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Bio Mimetic

Bio Mimetic

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Published by: balajirajasekaran on Apr 29, 2012
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Biological apatites (mineral component of the bones) are difficult to synthesise in

the laboratory with carbonate contents equivalent to those in the bone. Al-

though the carbonate inclusion in itself is very simple115

(in fact, when producing

stoichiometric apatites in the laboratory, a strict control of the synthesis


Chapter 2

conditions is needed to avoid carbonate inclusion), the carbonate content is

always different from the fraction of carbonates in the natural bone (4–8wt%)6

and/or are located in different lattice positions.116

At this point, it should be

mentioned that this carbonate content can be slightly different when analysed

samples come from other vertebrates.117

The carbonate easily enters into the

apatite structure, but the problem lies in the amount that should be introduced

taking into account the carbonate content of biological apatites. When the aim is

to obtain carbonate hydroxyapatite and the reaction takes place at high tem-

peratures, the carbonates enter and occupy lattice positions in the OH–


(A-type apatites). In contrast, the carbonates in biological apatites always oc-

cupy positions in the PO3À

4 sublattice (that is, they are B-type apatites).118


order to solve this problem, low-temperature synthesis routes have to be fol-

lowed, allowing carbonate hydroxyapatites to be obtained with carbonates in

phosphate positions.6

But the amount entered remains to be solved, and it is

usually lower than the carbonate content of the mineral component of the bones.

These calcium-deficient and carbonated apatites have been obtained in the

laboratory by various techniques; nowadays, it is known that apatites with low

crystallinity, calcium deficiency and carbonate content can be obtained, but

with carbonate contents usually unequal to those of the natural bones.5,119,120

Therefore, the main problem remains in the control of carbonate content and

lattice positioning.

2.2.7 Silica as a Component in Apatite Precursor

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