CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies This Chapter includes different local and foreign literature and

studies that have direct support to the research study. This particular research study gives the gist of the relevant readings done by researcher, which related to the present research study. The foreign and local literature and studies would serve as a guide and support in the interpretation and analysis of the data gathered. Foreign Literature In the Article IP CCTV - The Next Generation's Surveillance Technology by Emily Robinson published on July 06, 2011 that came from the website www.ezinearticles.comstated, stated that CCTV cameras are used only in high profile events. Indeed this may be the fact in the days to come. They are made compulsory by government as to avoid any miscreant's problems and untowardly incidents. These modern day tools if properly put into use can do wonders in the area of security.1 This article is related to the present study because the researchers believe that CCTV is a very useful tool to solve problems in the society because it serves as credible evidence. In May 22, 2009, Mr. Andy J. Thompson wrote an article entitled ―CCTV Security Cameras – do they help fight crime‖ where stated that ―The UK has more CCTV camera coverage than any other country. A recent study examined the effectiveness of UK security cameras as it

2 In relation to the present study. but CCTV does not always works in proper system. Lester J. CCTV is clearly an effective deterrence to criminal activity. proving innocence by sense of protecting and defending the people in any accusations. and other areas. aiding police investigations. stores. It could not display every single square of your office. preventing theft from the till.The Advantages and Disadvantages‖ published in Ezine Articles stated that CCTV is highly useful for crime prevention as it increases the chance of the perpetrator being caught.3 This article is related to the present study because it gives the people the information that CCTV doesn‘t only have its advantages because at some point it also has its disadvantages.20 pertains to crime prevention. . Although you set the location of the system in a very careful way. banks.‖ It was also stated that CCTV video is often used in police investigations and the writer believes that most people are convinced of the effectiveness of video surveillance and may even feel a certain amount of comfort in knowing that it adds to their sense of personal safety and they understand that their chances of being a victim of crime are reduced when they find themselves in an area monitored with CCTV cameras. the researchers believe that CCTV is a very effective tool to distinguish criminals and secure public places. Hester‘s article ―CCTV System. you still cannot get total guarantee of security level.

. 2009 from the website www.5 This article is related to the present study because it can give assurance that using a CCTV that we are safe and it can be use this as an evidence to the victims. 2011.com stated that CCTV plays an important role in the security of public. but also a perfect way to prevent them from breaking.Co.Public Service. in using CCTV it can identify offenders and use it as an evidence in the criminal justice system.4 In relation to the present study.21 In the article ―CCTV Surveillance for Your Safety‖ by Emily Robinson on March 28.UK. In the article ―CCTV actually plays a very important role‖ written by Dave Wilkinson Technical Manager of British Security Industry Association (BSIA) published on September 3. the researchers believe that the use of CCTV camera is a very effective way to gain safety and security from criminal actions. Dave Wilkinson stated that CCTV is playing a supportive role as part of jigsaw of evidence which may then culminate in convictions. it was stated that CCTV surveillance is not only a great way to catch perpetrators after your property has been broken into. This therefore means that if some criminals might actually be put off of the thought of trying to break into your property and this in turn would mean that your belongings were kept.

the researchers believe that CCTV cameras would be a useful way to record evidence against crimes.5 million pesos. 2011 issue of Philippine Daily Inquirer stated that the city government installed closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras in the seaport.22 Local Literature In the article. especially those that handle money like banks. the researchers believe that the used of CCTV camera is helpful in monitoring and solving crimes. market areas and in the main business areas where banks and other commercial establishments and government offices worth 2. terminals and stops offer public safety and prevent another repeat of the terrorist attack. ―Subdivisions. In the article. lending firms and pawnshops. . 2011 issue of Philippine Daily Inquirer stated that Cebu City ordinance proposed that no business establishment. Establishments Required to Install Cameras‖ published on July 17.6 In the relation to the present study. 2011 issue of Manila Bulletin stated that Cavite representative proposed the installation of closed-circuit television (CCTV) camera on public vehicles.7 In the relation to the present study.8 In relation to the present study. ―CCTV in public vehicles proposed‖ by Rio Rose Ribaya published on January 29. should not be allowed to operate without CCTVs. In the article ―CCTV camera installed around Lamitan City by Julie Alipala published on May 19. the researchers believe that CCTV cameras are effective tools in securing certain areas.

