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4.Microbial Taxonomy

4.Microbial Taxonomy

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Published by: shibangini on Apr 29, 2012
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Classification of Microorganisms





keratin. S2O32-. staingram +ve. : chitin. agar burgdorferi products .NON PROTEOBACTERIA (gram negative) Bacterial Thermophiles PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA PHYLUM Chloroflexi PHYLUM Chlorobi PHYLUM Cyanobacteria PHYLUM Aquificae •Oldest bacteria •Chemoautolithotrophs •Aquifex pyrophilus (85oC optimum and max 95oC. psittaci membrane (ICM) Treponema chemoheterotropic. Chlamydia trachomatis Intracytoplasmic C. cellulose. S with O2 as terminal acceptor) PHYLUM Thermotogae PHYLUM DeinococcusThermus •Second oldest •Optimum 80oC and max. non motile ed cells bacteria parasitic Anaerobic. lack teichoic acid and PM has palmitoleic acid (no phosphatidyl glycerol phospholipids Closely related PHYLUM Chlamydiae •Hydrogenobacter PHYLUM Planctomycetes PHYLUM Spirochaetes PHYLUM Bacteroidetes Motile free Lack PG Lack PG CLASS CLASS CLASS living. have OM and L-ornithine in PG. radiodurans Radiation resistant. Sporocytophaga palladium uce mixture of organic Chlamydoiophila Anammoxosome Borrelia acids as fermentative Digest complex carbhy.prod Sphingolipids in CW Cytophaga. aerobic. 90oC •Chemoheterotroph (glycolytic pathway) grow anaerobically on CHO and prt •Thermotoga (24% coding seq similar to archaea) CLASS: Denicocci ORDER: Deniococcales Thermales D. chemolithoautotroph oxidizes H2. pneumoniae pectin. parasites. Obligate interacellular Compartmentaliz Flavo Bacteroides Sphingo bacteria symbiotic.

Anabaena (algal blooms). organic acids and H2S. plants . aa. Microcystis.donors (variety of sugars. Cocci or Vibrios •Chlorobium Oxygenic Bacteria PHYLUM Cyanobacteria •Have chl and PSI and II. H2 and S •Some members are sulfur and some are green •Chloroflexus aurantiacus •Cyanobacteria •Form symbiotic relation ship with lichens. b lack phycobilins (only prokaryotes PHYLUM Chloroflexi •Green Non Sulfur Bacteria •Photosyn and non photosyn •e. By Calvin cycle (enzymes in carboxysomes) •Have heterocysts to fix N2 (less NO2 and NH3) •Trichodesmium (fix N2) •Nostoc. Oscillatoria (pollution resistant). protozoa. fungi. elemental Sulfur and H2 as edonors •Rods. blue green algae •Phycobilisomes •CO2 assm. Chlorococcus •Prochlorophytes: have chl a.PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA Anoxygenic Bacteria PHYLUM Chlorobi •Green Sulfur Bacteria •CLASS Chlorobia •ORDER Chlorobiaceae •Use H2S.

(phycocyanin and phycoerythrin) •Thalakoid membranes lines with phycobilisomes •Non motile •Chlorosomes prst when grown anaerobically α and βproteobacte ria •Gliding •Non motile .PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA Anoxygenic Bacteria Oxygenic Bacteria PHYLUM Chlorobi •Green Sulfur Bacteria •Bchla + c.and γproteobacte ria •Purple Non Sulfur Bacteria •Bchl a or b PHYLUM Cyanobacteria •Cyanobacteria •Chl a +phycobiliprots.d or e •Chlorosomes PHYLUM Chloroflexi •Green Non Sulfur Bacteria •Bchl and c •Purple Sulfur Bacteria •Bchl a or b α.-. β.

