BUILDING REABILITATION

Editors:

M. Budescu N. Taranu I. Lungu

“Matei-Teiu Botez” Academic Society Publishing House

BUILDING REABILITATION

Editors:

M. Budescu N. Taranu I. Lungu

“Matei-Teiu Botez” Academic Society Publishing House

Editors: Mihai Budescu, Nicolae Taranu, Irina Lungu Authors: Chapter 1: Mihai Budescu, Ioan Ciongradi Chapter 2: Ioan Ciongradi, Mihai Budescu Chapter 3: Mihai Budescu, Ioan Ciongradi Chapter 4: Nicolae Taranu Chapter 5: Irina Lungu, Mihai Budescu Chapter 6: Mihai Budescu, Ioan Ciongradi Chapter 7: Mihai Budescu, Ioan Ciongradi Chapter 8: Mihai Budescu, Anca-Mihaela Ciupala Chapter 9: Dorina Isopescu, Gabriel Oprisan Chapter 10: Dorina Isopescu Chapter 11: Ioan Gavrilas
Translater: Roxana Craciun

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României Building rehabilitation / ed.: M. Budescu, N. Ţăranu. - Iaşi : Editura Societăţii Academice "Matei-Teiu Botez", 2003 Bibliogr. ISBN 973-7962-26-5 I. Budescu, Mihai (ed.) II. Ţăranu, Nicolae (ed.) 624

1
GENERALITIES
1.1 CONSTRUCTION REHABILITATION Construction rehabilitation means building up some of its functions, which were damaged during its service, and making them active again. Construction rehabilitation is a permanent concern for civil engineers due to the inevitable decay caused by material aging, which occurs in time and the effects of some accidental events. Thus, earthquakes, winds, slumps, fires, floods, explosions, chemical agents and fabrication processes are only some of the factors causing damages. Another cause occurring even more frequently is related to the dynamics of possible functional alterations. Very frequently, construction decay is caused by material aging in its various forms: its life time exceedence, fatigue, creep, yield, multiple load cycles or the action of the chemical agents. In many cases construction damages occur as a result of the degradation of the foundation soil caused by the rise of groundwater level, the lack of safety measures when dealing with collapsible or active soils, the infiltration of rain and industrial water or water infiltration caused by the defective maintenance of the water supply and sewing systems. Design errors should not be neglected either. There are cases when the designing engineer allows improper structural systems created by architects or when the beneficiary changes the destination of the building at a later stage engendering loading underestimation. Sometimes the designing process may be accompanied by conceptual errors referring to structure, modelling and calculus. Construction errors are also very frequent when using low quality materials or not complying with the project or technologies.
page 1

Sometimes the great number of earthquakes during the lifetime of a building lead to the loss of the bearing capacity due to material fatigue. changing the destination of the building. even when there are no damages. There have also been detected many cases when degradation was caused by damaged equipment and industrial installations. Changing the destination of the building is possible only when the structure is not seriously affected and safety requirements can be complied with by passing to a lower category of importance. iii. iv. imposes structural rehabilitation so that the building service is preserved within safety limits. the basis of all modern design codes in seismic conditions. One should not ignore the concept of ductile design. In industry. altering the structural system. extraordinary unexpected seismic actions. Moreover. buildings may also be damaged by a series of external factors such as: traffic expansion or the appearance of new buildings in the area and the degradation of infrastructure systems like pipe drains and water supply systems. local strengthening of structural elements.Building Rehabilitation Shortcomings may occur when structural elements are stressed before reaching the appropriate strength of materials or when works are performed in cold weather conditions and without taking proper measures. technological alterations may lead to a rise in chemical aggressiveness or vibration level. Sometimes. various technological procedures accompanied by the release of aggressive chemical substances (e. page 2 . All these ways of rehabilitation are strictly related to the condition of the building and the technical and economic possibilities of intervention. However one of the most important causes of construction degradation is earthquake and the most vulnerable to its action are the old buildings where specific protection measures have not been taken.) may hasten the degradation process particularly in the case of excessive humidity and the absence of any ventilation systems. can cause the mass destruction of the building. chlorine. Function alteration or changing the destination of the building. sulfur etc. which are unusual for the area. ii. Structural rehabilitation may be achieved by: i. Indirectly. which admits the occurrence of structure degradation in certain areas in case of powerful earthquakes.g. replacing or partially altering the building.

the diagnosis of the condition of the materials used. the structural system is not altered and the intervention is restricted only to build up the bearing capacity of the damaged elements. .an evaluation of the condition of the structural system. make another structural system.1]. the experimental diagnosis of the rehabilitated system Some of these stages are not always compulsory. keeping the facade only etc) or thoroughly recovering some parts of the damaged building if structure allows it. In this way. establishing and designing the intervention measures iii. like base isolation for structures.Generalities Replacing or partially altering the building may mean permanently eliminating (one) part of the building (for example reducing the number of floors. Structural rehabilitation consists of several stages: i. page 3 . Structural system alteration may have several meanings. 1. consisting of: . CASE STUDIES Although technical literature describes various damaged buildings and interventions adopted for their rehabilitation.the analytic diagnoses of the structure ii. consequently.2. Concrete subjection to high temperature for a long period of time leads to its hastened aging and. the columns broke down [1. A very relevant example of this kind is the building of a board factory where furnaces were placed too close to the central column and no measures of thermal insulation were taken (fig. together with the existing structure. • changing the structural concept through other devices that can result in increasing the safety during service.1). the building appraisement.1. the authors will only discuss some representative examples they have encountered in their work. . in seismic areas. depending on the condition of the building.the experimental diagnosis. . Consolidation or local strengthening (iii) may have good results when only some structural elements are damaged and require ordinary intervention measures. and interventions established by the experts. such as: • introducing some adjacent construction elements which. performing the structure rehabilitation (consolidation) iv. When a strong earthquake stroke. its importance. the material becomes much more brittle.

b). consequently.2 Aging as a result of the subjection to vibrations over a long period of time a.1. FURNACES DAMAGED COLUMNS Fig. solution adopted to eliminate the source of vibrations page 4 . Fig. b. An example that can be given for this case is the building of a chemical plant producing plastics [1. endangering the building. whose foundation was separate from that of the structure.1.2]. Adding some flexible bearings increased the equipment efficiency (fig. By using a scaffolding to support the recipient. the recipient for the plastic barbotage was placed on the first floor of the building. vibrations were completely eliminated.1. initial state b.Building Rehabilitation Currently.2.2.1. the joints between the prefabricated elements weakened and. there are various types of industrial equipment producing vibrations and the lack of local isolation measures may weaken the joints between structural elements.a. For technological reasons. About 15 years later.1 Concrete aging as a result of its subjection to high temperatures for a long period of time BARBOTAGE RECIPIENT SCAFFOLDING FLEXIBLE BEARINGS a. fig. the vibration level in the structure increased.

a bracing lost its stability in one of the stations. from the construction viewpoint.4. the boiler room was designed in such a manner so that the structure of the boilers supports the hall roof as well. others broke and fell over the paper machine. after the 1977 earthquake. Cases when water leakage from the water-supply network systems decreases the bearing capacity of the foundation soil are very frequent. an earthquake weakened it.3 [1.1. When the first series of bins were made. particularly in chemical industry. fig. FOUNDATION AND COLUMN DAMAGED BY THE AGGRESSIVE GROUNDWATER Fig. As a result. was well built.3 The effects of groundwater aggressiveness on the platform of a pulp and paper plant In some thermoelectric power stations built up in Romania between the 1950s and 1960s. whose destination was a paper factory.4]. lead to their fast decay. fig.6.Generalities Serious building damages are encountered in industry. which leant because of the water leakage from one page 5 . the joints of the caissons weakened and the movement made them collapse. Gas release in a humid environment generates acids which. which tied the independent columns to the rest of the structure. [1. which spread finally into the ground-water tables and begin attacking the structure from its foundation. the most serious effect is that produced by the loss or leachate of chemical substances in the sewing systems. fig.1. The building has been rehabilitated by replacing the concrete roof by a braced metallic structure. Though the hall in fig. in contact with unprotected building elements.1. However.a. Most of the times. Since the contiguous components supporting the roof had very different degrees of stiffness.5.3]. A relevant example is a block of flats in Iasi. design errors become obvious when extraordinary actions occur. the magnitude of the seismic action was ignored so that. the truss was pulled by the boiler and the most important effect was the failure of the joints with the intermediate section of the building.1. Part of the caissons fell over the rolling girder.1.

MACHINERY HALL BOILER STABILITY FAILURE FOR A BRACING Fig.4 The bracing failure into a boiler in the thermoelectric station CAISSONS FROM THE ROOF FLEXIBLE COLUMN CAISSONS FALLEN ON THE ROLLING GIRDER CAISSONS FALLEN ON THE PAPER MACHINE PAPER MACHINE RIGID BUILDING DEFORMED AND FISSURED COLUMNS Fig.b.1. The building has a frame structure on a network of foundation beams and the soil failed and damaged the basement floor fig.1. After bringing the page 6 . 1. JOINT FAILURE INTERMEDIATE SECTION .5 The collapse of the roof caissons of a hall after an earthquake because of the different stiffness of contiguous structures The building has been rehabilitated by eliminating the water leakage.6. thus preventing a future soil failure.Building Rehabilitation of the ducts. and digging in the opposite area.

8.7. a mat foundation including the existing beam network was built. fig. initial stage. they noticed that these had been made through mechanized digging exclusively and the contact area between the soil and the foundation block had not been manually rectified.Generalities structure back to its vertical position. When digging to consolidate the foundations. which are also difficult to assess. Footings above frost depth may cause foundation up-lifting and local failure of the building. A frost that lasted several days at below -20°C destroyed many shop windows situated on groundfloor of some buildings whose supports had some footings that did not comply with the required frost depth.1.1.6 Failure of foundation soil due to sewage water infiltration a. page 7 . Fig. c. rehabilitated structure The most serious execution errors. In order to do this. b. c. During the construction of the building. the designer increased the footing dimensions of some of the foundations. fig. fig. The same happens to the access staircase foundations at the entrance of some blocks of flats.1.6. b. belong to the hidden works in the infrastructures. which has a reinforced concrete frame structure and spread foundations. Among the many examples of this kind encountered it is worth mentioning a particular building in Iasi.1. SEWERAGE SOIL FAILURE EXCAVATION SOIL IMPROVEMENT a.c. the beneficiary requested the partial introduction of an additional floor. soil failure.

1. England).7 Foundations made exclusively by mechanized digging FAILURE OF THE SHOP WINDOWS CONTINUOUS FOOTING ABOVE THE FROST DEPTH FOUNDATION LIFTING DUE TO THE SOIL FROST Fig.9 Retaininging stone wall failure caused by the additional pressure page 8 .Building Rehabilitation MECHANIZED DIGGING WITHOUT BEING MANUALLY RECTIFIED CONSOLIDATION SOLUTION Fig.8 Foundations built over the frost level Many times. fig. RETAINING WALL FAILURE DUE TO THE EARTH PRESSURE INCREASE INDUCED BY TREE ROOTS Fig.9 (Sheffield. to local wall failure when made of stone or brick (rigid structures). in most cases.1. establishments require retaining walls. on urban slopes.1.1. Tree roots produce further earth pressure leading.

page 9 . Most frequently. the damage caused by earthquakes on the walls of tall and massive old buildings consists of embrassure disconnection due to the absence of clutching elements to ensure that the vertical elements work together.7]. most of them ranging within design errors. Buildings made of stone and brick conceived without any protection measures against earthquakes are the most vulnerable to seismic actions. other causes for structural damages have been detected. EMBRASSURE DISCONNECTION Fig. Many of them are historical monuments. Excluding the fact that the applied seismic design load had not covered the total spectrum of dynamic characteristics. therefore their rehabilitation requires a special approach so that the measures would not diminish their artistic (patrimony) value [1. earthquake remains the most important. the lack of measures to obtain proper ductility for structural elements in particular needs to be mentioned.1.Generalities Of all the causes of building damages. Sf. Although there are much more example. such as Trei Ierarhi. the groundfloor columns failed and the building shrank by one floor. An example of this kind is Lecompte du Nouy’s intervention on several Romanian churches.10 Typical damages of old structures made of brick masonry caused by earthquakes The analysis of the buildings performed on modern designing and technological norms and affected by the earthquake on 4th March 1977 has revealed a variety of causes that generated the decay and even the collapse of some construction [1.5]. Nicolae Domnesc and Curtea de Arges. Lacking stirrups. we focus on the block of flats made of reinforced concrete in Valea Calugareasca. particularly if they have experienced several earthquakes during their lifetime. however the alteration of the architecture is being regarded as negative. fig. The groundfloor was conceived for commercial purposes and the other three floors for flats.1. Their rehabilitation performed by construction dismantling and re-building may be regarded as a remarkable procedure.11. fig.8]. Among them.1.10 [1.

Fig.13. fig.1. or by making some elements effective.3 NEW DEVICES USED IN STRUCTURAL REHABILITATION The measures regarding the structural rehabilitation currently in use are aimed at increasing the bearing capacity of the elements or the energy dissipating capacity for the structures situated in seismic areas. fig. One way of decreasing the amount of energy induced by the earthquake into the structure is to increase the energy dissipating capacity.1. fig. This can be done by dettaching some joints/ties.14. which is different from that based on structural inelastic displacements by means of special equipment. This device is most often used to rehabilitate the buildings in seismic areas.11] page 10 . Another way of decreasing the amount of energy induced in the structure consists of adjusting its stiffness.Building Rehabilitation STRUCTURAL FAILURE FLEXIBLE GROUNDFLOOR WITH COLUMNS LACKING STIRRUPS FAILURE OF COLUMNS Fig.11 Failure of insufficiently reinforced columns of a block of flats during an earthquake 1.12. both actions leading to a change in the stiffness of structure.1.12 The behaviour of a structure with supplementary damping [1.1.1.

The mass is placed on a rolling system which allows its free movement and which is at the same time connected to the structure by means of springs. Moreover.13 A structure with dettaching elements [11] Fig. the amount of induced energy is different. Fig. as a result of the dettaching capacity of some joints/ties. An example of inert systems is shown in fig. The dissipation of the energy induced by the earthquake into the structure may also be obtained by means of some inert systems.1.1. Thus. structural stiffness continuously changes with respect to a certain displacement imposed to the connecting elements. depending on the stiffness and the dynamic characteristics of the structure. It is used for tall buildings in order to decrease lateral displacements.14 A structure with temporary stiffening elements [1. energy dissipation occurs as an additional measure of increasing safety during service.15.Generalities Element dettaching is accompanied by energy consumption and the result is a structure whose dynamic characteristics. where the role of the additional mass is to restrict value of displacements. consequently.11] By making some elements effective. behaviour under seismic actions and. energy absorbing capacity are different from those of the initial structure.1. If the structure page 11 .

If the structure moves. the mass stays still.15 An additional mass tied to the structure [1. pendulum systems etc.Building Rehabilitation moves. the mass stays still. [1.1.11] The mass is placed on a rolling system which allows its free movement and which is at the same time connected to the structure by means of springs. Fig. ellipsoid systems. This device creates a sliding joint type. Nowadays. the most frequently used “bearings” are the elastomeric supports. such as rolling systems. a seismically isolated building behaviour page 12 . in order to increase the safety of some monuments situated in seismic areas.10]. b. seismic base isolation has been recommended [1.1.16. which enables the infrastructure to move freely and the superstructure to remain still during the seismic action [1.11].9]. fig. a. Fig.16 The principle of seismic base isolation a. generating structure restoring forces with the help of the springs. generating structure restoring forces with the help of the springs. the effects of seismic action onto a building b.1. but there are also other systems. Over the last decades.

forming the building envelope may become necessary after a period of service for the following reasons [1. 15]: • decrease in effectiveness of the thermal insulations due to the repeated action of some climatic factors during service.Generalities Lately. in limited spaces. 1. The most important advantages are: • • • • • consolidation is not accompanied by the increase of the building mass. The main part of hygrothermal rehabilitation is the thermal rehabilitation whose purpose is to provide the closing elements with improved insulation qualities to heat transfer. the last one concerning the optimum air exchange between outside and inside in order to ensure the sanitation and comfort requests. without any difficulty. simple application.4 HYGROTHERMAL REHABILITATION The separation of the working space of a building from the environment to create a microclimate in accordance with the specific needs of activities or processes developing within this space is achieved by means of closing elements. The hygrothermal rehabilitation of the closing elements. resistance to corrosion. page 13 . consolidation works take a shorter time. high mechanical resistance with respect to the unit weight. which have a series of advantages compared to the traditional systems.15]. The hygrothermal rehabilitation of a building consists of a series of technical measures applied to the envelope’s elements that have some inadequacies affecting the quality of the internal microclimate. which refers to improving the behaviour of some construction elements with respect to vapour diffusion and ventilation. construction rehabilitation has been enriched with solutions using composite materials based on polymeric matrices [1. Besides the thermal improvement. which define the envelope of the building [1. These measures are aimed at increasing the performances related to their behaviour to heat transfer in accordance with comfort and energy saving requirements. the rehabilitation also consists of a hygro part.12].

Buletinul I. Aur. increase in exigency regarding the insulation level of the existing envelope after a period of service.. Iaşi octombrie 1978.P. Orlovschi.. 1982. Budescu. V. Cutremurul de pământ din Romania de la 4 martie 1977.. M. Mihul... 1-4. Proposal of Intervention in order to Rehabilitate The Resistance Structure Of "Trei Ierarhi" Monastery" Buletinul I. N.M.5 1.. M. A. 2000..3 1. Budescu. Combinatul din Brăila. hygrothermal rehabilitation is simply a contextual yet absolutely necessary component of the total rehabilitation.Interacţiunea construcţiilor cu mediul înconjurător V. Ionescu. Orlovschi.Iaşi.3-4. for economic and energetic reasons request for a complete modernization determined by aesthetic. * * *.P. Simpozionul naţional . Ciongradi. The basic principle of all the measures adopted to thermally rehabilitate the closing elements of a building [1. For specific zones such as window pannels and unsealed joints of elements. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.. Ciongradi. Fasc. but the main purpose remains the decrease in heat loss and consequently. page 14 1.Iaşi.6 1. C. Proiect I.P. C.2 1.. 13.15] consists of increasing their resistance to thermal transfer by applying effective and long-lasting supplementary thermally insulating layers. functional and resistance reasons etc. Ciupală. M.Building Rehabilitation • • • increase in exigency towards the inner hygrothermal microclimate according to the users’ high standards of hygiene and comfort. C. 1977. Negoita.8 . Ciongradi. Efectul acţiunii seismice a variaţiilor de temperatură asupra comportării unei structuri în cadre de beton armat. Budescu. M. hygrothermal rehabilitation may be performed based on other principles as well. * * *... Ionescu.. 1980.. Budescu.. Tomul XL (XLIV). I. Budescu. Studiu I. Editura Academiei. Leonte. Studiul răspunsului seismic al unor structuri speciale din industria hârtiei si celulozei. M. Comportarea materialelor şi a construcţiilor din zidarie portantă din municipiul Iaşi. Budescu.7 1. 1994.Iaşi. In this case. Expertiză tehnică.. 1979. N.P. Fasc. A... ISPE. M.Iaşi. I. in heat preservation.1. Reabilitarea sistemului de susţinere a convertorului de material plastic de pe platforma Săvineşti. Biserica Evanghelică Iaşi. CET Borzeşti. Al. Tomul XXIV (XXVIII). I.4 1.. Proiect 1992.

McVerry.H.. Mistretta. Iaşi. Editura Cermi.S. 1st International Conference.. teza de doctorat . R...15 Skinner. Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures”.12 1. 1992. Budescu.. Labossiere.P.International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition (Proceedings).W.. W.I. D. 1997. Rehabilitation of concrete bridge beams with externally-bonded composite plates. Isopescu.10 1. Editura Vesper.14 1.11 1. SprinerVerlag. Reabilitarea higrotermicã a clădirilor..9 1. Kim.. An Introduction to Seismic Isolation. 1996. P. N. Institutul Politehnic Gheorghe Asachi Iasi . England. 1999.. Crasto. Gavrilaş. Iaşi. – Structures Made of Composite Materials. I. London.. Contributii privind izolarea seismică a structurilor . K. page 15 .13 1.41. J. M. G. Fizica construcţiilor. John Wiley & Sons. Vol. 2nded. 1996. Part II . Ed.. Quebec.Generalities 1. 1993 Kelly. Tăranu. Neale. Robinson. R.M. J. Earthquake-resistant Design with Rubber.Y. 1984.H. A.

ii. Every assessment ends with an assessment report including the expert’s findings.1 THE NEED FOR ASSESSMENT There are many situations when the owner. This expert is a very well trained specialist.alterations in the layout (arranging or making basements. Here are the most frequent situations when assessment is necessary: i. the effects of material fatigue and aging. page 16 . closing or dividing walls) .2 STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT OF BUILDINGS 2. changing and/or replacing the equipment. the inappropriate service conditions or maintenance of the building as well as the degradation and differential settlements of the foundation soil. officially certified and authorised by public authority. vibrations and traffic. changing the installation routes etc. over-storeys and attics. frost and thaw phenomena. condense. Assessing the condition of a building requires a skillful expert. changing the characteristics of the equipment. the beneficiary and the administrator of a building has the obligation or the desire to know about the condition of the building and assess its ability to resist various actions. stiffening. altering the net load. especially when degradation affects the structure due to aging or when certain functional or technological changes require some intervention. the occurrence of flaws in the structure due to designing errors. making or eliminating holes within the structural. high differences in temperature. increasing the vibration level.replacing/improving the technological process in industrial buildings. defective execution. changes in the strength and deformation capacity of the building materials over time. a change in the destination of the building or of one of its parts/rooms caused by: . corrosion. conclusions and suggestions regarding the condition of the building and the most appropriate intervention decisions that the beneficiary needs to make.

landslides. These assessments establish the building safety level according to the current design codes and possible intervention measures to increase safety in case of earthquakes. maintaining the historical nature and architectural page 17 . during the rehabilitation operation and about the elements allowing intervention. All these provide information about the history of the buildings. earthquakes) or other causes (fires. the finishing etc. The seismic rehabilitation of historical buildings must be preceded by an elaborate documentary work. by the careful evaluation of the buildings and their site as well as by a thorough planning of the whole rehabilitation process. The buildings located in seismic areas are a special case. the building is examined by taking photos of its interior. In many countries. The rehabilitation process starts with the design activity that selects the materials.Structural assessment of buildings iii. The initial materials. Protecting a historical construction is partly based on preserving the building materials and the characteristics. the utilities they used over time and which is the most important. a damaged water tower may fall over the neighbouring buildings). the user’s or the public authority inspectors’ observance of the cases when some structural elements are undersized or service loads are actually bigger than the considered design loads. its exterior and its construction site. their former inhabitants. Then. the occurrence of important damages due to natural calamities (strong winds. their characteristics. they provide clues about what needs to be repaired and what needs to be kept as before. explosions). as well as their alteration in time are also evaluated. the occurrence of certain circumstances when other buildings or technologies close to the building of interest may cause various damages (for example. Research consists of studying the history of the building and its evolution in time by means of written documents and photos. These alterations may sometimes be part of the historical character of the building so they must be carefully analysed before starting the rehabilitation operation to decide what elements need repairing and what elements need replacing. the norms for this type of buildings require that the owners should assess the condition of the structures that had been exposed to strong earthquakes. mine or cave subsidency. iv. floods. the characteristics and the finishings which need to be protected during the operation and decides upon the logic order of activities required by the rehabilitation operation. v.

As shown in fig. on which the expert and/or the beneficiary can decide page 18 . the operation begins with gathering the initial data. the evaluation operation is generally developed on several levels: • gathering the initial information from the analysis of the existing documents referring to the building and the technical prescriptions in use at the time of its execution. windows. Initial evaluation provides the first series of data related to the condition of the building and of the structure. in groups of two or more. external characteristics (porches. • the detailed analytical evaluation. c. [2. wood. [2. the assessment of a building condition is done in successive and more and more complex stages to get a thorough and accurate picture of the existing and working conditions of the structural and non-structural elements of the building. • the additional qualitative evaluation.2. depending on the information and data obtained in the previous stages. • the preliminary approximate analytical evaluation. if necessary. [2.1 Evaluation stages The technical literature presents various methods used to evaluate the condition of the existing buildings [2.5] grounded on the following principles: a. visual analyses and inspections on the construction site. surveys.1. decorative elements.Building Rehabilitation features of the entire building. These features differ from one building to another and it refers to materials (stone.3].2.1]. rooms). [2. To sum up. brass). uncoverings etc. more detailed and achieved by sampling.4]. the above-mentioned evaluation procedures may be approached independently – one by one – or successively. roofs).2]. followed by the preliminary qualitative evaluation and. plaster. interiors (entrance halls. the rehabilitation operation begins only after all important materials and characteristics that need to be preserved during the process have been identified. • the preliminary qualitative evaluation through direct observation (in situ). brick.2 METHODS OF ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF EXISTING BUILDINGS 2.. by the preliminary analytic evaluation. b. 2.

the geotechnical report. steel characteristics from the page 19 • • • • . Evaluation results are written down in an assessment report including the recommendations and suggestions related to the intervention (for example. information provided by the administration concerning the building service and behaviour during the previous earthquakes or other accidental actions. cement type and quality.Structural assessment of buildings to continue with the further detailed evaluation. the duration and technological stages. strengthening. Initial data will include: • • • the time of design and errection of the building. the names of the designers and contractors. number of storeys. the destination and the site of the building.. for reinforcement – steel grade and type. structure and the geometric dimensions of the main structural elements. the building service period. the data base concerning the monitoring of the building behaviour. studies on the intervention cost. which are either in the beneficiary’s. 2. the extent to which the project complies with the current prescription regarding the errection of the building. etc. repairs. any disturbances.“the screening method”. variations or special events during its service. dividing and closing systems. the description of the building – spans. the book of the building. the characteristics of the materials used in the project (for concrete – grade or class. any interventions. if requested. Successive application of more and more refined evaluation procedures (named “filters”) defines a new investigation method for the structural assessment of buildings . finishings. the description of the technology used. It should be mentioned that when making this decision. they also need to consider the preservation degree foreseen for the building being assessed. changing the destination of the building. aggregate grading.. partial or thorough demolition) and. the designer’s or the archives’ possession: the initial project.2. bays.2 Initial Data Initial data come from the information gathered by analysing the existing documents. repairs or alterations made on it. preparation method etc. building services.

1 The diagram of the general evaluation of the condition of an existing building page 20 . SUGGESTIONS SATISFACTORY RESULTS ? YES INTERVENTION PROPOSALS AND OPTIONS COST ANALYSES ASSESSMENT REPORT NO Fig. SUGGESTIONS YES SATISFACTORY RESULTS ? NO QUALITATIVE AND ANALYTICAL DETAILED EVALUATION Checking the documents Additional site inspections Analyses and testings of materials Detailed design diagrams Complex analysis methods CONCLUSIONS.Building Rehabilitation ASSESSMENT PLANNING INITIAL DATA from the existing documents PRELIMINARY QUALITATIVE EVALUATION Inspections on the construction site Material characteristic evaluations CONCLUSIONS.2. SUGGESTIONS YES SATISFACTORY RESULTS ? NO PRELIMINARY ANALYTICAL EVALUATION Simplified design diagrams Current analysis methods CONCLUSIONS.

There are buildings which definitely have the required safety level. closing and dividing elements. All these elements need to be identified and surveyed at the same time. the damage/degradation/flaws and their causes. laboratory test bulletins. the operation requires uncoverings to identify the structural elements. prefabs and their joining. The survey is a brief one if technical documentation is available and a more detailed one if the page 21 . When these are not available. suppliers. There are circumstances when structural elements are not visible as they are hidden by finishings and insulating systems. the elements that need identification are the following: • • • • • • • • • vertical elements: plain concrete. welds etc. belts.) • a brief presentation of the geotechnical report. This evaluation regards aspects like preserving the destination and the importance of the building. the assessment is based on the surveys made during the evaluation process. the seismic area where it is situated and the actions to which it is subjected.2. beams and girders roofing elements. main and secondary elements of the floors: plates.. Therefore. the foundation system. Generally. The qualitative evaluation is based on the architectural and structural design of the building. for the steel in metallic products – steel grade and type. stairs and staircases. reinforced concrete or masonry columns and walls. others which certainly have a seismic risk and need to be examined through analytic methods.Structural assessment of buildings suppliers’ bulletins and site tests etc. bracing systems. According to these aspects. finishing and coating elements if they are fixed to the structural elements. several types of buildings can be identified.3 Qualitative evaluation The qualitative evaluation of a building is the first assessment stage and consists of an inspection on the construction site in order to identify its structure. 2.

soundings or ditches. the lack of trenches and rain-pipes etc). ground-water level and the degree of aggressiveness. the effects of temperature differences. bays. the condition of any kind of insulation. water leakage. The qualitative evaluation is also directed towards the elements technical condition and safety degree and the identification of any flaws.. the access of running waters. the building survey enables the identification of the position. The following data need to be pointed out: • • • • • • • the building axes. wall dampness and condensation and their effects on the building elements. both horizontal and vertical. heights. foundation soil investigation – through drillings. the position and the structure of the joints between the reinforced concrete prefabs. the lack of pavements. position and structure of metallic joints. the effects of the aggressive environment on concrete and metal (corrosion level – superficial. cracks made by differentiated settlements . Special attention will be paid to the following noticeable aspects: • • • • building movements due to landslides. anticorrosive protection level. water infiltration at foundation level due to several causes (disturbed water supplies and pipes. the real dimensions of the structural and nonstructural elements and of any alterations the building has been subjected to during its service with or without the documentation provided by authorised institutions. shapes and sizes of element cross-sections. deep or evolving.Building Rehabilitation project is not available. solar radiation and freeze-thaw cycles. the degradation of the concrete and the reinforcements page 22 • • • • . all element axes. degradation and damage occurred during the service life of the building. spans. reinforcement of the reinforced concrete elements. Whatever the case.

parts of wood elements affected by moisture. the existence of certain fungi in wood structures). the lack of certain elements. the thickness of the corrosion layer. pieces.Structural assessment of buildings obtained through corrosion. the degradation level of the waterproof. the effects of earthquake. spars. their nature and position in the building elements. • • • • the effects of some biological factors (for example. page 23 • • • • • • . element. large cracks in the reinforced concrete or masonry elements. spar buckling. information about the flaw dimensions: distortions and deflections (structure translations. the concrete degree of degradation. the reinforcement degree of degradation. of incomplete or defective welds or screws or because of insufficient screwing etc. fungi etc. reinforced concrete and masonry). thermal and acoustical insulation. welds etc. section or joint eccentricities . fire (element or spar failure. metallic joint degradation due to the lack of certain joint pieces. the building deformation level. remanent deflections). • • The degradations revealed by the analysis of the building technical condition are mentioned in the damage and disturbance surveys. the lack of certain structural elements. explosions. element and structure movements or high distortions. which can be found out through topometric measurements as well. the thickness of the corrosion layer for steel elements. damage. crack opening and the distance between cracks (for walls and concrete. the building areas affected by moisture and wall dampness. the condition of the reinforcement covering etc). rivets. the concrete condition as a result of the degradation caused by wear and accidental blows and the reinforcement protection. These surveys will contain: • • • the flaws/damages.. accidents.).. the depth of the concrete layer affected by chemical and physical agents. screws.

analysis results may be digested. Changes may also occur in the interaction process between structure and non-structural elements and between foundation and foundation soil. Many of the technical reports are also devoted to determine the corrosive effect of the aggressive environment on building elements and to predict corrosion’s likely evolution in time. describing the necessary equipment. a new set of ground investigations based on drilling (sounding) or excavating procedures according to the nature of the soil and the importance of the building are performed and the results are concluded into the new geotechnical report. the quality of the welds etc. the characteristic values established in the project can be used.4 Analytic Evaluation Along with decision data. then the geotechnical report must be remade. Technical literature (see chapter 3) minutely presents the methodology of nondestructive and destructive tests on site and in laboratory. and how to assess the results. preliminary qualitative evaluation also provides the initial data for a further more minute analysis based on calculus. All these aspects show that in many cases it is necessary to establish the altered/modified vibration periods and damping characteristics through experiments. Thus. wrote down and consigned in various document or form types including a synthesis of the findings on the structural and non-structural elements. migration or flow. page 24 . Other types of experiments are used to determine the dynamic characteristics of the buildings. It is well known that material structure changes over time and possible decays may weaken or even eliminate/destroy the joints between structural elements.Building Rehabilitation • the degradation level of any kind of installation. Finally. When the physical. If the data contained in the initial geotechnical report are not relevant or simply not enough. or if changes have been detected within the foundation soil structure due to the underground water rise. experiments will be made to identify these properties. the building may be given a grade representing its bearing capacity or its degree of risk/safety.2. In accordance with the various qualitative assessment methodologies. Otherwise. 2. the reinforcement position within the reinforced concrete elements. chemical and mechanical characteristics of materials need to be checked as well and the elements show no decay. to the rain water leakage or to losses from ducts.

Structure modelling according to loading cases. The bearing capacity of the characteristic cross-sections is determined using the dimensions given by the surveys and the present values of strength found out experimentally. effort and/or stress for individual elements and typical crosssections. mass and stiffness is achieved through simplified representations for each principal axis of the building or “stick” models or storey stiffness models (roughly taking into account the influence of the torsion effect). In this case. These ratios may also be expressed by absolute deflections or relative displacements. If no damages are found. The structural analysis will be carried out for gravity loads. The closer to (or bigger than) 1 the values mentioned in the reports. These ratios have various names. which can reveal and accordingly consider both the structural damaged areas and the non-linear behaviour of the building materials. climatic and seismic loads using the actual magnitudes/loads. such as coefficient of seismic capacity or degree of safety under seismic actions or other actions. the element or the section according to the current design codes at the moment when the assessment is made. which generally consists of the following chapters: page 25 . geometry and cross-sections found in the structural survey and considering all existing damages and flaws.Structural assessment of buildings Preliminary analytic evaluation more accurate than the qualitative evaluation – is based on determining the ratio between available generalised force and necessary generalised force that should be supported by the building. ASSESSMENT REPORT A building assessment ends with a document called assessment report.3. the effective ductility of the structural elements independently and of the entire structure can also be determined. The seismic action may be given by an accelerogram or a set of accelerograms recorded from real earthquakes or acceleration spectra specially drawn for the given site. the better the load bearing capacity of the building. 2. A generalised force in the expression of the above mentioned ratio may be the total (base) shear force for the entire structure. the initial design values are accepted. The detailed analytic assessment is based on using 3D-calculus models with concentrated masses or finite elements. The lowest values accepted for structural safety assessment reports are mentioned in the codes and they generally depend on the building category/class of importance.

lintels etc. the expert will further analyse the technical and economic effects of these interventions on the building in general and on the structure in particular. together with the corresponding documents and references. sounding or excavating and/or data gathered from elaborate geotechnical reports made previously for the neighbouring buildings.. the assessment will be the starting point of supplementary studies and other documents required by the investor and/or the public authority to be granted the funding and to obtain the various certificates. the changes on the initial layouts and facades requested by the beneficiary (if any). on its behaviour during previous earthquakes or other accidental actions.Building Rehabilitation A. B. the calculus notes containing the results of the structural analysis after making the changes requested by the beneficiary and after performing the intervention/strengthening measures. The assessment should include all the written documents and drawings that were available to the expert. page 26 . In this case.. analysis bulletins and reports including the experimental determination and test results and conclusions. functional and technological changes etc. If the beneficiary’s request includes modernization. repairs or strengthening operations carried out. stairs. data concerning any changes. • • • • • • C.: • • the building project or. documents or information on the building history. geological and geotechnical soil conditions. girders. topography. Data and information used in the assessment. the architectural and structural surveys made during the assessment. The object/reason/purpose of the assessment. surveys on the building damages – walls. indicating the technical and/or functional elements which generated it. if necessary. notes on the results of uncoverings made inside and outside the building in order to determine the structural element characteristics and hidden flaws if any. the geotechnical report and how it was conceived: if it was based on drilling. authorisations and references to perform the rehabilitation process. transformations. from detailed assessments made for these events. its relation with the neighbouring buildings. e. foundations.g. The description of the building from several perspectives: • site location. if it is not available. ceilings. columns.

the degradation. finishings. coverings. The main architectural and structural drawings are enclosed. heights). insulations. foundations and footing level. the following methods can be used: • • simplified calculus methods (equivalent static method.Structural assessment of buildings • • • • • the general assemble of the building (structural elements and corresponding joints. pavements. Depending on the complexity of the calculus. with strengthening. with the changes requested by the beneficiary. cracks. photos. The surveys and photos of fissures. the design of the roof structure. • • • F. religious or tourist monument. E. damage. the history of the building. data obtained through soundings and uncoverings. Calculus notes contain the results of the analytic examination of the structure under several circumstances: the present situation. any alterations. fissures and crack survey. mechanism combining methods). page 27 . they are replaced by architectural and structural surveys. Description explains their likely causes. the inspection or the visual examination/analysis on the construction site. Building degradation and damage. spans. information provided by the beneficiary or other people regarding the building behaviour during previous earthquakes and other accidental events. stairs. floors. floors etc. D. openings. its layout and its architectural design. degradations and damages detected are enclosed. carpentry etc the structure elevation. current method) postelastic static calculus methods (biographical method. repairs and consolidations to which the building has been subjected. historical. if it is an architectural. with both alterations and strengthening etc. The results of the qualitative evaluation of the building are obtained by examining the following elements: • the architectural and structural project and/or the building surveys and the survey of the important details where the project details are not available or the construction did not comply with the project or the building was subjected to changes for which no technical documentation is available. If they are not available.

linear dynamic calculus methods (time-history). the internal or external structural or non-structural element with a high risk of failing. such as: - iii. so that test results could be compared to (identified with) the analytic results and the calculus models could be validated. elastic modulus etc. There are also cases when the dynamic structural characteristics need to be determined as well. structural and non-structural element structural element or overall structural consolidation in order to increase the endurance. ii. whose retrofit is not financially worthy. changing the building function in order to lower its category (class. the values of the physical and mechanical material characteristics are required (ultimate strength. The final conclusions of the qualitative and analytic evaluation are followed by suggestions and intervention measures required to obtain the intended safety level. shape and destination altering measures. the loading cases. The intervention measures may be classified as: i. initial data. Strengthening efficiency can also be evaluated by checking the increase in structure stiffness with the increase in its own vibration frequency. physically and morally worn out buildings. To determine the load bearing capacity of the structure and structural elements individualy. non-destructive or destructive tests are required. such as: internal and external repairs/mendings. shape and functional preserving measures. mainly applied to old. yield strength. stiffness and ductility of the structural assembly as much as possible through interventions on the existing elements or by replacing or adding new structural element. This chapter also includes calculus schemes. their results.Building Rehabilitation • non . overall demolition measures. The minute calculus notes and the result listings are usually enclosed in one copy only. partial demolition by reducing the number of storeys or removing parts of the building. If these values cannot be found within the project papers or they are not reliable. group) of importance. the software packages used.). structure. interpretation and comments. The notes provide the data used in the calculus and enclose the test bulletins. G. page 28 . Conclusions and suggestions regarding the intervention. to assess its stiffness. decreasing the live load in the building/on the floors.

