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‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ‪ Motivation‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻻﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳـﻮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳌـﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔـﺴﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﲔ ﺑـﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﻥ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻨﺎ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺮﻓﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺮﻛﻨﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺪﻓﻌﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺗﻴﺔ)ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‪ .(١٩٩٧،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺰﺯ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﻗـﺪﺭﺗﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﺗﻜﻨﺴﻮﻥ ﳝﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ‬
‫‪ Motive‬ﻭﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ‪ Motivation‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳـﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺬﻝ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺧﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ ﻧـﺸﻄﺔ)ﺧﻠﻴﻔـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‪.(١٩٩٧،‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻧﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍ‪ .‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ‪:Need‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺭﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﺷﻲ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺟـﺪ ﲢﻘـﻖ ﺍﻹﺷـﺒﺎﻉ)ﺧﻠﻴﻔـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‪ ،(١٩٩٧،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻓﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳊﺐ ﻭﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﺰ‪: Drive‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﳏﺪﺩ ﻭ ﻳﺸﲑ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﺰ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣـﺎﻓﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻄـﺶ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉـﻨﺲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﻌﱪ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻲ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺈﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻓﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄ‬
‫)ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‪١٩٩٧،‬؛ ﺩﺍﻓﻴﺪﻭﻑ‪.(١٩٩٢،‬‬
‫‪.٣‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ‪: Incentive‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊـﻲ‬
‫ﲝﺎﻓﺰ ﻗﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺠـﺎﺡ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٤‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ‪: Habit‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻳﺮﻛـﺰ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﹰﺎ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻳﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ‪:‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺗﺼﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔـﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .١‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ ﻳﻨﺸﻂ ﻭﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻹﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻭﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﰲ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﻴﻄﺮ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻔﻜﲑﻩ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺣﻼﻣﻪ‪ .‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﺗﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳉﻮﻉ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﻄﺮﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬
‫ﳐﺘﻠﻒ)ﺑﺎﺭﻭﻥ‪ .(٤٥ ،٢٠٠٢،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺜﲑ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮﺓ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺪ ًﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﺪ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ‪ ،‬ﺍﳍﻴﺒﻮﺛﻼﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﱯ ‪Lateral‬‬
‫)‪ Hypothalamus(LH‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ "ﻛﺮﻭﺱ ﻣﺎﻥ" ‪ Crossman‬ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﻴﺒﻮﺛﻼﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ )‪Ventro Medial Hypothalamus(VMH‬‬
‫ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺒﻊ )ﺑﺎﺭﻭﻥ‪.(٤٦ ،٢٠٠٢ ،‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺶ‪:‬‬
‫ﻻﺑﺪ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻷﺳﺎﺑﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﺎﺀ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺧﻔﺾ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻴﻂ ﲞﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﻭﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ)ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‪ ،(١٩٩٧،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺶ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﲡﻨﺐ ﺍﻷﱂ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﲡﻨﺐ ﺍﻷﱂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﳌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻧﺰﻋﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻷﱂ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ ﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻨﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﱂ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﻣﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻀﻄﺮ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺎﻃﻴﻬﺎ)ﺑﺎﺭﻭﻥ‪،‬‬
‫‪.(٥٥ ،٢٠٠٢‬‬

‫‪.٢‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺳﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺸﻲ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻟﺬﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﲟﻬﺎﻡ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﲢﻘﻖ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻳﻘـﻒ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﳒـﺎﺯ ‪:Achievement Motive‬‬

‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺒﻌﺖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺀﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ)ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳋﺎﻟﻖ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ‪:Cognitive Motive‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﺑﺼﻔﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬـﻢ ﻭﺇﺗﻘـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ـﻰ‬ ‫ـﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠـ‬ ‫ـﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳊـ‬ ‫ـﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺳـ‬ ‫ـﺐ ﺑﺎﳌﺨـ‬ ‫ـﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺣﻴـ‬ ‫ـﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﺣﻠـ‬ ‫ـﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳌـ‬ ‫ـﺎﺕ ﻭﺻـ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ)ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻣﺎﻭﻱ‪ ،(١٩٨٨،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻫـﻲ ﺭﻏﺒـﺔ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺰﺍﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺣﻴﺐ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺳـﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﰎ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌـﺮﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻣﺎﻭﻱ)‪ ،(١٩٨٥‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﳉﻔﺮﻱ )‪(٢٠٠٢‬ﺑﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ‪.(١٩٩٢،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻼﳒﺎﺯ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ ﻭﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﻣﻮﺭﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻼﳒﺎﺯ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻋﺪﻩ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﺳﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳒﺎﺯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲣﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﳌﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻔﻮﻗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺩ ﻟﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﳌﺎ ﻟﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ‪ Will to Power‬ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‪ .‫ﳝﺜﻞ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﲏ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﲢﺖ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﱪﻯ ﻭﺍﴰﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻕ‪) Need for Superiority‬ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ‪(١٩٩٧،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﻴﻼﻧﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﻼﳒﺎﺯ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗـﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻕ‪ .(١٩٩٤،‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻮﺭﺍﻱ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﺘﻼﺯﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﳝﻴـﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ)ﺃﺑﻮﺣﻄﺐ ﻭﺻﺎﺩﻕ‪.(١٩٩٦،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﺮﺯ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪ Cognitive Dissonance Theory‬ﻟﻔـﺴﺘﻨﺠﺮ‪Festinger‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺣﲔ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻤﻮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﻓﻌﻪ ﺇﱃ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﻪ‬ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﲔ ﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﻠﻨﺠـﺎﺡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﻧﻪ)ﻗﻄﺎﻣﻲ‪.

‫ﺧﻔﺾ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪ Cognitive consonance‬ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻔﺼﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.(١٩٩١،‬‬ .٣‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺣﺎﺟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻏﺒﻪ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﺌﺘﻪ‪.٤‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺤﺺ ﻭﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﺜﲑﺍﺕ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.(١٩٩٣،‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺣﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﳌﺎﻭ‪ Maw‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﳝﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .(١٩٨٥،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌـﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌـﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺇﲨﺎ ﹰﻻ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌـﺮﰲ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴـﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃـﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤـﺼﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ)ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻣﺎﻭﻱ‪.١‬ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﳚﺎﺑﻴﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﻣﻀﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .(٢٠٠٢،‬‬ ‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﻬﻤـﺔ ﰲ ﳎـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ)ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﳉﻔﺮﻱ‪.٢‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺪﻗﻪ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺧﱪﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺣﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ‪: Curiosity Motive‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺣﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﺩ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻭﺧﻔـﺾ ﺍﻟﺘـﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷـﺊ ﻋـﻦ ﻋـﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻋﻪ)ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،(١٩٩٦،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﲑﻟﲔ‪ Berlyne‬ﺃﻥ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺣﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺣﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﺣﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻛﻲ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑـﺎﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﳊـﺴﻲ)ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺜﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻛﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ( )ﺑﺮﻟﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .٥‬ﰲ ﻛﺜﺮﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﻤـﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻘـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ)ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ‪.

