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S U G G E S T E D M E T H O D F O R BLAST V I B R A T I O N M O N I T O R I N G
CONTENTS Introduction ........................................................................................................................... Scope ..................................................................................................................................... Character of Blast Excitation ................................................................................................. Measurement Techniques and Instruments .............................................................................. Evaluation of Measurements ................................................................................................... References .............................................................................................................................. Appendix: Permanent Degradation and Displacement o f Adjacent Rock ............................. 144 145 145 149 152 156 156
Coordinator C. H. Dowding (U.S.A.)
Commission President and Journal Editor. Written comments were received from J. International Society for Rock Mechanics. Copies of the drafts have been sent to D. Avenida do Brasil. Item 8 of Table 1.R. Brinkman (South Africa). The purpose of this method is to specify procedures. biaxial and triaxial compressive strength (I0) Rock anchor testing aThis Table will be superseded as the Commission updated the priorities--J. support pressures. within the In S i t u Group. P. Ghose (India). Li and T.A. Lisboa 5. V. porosity. J. Schwenzfeier (France). Mueller (Hungary). and to achieve some degree of standardization without inhibiting the development or improvement of techniques. water content. anchor loads. filling and alteration (10) Core recovery. China). Hudson. K. Extensive written comments were received from B. Dowding (U. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS C. L e r n (Mexico). 2nd and 3rd drafts. A.). openness.A. rock quality designation and fracture spacing (I 1) Seismic tests for mapping and as a rock quality index (12) Geophysical logging of boreholes Category II: Engineering Design Tests Laboratoo': (1) Determination of strength envelope and elastic properties (triaxial and uniaxial compression: tensile tests) (2) Direct shear tests (3) Time-dependent and plastic properties In situ: (4) Deformability tests (5) Direct shear tests (6) Field permeability. Siskind (U. Any person interested in these recommendations and wishing to suggest additions or modifications should address his remarks to the Secretary General. Sassa (Japan). T. Portugal. Summer 1990 and Spring 1991. Rosai and M. Beitzer (Fed. Lab6ratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil. O. rock noise and vibrations (9) Uniaxial. ground-water pressure and flow monitoring: water sampling (7) Rock stress determination (8) Monitoring of rock movements. E. Xu (P.S. Ouchterlony (Sweden). Esteves (Portugal). A. D. Germany).). and A. the Coordinator to organize a Working G r o u p to draft a Suggested Method for blast vibration monitoring on I December 1988. New (U.S. roughness. F. Since that appointment. Test categories--priority order for standardization~ Category I: Classification and Characterization Rock material (laboratory tests): (I) Density. Table 1. attrition.) coordinated the working group and prepared the 1st. H. . driUability (5) Permeability (6) Swelling and slake-durability (7) Sound velocity (8) Micro-petrographic descriptions Rock mass (field obserrations ): (9) Joint systems: orientation. abrasiveness. This guideline fail~ under Category II: Engineering Design Tests.144 ISRM: BLAST VIBRATION MONITORING SUGGF:-TED METHOD INTRODUCTION The President of the Commission on Testing Methods appointe?. the working group has reviewed three successivel? narrowed guidelines dated Spring 1989.K. absorption (2) Strength and deformability in uniaxial compression: point load strength (3) Anisotropy indices (4) Hardness. geometry. Calder (Canada). Fernandez (Spain). spacing. Rep.
defines the terminology necessary to describe blasting vibrations and the associated air over pressure. The third section. Others have a great deal more than the regularly allowed 5 cm/sec maximum particle velocity at high excitation frequencies. GROUND MOTION 3. which usually occurs at the largest peak of the three components. the dashed line in Fig. Since it is unlikely that the physics of cracking changes at national borders. it is assumed that no permanent displacements are produced in or on the rock or soil mass surrounding the blast. (b) Transient effects result from the vibratory nature of the ground and airborne disturbances that propagate outward from a blast. Importance of dominant frequencies of excitation and structural response is introduced here and is emphasized throughout the document. the full waveform or time history of the motions should be recorded. 1. The pseudo-maximum vector sum . effects of blast-induced permanent displacements are included in the Appendix for completeness as they are associated with significant transient effects at relatively small distances. Additional factors such as human response as well as administrative and political expediency must be recognized as separable from cracking in the measurement and evaluation of ground motions. both the ground and airborne disturbances (upper-four time histories) produce structure response (lower-four time histories). many recent cracking studies have correlated visual observations of cracking with excitation particle velocity measured in the ground. 1. The L and T directions are oriented in the horizontal plane with L directed along the line between the blast and recording transducer. Measurement Techniques and Instrumentation. 1) has led to difficulty in determination of the most important. Transient means that the peak displacement is only temporary (i. Guidance is also given for monitoring response of rock masses and buried structures. the peak ground motion and thus ground strain is the maximum vector sum of the three components. Explanation is given for the need of studies with immediate pre. Special emphasis is placed on computerized systems.S. When a study focuses upon structural response. In an absolute sense. Guidance is given for the choice and deployment of instruments. When a critical location in a structure is known. 1) no matter their time of occurrence. Character of Blast Excitation. T (transverse) and V (vertical) in Fig. Whenever vibration response is a legitimate concern.and post-blast inspection to separate weather. (a) Variation of peak motions in each component (L. with H 1 and H2 oriented parallel to the structure's principal axes. H2 and V. (c) This document implicitly separates measurement of vibration to control cosmetic cracking from that to reduce human response by presenting only studies of blast-induced cosmetic cracking.e. describes generic attributes of instruments necessary to measure time histories of the blast-induced disturbances. Alternatively. both at the beginning and continuation of a project.) or on the structure's foundation (Europe). This guideline is separated into three main sections. Evaluation of Measurements. however. The second section. lasts less than one-tenth of a second) and the structure or rock mass returns to its original position. Ground motion can be described by three mutually perpendicular components labelled L (longitudinal). transient or vibratory displacement. Character of Blast Excitation 2. excitation particle velocity (that shown in Fig. V and T in Fig. This true maximum vector sum is not the pseudo-maximum vector sum calculated with the maxima for each component (dots in Fig. and vertical motions seem to control the vertical response of floors. 1. Differing cultures have differing thresholds of the toleration of vibration. Horizontal motions seem to control the horizontal response of walls and superstructures. axes can be labelled HI. presents definitions of structural response. Some have so little that urban blasting is prohibited altogether. The first section. blast response is best described by measurement of the strain at that location. Thus the only effects are those associated with the vibratory response of facilitities. In this discussion.ISRM: BLAST VIBRATION MONITORING SUGGESTED METHOD 145 Suggested Method for Blast Vibration Monitoring Scope 1.and blast-induced response. these national variations are certainly influenced by several factors in addition to the crack susceptibility of structures. l) can be measured outside the structure of concern (U. these permanent displacements can be more important than the vibrations. (a) While the subject of this guideline is the measurement of blast-induced. Because of the importance of excitation frequency in determining this structural response. As shown in Fig.
