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6.641 Electromagnetic Fields, Forces, and Motion
Spring 2009

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Ampère’s Law (with displacement current) C ∫ H i ds = ∫ J i da S + d dt ∫ε S 0 E i da Circulation Conduction of H Current Displacement Current MQS form: C ∫ H i ds = ∫ J i da S EQS circuit form: i = C dv (capacitor) dt 6. and Motion Prof. Faraday’s Law C ∫ E i ds = . Electromagnetic Fields.641.6. Forces.dt ∫ µ S d 0 H i da Circulation of E Magnetic Flux µ0 = 4π ×10-7 henries/meter [magnetic permeability of free space] EQS form: field) C ∫ E i ds = 0 (Kirchoff’s Voltage Law. Maxwell’s Equations in Integral Form in Free Space 1. and Motion Prof.641. Markus Zahn Lecture 1: Integral Form of Maxwell’s Equations I. Electromagnetic Fields. Forces. Markus Zahn Lecture 1 Page 1 of 6 . conservative electric MQS circuit form: v = L di (Inductor) dt 2.

Gauss’ Law for Magnetic Field S ∫ µ H i da 0 = 0 In free space: B = µ0 H magnetic flux density (Teslas) magnetic field intensity (amperes/meter) 5. Conservation of Charge Take Ampère’s Law with displacement current and let contour C → 0 lim C →0 C ∫ H i ds = 0 = ∫ J i da + dt ∫ ε E i da 0 S S d ∫ ρ dV V 6.3. Forces. and Motion Prof.854 ×10-12 farads/meter 36π 1 c= ≈ 3 × 108 meters/second (Speed of electromagnetic waves in ε0 µ 0 ε0 ≈ -9 free space) 4. Electromagnetic Fields. Markus Zahn Lecture 1 Page 2 of 6 . Gauss’ Law for Electric Field ∫ ε E i da 0 S = ∫ ρ dV V 10 ≈ 8.641.

Electromagnetic Fields. and Motion Prof. Forces. Electric Field from Point Charge S ∫ ε0 E i da = ε0Er 4π r2 = q q 4π ε0r2 Er = T sin θ = fc = T cos θ = Mg q2 4π ε0r2 tan θ = q2 r = 4π ε0r2Mg 2l 6.S ∫ J i da + d dt ∫ ρ dV = 0 V Total current Total charge leaving volume inside volume through surface 6. Markus Zahn Lecture 1 Page 3 of 6 . Lorentz Force Law f = q E + v × µ0 H ( ) II.641.

and Motion Prof. Markus Zahn Lecture 1 Page 4 of 6 .dt ∫ ρ dV = .⎡ 2π ε0r3Mg ⎤ q= ⎢ ⎥ l ⎣ ⎦ 1 2 III. Faraday Cage ∫ J i da = i = .641. Forces. Electromagnetic Fields.dt (-q) = dt S d d dq ∫ idt = q 6.

E2 = 0 ( ) Equivalent to Φ1 = Φ2 along boundary 6. Continuity of Tangential E C ∫ E i ds = (E 1t . Markus Zahn Lecture 1 Page 5 of 6 .E1n ) = σ s ⇒ n i ⎡ε0 (E2 . Boundary Conditions 1.E2t = 0 n× E1 .IV. Forces. Electromagnetic Fields. and Motion Prof.E1n ) dS = σ sdS ε0 (E2n .E2t ) dl = 0 ⇒ E1t .E1 ) ⎤ = σ s ⎣ ⎦ 2. Gauss’ Continuity Condition ∫ ε E i da = ∫ σ dS ⇒ ε (E 0 s 0 S S 2n .641.

Markus Zahn Lecture 1 Page 6 of 6 . Conservation of Charge Boundary Condition ∂ρ =0 ∂t d ∇ i J+ ∫ J i da + dt ∫ ρdV = 0 S V ∂ n i ⎡ J a .Hbn ) A = 0 H an Hbn = ⎡ n i ⎣H a .3.Jb ⎤ + σs = 0 ⎣ ⎦ ∂t 6.H at ds = Kds Hbt . Electromagnetic Fields. and Motion Prof.H b ⎤ = K ⎣ ⎦ 5.H b ⎤ = 0 ⎦ 4. Forces. Normal H ∇ i µ0 H = 0 ⇒ S ∫µ 0 H i da = 0 µ 0 (H a n .641.H at = K n × ⎡H a . Tangential H ∇ ×H = J ⇒ C ∫ H i ds = ∫ J i da S Hbt ds .