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1.1 Introduction

Advantages

• provides mechanical energy to lift oil • efficient, simple and easy to operate • pumps a well down to very low pressure • applicable to slim holes, multiple completions, and high-temperature and viscous oils • easy to change to other wells with minimum cost

**Disadvantages • excessive friction in crooked/deviated holes
**

• solid-sensitive problems • low efficiency in gassy wells • limited depth due to rod capacity • bulky in offshore operations.

1.2 Pumping System

.

Walking Beam Fulcrum Pitm an Force Well Load Counter Balance (a) Conventional Unit .

Walking Beam Fulcrum Pitm an Force Well Load Counter Balance (b) Lufkin Mark II Unit .

Walking Beam Pitm an Force Counter Balance Fulcrum Well Load (c) Air-Balanced Unit .

1964) . near bottom of stroke. near bottom of stroke. near top of stroke.Figure 1-3: The pumping cycle: (a) plunger moving down. (b) plunger moving up. near top of stroke (From Nind. (c) plunger moving up. (d) plunger moving down.

Figure 1-4: Two types of plunger pumps (From Nind. 1964) .

3 Polished Rod Motion Figure 1-5 .1.

A C P R H G I Figure 1-6: Definitions of conventional pumping unit API geometry dimensions .

12 57.88 89.07 111. 30 42.08 120.88 86. 41.88 86.5 144.88 238. 30 42. 41.88 237. 35 47.09 111. 36. 36. 41.82 68.) 210 210 210 210 210 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 152 155 155 155 155 155 155 C (in.5 148. 35 47.88 238.03 120. 41.08 120. 35 47.88 238.03 120.45 58. 35 47. 35 47.05 .03 120. 35 47.09 111.88 237.88 89.Table 1-1: Conventional pumping unit API geometry dimensions A (in.5 148.) 86.) 148.32 68.02 57.88 86.5 133.5 144.88 89. 35 42.88 86.88 237.32 80. 41.88 213 213 211 211 211 211 G (in. 36.88 237.03 120.32 80.5 133. 41.88 89.05 57.5 148.03 120.88 89.82 68. 41. 41.5 148.02 57.45 68.45 68. R3 (in. 41.88 89.08 120.88 86.88 237.88 89.45 68.07 111. 36.) 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 111 111 111 111 111 111 P (in. 41. 41. 30 42.88 75 75 75 75 75 75 R1.45 68. 30 42. 41.05 57.88 238. 41.5 148.32 80.03 120. 30 42.) 120. 36. 35 47.88 86. 35 47.5 148.88 238.88 238. 35 47.5 148. 36.03 111.07 I (in.5 148.07 111.5 144.5 132 132 132 132 H (in.05 57. 35 47. 35 47.32 80. 41.88 238.) 237.08 120. 35 47. R2.) 47.03 120. 35 47. 30 Cs (lb) -1500 -1500 -1500 -1500 -1500 -650 -650 -650 -520 -520 -400 -400 -400 570 -120 -120 55 55 0 0 API Unit Designation C-912D-365-168 C-912D-305-168 C-640D-365-168 C-640D-305-168 C-456D-305-168 C-912D-427-144 C-912D-365-144 C-640D-365-144 C-640D-305-144 C-456D-305-144 C-640D-256-144 C-456D-256-144 C-320D-256-144 C-456D-365-120 C-640D-305-120 C-456D-305-120 C-320D-256-120 C-456D-256-120 C-456D-213-120 C-320D-213-120 Torque Factor 80.03 120.82 68.5 144.88 237.5 144.08 120.

27. 32. 27. 27 37. 22 32. 22 32.49 31.13 150. 22 32. 30 42.C-228D-213-120 155 C-456D-265-100 129 C-320D-265-100 C-320D-305-100 C-228D-213-100 C-228D-173-100 C-160D-173-100 C-320D-246-86 C-228D-246-86 C-320D-213-86 C-228D-213-86 C-160D-173-86 C-114D-119-86 C-320D-245-74 C-228D-200-74 C-160D-200-74 C-228D-173-74 C-160D-173-74 C-160D-143-74 C-114D-143-74 C-160D-173-64 C-114D-173-64 C-160D-143-64 C-114D-143-64 C-80D-119-64 C-160D-173-54 C-114D-133-54 129 129 129 129 129 111 111 111 111 111 111 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 84 84 84 84 84 72 72 111.75 114 114 114 96 96 93.48 47. 32.38 53.99 35. 32. 36. 27. 32. 27 37.49 35. 22.5 211 211 211 211 180 180 180 211 211 180 180 180 150. 36.49 35.22 26. 27 37. 27 42.45 .61 40. 36.38 152.96 41.08 96.07 111. 36.99 35. 32.06 64 72. 27.05 84.85 26. 27. 22 32. 32. 22 32.59 30.5 84 74.75 93. 22 37.37 48. 30 42.75 84 84 74.37 40.05 84.05 84. 27.05 111. 17 24.05 96. 30 37.05 47.06 72.05 96.38 53. 22.38 63 63 63 53.48 48.75 93. 22 27. 30 42.38 45 45 41 45 41 42. 30 37. 17 27.96 40.61 41.48 47. 27 37.98 35.05 72.07 96.05 84. 32.59 30. 36.07 111.05 96.49 35. 17 24. 16 0 550 550 550 0 0 0 800 800 450 450 450 115 800 800 800 450 450 300 300 550 550 360 360 0 500 330 57.13 132 132 116 132 116 75 75 75 75 63 63 63 75 75 63 63 63 53. 27 37. 30 42. 16 27. 27 32.37 48.13 150.99 35.05 96.13 180 180 180 152.05 96. 32.38 53. 27 32.07 111.05 84. 22.75 93.38 150.05 84.13 150. 32.02 31. 27. 27 37.38 53.04 111. 20. 36.05 84.02 30.61 41. 20.06 64 111 111 111 111 96 96 96 111 111 96 96 96 84 96 96 96 84 84 84 84 84 84 72 72 64 72 64 132 132 132 132 113 114 114 133 133 114 114 114 93.04 96.38 53.05 96.