Sinusoidal approximations: (a) sinusoidal displacement at a fixed point (x = constant)..... . Rayleigh surface waves become important at larger transmission distances as illustrated in the vertical trace by the relatively larger " R " amplitude compared to the "P/S" amplitude. Therefore._v .tr'v vV v. Great care should be taken not to confuse the effects of steady-state. . ~ .. unaccounted for.17 ~ w t~-~^^. Typical blast vibrations. the wave Time ( t ) ~j Distonce ( x ) Fig. 2... 1. can be approximated as sinusoidally varying in either time or distance as shown by the time variations in Fig. which is normally 5-10% greater than the maximum.. I ^ M^A.. ^ _ A ~ ^ ^ vV .. TRANSIENT NATURE OF BLAST MOTIONS 4. shear and surface waves are produced. use of the pseudo-maximum vector sum for control provides a large. denoted as P/S on the vertical trace in Fig.20 mm/s 4.. Displacement of the cork from its at-rest position is similar to the displacement u of a particle in the ground from its at-rest position.a.. and distortional or shear waves. Vv v~ - Long....¢' B r~ ^. may be as much as 40% greater than the true maximum vector sum... .Vvv. r . .. ^ ~ ~ -- v --v.. . which form the basis of blasting controls in North America.. ^ a .hA.. ~. ~ " V V "" ~ .r velocity ... This approximation is similar to the motion of a cork caused by a passing water wave. 2a and b. As can be seen in Fig. SINUSOIDAL APPROXIMATION 5. experimental observations of threshold or cosmetic cracking. irregular blast motions. single-frequency. hence the term particle velocity.~. -'vv'Tv "" v ' v " v ..14 2. . . The most important surface wave is the Rayleigh wave. A A / ~ . "'v VerL Air dl(L) dl(T) p^. single-component peak. the cork's velocity. 1. .. -'-v. body (P/S) surface (R) and are illustrated by the ground motion in Fig. the maxima of blast-induced motions last only one or two cycles at a relatively constant amplitude and frequency.. (b) In general.^~5. Comparisonof blast excitation by ground and air-borne disturbancesand residential structure response of walls and superstructure.146 ISRM: BLAST VIBRATION M O N I T O R I N G S U G G E S T E D M E T H O D maximum ground motion I • maximum superstructure resp. and (b) sinusoidal displacement at one instant (t = constant) . as it bobs up and down ti is analogous to that of a particle in the ground. ~ yv" v" 109 dB 8. Similarly. factor of safety. .~vvu 3.69 excRatlon Ops) A ''u" 9 .. soil or the ground surface. . Thus they are not continuous (last many cycles) or steady-state (have constant frequency and amplitude). 1. (c) Two principal wave types are produced by blasting.(L) ~. the distance between wave crests.... Measurementswere made some 2000ft (600m) from a typicalsurface coal miningblast (after Dowding). denoted R on the vertical trace in Fig. I. whereas surface waves travel close to surfaces and interfaces of earth materials.. have been correlated with the maximum single component regardless of direction..vv ^ ItlWln/!VVV"v'V v v V 1. 1 measured some 600 m from a typical surface coal mining blast. The wave shape that excites the cork can be described by its wavelength 2. no matter the wave type.. Body waves travel through earth materials.~v p . .-. = MID WALL SUPER STRUCTURE (15-25 Hz) relponl4 velc¢~ (6-7 Hz) 011a) d. .._^A^A^^ ^AA. Trans.24 1/fa Time Fig.26 9. At this intersection. Body waves can be further subdivided into compressive (compression/ tension) or sound-like waves... .. '--'.18 7.. Explosions produce predominantly body waves at small distances which propagate outward in a spherical manner until they intersect a boundary such as another rock layer.--yv-vv I I vV [ I IV V ~ v "-" 9. .. harmonic motions with those of transient. "" ^ v'.
velocity and acceleration for complex waveforms are exactly related through integration or differentiation of any of the waveforms. (b) The most difficult type of record to interpret is that which contains nearly equal peaks at two dominant frequencies such as that in Fig.= tZ 0. or the number of times the cork bobs up and down in 1 sec. and the frequency f. (max particle velocity). (2) f~m~= U 2 n f = 2nfUm. (a) The accuracy or difficulty of visually estimating the dominant frequency depends upon the complexity of the time history. (b) Kinematic relations between particle displacement. 1. 3. it is not recommended. which in turn can be integrated for a displacement time history. Hz. when there is a single dominant frequency: u = U sin(2nft) (1) o. The type of time history record with the most easily estimated dominant frequency is one with a single dominant pulse like that shown in the inset in Fig. both frequencies should be calculated. ESTIMATION OF DOMINANT FREQUENCY 6. Dominant frequency histograms at nearest structures categorized by industry.2g. For instance. Construction blastin9 t2m~= U4n2f' = 27rfZim~ o. the initial portion produces the highest wall response while the second produces the greatest superstructure response. tend to produce vibrations with lower dominant frequencies than those of construction blasts. (c) The best computational approach to determining the dominant frequency involves the response spectrum. The dominant frequency of a single pulse is the inverse of twice the time interval of the two zero crossings on either side of the peak. ). as the procedure is sensitive to small changes in the slope of the velocity time history. 1.ISRM: BLAST VIBRATION MONITORING SUGGESTED METHOD 147 speed or propagation velocity c at which the wave travels past the cork. (max acceleration). Further discussion of the inaccuracies of differentiation and integration can be found in Dowding  and in texts devoted to interpretation of time histories (e. The more complex frequency analyses need to be employed only when peak particle velocities approach control limits.0 03 r-I I I (max displacement).U ~ o1 0. Construction blasts involve smaller explosions.z Usually. Even though a particle velocity record can be differentiated to find acceleration. Frequency is measured in cycles per second or Hertz. The response spectrum is preferred over the Fourier frequency spectrum because it can be related to structural displacement and thus strains . Dominant frequency is defined in the inset (after Siskind et aL ). but the typically small distances between a structure and a blast as well as rock-to-rock transmission paths tend to produce the highest dominant frequencies . A compromise approach is to calculate the dominant frequency associated with each major peak by the zero crossing approach described above.~ Surface co(~l mine bla~n(~ f = principal frequency t 1 oo ~ 03 o Quarry blasting o . As can be seen in the figure. o3 o2 o~ L : 1. when monitored at typically distant structures. Frequency f is equal to l I T or the reciprocal of the period or time it takes the cork to complete one cycle of motion. most approaches require only the calculation of the frequency associated with the maximum particle velocity for blasts that produce low particle velocities. acceleration is measured in units of gravitational acceleration. 3.2 where U is maximum displacement. 3. For the best frequency correlation of both types of response. (a) The general form for the sinusoidal approximation is best understood by beginning with the equation for sinusoidai displacement u. Therefore. the relatively large explosions produced by surface coal mining. an acceleration time history can be integrated once for a velocity time history. frequencies are the initial 15-20 Hz portion (peak A) and the later 5-10 Hz portion (peak B). f is frequency and t is t i m e a n d Ureax ---. or two-tenths that of gravity. (e) As shown in Fig. where g = 9814 mm/sec-'. (d) Since many time histories do not contain as broad a range of dominant frequenices as that in Fig. Such high-frequency motions associated with con- .o 20 40 Principal 60 frequency ao (Hz) loo 12o Fig. Dominant frequency can be estimated through: (1) visual inspection of the time history or calculated with (2) response spectra or (3) Fourier frequency spectra.g. Adoption of frequency-based vibration criteria has made the estimation and calculation of the dominant or principal frequency an important concern. an acceleration of 2000 mm/sec' is: 2000 9814 = 0. The two dominant o.
