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SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY
MULTISERVICE PROCEDURES FOR SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.26
JUNE 1999 AIR LAND SEA APPLICATION CENTER
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
MULTISERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES
QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST Decide to Survive!
S U R V I V A L Size up the situation, surroundings, physical condition, equipment. Use all your senses Remember where you are. Vanquish fear and panic. Improvise and improve. Value living. Act like the natives. Live by your wits.
1. Immediate Actions a. Assess immediate situation. THINK BEFORE YOU ACT! b. Take action to protect yourself from nuclear, biological, or chemical hazards (Chapter IX). c. Seek a concealed site. d. Assess medical condition; treat as necessary (Chapter V). e. Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information. f. Sanitize area; hide equipment you are leaving. g. Apply personal camouflage. h. Move away from concealed site, zigzag pattern recommended. i. Use terrain to advantage, communication, and concealment. j. Find a hole-up site. 2. Hole-Up-Site (Chapter I) a. Reassess situation; treat injuries, then inventory equipment. b. Review plan of action; establish priorities (Chapter VI). c. Determine current location. d. Improve camouflage. e. Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand. f. Execute plan of action. Stay flexible!
Recommend inclusion of this manual in the aviator’s survival vest.
3. Concealment (Chapter I) a. Select a place of concealment providing (1) Adequate concealment, ground and air. (2) Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of communications (LOC). (3) Listening and observation points. (4) Multiple avenues of escape. (5) Protection from the environment. (6) Possible communications/signaling opportunities. b. Stay alert, maintain security. c. Drink water. 4. Movement (Chapters I and II) a. Travel slowly and deliberately. b. DO NOT leave evidence of travel; use noise and light discipline. c. Stay away from LOC. d. Stop, look, listen, and smell; take appropriate action(s). e. Move from one concealed area to another. f. Use evasion movement techniques (Chapter I). 5. Communications and Signaling (Chapter III) a. Communicate as directed in applicable plans/orders, particularly when considering transmitting in the blind. b. Be prepared to use communications and signaling devices on short notice. c. Use of communications and signaling devices may compromise position. 6. Recovery (Chapter IV) a. Select site(s) IAW criteria in theater recovery plans. b. Ensure site is free of hazards; secure personal gear. c. Select best area for communications and signaling devices. d. Observe site for proximity to enemy activity and LOC. e. Follow recovery force instructions.
.... 4.......... Army Training and Doctrine Command Fort Monroe..................... 3....................................... 1...... Rhode Island Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center Maxwell Air Force Base....... II-12 iii .... Virginia Marine Corps Combat Development Command Quantico....... 2............... and recovery information............................FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50........ 5.......................... I-3 Movement ........................................ See Appendix B for the scope.......................................................... Evasion.................................................................... II-12 Dry Climates................ 3.....3 AFTTP(I) 3-2......................................S.. II-10 Ice and Snow Travel ...................... I-3 CHAPTER II NAVIGATION Stay or Move Considerations ........................... II-11 Mountain Hazards ..26 U.............. II-1 Navigation and Position Determination ... implementation plan......... 2.......... I-1 Camouflage .. 6................................ and user information........ and Recovery Multiservice Procedures for Survival....................................................... and Recovery Note: This UNCLASSIFIED publication is designed to provide Service members quick-reference survival.... Evasion...................................... I-1 Shelters .. evasion................ II-1 Travel Considerations................... purpose................ Alabama 29 JUNE 1999 Survival............................................................ II-12 Summer Hazards .......... 7........... 8................. EVASION Planning..................... 4...... TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I 1....... II-10 River Travel..................................3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.......26 FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.......... application.................. Virginia Navy Warfare Development Command Newport.................
................ V-15 Health and Hygiene ...................................... IX-6 3..... Nuclear Conditions ... Water Procurement ............ IX-7 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B THE WILL TO SURVIVE ..................... B-2 iv I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX A B ......................................................................................... RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING RECOVERY 1..... III-1 2................................................................................................. 5.................................... 6........................................................................... Food Preparation ....................................... Biological Conditions .... Water Preparation and Storage................................................ II-13 10........ 3.........9............................................ V-18 Rules for Avoiding Illness......................................................... 1.................................................................................................. Food Preservation ................ III-2 Responsibilities..... VII-1 3............................................... Water Requirements ..................................................... V-1 Common Injuries and Illnesses..... VIII-11 CHAPTER IX INDUCED CONDITIONS 1....................................................................... IV-1 CHAPTER V MEDICAL Immediate First Aid Actions ..... IV-1 Site Selection......... IX-1 2................ V-18 CHAPTER VI PERSONAL PROTECTION Priorities .... A-1 PUBLICATION INFORMATION ...................................................................................... VI-1 Other Protective Equipment....... VI-1 Care and Use of Clothing .................. 2..................... II-13 CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV 1............................................ VI-3 Fires .......................................................... Tropical Climates ................................................................ 2.... IV-1 Site Preparation ........................................................................... 2............................................. Chemical Conditions .................... 4............ VI-8 CHAPTER VII WATER 1............................ VI-2 Shelters ................... Signaling . V-9 Plant Medicine. 1............ 4.... VIII-9 3........................................................................................... 3........................................................................ IV-1 Recovery Procedures .................................................................. Open Seas ......................................................... 3..... Radio Communications (Voice and Data)................................... VIII-1 2.... 4.................................... VII-7 CHAPTER VIII FOOD 1................................................. Food Procurement.......................................... VII-1 2........................
(5) Drinking water (DO NOT eat food without water). (7) Resting and sleeping as much as possible. Where to go (initiate evasion plan of action): (1) Near a suitable area for recovery.Chapter I EVASION 1. 2. after-shave lotion. c. (2) Shaving cream. I-1 . (2) Selected area for evasion. (5) Tobacco (odor is unmistakable). Review the quick reference checklist on the inside cover. The following odors stand out and may give an evader away: (1) Scented soaps and shampoos. d. (4) Gum and candy (smell is strong or sweet). (4) Being patient. (4) Designated area for recovery. (6) Conserving strength for critical periods. b. Planning a. (3) Apply personal camouflage. (c) Snow (barren). (2) Using established procedures. (2) Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy. Basic principles: (1) Disturb the area as little as possible. (8) Staying out of sight. Guidelines for successful evasion include(1) Keeping a positive attitude. (3) Following your evasion plan of action. (b) Desert areas (barren). b. (a) Coniferous areas (broad slashes). or other cosmetics. (3) Insect repellent (camouflage stick is least scented). (2) Slash pattern. (a) Temperate deciduous (leaf shedding) areas. Camouflage a. (3) Neutral or friendly country or area. Camouflage patterns (Figure I-1): (1) Blotch pattern.
(d) Use stains from grasses. netting. and the under chin. (4) Remember when using shadows. (b) Change camouflage depending on the surroundings. berries. (4) Light colored hair. Camouflage Patterns c. (3) Head. vegetation. hands. Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on any remaining exposed areas. change regularly. BLOTCH SLASH Figure I-1. Use scarf. (3) Combination. neck. (c) DO NOT select vegetation from same source. or mask if available. dirt. May use blotched and slash together. d. they shift with the sun.(b) Jungle areas (broad slashes). Position and movement camouflage follows: (1) Avoid unnecessary movement. Personal camouflage application follows: (1) Face. The insides and the backs should have 2 colors to break up outlines. (2) Ears. netting. or coloration methods. and charcoal. collar. (2) Take advantage of natural concealment: (a) Cut foliage fades and wilts. Use a hat. I-2 . Give special attention to conceal with a scarf or mosquito head net. (3) DO NOT over camouflage. (c) Grass (narrow slashes).
“V” of crotch/armpits. If travel is necessary (1) Mask with natural cover (Figure I-2). rank insignia. (3) Restrict to periods of low light. Remove unit patches.Irregular shape S . Locate carefullyeasy to remember acronym: BLISS.Small S . and rocks to keep from forming paths to site. Shelters a.Secluded location (1) Choose an area (a) Least likely to be searched (drainages.) and blends with the environment. (c) With observable approaches. 4. (2) Locate entrances and exits in brush and along ridges. 3. or reduced enemy activity. glasses. rough terrain. (6) Ensure overhead concealment. A moving object is easy to spot. b.Blend L . (2) Use the military crest. I-3 . ditches. B . (4) Conceal with minimal to no preparation. (5) Never expose shiny objects (like a watch. Movement a. bad weather. etc.pens). wind. or (6) (7) (8) (9) Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off. Use camouflage and concealment. Conduct observation from a prone and concealed position. (3) Be wary of flash floods in ravines and canyons. (b) With escape routes (DO NOT corner yourself). etc. Break up the outline of the body. (5) Take the direction finding threat into account before transmitting from shelter.Low silhouette I . name tags.
troops. vehicles. aircraft. (d) SMELL for vehicles. I-4 . wire. troops. tracks. weapons. buildings.).Figure I-2. troops. etc. Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel. etc. aircraft. roads. animals. Ground Movement (4) Avoid silhouetting (Figure I-3). animals. (c) LISTEN for vehicles. (b) LOOK for signs of human or animal activity (smoke. (5) At irregular intervals (a) STOP at a point of concealment. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight. fires. etc.
Some techniques for concealing evidence of travel follows: (1) Avoid disturbing the vegetation above knee level. or grass. (c) Make noise by breaking sticks. Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route/zigzag) to camouflage evidence of travel. b. Break up the human shape or recognizable lines. rocks.) (d) Mangle grass and bushes that normally spring back. d. (2) DO NOT break branches.) (5) Pick firm footing (carefully place the foot lightly but squarely on the surface to avoid slipping). (Cloth wrapped around feet helps muffle this. TRY NOT TO (a) Overturn ground cover.Figure I-3. In snow country. and sticks. this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route. (This may scuff the bark or create movement that is easily spotted. (b) Scuff bark on logs and sticks. Avoid Silhouetting (6) Employ noise discipline. leaves. check clothing and equipment for items that could make noise during movement and secure them. c. (4) DO NOT grab small trees or brush. (3) Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to its original position. I-5 .
and snowdrifts. Repeat for the second track. (d) Taking advantage of solid surfaces (logs. downed logs.(6) Mask unavoidable tracks in soft footing by (a) Placing tracks in the shadows of vegetation. I-6 .) leaving less evidence of travel. (Figure I-5) (5) Use same method of observation for railroad tracks that was used for roads. Cross at points offering concealment such as bushes. (e) Patting out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old. Cross in a manner leaving your footprints parallel (cross step sideways) to the road. go over the top. bend in road. e. (3) Penetrate rail fences. Penetrate obstacles as follows: (1) Enter deep ditches feet first to avoid injury. (2) Go around chain-link and wire fences. Next. passing under or between lower rails. shadows. DO NOT touch fence. align body parallel to tracks with face down. Go under fence if unavoidable. look for electrical insulators or security devices. (Figure I-6). presenting as low a silhouette as possible (Figure I-4). (Trash or lost equipment identifies who lost it.) (8) Concentrate on defeating the handler if pursued by dogs. (b) Moving before and during precipitation allows tracks to fill in. etc. cross tracks using a semi-pushup motion. rocks. (4) Cross roads after observation from concealment to determine enemy activity. If impractical. (7) Secure trash or loose equipmenthide or bury discarded items. (c) Traveling during windy periods. etc. crossing at damaged areas.
