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Despite our best efforts, errors do occur during the revision. If you see a verifiable error not on this list, please report it to our blog at www.firstaidteam.com. If you are the first to report the error, you will receive a $10 gift certificate. In order to identify and correct every possible error, we review every single submission, as well as search other websites and blogs that claim to have a comprehensive listing of errors in First Aid 2012. If you find that our material conflicts with a source that you’re reviewing, please point us toward it with a corroborating reference. As always, we will check every submission against primary references to ensure the most accurate, high-yield study guide available. If you submitted an erratum and it does not appear in an update, then either it does not agree with the primary literature in the field or we consider it a detail beyond the scope of the book. Please note that we will not list simple typos or, unless egregious, omitted material; our goal is to provide a high-yield framework for studying and not a comprehensive textbook. The list below reflects content errors and typos that may create confusion that were submitted before March 31, 2012. As always, updates are available at www.firstaidteam.com. Good luck with your studies! –The First Aid/USMLERx Team Page # 9* 58 Entry Title How Is the Test Scored? t-test vs. ANOVA vs. chi-square Early developmental milestones Chromatin structure Correction/Clarification In the third sentence, change 50-65% to 60-70%. In the third column, the second sentence: change variables to groups; ANOVA = ANalysis Of VAriance of 3 or more groups. Move “object permanence” from a verbal/cognitive milestone at 12-24 month old, to one at 7-9 months. In the third column, move the mnemonic “Methylation makes DNA Mute” down to align with the row for hypermethylation. Change the last sentence in the first paragraph as follows: For prokaryotes, replication begins at a consensus sequence of base pairs; for eukaryotes, replication begins at multiple consensus points. (1) In the third column, the first row: change thymidine to thymine and change ultraviolent to ultraviolet. (2) In the second column for base excision, the AP refers to apurinic/apyrimidinic.
DNA repair Functional organization of the gene Lac operon Cell cycle Microtubule
75 76 * 79 81
The 5′ and 3′ labels as printed in the book are correct. In three places the word promotor is a misspelling; the correct spelling is promoter. The pie chart is missing the G2 label in the upper left slice of pie. In the description for dynein, the correct spelling is retrograde.
Thus the circle should be moved. as shown: 102 * Summary of pathways (2) In the list of enzymes at the left. There are three irreversible enzymes in this pathway: citrate synthase. 108 In the last colored rectangle. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. as G6PD is irreversible. At the bottom. the descriptors for ① and ② are reversed. alanine . key enzymes TCA cycle (Krebs cycle) HMP shunt (pentose phosphate pathway) Respiratory burst (oxidative burst) Glucose-6phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Disorders of fructose metabolism Glycogenolysis/ glycogen synthesis Lysosomal storage diseases 105 107 107 In the nonoxidative reaction. acetyl-CoA ” should align with the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. while the reaction between acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA does require biotin. Above the pink box on the left for debranching enzyme (III). should be in boldface. 104 * Glycolysis regulation. and α-KG dehydrogenase. while aldolase deficiency ② results in fructose intolerance. the deficient enzyme is galactocerebrosidase. the reaction H2O2 H2O2 is incorrect. as pyruvate dehydrogenase does not produce ATP. (1) Change the key to the image to: *Enzymes are irreversible. (2) Add an asterisk to citrate synthase. (2) Delete the last reaction. it should be H2O2 H2O. NADH . the positive and negative regulators of pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase are misaligned. the correct spelling is catalase. and the third column entry “ATP . In the image.(1) The reaction between acetyl-CoA and citrate does not require biotin. (1) In the third column. The third column entry “ATP . not βgalactocerebrosidase. change ribose-6-P to ribose-5-P. 108 115 * 116 . #5. fructose-1. isocitrate dehydrogenase. the correct spelling is limit dextrin (lower case “eye”).6-BP ” should align with the pyruvate kinase reaction. fructokinase deficiency ① results in essential fructosuria. In the entry for Krabbe’s disease.
