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1984
An Evening of Commemoration through the Performing Arts The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Symbolic Ground ..breaking Ceremony

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Holocaust Memorial Museum
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National Civic Commemoration
The Capitol Rotunda

United States Holocaust Memorial Council
April 29 and 30, 1984 • Washington, D.C.

U.S. HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL COUNCIL The Honorable We Wiesel, Chairman The Honorable Mark E. Talisman, Vice Chairman

DAYS OF REMEMBRANCE COMMITTEE
The Honorable Sigmund Strochlitz, Co-Chairman The Honorable Benjamin Meed, Co-Chairman

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Introduction
Holocaust Memorial Council led the nation in remembering the six million Jewswho perished in the Holocaust and the millions of others murdered by the Nazis. These solemn Days of Remembrance, organized by the Council's Days of Remembrance Committee, are a link between the vanished past and the unknown future. We remember the past, not only to mourn, but for the sake of the future, for the sake of life. This year, the thirty-ninth since liberation, the weekend of remembrance opened on Sunday, April 29 with an Evening of Commemoration through the Performing Arts. Artists, musicians, and journalists gave voice to the legacy of words and music from the Holocaust-beauty created in defiance of intense suffering. Early the next morning, Holocaust survivors gathered at the site of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum symbolically to begin the process of creating a living institution. just as the chroniclers of suffering in ghettos and camps preserved their historiesby burial, so the survivors of suffering preserved their hopes, for the future beneath the museum that will house these tales." At noon, survivors were joined in the Rotunda of the United States Capitol by Senators and Congressmen of both parties, by the leaders of both Houses and by the Vice Presldent of the United States. Their presence once again bore witness before the nation and the world that this country is committed to remembrance. This volume records those solemn commemorations.

In 1984, as it has each year since 1979, the United States

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Preface
Narrator: Norman Gladney

ThiS evening's program is not a gala, entertainment or awards ceremony. This evening we try to remember. Many of the words and the music in our program represent precious legacies in which the dead are talking to the living. There is a kind of srlence that is stronger than applause. There are moments in our Remembrance program that cry out for silence. And while there are moments that you may want to acknowledge-audibly-we and the artists who join us this evening ask that you refrain from applauding. We would therefore like to acknowledge ;itf the outset, the artists, musicians, and journalists who have joined together to make this Remembrance possible: Tom Brokaw The Glora Feldman Trio Cantor Isaac Goodfriend Lome Greene Helen Hayes Howard University CholrDr. J. Weldon Norris, Conductor James Earl Jones Ted Koppel Sherrill Milnes Michael Moriarty Julius Rudel and American Symphony Orchestra Meg Tilly lIana Vered Orson Welles Joseph Wiseman Michael York

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Opening Remarks
The Honorable Sigmund Strochlltz Chairman, Days of Remembrance Committee U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council

older and the prospect of the last survivor looms before us. it is reassuring that an evening of remembrance like the one tonight is taking ., place and that you remember with us for the benefit of humankind-present and future. Tonight. we ask you to hold your applause in respect for those who perished whispering in desperation or shouting in defiance- "Shema Yisroel." Tonight, we will bring you the works of those who in the ghettos and concentration camps turned to different forms of art-composing songs and music, writing poems and diaries. sculpting and drawing. The songs of the ghettos reveal a burning will to live as human beings with dignity and self-respect and a determination to fight unto death for life-life in freedom. The poems, written mostly by children, express sometimes hope, but more often, despair; sometimes courage, but also panic. In the face of the strongest force of dehumanization that the world has ever seen, writing, composing or drawing while the angel of'death was closing in. may sound strange or even bizarre, and yet it happened. We should not assume that those activities undertaken while life was ebbing were prompted only by an urge to record for posterity or to save Jewish history or even go beyond-no-not only. It was also to reassure our humanity to fight back with the only weapon-the human spirit. Those voices-their dreams, their yearnings for a bit of nature. a sight of a tree. a butterfly, were stilled in the ovens of Auschwitz, Trebllnka, Majdanek and the ghet-

A t this time when survivors are getting

Slgm~,~~ Strochlltz

tos Warsaw, Vllno and Theresienstadt. Those voices will come alive tonight through the craft of distinguished artists, and because of the painful truths of which they shall remind us. With a feeling of sadness and a heavy heart, I must remind you tonight that art. in and of itself, does not humanize. We shall be reminded that a person can read Goethe and Schiller in the evening, or listen to Schubert and Bach and still go to his or her murderous work in the morning. It happened not long ago in the heart of Europe, in Germany, in the cradle of European culture- where gas chambers were built by architects and engineers; children poisoned by physiclans and nurses; infants burned alive by teachers and lawyers; women killed by college graduates and writers. Yes, it happened. All those cold-blooded murders were witnessed by many who are here tonight, and recorded in diaries by others who perished. May the memory of the six million Jews-men, women and children-who perished in the Holocaust, and the millions of others enslaved, starved, and killed by the Nazis never be forgotten. .

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Marshall J. Breger Special Assistant to the President for Public Liaison
Last week, Jews throughout the world celebrated the festival of Passover, commemorating the deliverance of the Jewish people from their Egyptian bondage. In reading the Haggadah at the Passover seder, we state:

1)n1?J? 1)?>' O')1y')1>'11'11 111 ?J)'V N?N
In every generation' there are those who rise up against us to destroy us." The lesson for our generation of this recurrent theme of Jewish history is clear. It r'sno accident, therefore, that during Passover we read the vision of Ezekiel-who vlsltsa.valley=-somewhat perhaps like Babi Yar-e-tilled with a multitude of dry human bones. The question is asked of the Prophet: Can these bones live? What we have witnessed since 1945 is an affirmative answer to that question-an answer that can be drawn from the creation of the state of Israel, the vibrancy of Jewish life in America, and its stubborn, indeed almost miraculous, survival in the Soviet Union. Indeed, your presence here tonight speaks forcefully and affirmatively to that question. [ had occasion last month to read programs of past Holocaust memorials held under these auspices. Their focus properly was on 11Jl , remembrance. This evening, detailing examples of man's ability to maintain human dignity and spirituality within the camps in the aftermath of the Holocaust, provides an additional lesson. As much as our Holocaust studies teach us about the lurking potential of evil in human society. so do they open for us new, indeed wondrous examples of man's capacity for humane conduct and personal renewal in the face of radical evil. We must celebrate the indomitable character of the human spirit even as we remember the terrible fate of the six million.
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Greetings from the President of the UDited States
to all those gathered for the annual ceremonies of the Holocaust Memorial Council. Because of my trip to China, this is the first year since I took office when I have not spoken to this meeting. This occasion presents an opportunity for me to express my admiration for your vision and courage in commemorating these Days of Remembrance through the performing arts. It is difficult and painful to speak in common words of the horrors perpetrated during the Holocaust. And it is virtually impossible to grasp the enormity of suffering endured both by victims and survivors. Yet. because we all, in one way or another, are survivors of that era. we know we must speak that for which we have no words and feel that which drains our very capacity to feel. In this effort. music and poetry.can be our medium. They transcend the barriers of memory to touch our hearts and souls;' and that is why I commend the singular Vision of all those who prepared this Commemoration. [ also see great courage in this event because one of the most stupefying features of the Holocaust was its dehumanization. The Nazis. who conceived of, built. and ran the extermination camps-filling gas chambers, mass graves. and crematoria-perpetrated the ultimate horror. People who turned their neighbors over to the Gestapo and who reported those trying to hide or escape acted in despicable ways. And through physical debasement, psychological torture, and sadistic medical "experiments." the murderers attempted to dehumanize even their victims. As we remember both the slain and their slayers, we can hardly contemplate the thought that such indecency and inhumanity could have occurred.

