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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

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2.3 61 .Fig.

Pl.Ultra long haul up to 160 Km and 44 db loss DWDM combines maximum 32 Optical signals with different wavelengths and transmit over on a single fibre cable.1565 ŋm Transmitted wavelength :32 λs Maximum capacity :80 GB (2. Mostly DWDM systems are a National Ring. The ITU grid of standard frequency and wavelength with 100 GHz spacing is given in chart. The centre frequency is 193.B. 32256 X 30 = 9.28 x 80 = 22.DWDM A/T 2-1 General:2-1.195.800 Km Working frequency : .5 GB x 32) Maximum transmission distance: . out of which some λs are dropped.1 THz Channel Spacing : . ULH :.680 channels. VLH :. 2-1 to 2-4 OTUT O OM M to U OBA OLA OPA O D U O M U OTUR OTUR O D U -OPA OLA OBA OTUT Fig. DWDM works on 1550 ŋm window. So these many channels transmission taking place on a single fibre.100 GHz N.Very long haul up to 120 Km and 33 dB loss 3.Dense wave division multiplexing is a second wonder in the field of fibre optics. so it is a transmission of:63 X 16 = 1008 Trbs of 2 Mb 1008 X 32 = 32256 Trbs of 2 Mb and in terms of channels.10 THz (1 THz = 1000 GHz) First channel :192. These wavelengths are in C’ band of EDFA (Erbium doped fibre amplifier) within wavelength range of 1550 to 1570 ŋm. LH :. if not acceptance tested previously. see the Rack front view and block schematic of DWDM in Fig.4 dB) 2. added on the route.1THz corresponding to wavelength 1552 ŋm. 67. One wavelength carry one STM-16 system. System Make :ICOMM/ ZTE and ITI Working wavelength :1529. There are three types of DWDM systems:1. DWDM is a technology which transmit multiple of signals at different wavelengths on same fibre.2 THz to 192. so fibers are to be tested for 1550 ŋm.1 Abbreviation and capacity: . In this way saving of fibre is achieved by DWDM network. All 32 wavelengths are dense together in one band so it is called DWDM. The transmission 32 wavelengths after multiplexing over a single Optical fibre at one end and de.multiplexing at the other end.Long haul up to 80 Km and 22 dB loss (0. 2-4 62 .

3.Optical Supervisory Channel Terminal 2-1. OSCT :.5 Gbits carry over a single Trans and Receive fiber.2 Functions of various modules:Transponder – Optical signals are transmitted on a specific wavelength. 2-1.g. so it is economical. Advantages of DWDM:1. OPA :.Optical Multiplexer Unit 4.Amplifier 7.4 Optical windows:It is the region of optical spectrum where attenuation is low. ODU – It de-multiplexer received aggregate signals into individual signal.In the above Block schematic:1. OPA.Optical Transponder Unit Trans 2. OBA :.Band) 63 . forwarded to multiplexer and reverse in Receive direction.Optical Demultiplexer Unit 5. one STM-16 working on two fibers capacity is 1008. OMU – All 32 wavelengths are combined and multiplexed into an aggregate optical signal.1625 ŋm (L.2 Mb where as on same fiber DWDM capacity is 32256 – 2 Mb.Optical Pre. OBA – To boost up the power of all signals to high power maximum up to +20 dBm to send on fiber.Optical Transponder Unit Receive 3. OLA. First window 850 ŋm Second window – 1310 ŋm (S.Band) Third window – 1550 ŋm (C Band) Fourth window .The received signals are pre amplified with a gain of +17 dB in LH and +17 dB in LH and +20 dB in VLH system.1530 – 1542 ŋm C band (Red) 1547 – 1560 ŋm L band 1560 – 1620 ŋm Optical Supervisory band – 1500 – 1520 ŋm These systems are working with optical line Amplifier. OMU :. ODU :. 2. 2-1.Optical Booster Amplifier 6. In DWDM system transmission of all 32 channels of STM-16 / 2. OADM :-Optical Add and Drop Multiplexer 9. OLA :.Optical Line Amplifier 8. OTUT :. In LH system there are maximum 8 sections(section loss 22 dBm) with 7 OLA and in VLH system maximum 3 sections (section loss 28 dBm) with 2 OLA.3 ITU-T Band allocation:C band (Blue) . OTUR :. SDH system e. Channels are independent.It amplifies low signals carrying for both A and B direction with a gain more than +20 dB OADM – At an intermediate system add or drop of some optical channels and transport of it carried out on same fiber. DWDM is transparent to any bit rate digital / analogue.

