Kathmandu University School of Management

Kathmandu College of Management

Internship Report For the partial requirement for BBA Program Program Code: RIS 401

Internship Employer Himalayan Bank Ltd., Head Office Thamel, Kathmandu

Interns Nikhil Agrawal, Redg No: A005901-05 Rishabh Tibrewala, Redg No: A005980-05

July 02, 2009

SIGNATURE PAGE I/we certify that I/we have read this document and, in my/our opinion, it is sat isfactory in scope and quality as a project in partial fulfillment for the Under graduate Course of Internship held at the Kathmandu College of Management during t he Fourth year Second semester, 2009. Date: July 02, 2009

_______________________ Project Evaluator Kathmandu University School of Management

COPYRIGHT All rights reserved. No part of this report may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, without the prior permission of the authors. No patent liability i s assumed with respect to the use of the information, contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this report, the authors assume no responsibility for error or omission. Date: July 02, 2009 Kathmandu College of Management

The views expressed in this report are those of project coordinator onl y. The authors of the report are not responsible or liable legally or by any other means against t he results of the report. . The views expressed in this report are as per the findings and research undertak en. Any consequent decision based on this report shall not make the authors responsible.DISCLAIMER The authors are confident that the results presented in this report will be take n as guidance for a more comprehensive study at the future date. These do not reflect the single rule of thumb nor are these endorsed by the College.

no. no. A005901-05 _____________________ Rishabh Tibrewala BBA 2005-2009 Kathmandu College of Management Redg. A005980-05 . It has not been previously submitted to any other University or any other examination(s). the undersigned declare that this project entitled is a result of our own st udy/ research carried out in the year 2009. Signature _____________________ Nikhil Agrawal BBA 2005-2009 Kathmandu College of Management Redg.DECLARATION We.

We would like to extend our gratitude to Mr. T hamel branch and Mr. KCM and Mr. support. DCBL and Mr. Rabindra Pradhan. Thamel branch for tru sting us and providing access to confidential documents when and where required in the scope of the project. Director. Khatri. Rajendra Bahadur Shr estha.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Foremost. Mr. We are grateful to Mr. We would also like to thank Mr. Principal. Bishnu Raj Adhikari. Our indebt gratitude also goes to Mr. We would like to further thank KUSOM for providing students with such opportunit y to experience the organization culture and experience and for their structurin g of this course for the benefits of the students. Sohan B. We are deeply indebted to KCM s internship coordinator. Branch Manager. Credit Department. Thank you all! Sincerely Nikhil Agrawal Rishabh Tibrewala . stimulating suggestions and enco uragement helped us in writing of this internship report. Vina y Sharma. KCM for guiding and helping us in each and every stage of th e BBA course and the Internship Study. Director. P rime Commercial Bank for all their help. Amit Bajracharya. Vijay Nakarmi. Relationship Manager. DCBL. Deputy Branch Manager. interest and valuable hints fo r the preparation of this report. we would like to express our deep and sincere gratitude to Himalayan B ank Limited and the entire Himalayan Bank family for providing us the exciting o pportunity to be one of them and giving us thorough guidance and opportunities t o move ahead with our internship objectives. Lhakpa Gelu Sherpa whose help. Mr. Pawan Agrawal of Credit Control Department and the entire Customer Relations Department of th e bank for providing us guidance and motivation for the project and also by shar ing their knowledge with us.

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ideas and knowledge learned 27 Influence on Academic Decisions and career choices Part Two Projects/Assignments/Tasks undertaken Section I 32 Brief background of the Study 32 Objectives of the assignment/project.TABLE OF CONTENT Signature Page Copyright Disclaimer Declaration Acknowledgement Letter from the organization Letter of Recommendation from college Table of contents List of Figures List of Tables List of Acronyms Executive Summary Part One Operational Duty Section A Page No. Problem Statement 34 Research Problem 34 Scope of the Study 35 Limitations of the Study 35 17 21 30 32 General Literature Review 37 Section II SWOT Analysis 37 Five Pillars of Credit analysis used at Himalayan Bank Limited 38 Financial Ratio Analysis 44 Section III Conceptual Framework Conceptual framework 46 46 Section IV .Methodologies 49 The methodology and procedures of projects 49 . Background 3 Goals and Objectives of internship 4 Introduction of Himalayan Bank Limited 7 Section B 15 Tasks performed at HBL 15 Project work 16 Strengths and weaknesses in carrying out projects Section C 21 Description and analysis of roles of fellow workers Learnings from fellow workers 22 Section IV 25 Perceptions and expectations of Interns 25 Skills.

Section V Industry Analysis Banking Sector as a whole Commercial Banks 56 Hydropower Industry 57 53 53 Sections VI Analysis of Credit 63 Five Pillars of Credit Analysis 63 IEE and EIA 79 Detailed Feasibility Study 80 NEA and Power Purchase Agreement 80 Important Conditions in PPA for Projects up to 5 MW 81 Strategies made by the government 85 Policies 86 Provisions under Hydropower Development for Private sector Other aspects to be considered 89 Sections VI Findings from the Analysis Critical Success Factors 91 Key Risk Areas 94 Normal Risk Sharing Arrangement 99 Section VII 101 Conclusions and Recommendations Reflection References Appendices 101 91 87 .

LIST OF FIGURES Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 1: Executive Committee Members 2 2: Management of Himalayan Bank Limited 2 3: All Services of Himalayan Bank Limited 2 4: Deposit Products offered at Himalayan Bank Limited 5: Loan Products of HBL 2 6: SWOT Profile 2 7: Five Pillar Credit Risk Analysis 2 8: Industry Analysis 2 9: Porter Five Force Industry Analysis 2 10: Financial Risk Analysis 2 11: Conceptual Framework for the project 2 12: Phases of Research 2 13: Working of a Hydropower Plant 2 14: Shaft connecting Turbine and Generator 2 15: The Generator 2 2 .

LIST OF TABLES Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 2 Table Table 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: Comparison of Important Balance Sheet Items 2 Financial Institutions in Nepal 2 Number of Consumers of Electricity in Nepal 2 Hydropower Projects in Nepal 2 Future load calculation 2 PPA Concluded in the FY 2007/08 2 Key Financial Indicators of NEA 2 Environmental Requirement 2 Unit rate of energy for different projects fixed between NEA and IPPs 2 10: Royalty for Internal Consumption Project 11: Royalty for Export Oriented Project 2 .

Pakistan. i. Economic. The internship period was spent in three phases. Socio-cultural. first working in the Customer S ervice Department for two weeks to know the zest of what kind of customers and c lients the bank has.LIST OF ACRONYMS HBL CAP NRB NIBL BAFIO HR FY Rs. NPA ATM PEST CEO GM SGM BOD SWOT R&D IT MW NEA GWh KW IMF GTZ DDA FNCCI CRD CCD GJ IEE EIA DoED SCBL EBL NPV IRR SME s GDP IPP Himalayan Bank Limited Credit Approval Package Nepal Rastra Bank Nepal Investment Bank Limited Bank and Financial Institution Ordinance Human Resource Fiscal Year Nepalese Rupees That is Non Performing Assets Automatic Teller Machine Political-Legal. Technological Chief Executive Officer General Manger Senior General Manager Board of Directors Strength.e. Weakness. second in the Customer Relations Department to know about h . Threat Research and Development Information Technology Megawatt Nepal Electricity Authority Gigawatt Hour Kilowatt International Monetary Fund German Technical Cooperation Department of Drug Administration Federation of Nepalese Chamber of Commerce and Industry Customer Relationship Department Credit Control Department Giga Joule Initial Environmental Examination Environmental Impact Assessment Department of Electricity Development Standard Chartered Bank Limited Everest Bank Limited Net Present Value Internal Rate of Return Small and medium Enterprises Gross Domestic Product Independent Power Producers EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Himalayan Bank Limited is one of the pioneer private banks of the Nepalese banki ng industry being established in 1993 AD as a joint venture with Habib Bank Limi ted. Opportunity. It holds a vision of becoming a leading bank of the country and p roviding the customers with premium services to give substantial return to its s takeholders. HBL has a huge base of customer base and especially A rated clients w hich are there due to HBL s long history of customer satisfaction and innovation i n services.

ow a credit appraisal is done and to learn the other aspects of the department l ike financial analysis, loan extension etc. and third in the Credit Control Depa rtment to learn how a loan application is critically examined to pass the loan a nd also to learn about the special aspects of project financing. The major funct ion of CRD is to interact with the loan applicant/client and discuss the need of the credit facility and other various factors related to it as well as understa nd that there is inherent credit risk in any business proposal in the banking se ctor. The main function of CCD is to make thorough and critical analysis of the credit approval packages forwarded by the CRD of the various branches all over t he country. During the internship, substantial work was done in the various departments whic h included making of Credit Approval Packages, making site visits, preparing fin ancial statements and analyzing them, preparing group exposures, making overdraf t statements etc for which the bank showed utmost trust and confidence to give a ccess to confidential information within the scope and vicinity of the project. An industry analysis of pharmaceutical company was also done to help the bank wi th their credit appraisal process to extend loan to pharmaceutical companies. The major portion of the internship was also dedicated for making the credit app raisal of the hydropower industry which includes one of the major exposures of t he bank as it is one of the major interests of the country today. Hydropower ind ustry has great potentials in the country as the gap between the demand and the supply is huge creating a great scope for the hydropower projects to come in. Th ough this industry seems lucrative for the banks to finance, thorough considerat ions should be given to the various details of the hydropower projects for the i nvestment to be assured of without any risks. Since this sector is a capital int ensive sector, a small error or problem creates huge complications in costs whic h should be properly analyzed by the bank for acting on the best interests of it s stakeholders. These various details have been explained in the report in detai l. On the basis of the research conducted and analysis of the industry on the basis of various theories and concepts, it was found that the hydropower project if s uccessful gives the bank an IRR of almost 15% which for the size of the projects is quite substantial. Further, we have formulated few guidelines as recommendat ions for the bank to maintain as necessary to ensure that the project being fina nced is profitable. From this study, we gained a better understanding of what project financing is a nd how this is applied in the Nepalese Commercial Banks. Furthermore, we could i dentify what are the opportunities and threats for commercial banks to finance p rojects especially the hydropower projects. All these and other works done in th e internship period enabled us to incorporate our theoretical knowledge into rea l working situations which has increased our level of knowledge and understandin g.

PART I: Operational Duty Section A Background The internship was carried out for the partial fulfillment of the BBA program co nducted by the Kathmandu University School of Management (KUSOM). The primary ob jective of the internship program is to enable the students to transform the aca demic knowledge learnt through the years into the practical real world environme nt where the organizations are facing tough competition with the effect of globa lization. The practical approach of internship enables the students to learn wha t the organizations face in terms of employee diversity, the pressures that ever y organization face, the regulatory environments they have to work in and other variables that are prominent in the real working environment. The two interns ha d the main objective of working in the banking industry and hence internship exp erience proved to be a nice platform for them to realize what the needs and the requirements for the job are. HBL is one of the pioneer commercial banks in the Nepalese banking industry with it being one of the initial private commercial banks in Nepal. HBL is known for its expertise in project financing and having a reputed and A rated clientele. Es pecially with its BOD containing reputed business houses like the Khetan Group, this bank has a good business in hand. HBL is well known for its friendly work c ulture with educated and professional employees motivated to work for long worki ng hours. Hence, HBL was chosen so as to experience the professional working cul ture and acquire the best possible knowledge of HBL s expertise i.e. project finan cing and other credit related functions and products. HBL was established in the year 1993 as a joint venture with Habib Bank Limited, Pakistan and soon became a pioneer in the banking industry attracting huge numb ers of customers both for deposits and for lending. HBL has also been known for its innovative products like Personal Savings Account, Millionaire deposit schem e, HimalRemit etc. Goals and Objectives of the Internship program The primary goal of the internship program for the interns was to experience the banking industry of Nepal and to experience how much has this industry evolved from the traditional banking practices of loans and deposits. Furthermore, trans forming the academic bookish knowledge into practical knowledge and to understan d how the concepts and theories are applied in the real working environment. Fur thermore, working in the banking industry also enables the interns to know what are the recent business changes taking place in the economy and what further opp ortunities are present in the business market. Learning a professional attitude and learning the value of time was also one of the major goals of the internship program. These aspects can only be learned thr ough practical orientation as they are learnt only when it is adapted in the beh avior of the individuals. The goals and objectives set at the beginning of the internship period of each intern (i.e. assignment 1) has been included in the ap pendix. The personal goals and objectives of each intern are given below: Nikhil Agrawal Internship program is a medium to provide students with real time working experi ence so that they acquire knowledge in a practically oriented manner. This knowl edge is different from the textbook knowledge because the theories in textbooks are based on many assumptions which are not levied in the practical environment.

I joined Himalayan Bank for my internship due to these various reasons: To know about the various processes and working environment of a commercial bank : A bank is an important part of any country s economy as it plays direct and indi rect roles in the various parts of the economy. So to know about what are the va rious processes in a bank as this work is a matter of great interest and importa nce, the best way to know about these things was to attain practical knowledge f rom the internship program. To access a career option in this sector: Banking is a considered as a high stat ure job with its glamorous outlook with its good pay and stability. I aspire to get into the banking industry and hence to know whether this job was really mean t for me or not, internship program was the best possible way to know about it. To assess the various processes banks go through to overcome the risks associate d with loans: The credit appraisal process during giving out a loan is very impo rtant part of the banking sector. Correct processes and steps help to differenti ate between an ordinary bank and an outstanding one. To experience the professionalism in work culture and to learn for future prospe cts: Professionalism in today s working culture is evident and to learn this attit ude is very important to be successful in today s competitive environment. Since t his cannot be learnt from textbook knowledge and requires real working experienc e, internship would be a big platform for this aspect as well. To learn practically the knowledge learnt from academic courses: A practical ori entation for every student of what he learns is very important. Hence the intern ship program would be useful for putting the academic knowledge learnt in the pa st years into practical reality. Rishabh Tibrewala An internship program exposes us to all aspects of the chosen industry while giv ing an exclusive look into a career in the same field. Internship program at HBL was joined to have an extraordinary opportunity to explore the Private Bank and gain insight into its strategy, products and business groups. This experience will help me choose a career path that is interesting, challenging and has a goo d payoff. My Goals for the internship are summarized as follows: Get acquainted with real working conditions: Academically I understand how a ban k works. I also have good knowledge on how various activities are carried out in a bank and various management theories are used but this internship program wil l help me relate my academic knowledge to the real working environment of Nepale se banks. Get a hands on experience of commercial bank: An organization to an external cus tomer is different from that to its internal employees and by taking hands on ex perience on all departments of the organization, a better understanding of the f inancial sector can be gained. I will also gain a better understanding of how mu ch is actually practiced and what is more theoretical. With this internship prog ram I intend to understand the Nepalese banking sector. Understand the Nepalese Economy: Since all the other sectors are integrated with this sector of the economy I will also get an exposure to various other sectors . It is said that a banker is a master of his trade and jacks of all other trade s. Hence the exposure that I will get from this internship program will not only be limited to banking only. Develop Personal Relation Skills: This program shall also help me understand how the most important resource that is the human resource is managed by profession

as well as content skills including admini strative.al organizations. . It will help me make contact with people of the business wor ld which will come into use in the later part of my career. teamwork. honesty and a strong work ethics. It will help me develop better Personal Relation Skills and Co mmunication skills. management and research. analytical. Bring Professionalism in work style: This internship will develop professionalis m and commitment within me. interpersonal along with motiva tion. This will also increase skills such as communication. Professionalism in terms of how to work in the offic e and commitment in terms of giving the best I can towards work. An internship experience will allow me t o develop proficiency in these areas. coaching.

After the adoption of economic liberalization policy. 78 "C" class finance companies. Introduction Himalayan Bank.0 Himalayan Bank Limited ranks among the top commercial banks of the country but i t also faces tough competition from other established banks like Standard Charte red Bank.5 3155. Out of them. HBL Prop .4 5077.1 EBL 300. thus ensuring attr active and substantial returns to the stakeholders of the Bank.0 1464. and 4 6 are NGO.3 314. Nabil Bank etc.0 Cash Balance 414.9 1191. Himalayan Bank is known throughout Nepal for its innovative approaches to mercha ndising and customer service.0 870.2 Investments 8146. Nepal Investment Bank.9 278.5 3724.3 27145.0 154. parti cularly the financial sector liberalization that paved the way for establishment of new banks and non-bank financial institutions into the country.6 21514. 12 "D" class micro-credit development banks. List of Commercial Banks in Nepal has been provided in the appendix f or reference. Himalayan Bank s Mission The Bank s mission is to become preferred provider of quality financial services i n the country.2 970. At the beginning of 1980s there were only two commercial bank and tw o development banks. The Bank always strives positioning itself in the hearts and minds of the customers.Lo ans and Deposits despite the cut-throat competition in the Nepalese Banking sect or.0 Fixed Assets 440.6 5280.8 NIBL 1050.0 823.6 1607. Preferred Pr ovider and Quality Financial Services.7 Share and other investments Loans and advances 13355.5 511.1 1063.9 1155.4 4889. Consequently .0 511.0 5756. 58 "B" class development banks. There are two components in the mission of the Bank.7 19985. Himalayan Bank s Vision Himalayan Bank Limited holds of a vision to become a Leading Bank of the country by providing premium products and services to the customers. Table 1: Comparison of Important Balance Sheet Items Amount in Millions €Particulars SCBL HBL Borrowings 0. therefore we at HBL believe that the miss ion will be accomplished only by satisfying these two important components with the Customer at focus.Himalayan Bank Limited During the last two and half decades the Nepalese financial system has grown sig nificantly.5 705. Himalayan Bank s Objective Himalayan bank has set is objectives as To become the Bank of first choice . Products such as Premium Savings Account.2 Other Assets 1755.1 7471. 25 are "A" class commerci al banks. altogether 235 banks and non-bank financial insti tutions licensed by NRB are in operation.0 4906. has been able to maintain a lead in the primary banking activities. established in 1993 in joint venture with Habib Bank Limited of Pakistan. by the end of mid July 2008. 16 saving and credit co-operatives.0 NABIL 1600.6 18814.

etc. HBL has developed exclusive and p roprietary online money transfer software. the Senior General Manag er and the General Manager. The major decisions of the bank are taken by th e Executive Committee which includes the following: Figure 1: Executive Committee Members Figure 2: Management of Himalayan Bank Limited Products/Services offered by Himalayan Bank Limited The services offered by HBL are summarized as follows. Living up to the expectations and aspirations of the Customers a nd other stakeholders of being innovative. Figure 4: Deposit Products offered at Himalayan Bank Limited .rietary Card and Millionaire Deposit Scheme besides services such as ATMs and Te le-banking were first introduced by HBL. thus ensuring attr active and substantial returns to the stakeholders of the Bank. Figure 3: All Services of Himalayan Bank Limited Since the major products are the deposit and the loans. Consumer Fin ance through Credit Card and online TOEFL. HBL also has a dedicated offsite Disaster Recovery Management System . HBL very recently introduced several new products and services. SAT. They have various assort ments of products offered to the public in the deposit market are summarized in the figure below. This has hel ped the Bank provide services like Any Branch Banking Facility . These departments also have been further departmentalized based on need. the singl e Banking software where the Bank has made substantial investments. Himalayan Bank Limited holds of a vision to become a Leading Bank of the country by providing premium products and services to the customers.Himal Remit. Other financial institutions in the cou ntry have been following their lead by introducing similar products and services . Looking at the number of Nepalese workers abroad and their need for formal money transfer channel. International Travel Quota Credit Card. Pre-paid Visa Card. IELTS. Millionaire Deposit Scheme. fee payment facility are some of the products and services. HBL believe s that they lead the banking sector of Nepal. All Branches of HBL are integrated into Globus (developed by Temenos). Small Business Enterprise s Loan. Internet Banking a nd SMS Banking. Organizational Structure Himalayan Bank Limited has a very typical organizational structure where the top level management includes the Chief Executive Officer. Under them are the various departments of the bank w ith one person heading each department. With the highest deposit base and loan portfolio amongst private sector banks and extending guarantees to correspondent banks covering exposure of other local banks under their credit standing with foreign correspondent banks.