Road Crossing I-7 . Rail Fences Figure I-5.Figure I-4.
Figure I-6. 1 may be electrified. I-8 . Railroad Tracks WARNING: If 3 rails exist.
Stay or Move Considerations a. have a known destination. 1. (3) Using information provided in the map legend. or destroy. Stay with the vehicle/aircraft in a non-combat environment. Leave information at your starting point (in a non-combat environment) that includes (1) Destination. Determine your general location by (1) Developing a working knowledge of the operational area. (2) Determine which direction to travel and why. (4) Convinced rescue is not coming. II -1 . (3) Personal condition. (2) Using the Rate x Time = Distance formula. (a) Geographic checkpoints. Consider the following for maps (in a combat environment): (1) DO NOT write on the map. 2. (4) Supplies available. Note: These actions may compromise information if captured. (2) Route of travel. c. e. Navigation and Position Determination a. (b) Man-made checkpoints. b. (3) DO NOT fold in a manner providing travel information. Consider the following if you decide to travel: (1) Follow the briefed evasion plan. and have the ability to get there. (3) Decide what equipment to take.Chapter II NAVIGATION Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles. food. d. (3) Can reach water. and/or help. shelter. (4) Using prominent landmarks. cache. Leave only when (1) Dictated by the threat. (c) Previous knowledge of operational area. (2) Are certain of your location. (2) DO NOT soil the map by touching the destination.
(a) Digital watches. (2) Using stick and shadow method to determine a true north-south line (Figure II-1). south. b. Stick and Shadow Method (3) Remembering the sunrise/moonrise is in the east and sunset/moonset is in the west. North is halfway between the 12 o’clock position and the hour hand. Visualize a clock face on the watch.(5) Visualizing map to determine position. (c) Southern Hemisphere. (b) Northern Hemisphere. east. South is halfway between the hour hand and 12 o’clock position. Determine cardinal directions (north. Point hour hand at the sun. Point the 12 o’clock position on your watch at the sun. II -2 . CAUTION: The following methods are NOT highly accurate and give only general cardinal direction. (4) Using a wristwatch to determine general cardinal direction (Figure II-2). and west) by (1) Using compass. Figure II-1.
•1-2 inch shadow tip device (a twig. II -3 . Note: The shortest line between base of shadow tip device and curved line is a north-south line. Do the following: •Attach shadow tip device in center of paper. •Connect marks to form an arc. •Pen or pencil. (b) Start construction at sunup.To Determine North/South NORTHERN HEMISPHERE NORTH MID POINT SOUTH MID POINT HOUR HAND HOUR HAND SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE If on daylight saving time subtract one hour from actual time Figure II-2. •Secure navigator on flat surface (DO NOT move during set up period). nail.Using A Watch . or match). end construction at sundown. (c) Do the following during travel: •Hold navigator so the shadow aligns with mark of present time (drawn arrow now points to true north). •Indicate north with a drawn arrow. Direction Using a Watch (5) Using a pocket navigator (Figure II-3) (a) Gather the following necessary materials: •Flat writing material (such as an MRE box). •Mark tip of shadow every 30 minutes annotating the time.
II -4 . Figure II-4. (d) Remember the navigator is current for approximately CAUTION: The Pocket Navigator is NOT recommended if evading. flat. Figure II-3. level nonmetallic surface. Orient the map by (1) Using a true north-south line (Figure II-5) (a) Unfold map and place on a firm. Pocket Navigator (6) Using the stars (Figure II-4) the (a) North Star is used to locate true north-south line. Stars c. (b) Southern Cross is used to locate true south-north line.1 week.
•Easterly (subtract variation from 360 degrees).(b) Align the compass on a true north-south line. •Westerly (add variation to 360 degrees). (c) Rotate map and compass until stationary index line aligns with the magnetic variation indicated in marginal information. Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating dial compass N N N Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating dial compass Figure II-5. Orienting a Map Using a True North-South Line II -5 .
Map Orientation with Compass Rose II -6 .(2) Using a compass rose (Figure II-6) (a) Place edge of the lensatic compass on magnetic north line of the compass rose closest to your location. (b) Rotate map and compass until compass reads 360 degrees. 180 Figure II-6. Star indicates magnetic line on EVC Chart.
Triangulation (a) Try to use 3 or more azimuths. Use the compass for night navigation by (1) Setting up compass for night navigation (Figure II-8). f. (2) Aligning north-seeking arrow with luminous line and follow front of compass. (3) Using point-to-point navigation. Determine specific location. Route selection techniques follow: II -7 . (b) Positively identify a major land feature and determine a line of position (LOP). (d) Conserve GPS battery life. (c) Check map orientation each time compass is used. (1) Global Positioning System (GPS). (d) Plot the LOP using a thin stick or blade of grass (combat) or pencil line (non-combat). (e) Repeat steps (b) through (d) for other LOPs. d. (b) Use GPS to confirm your position ONLY. (2) Triangulation (resection) with a compass (Figure II-7). (c) Select area providing maximum satellite reception. Figure II-7.(3) If there is NO compass. e. (a) DO NOT use GPS for primary navigation. orient map using cardinal direction obtained by the stick and shadow method or the celestial aids (stars) method.
(c) Resume your route of travel. New sum is the number of clicks to the right from stationary index line. (a) Find a prominent landmark on the opposite side of the obstacle. EXAMPLES Heading of 027 degrees = 9 clicks left. Figure II-8. (3) Straight-line heading as follows: (a) Maintain heading until reaching destination. Heading between 0 and 180 degrees is divided by 3. Heading of 300 degrees = 20 clicks right. II -8 . (2) Dogleg and 90 degree offset (Figure II-9). Compass Night Navigation Setup (1) Circumnavigation.Setting the Compass for Night Travel Luminous Line North Seeking Arrow Stationary Index 64 Bezel Ring Each click of the Bezel Ring equals 3 degrees. (b) Measure distance by counting the number of paces in a given course and convert to map units. (b) Contour around obstacle to landmark. Heading between 180 and 360 degrees. subtract heading from 360 then divide sum by 3. Sum is number of clicks to the left of stationary index line.
(c) Use pace count in conjunction with terrain evaluation and heading to determine location. or injured/uninjured condition. 1200 paces per kilometer [average]). (b) On reaching a point.N W E 90 0 180 0 90 0 S 1 80 360 0 90 0 original heading O bstacle original heading plus 45 to heading 0 90 0 m inus 45 0 from original heading Figure II-9. II -9 . or example in rough terrain. Dogleg and 90 Degree Offset •One pace is the distance covered each time the same foot touches the ground. (a) Pick out landmarks on the heading and walk the trail of least resistance to a point. An individual’s pace varies because of factors such as steep terrain. establish another landmark and continue. road or river). (4) Deliberate offset is (a) Used when finding a point on a linear feature (that is. 900 paces per kilometer [average]. day/night travel. (5) Point-to-point is same as straight line. (b) Intentionally navigated to left or right of target so you know which way to turn at the linear feature. Adjust estimation of distance traveled against these factors to get relative accuracy when using a pace count. •Distances measured by paces are approximate (example in open terrain.
lakes. It may be a primary mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment (use with caution if evading). etc. Use a pole to move the raft in shallow water. II -10 . Travel Considerations a. c. (4) Waterfalls. and unfordable rivers: (1) Circumnavigate swamps. d. log. b. c. Go around obstacles. and personal safety. Maintain a realistic pace. (2) Sweepers (overhanging limbs and trees). Pack equipment to prevent loss. f. Consider using a flotation device when crossing rivers or large/deep streams. i. (3) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. Take special care of feet (change socks regularly). Avoid overdressing and overheating. (5) Hazardous animals. Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with NO escape in the event of heavy rains. f. e. lakes. Travel on trails whenever possible (non-combat). Consider food and water requirements. Consider the following for swamps. 4.). Stay near inside edge of river bends (current speed is less). pack imbalance. b. (3) Rapids (DO NOT attempt to shoot the rapids). bamboo. not over or through them. Watch for the following DANGERS: (1) Snags. d. River Travel River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. Keep near shore. Travel in forested areas if possible. take rest stops when needed.3. j. Use an oar in deep water. Pick the easiest and safest route (non-combat). g. k. e. (2) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. g. h. damage. Use flotation device (raft. a. and bogs if needed.
Improvised Snowshoes (3) Avalanche prone areas to avoid: (a) Slopes 30-45 degrees or greater. Ice and Snow Travel Travel should be limited to areas free of hazards. (3) Poor visibility. make snowshoes [Figure II-10]). (c) Heavy snow loading on ridge tops. (4) If caught in an avalanche. Obstacles to winter travel follow: (1) Reduced daylight hours (BE AWARE). II -11 . Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted. a. Figure II-10. (b) Trees without uphill branches (identifies prior avalanches).5. (2) Bitterly cold winds. do the following: (a) Backstroke to decrease burial depth. DO NOT travel in (1) Blizzards. (2) Deep soft snow (if movement is necessary. b.