SCPC : Both blue (Straight connector pencil cut) SCPC.Yellow (Fixed connector pencil cut) 2-1.SCPC.FCPC: Blue.5 1510 ± 10 10 dB -26 to -14 -3 to +1 -3 to 0 -8 to -3 -3 to 0 -26 to -14 > 22 > 17 > 20 VLH -3 to +1 ≤ -21 >0 -18 to -12 --3 to +1 ≤ -31 ≥ -9 -8 to -3 +20 max -16 to -11 +20 max -16 to -11 +12 max -7 to 0 Same as per LH ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ > 22 > 20 > 20 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 64 .5 Meters required for DWDM system A/T:1. Optical Spectrum Analyzer [OSA-30] ONT-30 Germany 5.No 1 Where? OTUT Trans power with data Without data Receiver sensitivity Overload I/P to OTUT O/P of OTUT OTUR Trans power Receiver sensitivity Overload Total I/P power OBA in OBA out OLA in OLA out OPA in OPA out OSC in OSC out OSNR at OBA Mon local with data and 12 channel loop Working wavelength of OSC Max chl power difference OTUR in OTUR out OMU in OMU out ODU in ODU out OBA Gain OPA Gain OLA Gain LH -3 to +1 < -10 ≤ -28 ≥ -9 -10 to -3 -3 to 0 -3 to +1 ≤ -28 ≥ -9 ≤-3 -8 to -3 +20 max -8 to -3 +20 max -8 to -3 +12 max -33 to -28 -7 to 0 ≥ 17. Patch Cords:. Optical Attenuator (any make) 4.6 Specification of LH and VLH DWDM system:Sr. DTA set ANT-20 E 3.2-1. Power Meter (any make) 2.

04 1535.6 193.98 1539.3 193.25 1535.6 194.9 194.77 1529.8 194.90 1532.61 .7 192.52 1553.92 1551.9 192.2 192.2 193.17 1558.5 193.8 195.72 1552.51 1549.55 1530.53 1545.1 65 Nominal central wavelengths (ŋ m) 1528.82 1536.3 195.6 195.7 The ITU-T Grid: Nominal central frequencies In THz 196.1 194.3 194.32 1546.12 1550.5 195.12 1531.7 194.0 192.77 1540.9 193.7 195.2 194.8 192.2-1.0 195.33 1531.12 1546.73 1554.1 195.5 194.72 1548.13 1554.73 1544.1 196.4 193.94 1543.8 193.14 1542.92 1547.7 193.75 1556.53 1554.40 1538.5 192.4 192.2 193.6 192.19 1538.56 1541.68 1533.0 194.9 195.98 1559.4 195.3 192.55 1557.1 193.94 1555.61 1537.2 195.0 193.35 1542.47 1534.4 194.79 1560.32 1550.36 1558.

. .Take print outs or note down wavelength of all channels Limit ± 0. 4. Transpower of Trans Transponder: . and read Trans power . Through A/T.Connect SCPC. . Infrastructure A/T. .OTUF work mode.Note down assigned frequency and corresponding wavelength of all 32 channels. .attenuator 66 .Same power can be red out in OSA also. 3. Limit as per table.Press OSA. 5. There are four phases of DWDM A/T as below:1. Local A/T of equipment.16 ŋm.1 Local A/T of DWDM (ZTE Make) 1. earlier explained in OFC system.Select wavelength. Receiver Sensitivity of Trans Transponder make connection as per Fig.FCPC Patch cord to Power meter and to TO of Transponder. 2. IN Tran sponder OUT ANT -20 OPTICAL PORT 10 dB Fig.individual channel.diagnosis. 1. Just like an OFC System.The infrastructure test to be carried out as mentioned in Para -1 of Test schedule and to be filled as per OFC Test schedule. Measure wavelength at TO (Trans Out) by OSA (Optical Signal Analyzer) Start Optical signal analyzer. 2.On LCT – maintenance.Display ON.2-2 Acceptance Testing of DWDM 2-2. . 3. 2-5 v. Voltage drop and Earth resistance is important test.Display of graph on table in DWDM mode. Stability A/T. 2-5.Navigation page.CHL and corresponding wavelength are displayed in the table . Infrastructure Test: . Note down.