April 19, 1984

Iam proud to send my appreciation

But if the Holocaust reminds us of man's inhumanity to man, its study also teaches us about heroism and faith. We learn of righteous gentiles who risked their Jives to save others, of jews who fought against their Nazi-decreed fate, and of nobility and kindness even among the camp inmates themselves. Even as the Nazis and their allies sought to dehumanize the world. those whom they oppressed and slaughtered affirmed their humanity by creating literature, art, and music expressive of their pain, hopes, and dreams. Today. both survivors and others continue this life-affirming task. seeking not only to keep alive the memory of the victims through occasions such as this, but also to rehumanize the world through artistic and scholarly efforts. To be human is to feel. to be moved by another's pain, to have a moral concern for injustice, and to act to right wrongs. To be human is also to have faith-in God. in our fellow men and women, and in ourselvesthat life is inherently worth living and that our children will inhabit a better world through our efforts. And. perhaps most basically, it is quintessentially human to sing. We sing of our sorrows, our challenges, and our triumphs. We lift our voices heavenward with hope and joy in the solidarity we feel. "Sing unto the Lord a New Song," sang the Psalmist. And so sing all of you tonight: A song dedicated to the rehumanization of the world in our time. May God hear our song and bless our efforts. As Moses prayed: "Establish for us the work of our hands, the work of our hands, establ ish Thou."

Ani Maamin
Words: Moses Maimonides Music: E. D. Fastag Orchestral arrangement:

Warner Bass Joseph Wiseman Howard University Choir American Symphony Orchestra, julius Rudel, Conductor
Ani Maamln was written by the";twelfth century philosopher, Moses Malmonldes. It was sung by countless thousands as they marched to their deaths In the gas chambers. It Is appropriate that we open this Remembrance with this simple statement of a religious spIrIt, which nothing-the hangmen, the tyrants, the torturers-could ever destroy.
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ANI MAAMIN
Ami maamin, I believe, r believe with reassuring faith that He wi II come, I believe the Messiah will come. I believe, although he may delay, He will come, Ani maamin.

Tom Brokaw

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A Historical Perspective
Nanator: Tom Brokaw

",., hUe not all victims were Jews, all Jews ....
were victims," stated Elle Wiesel. The concept of the annihilation of an entire people, as distinguished from their subjugation, was unprecedented; never before in human history had genocide been an allpervasive government policy unaffected by territorial or economic advantage and unchecked by moral or religious constraints. Jews were particular targets despite the fact that they possessed no army and were not an integral part of the military struggle. Incredibly, their destruction frequently conflicted with and took priority over the war effort. Trains that could have been used to carry munitions to the front or to retrieve injured soldiers were diverted for the transport of victims to the death camps. Even after the Nazi defeat on the Russian front, when it became evident that the Germans had lost the war, the killings were intensified in a last' desperate attempt at complete annihilation. Clearly, this genocide was an end in itself, independent of the requisites of war. This assembly-line murder was unprecedented in the history-of human violence, accomplished as it was with extraordinary efficiency, emotional detachment, and even pride. German corporations actually profited from the industry of death. Pharmaceutical firms, unrestricted by fear of side effects, tested drugs on camp inmates. Commercial industrial manufacturers designed the

crematoria and-business as usual-advertised their company names on the crematoria's metal doors. (Indeed, they were even concerned with protecting the patents for their products.) The German railways managed the transportation with customary attention to detail, billing the appropriate agency of the Reich for the one-way trips of the millions of victims-and the round-trip tickets of their guards. Hitler and the Nazis had made no secret of their determination to destroy every last Jew, to make war on their own citizens and to kill and enslave the people of the conquered lands. Beginning with "Mein Kampf," reports of Hitler's intentions and Nazi atrocities were well circulated among the Allies. Indeed, when asked if he feared risking world opinion in his war against the Jews, Hitler reportedly responded that he did not: "Who now remembers the Armenians?" This reference to the 191 5- 191 8 massacres of Armenians in Ottoman Turkey suggests that Hitler had made a calculation that was as shrewd as it was monstrous: he could count on the world's indifference. Had Hitler succeeded, of course, almost no one would have been safe. Nor would any religion. "Religions," said Hitler, "have no future-certainly none for the Germans. Nothing will prevent me from tearing out Christianity/ root and branch, and annihilating it in Germany." As Hitler put it, "We must distrust the intelligence and the conscience, and must place our trust in our instincts." The Nazis placed murder above life; war above peace; domination above tolerance; and technique above humanity. The immutable law of creatlon=-thet each human being is special and unique, possessed with the sanctity of lifewas repealed.

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Concerto Grosso
For String Orchestra with Piano Obbligato First Movement Prel ude Composer: Ernest Bloch Introduction: Michael York Ilana Vered, Pianist American Symphony Orchestra, Julius Rudel, Conductor

Pastor Martin Nlemoeller "Am I My Brother's Keeper?"
Introduction: Lorne Greene

In speaking of his musical work," f~~est Bloch sald-"It is not my purpose or my desire to attempt a reconstruction of Jewish music, or to base my work on melodies more or less authentic. It Is the Jewish soul that Interests me. The complex, glowing, agitated soul that I feel vibrating throughout the Bible: the Jew's savage love of Justice, the despair of Ecclesiastes, the sorrow and the Immensity of the Book of Job, the sensuality of the Song of Songs, all of this Is in me.
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Until his arrest In June, 1937, Martin Nlemoeller had been Pastor of the Protestant congregation In Dahlem, a suburb of Berlin. His opposition to. the Nazi onslaught on human values earned him eight years of Imprisonment In the Sach~enhausenand the 1 Dachau concentration camps. His clear voice will forever echo through the annals of history. In effect, his was the query from Genesis, "Am I my brother's keeper?"

NaJ'I'ators: Lorrie' Greene, Joseph Wiseman
e who destroys one life Is as though he had slain an entire creation; whereas he who saves one life Is as if he had saved all mankind." -Sanhedrin These concepts, embedded in Jewishtradition, have definite universal implications, for they provide touchstones for man's moral behavior. What it comes to is man's response to situations in extremis when we are called upon to take a position at the risk of our well being. We can either adopt Cain's attitude of "Am I my brother's keeper?" or the one that advocates that "He who saves one life is as if he had saved all mankind." One is the voice of indifference; the other is the voice of involvement.

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"In Germany, they first came for the Communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Communist. Then they came for the Jews,and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew.Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me, and by that time no one was left to speak up." Pastor Martin Niemoeller

Introduction: Lorne Greene
Elie Wiesel wired Slbylle Nlemoeller upon the death of her husband, that Pastor Nlemoeller- "of all people surely was not guilty. Quite to the contrary. He did speak out and he did suffer. He spent eight years in the Sachsenhausenconcentration camp, for he had the courage that so many were lacking •. "

Helen Hayes

Narrator: Helen Hayes Sibylle Niemoeller to Elle Wiesel
words you found for Martin. Yes, he was one of the last righteous people in this world, taking upon himself a share of the great guilt. But asking others to do the same made him many enemies. My years with my husband, who was 31 years older than I am, were unspeakably beautiful. He was bedridden for six whole months-after three years of very frail health-and I was able to nurse him to his

Ireally do not know how to thank you for the

death, which came mercifully at home with no visible pain. We are all so, so grateful. I do hope-some day-to be able to move back to the United States, once my son is settled there as a doctor. I would also love to visit Israel, which I have never seen. About two months ago, I took up learning Hebrew, which I want to be able to read and write, and I will continue my studies when the pressure is a bit off. My own brother is married to a Jewish wife (whose father died in Auschwitz). And his only son married the Israeli singer Esther Ofarim. They reside in New York City and have a precious little son, David. In Israel I want to visit the grave of Oskar Schindler, for whom on his birthday on April 28 I always donate flowers to my church in his memory. His name, in this country, is virtually unknown.