7. belly crawling. b. avoiding— (1) Deep sandy dune areas. 8. II -12 . paragraph 3. Avoid low areas. (c) Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in the event of heavy rains. Avalanche. (a) Weak ice should be expected where— •Rivers are straight. distribute your weight by laying flat. and unfordable rivers. (5) Frozen water crossings. Mountain Hazards a. b. DO NOT travel unless certain of reaching the destination using the water supply available. c. or using snowshoes. (c) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water.(b) Move hand around face to create air pocket as moving snow slows. Dry Climates a. (2) Rough terrain. Travel at dawn or dusk on hot days. (c) When crossing frozen water. In sand dune areas— (1) Follow hard valley floor between dunes. lakes. Summer Hazards (see page II-10. 6. Travel Considerations. Avoid areas prone to avalanches. Flash floods. c. (b) Air pockets form when a frozen river loses volume. •Snow banks extend over the ice. and bogs if needed. c. (b) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. Follow the easiest trail possible (non-combat). •Rivers or streams come together. (a) Circumnavigate swamps. (2) Swamps. (b) Travel in forested areas if possible. Avoid ridge tops during thunderstorms. Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided. (a) Travel on trails when possible (non-combat). items h through k. lakes.) (1) Dense brush. d. Lightning. •Water vapor rising indicates open or warm areas. •Objects protrude through ice.
the enemy uses the trails also. Avoid grabbing vegetation. (3) DO NOT sleep on the trail. 10. While traveling trails (1) Watch for disturbed areas on game trails. c. (6) Remain stationary until the storm is over. (4) Exercise caution. they may indicate a pitfall or trap. (2) Where a low pass goes over a range of hills. (2) Use a walking stick to probe for pitfalls or traps. Avoid obstacles like thickets and swamps.(2) Travel on the windward side of dune ridges. (2) Inflate raft so it rides higher. Find trails— (1) Where 2 streams meet. it may have spines or thorns (use gloves if possible). b. d. e. (4) Cover the mouth and nose with a piece of cloth. (2) Sit or lie down in direction of travel. DO NOT climb over logs if you can go around them. (Sail aids in making landfall. Travel only when it is light. (4) Construct a shade cover/sail (Figure II-12). f. (3) Sit up in raft so body catches the wind. (2) Sit low in the raft. (5) Protect the eyes. Tropical Climates a. If a sandstorm occurs (1) Mark your direction of travel. Using currents (1) Deploy sea anchor (Figure II-11). Using winds (1) Pull in sea anchor. Sea anchor may be adjusted to make use of existing currents. 9. b. Part the vegetation to pass through.) II -13 . (3) Deflate the raft slightly so it rides lower in the water. (3) Try to get to the downwind side of natural shelter. Open Seas a. e.
II -14 . Shade/Sail Construction c. (3) Lighter colored reflection on clouds (open water causes dark gray reflections) (in the arctic). (2) Greenish tint in the sky (in the tropics). Sea Anchor Deployment Figure II-12. Making landfall.Figure II-11. Indications of land are (1) Fixed cumulus clouds in a clear sky or in a cloudy sky where all other clouds are moving.
d. (a) Avoid places where waves explode upon rocks.(4) Lighter colored water (indicates shallow water). (10) If caught in the undertow of a large wave— (a) Remain calm and swim to the surface. (b) Find a place where waves smoothly rush onto the rocks. work shoreward in the next trough. (b) Lie as close to the surface as possible. (7) Try to make landfall during the lull between the sets of waves (waves are generally in sets of 7. (b) When the seaward wave approaches. face it and submerge. (6) Wear footgear and at least 1 layer of clothing. (a) Odors from swamps and smoke. II -15 . Swimming ashore (1) Consider physical condition. (2) Use a flotation aid. (5) Use the sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength if thrown from raft. (b) Assume a sitting position with feet 2 or 3 feet lower than head to absorb the shock of hitting submerged objects. (c) Parallel shoreline and attempt landfall at a point further down shore. (a) Swim forward on the back of a wave. (9) In high surf. (b) Roar of surf/bird cries coming from one direction. (c) After it passes. (b) Make a shallow dive just before the wave breaks to end the ride. from smallest to largest). (5) The odors and sounds. (11) Select a landing point. (a) Swim shoreward in the trough between waves. (12) After selecting a landing site (a) Face shoreward. (6) Directional flights of birds at dawn and at dusk. (3) Secure all gear to body before reaching landfall. (4) Remain in raft as long as possible. (8) In moderate surf.
(4) Weight down/secure raft so it does not blow away. and disintegrating flows are dangerous (ice can cut a raft). (2) Store raft away from the ice edge. Icebergs. CAUTION: DO NOT deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral. small flows. II -16 . (c) Deploying a sea anchor for stability. (3) Keep raft inflated and ready for use. (b) Using paddles to maintain control. (1) Use paddles to avoid sharp edges. Making sea ice landings on large stable ice flows. (2) Use caution landing when the sun is low and straight in front of you causing poor visibility. (5) Penetrate surf by— (a) Taking down most shade/sails. (4) Head for gaps in the surf line.e. f. (3) Land on the lee (downwind) side of islands or point of land if possible. Rafting ashore (1) Select landing point carefully.
Locate spare radio and batteries (keep warm and dry). Combat. (8) Use terrain masking to hinder enemy direction finding. space blanket. vegetation. If no immediate contact. (6) Move after each transmission (ONLY in combat. f. (3) Keep antenna perpendicular to intended receiver (Figure III-1). d. (5) Keep transmissions short (3-5 seconds maximum). e. if possible). Use data burst if available. (2) Follow standing plans for on/off operations to conserve battery use. Non-combat. Radio Communications (Voice and Data) a. instructions of all 1. c. (2) Face recovery asset.). (3) Follow plans/orders for on/off operations. (1) Ensure locator beacon is operational. Transmissions. (4) DO NOT ground antenna (that is finger on antenna or attaching bolt. (1) Turn off locator beacon. etc. ensure a clear LOS towards the equator. Listening (use reception times in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces). (2) Keep it with you to supplement radio communications. b. (1) Use concealment sites (combat) that optimize line of site (LOS). g. Make initial contact as soon as possible or as directed in applicable plans/orders. (7) If transmitting in the blind.Chapter III RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING Inventory and review the operating communications and signaling equipment. then as directed in applicable plans/orders. III-1 .
Pyrotechnic signals. (3) Extend over raft's edge before activating. Signaling a. III-2 . Radio Transmission Characteristics 2.100% 91% 91% 60% 31% 24% 41% 65% Signal Strength/ Operator Orientation 1% Top cone of silence 30-50% 900 30-50% 100% Main lobe Main lobe 100% 30-50% 90 0 30-50% Bottom cone of silence 1% Cut-away Sideview of Antenna Power Distribution Figure III-1. (1) Prepare early (weather permitting). (2) Use as directed in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces.
brush. (1) Use as directed by recovery forces. branches. stomped grass). parachute). (3) Size (large as possible) and ratio (Figure III-3). (3) Cover when not in use. use only with confirmed friendly forces. (3) Conserve battery life. signal paulin. (1) Prepare early. c. (2) Location. (b) Natural use materials that contrast the color and/or texture of the signaling area (rocks. Pattern signals (use as directed in applicable plans/orders). Signal mirror (Figure III-2). III-3 .b. (2) Use as directed by recovery forces. Sighting Techniques Note: Make a mirror from any shiny metal or glass. Note: Produces one residual flash when turned off. (b) Provide concealment from ground observation. Strobe/IR lights. consider filters and shields. (1) Materials: (a) Manmade (space blanket. (2) If no radio. d. Figure III-2. (a) Maximize visibility from above.
III-4 . (2) Conserve unused dye by rewrapping. Size and Ratio (4) Shape (maintain straight lines and sharp corners). (5) Contrast (use color and shadows). (3) May be used to color snow. (6) Pattern signals (Figure III-4). Sea dye marker. (1) DO NOT waste in rough seas or fast moving water. Figure III-4.Figure III-3. Signal Key e.
f. (Figure III-5) (3) Use signal mirror to sweep horizon. voice. Non-combat considerations: (1) Use a fire at night. whistle. (2) Use smoke for day (tires or petroleum products for dark smoke and green vegetation for light smoke). Figure III-5. and weapons fire). (4) Use audio signals (that is. Smoke Generator III-5 .
be prepared to report— (1) Enemy activity in the recovery area. IV-1 . 3. free of obstructions. Mentally review recovery methods (aircraft. d. c. (3) Number in party/medical situation. especially on sloping or uneven terrain. Assess evidence of human activity at/near the site (in combat). c. Prepare signaling devices (use as directed or as briefed). e. 2. Stay concealed until recovery is imminent (in combat). a ground-to-air signal may be your only means to effect recovery. d. Site Preparation a.Chapter IV RECOVERY 1. size. Plan several tactical entry and exit routes (in combat). c. Locate several concealment sites around area (in combat). Secure loose equipment that could be caught in rotors/propellers. b. Maintain communication with recovery forces until recovered. (2) Secure weapons and avoid quick movement. etc. b. 4. Site Selection a. boat. Assist recovery force in identifying your position. b. b. (3) DO NOT approach recovery vehicle until instructed. For a landing/ground recovery— (1) Assume a non-threatening posture. Locate area for landing pick-up. Pack and secure all equipment. (4) Signal devices available. c.). (2) Recovery site characteristics (slope.). obstacles. if practical (approximately 150 feet diameter. If no radio. (4) Beware of rotors/propellers when approaching recovery vehicle. Responsibilities a. Follow recovery force instructions. etc. flat and level). Recovery Procedures a. Establish radio contact with recovery forces (if possible). Be prepared to authenticate as directed in applicable plans/orders. ground.
e. (9) Drag feet on the ground to decrease oscillation. (2) Allow metal on device to contact the surface before touching to avoid injury from static discharge. (5) Ensure cable is in front of you.d. (8) Use a thumbs up. (7) DO NOT become entangled in cable. if available (glasses or helmet visor). (4) Put safety strap under armpits. vigorous cable shake. (6) Keep hands clear of all hardware and connectors. (3) Sit or kneel for stability while donning device. or radio call to signal you are ready. Follow crewmember instructions. (2) Follow the procedures in "d" above. For nonhoist recovery (rope or unfamiliar equipment)— (1) Create a “fixed loop” big enough to place under armpits (Figure IV-3). Rescue Strap IV-2 . (10) DO NOT assist during hoist or when pulled into the rescue vehicle. For hoist recovery devices (Figures IV-1 and IV-2)— (1) Use eye protection. Figure IV–1.
Forest Penetrator IV-3 .Figure IV-2.
Fixed Loop IV-4 .Step 1 Step 2 Figure IV–3.
Chapter V MEDICAL WARNING: These emergency medical procedures are for survival situations. Immediate First Aid Actions Remember the ABCs of Emergency Care: Airway Breathing Circulation a. listen. (2) If no response— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. (b) Roll victims onto their backs. and feel for air exchange. Determine responsiveness as follows: (1) If unconscious. Figure V-1. arouse by shaking gently and shouting. Chin Lift V-1 . Obtain professional medical treatment as soon as possible. 1. (d) Look. (c) Open the airway by lifting the chin (Figure V-1).
remove any blockage. paragraph 1d. CAUTION: DO NOT remove an impaled object unless it interferes with the airway. you may shorten and secure the object. reposition airway. try again. (i) If the airway is still blocked. •Check for chest rise each time. Treat Chest Injuries. You may cause more tissue damage and increase bleeding. (2) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use direct pressure over the wound.(3) If victim is not breathing— (a) Check for a clear airway. (c) Pinch victim’s nostrils closed. (f) If breaths still blocked. (h) Try 2 slow breaths again. •Thrust upward to expel air from stomach. For travel. (b) Roll victim on side (drains the mouth and prevents the tongue from blocking airway). start mouth to mouth breathing: •Give 1 breath every 5 seconds. •Place a fist between breastbone and belly button. (e) If breaths are blocked. but breathing— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. (b) Elevate the wounded area above the heart. give 5 abdominal thrusts: •Straddle the victim. (d) Fill victim’s lungs with 2 slow breaths. (4) If victim is unconscious. (g) Sweep with finger to clear mouth. b. V-2 . continue (c) through (f) until successful or exhausted. (b) Cover victim's mouth with your own. (5) If breathing difficulty is caused by chest trauma. Control bleeding as follows: (1) Apply a pressure dressing (Figure V-2). (j) With open airway. refer to page V-7.