. . FC-PC Patch Cords. 67 .Same time print out can also be taken.Repeat same by selecting HP2 + LP filter. 6.LP = 1 MHz + 20 MHz.Connect OSA Meter at MUX out i. . . I/P to OBA.For example one print out attached h/w.Loop OBA out to OBA in with 20 dB pad .LP < 0.20 by 10 dB attenuator only. . Jitter values.STM-16-AU4-VC4-140-Unframed-Tx = Rx .With same set up. Test on receive Transponder: . Observe single error. .Limit is > 21 dBm.K. . connect I/P to ANT.Both graph or table’s print out is possible if graph mode or WDM mode (Numerical) is selected. . +15 and -15 PPM for all 32 λ s.Monitor BER on all channels for 1 minute.Map STM-16 Optical Signal structure in ANT. keep -20 dBm attenuation and get loop O.Note down assigned Wavelengths corresponding to the frequency. ..Receiver sensitivity and overload point test is same as per Trans Transponder. Open Performance Analysis and increase attenuation gradually. start combined jitter test. . Test on Multiplexer: .Carry out this test for 0.Select table and S/N figures are displayed. .O. .Select HP1+LP and note down peak to peak. BER Test: .≥ -9 dBm. .Here HP1 .There should not be an error for 0 and ± 20 PPM.Make Test set up of Transponder.Optical.Check Transpower of Receive Transponder at RO (Receive out). .With same set up of STM-16. . .Signal structure of STM-16 optical interference is already available on screen. 5. .K Tx Remember.Measure all Wavelengths at RI (Receive Input) of Receive Transponder.LP < 0. Ascertain actual attenuator reading by connecting power meter to variable attenuator. Combined Jitter test on STM-16 Optical interface:. . Limit :. ANT-20 and variable attenuator as above by using SCPC.20 as below: .e. Limit: .Limit: HP1. 7.≤ -28 dBm Go to higher side of attenuator so as to observe single error again and this is a overload point.1 UIPP 8.LP = 5 KHz + 20 MHz & HP2 . .Open Jitter Generator and Anomaly Detector.5 UIPP HP2.Click AM OFF.

Verify maximum channel difference that should be < 10 dB.9. .Select start wavelength as 1540 ŋm and stop 1565 ŋm.Specification is as per chart or can be measured by power meter. 11. Test on booster Amplifier: .Take printouts. .Connect OSA at OSC out and measure wavelength 1510 ± 10 ŋm.OSC monitors and controls the system and uses separate Laser of wavelength of As 1510 ± 10 ŋm.To find out the gain of OBA and OPA.Calculate gain for the both amplifiers.Trans power can be measured by LCT and OSA both. . 68 . 10. Total launched power: . .Limit Please see limit table. .If a new installation is being done for this DWDM system up to 2 Mb terminations.Select span 25 ŋm – threshold level. Alarm test :Alarms: R-LOS R-LOF R-OOF IN-PWR-High IN-PWR-Low R-LOS R-LOS R-LOF R-OOF Board Status Local A/T of STM.OSA. .Measure OSNR (Optical Signal to Noise Ratio) at OBA out.Read levels on Power Meter and LCT both. . .Graph – configure – centre1577. . . then please see OFC A/T of STM-16 in OFC system chapters. 12.Arrange all channel loops in tandem with data.50 auto. . Measure I/P power to these amplifiers at OBA/OPA IN and O/P power at OBA/OPA out .16 MUX: . . Test of optical supervisory control (OSC):.Wavelength: .

Sr. Note down sub rack particulars and position. 4.30. Note down Earth resistance. 5.Measure power at OSC 1 and 2 out. I/P Limit: .+20 dB maximum.30 to OSCL out 1 & 2.2 OLA ( REG STATION ) Local and Hop Test 1.0. Calculate exact level according to the distance of hop. B] With Optical Spectrum Analyzer. . 69 .Connect ONT. 2. Measure Receive power in both direction and note fibre no. connected. Check of OSCT power: A] With Power meter . Power. S/N and frequency are displayed on ONT-30 screen. Limit: . . OSNR check at OLA in both directions: .5 Ω 7.2-2.Connect OSA at OLA Mon and note down wavelength. Carry out Voltage drop test as usual.[With all channels 1 to 1 loop at A station and loop at B station with STM-16 optical data]. Limit:-0 to -7 dBm.Select WDM on ONT. Frequencies of all channels in both directions. 6. Amplifiers which should be ≥ 20 dB.0. 3. Measure OSC 1 and 2 in power.no. 8. Check of OLA gain: .Measure I/P power and O/P power in both direction of OLA and calculate OLA gain of both. power.Wavelength.Select Table. Limit :. . S/N.25 dB/Km.Note down the readings along with printout. of a sub rack. .-11 to -16 dBm O/P Limit: . At OLA station only Optical line amplifier and OSCT are installed in a sub rack for both direction and both OLA’s are connected by patch cord to FDF in both direction. 9.