meningitidis. In the first column. change CSF to amniotic fluid. taste is via CN VII (not VIII). key enzymes Major apolipoproteins Rules of early development Embryologic derivatives Neural tube defects Aortic arch derivatives Tongue development Special culture requirements (2) Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency causes a decrease (not increase) in glucose and ketones. In the lower diagram. remembering the more common category of catalase-negative will suffice. urethra. 126 * 133 135 137 148 * 149 149 * 150 * 152 * Catalase-positive organisms Encapsulated bacteria Urease-positive bugs Bugs with exotoxins . Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are also urease positive. Thus Actinomyces should be removed from this list. as HDL also contains C-II. In the last column. replace the term musculoskeletal junction with neuromuscular junction. In the last sentence. not mesoderm. IDL. see revised image below: 117 119 120 120 * 125 * Fatty acid metabolism Metabolic fuel use (continued) Lipid transport. lower 2/3 of the vagina. add an “X” for the third row. (2) Only the upper 1/3 of the vagina is derived from mesoderm. Actinomyces are generally considered to be anaerobic and catalase-negative. For the Step I exam. some species are catalase positive. on page 119 insert the heading Metabolic fuel use (continued). The boxes refer to the right and left recurrent laryngeal (not pharyngeal) nerves. change ectoderm to embryo. CSF leaks into amniotic fluid in neural tube defects. At the end of the first paragraph. however. On the image. and LDL. E. In the first sentence in the third column. In the media used for isolating lactose-fermenting enteric bugs. The information on fasting and starvation is a continuation of the Fact on page 118. Therefore. and ATP citrate lysase catalyses the process in the cell cytoplasm. the product in the mitochondrial matrix should be citrate. the last sentence: the correct spelling is N. the result is the transfer of cholesterol esters to VLDL. students won’t need to know which species are catalase positive and which are catalase negative.(1) In the synthesis pathway. and the eustachian tube are derived from endoderm. (1) The bladder. coli grown on EMB agar will appear as green colonies (not blue-black colonies) with a metallic sheen.
change Bacteria to Bacterial. coli and Proteus mirabilis. In the description of mechanism. Anti-HbsAg. the nucleotide C should be a G. (3) In the table at the bottom. Pyrazinamide works by blocking pyrazanamidase. the correct spelling is Recovery.153 * 156 * 159 167 173 * 175 * Endotoxin Streptococcus pneumoniae 1° and 2° tuberculosis Zoonotic bacteria Opportunistic fungal infections Protozoa-GI infections In the second box in the second row. the correct spelling is dehydropeptidase I. they affect the formation of the initiation complex. 180 * Typhoid and typhus 182 186 * 188 * 189 * 190 DNA virus characteristics RNA viruses Rubella virus Measles (rubeola) virus Hepatitis viruses 191 * 202 204 207 Hepatitis serologic markers Nosocomial infections Antimicrobial therapy Imipenem/cilastatin. as SMX/TMP blocks the synthesis of A. and hepadna All DNA viruses are icosahedral EXCEPT pox All DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus EXCEPT pox In the first row. not lanosterol synthesis. T. anti-HAVAb (Ig) can also indicate prior vaccination. replace the first sentence: Septate hyphae that branch at angles ≤45°. (2) The Fact should move to page 168. In the second line. meropenem Protein synthesis inhibitors Sulfonamides Isoniazid (INH) Pyrazinamide HIV prophylaxis Antifungal therapy 208 210 212 * 212 * 213 * 213 * . In three places. In the legend for image B. In the row for HDV. HBeAg. and G. Add nitazoxanide as a treatment for Cryptosporidium infection. change HbsAg to HBsAg (capital B). as it is an arbovirus. the correct enzyme is dihydropteroate synthase (not synthetase). the correct spelling is pentamid ine. not mycobacterial fatty acid synthase I. Anti-HBeAg. In the image. gram-positive diplococci In the legend for image A. (1) In the entry for typhus. In the last sentence. The first entry in the Notes column should move down one row. (1) In the second row at the top of the page. the correct term is Langhans (not Langerhans). (4) In the fifth row of the table at the bottom. it should read Lancet-shaped. from left to right: HbsAg. Terbinafine acts on ergosterol synthesis. the correct spelling is Koplik. aminoglycosides do not affect A-site tRNA binding. The entries in the columns are misaligned: All DNA viruses are double stranded EXCEPT parvo All DNA viruses are linear EXCEPT papilloma. in the Bacteriology section. The second sentence has a typo. In the first sentence in the last column. In the last line of the clinical use entry. change the column headings. the genus for Rickettsiae tsutsugamushi has changed to Orientia tsutsugamushi. change the term alternate to alternative. (2) In the image. the correct abbreviation is ToRCHeS. In the image. last column: add an asterisk to Coltivirus. In the next-to-last row. at point 3. Change the top instance of A-site tRNA binding to Formation of initiation complex. and Anti-HBcAg. so that it aligns with E. change the label of the vertical axis at the lower left corner of the graph from Level of direction to Level of detection. polyoma. the correct spelling is Rickettsia typhi (not typhus).
