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The Standard is not intended to be limiting in any way, but rather is intended to provide a uniform measure of performance by Water Hammer Arresters. The use of this Standard is voluntary and the issuance or existence of this Standard does not in any respect prevent or restrict any member or non-member of The Plumbing and Drainage Institute from manufacturing or supplying products that do not meet the performance criteria contained in the Standard. The data in this publication are based on information believed to be reliable and are offered in good faith but without guarantee. The Plumbing and Drainage Institute and its member companies assume no responsibility or liability for the use of this Standard. No warranty, express or implied, is made of the information contained in this Standard by The Plumbing and Drainage Institute or by any of its member companies.

FOREWORD The Plumbing & Drainage Institute is an association of companies engaged in the manufacture of plumbing products. The Institute is dedicated to the advancement of engineering and manufacture of plumbing products.

Reprinted Copyright

6/92 1965,

- 5M
1977 ond 1992 Plumbing ond Drainage institute

...... ... 4 Importance of Shock Control ....11 Multiple Fixture Branch Lines .. ............ ................ . 9 Testing Equipment ..... .. 6 Design and Construction ..... ..... 2 Graphic Illustrations of a Shock Wave ................ .. .................. ......... .................. ......... .... ............ 6 The Role of P............... Certification Testing Equipment .. ....Physical Test Program ........16 SIZING WATER SYSTEMS........ ............... .. . ... 11 and Placement ... ........................ 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS CERTIFICATION TESTING ..... ... ........... . .. Basic Method of Sizing SIZING AND PLACEMENT DATA . 6 Performance Comparison Calculated Air Chamber Versus P...... 11 Long Multiple Fixture Branch Lines ......... .. 9 Use of P.STANDARD PDI-WH 201 WATER HAMMER ... .. ... .. .... ........... ...... .. ...... ... ................ .. .......... 2 Cause .... ...... ........... ..........D............... .. 9 Certificate of Compliance ............................ . 2 Shock Wove .... .................I..... . .......D...... .............. ........ ............. 9 Performance Test .. ......... 14 Single Fixture or Equipment 14-15 APPENDIX . 16........ ..... .............. . .............. ..... ........ ... ... 4 Performance ........ ........ 7 8 Listing of Equipment ... ...... 11 Definition of Fixture-Unit ....... .... ......... . 5 Example of Failure ............ .... ......... ............ .. ...... Certification Mark ..... ..... . ........2 Definition .. ......... .. ...... 3 Means of Control. .............. ................ ...................... 9 Certificate ... ....... . ............ ...................... ...... .. .. .... .............. 6-15 Engineered Devices ... ........ ........ ............... .... ..... ... ... ........ ..... ............. ... . . ........ .... . 10 Standardization .. . 12-14 Long Runs of Piping ......... ............ ......... 23 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS . ....... .... 2 System Protection ... .. ........ 2 Reaction . .............. .............. 4 Calculated Air Chambers..... Water Hommer Arrester .........I.. ..................2 Water Hammer Noise ....... .........D.. ....... . ... .. . .............. ........ ... 24 Branch Lines . ... .. .... ........... ........................... ... . 9 Endurance Test . ...... .......... . .. ............ ... 5 Page ENGINEERED WATER HAMMER ARRESTERS .. .... 6 Types . .. ............ . ..F i g ............ 2 Shock Intensity ................. .... .. .... ....11-15 11 Symbols . . .... . ........ . ................. ...16-22 FIXTURE-UNIT LISTINGS .... 5 Replenishment of Air .... ....I... 10 Annual Visual Inspection . ............... ... ... ...... .......... 4 Air Chamber .

SHOCK WAVE The resultant water hammer shock wave travels back and pressure until it forth in the piping.4 water) = velocity of pressure wave.2) = length of pipe (ft. of a shock wave are shown in Fig. (40004500 average for water) = change in flow velocity. associated with “Water Hammer” have caused annoyances. Engineers generally employ a velocity between 5 and 10 feet per second which may produce a shock pressure of 300-600 p. is directly related to the intensity of the surge pressure. 1 DEFINITION Water hammer is the term used to define the destructive This action will produce an approximate pressure rise of 60 times the velocity. the destructive forces and hammer-blow sounds. Maximum pressure rise will follow. a high intensity back through the piping system wave travels reaches a point of some relief such as a large diameter riser or piping main.s. equipment. in effect. and other persons maintenance personnel engaged in the plumbing and piping industry. apparatus and other devices which are part of a water distribution system. between the point of quick closure and the point of relief./ft. valves. 2 .i. in the piping system. formula: pr = w a v (p.i. This pressure a rise can be calculated by the following. Quick closure always shock-with or without noise. inconve nience and costly damage. Ibs. Page 24) rence of water hammer it can occur without audible sound. I acceleration due to gravity. The tremendous forces generated at the point of stoppage can be compared. Hammer” is well known to engineers. p. The purpose of this manual is to present an exhaustive study of water hammer and tested methods by which it can be completely controlled.) from point of valve closure to point of relief (see definition of Point of Relief.2 (32. This is the destructive force which may cause any of the following conditions. especially during the last 15% of valve closure. ft.s (62./set.WATER HAMMER The term “Water contractors.i. ft./sec. fittings. The shock wave will then surge back and forth between the point of relief and the point of impact until the destructive energy is dissipated noise and vibration. The speed of the valve closure time. = specific weight of liquid. ft. Therefore. trim. In this illustration feet per second./set. ata rate of 4000-4500 Graphic illustrations 2. pounding noises and vibration which develop in a piping system when a column of noncompressible liquid flowing through a pipe line is stopped abruptly.s. it will be noted that the shock wave REACTION When water hammer occurs. pneumatic. noise does not indicate that water hammer or shock is nonexistent in a water distribution system.s. FLOW FIG. Pipe Vibration and Noise Damaged Valves Damaged Check Valves Damaged Water Meters Damaged Pressure Regulators and Gauges Damaged Recording Apparatus Loosened Pipe Hangers and Supports Ruptured Tanks and Water Heaters Premature Failures of Other Equipment and Devices SHOCK INTENSITY Quick valve closure may be defined as a closure equal to or less than 21 seconds. SYSTEM PROTECTION Water hammer arresters prolong the service life of piping. spring loaded valves or devices. as well as the quick hand closure of valves or fixture trim. Ruptured Piping leaking Connections Weakened Connections CAUSE The common cause of shock is the quick closing of electrical. This violent action accounts for the piping alternately expands and contracts the piping during its occurrence.) 1449 WATER HAMMER Although NOISE associated with the occurcreates some degree of the absence of known as Joukowsky’s noise is generally pr w a V F Where = pressure rise above flow pressure. forces. Ever since water was first conveyed by a piping system. to that of an explosion.