‬ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ‪:Affiliation Motive‬‬ ‫ﺣﻈﻲ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺄﳘﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﻜﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﺷـﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﺼﺪﺍﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺗﺪﻓﻌﻪ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﺇﺭﺿـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻴﻄﲔ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻭ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﻦ ﺃﻫـﻢ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﳘﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻮﺟﺰ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﻣﺮﻛﺐ ﻳﻮﺟﻪ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﺒـﻮﻻ ﻛﻌـﻀﻮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺗﻘﺒﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧـﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﻜـﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،(١٩٩٦،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺭﻱ ﺩﺍﻓـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺘﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﺧـﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊـﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺠﺎﺏ ﻭﺣﺐ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻥ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔـﺎﻅ ﺑـﺎﻟﻮﻻﺀ ﻟـﻪ)ﺍﺑﻮﺣﻄـﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺎﺩﻕ‪.(١٩٩٦،‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﻼﳒﺎﺯ ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ ﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺣﲔ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳛﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻋﺰﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ‪.‬ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ )ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ(‪:‬‬ .‬ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟـﺴﻮﺍﺀ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻧﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺷـﺪﻳﺪﺓ)ﺧﻠﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‪ ،(١٩٩٧،‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺍﳌﺒﺬﻭﻝ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺎﻓﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺘﻪ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪.

‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﻓﺮﻭﻳﺪ ‪ Freud‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺮﻳﺰﺗﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺘﲔ ﳘﺎ ﻏﺮﻳﺰﺓ ﺍﳊﻴـﺎﺓ‬ ‫)ﺍﳉﻨﺲ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺮﻳﺰﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ)ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻪ ﺳﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺘﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ‪ .‫ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﺃﻳﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻦ ﻣﱴ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻨﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻩ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻗﻪ ﻭﻣﺮﻛﺰﻩ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻬﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻹﺭﺿﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ)ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‪ ،(١٩٩٧،‬ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺸﻌﺮﻭﻧﻪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪.(٤٥٩ ،١٩٩٠ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺿـﻴﺢ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻏﺭﻴﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﺭﻴﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫)ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ .‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻏﺮﻳﺰﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻔﻞ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ ﻛﺎﳊـﺐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺰﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻏﺮﺍﺋﺰ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺰ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﲣﺘﺺ ﻏﺮﻳﺰﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﻈـﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳍـﺪﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﺪﻣﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺘﺪﻣﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠـﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻮﻛﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﺗﻜﻨﺴﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺎﺗﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺰﺗﺎﻥ ﺗﺘﻔﺮﻋﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻴﺪﻭﺍ‪ Libido‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺲ )ﺍﳒﻠﺮ‪.

‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛـﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﻮ‪ .‫ﺷﻜﻞ)‪ (١‬ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻓﺮﻭﻳﺪ ﻟﺮﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻓﺮﻭﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳍـﻮ ‪ ،Id‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧـﺎ ‪ ،Ego‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪ .Super ego‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﱂ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳍﻮ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻘﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘـﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﻨﺎ ﻭﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋـﺰ ﺍﳉﻨـﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻧﺆﺟﻞ ﺍﻹﺷـﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﻮﻋﻲ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻌﻄﺶ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﻭﻧﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺰﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﻫـﻮ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﻪ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ ﻛﻲ ﻳﺴﻠﻚ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﹰﺎ ﻣﻘﺒﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﺮﻭﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮﺭﻱ‪ Unconscious Motive‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻗـﺎﺩﺭﻳﻦ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻠﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﻢ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠـﻲ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬ .‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻻ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺭﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭﻱ ﺑـﻼ ﺗﺄﺟﻴـﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻌﻪ ﻭﺣﺎﺟﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺰﻧﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪.

(٤٦٠ ،١٩٩٦ ،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳ‪‬ﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺰﻣﺎﺕ ﺩﻓﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻣﻲ ﳋﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‪ .‫ﻳﻮﺩﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮﺭ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻴﻠﺔ ﺩﻓﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ‪) conscious‬ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﳒﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ .Response‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﺪﻓﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻗـﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺗﺜﲑ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻪ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭ ﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯ) ﻗﻄﺎﻣﻲ‪.(١٩٩٣،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻛﺰﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳍﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﻳﻜﺴﻮﻥ ﺭﺍﺋﺪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤـﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﲢﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﻭﺑـﺸﻜﻞ ﺧـﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﻭﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﲟﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺋﺰ ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﰲ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ؛ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺑـﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﰲ ﺣﺪ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ .١‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﺒﺎﻓﻠﻮﻑ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﲑ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺒﻪ ‪ Stimulus‬ﻳﻮﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﺎ ‪.‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺰﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻸﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻑ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻛﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺑﲔ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪.٢‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻟﺴﻜﻨﺮ )ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺮﺍﺋﻲ( ﳒﺪ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ)ﻫﻮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺛﻮﺭﺍﻧﺪﻳﻚ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻻﳚﺎﰊ ﺃﻭ ﳋﻔﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺻـﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺑـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺰﺯﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﺪ ﳏﻔﺰﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺪ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺎﻗﻪ ﲢﺪﺙ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻧﻔـﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺰﺯﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ )ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ( ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ‪.

‬‬ ‫ﺲ ‪ Spence‬ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻠﻪ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻣﻲ)‪:(١٩٥٢-١٩٥١‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺳﻨﺒﻨ ٍ‬ ‫ﺟﻬـﺪ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺜﺎﺭﺓ ‪ )=Effective reaction Potential‬ﺍﳊـﺎﻓﺰ ‪ + Drive‬ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋــﺚ‪ × (Incentive Motivation‬ﻗــﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌــﺎﺩﺓ ‪ – Habit Strength‬ﺍﳌﻨــﻊ‬ ‫‪Inhibition‬‬ .‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺳﺘﺪﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺮﺯ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﺑﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺪﺭﺍﺱ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺳﺘﺘﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻛﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﺮﺯ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﺘﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.١‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭﺩ ﻭﻣﻴﻠﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺍﻥ ﺣﺎﻭﻻ ﺗﺮﲨﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﺮﻭﻳﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺗﻨﻘـﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺎﻓﺰ) ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﺜﲑ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻻﲣـﺎﺫ ﺇﺟـﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻌـﲔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺷـﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ)ﺍﳒﻠﺮ‪ .1996‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﲎ ﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻹﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻛﺤﺎﺟـﺔ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪.1996‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺟﻬﺪ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﺰ ﻓﻴﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ ﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﻓﺘﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻓﻴﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻹﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ ﰲ ﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺮ‪.٣‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﻼﺭﻙ ﻫﻞ‪ : Huall‬ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﻔﻬـﻮﻡ ﺧﻔـﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻂ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .٢‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺩ ﻭﺭﺙ ‪ :Woodworth theory‬ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﻓﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ)‪ ،(Pintrich & Schunk.(١٩٩١،‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﺰ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻨﺒﻪ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ( ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺘﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺩ ﺭﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﺎﺭﺓ ‪ =Effective reaction Potential‬ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﺯ ‪ × Drive‬ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪ × Habit Strength‬ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﻋﺙ‪ – Incentive Motivation‬ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻊ ‪Inhibition‬‬ ‫)‪(Pintrich & Schunk.‬‬ ‫‪.

‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﺎﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﳓﻮ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﱐ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﲨﺎ ﹰﻻ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﶈﻔﺰﺍﺕ ﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺰﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻛﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺐ‪.‬ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻲ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﻌﲔ‪.1996‬‬ ‫‪ .٤‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻟﺘﻮﳌﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺑﺪﺍ ﺗﻮﳌﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺪﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﺋﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴـﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﳏﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .(Pintrich & Schunk.(Pintrich & Schunk.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻧﻄﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭ ‪: Attribution Theory‬‬ .(١٩٩٧،‬ﺇﲨﺎﻻ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺗﻮﳌﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﱪ ﳏﺮﻙ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﻐﲑ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ )ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‪ .‫ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻭﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻥ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻛﻼﺭﻙ ﻫﻞ ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻧﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﺠﺴﺪ ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ)‪.1996‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ)‪ (١‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﻭﺭﺭ‪.‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﺟﻞ ‪ Later Learning‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﳌﺜﲑﺍﺕ)‪(Pintrich & Schunk.‬ﻣﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻣﺎﻭﺭﺭ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﳚﺎﰊ )ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻴﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﻞ( ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﺳﻠﱯ)ﺍﳋﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ( ﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﹰﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ‪ .1996‬‬ ‫‪ .٥‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﻭﺭﺭ ‪ : Mowrer‬ﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻭﺳـﻴﻄﺔ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ‪،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﺩ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺑﺄﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﻮﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻮﻑ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻴﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻴﺒﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ )‪.

١‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳـ‬ ‫‪: psychology‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻓﺮﻳﺘﺰ ﻫﻴﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻃﺮﺣﻬـﺎ ﻋـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ـﺼﻴﺔ") ‪The Psychology of‬‬ ‫ـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨـ‬ ‫ـﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـ‬ ‫ـﻢ ﻧﻔـ‬ ‫ـﺔ " ﻋﻠـ‬ ‫)‪ (١٩٥٨‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬ ‫‪ (Interpersonal Relations‬ﺗﺄﺛﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺸﺄ ﻣﻨﺤﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻋـﺪﺩ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻗﻮﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻧﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻴﻞ ﺃﺻﻴﻞ ﻟﻔﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﻢ ﻭﺳﻠﻮﻙ‬‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪.٢‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺟﻮﻧﺰ ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻴﺰ ﻟﻼﺳـﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺮﺍﱐ ‪Johnes & Davis s theory of‬‬ ‫‪Correspondent inference‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪﻡ" ﺟﻮﻧﺰ ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻴﺰ" ﺗﻔﺴﲑﹰﺍ ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﻴﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻻﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺣـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﳏﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻌﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺗﻌﺰﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﻪ ﻣـﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ )ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﻌـﺰﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳـﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﻩ ﻟﻠـﺼﺪﺍﻗﺔ(‬ ‫)ﺷﻮﻗﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑﺍﺕ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻀﻌﻮﻥ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺒﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﲤﻜﻨـﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻮﻙ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳـﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺪﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ)ﺷﻮﻗﻲ‪٢٠٠٣،‬؛ ﺍﻟﻌﱰﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻳﺘﺒﻨﻮﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺳﺒﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻘﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.(٢٠٠٣،‬‬ .‫ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻴﺪﻛﻮﻑ ‪ Medcof‬ﺑﺎﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳـﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻﻗﺖ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻻﻓﺘﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺛﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﻜﻨـﺖ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ)ﺷﻮﻗﻲ‪ ،(٢٠٠٣،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﲝﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ـﺪﺉ ‪Heider's theory of Naïve‬‬ ‫ـﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺒﺘـ‬ ‫ـﻢ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ـﺪﺭ" ﻟﻌﻠـ‬ ‫ـﺔ "ﻫﻴـ‬ ‫‪ .‬‬‫ ﺣﲔ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﳝﻴﺰﻭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ)ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ( ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬‫)ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻴﺔ( ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪.(١٣٠ ،٢٠٠٠،‬‬ ‫‪ .

‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻓﺎ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩ)ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ( ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻏـﲑ ﻣـﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴـﻪ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﺻـﻌﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ)ﺷﻮﻗﻲ‪٢٠٠٣،‬؛ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﰲ‪ ،(٢٠٠٠،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬ .(١٣٤ ،٢٠٠٠،‬‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬ ‫‪.‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ‪ :Stability‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺗﺘﺬﺑﺬﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻬﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﲔ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻥ ﲰﺎﺕ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﺓ‪.‬ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ‪ : Locus of causality‬ﻭﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ)ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ -‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ( ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ )ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‪-‬ﺳـﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ(‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬‬‫ ﺍﳊﻆ) ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟـ‪ .‬‬‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻧﲑ ﳒﺪ ﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﻣﻨﺨﻔـﻀﻮ ﺍﻻﳒـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﺸﻠﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛـﺴﻬﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﻬﻤـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻌﲔ ﻓﻴﻌﺰﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻘﺪﺭﺓ) ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ( ﺃﻭ ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩ )ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ(‪ .‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﺖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺟﻮﻧﺰ ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻴﺰ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﱐ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯﻫﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺘﻮﺳﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺎﻛﻲ ‪ Hewstone & Antaki‬ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻔﺴﺮ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻓﻌﻼﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺼﻒ ﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭﻱ ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻒ ﻣﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻼ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻲ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ)ﺍﻟﻌﱰﻱ‪.(٤٣٦ -١٩٨٩،٤٣٤،‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻳﻌﺰﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺁﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ) ﻭﻫﻮ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻸﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ(‪.‬‬‫ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ) ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ(‪.‬‬‫ ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩ ) ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ(‪.٣‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻳﻨﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭﻳﺔ ‪Winer's Attribaution theory‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﺎﺭﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﳒﺎﺣﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺸﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳒـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻛﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺡ "ﻭﻳﻨﺮ" ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌـﺰﻭ ﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴـﺔ ﺍﻻﳒـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ)‪ ،(١٩٧١‬ﻭﺍﺩﺧﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ)‪ (١٩٨٦‬ﻭﻳﻨﺺ ﻣﻨﻄﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳـﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻓـﺮﺍﺩ ﻳﻌﻠﻠـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻊ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪ :Controlability‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲤﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﻳﹰﺎ)ﺷﻮﻗﻲ‪٢٠٠٣،‬؛ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ‪.

..‬‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﺑﺎﻙ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪ /‬ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺍﳌﺒﺬﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻃﺎﺭﺋﺔ ﺍﳊﻆ ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﱰﻱ)‪(١٤٥ ،٢٠٠٠‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺼﻞ ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﳌﺎﺫﺍ؟‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﻌﺰﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﳒﺎﺣﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺰﻭﻥ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺸﻞ؟)ﺍﻟﻌﱰﻱ‪.(١٣٥ ،٢٠٠٠،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺑﻨﲑﻳﺶ ﻭﺳﻜﻴﻨﻚ ‪Pintrich & Schunk.1992‬ﺗﺘﻠﺨﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻴﺔ‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫*ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺯﻭ ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ)ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫*ﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫*ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪.‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ)‪ (١‬ﺍﻹﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻧﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫*ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫) ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ(‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﻀﺒﻁ) ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫*ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺭ‬ ‫*ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﺤﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻀﺒﻁ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫*ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺔ‬ ‫*‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺃﻭ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ(‬ .‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﲝﺎﺙ ﻭﻳﻨﺮ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻲ)‪ (1986..