in other words. And to clarify. as it is a gram-positive bacterium.” (2) In the last row. (3) In the row for the NNRTIs. 218 * 223 223 224 * HIV therapy Sinusoids of spleen Thymus MHC I and II Differentiation of T cells 225 226 * 226 * T. change the period to a comma. (3) In the image for the lectin pathway. (1) In the defect for Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia. delete the parenthetical phrase (because it can cross blood-brain barrier). add IL-6 to the list of cytokines secreted by Th2 cells. (2) In the entry for B-cell activation and class switching. add IL-10 to the list of Th2 cytokines. In the third row. In the entry for MHC I. change MASP 1. “Neisseria (no membrane attack complex).2 to MASP 1. change Cl to C1 (numeral). change the row heading from C5-C8 deficiencies to C5-C9 deficiencies. as CD40 receptor on B cell binds CD40 ligand on Th cell is signal 1. Helper T cells differentiate into Th1 cells via IL-12 (not 1L-12). the correct spelling is microtubule. signals 1 and 2 are switched. delete Nocardia. (1) (1) (2) In the last column. the first purple box has a typo. the defect blocks pre-B cells from forming immature B cells. delete the phrase does not cross blood-brain barrier. in the next-to-last column. In the last column. In the diagram. amphotericin B is first-line treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. the second entry.” as the thymus is intact in this condition. “T cells are found in the periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS) within the white pulp of the spleen. IL-6. The first sentence in the third column should read. (2) Tenofovir is a nucleotide RTI and does not require phosphorylation. and change step 4 to step 3.” Revise the last sentence to reflect that positive selection (MHC restriction) occurs in the cortex. in the second sentence. change adenine to ↑ adenosine. 229 * 229 * Complement Complement deficiencies 236 Infections in immunodeficiency 237 * Immune deficiencies Immune deficiencies (continued) 238 * . In the entry for Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. In the second entry in the second column. (2) In the image for the lectin pathway. it should say Complex rather than Comlex. (2) In the presentation for Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia.2 since these are two distinct molecules. the correct spelling is Delaviridine. Change step 3 to step 4. note that the T-cell receptor binds MHC I (not MFC 1) or MHC II. (1) In the description for inhibitors. as IL-4.and B-cell activation Helper T cells (1) In the entry for cytotoxic T-cell activation. the C3 convertase is C4b2b (not C4b2a). the first entry should read. and into Th2 cells via IL-4 (not 1L-4). second item: change Th to Th1. change Nucleid acid synthesis to Nucleic acid synthesis. the second sentence: change the word of to with .214 * 214 * 216 * 216 Amphotericin B Azoles Antiviral chemotherapy Amantadine In the entry for Clinical use. as IL-2 is secreted by Th1 cells. and IL-10 from a Th2 cell is signal 2. IL-5. as antigen is loaded in RER with mostly intracellular peptides. The correct spelling is rimantadine. (4) In the image for the lectin and classical pathways. (1) HAART therapy should be initiated when the CD4 cell count falls below 500 cells/mm³ (not below 350 cells/mm³). (3) In the third image. in the third sentence. (1) (2) In the image key. In the entry for Clinical use. delete the sentence “Absence of thymic shadow. in the second column. in the box.