1. convenient. HBL is not on e of the players who fight solely on price. Internet Banking: Internet banking helps doing many banking transactions using t he Internet. the rise in number of financial institutions is leading to cut-throa t competition in the domestic banking sector. the 26th commercial bank. banks in Nepal have introduced them here as well. The proposed Peoples Bank Nepal Ltd. Some of the competitive products that HBL came up to fight with the new banks ar e: Small and Medium Enterprise Loans: to help establishment. it's available anytime.The major products offered in the loan market are as follows: Figure 5: Loan Products of HBL Competition Fierce competition has erupted in Nepal s banking sector. 0. Mobile Banking: Today. HBL is one of the most sought banks. Visa Credit and Debit Cards: With Nepalese people becoming aware of product such as credit/debit card. Zero balance account: Customers can open an account for a minimum balance of zer o. real-time transactions to its customers. Bishesh Savings Account: 'Bishesh Savings Account' is a deposit product targeted to special section of society which includes minors. Card Services: In order to keep its customers satisfied. and best of all. or even Rs. more than ever. 1 and Rs. HBL provides VISA Debit and VISA Credit cards to its customers at competitive prices. Himalayan Bank has developed a special loa n package meant just to suit small and medium sized enterprises. Internet Banking: With the change in technology. Mero Bank Ltd. the 27th commercial bank. got the green sign al on September 25. Apart from over a half dozen finan cial institutions. banks have started providing services of utility bill s payments such as telephone. Even after so much of competition. Banks. With this Himalayan Bank s competition is increasing as the new banks come up with cheaper and attractive products. With th is customers have to convenience of not carrying too much cash.000. senior citizens completing the age of 50 years. Customers can enjoy ABBS facility in almost all the commercial banks. physically challenged and illiterate individuals. Its loan portfolio shows that 7% of the total loan market is captured by HBL as per the NRB report. HBL came up with this product to counter other low balance accounts of banks. the entry of two big A-class commercial banks will not only swell the numbe r to 27 but also force them to look for new investment avenues. HBL has 12% coverage on the manufacturing sector in terms of amount. Any Branch Banking: All the branches are inter-connected with V-Sat and are capa ble of providing online. also recently got p ermission from Nepal Rastra bank to operate after it deposited five per cent of its paid up capital with the central bank. felt the need for banking convenience for their clients. one has the convenience of operating their accounts throu gh their mobile which removes boundaries such as availability of branch or inter net. including B-class development banks and C-class finance compa nies. schools etc through counters and internet. HBL has been providing competitive products at competitive prices. Some of the new products brought in by competitors are: Low Balance Accounts: Banks have come up with deposit schemes where the customer can open accounts with a minimum balance of Rs. Utility Payment Services: With the advancement in technology and increasing comp etitiveness in the market. . Now customers can access and ha ve full control over their accounts 24 hours 7 days a week over the internet. growth and expansion o f small and medium sized enterprises. At a time when the marke t pie has not increased and over four dozen industries are lying closed across t he country. It's easy. It has a brand name and customers co nsider HBL to be trustworthy and they bank on HBL because of this itself.

last three transactions and the Bank s foreign exchange rate. status of cheque. Customers can chec k their balance. . Now customers can take care of banking needs without ever having to wait in queues. all from their cell phones.Mobile Banking: Himalayan Bank also provides SMS Banking.

Financial Statement Analysis We prepared the financial statements of the bank based on the bank s format for th e clients and assessed them with various financial ratios. Customer Department We were posted to the customer service department where we understood the variou s deposit products of the bank and the working at the front level which helped u s understand how banks perform at a basic level. Firstly. Information on various sectors was col lected visiting various websites and institutions regulating the sector. This helps us get a better understa nding of the client and the security aspects of credit. This was mainly very interesting as it required critical assessment based on the industry in which th e client was operating and we could show our academic talents in doing so. Benefits that the bank got may be termed as a supporting hand in completing the work and intellectual inputs at various stages. and the internet. Independent Power Producers Association of Nepal (IPPAN) etc. there were only 6 Relationship managers working. Federation of Nepalese Chamber of Commerc e and Industry (FNCCI) etc. This helped us learn enormously and also helped t hem finish up their work and meet deadlines. This was done by extracting data from the IT system Gl obus and putting it into excel. institutions such as De partment of Drug Administration (DDA). Department of Electricity Development (DoED). This was supported by various activities at th e bank such as Credit Approval Package: The basic assortment of products that a client is entitled to is designed and a credit approval package document is made which contains all the related informa tion about the client. The credit department earlier had 16 Relationship managers working to serve the clients request but now due to increasing branches of the bank. we had to make the valuation report of the client s business and collateral. we collected information about hydropower industry visiting websites an d offices of Nepal Electricity Authority. Valuation Report and company turnover Based on the report of the valuator. This is used as a document sent to the above level for ap proval and also is maintained for future reference. one of the major tasks given to us was to find inform ation about various sectors of the economy which they se to understand the indus try potential while appraising a project. We gained knowledge of how a bank initiates credit process and how approval is done. Site Visit Reports: Site visits are done to understand the business of the client and to check the s tatus of the assets kept lien with the bank.Section B Tasks Performed at HBL Research Work While working at the bank. We did a research about pharmaceutical industry in Nepal. . Our main task was to g ather information and compile them for the bank so that credit appraisal can be done. Sources of information were old cases at the bank. Benefits that we got from working i n the bank were the knowledge about real work and hands on experience on what sh ould be done when. The work pressure was high and therefore we were given their part of the duty. Credit Department We spent most of the time at the credit department where we first understood the working of this department. We also calculated the account turnover of each client and the group in which it belonged to create a report of business given b y the client to the bank.

Project Work During the course of the internship. The individual strengths and weakne sses have been given below. Coming from a well reputed management college in the country helped me to encap sulate professionalism in my behavior. we were given a project work to an industry analysis of the hydropower sector. Globus. IPPAN etc.e. Then the hydropower industry was analyze d including the technical and management aspects. banking sector was comprehended. Working with computers appeared as a major strength as I was very comfortable an d affluent with the various applications used in the bank and also the system so ftware of the bank i. This project was given as the ba nk had a few hydropower projects coming up for loans and they wanted better info rmation and analysis of such as it includes huge commitments of funds. For the purpose of carrying out this project. we also faced certain weakne sses that acted as barriers to quality work. other areas of concern were id entified. Another major strength was the financial analytical skills. and key risk areas and key success factors were assessed. DoED. a conclusion and recommendation was provided to the bank so that credit managers at the bank have more information and a pre-specified format for appraisal of credit of a particular hydropower project before extending any loa n. Strengths and Weaknesses While working at the bank. we had certain strengths that helped us carry the ass igned tasks very efficiently. I was good at the fi nancial analysis of balance sheets and the cash flows when I was told to analyze the balance sheets which were presented for the approval of loans by clients. c redit appraisal at HBL was understood. In the day to day activities of the bank. Weaknesses: . I indentified some of my strengths that were ve ry helpful during the tenure in the bank. T his skill of mine helped to perform well in the credit department and remove the workload of the department colleagues as this took the major chunk of their wor king time. Good communication skills were important not only in the customer service department but also in credit department where communication s kills was important to build a good rapport with the customer as well as make an effective credit approval package. The a bility to work with almost everyone with utmost team spirit was commended by the colleagues of the bank. This skill enabled me to complete the assigned t ask quickly and precisely. and information was collected from variou s sources such as NEA. Based on this. Working environment today requires workin g in teams for which the behavior of co-operation is of utmost importance. regular conversation with customers an d colleagues is evident. The major time and involvement in the intern ship period was dedicated towards this project. Nikhil Agrawal Strengths: While working in Himalayan Bank. Along with strengths. My good communication skills were pretty helpful for th e tasks assigned to me. Another major strength was my attitude towards professionalism and co-operation.

The biggest thing that I learned from this 10 weeks program was the understand ing of my individual strengths. This to my advantage helped me in impressing the relationship managers und er whom I was working. Globu s and could check the credit line and the outstanding of the customers. My regular visits to the bank and a basic knowledge on the working of the front end managers/tellers was also advantageous. The major weakness that I encountered was the patience to work for long hours. Rishabh Tibrewala Strengths Working at HBL as an intern gave me a lot of theoretical and practical knowledge . analysis of financia l statements based on ratio analysis and the analysis of cash flow came easily t o me. Though I had studied this subject earli er but the lack of update of this knowledge possessed a great challenge to me wh ile working in the bank. They showed more confidence in me and gave me more challe nging tasks to perform. My communication skills are also good and this he lped me in interacting with the clients better. The most important barrier or weakness that I faced w as that I lacked knowledge of the real world. I could easily maintain a good relation with the clients and they were generally happy with the relationship. information technology. Another weakness that I encountered was the ignorance of the new regulations and rules in the Nepalese financial system. I encountered certain weaknesses that acted as a bar rier while working at HBL. This possessed many situations where I found it difficult to move ahead with many problems and situations. I realized that I have a knack for numbers and have a good understanding of the financial statements. This possessed the biggest challenge to me while working in the bank. I also had good knowledge about business es of different fields such as retail. My skills of basic computing are good and this helped me in doing the regular wo rk. etc which helped me in interacting with the clients and gai n better insight into their businesses. I also realized that my suggestions were mostly appreciated and at times impleme nted by my supervisors. Also. I faced many shortcomings. The lack of exposure to real time working conditions was another challenge that I faced as I found it difficult to put the theoretical knowledge into practical reality.While working in the bank. I could easily make the b asic balance sheet. which was disappointing and embarrassing to me in many situations. I wanted to gain m aximum knowledge that I possibly could in this short span of 10 weeks. This gave my supervisors more confid ence in me in the initial stage itself. I w as able to understand various project and perform analysis of their credit appra isal. I was assigned certain clients a nd had to communicate to them about the processing of their credit case. manufacturing of carpet and pashmina. The book teaches us a lot of theor . My motiva tion to work and learn encouraged my supervisors to guide me well and I was able to learn more than required. I soon got accustomed to the software used by bank i. I found it very difficult to maint ain my patience and concentration to work for long office hours. They were quite impressed by my analytical skills. I could easily work on MS word where the CAP was made and MS Excel where fin ancials were made. Since this was the first t ime for me working in the office environment. My super visors were very happy by the dedication with which I worked.e. Weaknesses Along with these strengths. income statements and cash flows.

Finally I feel that lack of patience was one thing which I should try to overcom e. . clie nts behaved in an unexpected manner and patience was the most important thing th at I needed at that time. I had difficulty while expressing myself in Nepali. I felt constrained as I could do nothing initially when I was given the first case. We often have to mould these theories into possible solutions so that they are more appropriate in the real world. Also sometimes. I also felt constrain ed because often balance sheets and financial statements were presented in Nepal i which was difficult to understand.ies and practices but it is not always the same in the actual working scenario. Also my spoken Nepali is not good and my knowledge of technical Nepali terms is lame. Often work got de layed because of some silly reason and that was irritating. And for me this was difficult as my understa nding of the real working scenario was less and implementing the theories turned out to be a challenge. I was taught credit appraisal and its procedures at the bank its elf and this took up a lot of time which I could have spent doing something more productive. I often got restless as things didn t move the way it should. I did not know how credit appraisal is done at banks as I had never taken a cour se on that.

The dedicated employees of the bank always had pressure of working under tight s chedules and small completion times. EMI based loans for property purchase. Same credit proposals ne ed to be decided at the corporate level. even though they originate from branche s. This helped me understand the value of work ing with pressure and the value of respecting time. Banking profession is not on ly about being sound in the daily commercial banking activities and concepts. Overdraft loans. financial statements were only theoretical but I learnt how to i mply this knowledge into the daily working procedures from my fellow members. The various products or services this department provides to it s customers are Subhida Loan (Revolving and Non Revolving). T hey work according to the HBL s Credit Policy Guidelines which has set the paramet ers of credit operation.Section C Description and analysis of roles of fellow workers Customer Relation Department (CRD): The major function of managers in CRD is to interact with the loan applicant/cli ent and discuss the need of the credit facility and other various factors relate d to it as well as understand that there is inherent credit risk in any business proposal in the banking sector. which are to be fin ally disposed off at corporate level. the concept of ratio analysis. Other proposals coming from A category branches are directly routed to the CCD. Ma nagers in this department basically focuses upon serving clients with loan proce ssing and managing their loan tenure especially loans for business applications and enterprises. Learnings from fellow Workers Nikhil Agrawal The major thing that I learned from the fellow workers in the various department s is that the core component of working in any organization is professionalism. loan processing for assessing of credit limits for Letter of Credit. The perception tha t the banking job is glamorized and an easy 10 to 5 pm job proved to be wrong as professional bankers may have to work day in and out to conduct their assigned duties properly and significantly. In order to streamline the flow of such credit proposals. All the proposals related to credit functions are routed through them whenever such proposals are to be s ubmitted at the corporate level. However. Previously. such that credit operations can function smoothly. So the RMs in CRD has the ability or develops t he ability to identify these risks and develop ways to mitigate these risks with the capability to properly monitor insurable inflow of predetermined returns. personal loan in the form of overdraft. cr edit appraisal. commitment and dedication. no employee can succeed in an organization and also do justice to the organization as well. all the credi t decisions cannot be finally made at the branch level. The credit policy envisions delegation of authority to branch level. This department comes under the direct supervision of the branch managers and th e CAPs prepared have to be forwarded to the CCD after the approval of the BM.Marketing and Credit. Without these factors. bu t one another major aspect that people often miss out is the communication skill . Working Capital Financing. The main function of managers in CCD is to make thorough and critical analysis o f the credit approval packages forwarded by the CRD of the various branches all over the country. loans against financial instruments like shares. Credit Control Department (CCD): The CCD comes under the head office and managers in CCD are directly supervised by the General Manager. fixed deposit etc. a team of managers dedicated to do this ha s been created which is the Credit Control Department.

The re were times when our supervisor gave us deadlines and we had to accomplish wit hin that time frame which was at times very taxing. Rishabh Tibrewala The first and the most important thing that I got to learn from my fellow worker s in the bank is Dedication. In ord er to maintain such a balance and to keep your clients happy requires good inter -personal and communication skills. Another very important thing that I got to learn was working under pressure. Further. It is believed that the banking world is a very Glamorized world but with my discu ssions with the co-workers I realized that it is not so interesting. In this profession. While processing a loan for a client the legal requirements are enormous which is quit e annoying to the clients and it becomes a big responsibility of the relationshi p manager to maintain a balance between both and help the client to get his loan processed. Thus I learnt good communication skills from these fellow workers as well. And once you feel you have a chieved your target. This is a very importan t issue for any working person. every professional should be pas sionate in whatever he is working with.s as it is required in every aspect of banking. It teaches us how to take out the rati os with a set of figures given but when it comes to analyzing the ratios it cann ot very well be learned by the book. Also while carrying out your work one has to be very ethical. While working at HBL I learnt how to do the financial ratio analysis and it can be implemented in the real world scenario. And this was something that I really got to learn from my supervisors and co-workers in the bank. After a poi nt of time this job gets monotonous and people start losing interest in their jo bs. the dilemma of meeting the organizatio n targets as well as maintaining the ethical standards comes in. They suggested me that if I have the financial backing and support then I mu st not think of getting into this kind of a service but rather set up my own bus iness. Management and Sec urity. The book teaches us to work with numbers. We also got to learn how credit appraisal should be done. Another skill that I got t o learn at the bank was how bankers have to be good with the negotiation skills. Technical. This is a very difficult step for any professionalism and this skill is to be encapsulated for the success of any professional. In every step of the professional career. . This experience of 10 weeks did teach us to face cr iticism and also gave us an understanding that most of the times criticism makes you a better person and improves the quality of your work. The risks involved in a business are certainly high but with higher retur ns and a better living standard. the feeling that you would get when your supervisor would s ay the job is not done well. My supervisors at the bank taught us how it should be done and we learned that the appraisals are done on 5 pillar bases which are Industry. While working in the credit department of a bank the staff has to be able to kee p a balance between the legal requirements and the customer requirements. Proper balancing between the two makes the perso n happier and more satisfied with life and career. for any professional balancing out with between the professional career and the personal life is also of the utmost importance. Financials. I saw that the people who are dedicated to their w ork are progressing very fast in the bank and the people with a laid-back approa ch are still lacking behind. To get over this monotony. Any work can only be accomplished when done with lo ads of dedication and effort. people often find the job monotonous and often get de-motiva ted to work further.

Grihini Bachat Khata to name a few have brought in new revolutions in the banking industry. I will be able to know what actually the be nefits are and also about the limitations of working in a bank and henceforth as sure my target to work under this goal of mine to become a banker. Often it is t hought that Nepalese service industry lacks professionalism and the sincerity to wards one s knowledge and expertise. international banking etc. HBL s millionaire deposit scheme. when I joined the internship program I believed that I had a lot of knowledge about the working of the bank. But when I actually started wor king in the bank I realized that the real practice is very different from the ac ademic learning. I thought it to be a well paying and r elatively laid back profession where the working hours is not that extensive. But after spending few weeks in the bank I realized that it is not as professional as it looks from outside. The culture a t HBL was one of the liveliest and friendliest environments I have experienced. The Nepalese banking industry was thought to be growing only in numbers but I ex perienced that this industry is coming up with newer products and innovative one s. But still large horizons are left for the banking industry to conquer as large depo sit bases of the rural areas have not been able to be capitalized upon. other banks rupee one account. The working environment at the bank is very healthy. my excitement sh ifted to nervousness considering the grandeur of the bank and the thought as to how my supervisors would be. I always believed that banks in Nepal are very professional. I also thought that my HR/PR skills are very good and there is nothing more to be learned in that aspect but within a few days of working in the bank I realize that I am not perfect. HBL has its expertise and focuses to gain a competitive edge from the expertise such as remittance. It is more a casual environment to work in. I was completely ignorant about all this and in this short span of time I got to know a lot about the bank. the strategy with which the bank works and the various business sectors the bank has made investments in. The way the top level management of the bank would commu . Rishabh Tibrewala First and foremost. project financing. often glamorized. In this way. But after my first day at work all my nervousness d isappeared as the people at the bank were very friendly and helpful. Looking at the reputation of the bank I was very excited about joining the inter nship program. Bu t I found that working hours extends to even late in the nights so as to be more efficient than other competitor banks in the industry. but seeing the working culture in HBL. This exp erience also made me aware that HBL as an employer is one of the most paying ins titution and also one of the best working places to be working in. I got to learn about HBL. I can state that the service industry has indeed developed and has become more profess ional and is competitive to any international standards. I also got to learn about the various departments in the bank and how they functioned. What is learned in books and what is practiced are two differen t things. its product details. But as the time of starting the job came closer. My aim of being a profes sional banker has moved a step forward with my decision of pursuing my internshi p in a commercial bank.Section D Our perceptions and expectations Nikhil Agrawal The banking profession.

is often successful in his career. One has to really think before we speak. a good communication skill is a major skill that should be present in any banker. My supervisors also suggested me that if I ha ve the financial banking and support from the family I should get into my own bu siness rather than opt as banking as a career. preparation of the financial statements and the analysis of these statements was a major part. ideas. As soon as one department d oes not know what the other is doing there would be complete chaos and the goals would get hampered. My perception regarding banking as a career has changed and I am now revaluating m y interest in banking as a career. Wor ds have to be manipulated so that a negative impact is not laid down. who he is. co-ordinate and rise as an influential leader. Prepare the credit approval package: Preparation of the CAP is one of the major tasks of any credit officer as it tel ls what the borrower wants the loan for. I realized that communicating in general day to day life or in college is very di fferent that communication at work. Being a good speaker is not only important but also the a bility to listen to others and understand their views and perception is very imp ortant. But after my internship program I realized that the job at the bank is very monotonous and not as glamorous as it appeared to me. Rishabh Tibrewala I learned to prepared the financial statements of the bank based on the bank s own format for the clients and assessed them with various financial ratios. Skills. Everyone at work is g enerally so helpful and any task can be accomplished with teamwork. I actually realized that there are lots to learn in this reg ards and I am just a beginner. One should a lways be ready to help and others will surely come forward to help you with your work. In our . I got to learn a lo t from them though. A person who i s able to work in teams. Ability to work in teams: The ability to work in teams is often a major challenge to any banker and often the difference between a successful and an unsuccessful employee. I also learned that in a banking scenario every department is assigned th eir own tasks but everything works in co-ordination. what are the core competenci es of the borrower. This helps the bank in the a ppraisal process as it tells how strong a borrower is to repay back the debts an d whether the financials presented are inflated or not. and knowledge learned Nikhil Agrawal The skills. why a loan should be granted or rejected to a client. Good communication skills: For the banking job. Though experience is very important to build this. ideas and knowledge that I learned from the experience in HBL are: Prepare financial statements and analyze the financial indicators: In the due course of the internship. Initially when I joined my internship program I was very excited with the fact t hat this would open my doors to banking as a career and the reputed Himalayan Ba nk would be a great option. Development of analytical skills: Good analytical skills are very important in the credit departments of the bank as analyzing a loan or a project and analyzing a project s viability is very impor tant. I used to always think that one has to do his own work while performing a job bu t here in HBL I got to realize the importance of teamwork. Other things that I learned from my supervisors w ere communication and interpersonal skills again of what I was quite proud of.nicate was a big surprise and I am certainly very impressed. good general knowledge and familiarity to the business world holds as a major advantage.