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"Is Not His Word Like A Fire"
from "EliJah" Composer: Felix Mendelssohn introduction: Michael York Sherri II Mi Ines American Symphony Orchestra, Julius Rudel, Conductor

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Felix Mendelssohn's oratorio,. ~'EII'ah," w~s first performed at the Blrmlnghc,tmFestival In 1846. Based on the narrative In K'ngs 11-20, It demonstrates EliJah'scharacteristic moments of anger, despair, gentleness, and hope. EliJah'sanger is shown In the aria, "Is Not His Word Like a Fire."

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like a fire And like a hammer that breaketh the rock, A hammer that breaketh the rock, That breaketh the rock into pieces? Like a fire, like a fire, and llke a hammer That breaketh, that breaketh the rock? His word is like a fire: and like a hammer, A hammer that breaketh the rock. For God is angry, angry with the wicked everyday: and sword; He hath bent His bow and made it ready, And made it ready, ready. Is not His word like a fire ...

Is not His work

The Anglo-American Conference on Refugees
Bermuda, April t 9, 1943 Introduction:

Lorne Greene

On April 19, 1943, the day of the second Seder of Passover, two interrelated events occurred In two unrelated places. The AngloAmerican conference on refugees convened In Hamilton, Bermuda, and the Inhabitants of the Warsaw Ghetto rose up. "The Washington Post" comments as measured against remarks of one diplomat attending the Bermuda Conference afford a tragic, Ironic Insight Into the prevailing attitudes and passivity of those who were in a position to know better.

From "The Washington Post" April 20, t 943 ' On The Bermuda Conference
Narrators:

Lorne Greene Michael Moriarty

One would have to be an optimist of a particularly unrealistic brand to expect any truly constructive achievements to emerge from the Anglo-American conference on the refugee problem which opened at Bermuda yesterday. It certainly does not augur well for the success of that parley that its site was deliberately chosen to make it as inaccessible as possible to outside influences and the pressure of public opinion, that representatives of refugeseeking groups have been excluded, and that labors of the conference have been stated to be "primarily exploratory." " .. Primarily exploratory: this ten years-after Hitler began his campaign of racial and :' religious discrimination which has sincebeen transformed into as bloody and brutal a campaign of extermination as the world has ever witnessed! In existing circumstances it is obvious that only a percentage of those marked as victims of Hitler can be rescued. But if we fail to rescue those that can yet be saved, we shall have betrayed our obligations and been faithless to the ideals for which we are fighting.

Michael Moriarty

The British Delegation at the Bermuda Conference, Nk.R.K.Law,speruung

April 194;3
Nar;rator: Michael Moriarty

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We must take great care to see that we are not betrayed by our feelings of humanity and compassion into courses of action which at best would postpone the day of liberation, and at worst might make liberation forever impossible. There are no doubt a number of things which we might attempt to alleviate the condition of the persecuted peoples, but if anyone of those things were to postpone by a month the achievement of victory we would be doing an ill-service to those very peoplewhom we wish to help. It is well that we should not forget it.

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Janusz Korczak's Ghetto Diary
Narrator: Michael Moriarty

Rivkele, The Sabbath One
Words: Peysakh Kaplan Narrator: Helen Hayes

There are about seven versions descrlblng JanuszKorczak's walk at the head of more than 100 children through the Warsaw Ghetto streets to the Umschlagplatz, the assembly point for transportation. However, all versions are In agreement as to the orderly fashion In which the children and their teachers took the last walk on the 5th of August, 1942, leading to the chlorinated cattlecars, Trebllnka bound.

The words were Inspired by the tragic occurrenee in the Bialystok Ghetto on the Sabbath of July 12, i 942, when five thousand Jews were shot by the Germans. Women whose husbands were killed 01} that Sabbath day were called "the Sabb~h ones."

Warsaw, August, 1942
I've watered the flowers, the poor orphanage plants, the plants of the Jewish orphanage. The parched soil breathed with relief. A guard watched me as I worked. Does that peaceful work of mine at six o'clock in the morning annoy him or move him? He stands looking on, his legs wide apart. I'm watering the flowers. My bald head in the window. What a splendid target. He has a rifle. Why's he standing and looking on calmly? He has no orders to shoot. And perhaps he was a village teacher in civilian life, or a notary, a street sweeper in Leipzig, a waiter in Cologne? What would he do if I nodded to him? Waved my hand in a friendly gesture? Perhaps he doesn't even know that things are as they are? He may've arrived only yesterday, from far away ... Our Father who art in heaven ... This prayer was carved out of hunger and misery. Our daily bread. Bread.

In a J acrory toils, Twists a strand into a strand, W.eavesa braided coil. Oh, the gloomy ghetto Stands there much too long, And her heart with so much pain Rueful, so forlorn. Her devoted Hershele Gone, has gone away. Since that fateful Saturday, Since that time, that day Sits in mourning, Rivkele Mourns day and night, .. Turns the wheel of her machine, Thinking of her plight: Where is he, my darling one, Does he still live, where? In the concentration camp ls he slaving there? Oh how dreadful is his lot, How horrible is mineSince that fateful Saturday, Since that day, that time.

Rivkele,

the Sabbath one,

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Diary of the Vilno ~hetto
By Itzchak Rudashevski

The Lonely Child
Narrator: Helen Hayes

1927-1943
Narrator: Michael Moriarty
In the Vllno Ghetto by the poet Shmerke Kaczerglnskl. It was dedicated to the child of a teacher who was hidden and raised by Gentiles. Something unknown Now runs after me. My mother, dear mother, Oh where can you be? Your Sorele is calling, Sorele, your chi Id ... Whose moans cross the fields As the wind howls so wild. My father is gone, Who knows of my loss? Captured and caught by A monstrous force, The night dark and fearsome When this deed took place, Yet darker by Jar Was my dear mo~her's face Through wandering day, Through journey of night, Through her restless sleep The child's thoughts took flight: The dear child imagines her father's step near, Her mother's sweet lullaby, Loving and dear: If in the future A mother you'll be, You must tell your children Of the agony Your father and mother Received from the foe, Remember the past-and Forget not the woe!

T his poem was written

When the German Army invaded Vilno In the summer of 194 t, Itzchak was barely fourteen years old. Yet despite his age, he had the foresight to realize the Importance of recordIng and preserving" ... even the most gory, because everything will be taken into account, as he put It in one of his entries of "The Diary of the Vllno Ghetto."
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The 8th of July, 1941.
population must put on badges front and back-a yellow circle and inside it the letter J. It is daybreak. I am looking through thewindow and see before me the first Vilno Jews with badges. It was painful to see how. people were staring at them. The large piece of yellow material on their shoulders seemed to be burning me and for a long time I could not put on the badge. I felt a hump, as though I had two frogs on me! I was ashamed to appear in them on the street, not because it would be noticed that I am a Jew but because I was ashamed of what (they were) doing to us. I was ashamed of our helplessness. We will be hung from head to foot with badges, and we cannot help each other in any way. It hurt me that I saw absolutely no way out. Now we pay no attention to the badges. The badge is attached to our coats but has not touched our consciousness. We now possess so much consciousness that we can say that we are not ashamed of our badges! Let those be ashamed who have hung them on us.