Prentice-Hall.STANDARD PDI-WH 201 GRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS OF A SHOCK WAVE Quick closure valve 4 Pressure Wave Enlarges Pipe Enlarged Pipe Reflected Pressure Wave Pressure Wave Reaches Valve Subnormal Pressure Wave Constricts Pipe Reflected Subnormal Pressure Wave Hammer Analysis.. John Parmakian. 2 SeealsoWater Engineering and Engineering Mechanics Series 3 . FIG.

titled “Water Supply Piping For the Plumbing System. are made of pipe and fittings. Therefore.5 FIG. of the Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research. in their technical bulletin No. a suitable means of control must be provided to absorb and dissipate the energy causing the shock.” indicated the recommended volume of air chambers for varied conditions of pipe size. M.5' COMMENT In order for an air chamber to adequately control shock. serious damage to the valves. and its length ranges between 12” and 24”. . AIR CHAMBER IMPORTANCE OF SHOCK CONTROL For many years the air chamber has been utilized as one means for controlling shock. However. they cannot be regarded as suitable even for the temporary control of shock. A few examples are shown below.MEANS OF CONTROL In order to reduce shock pressure and confine its action to the section of piping in which it occurs. Most valves and fittings used in plumbing water distribution systems are designed and constructed for normal maximum rated pressures of 150 P.S.x27' 1. The air chamber has been constructed in several different shapes. even when correctly sized. The air chambers shown above. length of run. From the examples above. The commonly used air chamber.5' 3*x44. only controls shocks temporarily after it is initially installed. 3. REFERENCE F. If correctly sized. 4) are generally placed on the supply lines to fixtures or equipment.4 FIG. The unit consists of a capped piece of pipe. fittings and other components of the piping system may result. it must be of sufficient proportions and possess a prescribed displacement capacity of entrapped air.I.G. based upon information supplied by these authorities. A standpipe type of air chamber (Fig. CALCULATED AIR CHAMBERS 1’ 1-W l-1/2' l-112' 2' 2' 2' 50 50 200 50 100 25 200 30 60 30 60 30 60 60 10 10 5 10 10 10 5 40 110 90 170 329 150 300 1-1/4. unless such devices are of the correct size and contain a prescribed volume of air. 5) is generally placed on a piping main. Air or gas is the most effective medium that can be used for this purpose since it is highly compressible.I. 6) is generally placed at the end of a branch line or on a piping main. Dawson and A.S.G. Table I. the same diameter as the line it serves. an air chamber temporarily may reduce the maximum shocks occurring in a line to a safe pressure. A rechargeable type of air chamber (Fig..3 FIG. Kalinske. EXAMPLES TABLE FIG. inadequately sized air chambers which are generally installed do not possess the capacity needed even for the temporary control of shock.112.6 I COMMENTS The plain air chambers (Fig. unless an air chamber can reduce shock pressures to some degree less than 150 P.5* 2-l/2*x31' 3-x 40.x54' 2-x 27' 2-x 50. flow pressure and velocity. 3 and Fig. The ordinary. lists examples of air chambers required for several conditions. A. it should be apparent that excessively large air chambers and fittings are required for the temporary control of shock.

Only by opening the fixture trim and draining all the branch lines and risers can air be introduced. its performance is effective only while the air chamber retains its initial below.I. the air charge can be depleted during the flow cycle since water is drawn from all directions. the entrapped air is also diminished by turbulence. as evidenced by a violent pounding and vibration in the piping system (seeTable II). there is no . charge of air. The air. 8 FLOW FIG. 9 SHOCK FIG. Moreover.G.I. piping to allow air to enter. as shown by the illustrations in Fig. the water absorbs the air. it is impossible to replenish the air by this method. 11 SECTION Showing the Arrangement of supply piping to lavatory. and as the unit becomes waterlogged. The conditions of testing were 60 P. The tests were run at the rate of 4 valve closures per minute or approximately closures per day. it loses its ability to absorb shock. It is a popular belief that the air chambers serving a group of fixtures con be replenished with air merely by closing the control valve on the branch line and opening the fixture trim. See illustrations COMMENTS for failure. REPLENISHMENT OF AIR An air chamber. length of line is 50 feet. each lavatory. Note the air chambers on the cold and hot water supplies to FIG. In each case. however. flow pressure with a velocity 1900 valve of 10 feet per second.S. 7 STATIC FIG. During this process. will P. EXAMPLE OF FAILURE sized by the Dawson Method. it is impossible to drain sufficientwater within practical limitations.I. is readily lost.G.S.S. the supply piping forms a trap. the elapsed time ILLUSTRATIONS Air Chambers Air Chamber Fixture Trim Lavatory Lav. Regardless of how the piping is rearranged. Therefore. Supply Conn Hot Water Cold Water --+ Fixture Valve Control Valves ELEVATION Showing the arrangement of cold and hot water piping for a group of lavatories. COMMENT In the section above. 1 1 control shock to limits that do not exceed 150 Tests were conducted by the United States Testing Laboratory to determine the elapsed time for an air chamber to exceed 150 P. from the possible way to introduce air. TABLE II AIR CHARGE FIG.G. and in addition.STANDARD PDI-WH 201 RMANCE Although a correctly sized air chamber temporarily will control shock to within safe limits of pressure. 10 As shown. Actually.

pressure readout has been added to permit continuous monitoring of system surge pressure during system calibration. can control water hammer.I. Standard WH201. the test facility has been upgraded and fine tuned to provide optimum performance and total dependability. 340 PSIG shock plus 60 PSIG fl ow. Accordingly. is dependent upon retaining a constant air mass. as a system calibration device.D. its value as a calibration instrument is lost very quickly. This feature enables the engineered device to control shock for many years. The choice of 400 PSIG as a system total pressure was based on the extended service life the Institute members and licensees experienced with their production units since the inception of the program in 1965. The construction must be of a quality that will enable the unit to provide many years of dependable’service. needed to consistently duplicate the established peak shock pressure. While the basic principle of operation in each unit is somewhat different. Due to the loss of air by absorption in and entrainment by the surging water entering and leaving the air chamber during the propagation of a shock wave. revised the facility to its current configuration. TYPES Different styles of engineered devices are on the market. Capitalizing on the experience gained by monitoring water hammer arresters in service since the inception of the program in 1965 and with the addition of instrumentation not available in the early development of the program. The performance of air chambers and engineered arresters was ascertained by extensive testing on a test facility located at the United States Testing Company laboratory in Fairfield. performance and endurance testing. when initially charged with gas or air at atmospheric pressure. . member. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERED DEVICES Engineered devices also use gas or air to control water hammer. used to calibrate the system. The air chamber. Recognizing the toll imposed on the test facility by decades of service and the need for improvements. each unit is designed with the permanent cushion of gas or air needed to control shock. they engaged in an exhaustive study of this phenomena. it has been established the air chamber fails rapidly in an actual installation. page 5). Any manufacturer. all of the Institute’s current water hammer arrester certification testing requirements are being handled on the newly revised test facility. whether or not a P. Air chambers. The Institute made the decision to go back to basics and calibrate the system less the air chamber to a predetermined total pressure of 400 PSIG.I. New Jersey. may have their units tested by a qualified independent testing laboratory for certification in accordance with P. The gas or air. a digital . The members of the Plumbing and Draining Institute have been interested in the cause and control of Water Hammer. In addition to taking oscillograms of surge pressure versus time. as well as with reference to use of the Institute’s Certification Mark and participation in its annual visual inspection and physical test program see pages 9 and 10. required changing the valve operating cylinder media from air to a hydraulic fluid. THE ROLE OF P. Thus an air chamber cannot be an effective means for the control of shock.ENGINEERED WATER HAMMER ARRESTERS It is recognized that a correctly sized air chamber. A water hammer arrester must have the capacity to control shock adequately.D. described in Figure 15.I. the Institute. after consultation with noted hydraulics authorities. Therefore. is permanently sealed in the unit.D. by varying the water velocity. For further information on this subject. Numerous verification tests conducted during and subsequent to upgrading of the test facility have confirmed its validity. Tests indicated a valve closing time of 25 milliseconds. however. are not absolute standards. (see Table II.