Neisseriaceae Desulfuromonadalceae FAMILY Burkhoderiaceae Ectothiorhodospira.PHYLUM (gram negative) Proteobacteria CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III CLASS IV CLASS V alpha ORDER beta ORDER gamma ORDER delta ORDER epsilon ORDER Purple Non sulfur bacteria (Rhodospirillales) Rickettesiales Purple Non sulfur Purple Sulfur bacteria (Chromatiales) bacteria Thiotrichales Neisseriales Methylococcales Burkhoderiales Pseudomonadales Nitrosomonadales Vibrionales Hydrogenophilales Enterobacteriales Pasteuralles FAMILY FAMILY Desulfovibrionales CampylobactDesulfobacterales -erales Desulfuromonadales Bdellovibrionales Myxococcales FAMILY FAMILY Rhodospirillaceae Rickettsiaceae Caulobacteraceae Hyphomicrobiaceae Rhizobiaceae Desulfovibrionaceae Desulfobacteralceae Chromatiaceae.Bdellovibrionaceae ceae Nitrosomonadaceae CampylobactThiotrichaceae -eraceae Methylococcaceae Helicobacterac Pseudomonadaceae eae Vibrionaceae Nautiliaceae Enterobacteriaceae Pasteurallaceae .

Caulobacter Rhizobium. R.donor: org cpd: red. Fix N2 to NH4. photoorganoheterotrophs Anaerobic. Azospillulum Rickettesia prowazekii: lack glycolytic pathways use glu and TCA interm succinate. typhi: Typhus fever. SO42. R. cause tumors (genes on plasmids) . S cpds or H2 Anoxygenic. e. rickettsii: Rocky Mountain Spotted fever FAMILY Rhodospirillaceae Rickettsiaceae Caulobacteraceae Hyphomicrobiaceae Rhizobiaceae Hyphomicrobium. motile S2.So SO42Rhodospirullum.PHYLUM (gram negative) Proteobacteria CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III CLASS IV CLASS V alpha Purple Non sulfur bacteria (Rhodospirillales) ORDER beta gamma delta epsilon Rickettesiales Rhizobiales Bacteriochlorophylls a or b Photosyn system in lamellar membranes continuous with PM. symbiotic with root nodules of Leguminosae Agrobacterium tumefaciens Not stimulate root nodules or fix N2.

ferrooxidans (Fe2+ as e. meningitidis Burkholderia cepacia (degrade 100 organic B. sulfur oxidizing).denitrificans (Nitrate to N2) Thiomicrospira (acid tolerance (pH 0. CH4. Nitrospira Spirillum Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) FAMILY Neisseriaceae Burkhoderiaceae Nitrosomonadaceae Alcaligenaceae Sphaerotilus (grows in polluted sewage or industrial waters) and Leptothrix (deposits large amount of Fe and MnO in its sheath .5-6) Burkholderia and Ralstonia (FIX N2) Nitrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas (ammonia to nitrite). N. NH3.donor to Fe3+ & H2SO4) T.mallai and B. T.PHYLUM Proteobacteria CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III (gram negative) CLASS IV CLASS V alpha beta gamma delta epsilon Some bacteria use H2. pseudomallai (bioterrorism) molecules) Purple Non sulfur bacteria Neisseriales Burkhoderiales Nitrosomonadales Hydrogenophilales Thiobacillus (colourless sulfur bacteria. volatile fatty acids ORDER Rhodocyclus Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Thiobacillis denitrificans .oxidizing Bacteria (NO2.to NO3) Nitrobacter winogradskyi (a-proteobacteria) Nitrosococcus mobilis (g-proteobacteria) Denitrification Pseudomonas Clostridium Paracoccus denitrificans.Nitrifying Bacteria NH4 oxidizing Bacteria (NH4 to NO2-) Nitrosomonas europaea (b-proteobacteria) Nitrosoccocus oceani (g-proteobacteria) Nitrospira briensis (b-proteobacteria) NO2.