1996.‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻼ ﻋﻦ)‪(Pintrich & Schunk.‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ "ﺃﺗﻜﻨﺴﻮﻥ"‬ .‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺍﳌﺒﺬﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺜﺎﺑﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ‪.110‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺑﺪﺀﹰﺍ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺰﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﻨﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻆ‪ ،‬ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺰﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻏﻤﻮﺽ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻌﻠـﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻙ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔـﺴﻴﺔ ﳌـﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﰲ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﺎ ‪ .

‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺳـﻬﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‪.‬ﻭﻳﺰﻋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨـﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﺼﻠﺔ ﺻﺮﺍﻉ ﺑﲔ ﻫـﺪﻓﲔ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿـﲔ ﻋﻨـﺪ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ ﳘـﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻴـﻞ ﳓـﻮ ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪ ، Tendency for success‬ﻭﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﳓﻮ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔـﺸﻞ ‪Tendency for‬‬ ‫‪)Avoid Failure‬ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‪.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﻃﺮﺍﺯﹰﺍ ﻣﺜﻤﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻛﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ .‫‪:Atkinson's Expectation-Value Theory‬‬ ‫ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ Expectation-Value Theory‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳـﺪ ﺃﺗﻜﻨـﺴﻮﻥ‬ ‫‪Atkinson‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴـﺚ ﺍﻫـﺘﻢ ﺑـﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻷﺧـﺬ ﺑﺎﳌﺨـﺎﻃﺮﺓ ‪Risk Taking‬‬ ‫‪behavior‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪﻡ ﺃﺗﻜﻨﺴﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠـﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﻴﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‪ .(١٩٩٤،١٦٧،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﺗﻜﻨﺴﻮﻥ)‪ (١٩٦٤‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎﺡ )‪ (IS‬ﰲ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻼﻗﺘـﻪ ﺑـﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤـﺔ‪.‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﻹﳒﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺑﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻠﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﺜﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﹶﺍً‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﳒﺎﺯﻫﺎ ‪.‬ﻭﳛـﺪﺩ ﺃﺗﻜﻨـﺴﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﳑﺘﺎﺯﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﲢﺖ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻛﱪﻯ ﺃﻋﻢ ﻭﺃﴰﻞ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺗﻜﻨﺴﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺰﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﱪﻫﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﹰﺎ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺃ( ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ )‪: (TS‬ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻹﳒـﺎﺯ ﻭﺗﺘﺤـﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻋﱪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺗﻜﻨﺴﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫) ‪( TS = Ms × Ps × Is‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻴل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﺠﺎﺡ = ﺍﻝﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺒﻠﻭﻍ ﺍﻝﻨﺠﺎﺡ ‪× Motivation for Success‬‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺠـﺎﺡ‪ × Probability of Success‬ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﻋـﺙ ﻝﻠﻨﺠـﺎﺡ‬ .

‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ) ‪ ( TS‬ﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍ‪ .٣‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺠـﺎﺡ‪ .(٢١٠ ،١٩٩٨ ،‬‬ ‫ﺏ(ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ) ‪: ( TAF‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﳏﺼﻠﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺣﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﺗﻜﻨﺴﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫‪× Pf ×If‬‬ ‫‪TAF = MAF‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻴل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﺤﺎﺸﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺸل = ﺍﻝﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﺤﺎﺸﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺸل ‪Motivation to Avoid‬‬ ‫ـﺙ‬ ‫ـﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﻋـ‬ ‫ـﺸل ‪ ×Probability of failure‬ﻗﻴﻤـ‬ ‫ـﺔ ﺍﻝﻔـ‬ ‫‪ ×Failure‬ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻝﻴـ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻔﺸل‪.٢‬ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ )‪. (PF‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪ . Sarson & Mandler‬‬ ‫‪ .٢‬ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ )‪ :(PS‬ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﱘ ﺫﺍﰐ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﻭﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺟﺎﺫﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ‪.‬ﻓـﺎﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ‪.١‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ )‪ (TAF‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﻠﻖ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ)‪(TAQ‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺪﻩ ﺳﺎﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﺎﻧﺪﻟﺮ‪.‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ )‪ :(MS‬ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻣـﺎ ﺑﻨـﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﲪﺎﺱ ﻛﺒﲑﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺧﱪﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺒﻮﺍﻋﺚ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺜﲑ ﲪﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴـﻪ ﻋﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‪.Incentive Value of failure‬‬ ‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ)‪ ( TAF‬ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‪)،‬ﻧﺸﻮﺍﰐ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻧﺘﻴﺠـﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﰲ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﲡﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﲡﻨﺐ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺧﻮﻓﹰﺎ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ ﰲ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ‪.

‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﳓﻮ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻹﳒـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺼﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻝﻺﻨﺠﺎﺯ= ﺍﻝﻤﻴل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺒﻠﻭﻍ ﺍﻝﻨﺠﺎﺡ × ﺍﻝﻤﻴـل ﺇﻝـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺎﺸﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺸل = ) ﺍﻝﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺒﻠﻭﻍ ﺍﻝﻨﺠﺎﺡ × ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻝﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺠـﺎﺡ × ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﻋﺙ ﻝﻠﻨﺠﺎﺡ ( ‪ ) +‬ﺍﻝﻤﻴل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﺤﺎﺸﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺸل × ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻔـﺸل × ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺃﺗﻜﻨﺴﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻄـﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻋـﺰﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪)،‬ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‪.‬ﻓـﺈﺫﺍ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﺪﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻓﺴﻴﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳒﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓـﺸﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻣـﺪﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻓﻴﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ )ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺠـﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔـﺸﻞ(‪.‫‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﳏﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‪ .٣‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﻟﻠﻔﺸﻞ )‪ (IF‬ﻭﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺭﻗﻤﹰﺎ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻻﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪ . (TAF‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ = ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ – ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ‪.‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ( ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ) ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻷﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺃﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ . (TS‬‬ ‫ﺏ( ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ )‪.‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﳛﺪﺩﻩ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﻟﻠﻔﺸﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﻟﻠﻨﺠـﺎﺡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳌﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﳛﺪﺩﻩ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪ .(١٩٩٤،١٦٧،‬‬ ‫ﺇﲨﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺫﻭﻯ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ ﻳﻔﻀﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺫﻭﻯ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ ﻓﻴﻔﻀﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺟـﺪﹰﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔـﺸﻞ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﻷﻥ ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﻟﻠﻔﺸﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ )‪ ( TAF‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ‪.

1996.‬‬ ‫ﲡﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻔـﺸﻞ ﺑـﺄﻱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﲡﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ‪.‫ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﺗﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺗﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ‪.72‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻳﻨﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﺗﻜﻨﺴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﳒـﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻒ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳـﺸﲑ‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺭﻗﻢ)‪(٢‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺑﲔ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﲡﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﺡ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻳﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻼ ﻋﻦ)‪(Pintrich & Schunk.‬‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺶ‪.

‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻛﺴﻠﺲ‪ Eccles‬ﰲ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﻪ ﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫*ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫*ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫*ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺯﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻝﻺﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫*‬ ‫ﺇﺴﺘﺩﺨﺎل ﻤﻌﺭﻓﻲ‬ ‫‪Expectatio‬‬ ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ)‪ (٢‬ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻛﺴﻠﺲ ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻼ ﻋﻦ)‪(Pintrich & Schunk.78‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻛﺴﻠﺲ ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﳒﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺸﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺠﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﻘﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ Cognitive Processes‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻜـﻞ‬ .‬ﻓﺎﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻳﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻃﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻹﳒﺎﺯ‪.‫ﻭﻳﻨﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯﻱ ﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺠـﺎﺡ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻳﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﻋﺰﻭﻩ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﳒﺎﺣﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺸﻠﻪ‪ .1996.‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻜﻨﺴﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪ .

(٤٣٤ ،١٩٩٨‬‬ .‫ﺇﺻﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﻣﺜﺎﺑﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺑﻨـﺎﺀ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.(٣‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺝ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﳊﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻹﺷﺒﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﰐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻮﺫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻗـﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﺟـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺍﻧﺘﺒﺎﻫﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪ -‬ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ‬ ‫‪Self-Actualization Theory Maslow's‬‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻢ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﺑﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻـﻨﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺷـﻜﻞ ﻫﺮﻣـﻲ ‪Hierarchy of‬‬ ‫‪needs‬ﻣﺘﺪﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ‪ ، Physiological need‬ﰒ ﺣﺎﺟـﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣـﻦ‬ ‫‪ ،Safety needs‬ﰒ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳊﺐ ‪Belongingness and Love Needs‬‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ ، Esteem Needs‬ﰒ ﺣﺎﺟـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬـﻢ ‪Needs to‬‬ ‫‪ ،Know & Understand‬ﰒ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻖ ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﺕ ‪Self-‬‬ ‫‪)Actualization‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﱪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱄ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴـﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺧﻠﻞ ﻭﻗﻠﻖ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺇﱃ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻭﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻹﺷﺒﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﺟـﺎﺕ ‪Need-based‬‬ ‫‪ Motivations‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻞ ﰲ ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﺍﻓـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ )‪ ، Needs-deficiency (D-values/or Motivations‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺜﻞ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﺮﻯ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻧﻘـﺺ ﰲ ﺇﺷـﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ‪Being Motivation‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﺍﻓــﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻤــﻮ )‪)Growth Values/ or Motivations (B.Values‬‬ ‫ﻋﺴﲑﻱ‪٣٢ -٣١ ،٢٠٠٣،‬؛ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪.

‫ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻧﻪ ﺑﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﲤﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻮﺍ ًﺀ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺭﺿﺎﺀ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟـﻨﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﳚﻨﺒﻨﺎ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﻕ ﺑـﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳍﺠﻮﻡ)ﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ( ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺼﺮ ﺇﳚﺎﰊ)ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪.(١٩٩٧ ،‬‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺴﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ)‪ (٣‬ﻫﺮﻡ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺟﺎﺕ ‪Hierarchy of needs‬‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﻣﺎﺳﻠﻮ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻛﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻗﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺟـﺎﺕ ﺇﳊﺎﺣـﹰﺎ ﻓﺎﳊﺎﺟـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻓﺪ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻊ ﰲ‬ .(٤٣٥ ،١٩٩٨،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻄﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻻﺗﺸﺒﻊ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻭﲣﻒ ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﱪﺯ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺃﺑﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺷـﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻋـﻦ ﺩﻓـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺑﺘﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﱂ ﺗﺸﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺟـﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻻ ﲣﺘﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﱪﺯ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺸﺒﻊ ﺇﻻ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﹰﺎ)ﺧﻠﻴﻔـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‪.

‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻛﹰﺎ ﳍﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﹰﺎ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻘﺪﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﳍﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻄﺎﻗﺎ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻴﻖ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻟﺬﻭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﲟـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺍ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﲢﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﳚﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻑ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻴﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺴﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪ .‬‬ .‫ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﳍﺮﻡ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻠﻲ ﺑـﺪﺍ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺟـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻣـﻞ ‪‬ﺪﻳـﺪ ﳊﺎﺟـﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣـﻦ)ﻋـﺴﲑﻯ‪٤٣ ،٢٠٠٣،‬؛‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ ،(٤٣٨ ،١٩٩٨،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻫﻮﺍﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﻠﻖ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﻘﺔ ﳚﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﺬﻭﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻸﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﳋﻄـﻮﺭﺓ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻳﺔ‪.

‬‬ ‫ﺩ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪..‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺣﲔ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻤﻮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﻓﻌـﻪ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﳏﺎﻭﻟﻪ ﺧﻔﺾ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪Cognitive consonance‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻒ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﺩﻣﺰ‪ Adams‬ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ‪ Input‬ﻣﺜﻞ)ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﻗﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،(.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ‪..‬‬ ‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ‪..‬ﳓﻮ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﳑﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺧﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﺰﺍﻝ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺘﻘـﺪﺍﺕ‬‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﳑﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‪ .‫ﺳﺎﺑﻌﺎ‪ً :‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ "ﻓﺴﺘﻨﺠﺮ"‬ ‫‪Cognitive Dissonance Theory Festinger's‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﻟﻴﻮﻥ ﻓﺴﺘﻨﺠﺮ‪ ، Festinger‬ﻭﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻭﻓﻘـﹰﺎ ﳌﺒـﺪﺃﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﳘﺎ)‪:(Festinger.Balance‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪.‬ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ‪Output‬ﻣﺜﻞ)ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،(.---‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻤﻠـﻪ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﲡـﺎﻩ)ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺗـﻪ‪،‬‬‫ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻓﻪ‪ (..‬ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﻣﺰ ﺑﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻮﺗﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﳐﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ)ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ(‪..

(١٢٥-١٢٤ ،١٩٩٧،‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺜﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ‪ ،‬ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫)ﺩﺍﻓﻴﺪﻭﻑ‪:(٤٣٧-٤٣٦ ،١٩٩١،‬‬ ‫ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺴﻖ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻣﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺬﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺗﻐﲑ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﺶ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻻ ﲢﺖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ .‬ﻗﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻷﺯﺍﻟﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻳﻘﻊ ﺃﺧﺮ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﳒـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﺮﺿﻴﺔ)ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‪.‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﳒﺪﻩ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻴﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﲰﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﲔ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪.‫ﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﺩﻣﺰ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ)ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯ( ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻣـﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﻠﺠﺎ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺣﺪ ﺯﻣﻼﺋﻪ ﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻗﺪ ﳚـﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﻓﺴﺘﻨﺠﺮ )‪ Festinger(---‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑـﺎﻟﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﲣـﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺣـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ‪.‬‬‫ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻊ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺻﺮﺍﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺘﻪ)ﺟﺎﻧـﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﰲ( ﻭﺑﲔ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ )ﺍﻟﻐﺶ(‪ ،‬ﺑﺬﺍ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻴﺎﺡ ﺣﱴ ﳛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺮ‪.‬‬ .

