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CHAPTER 04
THE SECOND LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
41 EFFICIENCY OF A HEAT ENGINE
Example 41
A diesel engine performs J 2200 of mechanical work and
discards J 4300 of heat each cycle.
(a) How much heat must be supplied to the engine in each
cycle?
(b) What is the thermal efficiency of the engine?
Solution
(a) J W Q Q
OUT IN
6500 2200 4300 = + = + =
(b) % 34 34 . 0
6500
2200
or
Q
W
IN
= = = η
Example 42
An engine with % 20 efficiency does J 100 of work in each
cycle.
(a) How much heat is absorbed in each cycle?
(b) How much heat is rejected in each cycle?
Solution
(a) The efficiency of a heat engine is given by
IN
Q
W
= η
J
Q
Q
IN
IN
500
20 . 0
100
= = =
η
(b) J W Q Q
IN OUT
400 100 500 = − = − =
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 83
Example 43
An engine absorbs J 100 and rejects J 60 in each cycle.
(a) What is its efficiency?
(b) If each cycle takes s 5 . 0 , find the power output of this
engine in watts.
Solution
(a) The efficiency of the heat engine is defined as
% 40 40 . 0
100
60 100
or
Q
Q Q
Q
W
IN
OUT IN
IN
=
−
=
−
= = η
(b) W
t
Q Q
t
W
P
OUT IN
80
5 . 0
60 100
=
−
=
−
= =
Example 44
Find the efficiency of a Carnot engine working between the
temperatures C
0
225 and C
0
25 . B.U. B.Sc. (Hons.) 1983A
Solution
The efficiency of a Carnot engine is given by
% 100 1 ×


¹

\

− =
H
L
T
T
η
% 40 % 100
273 225
273 25
1 = × 
¹

\

+
+
− = η
Example 45
What is the maximum efficiency of a steam engine that
utilizes steam from a boiler at K 480 and exhausts at
K 373 . K.U. B.Sc. 2003
Solution
The efficiency of a Carnot engine is given by
% 100 1 ×


¹

\

− =
H
L
T
T
η
% 3 . 22 % 100
480
373
1 = × 
¹

\

− = η
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 84
Example 46
A heat engine performs 200 joules of work and at the same
time rejects 3000 joules of heat to the cold body. Calculate
the efficiency. B.U. B.Sc. (Hons.) 1989A
Solution
The efficiency of a Carnot engine is given by
% 100 1 ×


¹

\

− =
IN
OUT
Q
Q
η
% 25 . 6 % 100
200 3000
3000
1 = × 
¹

\

+
− = η
Example 47
A Carnot engine is operated between two heat reservoirs at
temperatures of K 400 and K 300 . If the engine receives
1200 joules of energy from the reservoir at K 400 in each
cycle, how many joules of energy does it reject to the
reservoir at K 300 ? B.U. B.Sc. (Hons.) 1986A
Solution
The efficiency of a Carnot engine is given by


¹

\

− =


¹

\

− =
IN
OUT
H
L
Q
Q
T
T
1 1 η
IN
OUT
H
L
Q
Q
T
T
=
J Q
T
T
Q
OUT
H
L
OUT
900 ) 1200 (
400
300
= 
¹

\

=


¹

\

=
Example 48
A steam engine, operating between C
0
115 and C
0
60 ,
develops hp 2500 . How much heat must be supplied if its
overall efficiency is 10 percent? What is the maximum
efficiency that an ideal heat engine can have when it
operates between the stated temperatures? (1 hp = 746 W).
B.U. B.Sc. 1999A
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 85
Solution
Let
IN
Q be the supplied heat, then
IN IN
Q Q of W 1 . 0 % 10 = =
IN
Q 1 . 0 746 2500 = ×
J Q
IN
7
10 865 . 1
1 . 0
746 2500
× =
×
=
The efficiency of ideal heat engine is given by
% 2 . 14 142 . 0
273 115
273 60
1 1 or
T
T
H
L
=
+
+
− =