flouresence.putida. V. cholerae. P. fischeri. metabolic regulation. Klebsiella. Methylomonas Motile with flagella. Methylococcus. harveyi. Hexoses degraded by entner dourdoff than embeden meyerhoff.PHYLUM (gram negative) Proteobacteria CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III CLASS IV CLASS V alpha ORDER beta Largest subgroup gamma delta epsilon Thiospirillum Thiocapsa Chromatium Ectothiorhodospira Purple Sulfur bacteria (Chromatiales) Thiotrichales Methylococcales Pseudomonadales Vibrionales Enterobacteriales Pasteuralles FAMILY Strict anaerobes.mulicida.influenza . Thiotrix Use CH4. H2 as e. (meningitis) Salmonella.donor Oxidizes H2S  S granules deposits internally. Azotobacter (fix N2. G-ve . Important in mineralization. nonsymbiotically Anaerobic .syringiae. P. photolithotrophs H2 to H2S  S granules.coli. rods Chromatiaceae.aeruginosa. P. P. Erwinia. Yersinia. non motile. Photobacterium (luciferase) Peritrichous flagella.haemolytica. V. Serratia. parasitic. aerobic. Shigella. pathogens P. Proteus Small. Methanol and red one Carbon cpds as carbon and energy in microaerobic conditions. P. biofilms. enteric bacteria. Beggaiatoa.parahaemolyticus. H. E. V. Leucothrix. Ectothiorhodospiraceae Thiotrichaceae Methylococcaceae Pseudomonadaceae Vibrionaceae Enterobacteriaceae Pasteurallaceae (polar flagella) V. functional TCA and oxidize completely to CO2 (sometimes use nitrate as terminal acceptor).

PHYLUM (gram negative) Proteobacteria CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III CLASS IV CLASS V alpha ORDER beta gamma delta epsilon ORDER Desulfovibrionales Desulfobacterales Desulfuromonadales Bdellovibrionales Myxococcales Sulfate or S reducing bacteria. multiple fission. Desulfuromonas Sulfur cycle in envt. Gliding motility.pylori:gastritis. microaerophillic. Myxococcus xanthus Campylobact-erales Pathogenic and non pathogenic.acceptor . motile.donor S SO4  H2S ATP (ETC) Desulfovibrio. G-ve rods. helical.jejuni: abortions in cattle and enteritis diahorrea in humans H. Found in soils in decaying matter. cause septicemia to enteritis FAMILY FAMILY Desulfovibrionaceae Desulfobacteralceae Desulfuromonadalceae Bdellovibrionaceae Non growing predatory and intracellular reproductive (similar to phages forms plaques). produces urease and its hydrolysis Nautilia: ox H2 and use S as e. anaerobic. peptic ulcer disease. use S or SO4 as e. polar flagella Bdellovibrio Campylobact-eraceae Helicobacterac eae Nautiliaceae C.

C. gen time 8-10min in human host) C. BChl g. fermentative. grows in lactate. penicillin resistant but susceptible to lysis by osmotic shock and detergent treatment ATP by glycolysis or LA fermentation. pigments in PM) Vellionella (stain gram –ve. complete genomes sequenced . H2S (anaerobic) Helicobacterium and Heliophilum (photosyn. malate . PSI.gentalium M.PHYLUM Firmicutes CLASS I CLASS II Low G + C gram positive CLASS III Mollicutes (Mycoplasmas) Mycoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales Acholeplasmatales Aneroplasmatales ORDER Clostridia Clostridiales Obligate anaerobes.perfringens (gas gangrene. FA. H2S. form endospores ORDER Bacillus (see next page) Stain gram negative Smallest genomes in prokaryotes Ancestors gram positive. Amines C.pneumoniae Ureaplasma urealyticum Clostridiaceae Acidominococcaceae Clostridium botulinum: ferment aa to form ATP (Stickland Rn)  NH3.pyruvate unable to ferment glucose) FAMILY Human pathogens. now lack CW and PG precursors.acetobutylicum (butanol) Desulfotomaculum SO4 S2.tetani (tetanus). None have complete TCA M.