56. The dotted lines project the estimated rate of failure after 5000 cycles of actual testing. and maintained this measure of control for 10. it controlled the surge at approximately 185 P. it controlled the surge at approximately 240 P. COMMENT Although the duration of the above test was 10.000 cycles of testing.S. it is 24” in height and is one pipe size larger than the line served. This unit controlled the shock to a limit of well under 150 P.P. units have proven their capability to endure testing under equal conditions involving many hundreds of thousands of cycles of shock.G. 14 water hommer arrester (curve 5) compared to other devices utilized water hammer.G. 14 (CURVES @ TO 0) @Represents a commonly used air chamber.S.I. within the first 250 cycles of testing rapidly failed in performanceas it reached P. this unit permitted and a pressure higher than 150 P. OS well as the permanent. However.I. as shown.S.I. and its control continued to fail. unit which initially controlled the surge under 150 P. 12 At start of endurance test After approximately 4400 cycles of testing air chamber initially controlled the shock to a limit of just under 150 P.000 cycles.S. Initially.S.G. Graphic Illustration The curves in Fig. 12 and 13 respectively. This FIG. certified for the prevention of FIG. Once a pressure in excess of 250 opproximately the pattern of failure had been established.I.G.I.D.7” long and capped at one end. TIME ENGINEERED WATER HAMMER ARRESTERS CALCULATEDAIR CHAMBER Comments Conditions of this test: a 50’ length of l/2” pipe with flow pressure at 60 at 10 F. but rapidly failed. but its control gradually becomes less as shown.D. The P.I.I. The dotted lines project the estimated rate of failure after 5000 cycles of actual testing. WATER HAMMERARRESTER Comments A manufactured water hammer arrester certified as a P. and gradually its control failed as shown. @Represents a manufactured unit (not certified).G.I.G.G.I. P. Initially.S.G.S.I. “A” unit was subjected to the same test and conditions as described for the calculated air chamber. 7 . and continues to control the maximum surge to 150 P.I. The calculated air chamber was constructed of 3/4” pipe. Initially it controlled the surge at approximately 2 10 P. or less. . EXPLANATION OF FIG. @Represents a manufactured unit (not certified).I. @Represents the performance of a typical P.S.S.STANDARD PDI-WH 201 The performance results for a calculated air chamber and an engineered water hammer arrester as obtained in testing are compared in Figs. as shown.G.I.S. and flow velocity CALCULATED AIR CHAMBER TIME intended duration of this test was 5000 cycles with water at ambient temperature.I. for 5000 cycles of testing with The same de 5000 water at ambient temperature.I. the testing was stopped to avoid needless damage to test equipment.D.D. 14 clearly indicate the initial. 4 Represents the average performance of calculated air R ambers which initially controlled the surge at approxic mately 145 P. P.S.S.S.G.G.I. after 4400 cycles of testing. vice was then subjected to an additional cycles of testing with hot water at 180°F and still continued to control the surge to well under 150 P.D.I. effectiveness of a P.G.

P. 3/4” and l/2” to fit betweenAl and A2) 17 -Pressure transducer. x 4-l /2’ high . l-1/2”.2” gate valve 16-Test length steel pipe (sizes 2”.l-1/2” gate valve 5 .I.160 G.I. Kistler Model 2 1283 Piezatran 12 3 - 181920 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 - Ball valve 100 P. Centrifugal Pump 6 . 15 LISTING OF EQUIPMENT Sump tank 4’ dia. does not preclude the use of comparable manual or computer controlled systems to automatically maintain test conditions.Tee and elbow far return 7 . size same as outlet of test unit Water hammer arrester test unit 2” hydraulically actuated surge valve 10” return bend 36” between centers 2” metering valve l/2” metering valve Flaw meter connected to readout 2” pipe line Oscilloscope Digital pressure readout Hydraulic pump Hydraulic solenoid valve Oil reservoir Oil cooler Cycle Timer The use of the instrumentation.450 gallon water heater 2” gate valve 4 . record performance of the test article and terminate testing upon completion of the required number of cycles or upon failure of the test unit.) equipped with 24” sight glass lol/2” air line and globe valve 12 . 1“.CERTIFICATION TESTING EQUIPMENT Schematic Arrengement of Testing Equipment (Not ta scale) FIG.M. shown in Figure 15. pneumatic water tanks (12” dia.l-1/2” pipe . Flaw Pressure Gauge Ball valve..Float vent air bleed installed at tap of return bend 15 .Two 30 gal.G.G.S.S.3” gate valves 1310” return bend 36” between centers 14 . or other system components. l-1/4”. 1 10 P. .Two 2” gate valves far inlet to pneumatic tanks t .