American Society for Testing and Materials. C. or demolition). Berkeley. closing..J.) or may decide to perform other works as well. the expert will also present the estimated economic documentation of the costs involved in the intervention measures.. C. S. 2. EERC 76-1.. 1976. M. J. T. 2. positioning and work stages belongs to the beneficiary. and Pinkham. M.4 Hirosawa. Tokyo. 2. Ed. G.. the owner or the investor who. 1976. Ch. strengthening. cu propuneri de măsuri pentru reducerea gradului de risc". division and floor improvements. page 29 . such as: • • • functional and technological change or modernization.S. Standards for Preservation and Rehabilitation. National Bureau of Standards. land value. and Green. together with the public authority representatives (if any) may consider other intervention criteria as well (urban character. In the end. “ASCE Standards on Structural Condition Assessment and Rehabilitation of Buildings”. These measures are tested by calculus to confirm the increase in safety under exterior actions at least to the level required by official norms. Hart.S. insulation and installation changes. Kelley. University of California. “Strength and Ductility Evaluation of Existing Low-Risc Reinforced Concrete Buildings-Screening Method”.A. “Evaluation Methods of Earthquake Resistant Properties of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings”.2 Culver. and Bresler. Japanese National Committee for Earthquake Engineering”. ASTM STP 1258. pp. 1975. If requested.. AICR..Structural assessment of buildings The expert presents the suggested measures and the solutions which are to be detailed in the intervention project (repairs. BIBLIOGRAPHY 2. Bucureşti. U.5 Asociaţia Inginerilor Constructori din România.. B.C. the importance of the building as a historical monument etc. H. finishing.. Baumert. 126-136. Lew. 2. the decision concerning the intervention. 1996. 1990. “Natural Hazards Evaluation of Existing Buildings”..1 Pielert.3 Okada. “Metoda de determinare a capacităţii portane la solicitări gravitaţionale şi seismice a construcţiilor din fondul existent.

3. the condition of the building is determined by dynamic measurements. Experimental tests to establish the behaviour of the structural elements and the building are carried out “in situ”.1. iii. The greater the compactness.3]. Usually. To determine the characteristics of the materials used in construction two methods are used: • • non-destructive methods.2]. the building material. which enable the identification of the structural model and the pre-and post-rehabilitation diagnosis. ii.2 ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSIS Ultrasonic velocity in a completely compact solid (void free) is about 5000 m/s compared to the sound velocity in the air is about 340 m/s [3. 3. the structural member. [3.1].1 GENERAL ASPECTS The diagnosis made to determine the construction condition involves experimental determinations on three levels: i. Within the solid. the closer the velocity will get to the value corresponding to a completely compact object and the greater the percentage of voids the lower the velocity. ultrasonic velocity depends on compactness. destructive methods. [3.3 SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN STRUCTURE DIAGNOSIS 3. the entire building. page 30 . fig.

The equipment used to determine the ultrasonic velocity through concrete can be of various types all of them following the same principle.2. then it is amplified (A) and visualised analogically or digitally (C). b. The emitter is connected to the concrete piece through a thin layer of soft material. 3.e.3. Fig.2 The ultrasonic measuring principle A C To determine the concrete strength of the structural elements. usually plasticine [3. Thus. b.5). in a solid. holes etc. by means of ultrasounds certain internal flaws of the concrete like segregation areas. i. which is connected to the element being tested. The signal is sent to an emitter (E). page 31 . Ultrasonic propagation: a.3. Fig.fig.3. d G E R Fig.4 and 3.6 shows the photo of an ultrasonic measuring instrument. in the air Within a concrete element.2]. an ultrasonic signal having the frequency of 40-100 KHz is released by an impulse generator (G). as presented in a simplified drawing . the longitudinal ultrasonic velocity (VL) is determined by measuring the necessary time (t) for the ultrasonic impulse to be propagated on the length (d).3.: VL = d / t (3.1) Since concrete strength is directly related to its compactness.3.Building Rehabilitation V=5000 m/s V=340 m/s a.1. three measuring methods can be used (fig. The ultrasonic signal is received by a receiver (R).3. ultrasonic velocity through concrete can provide a measure of its strength RC and the following relation can be formulated: RC = f(VL) (3. can be detected and located.2) Thus.

page 32 .5]: • • the size of the building element.3.4] Ultrasonic wave velocity is influenced by various factors.6 Ultrasonic measuring instrument.3. such as [3.3.4 Measurings in the corner zone R1 R2 R3 Fig. the reinforcement of the construction element.3. SDS COMPANY [3.3 Measurings on opposite sides E Fig.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis E E d1 d1 R R R d2 d2 d3 Fig.5 Measurings on the same face Fig.

the disturbances which occur distort the measured velocity so that it appears to be lower than real velocity by almost 6-7% which can lead to an underestimated strength by 30-40%. the result is: λ =10 cm and d >1. if the minimum transverse dimension of the element (the direction on which determination is made) is more than 16 cm.3. determined with the relation (3.5 km/s.4) λ = VL/f (3. reinforcements must not be ignored. To determine the concrete strength of a building where the propagation velocity is measured in conditions that are different from those of a standard element. certain corrections need to be made. The graph chart in fig. When determining the propagation velocity for the reinforced concrete structures.6 λ.3) is the minimum dimension of the element being tested. Therefore. within a compact concrete with the propagation velocity VL= 4000 m/s. page 33 . If the ratio LS/Le<0. The propagation velocity determined with the relation (3. If the impulse encounters the reinforcement on its way.1) is valid only if: d > 1. where LS is the cub side on which calibrating determinations were carried out (usually LS=20 cm) and Le is the length of the ultrasonic signal.7 presents the correction values for various LS/Le ratios. the velocity being measured is lower than the standard velocity and correction needs to be made. perpendicular to the direction of the ultrasonic propagation is the vibration wavelength. no correction is necessary.5-4.6λ where: d λ (3.6 km/s and that through concrete is 3. If λ < d < 1.4.4) where: VL f is the propagation velocity is the oscillation frequency For the regular frequency of 40 KHz. the propagation velocity will be higher than the propagation velocity for the plain concrete as ultrasonic velocity through steel is 5.Building Rehabilitation • the temperature of the environment.6 x 10=16 cm.

1 0 0 0. temperatures between 40°C and 60°C on the concrete element may cause micro-cracking.2 0.12 0. 3. The standardising curves that establish a relation between the two variables depend on the type of the equipment.32 0.18 0.3 DETERMINING THE CONCRETE STRENGTH BY MECHANICAL METHODS 3. they lower the impulse velocity.3. page 34 .1 The imprint method The imprint method consists of hitting the concrete surface with a ball-shaped steel head and measuring the diameter of the mark obtained.7.24 0. The diameter of the mark is measured with a micrometric magnifying lens. The concrete strength is determined through an empirical relation between the diameter of the mark and this mechanical characteristic. For temperatures below 0°C the free water in the concrete pores freezes and the propagation velocity in ice is higher than in water. All these corrections are explained in details in the catalogues of measuring equipment and in the present norms. the velocity measured is higher than that of the concrete at the standard temperature (+20°C ±5°C). The temperature of the environment of the element being tested also influences the ultrasonic impulse velocity.5 0. The variation of the ultrasonic velocity functions depending on the ratio LS/Le If reinforcements cannot be avoided.3 0.4 Ls/Le 0. Thus. then the measured velocity needs to be corrected.3.4 velocityvitezei [Km/s] variatia [km/s] Fig. Therefore.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis 0. Although they do not decrease the strength.

it should cover both the highly stressed areas and the potential lowstrength regions. The concrete strength determination by means of the sclerometer is based on the relation between the concrete hardness expressed by the back pressure index and its compressive strength. using a concrete structure as standard element. viii. correction coefficients will be used [3. [3. The instrument used for this test is called sclerometer. the concrete surface must be perfectly flat and smooth. iv.Building Rehabilitation 3. the tested points will be chosen so that the regions with gravel size of more than 7 mm and superficial visible holes would be avoided. vii. ix. page 35 . ii. vi. Thus. number of tested points required for the determination of the concrete strength in a single area must correspond to at least 5 correct measurements. The results of the sclerometer test are relevant for a concrete layer whose thickness is about 3 cm from the tested surface.2]. the sclerometer must be kept perfectly perpendicular on the tested area. iii. the concrete strength can be determined by measuring the back pressure of a mobile system at its impact with a concrete surface.3. The areas where strength is determined with the sclerometer must comply with the following conditions: i. the concrete in the testing region should be as representative as possible for the whole element from the point of view of homogeneity and quality. v. To determine the strength of other types of concrete whose characteristics are different from those of the standard concrete.3]. the surface must not be humid. the surface of the tested area for which the concrete quality is determined must be of maximum 400 cm2 and minimum 100 cm2. the surface being tested should not coincide with the concrete pouring direction or with its opposite side.2 The back pressure method The back pressure method is based on the energy returned at the impact between two objects.

1 Core extraction The place of core extraction from construction elements is established according to the damage level of the construction and its importance.5) .System and equipments used in structure diagnosis Fig. Fig. taking care that: • they should not cross reinforcements – the choice of these regions is based on the project or the non-destructive measurements with the pachometer. the extraction areas should be representative for the examined element. • • The core diameter d depends on the following factors: • the maximum aggregate size for which the relation below is valid dcore ≥ (3…4) dmax of the aggreg. SDS COMPANY [3.3.3.8 presents the photo of a sclerometer used to measure the concrete strength by means of the back pressure method. core extraction from locally deteriorated areas can be used only to point out the characteristics of the examined flaw – the cores obtained by this method cannot be used to determine the concrete strength of the examined element.4 DETERMINING THE CONCRETE STRENGTH BY DESTRUCTIVE TESTS ON CORES/SAMPLES 3. page 36 (3.4.8 The sclerometer Schmidt.4] 3.

after the extraction.6) When extracting the core. ii. certain remedial works will need to be made by: • • • polishing the end surface under water jet (for unevenness of maximum 23mm) cutting the end surface with a diamond tool under water jet filling the end surface with a putty (epoxy mortar. sulphur paste with or without smoke black) which complies with the following requirements: maximum thickness of 1 cm.7) If the core ending surfaces are not the result of the plane and perpendicular cutting on generators.4.Building Rehabilitation • the distance between the reinforcements in the extraction areas (a) measured in centimetres for which the following condition should be observed: dcore ≤ a-dreinforcement. the strength reserve and the stress level of the crosssection estimated by the expert need to be considered. good adherence to concrete. cement mortar. The hole made by drilling will be filled with a suitable material to restore the load bearing capacity of the weakened section. its modulus of elasticity is close to or higher than that of the concrete in the core. the stress pattern of the element. page 37 .2 The number of cores and their preserving conditions The number of cores extracted for a structure will be chosen according to the following criteria: i. the number of the examined elements. 3. high hardening rate. its strength to compression is close to a higher than that of the core concrete.2dcore cutter-3 (3. The height of the core that is going to be tested destructively must comply with the following limits: dcore≤ hcore≤ 2dcore (3.

information about the structure. When determining the necessary number of cores sufficient information needs to be gathered and taken into account. the indication of the element the core has been extracted from. the existence of an interlayer between the machine loading plates and the core whose properties are different from those of the concrete.4. 3. page 38 . The results of the tests are written down in an analysis bulletin which should include: i. the slenderness of the core measured through the ratio: hcore/dcore the damaged ending layers. local variations in the quality of concrete from one element to another and within the same element.3 Compression core testing The strength recorded by the testing machine is not the real concrete compressive strength due to the following factors: • • • • the degradation of a concrete layer adjacent to the lateral surface of the core due to core drilling. the degradation o a concrete layer adjacent to the end surfaces of the core. the extent of the damage. ii. It is recommended that the test specimens should be kept in water at 20-25°C from their cutting to the test and at least 24 hours before the test. the cores must be taken out and kept in air at the same temperature for their conditioning.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis iii. The strength under compression determined on cores must be corrected according to the following factors: • • • • the diameter of the core. iv. the ratio between the core height and its diameter. the device used to flatten the surfaces.

4 Non-destructive testing of cores The non-destructive testing of cores is necessary to determine the elastic constants of the concrete and to verify or determine the relation between the parameters used in the non-destructive tests. the number. viii. diameter and orientation of the bars found in the core.9) (3.8): hcore ≥ 4 dcore and under unusual circumstances the following relation is accepted: hcore ≥ 3dcore (3. The dynamic modulus of elasticity of concrete Ed is determined with the relation: page 39 . the class and the age of the tested concrete. xi. 3. the nature of the evening layer used (if necessary). xii.4. the direction of the core extraction versus the direction of the concrete pouring. vii.8) When the longitudinal resonance methods are used. iv. The determination of the concrete elastic constants on cores is done by longitudinal resonance methods and ultrasonic methods. the end surface preparation. xiii. v. ix. the statistic processing of the test results. the test specimen is fixed at its middle length and the emitter and the receiver are disposed one at each end.Building Rehabilitation iii. the core dimensions. the test conclusions. the strength values obtained for each test bar after correction. vi. the compressive strength measured directly on the core the values of the strength correction coefficients. The dimensions of the test specimens used to determine the elasto-dynamic constants by the non-destructive resonance method must comply with the following condition (3. x.

which is the foundation soil in the case of buildings or the construction element for the equipment.5 VIBRATION MEASURING METHODS.10) where L fL ρa - is the length of the test specimen. the Bancroft correction factor which is about 1 for: dcore< 0. This correlation consists of determining the quantitative and qualitative values which define both action and reaction [3. capture the system response and process the information obtained. machines and equipment are required to generate vibration. according to the purpose of the vibration study: i. action determining the parameters of the action experimentally and comparing them to the system response by analytic calculus. the correlation between action and response through the studied system must be made.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis 2 E d = 4 ⋅ L2 ⋅ f L ⋅ ρa ⋅ CL g (3. determining the system characteristics by introducing some known actions and analysing its response. ii. To make a quantitative and qualitative characterisation of an oscillating process.4 hcore g CL 3. the apparent specific density. page 40 . EQUIPMENT AND OPERATIONS The vibration of a system (be it a building or a machine foundation) may be generated by internal disturbance. like in the case of working machine parts directly supported by the system or external disturbance. this operation being specific to a laboratory. various instruments. this problem is approached differently. the longitudinal fundamental frequency.6] In practice. When analysing vibrations experimentally. iii. determining the system response to an existing experimentally and comparing it to a standard response. when vibrations are transmitted to the system through the supporting medium. the gravity acceleration.

b.11. mechanical generators use direct current electrical engines with variable rotative speed or hydraulic engines.3. fig.9. direct actions.a or a rotational inertial mass. 3. To produce rotational movements.3.3.Building Rehabilitation 3. if they are generated by the inertia forces of some moving mass placed on the oscillating system. In case of direct acting achieved by means of a spring with the stiffness k. fig.7]: i. ii.1 Acting systems and procedures Dynamic actions may be classified according to its application manner into [3.5.10. or with indirect action. using connecting rod.3.9. direct action.b. b.3.5. fig. if they come from outside and have a fixed point as a supporting point. fig. pneumatic or electromagnetic systems etc.3.11.a Mechanical generators Mechanical generators may be with direct action. b.a. fig. Fig.1. by means of mechanical. F(t) F(t) a. using a translating inertial mass. indirect or inertial actions. The devices used to generate dynamic actions are called vibration generators or vibrators. indirect or inertial action The dynamic actions can be generated by several methods.9 Acting ways in dynamic regime a. the dynamic force F(t) is determined with the relation: page 41 .

the dynamic force F(t) is the result of a mass movement and it depends on its acceleration: && F(t) = m ⋅ X(t) and acceleration is: (3. the minimum force is reached when the position of the mass is on the axis linking the rotation centres and the highest value when it is perpendicular to the axis. Thus.13) && X(t) = ω2 ⋅ X(t) (3. the displacement amplitude X(t) depends on the position of the mass with respect to the rotation centre Ω.3.the time. Mechanical generators with direct acting F(t) = k ⋅ X(t) where: (3. The operation of this system is based on the position of the mass during the rotational movement. page 42 . t .10.11) (3.b.12) X(t) = X ⋅ sin (ω t) where: X is the displacement amplitude (of the rod-crank driving system). and the dynamic force is the sum of the forces produced by the two moving masses. fig.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis Fig.3. For the indirect action.14) In the case of mechanical generators with inert mass rotating in opposite directions. ω is the circular frequency of the rotational movement .11.

3. with translating inertial mass.Building Rehabilitation F(t)=m ω X(t) 2 F(t)= 2 m r ω2 cos (ω t) ω r ω X(t) m r ω cos (ω t) m r ω2 sin (ω t) 2 m r ω2 a. Fig.1.12 Inertial generator 3. The servo valve is electrically page 43 .3. with rotating inertial mass Fig.3. a servo valve with compensating nitrogen bottles and an oil pump.5. Fig. b.b Hydraulic generators Hydraulic generators are direct-driving and have the advantage of generating random movements of the seismic type as well. Usually. such a generator or actuator is made of a hydraulic cylinder.12 shows the photograph of an inertial generator used to test bridges. b.11 Indirect-driving mechanical generators a.

5.3.8] 3.3.3.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis driven by a computer using a specialised software.1. Fig. depending on the oscillator supply.13 Hydraulic generator produced by MTS [3. ELASTIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM AT WORK OSCILLATOR METALLIC CORE ELECTROGENERATOR SUPPLY COILS Fig. the movement of the coil can be sinusoidal or random. Fig.c Electrodynamic generators Electrodynamic generators are built on the principle of the diffuser.14 Vibration electrodynamic generator Electrodynamic generator can be direct-driving or indirect-driving. Fig. Fig.14 shows a generator of this type. page 44 . which consists of an electromagnet supplied with direct current and a coil supplied by a power oscillator.13 presents the photograph of a driving system of this type. Because of the magnetic field.3.15 presents an electrodynamic generator.3.

Building Rehabilitation

Fig.3.15 An electrodynamic generator produced by MB Dynamics [3.9]

3.5.2. Transducers and sensing devices used for measuring vibration During the vibratory movement of a system, any of its points can be characterised by the displacement, speed and acceleration on various directions or by the material state of stress and deformation in that point. As a matter of fact, the vibration of the material point is characterised by a variation in the mechanical energy, which can be acquired by means of sensing devices and converted by transducers in a measurable form of energy (usually electrical energy). The transducers are devices housing the conversion of mechanical energy into another form of energy. The conversion can be made directly from mechanical energy to electric energy, such transducers being termed energetic transducers or generators. The variation of the mechanical energy can be represented by the variation of electrical energy, resulting in parameter transducers. 3.5.2.a Resistive electric transducers The resistive electric transducers are parameter transducers that convert the variation of the mechanical energy into the variation of the electric resistance, which ultimately corresponds to a variation of current.
page 45

System and equipments used in structure diagnosis

The resistive tensometer transducers consist of a grid made of a special alloy representing the resistance which is fixed on a holder, fig.3.16 and fig.3.17.

HOLDER

GRID

CONDUCTOR

Fig.3.16 A resistive electric transducer

Fig.3.17 A tri-directional resistive electric transducer produced by Vishay [3.10]

Taking into account that the wire resistance is:
R = ρ⋅ l S

(3.15)

where:

ρ l S

- resistivity, - length, - surface.

The variation of the grid resistance of a transducer can be determined with the following formula: ∆ R = R ⋅ε ⋅ k (3.16) where: ε is the strain, k - the transducer parameter (the material, the grid shape and dimensions, the holder etc are considered, indicated by the producer. To measure the resistance variation ∆R of a resistive electric transducer caused by the specific strain ε, the Wheatstone bridge is used. The transducer resistances are generally ranged from 120 to 1000Ω, and the measured specific strains can reach 2-3%. 3.5.2.b Inductive Transducers The inductive transducers are included in the class of parameter transducers and are based on converting a movement variation into the inductance (L) variation of a circuit changed with direct current.
page 46

Building Rehabilitation

For dynamic measurements, the variable cored inductive transducers are used very frequently, fig.3.18. For this transducer, the coil inductance is directly proportional to the penetration depth (l) of the core. Therefore, the transducer can also be used for measurements where great displacements are detected.
COIL METALLIC CORE

l

Fig.3.18. A variable cored inductive transducer

3.5.3. Sensing devices When measuring vibrations, sensing devices are very often used to measure forces, movements displacements and accelerations. 3.5.3.a Force detectors This type of detectors have an elastic body with a perfectly linear behaviour whose strain caused by an external action is converted into an easily measurable analogous variable by means of a transducer. For static actions, detectors which have mechanical displacement transducers may be used, as shown in fig.3.19.
DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER ELASTIC ELEMENT

Fig.3.19 Force detector and mechanical transducer
page 47

System and equipments used in structure diagnosis

With dynamic actions, most force detectors use resistive, inductive or piezoelectric transducers to measure the strain of the elastic body. 3.5.3.b Vibration detectors The detectors used to measure vibrations can be divided into two categories: i. ii. fixed point detectors, which measure vibration in relation to a motionless point (inductive transducers); seismic detectors, operating on the principle of an oscillating system whose degree of dynamic freedom consists of a mass, a spring, a damping device and a transducer, fig.3.20.
x r (t) = Xr sin(θ t -φ )

SPRING DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER K C DAMPING DEVICE

xo (t) = Xo sin( t) θ

Fig.3.20 Seismic detector

The movement of the mass of the seismic equipment is given by the relation:
x r (t) = X r sin(θ t − φ )

(3.19)

where: Φ is the phase difference between the movement of the holder and that of the mass of the seismic instrument. Since the seismic detectors are systems with a degree of dynamic freedom, the following formula can be written:
xr = x0 p2 (1 − p ) + 4ξ p
2 2 2 2

p=

θ ω

tgΦ =

2ξp 1- p 2

(3.18)

page 48

Building Rehabilitation

where:

xr x0 ω ξ θ

is the amplitude of the seismic mass, - the oscillation amplitude, - own pulsation of the seismic detector, - the critical damping fraction, - the oscillation pulsation.

If relation (3.18) between xr/xo and p is represented (fig.3.21) in a chart for ξ=0.005…0.5 the following ranges can be defined: I. II. III. θ ≤ ω (acceleration detector) where xr ≈ p2 x0, i.e. the value measured by the detector is directly proportional to acceleration, θ=0; θ ≈ ω (frequency meter): the detector’s response is high in amplitude and corresponds to the frequency meter range, θ=π/2; θ ≥ ω (speed or displacement detector), where xr ≈ x0, therefore the displacement of the holder is the same with that of the mass but out of phase by π. This means that the seismic mass will remain fixed, whereas the holder moves, θ = π.

Fig.3.21 The seismic detector’s ranges

Fig.3.22 shows the photograph of SS-1 Ranger seismometer [3.12], which measures the speeds of a vibratory movement. The sensitivity of the device reaches 350 V/m/s, enabling the measurement or the recording of vibration of very low intensity. The most frequently used vibration detectors are accelerometers due to their small weight, their robustness and their region of operation at high frequency.
page 49

Fig. page 50 .3. the most important parameter is the operation range so that acceleration would not depend on frequency.S.14] When choosing an accelerometer.12] Most modern accelerometers work on the principle of seismic detectors with piezoelectric transducers [3. Fig. [3. [3.24 presents an accelerometer produced by MVI Technologies Group.3.23 An accelerometer with a piezoelectric transducer Fig. U.3. fig.18].24 A DA 120 accelerometer [3.14].22 The SS-1 Ranger seismometer [3.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis Fig.13].3.3.23.A.

5.5.26. fig.25 presents a calibration curve for accelerations where the area with constant acceleration representing this operation range can be noticed.4.3.4 Equipment used in information acquisition and processing 3.Building Rehabilitation Fig.3. For the signal to be measured and processed. it is amplified and then taken by an analogue to digital converter (data acquisition system) and recorded by the computer.a Analogue to digital conversion The detector output parameter is the variation of an electric variable whose amplitude is directly proportional to the variable being measured.3.3.26 The data collecting and processing system page 51 . The digital signal can be processed and displayed by means of a specialised programme. Fig. 4 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 Detector Amplifier Data collecting system – analogue to digital converter Computer The programme used to collect and process signals 5 Fig.25 The frequency response curve of an accelerometer 3.

representing a constant sampling frequency. page 52 . Under certain conditions the original analogical signal may be obtained through the reversible process using a digital to analogue (D/A) converter.3. In this case. AMPLITUDE a.). a single A/D converter is usually used to multiprocess several channels. TIME AMPLITUDE b. for instance. even though the time lag among channels can be compensated. The linearity of the analogical amplifiers for in the signal processing.) For the multi-channel conversion. The quality of the digital signal depends on the following factors [3.3. digital signal (b. The quality of the signal filtration before the A/D conversion. The number of bytes used in the digital representation.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis The analogue to digital converters (A/D) are used to convert an analogical signal into a sequence of digitally expressed numbers representing the instant value of the signal at pre-set discrete time intervals.6]: • • • • The accuracy of the sampling intervals. fig.27 Analogical signal (a. The time increments are usually homogeneous. it is better to use synchronised maintenance and sampling circuits to sample all the channels simultaneously for the sequentially made A/D conversion as well.27. ∆t TIME Fig.

discrete approximation of the Fourier integral transformation.15].0002 0.6].3.28. The DFT equations require real signals recorded in time.28. It is difficult to establish precise rules to choose the band width of the filter. which implies the use of a filter.0004 b.40 0. The latter is a finite. if desired.33 0.3. Fig. The FFT analysers use the FFT algorithm (the first Fourier transformation) to calculate the spectra of the data blocks. The FFT algorithms equally apply real or complex series over time [3. many operations can be made later.3. fig. For instance.) For a time-analysis it is important to choose a band width or a frequency domain. Each integration corresponds to a division of the Fourier spectrum by jω. the acceleration signals may be integrated to obtain the speed value using the direct digital integration in the time region or.0008 12.0000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Fig.00 -0. but the following aspects can be considered: page 53 .b [3.01 -0.5. 0.0006 0. the operations in the frequency region. 0.01 0. The FFT algorithm is an effective way of calculating the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT).b Dynamic measurement processing Once the signal has been obtained in digital form using proper filters. 0.0010 6.02 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a.28 The signal recorded by a seismometer (a.Building Rehabilitation 3.) and its Fourier analysis (spectrum) (b.a presents a signal recorded by a Ranger seismometer at the foundation of a turbo generator and the resulted Fourier spectrum.4.

McGRAWHILL. it is recommended to use a constant band width on a linear frequency scale – the band width must be between one fifth and one third of the minimum domain of frequency analysed. • Usually..measurementsgroup. Strat L.. M. 3.13 Patrick L.. W. the spectrum shape will be determined by means of resonances so that the band width would be chosen of about one third of the band width of the narrowest resonance peak. page 54 .5 Pohl E. Dynamic Force. USA.1 Winden N.10 Measurements Group (www. Editura Dacia.G. 1979. Fourth Edition.com/). Budescu M. Atanasiu G.W. Testing during concrete construction. lucrari de laborator..kistler. Reinhardt. & Acceleration Measurement (www.com/). Bucureşti. In order to cover a large region of frequency.9 MB Dynamics innovates and delivers SOLUTIONS..mts. 3. 1990.concretendt. 3. particularly for the periodical signals containing discrete and equally spaced frequency components. by H.. H.2 Stefanescu-Goangă A.. Vibration and Shock (www.. Asachi” Iaşi.htm). a frequency logarithmic scale may be selected. 3. Shoc and Vibration Handbook.pdf).. 3. Pressure. Deutsche Bauinformation. a linear range of frequency is used together with a constant band width. for the stationary or transitory random signals. Ed.T. Ranger Seismometer. Cluj-Napoca. Ionescu C. Editura tehnică. 1966..3 Tertea I.endevco.8 MTS (www. Severin C. Berlin.com).com/mg. 3.. 3.12 SEISMOMETRUL SS-1. 3... 1981. Stefan D.Verificarea calităţii construcţiilor de beton armat şi beton precomprimat.htm) 3.mbdynamics. Prüfung von Beton mit Ultraschall. KINEMETRICS. Chapman & Hall. Determinarea rezistenţei betonului prin metode nedistructive. London.6 Cyril.com/tech_theory. „Gh.B.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis • for the stationary signals. 1989. 1995. Exemple de calcul.com/pdf_pat_articles/patw_dynamicforce-2.7 Ciongradi I. U. Oneţ T. 3. to represent a spectrum.11 KISTLER (www. 3. Dinamica construcţiilor. 3. BIBLIOGRAPHY 3.4 SDS COMPANY (www. Ultrasonic measurement for setting control of concrete.

Building Rehabilitation

3.14 10dB-STEEL (www.01db.com/GB/HTM/OVERFRM.HTM). 3.15 Ciongradi, I., Budescu, M., Albu, Gh., Analiza caracteristicilor dinamice de la CET Craiova, UT Iaşi, 1998. 3.18 Buzdugan, Gh., Fetcu, L. şi Radeş, M., Vibraţii mecanice, Bucureşti, Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, 1982.

page 55

4
ADVANCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES FOR REHABILITATION OF BUILDINGS
Advanced polymeric composites are increasingly being used in strengthening civil engineering structures made of traditional materials. In particular these materials are utilized in structural rehabilitation of reinforced-concrete load-bearing elements due to their versatility, high strength-to-density and stiffness-to-density ratios and corrosion resistance to many aggressive factors. Fibre reinforced polymeric composites (FRPC) are easily applied on structural members made of steel, timber, reinforced and prestressed concrete for use in structural rehabilitation works where space constraints and time limitations are imposed.

4.1 FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES – ROLE AND PHASES Composites are materials consisting of two or more chemically distinct phases (constituents) on a macroscale, having a distinct interface separating them (fig.4.1)

a b c
Fig.4.1. Phases of a composite system: a – continue phase (matrix); b – disperse phase (fibres as reinforcements); c - interface

In fibrous polymeric composites, fibres with high strength and high stiffness are embedded in and bonded together by the low modulus continuous polymeric matrix. Each of the individual phases must perform certain functional requirements
page 56

Building Rehabilitation

based on their mechanical properties so that a system containing them may perform satisfactorily as a composite [4.1]. In the case of advanced FRPC the continuous fibres constitute the backbone of the material and they determine its strength and stiffness in the direction of fibres. The desirable functional requirements of the fibres in a composite are: they should have a high elastic modulus for an efficient use of reinforcement; the fibres should have a high ultimate strength; the variation of strength between individual fibres should be low; the fibres must be stable and retain their strength during handling and fabrication; the diameter and surface of the fibres should be uniform. The polymeric matrix is required to fulfil the following main functions: to bind together the fibres and protect their surfaces from damage during handling, fabrication and service life of the composite; to disperse the fibres and separate them; to transfer stresses to the fibres; to be chemically and thermally compatible with fibres. The interface region is small but it has an important role in controlling the overall stress-strain behaviour of the composites. It exhibits a gradation of properties and it is a dominant factor in the resistance of the composite to corrosive environments. It also has a decisive role in the failure mechanisms and fracture toughness of the polymeric composites.

4.2. FIBRES FOR POLYMERIC COMPOSITES Reinforcing fibres for polymeric composites are fabricated from materials that are stronger and stiffer in the fibrous form than as a bulk material. Their high fibre aspect ratio (length/diameter) enables an effective transfer of load via matrix materials [4.2]. Proper selection of type, amount and orientation fibres results in a composite with desired mechanical characteristics such as axial strengths, elastic moduli, fatigue strength and cost. Fibres used in tension elements utilized for structural rehabilitation must meet certain requirements such as: high strength, high stiffness, convenient elongation at tensile fracture, high toughness, durability, low cost and availability in suitable forms. The diameter of fibres should be small enough to reduce the possibility of surface flows and to provide a high transfer area of shear stresses between the reinforcing fibres and the matrix.
page 57

Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings

The type and chemical compositions of fibres determine several properties such as: stress-strain relationship, toughness, durability and fatigue resistance. There are three main types of reinforcing fibres utilized in polymeric composites for structural rehabilitation of civil engineering structures: glass fibres, carbon and graphite fibres and aramid fibres. Fibres are available in a variety of configurations, which may be classified in the following main categories: unidirectional, in which all the fibres lie in one direction; bi-directional, where the fibres lie at 900 to one another; random, when the fibres are in-plane randomly distributed.

A short description of the main types of fibres for polymeric composites used in structural rehabilitation is given below. 4.2.1. Glass fibres Glass fibres are the most commonly used reinforcing fibres for polymeric matrix composites. Molten glass can be drawn into continuous filaments that are bundled into rovings. These rovings can be fabricated into chopped fibres, continuous strands, chopped strands mats and woven fabrics before using them as reinforcement in composites. During fabrication, fibre surfaces are coated to improve wetting by the matrix and provide better adhesion between the composite constituents. Coating the glass fibres with a coupling agent will provide a flexible layer at the interface, the strength of the bond is improved and the number of voids in the material is reduced [4.3]. The most common glass fibres are made of E-glass and S-glass. E-glass is the least expensive of all glass types and it has a wide application in fibre reinforced plastic industry. S-glass has higher tensile strength and higher modulus than E-glass. However, the higher cost of S-glass fibres makes them less popular than E-glass. The main properties of E-glass and S-glass are summarized in Table 4.1, which also gives the main properties of carbon and aramid fibres [4.4]. To facilitate fabrication of glass fibre reinforced polymers glass strands are incorporated into rovings, fabrics, woven rovings and mats.
page 58

Glass fabrics are woven from twisted glass fibres on textile machinery and are available in several weaves. the bonding between layers is weak.9 -0.35 0.5].4 2.5 2. page 59 Poisson’s coefficient .1 Ultimate tensile strain Thermal expansion coefficient Young modulus Tensile strength Density Fibre Type (kg/m3) E-glass 2500 S-glass 2500 Carbon (high 1950 modulus) Carbon (high 1750 strength) Kevlar 29 Kevlar 49 Kevlar 149 1440 1440 1440 (MPa) 3450 4580 2100 2800 2760 3620 3450 (GPa) 72.2.20 0.5 380 240 62 124 175 (%) 3.20 0.6 0.-0.9 1. Table 4.4 (10-6/ oC) 5 2.Building Rehabilitation Glass fibre rovings consist of up to 120 untwisted strands. Most of the carbon fibres are produced by thermal decomposition of polyacrylonitril (PAN).0 longitudinal 30 radial -2.35 0.4 85.-1. The carbon atoms are arranged in crystallographic parallel planes of regular hexagons to form graphite.20 0. 4.3 -0.. Carbon fibres “Carbon” and “graphite” fibres are used interchangeably but there are some significant differences between these two coming from their modular structure. usually with a balanced square weave.35 Woven rovings (WR) are glass fibre rovings woven into a coarse fabric..5 1.2.0 longitudinal 30 radial -2. The manufacturing process for this type of fibre consists of oxidation (at 200-3000C). usually supplied wound together on a spool and suitable for unidirectional (UD) fibre reinforced of resins.6 -2..2. different stages of carbonization (at 1000-1500 0C and 1500-20000C) and finally graphitization (at 2500-30000C).. while in carbon.0 longitudinal 30 radial 0. so that it has a two-dimensional ordering [4.22 0.1 4.6.

6].000 to 160. c) Kevlar 49.2.4. Stress-strain curves of typical reinforcing fibres a) carbon (high modulus). Tensile stress (MPa) 4000 c a 2000 b e d 3000 1000 0 0 1 2 3 4 Tensile strain (%) Fig. They are 10 to 30 times more expensive than E-glass [4. b) carbon (high strength). The tensile modulus and strength of carbon fibres are stable as temperature rises. ultimate tensile strength and failure elongation decrease (fig.2). in general. d) S-glass. they are also highly resistant to aggressive environmental factors [4. These fibres show high specific strength and stiffness. therefore high-modulus fibres are produced by graphitization. The most important disadvantage of carbon fibres is their high cost. Carbon fibre tows can also be woven into two-dimensional fabrics of various styles. e) E-glass The high cost of these fibres is caused by the high price of raw materials and the long process of carbonization and graphitization. The carbon fibres behave elastically to failure and fail in a brittle manner (fig 4. which is a bundle of 1. Moreover. graphite fibres cannot be easily wetted by the matrix. Carbon fibres are commercially available in long and continuous tow.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings Graphite has a higher tensile modulus than carbon.4.5]. as the elastic modulus increases.2).000 parallel filaments. Carbon and graphite fibres with suitable properties have been page 60 . therefore sizing is necessary before embedding them in the matrix.

metal like and absorbing a large amount of energy.1. while fig.2. but under compressive load it is ductile.3 shows the comparison of different fibres and materials on a specific tensile strengthtensile modulus plot [4. Kevlar 49 (used in reinforced plastics) and Kevlar 149 (with the highest tensile modulus among all available aramid fibres). The compressive strength of Kevlar fibres is less than 20% of the tensile strength. but they retain more than 80% of their original strength at 1800C. Kevlar fibres absorb some water. Aramid fibres Aramid is a generic term for a group of organic fibres having the lowest specific gravity and the highest tensile strength-to-weight ratio among the current reinforcing fibres. Kevlar has a very good tension fatigue resistance. There are several types of Kevlar fibres: Kevlar 29 (for composites with maximum impact and damage tolerance).7]. not observed in glass or carbon fibres gives Kevlar composites better impact resistance. These fibres are sold under the DuPont trademark “Kevlar” and they have been extensively used for structural engineering applications. the amount of absorbed water depending on the type of the fibre.Building Rehabilitation developed for structural engineering applications. 4. particularly in structural strengthening of load-bearing elements made of traditional materials.3. This type of behaviour. Kevlar fibres tend to crack internally at the preexisting microvoids and produce longitudinal splitting [4. a low creep and can withstand high temperatures. Kevlar fibres are produced by extruding liquid crystalline solution of the polymer with partially oriented molecules.5]. At high moisture content. Some typical properties of Kevlar fibres are given in Table 4. Kevlar fibres are resistant to many chemicals but they can be degraded by some acids and alkalies. Kevlar 49 has brittle behaviour under tension.1 gives some of their physical and mechanical properties. Table 4. page 61 . It also shows a large degree of yielding on compression side when subjected to bending.4. The strength and modulus of Kevlar fibres decrease linearly when the temperature rises.

and/or mixture or formulation thereof with various additives or chemically reactive components [8]. which are irreversibly formed from low molecular weight precursors of low viscosity.7] 4. The fabrication and properties of composite materials are fundamentally affected by resin.4.1 Thermosetting resins Matrix in a polymeric composite can be regarded as a structural or a protection component. These polymers have strong bonds both in the molecules and between the molecules. Structural rehabilitation systems are mainly based on thermosetting resins. polymer precursor material.3. in advanced composites for structural rehabilitation. Resin is a generic term used to designate the polymer. Polymeric matrices have the highest potential applications in the construction industry and.3. the resin is cured to give a three-dimensional crosspage 62 .Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings Specific 20 strength 18 (104 m) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 S-glass Aramid (Kevlar) Carbon (high strength) E-glass Steel wires Graphite (high modulus) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Specific modulus (106 m) Fig. its chemical composition and physical properties. in particular. There are two fundamental classes of polymeric matrices.3 Performance diagram of fibres used in structural composites [4. After compounding with fibres. The initial low viscosity of thermoset resins enables high fibre volume fractions to be incorporated while still retaining good fibre wet-out. they are characterized by lack of softening on heating [9]. POLYMERIC MATRICES 4. Thermophysical characteristics of the matrix influence the processability and mechanical properties of the composite material. thermoplastics and thermosetting.