pneumoniae (a-hemolytic). motile (peritrichous flagella) Bacillus subtilis (gene regulation. cucumbers. No cytochromes and energy by SLP not by ETC and OP. Staphylococcus epidemidis (skin diseases. cheese. •Streptococcus thermophilus. L. frmentation (cabbage. L. bulgaricus (diacetyl and acetaldehyde). <50% CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III Mollicutes (Mycoplasmas) ORDER Clostridia Bacillus Bacilliales Lactobacillales FAMILY Bacilliaceae Thermoactinomycetaceae Staphylococcaceae Listeriaceae Leuconostocaceae Enterococcaceae Streptococcaceae Aerobic.mutans (Dental caries) •Enterococcus grow in 6.PHYLUM Firmicutes Low G + C gram positive.faecalis (UTI and endocarditis) •Leuconostoc (wine production. B. quorum sensing. grow in acidic conditions (pH 4. breverages (beer. pickles).. sausages. wine. cheese).thuringiensis.5-6.plantarum (probiotic). yogurt. L. cell division) alternative σ factors in response to stress Antibiotic producing (bactracin. S. pyrogenic. ab resistant) S. gramicidin) B.lactis (curdles milk). B. true endospores. high temperature habitats. anthracis (Anthrax). beer.4)non pathogenic.5% NaCl agents of transfer of Ab resistantce (intestinal tracts. no endospores. T. sewage. vulgaris Caryophynon (cow dung). fruits. meat. oral and others) Blood agar: α(green zone)and β-hemolysis (clear zone). non sporulating .Streptococcus pyrogenes (non motile. facultatively anaerobic (rods and cocci) Endospore forming. 45-60oC. S. dairy. butter. motile.sphaericus (mosquito larve) Thermoactinomycetes: thermophillic. grow in high sugar . B. cell differentiation. E. skin and nasal membranes. GI tract and UT Listeria monocytogenes (food poisoning) •Lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB). Important in food and dairy industry to make fermented veg (sauerkraut. polymixin. facultatively anaerobic •Lactobacillus. juices) sour dough bread. milk. aureus (coagulase to clot blood plasma) causes food poisoning. cerus (food poisoning).

form exospores CW composition varies: PG composition and structure (DAP (meso or L isomer). Leuconostoc) Streptomyces: L.L-DAP in position 3 and one Gly in interpeptide bridge . Staphylococcus.leprae.PHYLUM Actinobacteria High G + C gram positive. Nocardia) Other G+ve: lys substituted for DAP at position 3 and peptide subunits cross linked by interpeptide bridges l-carboxylic acids or Gly or both (Streptococcus. madurose. aa in tetrapeptide side chain position3 (present or absent) and PG sugar content (arabinose. xylose) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lactobacillus. S.avermitilis: geneome seq. Clostridum. degrade enormous number and variety of organic cpds and mineralization of organic matter. <50% CLASS Actinobacteria Filamentous hyphae and spores: substrate and aerial mycelium. Soil inhabitants. Mycobacterium. Streptomyces coelicolor. Micrococcus. gal. M. widely distributed. Coreynebacterium. Free living and pathogenic forms PG structure in gram positive bacteria G+ve and G-ve bacteria: meso-DAP in position 3 is linked to free NH2gp with free COOH of terminal D-ala of adj. produce secondary metabolites. peptide (Bacillus.

PHYLUM Actinobacteria High G + C gram positive. <50% CLASS ORDER ORDER Actinobacteria ORDERS Actinomycetales SUB ORDER Bifidobacterales FAMILY Actinomycineae Micrococcineae Corynebacterineae Micromonosporineae Propionibacterineae Streptomycineae Streptosporangineae Frankineae Acidimicrobiales Coriobacteriales Sphaerobacterales Rubrobacterales Bifidobacteriaceae .