The decree was issued that the Vilno Jewish

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A Survivor from Warsaw
By Arnold Schoenberg Introduction: Michael York Narrator: Sherrill Milnes

Howard University Choir American Symphony Orchestra, . Julius Rudel, Conductor

Arnold Schoenberg's "A Survivor From Warsaw," Is a short, Intensely concentrated music drama whose subJect Is an episode In the battle of April 19, .943, In the Warsaw Ghetto. A survivor tells the story of a group of Jews, who, at the moment of their deportation to the death camp, suddenly, In a last flaring of spirit and faith, burst Into singing the "Shema Vlsroe••tt

Icannot remember ev'rything.
I must have been unconscious most of the time. I remember only the grandiose moment when they all started to sing, As if prearranged, the old prayer they had neglected for so many years-the forgotten creed! But I have no recollection how I got underground to live in the sewers of Warsaw for so long a time. The day began as usual: Reville when it still was dark. Get out! Whether you slept or whether worries kept you awake the whole night. You had been separated from your children, from your wife, from your parents; You don't know what happened to themhow could you sleep? The trumpets again-Get out! The sergeant will be furious! They came out; some very slow: the old ones,

the sick ones; some with nervous agility. They fear the sergeant. They hurry as much as they can. In vain! Much too much noise; much too much commotion-and not fast enough! The Feldwebel shouts: "Achtung! Sti lljestanden! Na wirds mal? Oder 5011 ich mit dem Jewehrl<olben nachhelfen? Na [utt: wenn ihrs durchaus haben wollt!" The sergeant and his subordinates hit everybody: l Young or old, quiet or nervous, guilty or innocent. It was painful to hear them groaning and moaning. ,", I heard it though I had been hit very hard, Sohard that I could not help falling down. We all on the ground who could not stand up were then beaten over the head. I must have been unconscious. The next thing I knew was a soldier saying: "They are all dead," Whereupon the sergeant ordered to do away with us. There I lay aside-half-conscious. It had become very still-fear and pain. Then I heard the sergeant shouting: "Abzahlenl " They started slowly and irregularly: One, two, three four-"Achtung!" the sergeant shouted again, "Rascher! Nochmal von vorn anfangen! In einer Minute will ich wissen, wleviele ich zur Gaskammer abliefere! Abzah len!" They began again, first slowly: one, two, three, four, Became faster -and faster, So fast that it finally sounded like a stampede of wi Id horses, And all of a sudden, in the middle of it, They began singing the Shema Ylsroel.

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Ezekiel 37
Narrator: Orson Welles

thought It appropriate to film a reading, which I treasure, and which has special meanIng for all of you, tonlght.-Orson Welles

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brought me out by the Spirit of the Lord and set me down in the middle of the valley; and it was full of bones. And he caused me to pass among them round about, and behold, there were very many on the surface of the valley; and 10, they were very dry, And He said to me, "Son of man, can these bones live?" And I answered, "0 Lord God. Thou knowest.' Again He said to me, "Prophesy o'{er these bones, and say to them, '0 dry bones, hear the word of the Lord.' . "Thus says the Lord God to those. bones, 'Behold, I will cause breath to enter you that you may come to life. 'And I will put sinews on you, make

T he "hand of the Lord was upon me, and He

flesh grow back on you, cover you with skin, and put breath in you that you may come alive; and you will know that I am the Lord.' " So I prophesied as I was commanded; and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and behold, a rattling; and the bones came together, bone to its bone. And I looked, and behold, sinews were on them, and flesh grew, and skin covered them; but there was no breath in them. Then He said to me, "Prophesy to the breath, prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath. 'Thus says the Lord God, "Come from the four winds, 0 breath, and breathe on these slain, that they come to life." So I prophesied as He commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they came to life, and stood on their feet, an exceedingly great army. Then He said to me, "Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel; behold, they say, 'Our bones are dried up, and our hope has perished. We are completely cut off.' "Therefore prophesy, and say to them, 'Thus says the Lord God, "Behold, I will open your graves and cause you to come up out of your graves,' My people; and I will bring you into, the land of Israel.' "

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The Howard University

Choir and the American Symphony Orchestra,

Julius Rudel, Conductor

Nabucco

Hebrew Chorus from

Ascend,

sad thoughts, on golden wings,

("Fly Thought on Golden Wings")
Composer: Giuseppe Verdi Introduction: Michael York Howard University Choir American Symphony Orchestra, [ul ius Rudel, Conductor

The magnificent chorus from Verdi's opera "Nabucco," was first sung on the stage of La Scala. The Israelites are captive in Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar (Nabucco), as they dream of their lost homeland, of freedom.

Alighting on crests and hill-tops, Flyaway to the fragrant shores And sweet, delicate air of home! Jordan's beloved banks And Zion's shattered towers ... Oh, dear native land that is lost to us! What cherished, yet what bitter, memories! The golden harp of prophetic utterance, Why hangs it silent on the willow tree? Now memories in the mind arise Recalling days that used to be! Oh, raise a cry of lamentation Like the sound of the fall of Jerusalem And let our cry 'lnsplre Thee, 0 God to aid us in our suffering here below!

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Young Moshe's Diarr
Narrator: Joseph Wiseman

Chaim Kaplan's Diary
Narrator: James Earl Jones

Moshe was t 5 years old when he and his

family fled The Hague to Brussels. Assuming Aryan Identity, the family managed to elude their persecutors until April 7, 1944, when they were seized and deported to Auschwitz. Moshe did not survive. It was In Brussels that Moshe committed his feelings and thoughts to paper written In the ancient language of his people-Hebrew.

Known as the Hebrew chronicler of the Warsaw Ghetto, Chalm Kaplan's diary covers the period between September 1, 1939-the day of the Invasion of Poland-to August 4, 1942. The last entry of his diary ends with a question: "If my life ends, what will become of my diary?"

March 9, 1943
Lately I feel so lonely, so barren-a feeling I have never had before. I feel myself so far from all my brothers, from everything nationally jewish. My soul longs for my country that I have loved-and still love-so much. Even before the war my heart longed for my homeland, the land of Israel, but now this love and yearning have greatly increased. For it is only now that I feel how much we need a country in which we could live in peace as every people lives in its country. Each time I stand to say the Eighteen Benedictions I direct IY.IY whole soul to my lovely land, and I seeIt before my eyes; [ see the coast, I see Tel Aviv, jaffa, and Haifa. Then I see Jerusalem, with the Mount of Olives, and I see the Jordan as it flows from Lebanon to the Dead Sea. And when [ pray and do not see my beloved country before my eyes, it is as if my prayer had been rejected and as if I had been praying to the wall. Oh, I love all of it so much! My people and my country do not leave my thoughts for even a moment; all day long they are in my mind. Several times already I have asked myself whether I will ever get the chance to stand on its holy earth, if the Lord will permit me to walk about in my land. Oh, how my soul yearns for you, my homeland, how my eyes crave the sight of you, my country, the land of Israel.

We have become the slaves of slaves, and forced labor in one form or another is sucking out the marrow from our bones. We have been eliminated from human society. You have eyes and yet you do not see that the fulfillment of this horrible goal has already been started. What hope do we have that it will not be carried out? Over half a million jews who used to live in Poland have already been murdered; some by hunger, some by disease, some by the Nazi sword. Jews have been deported from hundreds of small communities, and no one knows their whereabouts, simply because they were kl lied along the way and never reached a new destination. Optimistic fools! Where is the great community of Lublin, and the hundreds of other smaller communities? Where did their deportees settle? The Nazis created ghettos in order to.annihilate us, but their plan did not succeed. Now they have decided upon the "final solution," annihilation through murder. Those of you who are worried about money-it's a futile concern; you trouble yourselves for naught since Warsaw will not escape the sword of the Nazis. As for the intellectuals who are busy acquiring rare books because they are inexpensive-it is truly amazing! Can you really prevent your eyes from seeing? What do you need books for if you will never Jive to read them?