‬ﻭﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﲔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ‪ ،‬ﳘـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ )ﺍﳒﻠـﺮ‪-٣٨٦ ،١٩٩١،‬‬ ‫‪ ،(٣٨٧‬ﻭﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ) ﻣﱴ ﻣﺎ ﰎ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺑﻪ( ﰲ ﺭﺻﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﺙ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺎ)ﻏﺎﺯﺩﺍ ﻭﻛﻮﺭﺳﻴﲏ‪.(٢٠٣ ،١٩٨٦،‬‬ .‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‪ .‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‪ ،‬ﻣـﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﹰﺎ‪.(١٩٠ ،١٩٨٦،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﳌـﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺻـﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ)ﻏـﺎﺯﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻮﺭﺳﻴﲏ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ‪:Locus of control‬‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﱃ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﳛﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺸﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻟﺪ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ‪Cognitive Social Learning Theory‬‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﺻﺎﻏﻬﺎ ﺟﻮﻟﻴﺎﻥ ﺭﻭﺗـﺮ ‪Julian‬‬ ‫‪ Rotter‬ﰲ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ "ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﻋﻠـﻢ ﺍﻟـﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻲ" ‪ .(١٩٩٠،٣٨٦،‬‬ ‫‪ .١‬ﺗﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﲎ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺇﺳﺘﺪﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﶈـﺪﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻣﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ )ﺍﳒﻠﺮ‪.٢‬ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺮﻓﺾ ﺭﻭﺗـﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﺧﺘﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔـﺴﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﻞ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺓ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺑﺪﻳﻠﺔ‪ .

٥‬ﺧﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﳋﱪﺓ ﺍﳉﺪﻳـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻭﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻥ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳚﺮﻱ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺟـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺃﺧﺮﻳﲔ)ﻏﺎﺯﺩﺍ ﻭ ﻛﻮﺭﺳﻴﲏ‪.٤‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳋﱪﺓ‪.٧‬ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻻ ﲢﺪﺩﻩ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﺰﺯﺍﺕ ﺑﻞ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ ﺗﻮﻗـﻊ‬ ‫‪ Expectancy‬ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﳌﻌﲏ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺳﺘﺤﺪﺙ‪ .٣‬ﺃﻥ ﳕﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﲞﱪﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑـﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ)ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺕ‪.‫‪ .٦‬ﺗﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ "ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻟﺜﻮﺭﻧﺪﺍﻳﻚ ‪ ":The Law of Effect‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺸﲑ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﺭﺿﺎ ﲤﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﺇﺣﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﲤﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻔﺎﺀ)ﺍﳒﻠﺮ‪.(١٩٨٦،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺘـﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.(١٩٩٦،٣٤٠،‬‬ ‫‪ .١‬ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ‪Behavioral Potential (BP) :‬‬ .(٣٨٦ ،١٩٩١،‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺳﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺼﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﺘﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﳋـﱪﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺿـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺳﻴﻨﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺳﻴﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ)ﻏﺎﺯﺩﺍ ﻭﻛﻮﺭﺳﻴﲏ ‪.‬ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﹰﺎ)ﻏﺎﺯﺩﺍ ﻭﻛﻮﺭﺳﻴﲏ ‪،١٩٨٦،‬‬ ‫‪ ،(٢١٠-٢٠٩‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﻢ ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫـﺪﺍﻑ ﲢـﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳛﺪﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺰﺯ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﲝﺪﺙ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴـﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ)ﻏـﺎﺯﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻮﺭﺳﻴﲏ ‪ ،(٢٠٦-١٩٦٨،٢٠٥،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺇﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻫﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺚ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪.(١٨٩ ،١٩٨٦،‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .

٣‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ‪Reinforcement Value (RV) :‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ)ﻏﺎﺯﺩﺍ ﻭﻛﻮﺭﺳﻴﲏ ‪(١٩٢ ،١٩٨٦،‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻨﺎ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻗﻮﺍﻣﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺪﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ؟ ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺗ‪‬ﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺣـﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪.٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ‪Expectancy (E) :‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺫﺍﰐ ﻣﺪﺭﻙ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻌﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺣﲔ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﻩ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺃﻛـﺎﺩﳝﻲ ﻣﻌـﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺄ ﺑﺎﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺍﳌﺒﺬﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳـﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﶈﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺠـﺎﺡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﺒﺬﻝ ﺟﻬﺪﹰﺍ ﻣـﻀﺎﻋﻔﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺕ‪ ٣٤٣ ،١٩٩٦ ،‬؛ ﺑﺎﺩﺑﻴﺎﻥ‪.‫ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﳏﺴﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺃﻭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰﺍﺕ)ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،(٣٤٢ ،١٩٩٦،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜـﺎﻝ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﺍﻻﺟﺘـﻬﺎﺩ ﻟﻼﺳـﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﳍـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪،‬ﺃﻭ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺶ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ .(١٧ ،٢٠٠٠،‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﻗـﻊ‪.‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،General‬ﻭ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ‪،Specific‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﻛـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺤﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰﺍﺕ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴـﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺮﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﺮﺗـﺐ ﻣﺮﺗﻔـﻊ‬ .

‬ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻭ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﻴﻤـﺔ ﺍﳊـﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟـﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺳـﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﺮﻣﻮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺃﺳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ )ﻣﻮﺳـﻰ‪،١٩٩٣،‬‬ ‫‪.٤‬ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ‪Psychological Situation :‬‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﺭﻭﺗﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻻ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﳛﺪﺙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﺜﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺧﱪﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ)ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ( ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻔﺰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺜﲑﻩ ﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻴﻒ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ)ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،(١٩٩٦،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟـﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺍﻋﺘﻤـﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺗﻪ ﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ)ﺍﳒﻠﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-‬ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ‪Dominance Need :‬‬ .(٩٢‬‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﳕﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺩ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﻳﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ )ﻏﺎﺯﺩﺍ ﻭﻛﻮﺭﺳﻴﲏ ‪ ،(١٩٢ ،١٩٨٦،‬ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ=ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ )ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ‪ +‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ(‪.(٣٩٠ ،١٩٩١،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺡ ﺭﻭﺗﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﳍﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﳏﺪﺩ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺭﻭﺗﺮ ﻫﻲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺜﻴﻼ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫)ﺍﳒﻠﺮ‪ ،(٣٩٠ ،١٩٩٠،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺭﻭﺗﺮ ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺳﺖ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﻌﻈـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺎﻧﺔ ‪Recognition and Status Need:‬‬‫ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻔﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺎﺫﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳉـﺴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻌـﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ‪.‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪ .

‬‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﻩ ﺗﻘﻴﻤﻴﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﻭﺗﺮ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺠﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ .‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ‪Love and Affection Need :‬‬‫ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺣﺒﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﳛﻈﻰ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﺮﺍﻣﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺒـﺎﻫﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺧﻼﺻﻬﻢ‪. Locus of Control‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﲔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﳘﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪Protection Dependency Need :‬‬‫ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺮﺩ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻭﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻹﺣﺒﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﻓﺮﻭﻥ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻭﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬ﻟﺬﺍ‬‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺭﻭﺗﺮ ﻏﻤﻮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺪ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻭﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺿﻰ )ﻏـﺎﺯﺩﺍ ﻭﻛﻮﺭﺳـﻴﲏ ‪.‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺭﻭﺗـﺮ ﺧﺮﻭﺟـﹰﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﺿﺤﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻜﺎﱄ ﻟﺴﻜﻴﻨﺮ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﳛﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟـﺼﺎﺭﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ‪ .(٢٠١ ،١٩٨٦،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺭﻭﺗﺮ ﻗﺪ ﻋ‪‬ﺮﻓﺖ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺋﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻠـﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠـﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴـﺎﺱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ‪.‫ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻗﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬ﺑﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻨﺤﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺳﺘﺪﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ‪Independence :‬‬‫ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻄـﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻬـﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺷﺒﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺍﳉﺴﻤﻴﺔ ‪Physical Comfort Need :‬‬‫ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺷﺒﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻄﺖ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻦ ﻭﲡﻨـﺐ ﺍﻷﱂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺴﻤﻴﺔ‪.

‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗـﻊ‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺭﻭﺗﺮ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺳﹰﺎ ﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟـﻀﺒﻂ ‪Rotter's Locus of Control‬‬ ‫‪ Scale‬ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ)‪ (٢٩‬ﻓﻘﺮﺓ ﳛﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋـﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ‪:Locus of control‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺙ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪.(١٩٩٤،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﺮﻏﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻩ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟـﺔ ﺗﻮﻗﻌـﹰﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴـﹰﺎ ‪Internal‬‬ ‫‪ ،expectation‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺬﻝ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪. Interpersonal trust‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳍﺎ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﲟﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻮﻙ)ﻏـﺎﺯﺩﺍ ﻭﻛﻮﺭﺳـﻴﲏ ‪،١٩٨٦،‬‬ ‫‪١٩٨‬؛ﺍﳒﻠﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ‪ Internal Control‬ﻳﺘﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺙ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣـﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ‪ External Control‬ﺍﻧﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻪ ﻳﻘـﻊ ﲢـﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻆ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺰﺍﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫)ﻗﻄﺎﻣﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺪﻣﻨﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻋﺮﺿﹰﺎ ﺗﻔﺼﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻠﺔ ﻭﺛﻴﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺎﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺰﻭﺩﻧﺎ ﲟﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺻﺎﺭﻣﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻠـﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴـﺎﺱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺜﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺳﻄﺤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻬﺎ)ﺍﳒﻠﺮ‪ ،(٣٩٧ ،١٩٩١،‬ﻟﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌـﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﻪ ﺭﻭﺗﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﳌﻨﻬﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺜﻲ‪.Theory‬‬ ‫ ﺃﺛﺎﺭﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺜﻲ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﳝﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﲔ ﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ‪ .‫ﻟﺒﺎﻧﺪﻭﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﺴﻘﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ ‪Information‬‬ ‫‪.(٣٩٧ ،١٩٩١،‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﺖ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺭﻭﺗﺮ ﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺯﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑـﻞ‬‫‪‬ﺘﻢ ﺑﺘﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳊﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻻﳒﺎﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺗﻮﻗﻌـﹰﺎ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴـﹰﺎ‬ ‫‪ External expectation‬ﻣﺆﻣﻨﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻓﺘـﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻆ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻓﺔ ﳘﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻻﻥ ﻋﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺒﺬﻝ ﺟﻬﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺤـﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ‪.

‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﺎﺟﺰﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺳﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻋﺰﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﺘﻐﲑ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻲ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﺪ ﺃﺷـﺎﺭﺕ ﻋـﺪﺩ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻳﻔﺔ ﻗﻄﺎﻣﻲ )‪(١٩٩٤‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﳚﺎﰊ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻫﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺧـﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿـﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺘﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﻣﺎ ﳊﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺫﻭﺍ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻧـﻮﺍ ﺩﺍﺋﻤـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻓﻮﻋﲔ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﺎﺑﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﱴ ﳛﻘﻘﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﳜﻄﻄﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﲝﺎﺟﺔ ﳌﻦ ﻳﻌﺰﺯﻫﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻟﺬﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ‪.‬ﻓﺎﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻤﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺳـﻮﻑ ﳓـﺎﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﻪ‪،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻗـﺪﺭ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻬـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗـﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺣﻴـﺎ‪‬ﻢ)ﺗﺮﲨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﲡـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ)ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻲ‪/‬ﻣﻌﺮﰲ( ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺫﻭ ﻓﺌﺘﲔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﻩ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺪ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ﻛﺎﻟـﺼﺪﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊـﻆ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ .1994‬‬ ‫ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﳛﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴًﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ‪:Self of Efficacy‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪ Social Learning Theory‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺻﺎﻏﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻭﺭﺍ‪ .‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﰎ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﲎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﺘﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻬﻢ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﻀﺒﻄﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﻨﺎ ﺃﻧﻔﹰﺎ‪.‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﲟﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﲟﺪﻯ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﻭﻣـﺪﻯ ﻣﺜـﺎﺑﺮﺓ‬ .‬ﻭﻫـﻮ ‪‬ـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ‪ .(Banduar .

(٦٣٧ ،١٩٩٨،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻭﺭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻞ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﹰﺍ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺗﻔـﺴﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑـﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻌﻤـﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺌﺔ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳏﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ)ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ ،(٦٣٦ ،١٩٩٨،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ .(٦٣٧ ،١٩٩٨،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘـﻮﻝ ﺑـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﲢﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻛﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﺰﻡ ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪ .‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ)ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ .(Banduar .‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺩ‪،‬ﻭﻫـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴـﺔ‪، Cognitive Processes‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،Motivational Processes‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺪﺍﻧﻴـﺔ ‪Affective‬‬ ‫‪ ،Processes‬ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ‪.‬ﻭﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﲢﺪﺩ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺬﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﲢﺪﺩ ﳕﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﲢﺪﺩ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻨﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻓﻘـﻂ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﻣﻔﻬـﻮﻡ ﺍﲡـﺎﻩ ﺍﻟـﻀﺒﻂ‪ locus of Control‬ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﺇﺷـﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺗﺮ)ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪.1994) Selection Processes‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻭﺭﺍ)‪ Banduar (1994‬ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﳛﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﲡﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺟـﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻤـﻮﺫﺝ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺓ ﺷﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﲟﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﺜﻖ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﻛﻔﺎﺀﺍﺗـﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻼﹰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ ﺍﻹﻗﻨـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ Social persuasion‬ﻓﻌﻨﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻲ)ﺃﻱ ﻗﺒـﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﻣـﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ( ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳـﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴـﺔ ﻟﺪﻳـﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﲡﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺭﺩ ﻓﻌـﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻝ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﻣﻴﻮﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﻭﻳﻔـﺴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ‪.‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬ﻓﻤﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﻼﳒﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﳔﻔﻀﺖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .

‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻧﻈﺮﻩ ﴰﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻲ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺰﻭﻥ ﳒﺎﺣﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻛﺎﳊﻆ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻛـﺎﺩﳝﻲ ﺳـﻠﺒﺎﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ‪Fear of Success‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺎﺗﻴﻨـﺎ ﻫـﻮﺭﻧﺮ ‪ Matina Horner‬ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﺼﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﲝﺪ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﻫﻮﺭﻧﺮ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻻﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻟـﻮ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘـﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﻧﻮﺛﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺬ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﳍﺎ)ﻗﻄﺎﻣﻲ‪ ،(١٩٩٣،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻻ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯ ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﻪ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺇﺿﺎﰲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﺰﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﻓﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ Self-Concept‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺟﺰ‪ Rogers‬ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ‪Person-Centered Theory‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ‪ Self-Image‬ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻔـﺴﲑ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ ﻟﻸﻓـﺮﺍﺩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ)ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ‪ ،(٦٣٧ ،١٩٩٨،‬ﻓﻤﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﴰﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﻔﻬـﻮﻡ ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻲ‪ ،‬ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻪ ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻪ ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬ﺑﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻠـﻪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠـﺐ ﺩﺭﺍﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﱪﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ‪.‫ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﳊﺘﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺷـﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻭﺭﺍ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ .

‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺃﺗﺎﺣﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﳍﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ )ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ ،‬ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪(.‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻄﻴﻬﻢ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳚﺎﺑﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﰲ‬‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳـﺘﻢ ﻣـﻦ ﺧﻼﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪.‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻟﻮ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻟﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﹰﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ؟ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘـﺄﺛﺮ ﲟـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ؟ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺸﻌﺮﻩ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺳﻴﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﺸﺎﻃﻪ ﻭﺇﻗﺒﺎﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻨﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﻛﺎﺩﳝﻲ ﺍﳚﺎﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺯ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺫﻛـﺮ ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺧﻠﺼﺖ ﻫﻮﺭﻧﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ‪.‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﺰﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﹰﺎ‪Self-learned Helplessness:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﳘﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺧﻀﺎﻋﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺭﺻﻴﻨﺔ‪.‫ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻫﻮﺭﻧﺮ ﲢﺎﺷﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺠـﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳊﻘـﺪ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ )ﺑﺎﺣﻜﻴﻢ‪.‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻫﻮﺭﻧﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﻔﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﻧﻮﺛﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺣﺴﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪..(٦٦ ،٢٠٠٣ ،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻲ ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺠﻠﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺩ)ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﳝﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣـﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴـﺔ ﻟﻺﳒـﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻣـﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،(.‬‬ ‫ﳚﺪﺭﺑﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺗﻠـﻚ ﺍﳌـﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﰲ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﰲ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‪ ..

‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻷﲝﺎﺙ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺳﻴﻠﺠﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺃﺳـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻛﺘﺌﺎﺏ ﻛﻌﺠﺰ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺧﻠﺺ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻛﺘﺌﺎﺏ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻞ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺧﻠﻞ ﺩﺍﻓﻌـﻲ‬ ‫‪ ،Motivational Deficit‬ﺧﻠﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﺕ‪ ، Self Concept Deficit‬ﺧﻠـﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ‪ ، Cognitive Deficit‬ﻭﺧﻠﻞ ﻭﺟﺪﺍﱐ‪ Affective Deficit‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻷﻧـﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﻗـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ .‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﻨﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗـﺼﻒ ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺌـﺎﺏ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻌﱰﻱ‪.(٢٠٠٣،٤٧،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﻛﺘﺌﺎﺏ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻴﻠﺠﻤﺎﻥ ‪ Seligman‬ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻏﲑ ﺳﺎﺭﺓ ﲡﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﻃﺎﺋـﻞ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﻗﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﻮﻓﻪ ﳝﻬﺪ ﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﻛﺘﺌﺎﺏ‪ .،٢٠٠٠،‬؛ ﻏﺎﺯﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻮﺭﺳﻴﲏ‪.(٢٣٩ ،١٩٨٦ ،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻔﺪﻣﺎﻥ ‪ Feldman‬ﺇﱃ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺮﺍﻫﻴﺔ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ)ﺑﺎﺣﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،(٤٨ ،٢٠٠٣،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﲎ ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﻔﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪.‬ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠـﻬﺎ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺠـﺰ ﺍﳌـﺘﻌﻠﻢ ‪ Helplessness‬ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ ﻣﺆﺩﻳـﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻛﺘﺌـﺎﺏ‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ‪ learned helplessness‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻛﺔ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﻫﺎﺭﰲ ﻭﻫﺎﺭﰲ ‪ ،Harvey & Haervey‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗـﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻏﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻻﺣﻘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺎﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻻﻛﺘﺌﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺮﻗﹰﺎ ﻛﻤﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺎ ﳛـﺪﺙ ﻣـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ)ﺍﻟﻌﱰﻱ‪١٥٠.(١٤٩ ،٢٠٠٠،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺄﺳﺴﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﻠﺠﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،Seligman‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﱐ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻴﻠﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﳍﺮﻭﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺪﻣﻪ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﲡﻨﺒﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺙ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ)ﺑﺎﺣﻜﻴﻢ‪.

‫‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣـﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﺑﻄﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺃﻛﱪ‬ ‫)ﺗﻮﻧﺴﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺗﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻻﳚﺎﰊ ﺇﱃ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺗﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﳏـﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﳒﺎﺯ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬‫ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﳒﺎﺯ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﻝ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻨﺨﻔـﻀﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﳒﺎﺯ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻛﺘﺌﺎﺏ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟـﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺪﺧﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ .(٤٣-٤٢ ،٢٠٠٢،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳊﺰﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻛﺘﺌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻳﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺧـﱪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﳌﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻴﺒﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺇﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺯﺍﺣﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻮﺩ ﻻ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﻛﺘﺌﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪.Depression‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﻛﺘﺌﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﻘـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻛﺘﺌﺎﺏ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﺳـﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺠﺰ‪ .

‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻛﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﻲ ﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪..‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ ﻣﻌـﻮﻕ‬‫ﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺷﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺒﺎﻻﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﺟـﺔ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﺩ ﻟﻠﻔﻬـﻢ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﱂ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﱯ ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻂ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴﹰﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﺜﺎﺙ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑـﲔ‬‫ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺳـﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻹﳚﺎﺩ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻄﻤﻮﺡ‪.‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬‫ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻌﺐ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺑﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻔﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ)ﺃﺧﺬ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻔـﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻌـﺰﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺣﺪﺍﺙ(‪،‬ﻭﻟﻌﺐ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻣﱪﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﺭﺑﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻬـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻷﺧﺺ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟـﻀﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﱰﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﺭﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ ﲣﻠﻴﺺ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﻤﺜ ﹰ‬‫ﰲ ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﲣﺎﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﺧﻮﻓﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﳍﺎ‪..‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﰐ‪ .