ARMY, MARINE CORPS, NAVY, AIR FORCE

SURVIVAL,
EVASION,
AND
RECOVERY
MULTISERVICE
PROCEDURES FOR
SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND
RECOVERY

FM 21-76-1
MCRP 3-02H
NWP 3-50.3
AFTTP(I) 3-2.26

JUNE 1999

AIR LAND SEA
APPLICATION
CENTER
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION:
Approved for public release;
distribution is unlimited.

MULTISERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES

QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST
Decide to Survive!

S - Size up the situation, surroundings, physical condition, equipment.
U - Use all your senses
R - Remember where you are.
V - Vanquish fear and panic.
I - Improvise and improve.
V - Value living.
A - Act like the natives.
L - Live by your wits.

1. Immediate Actions
a. Assess immediate situation. THINK BEFORE YOU ACT!
b. Take action to protect yourself from nuclear, biological, or
chemical hazards (Chapter IX).
c. Seek a concealed site.
d. Assess medical condition; treat as necessary (Chapter V).
e. Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information.
f. Sanitize area; hide equipment you are leaving.
g. Apply personal camouflage.
h. Move away from concealed site, zigzag pattern recommended.
i. Use terrain to advantage, communication, and concealment.
j. Find a hole-up site.

2. Hole-Up-Site (Chapter I)
a. Reassess situation; treat injuries, then inventory equipment.
b. Review plan of action; establish priorities (Chapter VI).
c. Determine current location.
d. Improve camouflage.
e. Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand.
f. Execute plan of action. Stay flexible!

Recommend inclusion of this manual in the aviator’s survival vest.

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3. Concealment (Chapter I)
a. Select a place of concealment providing
(1) Adequate concealment, ground and air.
(2) Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of
communications (LOC).
(3) Listening and observation points.
(4) Multiple avenues of escape.
(5) Protection from the environment.
(6) Possible communications/signaling opportunities.
b. Stay alert, maintain security.
c. Drink water.

4. Movement (Chapters I and II)
a. Travel slowly and deliberately.
b. DO NOT leave evidence of travel; use noise and light
discipline.
c. Stay away from LOC.
d. Stop, look, listen, and smell; take appropriate action(s).
e. Move from one concealed area to another.
f. Use evasion movement techniques (Chapter I).

5. Communications and Signaling (Chapter III)
a. Communicate as directed in applicable plans/orders,
particularly when considering transmitting in the blind.
b. Be prepared to use communications and signaling devices on
short notice.
c. Use of communications and signaling devices may
compromise position.

6. Recovery (Chapter IV)
a. Select site(s) IAW criteria in theater recovery plans.
b. Ensure site is free of hazards; secure personal gear.
c. Select best area for communications and signaling devices.
d. Observe site for proximity to enemy activity and LOC.
e. Follow recovery force instructions.

ii

.................... and Recovery Note: This UNCLASSIFIED publication is designed to provide Service members quick-reference survival........... Evasion...................................................... Army Training and Doctrine Command Fort Monroe...................................... Mountain Hazards .....3 Navy Warfare Development Command Newport............................. and recovery information..... I-3 4............... River Travel............................................ Summer Hazards ................. Shelters ... Evasion.. II-10 4...... Alabama 29 JUNE 1999 Survival.... I-1 2........................................... II-1 2.... FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50............. I-1 3................... Navigation and Position Determination ................ II-10 5............. Dry Climates...................... Planning.....26 Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center Maxwell Air Force Base...................... II-1 3............... and user information......................................................... I-3 CHAPTER II NAVIGATION 1....... Virginia NWP 3-50......... Travel Considerations..... II-12 iii ..................................................S.................................................. evasion. II-12 7....................... and Recovery Multiservice Procedures for Survival......................... II-11 6......................... Rhode Island AFTTP(I) 3-2...................26 FM 21-76-1 U..................... Camouflage .. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I EVASION 1...3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.... See Appendix B for the scope............................................ Ice and Snow Travel ................................ Virginia MCRP 3-02H Marine Corps Combat Development Command Quantico.................. purpose................... implementation plan.................. II-12 8.. Stay or Move Considerations .................... Movement ............ application........

...................................... V-18 CHAPTER VI PERSONAL PROTECTION 1............................................. Health and Hygiene ......................................................................................................... VI-8 CHAPTER VII WATER 1............................................................................. Food Preservation .................... III-1 2.................................................................... II-13 CHAPTER III RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING 1.. Common Injuries and Illnesses......... IV-1 2................. Water Procurement .......................... V-18 6........ Biological Conditions ................... Recovery Procedures ......................................... VIII-1 2......................... Open Seas .......... Priorities ................................................................. IX-6 3.......................... Chemical Conditions ........ V-1 2............ Rules for Avoiding Illness..... Other Protective Equipment......................................................................................... Care and Use of Clothing ................... IV-1 3........................................................ VI-2 4.......... V-15 4............................................................ VII-7 CHAPTER VIII FOOD 1.......................... VII-1 3.............................................. IV-1 CHAPTER V MEDICAL 1............................................................ Site Selection. Fires ......... B-2 iv I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX A B ............... A-1 APPENDIX B PUBLICATION INFORMATION .................................. VIII-11 CHAPTER IX INDUCED CONDITIONS 1............................................................... IV-1 4................ V-9 3...................................................... Food Preparation ..................... Site Preparation ...................................................................................... VII-1 2................................................................................... Tropical Climates ............. Plant Medicine.............. VI-3 5...... IX-7 APPENDIX A THE WILL TO SURVIVE.................................. Nuclear Conditions ........... Shelters ......... IX-1 2................ VI-1 2........................... Water Requirements ... III-2 CHAPTER IV RECOVERY 1.............................................................................................................. Food Procurement............................. 9............................ Immediate First Aid Actions .............................................................. VI-1 3............ Responsibilities........................................... II-13 10............................... Radio Communications (Voice and Data)..... Water Preparation and Storage............................... Signaling ... VIII-9 3..........................................................................

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(2) Using established procedures. I-1 . (2) Selected area for evasion. b. Camouflage patterns (Figure I-1): (1) Blotch pattern. Camouflage a. (a) Coniferous areas (broad slashes). The following odors stand out and may give an evader away: (1) Scented soaps and shampoos. (7) Resting and sleeping as much as possible. (4) Designated area for recovery. (3) Insect repellent (camouflage stick is least scented). (3) Apply personal camouflage. Basic principles: (1) Disturb the area as little as possible. (3) Neutral or friendly country or area. b. after-shave lotion. Review the quick reference checklist on the inside cover. Planning a. 2. (6) Conserving strength for critical periods. (a) Temperate deciduous (leaf shedding) areas. c. (c) Snow (barren). (4) Being patient. (2) Slash pattern. (4) Gum and candy (smell is strong or sweet). (2) Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy. (8) Staying out of sight. Where to go (initiate evasion plan of action): (1) Near a suitable area for recovery. or other cosmetics. (3) Following your evasion plan of action. (5) Drinking water (DO NOT eat food without water). Chapter I EVASION 1. (2) Shaving cream. (5) Tobacco (odor is unmistakable). d. Guidelines for successful evasion include- (1) Keeping a positive attitude. (b) Desert areas (barren).

hands. netting. Position and movement camouflage follows: (1) Avoid unnecessary movement. (b) Change camouflage depending on the surroundings. change regularly. Personal camouflage application follows: (1) Face. or mask if available. BLOTCH SLASH Figure I-1. (3) DO NOT over camouflage. d. I-2 . (2) Ears. (4) Light colored hair. collar. or coloration methods. vegetation. (c) DO NOT select vegetation from same source. netting. Camouflage Patterns c. Give special attention to conceal with a scarf or mosquito head net. (c) Grass (narrow slashes). (4) Remember when using shadows. they shift with the sun. May use blotched and slash together. (3) Head. and charcoal. berries. Use a hat. and the under chin. Use scarf. neck. Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on any remaining exposed areas. dirt. (2) Take advantage of natural concealment: (a) Cut foliage fades and wilts. The insides and the backs should have 2 colors to break up outlines. (b) Jungle areas (broad slashes). (3) Combination. (d) Use stains from grasses.

Secluded location (1) Choose an area (a) Least likely to be searched (drainages. Locate carefullyeasy to remember acronym: BLISS.) and blends with the environment. name tags. etc. etc.Irregular shape S .Low silhouette I . (2) Locate entrances and exits in brush and along ridges. (3) Be wary of flash floods in ravines and canyons. b. wind. glasses. bad weather. 3. or reduced enemy activity. A moving object is easy to spot. rank insignia. or pens). (7) Remove unit patches. (6) Ensure overhead concealment. (5) Never expose shiny objects (like a watch. Movement a. (4) Conceal with minimal to no preparation. ditches. (9) Conduct observation from a prone and concealed position. I-3 . (8) Break up the outline of the body. rough terrain. “V” of crotch/armpits.Blend L . If travel is necessary (1) Mask with natural cover (Figure I-2). (2) Use the military crest. and rocks to keep from forming paths to site.Small S . Use camouflage and concealment. (c) With observable approaches. 4. (6) Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off. (5) Take the direction finding threat into account before transmitting from shelter. Shelters a. (b) With escape routes (DO NOT corner yourself). B . (3) Restrict to periods of low light.

troops. aircraft. vehicles. troops. wire. buildings. roads. etc. animals. Ground Movement (4) Avoid silhouetting (Figure I-3). (b) LOOK for signs of human or animal activity (smoke. Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel. aircraft. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight. (c) LISTEN for vehicles. (5) At irregular intervals (a) STOP at a point of concealment. Figure I-2. troops. weapons. (d) SMELL for vehicles.). tracks. I-4 . animals. etc. fires. etc.

check clothing and equipment for items that could make noise during movement and secure them. Break up the human shape or recognizable lines. (c) Make noise by breaking sticks. Some techniques for concealing evidence of travel follows: (1) Avoid disturbing the vegetation above knee level. Avoid Silhouetting (6) Employ noise discipline. leaves. (3) Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to its original position. (Cloth wrapped around feet helps muffle this. rocks. c. (4) DO NOT grab small trees or brush. and sticks.) (5) Pick firm footing (carefully place the foot lightly but squarely on the surface to avoid slipping). d.) (d) Mangle grass and bushes that normally spring back. (2) DO NOT break branches. I-5 . TRY NOT TO (a) Overturn ground cover. (This may scuff the bark or create movement that is easily spotted. b. Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route/zigzag) to camouflage evidence of travel. (b) Scuff bark on logs and sticks. In snow country. or grass. this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route. Figure I-3.

go over the top. passing under or between lower rails. Cross in a manner leaving your footprints parallel (cross step sideways) to the road. look for electrical insulators or security devices. presenting as low a silhouette as possible (Figure I-4). etc. (Figure I-6). (2) Go around chain-link and wire fences. If impractical. downed logs. bend in road. crossing at damaged areas. I-6 .) (8) Concentrate on defeating the handler if pursued by dogs. (3) Penetrate rail fences. (Figure I-5) (5) Use same method of observation for railroad tracks that was used for roads. Next. Repeat for the second track. (e) Patting out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old.) leaving less evidence of travel. e. (c) Traveling during windy periods. DO NOT touch fence. Penetrate obstacles as follows: (1) Enter deep ditches feet first to avoid injury. (Trash or lost equipment identifies who lost it. etc. (7) Secure trash or loose equipmenthide or bury discarded items. (d) Taking advantage of solid surfaces (logs. Cross at points offering concealment such as bushes. (b) Moving before and during precipitation allows tracks to fill in. (4) Cross roads after observation from concealment to determine enemy activity. rocks. shadows. and snowdrifts. align body parallel to tracks with face down. cross tracks using a semi-pushup motion. (6) Mask unavoidable tracks in soft footing by (a) Placing tracks in the shadows of vegetation. Go under fence if unavoidable.