27

Aria from Andrea Chenier
Composer: Umberto Giordano Introduction: Michael York Sherrill Milnes American Symphony Orchestra Julius Rudel, Conductor

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The time is the latter part of the eighteenth century, during the French Revolution. Andrea Chenier, a poet, has beet. falsely accused of being an enemy of the people. The court, headed by Robespierre, has condemned Chenier to death on the guillotine. In this aria, Carlos 6~rard, who gave the false testimony, recants but by then It Is too late. This message Is especially appropriate during Days of Renlembrance when we also remember those who spoke up-but much too late.
Michael York

T he enemy of his country!
A worn out fable, which by some good fortune, the populace can still believe! Born in Constantinople? ... a foreigner! A cadet at St. Cyr? A soldier ... and a traitor! Dumouriez' accomplice! ... and a poet! His every word breathes falsehood and sedition! Of old, scorning temptation, I went my way 'mid hate and envy, Pure of heart and firm of purpose.

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28

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I thought myself like a god! I'm still in bondage, I've but found a new master! I bow in obedience to the promptings of passion! And worse still, tho'] am a murderer, The voice of pity still haunts me! I, one of Freedom's loyal sons, Gave ear unto the cry that echoed round me, And to that cry, my own voice gave answer. All those dreams that I cherished, have they vanished forever? How bright and fair the pathway of glory once shone before me! How I longed to bring hope to the hearts of my people, To dry the tears of those whom fate has vanquished And those who suffer; Make all this world a paradise that men might then become immortal, And to unite, to unite all my brothers in one supreme bond of love, Yes, to unite my brothers in one embrace 'of lovel ~ Today, my vows are for all forsaken, This soul of mine is poisoned. , . And what has so transformed me? (Fate plays me false!) i Why, 'tis Love!" I live for naught but pleasure, My new, pitiless master is Passion! All else is false! Love's delights alone are real!

Sherrill Milnes

29

Lest We Forget
Narrator: Meg Ti Ily Haja Feldman Warsaw, t 942.

ThiS Is a sacred letter written by a young girl before she died in the concentration camp.

are 93 Jewish girls, of the ages 14-22. We live in four rooms. We are all teachers and social helpers of the Jewish school. Beth Jacob. The 27th of July, the Gestapo broke ·in and took us out and threw us into a dark room. They gave us only water to drink. The younger girls trembled with fear. I encouraged them, telling them that shortly we will reunite with our mother, Sara Schnirer, teacher of Beth Jacob Schools. She lived and worked in Cracow and passed away in 1938. She always used to say, "Lucky is the one who lives and observes God's commandments. But if you can't live according to His will, it is an honor to give your life for His holy name." Yesterday they led us out from the dark room to a beautiful building with large rooms and comfortable beds. They told us to take baths. They took away all our belongings,

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leavltig us only with our underwear. They informed us that night, we will be visited by German soldiers. Instantly we came to this decision. We swore to give our Jives together. The Germans did not realize that the baths they ordered us to take would be our last undertaking before our death. We prepared ourselves poison to drink when they arrived. Not one of us is trembling before our death. We only have one wish. Say Kaddish for our 93 sisters. Only a moment and we will reunite with our mother, Sara.

..

30

The Conscience of the World
Narrator: Michael York

The following Is excerpted from a letter wrltten by Samuel lygelboJm before committIng suicide. He was a leader among the Warsaw Jews. In 1940, he managed to flee from roland after the Invasion. After spending some time in various non-occnpled countries, and later In America, he reached London In .942. There, as representative of the Ponsh Jews, he Joined the National rollsh Committee which eventually became the rollsh Government-ln-Exlle, During his stay In London, he did everything In his power to draw the attention of the world to the fate of the Jews under Nazi occupation, but was unable to obtain any reaction.

With these, my last words, I address rhyself to you, the Polish Government, the Polish, people, the Allied Governments and thelr peoples, and the conscience of the world. News recently received from Poland informs us that the Germans are exterminating with unheard-of savagery the remaining Jews in that country. Behin~ the walls of the ghetto is taking place todaythe last act of a tragedy which has no parallel in the history of the human race. The responsibility for this crimethe assassination of the Jewish population in Poland-rests above all on the murderers themselves, but falls indirectly upon the whole

human race, on the Allies and their governments, who so far have taken no firm steps to put a stop to these crimes. By their indifference to the killing of millions of hapless men, to the massacre of women and children, these countries have become accomplices of the assassins. Furthermore, I must state that the Polish Government, although it has done a great deal to influence world public opinion, has not taken adequate measures to counter this atrocity, which is taking place today in Poland. Of the three and a half million Polish Jews (to whom must be added the 700,000 deported from the other countries) in April, 1943, there remained alive not more than 300,000 Jews according to news received from the.head of the Bund organization and supplied by government representatives. And the extermination continues. I cannot remain silent. I cannot live while the rest of the Jewish people in Poland, whom I represent, continue to be liquidated. My companions of the Warsaw Ghetto fell in a last heroic battle with their weapons in their hands. I did not have the honor to die with them but I belong to them and to their common graVf7. Let my death be an energetic cry of protest against the indifference of the world which witnesses the extermination of the Jewish people without taking any steps to prevent it. In our day and age human life is of little value; having failed to achieve success in my life, I hope that my death may jolt the indifference of those who, perhaps even in this extreme moment, could save the Jews who are still alive in Poland.

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"Shtiler, Shtiler" (Quiet, Quiet)
Words: Shmerke Kaczerginski Music: Alex Wolkoviski=-Tamlr Choral Arrangement: K. Winternits Vilno Ghetto, t 943 Introduction: Michael Moriarty Howard University Choir American Symphony Orchestra, julius Rudel, Conductor

Verse I
QUiet, quiet, let's be silent, Dead are growing here. They are planted by the tyrant, See their bloom appear. All the roads lead to Ponar now. There are no roads back. And our father too has vanished. And with him our lucie Still, my child, don't cry, my jewel. Tears no help command." 1 Our pain callous people' Never understand, Seas and oceans have their order. Prison also has its border. But to our plight, There .ls no light. Ther~'·'isno light.

SHTILER, SHTILER,a song of the; Vilno Ghetto. was composed by an eleven-year-old boy, Alex Wolkovlskl. It was a prize-winning melody In a ghetto contest. He now resides In Israel and Is known as Tamir. A chronicler In verse and prose, Shmerke Kaczerginskl recorded the ordeals of his fellow Jews first In the Vilno Ghetto, and later as a partisan. After liberation, he collected hundreds of poems written by children under siege.

Verse III
QUiet, quiet, wells grow stronger Deep within our hearts, Till the gates are there no longer, No sound must impart. Child, rejoice not, it's your smiling That is not allowed. Let the foe encounter springtime As an autumn cloud. Let the well flow gently onward, Silent be and dream, , , Coming freedom brings your father. Slumber, child serene. As the river liberated, Springtime green is celebrated Kindle freedom's light It is your right. It is your right.
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The Howard University Choir

32

Our Town Burns

It burnsl brothers. it burns!
Our poor shtetl pitifully burns! Angry wind with rage and curses Tears and shatters and disperses. While flames leap. they twist and turn. Everything now burns! And you stand there looking on Hands folded. palms upturned. And you stand there' looking onI Our shtetl burns! '

"I've, Been Buked" (Spiritual)
~-,

Cantor Isaac Goodfriend

Howard University Choir. o-.]. ,'Weldon Norris, Conductor
I've been 'buked an' I've been scorned I've been 'buked an' I've been scorned. Children I've been 'buked an' I've been scorned. I've been talked about sho's you' born. Dere is trouble Dere is trouble Dere is trouble Ain' gwine lay Aln' gwine lay allover dis worl' allover dis worl' Children allover dis worl' my religion down. my religion down.