5 84. 14. 11 21. 16.5 98. 11 21. 14.5 57. 16.17 48.5 95 98. 11 21.92 20.27 20. 10 18. 11 18.05 51 51 48.5 56 57.98 22. 16 21.5 98.17 47 48.3 22. 16.1 22. 10 21.05 56.37 17. 14.C-80D-133-54 C-80D-119-54 C-P57D-76-54 C-P57D-89-54 C-80D-133-48 C-80D-109-48 C-57D-109-48 C-57D-95-48 C-P57D-109-48 C-P57D-95-48 C-40D-76-48 C-P40D-76-48 C-P57D-89-42 C-P57D-76-42 C-P40D-89-42 C-P40D-76-42 C-57D-89-42 C-57D-76-42 C-40D-89-42 C-40D-76-42 C-40D-89-36 C-P40D-89-36 C-25D-67-36 C-25D-56-36 C-25D-67-30 C-25D-53-30 72 72 64 64 64 64 64 64 57 57 64 61 51 51 53 53 56 56 56 56 48 47 48 48 45 45 64 64 51 51 64 56. 9 330 330 105 105 440 320 320 320 180 180 0 190 280 280 280 280 150 150 150 150 275 375 275 275 150 150 26.3 23.17 47 51 51 47 47 48. 14.17 48.5 65. 14.27 20.63 65. 11 21.56 19. 16.5 98. 10 18. 14. 10 18. 16. 14.63 64 64 57. 10 18.53 .5 98. 14.3 23.5 49.5 98. 10 18.37 14.45 26. 14. 16. 10 18.56 20.5 116 116 103 103 116 105 105 105 103 103 98.5 41 41 39 39 41 37 37 37 39 39 37 39 39 39 39 39 37 37 37 37 37 39 37 37 31 31 24. 20. 10 18.92 19.17 48.5 57. 20.5 57.37 17. 16.22 64 64 51 51 64 56 56 56 51 51 48 47 51 51 47 47 48 48 48 48 48 47 48 48 36 36 74.27 17.8 25.5 56 64 64 56 56 57.5 74.98 23. 10 18.5 64 64 74.05 56.5 95 103 103 95 95 98.53 14.5 84.5 57.8 23.27 20. 8 12. 16. 14. 10 18.17 36.45 25. 14. 11 21.92 20. 11 18. 16 24. 16 21.17 48. 16. 20.22 36. 10 12.17 48. 14. 10 18.51 23.5 57. 11 21.66 17.63 65.5 49. 11 24.

API Designation

C – 228D – 200 – 74. The first field is the code for type of pumping unit. C = Conventional units A = Air-Balanced units B = Beam Counterbalance units M = Mark II units. The second field is the code for peak torque rating in 1000 in.-lb. D stands for Double Reduction Gear Reducer. The third field is the code for polished rod load rating in 100 lb. The last field is the code for stroke length in inches.

Approximate Motion

Figure 1-7

If x denotes the distance of B below its top position C and is measured from the instant at which the crank arm and pitman arm are in the vertical position with the crank arm vertically upward, the law of cosine gives

( AB )

i.e.,

2

= (OA) + (OB ) − 2(OA)(OB ) cos AOB

2 2

h = c + (h + c − x ) − 2c(h + c − x ) cos ωt

2 2 2

Therefore. x = h + c(1 − cos ωt ) − c 2 cos 2 ωt + h 2 + c 2 ( ) . The equation reduces to x 2 − 2 x[h + c(1 − cos ωt )] + 2c(h + c )(1 − cos ωt ) = 0 so that x = h + c(1 − cos ωt ) ± c 2 cos 2 ωt + h 2 − c 2 ( ) When ωt is zero. which means that the negative root sign must be taken. x is also zero.where ω is the angular velocity of the crank.

Acceleration is a= d x dt 2 2 Carrying out the differentiation for acceleration. it is found that the maximum acceleration occurs when ωt is equal to zero (or an even multiple of π radians) and that this maximum value is a max = ω c (1 + 2 c h ) (1-1) .

It also appears that the minimum value of acceleration is a min = ω c (1 − 2 c h ) (1-2) If N is the number of pumping strokes per minute then 2πN ω= 60 (rad/sec) (1-3) .

2 ⎝ 2 (ft/sec2) (1-4) a max cN g ⎛ c ⎞ (ft/sec2) = ⎜1 + ⎟ 2936.3 ⎝ h⎠ 2 (1-5) .The maximum downward acceleration of point B (which occurs when the crank arm is vertically upward) is a max or cN ⎛ c⎞ = ⎜1 + ⎟ h⎠ 91.

3 ⎝ h⎠ (1-7) .3 ⎝ h⎠ (ft/sec2) (1-6) It follows that in a conventional pumping unit the maximum upward acceleration of the horse’s head occurs at the bottom of the stroke (polished rod) and is equal to a max d 1 cN 2 g ⎛ c⎞ = ⎜1 + ⎟ (ft/sec2) d 2 2936.Likewise the minimum upward (amin) acceleration of point B (which occurs when the crank arm is vertically downward) is a min cN 2 g ⎛ c⎞ = ⎜1 − ⎟ 2936.

But 2cd 2 =S d1 where S is the polished rod stroke length. So if S is measured in inches. then 2cd 2 S = 12 d1 or cd 2 S = d1 24 (1-8) .where d1 and d2 are shown in Figure 1-5.