I also got to practice and enhance my interpersonal skills whe n dealing with clients and my co-workers.academic course also we had prepared financial statements but here it was mainly very interesting as it required critical assessment based on the industry in wh ich the client was operating. I gained knowledge of how a bank initiates credit process. commitment. I was able to enhance our analytical and negotiation skills. I got to learn some negotiation techniques from my supervisors when I saw them d eal with clients. After gaining ac ademic knowledge and classroom experience for so many years this was the first t ime that we got to work in the real world. In our day to day life we do not perform like that. interpersonal and communication skills etc which will certainly help us in any future endeavor s we take. Whenever it comes t o dealing with clients a banker has to be very negotiative and know exactly what he wants from the clients. This work experience though of a shor t span has thought us so many things like dedication. Whatever I have learned at this first hand first time experience is g oing to stay with me for a lifetime. I also learned how credit appraisal was done in banks. . how the assessment is done and how approval is done. The most important thing that I got to learn from this internship program is tha t I gained some experience of working in a real world scenario.

Initially I was thinking that I would go for m y masters directly but now I have understood that working in real organizations will give me experience that will help me in my academics later. I got firsthand experience in working in a bank and this has changed my percep tion towards working at a bank. my aim of becoming a successful banker has been motivated as I found th e banking industry challenging and interesting. PR relation s are one of the major components of a successful person as it helps in all majo r steps of the professional career. the more are the chances that he woul d succeed in the career. For my academics. analyzing business proposals and project financing proposals will be a major boost for me in the academic courses I pursue further. Another major skill I learnt from the banking experience is the importance of un derstanding the basics of the career one is pursuing. . These two things are very important in progressing in life. One other major skill I learnt from the experience is the importance of building personal relation skills and also the importance of maintaining it. Initially I was considering banking as a career but after my 10 weeks experience at the bank I realized the job to be very monot onous and not so challenging as I thought before. I also realized that if one has a financial setup th en getting into your own business is a much better option than getting into to s ervice sector. But this was certainly an experience of a lifetime. Time management in also a major component of any management personnel as without the proper management of time which is a major resource.Influence on academic decisions and career choices Nikhil Agrawal The skills learned in the internship program will be very useful for me both in my academics and my career ahead. success and efficiency is hard to achieve which shows the lack of competency in a person. Patience and time management skill is also one of the major skills I learnt in t he internship. Also the skills of analyz ing balance sheets. especially in Nepal to establish a l ifestyle of your kind here. The so called glamorous world is not so glamorous enough. Having patience during the pressure of work and also when working with non. which can be achieved earlier in business. It really takes a long time. creative and a good platform to use the knowledge learned throughout the year s. Rishabh Tibrewala This internship program was mainly like short real time training for me. My interpersonal and communication skills were also enhanced which would certainly stay with me for a lifetime and help me in every walk of life. I could identify which courses would be useful for me to go th rough to gain a competitive advantage in the industry. The more a person is acqua inted to the basics that his job acquires. I learn ed how there is a big difference in classroom learning and the real time working . Further. The dedication and commitment level with which the pe ople at the bank work was quite impressive and something to really learn about.cooperative clients is a major skill every professional should have. I got an opportunity to use our academic learning in practice and also learned how I should implement this i nto real life experiences. This industry is very interactiv e.

Large amounts of funds. environment protection. Risk of project funded being delayed by whether or shortage of building material s. It is also observed that the need to overc ome the shortcomings and weaknesses that have emerged in the course of involveme nt and participation of the private sector in the water resource sector. Out of the total hydr opower generation capacity of about 83. etc. the risks surrounding such projects are large and numerous. To analyze the practical implication of the theoretical aspects learnt during th e BBA program. Changes in interest rates may affect the lender s return on loan under fixed inter est rate.000 MW of power generation appears feasible to date from financial technical per spective. To gain a professional experience as an employee in a leading commercial bank of Nepal. clear. Availability of abundant water resources and geo-physical features provi de ample opportunities for hydropower production in Nepal. However. simple and transparent policy is necessary to enhance the developmen t process of hydropower. Objectives of the Study The prime objective of the undertaken project is To fulfill a course requirement of the BBA program at Kathmandu College of Manag ement. Prominent examples include oil refineries. etc. mines. In view of the contribution that hydropower development in Nepal could make in t he speedy development of not only the national economy but also the regional eco nomy. an investment frien dly. industrialization. power plants.PART II: Credit Appraisal of Hydropower Projects SECTION I: Introduction Brief background of the Study Water resources are important natural resources for the economic development of Nepal. Such efforts shall result in the economic devel opment. Laws and Regulations in the region or country where the project is being constru cted affecting adversely the completion time or the cost of the project. creation of em ployment opportunities in the country in addition to benefits from allocation of benefits substantially resulting to the lower riparian country from large stora ge projects built in Nepal. pipelines. about 4 2. flood control. it is expedient to put forward efforts on integrated water resources devel opment based on bilateral and regional cooperation with prime considerations to the national interests of Nepal. An open and liberal policy pursued in the hydropower se ctor after restoration of democracy has started yielding positive indications in the field of hydropower development. the major objective behind the carrying out the study can be summarized as follows Primary objective The most risky of all business loans are project loans which are credit to finan ce the construction of fixed assets designed to generate a flow of revenue in fu ture periods. Hence this study is done concentrating on the current situation of the Hydropowe . In view of the internal consumption and export possibility of hydropow er in the context of the overall development of the country. often several billion rupees.000 megawatt (MW) in the country. To gain practical knowledge of the banking activities and the laws governing the banking industry.

To critically assess hydropower projects in terms of various pillars. the following subsidiary objectives have been formulated: To get the overview of credit. Sin ce. The specific objective of this study is ding the existing projects and the upcoming ones and demand and the supply of hy Banks financing new upcomin to gather information regar assess the risk. the basics of credit appraisal are understood. It also explains procedures related to credit function of a bank. An industry analysis of hydropower sector o f Nepal is done and its strengths and weaknesses are assessed. It explains how ba nks assess a business and the risks related to it before providing it with credi t. To examine the critical risks factors in hydropower appraisal To examine the success factors. the attention of Nepal and all Nepalese is today focused in the hydropower s ector the purpose is tilted to the hydropower sector so that all the practicalit ies of the sector and its financing can be explored in greater detail. The study aims at understanding the dropower industry and analyzing the possibilities of g projects. To state other aspects that banks should consider during providing hydropower cr edit. It explains why hydropower is necessary for a country like Nepal. To analyze the competition To understand hydropower credit appraisal at banks To understand what are the extra things being done by competing banks To seek opportunities those are useful for HBL in hydropower appraisal. To examine the current position of HBL s credit business in reference to services offered. Secondary Objective To achieve the foresaid objective. In this study.r energy market. To Recommend and suggest regarding the above after analysis of information gathe red from various sources. Problem Statement The major decision problem can be stated as follows: What are the major factors both internal and external that has to be analyzed and enhanced in order to provide Hydropower sector with credit by the related bank? Research Problem The decision problem can be sub categorized into following Research Problems What are the environmental issues and risks that must be addressed? What are the strategic financial issues that must be addressed? What are the strategic market (existing and potential) issues that must be addre ssed? What are the risks associated with the 5 pillars of credit analysis for a hydrop ower project? Scope of the Study The study as explained in the objectives section is carried out with the purpose of understanding the scenario of project financing in the context of Nepal. Then this study emphasized on hydropower projects. The possible area .

In the course of the project preparation following major limitations was faced: Limited Time: The project was completed within a span of three months. Wi th limited information collected. . the study may not cover other relevant aspect of the topic under study. Lack of elaborate knowledge: Study is done on Credit issued by Himalayan bank o nly.s of risks are stated which needs to be stressed before providing loans. as the bank cou ld not. So it does not re flect the exact position of bank related to the Credit business. Hydropower projects could not be visited as they were located outsid e the valley. abundant statistical data could not be collected. Limitations of the study The study was not free from hindrances and problems. Scope of the topic: Since project financing is a broad topic. Geographical Constraint: The project includes study conducted within Kathmandu v alley only. Also being a student. so information about credit on other banks is not mentioned elaborately. which did not provide the su fficient information that was needed for conducting the study. Financial Problem: The project was funded fully by the students themselves. special focus has been made to tilt it to the Nepalese context and has been simplified as far as p ossible for a naïve reader s understandability. time and r esources. While conducting the indust ry analysis we noticed that no banks wanted to disclose related information. understandably. Limited Information: Because of the competition and privacy of the Bank's policy . disclose financial information. the study may not be as elaborative as it could have been. The suc cess factors are also given that lures banks for getting into this sector. limited by knowledge.

new technology. Wea knesses. Thus. Opportunities can arise when changes occur in th e external environment. polit ical and regulatory environment etc.SECTION II: General Literature Review SWOT Analysis SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths. much of which may not be highly relevant. a firm can better leverage its strengths. C. Internal Analysis The internal Analysis is a comprehensive evaluation of the internal environment s potential strengths and weaknesses. Thus it is necessary to appraise the credibility of the customer in order to mitigate the credit risk. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and iden tifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective. competitors.€Opportunities. financial resources. External Analysis: An opportunity is the chance to introduce a new product. Strengths can serve as a foundation for building a competitive advantage. Five Pillars of Credit analysis used at Himalayan Bank ltd. Because it concent rates on the issues that potentially have the most impact. b anks are normally interested in the actual loan amount to be repaid along with t he interest. organizational structure. and deter potentially devastating threats. The SWOT framework was described by Edmund P. But even though the loans are backed by the collateral. Credit Analysis at Himalayan Bank was done on the basis of Critical Five pillars of risk which are: . access to natural resources. correct its weaknesses. Proper evaluation of the customer is performed to m easure the financial condition and the ability of the customer to repay back the loan in future. Generally the credit facilities are extended against the securi ty know as collateral. service or project that can generate superior returns. economic environment. exclusive contracts et c. Credit risk is a risk related to non repayment of the credit obtained by the customer of a bank. Roland Christiansen. and weaknesses may hinder it. The SWOT analysis classifies the internal aspects of the company as str engths or weaknesses and the external situational factors as opportunities or th reats. the SWOT analysis is useful when a very limited amount of time is available to address a complex stra tegic situation. By understanding these four aspects of its situat ion. and€Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. operating effi ciency. Changes in the external environment may be related to cu stomers. capitaliz e on golden opportunities. Credit Appraisal is a process to ascertain the risks associated with the extensi on of the credit facility. Factors should be evaluated across the organ ization in areas such as company image. the customer's cash flows are ascertained to ensure the timel y payment of the principal and the interest. Kenneth Andrews and William D. market trends. It is generally carried by the financial institutions which are involved in providing financial funding to its customers. Guth. The SWOT analysis serves as an interpretative filter to reduce the information to a manageable quantity of key issues. Figure 6: SWOT Profile The internal and external situation analysis can produce a large amount of infor mation. Learned.

risk expo sure of foreign markets. The key risk areas that ar e examined are: Figure 8: Industry Analysis Industry Attractiveness: Industry attractiveness includes the industry structure. No b usiness can operate independently without any regulatory body behind it. Porter of Harvard Business Scho ol in 1979. price controls on key inputs lifted. Industry Structure: Porter's five forces analysis is a framework for the industry analysis and busin ess strategy development developed by Michael E. market structure and th e regulatory environment in which the client operates. and International Competition. This model is based on evaluation of the following 5 forces. elimination of price controls leading to competition. Regulatory Environment Industry attractiveness also depends largely on the regulatory environment.Industry Analysis Technical Risk Analysis Management Risk Analysis Financial Risk Analysis Security Analysis Figure 7: Five Pillar Credit Risk Analysis Industry Analysis Overall situation of the industry is studied which includes the demand and the s upply and the competition faced by particular client. volatile market and dominant competitors forcing out smaller players. The var ious aspects to be considered are Review regulations which govern industry Review recent changes & determine nature of future changes Evaluate impact of recent & political future changes Potential Risks areas are low entry barrier which means new players are allowed to enter market. The threat of substitute products The threat of the entry of new competitors The intensity of competitive rivalry The bargaining power of customers The bargaining power of suppliers Figure 9: Porter Five Force Industry Analysis Market Structure In-Depth Analysis of the market structure comprising of data related with Market size & growth during past 3-5 years Reasons for market growth or decline Market segmentation (Customers/Geography) Market share Seasonality of the business The potential risks areas under the market structure are related with shrinking market. . It uses concepts developed in Industrial Organization (IO) economics to derive five forces which determine the competitive intensity and therefore a ttractiveness of a market.

Competence The requirements related with the ability. private sector affiliation. e tc of the management. Financial Risk Analysis One of the most important pillars is the financial risk analysis which related t o the overall performance in monetary terms. A lso the cash flows of the project is evaluated. Liquidity The Liquidity of the firm needs to be assessed to check the client s ability to su stain in difficult times. The strength of securities i s the second way out i. Alliances The alliances of management with various individuals and institutions such as gr oup exposure. etc that may a ffect the overall performance of the business needs to be evaluated as well. competence and nature of alliances of the borrower s management tea m should be assessed. Financial ri sk analysis is done on the following aspects: Figure 10: Financial Risk Analysis Performance Evaluation of the performance of the company is done on the financial ratios cal culated on the past income statement and balance sheet or expected statements. The borrower s capacity to repay thro ugh cash flow is the first way out for all the banks. availability of after sales service. etc need to be evaluated. skills and competence to carry out the business.Company within the industry The bank also needs to understand the competitive position of the client in the industry which includes areas such as: Competitive position: the market share of the company Company strategy: strategy the company has utilized. Management risks relates with the overall skills required to carry out the project by the client and his management. Leverage . Supportiveness. the capability of the technology used. Management Risk Analysis The integrity. Coop erativeness. Other aspects to be considered a re the inventory quality. experience. cost of maintenance and replacement. availabilit y of such manpower. These skills may be: Integrity : The honesty. Appropriate technical competence of the manpower. Character & Track record. through collateral liquidation is also assessed. the asset quality etc. and Alliances: alliances with various institutions Technical Risk Analysis The strength and quality of the technical support required for sustainability op eration of the company in terms of manpower and the technology used should also be given due care. Quality/ Reliability of information. Analysis of the financial performance of the company is very important as the cl ient is served with money with the main aim of recovering with the cash flow of the client and not by sale of collateral or exercising other means.e. Consistency & Quality of communication with bank. political affiliations.

legal process. the fixed assets may not recover anything. Solvency Ratios€are ratios which give a picture of a company's ability to generate cash flow and pay it financial obligations. Financial Ratio Analysis Financial ratio analysis is the calculation and comparison of ratios which are d erived from the information in a company's financial statements. The FAC (Fixed Asset Collateral) Security does not compl etely cover the risks as the fixed assets may not fetch adequate return under ci rcumstances of bad loan. An overview of some of t he categories of ratios is given below: Leverage Ratios€are ratios which show the extent that debt is used in a company's capital structure. Hence for this. Other security: Often various other securities such as land. Equity analysts look more to the operational and profitability ratios. its operations and attractiveness as an investment. technology replacement. where the bank might have to sell off the property to recov er the loan. The various aspects tha t should be considered are liquidation value.The leverage of the firm needs to be addressed as well so make sure the firm is maintaining. exercise against fraud. This security can be in terms of control or mitigation measures. Financial ratio analysis groups the ratios into categories which tell us about d ifferent facets of a company's finances and operations. Control Control by the bank of the project can be in terms of legal rights. time of scale. focus on the "downside" risk since they gain none of the upside from an improvement in operations. Operational Ratios€are ratios which use turnover measures to show how efficient a company is in its operations and use of assets. A bank provides credit which is very risky and it should be backed by certain se curity that can be exercised under extreme conditions where the project cannot p ay back the loan amount. insurance etc. opportunity cost. Profitability Ratios€are ratios which use margin analysis and show the return on s ales and capital employed. quality. to determine the future profits that will accrue to the shareholder. the loan officer can shed light on critical areas . They pay great attention to liquidity and leverage r atios to ascertain a company's financial risk. market demand. etc. building. bank nee ds to consider various other factors as security and finance the project only if the bank thinks it s worth the investment considering the project will be a succe ss for sure. The project is built in such areas where the land value is very low and the proposed site may not be useful for other purposes. By careful selection of items from a borrower s balance sheets and income statements. Liquidity Ratios€are ratios which gives a picture of a company's short term financ ial situation or solvency. Under t he case of bad loan. Credit analysts. The level and h istorical trends of these ratios can be used to make inferences about a company' s financial condition. those interpreting the financial ratios from the prospects of a lender. machinery etc are placed as security whose distressed value is taken as a backup. exe cution of the security documents and present value of the properties proposed fo r mortgage to the bank. quantity. documentatio n. Security Analysis The control over various securities obtained by the bank to secure the loan.

in business lending as A borrowing customer s ability to control expenses A borrower s operating efficiency in utilizing resources to generate sales and cas h flow. The amount of financial leverage (or debt relative to equity capital) a business borrower has taken. The borrower s track record of profitability or net income. The borrower s liquidity position. The marketability of the borrower s product line. Whether a borrower faces significant contingent liabilities that may give rise t o substantial claims in the future. . The coverage that earnings provide over a business s firm s financing cost. indicating the availability of ready cash.

SECTION III: Conceptual Framework The works of the project was guided by the following conceptual framework. the cash fl ow etc. Other factors to be considered: Exploration of other factors affecting the succe ss of hydropower projects and the loan becoming good or bad at the bank. Figure 11: Conceptual Framework for the project These variables are discussed below. dam size etc. Hydropower Industry Direction: The study of how the hydropower industry is growi ng along with the trends in the developments of various aspects of hydropower th at affect the overall industry. Industry Risk affecting banks: certain risks related with the industry attractiv eness and the stake of particular company within the industry and the regulatory environment under which it works. Legal Requirements of Hydropower: Various documents and phases that a hydropower project has to go through to obtain licenses such as registration. . Management risks affecting banks: Risks related with integrity. Energy Market Growths: Trends in the energy demands and increased number of cons umer requirements affecting the market for energy sources such as hydropower. Financial risks to banks: Risks related with performance. Competence and a lliances of management or human resource requirements for operations of hydropow er project. Legal Requirements of Banks: Legal documentation and requirements that bank need to fulfill to undertake a project financing. PPA agreemen ts etc. HR requirements of Hydropower: Workforce and other human resource requirements f or the construction operation of a hydropower project. Affecting the hydropower project Affecting the credibility of a hydropower project at the bank. These variables may be divided into two major groups. liquidity and leverage of the firm as a borrower. Financial Requirements of Hydropower: includes all the financial aspects that af fect the hydropower industry such as the various sources of finance. Technical Requirements of Hydropower: includes all the technical aspects of a hy dropower project such as the tunnel length. Technical risks affecting banks: Technical risks of the hydropower project that affects the credibility of the project towards the bank. Vario us variables were studied to assess the prospects of hydropower as a client for the bank for its credit products.