Building Rehabilitation linked polymeric matrix of large molecular weight.4. low shrinkage during cure and excellent resistance to chemicals and solvents. They can be formulated to have a wide range of stiffness (fig. polyester and vinyl ester which are discussed here.2 Epoxy matrix The term epoxy resins defines a class of thermosetting resins prepared by the ringopening polymerization of compounds containing an average of more than one epoxy group per molecule. which results in low impact resistance [4. The main physical properties of the cross-linked resins depend on the backbone of the epoxide. However thermosetting polymers have a limited storage life. lower coefficient of thermal expansion and greater resistance to solvents. curing agents and modifiers.4 Stress-strain curves of epoxy matrix resins of different modulus page 63 . 4. The most common thermosetting matrices used in advanced composites for structural strengthening are epoxy. small amounts of reactive curing agents are added to liquid resin to initiate polymerization. Stress 140 (MPa) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Low modulus High modulus Intermediate modulus Strain (%) 7 8 Fig. The main advantages of epoxy resins are: easy processing.3. The three-dimensional network of thermosets results in less flow under stress. greater dimensional stability.4) and other properties since epoxies can be obtained from a large number of starting materials. and the polymerization initiator. very good mechanical properties. Prior to adding fibres. Cross links are formed and epoxy liquid resins changes to a solid material.10]. good adhesion to a wide variety of fibres.4. long required fabrication time and low failure strain.

A wide variety of polyesters is available based on the choice of the diacid. page 64 .3 Polyester matrix The so-called general purpose polyester unsaturated resins are made using ethylene glycol. Relatively flexible polyesters are produced from highly aliphatic precursors. thermal stability and chemical resistance are improved as the density of the cross links increases. Tensile modulus and tensile strength (fig. The graph shows a non-linear relationship and this is a function of the viscoelastic nature of the material [4. fracture toughness and strain-to-failure are reduced. This volumetric shrinkage can be reduced by adding a thermoplastic component.10]. either orthophthalic or isophtalic acid as the saturated diacid. The flexibility of polyesters may be controlled by the choice of diacid and diols. The cross links formed during the curing process play a major role in establishing the final properties of the solid epoxy. fast cure time and low viscosity. Fig. without fabricator requiring knowledge of resin chemistry and detailed information on resin handling [4.4. The density of cross-links depends on the chemical structure of the starting resin. 4. The main advantages of polyester resins are low cost. After that a prepreg material can be subsequently moulded by a fabricator. On the other hand.5 gives a typical stress-strain curve for a general purpose polyester resin tested in tension and compression. brittle. curing agent and reaction conditions.10]. with increasing glass-transition temperatures may be obtained from combinations with large amounts of aromatic diacids and/or aromatic diols. The main disadvantage of polyester resins is their high volumetric shrinkage.4. High-performance epoxies have been prepared with a variety of phenolics and aromatic amines. Other chemical agents are added to extend the pot life.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings The main disadvantage of epoxy resins are their relatively high cost and long curing period.1]. thus the reinforcement can be pre-impregnated with liquid resin and partially cured to give a prepreg. highmodulus (stiff) polyesters.4). modify the chemical structures between cross-links and reduce the resin viscosity. Epoxy resins can be partially cured. Cross link can range the properties of polyester resins in the same manner as explained for epoxy resins.3. and fumaric as the unsaturated diacid [4. Their mechanical properties are generally lower than those of epoxies.

They exhibit good characteristics of epoxies such as chemical resistance and tensile strength.Building Rehabilitation Stress (MPa) 140 120 a 80 * 40 b 2 4 6 8 10 Strain (%) 12 Fig. or highly chlorinated or brominated monomers to improve fire resistance. Some typical properties of thermosetting resins are given in Table 4.3.4 Vinyl ester matrix Vinyl esters are resins based on methacrylate and acrylate. Some variations contain urethane and ester bridging groups. They also have very good wet-out and good adhesion when reinforced with glass fibres.5 Stress-strain curves for general purpose polyester resin [1] a. 4. However their volumetric shrinkage is higher than that of epoxy and they have only moderate adhesive strength compared to epoxy resins. as well as those of polyesters such as viscosity and fast curing.compression. Due to their chemical structure these resins have fewer cross links and they are more flexible and have a higher fracture toughness than polyesters. page 65 . Vinyl esters properties are a good combination of those given by epoxy resins and polyesters. The range of applicability of polyesters may be extended by adding methylmethacrylate to improve weathering. b.2. 4.tension.

When any change in the system variables occur.1 .38 .15 175 vinyl ester 1150 .130 2.1. page 66 .0 . The mechanics of materials approach is based on micromechanics.0.36 .5 0.3.1 Strength and stiffness of FRP composites 4. These properties can be determined by experimental measurements but one set of experimental measurements determines the properties of a fibre-matrix system produced by a single fabrication process.08 .1 General The properties of a composite material depend on the properties of its constituents and their distribution and physical and chemical interactions. Most of composite structures made of fibrous composites consist of several distinct unidirectional laminae. These experiments may become time consuming and cost prohibitive.14 .2 MATRIX polyester 1200 .0.30 170 PROPERTY Density Tensile strength Longitudinal modulus Poisson’s coefficient Thermal expansion coefficient Moisture content Service temperature UM kg/m3 MPa GPa – 10-6/ 0C % 0 C 4.60 100 epoxy 1200 .104 2.1300 55 .65 0.4.0.35 .15 .4. therefore a variety of methods have been used to predict properties of composite materials.4 MICROMECHANICAL MODELS FOR PREDICTING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES 4.4.3. additional measurements are required.5 .1400 34.40 45 .Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings Table 4.10 0.45 0.75 .0.39 50 .100 0.0.1350 73 – 81 3.75 0.0.39 55 .

4. In most cases the properties of FRP composites can be determined using the micromechanics which in composites literature means the analysis of the effective composite properties in terms of constituent material properties. Any direction in the 2-3 plane is also a transverse direction.2. The in-plane elastic behaviour of a unidirectional lamina may be fully described in terms of four basic lamina properties: • • • • longitudinal modulus (E1=EL). The unidirectional composite shows different properties in the material axes directions. the major Poisson’s ratio (ν12=νLT). that is. The basic strength parameters referred to the principal material axes of the unidirectional lamina are presented in fig.7: • • • • • longitudinal tensile strength (FLt). Therefore.4. a unidirectional composite can be considered to be transversely isotropic.Building Rehabilitation A lamina is a flat or curved arrangement of unidirectional or woven fibres in a support matrix. material behaviour in the other two directions (2. in-plane shear strength (FsLT).4. longitudinal compressive strength (FLc). this type of composites are orthotropic with their axes 1.6) is the basic building block in a laminated fibre-reinforced composite material.3) is nearly identical because of the random fibre distribution in the cross section. page 67 . it is isotropic in the 2-3 plane.6). shear modulus (G12=GLT). A unidirectional lamina has the strongest properties in the longitudinal direction. transverse compressive strength (FTc). transverse tensile strength (FTt). The unidirectional lamina (fig. These axes are also referred to as the material axes of the lamina.3 as axes of symmetry (fig. Thus. A unidirectional composite consists of parallel fibres embedded in a matrix. transverse modulus (E2=ET). The direction parallel to the fibres is called the longitudinal direction (axis 1 or L) and the direction perpendicular to the fibres in the 1-2 plane is called the transverse direction.

Assuming that no voids are present in the composite the volume fractions and the weight fractions are defined as follows: vc = v f + vm Vf = vf vc V f + Vm = 1 and Vm = vm vc (4. wf and wm the corresponding weights of the composite.1.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings (3) (2) T Transverse direction (1) L Longitudinal direction Fig.1c) page 68 .1.a) (4. fibres.2 Volume and weight fractions A key element in micromechanical analysis is the characterization of the relative volume and/or weight content of the various constituent materials.4. the volume fractions are used in micromechanics of composites. Let us also consider wc. Let the volume fraction and the weight fraction be denoted by V and W respectively.6 Unidirectionally fibre reinforced lamina 4. Consider a volume vc of a composite material which consists of volume vf of fibres and volume vm of the matrix material.4. The subscripts c.1b) (4. and the matrix material respectively.f and m represent the composite material. fibres and the matrix material respectively. Therefore it is desirable to determine these fractions and the relationships between the weight fractions and volume fractions. The weight fractions are easier to obtain during fabrication or using one of the experimental methods after fabrication.

τ12=τLT Fig.7 Lamina loading schemes for basic strength parameters: a) longitudinal tensile stress (FLt).4) ρ c = ρ f V f + ρ mVm page 69 τ21=τTL . the following equation can be derived for the composite material density: (4. b) longitudinal compressive stress (FLc). σ 2 =σ T d.3) ρ c vc g = ρ f v f g + ρ m v m g (in which g is the gravity acceleration) and using the definition for the volume fractions.4. c) transverse tensile stress (FTt). σ 2 =σ T τ21=τTL e. From the weight of a composite written as: (4. e) in-plane shear stress (FsLT) wc = w f + wm Wf = wf wc and Wm = (4.2a) wm wc (4. σ 1 =σ L τ12=τLT c.Building Rehabilitation σ 1 =σ L σ 1 =σ L a. d) transverse compressive stress (FTc). σ 1 =σ L σ 2 =σ T σ 2 =σ T b.2b) The density ρc of the composite can be obtained in terms of the densities of the constituents (ρf and ρm) and their volume fractions or weight fractions.

8. The fibre volume fraction for the square array is found by dividing the area of the fibre enclosed in the square by the total area of square: page 70 . then.6) and the reverse relations are: Vf = ρc Wf ρf Vm = (4. s.5) Considering the definition of weight fractions and replacing the weights by the products of density and volume.9) The range of constituent volume fractions that may be expected in fibre reinforced composites can be determined using representative area elements for idealized fibre-packing geometries such as the square and triangular arrays shown in fig.4. to lower fatigue resistance and greater susceptibility to water penetration. Assuming that the theoretically calculated density is ρct and the experimentally determined density is ρce the volume fraction of voids Vv is given by: Vv = ρ ct − ρ ce ρ ct (4.2]. If it is assumed that the fibre spacing. A good composite must have less than 1% voids. and the fibre diameter. Higher void contents lead to increased scatter in strength properties. matrix and voids: V f + V m + Vv = 1 (4.7) The composite density calculated theoretically from the weight fractions may not agree with the experimentally determined density. do not change along the fibre length. whereas a poorly made composite can have up to 5% void content [4.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings The density of composite materials in terms of weight fractions can be obtained as: ρc = Wf 1 ρ f + Wm ρ m (4. the conversion between the weight fractions and volume fractions can be obtained: Wf = ρf Vf ρc Wm = ρm Vm ρc ρc Wm ρm (4. When the composite material consists of fibres.8) The void content may significantly influence some mechanical properties of a composite material. d. the area fractions must be equal to the volume fractions.

based on the following assumptions [4.10) The maximum theoretical fibre volume fraction occurs when s=d. the maximum fibre volume fraction is: V f max = π 2 3 = 0. In most continuous fibre composites the fibre volume fractions range from 0. b) triangular 4.785 (4.3 Longitudinal modulus of a unidirectional composite Elementary mechanics of materials models have been adopted in the elastic range.11) Vf = ⎜ ⎟ 2 3⎝ s⎠ π ⎛d ⎞ 2 (4. Fig.Building Rehabilitation Vf = π ⎛d ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 4⎝s⎠ 2 (4.75. [4.4.1.4.2].12) and.5 to 0.13) These theoretical limits are not generally achievable in practice.907 (4. b. In this case: V f max = In case of a triangular array: π 4 = 0. a. when s=d.8 Representative area elements for idealized fibre-packing geometries a) square.4]: page 71 .

9 Model of FRP composite for predicting longitudinal behaviour page 72 . matrix and composite. Since no slippage occurs at the interface and the strains of fibre.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings • A unidirectional composite may be modelled by assuming fibres to be uniform in properties and diameter. respectively and the second subscript refers to the direction. The matrix is assumed to be isotropic.9. the area fractions must equal the volume fractions. and parallel throughout the composite. continuous.4. Since it is assumed that the fibres remain parallel and that the dimensions do not change along the length of the element. • • • • Let us consider the model of the unidirectional composite shown in fig. so that no slip occurs between fibre and matrix materials. matrix and composite are equal we can write: ε f 1 = ε m1 = ε c1 (4. It may be assumed that a perfect bonding exists at the interface. but the fibre can be either isotropic or orthotropic.14) in which subscripts f. For the model shown in fig. fibre matrix lc ∆cL (1) L σL (2) T σL Fig.4.4. The fibre and matrix materials are assumed to be homogeneous and linearly elastic.9 the load (Pc=σLAc) is shared between the fibres (Pf=σf1Af) and the matrix (Pm=σm1Am). m and c refer to fibre.

Building Rehabilitation Static equilibrium requires that the total force on the lamina cross section must equal the sum of the forces acting on the fibre and matrix: σLAc= σ c1 Ac = σ f 1 A f + σ m1 A m (4.16) can be differentiated with respect to strain. two cases are distinguished [4.18) are known under the name “rule of mixtures” indicating that the contributions of the fibres and the matrix to the composite stress and elastic modulus respectively are proportional to their volume fractions.4. fibres and matrix: ⎛ dσ c ⎜ ⎜ dε ⎝ c ⎛ dσ f ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ L ⎝ dε f ⎞ ⎛ ⎟V f + ⎜ dσ m ⎜ dε ⎟ ⎝ m ⎠ ⎞ ⎟Vm ⎟ ⎠ (4.4. For example aramid and carbon fibres are anisotropic whereas glass is practically isotropic. Equation (4.10. When the ultimate tensile strain of the fibre is lower than that of the matrix (εfu<εmu) the composite will fail when its longitudinal strain reaches the ultimate strain in the fibre (fig.a). 4. If the stress-strain curves of the materials are linear.4 Longitudinal tensile strength When a fibre reinforced composite is subjected to longitudinal tension the constituent with the lower ultimate strain will fail first. Under assumption of uniform strengths.18) Relationships (4.15) Since the area fractions are equal to the corresponding volume fractions.16) and (4. The rule of mixtures predictions for the longitudinal elastic modulus is very close to the experimental results. the longitudinal tensile strength of the composite can be calculated with: FLt = F ft V f + σ m (1 − V f ) page 73 (4.7] depending on the relative magnitudes of the ultimate strains of fibres and matrix.18) it is assumed that the fibre can be anisotropic with different properties in the longitudinal and transverse directions and that the matrix is isotropic. Then. The matrix modulus does not need a second subscript.17). which is the same for the composite.1.16) Equation (4. Thus: E L = E c1 = E f 1V f + E m (1 − V f ) (4.17) where (dσ/dε) represents the slope of the corresponding stress-strain diagrams at the given strain. the slopes (dσ/dε) are constants and they can be replaced by the corresponding elastic modulus in Equation (4. In Equation (4.15) can be rearranged to give an expression for the composite longitudinal stress: σ L = σ c1 = σ f V f + σ mVm (4.19) .

associated with microbuckling (fig. the average matrix stress at the fibre fracture strain(fig. εfu strain Fig.10.4. in many cases.18].4. fibre dominated strength (εfu< εmu) b. matrix dominated strength (εmu<εfu) page 74 .1.11) or kinking of the fibre within the restraint of the matrix material.7]: stress stress (4.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings where: FLt Fft σm Vf is the longitudinal composite tensile strength. There are three main longitudinal compression failure modes [4. εmu strain εmu b. [4.5 Longitudinal compression strength When fibre reinforced composite materials are loaded in longitudinal compression the models for tensile longitudinal strength cannot be used since the failure of the composite is. the longitudinal fibre tensile strength.10 Longitudinal stress-strain curves for composite and constituents a.4.10.4. When the ultimate matrix tensile strain is lower than that of the fibre (εmu<εfu) the composite fails when its longitudinal strain reaches the fracture strain of the matrix (fig. Then. the longitudinal tensile strength of the composite can be calculated with: A lot of a FLt = σ f V f + Fmt (1 − V f ) 4.20) Fft FLt Fmt σm fibre Fft fibre composite σf FLt Fmt composite matrix matrix εfu a.b).a). the fibre volume fraction.4.

4.Building Rehabilitation • • • microbuckling of fibres in either extensional or shear mode (fig.23) and the longitudinal compressive strength is: page 75 .4.13).4.b).4. shear failure of fibres without buckling (fig.c) the following formula for the fibre buckling stress is determined: σ fcr = Gm V f (1 − V f ) (4.4.12).21) from which the longitudinal compressive strength in the composite material is: FLc = V f σ cr = 2V f V f Em E f 3(1 − V f ) (4.11.11. Fig.11 Modes of fibre buckling a-representative volume element. transverse tensile fracture due to Poisson strain (fig. c-shear mode To find the fibre buckling load in each buckling mode the energy method can be utilised [4.4.11.19] and the following formula can be developed for the fibre critical stress in case of extensional mode buckling (fig.22) When the shear buckling mode occurs (fig. b-extension mode.b): σ fcr = 2 V f Em E f 3(1 − V f ) (4.

the transverse Poisson strain is: ε T = −ν LT ε L = ν LT σL EL (4.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings FLc = Gm 1−Vf (4.4.13 Transverse tensile rupture due to Poisson strain A model of failure under longitudinal compressive loading is based on the transverse tensile fracture due to Poisson strains (fig.13).12 Shear failure without fibre buckling σL Fig.25) σL σL α σL Fig.4. Under the compressive longitudinal stress.26) page 76 .24) Another possible failure mode under longitudinal compression is the failure of fibres in direct shear due to maximum shear stress. at high values of Vf for well aligned fibres when pure compressive failure. which can be related to shear failure of the fibres. the predicted strength is [4.7]: FLc = 2 Fsf [V f + (1 − V f ) in which Fsf is the shear strength of the fibre.4.12. may be encountered. fig. Em ] Ef (4. In case of the shear mode governed by the shear strength of the fibre. This occurs at an angle α=45o to the loading axis.4.

Both constituents are assumed to be linear-elastic materials and the fibrematrix bond is perfect.20] of the matrix (εmu): ε Tu = ε mu (1 − V f ) 1/ 3 (4.30) Experimental results are in better agreement with predictions of Equation (4.28) The ultimate transverse strain of the composite can be calculated from the ultimate tensile strain [4.1. Let us consider a simple mathematical model shown in fig.4. continuous and parallel throughout the composite.4. At failure σL is the compressive strength (FLc) such that εT equals the ultimate transverse tensile strain (εTu) of the composite: ν LT σL EL = ε Tu (4.27) and the corresponding formula for FLc is: FLc = ν LT EL ε Tu (4. page 77 • .6 Transverse modulus The transverse modulus is a matrix-dominated property being sensitive to the local state of stress.30) than with the predictions based on microbuckling of fibres. The composite is represented by a series model of matrix and fibre elements.2]: FLc = [ E f V f + E m (1 − V f )](1 − V f1 / 3 )ε mu ν f V f + ν m (1 − V f ) (4.Building Rehabilitation and the compressive failure of a unidirectional fibre reinforced composite loaded in the fibre direction may be caused by transverse splitting of the material.29) and the longitudinal compressive strength of the composite is [4. and the main assumption is that the stress is the same in the fibre and matrix. 4.14: • • The fibres are assumed to be uniform in properties and diameter.

generally both constituents will be present at any section perpendicular to the load. Thus the load is shared between the fibres and the matrix and the assumption that the stresses and page 78 . experiencing the same stress. Assuming the fibres and matrix to deform elastically and the stress is the same in the fibre.4. ∆f lf lm ∆m σT σT fibre matrix t lc Fig.14 Model of a unidirectional composite under transverse normal stress The model utilised to determine the transverse modulus is not mathematically rigorous. In a real composite the parallel fibres are dispersed in the matrix material in a random fashion. especially at the higher volume fraction.31) ET = E f Em E mV f + E f (1 − V f ) (4. the length fractions must be equal to the volume fractions. we can write: (σ c )T ET and: = σf Ef Vf + σm Em Vm (4. in the transverse direction.4. Since the dimensions of the representative volume element do not change along the longitudinal direction.14 that each layer has the same area on which load acts.32) where Ef is the transverse modulus of the fibres. matrix and composite.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings Considering the model made up of layers representing fibres and matrix materials it is clear from fig.

A reduction coefficient (Cv) to account for voids can be used [4. the high-modulus fibres act as effective constraints [4. where the critical stresses and strains usually occur. and defects in matrix such as microcraks and voids.33) η1 = (E (E f f E m ) + ξ1 Em ) − 1 (4. When ξ1=0.35) The preceding equation above assumes perfect adhesion between phases and thus failure occurs by matrix fracture at or near the interface. whereas a value of ξ= ∞ yields the rule of mixtures. Halpin and Tsai [4.22] on the deformation of the matrix.21] developed semiempirical equations to match the results of more exact micromechanics analyses: ET = E m where: 1 + ξ 1 η1 V f 1 − η1 V f (4. causing stress and strain concentrations in this constituent and at the fibre-matrix interface.Building Rehabilitation the matrix are equal is inaccurate and the mechanics of materials prediction underestimates the transverse modulus.20] for the prediction of transverse tensile strength of fibrous composites leads to the formula given below: FTt = ET Fmt (1 − V f1 / 3 ) Em (4. Many factors influence the transverse tensile strength and the most important are: the matrix strength.36) .4. 4. An empirical approach [4. For usual case of circular-section fibres. In case of transverse loading. the fibre-matrix interface properties.1. satisfactory results are obtained by taking ξ1=2.34) and ξ1 is the reinforcing efficiency factor for transverse loading. the Halpin-Tsai equation reduces to the inverse rule of mixtures.35) and Cv can be determined with: Cv = 1 − 4Vv π (1 − V f ) page 79 (4.7 Transverse tensile strength The transverse tensile loading is the most critical loading of a unidirectional composite.23] to modify Equation (4.

preventing its deformation in the direction perpendicular to the plane of load-fibre axes.25].37) The effect of voids is very detrimental to the transverse strength and this is reflected by both empirical formulas.37) can be used replacing the tensile strength of the matrix by the compressive strength of the matrix [4.15 a) Model of unidirectional composite for prediction of shear modulus.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings where Vv is the void volume fraction [4.9 In-plane shear modulus The behaviour of unidirectional composites under in-plane shear loading is dominated by the matrix properties and the local stress distributions. Another empirical formula based on tensile strength of the matrix. b) shear deformations for constituents and for the model page 80 . 4. (Rtm) can also account for voids: ⎡ ⎛ E ⎞⎤ RtT = Rtm C v ⎢1 + (V f − V f )⎜1 − m ⎟⎥ ⎜ E f ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ (4.4.1. 4. lf τLT L m f t b.4.8 Transverse compressive strength Transverse compressive strength values are usually higher than tensile strength values for both matrix and composite. γm γf γc ∆c Fig. Although the results provided by these formulas can be used for preliminary design.15) to determine the shear modulus.23]. This is explained by the additional constraints placed on the matrix. experimental data are usually required if transverse strength is the controlling mode of failure of the component [4. Also the transverse compressive strength increases with increase in the fibre volume fraction. The mechanics of materials approach uses a series model under uniform shear stress (fig.24]. T τTL ∆f ∆ m lm lc τLT τTL a.1.4. For preliminary design Equation (4.4.

γf.42) underestimates the values of the in-plane shear modulus.42) As in the case of transverse modulus Equation (4. lm): ∆c = ∆ f + ∆m (4. and the Halpin-Tsai equations can be used to give better predictions: G LT = Gm where: 1 + ξ 2 η2 V f 1 −η2 V f (4.15 the total shear deformation of the composite.41) where GLT is the in-plane shear modulus of the composite.4.Building Rehabilitation Using the notations shown in fig. γm) and the cumulative widths of the material(lc. and the matrix. ∆m.39) by lc and recognising that the width fraction is proportional to volume fractions. ∆c. fibres and matrix and from Equation (4.43) η2 = (G (G f f Gm ) + ξ 2 page 81 Gm ) − 1 (4. ∆f.38) (4. yields: γ c = γ f V f + γ mVm (4. Gf is the shear modulus of fibres and Gm the shear modulus of matrix. lf.40) Assuming linear shear stress-shear strain behaviour of fibres and matrix.39) γ c lc = γ f l f + γ m lm Dividing both sides of Equation (4. But the shear stresses are equal on composite.41) we obtain: G LT = G f Gm GmV f + G f (1 − V f ) (4.44) . is the sum of the shear deformations of the fibre. each shear deformation can be then expressed as the product of the corresponding shear strain (γc. the shear strains can be replaced by the ratios of shear stress and the corresponding shear modulus: τ LT G LT lc = τf Gf lf + τm Gm lm (4.

46) When the reinforcing fibres are anisotropic.10 In-plane shear strength Under in-plane shear (fig. the matrix and the fibres have been assumed to be isotropic. and Poisson’s ratio. For a preliminary design. L τTL= τ21 τ21= τTL Fms Failure surface T τ12= τ21= τLT Fig.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings and ξ2 is the reinforcing efficiency factor for in-plane shear.45) In this section. the shear modulus of the constituents can be computed from the elastic modulus.1. using the following formula: G= E 2(1 + ν ) (4. Assuming ξ2=1. Equation (4.4.16 In-plane shear failure of unidirectional composite Fms Shear failure may also occur when off-axis unidirectional composite elements are loaded in axial tension. constituent debonding or a combination of the two.43) becomes: G LT = Gm ( G f + G m ) + V f (G f − Gm ) (G f + G m ) − V f (G f − Gm ) (4.4. E. The best agreement with experimental results has been found for ξ2=1.37) replacing the matrix tensile strength with the shear strength of the matrix as follows: page 82 . the in-plane shear strength may be evaluated using a formula similar to Equation (4. the corresponding shear modulus (G12) should be utilised. 4.4.16) the failure could occur by matrix failure.

The second one called the minor Poisson ratio. to the transverse strain. εT. relates the transverse stress.Building Rehabilitation ⎡ ⎛ G FsLT = Fms C v ⎢1 + (V f − V f )⎜1 − m ⎜ G ⎢ f ⎝ ⎣ where Cv is the reduction coefficient. Deformed composite εL εT (4. νTL. εL: ν TL = − when σT≠0.4. the corresponding shear modulus (G12) should be utilised. σL. to the longitudinal strain.47) Again.4. σT. νLT. 4. and is normally referred to as the major Poisson ratio: ν LT = − εT εL (4. relates the longitudinal stress.1.4.48) where εL is the longitudinal strain and the loading scheme is: σL≠0. in this section the matrix and the fibres have been assumed to be isotropic. Using the axis system shown in fig. ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ (4. when the reinforcing fibres are anisotropic.49) Undeformed composite f lf Fig.11 Prediction of Poisson’s ratio Two Poisson ratios are considered for in-plane loading of a unidirectional fibre reinforced unidirectional composite.17 the first Poisson ratio.17 Model of unidirectional composite for prediction of Poisson’s ratio page 83 ∆f lc σL lm m σL ∆m . σT=0 and τLT=0. σL=0 and τLT=0.

The performance of composites can be ranked on the basis of specific strength (strength-to-density ratio) and specific modulus (elastic modulus-to-density ratio). the load is applied parallel to the fibres.4.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings A model similar to that used to predict ET [4. fig.17.51) Equation (4. ∆ m = (ε m )T l m . The total transverse deformation of the composite. is the sum of the constituent transverse deformations. page 84 . ∆ c = (ε c )T l c (4.53) 4. ∆c.2] can be used to determine νLT.5 PROPERTIES OF FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES RELATED TO STRUCTURAL STRENGTHENING OF CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES As stated in the previous chapter the properties of polymeric composites are determined by the properties of their constituents. The following functional relationship (presented in macromechanics of composites) exists between engineering constants: ν LT E L = ν TL ET (4.50) Assuming that no slippage occurs at the interface and the strains experienced by the composite.52) Thus the minor Poisson ratio can be obtained from the already known engineering constants EL. however.51) is the rule of mixtures for the major Poisson ratio of a unidirectional composite. for cumulative thicknesses of layers is utilised to express the transverse strains in the composite and constituents (fibre and matrix) in terms of longitudinal strains and the Poisson ratio. ∆ f = (ε f )l T f . ET and νLT : ν TL = ν LT ET EL (4. fibre and matrix are equal and that the widths are proportional to the volume fractions the following formula is obtained for the major Poisson ratio: v LT = v f V f + vmVm (4. ∆f and ∆m: ∆ c = ∆ f + ∆ m . their distribution and the interaction among them. The deformation pattern illustrated in this figure.

is usually dominated by the fibres properties.Building Rehabilitation In view of these characteristics a comparative representation of the performance of epoxy composites is shown in fig.7]. the lower the ultimate strain. page 85 .4. The behaviour of polymeric composites with unidirectional fibres.4.4. Specific strength (104m) 12 10 8 6 4 2 a b c 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 6 Specific modulus (10 m ) Fig.20.19.18. in the transverse direction. the behaviour of unidirectional composites is mainly dominated by the matrix properties. c-carbon/epoxy As it can be seen carbon/epoxy composites with unidirectional fibres seem to have the most convenient combination of specific modulus and strength [4.18 Performance map of epoxy composites a.glass/epoxy. Stress-strain diagrams of some unidirectional polymeric composites normal to the fibre direction are illustrated in fig.4. b-Kevlar/epoxy. As a matter of fact carbon/epoxy plates are the most utilized composite products in structural rehabilitation of traditional building elements. However. the higher the elastic modulus. As it can be seen from fig. in the fibre direction.

c.3 0. c) carbon/epoxy page 86 . (MPa) 2500 c a b 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1 2 3 Strain ε(%) 4 5 Fig. b). S-glass/epoxy.kevlar/epoxy.19 Stress-strain diagrams of unidirectional epoxy composites in fibre direction: aglass/epoxy.4.2 0. Stress (MPa) 10 0 c 80 60 b a 0 0.1 0.20 Stress-strain diagrams of some unidirectional polymeric composites in the transverse direction. a) E glass/epoxy.carbon/ epoxy. b.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings Stress. 4.4 0.5 Strain (%) Fig.

6 In-plane shear modulus (GLT. The process involves pulling these raw materials through a heated steel forming die using a continuous forms such as rolls of roving or rolls of mats. Kg/m3) Longitudinal modulus (EL.55 2100 Density (ρ.6 MANUFACTURING PROCEDURES OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITE PRODUCTS FOR STRUCTURAL REHABILITATION There are various manufacturing options available and they have been developed to suit the variety of production parameters encountered. These values can be used for preliminary design purposes.8 0.3 are at ambient temperature (240C) and zero moisture conditions.1 Pultrusion Pultrusion is a continuous fully automated manufacturing process which allows the production of long. MPa) 39 Property page 87 Kevlar 49/epoxy 0. GPa) 3. 4.7]. GPa) 8.02 2860 49 .34 0. 4. Raw materials are a liquid resin mixture (containing resin.5 2.2 0.28 Major Poisson’s ratio (νLT) 0.6 0. straight constant section structural shapes made of fibre reinforced polymeric composites.3 E – glass /epoxy Fibre volume fraction.06 Minor Poisson’s ratio (νTL) Longitudinal tensile strength (FLt.65 1600 177 10. The processes most used to produce composite strips and shapes or to apply external composite reinforcing elements are presented in this chapter.3 gives a list of the main properties needed to design strengthening solutions of civil engineering structures using advanced polymeric composites. MPa) 1080 Tranverse tensile strength (FTt. The composite properties listed in the Table 4.8 7.27 0. it is recommended that a designer obtain more exact properties for the particular selection of the constituent used [4. (Vf) 0. fillers and specialized additives) and flexible textile reinforcing fibres.02 1280 30 Carbon /epoxy 0. However for a final design of a component. GPa) 39 Transverse modulus (ET.Building Rehabilitation All materials exhibit quasi-linear behaviour with low ultimate strength and strains. Table 4. Table 4.6.60 1380 87 5.

d-resin impregnator. The performer is an array of tooling which squeezes away excess resin as the product is moving forward and shapes the materials prior to entering the die.11].21 The pultrusion process : a-roving creels.0 -6 0 coefficient (α1.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings In-plane shear strength (FsLT. On exiting the resin bath. c-guide. The main function of the reinforcement guides is to locate properly the reinforcement within the polymeric composite.015 0. 10-6/0C) 49 0. 4. page 88 . and any other additives required. Fig.4. f-preformer. MPa) 89 Ultimate longitudinal tensile 0. the composite is a flat sheet form.028 strain (εLtu) Ultimate transverse tensile 0. the hardening of the resin is initiated by the heat from the die and a rigid. catalyst.005 335 158 -2. cured profile is formed that corresponds to the shape of die.005 1875 246 -0. In certain applications a radio frequency wave generator unit is used to preheat the composite before entering the die.005 strain (εTtu) Longitudinal compressive strength (FLc. h-caterpillar type pull. e-surfacing material. The resin bath wets out (pre-impregnates) the reinforcement with a solution containing the resin. b-mat creels. 128 MPa) Longitudinal thermal expansion 7.21 shows the representation of the process [4. i-pull blocks. 620 MPa) Transverse compressive strength (FTc.0 60 83 0.016 0.3 30 As the reinforcements are pre-impregnated and saturated with the resin mixture in the resin bath and pulled through the die. j-cutt off saw The creels position the reinforcements for subsequent feeding into the guides. Fig. 10 / C) Transverse thermal expansion 21 coefficient (α2. g-forming and curing die.

On exciting the die.12].22 Hand lay-up technique a-mould.6. the cured profile is pulled to the saw for cutting to length. which lends itself most appropriately to the process and gives maximum strength and stiffness in the axial direction of the composite product. In this technique fabrics. Fibre volume fractions of up to 65% are achievable with unidirectionally aligned fibres [4. woven rovings or chopped strand mat are laid over a polished mould previously treated with a released agent. d c b Fig.2 Hand lay-up technique This is the simplest procedure used for the manufacture of fibre reinforced polymeric composite components. The operating speed is influenced by the curing rate and by the time required for excess solvents to be eliminated from the composite. In the die the thermosetting reaction is heat activated (energy is primarily supplied electrically) and the composite is cured. In general pultrusion is dominated by the use of unidirectional reinforcement.22 shows the hand lay-up operation [4.4. c-brush.13]. This forms the outer surface of the component after removal from the moulding and may therefore have special properties for improved weathering and page 89 .4. Fig. 4. d-roller a The release agent applied to the mould is allowed to dry before any lay-up is undertaken.Building Rehabilitation When in use. A gel coat resin is first laid-up against the carefully prepared mould surface. Constant section shapes with good and uniform properties are manufactured using the pultrusion technique. this heater is positioned between the resin bath and the performer. b-composite layer.

such as wood.6.23. the labour cost per unit is high and the quality of the composite products depends to a large extent on the worker’s skill [4. fig. There are no size restrictions. especially suitable for glass fibre reinforced polymeric composites. as it is a flexible process and some design alterations can be readily made. 4. sheet metal or fibre reinforced polymers. Normally the lay-up cures at room temperature. fibre roving is fed continuously through a chopper and the resulting chopped strands are projected onto the mould in conjunction with resin.23 The spray-up technique: a-resin premixed with catalyst. although a heating source can be used to accelerate the cure. Subsequent layers of resin and reinforcement are then applied until the required thickness of the composite is reached.3 Spray-up technique In this process. c-roving. b-resin premixed with accelerator.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings abrasion resistance.4. However. depending on the destination of the element.14]. After the gel coat of resin is brushed over it and the first layer of fibrous reinforcement is placed in position. f-mould.4. This process has the advantage of using the minimum of equipment and low-cost moulds that may be in any suitable material. the fibres and the resin are simultaneously deposited on a mould. the liquid thermosetting resin is worked into the reinforcement by hand with the aid of a brush or roller. The gel coat can be reinforced with a surface tissue mat which also has the function of balancing the composite throughout its cross section. g-composite product The fibre/resin matrix is then consolidated with rollers. g e d f e a c b Fig. There are two systems used in the spray-up process: page 90 . d-roving chopper. During the spray-up operation. e-gun nozzle.

and merged spray is directed onto the mould by the operator.6. able to control the thickness of the composite product and maintain the fibre/resin ratio. are passed through a resin dip and brought together between cellophane covering sheets. 4.24. f-infrared radiation oven.Building Rehabilitation • • if two gun nozzles are used (fig. This technique requires an operator with considerable skill. which is the cheapest form of reinforcement. Also the quality of the finished composite element is highly dependent on the skill of the operators.4. lay down the fibres and smooth the surface. By either method.4. when only one gun nozzle is used all ingredients are fed into a single mixing chamber ahead of the spray nozzle. The fibre/resin matrix is then rolled by hand to remove air. d-impregnating roll. a b b e e f g c d h Fig.24 Continuous laminating process a-reinforcement creels. ethickness control rolls. c-guidance rolls.4 Continuous laminating In continuous laminating. g-resin bath. the resin mix precoats the chopped strands. fabrics or mats. The main advantages of the process are: it uses roving reinforcement. finite product page 91 .4. the labour cost for producing complex shapes is less than with a hand lay-up process. The lay-up is then passed through a heating zone and resin is cured. fig. b-cellophane creels. the process is also suitable for on-site fabrication.23) one carries resin premixed with catalyst while the other one carries resin premixed with accelerator.

i-tailored rubber bag (inflated) Various shapes can be made. A tailored bag. Though the widths are limited by the size of rolls. fig. though limited in size.26. c-cellophane. The wall thickness is very uniform.4. g-air pressure line. b-fibre resin lay-up. is placed against the lay-up. there is no limitation of the length of the elements produced. fig.tailored rubber bag (not inflated). undercuts are possible and also core and inserts can be used [4. Since the pressures applied in this method can be much greater than in the vacuum bag method.25 Pressure bag moulding a-mould. Continuous laminating is an automated process with low tooling cost ideally suited for the production of flat or corrugated panels of various cross sections.4. g e e Air under pressure f d b c h i d a Fig.6. h-moulded part. Air pressure up to 0.6 Vacuum bag moulding The vacuum bag is a process of moulding fibre reinforced polymeric composites in which (after lay-up) cellophane or polyvinyl acetate is placed over lay-up. 4. e-pressure back-up plate. The resulting low atmospheric page 92 . normally rubber sheeting.5 Pressure bag method This is another variation of the hand lay-up technique.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings The laminate thickness and the resin content are controlled by squeeze rolls as the various plies are brought together. 4.15].25.35MPa is applied between the pressure plate (e) and the rubber bag (f).4. joints are sealed and a vacuum is created.6. d-clamps. f. fibre/matrix ratios by weight can be increased to about 65% with a corresponding increase in mechanical properties.

Building Rehabilitation pressure then eliminates voids and forces out the entrapped air and excess resin. d e f d c d d b b before vacuum applied a after vacuum applied Fig.5. However.26 Vacuum bag moulding: a-mould. comparable with lay-up. f-clamp page 93 . the reinforcing fibres or fabrics are placed in predetermined directions.4.27. Though better adhesion in multilayered constructions is possible. the bag is sealed on contour. A vacuum bag is placed on top of the fibres. b-fibre resin lay-up. fig. waste at the work site can be minimized. and a vacuum pressure is applied. e-gasket. grinding or water blasting).6 Reinforcement impregnation by vacuum Vacuum impregnation of the fibrous reinforcement is. The beam surface is cleaned. achieving a high degree of vacuum with surfaces of rough texture may require a large investment in equipment. 4. Higher fibre volume fractions are possible with less air voids and the manufactured component has a better internal surface. primer is applied and after curing the primer.16]. It is important that the resin can flow and wet all fibres. one for the inlet where the resin is injected and one for the outlet where the vacuum pressure is applied. the quality of the composite product can be improved. There are two holes in the vacuum bag. it requires more labour and quality often depends on the operator. to a certain extent. and it is specially organized for strengthening of concrete elements [4. There are several advantages of vacuum impregnation over traditional wet hand lay-up: it is possible to avoid hand contact with the resin (or adhesive). The concrete beam to be strengthened is prepared (through sand blasting. c-flexible bag.4. d-to vacuum.