pesticides. slow growing. A. Lys in PG) Actinomycetales SUB ORDER Actinomycineae Micrococcineae Corynebacterineae Micromonosporineae Propionibacterineae Streptomycineae Streptosporangineae Frankineae Corynebacterium (meso-DAP.lepre Nocardia (worldwide soil distribution and degradation of Hydrocarbons and waxes).C. non motile. use lactate and sugars to form propionic acid and acetic acid and CO2. catalase positive. CO2 for optimal growth. bovis. have madurose in CW Frankia (globular vesicles at ends. Mycobacterium (v.iseraelii (human) Aerobic catlase-ve. asteroides (oppurtunistic pathogen in HIV-AIDS) and Rhodhococcus (degrade petroleum HC. keratin. sulfur) Micromonospora: Degrades chitin and cellulose. PCB. P. agar and aromatic compounds) produce vast range of antibiotics. vesicles O2 sensitive and requires Mo and Co) Geodermatophilus (symbiotic association with non leguminous plants and fix N2. gentamicin Propionibacterium:Facultatively anaerobic. S. M. facultative or strict anaerobes. diptheriae (diptheria). catalase +ve). produces antibiotics. acid fast. high lipid content of mycolic acids. M.acnes (body odour and acne) Aerial hypae (chains of spores) Streptomycetes (69-78% G+C). Arthrobacter(resp.griseus: streptomycin.bovis (cattle). chitin. <50% CLASS Actinobacteria ORDER CW contains Lys not DAP or gly. volatile substance : GEOSMIN Major role in mineralization: degrade pectin. S.facultative. Swiss cheese. aerobic. Sporichthya (lacks substrate mycelium) .. latex. detergents.tuberculosis. N. lignin. M.PHYLUM Actinobacteria High G + C gram positive.coelicolor (largest prokaryotic genomes): 4 antibiotics High temperature habitats. benzene. A.

in seawage and insects. B. bifidum: Pioneer colonizer of human intestinal tract FAMILY Bifidobacteriaceae . <50% CLASS Actinobacteria ORDER Bifidobacterales Gardnerella:human genital and urinary tract Bifidobacterium: Non motile. non sporulating. anaerobic actively ferments CHO to produce acetic acid and lactic acid no CO2 Found in mouth and intestinal tract.PHYLUM Actinobacteria High G + C gram positive.

facultative anaerobes or strictly anaerbic •Range from chemolithoautotrophs to organotrophs •Psychropiles. Extreme Environments: Very high or very low temp. fragmentation •Aerobic. spiral. . or polysaccharide like chondroitin sulfate. circular. pH. translation or DNA metabolism and archaea and bacteria: metabolic pathways. hyperthermophiles that can grow above 100oC. high pressure Cell wall and membranes: lack murmaic acid. salts habitats or completely anoxic. Variation in G+C contents from 21% to 68%. Genes shared b/w Archaea and eukarya: proteins involved for transcription. irregular or pleomorphic •Filaments or aggregates •Binary fission. triangular.DOMAIN ARCHAEA •Can stain gram +ve or Gram-ve •Spherical. pseudomurein (L-amino acids). Branched chain HC attached to glycerol by ether diether or or tetraether linkages Many features similar to eukarya and some to bacteria. D-amino acids. some (thermophillic and methanogens) have protein walls. lobed. rod. mesophiles. conc.

Some archaea have but have novel enzymes(ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase). Some methanogens can fix N2. single ORI and bidirectional rep but ORI is flanked by eukaryotic initiation proteins and may have mutiple origins •RNA poly has 10subunits. some can use reversal of Embeden –Meyerhof pathway and some employ glycogen as reserve. methanogens do not have TCA. Halophile and extreme thermophile •Thermoplasma have TCA. •Can oxidize pyr to Acetyl CoA but lack pyr dehydrogenase complex and use enzyme oxidoreductase. •Autotrophy (methanogens and extreme thermophiles and CO2 fixation occurs . TBP.DOMAIN ARCHAEA •Circular chr. Metabolism: •No enzyme phosphofructokinase and donot degrade by embeden Meyerhof pathway. ribosomes are similar to bacteria but shape variable and differs from bacteria and eukarya. TATA box. no splicing (bacteria) •Translation is UNIQUE (TUC arm lacks T and contains pseudouridine or 1methylpesudouridine. transcription factors (Eukarya) •Polycistronic.