SECTION IV: Methodology of the Project This part deals with the various methodologies and approaches that we used durin g the study and for the preparation for this report. practices and th e rules and regulations that bind all the employees together. The descriptive research aimed at recommending new solutions for proble ms that exist and formulating better strategies to get an upper hand on while fi nancing the projects. we were able to understand: The procedures by which the bank moves forward with project financing The pros and cons of financing a hydropower project and why is it a priority len ding sector for most of the commercial banks What information the bank needs for the better and efficient functioning of the appraisal of hydropower project loans The rationales of each step of the appraisal process Phase 3: Descriptive Research In this phase of research. Thus as a part of the research. Most of the data of this re port is based on secondary data from various sources and also based on both info rmal and formal interviews with department head of the bank and other various in dustry experts. conducts. Study Approach The study necessary for the preparation of the report was conducted in these thr ee phases: Figure 12: Phases of Research Phase 1: Observation and Adaptation At this preliminary stage. interviews we re conducted with the HBL s employees and also with people with expertise related to credit and hydropower projects was conducted in order to gain required infor mation regarding project financing and identifying their internal strengths and weakness in this particular sector. This in-depth interview helped us to come out with the basic req uired information for the study. This descriptive research mainly comprised of two parts: Qualitative research Quantitative research Qualitative Research The qualitative research comprised of these various processes and parts for gath ering valuable and meaningful information: Review of literatures and lectures . we observed the working environment of HBL. identification of the core components of HBL and also of the hydr opower industry in Nepal was done. the opportunities it provides to the bank s financing the projects. Phase 2: Exploratory Research In this phase. the focus was to find the viability of the hydropower industry in Nepal. It also helped in designing the assignment a long with its methodology and approach. After conducting the unstructured in depth interviews with the managers of the c redit department of HBL. We tried to make ourselves a part of the organization s culture. the areas that the banks focus upon while appraising t he projects and economical viability of financing the projects for the commercia l banks. its pros and cons. Our co-workers and mentors helped us to adopt the work environment and to complete the various tas ks assigned to us in the due course of our internship duration.

Relationship Manager. Further. analysis of annual report of HBL and study of vario us other publications were done. In-depth interview with other experienced personnel in this field of other banks To collect the information for the project and to get deeper insight about the h ydropower appraisal in the commercial banks in the country. Credit Department. Rajendra Bahadur Shrestha. Sohan Babu Khatri. Director. the senior manager of the bank was con sulted for the same. based on the interviews of Mr. Pawan Agrawal and Mr. interviews were cond ucted with personnel of other banks as well. Relationship Manager. In. Abhaya Bahadur Shah. We also studied the rules and r egulations governing the credit appraisal system in the banking environment. Some of these personnel are: Mr. the analys is of the financial strength of NEA was sought to be necessary for the viability analysis of any project. Transmission etc. incorporating new v entures. Publications and Statistical Reports Various publications and statistical reports that provide quantitative data on h ydropower plants. and starting new operations in the bank Financial Analysis of NEA Since NEA is the sole purchaser of electricity from the power plants. an in depth interview was conducted with these personnel of HBL: Mr. Quantitative Research The quantitative research comprises of following different type of the research and analysis tools as follows: Financial Analysis of HBL For qualitative information. its operation and growth. Credit officer. Customer Relation Department (Exp ertise: Experience of consortium lending in various projects and critical analys ts of the loan proposals sent to the department) Assignment 2. This helped in construction of unstructured questionnaire for vis iting different banks and interviewing credit officers for the practical underst anding of the subject. Credit Control Department (Expertise: Deep kn owledge in hydropower project financing for a long time) Mr. which serves as a major base for growth. PCBL Mr. have been analyzed. Pawan Agrawal. articles were reviewed and studied to have the in depth theoretical understanding of credit appraisal and of the hydropower indust ry as a whole.depth interview with the credit managers of the bank To collect information about the process of project financing in HBL and also ab out the opportunities and challenged in the hydropower project financing. This analysis helped in depicting the level of financial st rength of the bank. DCBL Mr. The necessary details were found in the annual report of NEA and other publications it issues like Generation. DCBL Study of Rules and Regulations Thorough study of NRB directives prescribed for project financing was done to un derstand the regulatory environment of the same. . Abhaya Bahadu r Shah has been included in the appendix. literatures. Amit Bajracharya.Different books.

SECTION V: Industry Analysis Banking sector as a whole All branches of economic activity today are fundamentally dependent on access to financial services. Over the years the importance of financial sectors development and its contribut ion to nations Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been evident. and risk management. finance companies. and the challenge of attracting prod uctive investments in a competitive international environment. Thus. altogether 235 banks and non-bank financial insti tutions licensed by NRB are in operation. employee's provident fund. accentuates the n eed to maintain a healthy and efficient financial sector. in order to capitalize on the e xisting scenario Nepalese financial sector seriously needs focus its activities in attaining higher economic growth. The Nepalese financial sector is composed of banking sector and non-banking sect or. with particular benefits for SMEs that are often constrained in their fin ancing options prior to effective banking reforms and non-bank financial sector development. underpinned by soun d macroeconomic management and prudential regulation. With two large economies growing at a massi ve speed Nepal has a lot to gain from its neighbours. non-government organizatio ns (NGOs) performing limited banking activities and other financial institutions such as insurance companies. The current financial institutions market in Nepal clearly delineates a developi ng market with tremendous potential. parti cularly the financial sector liberalization that paved the way for establishment of new banks and non-bank financial institutions into the country. the numbers belie the mu ch larger role that this industry plays in the economy. The con tinuing globalization of economic activity. In addition to this. and the efficiency of such well-deve loped systems has contributed to macroeconomic stability and sustained economic growth and prosperity. is an essential ingredient for sustained growth. FSS comprises over 9. Conversely. Financial services firms provide the payment services and financial products that enable households and firms to participate in the broader economy. At the beginning of 1980s there were only two commercial bank and tw o development banks. Hence. they fuel the modern capi talistic society. financial systems deliver a broad range of fin ancial services and sophisticated products. co-operative financial institutions. During the last two and half decades the Nepalese financial system has grown sig nificantly. robust growth and effective functioning of a full service fin ancial system is essential for economic development and prosperity. macroeconomic instability emanating from weak nesses in the financial sector can undermine the process of development. micro-credit de velopment banks. the r ecent peace agreement and sign of political stability in the country has further paved a way for prosperous future ahead.91percent of the GDP in the Nepal. A healthy and stable financial system. However. postal saving offices and Nepal stock exchange. citizen investment trus t. 25 are "A" class commerci . this bulletin contai ns information only on those financial institutions. Out of them. by the end of mid July 2008. it is the diversified intermediation and risk mana gement services of the financial system which have made possible the development of modern economies. In almost all advanced economies. Banking sector comprises Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB) and commercial banks. extension of credit. While impressive. By offering vehicles for investment of savings. Consequently . In fact. After the adoption of economic liberalization policy. which are licensed by NRB u p to mid-July 2008. The n on-banking sector includes development banks. Increased availability of funding and more efficient allo cation of capital for productive private sector investment is beneficial economy -wide.

62 percent per annum and reached to Rs. Of the total deposits Rs. 12 "D" class micro-credit development banks.0 million in mid-July 2008 from Rs. The structure of financial assets/liabilities shows that commercial bank alone h old more than 80 percent of the total assets and liabilities of the financial sy stem. The same ratio was 62. micro credit development bank 1.0 percent. liquid funds 13. 3. the .2 percent follow ed by finance companies 11.12 percent in the previous year.65 percent r espectively in mid July 2008. The ratio of total assets/liabilities of the financial system to GDP at nominal prices increased to 86.04 percent in mid-July 2001.05 followed by borrowing 4. In the mid-July 2008 the total assets registered a higher growth of 21.2 percent.508905.8 percent and 0.2 million in mid-July 2001.9 percent and 1.0 percent. As of mid July 2008 commercial bank group occupied the 80. 9.al banks. 58 "B" class development banks. The respective shares were 84. 78 "C" class finance companies. loan and advances acc ounted the largest share of 55.7 million in mid-July 2008. The composition of the total liabilities shows as usual.96 percent in mid-Jul y 2007. Likewise in the assets side.43 percent followed by investments 17.44 percent and capital fund 3.67 percent in the same year.706324.2 percent.05 percent at mid-July 2008 from 80.273946. development bank 5.26 perce nt compared to 15.86 percent and other assets 13. deposit held dominant s hare of 72. Commercial banks held dominate share on the major balance sheet components of fi nancial system. During the period 2001 to 2008 the total asse ts of whole financial system increased by 14.9 percent in mid-J uly 2007. the total assets/liabilities of the financial system witnessed continuous growth over the last seven years. and 4 6 NGOs as shown in table below: Table 2: Financial Institutions in Nepal Type of FI 80 Mid-July 85 90 95 00 5 2 98 05 10 3 21 181 06 13 7 45 4 6 193 07 17 26 60 7 19 208 08 18 28 70 11 20 7 235 Commercial Banks 2 3 20 25 Development Banks 2 2 38 58 Finance Companies 74 78 Micro Credit Development Banks 11 12 12 Saving and Credit Cooperatives 19 17 16 NGOs (limited Banking activities) 47 47 47 46 Total 4 5 7 44 As an increased in number of financial institutions as well as volume of transac tions.8 percent and others 1.04percent.4 percent. 16 saving and credit co-operatives.

7 perc ent in mid July 2008.commercial banks occupied 83. Less than 40% of Nepalese currently have acce ss to electricity and those who do have electricity are reeling under a (up to 4 . investment and liqui d funds registered the 19. The borrowings and deposit. the total assets i.09 percent in mi d July 2008 from 46.7 percent. another component of liabilities.51 percent compared to 14. Likewise. Chamelia and Kulekhani 3 by NEA and other IPP projects there is a possibility that the new total from the se additions would result in the new figure of 797 MW. By the end of this fiscal year the total assets of commercial banking sector re ached to Rs. In the prec eding year the respective share were 19. Hydropower industry It was in the late 60s that a sensation was created by declaring that Nepal has a theoretical hydropower potential of 83. the deposit has o ccupied the dominant share of 75. The respective shares of depo sit.e. Of this 463 MW is contributed by N EA and the remaining 156 MW is contributed by Independent Power Producers (IPPs) .7 million in the last year. Similarly. The composition of liabilities of commercial banks shows that.3 percent and 90. development banks 5.6 901. on the loans and advances the share of comme rcial banks stood at 78.1 million in the last year.50 percent and reached to Rs. increased by 17.80 percent respectively. 391537.25778. witnessed a strong growt h of 273.3 percent.11 percent in m id July 2008 compared to the previous year respectively. Similarly.6 percent.0 percent.10 percent while other liabiliti es decreased by 0.3 percen t and others 0.55 percent and 18.5 percent respectively.06 percent and 8. micro credit development banks 1. The capital fund.8 million in mid July 2007.22 percent an d liquid fund 11.27 percent and reached to R s. development banks 6. Over four decades have elapsed.1 percent. Despite the fact that Nep al has such abundance of hydropower potential.22 percent and 11.2 percent. Entry of new banks in financial system along with increased in the business.98 percent. With the commissioning of Middle Marsyangdi Project. borrowing and capital fund in the previous year were 68. 638.8 percent and others 0.66 percent in mid July 2007.79 percent.09 percent followed by total investment 19. The share of loans and advances to total assets increased to 54.11 percent compared to last year 2007. 736.45 percent in the previous year.60 pe rcent and 8.3 p ercent.291605.566. micro credit development banks 0.98 percent. one of the components of liabilities. sources of fund of commercial banks went up by higher rate of 15.54 percent a nd capital fund 1. it has dismally failed in tapping this vast and essential resource. finance companies held 10. Similarly.18 percent followed by borrowing 2.000 MW and economic potential of 42. Commercial banks The total number of banks operating in the country are 25(as of 2008) and the nu mber of commercial bank branches has increased to 555 in mid July 2008 from 452 in the last year. finance compan ies 13.7 million in mid July 2008 from Rs.0 million in mid July 2008 from Rs. liquid funds and investments constituted 45.76 percent in the mid July 2008.9 percent. The liquid fund and investment increased by 58. Ever since this disclosure Nepalese in all walks of life were hopeful of th e speedy harnessing of the enormous hydro resources and the resultant inflow of hydro dollars into the country for the overall upliftment of the nation's econom y. 68. In the same year the share of commercial banks in borrowin gs. Of the component of assets. loans and advances occupied the highest share of 54. 2.80 percent in the same year. The current level of hydropower generation in Nepal stands at a meager level of 619 MW.0 million from Rs.490.55 percent and 30.000 MW. but very little has been achieved in the coun try regarding hydropower development. loans and ad vances the major component of assets increased by 34.

This slow pace of development of hydropower in Nepal is in sharp contrast to the situation in the immediate neighboring countries. Huge potential in Nepal There is a huge untapped potential in the Hydroelectricity sector of Nepal with only 1% of the potential being generated at the current situation. Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim have seen an ups urge in hydropower development especially on the strength of the very progressiv e incentives the developers are receiving for hydropower investment. Furthermore. Initially huge number is required for the construction phase but in the l atter stage when the generation starts.2003. Low human resources required Hydropower projects are capital intensive projects and are not focused upon labo r intensity. The states have unbundled their monoli thic power utilities and electricity has become a commodity for trade.e. This shows a huge opportunity in investment in this sector as not only the country is facing a huge deficit in supply but also as an opportunity to export it to other countr ies at competitive prices. In Ind ia. Weakness of Hydropower Sector in Nepal Financial incapability as high initial investment Hydropower projects are capital intensive projects requiring huge initial capita l outlay. Minimal cost of raw materials Water is abundant in our country and the producer has to bear minimum cost of ra w materials i. In additio n Bhutan has many mega projects ready in the pipeline for implementation. Hence these projects bear very low costs for human resource and lab orers. This also helps understand the potentials and the limitations of hydropower projects in Nepal. Small hil l states such as Himachal Pradesh.2 hour per week) load shedding schedule. Bhutan has forged an alliance with India and is forging ahead with a fast pace in implementing major hydropow er projects and is already exporting 1500 MW of electricity to India. there are no indications t hat this bleak situation is likely to improve in the foreseeable future. SWOT analysis of hydropower A SWOT analysis of the hydropower sector has been done below to understand the e xternal and the internal environment. Strengths of Hydropower Sector in Nepal Low running cost Hydropower projects involve high initial investments but in the latter stage the administrative and maintenance costs for running the project is at minimum comp ared to the cash flow generated from the project. a hydropower plant requires only a few e ngineers and some maintenance staffs. . a sea change has occurred in the sphere of power development after promulgat ion of the Indian Electricity Act . This possesses a big threat for financing projects as a wrong decision may result in locking up of a significant amount of capital. water in the form of royalty paid to the government for paying the national asset of water resources.

Skilled Manpower unavailability Nepal faces a huge shortage for skilled manpower especially for the engineers re lated to this field due to the brain-drain resulting mainly due to the worldwide shortage of Hydropower engineers. A summary of this is shown below whi ch clearly shows 145% increase in the past 10 years. the demand for electr icity for irrigation has also rises. Opportunities of Hydropower Sector in Nepal Increasing demand The establishment of new industries and expansion of the capacity of consumer go ods industries have led to a considerable increase in the consumption of electri city in Nepal. Such conditions of the sole purchaser can act as the major weakness any upcoming projects that are coming up. . Increased number of customers As shows in Appendix 9. huge administrative expens es etc. NEA has been operating in losses due to various reasons such as electrici ty leakages. Research has found that energy efficiency for hydro-electric ity ranges from 83 to 93 per cent compared to 65 per cent efficiency for coal fi red electric plants and 60 per cent for nucleated electric facilities. inability to collect payments and debts. Apart from the programs of electrification. demand by the retail consumer has also increased.Poor past performance of NEA NEA is the sole purchaser of electricity generated by the various hydropower pro jects. Furthermore. the number of consumers are ever increasing and the dema nd of electricity is increasing every year.

biomass accoun ts for 98% while electricity accounts for only 0. More than 50% of India's c ommercial energy demand is met through the country's vast coal reserves. There i s a huge potential market for Nepal to export to India as well.611 10.53. Potential to replace other forms of energy Of the total energy consumption of 288 million GJ in rural Nepal. it poses a threat also as other sources may be cheaper and readily available. Purchase from neighboring country In 2007. In a program on use of alternative energy for promotion of mi cro.935 11.855 12.77. other sources of energy are intensively used which can be replaced by hydropower generated en ergy.45. the demand for energy has grown at an average of 3.813 15.Table 3: Number of Consumers of Electricity in Nepal Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 No.6%.24.992 8.1% of the total energy consumes and petroleum products comprise of 1.59. . The Indian government has permitted Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) t o purchase 23 MW of electricity from the Power Trading Corporation of India (PTC ).40 per unit.97. This deal was done at a rate of IRs 4. Minister for Industry Mrs.6% per annum over the past 30 years. accounting for 3.363 6.22.73.979 7. Threats of Hydropower Sector in Nepal Alternative sources of energy Just as potential to replace other forms of energy is an opportunity area for hy dropower development.447 13.535 9.610 Potential to export to India India is world's 6th largest energy consumer.70. cottage and small industries in Nepal. This may pose a big threat to the hydropower sector if many more such contracts are signed. Even in the urban areas. Due to India's economic rise. of Consumers 6.4% of global ener gy consumption.84. Asta Laxm i Shakya talked about use of alternative energy for small industry.

To resolve this issue. thereby presenting big challenges in bridging the gap between supply and de mand of electricity in Nepal. Hydro 1046 1747 1798 2.100 114 Sunkosi 10.000 842 Marshyangdi 69. Thermal 118 2000 326 1701 1233 66 2001 351 1868 1113 27 2002 391 2066 1113 17 2003 426 2261 1478 4 2004 470 2380 1345 9 2005 515 2642 1522 13 2006 557 2780 1568 16 .800 93 Devighat 14. The 11.200 48 Avg Annual Production in Other small hydropower projects of NEA have an installed capacity of 18380 KW. 1 60. EDCF Korea and the British Government and in assistance of donor agencies such as World Bank. Porter's five forces analysis. Porter of Harvard Business School in 1979 is used.000 165 Kulekhani No.000 105 Trisuli 24. a framework developed by Michael E. GTZ etc.000 163 Gandak 15. Table 5: Demand of Energy Particulars 1999 2007 2008 Peak Demand (MW) 603 648 721 Available (GWh) 1475 3051 3180 1. IMF. Acco rding to this.050 70 Puwakhola 6.44. The key player in the market is Nepal Electricity Authority which has developed various projects individually and in aid with the Government of Japan.76% growth in energy demand aggravated this situation. 2 32. During the year 2007/08.31% growth in peak power deman d and 10.000 463 Kulekhani No.SECTION VI: Analysis of Credit Five pillars of credit analysis Industry For the purpose of industry analysis. industry attractiveness is assessed based on five factors which a re discussed below: The intensity of competitive rivalry: The total installed capacity of hydropower electricity generated in Nepal is 611 MW out of which 157. People s Republic of China. steps were being carried ou t to utilize maximum efficiency of the available resources. Governmen t of India. But even the step of carrying out import through trading of power from Indian short term market coul d not offset the unbalance and thus the nation faced multiple hours of load shed ding which even reached 48 hours per week.000 106 Modi Khola 14. The major hydropower projects owned by Nepal Electricity Authority are as follow s: Table 4: Hydropower Projects in Nepal Name of the Project Installed Capacity in KW GWh KaliGandaki "A" 1.34 MW is generated by private sectors. new records of demand of power and energy were experien ced. This situation i tself explains the need and viability of hydropower projects in Nepal.

13 9 3. Purchase (Total) 1196 1291 1372 India 232 232 412 Nepal 77 169 960 309 226 501 401 238 698 727 149 628 936 186 838 778 241 864 1025 266 930 1106 328 962 .