¹

\

− = η
Example 49
A heat engine absorbs kJ 4 . 52 of heat and exhausts kJ 2 . 36
of heat per cycle. Calculate the efficiency and the work done
by the engine per cycle. P.U. B.Sc. 2003, 2009
Solution
The efficiency of a Carnot engine is given by
% 100 1 ×


¹

\

− =
IN
OUT
Q
Q
η
% 9 . 30 % 100
4 . 52
2 . 36
1 = × 
¹

\

− = η
The work done by the engine per cycle is
kJ Q Q W
OUT IN
2 . 16 2 . 36 4 . 52 = − = − =
Example 410
A Carnot’s engine takes
6
10 36 . 3 × joules of heat from a
reservoir at C
0
527 and gives some heat to sink at C
0
27 .
What is the efficiency of engine? How much work does it
perform in joules? K.U. B.Sc.2006
Solution
The efficiency of heat engine is given by


¹

\

− =
H
L
T
T
1 η
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 86
% 5 . 62 625 . 0
273 527
273 27
1 or =
+
+
− = η
The work done by the engine is
J Q W
IN
6 6
10 1 . 2 ) 10 36 . 3 )( 625 . 0 ( × = × = =η
Example 411
A Carnot engine extracts J 240 of heat from a high
temperature reservoir during each cycle. It rejects J 100 of
heat at reservoir at C
0
15 .
(i) How much work does the engine do in one cycle?
(ii) What is its efficiency?
(iii) What is the temperature of the hot reservoir?
K.U. B.Sc. 2001
Solution
(i) The work done by the engine is given by
J Q Q W
OUT IN
140 100 240 = − = − =
(ii) The efficiency of the given Carnot engine is
% 3 . 58 % 100
240
100
1 % 100 1 = × 
¹

\

− = ×


¹

\

− =
IN
OUT
Q
Q
η
(iii) The efficiency of Carnot engine in terms of
temperatures of reservoirs is given by
% 100 1 ×


¹

\

− =
H
L
T
T
η
100
273 15
1 3 . 58 ×


¹

\
 +
− =
H
T
H
T
288
1 583 . 0
100
3 . 58
− = =
418 . 0 583 . 0 1
288
= − =
H
T
C or K T
H
0
418 691
418 . 0
288
= =
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 87
Example 412
A heat engine operates between two reservoirs at K 300
and K 500 . During each cycle it absorbs cal 200 of heat
from the hot reservoir.
(a) What is maximum efficiency of the engine?
(b) Determine the maximum work the engine performs
during each cycle. B.U. B.Sc. 2008A
Solution
(a) The efficiency of heat engine is given by


¹

\

− =
H
L
T
T
1 η
% 40 40 . 0
500
300
1 or = − = η
(b) The heat absorbed by the engine from hot reservoir in
each cycle is
J J cal Q
IN
2 . 837 ) 186 . 4 )( 200 ( 200 = = =
The work done by the engine in each cycle is
J Q W
IN
88 . 334 ) 2 . 837 )( 40 . 0 ( = = =η
Example 413
A Carnot engine absorbs heat from a reservoir at a
temperature of C
0
1000 and rejects heat to a cold reservoir
at a temperature of C
0
0 . If the engine absorbs 1000joules
from the high temperature reservoir, find heat rejected and
efficiency of heat engine. B.U. B.Sc.(Hons.) 1988A, 1989A
Solution
Now
H
L
IN
OUT
T
T
Q
Q
=
J Q
T
T
Q
IN
H
L
OUT
214
) 273 1000 (
) 1000 )( 273 0 (
=
+
+
=


¹

\

=
The efficiency of heat engine is given by
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 88
% 100 1 ×


¹

\

− =
H
L
T
T
η
% 6 . 78 % 100
273 1000
273 0
1 = × 
¹

\

+
+
− = η
Example 414
In a Carnot cycle, the isothermal expansion of an ideal gas
takes at C
0
140 and isothermal compression at C
0
25 . During
the compression, J 2090 of heat energy is transferred to the
gas. Calculate
(i) The work performed by the gas during isothermal
expansion.
(ii) Heat rejected from the gas during isothermal
compression.
(iii) Work done on the gas during isothermal compression.
K.U. B.Sc. 2002, 2005
Solution
(a) J Q W
IN
2090 − = − = The negative sign indicates that the
work is done by the gas.
(b) The efficiency of Carnot engine is given by
% 100 1 ×