Methanogens are dominant. extreme halophiles. CLASS Nanoarchaeum equitans CLASS Thermoprotei ORDER Thermoproteales Desulfurococcales Sulfolobales Methanobacteria Methanococci Methanomicrobia Halobacteria Thermoplamata Thermococci Archeoglobi Methanopyri .DOMAIN ARCHAEA PHYLUM PHYLUM Crenarchaeota Thermophiles or hyperthermophiles. sulfate reducers and extreme thermophiles with Sulfur dependent metabolism. many are acidophiles and sulfur dependent Nanoarchaeota Euryarchaeota Methanogens.

Oxidize S to sulfuric acid. Hot springs and S rich habitats. Found in hot actd springs. alcohols.DOMAIN ARCHAEA PHYLUM Crenarchaeota Thermophiles or hyperthermophiles.5-6. FAMILY Pyrodictiaceae Hyperthermophiles: Optimum growth rate: 105oC and autoclaving at 121oC fails to kill.donor (lithotrphs).acceptor. Sulfur may be e-acceptor (anaerobic resp) e.donor . oxidize glucose. 7097oC and pH 2. Use Fe(III) as terminal e-acceptor and H2 or formate as e. organic acids with elemental S as e.5. aerobic . O2 is terminal eacceptor. Sugars and aa (Glu) as carbon and energy sources Thermoproteus : CW has glycoprotein. fe(III) may be used. many are acidophiles and sulfur dependent. strict anaerobe. CO or CO2 serve as carbon sources. CLASS Thermoprotei ORDER Thermoproteales Desulfurococcales Sulfolobales Sulfolobus : gram –ve. optimum 70-80oC and pH 2-3 (thermoacidophiles). CW has lipoprotein and CHO. Many strict anaerobes. aa.

formate. pseudomurein. Have caroteinoids to protect againts sunlight Halobacterium salinarium (has bacteriorhodopsin. grows b/w 47-65oC with optimum of 60oC. Grows only below pH 3. optimum 88-100oC. grow at 110oC. Picrophilus: has S-layer outside PM. energy by converting CO2. also grow at saturation salt con (36%). aerobic. can trap light without chlorophyll) Thermoacidiphiles: Thermoplasma (oxidize FeS to sulfuric acid. H2. 85(w/v)). sulfur reducing organisms CLASS PHYLUM Euryarchaeota Methanobacteria Methanococci Methanomicrobia Halobacteria Thermoplamata Thermococci Archeoglobi Methanopyri Methanogens: strict anaerobes. thermophillic. Methanopyrus (deepest and ancient branch) CH4 as clean burning fuel and a greenhouse gas Solute dependency on high conc of NaCl (1. rod shaped. methanol.5M NaCl. Extremely thermophillic S-metabolizers: Strictly anaerobic. optimum 88-100oC Archaeaglobus: Sulfate reducing: Strictly anaerobic. lacks CW and PM strengthened by diglycerol tetraethers and lipd containing polysacc and glycoproteins DNA stabilized by archaeal histones. optimum 83oC .5 and optimum of pH7. Temp min 84oC and 98oC optimum. All are methanogens or methanotrophs (use CH4 as carbon and energy) Hyperthermophillic. 55-59oC and pH 1-2. acetate to methane or methane and CO2. halophillic. even grow at pH 0.DOMAIN ARCHAEA Methanogenic. growth optimum 3-4M NaCl (1723%). S not used as acceptor.

association with other organisms: mutualism. binary fission. lack chlorophyll. diploid zygote. mycelium •Digest insoluble organic matter and secrete exozymes and absorb solubilized nutrients •Spore bearing. cyst •One or more nuclei (macro and micronucleus) •Energy in mitochondria. chloroplast FUNGI. hydrogenosome. Eumycota (true fungus) •Filamentous hypae.DOMAIN EUKARYA PROTISTA •Unicellular •Photosynthetic eukaryotes (algae) •Sapropyhtic or holotrophy. reproduce sexually and asexually •Form association with vascular roots (mycorrhizae) •Pathogenic and beneficial •Saprophytic (dead organic material) . budding. commensalism or parasitic •Asexual.