So substituting Eq (1-8) into Eq (1-7) yields a max SN g ⎛ c⎞ = ⎜1 + ⎟ (ft/sec2) 70471.2 ⎝ h⎠ 2 (1-9) or we can write Eq (1-9) as a max SN 2 g = M (ft/sec2) 70471.2 (1-10) .

where M is the machinery factor and is defined as M =1+ Similarly.2 ⎝ 2 c⎞ ⎟ (ft/sec2) h⎠ (1-12) . c h (1-11) a min SN g ⎛ = ⎜1 − 70471.

4.2 ⎟ ⎟ 144 144 144 144 ⎝ ⎠ DAp (1-14) .1 Maximum PRL (A − Ar ) γ s DAr γ s DAr ⎛ SN 2 M ⎞ ⎜ + + ⎜ 70471.4)D p (1-13) Equation (1-13) can be rewritten as PRL max DAr γ s DAr γ s DAr ⎛ SN 2 M ⎞ ⎜ = S f (62.1.2 ⎟ ⎟ 144 144 144 ⎝ ⎠ PRL max = S f (62.4 ) + + ⎜ 70471.4) − S f (62.

4) + Wr + W r ⎜ ⎜ 70471.2 ⎟ ⎟ γs 144 ⎝ ⎠ DAp Wr (1-17) .If the weight of the rod string in air is Wr = γ s DAr 144 (1-15) which can be solved for Ar which is 144Wr Ar = γ sD (1-16) Substituting Eq (1-16) into Eq (1-14) yields PRL max ⎛ SN 2 M ⎞ = S f (62.4) − S f (62.

.4) − 0.9Wr + Wr ⎜ ⎜ 70471.2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ W f = S f (62.2 ⎟ ⎟ 144 ⎝ ⎠ DAp or PRL max where ⎛ SN 2 M ⎞ = W f + 0.1Wr + Wr + Wr ⎜ ⎜ 70471.The above equation is often further reduced by taking the fluid in the second term (the subtractive term) as an API 50° with Sf = 0. Eq (117) becomes (where γs= 490) PRL max ⎛ SN 2 M ⎞ = S f (62.78.4 ) DA p 144 (1-18) and is called the fluid load (not to be confused with the actual fluid weight on the rod string). Thus.

2 .9 + F1 )Wr where for conventional units (1-19) F1 = SN 2 (1 + c h ) 70471. Eq (1-18) can be rewritten as PRL max = W f + (0.Thus.2 (1-20) and for air-balanced units F1 = SN 2 (1 − c h ) (1-21) 70471.

reduces to PRL min = 0. for API 50° oil.9Wr − F2Wr = (0.2 Minimum PRL PRL min = − S f (62.9 − F2 )Wr (1-22) .4) Wr γs + Wr − Wr F2 which.4.1.

where for the conventional units SN F2 = 70471.2 2 c (1 − h ) (1-23) and for air-balanced units SN (1 + ) F2 = 70471.2 2 c h (1-24) .

C= 1 2 (PRL max + PRL min ) Using Eqs (1-19) and (1-22) in the above we get C = 1 W f + 0.4. Therefore.3 Counterweights The idea counter-balance load C is the average PRL.1.9Wr + 2 1 2 (F1 − F2 )Wr (1-25) .

2 h ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (1-27) .or for conventional units 2 ⎛ SN c⎞ 1 ⎟ C = 2 W f + Wr ⎜ 0.9 − ⎜ 70471.2 h ⎠ ⎝ (1-26) and for air-balanced units 2 ⎛ SN c⎞ 1 ⎟ C = 2 W f + Wr ⎜ 0.9 + ⎟ ⎜ 70471.

r d1 C = C s + Wc c d2 where Cs = structure unbalance. lbs r = distance between the mass center of counterweights and the crank shaft center. in. lbs Wc = total weight of counterweights. .

4 Peak Torque and Speed Limit Peak torque T is (see Figure 1.9 − F2 )Wr ] 2 or (1-29) . (1-25) into Eq. (1-28) gives T = 1 S [C − (0.1.5) d2 T = c[C − (0.4.9 − F2 )Wr ] d1 (1-28) Substituting Eq.

T = 1 S 1Wf + 2 2 or [ 1 2 (F1 + F2 )Wr ] (in-lbs) (1-30) ⎛ 2SN 2Wr ⎞ ⎟ T = 1 S ⎜W f + 4 ⎜ 70471.93 (1-31) .2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Torque factors and efficiency are used in practice: 1 2 T= [PRLmax (TF1 ) + PRLmin (TF2 )] 0.

Torque factor is defined: Torque Exerted to the Crankshaft TF = Polished Rod Load TF1 = Maximum upstroke torque factor occurred when the crank is in the horizontal position Maximum downstroke torque factor occurred when the crank is in the horizontal position TF2 = .

Approximate Maximum Torque Factor Conventional and Air Balance Units Stroke (in.) 8.) 8.5 13 16 19 22 26 29 34 39 45 52 63 75 87 TF2 (in.) 16 24 30 36 42 48 54 64 74 86 100 120 144 168 TF1 (in.5 13 16 19 22 26 29 34 39 45 52 63 75 87 .

) 64 74 86 100 120 144 168 TF1 (in.Approximate Maximum Torque Factor Mark II Units Stroke (in.) 37 43 51 57 71 88 102 .) 29 34 39 47 55 66 79 TF2 (in.

Maximum Permissible Pumping Speed As given earlier the maximum value of the downward acceleration is equal to a max/ min = SN g (1 ± 2 c h ) 70471.2 c h (1-32) SN 2 (1 ± ) 70471.2 ≤L (1-33) .