there is a typo. In the lower right corner. β-blockers. for point 14. In DM type 2. delete breast. In the first entry in the third column. ACE inhibitors. pylori and Schistosoma haematobium are not viruses. under pulmonic area. the columns for β1 and β2 should have four plus signs. The last two sentences in the chemoreceptors entry should be moved as point 3 to the baroreceptors entry. not an inducer. as protein kinase A increases 2+ intracellular Ca in the heart. the text should read: Flow murmur (e. the order of these components of the JVP is correct in the image. the second and third columns are switched. In the entries for senile cardiac and diabetes mellitus type 2. the protein is AE and it is derived from amylin. In the row for heart. Here is where the label should be pointing: 280 * 280 * Coronary artery anatomy Cardiac output (CO) (2) In the last sentence. add β-blockers to the list of treatments. Delete the first sentence in the third column. add ↑ before [Ca ]in (heart) .247 Free radical injury In item 3. the protein is AF and it is derived from transthyretin. where CCl4 refers to carbon tetrachloride. angiotensin-receptor blockers (not agonists). change (due to compression of the esophageal nerve) to (due to esophageal compression). as this is not a viscus. and spironolactone reduce mortality. of the P-450 system. Quinidine is an inhibitor. the lines for competitive inhibitor and uninhibited should cross at the y-intercept because Vmax is the same. In the entry for atrial flutter. In senile cardiac amyloidosis. Cushing reaction is associated with baroreceptors. In the third graph. cardiac stress testing. (1) The label for the circumflex artery should be pointing to the artery directly above where it is currently pointing. 283 * 284 289 * Cardiac cycle Auscultation of the heart ECG tracings Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors Autoregulation CHF 290 291 * 300 . (2) In the row for dobutamine. change the entry in the last column to: Heart failure. the correct term is CCl4 (with an “ell” rather than an “eye”). inotropic and chronotropic. as H. 249 Amyloidosis Disease conditions associated with neoplasms Oncogenic microbes Enzyme kinetics G-protein-linked 2 messengers nd 252 * 254 258 * 263 * In the second column.g. move the description for the X descent before the description for the V wave. In the text entries for jugular venous pulse. On the right.. 2+ 266 * 273 * Sympathomimetics P-450 inducers (1) In the row for epinephrine. while the columns for α1 and α2 should have three plus signs. the first column should state CO2 rather than O2. Change the heading of the first column from Virus to Microbe. atrial septal defect). not chemoreceptors.
type 2 diabetes mellitus Multiple endocrine neoplasias (MEN) Abdominal aorta and branches Digestive tract histology 341 * 343 Portosystemic anastomoses Biliary structures 343 * Femoral region 344 Inguinal canal There are two leader lines coming from the label for Medial umbilical ligaments. the label for inguinal ligament is pointing to the sartorius muscle. Increases insulin release. (2) In the paragraph about regulation. ()1) In the entry for sources. change both instances of kidneys to adrenals. In the image. (2) The arrow above the lesser curvature of stomach (in between liver and stomach) should be reversed. and glucagon each activates adenylate cyclase. replace thirst with polyphagia . the leader line and label for main pancreatic duct at the bottom is correct. Please delete the leader line and label for the main pancreatic duct on the right. change both instances of to . Change the label Testicular or ovarian arteries (L2) to Left testicular (ovarian) artery. as epinephrine. 2+ 322 * 330 332 333 * 338 * Thyroid hormones (T3/T4) Type 1 vs. In the last phrase. In the next-to-last row. (1) (2) In the image. The leftmost structure is indeed the medial umbilical ligament. please use the corrected version below: 316 320 PTH In the second listing under Regulation. The and signs are missing to indicate whether the effect is inhibitory or stimulatory. In the image for MEN 2A. (4) In the image. not the IVC. and the number of goblet cells increases as one goes further along the small intestine. . decreased free serum magnesium causes increased (not decreased) PTH secretion.315 * 316 Insulin Glucagon Hypothalamicpituitary hormone regulation (1) In the first sentence. to clarify. (2) Replace the entry for Wolff-Chaikoff effect: The effect involves excess iodine inhibiting thyroid peroxidase. (5) At the bottom of the left image. and therefore organification. change the first phrase to: hyperglycemia and GH ↑ insulin. in the first column. (1) The arrows next to "b" and "a" should be reversed. insulin does not enter the β cell via a voltage-gated calcium channel. (3) Add a label to identify the large blue vein above the liver as the IVC. the fifth label on the right should read Femoral ring—site of femoral hernia (not hermia). cortisol ↓ insulin. The inguinal ligament is the blue structure above the sartorius muscle. glucagon stimulates (not inhibits) insulin release. α2-agonists (not simply α-agonists) inhibit insulin secretion. The ileum (not the jejunum) has the most goblet cells in the small intestine. In the image. the second structure to the right is the median umbilical ligament. the arrow after Mg is incorrect. norepinephrine. replace the second sentence: Most T3 formed in cytoplasm of target cell. (4) The portal vein drains into the liver. replace Made with Released. (3) In the paragraph about regulation. under Pheo. Thus replace the last sentence with this: 3. the label for insulin should be moved.