¹

\

− =
H
L
T
T
η
% 8 . 27 % 100
273 140
373 25
1 = × 
¹

\

+
+
− = η
Now % 100 1 ×


¹

\

− =
IN
OUT
Q
Q
η
) 100 (
2090
1 8 . 27 
¹

\

− =
OUT
Q

¹

\

− = =
2090
1 278 . 0
100
8 . 27
OUT
Q
722 . 0 278 . 0 1
2090
= − =
OUT
Q
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 89
J Q
OUT
1509 ) 2090 )( 722 . 0 ( = =
(c) Work done on the gas during isothermal compression
J Q W
OUT
1509 = =
Example 415
A Carnot cycle has efficiency % 75 working between
highest and lowest temperatures. What is the lowest
temperature of its high temperature is C
0
927 ?
B.U. B.Sc. 2007S
Solution
The efficiency of a Carnot engine is given by


¹

\

− =
H
L
T
T
1 η
273 927
1
100
75
+
− =
L
T
1200
1 75 . 0
L
T
− =
25 . 0 75 . 0 1
1200
= − =
L
T
C K T
L
0
27 300 ) 1200 )( 25 . 0 ( = = =
Example 416
A Carnot engine has an efficiency of % 22 . It operates
between heat reservoirs differing in temperature by C
0
75 .
Find the temperature of the reservoirs.
K.U. B.Sc. 2004, 2008
Solution
Let
L
T and
H
T be the temperatures of cold and hot reservoirs
(i.e. sink and source) respectively, then the efficiency of Carnot
engine is given by
H
L
T
T
− =1 η
Now 22 . 0 % 22 = = η
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 90
K T T
L H
) 75 ( + =
Hence
75
75
75
1 22 . 0
+
− +
=
+
− =
L
L L
L
L
T
T T
T
T
75
75
22 . 0
+
=
L
T
75 5 . 16 22 . 0 = +
L
T
5 . 58 5 . 16 75 22 . 0 = − =
L
T
C or K T
L
0
7 266
22 . 0
5 . 58
− = =
C or K T T
L H
0
68 341 75 266 75 = + = + =
Example 417
A Carnot heat engine with an efficiency of 0.20 operates
between two temperatures that differ from each other
by K 100 . What are the temperatures between which the
cycle operates?
Solution
The efficiency of a Carnot engine is given by
H
L
T
T
− =1 η
Now 20 . 0 = η
K T T
L H
) 100 ( + =
Hence
100
100
100
1 20 . 0
+
− +
=
+
− =
L
L L
L
L
T
T T
T
T
100
100
20 . 0
+
=
L
T
100 20 20 . 0 = +
L
T
80 20 100 20 . 0 = − =
L
T
K T
L
400
20 . 0
80
= =
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 91
K T T
L H
500 100 400 100 = + = + =
The given engine operates between 400 K and 500 K.
Example 418
The exhaust temperature of a heat engine is C
0
220 . What
must be the high temperature if the Carnot efficiency is to
be % 36 ?
Solution
Now
H
L
T
T
− =1 η
H
T
273 220
1
100
36 +
− =
H
T
493
1 36 . 0 − =
64 . 0 36 . 0 1
493
= − =
H
T
C or K T
H
0
497 770
64 . 0
493
= =
Example 419
In one cycle of operation a heat engine takes in J 2200 of
heat and performs J 620 of work.
(a) What is the efficiency of this engine?
(b) How much heat is exhausted in each cycle?
(c) If the engine completes a cycle each s 033 . 0 , then at
what rate is heat added, heat exhausted, work done?
Solution
(a) The efficiency of heat engine is defined as
% 28 28 . 0
2200
620
or
Q
W
IN
= = = η
(b) The heat exhausted in each cycle is
J W Q Q
IN OUT
1580 620 2200 = − = − =
(c) kW W
t
Q
P
IN
IN
7 . 66 10 67 . 6
033 . 0
2200
4
= × = = =
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 92
kW W
t
Q
P
OUT
OUT
9 . 47 10 79 . 4
033 . 0
1580
4
= × = = =
kW W
t
W
P 8 . 18 10 88 . 1
033 . 0
620
4
= × = = =
Example 420
The low temperature reservoir of a Carnot engine is at
C
0
10 and has an efficiency of % 50 . How much the
temperature of the high temperature reservoir is increased
to measure the efficiency to % 50 ? K.U. B.Sc. 2007
Solution
The efficiency of a Carnot engine is given by