Ground motions decrease in amplitude with increasing distance. Attenuation relations showing scatter from geological and blast where P is the measured peak sound pressure and P0 is a reference pressure of 2. Both square or cube-root scaling can be employed to compare field data and to predict the attenuation or decay of peak particle velocity. which incorporates energy considerations . While this scatter is large. Typical examples of this decay are shown in Fig. however.010 O. respectively) is the source of many complaints.)]. These low-frequency pressure peaks excite structures and occupants whether or not they are sensed by the measurement instruments. Since lower frequencies can elicit greater structural response  as shown in Fig. The air-blast excitation of the walls can be seen by comparing air-blast excitation and wall response in the rightmost portion of the time histories in Fig. or plotting peak particle velocity as a function of the distance R. as shown in Fig. OSM scaled-distance limits decline with increasing absolute distance. blast-induced air over-pressure waves can be described with time histories as shown in Fig. PROPAGATION EFFECTS 7. The audible portion of the over-pressure produces direct noise. !. BLAST-INDUCED AIR OVER-PRESSURES 8. Site specific scaling is sometimes employed where scaled distance takes the form of R / W " . divided by the square root of the charge weight R / W ~/2. 1. 4. but rather that the "C" weighting system does not respond to the low-frequency pressure pulses. however. where n is determined empirically by curve fitting . (b) Propagation of blast-induced air over-pressures has been studied by numerous investigators and is generally reported with cube-root rather than squareroot scaled distances. square-root scaling is more popular.OOS t0 100 1000 Square roo't scaled distance R/W~/Z(ft/Ib ~'~) design effectsas well as high expected velocitiesfrom confined shots. (c) Figure 5 summarizes the effect of two important instrumentation and shot variables. such as presplitting (after Siskind et al.S. since at any one point air pressure is equal in all three orthogonal directions. It is also the basis for the U. The other (5 and 0. First. (a) Square-root scaling. the effect of the weighting scales is dramatically evident. the associated decay with distance is observed in all blast-vibration studies. (3) 1. air over-pressure can be described completely with only one transducer. higher frequency body wa~es begin to have relatively lower peak amplitudes than the lower frequency surface waves. 1. cratering and beginning new bench levels.9 x 10 -9 lb/in. "C" weighting greatly reduces the recorded peak pressure at any scaled distance.500 sn E E c > O. is more traditional than the cube-root scaling. it would have to be unusually high for such cracking. (a) Just as with ground motions.148 ISRM: BLAST VIBRATION MONITORING SUGGESTED METHOD struction blasts have less potential for cracking adjacent structures than do lower frequency mining blasts . R/W "~( m/kg w2) 10 t00 100 (c) Dominant frequencies also tend to decline with increasing distance and with increasing importance of surface waves. 1 where there is no ground motion. while the less audible portion by itself or in combination with ground motion can produce structural motions that in turn produce noise.1 Hz) labels denote the lower-frequency bounds of the recording capabilities of these so-called "linear" systems.S are shown in Fig. Fig. Effects of constructive and destructive interference and geology are included within the scatter of data about the mean trend of the decay in amplitude with distance. 4.050 0. Peak pressures are reported in terms of decibels. Unlike ground motions. it excites structures. Over-pressure may crack windows. While the lower frequency portion is less audible. 4 where maximum particle velocity is plotted as a function of square-root scaled distance from the blast. . Office of Surface Mining (OSM) regulations for conservative shot design when monitoring instruments are not employed.000 0. The higher frequency portion of the pressure wave is audible sound.2 [20 x 10 -~ (P. ). which is typical of blasting operations. (b) Several square-root attenuation relations employed in the U. Previous researchers have found that response noise within a structure (from blasting and sonic booms. which are defined as: d B = 20 logt0 . Although technically airborne disturbances are not directly related to ground motion. This does not mean the peak is reduced by changing instruments. which in turn causes a secondary and audible rattle within the structure and is the source of many complaints. Curve P should be used for presplitting. They are banded to reflect scatter. these air over-pressures generated by blasting intensify human response and thus need to be documented. At larger distances typical for mining.tOO 0.