LP and HP2.e.1 KHz > 100 1.5 UIPP HP2.LP (1 MHz.3 Through A/T 1. 4. 20000 KHz in table of Jitter Test in ANT-20.60 5. for 5 Minutes each i. .LP (5 KHz.Select frequencies in jitter analyzer as . ± 15 PPM .5 UIPP 500 KHz .20 MHz): .2-2. BER test on STM-16 Optical interface :.1. 1.15 UIPP. take out print out . .Carry out BER test in tandem loop for 0. ask to improve it. 5. Power difference which should be < 10 dBm Attach both reading print out with results.Ask loop from distant station OBA out to OPA In (with 20 dB pad). 0.e.Note down maximum channel.One print out attached herewith. 0. 500.Calculate loss as per specifications i. 5 KHz -100 KHz ≥ 1. 70 . measure power at OPA out. . Input jitter Test: .Select the HP1.Start . check as per the limits i.LP filters .1 UIPP .20 MHz): ≤ 0.0 KHz > 20 5. or individual transponders loop also can be arranged to carry out this test .Fill up in the table for all channels. 100.Note down Tx and Rx fibre used in both directions along with fibre distance.012 Hz. 0.Reading of one A/T Test are as follows for example only. Receive power: . and after 5 minutes all jitter values are displayed.Same set as above. .012 KHz > 800 0. ± 15 PPM by mapping STM-16 -Optical signal structure in ANT-20. OBA out to OPA In.Press WDM for OSNR and power. .The BER test to be carried out at each station for all transponders. If not within limits. .Measure Receive power at OPA in before and after10 dB pad through SCPCFCPC patch cord.Measure Receive power by Power meter through SCPC. .Ask distant station to loop.20 MHz ≥ 0. 5000.0 KHz > 20 20 MHz > 0.Measure same power at ODU In before and after 10 dB pad at OPA out. 2. 0. . optical signal to noise ratio and power reading is displayed.0.Connect OSA at OPA Mon. O/P Jitter test: Limits: HP1. 20. 1000.25 dB/ Km. .FCPC Patch cord on FDF.≤ 0. 3. and . . .0. Test of pre amplifier (OPA) and Demultiplexer (ODU):.e.0.For example: .

Verify speech and ring by calling to all stations. o/o limit UAS for 15 min. . and make selective as well as omnibus call. 12.Note down the O/W No. OSC Rx power and wavelength :. .0.Note down O/P jitter peak. Stability test: .> 21 dB.018 % SES--. 9.Limit: .peak readings displayed on ANT-20 screen. O/W test for Selective and omnibus calling:. Received power levels at RI Mon point. Limit : . . UAS for 24 Hrs o/o limit Severity Major Critical Critical Critical Major Major Critical Critical Major 11.. 8.023 71 .Critical Low O/P power.00023 % DM --.Major Card extract Board mismatch-Minor Card interchanged Board mismatch-Minor Some alarm severity are displayed on NMS as follows:Sr. o/o limit SES for 15 min.Measure power at RI by OSA and by LCT both. SES. Alarms :.0.As per STM-16 system. ES.Measure wavelength at RI by OSA.Arrange loop so as to cover whole Ring and put on stability for 48 hours with all precautions. . 6. 7. o/o limit ES for 15 min.Take print out of OSNR on OSA. Synchronization test: . 10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Type of alarm Loss of I/P power Loss of signal Loss of frame UAS BER for 15 min.no.% ES ---.0. o/o limit BER.Limit as per table.Measure Receive power and wavelength of optical supervise channel.Verify alarms as mentioned below On OBA card I/P LOS. . .

72 .

73 .

74 .

2-7 OSNR Signal Wave 75 .Fig 2.

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