Figure V-2. Application of a Pressure Dressing V-3 .
(b) Maintain pressure for 6 to 10 minutes before checking to see if bleeding has stopped.(3) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use a pressure point between the injury and the heart (Figure V-3). Pressure Points V-4 . Figure V-3.
A band at least 3 inches (7. V-5 . Recognize that long-term use of a tourniquet may cause loss of limb.(4) If a limb wound is STILL bleeding— CAUTION: Use of a tourniquet is a LAST RESORT measure. •Ensure bleeding has stopped •Loosen tourniquet SLOWLY to restore circulation. (c) Use a stick at least 6 inches (15 cm) long. •Leave loosened tourniquet in position in case bleeding resumes. (e) Mark a TK on the forehead with the time applied.5 cm) or wider is best. an attempt to SLOWLY loosen the tourniquet may be made 20 minutes after application. uncontrolled bleeding will cause loss of life. CAUTION: The following directions apply ONLY in survival situations where rescue is UNLIKELY and NO medical aid is available. (f) DO NOT cover the tourniquet. Use ONLY when severe. (b) Follow steps illustrated in Figure V-4. (g) If rescue or medical aid is not available for over 2 hours. (d) Tighten only enough to stop arterial bleeding. (a) Apply tourniquet (TK) band just above bleeding site on limb. Before loosening— •Ensure pressure dressing is in place.
Tighten tourniquet by turning stick just enough to stop arterial bleeding. 3.1. Wrap a wide band around the injured limb. 4. bayonet or scabbard through the tourniquet knot. SQUARE KNOT 2. Application of a Tourniquet V-6 . Pass a stick. Figure V-4. Bind free end of the stick to keep tourniquet from unwinding. Tie with a square knot.
(4) Maintain normal body temperature. (1) Sucking chest wound. (Shock is difficult to identify or treat under field conditions. may cause victim to gasp for breath. Results from blunt trauma when 3 or more ribs are broken in 2 or more places. (b) Give warm fluids. (b) Fast breathing and a weak. (c) Insulate from ground. V-7 . (6) Place very weak or unconscious victim on side. (2) Maintain circulation. (b) Prevent tongue from blocking airway. This occurs when chest wall is penetrated. It may be present with or without visible injury. Treat chest injuries. and sweaty skin.c. cool. may create bloody froth as air escapes the chest. fast pulse. as necessary. Treat shock. (d) Decreased urine output. (2) Flail chest. •DO NOT give fluids if they cause victim to gag. •DO NOT give fluids to an unconscious victim. (a) Remove wet clothing. (a) Immediately seal wound with hand or airtight material. d. may cause sucking sound.) (1) Identify by one or more of the following: (a) Pale. (3) Treat underlying injury. (b) Tape airtight material over wound on 3 sides only (Figure V-5) to allow air to escape from the wound but not to enter. (c) Monitor breathing and check dressing. (d) Lift untapped side of dressing as victim exhales to allow trapped air to escape. (d) Shelter from the elements. (c) Anxiety or mental confusion. this will— (a) Allow mouth to drain. (5) Place conscious victim on back. The flail segment is the broken area that moves in a direction opposite to the rest of chest during breathing.
sprains. (a) Encourage deep breathing (painful. (3) Fractured ribs. and dislocations. (1) Control bleeding. jewelry. but necessary to prevent the possible development of pneumonia). (b) Have victim keep segment still with hand pressure. (c) Roll victim onto side of flail segment injury (as other injuries allow). (3) If fracture penetrates the skin— V-8 . • Tape pad to site • DO NOT wrap tape around chest. (2) Remove watches. and constrictive clothing. Treat fractures. (b) DO NOT constrict breathing by taping ribs. e. Sucking Chest Wound Dressing (a) Stabilize the flail segment as follows: • Place rolled-up clothing or bulky pad over site.Figure V-5.
(2) Remove watches. opposite leg. (5) Splint in position found (if unable to straighten limb). constrictive clothing. NOT in straight position. (b) Body parts (for example. (b) Avoid aggressive cooling with ice or frigid water. (c) Compression. (8) Keep the fractured bones from moving by immobilizing the joints on both sides of the fracture. (11) Use 15 to 20 minute periods of cold application. (6) Improvise a splint with available materials: (a) Sticks or straight. (a) DO NOT use continuous cold therapy. immobilize the bones on both sides of the joint. (14) Check periodically for a pulse beyond the injury site. (b) Repeat 3 to 4 times per day. jewelry. (b) Ice. 2. (e) Stabilization. stiff materials from equipment. (b) Apply dressing over wound. Common Injuries and Illnesses a. (10) Apply cold to acute injuries. (7) Attach with strips of cloth. (d) Elevation. (9) Use RICES treatment for 72 hours. CAUTION: Splint fingers in a slightly flexed position. V-9 . (c) Avoid cooling that can cause frostbite or hypothermia. Burns. (13) Elevate injured area above heart level to reduce swelling. (a) Rest. (15) Loosen bandage or reapply splint if no pulse is felt or if swelling occurs because bandage is too tight. parachute cord. Hand should look like it is grasping an apple.(a) Clean wound by gentle irrigation with water. If fracture is in a joint. (12) Wrap with a compression bandage after cold therapy. (a) Use immersion or cool compresses. (1) Cool the burned area with water. arm-to-chest). etc. (4) Position limb as normally as possible.
(b) Drink water. cool skin). (b) Drink water. fast pulse). (7) Drink extra water to compensate for increased fluid loss from burns. (a) Prevent with improvised goggles. (c) Protect from further heat exposure. Shock. page VI-3. V-10 . patch eye for 24 hours and then reattempt removal using steps (a) and (b). (2) Heat exhaustion (pale. skin is hot and flushed [sweating may or may not occur]. sweating. (4) Cover with sterile dressings. and possible reduction in vision caused by sun exposure). Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt per quart. improvise a small swab. moist. (1) Sun/snow blindness (gritty. (5) DO NOT use lotion or grease. (6) Avoid moving or rubbing the burned part. (See Chapter VI.(3) DO NOT remove embedded. burning sensation. CAUTION: Handle heat stroke victim gently.) (8) Change dressings when soaked or dirty. Moisten and wipe gently over the affected area. (3) Heat stroke (victim disoriented or unconscious. Heat injury. and cardiac arrest can occur. (2) Foreign body in eye. (c) Use cool compresses to reduce pain. b. (Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt [if available] to each quart of water. (a) Rest in shade. seizures. charred material that will cause burned areas to bleed.) (b) Treat by patching affected eye(s). Figure VI-2. •Check after 12 hours. c. (1) Heat cramps (cramps in legs or abdomen). Eye injuries. (a) Rest. (a) Irrigate with clean water from the inside to the outside corner of the eye. (c) If foreign body is STILL not removed. •Replace patch for another 12 hours if not healed. (b) If foreign body is not removed by irrigation.
•Warm with blankets.) (b) Maintain airway. sluggish thinking go to— • ••Muscular rigidity with blue. or shelter. Remember to cool the groin and armpit areas. (2) Hypothermia— (a) Is a progressive injury. •Prevent further heat loss. d. Cold injuries: (1) Frostnip and frostbite— (a) Are progressive injuries. then frostbite is present. sleeping bags. •Put on dry clothing (if available).(a) Cool as rapidly as possible (saturate clothing with water and fan the victim). and toes are affected first. •Areas will feel cold and may tingle leading to— • •Numbness that progresses to— • ••Waxy appearance with stiff skin that cannot glide freely over a joint. CAUTION: In frostbite. puffy skin. (b) Protect victim from the environment as follows: •Remove wet clothing. • •Insulate from above and below. breathing. respiratory and cardiac failure. DO NOT thaw frozen tissue. (c) Frostbitten areas are deeply frozen and require medical treatment. fingers. repeated freezing and thawing causes severe pain and increases damage to the tissue. DO NOT rub frozen tissue. V-11 . • •Cover top of head. If body heat WILL NOT rewarm area in 15 to 20 minutes. (b) Frostnipped areas rewarm with body heat. difficulty speaking. • Intense shivering with impaired ability to perform complex tasks leads to— • •Violent shivering. and circulation. •Ears. jerky movements go to— ••••Coma. nose. (Avoid overcooling.
cover with a dressing. f. Skin tissue will be sensitive. Skin becomes wrinkled as in dishpan hands. (c) DO NOT cut the bite site. etc. Avoid overly rapid rewarming which may cause cardiac arrest. (2) Poisonous. CAUTION: This snakebite treatment recommendation is for situations where medical aid and specialized equipment are not available. warm. Skin tissue damage. (a) Change body positions frequently. (b) Keep sores dry. (1) Nonpoisonous. (d) Loosen boots. CAUTION: Handle hypothermia victim gently. •Warm central areas before extremities. (c) Use antiseptic (if available). (b) Minimize activity. DO NOT rub. Keep feet protected. e.neck. cuffs. • •Place heat packs in groin. and around • •Avoid causing burns to skin. (f) DO NOT apply creams or ointments.. (b) Pat dry. (1) Immersion injuries. Snakebite. to improve circulation. and open to air. Clean and bandage wound. (2) Saltwater sores. (d) Clean bite with soap and water. (c) Dry socks and shoes. (d) DO NOT open or squeeze sores. (a) Remove constricting items. armpits. V-12 . (a) Avoid walking on affected feet. DO NOT use your mouth to create suction. (e) Keep area dry. Rewarming of victim with skin-to-skin contact by volunteer(s) inside of a sleeping bag is a survival technique but can cause internal temperatures of all to drop.
(e) Overwrap the bite site with a tight (elastic) bandage (Figure V-6). The intent is to slow capillary and venous blood flow but not arterial flow. Check for pulse below the overwrap. (f) Splint bitten extremity to prevent motion. (g) Treat for shock (page V-7, paragraph 1c). (h) Position extremity below level of heart. (i) Construct shelter if necessary (let the victim rest). (j) For conscious victims, force fluids. g. Marine life. (1) Stings. (a) Flush wound with salt water (fresh water stimulates toxin release). (b) Remove jewelry and watches. (c) Remove tentacles and gently scrape or shave skin. (d) Apply a steroid cream (if available). (e) DO NOT rub area with sand. (f) Treat for shock; artificial respiration may be required (page V-1, paragraph 1a). (g) DO NOT use urine to flush or treat wounds. (2) Punctures. (a) Immerse affected part in hot water or apply hot compresses for 30-60 minutes (as hot as victim can tolerate). (b) Cover with clean dressing. (c) Treat for shock as needed. h. Skin irritants (includes poison oak and poison ivy). (1) Wash with large amounts of water. Use soap (if available). (2) Keep covered to prevent scratching. i. Infection. (1) Keep wound clean. (2) Use iodine tablet solution or diluted betadine to prevent or treat infection. (3) Change bandages as needed.