S. shall perfor~1s hcc mance tested. to be identical in the 1 as of the year the Institute or use 11s relevant respects considered in P. gauge and ball (30) ore (340 lotol Ball valve (18) is closed isolating The test facility dater flowing ro:ol pressure the following 1 2 3 4 to subject the test unit to the full The cycle timer (34) valve (20) opened to expose the test unit to the system pressure and hydraulic pump motor of 400 The energized valve (25) P.S. Flow pressure Total pressure Pressure P. The test unit is then filled with water in the inverted position.I.I. the fill tube in the orifice to eliminate the possibility of unit The filled inverted must be inserted P. ENDURANCE TEST Surge valve (22) milliseconds. TESTING EQUIPMENT is designed and provide reproducible results so that any (18) open lo of engineered water hammer arrester can be tested for compliance the gauge (19).I.t*r (P.G.D.S I. the pressure on gouge (19). The test pipe shall be fully supported to avoid high spots where oir may be trapped. PERFORMANCE Six categories building. WH-20 certified by the Plumbing Mark.I.G.G. In order to insure reproducible test results. The average of these readings shall be used for TABLE III PDi Stre SIZE CERTIFICATE lhbx OF COMPLIANCE may be issued by a qualified and The b Length 6.S.G. CERTIFICATION MARK ond Drainage A l/2" j / 3/4" ! 1" 1 l-1/4" 1 l-1/2" 50 50 50 50 50 400 400 400 400 400 150 150 150 150 150 B c D E ‘The test unit will have passed the endurance test by completing 10.I. have been established of sizes required IO protect the water distribution Table Ill lists these sizes together under which i:\g lcsf conditions each must qualify.D. cycles without the reduced pressure exceeding 160 representative unit was tested but may not claim such umts IO ue in the test facility.S. The plate is slipped out from has been developed a minimum The o standard method of rating hammer in the actual (2) to establish system.I. 16 endurance in the manner prescribed herein. with the plate held firmly (1) to provide water the in place.I. In test units containing an orifice. Valves (15) and (24) are adjusted to obtain the flow rate required to sustain a surge pressure and a flow pressure of 60 P.G.S. .G.G. ings shall be used for certification.I. A certificate of compliance independent testing laboratory for a water hammer orrester only after the unit has been successfully be the equivalent tested for performonce shown in Fig. flow).G. pressure and final adjustment is made to the water flow with to obtain a total pressure plus 60 P. minimum ture. Upon further certification by the manufacturer thereto then such that its current production units which are of the same size.S. and fittings must be purged of air. The ball valve (20) shall be moved to the closed position to fill the system with water and purged of air.I. The pump (5) is energized lo circulate water through the system with ball valve approximate 340 P. Pressure gauges.D. WH-201” so long OS such units ore in fact demonstrated. The tesr conditions are then established.I. 16A by an independent laboratory bear the Institute’s Certification standard Certification provided such manufacturer also executes the Institute’s current Mark License Agreement. upon proper demand. The certiflcote must of the example description on the certificate shall be adequate for identificotiorl of the product.S.G.S. and shall use the corresponding and the pump energized sized test pipe (16).I.S.G.G.D. .I. Each unit shall be installed in the some manner as TEST described for the performance test. P. water with TESTING is then capped with a thin plate and. The unit shall be subjecred to 5000 to cover the normal range system of any cycles of shock testing with water at ambient tempero5000 The and F. This arrangement is 15.I.I. with the correspond- 10.flow termination not to exceed 25 P. P.I. Only water hammer arresters P.OOOth cycle. type or model as the unit tested are identical manufacturer may represent such units were “Tested in -----(year) and complied with P. of the same basic design ond construction for performance transducer be resred ion endurance. valves. monufocture of any unit with respect to its serviceability distribution test methods service conditions with the standard. shown in Figure shall be recorded for five cycles after the hydraulic The average of these read- tolerances must be maintained: system temperoture has stabilized.) Surge Less FIOW+ Surgewith Arrester (P.S. WH-201 which are certified by the manu- facturer as being identical in the relevant respects considered in to the unit tested and certified as above detailed approved by the Institute may Mark as exemplified in Fig. standard for design and simulate its position between the test unit and the ball valve as the test unit is threaded into the ball valve and secured in place.) Reduced Pros.) Pfpe Total Prswre Flaw + &rs. trapping air in the bellows convolutions.5 +/-lo One representative units submitted unit from each of the categories testing. smallest (surge plus flow) incremental reading 2 +/-0.S.000 P. The same unit shall be subjected to an additional cycles of shock testing with water at 180” maximum total pressure shall be recorded after the 5000th certification.STANDARD PDI-WH 201 CERTIFICATION INTRODUCTION This test procedure industry arresters.G. Item Certification USE OF Each unlt to be tested shall be installed 2 1 of Figure 15. rotated to the normally on the brimming installed position and placed ball valve fitting. maximum surge energy imposed by the abrupt stoppage of a 50 foot column of in a stondard schedule 40 steel pipe exerting a not to exceed 400 P.

G. 16 Inspection - SEAL OF APPROVAL APPROVED (NAMEI Water Hammer Arrester complies with P.S. Model No. for a visual and a physical .TESTING FOR THE RIGHT TO USE PLUMBING AND DRAINAGE INSTITUTE CERTIFICATION MARK /n an effort to assure continued compliance with Standard program PDCWH20 I. fied.D. this Notary Public My commission expires day of The other unit must be given a performance test according outlined in Standard their detailed The inspected and tested units. which and Drainage Institute in P. PHYSICAL TEST to procedures PDI-WH201. manufactured by. 1992 revision for size Water Hammer Arresters. has been tested by us as of this date in accordance with the testing procedures established by the Plumbing Standard WH-201. each manufacturer mit two units. in turn. flow pressure of 60 P. future reference and comparisons. a has been established. maximum which is the acceptable limit in such Standard. along with a complete set of current detailed qualified previously inspection tory approved drawings. We further certify that when such arrester was tested on a_ inch pipe line of fifty feet effective length. DIMENSIONS DESCRIPTION pared to the drawings must be observed size and shape.D. further analytical not appear to be the same as speciconducted.I. such arrester limited the total pressure created by sudden valve closure to made as follows: VISUAL INSPECTION One unit must be cut in half on a or other means so that the can be observed and comin respect to in respect to If materials do tests must be bandsaw interior physical als 150 P. must be Subscribed and worn to (or affirmed) before me at The statements made herein arc certified to be true and correct.G.I. and drawings properly labeled and retained for found must be .I.I. P.G. shall notify the manufacturer and the PDI engineers for evaluation and recommendations The for action to be taken by the Institute. to the WATER HAMMER ARRESTER CERTIFICATE This is to certify that a production Water Hammer Arrester. maximum total pressure).S. 16A 10 . FIG. WH-201. manufacturer must obtain a Statement of Compliance water hammer arresters the requirements Standard nual Visual PDI-WH201 outlined that the met all of in the Physical for the An- FIG. Test Program. conforms to the drawing and dimensions illustrated herein. 19- Name Title Date Test No.G. size to be designated by the Institute. or for independent testing laboraby the Institute which test to be tested the units.I. ANNUAL VISUAL INSPECTION PHYSICAL TEST PROGRAM Within original three years - from the date of must resub certification and yearly there- after. For furlher details read standard.S.S. and surge pressure of 340 P. Any discrepancies referred to the Executive Secretary of the PDI who. The materi- PC1 material specifications.I.