2008 entitled ―Measuring the Effects of Video Surveillance on Crime in Los Angeles‖ stated that local program characteristics likely affect the overall success of CCTV programs — which are often very different from one other — in reducing and preventing crime. 2011 issue Philippine Daily Inquirer stated that the Compro IP70 enables users to identify people and objects clearly. Foreign Studies According to the study of Aundreia Cameron. 2011 issued in Philippine Daily Inquirer stated that CCTV cameras of a bank in Quezon City was robbed Friday recorded the crime carried out by 15 heavily armed men.11 .23 In the article ―Security Camera now within reach of many‖ by Theresa S. Samaniego published on August 7. CCTV cameras improve its qualities in order to solve crimes faster than before. the researchers believe that as days passed by technology get bigger and better.10 In relation to the present study. Elke Kolodinski. In the article ―QC bank heist captured on CCTV police‖ by Karen Boncocan published on July 16. Heather May and Nicholas Williams on May 5 . CCTV can easily determine the people who commit crimes that serves as an evidence against them.9 In relation to the present study. at least three times better than the conventional CCTV camera with a 10x digital zoom.

In the study ―Assessing the Impact of CCTV: Home Office Research Study 292‖ by Martin Gill and Angela Spriggs. the researchers believe that CCTV will be effective in conducting crime investigations if real-time monitoring will be follow. In the study of Mark McComb ―Library Security‖ published in San Francisco on 2004 stated that Video surveillance and closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems serve as a way to monitor and record security. University of Leicester (United Kingdom) on 2005. or to identify witnesses and victims at a scene of crime. deter crime. Such images could be used either as evidence in court or to help extract a guilty plea. which could be used to identify offenders or eliminate them from enquiries and to help in the investigation of incidents. and ensure safety. Joseph Akpokodje.24 In relation to the present study. CCTV cameras are big help to solve crimes because the investigative team can easily distinguish the people who are involved in the said crime. Roger Bowles and Emmanuel Tigere conducted a study entitled ―Evidence-based approaches to crime prevention in . All schemes passed on some images to the police.12 In relation to the present study.13 The researchers believe that this is related to the present study because CCTV is one of the most economical security and safety tools to be used in monitoring public areas. It was conferred that CCTV images are being used for evidential purposes.

14 This is related to the present study because the researchers believe that CCTV is an important tool in gathering evidences. and their social construction. entails upfront capital costs but also continuing expenditure on monitoring and maintenance. 2002 stated that installing CCTV.A scoping review of the literature‖ published on November 29.16 . and RFID tagging and they argue that these technological systems in themselves have important social effects. for example. but that it is their place in political economies. that makes them powerful. video and CCTV). ―SOCY 304 Surveillance and Visibility‖ by David Murakami Wood is the study by David Mukarami Wood in Queen‘s University Department of Sociology stated that the technologies of surveillance.15 This is related to the present study because researchers believe that CCTV is intimately involved in prevention and maintenance of global economic order. face recognition biometrics. using particular case studies of photography (including film.25 developing countries . Local Studies The study entitled ―The Effectiveness of Hidden Camera in Conducting Investigative Report‖ by Ramon Asam Epino published on March 2007 stated that investigative program used hidden camera as an effective tool to gather accurate report.

Rodolfo B. Ramirez and Ron Nikko T. by Timothy John A. Andrew Jonathan W. This study suggests to automate the monitoring process using a computer to analyze the live feed via digital signal processing techniques. In the study ―Real-Time Event Detection System for Intelligent Video Surveillance‖. the use of the video surveillance camera system is increasing and it has been operated for public interest such as prevention of crimes and fly-tipping by the police and local government.26 In relation to the present study. it may cause an invasion to privacy and crimes. the researchers believe that as go on with flow of new technology CCTV will be needed innovation. Olanka. CCTV cameras are used by Current Affairs program to offer credible evidence pertaining in different crimes nowadays. Socorro stated that due to increased terrors and crimes.18 In relation to the present study. but private information such as faces or behavior patterns can be recorded in CCTV. When the recorded video data is exposed. Aborque. . Mark Bryan F. the researchers believe that CCTV has its negative impact in regards of privacy exposure. ESC‖ by Raymart A.17 In relation to the present study. In the study ―Proposed Class Monitoring System using Surveillance Camera for CAS. Joemary A. Chua. Delorino. Ilustre published on September 2007 stated that CCTV will not be that effective without the operators. Co and PaoloJavier S.