Rail Fences Figure I-5. Figure I-4. Road Crossing I-7 .

Railroad Tracks WARNING: If 3 rails exist. Figure I-6. 1 may be electrified. I-8 .

(3) Decide what equipment to take. Chapter II NAVIGATION Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles. (2) Route of travel. (4) Convinced rescue is not coming. (3) DO NOT fold in a manner providing travel information. d. (2) Are certain of your location. (3) Using information provided in the map legend. food. b. cache. II -1 . (c) Previous knowledge of operational area. Stay or Move Considerations a. Consider the following if you decide to travel: (1) Follow the briefed evasion plan. 1. (a) Geographic checkpoints. (3) Can reach water. (3) Personal condition. (b) Man-made checkpoints. e. Navigation and Position Determination a. and/or help. (2) DO NOT soil the map by touching the destination. (4) Supplies available. Consider the following for maps (in a combat environment): (1) DO NOT write on the map. 2. (4) Using prominent landmarks. c. Determine your general location by (1) Developing a working knowledge of the operational area. (2) Determine which direction to travel and why. Stay with the vehicle/aircraft in a non-combat environment. Leave information at your starting point (in a non-combat environment) that includes (1) Destination. Note: These actions may compromise information if captured. and have the ability to get there. shelter. have a known destination. Leave only when (1) Dictated by the threat. or destroy. (2) Using the Rate x Time = Distance formula.

(5) Visualizing map to determine position. Point hour hand at the sun. south. (c) Southern Hemisphere. Visualize a clock face on the watch. b. Point the 12 o’clock position on your watch at the sun. Determine cardinal directions (north. (a) Digital watches. North is halfway between the 12 o’clock position and the hour hand. (4) Using a wristwatch to determine general cardinal direction (Figure II-2). east. II -2 . Stick and Shadow Method (3) Remembering the sunrise/moonrise is in the east and sunset/moonset is in the west. (2) Using stick and shadow method to determine a true north-south line (Figure II-1). South is halfway between the hour hand and 12 o’clock position. and west) by (1) Using compass. (b) Northern Hemisphere. Figure II-1. CAUTION: The following methods are NOT highly accurate and give only general cardinal direction.

•Mark tip of shadow every 30 minutes annotating the time. Direction Using a Watch (5) Using a pocket navigator (Figure II-3) (a) Gather the following necessary materials: •Flat writing material (such as an MRE box). •Indicate north with a drawn arrow. end construction at sundown. (c) Do the following during travel: •Hold navigator so the shadow aligns with mark of present time (drawn arrow now points to true north).To Determine North/South NORTHERN HEMISPHERE NORTH SOUTH MID POINT MID POINT HOUR HAND HOUR HAND SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE If on daylight saving time subtract one hour from actual time Figure II-2. •Secure navigator on flat surface (DO NOT move during set up period). •Connect marks to form an arc. nail. (b) Start construction at sunup. or match). Do the following: •Attach shadow tip device in center of paper. Note: The shortest line between base of shadow tip device and curved line is a north-south line. •Pen or pencil. Using A Watch . •1-2 inch shadow tip device (a twig. II -3 .

Figure II-3. Pocket Navigator (6) Using the stars (Figure II-4) the (a) North Star is used to locate true north-south line. flat. Orient the map by (1) Using a true north-south line (Figure II-5) (a) Unfold map and place on a firm. Figure II-4. (d) Remember the navigator is current for approximately 1 week. CAUTION: The Pocket Navigator is NOT recommended if evading. Stars c. (b) Southern Cross is used to locate true south-north line. level nonmetallic surface. II -4 .

•Easterly (subtract variation from 360 degrees). N Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly N magnetic variation with floating needle compass 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating dial compass N Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating dial compass Figure II-5. •Westerly (add variation to 360 degrees). Orienting a Map Using a True North-South Line II -5 . (c) Rotate map and compass until stationary index line aligns with the magnetic variation indicated in marginal information. (b) Align the compass on a true north-south line.

180 Figure II-6. (b) Rotate map and compass until compass reads 360 degrees. Map Orientation with Compass Rose II -6 . (2) Using a compass rose (Figure II-6) (a) Place edge of the lensatic compass on magnetic north line of the compass rose closest to your location. Star indicates magnetic line on EVC Chart.

e. (c) Check map orientation each time compass is used. (3) Using point-to-point navigation. orient map using cardinal direction obtained by the stick and shadow method or the celestial aids (stars) method. (1) Global Positioning System (GPS). Triangulation (a) Try to use 3 or more azimuths. (c) Select area providing maximum satellite reception. (2) Triangulation (resection) with a compass (Figure II-7). (b) Positively identify a major land feature and determine a line of position (LOP). d. (d) Plot the LOP using a thin stick or blade of grass (combat) or pencil line (non-combat). (e) Repeat steps (b) through (d) for other LOPs. Use the compass for night navigation by (1) Setting up compass for night navigation (Figure II-8). (3) If there is NO compass. (d) Conserve GPS battery life. (2) Aligning north-seeking arrow with luminous line and follow front of compass. Route selection techniques follow: II -7 . f. Figure II-7. (b) Use GPS to confirm your position ONLY. (a) DO NOT use GPS for primary navigation. Determine specific location.

(a) Find a prominent landmark on the opposite side of the obstacle. (b) Measure distance by counting the number of paces in a given course and convert to map units. Figure II-8. New sum is the number of clicks to the right from stationary index line. subtract heading from 360 then divide sum by 3. Heading between 0 and 180 degrees is divided by 3. Sum is number of clicks to the left of stationary index line. Heading of 300 degrees = 20 clicks right. EXAMPLES Heading of 027 degrees = 9 clicks left. (b) Contour around obstacle to landmark. Compass Night Navigation Setup (1) Circumnavigation. (c) Resume your route of travel. II -8 . Heading between 180 and 360 degrees. (3) Straight-line heading as follows: (a) Maintain heading until reaching destination. (2) Dogleg and 90 degree offset (Figure II-9). Setting the Compass for Night Travel Luminous Line North Seeking Arrow Stationary Index 64 Bezel Ring Each click of the Bezel Ring equals 3 degrees.

(b) Intentionally navigated to left or right of target so you know which way to turn at the linear feature. II -9 . day/night travel. (c) Use pace count in conjunction with terrain evaluation and heading to determine location. road or river). or example in rough terrain. (4) Deliberate offset is (a) Used when finding a point on a linear feature (that is. establish another landmark and continue. (a) Pick out landmarks on the heading and walk the trail of least resistance to a point. (b) On reaching a point. or injured/uninjured condition. 900 paces per kilometer [average]. (5) Point-to-point is same as straight line. An individual’s pace varies because of factors such as steep terrain. •Distances measured by paces are approximate (example in open terrain. Adjust estimation of distance traveled against these factors to get relative accuracy when using a pace count. N W E 90 0 90 0 0 S 180 1 80 360 0 0 90 original O bstacle original heading heading 0 0 90 m inus 45 0 from plus 45 to heading original heading Figure II-9. 1200 paces per kilometer [average]). Dogleg and 90 Degree Offset •One pace is the distance covered each time the same foot touches the ground.

c. e. b. Use flotation device (raft. not over or through them. etc. Use a pole to move the raft in shallow water. and unfordable rivers: (1) Circumnavigate swamps. take rest stops when needed. b. Go around obstacles. (3) Rapids (DO NOT attempt to shoot the rapids). River Travel River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. d. Pick the easiest and safest route (non-combat). pack imbalance. c. II -10 . (5) Hazardous animals. (3) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. 4. Stay near inside edge of river bends (current speed is less). lakes. Travel Considerations a. Pack equipment to prevent loss.3. (4) Waterfalls. Consider the following for swamps. (2) Sweepers (overhanging limbs and trees). It may be a primary mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment (use with caution if evading). g. and bogs if needed. damage. Keep near shore. f. Watch for the following DANGERS: (1) Snags. log. Maintain a realistic pace. Avoid overdressing and overheating. e. k. h. Consider food and water requirements. f. j. Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with NO escape in the event of heavy rains. i. Consider using a flotation device when crossing rivers or large/deep streams. Travel on trails whenever possible (non-combat). Use an oar in deep water. d. (2) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. bamboo. Travel in forested areas if possible.). g. and personal safety. Take special care of feet (change socks regularly). lakes. a.

5. DO NOT travel in (1) Blizzards. II -11 . (b) Trees without uphill branches (identifies prior avalanches). (3) Poor visibility. Ice and Snow Travel Travel should be limited to areas free of hazards. Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted. (c) Heavy snow loading on ridge tops. (2) Bitterly cold winds. make snowshoes [Figure II-10]). do the following: (a) Backstroke to decrease burial depth. (2) Deep soft snow (if movement is necessary. Obstacles to winter travel follow: (1) Reduced daylight hours (BE AWARE). (4) If caught in an avalanche. a. Figure II-10. Improvised Snowshoes (3) Avalanche prone areas to avoid: (a) Slopes 30-45 degrees or greater. b.

distribute your weight by laying flat. Avoid low areas. 7. Dry Climates a. (2) Swamps. II -12 . and bogs if needed. (2) Rough terrain. (c) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. In sand dune areas— (1) Follow hard valley floor between dunes. (c) When crossing frozen water. (5) Frozen water crossings. or using snowshoes. (a) Travel on trails when possible (non-combat). •Rivers or streams come together. lakes. Flash floods. Mountain Hazards a. d. 8. Avoid areas prone to avalanches.) (1) Dense brush. paragraph 3. •Objects protrude through ice. and unfordable rivers. (b) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. (a) Weak ice should be expected where— •Rivers are straight. Travel Considerations. avoiding— (1) Deep sandy dune areas. Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided. (a) Circumnavigate swamps. (c) Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in the event of heavy rains. belly crawling. items h through k. b. •Snow banks extend over the ice. (b) Move hand around face to create air pocket as moving snow slows. Lightning. Summer Hazards (see page II-10. Follow the easiest trail possible (non-combat). DO NOT travel unless certain of reaching the destination using the water supply available. (b) Travel in forested areas if possible. c. Avalanche. c. c. 6. Travel at dawn or dusk on hot days. b. (b) Air pockets form when a frozen river loses volume. •Water vapor rising indicates open or warm areas. Avoid ridge tops during thunderstorms. lakes.