30 4. Petroleum. one in Kathmandu and one is Dang.620. developments have been made in this sector. no proven reserves of petroleum suitable for commercial exploitation hav e been found in Nepal. 1. Coal is in many countr ies among the cheapest sources of energy known.00 7.018.971. Diesel-pow er is expensive for this nation also Nepal doesn't need any diesel-powers if it can establish hydropower.163.870.40 2. I . are believed to be insignificant in terms of the energy demand. Nep al needs to import fuel/diesel from India.929. This all petroleum products consumed are imported in refi ned form for direct consumption.70 967.00 11.40 878.60 1. Natural Gas.300. Based on this the industry looks to be very attractive. and Coal So far.984.770.053. Diesel-power comprises of less than 4% of the total projects and hence often is ignored.206.176.70 All this shows that even though new projects are coming up in Nepal. for which.80 1. Solar Energy The government has earmarked Rs.20 5.20 6.640.30 1.851.20 8. Even these depos its.40 793.510. the local d emand is immensely high. The substitutes of Hydropower are as follows : Diesel Plants: There are a few diesel power plants in the country.859. since it doesn't have oil.10 2.741.20 3.545.870.403.80 4.60 2.40 12.1 billion for subsidy on the installation of solar panels even in the urban centers and will encourage each household to inst all a solar panel.430.218. natural gas. locations are in abundant.349.10 4.70 6.882.90 2.562.10 14.00 10.387.951. Two deposits are believed to hav e some economic significance.271.80 1. however.20 1.00 11. it seems to be very small and the amount of investment in this sector is huge.90 9.80 8. Also if the local demand is fully satisfied.052. The threat of substitute products: Various substitutes of Hydropower energy are available but the potential is not as much as there is for Hydropower.603. has a lso not been discovered as yet in any significant amount. The alternative fossil fuel. Though recently.Table 5: Future load calculation Energy 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 2013/2014 2014/2015 2015/2016 2016/2017 2017/2018 2018/2019 2019/2020 2020/2021 2021/2022 2022/2023 2023/2024 2024/2025 2025/2026 in GWh Peak Load in MW 3.906.90 1.20 2.056.10 13.10 2.90 5. there is always room for export to countries like India where the demand is unsatisfied and they are ready to purc hase electricity.10 1. But Nepal is completely a hy dropower nation given the comparison of projects by their capacity.363.70 1.

860 kW The above table illustrates that though the hydropower industry is being flooded by many upcoming projects. So this reduces the risk of paym ent not being received from the customer s side. As a bank. the Power Trade Department of NEA has concluded 6 PPAs. either they are not economically viable or ve ry difficult to cultivate.453 kW Projects under general technical review 7 IPPs 72. still there is opportunity for newer projects to com e in to cater the unutilized potential of the hydropower industry in Nepal. In course of operations. The following chart summarizes the PPA related activities o f NEA in FY 07/08. Before building a project. a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) is concluded where NEA signs an agreement to purchase total capacity of the project at certai n rates. there are no risk factors to it. Belkhu Khola 2. Once the agreement is signed. The tota l number of PPAs concluded with IPPs has now reached 39 with a total installed c apacity of 234/1 MW. major costs include the civil and the electromech anical parts. the PPA assignment is taken over and all the payments made to the pow er project are routed through the lending bank. Thought substitutes are available. Hewa Khola 2400 5.nvestors have not either explored this sector or the returns are satisfactory. Table 6: PPA Concluded in the FY 2007/08 IPP Projects kW 1. Siuri Khola 990 4. Tinau Khola 990 Total 6681 320 991 Draft PPA Prepared 6 IPPs 6350 kW Connection Agreements Requested 7 IPPs 34. The maintenance contract is an important part to this as maintenance when not d . 7/unit during lasts for 4 months and Rs. The threat of the entry of new competitors: During the fiscal year 2007/08. The current rates dry season which s it is sure that mpany has any say for purchase of electricity have been set at Rs. They in total comprise of about 80% of the cost of building a plan t. and is ready to sign 6 PPAs with the draft agreements prepared. 4/unit during wet Seasons. Upper Hadi Khola 3. Lower Piula 990 6. The bargaining power of customers: The main customer of a Hydropower Project in Nepal is the Nepal Electricity Auth ority. Each hydropower plant has to pay certain royalty for the use of the river t o the government. The bargaining power of suppliers: During the construction phase. Hence the risk from substitute products is very less. The suppliers for there are available easily and one can gain competitive pri ces from them. the only input for a Hydropower plant is the flowing wa ter.935 kW Projects under Detail Technical Review 10 IPPs 66. With thi the buyer market is regulated and neither the buyer not the co or risk in this segment.

86 -13.21 (e) Net Fixed Assets 68.20% 1.56 15.73% € € 56 130 942 -725 161 68. in Mil. For the financial analysis.7 73.00% 0.66 0.05% € 0.61 0.58 . banks should take into consideration two major thing s. The strength of securities is the second way out i.45 (b) Net Working Capital* -8.76 € 35. the financial statement of NEA (Provided in the Appendix) has been analyzed for security assessment.97 (c ) Net Trading Assets -11.47 22.19% 1.7 (d) Net Worth 15.61 13.54% -8.39 € 59 107 839 -667 € 74.53 -15.09% € 0.43 0.22 52.49 17.49 -15.e.41 0.93 47.32 88.49 0.45 0. Also the cash flow should be assessed based on the repayment terms.one timely can create huge costs. Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Cash Flow A financial report should be provided by the consultant which includes the above aspects.74% -7. NEA being the sole purchaser of electricity in Nepal.7 21.04 -17.) (a) Sales 12.37 € 61 112 894 -703 € 73.67% ( c) Return on Capital Employed Liquidity Indicators (times) € (a) Current Ratio 0.70% 78. The NPV of any project should be positive with an IRR of at least 14%.62 € 37.54 Profitability Indicators (% ) € (a) Gross Profitability 40.16 0.85% -9.23 (f) Total Bank Loan O/S 44.20% 0.73 46. Financial analysis The borrower s capacity to repay through cash flow is the first way out for all the banks.45 (b) Quick Ratio 0.33 14.80% (b) Net Profitability -8.6 -12.53 0. This analysis has been done on the basis of financial ratios calculated as follows: Table 7: Key Financial Indicators of NEA 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 Volume Indicators (Rs.03 80. through collateral li quidation is also assessed.38 Efficiency Indicators (days) € (a) Stock days in hand 67 (b) Average Collection Period (c ) Average Payment Period 820 (d) Net Operating Cycle -646 Financing Ratios € € (a) D/E Ratio (Overall in %) (b) Interest Cover (times)** Altman's Z Score 0.50% -11.48% 1.41 -10.49 € 37.23% -5.

The average collection period has also increased in the past years. which contributes to t he major portion of losses.Results of Financial Ratio Analysis Sales of electricity have a steady growth of 7% (average). The Interest coverage ratio has also been largely reduced this year. The major uses of funds have been to pay the interests and purchase of fixed a ssets.2%. This enables the bank to get an assurance that there capital is not under ri sk even if the project runs into loss. plant and equipment.98 Arab in t he current year. According to the Du Pont analysis. According to the report of NEA. 2. 3. The gross profitability of the NEA is good with approximately 37% but the net pr ofitability is very poor as a result of high interest expenses. This can also be seen as the debt is increased by 11% in 2007/2008 bu t the interest expense has increased by 51%. . the foreign exchange fluctuation has huge impact on the profits.492 million to Rs.70 per kWh.45. The major sources of funds have been through issue of shares and long term loans . The aspects are: Capability: The bank looks into the profile of the promoters and looks into their capability of repayment if in case the project goes in loss due to some reason. The Altman s Z score has been more or less stable in the past four years. The Current ratio has been decreasing as trade debtors have been increasing. the cost of service to them stands at Rs. and main taining a DE ratio of 70/30 would be difficult. the bank looks into these various aspects of the management to make sure that there credit is utilized pro perly and in good hands. which is a negative indicator. 7. The ROA and the ROE of NEA is negative. This shows low amount of sales as compar ed to what the assets should actually return. 1607 million. which should be around 2. The overall D/E Ratio has reached 78. economic strength e tc. A corporat e guarantee is taken and also their profile is analyzed properly to understand w hat their social stature is. 6.61 Million according to NEA s annu al report. Management During the appraisal process of a hydropower project. They have a leakage of 25% and the losses from this have been Rs. Furthermore.40 p er kWh whereas the revenue rate is only Rs. The current ratio. a negative ROE is a result of a negative prof it margin and a low asset turnover. which is relatively very high. is only 0. which is relatively very low. The cash flow from operations has also decreased in the past year from Rs. This along with the c urrent situation of demand and supply shows a good future for upcoming projects. what is there business profile. The losses amounti ng from foreign exchange fluctuation is NRs 480.

. lock outs. Politically influential partnership: Since the whole process of acquiring a license for the project. Technical capability: The bank always prefers a few people having the technical knowledge in the BoD o r the promoters as this ensures that the project is in the hands of the people w ho know about the details of the project and will not compromise with quality of the project and also will not allow irrelevant cost. labor problems etc ensuring the smooth flow of operations in the project res ulting in lower cost implications of interests and other expenses. Furthermore hydropower industry is a capital intensive industry. Community participation: It is always a plus point for the lenders when the project involves the direct p articipation of the local community and especially the influential community lea ders.Experience: Further a bank sees the experience of the promoters in the field of hydropower o r other major huge projects. This ensures the shield against unwanted social problems. doing feasibilit y study. T his is important especially because the political instability bringing in new mi nisters in short whiles so having a good influence in the secretarial level and other important levels is of utmost importance. The major Human Resources required for the operations of a hydropower are engineers and mechani cs that need to look after the maintenance and repairs when needed. strik es. They are more comfortable to extend loans to the pr omoters who have had the experience in the related industry which assures them t hat these promoters have experienced the hardships faced during the hydropower p roject construction and thus are prepared for investing in hydropower projects w ith full confidence. it is always recommended to have a project partner a person who has good links in the political system especially the DoED and NEA. The demand of engineers is too high worldwide and qualified engineers are less in number. The major co sts associated with such projects are of the engineers. conducting PPA agreement and acquiring transmission process is a troubl esome and lengthy process.

The most common type of turbin e for hydropower plants is the Francis Turbine.The transformer inside the powerhouse takes the AC and converts it to higher-voltage current.05 Devighat 14. Transmission line: The location of the nearest substation and the operational qu ality of the sub-station may affect the overall project. hydropower plants produce about 24 percent of the world's electricity and supply more than 1 billion people with power. creating a lar ge reservoir. Here are the basic components of a hydropower plant: Figure 13: Working of a Hydropower Plant Dam . Head size: The size of the Head affects the flow of the water and determines how much output can be gained in dry and wet seasons. Water builds up pressure as it flows thro ugh this pipe. Turbine .1 2 Puwa Khola 6. Power lines . Transformer .Most hydropower plants rely on a dam that holds back water. according to the Foundation for Water & Energy Ed ucation (FWEE). Generators . MW n Mode Kali Gandaki A 144 Marsyangdi 69 3 Kulekhani I 60 2 Kulekhani II 32 Trishuli 24 Gandak 15 6 Modi 14.Technical Efficient operation of a power plant requires experienced and hard working manpo wer together with schedule for regular inspection and maintenance. Th ings that should be taken into consideration are as follows: Tunnel/Canal: A tunnel based hydropower will cost high whereas a canal based hyd ropower may reduce the costs drastically. A small overs ight may sometimes become the cause of a large damage having wider implications of both cost and time.Out of every power plant come four wires: the three phases of powe . of operators per shift and operation mode in various hydropower plant s Power Plants Capacity. this reservoir is used as a recreational lake.Gates on the dam open and gravity pulls the water through the penstock. The civil costs may go up to 6 0% of the total project cost and the Electromechanical costs me go up to 35%. Intake . A turbine can weigh as much as 172 tons and turn at a rate of 90 revolutions per minute (rpm). Hydropower plants are actually based on a rather simp le concept. Often. Technical Aspects of the hydropower plant should be assessed properly with the h elp of a consultant as this includes major costs. which turns a generator . which looks like a big disc with curved blades.2 1 Head Works 4 3 6 4 6 6 7 6 7 3 Powerhouse Total Operatio 6 10 Manual/Auto 6 Manual /Auto 8 Manual/Auto 4 Manual/Auto 6 Manual Manual Manual/Auto 6 Manual/Auto 9 Manual 4 Manual Worldwide.8 3 4 Sunkoshi 10. so do a series of magnets inside the ge nerator. a pipeline that leads to the turbine.As the turbine blades turn.The water strikes and turns the large blades of a turbine. which is at tached to a generator above it by way of a shaft. Giant magnets rotate past copper coils. Hydropower plants harness water's energy and use simple mechanics to convert tha t energy into electricity. Table: No. producing alternating current ( AC) by moving electrons. water flowing through a dam turns a turbine.

the water flowing through the penstock becomes kinetic energy because it's in motio n. The head refers to the distance between the water surface and the turbines. the second reservoir refills the upper reservoir. When the gates open. But at the same time. as in oceans. The Generator The heart of the hydroelectric power plant is the generator. The amount of water created and the amount of water lost is about the same. continuous process -. At any one time. rivers and rain. The total capacity of the Hoover Dam hydropower plant is 2. a dam creates a reservoi r. Outflow . There's another type of hydropower plant. The amount of electricity that is generated is determined by several factors. This process moves electrons. Every day. Figure 14: Shaft connecting Turbine and Generator The water in the reservoir is considered stored energy. Using a reversible turbine. the water from the reservoir flows through the pl ant. the plant has mor e water to generate electricity during periods of peak consumption. called the stator.074 mega watts. As the head and flow increase. so does the electricity generated. new water is emitted from the inn er part of the Earth through volcanic activity. In a conventional hydropower plant.000 amps before being transmitted.Used water is carried through pipelines. The head is u sually dependent upon the amount of water in the reservoir. A pumped-storage plant has two reservoirs: Upper reservoir . the plant can pump water back to the upper reservoir . which produces electrical c urrent. the world's total volume of water is in many different forms. called the pumped-storage plant. I t can be liquid.the process that causes rain to fall and rivers to rise. or gaseou . d) Hydropower plants take advantage of a naturally occurring. solid. Essentially. Figure 15: The Generator The generator. Each generator is made of certain basic parts: Shaft Excitor Rotor Stator As the turbine turns. Two of those factors are the volume of water flow and the amount of hydraulic h ead. our plan et loses a small amount of water through the atmosphere as ultraviolet rays brea k water molecules apart. In the Hoover Dam. This is done in off-peak hours.Like a conventional hydropower plant. The Hoover Dam has a total of 17 generators. where the current ramps up to 230. the excitor sends an electrical current to the rotor.r being produced simultaneously plus a neutral or ground common to all three. Lower reservoir . The magnetic field between the coil and the magnets creates an electric current.500 amps moves from the generator to the tran sformer. The basic p rocess of generating electricity in this manner is to rotate a series of magnets inside coils of wire. The rotor is a series of large electromagnets that spins inside a tightly-wound coil of copper wire. each of which can generate up to 13 3 megawatts. The water in this reservoir flows through the hydropower plant to create elec tricity. as in glaciers. generates the electricity. By pumping water back to the upper reservoir. as you might have guessed. called tailraces. Most hydropower pla nts have several of these generators. a current of 16.Water exiting the hydropower plant flows into a lower reservoi r rather than re-entering the river and flowing downstream. and re-ente rs the river downstream. exits and is carried downstream.

exe cution of the security documents and present value of the properties proposed fo r mortgage to the bank. Less than 1 MVA Up to 5 MW. as in the invisible water vapor in the air. The table below shows the environmental requirement for various situations. so as the water vapor rises. the water evaporates i nto vapor in the air. Table 8: Environmental Requirement S. As the sun heats liquid water. the droplets may become heavy enough to fall back to Earth as precipitation.s. the fixed assets may not recover anything. The various related documents that banks should consider during the security ana lysis of a project are as follows: IEE AND EIA For projects below 1000 KW no IEE or EIA is required. The air is colder higher up. causing the air to rise in the atmo sphere. cond ensing into droplets. The project is built in such areas where the land value is very low and the proposed site may not be useful for other purposes. Wind currents are generated by the heatin g activity of the sun. Under t he case of bad loan. Water changes states as it is mov ed around the planet by wind currents. When enough droplets accumulate in one area. Project Not Requiring IEE/EIA (Category A) Requiring IEE (Category B) Requiring Full Scale EIA (Category C) 1 Hydropower Projects Up to 1 MW schemes 1-5 MW schemes More than 5 MW Schemes 2 Transmission lines including substations Less than 33 kV From 33 kV to 66 kV Greater than 66 kV 3 Rural Electrification Projects Up to 1 MW. The sun heats the air. where the bank might have to sell off the property to recov er the loan. The FAC (Fixed Asset Collateral) Security does not compl etely cover the risks as the fixed assets may not fetch adequate return under ci rcumstances of bad loan. Air-current cycles drive the Earth's water supply through a cycle of its own. No. Hence for this. ca lled the hydrologic cycle. 1 to 6 MVA More than 5 MW. For such projects a no obj ection letter from respective village development committee is enough. it cools. Security The control over various securities obtained by the bank to secure the loan. For proje cts between 1MW and 5 MW and Initial Environment Examination Report (IEE) is req uired where as for projects bigger than 5 MW Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) is a must. grater than 6 MVA 4 Displacement of Settlement Displaces less than 25 people with permanent settlements Displaces 25 to 100 persons with permanent settlements Displaces more than 100 people with permanent residence . bank nee ds to consider various other factors as security and finance the project only if the bank thinks it s worth the investment considering the project will be a succe ss for sure. Air-current cycles are created by the sun shining more on the equator than on other areas of the planet.

Nepal Electricity Authority and Power Purchase Agreement Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) is a fully government owned public utility and as of date the only buyer of power produced by Independent Power Producers (IPP s) in Nepal so all the IPPs in Nepal need to enter into Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with NEA.52 (US$ 0. Progress should be submitted to DoED every six mon ths and complete feasibility study shall be submitted to DoED along with environ mental study report within study period granted in the study license.Detailed Feasibility Study After obtaining the survey license from DoED. A rate of Rs 3. the design discharge should be available sixty five percent time o f the year for projects up to 5 MW. For projects bigger than 5 MW the design dis charge is fixed by mutual agreement.e. An application together with detailed feasibility study of the project needs to be submitted to NEA requesting it to buy power from the project to be constructed.085) for dry months (mid December to mid April) is fixed by N EA as the power purchase rate from Independent Power Producers (IPPs) for projec ts up to 5 MW. the proponent should start the act ual work within three months. The power to be sold to NEA should be calculated on the basi s of Q65 i. The Projects Completed by Independent Power Producers and the corresponding powe r sale / purchase rates as of mid July 2007 are as follows: . There is no price escalation on this rate as of today.9 (US$ 0.06) per unit for wet months (mid April to mid December) and Rs 5. There may be one in future. For projects bigger than 5 MW the power rate is not fixed and may vary from one project to another.

(e. if NEA is able to buy o nly 75% of the agreed energy in a particular month then it will pay a penalty eq uivalent to 5 x 0. if the energy supplied is less than 80% then a pe nalty equivalent to the cost of the unsupplied energy will be charged to the dev eloper. But such avai lability cannot be less than 90% of the agreed energy for dry months and 80% of .Table 9: Unit rate of energy for different projects fixed between NEA and IPPs Project Capacity in MW Power Sale Rate for Each kWh Remarks Khimti 60 US$ 0.) 3.107) 7.75 = 3.085) Rates for dry and wet months No Price escalation since last three years Piluwa 3 Chaku 1.75 As can be seen in the table projects like Khimti. (e.6 & US$ 0. If it is less than 80% of the agreed energy then NEA shall pay 7 5% of the energy cost it has not been able to buy.75% of the energy cost in that particular month. However.) About 3 % price escalation every year Bhotekoshi Chilime 20 Indrawati 36 Rs 6. Important Conditions in PPA for Projects Up To 5 Mw The following are some important conditions and clauses taken from PPAs already signed: 1.085 (Approx.g.5 8% price escalation for 3 more years No further price escalation Rs 4. 2.98 (US$ .075) Syange 0. Give or Pay: There is no penalty if the developer supplies up to 80% of the agreed energy to NEA grid every month.86 (US$ 0. Bhotekoshi and Chilime have hi gher power sale rates. NEA does not compensate the developer for any outages due to problems in its grid for up to 144 hours in a year. if the energy supplied is only 75% of the agreed energy then a pen alty equivalent to 5% of the energy cost will be levied on the developer) Take or Pay: Alternatively if NEA is not able to take power due to its own problems then it w ill not pay any penalty if the power taken by it is 80% or more than the monthly agreed energy. in recent Power Purchase Agreements NEA has made a provision that the developer can declare availability of power at the beginning of every month. The rate NEA is likely to offer is in the range of US$ 0. Hydrological risk should completely be taken by the developer.60 Rairang 0.52 (US$ 0.5 Sunkoshi 2. 4. Nevertheless.183 Rs 3. But it is unlikely that new developers can expect similar rate.06 cents per kWh . NEA charges a delay penalty equivalent to 5% of the yearly revenue for each y ear delay in commissioning of the project beyond the agreed date.g.5 Khudi 4 Pheme 1 Sisne 0.9 and 5.