The difference is related to the individual phases of the composite and also the form and the technique used in strengthening [4.h-vacuum.7 STRENGTHENING SYSTEMS POLYMERIC COMPOSITES WITH FIBRE-REINFORCED There are various systems of structural strengthening with fibre reinforced polymers.16]. hand layup or continuous laminating. page 94 . a) Prefabricated elements • Prefabricated straight strips can be manufactured by pultrusion.30. channels. d-reinforced concrete beam. They are factory-made curved or shaped elements that can be fitted around columns or beams.27 Strengthening of a reinforced concrete beam with vacuum injection system a-polymeric resin. They are usually in the form of ribbon strips that may be delivered in roll coil. i-resin trap 4. Usually these systems are divided into “prefab”(or “pre-cured”) and “wet lay-up” (or “cured in situ”) systems.4.4. b-resin flow. These strips are adhesively bonded to the members to be strengthened. • Prefabricated angles.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings b) g) f) c) c) g) h) A b) A Section A-A i) a) Fig. ereinforcing fibres. g-vacuum and resin flow. f-vacuum bag.28-4. figs. shells or jackets which are installed through the use of adhesives. c-resin transportation.

Resin pre-impregnated uncured multidirectional sheet or fabric. The structural member may be partially or fully covered.Building Rehabilitation b) Wet lay-up systems • Pre-impregnated fibre tows that are wound or otherwise mechanically placed onto the strengthened element surface. Dry unidirectional fibre sheet and semi-unidirectional fabric. where fibres run predominantly in one direction. In this case installation requires saturating resin and the fabric is applied using one of the two processes described before. with fibres running predominantly in two directions.28 Glass fibre products page 95 Roving . Dry fibre tows that are wound or otherwise mechanically placed onto the strengthened member surface. Dry multidirectional fabric where fibres run in at least two directions. Installation of this product may be carried out with or without additional polymeric resin. Placement of the system on the structural element surface requires saturating resin usually after a primer (a coating applied to a surface prior to the application of an adhesive to improve the performance of the bond) has been applied.4. The fibrous reinforcement can be applied directly into the resin which has been put onto the member surface. Resin pre-impregnated uncured unidirectional sheet or fabric with fibres running predominantly in one direction. Installation may be done with or without additional resin. The polymeric resin is added to the fibre during winding process. These systems may be applied with or without additional resin. • • • • • Woven roving Bi-directional fabric Mat Fig. or can be pre-impregnated with the resin and then applied wet to the sealed substrate.

5 Malek. 1997.. 4. Glasgow.M. Manufacturing and Design.Analytical Study of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Fibre Reinforced Plastic Plates. L. Basel. 1990.6 Schwartz M. Second edition...K. PhD Dissertation.. page 96 . 4. carbon/epoxy plate BIBLIOGRAPHY 4.1 Hollaway L.4. Broutman. Inc. b. 4.Fibre-Reinforced Composite Materials.3 Mallik.Analysis and Performance of Fibre Composites. John Willey & Sons.Structures Made of Composite Materials. 1993. A.J. 1993.30 Carbon fibre products for structural strengthening a. 4.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings aramid fabric aramid strips Fig. 1996. Fig.Polymer Composites for Civil and Structural Engineering.2 Agarwal.Composite Materials Handbook. The University of Arizona. P. New York..4 Taranu N. Marcel Dekker. Iasi. Vesper.. carbon sheet. 1992.4. New-York.29 Aramid fibrous products for structural strengthening a. Isopescu D.. b..D. Willey-Interscience. B. Chapman and Hall. 4.

.Thermosetting Resin Matrix.1978.24 Chamis. 4. Introduction to Composite Materials Design..9 Williamson R. Taylor& Francis. Ed.C.23 Barbero. Chap. 1990. 1987. J.11 EXTREN Design Manual. Stuttgart. In Engineer’s Guide to Composite Materials. Thermal. McGraw Hill Book Co. Externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC structures.. Tsai.-Polymers in Construction. Philadelphia. 1974. Plastics Engineering Handbook of the SPI Inc. N. 4. Hollaway &M. Theory of Elastic Stability. Simplified Composite Micromechanics Equations for Hygral..P.22 Gibson.12 Hutchinson A. Metal Park. In: Concise Encyclopedia of Comp. Benjamin. SAMPE Quarterly.. 1967. Morrisson Molded Fibreglass Co.14 Nostrand.B. 4th edition.21 Halpin. Oxford University Press. Gere. 1999. 3 “Materials” from “Strengthening of Reinforced Structures”.3.17 fib. 4.J.M. 4. New York. New York.13 Taranu.18 Jones. Berkeley. 4. 4. 1984. E. New York.20 Nielsen. Mechanical Properties of Polymers and Composites.Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials.B. Philadelphia. Sprint –Digital-Druck. Volume 2. 4. 14.Building Rehabilitation 4. 1995. CRC Press. 17.B.C. Effects of Environmental Factors on Composite Materials. Mechanics of Composite Materials. 4. 1999.W. 1994. R. 4. Elemente portante din materiale plastice.J..S. B. Technomic. Air Force Technical Report. 2003. 1995. Kelly.. R.C. and Mechanical Properties. Quinn J. C.R. Mat. AFML-TR-67-423. Principles of Composite Material Mechanics.19 Timoshenko. 4. 1981.. B.16 Taljsten. McGraw Hill Book Co. 4. Thermal. 4. S. 1961. Van Vostrand.15 Frados..E. C. University of California Printing Office.8 The Composite Materials Handbook-MIL 17.M. page 97 . 4.C. Strengthening Concrete Beams for Shear with CFRP Sheets.. 4. Lancaster. Woodhead.25 Chamis. L. ed. L. Technical report.. Eds. Oxford. Structural Design with Plastics. IPIasi. Teza de doctorat. J. Ishai O. Marcel Dekker. 4. 2nd edition. 1999. Leeming. 2001. Oxford. Bristol. James D. Pergamon.. Construction and Building MATERIALS. 1976. American Society for Metals. F. A. 4. 4. New York. S.7 Daniel I. April. J. Cambridge.10 Restaino A. 1994.. vol. Simplified Composite Micromechanics Equations for Mechanical. Taylor & Francis. New York. Van 4. 2000. and Moisture Related Properties.

ii.5 INFRASTRUCTURE CONSOLIDATION 5. the intervention may be caused by: • • the aggressiveness of the ground waters or of the foundation soil. the structure and the importance of the building. the necessity of maintaining the building in service. iv. the increase in loads on foundations. introducing additional floors. the groundwater level. the defective maintenance of the water supply. the decrease in the bearing capacity of the foundation soil. by: o o o non-existing protection measures for buildings founded on moisture-sensitive soils. by: o o o • • changing the destination of the building. and heating systems. Thus. Before starting the intervention works at the infrastructure level of a construction it is necessary to identify the cause. the choice of an inappropriate foundation system. the nature of the foundation soil. v.1 GENERAL ASPECTS The following factors are to be taken into account when consolidating infrastructures: i. the foundation type and its present state. infiltrations of rain waters. consolidation. sewage. • execution errors: page 98 . iii.

The modifications applied to the foundation and/or foundation soil – as necessary stages in consolidating a construction – may create unwanted situations.Infrastructure consolidation o o o o • • not complying with the designed foundation depth. not complying with the foundation dimensions designed in the project. missing or incorrectly located reinforcement bars. If this is destroyed and removed by mechanical alteration and dissolution. The main consolidation procedures of the construction infrastructures are presented in Table 5. page 99 . • • not complying with the minimum frost depth. which is present in the natural stone foundations. except for sandstone.2. 5. the hard mineral groups remain with very weak connections among them.1]. is accelerated by the succession of the freeze – thaw phenomena and by the presence of salts in the gravitational water.2 TYPES OF FOUNDATION DEGRADATION 5. Most of rocks have no significant degradations as a consequence of erosion. marls and limestone [5. with no appropriate protection measures.1. incorrect excavations. which are at the same time unfavourable to the constructions nearby. settlements as a consequence of vibration effects produced by: o o o pile driving. This degradation process. road traffic. the inappropriate display of not initially designed basements within buildings the decrease in the capacity of the foundation system due to underground works or construction works in its close vicinity. functioning of various machines that increase the compaction degree of sands.1 Erosion of foundations made of stones The strength and durability of rocks are determined by the amount and distribution of the soft mineral included in the mineralogical composition.

1 ENLARGING THE EXISTING FOUNDATIONS INTRODUCING BORED PILES OR MICROPILES CONSOLIDATING THE FOUNDATION SOIL BY INJECTION CONSOLIDATING THE ADJACENT SOIL BY PLANTATIONS OR OTHER PROCEDURES page 100 .Building Rehabilitation 5.2.2 Degradation of foundations and basement walls made of brickwork Brick is the most porous foundation material used in making the infrastructure works for constructions. Table 5.

1. The factors that influence the damages to the brickwork infrastructures both qualitatively and quantitatively are: i. disturbing the moisture balance in the wall. ii. the natural moisture content of the ground and its variation in time. and blocking the air escape. 5.3 The rotting of wood infrastructures The infrastructures made of wood have as a main cause for damages the development of fungus rot that thrives on nutrients that are found in wood. arrangement of the ground for a fast exhaustion of the run off waters near the building etc.2.Infrastructure consolidation Moisture leads to damages due to the freeze-thaw successions. and the wood must have at least 20% water with respect to its dry weight together with a significant availability of oxygen in the area. 5.4 Moisture damage on stone and brick infrastructures where lime and clay are used as mortar Brick walls where lime and clay are used as mortar often absorb moisture. accelerating the decrease in their strength and durability.5. iv. fig. Raft and pile foundations are frequently subjected to attack by fungus rot when the water table sinks below the top of the foundations. In this situation problems occur after a while only to walls that have been covered. the number of freeze-thaw cycles. The favourable conditions of fungus rot growth in wood infrastructures imply a temperature between 0 and 40°C. asphalt works. page 101 . iii. the climate. which materialize in exfoliation or splitting of the surface parallel to the external side with no waterproofing. Large continuous cracks can completely destroy the bricks.2. especially with cement mortar. Wood infrastructures damaged by fungus rot are the most vulnerable to insect attacks that destroy the wooden mass. the freezing speed on the construction site. These situations are recorded on old buildings because the original ground level increases by: • • • modernization of the urban planning in the built area. Moisture can thus penetrate farther up into the wall before it finds a zone where the fluid exchanges with the exterior are no longer blocked.

5.2. Therefore.b Grounds with low bearing capacity The constructions previous to the development of civil engineering and respectively to geotechnical engineering have no quantitatively justified dimensioning based on geotechnical reports.Building Rehabilitation INITIAL LEVEL OF UNDERGROUND WATER NEW LEVEL OF UNDERGROUND WATER Fig.5. 5. new building construction has involved an important volume of works for drainage and/or water removals.1 Rotting of wood foundations due to groundwater lowering The brick walls immediately above the stone brick infrastructures can suffer important damages. some of them are founded page 102 . and infrastructure expansions for terrestrial transportation have blocked much larger surfaces to the rain water infiltration as well as the occurrence of the areas with cut-and-cover gallery works for metros. plantation in urban areas of deciduous trees induce as an effect the lowering of the groundwater table and consequently supplementary settlements to the existent constructions. 5.a Groundwater level lowering Settlements occur as a result of the stress increase in the foundation soil and changes in the pore water pressure. In urban areas.2.5. such as exfoliation and detachments of the mortar layers due to the crystallization of the salt from the infiltrated water or dissolving/hydration of the existent minerals in the constitutive rocks.5 Damages caused by additional settlements in case of: 5.2.

fixed by connectors. the settlements being differentiated on the footing. 5.5. consolidation by injection.2.a. fig. In these situations. v. introducing an adjacent foundation.). ii.Infrastructure consolidation on grounds with low bearing capacity. Damages can be found in areas subjected to supplementary settlements (see fig. introducing a new foundation (underpinning).6.2.1. on one side or both sides of foundation (all over the foundation height or only to a certain extent). the damages beginning from the infrastructure and most of the times propagating to the superstructure [5. fig.e Removal of neighbouring constructions In every city there is an area considered as historically and culturally representative for the present community. under the existing one performing a reinforced coating. Under some circumstances local stability problems of infrastructures can occur due to loss of lateral supports [5. page 103 iii. consolidation of foundation soil. . The interventions on constructions associated to this area are of consolidation type but they can also be radical. the following procedures can be applied for the rehabilitation of natural rock foundations: i.c.5.c Grounds with irregular stratification in the active zone of foundations The risk to make a foundation on an irregular soil profile for constructions with large surface in the horizontal plane is increased especially since the absence of certain soil investigation methods was accepted due to the lack of advanced technology.5. the remained neighboring constructions are subjected to irregular displacements upward by the partial decompression of the foundation soil. 5.2.b.1].2].d Load increase Constructions that initially performed well can present damages due to the supplementary settlements induced by load alteration.2. iv. fig.5. like the removal of some buildings that cannot be recovered. 5.5.5. 5.2.2.3 CONSOLIDATION OF NATURAL ROCK FOUNDATIONS Usually.

underpinning.2. clamp can be fixed by mortar injection. fig.5. b. by a previous injection of cracks or uncovered joints [5.5. introducing adjacent foundations Underpinning is performed on alternatively cast sections (section length will be 80120 cm).b.2 Consolidation procedures of natural stone foundations.3 Underpinning with discharge on isolated supports. Underpinning can also be done on piles.5.5. on piles. c.5.2.3.a can be continued by the restoration of the affected stone works by jacketing. In the case of bored holes. b. The connection between coating /jacketing and the existing foundation is usually made with clamps hammered in joints or bored holes.b. c. Fig. fig. b. b. a.3. covering. REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES REINFORCED CONCRETE PILASTER a. a.Building Rehabilitation a.a and on pilasters. Fig. fig.5. on pilasters page 104 .3]. In some cases. the underpinning presented in fig. In addition to the reinforcing bars located transversally longitudinal reinforcing bars will be provided as well.

given the increased foundation width and depth together with a potential increase of the effective settlement on the enlarged active zone. page 105 • . that increases the average value of the reactive pressure and by that consuming partly the new bearing capacity value of the foundation soil. b.Infrastructure consolidation In the case of adjacent foundations.5.5.5. embedded connectors NEW FOUNDATION OLD FOUNDATION CONNECTOR Fig.5 Procedures for coupling adjacent foundations with connections under the foundation The underpinning procedure both enlarges and deepens the old foundation system with two aspects to consider: • an increase of the dead load together with a structural benefit from the new foundation member.5. pierced connectors. an increase of the bearing capacity of the foundation soil. applied for the consolidation of natural rock foundations. connection is achieved in one of the variants indicated in fig. Fig. b.4 Procedures for coupling adjacent foundations a. PIERCED CONNECTOR OLD FOUNDATION NEW FOUNDATION EMBEDDED CONNECTOR OLD FOUNDATION NEW FOUNDATION a.4 and 5.

fissures should not have clayey mud.6. by direct coupling to the column bases. the systems used are the same as those for natural stone foundations.5. The ring can work independently with discharge on the existing foundation. the rehabilitation of reinforced concrete foundations is achieved by introducing some adjacent foundations. page 106 . fig.4 and 5. since it influences the cement mortar setting and strengthening.b.6.a or. fig. when this is not possible.5. which can also contribute to the increase in soil bearing capacity. The technology related to the injection of natural rock foundations will be the same as the one applied in brickwork injections. foundations will not be exposed to heat or moisture excess during injections based on lime mortar.4].c and d. they will be protected by introducing of continuous insulations on the external side. with the connecting systems in fig. When injecting natural rock foundations.Building Rehabilitation The overall effect on safety factor is sometimes questionable when consolidating foundations without the active zone from the soil underneath. Usually. In the case of continuous footings. if the foundations consolidated through this procedures are exposed to freeze-thaw cycles. which partially overtake the load from the existing foundations.5. the following aspects should be taken into account: • • • • • fissures should not be too fine and should allow injection. fig. The procedures of increasing the bearing capacity of the foundation soil are obviously applied too.5.2.4 CONSOLIDATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Reinforced concrete foundations generally require consolidation because of the existence of certain execution errors and more frequently due to load increase or foundation soil degradation. the inserted mortar should not be in aggressive water or moving water. A peripheral ring is introduced in the case of spread foundations [5.5. 5.

5. and if necessary. the foundation system is transformed into a mat foundation.5. page 107 .5.Infrastructure consolidation Beam networks are consolidated either by introducing certain spread foundations designated to the column area. b. or certain supplementary beams.9. Fig.6 Consolidation procedures for spread foundations a. fig.7 Consolidation of beam networks with spread foundations Each of the various options presented above gives the benefit of the best accordance between active and reactive pressure at the footing level. fig. that is partly transferred now to the new foundation members. peripheral ring at the foundation base. fig. peripheral ring coupled on the column base SPREAD FOUNDATIONS NETWORK OF FOUNDATION BEAMS A A SECTION A-A Fig.8.5. b.7.5. a.

To rehabilitate mats on beams when the bearing capacity of beams is decreased.5. for structures where the structural walls possess high storage of bearing capacity.9 Consolidation of beam networks with a mat foundation page 108 .5. A NETWORK OF BEAMS A MAT FOUNDATION SECTION A-A Fig.8 Consolidation of beam networks with supplementary beams. piles that couple to the existing foundation with reinforced concrete elements or steel profiles included in concrete can be used. the increase in beam capacity is achieved by procedures generally used for beam consolidation. Under certain circumstances.Building Rehabilitation A BEAM NETWORKS A SUPPLEMENTARY FOUNDATION BEAMS SECTION A-A Fig. Beam networks made of steel profiles connected to the beams of the existing structure can be applied as well.

8 µm of epoxy resin. If the pile does not reach a soil layer of high consistency or the layer is not at the required depth. the driving also being helped by local water flush. Pressed or driven Mega piles of reinforced concrete have a square cross-section of the side of about 300 mm and the segment length of 1 m. and then pouring the concrete in the joint zone. a connecting beam will be made to include both piles and the body of the old foundation. externally protected against corrosion by a layer of 1. page 109 . The hollow steel pile with circular cross-section or the piles made of steel profiles. They are introduced by light hammering. The Lindo piles are recommended in grounds consisting of hard rocks or other obstacles difficult to overcome by regular solutions.Infrastructure consolidation 5. The section joints are made by welding. The pile consists of a removable steel pipe. they are filled with concrete. an enlarged base of plain concrete is performed. generally by welding steel plates at the ends of each pile segment. through which the verticality of the pile insertion is checked and the air or water flush can aid the pile driving. In the case of hollow piles.1]. This solution is possible only by making slits and introducing the pile through the existing foundation. the work being performed from the inside and the minimum basement height required by the technology being 2. The load transmission from the existing foundation to the new pile group can be achieved through different variants. These piles are usually used for constructions in soft rocks. The direct location of piles under the existing foundation is more difficult.5 m. If the piles are located on the perimeter external to the existing foundation. The joints are made to give adequate bending capacity. which is introduced into the ground by drilling.5 TYPES OF PILES USED IN INFRASTRUCTURE CONSOLIDATIONS The development of various piling technologies offers the possibility of an optimal choice of the consolidation type used for the infrastructure of a certain construction based on the existing conditions. represent favourable solutions within the consolidation works [5. Concrete is pumped into the pile when it has reached the required depth and a steel core is introduced with the dimensions varying from 50 to 100 mm. Concrete is pumped into the pile under pressure. The Mega-steel pile is a square steel pipe pile which is driven down into the soil with a hydraulic jack. The pile body has an included steel pipe in the cross-section centre.

5. page 110 . and from each of them to the foundation soil [5.10).1]. The load is transmitted in steps.10 Consolidation of wooden piles foundations 5.5.5]: • • increasing the bearing capacity of the soil. ROTTEN ZONE WOODEN PILES NEW PILE MEMBER REINFORCED CONCRETE PLATE Fig. number and location of piles.7 FOUNDATION SOIL CONSOLIDATION The consolidation of the foundation soil should generally take into account the following actions [5. especially because of the lack of information regarding the dimensions. The next step consists of removing the rotten pile segment and placing new steel or reinforced concrete pile segments with an individual joint (more difficult to do) or with a transfer zone of the plate type (fig.Building Rehabilitation 5. The technological procedure consists of soil removal both inside and outside around the existing foundation up to the depth where the pile is not damaged.6 CONSOLIDATION OF PILE FOUNDATIONS The partial or total replacement of a number of wooden piles damaged by rot by concrete or steel piles is difficult. ensuring the site stability. as from a pile foundation above to a pile foundation underneath.

clay grouting. page 111 . The sodium silicate should have a certain viscosity to enter the voids and not to be washed away by the electrolyte solution. thus obtaining an increase in strength and impermeability [5.9]. soil impermeability. New materials (foamy substances) are recommended to accommodate various soil types and site conditions so that the increase of the internal friction angle and cohesion is reflected into a larger bearing capacity of the consolidated foundation soil [5.1 Soil consolidation by silicate grouting Silicate grouting consists of injecting a solution of sodium silicate and an electrolyte into the ground. which hardens in time. The effectiveness of the injection procedure is entirely dependent on the initial water-particle bonding. cement grouting. The consolidation of the foundation soil is usually achieved through the following injection procedures: • • • • silicate grouting. The two substances in contact react and produce a silicate gel that binds the solid particles. 5.6].Infrastructure consolidation • • improving the mechanical properties of the soil. cohesionless soils.11).5. soils with high permeability – with large voids or cracks. Soil injection is performed by introducing a substance that binds the particles and fills in the voids with a gel.7. waterproofing with bitumen. This procedure is applied to: • • • low cohesive soils. the injectors are successively pushed. in case of successive procedure. The result is a cohesive soil with clogged voids and an increased bearing capacity (fig. The introduction of the solutions into the soil is performed by means of injectors in order to ensure a uniform solution penetration. permeability and underground water conditions.

or organic reagents for sands and fine pervious gravels [5.5.00 m/day.Building Rehabilitation INJECTOR INJECTED AREA 1.5 r r 0. The silicate grouting can also be performed by adding inorganic reagents for fine and silty sands. which reduces ground permeability and increases bearing capacity.4]. oil or raisins.11 The location of the injected zones The silicate grouting with two solutions can be used in sands and sandy fine gravels with a permeability coefficient of 2.00 – 8. 5. The silicate grouting is not recommended to: • • • • • boulders. [5. soils logged with oil products. The precipitation time of the silica gel can be modified from minutes to several hours by dosing the quantities and the solution concentrations. In loessy soils (containing carbonate or calcium sulphate) the sodium silicate reacts with the soluble salts in water.7]. basaltic soils. with permeabilities between 0. resulting in the precipitation of the silica gel. page 112 . naturally included into the soil. whose voids are not filled with fine materials.1 and 10 m/day.7.2 Soil consolidation by cement grouting Cement grouting consists of an under pressure injection into the soil voids of cement grout or fluid mortar of cement.8 r Fig. soils with underground water whose pH is greater than 9. karstic voids.

as the suspensions made of these clays hardly release water and remain in fluid state inside the fissures. magnesium chloride. once in the soil fissures.Infrastructure consolidation This procedure is applied for soils whose particles can be bound with cement. Clay grouting can be performed in soils with aggressive water. The size of the cement hydrated particles is about 50µ. they can be easily washed away by the water moving through the rock voids. page 113 . Cement grouting gives unsatisfactory results in very aggressive soils or in soils with high salinity. depending of the soil unit absorption. In order to be injected. dispersion time and coagulation of clay suspension can be controlled. Therefore. for clogging the fissured rocks and those with karstic voids. In this case. The injection pressure is 3 – 5 at. The procedure can be applied if the value of the specific soil absorption is higher than 0. in rocks with numerous karstic voids. which. The cement grout or mortar is introduced into the ground by injection.1 mm.7. voids or pores. the use of fat clays is not recommended. as a suspension. clay is processed by soaking and dispersion in water. The cement grouting can be used for gravels and sands where the voids are large enough to let the particles hydrated by cement break through. The mortars currently used have c/a dosages between 1:2 and 1:12. for which the performance of cement grouting provides important cement consumption and would thus be uneconomical. Calcium chloride may be added to accelerate the setting. 5. makes the soil clogged and impervious. The spacing between injection points depends on the ground permeability and varies between 1. and the soil that can be treated should have voids of at least 0. lime grout) of 3 – 5 % of the weight of the solid particles. Clay grouting is more economical in the ground with cages and large cracks.50 and 2. sandy clays with low plasticity are used.00m.05 l/min. By adding various chemical substances.3 Ground consolidation by clay grouting Clay grouting consists of introducing a suspension or clayey paste into the soil by injection or caulking. Water release from the clay mortar can be accelerated by adding a coagulant during injection (calcium chloride. since cement setting and hardening are hampered.

Bitumen grouting in cold conditions consists of injecting the ground with a bitumen emulsion. bitumen hardens and cannot be washed away. bitumen reduces its volume by approx. sodium will be replaced by calcium ions and the suspension will coagulate. In contact with the rocks and the cold water moving through the void. 5. The bitumen released (from the emulsions) groups.1 and 100 l/min.4 Ground consolidation by bitumen grouting Bitumen grouting can be performed in cold and warm conditions. page 114 .Building Rehabilitation Clays and especially fat clays have the ability to exchange the ions from the adsorption complex in the presence of an electrolyte [8]. the injecting pressure value and the injection duration.2200C in order to: • • • create impervious curtains. fills the voids between the particles and produces ground imperviousness. breaking it. It should be taken into account that by cooling. Chemical substances are added after the emulsion injection or at the same time with the ground penetration. The salts from the underground water are often used to break the emulsion. at temperatures of 200. The presence of calcium and magnesium ions coagulates the clayey suspensions.7. The penetration radius of the hot melted bitumen depends on the fissure size and continuity. protect against water currents. Clay – cement mixtures can be used in grounds consisting of boulders with large voids. By adding a solution made from some calcium salt to a clayey suspension whose particles have sodium in the adsorption complex. Bitumen grouting in warm conditions is considered appropriate for hard rocks with cracks and voids for which the unit absorption of water varies between 0. protect against aggressive waters. Mortar pumps are used to introduce clayey suspensions in sands and gravels. Bitumen grouting in warm conditions consists of under pressure injection of hot melted bitumen into the ground. 12 %. the ground permeability. while sodium and potassium ions make them more fluid.

but in some situations their effects are difficult to estimate and they are also quite costly.12) [5. soils where differential settlements occur as a consequence of the stress state modification against the one initial estimated.7. Thus. where water is collected in wells and then removed by pumping. The raise of groundwater level is recommended to be applied to: • • existing wooden foundations in soils (in well conditions) could suffer degradations at water level lowering. The solutions are dispersed into the soils in the space between the anode and cathode. The procedure of raising the groundwater level implies the water infiltration into the pervious soil layers.5 Soil consolidation by other procedures The ground consolidation can also be achieved by reducing the moisture content. [5.8]. electrophysical procedures are used to force water to move through the soil voids from the anode to the cathode. page 115 . near the foundation.Infrastructure consolidation The bitumen particles should be 25-35 times smaller than the average dimension of the ground particles to create an easy penetration of the emulsion in sands and gravels. or as a completion of warm bitumen grouting. gravels and fissured rocks impervious.5. This system is efficient in soils with fine and very fine particles. under the influence of electrical current (fig. and supplied with water. there are also others meant to recreate the initial conditions into the ground. They can represent simple solutions for improving the construction behaviour. Cold bitumen grouting can be applied either independently as a possibility to make sands. The injection of emulsion and chemical substances used to break it in the ground is performed with equipments similar to the ones used for silicate grouting.9]. The advantage of electroosmosis injection over the introduction of chemical solutions under pressure is that a directional dispersion of chemical solutions into the ground can be achieved. The electrical procedures (electroosmosis) are also applied where the injection of chemical substances into silty and clayey soils is very difficult. In addition to the procedures mentioned above. Wells are made externally. 5.

1]. Water infiltration can be performed by creating a system to supply wells with groundwater. page 116 .12.5. its removal can lead to a return of the water level inside the ground The lowering of the underground water level can be applied for: • natural rock or brick foundations in soils where the process of chemical and/or mechanical degradation could be accelerated.x=L a FLOW DIRECTION u γwz t1 b t2 t3 WATER PRESSURE AT DIFFERENT t i x=L _ c ELECTRODES PATTERNS + _ + Fig.5.13 [5. the checking being based on piesometric pipes. fig. If the lowering of the groundwater level is due to the development of a deciduous vegetation.Building Rehabilitation V ANODE 0 + x CATHODE . Electroosmosis principle and electrode arrangements The level is checked by installing pipes displayed on the construction perimeter and monitoring is permanent.

5. Teodoru M. Rotterdam.4 Nistor C. Răileanu P. Editura Tehnică.2 Răileanu P.. 1976.. Consolidarea şi întreţinerea construcţiilor. by maintaining these drains in service. Editura Tehnică..6 Van Impe W. 5. Balkema. PIEZOMETRIC PIPE WATER INFILTRATION WELL Fig.3 Tologea S. Proceedings of the 10th Danube-European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Troia L... Edvardsen.F. A. Bucureşti... Lungu I.. Soil Improvement. with no consolidation works on the partially damaged foundation. Bucureşti.12 Rising the groundwater level An accessible and often applied solution is to create a water drainage system to maintain the groundwater level in slope rehabilitation under control. 1996 5. Minialov H. Seifert. 1991.1 Knut I. Fundaţii în condiţii speciale. Probleme privind patologia şi terapeutica construcţiilor. Muşat V. Foundation retrofit & rehabilitation. As regards the drain performance at the foundation level for the existing construction. Rotaprint Iaşi.5 Silion T.. Muşat V. English translation by Nils Johanson and Richard D. Universitz of Alaska Fairbanks.A. each construction presents particularities that require an evaluation (difficult to make) of its behaviour improvement. 1989 5..Infrastructure consolidation • urban slopes with an average to high instability risk due to sliding. 1995 page 117 . 1989 5.5. BIBLIOGRAPHY 5. which can affect the general stability of the existing constructions on the slope. Ed.. Bulletin of the Norwegian Building Research Institute. Foundation Soil Improvement by electrosilication.

. Fundaţii. 2002 page 118 . Iaşi... Rotaprint Iaşi.7 Răileanu P. Lungu I. Muşat V. Geologie... 2. Junimea. 1996 5.9 Lungu I. Tokyo. The use of the electrosilication method at the foundation consolidations for old architectural monuments in Iaşi. Stanciu A. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium-Grouting and Deep Mixing.Building Rehabilitation 5.. Stanciu A. Boţi N. Geotehnică. Ed.. Boţi N.8 Răileanu P. vol 1. Romania. Probleme Speciale de Geotehnică şi Fundaţii. 1986 5..

the main causes are: • material aging. the masonry type. page 119 . ii. • • • v.1 GENERAL ASPECTS When rehabilitating masonry structural systems. • • • iv.6 BRICK AND STONE MASONRY STRUCTURE CONSOLIDATION 6. the age of the building. • • iii. the following aspects must be taken into account: i. stone brick dry masonry loam or lime mortar cement mortar plain masonry masonry with metallic elements masonry with reinforced concrete columns and belts the type of the join(t)ing material between the masonry stone the structural system: the foundation type Excluding the design and execution errors as a cause of masonry structure degradation.

2. which lead to the degradation of the materials used in the structural system. embrassure base cracking under horizontal actions.b.Brick and stone masonry structure consolidation • the lack of building maintenance and the occurrence of condensation. • • • page 120 . fig. seismic action. fig. DECREASED BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL AT PRESENT Fig. exceeding the bearing capacity of the foundation soil when building a new construction which is adjacent to an already existing construction.6.1 Masonry weakening caused by the local degradation of foundation soil • wall cracking under horizontal actions following diagonal direction (principal stresses) caused by exceeding the tensile bearing capacity.1. crazes and cracks in embrassure crossing due to the lack of joints to provide 3D interaction.a.6. leakage from supply or sewage installations. rise in ground-water level or their course deviation because of new construction. embrassure dettaching from lintels or the occurrence of oblique cracks above door and window openings caused by seismic action.6. • • • • The most frequently encountered damages of masonry structures are: • crazes and cracks in the masonry walls due to foundation soil degradation.2. foundation soil degradation due to rain water infiltration. fig. other extraordinary actions like explosions.6.

The concept of masonry construction rehabilitation must include: i.3. joining the contiguous vertical elements.Building Rehabilitation • masonry displacement and partial failure in areas with stress concentrations. Fig.6. page 121 . iv.failure due to bending Fig.failure under horizontal actions. the removal of the possible causes of material degradation. improving the load transmission to foundations. ii. b.4 shows the typical failure of a masonry structure without appropriate measures to protect the building during seismic action. b .6. a. iii. fig. 6. avoiding changes in the structural system.6.2 Wall cracking under horizontal actions a .3 Masonry displacement/failure in the support area of a beam Fig.

6. although the building is functionally obsolete. achieving co-working between vertical structural elements. Two such examples are provided by two buildings in England. [6. opening planking. Fig.5.4 The degradation of an old masonry building in Umbria-Marche. partial concreting with concrete denticulations.6.5]. Fig. Fig.a shows the contour wall supporting system made of metallic frames arranged on the external contour utilised for the rehabilitation of a building in Manchester.6.5. Italy under the earthquake on 26th September.6]: • • • • • • displaced masonry recovery.2 GENERAL CONSOLIDATION PRINCIPLES Masonry structure rehabilitation can be achieved through [6. wall jacketing.6.6.4]. 1997 There are cases when. where this method is very frequently used (fig. the front walls are preserved for the sake of the historical value of the construction. crack fastening with steel dogs. page 122 . crack and craze injection and caulking.Brick and stone masonry structure consolidation v. [6.3].5) [6.b presents the rehabilitation of a construction in Sheffield by means of a new framing system made of metallic frames.

the air blast of the cleaned areas to remove the dust. the weakening mechanism and particularly on the condition of the building.Building Rehabilitation • • • • • corner area binding. depending on the damage causes. the inadherent material removal by wire brush rubbing till the opening of the masonry stone pores. a. composite material jacketing. Fig. cross-tie implementation. b. the use of metallic cover plates. Once the preparation ends. aspects that will define the general consolidation concept of the structural system. page 123 .6. horizontal and vertical reinforced concrete element placement. consisting of: • • • • the existing plastering removal. Within the rehabilitation of any brick or stone masonry structure.a building in Sheffield The consolidation of a building may require the combination of the previouslymentioned procedures. the specific consolidation stage may proceed according to the chosen variant from the following ones.a building in Manchester. a very important stage is masonry preparation. b.5 Construction rehabilitation by front wall preservation a . joint deepening for 15-20 mm.

This principle is both structurally and architecturally important. air blast. when it comes to an apparent masonry structure.6. starting from the bottom.2. leading to concentration of tensions. all these aspects need to be analysed in the general context of structural consolidation. cleaning the mortar area.Brick and stone masonry structure consolidation 6.6. There are many examples when the use of cement mortar resulted in historical value depreciation. Fig.2. However.6. non-homogenous areas may appear. From an architectural point of view.6.2 Partial concreting with concrete denticulations Partial concreting means replacing the masonry stone by concrete in the main cracked and crazed areas and consists of: • • • gradual removal of damaged bricks from the cracked areas. page 124 .1 Displaced masonry recovery The areas with displaced masonry are rehabilitated by stripping the masonry down and recovering it with the same materials as those used in the initial structure. Recovery of old masonry with cement mortar [6. fig. When stronger materials need to be introduced.2] 6. the use of other materials may deteriorate the aspect of the building.

3 Crack and craze injection and caulking Large cracks and crazes can be caulked with cement mortar. This procedure is recommended together with introducing of vertical and horizontal new reinforced concrete elements (columns and belts) to create a better 3D interaction of the entire structural elements. applying coating with a cement mortar layer on both sides of the cracked areas (crack caulking). which is used in concreting. It can be done with grouting.2. may be applied to all consolidation works that involving wet processing. it needs time to dry to eliminate the exceeding water and open the pores of the masonry stone). vertical injection is performed through the next fitting. 6. washing the crack with a water jet if injection is done with grouting or cement mortar. The technology described above. • This procedure is recommended for the interior walls and only when it is difficult to re-sew the wall masonry [6. concrete pouring. a bottom to top injection with a pressure of maximum 3 atm. [6. introducing some fittings in the walls. in the case of thick walls this operation is used only as a preliminary stage of the injection procedure. fitting removal after the injection material has hardened and the areas have been repaired. page 125 • .Building Rehabilitation • watering the bricks in the area so that they would not absorb the water from the concrete (the operation will be repeated and. Injection is used with the walls having isolated cracks and densely and irregularly networked cracks. before pouring the concrete. fluid cement mortar or epoxy reisin in the case of fine cracks.6]. 5 cm deep and 1 m from one another along the crack to facilitate injection. Since it is difficult to achieve profound caulking.4]. The main stages of injection are: • • • • • removing the dust from the crack by means of a compressed-air jet. When the injection material reaches this level.

In this way.7. It is performed with cement or concrete mortar on either one side or both sides of the walls and reinforcement is usually done with welded nets. flat steel dogs (plates) are also very frequent as they can be easier fixed in the wall by ordinary means. Generally. the steel dogs used are round and fixed in the holes with cement mortar.6. page 126 . Steel dogs are fixed on both sides of the crack.2.4 Crack fastening seaming with steel dogs Linking with steel dogs is used in the case of isolated cracks. Wall jacketing is very frequently used in masonry structure consolidation.7.5 Wall jacketing Wall jacketing is recommended for the highly damaged old buildings. the final/total loadings are transmitted to the foundation soil. It is recommended that the dogs should be introduced on both wall sides if it is possible [6. where the bearing capacity of the structural walls is signifivantly diminished. The number of dogs depends on their cross-section and the bearing capacity of the masonry wall and will ensure sufficient anchorage length. CRACK CONCRETING ZONE FLAT STRIP Fig. masonry wall coating starts at the foundation level from a reinforced concrete belt.Brick and stone masonry structure consolidation 6. reinforcements with independent bars made of plain steel should be used. To obtain ductile sections.1] In practice.2. Flat steel strap 6. Usually. as perpendicular to it as possible in undamaged masonry areas.6. fig.

The dogs may be fixed in holes that have been filled with mortar.b. they should be located in the vertical joints. The jacketing width will not be more than 4 cm in the case of mortar jacketing and will not exceed 10 cm if it is made of concrete. 15 cm long.6.8 Reinforcement fixing by means of dogs b. the dogs penetrate the wall and tie the reinforcements on both sides. In the case of double jacketing. 6. page 127 . If the dogs are fixed by hammering. They are made of plain steel and are 10 mm in diameter.2.a. inclined with about 10-15º.8. framing the opening by means of a reinforced concrete structure. Fig. but also on the execution technology (casting or injection). Jacketing reinforcement is fixed with chess-like vertically and horizontally positioned dogs at about 20 cm. The jacketing width depends not only on the bearing capacity to be provided.6 Opening planking Opening planking can be done by: • • • placing the additional reinforcement around the opening embedded in jacketing. framing the opening with metallic profiles. sharp and bent at right corner under heating. 6-8 cm in hook. This can be achieved by fixing the reinforcement to the wall and ensuring that the material used for coating has good adherence to the wall. fig.Building Rehabilitation STEEL DOGS 10-15 20 cm O 20 c m a. Wall jacketing should be conceived so that good co-working with the existing masonry would be provided.6. fig.8.6.