5 N limit = 187.or N limit 70471.2 L = c S (1 m h ) (1-34) For L = 0. .7 S (1 m c h ) (1-35) The minus sign is for conventional units and the plus sign for air-balanced units.

1. 76 is a tapered string with 7/8” diameter rod at the top. No. No. No. then a 6/8” diameter rod at the bottom.5 Tapered Rod Strings Tapered rod strings can be identified by their numbers such as: a. 75 is a 3 way tapered string consisting of 7/8” diameter rod at top 6/8” diameter rod at middle 5/8” diameter rod at bottom d.4. c. 88 is a non-tapered 8/8” or 1” diameter rod string b. 107 is a 4 way tapered string consisting of 10/8” (or 1 1/4”) diameter rod at top 9/8” (or 1 1/8”) diameter rod below 10/8” diameter rod 8/8” (or 1”) diameter rod below 9/8” diameter rod 7/8” diameter rod below 8/8” diameter rod . No.

Stress at the top rod of each rod size is the same throughout the string 2. Stress in the top rod of the smallest (deepest) set of rods should be the highest (~30. .000 psi) and the stress progressively decreases in the top rods of the higher sets of rods.There are two criteria used in the design of tapered rod strings: 1.

33 . d2 = 111 in. c = 37 in.05 in.Example Problem 1-1: The following geometry dimensions are for the pumping unit C – 320D – 213 – 86: d1 = 96. c/h = 0.

2 rb/stb) at depth of 3. answer the following questions: a) What is the maximum allowable pumping speed if L = 0.4 is used? b) What is the expected maximum polished rod load? c) What is the expected peak torque? d) What is the desired counter-balance weight to be placed at the maximum position on the crank? . rods to lift 25 °API gravity crude (formation volume factor 1.If this unit is used with a 2 1/2” plunger and 7/8 in.000 ft.

thepolished rod stroke length can be estimated as: .000 in-lbs.Solution: The pumping unit C – 320D – 213 – 86 has a peak torque of gearbox rating of 320.300 lbs. (a)Based on the configuration for conventional unit shown in Figure 1-5(a) and Table 1-1. and a maximum polished rod stroke of 86 in. a polished rod rating of 21.

d1 96.d2 111 S = 2c = (2)(37) = 85.4) (85.2 L = c S (1 − h ) (70471.2)(0.05 The maximum allowable pumping speed is: N= 70471.52 in.33) = 22 SPM .52)(1 − 0.

91 in.2 The area of the 7/8” rod is Ar = 0.60) Wr = = = 6. The area of the 2 ½” plunger is Ap = 4.770 lbs W f = S f (62.9042)(62.4 ) 144 144 DA p (490)(3.91) = (0. The 25° API gravity has an Sf = 0.4 ) = 5.(b) The maximum PRL can be calculated with Eq (12-17).138 lbs 144 144 γ s DAr .000)(4.9042.000)(0.60 in.2 Then (3.

4)(6.138)(0.076 lbs < 21.33) = = 0.138) /(490) + 6.9042)(62.52)(22) 2 (1 + 0.794) = 16.7940 F1 = 70471.2 Then the expected maximum PRL is: PRL max = W f − S f (62.4) Wr γs + Wr + Wr F1 = 5. OK .138 + (6.300 lbs.c SN 2 (1 + h ) (85.770 − (0.2 70471.

770 + ⎟ T = 1 S ⎜W f + 4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 70471.138) ⎞ ⎟ = 4 (85.056 lb-in.(c) The peak torque is calculated by Eq (1-30): ⎛ ⎛ 2SN 2Wr ⎞ 1 2(85.2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ = 280.52)(22) 2 (6. < 320. OK .000 lb-in.52) ⎜ 5.2 70471.

9042)(62.Accurate calculation of counter-balance load requires the minimum PRL: c SN 2 (1 − h ) (85.4 70471.4) Wr 6.138 = −(0.2 PRL min = − S f (62.138 − (6.976 lbs γs + Wr − Wr F2 .33) F2 = = = 0.138)(0.4 ) + 6.4) 490 = 2.52)(22) 2 (1 − 0.2 70471.

05) + 450 = 10.C= 1 2 (PRL max + PRL min ) = 1 (16. (37) (96.160 Wc (37) (111) .976) = 9. That is. 5ARO Counterweights placed at the maximum position (c in this case) on the crank will produce an effective counter-balance load of 10.526 2 lbs A product catalog of LUFKIN Industries indicates that the structure unbalance is 450 lbs and 4 No.076 + 2.160 lbs.

xls can be used for quickly seeking solutions to similar problems.221 lbs.05) in. Solution is shown in Table 1-2. the counterweights should be place on the crank at (9. In order to generate the ideal counter-balance load of C = 9.526)(111) r= (37) = 36. The computer program SuckerRodPumpingLoad.526 lbs. It is available from the publisher with this book.221)(96.30 (11. .which gives Wc = 11.

5 in.000 ft Plunger diameter (dp): 2. Input Data: Pump setting depth (D): 3.875 in. and 2) view result in the Solution section. Beam dimension 2 (d2) 111 in. and counterbalance load. -1 = Mark II or Air-balanced): 1 Beam dimension 1 (d1) 96.75 in.000 ft Rod section 3. diameter (dr4): 0. the minimum PRL.05 in.xls Description: This spreadsheet calculates the maximum allowable pumping speed. peak torque. Instruction: 1) Update parameter values in the Input section. Rod section 1. length (L1): 0 ft Rod section 2. diameter (dr2): 0.SuckerRodPumpingLoad. length (L2): 3. length (L3): 0 ft Rod section 4. . diameter (dr1): 1 in.5 in. length (L4): 0 ft Type of pumping unit (1 = conventional. the maximum PRL. diameter (dr3): 0.