Figure V-6. Compression Bandage for Snake Bite
j. Dysentery and diarrhea. (1) Drink extra water. (2) Use a liquid diet. (3) Eat charcoal. Make a paste by mixing fine charcoal particles with water. (It may relieve symptoms by absorbing toxins.) k. Constipation (can be expected in survival situations). (1) DO NOT take laxatives. (2) Exercise. (3) Drink extra water. 3. Plant Medicine a. Tannin. (1) Medical uses. Burns, diarrhea, dysentery, skin problems, and parasites. Tannin solution prevents infection and aids healing. (2) Sources. Found in the outer bark of all trees, acorns, banana plants, common plantain, strawberry leaves, and blackberry stems. (3) Preparation. (a) Place crushed outer bark, acorns, or leaves in water. (b) Leach out the tannin by soaking or boiling. •Increase tannin content by longer soaking time. •Replace depleted material with fresh bark/plants. (4) Treatments. (a) Burns. •Moisten bandage with cooled tannin tea. •Apply compress to burned area. •Pour cooled tea on burned areas to ease pain. (b) Diarrhea, dysentery, and worms. Drink strong tea solution (may promote voiding of worms). (c) Skin problems (dry rashes and fungal infections). Apply cool compresses or soak affected part to relieve itching and promote healing. (d) Lice and insect bites. Wash affected areas with tea to ease itching. b. Salicin/salicylic acid. (1) Medical uses. Aches, colds, fever, inflammation, pain, sprains, and sore throat (aspirin-like qualities). (2) Sources. Willow and aspen trees (Figure V-7).
(b) Eat ripe fruit for food.(3) Preparation. c. (4) Treatments. burns. (c) Use poultice to treat cuts. (c) Make poultice of leaves. d. moist layer between the outer bark and the wood) of willow or aspen. (c) Use warm. (b) Brew tea from leaves. Papain. (3) Preparation. buds. (4) Treatments. (a) Make cuts in unripe fruit. (2) Source. buds. •Crush the plant or stems. Digestive aid. (a) Drink tea made from seeds for diarrhea or dysentery. Common plantain. vitamins. (a) Chew on twigs. meat tenderizer. wounds. (c) Avoid getting sap in eyes or wounds. and stings. Fruit of the papaya tree (Figure V-7). (b) Drink tea for colds and sore throat. (a) Brew tea from seeds. •Apply pulpy mass over injury. (a) Gather twigs. stings. diarrhea. (a) Use sap to tenderize tough meat. Itching. (3) Preparation. (4) Treatments. (b) Gather milky white sap for its papain content. (b) Prepare tea as described in paragraph 3a(3). V-16 . and a food source. or cambium layer (soft. (b) Drink tea made from leaves for vitamin and minerals. and dysentery. and minerals. The common plantain is shown in Figure V-7. •Make a pulpy mass. or cambium for symptom relief. (1) Medical uses. (c) Make poultice. moist poultice for aches and sprains. (1) Medical uses. •Hold in place with a dressing. There are over 200 plantain species with similar medicinal properties. (2) Source. sores. abrasions.
(c) Collect yellow pollen for flour substitute. A. (b) Use plant for food. sores. inflammations. vitamins. Useful Plants V-17 E. Cattail ground level edible rootstalk D.e. (1) Medical uses. Typical Aspen leaf edible young leaf shoot C. (d) Peel and eat tender shoots (raw or cooked). Wounds. (3) Preparation. (2) Source. and minerals. boils. Cattail plant found in marshes (Figure V-7). Papaya . (4) Treatments. (a) Apply poultice to affected area. and an excellent food source. Plantain Figure V-7. (a) Pound roots into a pulpy mass for a poultice. (b) Cook and eat green bloom spikes. Common Cattail. burns. Typical Willow leaf 6-16 inches tall edible pollen B.
c. sand. Stay clean (daily regimen). (a) Use hardwood twig as toothbrush (fray it by chewing on one end then use as brush). Rules for Avoiding Illness a. Wash hands before preparing food or water. (2) Wash clothing and use repellents. (a) Change and wash socks (b) Wash. and massage. (d) Use adhesive tape/mole skin to prevent damage. (3) Cleanse mouth and brush teeth. bleach. b. (c) Check frequently for blisters and red areas. Clean all eating utensils after each meal. Health and Hygiene a. (1) Check body for lice.4. (c) Use clean finger to stimulate gum tissues by rubbing. Exercise daily. (d) Gargle with salt water to help prevent sore throat and aid in cleaning teeth and gums. (b) Pick off insects and eggs (DO NOT crush). Try to get 7-8 hours sleep per day. (4) Clean and protect feet. (a) Check body regularly. ticks. Dry wet clothing as soon as possible. e. h. or boiling for 5 minutes. (1) Minimize infection by washing. Eat varied diet. (3) Use smoke to fumigate clothing and equipment. d. g. Purify all water obtained from natural sources by using iodine tablets. dry. etc. Locate latrines 200 feet from water and away from shelter. 5. and clothing. b. Prevent and control parasites. fleas. c.) (2) Comb and clean debris from hair. (b) Use single strand of an inner core string from parachute cord for dental floss. (Use white ashes. f. V-18 . Prevent insect bites by using repellent. or loamy soil as soap substitutes. netting.
First 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct survival shelter according to selection criteria. Care and Use of Clothing a. (4) Build Fire. c. the majority of body heat escapes through the head and neck areas. NOT drinking water. If you fall into the water in the winter— (1) Build fire. (3) Establish multiple survival signals. (2) Layers create more dead air space. Evaluate available resources and situation. g. d. VI-1 . c. When fully clothed. (2) Procure food. (3) Wear a hat when in direct sunlight (in hot environment). (2) Use a hat to regulate body heat. b. Avoid overheating. f. Keep entire body covered to prevent sunburn and dehydration in hot climates. (2) Dry clothing before dark to prevent hypothermia. 2. (2) Procure water. Second 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct necessary tools and weapons. b. Keep clothing dry to maintain its insulation qualities (dry damp clothing in the sun or by a fire).Chapter VI PERSONAL PROTECTION 1. (2) Remove wet clothing and rewarm by fire. (1) Tight clothing restricts blood flow regulating body temperature. Wear loose and layered clothing. (1) Remove layers of clothing before strenuous activities. then accomplish individual tasks accordingly. e. (3) Finish drying clothing by fire. (1) Use salt water. Dampen clothing when on the ocean in hot weather. Priorities a. Never discard clothing.
3. (3) Center foot on triangle with toes toward corner. (1) Fluff before use. (1) Cut 2 to 4 layers of cloth into a 30-inch square. (b) Safety pins. (c) Tape. Other Protective Equipment a. (2) Wash clothing whenever possible. Sleeping bag.. especially at foot of bag. VI-2 .h. Examine clothing frequently for damage. (1) DO NOT sit or lie directly on the ground. one at a time. (6) Secure by rope. Figure VI-1 Improvised Foot Wear (4) Fold front over the toes. vines. Improvised foot protection (Figure VI-1). tape. j. over the instep. etc. (3) Break ice out of clothing. If no fire is available— (1) Remove clothing and get into sleeping bag (if available). (2) Air and dry daily to remove body moisture. i. or tuck into other layers of material. (2) Fold into a triangle. (2) Allow wet clothes to freeze. Keep clothing clean (dirt reduces its insulation qualities). (5) Fold side corners. (3) Repair when necessary by using— (a) Needle and thread.
Gaiters (Figure VI-3). and scratches (wrap material around lower leg and top of boots). dry grass. Sun and Snow Goggles c. Sun and snow goggles (Figure VI-2). dry moss. Figure VI-2. bark. snow. (2) Improvise by cutting small horizontal slits in webbing. Used to protect from sand. (1) Wear in bright sun or snow conditions. (1) Near signal and recovery site.(3) Improvise with available material. leaves. or similar materials. etc. (3) Avoid natural hazards: VI-3 . a. b. (2) Available food and water. Shelters Evasion considerations apply. Gaiters 4. Site selection. insects. Figure VI-3.
(b) Air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using an open flame inside enclosed shelters. your snow shelter is too warm and should be cooled down to preclude melting and dripping. (c) Avalanche areas. Cold climates require an enclosed. b. (b) Drainage and dry river beds except in combat areas. (3) Thermal A Frame. (Figures VI-5 through VI-7). Snow Cave. Snow Trench. VI-4 . insulated shelter. Note: As a general rule.(a) Dead standing trees. (a) Snow is the most abundant insulating material. (4) Location large and level enough to lie down in. Immediate Shelters (2) General shelter. Figure VI-4. Temperate climates require any shelter that gives protection from wind and rain. Types. Find shelter needing minimal improvements (Figure VI-4). (1) Immediate shelters. unless you can see your breath.
Figure VI-5. Thermal A Frame Figure VI-6. Snow Trench VI-5 .
(a) If natural materials are used. elevated shelter for protection from dampness and insects. arrange them in layers starting at the bottom with each layer overlapping the previous one. the shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches). (1) Have entrance 45-90 degrees from prevailing wind.Figure VI-7. Hot climates require a shade shelter to protect from ultraviolet rays (Figure VI-8). Snow Cave (4) Shade shelter. VI-6 . Tropical/wet climates require enclosed. (a) To reduce the surface temperature. (5) Elevated platform shelter (Figure VI-9). Shelter construction. White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material). See Figure VI-10 for an example. (b) For thermal protection. c. (2) Cover with available material. a minimum of 2 layers of material suspended 12-18 inches above the head is required.
Shingle Method VI-7 . Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter Figure VI-9.Figure VI-8. Elevated Platform Shelter Figure VI-10.