Opening framing with metallic profiles usually makes use of steel angle sections fixed in the masonry by means of round steel anchors 60-80 cm long disposed on the entire opening contour. The bars are additionally fixed in the wall by means of dogs.10. if necessary.6. DOGS A BOUNDING MEMBER A-A A-A A A 10 3-5 A REINFORCED RAMA DIN CONCRETE FRAME BETON ARMAT METALLIC FRAMING a. on the opening contour at about 3-5 cm from its edge.Brick and stone masonry structure consolidation When reinforcement is used. The nets are overlapped for at least 20 cm on both sides of the corner.2.6.a.9.9. page 128 . the operation can be done separately for the interior and the exterior and. 6. If the wall is thick. three bars of 12 mm in diameter are fixed over the net by means of dogs at about 10 cm between them. Consolidation of the corner areas provides actually a real 3D interaction of the jacketed structural elements. Opening framing by means of a reinforced concrete frame is achieved by taking a brick row out.6. fig.6. fig. fig. it is added to the jacketing reinforcement and it will consist of at least 2 bars of 12 mm in diameter. additional bonds must be introduced in the corner areas.9 Types of opening planking c. fig. the two frames can be bounded. Fig. b.7 Corner area binding To ensure a better element binding. pierced dogs should be used to ensure a better bonding between jacketing and the structure of the wall. 10 cm between them.6. If possible. Additionally.9.c.b.

6. 1 FRONT PLATE CROSSING MEMBER CRAMP CROSS-TIE CONNECTING NUT 1 CROSS-TIE 1.6.2.10. Other types of sections (flat steel.6.11. which can form upper and bottom belts.2. fig. tie-belts can be obtained to improve the overall structural behaviour. diagonal braces and vertical beams. cramp-spaced and bonded with reinforced concrete straps (beam traverse) at 1-1. Corner area binding 6. By using two cross-ties on the interior and exterior sides. whatever the floor type.1 CROSSING MEMBER Fig.11 Tie-belt 6.Building Rehabilitation 10 Fig. channel bar etc) with round bars at their ends are also in use. Cross-ties are usually made of round steel to enable nut tensioning. Cross-tie ending fixing is done with plates or other metallic profiles.3 m between them. The metallic profiles disposed on both wall sides are fixed with page 129 .8 Cross-tie use Cross-ties provide the space bonding of the masonry structures and they are used with buildings that do not have reinforced concrete belts.9 The use of metallic cover plates Dry consolidation can also be achieved by means of metallic cover plates (channels or angle sections). which can provide stress distribution over a large wall area and can couple the corner area.

1997. Bucureşti. Budescu M.6. Such works are very labour intensive.3 Nistor C.. Tologea S.3-4.. 6.4 6. page 130 . Negoiţă Al. 1992. Restauro Antisismico.3] BIBLIOGRAPHY 6. Degree of Master of Philosophy. Hassapis S.. Soluţii de consolidare a construcţiilor avariate de cutremure. Bucureşti.1 6. Editura Tehnică. 1991. Editura Tehnică... 1979. Editura Tehnică. one for each side of the wall).12 Belt with connectors [6. This is why they are mostly used with old buildings where mortar is less strong.P.6 Arsenie C. University of Sheffield. Teodoru M. as they require the removal of some parts of the masonry. Buletinul I. Pasta A. Minialov H. Dario Flaccovio Editore.Iaşi.2 6. The result is masonry wall pre-stressing which improves structural behaviour 6. The Rehabilitation and Conservation of Old Masonry Historic Structures With the Use of FRPs. Voiculescu M. Aur V.. Bucureşti. Tomul XXIV (XXVIII).2.12 or belts of the cover plate type (2 belts.6.. Fasc.5 6. Probleme privind patologia şi terapeutica construcţiilor.10 The use of horizontal and vertical reinforced concrete element The use of reinforced concrete columns and belts is one of the most frequently met solutions as it provides good bonding between the horizontal and vertical structural elements.. Troia L.. Ionaşcu M.100 cm CONNECTOR EXISTING MASONRY REINFORCED CONCRETE BELT Fig. Consolidarea şi întreţinerea construcţiilor. 1999. fig. 80 . 1976. The reinforced concrete columns are introduced at wall and fixed with simple belts with connectors..Brick and stone masonry structure consolidation double-ended bolts.. Comportarea materialelor şi a construcţiilor din zidarie portantă din municipiul Iaşi.. Palermo..

Although these types of structures have a high degree of safety. The causes of degradation of reinforced concrete structures are not few. incorrect analytic modelling and calculus errors.1 GENERAL ASPECTS Buildings with reinforced concrete structures are largely used in most countries.7 REHABILITATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES 7. the cases when intervention is needed to rehabilitate them are very frequent. Some of them are: • • loading underestimation related to the destination of the building or the change in its destination. failure to comply with the technologies when casting the concrete. The group of construction errors that may have unpleasant effects on the reinforced concrete structures also includes errors related to the quality of the adjacent works like jacketing. formwork removal or stressing of the structural element before reaching the required concrete strength. Sometimes the causes of degradation of reinforced concrete structures and of other types of structures as well may occur even from the design stage. page 131 . incorrect disposal of the reinforcing bars in compliance with the execution project. finishing etc. such as: • • • • • certain operations performed in cold or hot weather conditions without taking proper measures to ensure the quality of concrete. use of low quality materials. The most frequent damages are caused by defective performances during execution.

Damages are often caused by technological actions or the improper maintenance of equipment and installations. such as: page 132 . excessive humidity and the absence of ventilation systems failure to comply with the climatic conditions (condensation) etc. or degradation at the hydro-and thermal level of coatings can make the structures lose their functioning capacity (e. However. technological operations that release aggressive chemical substances. the performance of the new system is constrained by a series of factors. which lies at the basis of construction design in seismic areas. most structural damages occur in seismic areas. interventions.g. The causes of reinforced concrete structure degradation under seismic actions are very numerous. which have been subjected to a relatively high number of earthquakes. which will require afterwards. the loss of their capacity of retaining liquids in tanks or retaining water at dams) or local failures into the structure itself. The concept of ductile design itself. 7. where damage may be caused by: • • • • • • chemical agents. infiltration of chemical agents into the groundwater and infrastructure failure. conceiving errors related to thermal coating/insulations and heating systems.Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures • • • structural errors. There are also other factors which. have lost their bearing capacity because of material fatigue. Many old buildings. either by degradation in the foundation soil and water infiltration as leakage from water supply systems. accepts minor structural damages during earthquakes.2 GENERAL REHABILITATION PRINCIPLES Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures may be achieved in several ways. Most examples of this type are found in industry. accepting some inadequate structural systems suggested by the architects. such as the lack of plastic deformation capacity (nonductile sections) for the buildings situated in seismic areas. poor maintenance of installations producing vibrations. However. sometimes accompanied by material aging.

page 133 ii. iv. leveling the behaviour of the building by diminishing the torsion effects etc.. the rehabilitation principles are generally restricted to restoring the bearing capacity of structural elements by caulking and obliterate the fissures/cracks with mortar or epoxi resin injections. involved in major structural areas. perimetral planking and member joining on intersections. such as stiffening and decreasing the stress state within the structure. The analyses on the increase in the existing structures‘ performance particularly under seismic actions have resulted in a series of rehabilitation measures which restrain/condition the increase in bearing capacity and horizontal stiffness in relation with the increase in structural members’ ductility [7. developing new devices to assess the new system’s performance and behaviour.7. In order to increase the bearing capacity.1.d. achieving the best bonding possible between the two members (the new one and the old one) so that an effective loading transfer could be achieved. fig. either locally.c – they may have several roles. the compatibility between the old system’s capacity of deformation and that of the system acquired by strengthening each structural member. ii. For the reinforced concrete framed structures this can be done by several procedures: i. fig. fig.a – the panels can be made of reinforced concrete or masonry. using some steel bracings. the following methods may be used: i.7. using some stiffening panels or increasing the bearing capacity of the existing ones.1]. performing some new structural walls connected afterwards to the existing ones. iii.1.b. fig. using some adjacent structures. if necessary.7. iii. within the frames or generally.2. using some adjacent structures. reinforced concrete jacketing on either one side or both sides of the existing walls (by shotcretting).1. iv.7. For buildings on shear walls.1.7. fig.Building Rehabilitation i. girders or joints. iv. the correct modelling of the newly created system. (the new walls may be built on either one side or both sides of the existing walls). ii. . iii. restoring the bearing capacity of the building by increasing the bearing capacity of structural elements: columns.

Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures STIFFENING PANEL BRACING PANEL a. it is difficult to decide which one is the best rehabilitation solution.2 Strengthening of reinforced concrete structural walls using new/adjacent walls page 134 . STRENGTHENING OF THE JOINT ADJACENT STRUCTURE STRENGTHENING OF THE GIRDER STREGTHENING OF THE COLUMN c.7. d. the interface connection between the old and the new elements is required to ensure their bonding and obtain a single homogeneous structural system.1 Strengthening solutions for reinforced concrete framed structures Whatever the case. Since both the systems used and the damage affecting the reinforced concrete buildings are of various types. Fig. A CONNECTORS A A-A + + + + + + + + FLOOR CONNECTING BARS CONNECTORS OLD STRUCTURAL WALL A NEW STRUCTURAL WALL A Fig.7. b.

Connection can be made with reinforcing bars introduced in holes. If possible.1 Strengthening with reinforced concrete or masonry panels This procedure is used to stiffen and increase the bearing capacity of the structural system under lateral actions. Currently.5.4. girders and columns. In areas with windowpanes it is recommended to use reinforced concrete panels. page 135 .Building Rehabilitation A A-A CONNECTORS FLOOR PLANKING ELEMENT OLD STRUCTURAL WALL CARCASS A Fig. the panels will be placed in door or window-free areas and. masonry panels wedged within the frame border are used due to the simplicity of execution.7. fig. This device provides efficient interaction between the elements of the existing structure and the new elements. the use of one procedure or another is imposed by technological and economic conditions. at the same time.7. Moreover.2. or with leaning masonry elements. no best “recipes” can be given finally. fig.7. Wedging can be done with metallic pieces.3 Planking of structural walls Although researches and technical studies consider the rehabilitation thoroughly investigated and as very important.7.b. or with conexpand connectors. as each system represents a different case.4.a. fig. which might penetrate the structural elements. thus preventing stress concentration at the corners of the reinforcing panels. 7. which must be tied to the adjacent elements. vertical continuity should be kept not to create areas with sudden stiffness variations. in areas without window openings.

prefab panels with connector-type joints may be used and the joining are is filled with mortar. b . b.wedging with masonry A A-A GIRDER CONNECTORS A COLUMN CONNECTORS Fig. fig.metallic piece. the reinforced concrete panel can be placed laterally to the girder.7.6.7. fig. In some cases. by tying at the floor level and connecting to the contiguous vertical elements or not. Fig.7.7. when reinforcing is performed in the outer area of the building.7. page 136 .5 Connecting procedures of the reinforced concrete panels within the frame border When the width of the girder is smaller than the width of the column.4 Wedging procedures for masonry panels a .Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures WEDGING WEDGING WITH MASONRY a. Both procedures mentioned above require efficient co-working between the initial structure and the new reinforcing panels so that higher stress could not push out the panel and stress concentration could be prevented in the panel-structure contact areas at corners.

page 137 .7. The frame may be fixed in the frame opening in several ways: i.Building Rehabilitation A A-A CONNECTORS THROUGH THE FLOOR A COLUMN CONNECTORS Fig. ii. The main reason is related to the weight-stiffness ratio and some technological aspects.7. Strengthening with steel bracing systems Steel bracings are more and more used for the rehabilitation of structures made of reinforced concrete frames.7 Connecting prefab panels [7.7.7.a.8. The bracing systems are metallic frames with bracings inside. fig. spires and mortar. with conexpand connectors and mortar caulking. fig.7.2] 7.2.2.6 Connecting reinforced concrete panels introduced laterally to the girder A A-A EXISTING STRUCTURE CONNECTOR FROM THE STRUCTURE SPIRAL PANEL CONNECTOR MORTAR STIFFENING PANEL A Fig. with connectors.

b. and c. to which the bracing elements are linked with screws.7. fig. honeycomb-shaped bracing panels with metallic structure have been recommended.Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures iii. b. a.b. c. fig.4]. Recently.7.7.10. Panel segmentation enables manual handling. with an intermediate element Fig. Fig. page 138 . The system can also be made of units joined with bolts. by adhesion with epoxi resins.7.8 Coupling bracing panels with conexpands and joint caulking.4].7. by means of metallic elements fixed on the opening edges with conexpands. iv.10.a [7.7.c.9 presents two metallic bracing systems utilised in Japan [7. fig. thus enabling the introduction of elements to the stiffeners inside the building. a.b. The panels are made of a metallic plate with metallic profile reinforcement.8.8. fig.

Bracing systems [4] a.10 Bracing panels made of metallic sheet a. ribbed panel. b. adhesion with epoxi resins a. Fig. b. b.Building Rehabilitation a.7.9. classic bracing element with connectors and mortar. Fig. b.7. panel made of assembled boxes page 139 .

the most frequently used local consolidation systems are [7. fig. • boxes made of metallic profiles. girders. fig. fig. page 140 .7.2]: • reinforced concrete jacketing.7.7. several other devices are currently used. • hoop reinforcement with cables.7.4 Strengthening achieved by increasing the bearing capacity of structural elements Most frequently. In this way.c. For columns. There are cases when joining adjacent buildings results in an ensemble whose characteristics are superior to the parts. [7.a. the procedure used in consolidating reinforced concrete structures is based on reinforced concrete jacketing.11.3 Strengthening by using adjacent structures This device is used only when the building needs expanding and the adjacent building may increase the capacity of the ensemble under lateral actions or may ensure a better behaviour under torsion effects.5].11. Various aspects related to consolidation devices are dealt with in the technical literature [7.2. [7. 7. Jacketing consists of widening the section of the construction element by providing on both sides reinforced concrete jackets intimately linked with the original member. piles. Jacketing is used both to prevent further deterioration of a construction element and increase the initial bearing capacity.d.f.11. by coupling. fig.6]. fig.7. among them those based on composite materials.7].2.11. which can be applied to columns. The main aspects concerning the consolidation of columns and girders are presented below.Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures 7. • hoop reinforcement with strips.b. Apart from these consolidation systems. the space between the element and the box being injected with cement mortar.7.11. lateral stiffness may increase. • table sheets linked with epoxi resins. fig. bridge piers. • boxes made of sheet-metal.11. foundations etc. They can be introduced into the structure very fast and prevent the increase in building weight. diaphragm walls.e.

Some of the systems utilised for columns may be extended to reinforced concrete girders in the same way and the joints linking the consolidated areas of the columns to those of the girders must be specially detailed to provide proper jointing. Thus. b.7. Technical literature deals with these aspects in detail [7.7. d.7. table sheets stuck with epoxi resins To some of these devices shown in fig.12. or the core of the girder. hoop reinforcement with cables.Building Rehabilitation HOOP REINFORCEMENT WITH CABLES TABLE SHEETSLINKED WITH EPOXI RESIN REINFORCED CONCRETE JACKETTING HOOP REINFORCEMENT WITH STRIPS a.11. b.12. cross-ties may be disposed by piercing the plate. e. hoop reinforcement with strips.3]. whereas core perforation for independent cross-ties only.7].11. Plate perforation can be done for groups of cross-ties.a and b. Various procedures used to consolidate reinforced concrete columns a. boxes made of metallic profiles. table boxes and mortar injections.7.c. BOXES MADE OF METALLIC PROFILES TABLE BOXES c.12. reinforced concrete jacketing. fig. f. To provide co-working between the new reinforcement and the page 141 . Fig.5]. fig. c. fig. care should be taken that the minimum diameter of the stirrups would be 8 mm and they would be disposed at 10-15 cm between them.7. supplementary linking with conexpand connectors can be done to improve the co-working between the jacketing system and the initial system [7. d. When jacketing reinforced concrete girders. The most frequent procedures used to consolidate reinforced concrete girders have flexible reinforcements. [7. f. e.

In this way. fig.7. [7.7]. b. Devices used to consolidate reinforced concrete girders by means of reinforced concrete jacketing A “dry” consolidation device used with reinforced concrete girders contains metallic profiles or boxes fixed on the existing structure with threaded assembling elements (pins. a. Fig.7. which function as cross-ties as well. The solution is page 142 . and the boxes.c may be attached to the reinforced concrete girders with double-ended bolts and conexpands. The double-ended bolts are disposed in the same way as the cross-ties by piercing the plate. In fig.13.7. injections with cement mortar can be made.).5]. conexpands etc.Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures already existing one in the girder binding will be done with welded cover plates disposed at 50-100 cm between them [7. b. c.13.6].7.12. all non-uniformities caused by the casting of the reinforced concrete element may be corrected.13. a. fig. Since good co-working between concrete and metal can be achieved by sticking with epoxi resins. Fig.a the longitudinal elements made of angle sections placed on the lower part of the girder are attached and co-working is achieved by prestressed double-ended bolts alone. In order to provide the best contact between elements. this system is often found in girder consolidation. c.b.13 Procedures utilised in the consolidation of reinforced concrete girders by means of metallic profiles and boxes The metallic profiles. [7.7.

In the third case. C. the vertical elements can be disposed continuously or discontinuously as tie plates to take over the shearing force....takenaka. Workshop on the Seismic Rehabilitation of Lightly Reinforced Concrete Frames.. fig. Consolidarea şi întreţinerea construcţiilor. H. Gaithersburg.S.2 7.c.jp/takenaka_e/techno/7 Malganov. V. M.co.a and the shear strengthening. J. Voiculescu.. Nist. Bucureşti. Building and Fire Research Laboratory. Feb. NISTIR 5128. Strengthening Methodology for Lightly Reinforced concrete Frames – I. Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete and Stone Members in Damaged and Reconstructed Building. Lew.14. Troia. Gaithersburg.. H. L.. Proceedings.7. C.1 7. Nistor. M.. D.. Editura Tehnică.S. page 143 .R..14. Polishchuk. fig. and for mixed situations.. A. A..I.5 7.7.14.Building Rehabilitation used both to increase the independent flexural bearing capacity. June. Bucureşti. b. a. 1991.7. 1977. 1995.T. G. Todd.14. Jirsa.7.S... Proceedings. 1989. www. Plevkov. Arsenie. This solution requires special preparation of the concrete contact area to ensure flatness and the decrease in thickness of adhesive layer. Teodoru. Tomsk.I. Editura Tehnică.. Seismic Upgrading of Reinforced Concrete Frames with Steel Elements. 1995.b. 1993.. Use of Steel Elements in Rehabilitation of RC Frames. Ionaşcu. June. Goel.O. Fig. Minialov.3 7.6 7. L. c. M. Procedures used to consolidate reinforced concrete girders with metallic plates glued with epoxi resins BIBLIOGRAPHY 7. Workshop on the Seismic Rehabilitation of Lightly Reinforced Concrete Frames. fig.4 7.7 Phan. Gaithersburg. Soluţii de consolidare a construcţiilor avariate de cutremure.

it results in a sliding surface which allows the free motion of page 144 . Thus. design and execution of structures but to consider some new rehabilitation procedures for damaged structures. which were widely presented in the paragraph 1. ii. base isolation. Among them. more difficult than the design and execution of a new building. Base isolation mainly consists of uncoupling the foundation from the structure. The economical evaluations showed that damaged structures repairing and rehabilitation imply significant costs that could be up to 30% of the cost of a new similar building [8.1 GENERAL ASPECTS During their life. The conception and execution of the rehabilitation projects imply technical experts with important technical knowledge and practical experience.1] and which can not always ensure safety during struture’s life. The structural rehabilitation is a complex task.2. increase in energy dissipation capacity.8 NEW SYSTEMS OF STRUCTURAL REHABILITATION TO EARTHQUAKES 8. buildings undergo numerous damages due to various causes. In this case the design engineer must pay attention not only to the accurate conception. resulting in significant degradations in structures. such as: i. 8. earthquake remains the most important. Besides the classical rehabilitation procedures. in the last 20 years a series of new seismic isolation procedures were outlined and adopted widely in pracice. Earthquakes can even lead to the collapse of structures if the design rules for earthquake resistance of structures are not met.2 BASE ISOLATION The limitation of the energy induced in structures by earthquakes can be carried out by base isolation.

springs.2. sewage. pendulums. real isolation In the case of an ideal bearing. California. called bearings. This modification has the same effect of up-lifting the structure page 145 .1 The behaviour of a base isolated structure a.8. fig. IDEAL BEARING BEARING a.2. electricity supply systems. balls.8.Building Rehabilitation the foundation together with the ground. b. it is over one hundred years old.a.a. were used to make the bearings. which allow the free movement of the structure with respect to the ground.2]. which presents an isolation system with balls. In the last years various types of base isolation systems have been carried out. 8. such as water. ideal isolation. The most frequently used bearings are the elastomeric ones. Elastomeric and sliding bearings.b. Consequently. Fig. ellipsoids. The isolation system consists of devices.b.8. a certain quantity of energy is induced in the structure. fig.1. This is correlated with the excitation characteristics and the dynamic characteristics of the new created ensemble (isolated system). heating system etc. The ball bearing has been afterwards simplified and replaced by ellipsoids placed between two plane surfaces. which is not achievable in practice. In 1870 French Jules Tonaillon submitted the application for a license to the Office of Inventions in San Francisco. fig. the structure being in rest due to its inertia. That is why bearing stiffness must be correlated with the other systems in the structure.1 Kinematic bearings The idea of seismic isolation is not new. gas. a series of disadvantages affect the equipment in the structure due to large displacements between structure and foundation. fig. b.8. This system anticipates numerous procedures of seismic isolation that exist nowadays or which are patented [8.2. A series of other components for energy dissipation or displacement reduction are added to the bearing.8. due to the bearing stiffness. rolls in two directions etc.1. A complete seismic isolation system could be done only in the case of an “ideal” bearing.

4. An alternative to the ball bearing is the friction pendulum bearing. Another kinematic system. fig. By the relative displacement of the two sliding surfaces. ellipsoids b.8. b. This type of structure that uses kinematic bearings was carried out in Iasi. this system ensures the lifting of the gravity center of the building.8. placed in cavities that allow the free rotation. was conceived and patented by Nazin [8. fig. a.3]. and consequently. ELEMENT DE SUSTINERE BEARING ELEMENT SPHERICAL SURFACE SUPRAFATA SFERICA SEAL ELEMENT DE ETANSARE GLISOR ARTICULATED SLIDER Fig.2 Kinematic bearings a.8.4]. the pendulum bearings can be mentioned as well. Fig.3 Friction pendulum bearing The bearing consists of a spherical sliding surface and a articulated element covered with a high pressure resistant material. similar to the short pendulum. Among the kinematic bearings used in practice. balls.3. the occurrence of the gravitation force that will restore the structure equilibrium. [8. Romania.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes as the balls and to create the equilibrium between the inertia forces due to earthquake and the gravitational forces. the ends being introduced in a carcass to ensure the displacements’ limitation.8. The length of the columns is equal to the level height. page 146 . They are some reinforced-concrete cylinders with spherical ends.

At present. Elastomers are materials that do not obey Hooke’s law for any stress level. apart from natural rubber. The mechanical movements produce translations of the network segments.1) . also known as neoprene. is the chloroprene rubber.4 Kinematic bearings – short columns 8. elastomers exhibit mechanical properties similar to those of incompressible liquids. numerous synthetic elastomers are known: chloroprene. called vulcanization [8. The following relation exists between the shear modulus G of the elastomer and the instantaneous compression modulus E 0 of the bearing: G= E0 3 page 147 (8. which lead to physical transformations at the molecular chain level.8. The characteristic force-deformation relationship of elastomers for different types of loadings is shown in fig. Elastomers are made of long macromolecules. the force-deformation curve is strongly influenced by the shape factor (the ratio of loaded area to force-free area of a single rubber layer).2 Elastomeric bearings Elastomers are materials with a high degree of polymerisation.5.2. For deformations less than 400%.8. Moreover.5]. silicone rubber. except natural rubber.Building Rehabilitation SUPRASTRUCTURE KINEMATIC BEARINGS FOUNDATION Fig. that is Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. The most used elastomer. which form a spatial network after vulcanisation. obtained by connections between molecular chains. polyurethane etc.5 .

The bearing behaviour to horizontal and vertical actions is presented in fig. in 1975 in New Zealand a new type of elastomeric bearing was designed.6 Elastomeric bearing (elastomer.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes P ∆ Fig.8.5 Elastomer behaviour to different loads An elastomeric bearing is made of alternant layers of elastomer and steel plates.8. The elastomer ensures large flexibility in horizontal direction and the steel plates prevent the transverse deformations and ensure large vertical stiffness of the bearing. fig.6. superstructure In general. Because of the reduced damping capacity (the damping coefficient varies between 2% and 3% of critical damping). steel plates).8.2]. page 148 . In order to increase damping capacity. foundation.8. the elastomeric bearings need additional energy dissipating elements. ELASTOMER STEEL PLATE Fig.7. the vertical stiffness of the bearing is about 400 times the horizontal stiffness [8.

page 149 . Another type of elastomeric bearing is sliding bearing. The addition of fine particles of black carbon increases damping. However.8.6]. It was designed in 1977 in France and in 1978 in USA [8.8. [8. in 1982 Malaysian Rubber Producers Research Association in England developed a component of natural rubber with high energy dissipating capacity. friction characteristics depend on temperature and the relative sliding velocity of the surfaces in contact. so that the damping coefficient varies between 10-20% of critical damping.8 Lead plug bearing In order to eliminate the additional energy dissipating devices.Building Rehabilitation P F P P a.5]. fig.8. Considerable energy dissipation is ensured by the plastic deformation of the lead core. The sliding process dissipates a significant amount of energy.8. LEAD CORE Fig. vertical load. During strong earthquakes. horizontal load A lead plug was introduced in the centre of the bearing. the superstructure slides by overpassing the friction between the Teflon plate fixed on the elastomeric bearing and the steel plate fixed on the superstructure.7 Behaviour of an elastomeric layer (working zone) a. Fig. b. F u F u ∆ ∆ b.

8.7]. fig.2. Several repair and strengthening procedures were taken into account. The rehabilitation of the building started in 1992 and was finished in 1995. fabrication and installation of the isolation system are afforded. sliding) Base isolation was used for the rehabilitation of structures made of stone and brick masonry with low ductility or nonductile reinforced concrete structures. It has 18 storeys and a surface of about 14214 m2.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes STAINLESS STEEL TEFLON SLIDING Fig. In the end. The vast majority of the rehabilitation projects uses elastomeric bearings or lead core bearings for base isolation.8.9 Sliding bearings (stainless steel. page 150 . In the case of sliding bearings it is important that the sliding force should be correctly estimated so that the isolation system should begin sliding before significant degradations occur in the structure. the solution of base isolation rehabilitation was chosen.10. It is the case of historical buildings. was the tallest building on the west cost of the USA at that time [8. 8. being the tallest base isolated building at that time. Seismic isolation is not a rehabilitation procedure to be applied to all structures. The damages caused by Loma Prieta earthquake in October 1989 imposed the seismic rehabilitation of this building. Seismic isolation is used for structure rehabilitation when conventional rehabilitation procedures cannot be used. The structural system consists of steel frames filled with peripheral walls of non-reinforced masonry. Oakland City Hall in California.3 Structures rehabilitated through base isolation At present there are numerous seismically retrofitted structures using the base isolation systems mentioned above. Teflon. it is used for structures where an important seismic protection is desired and significant costs for the design. Some of the most representative base isolated buildings will be presented further on. where classical interventions for rehabilitation alter their historical character. built in 1914 in Beaux Art style.

11. view. The columns were raised less than 2. The retrofit strategy adopted for the building was a base isolation system with superstructure strengthening using concrete shear walls.8. Oakland City Hall. model of the rehabilitated building The isolation system consists of 110 lead-plug rubber bearings ranging from 737 mm to 940 mm. the isolators counting for about 2.Building Rehabilitation a. b.10. The structural system is made of steel frames and non-reinforced brick masonry with granite cladding. The building has 5 storeys.8. California a. The cost of the retrofit was about $84 million. Another structure rehabilitated through base isolation is San Francisco City Hall. fig.5 mm during the lifting process. It was designed in 1912 to replace the initial structure that had been destroyed in 1906. Fig. [8.8].5% of that number. the plan dimensions of 94 m x 124 m and a 91 m dome. The significant damages caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989 required considerable repair and seismic retrofit. The installation of the isolation system required shoring up and shortening the columns and transferring the loads to temporary supports. b. page 151 .

The sliding bearings consist of Teflon and stainless steel surfaces fixed on highdamping bearings.9 m wide and weighing 7 tons.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes Fig. 230 rubber bearings and 42 sliding bearings.8.9]. [8. The seismic retrofit started in 1992 and was accomplished in 1994 with a total cost of $6 million [8. 8. Built in 1922. Japan.12. 5. All the bearings were roundly shaped with the diameter ranging from 480 to 580 mm. The elastomer used was a high-damping one.8. California The isolation system consists of 530 lead-plug rubber bearings and its installation was a complicated process of shortening. Many of the columns are shored by four bearings under a steel structure. Another use of base isolation was the protection of Rodin’s sculpture “Gates of Hell” at the National Museum of West Art in Tokyo.13.10]. fig. The isolation system used consists of a combination of 145 lead rubber bearings. 3. fig. the Parliament House is a five-storey masonry walled structure. The diameter of the lead rubber bearing ranges between 155 and 190 mm. page 152 . It is a boardshaped sculpture. The construction began in 1994 and was completed in 1998. shoring and installation.11 San Francisco City Hall. Another important base isolated building is New Zealand Parliament House.4 m high.

fig.12 New Zealand Parliament House Fig.8.14. page 153 .8. Tokyo To prevent the sculpture from falling over in case of major earthquakes. National Museum of Western Art.13 Auguste Rodin’s The “Gates to Hell”.Building Rehabilitation Fig.8. it was placed on a platform fixed on a base-isolation device. The bearings allow the free movement of the sculpture on the two horizontal directions. At the same time preservation work was carried out by replacing the steel frame and bolts that had deteriorated with age. The base isolation system contains five circular roller bearings and two dampers.

Fig.14 Base isolation retrofit mechanism A steel-reinforced joining material connects them. so that all of them could move together.3 INCREASE IN ENERGY DISSIPATION CAPACITY The increase in energy dissipation is carried out by new elements that are added to the structure.15. They control a wide range of horizontal displacements from minor to major earthquakes.8.8.8. especially designed for that purpose. 8.15 Circular roller bearings The seismic retrofit was performed by Takenaka Corporation from December 1998 to March 1999. The dampers used are viscous dampers developed by Takenaka and Oils Corporation. The main aim of the energy page 154 . fig.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes STRUCTURA SUPPORT REAR DE STRUCTURE SUSTINERE A LUCRARII SCULPTURE SCULPTURA PLATFORMA CU BAZA IZOLATA BASE-ISOLATED PLATFORM SISTEMISOLATION SYSTEM DE IZOLARE A BAZEI BASE UNDERGROUND SALA DE LECTURA LECTURE ROOM Fig.

according to the type of energy dissipation mechanism [8. energy dissipation in structure can be achieved only by additional dampers. dampers based on steel yielding.3. viscoelastic dampers. In both cases the reduction of floor displacements and storey shear is intended. There is no conceptual difference between the ductile design and the energy dissipation approach. structural degradations can be limited at the damper-level. new elements are added to the structure. v. The difference is that in the first case the energy dissipation function is assigned to the structural members and in the second case. which can be replaced more easily than structural members. These energy dissipation systems can be classified in the following categories. 8. they are all characterised by the capacity to transform the kinetic energy into another form of dissipative energy.11]: i.Building Rehabilitation dissipation elements is to dissipate large amounts of the energy induced by the earthquake into the structure and reduce the relative displacements in structure. The material behaviour in the inelastic range could be fragile or ductile. At present there are numerous energy dissipation systems that use various materials and procedures. viscous dampers. iii. For stresses that are bigger than yield stress. irreversible structural modifications take place. ii. To understand their behaviour it is necessary to examine the inelastic deformation process.1 Dampers based on steel yielding The damping devices that proved to be the most economical and suitable for energy dissipation in structures are the yielding steel dampers. iv. Generally. dampers based on lead extrusion. page 155 . slip-friction dampers. The use of additional energy dissipation elements in structure is recommended for the following reasons: • • • these systems can increase the structural stiffness and damping.

In addition. torsion. The advantages of yielding steel dampers lie in their stable behaviour in time. relative slippage of the crystals. Starting from the general principles of steel behaviour. page 156 . Other systems. creep by diffusion.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes The ductile materials exhibit significant inelastic deformations before breaking. The resistance force in dampers depends on the non-linear characteristics of material (stress-strain relation). yielding steel dampers ensure the structure high resistance. Ductility (the material capacity to dissipate an important amount of energy through inelastic deformations) is produced by particle dislocation. for which energy dissipation is carried out by disposable bars deformed by bending are shown in fig.16. shear or their combination were developed. This irreversible displacement of atoms in crystals is caused by four elementary mechanisms: i. mechanical twinning. which work at normal temperatures. stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. different types of devices based on bending. The bracing system made of mild steel represents the most simple energy dissipation system based on inelastic metal deformation. iv. The mechanical twinning consists of the reorientation of an area of a crystal under shear forces. ii.8. longterm reliability and good behaviour in environmental and thermal conditions. The first two mechanisms take place at high temperatures so they are not specific to hysteretic dampers. iii. Sliding is the fundamental mechanism of the cold inelastic deformation and represents the translation of a part of a crystal relative to another part. sliding. The disposable elements should be designed so that yielding would occur prior to the development of plastic hinges in the structural members. without a volume change.

Fig.Building Rehabilitation STRUCTURE STRUCTURA STRUCTURE STRUCTURA ENERGY ELEMENTE DISSIPATION DISIPATOARE DEVICES DE ENERGIE Fig. page 157 . fig.14].17.8. was introduced by Bethtel Power Corporation [8. [13] (structure. Its shape leads to a constant curvature. Typical hysteretic loops for the T-ADAS elements are shown in fig. Due to its shape yielding takes place over the entire plate surface. energy dissipating elements) Another device.16 Yielding steel bracing system [12]. each cross-section yields simultaneously so the entire element dissipates energy.15].18.8.17 ADAS elements Later Tsai and Hong (1982) modified the ADAS system in the form of tapered or triangular (T-ADAS) elements [8.8.8. referred to as added damping and stiffness (ADAS) and consisting of multiple X-shaped steel plates.

Lead extrusion devices have the following advantages: their load .8. The process of extrusion consists of forcing a material to pass through a hole or an orifice. b.deformation relation is stable and not affected by the number of loading cycles.00 ν (rad) 0. bulged-shaft type page 158 . This way the plastic deformations of lead and consequently energy dissipation take place.19.36 -0.18 0.3. b. Fig.2 Lead Extrusion Devices Another type of damper that utilises the hysteretic energy dissipation properties of metals is the lead extrusion damper. constricted-tube type.18 T-ADAS element and its hysteretic loops (hinge) 8.8.8.19 Lead extrusion damper a. Robinson first presented that device in 1987 as a passive energy dissipation device for base isolated structures in New Zealand [8. a.16].18 0. fig. they are insensitive to environmental conditions and ageing effects and have a long life and do not require replacing or repairing after an earthquake since the lead in the damper returns to its undeformed state after excitation.36 PINNED ARTICULATIE CONNECTION Fig.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes 700 Pp Py 0 Py -360 Pp 360 Forta (kN) FORCE(KN) -700 -0.

the number of load cycles or variations in temperature.3. The device has self-centering capabilities. These devices have high resistance to fatigue. these devices have good performance characteristics. page 159 . has developed a friction device called Energy Dissipating Restraint [8. normal loads on the sliding interface cannot be reliably maintained and some relaxation should be expected over time and permanent offsets may occur after an earthquake.18]. these devices are activated even by small excitations. The device consists of a cylinder. Friction devices have difficulty in maintaining their properties over prolonged time intervals because the metallic interfaces are susceptible to corrosion. The Energy Dissipating Restraint is the only friction device that generates nonrectangular hysteresis loops and the slip load is proportional to the displacement. which reduce permanent offsets when the structure deforms beyond the elastic range. and differ in their mechanical complexity and in the material used for the sliding surfaces. The Energy Dissipating Restraint mechanism consists of sliding friction through a range of motions with a stop at the ends of the cylinder. In 1993 Gregorian and Popov proposed a friction device that allows the slip in slotted bolted connections [8. Most of these devices generate rectangular hysteretic loops. compression wedges. where evidence of a heavy abrasive wear was noticed. friction wedges and stops. Generally. In this type of connection the brass shims were scratched whereas the steel plates remained undamaged. The connection consists of two outer steel plates.Building Rehabilitation 8.3 Friction dampers In the last years a variety of friction devices has been proposed and developed for energy dissipation in structures. which indicate that the behaviour of friction dampers is similar to that of Coulomb friction. The hysteretic loops are rectangular and stable after a large number of cycles compared to steel-to-steel interface. The sliding interface consisted of brass and steel. their behaviour being relatively less affected by load frequency. In contrast to other frictional devices that exhibit rectangular hysteresis loop. internal springs.17]. a central slotted gusset plate and two shims fastened to the outer plates. Flour Daniel Inc. as well.

8. they return to their initial shape after each deformation cycle and dissipate a certain amount of energy as heat [8. being mainly oil dampers. VISCOELASTIC MATERIAL MATERIAL VASCOELASTIC Fig.3. The shear force is transferred through a shear pin so that the energy-dissipating device should be subjected to axial forces only. Viscoelastic devices can be used at the beam-column connection in braced frames. The viscoelastic devices have the disadvantages of depending on excitation frequency and ambient temperature.8.b Viscous dampers Viscous dampers utilize the viscous properties of fluids.4 Viscoelastic and viscous dampers 8. The connection consists of two single-toothed devices symmetrically placed.21].20].19].3. 8.4. i. A typical viscoelastic damper consists of viscoelastic layers bonded to steel plates.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes 8. fig.3.e. When mounted onto the structure.4. This system is designed to increase both damping and lateral stiffness of structure. the relative motions between the center plate and the outer steel flanges produce shear deformations and consequently energy dissipation.20 Viscoelastic damper Another use of viscoelastic material is viscoelastic infill panels.20 and can be installed on the bracing system [8. The device consists of an outer steel case attached to the lower floor page 160 . The viscoelastic materials exhibit combined features of elastic solid and viscous liquid when deformed.a Viscoelastic dampers Viscoelastic dampers have been used as energy dissipating devices in structures where the damper undergoes shear deformations. Sumitomo Construction Company in Japan has developed a viscous damping wall system [8.

compensates the flow through the orifice. fluid dampers have the following disadvantages: they maintain seals for a long time and small motions in the structure may cause seals to wear and fluid to leak out.23]. 8.3. The relative velocity between the two floors induces the viscous damping force. These dampers possess linear viscous behaviour and are relatively insensitive to temperature changes. Fluid viscous dampers operate on the principle of fluid flow through orifices as well. Built in 1927. the increase in resistance to earthquake was obtained. The device is filled with silicone oil and consists of a stainless steel piston with a bronze orifice head and an accumulator.22]. has manufactured this type of energy damper. which allows the operation of the device over a temperature range of –400 C and 700 C.5 Examples of rehabilitated structures using energy dissipating devices An important application of viscous dampers is the seismic retrofit of Hotel Woodland in California [8. Fig. Taylor Devices Inc. page 161 .Building Rehabilitation and filled with a highly viscous fluid.8.8.21 Viscous damper (Taylor device) Fluid dampers are less sensitive to temperature changes and show stable behaviour over a wide temperature range. A passive bi-metallic thermostat.21 [8. Within the steel case there is a moving steel plate hanging on the upper floor. Using the damping devices. On the other hand. and at the same time the historical appearance of the building was preserved. fig. it s is a four-storey historical building with a non-ductile reinforced concrete frame at the first level.

