To calibrate voltmeter and ammeter using student’s potentiometer

ARPIT BHARDWAJ(ROLL NO – 232/co/11) ASEEM GOYAL(ROLL NO-233/co/11) ASHAT MEHTA(ROLL NO – 234/co/11)

1. To determine the current sensitivity of a ballistic galvanometer and it’s resistance by half deflection method. 2. To calibrate the given voltmeter and ammeter using student’s potentiometer 3 To study the sparkling potential of a given neon lamp. 4. To determine the resistivity of a semiconductor using four probe method 5. To determine the high resistance by leakage method. 6. To determine the band gap of a given specimen. 7. To determine the susceptibility of MnCl2 8. To study the Hall Effect 9. To determine Planck’s constant.


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Galvanometer Voltmeter Ammeter Standard Cell Student’s Potentiometer Rheostats (150 Ω,10 Ω, 10 Ω) 1 ohm Resistance Power Supply Connecting Wires

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calibration is a comparison between measurements one of known magnitude or correctness made or set with one device and another measurement made is as similar a way as possible with a second device . At the simplest level. Calibration is the validation of specific measurement techniques and equipment.

. Galvanometers are instruments which are intended primarily to indicate the existence of a current and which may under circumstances. The construction of the galvanometers is based on the interaction between coils carrying currents and magnets. be capable of measuring it.

or ammeters are instruments used for measurement of current in amperes. Ammeter should be a low resistance instrument. The instrument must be able to record the value of current without changing it. an ammeter is inserted in the circuit so that the whole current to be measured passes through it. To measure a current. Ampere meters . Ammeter should have zero resistance so that there is no potential drop across it and the current is not altered .

 A voltmeter measures the change in voltage between two points in an electric circuit and therefore must be connected in parallel with the portion of the circuit on which the measurement is made. It is necessary for the voltmeter to have a high resistance so that it does not have an appreciable affect on the current or voltage associated with the measured circuit .

   A potentiometer is a variable resistor or voltage divider Usually there is a three terminal resistor where the center connection is manipulated. If two terminals are used it acts as variable resistor. The potential difference is a portion of potentiometer wire between the ends of jockey at the time of balancing is V=KL. where K is the potential gradient of the wire . If all three are used then it acts as a variable voltage divider.

 The potentiometer is the most accurate device for measurement of emf. Its accuracy depends upon the constancy of cross section of wire and the uniformity of cross section of wire .

THEORY .

R(1 ) R(2) B(1) g B(2) 1.018 A E2 E1 1ohm .

X+ X’A K Rh B(2) .

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X+ V X’- Q K(P) B(2) .

where E is the emf of cadmium cell & K is potential gradient of potentiometer .This gives value of K . Then if l1 be the length of potentiometer wire for no deflection in galvanometer . Let + pole of cadmium cell D be connected to end A & through galvanometer to jockey of potentiometer. be maintained between the two end A & B of potentiometer wire with a at being higher potential than B. Let a constant P.D. we have E=Kl1 .

 Now let cadmium cell be replaced by a one ohm standard resistance through which a steady current is flowing. between the terminals of the standard one ohm resistance is given by: V=Kl2 .D. Then if l2 be the length of potentiometer wire for no deflection in the galvanometer the P.

The graph between error(I(o)-I) versus I(o) is known as calibration curve of ammeter . Let reading of ammeter be I(o).

the P. Now let cadmium cell be replaced by portion MP of a rheostat MN through whole of which a steady current is maintained. across the portion MP of the rheostat is given by: V=kl2 Let the reading of voltmeter be V(o). Then the graph V(o)-V versus V is known as calibration curve of voltmeter . Then if l2 be the length of potentiometer wire at the null point.D.

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Procedure .

Start with your sliding contact C near the centre of the bridge.     Use the experimental arrangement for the calibration of potentiometer wire. Find a point C for no deflection Now close switch K1 and again adjust C for no deflection. Press the contact C. The galvanometer will probably deflect. using the standard cell e s. Record the final setting of the contact point C and known value of the emf of the standard cell .

The ammeter gives the observed value of current.  Calculated value of the current I(c) is found as follows: I(c)=I(A)x10-3   . Plug the key K(A) and pass a suitable current in the circuit by adjusting rheostat.  Locate the balance length L by adjusting the coil knob to a suitable number and then sliding the jockey on the stretched wire.Turn the voltage switch to E2.

    Plug the keys and by adjusting the coil knob and by adjusting the sliding contact of the potential divider device. Voltmeter shows the potential difference across the rheostat resistance. This is V(o). Bring a suitable voltage reading in the voltmeter V. V(c)=l(v)x10-3 .

Observation .

Io) 1 2 3 4 5 0.No.260 Observed value of Current(A) I0 0.085 0.013 0.30 Error (Ic.015 0.025 0.10 0.137 0.S.25 0.20 0.173 0.040 .225 0.15 0. Balancing Length(cm) l 85 137 173 225 260 Calculated value of current(A) Ic 0.037 0.

045 0.4 449.4 0.048 0.2 245.0 569.049 0.5 Error (Vc-Vo) 1 2 3 4 5 0.069 .132 0.569 Observed value of voltage(v) Vo 0.1 0.3 0. Balancing length(cm) l 132.348 0.032 0.S.2 0.No.5 Calculated value of voltage(v) Vc 0.449 0.9 348.245 0.

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Hence the given voltmeter and ammeter have been calibrated & the calibration curve of ammeter and voltmeter is obtained. .

. Do not run the current for long durations. Take out the key once reading is taken.    Keep the voltage of E1 & E2 equal for better results Do not touch the rheostats once set.

the unknown voltage can be determined.6 volts. By multiplying the potentiometer reading by the appropriate volt box factor. .Voltage Measurement  The student’s potentiometer is designed to measure emf up to 1. The unknown voltage is connected across a series of resistors and a known fraction of total unknown voltage is measured by the potentiometer.

But by applying Ohm’s law. That is. . knowing the precise value of a resistance R and the precise voltage measured across it. the current may also be measured with a potentiometer. the current which produces this voltage drop can be determined. The potentiometer is designed primarily to measure voltage.

  Special binding posts permit making independent connections. Therefore. therefore the reading in the window can be used to determine the ratio between these arms of the bridge . the calibrated slidewire of the student’s potentiometer can be used as two arms of a wheatstone bridge. The slidewire is calibrated in 100 uniforms divisions over its full travel.

the main advantage of potentiometer is that the potentiometer balance draws no current from the cell . Since the solution is usually high in resistance. Therefore. the voltage measurement would be in error if current is drawn. The potentiometer is commonly used to measure the emf generated between hydrogen and calomel cells in the determination of hydrogen ion concentration.