These relative displacements can in turn be employed to calculate strains. hard-copy reproduction by a pen recorder light-beam galvanometric recorder or dot matrix printer (5). 5 from the higher average pressures produced by the parting shots at any scaled distance. the effect of gas venting caused by inadequate stemming in shot holes can be observed in Fig. 5. Attenuation relations for air over-pressures produced by confined (highwall) and partially-confined (parting) surface coal mining blasts as well as unconfined blasts . The most complete single reference for detailed instrumentation information that is updated periodically is the Shock and Vibration Handbook .000 R/W'/~(ft.~ 10"" C.1 dB). field-portable. the best involve microprocessors (computers) for data acquisition. Measurement Techniques and Instruments 9. which is transmitted R/WV3(rn/kc~ *s ) 10"I 10 1 100 ~ 1. velocity. these critical locations may be either unknown or too many in number to economically measure. and these shots many times eject the stemming and thereby produce abnormally high air over-pressures. storage and reproduction. where high air over-pressures are likely to occur. 6. . They should be measured directly from relative displacements on structures or within rock masses when critical locations are known (i. x\ ' 131 X \ \ '. field-portable blast monitoring system operating on a 12 V battery is illustrated in Fig. paper or computer digital recorder (4) that preserves the relative time variation of the original signal for eventual permanent. (e) An air temperature inversion causes the sound pressure wave to be refracted back to the ground and at times to be amplified in isolated locations about 16-acres in size.8 times (5. (c) Ground motion and air over-pressure time histories can be employed to calculate the relative displacement of structural components with a knowledge of the responding structure's dynamic response characteristics [l].. Therefore some means of estimation is necessary. pipelines and unusual opening geometry) and can be obtained with a variety of strain and relative displacement gauges [9.'41 r. 6. Consequently. 10]. This section describes characteristics of instruments that measure the ground motions (acceleration. through cables (2) to an amplifying system (3). there is less hole height available for stemming.s l o w ~ I I -- 101 ® ® q 2 3 4 5 Velocity (3 orthogonal) ond sound pressure transducers Cobles Amplifier \ C. structural strains control cracking.~O. and a magnetic tape.  have shown that for propagation distances of 3--60 kin.l. It consists of transducers (1) that convert physical motion or pressure to an electrical current. (b) While particle velocity is the traditional measurement of choice.e.000 I t51 \ \ 10"z 141 - s. However. There is an almost endless variety of configurations of these five basic components. Since there are many excellent sources for information on instruments. Such an inversion occurs when the no . his measurements show no inversion effects. Specific information on blast vibration monitors is contained in recent publications by the U.000 10. The accuracy of these estimates is limited by the degree to which the structure behaves as a single-degree-of-freedom system and the accuracy of the estimate of the dynamic response characteristics.S. Bureau of Mines and the OSM (i.. ). displacement) and air blast (air over-pressure).al decrease in temperature with altitude is reversed because of the presence of a warmer upper layer. (a) An idealized. . disk or memory) Light beam oscilloSCope or dot maitrlx printer Fig. Parting shots are detonated in thin rock layers between coal strata in surface mines.ISRM: BLAST VIBRATION MONITORING SUGGESTED METHOD 149 (d) Second.e. inversions produce zones of intensification of up to three times the average. Unfortunately. attenuated or low air over-pressures at those distances.slow \\ 9'1 HighwoII PaRing Unconfined 10"~ I I t ttllll i I I I tlttl i i i I lit ® 81 10 100 Cube roo1~ scolecl ¢listonce. J \ \\ . Schomer et al. blast monitoring system that shows the schematic relation of the five principal components . The unconfined relation should be used for demolition of structures after modification for effects of weather and ground reflection.rm. 1. Recorder (tope. . At distances less than 3 km.~_ ./Ib I/3) Fig. with an average increase of 1. the principal characteristics of available systems will be summarized rather than exhaustively reviewed. -~ . Idealized.
4 0. Some mechanical systems velocity is low.150 ISRM: BLAST VIBRATION M O N I T O R I N G S L G G E S T E D METHOD APPROPRIATE MEASUREMENT OF PARTICLE VELOCITY 4O 30 10. it should be measured directly to avoid differenI I IBI I I I I I II I I I tiation of the particle velocity time history. Fig.8 ducted only after possible phase shifts have been taken Frequency (Hz) into account. or particle. The difference output at low-frequency excitation to allow use of stems from historical precedent and location of trans. While any of the three kinematic descriptors (displacement. 11. but they are usually attached to and excited by the lower frequency walls and floors. The importance of mounting is a function of the 20 . 4 6 e 10 20 ao after vectoral addition of components should be cono 3 0. 7. and close-in accelerations have been measured above 1000 Hz. Furthermore. If acceleration is 2 desired. and efficient motions. Generally. and the optimum choice is dependent upon peak motions will not yield information about the the important motion characteristics. In Europe. (b) Monitoring ground motion to control cosmetic dominant frequency and time history details that control structural response and rock mass strains. the world.6 ~ 2 ~. If it is desired to measure nately the entire range of frequencies necessary to destructural response motions. 7) to determine the frequencies monitoring is the mounting of the transducers in the where this difference occurs. are histories to provide redundant measurement where fre. One of the most critical aspects of vibration those shown in Fig.and one-storey structures and 10--30 Hz for walls and floors. (a) Proper frequency response for blast vibration times it is impossible to place transducers on adjacent transducers is dependent upon two considerations: property owned by a party not involved in the project. Instruments with ducers during scientific observation of cracking rather such electronic amplification should be physically calithan difference in philosophy. special transa constant mechanical motion. the excitation or ground motion is measured on the ground adjacent to the structure of interest. Example response spectra of a velocity transducer with differ(a) The location for measurement varies throughout ing pereenta~s o f damping. then they should be scribe true blast phenomena is too large for any one measured on the most responsive structural members. Machines that record only peak motions (Type and (2) are associated with the peak velocity that II below) can be employed with those that record time produces the greatest response displacement (i.. linear within 3 dB between 2 and 200 Hz means that the transducer produces a voltage output that is constant TRANSDUCER ATTACHMENT within 3 0 0 between 2 and 200 Hz. transducer. non-critical motions. With 70% o f critical damping this system is × 3dB ( × 30%) down 1 Hz [I].e.smaller. Integration 02 0 . Peak motions cracking in low-rise structures is typically accomplished and dominant frequency can be employed to describe by measurement of ground. motions. high-frequency transducers. It has the best correlation with scientific ~ 6 4 #:o. of interest . 3. may have fundamental frequencies near 100 Hz. This range ensures proper ployed to monitor critical motions (Type I below) should recording of amplitudes at excitation frequencies which: be capable of recording time histories of selected critical (1) encompass fundamental frequencies of structures. Furthermore. Typical structure fundamental frequencies quency content does not vary widely and where particle are 5-10Hz for two. Recording only the magnitudes of employed. it can be 0 3 integrated to calculate displacement.ducers should be employed that are linear in the range mally expressed in terms of decibels (dB). if it is desired to describe the excitation measurement of the "true" phenomena. it is better to request a transducer's response spectrum (such as 12. then those motions should be measured outside measurement of important characteristics. In North America. Many manufacturers of field. velocity or acceleration) could be em= ~0 ployed to describe ground motion. Blast-induced delayed gas pressure pulses which are not the basement or foundation walls because occur at frequencies of less than 1 Hz.dominant). (b) Time histories of the three components of motion fore it is necessary to compromise the goal of defining should be measured because of the importance of exci.r observation of blast-induced cracking. For instance. which forms the basis of vibration control. This constancy is nor. Thereof the restraint provided by the ground. In North America. Therefore machines em. Frequency response is the frequency range over If it becomes necessary to monitor situations with unwhich the transducer's electrical output is constant with usually low or high dominant frequencies. many brated as described below. the excitation motion is blast monitors are electronically amplifying transducer measured on the structure's foundation.the true phenomena when only one transducer type is tation frequency. particle velocity is the > most preferable. Unfortuof and not on the structure. Typical dominant excitation TRANSDUCER RESPONSE FREQUENCY frequencies range from 5 to 100 Hz as shown in Fig.frequency range of 2-200 Hz. velocity over a low-level.