USA/San Francisco: New construction. 3-storey multibuilding complex. Some of the rehabilitation projects using Taylor fluid dampers are [8.22 Seismic retrofit of Hotel Woodland. fig.5 mile steel truss bridge designed in the 1950's. 16 dampers were used. USA/St. viscous dampers are used both for new structures and for the rehabilitation of the old ones. Taiwan/Taipei: New construction. Poplar Street Bridge. airport terminal building uses 8 dampers to dissipate earthquake energy to reduce demands on the structure. to be installed in 2002. Boise Airport. The devices were added in chevron bracing elements in a steel sub-frame. Fig. USA/Richmond: Retrofit of a 4.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes Compared to the conventional rehabilitation procedures (shear walls or braces).24]: • Genentech FRC II. to be installed in 2002.8. Richmond-San Rafael Bridge. the viscous dampers proved to be the most economical. A number of 28 dampers were used to page 162 • • • • . California using Taylor fluid viscous dampers Nowadays. to be installed in 2002. Louis: Large highway bridge over the Mississippi River uses 64 dampers to control longitudinal earthquake movement while allowing free thermal.22.8. Buddhist Headquarters. uses 192 dampers to dissipate earthquake energy. to be installed in 2002. USA/Boise: New construction. 17-story building uses 60 dampers to dissipate seismic energy. each one having a 450 KN output force.

2 Budescu.. 1977. vol.M.. Skinner. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering. 100 dampers were used to dissipate seismic energy. Seismic isolation: When content protection is as important as the structure.7 Oakland City Hall (www.htm) 8. 8.com/oakbrief. K. 8.takenaka. Rakicevic. Tucker..H. Seismostoikoe stroitelstvov Uzbekskoi SSR. 1974. 8.6 Plichon. Teză de doctorat. 44-story steel frame building uses 48 dampers to dissipate earthquake energy to reduce demands on the structure. 1995 page 163 . Structures.Building Rehabilitation dissipate seismic energy and allow the bridge to withstand a maximum credible earthquake. 2. A Lead – Rubber Shear Damper. France. Energy absorbing elements in regular and composite steel frame structures. Beucke. Disposable knee bracing: improvement in seismic design of steel frames... • BIBLIOGRAPHY 8.13 Jurukovski.9 New Zealand Parliament House (www.htm) 8.htm 8.com/sfhallbr.dis-inc. D.10.dis-inc. Taşkent.S. 8.com/nzparlbr.L.. vol. nr. to be installed 2002. R. V. Nations Unies. UCB/EERC – 80/35. San Francisco. M.11 Kelly. J. Asachi” Iaşi. 8. Experimentalnîiezdania v Sevastopole na gravitaţionnîh sistemah seismoizolaţii s vkliuciaişcimsia suhîmtreniem. Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering. 1995.V.. Experimental Testing of an Energy-Absorbing Base Isolation System. • INTERCENTRO.G. vol. Specialists Meeting on the Anti-Seismic Design of Nuclear Installations.12 Aristizabal-Ochoa. (www. 1975.3. USA/San Francisco: Retrofit of suspension span between San Francisco and Yerba Buena Island.. West Span-Suspension Bridge.jp/takenaka_e/news_e/pr9903/m9903_04. Proceedings. Contribuţii privind izolarea seismică a structurilor. California.dis-inc.. to be installed 2001/2002.. Petkovski. A. Institutul Politehnic “Gh. 112. Hooped Rubber Bearing and Frictional Plates: A modern Antiseismic Engineering Technique.. 8.4 Nazin. San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. 1983. M..5 Robinson.. 8. C. Z.E. New York. Paris. 1977. 7 8.8 San Francisco City Hall (www.3 Mayes. W.1 *** Comment réparer les bâtiments endommagés par un seisme. Eng.htm) 8. M.10 Protecting Rodin's Sculpture the "Gates of Hell" at the National Museum of Western Art Withstanding Earthquakes with Base Isolation Retrofit.co. no. to be installed in 2002. Dominican Republic/Santo Domingo: New construction. D. Proceedings Third National Concrete and Masonry Engineering Conference.

ASCE.com/pdf_files/HotelStockton. Redwood City. Proceedings. Design of a building with 20% or greater damping. Popov. Redwood City. Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Bulletin of New Zealand Society of Earthquake Engineering.taylordevices. Richter. D. 10. 1993 Miyamoto.com/dampers.C. Kelly. Journal of Structural Division. NCEER Bulletin. Seismic response of structures with supplemental fluid viscous dampers.23 8. New Zealand. CA..M.E. (www. W. Applied Technology Council. Structural dampers. vol. P. J. 1987 Grigorian. Application of the energy dissipating restraint to buildings. K. vol..18 8.. Building Motion in Wind. vol. Fluid Dampers for Applications of Seismic Energy Dissipation and Seismic Isolation. 1992 Symans.H. H..21 8. ASCE publication. W.. Hong. 2.P.C. Proceeding ATC-17-1 Seminar on Seismic Isolation. Passive Energy Dissipation and Active Control. Mexico. C. 1993 Mahmoodi..htm) page 164 . Recent developments in lead dampers for base isolation. Mitsusaka... Slotted bolted connections for energy dissipation. 1st World Congress on Constructional Steel Design. Damping in building structures by means of PTTF sliding joints. vol. Madrid.. Steel triangular plate energy absorber for earthquake-resistant buildings.G.. 4. Constantinou.. 1992 Robinson. Passive Energy Dissipation and Active Control. Seismic Rehabilitation of a Historic Concrete Structure Using Fluid Viscous Dampers. C.14 8.A. Keel. Y. 2. CA.20 8.P..J. D.. 7.C. 95. Inaudi.. M.19 8..17 8. 1969 Mahmoodi..J..K. no. (www. 1977 Tsai. vol.. 1993 Nims. Proceeding ATC-17-1 Seminar on Seismic Isolation. Cousins. M.D. Applied Technology Council.22 8. P..pdf) Taylor. Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering.. E.K. Performance of viscoelastic structural dampers for the Columbia Center Building. Constantinou. J. M.msm1.J. 1986 Miyazaki.. M.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes 8. C. R.15 8. 2. P. vol.16 8.24 Tyler.

1 INTRODUCTION Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are increasingly being utilised as alternatives to traditional construction materials for rehabilitation of infrastructure applications. The term “retrofit” (seismic) is mostly used as a generic term for rehabilitation especially in relation to the seismic upgrade of load-carrying members. The “strengthening” (nonseismic) of a structural member is specific to those situations where the application of the FRP composite enhances the existing design performance level. insufficient detailing at the time of original design. It is important to use these terms correctly on the basis of structural functionality and also because the specifics related to the use of FRPs in conjunction with existing traditional materials have a significant effect on the selection of fibrematrix combinations [9. environmental deterioration. When rehabilitation of civil infrastructure is discussed. The existing infrastructure is in real need of renewal due to deficiencies existing in construction works such as: wear. such as a crack or a severely degraded element.13]. it is important to differentiate among repair. [9.12]. the use of substandard materials in initial construction. change in loading patterns and inadequate maintenance through the life of the structure [9. These three terms refer to different structural conditions: A composite is used in “repairing” when the FRP composite material is utilized to fix a structural or functional deficiency.9 RC STRUCTURE REHABILITATION WITH ADVANCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES 9. ageing of structural components. page 165 .12]. strengthening and retrofit.

27]. including the low cost of materials and construction.29]: • The inadequacy of longitudinal reinforcement in beams and columns. emphasizing the need for better grades of these materials or newer technologies. and.2 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS CONCRETE STRUCTURES FOR STRENGTHENING OF Strengthening of old and/or deteriorated reinforced concrete (RC) members is often required due to the following causes [9. leading to flexural failure. However they lack in longevity in some cases. Alternatively near-surface mounted strips or rods with the fibre direction parallel to the member axis can be utilised.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites Traditional building materials and technologies are suitable in many situations and have a number of advantages. for example the size of a column due to restrictions on design and minimum dimension needed. in others are susceptible to rapid deterioration. In a similar manner. as well as in the modification of existing structures without egress on available headroom or open space [9. FRP composites give the designer a wide range of material choices to meet some specific structural requirements. [9. page 166 . These unique properties provide significant impetus for their use in rehabilitation and restoration of historic construction without causing significant changes to the features of the original structures. They may have “tailored” properties derived from their anisotropy given by the arrangement of the fibre reinforcement in the polymeric resin. In such cases the bending capacity of concrete elements can be increased through the use of externally bonded FRP plates. Also their performance combined with their light weight enable their use in strengthening severely degraded structural members. high strength-to-weight ratio allowing their use in places and ways that are not available to traditional materials. with the end of aim of facilitating functionality and greater structural and life-cycle efficiency. strips or fabrics. 9.13]. In all such (and other) cases there is a critical need for the use of new materials and technologies. In some cases design alternatives may be constrained by the current limitations of materials used. the use of conventional materials is often not possible in cases of retrofit or may be deemed as ineffective in terms of functionality. In other situations restraints such as dead load restrict the widening of current structures. FRPs also have good corrosion resistance.

9. The purpose of an adhesive is to produce a strong continuous bond between the surfaces of the adherends and to ensure that full composite action is developed by the transfer of shear stress across the thickness of the adhesive layer. the spalling of cover concrete is prevented and the buckling of the longitudinal steel bars is restrained. in the case of columns and beams. By increasing the lap confinement with fibres along the column perimeter the flexural strength degradation can be prevented or limited. By adding confinement in the form of FRP jackets with fibres placed along the column perimeter. The shear capacity of concrete members can be enhanced by providing externally bonded FRP with the fibres oriented in the transverse direction to the member axis direction. Debonding may occur once vertical cracks develop in the cover concrete and progresses with cover spalling. rheology. Poor detailing in lap splices. Poor detailing in the regions of flexural plastic hinges where the flexural cracking may be followed by cover concrete spalling. The best results in structural strengthening page 167 . This mode occurs in columns in which the longitudinal steel reinforcement is lap spliced in the maximum bending moment regions near the column ends.29].3 ADHESIVE MATERIALS FOR STRUCTURAL STRENGTHENING OF RC ELEMENTS Adhesives are substances capable of holding two materials together by surface attachment.Building Rehabilitation • The inadequacy of transverse reinforcement. failure of transverse steel reinforcement. Most key information about adhesives relevant to their use must be provided by the manufacturer. beams. hence the FRP strengthening technique is not applicable if the structural intervention is aiming at increasing stiffness rather than strength or ductility [9.9]. • • The use of FRP reinforcement cannot modify the stiffness characteristics of existing RC elements. polymer chemistry. The science of adhesion demands a consideration of concepts regarding surface chemistry. and buckling of longitudinal steel reinforcement or compressive crushing of concrete. This mode of failure is usually accompanied by large inelastic flexural deformation. To achieve such a purpose a good adhesion to the surfaces involved must be achieved and sustained [9. or in the direction of both the column and the beam direction in the case of beam-column joints. which may have as effect brittle shear failure in structural members like columns. stress analysis and fracture mechanics. In this way more ductile responses can be developed and larger inelastic deformations can be sustained. shear walls and beam-column joints.

Shear and tensile strength compatible to those of the adherends materials. Pot life is time interval in which one can work with the adhesive after mixing the components before it starts to harden in the mixture vessel. Low shrinkage on curing. [9. The adhesive modulus should be high enough to avoid large creep but not excessively high to cause large stress concentrations. Three different time concepts must be considered when using epoxy adhesives.11].RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites have so far been achieved by using two-parts epoxy adhesives specially developed for use in the construction industry. thermal expansion. page 168 . curing temperatures. An ability to be applied in thicknesses of between 1 and 10 mm to accommodate irregularities of the adherends surface. toughening additives and others. abrasion and chemical resistance. A typical open time may be of the order of 30 minutes. Application of an epoxy adhesive system requires the preparation of an adequate specification. A pot life of at least 40 minutes at normal temperature and relatively high humidity. Two components of dissimilar colour to facilitate complete mixing. pot life and open time. softening inclusions. The principal requirements for bonding FRP composites to concrete and other structural materials are summarized in the following [9. The unmixed shelf life is the period for which the individual (unmixed) components may be stored without undergoing significant deterioration. which must include such provisions as mixing/application parameters and techniques. creep properties. surface preparation procedures.17]: • • • • • • • • • • • It should have good adhesion to the materials involved. Long-term durability to maintain the integrity of the system over the planned life span. Acceptable fatigue performance over the use temperature range (-20 to +40oC). Open time. Tolerance to slight variations in the resin and hardener mix proportions. Strong bond between the adherends. shelf life. when the adhesive has been applied to the adherends is the time that one can have after the adhesive has been applied to the adherends and before they are joined together. Depending on the specific application the adhesive may contain fillers.

25].1 which also provides the same information for concrete and mild steel [9. the most utilized in civil engineering applications offer several advantages over other polymers as adhesive agents [9.4 FLEXURAL STRENGTHENING OF BEAMS The need for methods of repair and strengthening of RC beams and girders has been imposed by: degradation due to corrosion of steel reinforcement. Low shrinkage due to lack of by-products from curing reaction allowing the bonding of large areas with only contact pressure.1 Comparison of typical properties for epoxy adhesives. Able to accommodate irregular or thick bond lines.3 200-220 120-130 200-220 25 105-106 10-15 0 - 9. Table 9. May be formulated to have a long open time.Building Rehabilitation Epoxy adhesives.5-5 200-1000 25-100 0.2-8 0. High cured cohesive strength. Can be made thixotropic for application to vertical and inclined surfaces.3-0. Some typical properties for cold cured epoxy adhesives used in civil engineering applications are given in Table 9.015 100 11-13 5 - Mild steel 7850 210 81 0.1-3 45-80 Concrete 2400 20-50 8-21 0. concrete and steel Property (at 20oC) Density (kg/m3) Young modulus (GPa) Shear modulus (GPa) Poisson’s ratio Tensile strength (MPa) Shear strength (MPa) Compressive strength (MPa) Ultimate tensile strain (%) Approximate fracture energy (J/m2) Coefficient of thermal expansion (10-6/oC) Water absorbtion: 7days-25oC(%w/w) Glass transition temperature (oC) Cold curing epoxy adhesive 1100-1700 0.5-20 0. May be toughened if a dispersed rubbery phase is included. cracking of page 169 .2 1-4 2-5 25-150 0. Low creep and superior strength retention under long term loading.4 9-30 10-30 55-110 0.9]: • • • • • • • • High surface activity and good wetting properties.

Adhesive-bonding. that can be carried out with no or little disruption in use. In case of bridges the need for increasing their load carrying capacities requires the adoption of a cost-effective technology that will not distress the traffic significantly. The composite plate is prefabricated and cured (using pultrusion or another manufacturing procedure) and then bonded onto the concrete substrate page 170 . in many cases. • • • • • • Composites fabricated either through wet processes on-site or prefabricated in strips and then adhesively bonded to the concrete surface provide an efficient means of strengthening. The efficacy of the method depends mainly on the appropriate selection of the composite material and on the efficiency and integrity of the bond between the composite and the concrete surface. Surface preparation including the priming systems. Wet lay-up. handle and install. The use of epoxy-bonded steel plates is very frequent in Europe and the United States but it suffers from a number of disadvantages: • • Steel plates are heavy and difficult to transport. Complex profiles are difficult to be shaped with steel plates. the strengthening of existing beams. spalling of concrete cover. The length of individual steel plates is restricted to 8-10m to enable handling and even at these lengths it may be difficult to erect them due to pre-existing service facilities. Expensive falsework is required to maintain steel plates in position during bonding. One of the conventional methods for external strengthening implies the addition of adhesive-bonded steel plates on the tension side of the RC beams. Steel plate thickness at least 5 mm to prevent distortion during blasting operation.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites concrete due to excessive carbonation. and then impregnated in place using rollers (see fig. Contaminants on structural members prior to bonding. The procedure is quite slow and needs more setup. freeze-thaw action. Durability and corrosion effects remain uncertain. In buildings the materials deterioration and changing needs for building occupancy imposes.4. In general. glass or aramid fibres. effects of alkali-silica reactions and changing in loading patterns [9.22). In this procedure the polymeric resin is applied to the concrete substrate and layers of fabric made of carbon. polymeric composites can be applied in three ways as described in the following section. The composite and bond are formed at the same time.13].

d. b. b-shear surfaces strengthening.27). page 171 . Fibre direction e.4. shear surfaces strengthening and tension and shear stress tensioning methods as shown in fig. This is a closed process (see fig. It is a much slower procedure than the previous ones with significant setup time needed.9. c. c-tension and shear surfaces strengthening.typical tension face strengthened RC beam.1 Strengthening with adhesively bonded prefabricated composite plates: a-tension face strengthening. The polymeric resin is infused into the assembly under vacuum with compaction taking place under vacuum pressure. Fig.14]: tension face strengthening. Reinforcing fabric is placed over the area under consideration and the entire area is encapsulated in a vacuum bag. FRP plate bonding technique is generally applied into three strengthening patterns [9. e-typical shear surfaces strengthened RC beam Vacuum infusion.9. a. In a variant the outer layer of fabric in contact with the vacuum bag is partially cured prior to placement in order to assure a good surface.Building Rehabilitation using an adhesive material.1. Fibre direction d.

Care must be taken to ensure that the rehabilitation design addresses the possibility of elastic failure of the system.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites The bond between the composite and concrete whether established through the use of an adhesive or through the use of the same resin system (used in the wet hand lay-up) of the composite itself.b. page 172 .9. equivalent energy-based design approach.a. with a sudden drop in strength when the composite fails through catastrophic fracture.9. or the use of an appropriately factored. Test results show that the use of external composite reinforcing reduces drastically the ductility at initial failure. There are a number of variations of the basic procedure. exposing the concrete aggregate and providing an even surface for an efficient bond to the FRP plate. the resulting stress and strain conditions and in the presence of moisture. Before application of the composite plate.1 Methods of flexural strengthening 9. fig. The bond must also be capable of providing an adequate response under temperature. the soffit of the RC beam must be carefully prepared.1.27]. Experimental works have proved that mechanical anchors may prevent or at least delay the onset of debonding [9. limits on capacity increase related to yielding of steel reinforcement. c.1 Unstressed soffit plates Flexural strengthening of simply supported RC beams using FRP composites is mainly achieved by bonding a FRP plate to the soffit of the beam.4. 9. If conducted in an appropriate manner. d. fig. failure of the composite-concrete bond interface. must be able to perform under ambient conditions. metallic jigs and prefabricated U strips can be installed to prevent debonding at the ends of the soffit plates.2. The preparation is intended to achieve a good surface preparation by removing the weak surface layer of the concrete. FRP end anchorage strips can also be formed by wet lay-up and they can be completely or partially wrapped around the RC beam near the ends of the plate. such as steel bolts. Mechanical anchors. the external application of composites to concrete beams and slabs can result in significant enhancement of load-carrying capacity and flexural and shear strength of the original structural member.4.

concrete.1. 4 g b Fig.4. 3 4 4-4 a b f d. [9. Other important benefits are [9.9.adhesive layer 9. 2 3 3-3 b e a d f c. e . d. 1 2 c 2-2 b a c f b. c-anchor bolts.29]: • • • • • Provides a stiffer behaviour as at early stages most of the concrete is in compression and contributing to the bending moment capacity.elements of the metallic jig.Building Rehabilitation 1-1 a f 1 a. Improves the shear resistance of the RC member as the whole concrete section will resist the shear provided the concrete remains uncracked. f . Crack formation in the shear span is delayed and the cracks when they appear are more finely distributed. The main advantage of prestressing the FRP strip is that the bonded strip contributes to the load bearing capacity before additional loading is applied to the structure. Improves durability and serviceability due to reduced cracking.6]. Closes cracks in RC elements with pre-existing cracks.2 Prestressed FRP soffit strips In certain applications it may be advantageous to bond the FRP strips to the beam soffit in a prestressed state.2 Strengthening of RC beams with FRP soffit plates a. page 173 . b-FRP plate.

3 Strengthening of RC beams with prestressed FRP plates: a-prestressing. Some failure modes associated with peeling-off at cracks at the ends of FRP plates can be avoided. some disadvantages: • • • It is more expensive due to the lager number of operations and equipment that is required by the process of prestressing. A greater structural efficiency can be obtained since the neutral axis remains at a lower level in the prestressed case than in the unstressed one. b.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites • • • • Smaller areas of FRP strips are required to achieve the same strengthening effect. d.9. a. however. The duration of the process is longer. The yielding of the steel reinforcement commences at an increased load compared to that of a non-stressed RC member. This technique has. Fig. c-end anchorage and FRP plate release upon hardening of the adhesive.9. The concept of applying a prestressed FRP plate is illustrated in fig. The equipment needed to push the FRP strip to the soffit must be kept in place until the adhesive layer has become hard enough. b-bonding. d-active anchorage [9.6] page 174 . c.3.

4. fig.30]. Concrete CFRP strip Bonding agent Fig.9.9.4 FRP strips glued into slits [9.9.5.3 Near surface mounted FRP reinforcement inside slits The use of FRP bars or strips bonded into grooves near the surface of a concrete element is a relatively new technique for strengthening structures. Failure modes of RC beams strengthened in flexure • • 9. [9. There is no need for extensive for extensive preparation as required for externally bonded plates and the surface undulations and roughness are more easily accommodated. [9.4. page 175 .Building Rehabilitation 9. A schematic illustration of typical failure modes identified in experimental tests is summarized in fig. traction forces and vandalism.5] are: • The reinforcement is buried beneath the surface of the element and therefore is protected from damage due to accidental impacts. FRP strips with a thickness of 2 mm and a width of 20mm are bonded into these grooves. These slits are cut into the concrete structure with a depth smaller than the concrete cover.2 The failure modes of the reinforced concrete beams strengthened in flexure with externally bonded FRP strips may be divided into two classes: those where full composite action of concrete and FRP is maintained until the concrete crushes in compression or the FRP fails in tension and those where composite action is lost prior to the previous class failure.6] The main benefits of using near surface mounted (NSM) reinforcement over those existing for an externally bonded reinforcement solution [9. NSM reinforcing elements give more aesthetically pleasant solutions.4.29].1.

FRP fracture c. c-concrete crushing (no steel yielding). Debonding g. b-FRP fracture (steel yields before concrete crushes). Debonding f.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites a. ddebonding at the outermost crack. Concrete crushing d.9. Debonding e. g-FRP end shear page 176 . e-debonding in flexural crack. FRP end shear Fig.5 Failure modes of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP in flexure: a-steel yielding and concrete crushing (steel yields before concrete crushes). f-debonding at the intermediate shear crack. Concrete crushing b.

Building Rehabilitation Modes (a)-(c) may be treated by standard cross section analysis.8]. Mode (g) can be analyzed by studying the shear capacity at the FRP plate ends. [9. Concrete Debonding in concrete Adhesive FRP reinforcement Debonding between concrete and a d h e s i v e Debonding in adhesive Debonding between adhesive and FRP Debonding line along embedded reinforcement Debonding line near the surface Concrete Adhesive FRP reinforcement Fig.5 SHEAR STRENGTHENING OF BEAMS When a RC beam is deficient in shear.6] 9.9. hence bond failure modes must be taken into account properly. mechanical characteristics of FRP and tensile strength of concrete. the shear strengthening of the respective beam has to be considered. [9. page 177 . Therefore.6 Different interfaces for bond failure [9.24]. or when its shear capacity is less than the flexural capacity after flexural strengthening. It has been realized that the FRP bonded to the soffit of a RC beam does not modify significantly the shear behaviour from that of the unstrengthened beams. assuming that the FRP strip behaves elastically to failure. Debonding failure modes (d)-(f) require the determination of the anchorable forces based on the bond length.9. Bond is necessary to transfer forces from the concrete into the FRP. the influence of FRP strips bonded to the soffit for flexural strengthening may be ignored in predicting the shear strength of the beam. Bond failure may occur at different interfaces between the concrete and the FRP reinforcement as illustrated in fig.6.

[9. fig. Because FRPs are strong in the direction of fibres only their orientation is recommended to control the shear cracks best. the strengthening pattern and the orientation of fibres.e.9. the type of resins. Various bonding schemes have been used to increase the shear resistance of RC beams. completely wrapping the section is the most efficient. a.9. sometimes it is more practical to attach the external FRP reinforcement with the principal fibre direction. Shear forces in a beam may be reversed under reversed cyclic loading and fibres may be thus arranged at two different directions to satisfy the requirement of shear strengthening in both directions.1].FRP bonded to the web sides only. the compressive strength of concrete.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites Strengthening solutions. Completely wrapping of FRP system around the section on all four sides is the most efficient wrapping scheme and is used where access to all sides of the member is available. For the most common case of structural members subjected to transverse loads (loads perpendicular to the member axis) the maximum principal stress trajectories in the shear-critical zones form an angle with the member axis which may be taken about 45o. The shear effect of FRP external reinforcement is maximized when the fibre direction coincides to that of maximum principal tensile stress.26].9.21]-[9. b-U jacketing. c. fig. However.7.7 Shear strengthening schemes with FRP composites a. Although all three schemes improve the shear strength of the member.1. the shear strength can be improved by wrapping the FRP system around three sides of the member (U-wrap) or bonding to the two sides of the member. perpendicular to the axis direction. Various bonding schemes of FRP strips have been utilized to improve the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams. Fig. page 178 . In a beam application where an integral slab makes it impractical to completely wrap the member. c-complete wrapping The contribution of externally bonded FRP reinforcement to the shear capacity of RC beams depends on several parameters: the stiffness of the FRP reinforcing products. [9. followed by U-wrap. b.

9. An attempt to organize the notation of shear strengthening schemes is presented in [9. β (0o ≤β< 180o) • Second fibre/strip orientation. In all wrapping schemes. amount of increase required in shear capacity. page 179 .7. the amount of FRP cannot be easily controlled and the uniform adhesive layers are more difficult to be achieved. According to bonding configurations the following categories can be differentiated: • S=side bonding .8. but less effective than inclined fibres/strips for shear crack control. but is vulnerable to debonding and the least effective. fibre orientations and fibre distributions can result in many strengthening schemes. but require more reinforcing fibres.9. the FRP system can be installed continuously along the span length of the beam or placed as discrete strips. However.b • W=wrapping around the cross section. 2. The main factors contributing to the selection of strengthening scheme are: accessibility of the site. They can not be applied for U jacketing and wrapping using unidirectional sheets and wide strips.9. fig.7. fig. savings in material are possible.27]. type of loading (monotonic or reversed cyclic). less vulnerable to debonding and acts as mechanical anchors for flexural strengthening. The combination of different bonding configurations. Bidirectional sheets/strips (mostly 0o/90o or 45o/135o) are the most effective in shear crack control. Wrapping is the least vulnerable to debonding.7. Fibre distributions can be symbolized as: • S=strips • P=plates/sheets The distributions in strips has more flexibility in controlling the amount of FRP. availability of FRP materials and economic considerations. fig. the most effective.a • U=U jacketing (the use of three separate plates is unacceptable). needs the least amount of FRP for a small increase in shear capacity. Fibre orientations: • First fibre/strip orientation. When plates/sheets are utilized the site application is ease and the RC is protected from further environmental degradation if fully covered. but the system is labour consuming.c The S configuration is the easiest to apply. fig. U jacketing is moderately effective.Building Rehabilitation Bonding to two sides of the beam only is the least efficient scheme. φ (0o ≤φ<180o) Vertical fibres (β=90o) are the easiest to apply and effective for strengthening in case of reversed shear. effective for strengthening for reversed shear. 3. but not possible if at least one side of the beam is not accessible.9. 1. uniform adhesive layers can be achieved. The inclined fibres (β = 45o) are more effective for shear crack control.

9.9.9.27] It must be emphasized that the technique for shear strengthening of RC beams using FRP composites is still at its early development. page 180 . realized at the University of Sheffield. A complete plate-bonding and shear strengthening scheme.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites Shear strengthening of beams Orientation of fibres Possible bonding procedure on cross-sectionof RC beams h β=90º SS 90 h US90 WS90 0º≤β <180º SSβ h USβ WSβ φ 0º≤β <180º β 0º≤φ <180º SSβ/φ USβ/φ WSβ/φ h β=90º SP 90 UP90 WP90 h 0º≤β <180º SPβ UPβ WPβ h 0º≤β <180º 0º≤φ <180º SPβ/φ UPβ/φ WPβ/φ Fig.8 Various FRP shear strengthening schemes [9. UK is presented in fig.

Once the force distribution is known. the force distribution in each direction is determined by the ratio of the stiffnesses and the ratio of the spans in both directions. A reinforced concrete plate can be considered as isotropic. page 181 .27]. 9. University of Sheffield) There is still considerable uncertainty concerning the total shear capacity of an RC beam with externally bonded FRP shear reinforcement. Therefore care must be taken in practical design and expert advice or experimental verification should be sought wherever necessary [9.6 STRENGTHENING OF RC SLABS In general. since the amount of internal steel in both directions differs only slightly. When the stiffness in both directions is equal. the plate is called “isotropic” [9.Building Rehabilitation Fig.9. The distribution of the corresponding forces in the plate then only depends on the ratio of the spans.7]. the calculation of the amount of internal or external reinforcement is identical to the design of reinforced concrete beams subjected to bending.9 FRP strengthened reinforced concrete beam ready for testing (CCC. and the largest part of the load will be taken by the shortest span.

Since reinforced concrete plates are much thinner than concrete beams the lever arm from the resulting concrete compressive force to the external reinforcement is much larger than the lever arm to the internal steel reinforcement. The use of composite strips provides an efficient mechanism for repair where installation of liftwells in buildings results in cutting through existing steel reinforcement to form a cutout. However when FRP strips are utilised. very often at significant cost and with distress to traffic. which often suffer rapid deterioration due to salt-induced cracking. conventional methods would result in the construction of page 182 . since the contribution of the externally bonded reinforcement to the plate stiffness is relatively small. which means that the relative force distribution will not change. The strengthening of RC slabs is expanding but the results obtained from the application of composites to beams cannot be directly extrapolated to application of slabs. efflorescence of concrete and corrosion of steel reinforcement. A common conventional method is the complete reconstruction of the damaged area. If the repair scheme is designed properly. and to provide the means for redistribution of the loads and resulting stresses. Composite strips or bands can be easily applied externally to make up the lost reinforcing capacity. This means that the active tensile stresses in the external FRP reinforcement can be much higher than in the internal steel reinforcement and the high resistance of the FRP reinforcement can be efficiently utilised. Similar schemes can be applied for the strengthening and repair of floor slabs of parking garages.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites The advantage of the thin FRP strips is the fact that they can be applied in both directions. Where preexisting slabs have to be cut for the installation of a liftwell during changes in building use. In that way. the strengthened concrete plate remains isotropic. the external FRP composite reinforcement will repair the area damaged by punching shear and will also prevent the opening of the existing cracks. FRP composites can easily be applied without any disruption of traffic. Therefore FRP laminates can often be used more effectively for strengthening concrete plates than for strengthening concrete beams. especially as related to the selection of the form and positioning of the external reinforcement. the deformations might be unacceptable. This application is considered mainly for deficient structures where local punching shear failures are seen. The repair of this deficiency can be easily performed through the use of adhesively bonded pultruded composite strips and through wet lay-up of unidirectional fabrics.

Fig.11 FRP strengthening of a two-way slab: a.cross section Cro ss-Sectio n RC slab FRP strip FRP strips a. and the FRP page 183 .10 FRP strengthening of one-way simply supported plate: a.a. For twoway plates strengthening must be applied for both directions. Elevation Cross-Section RC slab FRP strip FRP strip a.slab soffit. Appropriate design can assure that failure is through delamination at the level of cover concrete with local level decreasing to that of the yield response of the slab with a cutout.1 Strengthening of simply supported plates When the RC plates are simply supported the one-way plates are strengthened by bonding FRP strips to the soffit along the required direction.6.cross section b.elevation. fig. or columns to support the resulting weaker structure. b. 9. These alternatives use valuable space and result in significant cost and extended inconvenience to the inhabitants.11.9. Fig.9.9. by bonding FRP strips in both directions. The FRP composites thus provide not only a means for strengthening and repair but also an effective change in occupancy or use of structures while allowing rapid and nonintrusive reconstruction. fig.Building Rehabilitation deep supporting beams. b. b. The possible collapse mechanism of a two-way slab suggests that the strengthening of such a plate can be concentrated in the central region.11.10. enclosure walls. Figure 9. thereby ensuring gradual failure.9.

2 Strengthening of cantilever RC plates In case of the cantilever plates the end support is subjected to the largest bending moment in the slab.9. as the part of the slab without bonded FRP strips has enough ductility for the formation of yield lines. 9. fig.c. Fig. if the wet lay up process is adopted.12.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites strips can be terminated far away from the edges [9. Supporting wa ll FRP composites Concrete slab FRP composites strip Supporting wall Epoxy mortar Concrete slab a.a. the strips may be bent and bonded onto the wall surface.6.9. b-insertion of FRP strip in slots in the wall.12. fig. fig.9. and therefore the FRP strips can not be terminated before the fixed end.9. For continuous cantilever plates. Cantilever slab Cantilever span b. the anchorage of FRP strips may be achieved by extending the FRP strips to the inside slab for a sufficient length.12. c.12 Fixed end anchorages for cantilever slabs: a-simple bonding of FRP on the wall.27]. Inserting of FRP strips into slots predrilled in the wall provides a sound anchorage. The load capacity of such strengthened plates can be predicted by a yield line analysis. Cantilever slab Supporting beam or wall c.b. If the slab is cantilevered from a wall.anchorage for continuous cantilever slab page 184 .

Building Rehabilitation

9.7 STRENGTHENING OF RC COLUMNS 9.7.1 General

Conventional strengthening measures for RC columns range from the external confinement of the core by heavily reinforced external concrete sections to the use of steel cables wound helically around the existing column at close spacing that are then covered by concrete and the use of steel jackets welded together in the field confining the existing columns, [9.2], [9.3]. Some of these methods are effective but they have some disadvantages [9.13]: • • • • • They are time consuming and labour intensive; Can cause significant interruption of the structure functioning due to access and space requirements for heavy equipment; Rely on field welding, the quality of which is often questionable; Susceptible to degradation due to corrosion; Introduce changes in column stiffness, influencing the seismic force levels.

The strengthening of existing RC columns using steel or FRP jacketing is based on a well established fact that lateral confinement of concrete can substantially enhance its axial compressive strength and ductility [9.15]. The most common form of FRP column strengthening involves the external wrapping of FRP straps. The use of FRP composites provides a means for confinement without the increase in stiffness (when only hoop reinforcing fibres are utilised), enables rapid fabrication of cost effective and durable jackets, with little or no traffic disruption in most cases. In FRP-confined concrete subjected to axial compression, the FRP jackets are loaded mainly in hoop tension while the concrete is subjected to tri-axial compression, so that both materials are used to their best advantages. As a result of the confinement, both the strength and the ultimate strain of concrete can be enhanced, while the tensile strength of FRP can be effectively utilized [9.3]. Instead of the brittle behaviour exhibited by both materials, FRP-confined concrete possesses an enhanced ductility [9.28]. For FRP wrapped, axially loaded columns the design philosophy relies on the wrap to carry tensile forces around the perimeter of the column as a result of lateral expansion of the underlying column when loaded axially in compression, [9.18], [9.19]. Constraining the lateral expansion of the column confines the concrete and, consequently increases its axial compressive capacity. It should be underlined that passive confinement of this type requires significant lateral expansion of the concrete before the FRP wrap is loaded
page 185

RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites

and confinement is initiated. In case of columns rectangular or square in cross section the confinement is effective at the column corners only with negligible resistance to lateral expansion being provided along the flat column sides [9.16]. 9.7.2 Methods of strengthening

A number of different methods (based on form of jacketing material or fabrication process) have been tested at large or full-scale many of which are now used commercially all over the world. A suitable classification of FRP composite jackets is given in fig.9.13, [9.12], [9.13], [9.27].

a.

b.

c.

d.
a.

e.

f.

Fig.9.13 Methods of FRP strengthening for RC columns: wrapping of fabric; b.partially rapping with strips; c.prefabricated jakets d. spiral rings; e. automated winding; f. resin infusion. page 186

Building Rehabilitation

Wrapping. The most common technique for column strengthening using FRP composites has been in situ FRP wrapping. In this technique woven fabric sheets or unidirectional fibre sheets are impregnated with polymer resins and wrapped around the RC column. In the wet lay-up process the main fibres are orientated in the hoop direction, with cure taking place, generally, under ambient conditions. A column can be fully wrapped with FRP sheets in single or multiple layers, fig.9.13.a. It can also be partially wrapped using FRP straps in a continuous spiral, fig.9.13.b, or discrete rings. This method is very flexible in coping with different column shapes, ease in site handling and does not require special equipment. It is the most labour intensive and enables the least quality control. Filament winding. In filament winding, fig.9.13.e, the process is automated but essentially follows the same patterns with the difference being that the ensuing jacket has a nominal prestress due to the use of winding tension. The process can be automatically controlled using a computer controlled winding machine. A FRP membrane with imposed thickness, fibre orientation and fibre volume fraction can be achieved in this process. The use of prepreg tows has the advantage of using standardized and uniform materials that are easy for the structural designer to specify and it also presents the opportunity for elevated temperature cure. An improved quality control and reduced on-site labour are among the advantages of this technique. However this method has less flexibility in coping with different column shapes and requires special equipment. Prefabricated shell jacketing. In case of adhesively bonded shells, prefabricated single or dual-section jackets can be assembled in the field through bonding and layering. The shells are fabricated in half circles, fig.9.13.c, or half rectangles and circles with a slit or in continuous rolls prior to field installation, so that they can be opened and placed around the column. For effective FRP confinement to be achieved, a full contact between the column and the FRP jacket is needed. This can be achieved by bonding the shell to the column using adhesives or injecting shrinkage-compensated grout or mortar into the space between the shell and the column [9.4], [9.20]. The process affords a high level of materials quality control due to prefabrication of the elements under factory conditions, requires least on-site labour, enables column shape modification but as in the case of external strengthening relies on the integrity of the adhesive bond and has limited flexibility in coping with different column shapes. For rectangular columns to be strengthened by wrapping, their corners must be rounded. This rounding is needed to reduce the detrimental effect of the sharp corners on the tensile strength of FRP wraps and to enhance the effectiveness of confinement. If rectangular prefabricated shells are used, the shells are generally
page 187

RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites

slightly oversized and their corners are rounded, with the small gap between the jacket and the concrete core filled with expansive cement grout. One or more vertical joints generally exist in the FRP whether wrapping or prefabricated shell jacketing is used. These joints should be made strong enough so that joint failure does not become the strength controlling failure mode, as otherwise the strength of the FRP is not fully utilized. When a FRP shell with a vertical slit in each layer is used, either an additional FRP strip should be bonded over the vertical seam, fig.9.14, [9.2] or the slits should be staggered (in case of shells consisting of a large number of FRP layers.
Reinforced Concrete Column Adhesive

FRP Strip Composite Jacket

Fig.9.14 Prefabricated FRP square jacket with additional strip

In most cases the FRP confinement obtained is passive in nature, with hoop tensile stresses in the FRP developing as the concrete expands. Active confinement methods with FRP jackets have also been applied [9.20].

