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Iron Deposits

Iron Deposits

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Published by: Sebastian Dobrin on Apr 29, 2012
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THE LOW Ti - Fe OXIDE –
FLUORAPATITE DEPOSITS - CASE
STUDY: NEW YORK

MAGNETITE - FLUORAPATITE (KIRUNA)-TYPE DEPOSITS

LOW-Ti MAGNETITE-FLUORAPATITE

GEOLOGICAL SETTING:

- RIFTED CONTINENTAL MARGINS (BACK ARCS)

- INTRACONTINENTAL RIFTS (ANOROGENIC)

- WITHIN A SUBAERIAL TO SHALLOW MARINE ENVIRONMENT

- ACCOMPANIED BY VOLCANO-PLUTONIC ACTIVITY

- LARGE SCALE FLUID OVERPRINT EXPRESSED BY SODIC ALTERATION

ORIGIN:

-LIQUID IMMISCIBILITY (Frietsch 1978; Nystrom & Henriquez 1994;
Naslund et al. 2000);

- EXHALATIVE-SYNSEDIMENTARY (Parak 1975)

-HYDROTHERMAL (Hildebrand 1986; Bookstrom 1977; Gleason et al.
2000; Sillitoe & Burrows 2002)

END-MEMBER OF THE HYDROTHERMAL IRON OXIDE-
COPPER-GOLD (IOCG) CLAN (Hitzman et al. 1992; Hitzman
2000).

Bafq deposit, Iran

Daliran, 2010

http://www.scielo.cl

Bedded hematite ash and lappilli. This deposit is composed of loose,
uncemented, material that can be dug out by hand. El Laco sur Credit: Dr. R. Naslund

Magnetite spindle bombs collected in situ from loose, bedded hematite ash. Some of
the spindle bombs had well developed bomb sags beneath them and bedded ash
drapped over their tops

Credit: Dr. R. Naslund

Bedded hematite ash with in situ magnetite spindle bombs. El Laco sur

Credit: Dr. R. Naslund

TAROM deposit, Iran

http://www.qedata.se

KIRUNA

Extent (orange regions) of the Grenville
orogeny, after Tollo et al (2004) and
Darabi (2004).

Timeline of the Grenville
orogeny, after Rivers
(2002)

McLelland & Selleck, 2011

THREE HOLES
MINE, PORT HENRY

RUTGERS MINE, AUSABLE FORKS

ICE CAVE MINE, PORT HENRY

BARTON HILL MINE, MINEVILLE

Fluorapatite
1852

REE in
fluorapatite
1940

Williams Strategic
Minerals: 1983

Rhone-Poulenc, Inc.
1986

Rhodia, Inc

1

10

100

1000

10000

100000

La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

Mineville

Mineville

Mineville

Kiruna

Durango

Mishdovan

Chahgaz

Avnik (massive)

Avnik(stock)

La2O3: 1.24 – 1.35 wt.%

Ce2O3: 2.66 – 2.84 wt.%

Nd2O3: 1.21 – 1.34 wt.%

Y2O3: 1.40 – 1.99 wt.%

Y: 10112 ppm

La: 8990 ppm

Ce: 17804 ppm

Pr: 2255 ppm

Nd: 10112 ppm

Sm: 1755 ppm

Eu: 174 ppm

Gd: 1825 ppm

Tb: 254 ppm

Dy: 1566 ppm

Er: 1016 ppm

Tm: 151 ppm

Yb: 857 ppm

Lu: 109 ppm

Charge compensation mechanism:

(REE + Y)3+

+ Si4-

= Ca2+

+ P3-

Fluorapatite S.S. Britholite-(Ce,Y)

Ca

5(PO

4)

4(F,OH) (Ce,Y,Ca)

5(SiO

4,PO

4)

3(OH,F)

R2

= 0.9354

y = -0.7152x + 11.043

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

13

13.5

14

14.5

15

15.5

Ca + P

Si + (REE + Y)

Additional coupled substitutions:

(REE + Y)3+

+ Na+

= 2Ca2+

2(REE + Y)3+

+ vacancy = 3Ca2+

-large, wetting-like, mantle-like crystals

- no evidence of zoning

- one large crystal yielded 392 ppm Zr

- 789 °C (P = 0.75 GPa)
assuming coexistence with
rutile and quartz

-760 °C (P = 0.5 GPa)

(Hayden et al. 2008)

- weakly molted appearance

-zoned with respect to BSE

- zones not resolvable for probe’s

analysis of Ti

- 10.1 ± 6.3 ppm Ti

736 + 48/- 92 °C

(Watson et al. 2006)

0.150

0.154

0.158

0.162

0.166

0.170

0.174

0.178

0.182

1.45

1.55

1.65

1.75

1.85

206Pb/

238U

207

Pb/235

U

940

980

1020

1060

Intercepts at
250±50 & 1022±13 [±14]
Ma
MSWD = 0.25
forced intercept

data-point error ellipses are 68.3% conf.

ZIRCON GEOCHRONOLOGY

(LA-MC-ICPMS)

Old Bed, Mineville, Essex County

0.144

0.148

0.152

0.156

0.160

0.164

0.168

0.172

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

206Pb/238U

207

Pb/235

U

900

940

980

1020

Concordia Age = 949 ±10 Ma
(2s, decay-const. errs included)
MSWD (of concordance) = 1.5,
Probability (of concordance) =

data-point error ellipses are 68.3% conf.

Barton
Hill

0.15

0.16

0.17

0.18

0.19

0.20

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

206Pb/238U

207

Pb/235

U

1000

1100

Concordia Age = 1039 ±11 Ma
(2s, decay-const. errs included)
MSWD (of concordance) = 0.13,
Probability (of concordance) =

data-point error ellipses are 68.3% conf.

Barton Hill mines, Mineville, Essex
County

Distribution of the iron deposits
in the Hudson Highlands

Location:
roughly 60 km
north of New York
City

Map courtesy of
Janet Manchester,
N.Y. State Museum

The intrusive contact is knife-sharp; the amphibole-
dominant rock seems to have formed from an iron-rich
ultramafic melt

Hogencamp mine

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