Open Seas a. (2) Travel on the windward side of dune ridges. they may indicate a pitfall or trap. (2) Sit low in the raft. it may have spines or thorns (use gloves if possible). (Sail aids in making landfall. (6) Remain stationary until the storm is over. b. (3) Deflate the raft slightly so it rides lower in the water. (4) Construct a shade cover/sail (Figure II-12). (2) Sit or lie down in direction of travel. (2) Where a low pass goes over a range of hills. (4) Exercise caution. Find trails— (1) Where 2 streams meet. Using currents (1) Deploy sea anchor (Figure II-11). Part the vegetation to pass through.) II -13 . 10. Avoid obstacles like thickets and swamps. Using winds (1) Pull in sea anchor. e. d. Travel only when it is light. b. (2) Inflate raft so it rides higher. (3) DO NOT sleep on the trail. 9. Sea anchor may be adjusted to make use of existing currents. (3) Sit up in raft so body catches the wind. (5) Protect the eyes. f. the enemy uses the trails also. (4) Cover the mouth and nose with a piece of cloth. If a sandstorm occurs (1) Mark your direction of travel. (3) Try to get to the downwind side of natural shelter. Tropical Climates a. DO NOT climb over logs if you can go around them. e. (2) Use a walking stick to probe for pitfalls or traps. Avoid grabbing vegetation. c. While traveling trails (1) Watch for disturbed areas on game trails.

Shade/Sail Construction c. Sea Anchor Deployment Figure II-12. Indications of land are (1) Fixed cumulus clouds in a clear sky or in a cloudy sky where all other clouds are moving. Figure II-11. Making landfall. II -14 . (3) Lighter colored reflection on clouds (open water causes dark gray reflections) (in the arctic). (2) Greenish tint in the sky (in the tropics).

from smallest to largest). (6) Wear footgear and at least 1 layer of clothing. (5) The odors and sounds. (b) Lie as close to the surface as possible. (2) Use a flotation aid. (11) Select a landing point. (b) When the seaward wave approaches. (b) Find a place where waves smoothly rush onto the rocks. (c) After it passes. Swimming ashore (1) Consider physical condition. d. (a) Avoid places where waves explode upon rocks. (4) Lighter colored water (indicates shallow water). (a) Odors from swamps and smoke. (a) Swim shoreward in the trough between waves. (6) Directional flights of birds at dawn and at dusk. (12) After selecting a landing site (a) Face shoreward. (4) Remain in raft as long as possible. (a) Swim forward on the back of a wave. (9) In high surf. (7) Try to make landfall during the lull between the sets of waves (waves are generally in sets of 7. (10) If caught in the undertow of a large wave— (a) Remain calm and swim to the surface. II -15 . (b) Make a shallow dive just before the wave breaks to end the ride. face it and submerge. (b) Roar of surf/bird cries coming from one direction. (c) Parallel shoreline and attempt landfall at a point further down shore. (3) Secure all gear to body before reaching landfall. work shoreward in the next trough. (8) In moderate surf. (5) Use the sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength if thrown from raft. (b) Assume a sitting position with feet 2 or 3 feet lower than head to absorb the shock of hitting submerged objects.

(b) Using paddles to maintain control. (2) Store raft away from the ice edge. and disintegrating flows are dangerous (ice can cut a raft). (1) Use paddles to avoid sharp edges. (5) Penetrate surf by— (a) Taking down most shade/sails. Icebergs. e. (3) Keep raft inflated and ready for use. (4) Head for gaps in the surf line. (3) Land on the lee (downwind) side of islands or point of land if possible. (c) Deploying a sea anchor for stability. CAUTION: DO NOT deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral. small flows. II -16 . (2) Use caution landing when the sun is low and straight in front of you causing poor visibility. (4) Weight down/secure raft so it does not blow away. f. Rafting ashore (1) Select landing point carefully. Making sea ice landings on large stable ice flows.

g. (1) Turn off locator beacon. Use data burst if available. (2) Follow standing plans for on/off operations to conserve battery use. b. Listening (use reception times in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces). (4) DO NOT ground antenna (that is finger on antenna or attaching bolt. Locate spare radio and batteries (keep warm and dry). (1) Ensure locator beacon is operational. f. if possible). (3) Keep antenna perpendicular to intended receiver (Figure III-1). Transmissions. (5) Keep transmissions short (3-5 seconds maximum). (8) Use terrain masking to hinder enemy direction finding. d. Radio Communications (Voice and Data) a. III-1 . vegetation. Non-combat. 1. (6) Move after each transmission (ONLY in combat. e. ensure a clear LOS towards the equator. Combat. space blanket. c.). (7) If transmitting in the blind. Chapter III RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING Inventory and review the operating instructions of all communications and signaling equipment. (2) Keep it with you to supplement radio communications. etc. (2) Face recovery asset. then as directed in applicable plans/orders. (3) Follow plans/orders for on/off operations. (1) Use concealment sites (combat) that optimize line of site (LOS). If no immediate contact. Make initial contact as soon as possible or as directed in applicable plans/orders.

Radio Transmission Characteristics 2. Pyrotechnic signals. Signaling a. III-2 . 100% 91% 91% 60% 65% 31% 24% 41% Signal Strength/ Operator Orientation 1% Top cone of silence 900 30-50% 30-50% 100% Main lobe Main lobe 100% 30-50% 30-50% 90 0 Bottom cone of silence 1% Cut-away Sideview of Antenna Power Distribution Figure III-1. (3) Extend over raft's edge before activating. (2) Use as directed in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces. (1) Prepare early (weather permitting).

(2) If no radio. Note: Produces one residual flash when turned off. (3) Cover when not in use. (b) Provide concealment from ground observation. (3) Size (large as possible) and ratio (Figure III-3). brush. stomped grass). (2) Location. (3) Conserve battery life. parachute). (1) Use as directed by recovery forces. Figure III-2. consider filters and shields. c. (2) Use as directed by recovery forces. (a) Maximize visibility from above. branches. Sighting Techniques Note: Make a mirror from any shiny metal or glass. (b) Natural use materials that contrast the color and/or texture of the signaling area (rocks. b. d. Pattern signals (use as directed in applicable plans/orders). Signal mirror (Figure III-2). (1) Materials: (a) Manmade (space blanket. III-3 . use only with confirmed friendly forces. signal paulin. Strobe/IR lights. (1) Prepare early.

Signal Key e. Size and Ratio (4) Shape (maintain straight lines and sharp corners). (6) Pattern signals (Figure III-4). III-4 . (5) Contrast (use color and shadows). Figure III-4. (3) May be used to color snow. Sea dye marker. Figure III-3. (2) Conserve unused dye by rewrapping. (1) DO NOT waste in rough seas or fast moving water.

(4) Use audio signals (that is. f. (Figure III-5) (3) Use signal mirror to sweep horizon. Smoke Generator III-5 . (2) Use smoke for day (tires or petroleum products for dark smoke and green vegetation for light smoke). and weapons fire). whistle. Figure III-5. Non-combat considerations: (1) Use a fire at night. voice.

3. 2. Plan several tactical entry and exit routes (in combat). Be prepared to authenticate as directed in applicable plans/orders. e. Establish radio contact with recovery forces (if possible). flat and level). b. Site Preparation a. obstacles. (4) Signal devices available. be prepared to report— (1) Enemy activity in the recovery area. Site Selection a. For a landing/ground recovery— (1) Assume a non-threatening posture. c. Assess evidence of human activity at/near the site (in combat). If no radio. especially on sloping or uneven terrain. Stay concealed until recovery is imminent (in combat). ground.). Assist recovery force in identifying your position. b. (2) Secure weapons and avoid quick movement.). free of obstructions. d. (3) Number in party/medical situation. Follow recovery force instructions. d. (3) DO NOT approach recovery vehicle until instructed. etc. Pack and secure all equipment. Recovery Procedures a. c. b. b. (4) Beware of rotors/propellers when approaching recovery vehicle. boat. Locate area for landing pick-up. c. Maintain communication with recovery forces until recovered. if practical (approximately 150 feet diameter. Locate several concealment sites around area (in combat). Chapter IV RECOVERY 1. Responsibilities a. Secure loose equipment that could be caught in rotors/propellers. Mentally review recovery methods (aircraft. (2) Recovery site characteristics (slope. 4. etc. Prepare signaling devices (use as directed or as briefed). c. IV-1 . a ground-to-air signal may be your only means to effect recovery. size.

Follow crewmember instructions. (2) Allow metal on device to contact the surface before touching to avoid injury from static discharge. (3) Sit or kneel for stability while donning device. (10) DO NOT assist during hoist or when pulled into the rescue vehicle. (5) Ensure cable is in front of you. d. (8) Use a thumbs up. e. Figure IV–1. if available (glasses or helmet visor). (7) DO NOT become entangled in cable. vigorous cable shake. (4) Put safety strap under armpits. or radio call to signal you are ready. Rescue Strap IV-2 . (2) Follow the procedures in "d" above. (9) Drag feet on the ground to decrease oscillation. For hoist recovery devices (Figures IV-1 and IV-2)— (1) Use eye protection. (6) Keep hands clear of all hardware and connectors. For nonhoist recovery (rope or unfamiliar equipment)— (1) Create a “fixed loop” big enough to place under armpits (Figure IV-3).

Forest Penetrator IV-3 .Figure IV-2.

Step 1 Step 2 Figure IV–3. Fixed Loop IV-4 .

1. (2) If no response— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. (d) Look. Figure V-1. Chapter V MEDICAL WARNING: These emergency medical procedures are for survival situations. Chin Lift V-1 . (c) Open the airway by lifting the chin (Figure V-1). listen. and feel for air exchange. Obtain professional medical treatment as soon as possible. (b) Roll victims onto their backs. Immediate First Aid Actions Remember the ABCs of Emergency Care: Airway Breathing Circulation a. arouse by shaking gently and shouting. Determine responsiveness as follows: (1) If unconscious.