"£5 Brent"
Words and Music: Mordechai Gebirtig Choral arrangement: Martin Kalmanof Introduction: James Earl Jones Cantor Isaac Goodfriend Howard University Choir, Dr. J. Weldon Norris, Conductor

FOllowIng a program in the Polish town, Przytyk, in 1938, Mordechal Geblrtig wrote the stirring song which was to prove prophetic of the Holocaust. Gebirtlg was a popular song writer before the war, who continued to wrIte and compose songs in the Cracow Ghetto. He was shot by the Germans on June 4, 1942.

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Weldon Norris

34

Poems from the Ghettos
Narrator: Meg Tilly

Natasha - 8 years old

It is twilight.
I sit with my dolls by the stove and dream. t dream that my father came back and will no longer go away. I dream that my father lives with us now. He comes home from work; he takes me on his knee. He will tell me stories. He will play with me. Mamma, mamma, how good it is to have a father. I don't even know where my father is. Does he remember me? If only a-letter came from him. Suddenly there is a knock at the door _.. I think-s-perhaps my father has come back. I run to the door; I dance; I throw down my dolls! My heart beats so-I think I hear my father ... A beggarman is standing at the door!

All we know Is the young boy's name was
Motele, from Thereslenstadt concentration camp.

Motele
on, I shall be sad from tomorrow on! Today I shall be gay. What is the use of sadness-tell me that?Becausethese evil winds begin to blow? Why should I grieve for tomorrow-today? Tomorrow may be so good, so sunny, Tomorrow the sun may shine for us again, We will no longer need to be sad. From tomorrow on, I shall be sad. From tomorrow on! Not today; no! today I will be glad. And every day, no matter how bitter it be, I shall say: From tomorrow on, i;,'shallbe sad, Not today! ~

From tomorrow

35

A Jewish Grave
Narrator: James Earl Jones Words: Jewish High School Students Prologue and epilogue to a film script Lodz Ghetto

Klezmer Music from the Shtetls
"Friling" (Springtime) Shmerke Kaczerginski "Mach Tsu Di Eygelech" (Close Your Little Eyes) Words: Isaiah Shpiegel 7 Music: David Beyglman Lodz Ghetto "RI~kele, The Sabbath One" Words: Peysakh Kaplan Composer: Unknown Bialystok Ghetto Introduction: Joseph Wiseman

and an epilogue to a film script written in verse, created by Jewish high school students. The script ranges in form from satire to reflecrlons, describing the trials and tribulations ·of the Ghetto Lodz.

A Jewish Grave Is made up of a prologue

When this war ends And the time comes to lay down arms And rebui Id the country And peace reigns upon the earthOh then all kinds of Investors and profiteers Will come up with a new idea: To make a film of the suffering of the Jews. When this film grows popular The public will call it "A Jewish Grave." It will be shown in America, England and Scotland. And, wrapt in emotion, Quivering with pleasure, Everyone will think: "The film is fabulous; The scenes are wonderful, But nothing is true. They are only ta les From a grotesque land."

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36

The Giora Feidman Trio Giora Feidman, Clarinet Jeff Israel, Guitar Peter Weitzner, Bass

The concentration camps. as grotesque as they were. often had their small enclaves of Jewish musicians, who not only preserved their Eastern European heritage. but often composed songs and instrumental music which survived them. The music of the Jewish people-we call it Klezmer-is richly mellowed wine in an ancient vessel. The Klezmer sound is as ancient as recorded history-and yet strangely new each time it is played. It has a way of enveloping its audience in joy. sadness. humor. love. and in mysticism too. So it is withall-a deeply inner language-a language of the inner soul-a truly universal means of communication that has the power to release all feelings from one person to another.

Giora feldman

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"A Plea for the SurvivorsPart I"
By Elie Wiesel Narrator: Ted Koppel

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the beginning, the theme evoked a kind of sacred awe, It was considered taboo, reserved only for the initiated, The great novelists of the period-from Camus to Silone, from Mauriac to Faulkner-took great care not tq grapple with it, Out of respect for the dead as much as for the living. Also out of. a concern for truth. In that unique domain, imagination does not match reality: the tale of a carpenter escaped from Treblinka is more powerfully evocative than the product of the most prolific imagination. Here imagination becomes obstacle; the dream trails behind reality. The intellectual honesty of a Malraux, the human sensitivity of an Agnon kept them from treading on ground haunted by so many ghosts and covered with ashes, The works that were published in the beginning? Witness accounts, individual stories, autobiographical documents-their restrained tone contrasts sharply with the atrocities they describe. One plunges into them as into a bad dream, with an odd sensation of loss and anguish. Obviously one is dealing not with literary creations, but with a genre that transcends literature; with something else. And so one follows the protagonist into his madness, into his inevitable fall, trying as one goes along to share retroactively in his pain if not his solitude. That is all one can do. That is the only thing one can do. For in those days the literature of testimony still commanded a certain respect.

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As yet; nobody was explaining to the dead how they should have gone to their deaths, or to the survivors how they should be living their lives. One did not pass judgment. Not yet. As the years went by, the outlines became fuzzy, less defined. The Holocaust? A desanctified theme, or if you prefer, a theme robbed of its passion, its mystery. Eventually, people lost all shame. Today anybody can say anything on the subject and not be called to order. And not be treated as imposter. Novelists use it to add a dimension to their fiction and politicians use it to please. Do they realize that they are cheapening the event? That they are emptying it of its substance? Are they aware of how the parodies of their experiences affect the survivors? To forestall any possible objections, they even deprive them of their wretched right to their "title." Suddenly everybody declares himself a "Holocaust survivor," reasoning that everybody could have become one. Today it

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is possible never to have had to confront the sadists of Mauthausen and the overseers of Sachsenhausen,never to have suffered torture and agony, and yet to present oneself as a "camp survivor." Simply because Hitler and Eichmann waged war on all Jews,all liberals, all non-Aryans, all men and all women dedicated to justice, liberty and peace. All those films, those works, those spectaculars that attract a wide audience by showing occupation, collaboration, deportation, martyrdom, slow death, instant death, all the sordidness of war. They may appear to prove that finally people are taking an interest, that . they refuse to forget and want to know. Perhaps. But they also show something elsethe need to think that the Holocaust was only an accident of history. Nothing more. The Holocaust-an imposing word, and so convenient to use as background for anecdotes in which fascism and eroticism struggle for front stage. Yesterday people said, "Auschwitz, never heard of it." Now they say, "Oh yes, we know all about it." We are surprised-and hurt-by the attitude of well-intentioned.:. people who presumably share our feelings. In their desire to explain the event, they distort it. As one reads what they write, as one listens to them, watches their films, one might think that the Holocaust was a terrible but beautiful story. That there were actually people who enjoyed themselves ... in a kind of cops-and-robbers game. Sure, people were hungry, sure people were afraid ... but that, too, was part of the game. A game in which both killers and victims stepped in and out of their roles with ease. Each had its own grotesque, artistic or spiritual aspect. The days when people held their breath at the mention of the Holocaust are gone. As are the days when the dead elicited meditation rather than profanation.