πd r2 4 DA p 144 W f = S f (62.138 lbs .4 S = 2c N= d2 d1 = 85.52 in.2 L c S (1 − h ) 2 πd p = 22 SPM Ap = Ar = = 4.4 ) Wr = = 5. 0.60 in.Crank length (c): Crank to pitman ratio (c/h): Oil gravity (API): Maximum allowable acceleration factor (L): Solution: 37 in.770 lbs γ s DAr 144 = 6. 70471.91 in.2 4 = 0.33 25 oAPI 0.

526 lbs .7940 PRL max = W f − S f (62.2 = 280.2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ c SN 2 (1 m h ) F2 = 70471.976 lbs C= 1 2 (PRL max + PRL min ) = 9.056 lbs = 0.2 = 0.40 PRL min = − S f (62.4) Wr γs + Wr + Wr F1 = 16.076 lbs ⎛ 2SN 2Wr ⎞ ⎟ T = 1 S ⎜W f + 4 ⎜ 70471.c SN 2 (1 ± h ) F1 = 70471.4) Wr γs + Wr − Wr F2 = 2.

1.5 Pump Deliverability and Power Requirements Liquid flow rate delivered by the plunger pump can be expressed as S p E v (24)(60) q= N 144 12 Bo 5.615 or Ap (bbl/day) q = 0.1484 A p NS p E v Bo (stb/day) .

1 Effective Plunger Stroke Length The magnitude of the rod stretch is δl r = W f Dr Ar E (1-36) Tubing stretch can be expressed by a similar equation.5. That is δl t = W f Dt At E (1-37) .1.

2 .The magnitude of the rod stretch due to acceleration is called plunger over travel: Wr Dr δl o = n (ft) Ar E (1-38) But the maximum acceleration term n can be written as n= SN (1 ± 2 c h ) 70471.

2 2 (1-40) . Then Eq (1-39) becomes W r D r SN M (ft) δl o = Ar E 70471.2 2 (1-39) Let us restrict our discussion to conventional units.so that Eq (1-38) becomes c SN (1 ± h ) Wr Dr (ft) δl o = Ar E 70471.

93 × 10 −11 Dr2 SN 2 M (in) (1-41) . Wr is W r = γ s Ar D r and γS = 490 lb/ft3 with E = 30 x 106 lb/m2 Eq (1-40) becomes δl o = 1.Eq (1-40) can be rewritten to yield δlo in inches.

2 A ⎥ ⎟ E ⎣ ⎝ r t ⎠ r ⎦ (in) (1-42) .Plunger stroke is approximated using the above expressions as S p = S − δl r − δl t + δl o or ⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ SN 2 M Wr ⎤ 12 D 1 Sp = S − ⎢W f ⎜ ⎜ A + A ⎟ − 70471.

the plunger stroke becomes 12 D ⎡ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1+ Sp = S − ⎢W f ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ A + A ⎟ − 1− E ⎢ ⎝ r t ⎠ ⎣ c h c h LW r ⎤ ⎥ Ar ⎥ ⎦ (in) (1-43) For the air-balanced unit the term 1+ 1− c h c h is replaced by its reciprocal. .If pumping is carried out at the maximum permissible speed limited by Eq (1-34).

High viscosity oils (7400 cps) will probably carry sand in suspension so a plunger to barrel fit or ~0. b.001”. Low viscosity oils (1 to 20 cps) can be pumped with a plunger to barrel fit of -0.2 Volumetric Efficiency Guidelines are a.5.1.005” can be used. .

1 b (1-44) .An empirical formula has been developed that can be used to calculate the slippage rate. qs = k p (d b − d p ) 2. qs (bbl/day).9 (d b + d p ) Δp Lp μ d 0. through the annulus between the plunger and the barrel.

1.5.433γ l (1-46) . It is usually expressed in terms of net lift: Ph = 7.3 Power Requirements The power required for lifting fluid is called hydraulic power.36 × 10 qγ l LN −6 (1-45) and LN = H + ptf 0.

31×10 Wr SN −7 (1-47) Thus the required prime mover power can be expressed as Ppm = Fs ( Ph + Pf ) (1-48) .The power required to overcome friction losses can be empirically estimated as Pf = 6.

2.995 ID) in the well is not anchored.35).Example Problem 1-2: A well is pumped off (fluid level is the pump depth) with a rod pump described in Example Problem 1-1. and (b) required prime mover power (use safety factor 1.5” OD. Calculate (a) expected liquid production rate (use pump volumetric efficiency 0. . A 3” tubing string (3.8).

. and 2) view result in the Solution section. Instruction: 1) Update parameter values in the Input section.xls SuckerRodPumpingFlowRate&Power. Table 1-3: Solution given by SuckerRodPumpingFlowrate&Power.xls.xls Description: This spreadsheet calculates expected deliverability and required prime mover power for a given sucker rod pumping system. Solution is shown in Table 1-3.Solution: This problem can be quickly solved using the computer program SuckerRodPumpingFlowrate&Power.

000 ft 0. diameter (dr4): length (L4): 4. diameter (dr2): length (L2): Rod section 3. diameter (dr3): length (L3): Rod section 4.5 in. 0 = no): Plunger diameter (dp): Rod section 1.000 ft 4. diameter (dr1): length (L1): Rod section 2. 0 2.5 in.Input Data: Pump setting depth (D): Depth to the liquid level in annulus (H): Flowing tubing head pressure (ptf): Tubing outer diameter (dto): Tubing inner diameter (dti): Tubing anchor (1 = yes. 2. 1 in.875 in. 0 ft .5 in. 0 ft 0. 0 ft 0.995 in. 4.75 in.000 ft 100 ft 3.