¹

\

− =
H
L
T
T
1 η
H
T
273 10
1 50 . 0
+
− =
50 . 0 50 . 0 1
283
= − =
H
T
K T
H
566
50 . 0
283
= =
Let
1
η be the new efficiency of heat engine with new source
temperature as
*
H
T , then
*
1
1
H
L
T
T
− = η
*
283
1 60 . 0
H
T
− =
40 . 0 60 . 0 1
283
*
= − =
H
T
K T
H
5 . 707
40 . 0
283
*
= =
The desired increase in temperature of hot reservoir is
K T T T
H H
5 . 141 566 5 . 707
*
= − = − = ∆
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 93
Example 421
A heat engine utilizes a heat source at C
0
580 and has a
Carnot efficiency of 29 percent. To increase the efficiency to
35percent, what must be the temperature of the heat
source?
Solution
The temperature of the cold reservoir i.e. sink is calculated as
under
H
L
T
T
− =1 η
273 580
1 29 . 0
+
− =
L
T
71 . 0 29 . 0 1
853
= − =
L
T
K T
L
606 ) 853 )( 71 . 0 ( = =
Let
1
η be the new efficiency of heat engine with new source
temperature as
*
H
T , then
*
1
1
H
L
T
T
− = η
*
606
1 35 . 0
H
T
− =
65 . 0 35 . 0 1
606
*
= − =
H
T
C or K T
H
0 *
659 932
65 . 0
606
= =
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 94
Example 422
A Carnot heat engine operates between a reservoir at
K 950 and has heat transfer of J 400 exhausted to another
reservoir at K 300 during each cycle. What is the amount of
work done by the heat engine during each cycle?
Solution
Now
IN
OUT
H
L
Q
Q
T
T
=
J Q
T
T
Q
OUT
L
H
IN
1267 ) 400 (
300
950
= 
¹