as the image is reproduced from USMLERx. (1) In image C. as this entry refers to autoimmune hemolytic anemia. as macrohemorrhage in hemophilia is associated with increased PTT. the t(11. G6PD can cause both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis. The normal WBC differential differs by lab and patient age. therefore. 372 380 382 * Blood cell differentiation Anemias Macrocytic (MCV >100) anemia Normocytic. in the last column. decreased Gp1b leads to a defect in platelet-to-vWF adhesion. change peripheral platelet destruction to platelet/Ab complex is consumed by splenic macrophages. in the last column. The MCL and medial meniscus are connected and tear together. In the U. (2) In the second entry for the mechanism of ITP.com. women are more commonly affected than men. in the Action column: add an up arrow before sphincter of Oddi relaxation. (1) In the second entry for the mechanism of Bernard-Soulier disease. change collagen to vWF. On image B. the biliary colic can cause obstruction of the common duct or the cystic duct.14) translocation causes an overexpression of cyclin D. add an E to the parentheses after G6PD deficiency. as this disorder can cause both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis. ACL. In the second row. not deactivation of the cyclin D regulatory gene. insert the word “inhibits” after the opening parenthesis. Instead. In the entry for hemophilia A or B. remove it as an example of extravascular hemolysis since that is misleading.346 * GI hormones (1) In the entry for cholecystokinin. the correct spellings are pisiform (not pisoform) and hamate (not hammate). adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is more common than squamous 1cell carcinoma. In the entry for mantle cell lymphoma.S. 352 353 353 355 * 366 Esophageal cancer Malabsorption syndromes Celiac sprue Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Gallstones (cholelithiasis) In the entry for celiac sprue. In the image. the last sentence: insert an ↑ before PPT. the disease primarily affects the distal duodenum or proximal jejunum. change = to > . generally agreed upon normal ranges for adults are: Neutrophils: 40-60% Lymphocytes: 20-40% Monocytes: 2-8% Eosinophils: 1-4% Basophils: 0. In the entry for the nodular sclerosing type. (2) In the row for somatostatin. and the medial (not lateral) meniscus. The unhappy triad consists of the MCL. This is how it is tested on the boards. (1) (2) Esophageal webs are a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma. not adenocarcinoma. (2) The legend for image D should read: Cutaneous innervation patterns of the hand. delete the example of orotic aciduria.5-1% These change may be made in the corresponding descriptions on pages 373-374. In the description for nonmegaloblastic macrocytic anemia. orotic aciduria is a megaloblastic anemia. Image A is not missing an asterisk as suggested by the legend. cholecystokinin increases sphincter of Oddi relaxation. change MIHA to AIHA. the leader line for flexor carpi ulnaris is currently pointing to the nerve. normochromic anemia Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia Coagulation disorders 382 384 387 387 * 389 390 Platelet disorders Hodgkin’s lymphoma Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Unhappy triad/knee injury Bones of the hand and wrist Upper extremity innervation 405 406 407 * . With gallstones. In the second entry for the extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemias. pointing to crypt hyperplasia. the arrowhead on the red arrow should be on the other end. It should point to the muscle below the nerve. the asterisk should be a tiny Rx symbol..
delete (calcium-induced calcium release). change the — to ↑. STN stimulates the GPi/SNr (not merely the GPi) to inhibit the thalamus. . In the description for the inhibitor pathway. (2) In the characteristics for osteosarcoma. and arms.5 hours. abdomen.” and the entry for “caudal medulla …” should align with “ipsilateral hypoglossal dysfunction…” In the entry for ischemic brain disease. change > to ≥. so long as the patient presents within 3 hours of onset and there is no major risk of hemorrhage. In a patient with achondroplasia the head is large relative to the limbs. Ankylosing spondylitis. (2) Image B shows Boutonnière deformities. In the first mnemonic. Numerous crusted. rather than swan neck deformities.(1) (2) 409 Upper extremity nerves Distortions of the hand Lower extremity nerves Muscle conduction to contraction Achondroplasia Lab values in bone disorders In the entry for radial nerve. In step 4. the entries for “claw hand” and “Pope’s blessing” have been switched. as alkaline phosphatase levels are increased in osteomalacia/rickets. denuded. and Reactive arthritis. delete (dorsiflex = extend foot). in the third column. While “Pope’s blessing” and “claw hand” can phenotypically look like one another in certain cases. not PO2. A wheal is a transient papule or plaque. and weepy erythematous plaques are seen on the chest. The entry for “medial lemniscus” should align with “↓ contralateral proprioception. the data point represents normal PCO2. the true “Pope’s blessing” is caused by a median nerve injury and “claw hand” is caused by an ulnar nerve injury. (3) In