58 in. .8 1.44 in.2 4 πd r2 4 = 0.Type of pumping unit (1 = conventional.2 rb/stb 0.2 Ap = Ar = = 4.33 25 oAPI 1. -1 = Mark II or Air-balanced): Polished rod stroke length (S) Pumping speed (N) Crank to pitman ratio (c/h): Oil gravity (API): Fluid formation volume factor (Bo): Pump volumetric efficiency (Ev): Safety factor to prime mover power (Fs): 1 86 in. 22 spm 0.35 Solution: At = π d t2 4 2 πd p = 2.91 in.

2 44.255 lbs M = 1± 12 D ⎡ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ SN 2 M Wr ⎤ Sp = S − ⎢W f ⎜ ⎜ A + A ⎟ − 70471.693 lbs Wr = γ s DAr 144 c h = = = = = 6.1484 A p NS p E v LN = H + ptf Bo 0.36 × 10 −6 qγ l LN Pf = 6.33 70 753 4.013 1.W f = S f (62.2 A ⎥ ⎟ E ⎣ ⎝ r t ⎠ r ⎦ in.4 ) DA p 144 = 7.2 hp hp hp . sbt/day ft q = 0.31×10 −7 Wr SN Ppm = Fs ( Ph + Pf ) = = = 25.58 7.433γ l Ph = 7.

. This can be done using either Figure 1-8 or Table 1-4. and pumping speed from Table 1-4.6 Procedure for Pumping Unit Selection The following procedure can be used for selecting a pumping unit: 1) From the maximum anticipated fluid production (based on IPR) and estimated volumetric efficiency. determine API rating and stroke length of the pumping unit to be used. 3) Select tubing size. 2) Based on well depth and pump displacement. rod sizes. calculate required pump displacement.1. plunger size. 4) Calculate the fractional length of each section of the rod string.

. determine the probable production rate and check it against the desired production rate. 6) Calculate the acceleration factor. 7) Determine the effective plunger stroke length. 11) Determine peak polished rod load and check it against the maximum beam load for the unit selected. 8) Using the estimated volumetric efficiency. 9) Calculate the dead weight of the rod string. 10) Calculate the fluid load.5) Calculate the length of each section of the rod string to the nearest 25 ft.

. 14) From the manufacturer's literature. 13) Calculate the ideal counterbalance effect and check it against the counterbalance available for the unit selected.12) Calculate the maximum stress at the top of each rod size and check it against the maximum permissible working stress for the rods to be used. determine the position of the counterweight to obtain the ideal counterbalance effect.

and brake horsepower of the prime mover. . 17) From the manufacturer's literature obtain the gear reduction ratio and unit sheave size for the unit selected. calculate the peak torque on the gear reducer and check it against the API rating of the unit selected. 16) Calculate hydraulic horsepower.15) On the assumption that the unit will be no more than five per cent out of counterbalance. From this determine the engine sheave size to obtain the desired pumping speed. friction horsepower. and the speed of the prime mover. Select the prime mover.

The proposed pump setting depth is 3.Example Problem 1-3: A well is to be put on a sucker rod pump. Use safety factor of 1.000 psi is to be used. Select surface and subsurface equipment for the installation.35 for prime mover power.500 ft. and a sucker rod string having a working stress of 30.8 specific gravity against wellhead pressure 100 psig. . The anticipated production rate is 600 bbl/day oil of 0. It is assumed that working liquid level is low.

8. Figure 1-8 suggests API pump size 320 unit with 84 in..Solution: (1) Assuming volumetric efficiency of 0. stroke.8) = 750 bbl/day.e. (2) Based on well depth 3. a pump is selected with the following designation: C .86 . the required pump displacement is (600)/(0. i.500 ft and pump displacement 750 bbl/day.320D – 213 .

c = 37 in.(3) Table 1-4 (g) suggests: Tubing size: 3 in.D. Pumping speed: 18 spm (4) Table 1-1 gives d1 = 96.2 hp .. thus c/h = 0. 2. Spreadsheet program SuckerRodPumpingFlowRate&Power..992 in.xls gives qo = 687 bbl/day > 600 bbl/day. Plunger size: 2 ½ in. d2 = 111 in..3246.D.. and h = 114 in. I. OK Ppm = 30.05 in. O. Rod size: 7/8 in.

-lbs.xls gives PRLmax = 16.533 lbs T = 247.60 in.121)/(0. OK Therefore.60) = 26.755 lbs < 320.000 in.327 lbs The cross-sectional area of the 7/8 in. the selected pumping unit and rod meet well load and volume requirements.809 psi < 30. rod is 0.2 Thus the maximum possible stress in the sucker rod is σmax = (16.121 lbs PRLmin = 4.(5) Spreadsheet program SuckerRodPumpingLoad. OK C = 10.000 psi. .

05) Wc + 450 (37) (111) which gives = 12. In order to generate the ideal counterbalance load of C = 10. the structure unbalance is 450 lbs and 4 No.076)(96.630 lbs Wc = 14. That is.4 (14. .630 lbs.327 lbs.327)(111) r= (37) = 31.05) in.(6) If a LUFKIN Industries C . the counterweights should be place on the crank at (10. (37) (96.320D – 213 – 86 unit is chosen. 5ARO Counterweights placed at the maximum position (c in this case) on the crank will produce an effective counter-balance load of 12.075 lbs.

If a 24 in.12)(24) de = (750) = 17. are available.12 and unit sheave sizes of 24 in.(7) The LUFKIN Industries C .. . and 44 in.3 in. 30 in. unit sheave and a 750 rpm electric motor are chosen. the diameter of the motor sheave is (18)(30.320D – 213 – 86 unit has a gear ratio of 30.