D. SIZING by the certification be used in the sizing and placement above correspond to those and shall in testing program sized. These data con of engineered water utilize to size their water distribution P. to maintain Pressure reducing proper 65 p. on sizing and selection. these data can be applied to Table V. office buildings. the flow pressure exceeds larger size water hammer arrester should be selected. Nevertheless. AND PLACEMENT DATA Single and Multiple Fixture Branch lines A method of sizing. and other buildings areas in encountered Therefore. toilet rooms.i. symbols established units covered this manual. 11 . DATA and Drainage institute were of the in a “Public” general “Private” fixtures. Table V.D. in “fixture-units” for cold and hot water are expressed on some arbitrarily chosen scale. fixtures ore those in residential not freely accessible such as in private homes. it is to be rounded up to the next larger.s. the flow pressure in branch lines serving pressure.lR 2 2 *- Note: Ideally should however. if the total is 1 l_ it to 12 fixture-units.g. P. accurate and well-known. are those found in public comfort stations. the 6 different sized units required for average plumbing systems. and the like. accurate method of determining the proper sized water hammer arrester for each multiple fixture branch line. UNITS Told 8 FIXTUREUNITS A l-11 C 33-60 D ‘61-113 E 114-154 F 155330 Water Closet Water Closet Pedestal Urinal Stall or Wall Urinal Stall or Wall Urinal Lavatory Bathtub Shower Head Bathroom Group Bathroom Group Separate Shower Servca Sink Laundry Tubs (l-3) Combination Fixture Flush Valve Flush Tank Flush Valve Flush Valve Flush Tank Faucet Faucet Mixing Valve Flush Vatve Closet Flush Tank Closet Mixing Valve Faucet Faucet Faucet 10 5 10 5 3 2 4 4 3 - I 10 5 10 5 3 l.I. SYMBOLS Before the subject of a proposed sizing method can be explained it is first necessary to devise a code of symbols for NOTES The fixture-unit values shown in the cold and hot water columns of Table IV are utilized in the sizing of water hammer arresters. flow pressure and velocity. SYMBOLS: COMMENT The P.D. apartments. the next should never exceed be installed 55 p. and automatically provides for all factors which must be considered When the weight or otherwise calculated. various STANDARD PDI-WH 201 of water hammer confusion among the plumbing metnous nave oeen aevlseu 101 one srz~r~y arresters. KW. in the application they engaged which each fixture is open and accessible for use at all times. “A” is the smallest sized unit-“F” represents the largest unit. contractors and other persons engaged in SIZING AND PLACEMENT STANDARDIZATION The members of the Plumbing aware of the difficulties different sizing methods.W. residential hotel guest rooms.. or whale number.I. Table V. provides an easy. based upon fixture-units has been established as most appropriate because it is quick. therefore. A-B-C-D-E-F COMMENT These are the basic fixture-unit data which most engineers systems.s. Most engineers use fixture-units for sizing water distribution systems. industry.g. The final results are listed in this manual. Pubk r Told I C. If the Fixture-unit total has a l/2 l/2 fixture-units. two or more fixture valves could be closed at the tokes into usall design factors including simultaneous same instant. Each unit must have a different size and capacity to control shock in piping systems of varied size and scope.” The following fixture-unit table is based upon information offered in the National Plumbing Code branch lines serving a group of fixtures has been determined.i. Thus. in residential research and testing program with the intention of producing one standardized method of sizing and placement--a method which would be of benefit to the entire plumbing industry.I. fixtures valves When. consideration DEFINITION OF FIXTURE-UNIT The National Plumbing Code offers this definition: “A fixture effects fixtures unit is a quantity on the plumbing in terms of which the load producing system of different kinds of plumbing age. TABLE V SIZING AND SELECTION B 12-32 TABLE IV waiFixture TYW of SUPPLY Control . private rooms or apartments hotels or dormitories. usually only one fixture valve at a time will be closed. The following symbol listing has been devised to denote the range in sizes for water hammer arresters. change fraction. These varied sizing methods have created engineers. Additional information on varied types of fixtures and their assigned fixture-unit values are contained in the appendix ot the bock of this manual. pipe size. length.During the past years. hammer arresters at the same time that the piping systems are be used with all data on sizing and placement presented SIZING AND PLACEMENT DATA In most installations occasionally where there are several fixtures.

.U. ea. to Table V and select the appropriate It is suggested riser diagrams.I. .17 EXAMPLE It is relatively riser diagram set of drawings. at 1OF.D.=20 2 Ur. . .= 6 Total 36 4 Lav.EXAMPLE Table V will permit each application.D. 17 represents may include of the type that an engineer necessary the fixtureunits arrester.U.U. at l-l/Z F.U 4 Lav. units.I. .= 6 Totol 26 Hot Water Branch . engineers and contractors to select the proper water hammer arrester for The following examples show the relative ease with which sizing can be accomplished using Tables IV and V. at l-1/2 Hot Water Branch . “A” unit tmuvwLt . ea.=10 F.I. “C” unit ROOF 5TH 4TH i 3RD 2ND 1s-r BASE FIG. sized water hammer a typical with his The proper the total known. sized water hammer arresters can be selected branch once line is of fixture-units It is only for a cold to apply water or hat water hammer employ arrester far a multiple Fig. . “B” unit Select P.=6 Total 6 Select P. at 5 F. at 10F.D. symbols above._ _ 4 Lav._ 4 Lav.I.ea. for his to obtain the total of fixture-units in the illustration to furnish This practice line.D. at l-l/ZF. ea. ea. When practice branch determine sizing the cold and hot water number branch lines. at l-1/2 Water Branch 2 WC. ea.U. EXAMPLE Cold 1 . This information the required is then applied manufacturers the correct size of the branch 12 .=20 F.I. .L Cold Water Branch 2 WC. to sizing lines. “A” unit Select P.U . .eo.U.=6 Total 6 Select P.D. will enable that the engineers as shown P. it is usual on each charts to easy to select the proper fixture branch.

covers l multiple 1 fixture branch lines which OVER 20’ do exceed 20’ in length.W. unit. 19 The location of the water hammer water arresters hammer shown in Fig. unit.U. This location is shown in Fig. WATER HAMMER ARRESTER \ FIG. EXAMPLE OF RULE 1 C. 18.I. 18 applies should to branch lines that do not exceed line. an additional have been established branch line to the last fixture supply arrester of water hammer on this branch arresters. of units X and Y shall be equal to or greater of the branches. “A” unit 13 .~l.D. ~ee$s. covers multiple fixture branch lines which do not exceed 20’ in length EXPLANATION-Fixture-unit used to select the required See example. L EXPLANATION-Fixtureunit to select the required ratings thon the demand See example. When the branch is best defined 20’ in length. “B” unit Needy-P:D:l. sizing P.I.U. The sum of the F. be used. This practice by two rules which to cover the placement These rules are explained ILLUSTRATION RULE 1 Rule 1. 19 EXAMPLES Showing typical applications for Rule 1 and Rule 2.pF. sizing table V is used P. FIG. = 26 F. line exceeds below. Table V is RULE 2 Rule 2.D. from the start of the horizontal the 20’ length.STANDARD PDI-WH 201 SIZING AND PLACEMENT DATA Ithas been established that the preferred location for the water hammer arrester is at the end of the branch line between the last two fixtures served.