the last column. (1) (2) Remove the ACA abbreviation from the label for anterior communicating artery. tPA can be used within 4. While the two can phenotypically look like one another in certain cases. Add ACA to the end of the label for right anterior cerebral artery. rather than being large in an absolute sense. motor deficits associated with proximal lesions include opposition of thumb. In the image. the mnemonic is incorrectly typeset. The dotted row separating ACh and GABA should extend completely to the end of the table. (1) In the epidemiology/location for osteosarcoma. The motor deficit associated with distal lesions is wrist flexion. In the entry for median nerve. lateral finger flexion. (3) In the entry for Ewing’s sarcoma. the label for ventricular foramen should be ventricular foramen of Monro. the entries in the second and third columns are misaligned. 410 411 412 * 414 415 416 * 418 * Primary bone tumors Rheumatoid arthritis Seronegative spondyloarthropathies Fibromyalgia Dermatologic macroscopic terms Neurotransmitters Blistering skin disorders Basal ganglia Regulation of cerebral perfusion Circle of Willis 420 * 422 423 * 425 * 426 438 443 443 444 447 448 * Effects of strokes Ischemic brain disease Ventricular system In the row for ASA. rearrange the first sentence to read: Codman’s triangle (from elevation of periosteum) or sunburst pattern on x-ray. In the last sentence. In the third row. not a vesicle.” (1) Add TNF-α to the list of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis. change C5-C8 to C5-T1. breast. change (after malignant myeloma) to (after multiple myeloma). the true “Pope’s blessing” is caused by a median nerve injury and “claw hand” is caused by an ulnar nerve injury. In the graph at the right. Inflammatory bowel disease-associated spondylitis. the third column. The mnemonic PAIR stands for Psoriatic arthritis. and wrist flexion. it should read “going out for Ewings and onion rings. as the diagnosis requires at least 11 of 18 tender points. The legend for Figure A should read: Pemphigus vulgaris.
In item 6. The gray boxes describing the early distal convoluted tubule (upper right) and the thick ascending loop of Henle (bottom left) are reversed. In the discussion of toxicity. Remove malignant hyperthermia from the list of toxicities. change to read: Erythropoietin – released in response to hypoxia. another important adverse effect of clozapine is seizures. In the label for the canal of Schlemm. Please make this correction both in the text. Image A is a T2-weighted MRI. In the entry for tuberous sclerosis. change PCA to PCOM . this canal collects 458 * 460 Cavernous sinus Aqueous humor pathway 461 Glaucoma "Narrow-angle" refers to the angle between the cornea and the iris. within the parentheses. The closure of this angle prevents aqueous humor access to the canal of Schlemm. (2) In the second paragraph. change for to aqueous humor from the trabecular meshwork. In the column for nephrotic syndromes.451 * 454 * 456 * Spinal cord lesions Primitive reflexes Cranial nerve reflexes In the last paragraph describing vitamin B12 neuropathy. please use the corrected version of page 508 that follows. not a T1-weighted scan. the galant reflex is misspelled (only one “ell”). Also. from . change the first entry to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. the correct label is Internal (not Interior) carotid artery. In the treatment for Tourette’s syndrome. add: D = Bowman’s capsule. delete nonreactive pupils. the correct spelling is risperidone (not resperidone). and in point 1 of the left image. The second row title should be Contralateral homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing. To the list of Other causes. 508 510 511 * 515 * Nephron physiology Renin-angiotensinaldosterone system Kidney endocrine functions Glomerular diseases . In item 1. in the first row of text at the right. 463 * 465 467 468 * 469 470 * 476 * 489 Cranial nerve III in cross section Dementia Neurocutaneous disorders Primary brain tumors Adult primary brain tumors Uncal herniation Inhaled anesthetics Postpartum mood disturbances Treatment for selected psychiatric conditions Atypical antipsychotics Kidney anatomy and glomerular structure 497 498 504 * In the legend for the photo. (2) In the image. change the duration of the disorder. the M in the mnemonic stands for Mental retardation. not mitral regurgitation. the aneurysm causing the cranial III nerve palsy involves the posterior communicating artery (PCOM). delete nasociliary branch. there is an extra open parenthesis before V2. add normal pressure hydrocephalus. not the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). change AT II to AT I. Craniopharyngioma is a supratentorial tumor. (1) At the end of the first paragraph. not the cornea and the lens. Angiotensin II acts at AT I (not AT II) receptors. not an infratentorial tumor. In the entry for postpartum depression. In the image. it can last 2 weeks to 1 year or more (not just 2 weeks to 2 months). none of these causes needs to be in boldface. change hypERreflexia to hyoOreflexia. In the afferent column for the corneal reflex. (1) In the image. the label should read: Maxillary (V2) n. produced by tubular interstitial cells.