The New Colossus
Words: Emma Lazarus Music: Max Helfman Orchestral arrangement: Zalmen Mlotek Introduction: Lorne Greene Sherrill Milnes Howard University Choir American Symphony Orchestra, Julius Rudel, Conductor

In the eyes of our survivors-and the millions who make up this nation of lmmigrants- the Statue of Liberty symbolizes America's greatness in reaching out to the hapless victims of political, religious and economic tyranny. The Lady with the Torch is approaching her centennial year. We pray that her beacon will illumine the hearts of men and women everywhere for centuries. Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land. . Here, at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightening, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. "Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp]," Cries she with silent lips. Give me your tired, your poor. Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free. The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless tempest tossed, to me I lift my lamp beside the golden door.

39

The Honorable Miles Lerman, Co-Chairman, Campaign Cabinet, U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council
Five years ago, our dream began. A dream to build a Holocaust Memorial Museum in our nation's capital. Last April, the Vice President of the United States of America presented to [lie Wiesel, Chairman of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council, the symbolic keys to the Future site of this Museum. Throughout last year, many members of our Council have spent countless hours in deliberations and in careful planning, to make sure that the concepts and themes of the Museum will be presented with dignity and historic accuracy. I would like to share with you and with this very special audience, the enormous spirit of excitement that prevails amongst survivors in the anticipation of having our dream come true. . I would like to read to you a letter that I have received from a survivor, a letter which reflects the commitment and determination to make this Museum a reality. Dear Miles: I am deeply moved and privileged that you asked me to participate in the realization of the dream of all of us who survived the Holocaust. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum wi II be a remembrance, not only to us who are for-

tunate enough to be here, but a fulfillment of a mandate, a legacy, that the martyrs and heroes of our people did not die in vain. Let the whole world be reminded constantly, from this generation to generations to come, that in the national capital of our beloved adopted country of the United States of America, there will be a museum that will store a vast collection of documents to show to every citizen of the world what hate and tyranny can bring upon mankind. The site of this museum is a proper one. The founding monuments of our great leaders-George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln-champions of our democracy, will rise even higher, in contrast to this monument of the dark history evoked by tyranny. As one of the survivors of the Holocaust, I thank God for living long enough to see the day when, not only our martyrs and heroes, but also such wonderful human beings as Raoul Wallenberg, and other Righteous Gentiles, who so unselfishly helped us in our struggle for survival, will be remembered and eternalized in this museum. Whatever. part of this work is designated to me, I take it with great pride in the fulfillment of this dream. And I would like to invite everyoneto join me to take part in the realization of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Respectfully, Dr. Laszlo N. Tauber, Washington, D.C.

41

The Honorable Christopher J. Dodd, United States Senate
Some fifty times in the last century the United States Congress has honored the accomplishments and contributions of outstanding individuals by authorizing the designand striking of a commemorative gold medal in their honor. As you might expect from the limited number of these awards, they are approved only on rare occasions and only to honor -. extraordinary individuals. These gold medals have been issued for statesmen such as George C. Marshall and Winston Churchill, for public servants such as Robert F. Kennedy and Hubert Humphrey, for poets such as Robert Frost, and scientists such as Jonas Salle On Thursday of this past week both Houses of Congress unanimously approved the striking of such a medal to honor the contributions to world literature and most importantly, to human rights of Elie Wiesel. I had the honor and pleasure of authoring the Senate version of that legislation along with my colleague, Senator Paul Laxalt of Nevada. Representatives Jack Kemp of New York and Sidney Yates of Illinois, who are here with me this evening, introduced the House resolution. Let me share with. you this evening, the language of this legislation, which has now been sent to President Reagan for his signature. It begins with seven official findings of the United States Congress. Among them: Whereas, EIie Wiesel is internationally esteemed for his accomplishments as novelist, teacher, philosopher, critic, historian, humanitarian, and distinguished citizen of the United States and the world; Whereas Elle Wiesel in his role of "spiritual archivist of the Holocaust" encourages an understanding of the horrors of the past in order to offer humanity hope for a better and more secure future;

Whereas, Elie Wiesel has traveled, written, and worked for the cause of human rights in Biafra, Lebanon, Cambodia, the Soviet Union, and Central America. In light of these contributions and others, the President is authorized to present, on behalf of the Congress, to Elie Wiesel a gold medal of appropriate design, in recognition of his humanitarian efforts and outstanding contributions to world peace and human rights. Elie, we wish we could have brought the medal here this evening. Instead, we hope you will accept, for now, a copy of the legislation with our respect and high regard. This medal, as I have noted, is given to very few people who have a profound effect on the way the world feels, believes, thinks and remembers the human experience. You have done that, Elie, with uncommon eloquence and exceptional insight, and we are privileged to join in honoring you on this solemn and important evening of commemoration.

42

The Honorable Elie Wiesel, Chairman, U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council
Senator Dodd, Congressman Yates, Congressman Kemp. Will I ever be able to thank you enough? I would like to add some words of gratitude before expressing some doubt. How can I not thank Norman Gladney for the extraordinary way of organizing this evening; for Miles Lerman for organizing survivors' help for the museum, and of course, for a man who tirelessly, creatively, dynamically mobilized all his, and our, efforts to arrange this evening of remembrance. A man who justifies our faith in friendship-Sigmund Strochlitz. This award is not mine alone. It belongs to all those survivors, men and women, who like me, with me, have devoted their lives to tell a tale that cannot and yet must be told. It also belongs to all those multitudes who, somehow, for reasons unknown to me, left-us behind. It all began forty years ago betw~e~ Passover and Shavuoth, between the holiday of Passover and the holiday of the giving of the law. When the German armies occupied Hungary swiftly, they engulfed hundreds and hundreds of communities in darkness. Today, forty yeats later, I still do not understand. I have wr!Jten books; I have tried to tell tales; I've tried to teach. I think I've tried to do what a survivor must do, bear witness. And yet I have doubts. I was listening tonight with intensity to the beautiful moving, heartbreaking songs that were read or sung by great art ists and I was wondering: Have we really managed to convey something of the experience to you? Julius Rudel mobilized sound and words. Do you really feel, I hope you do, that something of that night has been communicated to some of us. Or Meg Tilly reading the poems of the children. Have you heard those children through her voice? I think of those children, and I still see them. I will always see them. I would like to hear them, but in my imagina-

tion they are mute. Joe Wiseman, your words have been my words. Do they reach out? Can images be conveyed or shared or tapped? Ted, my friend, when you read my words I was listening too. In other words, unfortunately, we deal with an event that inherently makes us helpless. What they have done to us is beyond words. $0 I sit here in the Kennedy Center, in this elegant great hall full of music and art, and I see myself forty years earlier. What I tried to say, what we tried to tell forty years ago, I'm afraid, my good friends, will not be told. There are so many questions that are still open to me. I still do not understand how it happened. How could madness invade history? How is it possible that Hungarian Jewry could be wiped out in six weeks? What astonishes me, and will never cease to astonish me, is the fact that in Washington, D.C. people knew what we did not know. Can you imagine that Hungarian Jews arrived in Auschwitz in May 1944 and they didn't know what Auschwitz meant? After all, testimony had been given; reports had been published. Open your newspapers, and you will see that Babi Yar was reported shortly after it happened. The Warsaw Ghetto uprising was reported in the Washington Post, the New York Tlmes.T'eople knew, and we did not. I found in some chronicles that in Birkenau when the Hungarian Jewish transport arrived, twice there were strange incidents. When the Jewswere unloaded, realized what was going on, they began running away. The S.s. soldiers had to shoot and kill them, but it took some time. Can you imagine what would have happened to Hungarian Jewry had we known? We would have run, not in Birkenau but at every railway station, or in the ghettos. My God, we were three weeks away from D-Day. The Russian army was twenty miles away from my town. Had world leaders warned us not to go, we would not have gone-or some of us would not have gone. I don't understand. I don't understand something else. When the nightmare was over, where was our anger? What happened to Jewish anger? Logically