5. landslide. watershed management and involuntary migration. Such small projects are very often not well studied and the developers can not afford to spend more on detailed st udy. shall be required to submit an application to the presc ribed officer along with the economic.1992 (Regulations . m aterial and equipment costs but there is no price escalation on the power to be sold. Accord . flood control. transmission or d istribution. Section 4. " Section 24 states: "While carrying out electricity generation. It further explains that excess electricity may be sold to NEA to connect to its main transmission and distribution system. have not been clearl y specified. erosion. indigenous people. This almost always leads to cost ov errun. Howeve r. Often they do not realize the value of such study and try to jump to power purchase agreement and project construction. Other issues or impacts emerging from a hydropow er project such as upstream/downstream benefits and issues like irrigation.) Reflects realization of the need for utilization of water resources for hydro po wer generation. Sub-section states " survey. generation. displacement of people. ai r pollution etc. The cost of project is increasing every year due to inflation on manpower. Regulations Hydropower Development Policy 1992 This policy emphasizes the need to develop environmentally friendly hydropower t o meet the country's energy needs and to encourage the private sector to invest in hydropower. (This policy focuses more on electricity generation. navi gation. technical and environmental study report. After all a local developer earning a reasonable profit on its investment will only boost the hydropower sector of the country. On the other hand the Gover nment of Nepal too should facilitate the private developer and not take advantag e from its ignorance.. generation. This is particularly true for local developers who are mainly capable of developing small size projects (up to 5 MW). there is significant scope for foreign IPPs to invest in hydropower sector since huge hydro potential that exists in Nepal will help fulfilling regional energy demand.1993) Enacted to manage the survey. transmission and distribution of elect ricity and to standardize and safeguard electricity services. transmission or distribution o f electricity over I MW. time delays and unavailability of predicted energy. enacted through the Electricity Act of 1992. On the other hand the success of few earlier developers can no more be an example for recent develope rs.the agreed energy for wet months. So it is very important that IPPs should be very careful about project st udy before they jump for the project implementation. very few realize that there is a lot of risk associated with hydropower devel opment. Rates and cond itions of PPA are mutually negotiated between IPPs and NEA if size of project is more than 5 MW. The involvement of private sector in the development of hydropower in Nepal is a must and there is a lot of enthusiasm on the part of private sector too. it shall be carried out in such a manner that no substantial advers e effect be made on environment by the way of soil erosion. In contrast facilities like tax holiday for fifteen years is no more avail able and Nepal Electricity Authority is tightening the power purchase agreement more and more in its favor making life difficult for the independent power devel opers. flood." Section 33 deals with the utilization and acquisition of land and houses. siltation. Electricity Act . The PPA period is 25 years whereas license period is 35 years. Moreover. etc.

but the constru ction of high dams for generating larger amounts of power are also being conside red. Similarly. and to make provisions for allocating the non-mitig able risks to either the government or private sector based on their capability . To minimize the potential risks in hydropower projects with a joint effort of go vernment and private sector. Besides these conditions.3. as necessary. below). medium. To pursue a strategy of bilateral or regional cooperation in the hydropower deve lopment sector taking into consideration the feasibility of hydropower in Nepal and the demands of electric energy in neighbouring countries in view of the fact that development of hydropower in Nepal supports not only the domestic but also the regional economy. To develop hydropower projects by attracting investment from private sector as w ell as from governmental sector. and through joint ventures of gov ernment and private sector for the promotion of hydropower development. with or without daily pondage. Of the existing power projects in Nepal only Ku lekhani has a reservoir for seasonal storage. Most of the hydropo wer projects currently being constructed or on line are of the run-of-river type . only a small fraction of this power potential has been utilized. and in some cases preliminary investigations have begun. however. there is a mandatory provision of publishing a public notice by DOED giving 35 days. whereas more than 5 mw requires an EIA. For example. For projects involving both generation and transmission it is sometimes convenient to carry out Scoping as if for two sub-projects with two separate EI As. a transmission line is a linear project with different magnitudes and intensities of effects compared with generation p rojects. a transmission project u p to 66 kV capacity requires an IEE and more than 66 kV requires an EIA. To implement small. Acco rding to EPR54. clear. Hydropower develop ment schemes are the most highly prioritized development programs in Nepal. other projects requiring an EIA are mentioned in Schedule-2 o f EPR54 (Annex 2). environment protection and maximizing benefits in the development of water resources of Nepal. stating the necessary part iculars for information for general public.ing to the Electricity Regulation (ER50. However. To make the river basins of specific rivers as the basis of development and mana gement of water resources in order to achieve maximum benefits from the utilizat ion of water resources of Nepal. To adopt a broader perspective on national development in the context of macro-e conomy in developing and managing hydropower in line with the concept of develop ing water resources in an integrated manner. above. below] National Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines 1993 Nepal has tremendous potential for hydropower generation. large and storage projects for hydropower developmen t focussing on national interest. is a pre-requis ite. also tak ing into account internal consumption and export possibility of hydropower. Strategies made by the government: To extend hydropower services to the rural economy from the perspective of socio -equity with the realization of the fact that development of power sector. simple and transparent procedures so as to promote private sector participation in the development of hydropower. Any person may furnish his reaction to DOED if construction and operation of the proposed project is likely to cause adverse affect. The processes required to conduct an IEE and EIA in hydropowe r projects are the same as described in §1. a hydropower project generating up to 5 mw requires the IEE proc ess. To date. Followed in 2050 by Electricity Regulations (ER50) [#7. To pursue investment friendly. high dam or run-ofriver type) differ greatly. havin g a direct concern with agricultural and industrial development. the impacts arising from different types of hydropower projects (as for example. Run-of-river hydropower projects w ill continue to dominate future hydropower development in Nepal.

Unauthorized leakage of electricity shall be controlled. Priority shall be given to utilize labor and skills of Nepal in the implementati on of hydropower projects. Appropriate incentive provisions shall be provided and transparent process shall be pursued to attract national and foreign investment in hydropower development . Emphasis shall be given on mobilization of internal capital market for investmen t in power sector. Consumers shall be encouraged for demand side management to enhance energy conse rvation. m obilization of public support shall also be emphasized. For this purpose. In view of the concept of bilateral and regional cooperation and taking into con sideration the abundant hydropower generation capacity in the country. In addition to mitigation of adverse environmental impacts likely to result from the operation of hydropower projects. The Government may participate with the p rivate sector in view of possibility of irrigation development. Provisions under hydropower development for private sector: The following working-policy shall be followed in order to enforce the hydropowe r development policy and fulfil the underlying objectives therein. transmission and distribution projects. Environmental provision where environmental impacts assessment study report shal l be made. Capital market shall be mobilized to encourage domestic investment in hydropower generation. Provision shall be made to provide appropriate benefits at the local level while operating hydropower projects. In the case of multi-purpose projects. Policies: Hydropower potential of the country shall be utilized to the maximum extent in o rder to meet the domestic demand of electricity. Electrification of remote rural areas shall be encouraged by operating small and mini hydropower projects at the local level. Implementation of hydropower projects based on the concept of Build. neces sary technical measures and appropriate legal provisions shall be adopted and. Process for electricity tariff fixation shall be made rational and transparent s o that electric energy shall be supplied at a reasonable price. Legal provisions shall be made to prevent adverse effects on the availability of water or water right. Contribution shall be made to environment protection by developing hydropower as an alternative to biomass and thermal energy. Ow n and Transfer shall be encouraged. appropriate provision shall be made to re settle the displaced families. Efforts shall be continued for implementation of large storage type hydropower p rojects and multi-purpose projects. export of electricity shall be encouraged.to bear the risk at the lowest cost. Proper provision shall be made to cover risks likely to occur in hydropower proj ects. Large storage type multi-purpose projects sh all be developed in such a way that downstream benefits resulting from the proje cts would yield maximum benefits to the nation. Rural electrification shall be encouraged in the rural areas affected directly f . Operate. Attention shall be paid to safeguard the consumers' interests by providing relia ble and qualitative electricity service to the consumers at a reasonable price. Hydropower projects suitable to the electric system for domestic use as well as the storage projects shall be developed as per requirement on competitive basis. Hydropower shall be developed attracting the investment of domestic and foreign investors in the hydropower generation.

. Foreign entrepreneurs shall be encouraged to be affiliated with local organizati ons as the cost of hydropower decreases if the project is developed through the domestic construction entrepreneurs and consultants. after expiration of the period of time as sp ecified in the license. transmission system and distribution system established by t he private sector shall not be nationalized during the term of the license. Except in cases where a private party itself also distributes the hydropower gen erated by it in Nepal. a hydr opower project with capacity of more than ten MW. In fixing the electricity tariff.rom the electricity generation project. the interest of the consumer shall also be taken into account. shall be issued on competitive basis through invita tion of proposals. A Rural Electrification Fund shall be established for the development of micro h ydropower and rural electrification by pooling in a certain percentage of the am ount received as royalty. and generate electricity from. Exchange facilities shall be provided to the foreign person. Hydropower project. Any hydropower generation project has to be transferred. The Government shall not provide any compensation theref ore. a power purchase agreement has to be made to sell and pur chase the hydropower generated. The license to carry out detail survey of. to The Gove rnment in a good running condition. ipso facto. firm or company mak ing investment for the power generation. of which feasibility study has already been done by the governmental level and electricity from which is expec ted to be consumed in Nepal. The regulatory body shall fix the rate of electricity tariff to be sold and dist ributed to the consumers. transmission or distribution project to be constructed by the private sector to repatriate the following amount from Ne pal in foreign currency at the prevailing exchange rate.

will awa rd the survey license to the applicant within 60 days for projects up to 10 MW a nd 120 days for projects bigger than 10 MW. per kWh 1 1 Up to 1 MW 2 From 1 MW to 10 MW Rs 100/1.5 to 2 years but can be extended up to 5 years. The period of such license is normally 1. per kW Energy Royalty. per kWh Annual Capacity Royalty. per kWh 1 Export-oriented run of-the-river project Rs 400/7. An application with a report at desk study level of the project including boundary co-ordinates should be submitted to DoED who will go through the application an d in case no one has been already awarded the particular river stretch.Other important aspects to be considered Procedure Followed For Obtaining License for a Project Any developer willing to develop a hydropower project (bigger than 1000 KW) in N epal has to obtain survey license from Department of Electricity Development. Royalty. Similarly survey license is required for study of the transmission line required for the project. per kWh Annual Capacity Royalty. per kW Energy Royalty. per kW Energy Royalty.75% 3 4 5 From 10 MW to 100 MW Rs 150/2. Fees and Taxes An Independent Power Producer shall pay the following royalty to Government of N epal after the commencement of electricity generation: a) Internal Consumption Project Table 10: Royalty for Internal Consumption Project Electricity Capacity Annual Capacity Up to 15 year date of commercial operation Annual Capacity Royalty.85% After 15 years from the Rs 1000/Rs 1200/10% - 10% 10% Above 100 MW Rs 200/For captive use Rs 1500/- Rs 1500/Rs 3000/- b) Export Oriented Project Table 11: Royalty for Export Oriented Project Type Up to 15 year After 15 years from the date of commercial operation Annual Capacity Royalty. per kW Energy Royalty.5% Rs 1800/12% 2 Export oriented storage project Rs 500/10% Rs 2000/15% .00% 1.

One perc ent tax is applicable on import of electromechanical equipment and import of ste el for hydro mechanical works. . The originally announced tax holding for 15 years are enjoyed by some project is no more applicable. Value Added Tax (VAT) is applicable on constructi on materials and services for projects bigger than 3 MW.Income and other Taxes: Income tax applicable for hydropower projects is set at ten percent lower than t he normal corporate tax prevailing in the country.

and power distribution. operations. Finally. Kali Gandaki 'A' Hydroelectric Station. The financial sector is entering the ene rgy sector gradually by taking small exposure. Further improve ments depend upon structural changes resulting from the company's reorganization . In addition. a nd a demand-side management study. ADB and countries like Japan. Improvements are un derway in NEA's performance. we have come up with the following success factors and risk areas that banks should consider before lending to this sector. including drafting and negotiating long-term export purchase agreeme nts. as well as a few small exposu res mainly in small hydropower projects.SECTION VII: Finding from the Analysis The financial sector has identified hydropower development as a lucrative financ ing opportunity. and economic benefi ts of hydropower investment. Critical success Factors Interest of agencies like USAID. it has helped establish strict environmental guidelines and monitoring procedures to ensure compliance of hydro power development in Nepal. Various national and international level seminars. The success stories of few hydropower projects developed by ind ependent power producers in the recent past have also helped to create positive market interest and response. the risk is relatively high in this sector due to its technical nature. and decentralization of NE A business units.: The works carried out by some of these agencies and countries are as follows: USAID USAID is helping Nepal attract and realize greater private sector involvement in electricity generation and increased private investment in environmentally and socially sound hydropower. Sector of deep interest and attraction for FDIs and FIIs: . and to reduce costs. more commercial orientation. Under this project. preferring to share the risk amon gst various banks and developing consortium financing. The enabling environment for private investment in hy dropower is being improved through a series of policy recommendations that were adopted by the Nepalese government. its activities are focused on preparation of overall planning for power sector restructuring. German Technical Assistance GTZ has been providing technical assistance in the various small hydropower proj ects mainly of the range of 1 MW to assist the community for its progress. The project is also increasing public and private se ctor stakeholder understanding of the environmental. with greater autonomy. as well as the restructuring of NEA's distribution system to improve accountability and efficiency. social. it is also assisting the Government of Nep al in exploring and developing markets for export of electricity generated from hydropower. On the other hand. analysis of monthly costs. Agricultural Development Bank ADB is assisting in the reform and restructuring of Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) as an agency. the necessity of huge funds and longer gestation as well as repayment periods. have imparted some experience to variou s commercial banks.€etc. Japan Japan has provided extensive loan assistance to Nepal such as for the Kulekhani (I and II) Hydro-power Station. From the above analysis. Germany etc.

the borrower s exposure to certain r isk will be different if the source of debt is overseas. This risk materializes with the devaluation if revenue is denominated in local currency while having to service the loan denominated in foreign currency. Repatriation risk Another risk associated with foreign loan is repatriation risk . Potential to replace other forms of energy used for various processes in various places. For e. have enacted legislation guaranteeing repatriation. Government s priority sector. Key risk areas Foreign exchange risk A developer can borrow locally or from foreign institutions and the conditions w ith regard to security will be same. or (b) r ate of revenue denominated in foreign currency. e. In the case of increase in the c ost of imports an insurance coverage against cost escalation would mitigate this risk. fuels etc. petr oleum etc. this risk also does manifest in rising cost of imports.000 MW of electr icity by the year 2020. This has resulted in making hydropower a priority sector for Nepal which is a good sign for investors as the government is ready for all possible help that the company needs. A foreign exchange risk is inherent in foreign loans due to the fact th at foreign currency tends to be relatively strong compared to Nepalese currency. There are mainly two ty pes of risks that a borrower needs to be aware of while borrowing from a foreign lender. Electricity is sought to be the cheapest mode of energy in most of the countries worldwide replacing the traditional forms of energy such as LPG. This itself explains the huge potential for hy dropower in the country and the viability of it in Nepal. governments of development countries. Japan. firewood. Availability of resources Nepal is considered to be the second richest country in water resources and with the geographical advantage of the hills and uneven territory. LPG. However. This becomes of gr eater concern to a lender if it is not able to repatriate the proceeds of debt s ervicing. firewood. Huge gap between demand and supply The load shedding hours that reached to the extent of 16 hours per day itself ex plains the huge gap that is evident between the demand for electricity and the s upply that NEA is providing with. hydropower projec ts has high feasibility in the country. a sector sought to be the development factor for the country The Government of Nepal has formulated a strategy to produce 10. either the lender will not make a loan or wil . If such a guarantee is not available. which is very expensive and is not readily available as well. These risks can be mitigated by either (a) having the loan denominated in local currency. Generally. in their quest to att ract foreign investment.: Sutlej India is coming up with the popular project Arun III .g.Hydropower sector slowly is becoming an attraction for foreign direct investment s and also for institutional investments with companies of India. Canada coming up. Simil arly.g.

Inflation rate The real value of a unit of nominal currency tends to depreciate over time with inflation. Lenders o ffer two kind of interest: (a) floating rate and (b) fixed rate. However. In Nepal repatriation is guara nteed by the Foreign Investment and Technology Transfer Act of 1992 and the Elec tricity Act of 1992 for hydropower projects. Such changes adversely impact the via bility of a project. ensures against such risk for a fee. Banks prefer floating r ate as they need to be able to adapt to changes in financial market as well as c over their own exposure to the vagaries of changing interest rates (including ba nk rates).l make it subject to exorbitant rate of interest. it can also be mitigated by passing the impact through to the utility provided t hat the utility is amenable to such a pass through. This means there will not be a guaranteed stream of revenue to the project in order for it to meet its financial obligations with regard to (a) operation. and (b) debt servicing. ex propriation and nationalization (CEN Risk). thereby introdu cing an element of uncertainty or risk for the borrower. the possibility of confiscation. short of trying to hold down the inflation with one s bare hands! Legislative change risk Here we are talking about the risk of changes in the country s laws that (a) incre ase rates and taxes or other expenses and liabilities. However. but such a PPA may not ensure plant factor at a specific level if the utility accepts delivery of the energy at its pleasu re. The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Association (MIGA). A simple way to mitigate this risk is to sign a long term Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with the utility. primarily. Ho wever. it needs to be noted that electric energy is already being traded in spot markets in Western E . fixed rate is the best way to mitigate this risk. Interest rate risk It is now time we also touched upon the concept of interest rate risk. changes in the local political envir onment and enforceability of contracts. Floating rate e ntails changes in the interest rate during the term of the loan. to storage and transmission. Revenue risk A developer can have a long term PPA. mainly in the case of a run-of-the-river type project lacking poundage. t he availability of such insurance is limited only to foreign investors. with respect to both market risks and revenue risk. a member of the World Bank group. These types of risk are known as soverei gn and country risk. However. A foreign equity investor is also s ubject to this risk. Generally. Even hard currency is subject to this risk. maintenan ce and repairs. Escalation in the rate of tariff is the only answer. A take or pay type of PPA mitigates this r isk. an entrepreneur has to take such risk. Market risk It is common knowledge amongst engineers that energy requires a guaranteed marke t due to the constraints with regard. Sovereign risk (country risk) A foreign entrepreneur investing in Nepal is exposed to risk such as those assoc iated with the government s credit worthiness. (b) reduce project revenu es. banks tend to add a margin to the then prevalent rate to cushion their ow n risk. For a developer. or (c) reduce the value of the assets.

etc. It a lso raises the total amount of interest during construction of the debt financin g and may even attract penalties for late delivery of energy. good construction engineering practices should be practised to av erse the risk that comes due to such calamities. The most effective way to mitigate hydrology risk is to gather hydrological data fo r reasonable number of years in the past and design the project accordingly. Developers are known to ask the government to issue a counter guarantee to cover the paymen t risk. This risk emanates from the fact that seasonal rainfall patterns affect the amou nt of water available to a hydropower plant and generation may fall below contra ct levels in any season. Payment risk This risk emanates from the lack of creditworthiness on the part of the utility. shall be turned into cash. Time overrun ri sk results in loss of revenue and may also raise the cost due to inflation. Natural calamities risk: Nepal being a highly risky country in terms of natural calamities like earthquak es and floods. performance risk. In many developing countries. if there is no water to generate e nergy due to the change in the level of precipitation. etc. including advance lo ss of profit insurance that can be complemented by signing a fixed price turnkey co ntract (or EPC contract) and incorporating a clause for imposition of liquidated damages on the contractor for delayed substantial completion or commissioning o f the plant. Now-a-days multilateral funding ag encies like The World Bank take a dim view of a government issuing a counter gua rantee. However. Financial availability risk: Hydropower projects require high capital requirements and regular maintenance co sts. One can arrange insurance coverage against such risk like CAR. the buyer of the energy. Such high requirement of finance is a risky proposition during this present situation of liquidity crisis faced by the Nepalese Economy. state owned utilities do not have established credit histories and also suffer from records of poor mana gement.urope. Hydrological risk The take or pay nature of the PPA guarantees that all energy produced by a plant. etc. EAR. high leakage (technical or otherwise). irrespective of whether the season is dr y or wet. Construction related risks Time and cost overrun risks are one group of construction risks. This basically entails a government standing surety to the fact that the utility pays its dues to the developer in time. aft er having selected a project with better hydrological potential as well as infor mation. Having a letter of credit put in place by the utility with the IPP as th e beneficiary is another way of mitigating this risk over the short term. TAR. Neighbourhood and community risks: . professional liability.. climatic reason or change in the hydrology of the catchments area. socioeconomic/environmental risk. then these projects are on their own. a dry year will be an unmitigated disaster for a hydropower plant. O bviously. thus threatening the revenue stream of such projects. and in the case of a utility s fa ilure to meet its obligations the government is required to promptly make paymen t to mitigate the delinquency of the utility. geological risk . over-employment. depending on the availability of water. Other construction risks are force majeure risk. design risk.