g.I. TABLE VI-A WATER PRESSURES 65 P. At this location. flow pressures of 65 to 85 p. 00000000 ~~~fi~uVooovoo There are practical limits concerning the overall length of a branch line.s. EXAMPLE OF RULE 2 “B” units “A” F. are used.i. TO 85 P.=90 one P. TABLE VI WATER PRESSURES UP TO 65 P. A typical example of placement is given in Fig.s.I. In a remote instance where a very long line branch line is involved.1: “B” unit. Refer to Table VI-A. the water hammer arrrester will control the developed energy and prevent the shock wave from surging through the piping system. however.I. F.I.I.g. the water hammer arrester should be located as close as possible to the point of quick closure.W. QUICK CLOSURE VALVE WATER HAMMER ARRESTER __.S.i. 21 OUTLET 14 .-12 two P. These are easily handled with Table V.W. NOTE: Ideally the flow pressure in branch lines serving fixtures should never exceed 55 p. Needs units C.S. NOTE: EXAMPLE OF RULE 1 AND RULE 2 FIG. 20 LONG RUNS OF PIPING TO EQUIPMENT The majority of sizing and selection applications will involve single and multiple fixture branch lines.G.U. Pressure reducing valves should be installed to maintain proper pressure.S.G.D. the next larger size water hammer arrester should be se lected.G. LONG RUN OF PIPING LONG RUNS OF PIPING When long runs of piping are employed to serve a remote item of equipment.. The remainder of applications involve individual runs of piping to a remote item of equipment. the water supply is generally fed to some mid-point or other location on the branch line as shown below. Needs “C” unit and EXAMPLE RULE 2 OF I I I I I I I I I I I I one P. 2 1.D.U.U.W. FIG.=52 F.D. The recommendations for sizing and placement of arresters are based an experience of the industry. H. When.OVER 20 C. The properly sized water hammer arresters for such applications can be determined by Table VI and Table VI-A.D. Needs two P.

. =lO F. Velocity . . . control valves. . . . . . . .G. . . =60 P. . =75 feet Flowing pressure .S. = 100 feet Flowing pressure .L “E” unit installed as shown Pipe size . Recommendation. . . . .P. . . . . .I. .S. . . . Velocity . =8 F. . .S. “C” units installed as shown QUICK CLOSURE + RISERS PROCESS SINK FIG. . . . . . . . .I. . . Velocity .G. =50 feet Flowing pressure . . . . . . . =P. MAINS FIG. 26 Conditions Pipe size . . =55 P. . . . . . . .G.G. . . Velocity . . =6 F. . “F” unit installed as shown Conditions Pipe size . 22 Conditions FIG. . .I. . . .D.P. .P. . . . .D. . .I. . . . . .D. . 24 Conditions Pipe size . . .D. . . 25 FIG. . =Two P. = 1” Length of run . . defining the sizing and placement of water hammer arresters for single fixture and equipment branch lines are illustrated below. . . . ~1” Length of run . .I. . Recommendation. . =Two P.STANDARD PDI-WH 201 SIZING AND PLACEMENT DATA EXAMPLES. Recommendation . ~45 P. . . . . . . . . ~53 P. =8 F. . ~50 P. . . . . . . . .W. . . Recommendation. .w L H. . CLOSURE WATER MAIN Conditions FIG. .S. .P. . . . . Velocity . -2” Length of run .S. =98 feet Flowing pressure .S. . . =Two P.G. =92 feet Flowing pressure . .I.S. WATER MAIN PROCESS TANK UNIT IS EQUIPPED -WITH A cy. . . . .D. . .I. .S. . . .I. For the sake of clarity. . .S. vacuum breakers and other necessary devices have been omitted in the illustrations. . . “F” units installed as shown c. . =P. . .P. =1-l/4” Length of run . .I. =3/4” Length of run . . . . Recommendation. =8 F. . “C” units installed as shown 15 . . . . . . 23 Pipe size . . . . .S. . . .

44 l/l 200 I lll1llllll 100 600 tm?o A3. whichever is opplicoble. A2. TABLE A-2 RECOMMENDED RULES FOR SIZING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM Because of the variable conditions encountered it is impractical to loy down definite detailed rules of procedure for determining the sizes of water supply pipes in on appendix which must necessarily be limited in length. obtain informotion regarding friction loss relative to the rote of flow for meters in the range of sizes likely to be used. For flushtonk supplies. Report BMS 79 of the Notional Bureau of Standards.43).2 If the building supply is to be metered. The result is the estimated demand for the building supply. times one hundred (loo). circular or multiple (each set of faucets] Water closet: L F. also published by the Notional Bureau of Standards. and Plumbing Manual. the reader is referred to Water-Distributing Systems for Buildings.2 Determine the elevation of the highest fixture or group of fixtures above the water (street) main. Tank 20 i < 5 :’ s r 2 z I 10 r For supply outlets like1 to impose continuous demands. If close estimates ore desired. Friction losses for disk type meters may be obtained from Chart A-l. The result is the loss in static pressure in psi (pounds per square inch). If the highest group of fixtures contains flush valves. estimate continuous supply separately an J odd to total demond for fixtures. The weights for moximum seporote demands may be taken OS seventy-five (75) per cent of the listed demand for the supply. and odd the the total demand for fixtures. Al . and then by reading the corresponding ordinate from Chart A-2 or A-3. Multiply this difference in elevation by forty-three hundredths (0. Friction-loss data con be obtained from most manufacturers of water meters.1 Estimate the supply demand for the building main and the principal branches and risers of the system by totaling the fixture units on each. 16 . will be the average permissible friction loss per one hundred (100) foot length of pipe. Al . 2 I I/III 4 5 6 7.2 minute sum to supply Estimate continuous-supply demands in gallons per for lawn sprinklers. The result will be the pressure available for friction loss in the supply pipes. the pressure for the group should not be less than fifteen (15) psi. weights moy be assumed by comparing the fixture to a listed one using water in similar quontities and at similar rote. Table A-2. A3.I Obtain the necessary information regarding the minimum doily service pressure in the area where the building is to be located.3 Obtain all available local information regarding the use of different kinds of pipe with respect both to durability and to decrease in capacity with length of service in the particular water supply.A3 PERMISSIBLE FRICTION LOSS APPENDIX A A3.1 Decide what is the desirable minimum pressure that should be maintained at the highest fixture in the supply system. 6 . compute with the aid of Table A-3 the equivalent length of pipe for all fittings in the line from the water (street) main to the highest fixture and add the sum to the developed length.. For a more adequate understanding of the problems involved. The following is a suggested order of procedure for sizing the water supply system. A2 DEMAND LOAD Fiihm lypd I- t A2. etc. air conditioners. CHART A-l 2 foot section) Wosh sink. ‘For fixtures not listed.3 Subtract the sum of loss in static pressure and the pressure to be maintained at the highest fixture from the average minimum daily service pressure.3 80100 I cr. the friction loss in the meter for the estimated maximum demand should also be subtracted from the service pressure to determine the pressure loss ovailable for friction loss in the supply pipes.4 Determine the developed length of pipe from the water (street) main to the highest fixture.. A 1 PRELIMINARY INFORMATION Al . divided by the developed lengths of pipe from the water (street) main to the highest fixture. the available pressure may be not less than eight (8) psi. The pressure available for friction loss in pounds per square inch. A3.V.910 /I l/l 20 I vIIIIvflll/ 30 10 FLOW 6. Report BMS 66. If o meter is to be installed. ‘Shower over bath tub does not odd fixture unit to group. ‘The given weights ore for totol demand for fixtures with both hot ond cold woter supplies. if no woter meter is used.