\

=


¹

\

=
J Q Q W
OUT IN
867 400 1267 = − = − =
The given heat engine performs 867 J of work in each cycle.
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 95
42 COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE OF A
REFRIGERATOR ENGINE
Example 423
The low temperature of a freezer cooling coil is C
0
15 − and
the discharge temperature is C
0
30 . What is the maximum
theoretical coefficient of performance?
Solution
The coefficient of performance is defined as
L H
L
T T
T
K
−
=
733 . 5
) 273 15 ( ) 273 30 (
) 273 15 (
=
+ − − +
+ −
= K
Example 424
A heat pump acting as a refrigerator is used to heat a house.
The temperature outside the house is C
0
10 − and the
interior to be kept at C
0
22 . Find the maximum coefficient of
performance of heat pump. P.U. B.Sc. 2005, 2006
Solution
The coefficient of performance of heat pump acting as a
refrigerator is given by
L H
L
T T
T
K
−
=
Now K K C T
L
263 ) 273 10 ( 10
0
= + − = − =
K K C T
H
295 ) 273 22 ( 22
0
= + = =
K T T
L H
32 263 295 = − = −
Hence 218 . 8
32
263
= = K
Example 425
What is the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator that
operates with Carnot efficiency between temperatures
C
0
3 − and C
0
27 ?
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 96
The coefficient of performance of heat pump acting as a
refrigerator is given by
L H
L
T T
T
K
−
=
Now K K C T
L
270 ) 273 3 ( 3
0
= + − = − =
K K C T
H
300 ) 273 27 ( 27
0
= + = =
K T T
L H
30 270 300 = − = −
Hence 9
30
270
= = K
Example 426
A household refrigerator, whose coefficient of performance
is 4.7, extracts heat from the cooling chamber at rate of 250
J per second. How much work per cycle is required to
operate the refrigerator? P.U. B.Sc. 2002
Solution
The coefficient of performance K is defined as
W
Q
Q Q
Q
K
L
L H
L
=
−
=
cycle J
K
Q
W
L
/ 2 . 53
7 . 4
250
= = =
Example 427
A refrigerator does 153 J of work to transfer 568 J of heat
from its cold compartment.
(a) Calculate the refrigerator’s coefficient of performance.
(b) How much heat is exhausted to the kitchen?
Solution
(a) The coefficient of performance K is defined as
71 . 3
153
568
= = =
W
Q
K
L
(b) Heat exhausted to kitchen will be
J W Q
L
721 153 568 = + = +
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 97
Example 428
Apparatus that liquefies helium is in a laboratory at K 296 .
The helium in the apparatus is at K 4 . If mJ 150 of heat is
transferred from helium, find the minimum amount of heat
delivered to the laboratory.
Solution
The coefficient of performance is defined as
L H
L
T T
T
K
−
=
2
10 37 . 1
4 296
4
−
× =
+
= K
Now
K
Q
Q W Q Q
L
L L H
+ = + =
J Q
L
1 . 11
10 37 . 1
1
1 ) 10 150 (
2
3
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
×
+ × =
−
−
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 98
ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS
(1) A Carnot engine is operated between two reservoirs
at temperatures C
0
227 and C
0
127 . Evaluate the
efficiency of the engine. B.U. B.Sc.(Hons.) 1988S
(2) A heat engine performs 1000 joules of work and at
the same time rejects 4000 joules of heat energy to
the cold reservoir. What is the efficiency of the
engine? B.U. B.Sc.(Hons.) 1991A
(3) A heat engine receives heat 120 joules and the work
done by it is 90 joules. Calculate the efficiency in
percentage. B.U. B.Sc. 1997A
(4) A heat engine performs 2000 joules of work and at
the same time rejects 6000 joules of heat energy to
the cold reservoir. What is the efficiency of the
engine? B.U. B.Sc. 1998A
(5) A Carnot engine whose heat source is at C
0
127 takes
100calories of heat at this temperature in each cycle
and gives up 80 calories to the heat sink. Find the
temperature of heat sink. B.U. B.Sc. 1988S
(6) A Carnot engine absorbs heat from a reservoir at a
temperature of C
0
100 and rejects heat to a cold
reservoir at a temperature of C
0
0 . If the engine
absorbs 1000 joules from the high temperature
reservoir, find heat rejected and efficiency of heat
engine. B.U. B.Sc. 1986S
(7) What is the maximum efficiency of a steam engine
that utilizes steam from a boiler at K 480 and
exhausts at K 373 ? K.U. B.Sc. 2003
(8) A heat engine performs 200 joules of work and at the
same time rejects 300 joules of heat to the cold body.
Calculate its efficiency. B.U. B.Sc.(Hons.) 1989A
(9) Calculate the efficiency of a Carnot engine working
between the temperatures C
0
927 and C
0
27 .
P.U. B.Sc. 1989
CH4 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 99
(10) A Carnot engine’s working substance is water. It
uses steam at C
0
300 and condenses to water at C
0
40 .
What is the maximum theoretical efficiency of this
engine? B.P.S.C. 1995
(11) A Carnot engine operates between the temperatures
K 850 and K 300 . The engine performs J 1200 of work
each cycle, which takes s 25 . 0 . Calculate its efficiency
and its average power. What are the rates of heat input
and heat exhaust per cycle? F.P.S.C. 2009
Answers
(1) 20 % (2) 20 % (3) 75 % (4) 25 %
(5) 320 K (6) J Q
OUT
732 = , % 8 . 26 = η (7) 22.3 %
(8) 6.25 % (9) 75 % (10) 37 %
(11) 65 %, 4800 W, 13600 W and 8800 W