Espose (XXX) to the Society‖ by Neil Andrew Nantes Borines published on October 2006 states that the importance of the use of cameras in exposing the stories being covered in a certain crime and event. Sanidad-Leones which stated that developing and maintaining safe communities.27 In the research study entitled ―Impact of ABS-CBN‘s Investigative Program Exklusibong. Esplosinbong. ―The Current Situation of Crime Associated with Urbanization: Problems Experienced and Countermeasures Initiated in The Philippines‖ is the title of the study by Celia V. is central to the issue of good governance. be they urban or rural.20 This study is related because one of the functions of CCTV is to prevent crimes in order to maintain the security of a certain area. The study also stated that Media is undoubtedly an extremely powerful and influential tool to reach wide audience. .19 The study is relevant to the present study for it has given helpful information about the effects of cameras in Media and how media is important in the lives of the people. An indicator of success of crime prevention programmes are their perceived effects on peace and order.

―CCTV Surveillance for Your Safety‖.28 NOTES 1Emily Robinson.comstated 2Mr. www.inquirer 8Julie Alipala. September 3. 2011‖. 2009 3Lester J. 2009.July 06. ―CCTV System- The Advantages and Disadvantages‖. ―CCTV Actually Plays a Very Important Role‖. May 19. Establishments Required to Install Cameras‖. ―CCTV Security Cameras – do they help fight crime‖May 22. ―Security Camera now within reach of many‖. July 17. 2011.www. inquirer .The Next Generation's Surveillance Technology. Andy J.inquirer 9Theresa S. 2011. 2011. March 28. Samaniego. ―Subdivisions. ―CCTV camera installed around Lamitan‖.comstated 4Emily Robinson.ezinearticles. ―IP CCTV . July 16. www. ―CCTV in public vehicles proposed‖.comstated 5Dave Wilkinson. 2011 manilabulletin 7Philippine Daily Inquirer. ―QC bank heist captured on CCTV police‖. January 29.2011.UK 6Rio Rose Ribaya.Public Service. Thompson.ezinearticles. 2011. www. Hester. August 7.Co.ezinearticles. inquirer 10Karen Boncocan.

Planning and Development. Centro Escolar University. ―SOCY 304 Surveillance and Visibility‖. ―Real-Time Surveillance‖. Chua. 2002 15David Murakami Wood. 14Joseph ―Evidence-based approaches to crime prevention in developing countries . Olanka. March2006 17Timothy John A. Ramirez and Ron Nikko T. Mark Bryan F. Paolo Javier S. University of Leicester (United Kingdom). Aborque. Event Detection System for Intelligent Video Ilustre. 13Mark McComb ―Library Security‖. Queen‘s University Department of Sociology 16―The Effectiveness of Hidden Camera in Conducting Investigative Report‖. ―Measuring the Effects of Video Surveillance on Crime in Los Angeles‖. May 5 .29 11Aundreia Cameron. USC School of Policy. College of Arts and Sciences. 2005.A scoping review of the literature‖. De La Salle University on September 2007 18Raymart A. 2008 12Martin Gill and Angela Spriggs. Delorino. Roger Bowles and Emmanuel Tigere. November 29. Andrew Jonathan W. Elke Kolodinski. ―Proposed Class Monitoring System using Surveillance Camera for CAS. Joemary A. ―Assessing the Impact of CCTV: Home Office Research Study 292‖. ESC‖ Eulogio ‗Amang‘ Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology. 2004 Akpokodje. University of York. Socorro. Heather May and Nicholas Williams. Rodolfo B. 2002 . San Francisco. Co.

―Impact of ABS-CBN‘s Investigative Program Exklusibong. Espose (XXX) to the Society‖ Centro Escolar University.30 19Neil Andrew Nantes Borines. ―The Current Situation of Crime with Urbanization: Problems Experienced and Associated Countermeasures Initiated in The Philippines‖ . October 2006 20Celia V. Esplosinbong. Sanidad-Leones.