In the first sentence. in the second sentence. add (continuous) after uterine fibroids. can cause hyperuricemia. calcium phosphate stones precipitate at ↑ pH. In fact. the last entry. the Physiology section runs from p. since left venous pressure > right venous pressure. the second column: Calcium oxalate stones precipitate at normal or ↓ pH. 539 544 * 546 * 549 551 * 554 559 * 561 * Pneumocytes Important lung products . the first sentence in the last column should read: Caused by infection with urease-positive bugs (Proteus mirabilis. The title of this Fact should be Diuretics: electrolyte changes. Change the second sentence to read: Self-reversible in some cases. there should be a period after dysgerminoma.517 Nephrotic syndrome In the third column. ↑ LH and normal testosterone in unilateral crytporchidism. delete gestational trophoblastic tumors as this is redundant to hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinoma. (2) In the entry for ammonium magnesium phosphate stones. but can be fatal. add the word penetration so the sentence reads: Early malignancy without basement membrane penetration. delete the word of . however. they are more common in the acute presentation. cystadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the ovary. Change the last sentence as follows: ↓ inhibin. In the entry for Turner syndrome. the second right arrow should be a greater than sign. In the Clinical uses row. The banner at the top of the pages incorrectly includes them as part of the Anatomy section. In the third column. SHBG. pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells do not extend to the respiratory bronchioles. Remove Asherman’s syndrome (adhesions) from the listing. at which point the epithelium becomes cuboidal ciliated. In the row for Clinical use. the tendency to collapse on expiration increases as the radius decreases. (1) In the first row. In the entry for DCIS. Asherman’s syndrome does not cause anovulation per se. Teratomas are the most common ovarian germ cell tumor. In the note below the image of the sperm. 538. and the phrase Most common cause of 1° amenorrhea should be a sentence. ↑ LH and ↓ testosterone in bilateral cryptorchidism. In item 3. so the entry starts: 519 * Kidney stones 521 522 * 525 525 526 530 533538 533 535 * 538 * Pyelonephritis Acute tubular necrosis Mannitol Loop diuretics Diuretics: blood pH changes Gonadal drainage Reproductive Physiology section Spermatogenesis Estrogen hCG Sex chromosome disorders Most common causes of anovulation Ovarian germ cell tumors Malignant breast tumors Cryptorchidism Leuprolide ↑ transport proteins. in the second column. Move the phrase “White cell casts in urine are classic” from the entry for chronic to the entry for acute. in the last column. Klebsiella). insert the words to treat before the up arrow. Revise the toxicities of ethacrynic acid to read: Similar to furosemide. the correct spelling is ciliary. Never use to treat gout. in the second column. While casts can be seen in chronic pyelonephritis. In item 4. but it does cause amenorrhea. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells extend up to and including the terminal bronchiole. In the third column. Staphylococcus. 533 through p. add ↑ between expiration and as . switch the phrase “Most common cause of adult nephrotic syndrome” from the membranous glomerulonephritis entry to the focal segmental glomerulosclerosis entry. as mannitol is used to treat increased intracranial/intraocular pressure. within the parentheses. ↑ FSH.
change tetracycline to doxycycline. restrictive lung disease In the entry for chronic bronchitis. meningitidis. in the second column. in the right column. change S. In the seventh entry from the bottom. in the second column. not N. and we are working to correct them and post a revised index. in the second column. Here is a list of the most noticable errata: p. in the last column: it is defined as a productive cough for >3 months per year (not consecutive months) for > (not ≥) 2 years. pyogenes to S. the correct spelling is nafcillin. 660: Add an entry: Bugs causing diarrhea. 591 * 592 * 657680 Classic/relevant treatments Key associations Index . 657: Remove Alcohol toxicity from index. We realize there are errors in the index. the “search inside this book” tool at Amazon may be helpful. change sign to syndrome . p. 659: Add an entry: Atypical antipsychotics. the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and the elderly is Streptococcus pneumoniae. (2) For the tenth entry. Trousseau’s syndrome (not sign) is associated with migratory thrombophlebitis. (1) For the second entry. please use the corrected version below: 568 Obstrictive lung disease (COPD) Obstructive vs. the correct treatment is sulfadiazine (not sulfonamide) + pyrimethamine. The graph for normal on the left is misleading. 196. (3) In the seventh entry from the bottom. the FEV1 should dip lower. Treponema pallidum. p. 498. Rickettsia rickettsii. In the meantime.565 Oxygen deprivation This list was incorrectly typeset as a table. Staphylococcus aureus. the Fact was dropped in 2012 edition. as shown in the corrected version below: 570 573 * 581 * Pneumonia Classic presentations In the entry for organisms associated with bronchopneumonia. pneumoniae. In the eleventh entry.