BIBLIOGRAPHY 9.1 9.2 9.3 ACI 440.2R-02. Guide for the design and construction of externally bonded FRP systems for strengthening concrete structures. Reported by ACI Committee 440, 2002. Budescu, M., Ciongradi, I., Taranu, N., Gavrilas, I., Ciupala, M.A. Lungu, I. Reabilitarea constructiilor. Ed. Vesper, Iasi, 2001. Ciupala, M.A., Pilakoutas, K., Taranu, N. FRP seismic strengthening of columns in frames. Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on FRP Reinforcement for Concrete Structures, Singapore 8-10 July, 2003, 1117-1126. Ciupala, M.A., Pilakoutas, K., Mortazawi, A., Taranu, N RC Lateral prestressing with composites. In: Advanced Polymer Composites for Structural Applications in Construction (ACIC). Proceedings of the Second
page 188

9.4

Karbhari. K. UK on 20-22 April 2004. M. O. Seible. and Leeming. and Build. of Struct. M. Hollaway. 2000. Comp. Vol.16 9. Confinement of RC columns with FRP materials: a critical comparison between ACI and CEB-FIP design guidelines.14 9. Mays.C. optical fibre sensors and smart composites for concrete rehabilitation: an overview.. Modarelli. 365378. T. 9: 221-247. No 8. The University of Sheffield.8 9... 195-202. Woodhead Publishing Limited. In: Advanced Polymer Composites for Structural Applications in Construction (ACIC). ASCE. Woodhead Publishing Limited.G. Eng.R. R. 2001. 31. Bulletin 14. The evolution and the way forward for advanced polymer composites in the civil infrastructure.K. M. Mander. 21. Rametta. CRC Press. Park. Shear behaviour and design of FRP RC beams. Eng. 2002. Karbhari. Yuan. F. Farmer. “Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures”. P.M. Civ. Mater. 114.N.11 9.6 9. and Hutchinson.9 9. Proceedings of the Second International Conference.. Cambridge.17 9. page 189 .P. 2002.. Near surface mounted reinforcement for strengthening-UK experience and development of best practice.5 9. Hollaway. Strengthening of concrete constructions with externally bonded reinforcement.J. 1992. L. L. Tse. Lecce. Gale.B.. J.12 9. Gemert. Civil Infrastructure Applications. V. Guildford.10 9. Hollaway. held at the University of Surrey. In: Composites Vol. 2003. 17.M. “Externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC structures”. M. and Leeming. J. 2001. Theoretical stress-strain model for confined concrete.B. J. and Quinn.. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Innovative Materials and Technologies for Construction and Restoration. CRC Press. Fiber reinforced composites-advanced materials for renewal of civil infrastructure. G. Federation International du Beton (FIB). Appl. Priestley. 18041826. 7. V. 95-124. Shrive N. Ignoul. A.. Zhou. Design concepts and case studies.J. N. 1-13.15 9. R. Brosens. Lau. PhD Thesis. 1999. L.7 9. Appl. C. M. June 6-9. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Innovative Materials and Technologies for Construction and Restoration. M. P. Comp. Size effect in axially loaded squaresection concrete prisms strengthened using carbon fibre reinforced polymer wrapping.Building Rehabilitation 9. 1988.. V. In “Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures”. Applications of composites. ”Materials”.18 International Conference. UK.. 2004. UK on 20-22 April 2004 pp 659-666. Lausanne. Constr. 1999. Can. eds. Guadagnini.. D. ASM International.. Mat. Mater. A. Journ.. L. held at the University of Surrey. Manni.B...N. Guildford. Cambridge. 2004. Hutchinson. L. 107-116. “Adhesives in civil engineering”. Ohio. C. R.C. T. Cambridge University Press. S. Masia.. Cambridge.13 9.. C.

. Winnipeg. Design guidelines” Second edition. “FRP strengthening of existing concrete structures. Behaviour of concrete confined with lateral pretensioned FRP.25 Taljsten.21 Neale.24 Pilakoutas.. N. T. Fasc. 9.A.. Ltd. Taranu. 2003. Shear of FRP RC: a review of the state-of— the-art. Lulea.28 Teng. Guildford. 285-297. In: Advanced Polymer Composites for Structural Applications in Construction (ACIC). 213-222. 9. 2002. 9. 3-4. 2001. Proceedings of the Second International Conference. 2003. 173-182. Rodopoulos. 9.. University of Sheffield... Understanding and modeling the compressive behaviour of FRP confined concrete. 9 from “Failure Analysis of Industrial Composite Materials”.G. F.E. Composites as Strengthening Materials of Concrete Structures. 9.. ISIS Canada. Guildford. Confining reinforced concrete with FRP: behaviour and modeling.23 Pellegrino. July 20-21. for constr. 2003. K.G. G.. C. Cluj-Napoca. 104-111. I.A. Vol. Gdoutos. 2001.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites Lecce. In: Advanced Polymer Composites for Structural Applications in Construction (ACIC). 97-106.29 Triantafillou. 2002... S.. L. Design Manual No 4. Eds. pp 89-100.. Chen.. of the Polytechnic Inst of Iasi. 9. Journ. New York. G. June 6-9 2004.30 Triantafillou.20 Mortazavi. 2000. Lam. New York . 2001. 2003.. C. Oprisan. Saftiuc. C.. Proceedings of the International Workshop.. McGraw Hill . 9. In Proceedings of the International Conference “CONSTRUCTIONS 2003”. 9. K. held at the University of Surrey. K. 16-17 May. FRP –Strengthened RC Structures. 227-234. Modena. B. 9. J. PhD Thesis. 73-88. July 20-21..22 Oprisan. Proceedings of the International Workshop. Lam. John Wiley & Sons.19 Monti.26 Taranu. L. E.. 2. Fiber reinforced polymer shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with transverse steel reinforcement. Pilakoutas and C. Budescu. T.. N. 9. 9. Preliminary evaluation of structural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites. Entuc. Smith. Capri. Strengthening reinforced concrete structures with externallybonded fibre reinforced polymers. J. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with carbon fibre reinforced polymer plates.G. 6. 9. Saftiuc. Upgrading Concrete Structures Using Advanced Polymer Composites. C. M. In Composites in Construction a Reality. C.27 Teng. Guadagnini M. In Bull. of comp.T. page 190 . C. Chap. Capri. UK on 20-22 April 2004. Tom XLIX. In Composites in Construction a Reality. Proceedings of the Second International Conference. Lulea University Printing Office. J. UK on 20-22 April 2004. held at the University of Surrey.

defects and decay of the materials. quality. Ancient timber load-bearing structures are the ancestors of the modern framed structures therefore they deserve special attention and careful conservation. The load bearing capacity of a new considered timber structure needs in certain cases to be improved through appropriate structural consolidation. construction technique and process. But the consequences are even more when the structures are parts of historical and/or artistic buildings because their cultural evidence also could be endangered or completely lost. mainly in the form of roofs and floors. Its use was continuous up to the present time. because it can be solicited both to compression and to tension. configuration and loading. in order to comply with increased performance requirements (modifications in use of the structure. some of them still in good shape and performing their duties. which include the general characters like paternity and chronology. Load bearing timber structures are exposed during their life to some degradation factors which lead.4]. innovations. for example). failure. Due to the fact that old timber structures account for a large part of our architectural heritage. INTRODUCTION Timber. and the peculiar characters as environmental factors. also the most complete before steel was available. effective and economic procedure for their in situ evaluation is particularly needed [10. in the absence of appropriate maintenance interventions. The heritage of timber structures we belong is immense and the oldest specimens date back to millennia ago.1. is the oldest building material the man used. therefore to bending. with rough stone.10 REHABILITATION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES 10. page 191 . from its ideation to the present conditions. to the loss of their structural integrity and serviceability.1]. a reliable. The acquaintance of an ancient timber structure is an extensive analysis. and regimen of the loads [10.

no two identical situations exist in damaged timber structures. reveal easily which is the organization that has been given to the elements. some of them are designed to carry loads and ensure stability to buildings. the implementation of which requires a multi-disciplinary approach. The aims of investigation are to determine the general and the particular characters. the team duty is to derive accurate information concerning to the properties. evaluate the serviceability of the whole structure and prevent future degrade. Conservation and rehabilitation of existing timber structures is a relatively new idea. architects and possibly other experts co-operating to check the condition of each structural element. designed and implemented case by case [10. and also to determine realistic boundaries within which the page 192 . connections). Through a careful examination of each structural member and joint. Timber structures. deputed to fulfil a given task. engineers. must periodically undergo a thoughtful inspection and evaluation of their safety and serviceability. the stiffness and deformation capacity of moment resisting joints has never been calculated decisively without a full-scale experimental process. On the other hand. as a structural material. thus lightening the weight of a building could be attempted. The geometry designed by elements which occupy a limited and well defined part of the three-dimensional space. Structure is a system of members with assigned relations. whether old or new. Further. therefore restoration works and repairs need to be chosen. reaching six times higher than that of steel. technical and scientific activity (including the concern and the search for cultural implications in the ideation of the structure) to collect all the necessary data to allow the formulation of a judgment on the reliability of the structure to perform its bearing function in safe conditions. its great use for decreasing global warming effect is well known. the relations between the same components and the other parts of the buildings (which may occasionally give a contribution to the balance and to the stability of the structure if not to the strength). their position. performance and condition of the material. quite a few issues are remained to be solved partly because timber is a natural material and its material characteristic is easily changed due to its surrounding environment.Rehabilitation of timber structures Timber originally has considerable advantages as a structural material. For timber structures the accomplishment of this difficult task implies the involvement of different experts: wood technologists. The repair and strengthening of timber structures is a more comprehensive intellectual. in other words they allow the understanding of the pre-established relations. structural systems. In particular. Also. timber scores high with the strength ratio for the same weight. In general.3]. the evidence of the hierarchy of the components present (structural units.

the result of an ideation activity. shape and position in the space of the members. It is essential to determine design. the units. the workings. height. The member components and the connections must be identified. hence it is possible to perceive the botanic species. Indeed the configuration. Therefore often it is difficult to assess the cause. Bearing. equilibrium. the soil for a timber framed construction.2. Other important elements to determine are the relations of the timber structural complex with the other structural systems present in the building as the bearing walls for a covering. connections are other very important elements of the structure and of the configuration. settled by the external ties. is the essence of the structure. The configuration is devised to bear a given system of forces and withstand the foreseen actions thus ensuring strength. show a very complicate rheologic (deformational) behaviour. and degree of movement freedom they allow to the concurring members. mainly because of the property of the visco-elasticity that wood belongs. INSPECTION AND EVALUATION 10. the members and the connections present. Configuration of a structural unit (frame.1 Objectives of the inspection Essential aims when studying a timber structural complex is the identification of the kind of hierarchic organization existing between the systems. performed.2.1]. floor) as part of a structural system is an abstract concept related to the geometry of the mechanical device and of its components (as span. which determine the relations between the elements and any other structural system connected. stability to the architectural organism [10. dimensions and ratio between them). page 193 . Timber structures. number. joints. bay. the connections of various nature between the members. also to fulfil physiological conservation requirements. truss. This means to recognize and to classify the various structural systems present in a building and to determine the relations between them. 10. due to the nature of the tissues and the longitudinal position of the fibres. The constituting materials are usually left in sight. it is the element that deserves deeper investigation and more careful conservation. the kind and the entity of the stresses which are responsible for the deformations detected. more than those made of other materials. in an accentuated way if compared to other materials. nature.Building Rehabilitation designer shall make his calculations. the degradations occurred etc. it carries its most exclusive and characterizing features. these are started.

predisposing to fracture. displacements (translations and rotations) at the member and unit level. presence of water-proof and insulated covering or caps of the structures as well as occasional condensations. although in a statistic and probabilistic way. disconnections. humidity and temperature because of the dimensional variations they produce. dilatation. ring-shakes. too numerous in a restricted area. The most relevant factors are pollution and. rupture. the position of the piece in the shaft.Rehabilitation of timber structures The environment has great influence on the conservation of a timber structure. the effects of the shrinkage and other damage). dead and loose knots. a defect of the timber when this is used as a construction material because their presence reduces the mechanical strength of the member. crack at the level of members. heating systems and conditioning are responsible of damages. at the unit level. elongation. which occurs because of the hygroscopicity of the tissues when the rate of internal humidity decreases. The assessment of the strength of the materials. of the balance of the units. humidity in the bearing walls of a covering. deformation (changes in geometry. the peculiar characters as the botanic species. piling up). tear. folding). The detection of the mechanical deformations of the structure is a fundamental task: the manifestations must be looked for with the maximum care. the grain. is one of the most difficult tasks because it is not possible to deduce one or more members from an ancient structure from direct testing on structural scale samples. anyhow. The shrinkage of the wood. lack of aeration and ventilation as well as scarce use of the room. the defects. crushing. is a process which starts internal tensions and produces solutions in the continuity that are called checks or shakes. The most important and recurring are semi-permanent or permanent deformations (twisting or lateral buckling. Mathematical instrument can help considerably with verifications of the strength of the material in the most solicited sections of the members. investigations must be carried out. the workings. loss of equilibrium etc. irregularities of the direction of the fibres. as it would be advisable. Natural defects must be assessed also. These are not a defect of the wood. the quality of the timbers (with specification of the ring thickness. embedding. Occasional factors as malfunctioning of the gutters. For each member. loss of stability at the general level of the system. page 194 . brittle heart are the most common defects of the wood. also to the metallic components of the structure. They become. the variations in the same strength of the wood. Knots too big. splitting. the predisposition to biotic attacks. ill-formed tissues. of course. that need detection and survey. exposure. of the stability of the whole system. sinking. sagging. the mechanical and biotical decay. contraction. rotations.

or torsion. a disease which can affect every element of the hierarchic organization. When the structure is in poor conditions further analyses are requested to ascertain whether the failure is still active or it is extinguished. by means of restoration (descriptions. Generally. the period in which it occurred. Failure of the structures can also occur because of the progressive malfunctioning of the connections. the inspection of an existing timber structure has the following main objectives: • to provide the information needed by the structural engineer in order to assess if the strength and the stiffness of members and of connections are satisfactory for structural safety in the intended use. to point out parts. decorations. the factors of decay or failure. drawings.). substitution. the extension of the decay. page 195 . twisting or breaking of the ends of the members are the usual disconnections. All these values are to be investigated and recorded. also interpreted. which may need specific reinforcement. and also to the absence or presence of decay agents such as beetles and fungi. and attempts are to be made to imagine and give. and others. to acquaint the acknowledgement of the cultural values they carry and.or tridimensional geometry. shear. or other types of intervention. at the same time. the measures taken etc. colour. Loosening of the joints. to detect existing decay or damage suffered in service. the members and the joints affected. including defects and anomalies. a primary measure of safeguarding. weight. proportions of the members. • • • The means to achieve these objectives (concerning all load-bearing elements) are the following: • • to assess the timber quality: ascertain the wood species and its main physical and mechanical properties. audiovisuals etc. the mechanical processes of failure. the look that the structure had at the beginning of his life.Building Rehabilitation The cracks of the members are quite different according to the nature of internal stresses caused by compression or tension or bending. Timber structures belong on peculiar aesthetic values such as: bi. to evaluate decay factors which may have affected the structure. and which may affect it in the future.

the cited relations are the transmitted strains and the reactions to them. which are the real basic reference of every further investigation. due to the statistic methods used to collection the data.Rehabilitation of timber structures • • to assess the risk of decay or damage in the future. to assess the effective cross section(s) and their strength and stiffness. 10. These methods are: • • visual analysis. The acquaintance of the timber structure is progressively achieved with inspections in situ. is mainly due to two factors. During the inspections.1 Visual analysis It is of fundamental importance to recognize that the visual analysis approach is the most important. 10. observations and analyses are made. they can put it in a critical situation. the methods. dislocations could be essential symptoms of a general disease of the structure or. in a professional approach. once the structural units have been determined. The high level of deformability of the timber structures. the elasticity of the members and also the ductility of the connections. It is also page 196 .2. all the aforesaid investigations must have a statistic character.2. the other sets presented and the structural complexes of a different nature like the soil. the mathematical models have no deterministic value. There are two methods of investigation which are used individually or together. Due to the number of members in a structure. more than the others. The investigation range. the instruments and the same number of tests varies accordingly. the masonry bearing structures and similar. Therefore deformations. the first concern is for stability and configuration. Mathematical calculations and models follow. unavoidably. The further phase is the determination of the relations between the units. those eases the first assessments and allow planning the following instrumental analyses.2. it is advisable to examine analytically the structural units. Essentially. instrumental analysis. The same progression of investigation is completely modified when the decay and the structural failure are severe and the risk of sudden collapse is high.2 Investigation methods According with the aim of the research. In the most general cases. simply. the methods and the level of investigation vary considerably.

specially. especially fungal.2. as application to wood of the sclerometer-type instruments (Pylodin) [10.Building Rehabilitation possible to maintain. that the more deformed members are more stressed than others of the same size but less deformed. that the more deformed the members are the more they are stressed. With the latter. on wood.2. 10. the strength to compression of the wood is deduced by the depth reached by the probe. The depth and the shape of the internal surfaces are measured with needle-probes. In the last decades the method of the elastic waves has been widely tested and extensively applied for the grading of new timber. Present favourable circumstances as the availability of small size portable equipment give many opportunities to develop the study of the connections. The concavities are evidenced by means of skimming or grazing light side-light and rulers. to find out the status of them and the species.1]. the new approach is by means of Radiography. The use of this method is well attested for the study of the paintings. even only roughly and in a general way. the static one is deduced. besides. they are based on the measurement of the superficial hardness of the wood or the superficial resistance to penetration. with close observation of the tissues. In the timber structures. and finding out discontinuities. mostly the fungal attacks hit the parts which are in contact with wet masonry walls or other elements of the building where the ambient page 197 . with the aim of determining a dynamic modulus of elasticity from which. Several non-direct methods have been proposed so far and used for the determination of the mechanical strength of the timber.2 Instrumental analysis Application of the instrumental analysis (exact methods) of the wood anatomy on small samples must follow the visual determination. On the other hand the presence of severe deformations in some regions of the member is enough to foretell that breakings will occur and that this will happen in those regions. which cuts down the strength of the wood affected and even alters the character of the cracks. About the design of the connections. Forecasting the whole behaviour of the member and the real position of the cracks can be disturbed by biotic decay. in a very approximate way. using the Scanning Electronic Microscope which allows. many applications have also been made to the ancient structures.

whole structure. although in conjunction with newly added members. 10. engineers) and of the carpenters. including information about structure typology and dimensions.2. After the repair works the original timbers may fulfil: • • • the same structural functions they were originally assigned. connecting joints.3. external constraints or connections.Rehabilitation of timber structures moisture produces condensation water. The step-by-step analysis requested relies on experimental observations with models and on mathematical modelling. such as substitution timbers.3]: • • • • • individual structural timber member. wooden species. with adequate instruments. the material’s historical authenticity. Safety assessment of the structure and design of the restoration plan could be performed on the basis of the collected data. structural units. starting from the parts of the structure which show higher moisture content. location and quantification of mechanical damages and residual load bearing cross-sections. Evaluation of the existing timber structure Evaluation is the final report. strength grade. page 198 . it is necessary to carry out inspections planned on a probabilistic ratio. Repairs may basically deal with one or more of the following levels of the structure [10. the structural functions being totally fulfilled by other load bearing members. The whole set of data is compiled in tabular form and/or graphic representations by using colour or black and white codes and symbols in order to facilitate and speed up the subsequent work of the technicians (architects. besides in the depth of the connections. an improved structural function. Therefore the parts affected are not always in sight so that they are not detectable. steel or concrete.

catalogued. should be collected. wear and tear. the principles: • • • • recognise the importance of timber structures from all periods as part of the cultural heritage of the world. fungal and insect attacks. take into account the various species and qualities of wood used to build them. misuse and the loss of skills and knowledge of traditional design and construction technology.3. recognise the vulnerability of structures wholly or partially in timber due to material decay and degradation in varying environmental and climatic conditions. the Burra Charter and related UNESCO and ICOMOS doctrine. All pertinent documentation. securely stored and made page 199 . • • • And make the following recommendations: 10. fire and other disasters. in accordance with Article 16 of the Venice Charter and the ICOMOS Principles for the Recording of Monuments. take into account the great diversity of historic timber structures.1 Inspection. recording and documentation 1. and seek to apply these general principles to the protection and preservation of historic timber structures.Building Rehabilitation 10.3 PRINCIPLES FOR THE PRESERVATION OF HISTORIC TIMBER STRUCTURES [2] (Adopted by ICOMOS at the 12th General Assembly in Mexico. light. including characteristic samples of redundant materials or members removed from the structure. caused by humidity fluctuations. October 1999) The aim of this document is to define basic and universally applicable principles and practices for the protection and preservation of historic timber structures with due respect to their cultural significance. The condition of the structure and its components should be carefully recorded before any intervention. and information about relevant traditional skills and technologies. as well as all materials used in treatments. take into account the great variety of actions and treatments required for the preservation and conservation of these heritage resources. For the purpose of the preservation of such structures. Historic timber structures refer here to all types of buildings or constructions wholly or partially in timber that have cultural significance or that are parts of a historic area. note the Venice Charter. Groups of Buildings and Sites. recognise the increasing scarcity of historic timber structures due to vulnerability.

minimum intervention can mean that their preservation and conservation may require the complete or partial dismantling and subsequent reassembly in order to allow for the repair of timber structures. Any proposed intervention should for preference: a) follow traditional means. in-fill panels. 7.3.2 Monitoring and maintenance 3. Problems should be solved according to relevant conditions and needs with due respect for the aesthetic and historical values. A coherent strategy of regular monitoring and maintenance is crucial for the protection of historic timber structures and their cultural significance. or c) at least not prejudice or impede future preservation work whenever this may become necessary. measurements of physical conditions and nondestructive testing methods. if technically possible.. doors and windows.3 Interventions 4. the historic structure should be considered as a whole. including structural members. etc.3. physical inspection and analysis. coating. if necessary. and the physical integrity of the historic structure or site. The documentation should also include the specific reasons given for choice of materials and methods in the preservation work. b) be reversible. The primary aim of preservation and conservation is to maintain the historical authenticity and integrity of the cultural heritage. and.Rehabilitation of timber structures accessible as appropriate. page 200 . and d) not hinder the possibility of later access to evidence incorporated in the structure. wall-paper. In principle. 6. In the case of interventions. This should not prevent necessary minor interventions and emergency measures. weather-boarding. 10. The diagnosis should be based on documentary evidence. roofs. as much as possible of the existing material should be retained. should be given equal attention. The minimum intervention in the fabric of a historic timber structure is an ideal. A thorough and accurate diagnosis of the condition and the causes of decay and structural failure of the timber structure should precede any intervention. 2. all material. Each intervention should therefore be based on proper studies and assessments. 10. In certain circumstances. paint. 5. etc. floors. The protection should also include surface finishes such as plaster.

should. correspond with those used originally. duplicate the originals. by carving. Appropriate traditional or welltested modern methods may be used to match the colouring of the old and the new with due regard that this will not harm or degrade the surface of the wooden member. 10. If a part of a member is replaced.3. or. 11. It should be accepted that new members or parts of members will be distinguishable from the existing ones.5 Historic forest reserves 12. and where it is an appropriate response to the need to replace decayed or damaged members or their parts. where possible. by marks burnt into the wood or by other methods. techniques and textures should be duplicated as far as possible. with better. the original materials. where appropriate. this should also include similar natural characteristics. 10. including the use of dressing tools or machinery. grading as in the members being replaced. if appropriate. To copy the natural decay or deformation of the replaced members or parts is not desirable. so that they can be identified later. Removed members and other components of the historic structure should be catalogued. Nails and other secondary materials should. traditional woodwork joints should. Craftsmanship and construction technology. and characteristic samples kept in permanent storage as part of the documentation. The establishment and protection of forest or woodland reserves where appropriate timber can be obtained for the preservation and repair of historic timber structures should be encouraged. In the repair of a historic structure. if appropriate and compatible with structural requirements. New members or parts of members should be discretely marked. its earlier state and design within the limits of existing historic material evidence. as indicated in articles 9 – 13 of the Venice Charter. The moisture content and other physical characteristics of the replacement timber should be compatible with the existing structure. 8.4 Repair and replacement 9. Where possible. The aim of restoration is to conserve the historic structure and its load bearing function and to reveal its cultural values by improving the legibility of its historical integrity.Building Rehabilitation If it is necessary to renew or replace surface finishes. 10. replacement timber can be used with due respect to relevant historical and aesthetical values.3. Institutions responsible for the preservation and page 201 . or to the requirements of restoration. New members or parts of members should be made of the same species of wood with the same. be used to splice the new and the existing part.

2). Education and training 15. where public and environmental safety will not be affected and where the likelihood of success over the long term is significant. may be with the help of some samples (transversal cores. national.1.Rehabilitation of timber structures conservation of historic structures and sites should establish or encourage the establishment of stores of timber appropriate for such work. and should be used only where there is an assured benefit. The use of chemical preservatives should be carefully controlled and monitored. such as epoxy resins. and. Regeneration of values related to the cultural significance of historic timber structures through educational programs is an essential requisite of a sustainable preservation and development policy. The programs should address all relevant professions and a trade involved in such work. in particular.4 EXAMPLES OF DETERIORATION The thickness of the rings. With the checks also the grain and its irregularities can be detected.3. The close observation of the solutions of continuity aims to recognize cracks from checks or shakes. Such training should be based on a comprehensive strategy integrated within the needs of sustainable production and consumption. such as structural steel reinforcement.10. regional and international levels. and fire detection and prevention systems. concavity of all the external surfaces (fig. especially for the rings). should be chosen and used with the greatest caution and only in cases where the durability and structural behaviour of the materials and construction techniques have been satisfactorily proven over a sufficiently long period of time. conservators. such as heating. the position in the shaft. engineers. 10. architects. 10.3.10. The operations have to be repeated in several sections. fig. preservation and conservation of historic timber structures are encouraged. The establishment and further development of training programs on the protection. crafts persons and site managers. should be installed with due recognition of the historic and aesthetic significance of the structure or site. and include programs at the local. the grain. 14. The checks are identified by the elements of the formation process mentioned before: long and continuous line along the grain even if with some transitions to other fibres. V-shaped cross sections. 10. the defects of the wood are generally recognized with simple observation. Contemporary materials.7. Utilities. page 202 .6 Contemporary materials and technologies 13. and techniques.

4] Failures of the structures.1 The aspect of a beam of chestnut affected by several ring shakes (from Macchioni and Mannucci.10.Building Rehabilitation Fig.3 The evidence of localized water penetration over time in timber structures page 203 .10. from complexes to single members. fig.2 Inside view of the roof structure: lateral view of one of the outermost trusses (all the ties are concealed by a service wooden floor supported by the ties located all over the roof base) [10.1] Fig. Fig.10.10. 1999) [10.2. show manifestations which are peculiar to the hierarchic level and to the configuration.

10. the rotation of the rafter-ends on the bearings. the sliding of the rafter along the chord.za/problems. that means depression of the ridge and of the joists. when the collar-ties are missing or not in the right position.roofcare.4. even bigger than that of the chord./houseproject/overview) page 204 .4 The trusses typical failure manifestations: cracks in the members with sliding ABLE-ROOFCARE Co. the disconnection of the joints (especially those rafter-chord). the sagging of the chord combined with its sliding along the masonry seat and rotation.Rehabilitation of timber structures Symptoms of bad conditions are the sinking of the top and the slopes of the roof. fig. In the frames and the trusses typical failure manifestations are the loss of planarity and verticality (rotation on the horizontal axe passing trough the bearings). the loss of strength at the heads of the connections caused by rottenness when wood is encased into the masonry or cups. fig. the cracks in the more advanced phases of the degradation. with consequent rotation of the rafter in the vertical plane and deviation of joists and small joists.html Fig... what means that rain water enters under the coating of the roof and in the walls: the probable affection of the timber carpentry by biotic attacks is to be detected looking for the presence of spots. http://www.10.10.5 Timber-framing: posts and beams are too rotten to repair (http://www.com/.co.3.thisoldhouse.10. of the gutters etc. the disorder of the coating. Fig.

working. some ruptures of the wood members. where bending is inverted. often botanic species too. In the light vaults. fig. figure.7. some breakings at the extrados of the boards may occur.10. is also ease damaged by extra loads or modification of roof coverings. fig. is caused by the small section of the centrings and the high number of joints with progressive loosening. Addition and replacement timbers are recognizable by differences in colour. a popular late medieval form for the open hall. quality. made with lathing kept in the desired shape by ribs of packaged boards.10. size. usually of mature wood obtained by old trees. can be affected by “brittle heart” and undergo “size effect” cracks. visco-elastic deformations can have occurred. In these cases the investigation must be enlarged to include also the iron fittings and the other elements of connection to the ancient members and the results are to be put in the general frame page 205 . In very ancient structures. Fig.6.Building Rehabilitation Symptoms of failure of the structure are the loss of elasticity of the whole unit. fig.6 Typical rot damage with consequent building settlement and ineffectual repairs attempted over the years (photo shows Marlowe Restorations) Beams of large and very large section.10.10. Besides. The arch-braced roof.5. the deformation of the principal and secondary members which can be caused by insufficient dimensions in relation not only to the loads acting but also to the span or the bay. at the side sections of the centrings. the sinking of some parts. depressions at the key along with longitudinal cracks are rather frequent and are the effect of the deformability of the board centrings which.

7 Timber arch-braced roof http://www.uk/ The decay of the materials is. is given by the information they can supply on the past behaviour and failures of the structure. the evident loss of strength to compression. the change to pink or to grey in the softwoods.5. are the signs also. perceptible as it happens for the attacks by beetles. the silvering which is usually the result of exposition to UV radiations. connected by means of traditional joining or repairing techniques. fig.10. in general. Manifestations of fungal attacks are the changes in colour. original strength may seldom be fully recovered. the change to brown combined with the formation of “cubes” on the surface of the wood. Appearance and authenticity of original material are lost. the presence of white mycelium in the shape of felts of fluffy filaments etc.Rehabilitation of timber structures for appropriate. Only traditional methods and material are used.10. The fibrous appearance of the wood.5.8. However. the white colour is due to the taking away of all the components of the wood included the lignin). Their importance. Fig. detection is made possible by the presence of emergence holes and of the bore dust or by the special noise made by some insects. the presence of lachrymal drops. page 206 .lookingatbuildings. in general. as the whitening (white rot. TIMBER STRUCTURE REPAIR AND STRENGTHENING METHODS 10.1 Repair by means of traditional joints Decayed or badly damaged segments may be replaced by new parts made of solid wood. 10.org. extensive interpretation.

10. c. splice joint covered by bolted steel plates. e. e. In fig.uk/): a new pre-treated softwood page 207 .timber-repair. nailed spliced bevelled joint. d. d. shear reinforcement with nails or steel clamps 10. Fig. bolted end joint with steel channel.5. c. f.8 Replacement of inefficient segments of original members by means of traditional joints [3]: a. reinforcement with nails or steel clamps. splice joint covered by bolted wooden plates. b. b.2 Repair by gluing new parts Decayed or badly damaged segments (often beam ends) may be replaced by newly added parts usually connected by glued rods made of steel or fibreglass.10.9 are presented some procedures developed by companies which are using these techniques (http://www.co. f.Building Rehabilitation a.

is attached to the end of the damaged piece via slots.2 II III IV I Technological procedure no. Principally. II – Slot cut from floor joist.Rehabilitation of timber structures piece. which are filled with the epoxy grout in different manners. I Technological procedure no. in the case of timber joist ends affected by rot.3 II III IV page 208 .1 II III IV I Technological procedure no. being finally aligned.Epoxy pouring grout used to fill the slot. the procedure steps are: • • • • I – Floor joist ends affected by rot. with the “connectors” factory fitted. III – Timber-Resin Splice unit fitted with face sealant in place. before or after the end was cut off. IV . and being cleaned out with an auger.

This method improve the strength structure by prevent de turnbuckles.10.timber-repair. a patented technology for timber repairing (http://www.10. the modified structure requires verifications and the execution must be realised under the designer co-ordination.co. excessive deflections or to adjust the tension.4 III II IV I Technological procedure no.3 Repairing by using tie-rods Steel cable or rods may be used in order to strengthening or stiffening timber individual members or trusses. In this case special attention must be accorded to the structural conception which may be different. Therefore.10.uk/) 10. page 209 .Building Rehabilitation I Technological procedure no.9 – Timber Resin Splice.5 II III IV I Technological procedure no.6 II III IV Fig.5. fig.

a. Fig. b. Structural conception is altered. b.10 Tie-rods replacing: a.Rehabilitation of timber structures 10.11. The decayed beam end is cut and replaced by additional load-bearing member (side steel truss or timber member). fig. this may also result in reducing the span of the beams. replacement with side metal truss page 210 . Fig. timber beam strengthening using tie-rods [7]. timber truss with tie-rod a.10.5.4 Repairing by changing the wood beam ends Decayed beam ends are moved to locations where timber is sound.11 The replacements of inefficient timber beam ends: a.10. b. Appearance and authenticity are partially lost. replacement with wood pieces. b.10.

Netherlands. Design-Details and Structural Systems.. should be considered a major threat to the conservation of timber structures.Inspection techniques for ancient wooden structures: state of the art and research needs.icomos. Mannucci M. Choo B. .. Asachi”. Guimarães.). et all. Oschi M.EUROCODE 5 : Timber Engineering-Step 2. Iasi. 10. 2nd International Congress on "Science and technology for the safeguard of cultural heritage in the mediterranean basin".. Lourenço. – Solutii de consolidare a constructiilor avariate de cutremure. P. Zanuttini R.6 MAINTENANCE AND CONSERVATION MEASURES Maintenance work should always carry out with a view to the continued conservation of the structure..3 Blass H.net/article/wcndt00/papers/idn.Acquaintance of the ancient timber structures in Historical Constructions. . 161. Macchioni N. Editura Tehnica. Paris 5-9 July 1999..Non-destructive evaluation of ancient wooden structures. Ed. including those which have undergone recent or earlier repair work. 10. Rome 17-19 May 1999.. Mannucci M. editors . 6th International Conference on "Non Destructive Testing and Mycroanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of Cultural and Environmental Heritage" (ART'99). in its forms and origins.5 Macchioni N. Roca (Eds.. 2155-2165. http://www. Mannucci M. Moisture.B. 1995. 1997.8 Isopescu Dorina – Timber Structures. Documentation Centres UNESCO-ICOMOS – Principles for the preservation of Historic Timber Structures (1999). page 211 . Centrum Hout. Voiculescu M.4 Lauriola M. 10.J. Bucuresti. P.. BIBLIOGRAPHY 10. . 10... The action of potential deterioration agents should be anticipated and prevented [10. http://www. 10. Aune P. 10.6 Macchioni N. “Gh.Building Rehabilitation 10.S.org/ 10. Ionascu M.3]. 117.ndt. 2001. 2002.international.. Special case should be taken to ensure the proper execution of recommended repair or prevention works. .2 International Council and Monuments and Sites.7 Arsenie G.1 Tampone G.A reliable inspection procedure of existing timber structures: the case of Guarini's Towers roofs Racconigi Castle (Italy).

.10% through the basement floor toward the ground. There must be a direct connection between the thermal insulation qualities of building elements and energy consumption for heating in order to achieve thermal comfort in rooms [11. the size and thermal insulation qualities of different component zones..25% through windows. This repartition depends on the form. [11.. the surface and structure of the envelope. dependent on their insulating capacity.2]: • a lower thermal insulation capacity of closure elements requires higher thermal energy consumption in exploitation to maintain the hygrothermal page 212 .. 20.. the number of storeys.. heat losses towards the exterior in winter are released in the following proportions: • • • • • 40. as well as of the weight of the attached energy of these ways in the overall heat loss.1]..50% by air exchange between the rooms and the exterior. structure and plane sizes of building. The application of efficient solutions to limit heat loss during the exploitation of buildings requires knowledge of heat transfer ways from rooms towards the outside during cold seasons .. as well as on the intensity of air exchange between rooms and environment..25% through the opaque zones of external walls. skylights and external doors. In the case of ordinary buildings.. 5. 5.1 GENERAL ASPECTS In order to ensure the best temperature values inside the buildings in cold periods thermal energy is required to compensate for the heat loss through the closure elements.10% through the roofing structure.11 HYGROTHERMAL REHABILITATION OF BUILDINGS 11. 10.

This is what is called thermal rehabilitation. Old buildings. the less energy reserves available for various reasons. freeze-thaw phenomenon etc. These problems may be solved by applying some adequate technical actions. as well as by the effect of the connection between the physical factors that characterize the interior of rooms and comfort. In the case of old buildings. a radical technical intervention which must take into account all the ways in which the building loses heat. the more insulation qualities of envelope may be diminished. Simultaneously with heat loss diminution it is important to have in view some measures to fight the negative effects due to page 213 .) as well as of improper exploitation conditions. the heating system having the dominant role. which suffered a diminution of thermal insulation qualities of external protection elements during exploitation. The option for one or the other of the two variants is first determined by economical. In the case of new buildings. the assurance of thermal comfort in rooms using reduced energy consumption can be achieved quite easily by means of a correct design. the more decrease in heat loss is required by ensuring higher thermal insulation qualities of external closure elements. as early as the initial design phases. there is also the problem of the low efficiency of their physically and morally worn out heating systems. inversely. based on technical prescriptions that stipulate high standardized values for the thermal protection of envelope components in order to provide them with an adequate level of thermal insulation . solar radiation. • the higher the energy reserves. or at least that of the main structural elements with inadequate thermal qualities. a higher thermal insulation degree of building envelope allows the obtainance of the same thermal effects with lower energy consumption. which are often unsuitable for modernization. inversely. the thermophysical degradations and depreciation of installations conveying the thermal agent determine excessively high heat losses on the route in cold weather. Besides that. energetical and environment protection reasons.Building Rehabilitation parameters of interior climate at the level of comfort values. are generally characterized by thermal insulation capacity below thermal comfort requirements. both toward exterior and interior unheated spaces. meant to increase the thermal insulation capacity of existing envelopes. along with the inherent subjectivity in estimating the microclimate conditions by various categories of people. because of cumulated cyclical action of some environmental factors (high temperature and moisture variations.