This phenomenon is the biggest negative motivation for the investors to move away from making such huge investm ents in the unfavourable environment. .It is one of the biggest problems faced by the upcoming projects as the communit y around the project create problems to gain maximum compensation and share owni ng opportunities by initially creating problems. The number of such skille d manpower in Nepal is very less due to brain-drain and other related factors. Availability of skilled manpower: Hydropower projects are not only capital intensive but also human resource capit al intensive as it requires highly skilled manpower with good experience and aca demic knowledge to carry out the project successfully. T his has created a shortage in the available manpower in the country resulting in the import of expensive manpower from other countries.

which is regulated at state l evels. Changes in law Changes in tax Govt obligation often Risks Government Company Contractor Utility Comments Financial Increase financing costs € he tariff or absorbed by company Exchange rate € € € t Cost escalation € € € € ariff escalation thereafter. E. Insurance co.g.: NEA Company is the power producing company.Normal Risk Sharing Arrangement for Hydropower projects Risks Government Company Contractor Utility Comments Hydrology Temporary Deficit € t funds. Insurable. or distribution of electric energy. Usually reflected in tariff d Utility is a power€company€that owns or operates facilities used for the generation. € Eithe Increasingly Normally contractor r Plant supplier or turnkey con € € Contractor an Usually the responsibility of the uti Company or the utility € € Government/ut Government/utility Generally obligation on the u Principal exposure on the uti € € € Plant Supplier € Political Obligation of utility nsurance. transmission. € € € € € Generally pas Generally passed to utility. . € € € € € € Plant Supplier € € € € € € € € € € € € € Usually company. Performance risk Equipment € € € € Land acquisition/resettlement € EMP € € € Environmental Aspects Permitting € Land acquisitions/resettlement EMP € € Market Market risk € € Dispatch € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € Insurance co. Some Government increasing € Generally con € € Company risk. Long term Deficit € € Flood Damage (Construction) € € urance Flood Damage (Permanent) € Construction Risk Changes in quantities/cost overruns € or or shared Unforeseen ground conditions € € red Delayed completion € by company.

Assessment of credit worthiness of the credit transaction should be done. The financ ial sector thus must work on building in house expertise and develop coalitions with foreign institution to enhance knowledge base and the lending capacity. Credit should be evaluated against established credit policies and within author ities and it is structured. project financing is a relatively new concept in our country as collateral and personal guarantee-ba cked lending is mainly done. banks take every appropriate step to finance those project s whose promoters they are comfortable to work with and also who have the experi ence or the technical knowledge to move ahead with the projects. Nepal has feasible energy capa city of 43 GW.1 Economic viability analysis should include the following aspects: Assessment of the rationale and objective of the project. 1. Study of the impact of the investment project on various groups in the society. Due to these reasons. The guidelines that the financing banks should apply while doing the credit appr aisal is as follows: Credit Risk: Lending should be carried out within the parameters of lending policies. It is a very attractive industry at present also because of the g overnment s priority in building this sector as there is a need for the country to develop a sustainable path for generation of energy. . This positive market inte rest has been further promulgated by the success stories of few hydropower proje ct developed by independent power producers. Financing huge capitals without having the proper t echnical expertise is also a major drawback for the financial sector. Study of the current and projected demand. the major ri sks the financial institutions are facing are that of the risks related to the t echnical aspects.SECTION VIII: Conclusion and Recommendation It is evident that Nepal is facing a power shortage which is predicted to get wo rse if correct measures are not taken in time. But with the benefits. Along with the investors. having regard to statistical data and historical risk experience. particularly in terms of security with due care and prudence for the potential risk incurred. The best measure identified is to develop the hydropower sector not only to meet the local demand but also earn f oreign currency by exporting it to the neighboring countries like India as Nepal has huge untapped potential of hydroelectricity. the necessity of huge funds and the long payback periods. hydropower projects are proving lucrative as a financi ng opportunity for the financial institutions as well. Management conf licts and their conflict of interest is one of the biggest hurdles for the succe ss of a hydropower projects. NRB has increased the obligor limit of providing loan to double which has increa sed the financial power of lending banks. Furthermore. The major challenges faced by the financial institutions is that the total capac ity of the financial sector is only up to the extent of 50 MW which shows a need and opportunity for foreign institutional investors and financial sector to ent er in to the Nepalese market. The financing of 6 billion for the 309MW Upper Tam akoshi project under the lead of HBL is one of the biggest investment made by an y or group of commercial banks made till date. objective and the broa der development objective of a sector. The opportunities in this sector can b e estimated by the annual increase of energy demand in the Nepalese market by al most 50MW every year and also by the deficit in the demand supply gap of India o f almost 1900 MW.

7 Non Financial Agreements that should be prepared. maintained and analyzed: Generation License PPA Engineering. 1. Financial viability of the investment project. This can result in inappropriate pricing and also may risk the quality of const . For example: A civil contractor may b e a promoter of the project which makes the project closed for open bid competit ions on the part of civil construction to ensure good deal in quality and price.5 Project monitoring plan for the following three aspects should be discussed and analyzed critically: The Construction phase The Maintenance aspect The Financial aspect 1. politically or naturally. procurement and construction contract Operation and maintenance agreement Insurance requirement Shareholder/Project Development Agreement Conflict of Interest Besides these guidelines the two major aspects that the financing bank(s) should take into consideration are: Conflict of Interest Contingent Equity Conflict of Interest Every bank should be aware of the fact whether the promoters of the hydropower p roject or the other members of the organizational structure have interest of oth er any form other than the project itself. 1. both in terms of profitability an d cash flow.3 Financial viability analysis should include the following aspects: Adequacy of the investment cost and the financing plan for the investment projec t.2 Technical viability analysis should include the following aspects: Assessment and the validation of construction. Analysis of the sensitivity that is without allowing for the effects of general inflation on costs or benefits. liquidity and profitability. operation and maintenance of the investment project. Assessment and validation of the cost estimates for all capital works. Assessment and validation of the work schedules of the investment project as per delivery requirement in accordance with technical specification. 1.Evaluation of the impact of the investment project on environment and society. Determination of whether economic benefits provide an adequate return on economi c costs. geological and hydrological risk of the investment project in accordance with the prevailing regulations. the actual and forecast financial status and viability of the investment project. The Environmental Management Plan (EMP) should be assessed properly to avoid fut ure problems when the project is undertaken. but incorporating projected relative price chang es for key items. Analysis and assessment of the investment project design. Assessing whether the investment project s net benefits shall be sustainable throu ghout the life of the project.4 Environmental and social analysis: The IEE and the EIA should be reviewed critically to find out any possible hindr ances in future legally. including NPV and IRR analysis.6 Financing Agreements that should be prepared maintained and analyzed: Loan Agreement Inter Creditor Agreement Security Agreement 1. Accounting and financial policies. The investment project s solvency. Sensitivity analysis of key variables. 1.

To avoid such situations. e tc which brings a high implication on the interest expense of the project as the construction period increases. Other situations may be uncontrollable factors l ike floods. The percentage of the contingent liability may differ in accordance to the project. . landslides. it is always recommended for the bank to assure that t he project has put a certain portion of the equity as contingent equity to tackl e with such situations. Hence. Contingent Equity During the due course of the construction of the hydropower project. earthquakes etc causing damage to the constructed parts. the financial institution should properly examine the organizati onal structure of the bank to avoid such situations. This brings up a difficult situation for the project to handle. the financing bank in some cases puts up its own emplo yee in the board of the project to ensure correct and smooth functioning of the project. This burden is then passed on to the bank so as to maintain the flow of work wh ich may put the bank in a difficult situation. strikes. Such situations usually come up from situations like stop of working in the project due to lock outs.ruction. many situat ions come up which increases the costs of the project bringing unwanted burden o n the project which the project owners are unable to withstand. To avoid such situations.

To access a career option in this sector: The internship experience helped me to analyze what are the pros and cons of the banking profession which is the aim of my professional life. Personally. being on time. I experienced how the customer service department and the credit department work and what are the various functions and activities the y have to perform. proper standards were not followed and people had a much lai d back attitude. handling tough customers.IX. I got to develop a sense of professionalism within me. Nikhil Agrawal The goals and objectives that I had for the internship program and the extent to which they were achieved are as follows: To know about the various processes and working environment of a commercial bank : In the internship period. But on the other hand also realized that the most professional of all organizations in not professional enough. working in extreme pressure. carpet manufacturing. still this job is my passion and my interest and I look forward to pursu e my career aim as the same. I could understand that though the job is very demanding and chall enging. I could not explore all the d epartments of the bank but did get an in-depth of all credit related departments . I saw that among majority of the workers meeting deadlines was not important. To assess the various processes banks go through to overcome the risks associate d with loans: During the tenure at the CRD and the CCD. It gave me an insight into the banking sector. Meeting deadl ines. After working for the 10 weeks. It helped me understand how credit appraisal is done and how relationship is maintained with the customers. being tidy all day. and plastic fabricators etc. being ethical a t all times were few challenges that I learnt to overcome. working with HBL as interns was an experience which helped me develop mys elf in real time working conditions so that I can sell myself better in the prof essional arena. internet services. I got an insight into the most professionally run industry in Nepal. As we just had 10 weeks. This helped me build contacts with high level manageme nt of such organizations and also gave me an opportunity to understand their bus inesses. I could enhance my knowledge for this . Reflection Rishabh Tibrewala Working at HBL was one of the best experiences that I had. what processes and requirements the bank h as to look forward for the proper execution of the lending process. I interacted with various level managers at the bank and I got to meet people fr om various sectors such as trading. how the viability of the project or the loan is accessed and analyzed. Hence. talking with high l evel managers and executives. Our main focus what to understand the processes of the credit department and to know how a CAP is prepared. These 10 weeks at the bank helped me understand how Credit is processed and gi ven to a customer.

To experience the professionalism in work culture and to learn for future prospe cts: I experienced the professionalism in the work culture in HBL which even though w as informal and friendly was very professional and dedicated towards the job ass igned.objective which was further helpful for my courses in the academic course as wel l for the subject commercial bank management. . To learn practically the knowledge learnt from academic courses: Internship program helped me transform my academic knowledge learnt from various courses before into practical knowledge which has enabled me to gain proper und erstanding of the concepts and theories which were previously understood on the basis of assumptions which do not lie in the practical reality. This helped me understand what the importance of having a professional at titude towards work is.

2009 from www.K.NEA (2008) Vidhyut. Bankers' Perspective".ippan. 2009 from www. Rose ( Fourth Edition). Irwin-McGraw Hill Lawrence J. Commercial Bank Management.P.org.nea. 2009 from www.References Management Textbooks: Peter S. Bank and Financial Institution Ordinance (2004) Chaulagain. (2008) Hydropower Development of Nepal in the face of climatic and hydrological uncertainties.nea.gov. Hydropower of Nepal : Policies and Investment Opportunities . Retrieved on April 20 . Retrieved on April 20. 2009 from www. N.n p (Website of Nepal Hydro Power Association) Workshop on "Hydropower Investment. Retrieved on April 15. Andrson Wel sey Longman(Singapore) Annual reports: Nepal Electricity Authority (2008) Himalayan Bank Limited (2009) IPPAN (2009) Transmission.nepalhydro.NEA (2008) Websites: Hydropower Development Policy. Retrieved on April 20. Banking and Financial Statistics (July 2008) Nepal Rastra Bank. Gilman( Ninth Edition). Principle of Managerial Finance. 2009 from www.np (Websit e of Department of Electricity Development) Nepal Hydropower Database. Upadhayay. A.np ( Website of IPPAN) Others: Nepal Rastra Bank.doed.NEA (2008) Generation. Retrieved on April 15.org.org (Website of N EA) Manual for Preparing Scoping Document for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Hydropower Projects.org ( We bsite of NEA) Electricity Act 1992.

98 31.30 141.28 1.58 Temporary supply 0.281.51 2.13 911.01 100.45 Total Internal 1.98 2.86 63.11 676.48 2 .87 61.35 0.03 Temple 1.74 28.80 764.07 2.81 4.51 689.54 95.98 39.62 2.24 66.78 5 .16 78. 86 192.19 1.50 Grand Total 1.19 805.659.407.31 120.41 Bulk Supply to India 64.03 9.00 126.77 0.25 141.58 4.204.60 2.127.55 76 .032.34 81.05 518.00 508.31 6.77 4.74 5.94 617.53 5.18 15.52 45.348.56 1.64 5.37 Community Sales 5.964.68 1.68 629.39 0.93 63.67 Water Supply & Irrigation 22.13 1.12 109.083.936.27 951.81 1.05 1.019.37 758.20 54.701.22 80.37 2.58 1.11 4.50 Street Lights 29.29 100.28 29.33 2.38 2.51 23.Appendix Appendix 1: New Credit Client Flow Chart Report by the Next working day Collection of necessary document (Upon receipt of documents as per check list) Site Visits Discussion with Clients clarifying their requirements for facility packages (Max imum period not more than 2 Weeks) If rejected inform client Appendix 2: Sales in GWh Particulars 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Domestic 410.26 0.853.43 1.800.17 90.59 1.80 55.74 108.55 849.00 133.69 159.52 108.47 5.13 1.31 1.20 2.509.80 5.90 Commercial 77.84 Non-Commercial 62.70 Transport 2.82 94.41 31.93 0.67 49.98 45.58 6.00 785.83 0 .16 95.28 0.28 1.90 72.63 596.87 1 .74 36.540.70 96.43 92.174.269.59 73.60 29.37 Industrial 411.96 47.23 110.406.83 15.68 5.72 4.50 47.36 557.74 83.57 467.91 .25 0.287.89 5.72 893.36 520.65 6.

84 14.55 Temple 7.59 4.96 214.529.08 20.08 Bulk Supply to India 198.34 3.96 Total Revenue 5.118.14 95.54 11.88 4.86 336.26 285.78 722.377.87 2002 2003 3.249.52 315.94 23.77 27.75 894.20 1.079.348.056.33 428.36 9.025.992.81 4.42 9.83 11237.025.65 4.19 8.40 2006 835.396.405.389.35 13.35 12.15 13.91 986.58 527.161.80 396.73 12.66 14.46 30.83 11.96 673.086.99 6.06 514.22 5.608.652.63 29.12 2004 2005 3.62 818.01 947.093.78 26.73 555.731.448.578.93 370.33 327.42 Transport 9.Appendix 3: Revenues in Million Rupees Particulars 1999 2000 2007 2008 Domestic 2.396.039.65 120.50 29.697.12 808.58 1.599.24 3.74 Commercial 515.74 246.377.08 328.80 9.90 15.72 Total Internal 5.38 9.95 454.70 83.40 4.288.18 17.53 154.47 1.68 10428.36 Water Supply & Irrigation 239.300.06 11.07 1.992.38 5.80 16.94 6.90 138.00 Temporary supply 7.39 27.69 5.978.15 579.91 78.70 11.97 197.03 5.79 329.687.78 Community Sales 53.396.103.05 8.12 783.59 15.015.23 Grand Total 5.12 881.75 7.237.09 3.641.09 7.012.05 4.44 7.361.672.31 31.65 30.060.69 573.47 24.72 661.45 27.466.198.66 15.29 20.71 9.80 176.16 2.98 Street Lights 11.021.43 6.34 .318.173.45 422.59 16.851.74 28.78 13.777.16 6.99 816.03 23.15 13.008.13 4.90 14.21 1.18 212.31 Other Income 689.687.27 2001 2.54 14.981.42 21.05 Industrial 2.622.50 11.37 149.85 487.50 11.68 148.10 3.84 13.380.42 5.05 200.37 Non-Commercial 419.40 940.46 18.093.

990 NET CASH PROFIT 764 -53% APPROPRIATION OF PROFIT: Accumulated Profit/(Loss) b/d -5.332 8% Local Sales 12.899 728 -6.850 9% NET PROFIT AFTER TAX -1.035 7.475 -38% -1. Overheads 1.834 3% -60% -20% 59% 9% 304 1% 20% 6% 1. plant -60 -30 EARNINGS BEFORE INT. MARGIN 5.947 Depreciation Expense 1.565 117% -20 -220 -6.159 51% -573% 1.262 Insurance Fund -20 Dividend Payment/Adjustment of 47 -50 Accumulated Profit/loss c/d -7.922 2.757 1.920 43 962 1.202 640 -40 41% 1.802 Profit after tax for the year -1.587 Financial Expenses 2.999 420 1.484 5% -3% -33% 15% 1.247 12% 9.262 5% Deferred revenue Exp.415 480 1.734 5.849 -1.405 9.529 -39% 2006/07 14.093 -43% 1.605 6% 13.101 4% 4.093 -43% -20 Past Years -4.462 12% 8.794 9% 9.794 26% 5.405 15.808 -27% -1.134 -3.101 9% 8.450 9.166 Depreciation & Amortisation 1.179 -19% Non-operating incomes/(expenses) -36% 655 Provision for losses on property.Appendix 4: Profit and Loss Account Particulars 2004/05 VAR 2005/06 VAR SALES REVENUE 12.094 1.247 8.892 267 -1% -66% 2.333 8% Purchases of Merchandises/materials consumed 8.704 2% -15% 26% VAR 7% 7% 10% 12% 9% 241 8% 14% 8% 1. Written off 64% 70 OPERATING PROFIT 1.856 105 1.017 -65 -26% 2.332 8% COST OF SALES 7.605 6% 13.565 117% 4% 506% 1.626 Direct overhead costs 216 8% 232 GROSS PROFIT/CONT.096 5% 267 -20 297 -5.475 Administration Overheads 576 Marketing and Dist.802 -23% -573% 2007/08 15.450 14.817 123 954 618 and equipment -13% 3.096 5% .930 8.& TAX 1.626 Raw materials/goods consumed 7.143 622 1.857 357 -1.808 -27% -4.