cytostome. hydrogenosome (pyr is oxidized and decarboxylated to CO2. H2 and acetyl CoA. cAMP serve as molecular signalling Axopodia Radiolaria. Stentor Noctiluca Gymnodium Gonyaulax Photosynthetic protists : diatoms (fucoxanthin). Volvox RED ALGAE GREEN ALGAE LAND PLANTS KINGDOM Rhizaria Chromalveolata Alveolata 1 Apicomplexa 2 Dinoflagellates 3 Ciliphora Excavata Phylum:Euglenozoa Amoeba proteus Entamoeba histolytica Dictyostelium discoidium (cellualr slime mould).PROTISTA •Photosynthetic protists are all aerobic. Phytopthora infestans (Blight of potato). b. Peronosporomycetes (oomycetes. Plasmopara viticola (grape downy mildew). brown algae. endoplasm. have PSI and II and undergo oxygenic photosyn •Ectoplasm. plasmalemma. Unikonta Amoebazoa Bikonta Archaeaplastida Phtosyn with chl a and b from ancestral BGA. caroteinoids) Trypanoplasma Paramecium. later lost plastid. Vorticella. tenax Giardia intestinalis Leishmania (Leishmaniasis) Trypanosoma cruzi. Peronospora viticola (blue mold of tobacco). golden algae. contractile vacuoles. Foraminifera 1 2 3 Opisthokonta Animals Fungi GOLDEN ALGAE BROWN ALGAE OOMYCETES Plasmodium Eimera Toxoplasma (undercooked meat and cat feaces) Crptosporidia (AIDS) Trichomonas vaginalis. CW made of cellulose Cyanophora Chloroplastida: Chlamydomonas.brucei (sleeping sickness) Euglena (chl a. kelps Heterokontophyta STRAMENOPILES . phagocytic vacuoles. Chlorella. T. T. pellicle. Seaweeds.

Mucor (used with soyabeans to make curd). mushrooms. birth control agents. Unicellular fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis. Neurospora crassa Parasitic fungi: Claviceps purpurea (ergot poisoning and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Agaricus campestris. Ascus (reproductive structure). Edible morels.nidulans. cellulose. A. but show close relation to fungi. Red. puff balls. insects. lack mito. shelf fungi. Obligate parasites infect fish. Aspergillus (A. HIV/AIDS: Enterocystozoon bieneusi: diahorrea and pneumonia Encephalolitozoon cuniculi: encephalitis and nephritis . powdery mildew. industrial alcohols.FUNGI. Amanita phalloides (phallodin and a-amanitin). peoxisomes. haploid nuclei Rhizopus stolonifer (bread mould) causes seedling blight: Burkholderia (b-proteobacteria) within fungus produces toxin (stops cell division. Russula emetica (vomitting). toadstools. blue green moulds. role in food and industrial microbiology and eukaryotic evolution) Club fungi. collagen. Basidium (sexual reproduction) Polysporus squamous. Fungus protects from stress and gives soil nutrients and plant provides CHO to fungus Considered to be protists. few are parasites. brown. yellow colour used in margarine and butter Sac fungi. Allomyces Live on decaying organic matter. human and animal pathogen) Plant pathogens.fumigatus. humans. centrioles. degrade stable organic compounds like lignin. cause “Rusts” and “smuts” Mycorhizzal fungi: association with roots of herbaceous plants and tropical trees. anti cancer agent). A.oryzae genome sequenced to understand immune system. Others used in anesthetics. Eumycota (true fungus) Convergent and divergent evolution: many structurally and functionally similar structures evolved independently and some diverged to become dissimilar Chytridiomycota Zygomycota or zygomycetes Ascomycota or ascomycetes Basidiomycota or basidomycetes Uredinimycetes and Ustilaginomycetes Glomeromycota Microsporidia Zoospores with a posterior single whiplash flagellum.

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