The Basics of Trigonometry

I. Definitions A. An angle is formed by rotating a ray around its endpoint or vertex. The initial position of the ray is the initial side of the angle, while the location of the ray at the end of its rotation is the terminal side of the angle. If the rotation of an angle is counterclockwise, the angle is positive; if the rotation is clockwise, the angle is negative. initial side initial side

terminal side

terminal side

Positive angle

Negative angle

B. An angle is in standard position if its vertex is at the origin of a rectangular coordinate system and its initial side is along the positive x-axis. An angle in standard position is said to lie in the quadrant where its terminal side lies. y y terminal side Quadrant 11
X

Quadrant 1

4--~=~---+'::""'_~'---.

initial side
4-----+---- .. X

Quadrant 111

Quadrant IV

Angle in standard position C. An angle in standard position whose terminal side coincides with the x-axis or y-axis is called a quadrantal angle. Two angles with the same initial side and the same terminal side, but different amounts of rotation, are called cotem1inal angles.
1

Suppose a circle has radius r> O. then the radian measure of f3 is f3 = ~ . a radian measure is a real number without any units.x x Quadrantal angle Coterminal angles D. For this reason. x Radian measure of f3 = ~ = 1 1 f3 has radian measure 1 180 = 0 1C 1 = 1C radians 0 . ~ 57.3 1C Example: Convert 150 to radian measure and 0 71C 4 to degree measure. 180 0 A I 1 radian = -so. r The radian measure of an angle is the ratio of the arc length cut by the angle to the radius of the circle. Let f3 be a central angle of the circle. If f3 cuts off an arc of length s on the circle. 0 0 150 0 = 150 (__!!__J= 0 0 180 0 5lf and 71t(180 ]=7(45 )=315 6 4 If 2 .

0° ratios for special angles . r = ~ x2 Let r be the distance from the origin to P(x. 4 sma=5 csca seca =- 5 5 4 -3 cosa=x tana=- 5 4 =- -3 cota =- -3 -3 4 II. Then the trigonometric ratios of () are defined as follows: r y csc()=case =r tan e' x r sece =- x =y x x cote =y Example: The terminal side of an angle Find the values of the trigonometric y a goes through the point (-3.E.!=1 1 o =- 1 1 =1 =und 0 tanO ° =-= 0 1 cot 0° =. ratios of a .y). . ie + y2 .!_ = und o (1. SIn 0° = -0 = 0 1 esc 0 secO 0 = .0) cosO° ". y) be a point other than the origin on the terminal side of an angle () in standard position. Trigonometric A.4).!_ o 3 . Let P(x.

300 =1 =-- csc30° = 2 4--¥~ __ ~~ __ ~rl _.60° ... the legs are the same length and the (l. J2 times as long as either of the sin 45° = _1_ = J2 1 1 12 2 csc45° = sec45° = J2 .='\/j 13 " -' r. 1) r=2 angle) is S111 I ·J3 oj] a times as long as the shortest side.fi cos45° = _1_ = 12 12 2 x tan45 a =-=1 cot 45° = 1 y (1.x _ cos30 tan30 2 =~. 1) hypotenuse is legs. 2 .90° triangle.= -13 3 1 13 cot30 0 t: = '\/3 Recall from geometry that in a 45° .90° triangle. x 4 . J sin600 =J] 2 I I J3) cos60 o =- 1 2 sec 60° = 2 cot60 c -s s r. the hypotenuse is always twice as long as the shortest side (side opposite the 30° angle) and the medium side (side opposite the 60° (J]. tan60° = 13 1 =-.y Recall from geometry that in a 30° .45° . .

=0 tan 90° = _!_ = undefined = _!_ = o undefined o 0 cot90 ° = . 90° sin 90° = l= 1 1 1 csc90° = 1 sec 90 ° cos90° =.= 0 1 y sin 180° =. = -1 sec180 ° = .= undefined -1 o sin 270 ° = =l = -J 1 ~_-+---+------'I--.= 0 1 tan270 ° -1 =-=undefined o cot270 o 0 =-=0 -1 5 . -x esc 270° =-1 0 cos 270 ° = . = 0 1 esc 180 ° = -1 = undefined o x cos180° = =-!.E.2.1 =-1 1 -1 -1 tan180° =_2_=0 cot 180° = .2.

y > 0 ::::::>= 4.J . r=\jx 12 +y-::::::> ? +y 2? ::::::>25=9+y-::::::>y ".:::...J 5 csca =4 . Cos and sec are positive IV Example 1: Suppose that cosa ""-. 0 ... Trigonometric ratios and quadrants II Sin I All trig ratios are positive.- 4 5 -...III...J 4 6 . Trigonometric ratios using quadrants and reference angles A. Tofindy. and a lies in quadrant IT. cota=- -. 2 andr=5..: =5 5 seclY.. and esc are positive Ian and cot are positive III . y sma".. cosa""--=-::::::>sll1cer> 5r 1 5=\j(-3) 2 3 x.. Find the other 5 trigonometric ratios for a ..16::::::>y=±4. coso.=- a tan a =. Since a lies in quadrant II.. -j 4 -3 .x=-.