2.000 6.000 8.000 A B C D E F G H API Size 40 57 80 114 160 228 320 640 Stroke 34 42 48 54 64 74 84 144 1.000 500 0 0 2.000 4.000 Pump Setting Depth (ft) Figure 1-8: Sucker rod pumping unit selection chart (After Kelley and Willis.500 Curve Pump Displacement (bbl/day) 2.000 12. 1954) .500 1.000 10.

Table 1-4: Design data for API sucker rod pumping units (a) Size 40 Unit with 34-inch Stroke Plunger Size Rod Sizes (in) Tubing Size (in) (in) 2 3/4 3 7/8 2 1/2 3 7/8 2 1/4 2 1/2 3/4 2 2 1/2 3/4 1 3/4 2 1/2 3/4 1 1/2 2 5/8-3/4 1 1/4 2 5/8-3/5 1 2 5/8-3/6 (b) Size 57 Unit with 42-inch Stroke Tubing Plunger Size (in) Size (in) Rod Sizes (in) 2 3/4 3 7/8 2 1/2 3 7/8 2 1/4 2 1/2 3/4 2 2 1/2 3/4 1 3/4 2 1/2 3/4 1 1/2 2 5/8-3/4 1 1/4 2 5/8-3/5 1 2 5/8-3/6 Pump Depth (ft) 1000-1100 1100-1250 1250-1650 1650-1900 1900-2150 2150-3000 3000-3700 3700-4000 Pumping Speed (stroke/min) 24-19 24-19 24-19 24-19 24-19 24-19 22-18 21-18 Pump Depth (ft) 1150-1300 1300-1450 1450-1850 1850-2200 2200-2500 2500-3400 3400-4200 4200-5000 Pumping Speed (stroke/min) 24-19 24-19 24-19 24-19 24-19 23-18 22-17 21-17 .

(c) Size 80 Unit with 48-inch Stroke Pump Depth (ft) 1400-1500 1550-1700 1700-2200 2200-2600 2600-3000 3000-4100 4100-5000 5000-6000 Plunger Size (in) Tubing Size (in) 2 3/4 2 1/2 2 1/4 2 1 3/4 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 3 3 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 2 2 Rod Sizes (in) 7/8 7/8 3/4 3/4 3/4 5/8-3/4 5/8-3/5 5/8-3/6 Pumping Speed (stroke/min) 24-19 24-19 24-19 24-19 23-18 23-19 21-17 19-17

Pump Depth (ft) 1700-1900 1900-2100 2100-2700 2700-3300 3300-3900 3900-5100 5100-6300 6300-7000

(d) Size 114 Unit with 54-inch Stroke Plunger Size (in) Tubing Size (in) Rod Sizes (in) 2 3/4 3 7/8 2 1/2 3 7/8 2 1/4 2 1/2 3/4 2 2 1/2 3/4 1 3/4 2 1/2 3/4 1 1/2 2 5/8-3/4 1 1/4 2 5/8-3/5 1 2 5/8-3/6

Pumping Speed (stroke/min) 24-19 24-19 24-19 23-18 22-17 21-17 19-16 17-16

Pump Depth (ft) 2000-2200 2200-2400 2400-3000 3000-3600 3600-4200 4200-5400 5400-6700 6700-7700

(e) Size 160 Unit with 64-inch Stroke Rod Sizes Plunger Size (in) Tubing Size (in) (in) 2 3/4 3 7/8 2 1/2 3 7/8 2 1/4 2 1/2 3/4-7/8 2 2 1/2 3/4-7/8 1 3/4 2 1/2 3/4-7/8 1 1/2 2 5/8-3/4-7/8 1 1/4 2 5/8-3/4-7/8 1 2 5/8-3/4-7/8

Pumping Speed (stroke/min) 24-19 24-19 24-19 23-18 22-17 21-17 19-15 17-15

(f) Size 228 Unit with 74-inch Stroke Rod Sizes Pump Depth (ft) Plunger Size (in) Tubing Size (in) (in) 2400-2600 2 3/4 3 7/8 2600-3000 2 1/2 3 7/8 3000-3700 2 1/4 2 1/2 3/4-7/8 3700-4500 2 2 1/2 3/4-7/8 4500-5200 1 3/4 2 1/2 3/4-7/8 5200-6800 1 1/2 2 5/8-3/4-7/8 6800-8000 1 1/4 2 5/8-3/4-7/8 8000-8500 1 1/16 2 5/8-3/4-7/8

Pumping Speed (stroke/min) 24-20 23-18 22-17 21-16 19-15 18-14 16-13 14-13

(g) Size 320 Unit with 84-inch Stroke Rod Sizes Pump Depth (ft) Plunger Size (in) Tubing Size (in) (in) 2800-3200 2 3/4 3 7/8 3200-3600 2 1/2 3 7/8 3600-4100 2 1/4 2 1/2 3/4-7/8-1 4100-4800 2 2 1/2 3/4-7/8-1 4800-5600 1 3/4 2 1/2 3/4-7/8-1 5600-6700 1 1/2 2 1/2 3/4-7/8-1 6700-8000 1 1/4 2 1/2 3/4-7/8-1 8000-9500 1 1/16 2 1/2 3/4-7/8-1 (h) Size 640 Unit with 144-inch Stroke Pump Depth (ft) 3200-3500 3500-4000 4000-4700 4700-5700 5700-6600 6600-8000 8000-9600 9600-11000 Plunger Size (in) 2 3/4 2 1/2 2 1/4 2 1 3/4 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 1/16 Tubing Size (in) 3 3 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2

Pumping Speed (stroke/min) 23-18 21-17 21-17 20-16 19-16 18-15 17-13 14-11

Pumping Speed Rod Sizes (in) (stroke/min) 7/8-1 18-14 7/8-1 17-13 3/4-7/8-1 16-13 3/4-7/8-1 15-12 3/4-7/8-1 14-12 3/4-7/8-1 14-11 3/4-7/8-1 13-10 3/4-7/8-1 12-10

1964) .7 Principles of Pump Performance Analysis Figure 1-9: A sketch of pump dynagraph (From Nind.1.