It is obvious that the entire vibration measurement system should be calibrated. The type of mounting on a horizontal surface is the least critical when the vertical maximum particle accelerations are less than 0. It is very accurate. (d) Frequency analysis of records requires a time history and thus some form of permanent record.e. Instruments recording only peak particle velocities will not allow a frequency analysis. Type I instrument should record time histories of the three axes of particle velocity as well as air over-pressure. respectively. as tape recorder performance varies at low temperature. (a) Air over-pressure transducers should be placed at least 1 m above ground. NUMBER OF INSTRUMENTS 15. Microprocessor (computer) or digital recording systems now dominate new sales of technical recording devices because of the ease of data acquisition and computer linkage. Since it must monitor continuously. All transducers mounted on vertical surfaces should be bolted in place. light-sensitive paper in combination with light-beam galvanometers to record highfrequency motions. the possibilities of rocking the transducer or the transducer package are small. 1000 times/sec. This single. and sometimes up to 1 month. and the transducer may be placed upon a horizontal measurement surface without a device to supply a holding force. battery-powered memory chips or paper. The present trend in vibration equipment is to include a signal-conditioning amplifier in the recorder to allow flexible amplification of the signals. Sending permanent records through the mail for interpretation. DIGITAL. A third and fifth should be available but not deployed to insure continuous coverage in case of instrument failure. If multiple shots are likely. The newest generation recorders employ dot matrix printers and/or floppy discs with microcomputers. Mounting of transducers on spikes in soil is discouraged because the free response of the mounting system may effect the recorded motion. When the measurement surface consists of rock. then two and four are the smallest and optimum number of instruments. as it is futile to record data if they cannot be exploited because of a lack of reference. and records can be directly accessed by a computer. those that automatically print after a vibration event may not be recording another event while printing. When the maximum particle accelerations fall between 0. Many of the tape systems involve separate record and reproduction modules to reduce the complexity of recording.2g. Manufacturers supply calibration curves with their instruments that are similar to the response spectra for transducers shown in Fig. u.v. most employ compact FM cassettes.0g. In this range. floppy disc. but the best employ digital recording techniques. pointed downward (to prevent rain damage) and covered with a wind screen to reduce wind excitation-induced false events.ISRM: BLASTVIBRATION MONITORING SUGGESTED METHOD particle acceleration of the wave train being monitored. epoxy or quick-setting cement (hydrocal or other gypsum based cements set within 15-30 min). say.or multichannel units. If the above methods are unsatisfactory or accelerations exceed 1. Digital recording has several advantages. While the smallest number of instruments or triaxial transducer locations for recording blast excitation motions is one. Furthermore. it must trigger (begin recording) automatically. two triaxial positions would provide a more thorough documentation of the spatial distribution of effects. CALIBRATION 14. The best axis is the vertical. Unfortunately. (c) Most recorders can be bought as either single. If only one instrument is employed. and be capable of monitoring even while printing or communicating results. the transducer or transducer package should be buried completely when the measurement surface consists of soil .0g. 7. as variation in tape speed has no effect if cassette tapes are employed as the storage medium. this reset time should be determined. (a) Of those blast-monitoring systems with tape recorders.2 and 1. Recalibration or checking requires special platforms where frequency and displacement are controlled. A four-channel unit is necessary in blast monitoring to record simultaneously the three components of the ground motion (L. These 13. asphalt or concrete the transducers should be fastened to the measurement surface with either double-sided tape. TAPE AND HARD-COPY RECORDERS 151 printer behaviour in cold weather is variable and should also be investigated. then it should be located at the nearest or most critical receiver. and in the field. only cement or bolts are sufficient to hold the transducer to a hard surface. V and T) and the air blast. a calibrating circuit to pulse the magnetic core of the geophone . (b) A permanent record or "hard copy" of the vibration time history is usually made on photographic film. Care should be exercised to determine the exact details of the system before purchasing. since no horizontal direction decision is required and surface waves usually involve a significant vertical component regardless of the direction of the maximum horizontal component. When blasting will occur at more than one general location (i. The signal is sampled at a certain rate. (a) The second and fourth instruments in the situations described above may provide a lower level of information and will be termed Type II. results in a delay of 5 days. Almost all present film-based recorders employ field-developable. Details of the digitization process are discussed elsewhere . RMMS 29/2--E . Systems with light-sensitive paper or dot matrix printers allow immediate interpretation of frequency without additional costly equipment. and each sample is converted to a single magnitude. They must at least continuously record the peak particle velocity in one axis and may or may not measure air over-pressure. involve different nearest structures separated by hundreds of metres).