(9) Sand and rocks.• Stretch as tight as possible • Use a 40–60 degree slope. Bed construction. Shelter construction materials: (1) Raft and raft parts. dry moss. Fire building. blankets. Evasion considerations: (1) Use trees or other sources to dissipate smoke.— (b) If using porous material like parachute. (b) Flint and steel (experiment with various rocks and metals until a good spark is produced). (4) Sheet of plastic or plastic bag. (6) Boughs. etc. (c) Sparks from batteries. The 3 essential elements for starting a fire are heat. Fires CAUTION: Weigh hazards and risks of detection against the need for a fire. or dry moss. e. etc. damp. • Use additional layers in heavy rain. ground using— (1) Raft or foam rubber from vehicle seats. 5. leaves. (1) Heat sources: (a) Matches or lighter. and oxygen. (5) Bark peeled off dead trees. (d) Concentrated sunlight (use magnifying glass or flashlight reflectors). (e) Pyrotechnics. broad leaves. or during inclement weather. or parachute material. b. (2) Vehicle or aircraft parts. (2) Boughs. (3) Blankets. a. (2) Use fires at dusk. Construct a bed to protect from cold. dawn. (3) Use fires at times when the local populace is cooking. VI-8 . (7) Grass and sod. poncho. (8) Snow. d. such as flares (last resort). fuel.
(f) Friction method (Figure VI-11). Without prior training, this method is difficult to master and requires a lot of time to build the device.
Figure VI-11. Friction Method Note: If possible, carry a fire-starting device with you. (2) Fuel is divided into 3 categories: tinder, kindling, and fuel. (Gather large amounts of each category before igniting the fire.) (a) Tinder. Tinder must be very finely shaved or shredded to provide a low combustion point and fluffed to allow oxygen to flow through. (To get tinder to burn hotter and longer, saturate with Vaseline, Chapstick, insect repellant, aircraft fuel, etc.) Examples of tinder include— • Cotton. • Candle (shred the wick, not the wax). • Plastic spoon, fork, or knife. • Foam rubber.
•Dry bark. •Dry grasses. •Gun powder. •Pitch. •Petroleum products. (b) Kindling. Kindling must be small enough to ignite from the small flame of the tinder. Gradually add larger kindling until arriving at the size of fuel to burn. (c) Fuel. Examples of fuel include— • Dry hardwood (removing bark reduces smoke). • Bamboo (open chambers to prevent explosion). • Dry dung. c. Types. Fires are built to meet specific needs or uses. (1) Tepee fire (Figure VI-12). Use the tepee fire to produce a concentrated heat source for cooking, lighting, or signaling.
Figure VI-12. Tepee Fire (2) Log cabin fire (Figure VI-13). Use the log cabin fire to produce large amounts of light and heat, to dry out wet wood, and provide coals for cooking, etc.
Figure VI-13. Log Cabin or Pyramid Fires (3) Sod fire and reflector (Figure VI-14). Use fire reflectors to get the most warmth from a fire. Build fires against rocks or logs. CAUTION: DO NOT use porous rocks or riverbed rock—they may explode when heated.
Figure VI-14. Sod Fire and Reflector
Figure VI-15. Dakota Fire Hole (5) Improvised stoves (Figure VI-16). Use the Dakota fire hole for high winds or evasion situations. Improvised Stove VI-12 . Figure VI-16.(4) Dakota fire hole (Figure VI-15). These are very efficient.
• Lowers body temperature. (3) Blood. Minimum 2 quarts per day to maintain fluid level. (2) Precipitation (rain. (5) Snow or ice. Water Requirements Drink extra water. Exertion. lakes. (c) “V” intersecting game trails often point to water. or an illness increases water loss. heat. snow. Water sources: (1) Surface water (streams. (b) Drainages and low-lying areas. 2. (2) Fish juices. dew. Water Procurement a. (6) Melted water from new sea ice. sleet) (FigureVII-1). injury. (5) Alcohol. (e) Bird flight in the early morning or late afternoon might indicate the direction to water. (3) Subsurface (wells and cisterns). and springs). (a) Abundance of lush green vegetation. Note: Pale yellow urine indicates adequate hydration. b. VII-1 . • Induces dehydration. (a) DO NOT eat ice or snow. (d) Presence of swarming insects indicates water is near.Chapter VII Water 1. • Causes minor cold injury to lips and mouth. (4) Sea water. (4) Ground water (when no surface water is available) (Figure VII-2). DO NOT drink— (1) Urine.
Water Indicators VII-2 . Water Procurement Figure VII-2.Figure VII-1.
Figure VII-3. Water Generator (6) Open seas. • DO NOT place next to the skin. Table VII-1. Old Sea Ice or Icebergs OLD SEA ICE NEW SEA ICE Bluish or blackish Milky or grey Shatters easily Does not break easily Rounded corners Sharp edges Tastes relatively salt-free Tastes extremely salty VII-3 . • Place between layers of clothing. • Drink as much as possible. • Use waterproof container. (a) Water available in survival kits. • Stir frequently to prevent damaging container. • Speed the process by adding hot rocks or water. • Catch rain in spray shields and life raft covers. • Collect dew off raft. (c) Melt with body heat. (c) Old sea ice or icebergs (Table VII-1). (d) Use a water generator (Figure VII-3).(b) Melt with fire. (b) Precipitation.
(7) Tropical areas. • • For evasion situations. • • When water flow stops. • • DO NOT touch vine to lips. water will flow again. Figure VII-4. (a) All open sources previously mentioned. Let sap stop running and harden during the daytime. Cloth absorbs rain running down tree and drips into container (Figure VII-4). •Plants with hollow sections can collect moisture. and taste to determine if drinkable. • • Pour into hand to check smell. • • Cut bark (DO NOT use milky sap). bore into the roots and collect water. cut off 6 inches of opposite end. color. •Leaning Tree. •Water trees (avoid milky sap). Leaning Tree •Banana plants. • •Shake and listen for water. • •Bore hole at bottom of section to obtain water. • • Tap before dark. cut as large a piece of vine as possible (cut the top first). • Vines (Figure VII-5A). • Old bamboo. (b) Vegetation. VII-4 . • • Produce most water at night. • • If juice is clear and water like.
Figure VII-5 A and B.• •Cut out entire section to carry with you. • Green bamboo (Figure VII-5B). obtain water by digging a beach well (Figure VII-6). • •Filter and purify. Water Vines and Green Bamboo CAUTION: Liquid contained in green coconuts (ripe coconuts may cause diarrhea). •Beach well. Figure VII-6. Along the coast. Beach Well VII-5 .
(b) Vegetation bag (Figure VII-8). VII-6 . Solar Still Figure VII-8. Vegetation Bag (c) Transpiration bag (Figure VII-9). •Water bag must be clear. Figure VII-7. •Water will taste like the plant smells. (a) Solar still (Figure VII-7).(8) Dry areas.
Filtration.(d) Seepage basin (Figure VII-10). (a) Boil at least 1 minute. Purification. Transpiration Bag Figure VII-10. Filter through porous material (sand/charcoal). (2) Purify all other water. Figure VII-9. b. CAUTION: DO NOT use poisonous/toxic plants in vegetation/ transpiration bags. Water Preparation and Storage a. Seepage Basin 3. (1) Water from live plants requires no further treatment. VII-7 .
(3) Section of bamboo. Follow instructions on package. to aerate. d. c. (2) Put in clear container and expose to the sun’s ultraviolet rays to kill bacteria. (1) Trash bag. clean.(c) Water purification tablets. Storage. (2) Prophylactic. cold. and fast running source (if possible). obtain water from a clear. covered or sealed container. use a clean. (b) Pour from one container to another to improve taste VII-8 . To prevent contamination. Potable Water. (1) If water cannot be purified. (4) Flotation gear.
b. (b) At ant and termite mounds. and slow moving streams. VIII-1 . (c) On ponds. (2) Birds can be found by— (a) Observing the direction of flight in the early morning and late afternoon (leads to feeding. feeding. and bedding areas. (1) Snares— (a) Work while unattended.Chapter VIII FOOD 1. and roosting areas). (b) Droppings or tracks look fresh. Fishing Locations (4) Reptiles and amphibians are found almost worldwide. (b) Listening for bird noises (indication of nesting areas (3) Fish and other marine life locations (Figure VIII-1). Food Procurement a. watering. Procurement techniques. (5) Insects are found— (a) In dead logs and stumps. lakes. (1) Mammals can be found where— (a) Trails lead to watering. Sources and location. Figure VIII-1.
•Mouth of dens (Figure VIII-2). • •Once tightened. •Use funneling (natural or improvised) (Figure VIII-5). •Avoid disturbing the area. and the animal’s escape. •Use materials that will not break under the strain of holding an animal. and bedding areas. Figure VIII-2. preventing reopening. feeding. •Use a figure 8 (locking loop) if wire is used (Figure VIII-3). the wire locks in place. • Make noose opening slightly larger than the animal's head (3-finger width for squirrels. (d) Placement of snares (set as many as possible). fist-sized for rabbits).(b) Location: •Trails leading to water. Snare Placement (c) Construction of simple loop snare. VIII-2 . • To construct a squirrel pole (Figure VIII-4) use simple loop snares.
Locking Loop Figure VIII-4.Figure VIII-3. Funneling VIII-3 . Squirrel Pole Figure VIII-5.
(See Figure VIII-7 for fishing procurement methods. (d) Be ready to kill the animal. (3) Twist stick (Figure VIII-6). (f) Trap. (d) Pole. (2) Noose stick (easier and safer to use than the hands). Figure VIII-6. Procurement Devices (4) Hunting and fishing devices. binding the animal's hide in the fork. line. (c) Remove the animal from the den. and hook. (a) Insert forked stick into a den until something soft is (b) Twist the stick.met. (b) Spear. (e) Net. VIII-4 . it may be dangerous. (c) Slingshot.) (a) Club or rock.
Animals in distress may attract the enemy. (b) Avoid reaching into dark holes. (h) Avoid all crustaceans above the high tide mark. •Pale. (i) Avoid cone-shaped shells (Figure VIII-8). (g) DO NOT eat fish eggs or liver (entrails). •Sunken eyes. (f) DO NOT eat fish with— •Spines. (e) Kill fish before bringing them into the raft. •Unpleasant odor.Figure VIII-7. VIII-5 . •Flesh that remains dented when pressed. (c) Kill animals before handling. (d) DO NOT secure fishing lines to yourself or the raft. Procurement Methods (5) Precautions: (a) Wear shoes to protect the feet when wading in water. slimy gills. •Flabby skin.