-l) csc 1'=2 sec - 2J3 '") -- 2J3 .1) (h.) - 2J3 3 ..) 113 tanfJ =3 2 cotfJ =- 3 2 30 y sm - 0 150 0 210 0 330 -- 0 1 2 - 1 2 -2 1 1 2 -13.) (-h. -3 2 = Y x => x = -3 and y = ...I) cos J3 J3 _ -_ 2 1 2 -- J3 2 J3 _ 2 1 x tan 1 1 J3 2 J3 2 J3 -2 J3 -2 .) -2 cscfJ =- )13 -2 . r => tan fJ = 3_ = 3 = x2 + J y2 = Jr-( _-2-)-2 -+-(_-3-)-2 = J13 ..) cot 7 13 -13 lJ -13 .13 r. y sinfJ = Ji3 -.. -.Example 2: Suppose that tan fJ = 3_ 3 and sin fJ < O... Since sin j3 < 0..-::.2. Find the other trigonometric ratios for j3..-I) (lJ. /13 . secfJ =. .) -.. x cos fJ = . the y < 0 Thus..

13) cos x 1 - 2 -- 2 -- 1 2 2 tan esc sec J3 2 -13 2 13 -J3 -2 2 -J3 (-1.J3 J3 8 .1. -J3) J3 2 1 .J3 -2 1 -13 2 1 2 cot 1 J3 13 .J3 2 1 -1 J3 2 .-1) tan esc sec cot J2 J2 1 12 -12 -1 -12 -12 1 -J2 12 -1 60 y SIll 0 120 - 0 240 0 300 -- 0 ~- J3 2 .-1) (1.45 y SIll 0 135 1 0 225 0 315 0 1 1 12 1 J2 1 12 1 -J2 1 cos x 1 J2 1 J2 -1 J2 1 J2 -1 (-1.J3) r=2 (1. -.J3 2 - (. 13) (1.

0 • Example 2: Find the exact value of sin 21 0 The terminal side of the angle whose measure is 210° lies in the 3rd quadrant. or fourth quadrants. cos3 15 = cos4) ~o. The following diagrams show the reference angle j3 for an angle a whose terminal side lies in the second. cos is positive in the 4th 0 quadrant. Thus. sin 210° = -sin30° _!. so 210° -180° = 30° is the reference angle. Also. Also.fi = -. Also. tan 120° = ~tan60° = -13. Thus. Quadrantal angles do not have a reference angle. 0 so 180 ~120° = 60 is the reference angle. The reference angle for the angle a is the positive acute angle formed by the terminal side of a and the x-axis. x Example 1: Find the exact value of tan 120 0 • The terminal side of the angle whose measure is 120 lies in the 2nd quadrant.E. 2 9 . Thus. tan is negative in the 2nd 0 0 quadrant. 2 0 • Example 3: Find the exact value of cos 315 The terminal side of the angle whose measure is 315° lies in the 4th quadrant. sin is negative in the 3rd = quadrant.. The reference angle for an angle in the first quadrant is the given angle. so 360 0 - 315 0 = 45° is the reference angle . third.

The Basics of Trigonometry I. Suppose that tan a = -(1) sina = V. Suppose that sin and cosa < o. Find the exact values for each of the following: (S) cos31So = (9) tan(-135°) (6) tan 390° = (7) sin Sl 0°= (8) cos( -60 0 ) = = (10) sin(-900) = 10 . The terminal side of an angle (1) r = (2) sinf) = 3 4 f) goes through the point (8.Practice Sheet . Convert the following radian measures to degree measures: (1)::"1[= ? 3 (2) -17:= S 9 (3) -1[= 7 18 (4) -1[= 8 5 III. .IS). (2) cosa = fi = 12 and S tan fJ > 0 . Convert the following degree measures to exact radian measures: (3) 220°= (4) 40So II. (1) cos fJ = (2) tan fJ = VI. (3) cos e' = (4) tanf)= IV.

(1) (2) -- J23 5 (2) ~~~- J2 53 (3) . (1) -Jr 36 (2) -Jr 6 (3) !_!_ Jr 9 (4) -Jr 9 4 II. (1) 17 0 (2) 100° (2) -~ (3) 70° (3) ~ 17 (4) 288 (4) -~ 0 17 4 5 8 IV.. (1) ~ 5 V.J2 2 (6) ·J3 3 (9) 1 (10) .fj 3 (7) l_ 2 (4) .!_ 2 VI.Solution I(ey for The Basics of Trigonometry 7 5 I.. (1) J2 2 (2) 0 (5) . (1) 120 III.1 11 .fj 2 (8) .

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