(5) If breathing difficulty is caused by chest trauma. (c) Pinch victim’s nostrils closed. (g) Sweep with finger to clear mouth. (j) With open airway. (b) Elevate the wounded area above the heart. For travel. •Check for chest rise each time. (3) If victim is not breathing— (a) Check for a clear airway. give 5 abdominal thrusts: •Straddle the victim. (2) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use direct pressure over the wound. but breathing— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. (f) If breaths still blocked. CAUTION: DO NOT remove an impaled object unless it interferes with the airway. try again. (i) If the airway is still blocked. start mouth to mouth breathing: •Give 1 breath every 5 seconds. Control bleeding as follows: (1) Apply a pressure dressing (Figure V-2). remove any blockage. b. reposition airway. (h) Try 2 slow breaths again. continue (c) through (f) until successful or exhausted. paragraph 1d. You may cause more tissue damage and increase bleeding. (e) If breaths are blocked. (b) Cover victim's mouth with your own. •Place a fist between breastbone and belly button. V-2 . you may shorten and secure the object. Treat Chest Injuries. •Thrust upward to expel air from stomach. (b) Roll victim on side (drains the mouth and prevents the tongue from blocking airway). (4) If victim is unconscious. refer to page V-7. (d) Fill victim’s lungs with 2 slow breaths.

Application of a Pressure Dressing V-3 .Figure V-2.

Figure V-3. (b) Maintain pressure for 6 to 10 minutes before checking to see if bleeding has stopped. (3) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use a pressure point between the injury and the heart (Figure V-3). Pressure Points V-4 .

A band at least 3 inches (7. CAUTION: The following directions apply ONLY in survival situations where rescue is UNLIKELY and NO medical aid is available. (c) Use a stick at least 6 inches (15 cm) long. uncontrolled bleeding will cause loss of life. (b) Follow steps illustrated in Figure V-4. Recognize that long-term use of a tourniquet may cause loss of limb. •Ensure bleeding has stopped •Loosen tourniquet SLOWLY to restore circulation. (e) Mark a TK on the forehead with the time applied. (g) If rescue or medical aid is not available for over 2 hours. (a) Apply tourniquet (TK) band just above bleeding site on limb. Use ONLY when severe. (d) Tighten only enough to stop arterial bleeding. Before loosening— •Ensure pressure dressing is in place. (f) DO NOT cover the tourniquet. •Leave loosened tourniquet in position in case bleeding resumes. V-5 .5 cm) or wider is best. (4) If a limb wound is STILL bleeding— CAUTION: Use of a tourniquet is a LAST RESORT measure. an attempt to SLOWLY loosen the tourniquet may be made 20 minutes after application.

bayonet or scabbard through the tourniquet knot. Wrap a wide band around the injured limb. Application of a Tourniquet V-6 . Figure V-4. Tie with a square knot. Pass a stick. 1. Bind free end of the stick to keep tourniquet from unwinding. SQUARE KNOT 2. 4. 3. Tighten tourniquet by turning stick just enough to stop arterial bleeding.

(b) Fast breathing and a weak. may cause sucking sound. (b) Give warm fluids. (2) Flail chest. (Shock is difficult to identify or treat under field conditions. c. may cause victim to gasp for breath. Results from blunt trauma when 3 or more ribs are broken in 2 or more places. and sweaty skin. (b) Prevent tongue from blocking airway.) (1) Identify by one or more of the following: (a) Pale. Treat shock. (4) Maintain normal body temperature. cool. fast pulse. (c) Monitor breathing and check dressing. (6) Place very weak or unconscious victim on side. (b) Tape airtight material over wound on 3 sides only (Figure V-5) to allow air to escape from the wound but not to enter. as necessary. Treat chest injuries. (d) Shelter from the elements. V-7 . (c) Insulate from ground. This occurs when chest wall is penetrated. (c) Anxiety or mental confusion. (a) Immediately seal wound with hand or airtight material. this will— (a) Allow mouth to drain. •DO NOT give fluids to an unconscious victim. (a) Remove wet clothing. (1) Sucking chest wound. (d) Lift untapped side of dressing as victim exhales to allow trapped air to escape. The flail segment is the broken area that moves in a direction opposite to the rest of chest during breathing. (5) Place conscious victim on back. may create bloody froth as air escapes the chest. It may be present with or without visible injury. (3) Treat underlying injury. (d) Decreased urine output. •DO NOT give fluids if they cause victim to gag. d. (2) Maintain circulation.

and constrictive clothing. (c) Roll victim onto side of flail segment injury (as other injuries allow). jewelry. Figure V-5. Sucking Chest Wound Dressing (a) Stabilize the flail segment as follows: • Place rolled-up clothing or bulky pad over site. (1) Control bleeding. (b) Have victim keep segment still with hand pressure. (3) Fractured ribs. (a) Encourage deep breathing (painful. (2) Remove watches. Treat fractures. (3) If fracture penetrates the skin— V-8 . e. • Tape pad to site • DO NOT wrap tape around chest. (b) DO NOT constrict breathing by taping ribs. sprains. and dislocations. but necessary to prevent the possible development of pneumonia).

(b) Body parts (for example. jewelry. parachute cord. Burns. (4) Position limb as normally as possible. (a) Use immersion or cool compresses. opposite leg. NOT in straight position. (13) Elevate injured area above heart level to reduce swelling. constrictive clothing. etc. immobilize the bones on both sides of the joint. (c) Avoid cooling that can cause frostbite or hypothermia. (11) Use 15 to 20 minute periods of cold application. (a) DO NOT use continuous cold therapy. (e) Stabilization. (a) Rest. If fracture is in a joint. (15) Loosen bandage or reapply splint if no pulse is felt or if swelling occurs because bandage is too tight. (b) Apply dressing over wound. (12) Wrap with a compression bandage after cold therapy. (7) Attach with strips of cloth. (a) Clean wound by gentle irrigation with water. V-9 . (6) Improvise a splint with available materials: (a) Sticks or straight. (c) Compression. (10) Apply cold to acute injuries. arm-to-chest). 2. (8) Keep the fractured bones from moving by immobilizing the joints on both sides of the fracture. Hand should look like it is grasping an apple. (2) Remove watches. (d) Elevation. stiff materials from equipment. CAUTION: Splint fingers in a slightly flexed position. (b) Avoid aggressive cooling with ice or frigid water. (b) Repeat 3 to 4 times per day. (9) Use RICES treatment for 72 hours. (5) Splint in position found (if unable to straighten limb). (1) Cool the burned area with water. (b) Ice. Common Injuries and Illnesses a. (14) Check periodically for a pulse beyond the injury site.

improvise a small swab. (2) Foreign body in eye. (a) Prevent with improvised goggles. (3) DO NOT remove embedded. burning sensation. charred material that will cause burned areas to bleed. (c) If foreign body is STILL not removed.) (8) Change dressings when soaked or dirty. Eye injuries. Figure VI-2. (See Chapter VI. (4) Cover with sterile dressings. (b) Drink water. skin is hot and flushed [sweating may or may not occur]. cool skin). (3) Heat stroke (victim disoriented or unconscious. (c) Use cool compresses to reduce pain. page VI-3. (a) Rest in shade. (2) Heat exhaustion (pale. •Replace patch for another 12 hours if not healed. (Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt [if available] to each quart of water. (6) Avoid moving or rubbing the burned part. (a) Irrigate with clean water from the inside to the outside corner of the eye. and cardiac arrest can occur. fast pulse). Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt per quart. CAUTION: Handle heat stroke victim gently. and possible reduction in vision caused by sun exposure). moist. sweating. (1) Sun/snow blindness (gritty. (7) Drink extra water to compensate for increased fluid loss from burns. (b) Drink water. c. Heat injury. •Check after 12 hours. seizures. (b) If foreign body is not removed by irrigation. b. Shock. patch eye for 24 hours and then reattempt removal using steps (a) and (b). (5) DO NOT use lotion or grease. (1) Heat cramps (cramps in legs or abdomen). Moisten and wipe gently over the affected area. (c) Protect from further heat exposure.) (b) Treat by patching affected eye(s). (a) Rest. V-10 .

If body heat WILL NOT rewarm area in 15 to 20 minutes. d. • Intense shivering with impaired ability to perform complex tasks leads to— • •Violent shivering. Cold injuries: (1) Frostnip and frostbite— (a) Are progressive injuries. •Ears. (b) Protect victim from the environment as follows: •Remove wet clothing. (2) Hypothermia— (a) Is a progressive injury. •Areas will feel cold and may tingle leading to— • •Numbness that progresses to— • ••Waxy appearance with stiff skin that cannot glide freely over a joint. (a) Cool as rapidly as possible (saturate clothing with water and fan the victim). sluggish thinking go to— • ••Muscular rigidity with blue. CAUTION: In frostbite. •Warm with blankets. then frostbite is present. • •Cover top of head.) (b) Maintain airway. (Avoid overcooling. •Prevent further heat loss. DO NOT thaw frozen tissue. V-11 . sleeping bags. puffy skin. jerky movements go to— ••••Coma. fingers. (c) Frostbitten areas are deeply frozen and require medical treatment. nose. DO NOT rub frozen tissue. respiratory and cardiac failure. • •Insulate from above and below. (b) Frostnipped areas rewarm with body heat. or shelter. and circulation. difficulty speaking. and toes are affected first. •Put on dry clothing (if available). Remember to cool the groin and armpit areas. repeated freezing and thawing causes severe pain and increases damage to the tissue. breathing.

DO NOT rub.. (c) DO NOT cut the bite site. Keep feet protected. e. cuffs. DO NOT use your mouth to create suction. (b) Minimize activity. CAUTION: This snakebite treatment recommendation is for situa- tions where medical aid and specialized equipment are not available. •Warm central areas before extremities. cover with a dressing. (b) Keep sores dry. and open to air. Rewarming of victim with skin-to-skin contact by volunteer(s) inside of a sleeping bag is a survival technique but can cause internal temperatures of all to drop. (d) Clean bite with soap and water. (a) Change body positions frequently. • •Place heat packs in groin. (d) Loosen boots. f. Skin tissue will be sensitive. • •Avoid causing burns to skin. and around neck. armpits. (f) DO NOT apply creams or ointments. (a) Remove constricting items. (2) Poisonous. warm. (1) Immersion injuries. (b) Pat dry. Skin becomes wrinkled as in dishpan hands. (c) Use antiseptic (if available). (d) DO NOT open or squeeze sores. Skin tissue damage. (a) Avoid walking on affected feet. etc. (2) Saltwater sores. (1) Nonpoisonous. (c) Dry socks and shoes. to improve circulation. V-12 . CAUTION: Handle hypothermia victim gently. Snakebite. (e) Keep area dry. Clean and bandage wound. Avoid overly rapid rewarming which may cause cardiac arrest.