(d) fluid pound. (e) vibration due to fluid pound.Figure 1-10: Pump dynagraph cards: (a) ideal card. (f) gas lock (From Nind. (c) gas expansion on upstroke. 1964) . (b) gas compression on down stroke.

torque and horsepower changes required of the pump equipment. The cards have three principal uses: a. To obtain information that can be used to determine load. .The surface dynamometer cards record the history of the variations in loading on the polished rod during a cycle. b. To improve pump operating conditions such as pump speed and stroke length. To check well conditions after installation of equipment to prevent or diagnose various operating problems (like pounding etc). c.

. and horsepower requirements for the surface unit. This data then allows for the determination of the torque.Correct interpretation of surface dynamometer card leads to estimate of various parameter values. counter balance. This phenomena is reflected in the surface unit dynamometer card and is shown in Figure 1-11 (a) for an ideal case. • Rod stretch and contraction is shown on the surface dynamometer card. • Maximum and minimum PRLs can be read directly from the surface card (with the use of instrument calibration).

1964) . (b) ideal card (acceleration). (c) 3 typical cards (From Nind.Figure 1-11: Surface Dynamometer Card: (a) ideal card (stretch and contraction).

point A is at the bottom of the stroke. . Thus. • Rod vibration causes a serious complication in the interpretation of the surface card. in Figure 1-11 (b). This is of course the fluid pounding. The PRL is higher at the bottom of the stroke and lower at the top of the stroke. This is result of the closing of the TV and the “pickup” of the fluid load by the rod string.• Acceleration forces cause the ideal card to rotate clockwise.

Figure 1-12: Strain-gage-type dynamometer chart .

Figure 1-13: Surface to down hole cards derived from surface dynamometer card .

how different will their polished rod strokes length be? 1-2. Use your knowledge of kinematics to proof that for Class I lever systems. d2 and c take the same values for both conventional unit (Class I lever system) and airbalanced unit (Class III lever system). What are the advantages of the Lufkin Mark II and airbalanced units in comparison with conventional units? 1-3. . If the dimensions d1.Problems 1-1. (a) the polished rod will travel faster in down stroke than in upstroke if the distance between crankshaft and the center of Sampson post is less than dimension d1. (b) the polished rod will travel faster in up stroke than in down stroke if the distance between crankshaft and the center of Sampson post is greater than dimension d1.

A tapered rod string consists of sections of ¾”. A tapered rod string consists of sections of 5/8” and ½” rods and a 2” plunger. Use the formulae from problem 1-5 to calculate length fraction of each size of rod. Derive a formula for calculating the effective diameter of a tapered rod string. and (c) four-sized rod strings. Use the formulae from problem 1-5 to calculate length fraction of each size of rod. (b) three-sized rod strings. 1-5. . 5/8” and ½” rods and a 1 ¾” plunger. Derive formulae for calculating length fractions of equal-top-rod-stress tapered rod strings for (a) two-size rod strings.1-4. Plot size fractions for each case as a function of plunger area. 1-7. 1-6.

d2 = 64 in.25 rb/stb) at depth of 2. c = 24 in.5 in.000 ft? If yes. The following geometry dimensions are for the pumping unit C – 80D – 133 – 48: d1 = 64 in. h = 74.1-8. Can this unit be used with a 2” plunger and ¾” rods to lift 30 °API gravity crude (formation volume factor 1. what is the required counter balance load? .

h = 132 in. The following geometry dimensions are for the pumping unit C – 320D – 256 – 120: d1 = 111. d2 = 155 in. c = 42 in.000 ft? If yes.22 rb/stb) at depth of 3. Can this unit be used with a 2 1/2” plunger and ¾”-7/8”-1”taperd rod string to lift 22 °API gravity crude (formation volume factor 1.1-9.07 in. what is the required counter balance load? .

80). and (b) required prime mover power (use safety factor 1. Calculate (a) expected liquid production rate (use pump volumetric efficiency 0. 2. A 3” tubing string (3. A well is pumped with a rod pump described in Problem 1-9 to a liquid level of 2.800 ft.85). and (b) required prime mover power (use safety factor 1.3).4). 1-11. A well is pumped off with a rod pump described in Problem 12-8.1-10.875” OD. 2. A 2 ½” tubing string (2.995” ID) in the well is anchored.441 ID) in the well is not anchored.5” OD. . Calculate (a) expected liquid production rate (use pump volumetric efficiency 0.

500 ft. The proposed pump setting depth is 4. It is assumed that working liquid level will be about 3.000 ft. .1-12. Use safety factor of 1. and a sucker rod string having a working stress of 30.000 psi is to be used. It is assumed that working liquid level is low. The anticipated production rate is 550 bbl/day oil of 35 oAPI gravity against wellhead pressure 120 psig. and a sucker rod string having a working stress of 30.30 for prime mover power. The anticipated production rate is 500 bbl/day oil of 40 oAPI gravity against wellhead pressure 150 psig. Select surface and subsurface equipment for the installation. The proposed pump setting depth is 4. Use safety factor of 1. A well is to be put on a sucker rod pump. A well is to be put on a sucker rod pump.000 ft.000 psi is to be used.40 for prime mover power. 1-13. Select surface and subsurface equipment for the installation.

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