a blast with a larger burden will produce :~. 4 but wi~. Description of these responses collectively as "damage" blurs the distinction between cosmetic cracking and structural distress.g. Measurement of structural response (in addition to excitation) may require more instruments. and the resulting attenuation relation shows only the effect of distance. intended vibration levels at the structure may be exceeded because of poor choice in the location of holes and/or their relative time of initiation.152 ISRM: BLAST VIBRATION MONITORING SUGGESTED METHOD instruments should be located at a greater distance than the nearest structure to monitor a large area. Therefore.displaced cracks--includes surfacial cracking which does not affect the strength of the structures (e. MAJOR--permanent distortion---occurs only at very high particle velocities and results in serious weakening of the structure (e. (b) The third or spare instrument can be either Type I or II. wi:h the s:lme weight of explosive detonated at any ins:. Such synthesis of time histories to guide blast design has met with variable success but does not replace monitoring of blast effects at critical structures during production blasting.g. consider control by specification of the maximum charge weight detonated per instant at given distances from the nearest structure.:: . a minimum of four instruments should be deployed to measure peak particle velocity along a single azimuthal direction at widely differing scaled distances for the same blast. loosened or fallen plaster). however. Applicable regulations and mining or construction schedules may require a larger number. Direct regulation or specification of effects. differing initiation timing will produce changes in the time history. then two such attenuation lines are necessary. loose bricks in chimneys). In order to investigate the effects of certain data sets on the overall conclusions. control limits are based upon excitation and not response motions.g.h a larger intercept on the velocity axis. test blasts should be conducted to minimize the number of instruments necessary to monitor production blasts. for any one blast design.::nuation relation parallel to that in Fig. the spare should be Type I. This spare instrument can also be employed to monitor sites where complaints develop. the linear orientation should be along a path with constant thickness of soil and not cross any large geologic discontinuities such as faults. Seismographs and/or transducers should be placed along a single line with constant geology to determine best the attenuation relation.. hairline cracks in masonry. both length and frequency content. single-hole test blast and a number of instruments to record the attenuation and frequency change around the site .r. the test blasts allow the determination of the frequency content of motions at different scaled and absolute distances. For instance. Excessive structural response has been separated into three categories arranged below in the order of declining severity and increasing distance of occurrence [14. DEFINITIONS OF STRUCTURAL RESPONSE 18. Unmeasurables in observation or crack documentation can be taken into account indirectly by considering the appearance of cosmetic cracks as a probabilistic event. but not necessarily with each blast. INSTRUMENT DEPLOYMENT DURING TEST BLASTS 16. multiple hole blasts at the differing instrument sites. (c) A number of approaches to blast design for vibration control are now available that employ a singledelay. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA WITH PREAND POST-BLAST INSPECTION 19. is the most effective control from a regulatory viewpoint because effects are so dependent upon details of the shot geometry and initiation sequence. Evaluation of Measurements 17. direction and/or geology. Furthermore. Such public relations monitoring of vibrations at locations associated with complaints is essential in North America where lawsuits arise even when all blast effects comply with regulatory guidelines.'. major settlement resulting in distortion and non-vertical walls). Where air over-pressures will be problematic or frequencies critical. broken windows. For instance.t of time. If geology changes radically. parameters and initiation sequences are constant. When blasting projects begin. it is also heavily dependent upon the blast geometry and timing. Ideally. Such relations vary from project to project because of changes in geology and blasting practices. large cracks or shifting of foundations or bearing walls. THRESHOLD--cosmetic cracking--occurs at the lowest velocities and only opens old cracks or produces hairline cracks in plaster walls or may dislodge loose objects (e. Even with such detailed specification. Such dependency renders control impossible by simple regulatory specification of two or three design parameters. Additionally. (b) During tes: blasts. rather than specification of blast design. These single-time histories are then synthesized to reproduce the additive time history effects of multiple delay. 15]. or at all critical structures to determine the effects of direction and variable geology. when geological conditions change radically or when new initiation systems are introduced. M I N O R . Although it is dependent upon geology. the probability computations of threshold or cosmetic cracking at given . (a) The attenuation relation is not solely a site property. Instrument locations should be chosen to produce project-specific attenuation relations for both air over-pressure and ground motion. (c) The above approach describes the least number of instruments.
As shown in Fig.~L ~ :/f. Furthermore.and post-blast inspection of walls in residential structures in both Europe and North America. (b) According to Fig. . FREQUENCY CONTROL OF STRUCTURAL RESPONSE 20. below which no blast-induced cosmetic cracking was observed.o o 60 " 40 g o 30 E o •g so & G) O) r~ 2o ~ 3o o 2O 10 lO o 5 1 I I ~ II ltl I i i i i till 1 1 0. Such immediate inspection is mandatory to separate structural distortion caused by natural weather changes from that caused by blast vibration. 9. . cosmetic cracks similar to those caused by natural. Threshold damage is the occurrence of hair-sized. All of the observations studied by Siskind involve both immediate pre. The observations include low-frequency motions associated with surface mining. 0. distorted and whose walls were covered with plaster. 8.e • Major damage ~. 16].lsec] Fig./sec) 1 0. His data are those that tend to populate the lower region of Fig.S. walls and floors respond more to the higher frequency (15-20 Hz) waves in the early portion of that time history. Probability analysis of worldwide blast cracking data . 55). Structures respond most to ground motions when the excitation frequency matches the structure's fundamental frequency. p. If the probability of cracking is calculated as the percentage of observations at lower levels of velocity. . environmentally-induced expansion and contraction. This approach seems conservative as low particle velocity observations do not count non-cracking at higher levels.ISRM: BLAST VIBRATION MONITORING SUGGESTED METHOD 153 particle velocity levels have been made several times [15. some of the other studies. To resolve this difficulty. while the superstructure or overall skeleton of the structure responds more to the last or lower frequency (5-10 Hz) portion./sec (20mm/sec). 9. the result is the log-normal scaled plot of the probability of cracking particle velocity in Fig. velocity [in. High-frequency data ( > 40 Hz) show that a 5% probability of displaced cracking does not occur until particle velocities reach 75 mm/sec . only the new U.79 in. Probability analysis of blast-induced threshold cracks observed by U.5 1 Particle velocity 10 (in. Particle lO 99 i llll i i i i (c) Admissibility of Dvorak's data has been questioned by the researchers reexamining the old data in the late 1970s because of the absence of time histories. 8. Again there is a particle velocity. Bureau of Mines . this lower bound case was observed in response to a surface coal mine blast. (a) Differences in structural response such as that shown in Fig. (a) Data from various sets of systematic crack observations were analyzed with the assumption that every cracking observation excludes the possibility of noncracking at a higher particle velocity (Siskind et al. 8.z~'-~~. iool 1ooo II velocity (mm/sec) too I o 95 90 8O 7O := J~ o oj° O O 8o 60 50 • ~ J~ 0 . This observation includes data with unusually low frequencies that were collected by Dvorak .5 I I Porticle I 2 I 5 I 10 I 20 50 Fig. 8. such as that by Langefors et al.2 I 0. many of which were old. Langan  Particle lO 99 velocity loo i i i i~ (mm/sec] i 95 90 • Threshold damage Minor domo. are also plagued by the unavailability of time histories. 1 can be calculated from the ground motions if the natural frequency and damping of structural components arc known or estimated.S.j:/.2 0. there appears to be a lower limit of particle velocity of 12 mm/sec below which no cosmetic or threshold cracking (extension of hairline cracks) has been observed from blasting anywhere in the world. 1. Bureau of Mines observations have been included in a recomputation of probabilities in Fig.