(e) Overwrap the bite site with a tight (elastic) bandage
(Figure V-6). The intent is to slow capillary and venous blood flow
but not arterial flow. Check for pulse below the overwrap.
(f) Splint bitten extremity to prevent motion.
(g) Treat for shock (page V-7, paragraph 1c).
(h) Position extremity below level of heart.
(i) Construct shelter if necessary (let the victim rest).
(j) For conscious victims, force fluids.
g. Marine life.
(1) Stings.
(a) Flush wound with salt water (fresh water stimulates
toxin release).
(b) Remove jewelry and watches.
(c) Remove tentacles and gently scrape or shave skin.
(d) Apply a steroid cream (if available).
(e) DO NOT rub area with sand.
(f) Treat for shock; artificial respiration may be required
(page V-1, paragraph 1a).
(g) DO NOT use urine to flush or treat wounds.
(2) Punctures.
(a) Immerse affected part in hot water or apply hot
compresses for 30-60 minutes (as hot as victim can tolerate).
(b) Cover with clean dressing.
(c) Treat for shock as needed.
h. Skin irritants (includes poison oak and poison ivy).
(1) Wash with large amounts of water. Use soap (if
available).
(2) Keep covered to prevent scratching.
i. Infection.
(1) Keep wound clean.
(2) Use iodine tablet solution or diluted betadine to prevent
or treat infection.
(3) Change bandages as needed.

V-13

Figure V-6. Compression Bandage for Snake Bite

V-14

j. Dysentery and diarrhea.
(1) Drink extra water.
(2) Use a liquid diet.
(3) Eat charcoal. Make a paste by mixing fine charcoal
particles with water. (It may relieve symptoms by absorbing toxins.)
k. Constipation (can be expected in survival situations).
(1) DO NOT take laxatives.
(2) Exercise.
(3) Drink extra water.

3. Plant Medicine
a. Tannin.
(1) Medical uses. Burns, diarrhea, dysentery, skin problems,
and parasites. Tannin solution prevents infection and aids healing.
(2) Sources. Found in the outer bark of all trees, acorns,
banana plants, common plantain, strawberry leaves, and blackberry
stems.
(3) Preparation.
(a) Place crushed outer bark, acorns, or leaves in water.
(b) Leach out the tannin by soaking or boiling.
•Increase tannin content by longer soaking time.
•Replace depleted material with fresh bark/plants.
(4) Treatments.
(a) Burns.
•Moisten bandage with cooled tannin tea.
•Apply compress to burned area.
•Pour cooled tea on burned areas to ease pain.
(b) Diarrhea, dysentery, and worms. Drink strong tea
solution (may promote voiding of worms).
(c) Skin problems (dry rashes and fungal infections).
Apply cool compresses or soak affected part to relieve itching and
promote healing.
(d) Lice and insect bites. Wash affected areas with tea
to ease itching.
b. Salicin/salicylic acid.
(1) Medical uses. Aches, colds, fever, inflammation, pain,
sprains, and sore throat (aspirin-like qualities).
(2) Sources. Willow and aspen trees (Figure V-7).

V-15

(b) Drink tea for colds and sore throat. buds. moist layer between the outer bark and the wood) of willow or aspen. and dysentery. V-16 . (c) Use poultice to treat cuts. or cambium layer (soft. (b) Prepare tea as described in paragraph 3a(3). (4) Treatments. (a) Make cuts in unripe fruit. There are over 200 plantain species with similar medicinal properties. and a food source. Itching. (a) Drink tea made from seeds for diarrhea or dysentery. (2) Source. (a) Brew tea from seeds. meat tenderizer. (a) Use sap to tenderize tough meat. wounds. (4) Treatments. (b) Drink tea made from leaves for vitamin and minerals. c. •Crush the plant or stems. (c) Avoid getting sap in eyes or wounds. (4) Treatments. d. Papain. •Apply pulpy mass over injury. (1) Medical uses. moist poultice for aches and sprains. and minerals. Fruit of the papaya tree (Figure V-7). (2) Source. Common plantain. diarrhea. (1) Medical uses. Digestive aid. (c) Make poultice. or cambium for symptom relief. (a) Gather twigs. (3) Preparation. (3) Preparation. (b) Gather milky white sap for its papain content. sores. The common plantain is shown in Figure V-7. buds. abrasions. stings. (b) Brew tea from leaves. •Make a pulpy mass. (b) Eat ripe fruit for food. vitamins. (c) Make poultice of leaves. •Hold in place with a dressing. (a) Chew on twigs. and stings. burns. (3) Preparation. (c) Use warm.

Typical Aspen leaf 6-16 inches tall edible pollen edible young leaf shoot C. e. Cattail plant found in marshes (Figure V-7). A. (a) Apply poultice to affected area. inflammations. (1) Medical uses. (2) Source. (d) Peel and eat tender shoots (raw or cooked). (a) Pound roots into a pulpy mass for a poultice. Useful Plants V-17 . Common Cattail. (b) Use plant for food. and minerals. (3) Preparation. Wounds. (4) Treatments. (b) Cook and eat green bloom spikes. boils. (c) Collect yellow pollen for flour substitute. Papaya Figure V-7. Plantain E. Typical Willow leaf B. and an excellent food source. sores. burns. Cattail ground level edible rootstalk D. vitamins.

Wash hands before preparing food or water. (d) Use adhesive tape/mole skin to prevent damage. (b) Pick off insects and eggs (DO NOT crush). Locate latrines 200 feet from water and away from shelter. (1) Minimize infection by washing. d. c. Stay clean (daily regimen). b. (Use white ashes. Prevent and control parasites. (b) Use single strand of an inner core string from parachute cord for dental floss. Purify all water obtained from natural sources by using iodine tablets. Clean all eating utensils after each meal. (d) Gargle with salt water to help prevent sore throat and aid in cleaning teeth and gums. c. or loamy soil as soap substitutes. (a) Check body regularly. (3) Use smoke to fumigate clothing and equipment. Prevent insect bites by using repellent. h. (c) Use clean finger to stimulate gum tissues by rubbing. Exercise daily. Try to get 7-8 hours sleep per day. sand. f. and clothing. and massage.4. Eat varied diet.) (2) Comb and clean debris from hair. V-18 . b. Dry wet clothing as soon as possible. ticks. (2) Wash clothing and use repellents. etc. (a) Change and wash socks (b) Wash. dry. Rules for Avoiding Illness a. netting. g. or boiling for 5 minutes. e. Health and Hygiene a. 5. (a) Use hardwood twig as toothbrush (fray it by chewing on one end then use as brush). bleach. (1) Check body for lice. (3) Cleanse mouth and brush teeth. fleas. (c) Check frequently for blisters and red areas. (4) Clean and protect feet.

Chapter VI PERSONAL PROTECTION 1. the majority of body heat escapes through the head and neck areas. Never discard clothing. If you fall into the water in the winter— (1) Build fire. (2) Procure food. b. (1) Use salt water. (4) Build Fire. NOT drinking water. (3) Wear a hat when in direct sunlight (in hot environment). (2) Remove wet clothing and rewarm by fire. Dampen clothing when on the ocean in hot weather. d. (2) Procure water. (2) Dry clothing before dark to prevent hypothermia. First 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct survival shelter according to selection criteria. VI-1 . Second 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct necessary tools and weapons. (3) Establish multiple survival signals. Wear loose and layered clothing. Care and Use of Clothing a. (3) Finish drying clothing by fire. c. (1) Remove layers of clothing before strenuous activities. 2. then accomplish individual tasks accordingly. (1) Tight clothing restricts blood flow regulating body temperature. Keep entire body covered to prevent sunburn and dehydration in hot climates. g. Keep clothing dry to maintain its insulation qualities (dry damp clothing in the sun or by a fire). Avoid overheating. Evaluate available resources and situation. (2) Use a hat to regulate body heat. c. b. e. When fully clothed. f. (2) Layers create more dead air space. Priorities a.

(1) DO NOT sit or lie directly on the ground. or tuck into other layers of material. h. over the instep. (1) Cut 2 to 4 layers of cloth into a 30-inch square. especially at foot of bag. (3) Repair when necessary by using— (a) Needle and thread. vines. 3. (5) Fold side corners. Figure VI-1 Improvised Foot Wear (4) Fold front over the toes.. (3) Center foot on triangle with toes toward corner. (2) Fold into a triangle. (6) Secure by rope. (b) Safety pins. (c) Tape. one at a time. etc. VI-2 . (2) Allow wet clothes to freeze. (2) Wash clothing whenever possible. Improvised foot protection (Figure VI-1). (1) Fluff before use. Other Protective Equipment a. (2) Air and dry daily to remove body moisture. Sleeping bag. Examine clothing frequently for damage. i. j. If no fire is available— (1) Remove clothing and get into sleeping bag (if available). tape. (3) Break ice out of clothing. Keep clothing clean (dirt reduces its insulation qualities).

Used to protect from sand. bark. (1) Near signal and recovery site. leaves. (2) Available food and water. (1) Wear in bright sun or snow conditions. and scratches (wrap material around lower leg and top of boots). a. (3) Avoid natural hazards: VI-3 . Shelters Evasion considerations apply. dry grass. snow. Figure VI-3. Gaiters (Figure VI-3). Sun and snow goggles (Figure VI-2). Figure VI-2. (3) Improvise with available material. etc. b. Site selection. Gaiters 4. (2) Improvise by cutting small horizontal slits in webbing. or similar materials. dry moss. Sun and Snow Goggles c. insects.

Snow Cave. Find shelter needing minimal improvements (Figure VI-4). (Figures VI-5 through VI-7). Snow Trench. unless you can see your breath. (3) Thermal A Frame. Immediate Shelters (2) General shelter. Temperate climates require any shelter that gives protection from wind and rain. VI-4 . b. (1) Immediate shelters. (a) Snow is the most abundant insulating material. (4) Location large and level enough to lie down in. Cold climates require an enclosed. (b) Air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using an open flame inside enclosed shelters. insulated shelter. Figure VI-4. Note: As a general rule. your snow shelter is too warm and should be cooled down to preclude melting and dripping. (b) Drainage and dry river beds except in combat areas. Types. (c) Avalanche areas. (a) Dead standing trees.

Snow Trench VI-5 .Figure VI-5. Thermal A Frame Figure VI-6.

Hot climates require a shade shelter to protect from ultraviolet rays (Figure VI-8). (a) If natural materials are used. (5) Elevated platform shelter (Figure VI-9). (2) Cover with available material. (1) Have entrance 45-90 degrees from prevailing wind. arrange them in layers starting at the bottom with each layer overlapping the previous one. White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material). Snow Cave (4) Shade shelter. Figure VI-7. c. Shelter construction. See Figure VI-10 for an example. Tropical/wet climates require enclosed. a minimum of 2 layers of material suspended 12-18 inches above the head is required. (a) To reduce the surface temperature. the shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches). (b) For thermal protection. VI-6 . elevated shelter for protection from dampness and insects.