43

----~-there would have, there should have been such an anger to shake up the world. There was no anger, and there was no hate, and there was no bitterness. I swear to you there was no hate and never will be hate. It would be so simplistic, so cheap to reduce such a tragedy to hate. But the fact that there was no hate is a miracle. Instead, survivors in D.P. camps, and again, can you imagine that after the war hundreds and thousands of Jewswere still in D.P. camps because there was no country to allow them in after the war! And yet in those camps they married, and they had children, and they opened theatres and schools in Bergen-Belsen and Fernwald where Leivick came and wrote his beautiful poem, "In Treblinka Bin Ich Nit Gewesen." In Treblinka there were cultural events and cultural evenings, and poets wrote and people read. And I don't understand, where did they take the courage and the faith in word, in language, in art, to go on and to build life on ruins? How come there was no anger at our neighbors who knew and did not open their doors? Oh yes, we are grateful to the Righteous Gentiles, and we are grateful to ..a11 the members of the resistance movements, and we are grateful to the Wallenbergs and the Danish people and people in Poland and Hungary who helped. But there were so few; they were a minority all)ong their own communities. And yet we vJ'erenot angry; we started allover again. Instead of giving up hope we advocated hope, in building a Jewish state. Tens of thousands of Jews went then to Palestine. Struggling, fighting in the name of humanity and Jewish history. My good friends, this is what we are trying to do even now. I am not telling you that what we tried to say you can ever know. You won't. What we are trying to do is to give you something. A tear in the ocean. A spark of the fire. A sigh of an old man going to death. A smile of a hungry child looking and looking. Why are we doing this? To make you cry? Believe me, no, When the war was over a
The Honorable [lie Wiesel

Jewish child turned to his mother, he was two or three years old, and said, "Mother, can I cry now?" and we answer, "No, we don't cry." And we don't want you to cry. We want you to remember. Not for our sake-for yours. For we believe that if the tale is told and shared we can help each other, We can then prove to ourselves that we are all children of the same Father, and that when one people is threatened, all people are affected, and that when a million children are killed, creation is blemished. We speak against hate; we speak against anger; we speak as an act of faith. And tonight, for sharing our faith, we do thank you. On behalf of the Holocaust Memorial Counci I, its staff, its board of advisers, its second generation, I thank you all. You who sang and you who performed and Helen Hayes who broke our hearts and Orson Welles who made ancient words so fitting; and JamesEarl Jones and Lorne Greene and Michael Moriarty and Michael York and Tom Brokaw who so movingly and effectively told and retold the factual story to all of you. And I can never forget the Howard University Choir or Cantor Isaac Goodfriend, or Sherrill Milnes or Giora Feldman or lIana Vered, who with their songs and music brought back memories of sadness and hope. I hope you know what we feel for you now, , No one is as.capable of gratitude as a survivor is, We believe in gratitude. After the war, we didn't stop saying thank you. Thank you men; thank you women; thank you cloud; thank you wind: thank you tree; thank you. We didn't stop. Every moment is a moment of grace. After all, my good friend Chris Dodd, r didn't do anything to survive, and those who died didn't do anything to die. It was so simple for someone else to stand here in my place. And when I write, and when I talk, and when I teach, and when I sing, and when [ hear a song, [ imagine who that other person could have been. Can you? [ thank you. I thank you.

45

u.s.

Holocaust Memorial Council Staff
Assistant Director for Operations Marian S. Craig General Counsel jonathan Bush Staff Researcher Dr. Eli Pfefferkorn Special Assistant to the Regional Director. National Park Service, National Capital Region Stephen E. Lynch Secretarial Staff Chariita Ashton Helen Chittick Wanda Cowans Rosemarie Harris Sillette Sheler

Executive Director Professor Seymour Siegel Senior Deputy Director Micah H. Naftalin Director of Museum Planning Anna R. Cohn Director of Communications Marcia Feldman

A Campaign to Remember Staff
Director Dr. David Weinstein Staff Dr. Barbara Hillson Abramowitz Richard Grossman Diane D. Sternberg
'r,

Office Manager Marjorie Sampson

An Evening of Commemoration through the Performing Arts
Producer Norman Gladney, Gladney Communications, Ltd. Coordinator for the u.S. Holocaust Memorial Council Marcia Feldman Stage Director Gus Fleming Music Director julius Rudel Assodate Music Director Zalmen Mlotek Talent Coordinators Andrea Klein Ani Coherian Text Research and Program Notes Dr. Eli Pfefferkorn, Staff Researcher U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council Music Research Moshe Hoch The Institute for Conservation and Research of jewish Music of the Holocaust (Israel) Translations Professor David Hirsch (Brown University) Roslyn Hirsch Roslyn Bresnick-Perry Text of Introduction to the "Hebrew Chorus" (Nabucco) "Verdi" by Joseph Wechsberg. Putnam &. Sons (New York). Used by Permission. Logistics Details, Inc. Program design and advertising Levine &. Rudd, Inc. Publicity Jackson/Summers Association. Inc. Special Arrangements Michael Berenbaum

70

United States Holocaust Memorial Council
Professor Elie Wiesel, Chairman Mr. Mark E. Talisman, Vice Chairman Rabbi Joseph Asher Mr. Tibor Baranski Mr. Irving Bernstein Dr. Marver Bernstein Mr. Hyman Bookbinder Mr. Victor Borge Mr. Norman Braman Professor Robert McAfee Brown Professor Harry James Cargas Ms. Esther Cohen Professor Gerson D. Cohen The Honorable Mario Cuomo A. Arthur Davis, Esquire Professor Terrence Des Pres The Reverend Constantine N. Dombalis Mr. [aroslav Drabek Ms. Kitty Dukakls Professor Willard Fletcher Mr. Irvin Frank Mr. Sol Goldstein Cantor Isaac Goodfriend Professor Alfred Gottschalk Dr. Irving Greenberg . .' Ms. Dorothy Height The Reverend Theodore M. Hesburgh, c.s.c. Professor Raul Hilberg Mr. Herbert D. Katz Julian E. Kulas, Esquire Professor Norman Lamm Mr. Miles Lerman Professor Fran~<linLittell Mr. William J.Lowenberg Steven A. Ludsln, Esquire Professor lngeborg G. Mauksch Mr. Aloysius A. Mazewski Mr. Benjamin Meed Dr. Ruth Miller Mr. Set Momjian The Reverend John T. Pawlikowski, Rabbi Bernard S. Raskas Mr. Edward H. Rosen Dr. Hadassah Rosensaft Mr. Bayard Rustin Dr. Abram L. Sachar Edward Sanders, Esquire Mr. Julius Schatz Richard Schifter, Esquire Mr. Sigmund Strochlitz Mr. Kalman Sultanik Mr. Laurence A. Tisch Mr. Glenn E. Watts Mr. Siggi B. Wi lzlg Mr. Eli Zborowskl O.S.M.

u.s.
The The The The The

House of Representatives
Sidney R. Yates William Lehman Stephen [. Solarz S. William Green Robert Garcia

Honorable Honorable Honorable Honorable Honorable

The The The The The

u.s.

Senate
Claiborne Pel! Robert j. Dole john C. Danforth Rudy Boschwitz Frank R. Lautenberg

Honorable Honorable Honorable Honorable Honorable

Ex Offld6Members
U.S. Department of Education: . Ms. Sharon Schonhaut U.S. Department of the Interior: Mr. Russell Dickenson U.S. Department of State: Morris I. Leibman, Esquire

Executive Director
Professor Seymour Siegel

Sam E. Bloch Chairman, Board of Advisers Menachem Z. Rosensaft Chairman, Second Generation Advisory Committee

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