In this range the surface mining motions produce response velocities that are 10 times greater than the construction blast.20 I 1. More work is necessary to reconcile these differences in limits. Comparison of time histories and response spectra from construction and surface mining blasts respectively lasting 0. O.~ Q.. While both of these standards allow greater particle velocities for high-frequency excitation.8 mm/s 3.10 0. 0 I I 0. l O. and 3. which compares various control limits.15 and 2.01 1 2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 80100 Frequency.3 mm/s I E o O.60 I I 2.~. This improved correlation is largely a result of the consideration of excitation frequency.~.15.0 sec.~ I B I I "~ o ¢D 0. the allowance of higher particle velocities in high-frequency excitation is the same.00 : j 1. 21]. responses in the 5--20 Hz frequency range differ greatly. lO • 0.. urban construction blast and a large. Hz particle velocity A Z @ maximum 3.8 mm/sec for the construction blast A.3 mm/sec for the surface mining blast B..1 ISRM: BLAST VIBRATION MONITORING SUGGESTED METHOD has shown that measured structural response has a higher correlation coefficient with calculated singledegree-of-freedom (SDOF) response than with peak ground motion. Although the peak particle velocities are similar: 3. 5-20Hz.~ 0..00 I T i t ~ . Regardless of the difference in limits. 11. [20. $O¢ Fig. (c) This lower response of structures with natural frequencies of 5-20 Hz to high-frequency excitation shown in Fig. 0.lg 10.0 in.80 I I 1.1 in.20 A 0. the response spectra differ radically.40 I I 0.600 kg of ANFO (ammonium nitrate fuel oil) with a planned maximum charge per delay of 60 kg some 825m from the recording instrument. 1. surface coal mine blast. Limits are based upon particle velocity measurement in the ground (OSM) and on the foundation (DIN).3 kg at a distance of only 15m. This difference is greatest in the range of natural frequencies of residential structures and their components. Therefore structural motions can be estimated more accurately by assuming that they are proportional to response spectrum values at the particular structure's natural frequency than by assuming that they are proportional to the peak ground motion . 0. The much smaller construction blast involved detonation of 9 kg of gelatin with a maximum charge per delay of 2. 10 has led to the adoption of frequencybased standards in Germany and the U.~ 0. 10. Even though the particle velocities are approximately equal.S. (b) Figure I0 compares time histories and response spectra from the longitudinal components of a small. there is considerable disagreement over the allowable particle velocities as shown in Fig.05 ¢D c 0.01 in IOamping ! 5%) lOO I > =. The mining blast involved detonation of 12. .lO 0.
. The small circles are the maximum.6 0 blast 86. strains in a restrained buildings (U). cracks are initiated by strains.* --) DeutscheNormen .0 -1.w I J E E I[ 2.5 L -2. . are poorly-built. Regardless whether response is Fig. and requires the measurement of c= and across the most dynamically responsive wall covering c.(4) than 25 mm/sec are less than those caused by the passage C¢ Cs ' of weekly weather fronts [1(3].2 87. Comers 2 and restrained or free. ' ' ' ' ' '"'1 I • ~.-. Even though the maximum recorded particle velocity was as high as 24 ram/see. (-. Hz cannot respond freely. c= and c.0 87.0 0... 12. . wood-framed house to compressive and shear wave propagation velocities. 20F (~) ¢ ~ i n ot.ea \ / "71 > ® . however.velocities.0 ~" 1. This conclusion was reached after measuring the displacement response of a where ~ and 7 are axial and shear strains. especially when ~ is measured at the ing.1j. 12. RESTRAINED STRUCTURES AND ROCK MASSES _o < 22. . .and 7 . . More work is required to improve this i 02.. zero-to-peak. This calculation of strain is itions that included cracked and uncracked wall cover. respectively . At other gauges. are maximum compressive and shear wave particle Displacements were measured at l0 different wall pos. the maximum weather-induced displacements were three times that produced by blasting. weather changes produced displacements that were 10 times greater than those produced by blasting.-:ore . @ 25 e~ crack are compared in Fig.. Capacity for free response allows above-ground structures such as homes and rock pinnacles to amplify 0.4 Year Fig. Weather and blast-induced crack displacements ground surface. 11.w" o.8 87. The continuous and highly cyclical curve is that of displacements produced by environmental change. Crack width changes from ground motions less E = .approximate. (6s~ . Upper and lower dotted lines have been Whereas strains in a freely-responding structure are employed safely for close-in construction blasting near engineered proportional to the relative displacement between the structures (E) and in urban areas near older homes and historic ground and the superstructure..0 86. .ISRM: BLASTVIBRATION MONITORING SUGGESTED METHOD 155 o '°°1= I- . . 3 of OSM are unverified.. dynamic displacements recorded by the same gauge.0 0 0 0 0 0 CD ! ~4).~ ~. buried or 1 4 10 20 30 100 restrained structures such as pipelines and rock masses Blast Vibration Frequency. Comparisonof crack displacementsin a wood-framedhouse produced by weather-inducedchanges in humidityand temperature ( ) with those produced by surface coal mine introduced ground motions (0). non-engineered. . i ii selectively incoming ground motions. Frequencybased blast vibration control limits: ( ) Office of SurfaceMining.5 E t43 ~ I 1.5 weather •~ -1.n ® a. at the site. i i i t illl ! i i I . and surface coal mining vibrations for some 8 months.5 E 0. structure such as pipelines will usually be those of the surrounding ground and can be approximated as those COMPARISON OF BLAST AND produced by plane wave propagation and are: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS 21. .
Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. A. Fourth Conf. Seismological Society of America (1962). U.S. Degradation is normally described by cracking intensity. E. Roth J. Schomer P. (a) Displacement can be produced by either delayed gas pressures (those that accumulate during detonation) or to a lesser extent by vibration-induced shaking. Dynamic and static design considerations for underground chambers. D..K. J. T. Special Technical Publication (1983). 4.000.S.. No. 23. Rosenthal M. 16. Crowthorne. 46 (1983). and Edwards A. The development of a rational damage criteria for low rise structures subjected to blasting vibrations. The statistics of amplitude and spectrum of blasts propagated in the atmosphere. Gas pressure related displacement can occur out to 10s of metres. 31. W. TRRL. T. Los Altos. pp. Blasting vibrations and building damage. Berkeley. Hall. 3. No. and Little M. Vol. Siskind D. NJ (1977).. The probability of flyrock. Kopp J. Comparison of environmental and blast induced effects through computerized surveillance. New B. Soils that are either slightly cemented or contain more than 5% fines are a great deal less subject to vibratory densification from typical ground motions. Washington. 48. (c) Another special case of permanent displacement is the vibratory densification of a nearby mass of loose.ober 1991. Synthetic delay versus frequency plots for predicting ground vibration from blasting. Dowding C. and Crede C. J.V. 113-127. 25. 143-160. 8. R. L.S. Lundborg N. and Dowding C.S. Washington. 1069-1088 (1988). U. Earthquake. Sbornik (1962). 2. CA (1979). PrenticeHall.. New York (1976). 5 kg charges within the loose sand mass itself. pp. W. of Interior. Stevens M. and Kopp J. Englewood Cliffs. . and Gilbert C. 26. Winzer S. 14. TA I0193 (1967).S. J. critical s t r a i n s c a n be esti- REFERENCES 1. Northwestern University. Report DS 1981:5. Reading and interpreting Strong Motion Accelograms.. Earthquake Notes. M. Siskind D. Proc. Syrup. E. Soils that are densifiable are loose sands. P. Hall. Ground vibration caused by civil engineering works. Siskind D. Howard. 159. and Engler A. the p i p e s t r a i n s s h o u l d be m e a s u r e d directly o n the m e t a l . 19. Stockholm (I981). pp. IEEE Computer Society Press (1983). Such blast-induced cracking has been observed experimentally to vary with hole diameter and rock type [24. S. J. Langan R. APPENDiX--Permanent Degradation and Displacement of Adjacent Rock 23. 24. Ivanov P. Medearis K.S. Ground vibrations in blasting. Structure response and damage produced by ground vibrations from surface blasting. Anderson D. S.. Northwood T. H. Water and Power Resources Services. with the exception of fly rock. Report of Investigations 8485 (1980). Stagg M. 28. Report of Investigations 8896 (1984). 18. Water Power Sept.. DIN 4150 (1983). Institution of Civil Engineers. Hendron A. E. OH (1978). E. PrenticeHall. and Dowding C. Engineering of rock blasting on civil projects. U. 29.S. The Swedish approach to contour blasting. clean sand. (1963). Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Structures response and damage produced by airblast from surface mining.. Peck Honorary Volume (3. and Fernandez G. leakage of gas pressures along open joints. J. Society of Explosives Engineers. DC (1976). NTIS. Coupling small vibration gauges to soil. Hudson D.S. M. 22. Harris C. Careful blast design can reduce dramatically these maximum distances. 3. CA. Report of Investigations 8508 (1981). Hendron A. Bureau of Mines.. Montville. Stagg M. Thesis. F. Report of Investigations 8506 (1980). Ved. S. U. NJ (1988). Geogysikalni. J. New B. 9. Dowding C. and poor shot design with large burdens. Such movement is unusual but is associated with isolated blocks. Minneapolis. U. Measurement of blast induced ground vibrations and seismograph calibrations. 70-74. mineralogy and grain size distribution. Statistical studies have shown that the probability of these extreme events are quite low under normal circumstances. F o r cases i n v o l v i n g o n e critical l o c a t i o n a l o n g a pipeline. U. U. Vol. Ed. E. Blast and tmpact. and Kihlstr6m B. Office of Surface Mining. J. Report to National Crushed Stone Assoc. (1958). Ed. American Society of Civil Engineers. S. H. Bureau of Mines. M. Goff R. Permanent effects. Dynamic stability of rock slopes and high frequency traveling waves. S. The effect of detonator variability on explosively induced ground vibration. DIN. Blast Vibration Monitoring and Control.156 ISRM: BLAST VIBRATION MONITORING SUGGESTED METHOD m a t e d t h r o u g h c a l c u l a t i o n o f the relative flexibility o f the rock a n d liner . Stachura V.. L. Bureau of Mines. (1986). and Fumanti R. M. Department of Civil Engineering. J.000 at 600m . Geotech. 12. Bureau of Mines. 7.S. F o r cases i n v o l v i n g t u n n e l a n d / o r c a v e r n liners. 13.S. 20. NJ (1985). Prace Geofyrikenina Ustance. No. Siskind D. 30. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. Englewood Cliffs. CO. 17. Denver. Lang*fors U. Seismic Design ofErabankments and Caverns (r. Crawford R. Available for inspection. Delayed gas pressures have dislocated blocks as large as 1000m ~ during construction blasting . OSM. Translated from Russian by the National Science Foundation and available from the library of the U. Blasting Guidance Manual. Vibratory or shaking-induced displacement is normally associated with unstable blocks in rock slopes and can occur wherever static factors or safety are low and ground motions produce permanent displacements that are larger than the first-order asperity wavelength on the sliding joint or plane .. Bureau of Mines. D. PB81-222358 (1979). with less than 5% silt-size particles.. (Eds) Shock Vibration Handbook. Eastern Section. U. Int.)n 30 Oc. The Engineer 215. J. and Engler A. Johnson C. 5. F. A model for the determination of flyrock range as a function of shot conditions. Blast-produced fractures in Lithonia granite. Holmberg R. Bureau of Mines. Seismic effects of blasting on brick houses. and larger-hole-diameter mining blasts are capable of producing cracks at distances of 10-15m. London (1991). 27. H. 1 in 10. (b) Fly rock is a special case of permanent displacement of rock by explosive expulsion from the top of the blast hole and has been propelled as far as 100-1000 m . R. IX2 (1983). Stachura V.S. are encountered only near shot holes and can be divided into degradation and displacement. Airblast instrumentation and measurement techniques for surface mining.). Stagg M.). on Computer Aided Seismic Analysis and Discrimination. U. Small-bole-diameter construction blasting has induced cracking at distances of 1-2 m. H. 21. Open file report of responses to questions raised by RI 8507. McGraw-Hill. MN (1981). Bureau of Mines by Management Services Association. 3rd Int. Department of the Interior. Proc. The propensity for such densification is a function of the soil's density. Report of Investigations 7901 (1974). E. E. Dept. 40-47. Siskind D. These clean sands were densified out to distances of 20 m  after detonation of single. Effects of repeated blasting on a wood-frame house. Dvorak A. Report of Investigations 8507 (1980). IL (1980). pp.S. Compaction of noncohesive soils by explosions. Stagg M. Deutsche Normen: Erschiitterungen im Bauwesen--Einwirkungen auf bauliche Anlagen. Englewood Cliffs. G. Bureau of Mines. A. Technical Report N-13 (1976). U.. The Art and Science of Geotechnical Engineering at the Dawn of the 21st Century. Westerberg H. Swedish Detonic Research Foundation. Siskind D. Ed. on Explosives and Blasting Techniques. 6. 10. and Persson P. UMIST Manchester. I 1. B. E. 33. Structural and Geotechnical Mechanics (W. Since the probability increases with decreasing distance. Evanston. 25]. blasting mats are required for any construction blasting in an urban environment to prevent all fly rock. and Morelock G.). Engng ASCE 114. CFR. Report prepared for the U. and Ritter A. Conf. PrenticeHall. a p p r o a c h to e s t i m a t i n g s t r a i n . U. 15. Accepted for publlcat. Dowding C. Transport and Road Research Laboratory LR53. Ceskoslovenski Akademie. Adequacy of single-degree-of-freedom system modeling of structural response to blasting vibrations. H.
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