Elevated Platform Shelter Figure VI-10.Figure VI-8. Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter Figure VI-9. Shingle Method VI-7 .

or parachute material. 5. dry moss. Fires CAUTION: Weigh hazards and risks of detection against the need for a fire. ground using— (1) Raft or foam rubber from vehicle seats. (4) Sheet of plastic or plastic bag. VI-8 . Evasion considerations: (1) Use trees or other sources to dissipate smoke. (8) Snow. (b) If using porous material like parachute. broad leaves. leaves. (7) Grass and sod. Construct a bed to protect from cold.— • Stretch as tight as possible • Use a 40–60 degree slope. (2) Vehicle or aircraft parts. e. a. (9) Sand and rocks. • Use additional layers in heavy rain. (2) Use fires at dusk. (2) Boughs. etc. d. (c) Sparks from batteries. blankets. or dry moss. The 3 essential elements for starting a fire are heat. poncho. fuel. Fire building. Bed construction. (1) Heat sources: (a) Matches or lighter. etc. (3) Use fires at times when the local populace is cooking. (e) Pyrotechnics. dawn. Shelter construction materials: (1) Raft and raft parts. damp. (6) Boughs. such as flares (last resort). (b) Flint and steel (experiment with various rocks and metals until a good spark is produced). (d) Concentrated sunlight (use magnifying glass or flashlight reflectors). or during inclement weather. (3) Blankets. (5) Bark peeled off dead trees. b. and oxygen.

(f) Friction method (Figure VI-11). Without prior
training, this method is difficult to master and requires a lot of time
to build the device.

Figure VI-11. Friction Method

Note: If possible, carry a fire-starting device with you.

(2) Fuel is divided into 3 categories: tinder, kindling, and
fuel. (Gather large amounts of each category before igniting the fire.)
(a) Tinder. Tinder must be very finely shaved or
shredded to provide a low combustion point and fluffed to allow
oxygen to flow through. (To get tinder to burn hotter and longer,
saturate with Vaseline, Chapstick, insect repellant, aircraft fuel, etc.)
Examples of tinder include—
• Cotton.
• Candle (shred the wick, not the wax).
• Plastic spoon, fork, or knife.
• Foam rubber.

VI-9

•Dry bark.
•Dry grasses.
•Gun powder.
•Pitch.
•Petroleum products.
(b) Kindling. Kindling must be small enough to ignite
from the small flame of the tinder. Gradually add larger kindling
until arriving at the size of fuel to burn.
(c) Fuel. Examples of fuel include—
• Dry hardwood (removing bark reduces smoke).
• Bamboo (open chambers to prevent explosion).
• Dry dung.
c. Types. Fires are built to meet specific needs or uses.
(1) Tepee fire (Figure VI-12). Use the tepee fire to produce
a concentrated heat source for cooking, lighting, or signaling.

Figure VI-12. Tepee Fire

(2) Log cabin fire (Figure VI-13). Use the log cabin fire to
produce large amounts of light and heat, to dry out wet wood, and
provide coals for cooking, etc.

VI-10

Figure VI-13. Log Cabin or Pyramid Fires

(3) Sod fire and reflector (Figure VI-14). Use fire reflectors
to get the most warmth from a fire. Build fires against rocks or logs.

CAUTION: DO NOT use porous rocks or riverbed rock—they may
explode when heated.

Figure VI-14. Sod Fire and Reflector

VI-11

Dakota Fire Hole (5) Improvised stoves (Figure VI-16). These are very efficient. (4) Dakota fire hole (Figure VI-15). Figure VI-15. Improvised Stove VI-12 . Figure VI-16. Use the Dakota fire hole for high winds or evasion situations.

2. Chapter VII Water 1. (d) Presence of swarming insects indicates water is near. VII-1 . (b) Drainages and low-lying areas. b. • Lowers body temperature. (a) Abundance of lush green vegetation. Minimum 2 quarts per day to maintain fluid level. • Causes minor cold injury to lips and mouth. (a) DO NOT eat ice or snow. (4) Sea water. DO NOT drink— (1) Urine. • Induces dehydration. injury. or an illness increases water loss. (e) Bird flight in the early morning or late afternoon might indicate the direction to water. (4) Ground water (when no surface water is available) (Figure VII-2). Water Requirements Drink extra water. dew. (3) Blood. sleet) (FigureVII-1). (5) Snow or ice. Note: Pale yellow urine indicates adequate hydration. snow. (6) Melted water from new sea ice. (5) Alcohol. (2) Fish juices. lakes. Exertion. (2) Precipitation (rain. (3) Subsurface (wells and cisterns). Water Procurement a. heat. (c) “V” intersecting game trails often point to water. and springs). Water sources: (1) Surface water (streams.

Water Indicators VII-2 .Figure VII-1. Water Procurement Figure VII-2.

Water Generator (6) Open seas. Figure VII-3. Table VII-1. • Catch rain in spray shields and life raft covers. • DO NOT place next to the skin. • Speed the process by adding hot rocks or water. • Drink as much as possible. • Use waterproof container. (b) Precipitation. (b) Melt with fire. (c) Melt with body heat. Old Sea Ice or Icebergs OLD SEA ICE NEW SEA ICE Bluish or blackish Milky or grey Shatters easily Does not break easily Rounded corners Sharp edges Tastes relatively salt-free Tastes extremely salty VII-3 . • Stir frequently to prevent damaging container. • Collect dew off raft. (d) Use a water generator (Figure VII-3). • Place between layers of clothing. (a) Water available in survival kits. (c) Old sea ice or icebergs (Table VII-1).

• •Shake and listen for water. • • Tap before dark. • • Pour into hand to check smell. (b) Vegetation. and taste to determine if drinkable. cut as large a piece of vine as possible (cut the top first). bore into the roots and collect water. • •Bore hole at bottom of section to obtain water. • Vines (Figure VII-5A). Cloth absorbs rain running down tree and drips into container (Figure VII-4). •Water trees (avoid milky sap). cut off 6 inches of opposite end. (a) All open sources previously mentioned. • • Produce most water at night. • • If juice is clear and water like. • • When water flow stops. VII-4 . •Leaning Tree. Leaning Tree •Banana plants. • • DO NOT touch vine to lips. •Plants with hollow sections can collect moisture. • • For evasion situations. Figure VII-4. (7) Tropical areas. Let sap stop running and harden during the daytime. water will flow again. • • Cut bark (DO NOT use milky sap). • Old bamboo. color.

Beach Well VII-5 . • •Filter and purify. Water Vines and Green Bamboo CAUTION: Liquid contained in green coconuts (ripe coconuts may cause diarrhea). Along the coast. • Green bamboo (Figure VII-5B). Figure VII-6. • •Cut out entire section to carry with you. obtain water by digging a beach well (Figure VII-6). •Beach well. Figure VII-5 A and B.

VII-6 . •Water bag must be clear. (a) Solar still (Figure VII-7). (b) Vegetation bag (Figure VII-8).(8) Dry areas. Solar Still Figure VII-8. Figure VII-7. Vegetation Bag (c) Transpiration bag (Figure VII-9). •Water will taste like the plant smells.

Filter through porous material (sand/charcoal). b. (a) Boil at least 1 minute. Water Preparation and Storage a. Figure VII-9. Transpiration Bag Figure VII-10. (2) Purify all other water. (d) Seepage basin (Figure VII-10). Purification. (1) Water from live plants requires no further treatment. CAUTION: DO NOT use poisonous/toxic plants in vegetation/ transpiration bags. Filtration. VII-7 . Seepage Basin 3.

To prevent contamination. (b) Pour from one container to another to improve taste to aerate. Follow instructions on package. cold. (3) Section of bamboo. (1) If water cannot be purified. clean. (2) Prophylactic. use a clean. Storage. VII-8 . d. and fast running source (if possible). (1) Trash bag. c. (2) Put in clear container and expose to the sun’s ultraviolet rays to kill bacteria. (4) Flotation gear. Potable Water. obtain water from a clear. covered or sealed container. (c) Water purification tablets.

b. Fishing Locations (4) Reptiles and amphibians are found almost worldwide. and bedding areas. Procurement techniques. Chapter VIII FOOD 1. (5) Insects are found— (a) In dead logs and stumps. (b) Listening for bird noises (indication of nesting areas (3) Fish and other marine life locations (Figure VIII-1). lakes. Food Procurement a. (c) On ponds. VIII-1 . feeding. Sources and location. (1) Snares— (a) Work while unattended. (b) Droppings or tracks look fresh. (1) Mammals can be found where— (a) Trails lead to watering. Figure VIII-1. (2) Birds can be found by— (a) Observing the direction of flight in the early morning and late afternoon (leads to feeding. and roosting areas). and slow moving streams. watering. (b) At ant and termite mounds.

(b) Location: •Trails leading to water. • Make noose opening slightly larger than the animal's head (3-finger width for squirrels. and the animal’s escape. VIII-2 . •Use funneling (natural or improvised) (Figure VIII-5). the wire locks in place. feeding. Snare Placement (c) Construction of simple loop snare. • •Once tightened. •Avoid disturbing the area. Figure VIII-2. •Use a figure 8 (locking loop) if wire is used (Figure VIII-3). and bedding areas. •Use materials that will not break under the strain of holding an animal. • To construct a squirrel pole (Figure VIII-4) use simple loop snares. (d) Placement of snares (set as many as possible). •Mouth of dens (Figure VIII-2). fist-sized for rabbits). preventing reopening.

Funneling VIII-3 . Squirrel Pole Figure VIII-5. Locking Loop Figure VIII-4.Figure VIII-3.

Figure VIII-6. it may be dangerous. (a) Insert forked stick into a den until something soft is met. (3) Twist stick (Figure VIII-6). (c) Remove the animal from the den. VIII-4 . and hook. (e) Net. Procurement Devices (4) Hunting and fishing devices. binding the animal's hide in the fork. line. (d) Pole. (f) Trap. (c) Slingshot. (See Figure VIII-7 for fishing procurement methods. (b) Twist the stick.) (a) Club or rock. (d) Be ready to kill the animal. (2) Noose stick (easier and safer to use than the hands). (b) Spear.