That leads to the hygrothermal rehabilitation of old buildings. [11. highly qualified labour. Even though the opaque closure elements may be ensured high performances of thermal resistance. However. the diminution of excessive air change. If the interventions to improve the thermal insulation are not applied to the entire envelope of the building. as regards the way of air exchange it is necessary to limit the air flow decrease for hygiene and sanitary reasons. Consequently.2]. that is the rationalization of air exchange between the rooms and the exterior to ensure normal hygiene and sanitary conditions. long execution duration as well as a page 214 .g. Thus. The overall thermo-physical rehabilitation presupposes high consumption of efficient materials. it is necessary to approach and treat all the ways the building loses heat in winter very seriously. the improvement of natural lighting etc. From a hygrothermal point of view this means a minimum flow of energy losses required.3]. ventilation rehabilitation can also be mentioned. even if a first analysis points that some areas on the envelope are less involved in thermal exchange with the environment than others. and require some specific interventions in order to ensure the overall comfort and hygiene conditions in the existing buildings. If there are also other physical aspect which may be solved along with the interventions for supplementary thermal protection (e. which are thermally less effective and thus considered to be more important. in favour of the hygrothermally untreated or insufficiently treated ways. if the heat lost through the closure elements is low. they must be accepted up to the level corresponding to the minimum hygiene and health requirements. mainly condensation. who thus become preferential ways for thermal transmission. the partial rehabilitation results in the change of the repartition of heat losses through the component zones of the closure elements and through the air exchange between rooms and the exterior. and the least possible heat losses from rooms in cold periods [11. if the thermal qualities of closure elements can be improved up to very high performance levels to diminish heat transmission. the amount of heat losses due to air exchange increases. Besides the thermal component of hygrothermal rehabilitation. Consequently. the notion of thermophysical rehabilitation can be defined. which must be accepted unconditionally.). the increase in insulation performances of some component zones (like glazed elements) is limited. These limitations are determined by their functional role as well as by the thermal qualities of materials utilized.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings vapour diffusion trough closure elements.

the decrease in thermal insulation qualities of component materials. as well as of some microclimatic factors in the rooms. page 215 . Therefore. the thermal aspect will be further dealt with in detail. infiltration of rainfall water. the elements making the building envelope. and influences other sides of hygrothermal behaviour as well as the energy consumption during exploitation. it is recommended that the buildings whose exploitation is absolutely necessary should take priority over the others. or at least to the most important ones is very difficult to carry out in unfavourable economic conditions. These actions determine the diminution of thermal characteristics of the component materials in time and implicitly of the thermal insulation degree of elements.2 THE NEED FOR THERMO-PHYSICAL REHABILITATION After a certain exploitation period. the increase in exigencies level concerning the hygrothermal comfort. the hygrothermal rehabilitation of some elements making the envelope of the buildings with thermal comfort problems in cold periods may become necessary due to: i. are subjected to the cyclic action of environmental factors.1 The decrease in thermal insulation qualities of materials During exploitation. 11. 11.In this case. The climatic factors that determine the degradation of materials in time are: • • • temperature variations. iii. the modernization of some existing buildings. Temperature represents the main stimulant for the thermal regulator system of the human body. Another rational thermal rehabilitation manner of a great number of buildings is to phase the works on categories of envelope elements in order of degradation condition and their importance within the assemblyso that the building could continue to be exploited in adequate conditions. ii. recurrent frost-thaw.2.Building Rehabilitation considerable financial effort. the increase in exigencies concerning the thermal insulation degree. iv. particularly the exterior walls and the roofs. That is why such an action performed on a large scale to all hygrothermally damaged buildings.

certain acids. the level of exigencies concerning the hygrothermal comfort in rooms may increase. the carbonic acid and the nitric acid. In addition to these climatic factors. the dynamic loading of exploitation. as well as page 216 .2.3 The increase in exigencies concerning the thermal insulation degree The increase in exigencies concerning the thermal insulation of the elements of the envelope has become necessary as a result of the world energetic crisis. which can settle the materials. The water accumulated in materials determines the increase in their thermal conductivity .Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings • solar radiations. Degradation may also be caused by some interior microclimatic factors like the condensation of exfiltrated water vapors through the exterior building elements in cold periods. increasing the thermal insulation qualities of the closure elements. or sometimes because of some changes occurred in the destination or functional requirements of the building.2. In order to satisfy the increased requirements of hygrothermal comfort. which are formed from some pollutant substances in combination with water vapors in the air also have destructive chemical effects. such as sulfuric acid.2 The increase in exigencies concerning the hygrothermal comfort After a certain period of exploitation. 11. 11. which combined with the low temperatures gradually leads to the depreciation of materials with capillary-porous structure. Other less important factors determining the diminution of the qualities of thermal insulation are: • • • the vibrations during the earthquakes and those caused by the wind. due to the repeated frost-thaw phenomenon.The only viable solution remains the hygrothermal rehabilitation by technical measures meant to improve the thermal insulation qualities of the building elements forming the envelope. two types of interventions meant to reach the optimal values for the physical parameters of the microclimate in rooms may be applied: • • supplementary energy input necessary for heating the rooms. At present the increase in energy consumption to heat the rooms in buildings is not possible on a large scale. which damage some organic insulation materials. the action of rodents and microorganisms.

Building Rehabilitation of the recent preoccupations to reduce the air pollution caused by classic fuel burning. This orientation will further result in the execution of new buildings with low energy consumption in exploitation and the appliance of thermal rehabilitation measures to the old buildings.. which will ensure the diminution of heat losses up to an acceptable level. lightweight concrete etc. some increased standardized values of thermal insulation may be foreseen for Romania as well. the tendency to rationalize the energy consumption requires that the closure elements of buildings should be apparently thermally oversized.. Therefore. The low level of thermal insulation of the closure elements determines extremely high energy consumption for heating the rooms as well as considerable decrease in hygrothermal comfort inside rooms in cold periods.). as they allow excessive heat losses.3 m2 K/W – for the opaque parts of exterior walls and • 3.2. values like 3-4 m2K/W for thermal resistance are very frequent.5.4 The modernization of some existing buildings The necessity to modernize some existing older buildings. These types of walls are thermally inadequate nowadays. may also constitute an opportunity for the application of page 217 . 11.. with an insulating core made of less thermally efficient water-sensitive materials (cellular concrete. most buildings in exploitation were built betwwen 1960 and 1980. In Romania. made of reinforced concrete ribs. The closure elements of these buildings had very low values of standardized thermal resistance. In the advanced countries..5 m2 K/W – for flat-roofs. values that are 2. The current wall systems applied to these buildings contain large prefabs panels or monolith reinforced concrete diaphragms. For these elements. that is up to: • 2. satisfying the requirements of thermal comfort as well.3 times higher than the current standardized values.. whose adoption was based on economic criteria that seem completely irrational nowadays.5. with extended networks of thermal bridges. which proved to be rational and efficient.. The tendency towards increasing the comfort level by consuming the lowest amount of energy possible will certainly determine the alignment to the practice of the developed countries. mineral wool. which are economically unacceptable. determined by various reasons mentioned below.

improvement works should be performed on structural elements and installations. In these cases.. particularly those that have been exploited for a log time. whch have been rehabilitated for other reasons. with minimal specific interventions. even if at a certain point the financial effort seems difficult to accept. meaning numerous other technical operations besides finishing works. as it generally includes only the cost of the thermal insulation. The general thermal rehabilitation works on the existing older buildings are usually time-consuming and expensive. If required. as well as alterations occasioned by repairs. Numerous buildings. which have affected their mechanical strength and insulation capacity. restoration works etc. they may also physically and mechanically protect other closure elements. corresponding to new exigencies or functions. For the same reasons it seems rational to combine the thermo-physical rehabilitation with other rehabilitation works. floor addition. Therefore. some older buildings may require aesthetic rehabilitation works.. functional reasons may determine the need for new division and distribution of rooms. particularly on those that will to be concealed by thermo-physical rehabilitation works. they may coincide to a large extent with the works destined to improve the aesthetic aspect of the building. extension etc. functional. installation rehabilitation etc. page 218 . have suffered from the negative effects of some earthquakes. architectural. In order to ensure the harmonious framing within a modern building assembly. the increase in overall cost due to the supplementary rehabilitation works is reasonable.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings some thermal rehabilitation measures. it is necessary that along with the thermo-physical rehabilitation general technical revisions should be carried out. some environmental and inner microclimatic factors. they should be preceded by a minute technical and economical analysis. such as mechanical. except in some special situations. • • • Normally. At the same time. the suitability of hygrothermal rehabilitation works on the closure elements of the existing buildings is also sustained by the following reasons: • the structural and auxiliary works required are not different from those corresponding to the main objective. maintenance.

but always pursuing to decrease heat losses and preserve thermal energy inside the rooms. c. In order to apply the hygrothermal rehabilitation solutions to the existing buildings. thermal rehabilitation may be performed according to other principles as well. Fig.1 The principle of thermal rehabilitation using supplementary insulation layers a.3 THE PRINCIPLE OF HYGROTHERMAL REHABILITATION BY INCREASING THE INSULATION CAPACITY The general principle of thermal rehabilitation measures applied to the closure elements of buildings [11.Building Rehabilitation 11. corresponding to the envisaged standardized performance exigencies. c. protection and decoration elements etc. compact flat-roof For the envelope areas that have a special structure. by applying addtional thermally insulating layers made of highly hygrothermally efficient and durable materials. a. such as the glazed portions. depending on the extent of the envisaged rehabilitation action. page 219 . the zones with untight joints etc. b.11. fig. which have become inadequate in time. b.. masonry wall. the following aspects should be taken into account: • constructive particularities of the analyzed building: framed structure. as well as of finishing.4] consists of increasing their thermal resistance. These solutions can be applied either as part of a general rehabilitation.1.11. sandwich wall made of concrete and thermal insulation. the structure of closure and separation elements. or independently..

• • • The application of the general thermal rehabilitation principle presented above to various closure elements forming the envelope of a building brings about some solutions for several categories of elements. 11.a Rehabilitation on the inner face The application of new insulation layer on the inner face of the wall is recommended for buildings like hostels. 11. typical climatic conditions of the area: air temperature and temperature differences. functional and maintenance aspects. fig. exploitation and maintenance manner.. solar radiation. mechanic. hygrothermal conditions etc. Dwellings of shear walls (monolith concrete walls) were rehabilitated in Iasi and Bacau. and of efficient masonry walls in Botosani and Suceava. the conditions of exploitation. page 220 . life styles. specific to the building: the number of occupants. The new thermal layer may be applied on any side of the wall. economic. The choice of best way to apply thermal insulation is determined by hygrothermal. The application of thermal insulation on the external face is the most frequently chosen variant due to some advantages compared to other variants.. In Romania. fixed by soldering with adhesive or/and mechanical fastening and properly protected or finished against physical and mechanical actions during exploitation. having the same thermal effect. the preponderant age category.1. economic and social factors. which are not exploited for long periods of time. technological.3. hotels and schools. technical.1 Rehabilitation in the opaque zones of external walls The thermal improvement of the opaque zones of external walls should be performed by attaching an additional thermally insulating layer.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings • specific conditions of the area: the likely seismic action. wind intensity and other dynamic actions.11. technological.3. rehabilitation on inside face was applied in the 1970s and 1980s with remarkable thermal effects for some dwellings made of prefab concrete panels situated in the towns of Baia Mare and Cluj. air movement etc.2. as well as for small buildings or those that are being only partially rehabilitated. which will be discussed below. aesthetic.

on outside face.3. However. iii. c. this solution also has some secondary effects. c. additional thermal insulation made of expanded polystyrene plates. 11. mainly moisture and mould stains caused by condensation on the edges of the additional thermal insulation system. as well as the sensitivity of the expanded polystyrene to shocks.b Rehabilitation on the exterior face The application of the supplementary thermal insulation on the exterior face of page 221 .2 Application of an additional thermally insulating layer to rehabilitate the opaque zones of exterior walls a. on both faces The solutions adopted for the rehabilitation works consisted of: i. covered with water vapour barrier made of bituminous cardboard then protected by mortar plaster reinforced with wire net.1. b. b. Fig. fixed on the wall surface by melted bitumen.11. a thermally insulating layer made of expanded polystyrene plates. limiting its use to isolated cases. a simple plaster layer made of mortar with polystyrene or other light granules. on inside face.Building Rehabilitation a. These negative effects have diminished the interest in this variant. ii. stucked with adequate glue paste directly on the inner face of the wall and finished with vapourproof tapestry.

11. closed between the glass panes.3. thus doubling the thermal insulation page 222 .c Rehabilitation on both surfaces The application of the supplementary thermally insulating layer on both surfaces of the walls..a Thermal rehabilitation of transparent zones The thermal improvement of the transparent zones of exterior walls is absolutely necessary as part of the general rehabilitation of a building.2. is the most preferred solution due to its significant hygrothermal. on the existing window frames or on supplementary frames..11. as thickening the glass panes on the existing frames does not produce a significant thermal effect. characterized by monotonous façades and large surfaces. hospitals. fig. which. In this case technical. technological and social advantages. For ordinary windows. since a great amount of heat is lost through these zones (about 25%).1. Although the thermal resistance of the glazed zone increases by at least 40% for only one additional air layer. It is suitable mainly for blocks of flats. institutions with offices. 11. Another case would be when thermal insulation has already been applied to one side.2.. as well as by reducing the intensity of air exchange through the untight joints of joinery [11. polyethylene etc on the existing jambs. which prevents maintenance.11.2 Rehabilitation in the glazed portions of the exterior walls Thermal transmission in the glazed zones of the exterior walls may be diminished by decreasing the direct heat transmission corresponding to the transparent portions and the opaque elements.3.5 cm). fig.3.c.2. An advantageous variant from the economic and technical viewpoint in winter time only is obtained by sticking or mechanically fastening thin transparent sheets made of cellophane. economic and protection reasons make the application of insulation on one side of the wall seem unreasonable. The possibilities of improving the hygrothermal performances of external glazed joinery are still limited and relatively reduced compared to the opaque zones of walls due to their functional and structural particularity. hostels etc. together with the window panes. the application of thermal rehabilitation by using more supplementary window panes is limited because of both increase in window weight and the difficult access between the glasses.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings exterior walls. the best results can be obtained by increasing the number of thin air layers (1. entrap some air spaces.6].b. 11. may be a good solution when the additional thermal resistance needed requires thick thermal insulation.

3. As the joinery of older buildings often presents degradations and deformations caused by the utilization manner. with intense and frequent unfavourable effects on the last floor. the thermal rehabilitation of a building must also include technical measures meant to decrease the air exchange through the leakness of the windows. 11. enabling the normal maintenance of the glass panes. The solution is more expensive but it is necessary if the old structure is very damaged or permits the accumulation of water produced by condensation or infiltrations. slats. In warm periods. page 223 .3. which must also contain a thermally insulating layer.b The thermal rehabilitation of frames The thermal rehabilitation of frames is more difficult to do to ordinary windows. replacing some components. fittings of adhesive bands made of expanded plastic materials or thick textile materials and fixed in the profiles of the jambs.Building Rehabilitation capacity of ordinary windows. Therefore. as well as by environmental factors. which is usually bigger than hygiene conditions require because of the degradations of the tightening systems and the wear of the closure systems.3 Flat-roof rehabilitation Most buildings requiring thermo-physical rehabilitation works are equipped with compact flat-roofs. whose dimensions are established in accordance with the thermal protection requirements.a Flat-roofs rehabilitation by thorough replacement This rehabilitation consists of replacing the entire structure on the last floor with a new structure. neopren or other elastic materials etc. The existing joinery needs overhauling to remedy the deformed or degraded elements.3]. 11. 11.3. It is also possible to apply some tightening systems without the risk of air exchange diminution below the limit imposed by hygiene requirements.3. which have thermal insulation and bituminous waterproof covering [11. They are repaired by: completion wits wood slates. their rehabilitation must also take into account the decrease in air exchange through joints. the transparent sheets can be removed or rolled. the thermal rehabilitation of these components would consist of attaching the thermal insulation material. Such systems might be covering slats on the joints. completing or replacing the affected tightening systems (putty cordons. partly because of economic reasons. The interventions for rehabilitating these solutions can be applied only to their upper part. special fittings made of rubber.2. and the effects that could be obtained by applying some technical solutions are reduced and are not really worth the effort. Theoretically. fixing systems and devices) etc.

well protected against various factors.3. a light roof truss and a continuous covering or one made of plates. This type of rehabilitation also requires the verification of the load bearing capacity of the last storey.4 Rehabilitation of floor over basement The floor over basement of most buildings erected between 1960 and 1980. particularly the condensation risk within the structure and the negative effects of microclimatic factors due to the efficient evacuation of water vapours. which thus becomes a supplementary water vapour barrier. lightweight concrete or semirigid mineral wool plates and even granular materials (placed below the floor layers). This allows high heat losses from the rooms on the ground floor towards the unheated spaces in the basement and hence to the soil or outwards. that is it does not produce water accumulations over the evacuation capacity or thermal insulation moistening over the admissible values. especially those of blocks of flats.3. the thermal improvement may also be done by using average quality thermally insulating materials. the exterior basement walls of the existing buildings are not endowed with thermal insulation.5 Rehabilitation of basement walls Like the basement floor. 11. 11. This variant of rehabilitation excludes all the shortcommings of compact flat-roofs.3. is not equipped with thermal insulation. As the air temperature in the basement spaces is decisive for the heat losses from the rooms situated on the ground floor.c Rehabilitation of roofs using roof trusses The solution consists of making a small classic roof.3. This rehabilitation alternative is advisable when the qualities of the materials included in the existing roof are well preserved and condensation is slow. with a low garret.3. it seems page 224 . Since heat losses through the basement floor are far lower than through walls or the roof. applied directly on the existing waterproof system of the roof. previously improved thermally with a supplementary insulating layer.3. The verification of the load bearing capacity of the last floor is necessary in this case as well.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings 11.b Flat roof rehabilitation by using additional layers The rehabilitation solution consists of keeping the entire structure and increasing the thermal resistance of the roof using a supplementary thermally insulating layer. 11. such as plates of foamed concrete.

b.11. b. it is essential to choose the right thermal insulation materials. with rigid thermal insulation resistant to specific actions and properly protected. A more economical and hygrothermally rational variant is to treat the exterior basement floor only on the zone situated over the ground. an important disadvantage is the risk of condensation under the additional thermally insulating layer. fig. 11. fig.4 THERMAL INSULATION MATERIALS FOR THE THERMOPHYSICAL REHABILITATION OF BUILDINGS In order to perform efficient and durable hygrothermal rehabilitation works.11. at least on the colder zone of the wall over the ground.11. which determines a high cost of work.Building Rehabilitation obvious that the aim is to ensure that the heat transmission through the closure elements of the basement is as low as possible by thermally insulating them as efficiently as possible.3 Thermal rehabilitation of floor over basement a. a. Fig.a. Applying a vapourproof protection on the inner side of the thermal insulation the works would become even more expensive without obtaining a significant hygrothermal effect.4. with thermally insulating layer below the floor layers A radical solution for rehabilitating the basement walls thermally and physically is thermal insulation of the entire inside surface with adequate plates made of insulating material. using thermally insulating layer below the concrete floor. In addition to the high material consumption.4. taking into account some special conditions and requirements concerning: page 225 . b.

technical and economic analysis specific to works performed long after the execution of the building and in different conditions. from outside. c. good behaviour to recurrent freeze-thaw. the optimal thickness required for the insulation layers. from inside. Fig. to provide high durability. to make the necessary hygrothermal protection systems as simple and light as possible. b. thermal conductivity λ should be as low as possible so that the additional thermally insulating layers would be as thin as possible. d. the possibility of safe fastening on the existing structure.11. the finishing and protection systems of the additional thermal insulation. thus becoming advantageous from both mechanical. b. on the portion over ground • • • • the thermo-physical qualities and their preservation in time. technical weight should also be as low as possible. low sensitivity to water action. The choice of materials for thermal rehabilitation works must be preceded by a qualitative. The thermal rehabilitation of basement walls a. The main exigencies that should be taken into account when choosing the materials necessary for the thermal rehabilitation works are presented below: a. b.4. It is advisable to use closed pore materials or with low water permeability. such page 226 .Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings a. technical and economic viewpoint. so that the load added to the structure by the additional layers would be as small as possible.

At the same time it is important to know that the inexpensive solutions often bring about important subsequent expenses. f. rompan. foam glass.1]. good resistance to fire. Since thermal rehabilitation works are performed after long time periods and are quite expensive. the real values of the overall thermal resistance of the elements to be rehabilitated (R0. g. temperature variations. by the protection and finishing systems or the wind (the case of exterior walls). particularly dwellings. azbopan. as well as some casual mechanical impacts (the case of the socle) without high deformations. asbestos-cement plates. settlements etc.ef). h. page 227 . polyalpan). or the compound structures with high tightness to water and vapour like: • • • e. These calculations will be made having in view the following parameters: i. meaning very low linear thermal dilatation coefficients (α) to avoid the deformation of the protective elements with negative effects on tightness. PVC foam etc. due to moisture. low sensitivity to temperature variations. high strength and stiffness to bear the loads brought by other layers (the case of flat-roofs). plastic plates (veral. which are calculated by taking into account the diminution of the thermal qualities of the component materials in time. assuming steady conditions. without releasing noxious substances and without high deformations to affect their thermo-physical qualities. the economic aspect would come second when choosing the best materials and solutions. stability and aesthetics of rehabilitation systems. The necessary thickness of the additional thermally insulating layer will be established by hygrothermal calculus. as they require more frequent repair and maintainance works later. convenient cost in accordance with the financial possibilities of the users of old buildings.Building Rehabilitation as: • • • expanded polystyrene. plates with metal sheet faces. the importance and the position of the closure elements to be improved thermally [11.5]. taking into account the role. tbal. [11.

if its rigidity/stiffness and the condition of the surface are adequate. prepared beforehand with a view to ensure the adherence. • 11.5 TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS FOR REHABILITATION OF BUILDINGS THE THERMO-PHYSICAL 11. As a rule.) directly on the inner surface of the existing wall. which may have other functions as well (the solution can be applied especially to the exterior walls of buildings with imperfections and/or which are subjected to various hygrothermal and mechanical actions in time. the stipulated level (Rn) of the overall thermal resistance of elements after the application of the rehabilitation solution. by sticking the additional thermally insulating layers with bitumen or adhesive paste and ensuring them with stainless wire.a Exterior wall – opaque zone If the supplementary thermally insulating layer is applied to the inner surface of the wall. economic and environment protection conditions. the following variants may be regarded: • by sticking the thermally insulating layers made of light efficient materials (polystyrene.2]. by fixing on an intermediate structure with supporting role.4]: • • • • • • the type of thermal insulation material utilised.5.5. may be achieved in various ways. imposed by comfort. fixed on steel bolts page 228 • .1 The application of additional thermal insulation The application of supplementary thermal insulation.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings ii. necessary to correct the insulation deficiency. the position of the surface of the element (horizontal or vertical). polyurethane. gypsum-aracet or highly adhesive mortar. the condition of the elements. e.1.g. mineral wool etc. the exposure of the surface to be treated with insulation (inner or outer). the supplementary thermal insulation for rehabilitation may be applied in two ways: • by sticking directly to the surface of the treated element. energy. by means of adhesive paste. the level of the surface finishing economic reasons etc. 11. depending on [11. [11.

If the supplementary thermally insulating layer is applied to the outer surface of the wall. • by fixing on a wooden slates net. page 229 . this solution permits the access between the panes of glass for maintenance. due to the very reduced slope of the surfaces that will be treated with supplementary thermal insulation (p < 8%) there is no need for special fixing measures. or various types of plates. fixed with nails and putty or with triangular wooden slats. where the anchorage of the insulation layer and its protective system with metallic connectors is also recommended by mechanical fixing of supplementary thermally insulating layer with metallic elements. it is better to use new frames. and the air space between the thermal insulation and the wall allows vapour migration and their release inside the room.cement:aracet:sand). thus enabling the drying.1. the finishing may be reinforced plaster on steel net.5:1.5 . bolts. or other adhesive pastes resistant to the actions of environmental factors.1. fixed on the same bolts.c The flat-roof Whether rehabilitation includes or not the complete or partial restoration of roof structure. which prevents the risk of water accumulation due to condensation.5. being practically a supplementary new window. attached to the wall by metal systems (clips. • 11. fixing may also be done by sticking or mechanical attachment. screws). Therefore. which usually sustain the protection system of the insulation layer as well. • For the rehabilitation of glazed zones with special window-panes having high thermal insulation qualities (like the termopan). in the following ways: • sticking the insulation layer by means of a paste of adhesive mortar (1:0.Building Rehabilitation introduced in the wall beforehand. 11. by using some wooden spacers. on their own new frame.b The exterior wall – glazing zone The supplementary glass panes necessary to make some closed unventilated air spaces with thermal insulation qualities may be fastened to the windows in the following way: • on the existing frames. the fastening on the existing frames would require expensive transformation works.5. attached to the existing jamb.

its stability is ensured by the weight of the layers above.11. In the case of thermal insulation made of blocks or heavier plates (light concrete etc. fig.6 mm steel bars net. if the flat-roof is completely or partially restored. fastening is done in accordance with the type and weight of the thermal insulation material.d The floor over the basement If the insulation layer is applied to the upper part of the floor.. stability being ensured by the weight of the floor layers.1. a linear foundation element is required at the base of the wall to uphold the page 230 . Thus the cover becomes a barrier against water vapours.5. adhesive mortar or other paste and ensured with metallic connectors on the wall.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings • if rehabilitation is performed by maintaining the existing structure.5. to efficiently evacuate the water vapour infiltrated up to the thermal insulation. together with the weight of the covering layer.).5 Thermal rehabilitation of basement floor 11. If the insulation layer is applied to the lower part of the floor. the thermally insulating plates are fixed by sticking with bitumen. One of the simplest rehabilitation solution consists of applying the thermal plates directly on the existing covering system by discontinous sticking. the sticking the supplementary thermally insulating plates on the support with melted bitumen.. by replacing the thermal insulation.11.5. 11. by sticking it with adhesive paste and/or by upholding it with φ5. fixing consists of plain laying. at least every one m2. which is hung on the floor by stainless steel wire connected to metallic bolts fixed beforehand in the concrete floor. provide good fixing.1. • In all these cases it is recommended to use vapour evacuation devices every 80…100 m2 of roof surface. Fig.e The basement exterior wall If placed on the outside face.

2 The protection of the supplementary thermally insulating layer The protection systems of supplementary thermal insulation are different. fixed on the wall with stainless steel wire and connectors.11.2. This kind of finishing is very suitable in the case of additional thermal insulation made of expanded polystyrene plates. fig.a Exterior walls In the case of supplementary thermal insulation on the inner face of the wall. depending on the element that will be rehabilitated. Theoretically.a.5. or plastics sheets. fig. applied by sticking with adhesive directly on the surface of supplementary thermally insulating plates. its surface position and the insulation type and structure.7.. without holes and with well tighten joints.c. This variant allows the prefabrication of the insulation-protection-finishing ensemble.11. They are fixed on the thermal insulation by sticking and ensured with mechanical devices.5.11. fig. washable tapestry with synthetic support. 11.b. the following solutions may be applied: • reinforced plaster on steel net bars.6. just like for the exterior walls. lacquering.Building Rehabilitation weight of thermal insulation as well as that of the protection and finishing system. fig. the supplementary insulation is achieved by fixing the insulation plates with adhesive paste and/or with local metallic connectors. the protection of the supplementary thermal insulation of vertical elements may be achieved in two ways: with plaster or with plates. From inside. whose surface is treated to act as a vapour barrier (by painting. • • If the supplementary thermal insulation is applied on the outer face of the exterior walls. with important advantages for the rehabilitation works. having high vapour tightness. the technical solutions for protecting the supplementary insulation layer may be the following: page 231 . which has been rectified beforehand with gypsum-aracet layer or other adhesive paste.7. To hinder water vapour infiltration in the rooms and to ensure the normal hygrothermal behaviour of the treated element it is absolutely necessary to have a vapour barrier made of bitumen cardboard or cloth.). 11. industrial wood etc.7. with tapestry etc. plates made of reinforced gypsum.11.

steel reinforcement. 2. fig. decreasing the risk of condensation inside the thermal insulation. 11. 1. with plaster.6 Solutions for the thermal rehabilitation of walls a.8. fig. 6.11.b The basement walls The protection of supplementary thermal insulation applied on any face of basement walls may be achieved in the following variants: • fixed on the wall like in the previous cases.6. made of cementfree paste. and fastened to the wall with stainless wire or connectors. and applicable to both inside face and exterior surface. treated industrial wood. collects the water vapour and efficiently throws it outside. 5. • • The air layer between plates and thermal insulation.2.5 cm) made of water-proof mortar.8. plastics. b.b.11..a and fig.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings Fig. 8. fig.. 3..6 mm). rigid plastics bars and metal profiles. very thin plaster (4.11.c. 9. which communicates with the exterior through the joints between plates or through air orifices. fixed on a sustaining net of wooden slates. page 232 . with plates. adhesive mortar. finishing layer. thin compound structures).5.. applied on a wire net support fixed on a steel bars net. protection plates. thin light plates (aluminium. asbestos. which resists to physical and chemical actions and reinforced with a thin net of glass or carbon fibre. 4. supplementary thermal insulation. exterior wall. clips for fixing the slates. clips for the plates • thick plaster (3. 7.11.8. slates.a.11.

– with lightweight plates 1. glass fiber. b. thin plaster. 5. slate net. wire anchor. 9. supplementary thermal insulation . supplementary thermal insulation. 3. steel bar net. – with plaster. 3. 10. 4’. 2’. 3’.8 The protection of thermal insulation applied on the outside face of the prefab concrete panels a. with thick plaster. steel bar net. plywood plates a. – with tapestry. existing structure. c. thin wire net.11.7 The protection of supplementary thermal insulation applied on the outer face of exterior walls a. 4. precast lightweight plate. tapestry. c. b. finishing system a. 6. slates. b. 2.Building Rehabilitation 1 2 1 2’ 10 1 2’ 3 2’ 1. Fig. thick plaster. c. 3 3 10 8 9 3 4 5 6 7 existing structure. 7. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3’ 4’ 1 2 5 6 2. b. 8. with thin plaster. c.11. 4. Fig. 5. 6. plaster. adhesive paste. with plates page 233 .

This solution may be applied on any face of the basement wall. if we take into account the succession of the layers if execution is correct and materials have proper qualities [11. protection masonry. thermal insulation.11. by ordinary bituminous water-proof insulation or using modern water-proof systems. existing wall.3 Modern hygrothermal rehabilitation systems for exterior walls At present there are numerous new thermal insulation materials as well as modern technologies. on the over ground area of the basement wall. [11. fixed on the exterior face. Fig. • 11.3]. b. c) • masonry layer made of clay bricks or other blocks with various aggregates (except for the cellular light concrete. page 234 .5. prefab concrete plates finished with mosaic. from outside (a. 6. which is water sensitive). metal connectors a.9 Protection solutions for the supplementary thermal insulation applied to basement walls: on the inside face (a.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings 1 2 1 2 4 3 5 6 6 6 1 2 1. 4. b. which are easy to apply and enable efficient rehabilitation works. 2. • 11.2. resistant to moisture and mechanical actions. 5. b). applied on cement mortar support. reinforced plaster concrete plates. disposed on lightweight structure. by means of metal anchors. c. which constitutes a low height roof.c The flat-roof The protection of the flat-roof hygrothermally rehabilitated with a supplementary thermally insulating layer does not raise any special technical problems.6] Two thermal insulation protection categories can generally be adopted: • classical protection.5. 3. covering system based on plane or corrugated sheets or plates made of varied materials.

11.b The ALUCOBOND system. without special finishing. Three of the most frequently used protection systems in several European countries will be presented below.a and fig. However. Protection by thick plaster is not usual but it has been applied and the variant with very thin plaster reinforced with thin carbon or glass fiber net is also used. This system is based on expanded polystyrene plates.8.5. Some of them have been applied experimentally in Romania as well. which ensure the fixing of the protective system usually at some distance from the thermal insulation to create a slightly ventilated air space. Most systems use a net made of wood.5 mm aluminium sheets glued on page 235 . since the initial execution of buildings has been based on high exigencies towards comfort requirements and the thermal insulation of closure elements.5. C-EL. exterior walls in particular. polyurethane etc.Building Rehabilitation In other countries.3. avoiding the humid processes and following the well known principle: supplementary thermal insulation attached to the wall and protected by plates or thin plaster.11.a The LOBA system (VS. M-EL. Rehabilitation works are usually performed on the exterior. is applied in Germany and France by the LOBA company.6. Mécanique) for thermal insulation on the façades of older buildings. attributed to the Swiss company ALUSUISSE. This is a good occasion to improve the thermal insulation performances of certain elements. whose thickness corresponds to insulation requirements. This solution consists of thermally insulating plates made of very efficient materials (polystyrene. aluminium) or plastics. with 3…4 mm mesh. there are also many situations necessitating the modernization of old buildings. This material consists of two 0. building rehabilitation is not an action of large proportions. 11. fig. protected against the alkalis. is different in the manner supplementary thermal insulation is achieved.3. having the French technical agreement.11. They are fixed on the outside surface of exterior masonry or concrete walls of the new or already existing buildings by means of an adhesive paste made of cement or polymeric resins. The protection of the thermal insulation consists of a thin cementfree paste with mineral components and synthetic binder or with cement and special polymeric additions. stuck directly to the exterior face of the wall and protected with plane or special panels made of a composite material called ALUCOBOND.).b. reinforced by a thin glass fiber net. metal profiles (steel.

1) ∑ (K ′ − K 0 .k may be established with the relations: E= l ⋅ Nt ⋅ r ∑ ⎛ 1 1 ⎜ − ⎜ R0 .Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings the faces of a 2…7 mm polyethylene core. ' ' R0 .c The POLYALPAN system.k and K 0 . page 236 . which also ensures the air space required to collect and eliminate the water vapour. The outer face can be treated in various manners and colours.two important advantages [11. having special profiles on the long vertical sides.a Energy savings due to thermal rehabilitation By applying some of the hygrothermal rehabilitation measures presented above (by supplementary insulation).k are the corresponding thermal resistances.k have increased to R0.95 r = 0. 11. heating by personal thermal installation. 11.4].k ⎝ 0 .k and R0 . r – the efficiency of heating installations. The annual net energy savings that can be obtained by improving the thermal insulation qualities of closure elements having the areas S k and whose initial ' average overall thermal resistances R0.k R ' 0 .85 – – heating by thermal station.k = 1 K 0 .3.4 The economic effects of hygrothermal rehabilitation of buildings 11.k = 1 K 0 . which are finished on both faces with aluminium sheets. are easily fixed with nails on a wooden slates net against the wall.5.the number of the degrees-hours for the locality the building is situated in. These panels.5. attributed to the German company with the same name differs from others in the protection of the thermally insulating layer applied on the wall by means of rigid polyurethane panels.k ⎞ ⎟⋅ Sk ⎟ ⎠ 1 E = ⋅ Nt ⋅ r where: (11. room climate parameters may rise to a satisfactory level of comfort and energy is saved . thus: r = 0.k ) ⋅ S k ′ K 0 . N t .5.k are the average thermal transfer coefficients of the distinct zones with different envelope structure before and after rehabilitation.4.

g. the average equivalent thermal page 237 ..Building Rehabilitation r = 0. for the thermal bridge zone ( S p ) and ( K p ).0 ) and ( R v . To evaluate energy savings. coal or methane gas heating. jamb) with the overall area ( S v . as well as from the sum of the opaque zones (frames. – the average thermal transfer coefficient on the entire wall may be calculated as: K p0 = or: R p0 = ∑ K . made of transparent zones with ( S v . R 0 .0. for the connection zones ( S i ) and ( K i ).85 – – electric heating. the thermal resistance ( Rv . having the thermal transfer coefficients ( K k ) – e. whose overall area is ( S v ).3) • for glazed zones.t ) area and thermal transfer coefficient ( K v .0 )respectively. whose overall surface area is ( S p 0 ) and which consist of distinct zones with ( S k ) areas.t ) respectively.65. for the current zones ( S c ) and ( K c ) etc.k ) may be selected in the following way: • for the opaque zone of exterior wall. wood. so that: Ep = 1 1 ⋅ ⋅E rd rc (11. the average hygrothermal characteristics of the component elements of envelope ( K k .2) The values of the outputs (rc) and (rd) are found by using the data in the technical literature or the information provided by the producers.Sk S p0 S p0 1 = Sk K p0 Rk ∑ ∑S S p0 k .99 r = 0.t ).K k (11.S ∑S k k k = ∑K = k . In order to evaluate the primary energy savings ( E p ) it is necessary to take into account the efficiency of the distribution network ( rd ) as well as that of the thermal station ( rc ). 0 ) and the thermal characteristics ( K v . the flow of the air exchange between the joints after rehabilitation being ( J a )..

S v. with the overall over ground surface area ( S s ) and the average characteristics ( K s ) and ( R s ).t . which consists of zones of variable thickness.4) Sv 1 = S v. ρ a R v. k ) are resistances of air layers that may be in the structure of the envelope element to thermal permeability. 0 ) + c a . J a . with the overall area (St). 0 . the average thermal transfer characteristics can be adopted considering average thickness values ( d k .t S Kv + v.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings transfer coefficient is calculated with one of following relations: Kv = Rv = 1 ⋅ (K Sv v.i ).k + 1 αe (11.med k ⋅ λk 1 Kt = Rt • (11.t R v. For the envelope elements or zones consisting of several layers of different materials. the total thermal transfer resistance is the sum of thermal transfer resistances. J a . 0 + c a . calculus is done just like for the opaque zones of exterior walls of the building. 0 • for the flat-roof.t + K v. S v. using the equation: R0 = 1 + αi ∑b dk + k ⋅ λk 1 K0 = R0 ∑R a.5) for the basement wall. These characteristics can be computed also using the initial values ( R0. ρ a (11. so that: Rt = 1 1 + + αi α e ∑b d k. med ) for the component variable layers. adding the supplementary thermal resistance of the rehabilitation layers (∆R): page 238 .6) where ( Ra . ( d k ) thick and having the thermal conductivity coefficients (λi) and quality coefficients ( bk ).

s ∑R biz ⋅ λiz a. the value of the total investment (I) needed for the hygrothermal rehabilitation of a building or of a building envelope element is established according to the current norms and estimated prices.8) where the overall heat loss coefficient of the building (the total thermal insulation coefficient) G is calculated for the overall heat loss.s . c a = c p ⋅ ρ . M is the average thermal resistance of the envelope.the specific heat capacity of the air (W. considering all the expenses required by the execution of afferent works. from: G = 1 R0 M ⋅ S + ca ⋅ n V (11. less the finishing upkeep works in the ulterior exploitation period.the total area of the building envelope (m2).the interior volume of the building (m3).h/m3K).i + ∆R K0 = where: 1 R0 (11. The net energy savings obtained through rehabilitation can be evaluated with the relation: page 239 . calculated for the initial state of the building ( G0 ) and after the execution of hygrothermal rehabilitation works ( Gr ): E= 1 ⋅ N t ⋅ (G r − G 0 ) ⋅ V r (11.the air exchange rate per hour of the building (h-1).4. n .for opaque zones. V . . The annual net energy savings (E) may be also evaluated by means of the overall heat loss coefficient of the building ( G ). S . 11.b The retrieve period of the investment in case of thermal rehabilitation In the case of the partial rehabilitation.for glazed zones.9) where: R0.5.7) ∆R = ∆R = d iz.Building Rehabilitation R0 = R0 .

. 1998. Fizica construcţiilor. Iaşi.2 11.10) where: E is the annual net energy saved for that particular building as a consequence of the application of thermal rehabilitation measures p – the cost of the net energy unit at the beneficiary (ROL/W. I. Iaşi. Gavrilaş.is the ratio between the estimated annual energy savings and the investment value: (11. Elemente de fizica construcţiilor. I. Iaşi.the coefficient of the annual increase in energy price (%). * * *.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings E = E⋅ p (lei/an) (ROL/year) (11. I.h).the updating coefficient of the investment funds (%). C. corresponding to the heating type and to the valid prices at the time of execution. Reabilitarea acoperişurilor clădirilor civile. Editura Cermi..13) R=E /E BIBLIOGRAPHY 11. 1993. (11.P.1 11. 2000. STAS 6472/3-89. The following coefficients are thus established: i j .5 Bliuc. Editura Experţilor Tehnici. Calculul page 240 .4 11.3 11. Iaşi.12) R −Y where: R . Tipar Rotaprint. . Elemente de specializare. Editura Cermi. depending on price policy and the fuel utilized. Reabilitarea higrotermică a clădirilor. 1999. (coordonator). I. Protecţia termică a clădirilor. Gavrilaş. Velicu. Fizica construcţiilor. Termotehnica..11) The updating coefficient of the investment funds (Y) is expressed by: Y = ( i − j ) / (1 + j ) The retrieve standing (in years) of the investment for the thermal rehabilitation of a building (n) may be calculated using the relation: R n = ln ln (1 + Y ) (11. the social expenses associated to the immobilized investment funds as well as the estimated future increase in energy cost need to be calculated. In order to evaluate the expenses retrieve period.

Iaşi. page 241 . IRS. 1996. * * *.6 termotehnic al elementelor de construcţii ale clădirilor. Bucureşti. 1989.Building Rehabilitation 11. Volumul Simpozionului „Reabilitarea termică a clădirilor”.

C C Colectia: CONSTRUCTII CIVILE ISBN 973-7962-26-5 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful