE = m 6ε F = 5m 6(5. 2 (ε )3/ 2 3 M = 1 (ε F )3/ 2 .602 × 10−19 J/eV ) 5(9.
27 kg/u ) = 1.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s)2 3(2)(7.4.13 × 103 kg/m 3 ) = 2(0.78 × 10−18 J = 11 eV 2 /3 Inha University Department of Physics . Calculate the Fermi energy in zinc. and M shells. ¡¼sol¡½ Zinc in its ground state has two electrons in 4 s subshell and completely filled K. Thus. L.4 u.4u)(1. The number of atoms per unit volume is the ratio of the mass density ρZn to the mass per atom mZn .85 me.85)(9.66 × 10. The density of zinc is 7. εF h2 = 2m * 3( 2) ρ Zn 8π m Zn 2 /3 (6.31 kg) 8π (65. 11 × 10. and the effective mass of an electron in zinc is 0.¡¼ sol¡½ Using the FermiDirac distribution function f 1 = f FD (ε F + ∆ε ) = 1 e ∆ε /kT + 1 e − ∆ε /kT + 1 1 1 1 e ∆ε /kT f1 + f 2 = ∆ε /kT + − ∆ε /kT = ∆ε /kT + ∆ε /kT =1 e +1 e +1 e +1 e +1 f 2 = f FD (ε F − ∆ε ) = 1 45. Then. The electronic structure of zinc is given in Table 7. there are two free electrons per atom.l3 g/cm3 and its atomic mass is 65.
n ε2 = 8 εF ( ) The number of atoms is the mass divided by the mass per atom. Are we justified in considering the electron energy distribution as continuous in a metal? ¡¼sol¡½ 3N (ε F )− 3 /2 ε At T=0. Inha University Department of Physics .55 u)(1.00g sample of copper at O K.43 × 1021 states/eV 8 7. the electron distribution n(ε) is n (ε ) = 2 3 N F At ε=εF/2. The number of states per electronvolt is 3 9.00 × 10− 3 kg) N = = 9. Find the number of electron states per electronvolt at ε=εF/2 in a 1.47.48 × 1021 εF n = = 1.04 eV.48 × 1021 ( 63.04 eV 2 and the distribution may certainly be considered to be continuous.66 × 10− 27 kg/u ) with the atomic mass of copper from the front endpapers and εF =7. (1.
4 m3) by showing that of A<< l under these circumstances. and employing the approximation.55). use Eq(9.00 u and ∫0 ∞ x e −αx dx = π / a / 2a ϒ…sol¡½ Using the approximation f(ε)=Aeε/kT. (A kilomole of He contains Avogadro’s number No atoms.55) for g(ε)dε with a coefficient of 4 instead of 8 since a He atom does not have the two spin states of an electron. where N is the total number of atoms in the sample.57) becomes Vm 3/ 2 n(ε )dε = g (ε ) f (ε )dε = A 4 2π ε e − ε /kT dε h3 Integrating over all energies. The BoseEinstein and FermiDirac distribution functions both reduce to the MaxwellBoltzmann function when eαeε/kT>>1. this approximation holds if eα>>1. find A from the norma1ization condition n(ε)dε=N. Equation (9.49. For energies in the neighborhood of kT. and a factor of 4 instead of 8 in Equation (9. Helium atoms have spin 0 and so obey BoseEinstein statistics verify that f(ε)=1/eαeε/kT≈Aeε/kT is valid for He at STP (20oC and atmospheric pressure. the atomic mass of He is 4. To do this. N = ∫ ∞ n (ε )dε 0 Vm 3 / 2 = A 4 2π h3 ∫ ∞ 0 ε e − ε /kT d ε Inha University Department of Physics . when the volume of 1 kmol of any gas is=22.
The integral is that given in the problem with x= ε and a=kT.56 ×10 −6 . A= 6.00 u)(1.626 ×10− 34 J ⋅ s ) 3 × [ 2π( 4. A= N 3 h ( 2πmkT )− 3/ 2 V Using the given numerical values. Inha University Department of Physics . so that Vm 3/2 π(kT )3 V N = A4 2π = A 3 ( 2πmkT )3/ 2 2 h3 h Solving for A.38 1× 1023 J/K )( 293K )]− 3 / 2 22.. which is much less than one. ∫ ∞ 0 εe −ε /kT dε = π (kT )3 2 .022 × 1026 kmol −1 (6.66 ×10 − 27 kg/u)(1.4 kg/kmol = 3.
9. with the result that A= 1N 3 h ( 2πm ekT ) − 3 / 2 2V = 1 (8.48 × 1026 m −3 )( 6. Note that Eq.55) must be used unchanged here.9 N/V=8. As calculated in Sec. Verify this by using the method of Exercise 49 to show that A>1 in copper if f(ε)≈Aexp(ε/kT).48x1028 electrons/m3 for copper. The FermiDirac distribution function for the free electrons in a metal cannot be approximated by the MaxwellBoltzmann function at STP for energies in the neighborhood of kT. Which is much greater than one. Inha University Department of Physics . and so the FermiDirac distribution cannot be approximated by a MaxwellBoltzmann distribution.38 ×10 −23 J/K )( 293 K)]− 3 / 2 2 = 3. ¡¼sol¡½ Here. the original factor of 8 must be retained.63 ×10 −34 J ⋅ s ) 3 × [ 2π(9.50 ×103 .11 ×10 −31 )(1.(9.51.
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