p. 232. 422.p. p. p. 671: Add an entry: Myasthenia gravis. 476. p. 234. not page 53. p. p. p. 667: Remove Hexamethonium from index. 300. 666: Remove the first page citation for glucagon. p. *p. *p. the Fact was dropped in 2012 edition. 664: Add an entry: Evoluation of MI. 675: Remove Reportable diseases from index. p. 297. 675: Renal cell carcinoma is cited only on page 520. 670: The citation for Meta-analysis is on page 58. 661: Add an entry for CHF. 672: The correct page citation for Opsonization is 229. the Fact was dropped in 2012. the Fact was dropped in 2012 edition. 675: The entry for Relative risk vs. 661: CMV is cited on page 184. *p. 2012. 671: Remove the page citations for 368 and 369 from Muscarinic antagonists. p. *p. 265. odds ratio should not be boldface. not 355 or 546. 668: Add an entry: Inhaled anesthetics. 679: Add an entry: Vaccination. 664: Remove Esophagus: anatomy from index. . *Updated since March 15. not page 519.
Makes urine hypotonic. 65–80% Na reabsorbed. PTH—inhibits Na + /phosphate cotransport → phosphate excretion. and Cl. Cl-. If renal insufficiency is present (especially elderly people). Thin descending loop of Henle—passively reabsorbs water via medullary hypertonicity (impermeable to sodium). Ca2+ Thick ascending loop of Henle—actively reabsorbs Na +. chloride. +7 mV Lumen– urine Na+ K+ 2Cl− K+ K+ Cl− Thick ascending limb 0 mV Interstitium– blood Na+ ATP K+ Diffusion down the electrochemical gradient Early distal convoluted tubule—actively reabsorbs Na +. Makes urine less concentrated as it ascends. Concentrating segment. Reabsorbs all of the glucose and amino acids and most of the bicarbonate. 10–20% Na reabsorbed. severe electrolyte disbalance. Collecting tubules—reabsorb Na + in exchange for secreting K+ and H + (regulated by aldosterone). –50 mV Lumen– urine Cl− K+ sparing diuretics Na+ Collecting tubule Principal cell R –0 mV Interstitium– blood Aldosterone Loop of Henle Na+ Na+ K+ ATP K+ H 2O V2 ADH Water channel molecules Intercalated cell K+ ATP H+ HCO3− Cl− Loop diuretics (+) Potential Mg2+. sodium.508 SeCTIOn III Re nal RENAL—PHYSIOLOGY Nephron physiology –4 mV Lumen– urine Proximal convoluted tubule Na+ Angiotensin II Na+ HCO3− + H+ H2CO3 Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors + CA Na+ ATP K+ H+ + HCO3− 0 mV Interstitium– blood Digoxin: Excreted via kidneys (active form). Aldosterone—leads to insertion of Na + channel on luminal side. Isotonic absorption. Generates and secretes ammonia. 5–10% Na reabsorbed. Makes urine hypertonic. PTH—↑ Ca2+ /Na + exchange → Ca2+ reabsorption. K+. Impermeable to H2O. which acts as a buffer for secreted H +. 3–5% Na reabsorbed. –10 mV Lumen– urine Angiotensin II Thiazide diuretics Cl Na+ − 0 mV Distal convoluted tubule R ATP K+ Interstitium– blood PTH Na+ Glucose H2CO3 CA CO2 + H2O − Ca2+ Cl− Na+ Ca2+ Cl channel diffusion H2O + CO2 Cl Base− Early proximal tubule—contains brush border. severe hypoglycemia may occur. and water. cardiac toxicity. ADH—acts at V2 receptors insertion of aquaporin H2O channels on luminal side. . AT II—stimulates Na + /H + exchange → ↑ Na + and H2O reabsorption (permitting contraction alkalosis). Diluting segment.and indirectly induces the paracellular reabsorption of Mg2+ and Ca2+.
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