if they are sized for the same permissible friction loss per one hundred water (100) feet of pipe as the branches and risers to This may the highest level in the building. chart. If the water is hard or corrosive. WiiS Water Urinals Closets. Service sinks . Charts A-6 or A-7 will be applicable. TABLE A-3 in e uivalent length of pipe for friction loss in va ues and threaded fittings. For extremely hard water.32 If the pipe material A-5 applies.43)1=20..s w A4.1 the permissible feet of pipe supply of pipe A6 GENERAL A6. . supply (2) by throttling until the preceding each such branch balance riser or section to the appropriate the size of the building 17 .. A7 EXAMPLE A7. . A-6 or A-7. 130 30 12 130 27 1. is three branch (3) inches.3 The allowances in Table A-3 for fittings ore based on non-recessed threaded fittings. a valve increasing branch by: (1) Selecting is approximately both friction may lead to inadequate the sizes of pipe for the loss in each equal to the total loss in by means of (3) by risers and the demand load on each branch friction losscomputed or riser and in Section Ausing the permissible 15+(45x0.1 should likely A6. 1 Allowing for fifteen (15) psi. from Charts A-2 or loss and loss in static is obtained.’ 7 Allowance A6. the developed length of supply piping and the permissible friction loss should be computed from the building side of the valve. . A5. . and risers may be The sizes of the various determined supply or the branch ing the demand A-3. and water and psi supply are such that Chart of the building diameter supply of the the required diameter heater the required supply to the upper floor of the building. . to meet the maximum SIZE OF BUILDING Knowing (100) SUPPLY friction loss per one the and the total demand. at the highest fixture under A5 SIZE OF PRINCIPAL RISERS A5. .2 Fixture branches to the building supply.. A4.2 If copper tubing or brass pipe is to be used for the supply piping. with flush valves closets and stall urinals as follows: Fixture Units and Estimated Demands . and the fixtures to be installed for water ‘Allowoncss based on non-recessed threaded finings.300 150 48 260 81 1. demand needed pipe. a developed length of pipe from the pressurereducing valve to the most distant fixture of two hundred (200) feet. . it will be advisable to make additional allowances for the reduction of capacity of hot water lines in service. pressure. Building Kind of Fixhrres NO.1 Assume an office building of four (4) stories and basement. pressure on the building side of the pressurereducing valve of fifty-five (55) psi. . of the building The diameter point pipe may be obtained is appliabove the total on or next from Charts coordinate A-4. whichever corresponding not be employed.3 Shower Heads Lavatories . branches including so that the total friction to the hot-water is two (2) inches.839 310 12 130 27 (12x4)X3/4=36 (130x2)x3/4=195 (27x3)X3/4=6 292 1 86 Chart A-5 should be used for ferrous pipe with only the most favorable water supply as regards corrosion and caking. Use one-half (l/2) the ollowoncer for recessed threoded fittings or streamline solder fittings. and if the character of the water is in the hydraulic characteristics may be expected. . permissible A4. to the estimated and the permissible friction loss will be the size up to the first branch from the building supply If a pressure reducing valve is used in the building supply.1 BRANCHES AND maximum demand of three hundred and ten (3 10) gallons per minute.STANDARD PDI-WH 201 above A4 the minimum friction required loss. Chart A-4 may be used.65+200= 10. Branch to hot-water system Fixture Demand (gallons minute) pe’ such that only slight changes Fixture units ‘ga’lons fw minute) fz brer . applying branches in the same manner as the size of the building to the hot water the total system-by estimate estimotfor the flow for the riser or branch demand thereof. For recessed threaded fittings and streamlined soldered fittings. supply Demand NO. of fixtur. the pressure applicable for friction loss is found by the following: 55--[ The allowable pipe is therefore The required size of branches and risers may be obtained in the same manner as the building supply by obtaining 3. one-half (l/2) the allowances given in the table will be ample. to result. Total . be controlled different lower the riser.65 loss per one hundred psi friction (100) feet of 100x20. and branch.2 In general. or principal as objectionable hundred diameter cable. .. A-5. an elevation of highest fixture above the pressure-reducing valve of forty-five (45) feet. . . a velocity greater than fifteen (15) feet branches line noise is per second in the main risers .