(c) Kill animals before handling. (e) Kill fish before bringing them into the raft. (h) Avoid all crustaceans above the high tide mark. •Pale. •Sunken eyes. (g) DO NOT eat fish eggs or liver (entrails). Figure VIII-7. (i) Avoid cone-shaped shells (Figure VIII-8). •Flesh that remains dented when pressed. (f) DO NOT eat fish with— •Spines. Procurement Methods (5) Precautions: (a) Wear shoes to protect the feet when wading in water. Animals in distress may attract the enemy. (b) Avoid reaching into dark holes. VIII-5 . (d) DO NOT secure fishing lines to yourself or the raft. slimy gills. •Flabby skin. •Unpleasant odor.

swelling. •Ticks. paralysis. (k) Avoid poisonous insects. Cone shell Warning! These snails can sting and cause acute pain. blindness and possible death in a few hours. •Scorpions. •Poisonous spiders. Cone-Shaped Shells of Venomous Snails (j) Avoid hairy insects. VIII-6 . Terebra shell Figure VIII-8. (l) Avoid disease carrying insects. such as— •Flies. the hairs could cause irritation or infection. for example: •Centipedes. •Mosquitoes.

bulbs. these guidelines will help prevent choosing potentially toxic plants. (1) Selection criteria. (h) Old or wilted leaves. Bracken fern fiddleheads also violate this guideline. (f) Grain heads with pink. Even after testing food and finding it safe. eat in moderation. or black spurs. DO NOT waste time testing a plant that is not abundant. (c) Remember that eating large portions of plant food on an empty stomach may cause diarrhea. (b) Spines. bark. Before using the following guide use your evasion chart to identify edible plants: Note: If you cannot positively identify an edible plant and choose to try an unknown plant. or cramps. (Aggregate berries such as black and dewberries are always edible. however. (d) Umbrella shaped flowers (hemlock is eliminated). ensure there are enough plants to make testing worth your time and effort. (c) Mushrooms and fungus.) (k) Almond scent in woody parts and leaves. and thorns (skin irritants/contact dermatitis). (a) Milky sap (dandelion has milky sap but is safe to eat and easily recognizable). fine hairs. Two good examples are green apples and wild onions. (j) White and yellow berries.) requires more than 24 hours to test. nausea. VIII-7 . stems. Plant Foods. (g) Beans. (a) Before testing for edibility. purplish. c. these guidelines may help determine edibility. (2) Avoid plants with the following characteristics: Note: Using these guidelines in selecting plants for food may eliminate some edible plants. (i) Plants with shiny leaves. (b) Test only 1 part of 1 plant at a time. or seeds inside pods. (e) Bulbs (only onions smell like onions). etc. leaves. Prickly pear and thistles are exceptions. Each part of a plant (roots. test all others before eating.

buds. The same part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals. If any ill effects occur during this period. Test procedures. VIII-8 . The sap or juice should contact the skin. place the plant on your tongue and hold it for 15 minutes. swallow the food and wait 8 hours. induce vomiting and drink a water and charcoal mixture. Remember. (10) If there is no reaction. Wait another 8 hours. (9) If after 3 minutes there is no reaction on your lip. and flowers). test for contact poisoning by placing a piece of the plant on the inside of your elbow or wrist. (3) Smell the food for strong acid odors. (12) If no ill effects occur. (2) Separate the plant into its basic components (stems. CAUTION: Test all parts of the plant for edibility. eat ¼ cup of the same plant prepared the same way. thoroughly chew a pinch and hold it in your mouth for 15 minutes (DO NOT SWALLOW). (8) Before placing the prepared plant in your mouth. If no ill effects occur. smell alone does not indicate a plant is edible or inedible. the plant part as prepared is safe for eating. (7) Select a small portion of a single part and prepare it the way you plan to eat it. rinse out your mouth with water. Usually 15 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction. d. If any ill effects occur. NEVER ASSUME a part that proved edible when cooked is edible raw. test the part raw before eating. take NOTHING by mouth EXCEPT purified water and the plant you are testing. (6) During testing. roots. (1) Test only 1 part of a plant at a time. touch a small portion (a pinch) to the outer surface of your lip to test for burning or itching. (4) DO NOT eat 8 hours before the test and drink only purified water. Some plants have both edible and inedible parts. (5) During the 8 hours you abstain from eating. (11) If nothing abnormal occurs.

(b) Wash when ready to use. rather than color. Softness. 2. Concentrate your efforts on leafy green plants. •Avoid rupturing the intestines. Figure VIII-9. and above ground ripe vegetables not requiring significant preparation. Cook underground portions when possible to reduce bacterial contamination and ease digestion of their generally high starch content. tongue. Small Game Skinning VIII-9 . (1) Mammals. is the best indicator of ripeness. Butchering and skinning. brain.CAUTION: 1. •Save inner organs (heart. a. 3. 2. and kidneys) and all meaty parts of the skull. (d) Unused or inedible organs and entrails may be used as bait for other game. Cook unripe fruits and discard seeds and skin. Ripe tropical fruits should be peeled and eaten raw. During evasion. Food Preparation Animal food gives the greatest food value per pound. •Remove the intestines. liver. remove it from the bones. •Open the abdominal cavity. and eyes. (a) One cut skinning of small game (Figure VIII-9). (c) If preserving the meat. ripe fruits. (a) Remove the skin and save for other uses. you may not be able to cook.

snails. (d) Skin scavengers and sea birds. (b) Discard skin. (6) Fruits. (c) Skin or pluck them. thoroughly cook all wild game. head with 2 inches of body. berries. (2) Frogs and snakes. clams. (b) Insert knifepoint into anus of fish and cut open the belly. (1) Boiling (most nutritious method of cooking—drink the broth). and most nuts can be eaten raw. (The rest is edible. b. freshwater fish. (a) Remove all hard portions such as the legs of grasshoppers or crickets. (a) Scale (if necessary) and gut fish soon after it is caught. DO NOT save. (a) Gut soon after killing. (b) Drop heated rocks into containers to boil water or cook food. (5) Insects. (2) Baking. mussels. CAUTION: To kill parasites. (a) Skin. (b) Bury food in dirt under coals of fire. (a) Wrap in leaves or pack in mud. and internal organs.) (b) Recommend cooking grasshopper-size insects. (d) Remove gills to prevent spoilage. and scavenger birds. (c) Remove entrails. crawfish. Saltwater fish may be eaten raw. (b) Protect from flies. Cooking. CAUTION: Dead insects spoil rapidly. VIII-10 . (3) Fish. (a) Make metal cooking containers from ration cans. (4) Birds.

•Crushing and pouring water through. Cold water should be tried first. c. is cooler than the surface. (4) Roasting. however. c. (4) DO NOT use pitch woods such as fir or pine. they produce soot giving the meat an undesirable taste. Keeping an animal alive. Use one of the following leaching methods: (a) First method: •Soaking and pouring the water off. Drying and smoking removes moisture and preserves food. and taste the plant. (3) Leaching. (a) Food wrapped in waterproof material and placed in a stream remains cool in summer months. VIII-11 . (2) Short term. (3) Remove fat. (b) Frozen food will not decompose (freeze in meal-size portions). repeat process until palatable. (b) Second method: •Boil. (c) Wrap food in absorbent material such as cotton and re-wet as the water evaporates. (1) Long term. (1) Use salt to improve flavor and promote drying. 3. (a) Food buried in snow maintains a temperature of approximately 32 degrees F. (a) Shake shelled nuts in a container with hot coals. Refrigerating. •If bitter. (b) Earth below the surface. (b) Roast thinly sliced meat and insects over a candle. •Discarding water. Food Preservation b. boiling water is sometimes best. pour off water. Some nuts (acorns) must be leached to remove the bitter taste of tannin. (2) Cut or pound meat into thin strips. particularly in shady areas or along streams.

DO NOT store food in the shelter. (3) Packing meat on the trail. (d) Wrap soft fruits and berries in leaves or moss. (2) Hanging meat. and shrimp in wet seaweed. it attracts unwanted animals. (b) Wrap pieces individually. (a) Use clean material. Soft material acts as insulation helping keep the meat cool. (1) Wrapping food. (b) Cover during daylight hours to protect from insects. (b) Place meat in fabric or clothing for insulation. VIII-12 . (d) Carry shellfish. Protecting meat from animals and insects. crabs. d. (a) Wrap before flies appear in the morning. (a) Hang meat in the shade. e. (c) Place meat inside the pack for carrying. (c) Ensure all corners of the wrapping are insect proof.

distance from the source. a. (a) Seek existing shelter that may be improved (Figure IX-1). Figure IX-1. Nuclear Conditions CAUTION: Radiation protection depends on time of exposure. (3) Avoid detection and capture. Protection. BIOLOGICAL. and shielding. Immediate Action Shelter IX-1 . (1) FIND PROTECTIVE SHELTER IMMEDIATELY! (2) Gather all equipment for survival (time permitting). AND CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS) 1. Chapter IX INDUCED CONDITIONS (NUCLEAR.

Improvised Shelter IX-2 . then enlarge for comfort (Figure IX-2). (b) If no shelter is available. Parachute or other suitable material Wind Enough room to work 3 Feet Minimum Figure IX-2. dig a trench or foxhole as follows: •Dig trench deep enough for protection. •Cover with available material.

5 minutes unsheltered is maximum! Priority: (1) Cave or tunnel covered with (4) Basements.3 inches radiation dose by 1/2.7 inches Cinder Block 5. Keep handkerchief/cloth over mouth and nose. SHELTER: Pick. DO NOT look at fireball! Remain prone until blast effects are over. give close attention to fingernails and hairy parts. •Snow (6 or more inches below the surface during the fallout). 8 Brief exposure (1 hour maximum) Figure IX-3.3 inches Snow 20. SHELTER SURVIVAL: Keep contaminated materials out of shelter. 3 or more feet of earth. RADIATION SHIELDING EFFICIENCIES Iron/Steel . Brick 2. Rinse and /or shake wet clothing. Radiation Shielding Efficiencies (5) Leave contaminated equipment and clothing near shelter for retrieval after radioactive decay. No Water: Wipe all exposed skin surfaces with clean cloth or uncontaminated soil. DO NOT smoke! DAILY RADIATION TIME TABLE for NO RATE METER 4-6 Complete isolation 9-12 2-4 hours exposure per day 3-7 Brief exposure (30 minutes maximum) 13 Normal movement. IX-3 . DO NOT wring out! PERSONAL HYGIENE: Wash entire body with soap and any water. Cover exposed body parts. (4) Radiation shielding efficiencies (Figure IX-3). NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS: Fall flat. Good Weather: Bury contaminated clothing outside of shelter (recover later). (6) Lie down. (5) Abandoned stone/mud buildings. as soon as possible. within 2 feet radius of foxhole lip). wells.0 inches Ice 6.8 inches amount of thickness reduces received Earth 3. b.3 inches One thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. keep warm.2 inches Wood (Soft) 8. Allow no more than 30 minutes exposure on 3d day for water procurement. or underground sources are safest. sleep. Substance: (1) Water. (2) Storm/storage cellars (6) Foxhole 4 feet deep (remove topsoil (3) Culverts. Improvise goggles. (a) Water sources (in order of preference): •Springs. Fallout/dusty conditions--keep entire body covered. and rest. Bad Weather: Shake strongly or beat with branches. •Water in pipes/containers in abandoned buildings. Present minimal profile to direction of blast.8 inches Additional thickness added to any Concrete 2.

•Shells of all eggs (contents will be safe to eat). etc. potatoes. IX-4 . cut meat away from the bone. etc. (a) Processed foods (canned or packaged) are preferred. turnips. •Use a seep well. ponds. •Discard all internal organs. (b) Water preparation (Figures IX-4 and IX-5). •Aquatic food sources (use only in extreme emergencies because of high concentration of radiation). carrots. •Cook all meat until very well done. •Plants whose edible portions grow underground (for example.). •Before cooking. etc. Wash and remove skin. apples. wash and wipe containers before use. •Avoid animals that appear to be sick or dying. •Lakes. (c) Avoid. (b) Animal foods. leaving at least 1/8 inch of meat on the bone. •Streams and rivers (filtered before drinking). •Smooth skinned vegetables. (2) Food. •Filtering through earth removes 99 percent of radioactivity. •Milk from animals. (d) Plant foods (in order of preference). •Water from below the surface (DO NOT stir up the water).). or above ground plants that are not easily peeled or washed. fruits. •Skin carefully to avoid contaminating the meat. •Purify all water sources. •Edible portions growing above ground that can be washed and peeled or skinned (bananas. pools.