(k) Avoid poisonous insects. •Mosquitoes. (l) Avoid disease carrying insects.Cone shell Warning! These snails can sting and cause acute pain. paralysis. for example: •Centipedes. such as— •Flies. •Scorpions. the hairs could cause irritation or infection. •Ticks. Terebra shell Figure VIII-8. swelling. VIII-6 . blindness and possible death in a few hours. •Poisonous spiders. Cone-Shaped Shells of Venomous Snails (j) Avoid hairy insects.
purplish. bulbs. DO NOT waste time testing a plant that is not abundant. (Aggregate berries such as black and dewberries are always edible.) (k) Almond scent in woody parts and leaves. (c) Remember that eating large portions of plant food on an empty stomach may cause diarrhea. (h) Old or wilted leaves. (f) Grain heads with pink. (2) Avoid plants with the following characteristics: Note: Using these guidelines in selecting plants for food may eliminate some edible plants. (d) Umbrella shaped flowers (hemlock is eliminated).c. however. or black spurs. bark. leaves. stems. ensure there are enough plants to make testing worth your time and effort. Even after testing food and finding it safe. (a) Milky sap (dandelion has milky sap but is safe to eat and easily recognizable). (b) Test only 1 part of 1 plant at a time. Two good examples are green apples and wild onions. and thorns (skin irritants/contact dermatitis). Each part of a plant (roots. Plant Foods. (1) Selection criteria. eat in moderation. Before using the following guide use your evasion chart to identify edible plants: Note: If you cannot positively identify an edible plant and choose to try an unknown plant. VIII-7 . fine hairs. (e) Bulbs (only onions smell like onions). test all others before eating. these guidelines will help prevent choosing potentially toxic plants. (g) Beans. Prickly pear and thistles are exceptions. (b) Spines. (i) Plants with shiny leaves. or cramps.) requires more than 24 hours to test. Bracken fern fiddleheads also violate this guideline. (a) Before testing for edibility. or seeds inside pods. nausea. etc. (c) Mushrooms and fungus. these guidelines may help determine edibility. (j) White and yellow berries.
and flowers). take NOTHING by mouth EXCEPT purified water and the plant you are testing. (10) If there is no reaction. (6) During testing. smell alone does not indicate a plant is edible or inedible. If any ill effects occur during this period. (11) If nothing abnormal occurs. induce vomiting and drink a water and charcoal mixture. place the plant on your tongue and hold it for 15 minutes. The sap or juice should contact the skin. the plant part as prepared is safe for eating. eat ¼ cup of the same plant prepared the same way. (4) DO NOT eat 8 hours before the test and drink only purified water. If any ill effects occur. thoroughly chew a pinch and hold it in your mouth for 15 minutes (DO NOT SWALLOW). Wait another 8 hours. NEVER ASSUME a part that proved edible when cooked is edible raw. Test procedures.d. (12) If no ill effects occur. CAUTION: Test all parts of the plant for edibility. Usually 15 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction. (3) Smell the food for strong acid odors. test the part raw before eating. touch a small portion (a pinch) to the outer surface of your lip to test for burning or itching. If no ill effects occur. (5) During the 8 hours you abstain from eating. rinse out your mouth with water. VIII-8 . (1) Test only 1 part of a plant at a time. swallow the food and wait 8 hours. roots. (2) Separate the plant into its basic components (stems. (8) Before placing the prepared plant in your mouth. test for contact poisoning by placing a piece of the plant on the inside of your elbow or wrist. The same part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals. (7) Select a small portion of a single part and prepare it the way you plan to eat it. Some plants have both edible and inedible parts. Remember. (9) If after 3 minutes there is no reaction on your lip. buds.
(a) Remove the skin and save for other uses. brain. Figure VIII-9. Cook unripe fruits and discard seeds and skin. (d) Unused or inedible organs and entrails may be used as bait for other game. remove it from the bones. Food Preparation Animal food gives the greatest food value per pound. rather than color. (b) Wash when ready to use. and above ground ripe vegetables not requiring significant preparation. and kidneys) and all meaty parts of the skull.CAUTION: 1. tongue. Softness. Small Game Skinning VIII-9 . (c) If preserving the meat. (a) One cut skinning of small game (Figure VIII-9). 3. ripe fruits. and eyes. you may not be able to cook. •Open the abdominal cavity. 2. During evasion. is the best indicator of ripeness. (1) Mammals. Cook underground portions when possible to reduce bacterial contamination and ease digestion of their generally high starch content. Ripe tropical fruits should be peeled and eaten raw. •Remove the intestines. Concentrate your efforts on leafy green plants. 2. •Save inner organs (heart. Butchering and skinning. liver. a. •Avoid rupturing the intestines.
(a) Scale (if necessary) and gut fish soon after it is caught. snails. and internal organs. (6) Fruits. thoroughly cook all wild game. (c) Remove entrails. VIII-10 . (a) Gut soon after killing. head with 2 inches of body. CAUTION: To kill parasites. crawfish. (b) Discard skin. (d) Remove gills to prevent spoilage. (c) Skin or pluck them.(2) Frogs and snakes. cook food.) (b) Recommend cooking grasshopper-size insects. berries. b. (a) Remove all hard portions such as the legs of grasshoppers or crickets. (2) Baking. Saltwater fish may be eaten raw. CAUTION: Dead insects spoil rapidly. (b) Protect from flies. freshwater fish. (b) Drop heated rocks into containers to boil water or broth). (d) Skin scavengers and sea birds. (1) Boiling (most nutritious method of cooking—drink the (a) Make metal cooking containers from ration cans. Cooking. (The rest is edible. and scavenger birds. (5) Insects. mussels. (a) Skin. (b) Bury food in dirt under coals of fire. clams. and most nuts can be eaten raw. (a) Wrap in leaves or pack in mud. (3) Fish. DO NOT save. (b) Insert knifepoint into anus of fish and cut open the belly. (4) Birds.
(3) Remove fat. c. Use one of the following leaching methods: (a) First method: •Soaking and pouring the water off. 3. Drying and smoking removes moisture and preserves food. c. repeat process until palatable. and taste the plant. (a) Food wrapped in waterproof material and placed in a stream remains cool in summer months. Keeping an animal alive. •Discarding water. (1) Long term.(3) Leaching. (2) Short term. (a) Shake shelled nuts in a container with hot coals. Refrigerating. (1) Use salt to improve flavor and promote drying. Cold water should be tried first. is cooler than the surface. (4) Roasting. (b) Earth below the surface. Some nuts (acorns) must be leached to remove the bitter taste of tannin. however. VIII-11 . (b) Second method: •Boil. •If bitter. (b) Roast thinly sliced meat and insects over a candle. Food Preservation b. boiling water is sometimes best. (a) Food buried in snow maintains a temperature of approximately 32 degrees F. •Crushing and pouring water through. (b) Frozen food will not decompose (freeze in meal-size portions). pour off water. particularly in shady areas or along streams. (2) Cut or pound meat into thin strips. (c) Wrap food in absorbent material such as cotton and re-wet as the water evaporates. they produce soot giving the meat an undesirable taste. (4) DO NOT use pitch woods such as fir or pine.
(1) Wrapping food. it attracts unwanted animals. (d) Wrap soft fruits and berries in leaves or moss. (b) Cover during daylight hours to protect from insects. (a) Wrap before flies appear in the morning. crabs. (d) Carry shellfish. (a) Hang meat in the shade. DO NOT store food in the shelter.d. (b) Place meat in fabric or clothing for insulation. (a) Use clean material. (b) Wrap pieces individually. Soft material acts as insulation helping keep the meat cool. (2) Hanging meat. (3) Packing meat on the trail. VIII-12 . (c) Place meat inside the pack for carrying. and shrimp in wet seaweed. e. Protecting meat from animals and insects. (c) Ensure all corners of the wrapping are insect proof.
Figure IX-1. Protection. AND CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS) 1. (a) Seek existing shelter that may be improved (Figure IX-1). Nuclear Conditions CAUTION: Radiation protection depends on time of exposure.Chapter IX INDUCED CONDITIONS (NUCLEAR. a. distance from the source. BIOLOGICAL. (1) FIND PROTECTIVE SHELTER IMMEDIATELY! (2) Gather all equipment for survival (time permitting). (3) Avoid detection and capture. and shielding. Immediate Action Shelter IX-1 .
then enlarge for comfort (Figure IX-2). Parachute or other suitable material Wind Enough room to work 3 Feet Minimum Figure IX-2. dig a trench or foxhole as •Dig trench deep enough for protection. •Cover with available material. Improvised Shelter IX-2 .follows: (b) If no shelter is available.
and rest. 5 minutes unsheltered is maximum! (4) Basements. RADIATION SHIELDING EFFICIENCIES Iron/Steel Brick Concrete Earth . Good Weather: Bury contaminated clothing outside of shelter (recover later). NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS: Fall flat.8 inches 2. Priority: (1) Cave or tunnel covered with (5) Abandoned stone/mud buildings.2 inches Wood (Soft) 8.0 inches 2. keep warm. as soon as possible.8 inches Snow 20.(4) Radiation shielding efficiencies (Figure IX-3). Radiation Shielding Efficiencies (5) Leave contaminated equipment and clothing near shelter for retrieval after radioactive decay. •Water in pipes/containers in abandoned buildings. Additional thickness added to any amount of thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. (6) Foxhole 4 feet deep (remove topsoil (2) Storm/storage cellars within 2 feet radius of foxhole lip). (3) Culverts. Fallout/dusty conditions--keep entire body covered. (a) Water sources (in order of preference): •Springs. DO NOT wring out! PERSONAL HYGIENE: Wash entire body with soap and any water. Brief exposure (30 minutes maximum) Brief exposure (1 hour maximum) Figure IX-3.3 inches 3. Present minimal profile to direction of blast. DO NOT smoke! 4-6 3-7 8 DAILY RADIATION TIME TABLE for NO RATE METER 9-12 2-4 hours exposure per day Complete isolation 13 Normal movement. •Snow (6 or more inches below the surface during the fallout). give close attention to fingernails and hairy parts. Cover exposed body parts. sleep. SHELTER SURVIVAL: Keep contaminated materials out of shelter. b. Substance: (1) Water. Bad Weather: Shake strongly or beat with branches. wells. DO NOT look at fireball! Remain prone until blast effects are over. or underground sources are safest. SHELTER: Pick. Improvise goggles. IX-3 . No Water: Wipe all exposed skin surfaces with clean cloth or uncontaminated soil. (6) Lie down. 3 or more feet of earth. Allow no more than 30 minutes exposure on 3d day for water procurement.3 inches One thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2.7 inches Cinder Block 5.3 inches Ice 6. Keep handkerchief/cloth over mouth and nose. Rinse and /or shake wet clothing.
etc. water). (a) Processed foods (canned or packaged) are preferred. •Smooth skinned vegetables. •Milk from animals. •Plants whose edible portions grow underground (for example. or above ground plants that are not easily peeled or washed. potatoes. •Avoid animals that appear to be sick or dying. •Aquatic food sources (use only in extreme emergencies because of high concentration of radiation). (c) Avoid. •Cook all meat until very well done. (2) Food. leaving at least 1/8 inch of meat on the bone. •Discard all internal organs. •Edible portions growing above ground that can be washed and peeled or skinned (bananas. apples. •Water from below the surface (DO NOT stir up the IX-4 . (d) Plant foods (in order of preference). (b) Water preparation (Figures IX-4 and IX-5). etc. •Skin carefully to avoid contaminating the meat. Wash and remove skin. wash and wipe containers before use. cut meat away from the bone.•Use a seep well. pools. fruits. •Filtering through earth removes 99 percent of radioactivity. carrots. •Before cooking. •Purify all water sources.). (b) Animal foods. turnips. etc. •Lakes.). ponds. •Shells of all eggs (contents will be safe to eat). •Streams and rivers (filtered before drinking).