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Washer........... ...... Laboratory and Trough .. Sink................ TOTAL 1 1 1 C.............. Steam .............. 2 1 2 1 . . iose.................. S nk. ................W............................................W......... Tube ............................. Washer... Peele:. Refrigerator ........... Washer.. 3edpon Washer.... Smk.. .... Needle ........... Soda Fountain Unit ................... Bed Pan Private............. ............. TOTAL 4 4 4 C...................................... ......... 3 ice Cuber and Flakers 3..... Condenser.. )onltizer............................ Sink.. Bottle with jet rinsers Can .. Sterilizer............ 4 4 2 4 l-1/2 Obstetrical......................................... Water ........ noafing & ventilating............ Washer.... Sink.......W. H... Autopsy Table....... Sink.... Air Conditioning........ Sink..... ....... ...... Silver .. Arm ................................. 2 2-l/2 3 3 15 7 3 3 2-l/2 FIXTURE OR EQUIPMENT Sink. C u p ...... 2-l/2 2-l/2 3 2-l/2 z-1/2 2-l/2 l/2 2 2 6 l-l/Z H....... ... ............ .....W.................W.. Vegetoble .. iose................ 2 3 3 2 4 2 4 3 3 2 2 2 5 6 4 4 4 2 4 ...... Formula Room .......... ...............................W...... Nurse’s Station ......... 2 2-l/2 2-l/2 2-l/2 10 10 1 H.. Cook’s . ... C............ Emergency iath........... 4 4 3 H... .............. 2:OTHER : ......... Pot and Pan ......... ........... Loboratory ....................... Sink........................................ Sink.... 1% I..... l-l/Z l-l/2 3 l-1/2 3 l-1/2 3 2-l/2 2-l/2 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 l-i. Bed Pan Hose ..................................... (per faucet) ....W...... ........... Bed Pan General . ......... Vegetable ........ Pipette ...... Sink................... Animal Area ...................... Sing... 3tdet. Barber Nursery............. Baker’s Pan ..STANDARD PDI-WH 201 FIXTURE-UNIT LISTING 1.............. Scrubup ..... Waste 3ath.................... Pot and Pan... Glove............... 1 2 1 3 l-l/2 2-l/2 2-l/2 l-1/2 / 2 l-1/2 2-l/2 2-l/2 l-1/2 ! - 2 1 6 3 Dispenser ........... Instrument.......... Dental and Surgical Dentol Chair ....... ... Washer................ Clean Utility Sterilizer....... ...... avotory........... Syringe Sterilizer.. Snz Sink....... Tray Moke-up Toble Washer................ .... Washer.......... 2 - FIXTURE OR EQUIPMENT Sink..................... . Treatment nicroscope. .... 1 l-l’* - / l-li2 ..................... Sink..............................W........ Washer. Cuspidor........... Sink............W........... Clean-up room ........... Glossware Nlpple Silver ...... avatory........ Gander...... Station .................... .... Instrument.... .............................. Flushing 4utopsy Table............. Instrument ...... Autopsy Toble....................................... .............. Therapeutic Abriracwd from ‘A ouii by lawronco Gum............. ................ HOSPITAL AND LABORATOIJY AREAS C........................... jhower. Washer Washer............... Interior Wall Wall Hydrant Hydrant........ Sink.. ................. october............ Sink............................ . Refrigeration. Washer.. Plaster ................. Coffee Urn Stand .. Rim ......... Washer....... ovotory. . Drinking Fountain .... Pharmacy... Sink...... 3 3 4 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 6 4 2 6 2 1 2 Sink.................................. .. Mop .........W.. ............... Floor TOTAL 4 3 3 l”o 10 C.. 1 1 1 H..................... Disposol .. S$nk.......................... Flask .... 2-l/2 2-l/2 3 2-l/2 2-l/2 2-l/2 - .... ....... . ........... .............. ...... Utensil ..../2 l-l/2 2-l/2 3 l-1/2 3 l-l/2 3 2-l/2 2-l/2 2 5 6 4 3 2 3 3ath.... .... ‘loor Drain....................... Central Supply.. Electron Boiling Boiling ...... Dish Soak (non-mobile] TOTAL C.......W. Sink sath....... .........’ - AREAS ” FIXTURE OR EQUIPMENT Hose......... Yeaner....................... 4dropsy Table....................... Scrub-up .............. Complete ............................... ovatory............ ........ Back Bor .. Soiled Utility ........... Sonic ..... Hose........ l/2 2 1 H.................. ...... Drinking Fountain .. ....... ......... Sink.. hhower...... TOTAL C........ Diet Kitchen ..... Washer. .. FIXTURE OR EQUIPMENT Condenser................... .... Meot Preparation Salad Preparation Soak........ .......... Steam Table ......... leg . Aspirator............... 2 3 2 2 3 2-l/2 l-1/2 2 2 7 4 2 10 3 2-l/2 1 - FIXTURE OR EQUIPMENT 4splrotor TOTAL 2 4 2 2 3 3 l-l/2 4 4 20 10 4 10 4 3 1 1 1 10 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 15 To Hospital ........ ionltizer.... Sink. Utensil........................... Clinical............W.... ................... 23 .. and H.. ................ Sink... 2 2-l/2 2-l/2 .. ................ .............................. B arium .... 1 1 10 l-1/2 1 l-1/2 1 l-1/2 l-1/2 1 1 2 6 Plumbing” l-1/2 1 l-1/2 1 l-1/2 1-l/2 1 2 2 3 11 Sink...................W. Sterilizer....... Hose ............. Flushing Type.......... Cuspidor........... ...... Autopsy Table.................................. Sink...................... Sterilizer.... .................... 1 3 3 4 1 2 1 3 2 3 3 2 1 3 2-l/2 3 2-l/2 3 Sink.. Sink. Washer....... avotory................... Formula Bottle ..................... I l-1/2 l-l/2 Soup Kettle ... ........................... ........... Dental ................. Food Waste . j I 2-l/2 3 Faucet..... immersion 3oth............... ...........W....... Flushing Autopsy Table..... Washer....... .................. Boiling Boiling Pressure Water Sterilizer Utensil ........... ......... Bibb. PreRinse Hose Station ice Maker Ketile Stand Milk . Clinlcol....... KITCHEN AREAS FIXTURE OR EQUIPMENT Baine Marie Corbonator Cold Pan Compressor.......................

in Ibs. 19.. in a branch line caused by water hammer. Branch Line A water supply line connecting one or more fixtures to a water supply main. 6. Feet per second. The Plumbing and Drainage Institute.” 16.0 psig at standard conditions). in. 17.7 psi or 0. larger than the branch line in question. Surge The pressure increase.M. riser or other branch. Residual Pressure pressure. 18. Static Pressure The pressure in Ibs. per sq. Shock Intensity See Page 2. in. P. 22.S. per sq. of atmospheric air above absolute zero pressure at ambient conditions (14. 26. Remote Fixture 20. 10. See also page 2. Total Pressure The sum of the surge and flow pressures. water tank. in. the signal being capable of amplification. Fps. Atmospheric Pressure Pressure. 30. Riser Same as flowing A water supply main in a building conducting water vertically from one floor to another.U. Fixture Unit. 29.DEFINITIONS 1. per sq. in. above atmospheric indicated by a pressure gage. 9. per sq.. in Ibs. A larger diameter pipe is a main. paragraph titled “Reaction. 4. Gallons per minute. Water Hammer See Page 2.I. 25. 13. in a branch line caused by rapid valve closure... Reaction See Page 2. Flowing Pressure The gage pressure in a flowing plumbing supply line immediately upstream of a fixture valve. G. in Ibs. Gage Pressure Pressure. 14. Fixture Unit See definition on Page 1 1.I. 12. 23. Kinetic Energy Energy available from a flowing column of water due to its velocity. 27. 5. pounds per square inch above atmospheric pressure.I. Waterlogged Condition of an air chamber when all or part of its normal air content has been displaced by water. electric signal proportional to the pressure to which it is subiected. Pounds per Square Inch Gage. or hot water boiler.G. in. 7.. Point of Relief Point of Relief is a larger mass of water in the system. to which the branch is connected. 24. Pressure Transducer A pressure sensitive device that will produce an 28. 21. in Ibs. which is at least two (2) nominal pipe sizes. 15. Shock The force generated in a piping system by water hammer. 2. Shock Absorber Water Hammer Arrester.P.S. Water Hammer Arrester A device other than an air chamber or calculated air chamber designed to provide continuous protection against excessive surge pressure. Calculated An air chamber designed in accordance with the Dawson & Kalinske formula for reducing water hammer pressures. Air Chamber A closed section of pipe or other container designed to trap air at atmospheric pressure mounted vertically in a tee in a water supply line intended to reduce water hammer pressures. 11.D. Surge Pressure The maximum pressure. F. 24 . Air Chamber.S. Calculated. Pounds per Square Inch. U. 8. per sq. 3. Point of Relief could be a larger diameter main or riser. P. Fixtures Sanitary plumbing fixture or related item of equip ment which can demand water from a branch line. in a dormant or nonflowing branch line. Calculated Air Chamber See Air Chamber. gage. A single fixture located on a branch line at a distance from the upstream end of the branch line. P.