Filtration Systems. Settling Water IX-5 .Figure IX-4. Filtering Water Figure IX-5. Filtration Systems.

(4) Unusual substances on the ground or vegetation. (b) Use antibacterial ointment or cleaning solution. (2) Breakable containers or unusual bombs. (d) Maintain food intake. (c) Cover with clean dressing. (b) Use personal hygiene practices and remove body waste from shelter. and roof of mouth frequently. weakness. (a) Clean affected area. (e) Prevent additional exposure. (b) Rest. (5) Clean teeth. and muffled explosions. (4) Radiation sickness (nausea. (a) Clean affected area. IX-6 . sick looking plants or crops. vomiting. diarrhea. Self-aid: (1) General rules: (a) Prevent exposure to contaminants. gums. (4) Clean thoroughly under fingernails. (d) Drink liquids. (3) Burns. Protection from biological agents follow: (1) Use protective equipment. tongue. (3) Wash hair and body thoroughly with soap and water. b. 2. (c) Drink fluids. Clues which may alert you to a biological attack follow: (1) Enemy aircraft dropping objects or spraying. radiation burns). avoid fatigue. particularly those bursting with little or no blast. (2) Bathe as soon as the situation permits. Biological Conditions a. c. (b) Cover with clean dressing. (c) Rest. fatigue. (2) Wounds. (a) Time is required to overcome. (3) Smoke or mist of unknown origin. loss of hair. (d) Watch for signs of infection.

orange. (3) Sound. choking. Yellow. boil food and water for 10 minutes. 3. travel crosswind or upwind (taking advantage of terrain to stay away from depressions). Most solid state agents have some color. or red smoke or mist. Protection against chemical agents follows: (1) Use protective equipment. (6) If traveling. trenches. Tears. Presence of sick or dying animals. Detecting. (1) Smell. and skin covered. c. (d) Solid. (b) Liquid. (7) Wildlife. Bottled or canned foods are safe if sealed. (d) Avoid woods. or skin and/or moisture on the skin are danger signs. gullies. (2) Stay alert for clues of biological attack. (a) Exit contaminated area by moving crosswind. Some agents appear as a mist immediately after shell burst. Chemical Conditions a. difficult breathing. coughing. (5) Construct shelter in a clear area. away from vegetation. etc. If in doubt. ground. (c) Avoid cellars. with entrance 90 degrees to the prevailing wind. (4) Feel. itching. Muffled explosions are possible indications of chemical agent bombs. eyes. ditches. valleys. (2) Avoid contaminated areas. dark patches on leaves. Strange taste in food or water indicates contamination. tall grasses. (5) Taste. (4) Keep food and water protected. Oily. IX-7 . (c) Gas. Irritation to the nose. dizziness. (2) Sight. Survival tips for biological conditions follow: (1) Keep your body and living area clean. (6) General indications. b. Many agents have little or no odor. (b) Select routes on high ground. mouth. etc. and bushes as they tend to hold chemical agent vapors. Many agents are colorless: (a) Color. (3) Keep nose.

etc. or animals). handkerchief. (b) Rinse contaminated areas with water. (c) Improvise a breathing filter using materials available (T-shirt. (b) Follow antidote directions when needed.). d. dead fish. •Destroying. Warm water. fabric. Self-aid in chemically contaminated areas. IX-8 . (4) DO NOT use plants for food or water in contaminated areas. (1) If a chemical defense ensemble is available— (a) Use all protective equipment. (e) Decontaminate body and equipment as soon as possible by— •Removing. foreign odors. Tips for the survivor: (1) DO NOT use wood from a contaminated area for fire. (3) Keep food and water protected. Burying. (2) Look for signs of chemical agents around water sources before procurement (oil spots. Pinch-blotting. •Neutralizing. (2) If a chemical defense ensemble is not available— (a) Remove or tear away contaminated clothing. c.

anxiety. boredom. and cohesiveness promote high morale: (a) Preventing panic. (2) Pledge of Allegiance. death. (2) Taking care of your buddy. illness. Strengthen your will to survive with— (1) The Code of Conduct. Preparation— (1) Know your capabilities and limitations. good organization. isolation). carelessness. (4) Reassuring and encouraging each other. (5) Combat psychological stress by— (a) Recognizing and anticipating existing stressors (injury. (5) Thoughts of return to family and friends. withdrawal. (b) Creating strength and trust in one another. 1. environment. Psychology of Survival a. (3) Working as a team. Group dynamics of survival include— (1) Leadership. (c) Favoring persistency in overcoming failure. (d) Facilitating formulation of group goals. Appendix A THE WILL TO SURVIVE ARTICLE VI CODE OF CONDUCT I will never forget that I am an American fighting for freedom. and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. A-1 . depression. forgetfulness. I will trust in my God and in the United States of America. responsible for my actions. b. guilt. (3) Develop a realistic plan. (4) Patriotic songs. (b) Attributing normal reactions to existing stressors (fear. (c) Identifying signals of distress created by stressors (indecision. (2) Keep a positive attitude. (3) Faith in America. fatigue. (4) Anticipate fears. anger). and propensity to make mistakes). c. hunger.

(5) Try to have worship services. Remember past inner sources to help you overcome adversity. l. Meditate. i. or others. d. (b) Organizing according to individual capabilities. f. (4) Pray for each other. b. A-2 . Spiritual Considerations a. Praise God and give thanks because— (1) God is bigger than your circumstances. strength. h. g. (4) Pray for protection and a positive outcome. (2) Love for family and self. Identify your personal beliefs. verses. (1) Faith and trust in your God. Worship without aid of written scripture. (3) Hope comes from a belief in heaven and/or an after-life. (3) Never lose hope. Pray for your God’s help. j. wisdom. (2) Discuss what is important to you. and rescue. (3) Ask for God’s help. c. Use self-control. k. With other survivors— (1) Identify or appoint a religious lay leader. (2) Give thanks that God is with you. (1) Talk to your God. Trust. Collect your thoughts and emotions. repeat them to yourself and to your God. Forgive— (1) Yourself for what you have done or said that was wrong. (3) Share scriptures and songs. (c) Accepting suggestions and criticism. or hymns. e. (5) Influencing factors are— (a) Enforcing the chain of command. 2. (4) Never give up. (2) God will see you through (no matter what happens). Remember scripture. clergy. (2) Those who have failed you.

remember— (a) Your God loves you. (b) Praise your God. (7) Encourage each other while waiting for rescue. A-3 . (6) Write down scriptures and songs that you remember.

Application The target audience for this publication is any Service member requiring basic survival. evasion. 3. Implementation Plan Participating Service command offices of primary responsibility (OPRs) will review this publication. weatherproof. Appendix B Publication Information 1. 2. and recovery information. techniques. pocket-sized guide on basic survival. B-1 . and recovery information. Scope This UNCLASSIFIED multiservice tactics. 4. regulations. Purpose This publication provides Service members a quick reference. The Army will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Army training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commander. evasion. Distribution is in accordance with the Department of Army Form 12-99-R. validate the information. and procedures publication is designed to assist Service members in a survival situation regardless of geographic location. and reference and incorporate it in Service and command manuals. and curricula as follows: Army. US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC).

Changes in Service protocol. Air Force units will validate and incorporate appropriate procedures in accordance with applicable governing directives. The Marine Corps will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Marine Corps training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commanding general. c. This publication reflects current joint and Service doctrine. User Information a. command and control (C2) organizations. Key your comments to the specific page and paragraph and provide a rationale for each recommendation. The Navy will incorporate these procedures in US Navy doctrinal and training publications as directed by the commander. The TRADOC-MCCDC-NWDC-AFDC Air Land Sea Applica- tion (ALSA) Center developed this publication with the joint participation of the approving Service commands. 5. appropriately reflected in joint and Service publications. We encourage recommended changes for improving this publication. and procedures. facilities. Air Force. will likewise be incorporated in revisions to this document. Send comments and recommendation directly to— B-2 . Distribution is in accordance with Marine Corps Publication Distribution System. Navy. ALSA will review and update this publication as necessary. Marine Corps. b. Distribution is in accordance with Air Force Instructions 33-360. Distribution is in accordance with Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures Desk Guide and Navy Standing Operating Procedures Publication 409. US Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC). Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC). responsibilities. personnel.

mil ALSA ALSA Center ATTN: Director 114 Andrews Street Langley AFB.mil Air Force HQ Air Force Doctrine Center ATTN: DJ 216 Sweeney Boulevard Suite 109 Langley AFB VA 23665-2722 DSN 754-8091 COMM (757) 764-8091 E-mail Address: afdc.dj@langley.mil B-3 .navy. VA 23665-2785 DSN 575-0902 COMM (757) 225-0902 E-mail: alsadirector@langley. Army Commander US Army Training and Doctrine Command ATTN: ATDO-A Fort Monroe VA 23651-5000 DSN 680-3153 COMM (757) 727-3153 Marine Corps Commanding General US Marine Corps Combat Development Command ATTN: C42 3300 Russell Road Quantico VA 22134-5001 DSN 278-6234 COMM (703) 784-6234 Navy Commander Navy Warfare Development Command (Det Norfolk) ATTN: ALSA Liaison Officer 1530 Gilbert Street Norfolk VA 23511-2785 DSN 262-2782 COMM (757) 322-2782 E-mail: ndcjoint@nctamslant.af.af.

SMITH TIMOTHY A. .217. USAF Commander Commander Navy Warfare Development Headquarters Air Force Command Doctrine Center This publication is available on the Army Doctrinal and Training Digital Library (ADTDL) at http://155. E. USN Major General. RHODES General. ABRAMS J. USA Lieutenant General. JOHN N. J.58. This publication has been prepared under our direction for use by our respective commands and other commands as appropriate. KINNAN Rear Admiral.58. USMC Commander Commanding General Training and Doctrine Command Marine Corps Combat Development Command B.

requirements for TM 55-1680-351-10. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number 311368. 1 March 1996 Air Force Distribution: F . SHINSEKI Official: General.26 29 JUNE 1999 By Order of the Secretary of the Army: ERIC K.S. United States Army Chief of Staff JOEL B. and U.3 *AFTTP(I) 3-2. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center *Supersedes: AFPAM 36-2246. FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50. KINNAN Major General. HUDSON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army 9916744 DISTRIBUTION: Active Army. By Order of the Secretary of the Air Force: TIMOTHY A. Army National Guard.

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MARINE CORPS: PCN 14400006800 .

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