Filtering Water Figure IX-5. Filtration Systems. Filtration Systems.Figure IX-4. Settling Water IX-5 .
Biological Conditions a. 2. (d) Maintain food intake. (3) Wash hair and body thoroughly with soap and water. Protection from biological agents follow: (1) Use protective equipment. and roof of mouth frequently. (2) Breakable containers or unusual bombs. (a) Clean affected area. (4) Unusual substances on the ground or vegetation. vomiting. (d) Watch for signs of infection. and muffled explosions. (c) Cover with clean dressing. (c) Rest. (4) Clean thoroughly under fingernails.c. radiation burns). tongue. (3) Burns. (d) Drink liquids. (3) Smoke or mist of unknown origin. particularly those bursting with little or no blast. (b) Cover with clean dressing. (c) Drink fluids. sick looking plants or crops. (b) Use antibacterial ointment or cleaning solution. loss of hair. diarrhea. Clues which may alert you to a biological attack follow: (1) Enemy aircraft dropping objects or spraying. (a) Time is required to overcome. (5) Clean teeth. fatigue. (b) Rest. weakness. (2) Bathe as soon as the situation permits. Self-aid: (1) General rules: (a) Prevent exposure to contaminants. (b) Use personal hygiene practices and remove body waste from shelter. IX-6 . (a) Clean affected area. (2) Wounds. gums. avoid fatigue. (e) Prevent additional exposure. (4) Radiation sickness (nausea. b.
difficult breathing. (3) Keep nose. Irritation to the nose. Chemical Conditions a. (2) Stay alert for clues of biological attack. or skin and/or moisture on the skin are danger signs. orange. Bottled or canned foods are safe if sealed. Oily. travel crosswind or upwind (taking advantage of terrain to stay away from depressions). Protection against chemical agents follows: (1) Use protective equipment. (c) Avoid cellars. with entrance 90 degrees to the prevailing wind. dizziness. (6) General indications. trenches. Tears. Many agents have little or no odor. (b) Liquid. tall grasses. (d) Avoid woods. mouth. IX-7 . etc. (c) Gas. (5) Taste. b. Many agents are colorless: (a) Color. away from vegetation. gullies. (d) Solid. itching. (2) Avoid contaminated areas. ground. (3) Sound. Strange taste in food or water indicates contamination. boil food and water for 10 minutes. ditches. 3. (4) Feel. (4) Keep food and water protected. Most solid state agents have some color. (7) Wildlife. etc. coughing. Presence of sick or dying animals. valleys. (5) Construct shelter in a clear area. Survival tips for biological conditions follow: (1) Keep your body and living area clean. (6) If traveling. and bushes as they tend to hold chemical agent vapors. Detecting. choking. and skin covered. or red smoke or mist. eyes. (2) Sight. (b) Select routes on high ground. (a) Exit contaminated area by moving crosswind. If in doubt.c. (1) Smell. dark patches on leaves. Yellow. Some agents appear as a mist immediately after shell burst. Muffled explosions are possible indications of chemical agent bombs.
(2) If a chemical defense ensemble is not available— (a) Remove or tear away contaminated clothing. (b) Follow antidote directions when needed. •Destroying. Warm water. foreign odors. Self-aid in chemically contaminated areas.). (3) Keep food and water protected. Burying. •Neutralizing.(e) Decontaminate body and equipment as soon as possible by— •Removing. dead fish. (c) Improvise a breathing filter using materials available (T-shirt. (b) Rinse contaminated areas with water. etc. fabric. Tips for the survivor: (1) DO NOT use wood from a contaminated area for fire. or animals). c. (2) Look for signs of chemical agents around water sources before procurement (oil spots. IX-8 . handkerchief. (1) If a chemical defense ensemble is available— (a) Use all protective equipment. (4) DO NOT use plants for food or water in contaminated areas. d. Pinch-blotting.
I will trust in my God and in the United States of America. anxiety. (3) Develop a realistic plan. b. c. withdrawal. Strengthen your will to survive with— (1) The Code of Conduct. environment. (c) Favoring persistency in overcoming failure. responsible for my actions. (b) Attributing normal reactions to existing stressors (fear. anger). carelessness. boredom. (5) Combat psychological stress by— (a) Recognizing and anticipating existing stressors (injury. (3) Working as a team. (2) Taking care of your buddy. (b) Creating strength and trust in one another. and propensity to make mistakes). (d) Facilitating formulation of group goals. and cohesiveness promote high morale: (a) Preventing panic. hunger. depression. (2) Pledge of Allegiance. Psychology of Survival a. fatigue. illness. 1. guilt. A-1 . and dedicated to the principles which made my country free.Appendix A THE WILL TO SURVIVE ARTICLE VI CODE OF CONDUCT I will never forget that I am an American fighting for freedom. (2) Keep a positive attitude. (4) Anticipate fears. good organization. (4) Reassuring and encouraging each other. (c) Identifying signals of distress created by stressors (indecision. (4) Patriotic songs. forgetfulness. (3) Faith in America. death. Preparation— (1) Know your capabilities and limitations. isolation). (5) Thoughts of return to family and friends. Group dynamics of survival include— (1) Leadership.
(c) Accepting suggestions and criticism. clergy. (4) Never give up. (3) Ask for God’s help. or others. or hymns. and rescue. i. (1) Talk to your God. (2) Discuss what is important to you. (3) Share scriptures and songs. (4) Pray for each other.(5) Influencing factors are— (a) Enforcing the chain of command. Spiritual Considerations a. Forgive— (1) Yourself for what you have done or said that was wrong. j. wisdom. strength. k. verses. Remember past inner sources to help you overcome adversity. Praise God and give thanks because— (1) God is bigger than your circumstances. (b) Organizing according to individual capabilities. Remember scripture. With other survivors— (1) Identify or appoint a religious lay leader. repeat them to yourself and to your God. (2) Those who have failed you. d. c. A-2 . Worship without aid of written scripture. Meditate. (2) God will see you through (no matter what happens). (2) Give thanks that God is with you. Pray for your God’s help. (3) Never lose hope. (4) Pray for protection and a positive outcome. 2. (1) Faith and trust in your God. Identify your personal beliefs. (3) Hope comes from a belief in heaven and/or an after-life. Collect your thoughts and emotions. Trust. Use self-control. (5) Try to have worship services. f. (2) Love for family and self. e. l. g. b. h.
(6) Write down scriptures and songs that you remember. (b) Praise your God. remember— (a) Your God loves you. A-3 . (7) Encourage each other while waiting for rescue.
evasion. and recovery information. B-1 . techniques. Implementation Plan Participating Service command offices of primary responsibility (OPRs) will review this publication. validate the information. Distribution is in accordance with the Department of Army Form 12-99-R. The Army will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Army training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commander. and curricula as follows: Army. 3. regulations. Scope This UNCLASSIFIED multiservice tactics. 4. weatherproof. 2. Purpose This publication provides Service members a quick reference. US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). evasion. and reference and incorporate it in Service and command manuals.Appendix B Publication Information 1. and recovery information. pocket-sized guide on basic survival. Application The target audience for this publication is any Service member requiring basic survival. and procedures publication is designed to assist Service members in a survival situation regardless of geographic location.
5. c. The Navy will incorporate these procedures in US Navy doctrinal and training publications as directed by the commander. b. Air Force. ALSA will review and update this publication as necessary. facilities. User Information a. appropriately reflected in joint and Service publications.Marine Corps. Distribution is in accordance with Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures Desk Guide and Navy Standing Operating Procedures Publication 409. Send comments and recommendation directly to— B-2 . We encourage recommended changes for improving this publication. Air Force units will validate and incorporate appropriate procedures in accordance with applicable governing directives. This publication reflects current joint and Service doctrine. Distribution is in accordance with Marine Corps Publication Distribution System. US Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC). responsibilities. Key your comments to the specific page and paragraph and provide a rationale for each recommendation. command and control (C2) organizations. Navy. and procedures. The TRADOC-MCCDC-NWDC-AFDC Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Center developed this publication with the joint participation of the approving Service commands. Changes in Service protocol. Distribution is in accordance with Air Force Instructions 33-360. personnel. will likewise be incorporated in revisions to this document. The Marine Corps will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Marine Corps training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commanding general. Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC).
af.af.mil ALSA ALSA Center ATTN: Director 114 Andrews Street Langley AFB. VA 23665-2785 DSN 575-0902 COMM (757) 225-0902 E-mail: email@example.com@langley.Army Commander US Army Training and Doctrine Command ATTN: ATDO-A Fort Monroe VA 23651-5000 DSN 680-3153 COMM (757) 727-3153 Marine Corps Commanding General US Marine Corps Combat Development Command ATTN: C42 3300 Russell Road Quantico VA 22134-5001 DSN 278-6234 COMM (703) 784-6234 Navy Commander Navy Warfare Development Command (Det Norfolk) ATTN: ALSA Liaison Officer 1530 Gilbert Street Norfolk VA 23511-2785 DSN 262-2782 COMM (757) 322-2782 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org B-3 .navy.mil Air Force HQ Air Force Doctrine Center ATTN: DJ 216 Sweeney Boulevard Suite 109 Langley AFB VA 23665-2722 DSN 754-8091 COMM (757) 764-8091 E-mail Address: afdc.
58.217. RHODES Lieutenant General.This publication has been prepared under our direction for use by our respective commands and other commands as appropriate. E. . USA Commander Training and Doctrine Command J. USN Commander Navy Warfare Development Command TIMOTHY A. KINNAN Major General.58. JOHN N. SMITH Rear Admiral. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center This publication is available on the Army Doctrinal and Training Digital Library (ADTDL) at http://155. USMC Commanding General Marine Corps Combat Development Command B. ABRAMS General. J.
KINNAN Major General. HUDSON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army 9916744 DISTRIBUTION: Active Army. requirements for TM 55-1680-351-10. By Order of the Secretary of the Air Force: TIMOTHY A.S. and U. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number 311368.26 29 JUNE 1999 By Order of the Secretary of the Army: ERIC K. United States Army Chief of Staff Official: JOEL B.FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.3 *AFTTP(I) 3-2. 1 March 1996 Air Force Distribution: F . SHINSEKI General. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center *Supersedes: AFPAM 36-2246. Army National Guard.
MARINE CORPS: PCN 14400006800 .
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