868 11% Deferred expenses 376 TOTAL FICTITIOUS ASSETS 376 € € 28.545 13% 21.550 10% 92.342 6% 22.275 Deposits/ Advances Payment TOTAL QUICK ASSETS TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS TOTAL ASSETS 7.227 Long Term Investments 777 VAR 2005/06 VAR € € 51.132 10% € € 26.294 15% 15% 81.704 1% 46.415 4.259 € 7.025 47.218 83.373 Trade Debtors 3.568 23% -4% 360 -4% 360 26% 4% 4% 16% 698 14% 7% 92.854 15% 66.995 11% 1.518 6.992 33% 2006/07 € € 52.931 NET FIXED ASSETS 68.208 Long/Medium Term Bank Loan 44.099 7% 6% 74.060 37% 8% 6% 51.119 8.602 89.132 10% .498 5.448 -3% 8.492 11% 17.579 3% -135% 124 -135% 124 L I A B I L I T I E S € Paid up Capital 20.382 8% 5.373 TOTAL STOCKS 1.115 TOTAL OWN FUNDS 15.492 10.518 73.809 10% 1.431 TOTAL EXTERNAL LIABILITIES 62.488 2% 22.550 10% € € 23.466 26.162 15% Accumulated profits/ Reserves 6.144 Other current liabilities/Provisions 17% 813 TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES 17.323 10% 1.088 -5% 2.555 10% 1.004 79.782 1% 29.618 -2% 693 22.735 10% 820 8% 80.616 11% 25.825 1% 1.538 52.193 TOTAL LIABILITIES 77.827 1.762 TOTAL LONG/MED TERM DEBTS 44.769 14% 19.428 12% 1.803 -27% 22.300 321% 275 321% 275 NET WORTH 15.004 8% Stock of finished goods 1.616 11% 47.218 77.01.927 9% 882 82% TOTAL NET FIXED ASSETS 69.355 11% 26% 1.294 -29% 17.391 2.119 16% 2% 710 19.151 15% 2.113 14% 4.762 Trade Creditors 16.698 Cash on hand & bank -1% 11% 1.Appendix 5: Balance sheet of NEA PARTICULARS 2004/05 VAR 2007/08 Amounts in million rupees ASSETS € € € Property Land and Equipment 52.498 1% 32% 1.226 12% 821 2% 9.01.488 2% 46.167 -1% 16.496 8% 21.812 16% 70.538 52.323 -1% 1.225 1.641 8.355 4.743 0% 21.145 23% 88.873 11.294 Capital Work-in-Progress 35.496 8% 83.777 -43% 2.

619 4.363 Closing cash balance as on F.958 Net Operating Cash flows before interest Interest Expenses -3.049 Non-Operating income (other income) 640 Cash flow from financing activities: 5.3 2261 1345 2005 515.695 -17 3. Hydro 1046 2000 326.094 -9.376 2.492 1.384 4.533 -8.692 120 5.849 Cash flow from investing activities: -6.202 962 Depreciation and Amortisation 1.975 3.456 1.146 -547 1. End 1.625 Deposits/ Advances Payment -195 68 L/C & B/Gua Cash Margin 0 0 0 Miscellaneous current assets 0 0 Changes in Current Assets: -568 -1.388 2.892 -2.Appendix 6: Cash Flow Statement € A € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € € B € € C € € € € € € Particulars 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 Cash flow from Operating Activities: 1.218 1.128 Increase (decrease) in cash 70 -157 Opening cash balance 1.816 Appendix 7: Term of License (1) The study/survey license: Max 5 Years (2) The hydropower generation license: (a) The project supplying the internal demand: 35 Years (b) The export-oriented hydropower project: 35 Years (c) 60% utilized by national industrial enterprise on its own 30 Years (d) Storage projects Extended for a max of 5 Years (3) The Electricity Transmission and Distribution National Transmission Line or Grid.259 3.950 1.819 Current Assets: € € € Total Stocks 18 -144 -20 Advance Tax/VAT/other duties 0 0 Trade Debtors -390 -1.2 648.9 1701 1113 2002 391 1868 1113 2003 426 2066 1478 2004 470.283 -9.325 -9.5 2642 1568 .7 Available Energy (GWh) 2780 3051 3180 1.922 1.565 2.923 0 -50 0 -1.199 Bank Loan (short term) 0 0 0 Loan from shareholders/directors/third parties Long/Medium Term Bank Loan 1.990 2.2 2380 1522 2006 557.139 Current Liabilities: € € € Trade Creditors 2.499 Other current liabilities/Provisions 12 Changes in Current Liabilities: 2.4 1475 1233 2001 351.392 3.094 -1.820 1.102 0 0 2.445 7.323 1.Y.3 721. 25 Years Electricity Distribution License 25 Years Appendix 8: Demand of Energy Particulars 1999 2007 2008 Peak Demand (MW) 603.017 655 4.063 -1.899 Cash flow before change in working capital Changes in working capital: 1.728 Purchase/sale of fixed assets -7.872 1.599 Operating Profit/income 954 1.129 0 5.607 3.

1747 1798 2. Thermal 118.6 13.31 9.17 3. Purchase (Total) 1196 1291 1372 India 232.3 232.2 412.4 Nepal 77.28 169.3 960.4

66.7 309.6 226.5 501.3

27.1 401.5 238.2 698.0

17.01 727.9 149.8 628.8

4.4 936.3 186.6 838.8

9.92 778.6 241.3 864.7

13.66 1025 266.2 930

16.1 1106 328.8 962.2

Appendix 9: Number of Consumers of Electricity Particulars 2007 2008 Domestic 9,30,554 14,58,419 Non-Com 7,654 10,639 Commercial 6,000 6,597 Industrial 24,089 25,498 Water Supply 414 444 Irrigation 13,183 17,654 Street Lights 1,608 1,952 Temporary 210 298 Transport 39 37 Temple 1,131 2,752 Community 1 Internal 9,70,606 15,24,605 Bulk Supply to 5 5 Grand Total 9,70,611 15,24,610 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

5,93,468 10,10,719 7,815 2,948 7,643 3,096

6,43,314 11,13,740 8,629 3,386 9,722 3,898

7,13,307 12,27,295 9,865 5,317 9,950 5,454

8,48,540 13,39,253 10,010 10,215 6,000 6,170

14,996 16,179 17,701 18,789 19,833 21,374 22,500 23,020 215 876 842 207 21 1,248 232 967 932 144 47 1,441 1 15 6,22,358 10,53,930 India 5 5 6,22,363 10,53,935 35 58 6,73,974 11,59,850 5 5 236 1,083 1,012 141 37 1,800 251 1,353 1,048 172 49 1,738 305 1,721 1,229 138 48 1,959 352 2,557 1,437 150 48 2,150 370 3,400 1,500 155 50 2,290 380 6,450 1,550 165 54 2,628 8,84,530 13,97,808 5 5

169 315 7,45,987 12,77,442 5 5

6,73,979 11,59,855

7,45,992 12,77,447

8,84,535 13,97,813

Appendix 10: Existing Projects in Nepal Project Name Capacity (KW) Existing € Achham 400 Andhi Khola (BPC) 5,100 Arughat Gorkha 150 Baglung 200 Bajura 200 Baramchi 980 Bhotekoshi (BKPC) 36,000 Chakukhola (APN) 1,500

Chame 45 Chatara 3,200 Chilime (CPC) 20,000 Devighat 14,100 Dhading 32 Dolpa 200 Doti 200 Duhabi Multifuel 39,000 Fewa (Pokhara) 1,000 Gamgadhi 50 Gandak 15,000 Helambu 50 Heldung (Humla) 500 Hetauda 14,410 Indrawati-III (NHPC) 7,500 Jhimruk (BPC) 12,000 KaliGandaki "A" 1,44,000 Kalikot 500 Khimtikhola (HPL) 60,000 Khudi (KhudiHP) 3,450 Kulekhani No. 1 60,000 Kulekhani No. 2 32,000 Manang 80 Marshyangdi 69,000 Modi Khola 14,800 Namche (KBC) 600 Panauti 2,400 Phemekhola 995

Appendix 11: Existing and Private sector projects Project Name Capacity (KW) Piluwa Khola (AVHP) 3,000 Puwakhola 6,200 Rairang 500 Ramechhap 150 Rupalgad (Dadeldhura) 100 Salinadi 232 Salleri (Sceco) 400 Sangekhola 183 Seti (Pokhara) 1,500 Simikot 50 Sisnekhola 750 Sundarijal 640 Sunkoshi Small (SanimaHP) Sunkosi 10,050 Surnaiyagad (Baitadi) 200 Tatopani/Myagdi (I) & (II) Thoppalkhola 1,650 Tinau (Butwal) 1,024 Trisuli 24,000 Leased to Private Sector Bajhang 200 Bhojpur 250 Chaurjhari (Rukum) 150 Darchula (I) & (II) 300 Jomsom 240 Jumla 200 Khandbari 250 Okhaldhunga 125 Phidim 240 Syarpudaha (Rukum) 200 Taplejung 125 Terhathum 100

2,500 2,000

€

Appendix 12: Other Projects in Nepal Project Name Capacity (KW) Not in normal operations € Dhankuta 240 Gorkhe (Ilam) 64 Jhupra 345 Pharping 500 Syangja 80 Planned/ Proposed € Arun 3 4.000 Budhi Gandaki 6.500 Lower Nyadi 4.28.000 Upper Modi 'A' 42.000 Upper Trishuli-3'A' 60.4 1.02.000 .000 Upper Seti (Storage) 1.21.000 Upper Trishuli-3'B' 37.079 Kabeli "A" 30.000 Upper Marsyangdi 'A' 1.28.000 Upper Modi 14.000 Balefi 20.000 Mailung 5.20.00.000 Rahughat 30.000 Likhu .000 Fawa Khola 2.500 Madi -1 10.000 Seti (West) 7.000 Daram Khola 5.000 Seti Trishuli (Storage) 1.II 27.000 Khimti .50.000 Lower Indrawati 4.

100 Middle Marsyangdi 70.000 Gamgadhi 400 Kulekhani No.000 Patikhola 996 Ridikhola 2. 3 14.00.765 Lower Nyadi 4.09.100 Upper Modi 14.400 Lower Chakukhola 1.400 Mailung 5.500 Mardikhola 3.500 Lower Piluwa 990 Madi-1 10.079 Siurikhola 990 Tadikhola 970 Tinaukhola Small 990 Upper Maikhola 3.000 Maikhola 2.000 .000 Lower Indrawati 4.Appendix 13: Hydropower Projects under construction Project Name Capacity Priliminary WIP € Belkhu 320 Daramkhola 5.000 Hewakhola 2.400 Seti -II 979 Upper Hadikhola 991 Upper Karnali 3.000 Under Construction € Chamelia 30.000 Narayani Shankar Biomass 500 Phawakhola 2.000 Upper Tamakoshi 3.

The interest rate is tied up to the tenure of the deposit. . Customers can borrow from the Bank against their Fixed Deposit Certificates. a recurring (revolving) credit facility. Loans are pr ovided for the establishment. Customers opening this account get a free cheque Book with the ABBS facility. Non Revolving Cash Credit: Bank extends€Non Revolving Cash Credit to finance import of capital items being imported as supplementary equipment of the existing plant and machinery. Call Deposit The Bank offers short-term term deposit in the form of Call Deposit. Overdraft Facility: Overdraft Facility. Loan Products Corporate Loans Funded Project / Consortium Loan: Bank extends both Fixed Term Loan and Working Capital Loan. capacity addition. Customers are provided with free personal accidental death insurance. The minimum deposit to be maintained by the Customer varies according to the branch. Himalayan Bank help s financing needs of the project through consortium lending as the lead Bank and /or Co-lead Bank. The loan is extended to man ufacturing as well as service sector. Current Account Mainly intended for business/corporate houses. Recurring Savings Account 'Recurring Savings Account' is a 3 years fixed tenure savings account ta rgeted to individuals who would like to save funds in installments for future us e. Jumbo Term Deposit 'Jumbo Term Deposit' is a fixed deposit targeted to individuals willing to deposit specified amount for specified period of time for a higher return. overheads and administrative expenses. Fixed Deposit Fixed Deposits can be made for a period ranging from 3 Months to One Yea r or over. Thi s is an interest bearing Current Account or in other words Term Deposit with a t enure ranging from 7 days to 3 months. PSA is first Premiu m Deposit Product in the Banking sector of Nepal. physically challenged and illiterate individuals. Bishesh Savings Account 'Bishesh Savings Account' is a deposit product targeted to special secti on of society which includes minors. PSA Customers enjoy a separate privileg ed counter and an interest rate calculated on daily balance. is offered to customers for meeting fluctuating working capital needs for funding current a ssets. senior citizens completing the age of 50 ye ars. Working Capital Financing: The bank extends Working Capital Loans under various headings to finance the working capital requirements.Appendix : Services provided by Himalayan Bank Limited Deposit Services Premium Savings Account (PSA) PSA is a privileged Savings Account with a host of convenient features a nd banking channels to transact through. If the project is big. this account can be opene d and operated from any HBL s branches. up-gradation of existing facili tates as well as acquisition of existing facilities. Savings Deposit Savings Deposit Account can be opened in any of HBL s branch offices.

Demand Loan Revolving Demand Loan (RDL): This form of recurring working capital loan is extended to finance continuous wo rking capital requirement of companies. sight as well as usance. Letters of Credit: The Bank establishes Import Letters of Credit. manufacturing machinery equipments under Hire Purchase Financing. Bonded Ware House Guarantee. construct a building on an already owned land.€ Revolving Cash Credit Revolving Cash Credit is extended to finance working capital requirement s particularly to finance import of raw materials (including custom duties) from India. Pre Export Loan. Financial G uarantee. Housing Loan Housing Loan is available to purchase readymade / under construction bui lding (including land cost). Retail/Consumer Loans Hire Purchase Loan The Bank extends Hire Purchase Loan for purchase of new vehicles. for purchase of adjacent land or extension of existing building. Similarly the Bank extends Revolving Cash Credit to finance purchase of agriculture produce from local market as well as India.€ Pledge Loan:€ Against security of movable non-perishable stock merchandise. The Bank purchases cheques issued by individuals. the bank g rants Demand Loan / Cash Credit. (inclu ding body making in case of commercial vehicles) to individuals as well as compa nies. Post Shipment Loan and Back to Back L/C are some of the fac ilities that can be extended. Non Funded Facilities Bank Guarantee:€ The Bank issues various types of Bank Guarantee Facilities like Performa nce Bond Guarantee. Short Term Demand Loan (STDL): This is another form of working capital loan extended to finance seasonal and oc casional working capital requirement of companies.€ Trust Receipt Loan The Bank extends Trust Receipt Loans for financing raw materials and tra ding merchandise while retiring documents of the Import Letters of Credit. Subidha Loan . Documentary Bills Purchased€and Discounted: The bank extends loan facilities against the Documentary Bills on recour se basis.€ Clean Bills purchased and discounted: The Bank extends these facilities against the Bills/Drafts/Cheque (Negot iable Instruments). financial institutions and credit the customer s account immediately. Counter Guarantee and Advance Payment Guar antee. The bank also finances equipment such as medical equipment.€ Export Credit Facilities:€ The Bank extends Export Credit Facilities against export letters of Cred it. Deferred Payment Guarantee.€ Import Credit for Telex Transfer and Demand Draft Payment Bank extends Import Credit to finance import of goods from third countri es other than India where payment is made through Telex Transfer or Demand Draft . construction e quipment. Bid Bond Guarantee.

credit cards of VISA and Master Card (domestic and international). Loan against Government Bonds & Bonds of Bank The Bank extends loans against various Bonds / Stocks/ Promissory notes issued by the Government/ NRB. education expenses. Customers can place their LC application in any of HBL Branches. Safe Deposit Locker Customers availing of this facility enjoy peace of mind in terms of secu rity of their valuable belongings with one of the most attractive rates and ease of location. HBL has developed a special loan package meant just to suit small and medium sized enterprises. trading and service sector can avail of this facility to meet their short-t erm and long-term financing needs. Loan against Shares The Bank also advances loan against listed shares of Public Ltd. last three transactions and the Bank s foreign exchange rate. the bank can extend loans against bonds iss ued by commercial banks.€ Card Services HBL provides various card services like ATM cards. etc. Loan against First Class Bank Guarantees The Bank extends various credit facilities. Credit Card Loan The bank extends credit to individuals through credit cards that could b e payable on monthly installment basis (credit card). a premium online customer focused and technology oriented M oney Transfer. Small and Medium Enterprises (SME): As a step further to help establishment. all at a . Business houses coming from industr ial. towns and villages of the country and is capable of paying at more than 600 locations across Nepal. fixed tenure basis (capita l asset financing). Hima l Remit has the largest network covering all major cities. Loan against Fixed Deposit Receipt€ The Bank extends Loan against the Fixed Deposit Receipt issued by the Ba nk itself or by other Banks (in Nepal). SMS Banking Using SMS Banking. against unconditional guarantees issued by First Class International Banks. etc. Similarly. minor business dea lings. Prepaid cards and Visa debit cards . one can check their balance. Himal Remit Himal Remit. The Custome rs enjoy wide correspondent network of Himalayan Bank in addition to the attract ive rates. home furnishing. compani es. HBL is a pioneer in the field of retail money transfer business w ith over a decade long customized service delivery experience in the field. Generally up to 90% of the FDR value can be disbursed as Loan. The fees/ charges are one of the lowest amongst the commercial banks of Nepal. status of cheque (encash ed or not). growth and expansion of small a nd medium sized enterprises. funded as well as non-funded . Under this. HBL offers Letter of Credit (LC) facili ties.This is a customized loan facility offered to Customers to meet various social needs such as ceremonial expenses. Other Products International Banking (LC) To assist its trading Customers. up to 90% of the value of such Bonds can be disbursed as Loan.

travelling through traffic jams and also flexibility of banking hou rs to name a few advantages. All basic banking functions can be easily done t hrough internet banking that too without the hassles of getting into the lines o f the banks. .few clicks of a cell. Internet Banking Internet Banking is providing the banking services through the medium of the internet and the computer.

1968 Nabil Bank Ltd 16 July 1984 Standard Chartered Bank Nepal Ltd 24 January 1986 Nepal Investment Bank Ltd 27 February 1986 Himalayan Bank Ltd 18 January 1993 Nepal SBI Bank Ltd 07 July 1993 Nepal Bangladesh Bank Ltd 01 June 1994 Everest Bank Ltd 18 October 1994 Bank of Kathmandu Ltd 03 March 1995 Nepal Credit and Commerce Bank 14 October 1996 Lumbini Bank Ltd 17 July 1998 NIC Bank Ltd 21 July 1998 Machhapuchhre Bank Ltd 03 October 2000 Kumari Bank Ltd 03 April 2001 Laxmi Bank Ltd 03 April 2002 Siddhartha Bank Ltd 24 December 2002 Global Bank Ltd 02 January 2007 20 April 2007 Citizens International Bank Ltd Prime Commercial Bank 24 September 2007 Bank of Asia Nepal Ltd 12 October 2007 Sunrise Bank Ltd 12 October 2007 Development Credit Bank Ltd Upgraded in 2007 NMB Bank Ltd Upgraded in 2007 .Appendix : Commercial banks in Nepal Name of the Bank Established in Nepal Bank Ltd 15 November 1937 Rastra Banijya Bank 23 January 1966 Agriculture Development Bank Ltd Est.

So this internship at Himalayan Bank Limited is serving as a stepping stone to move towards my goal. Professional Goals: My aim of being a professional banker has moved a step forward with my decision of pursuing my internship in a commercial bank. decisions about priorities. This phase has various dimensions to my life at this moment like anxiety. I will be able to k now what actually the benefits are and also about the limitations of working in a bank and henceforth assure my target to work under this goal of mine to become a banker. Internship not only makes it p ossible for experiencing daily working conditions but also creates a platform to set our careers in the career of our interest by gaining experience. my aim of being a banker. Part 2: Self-Reflection Essay When everyone is thinking that I am living a laid back life. making con tacts and proving ourselves to the supervisors of our abilities. This decision in my life holds a very important place as my whole car eer would depend upon my decisions henceforth. qualifica tions and interests. dilemmas. In this way. confusions. This internship experience has two ways to see it. First objective is to fulfill the academic part of the BBA program where internship holds a huge respect for the partial completion of the course with 6 credits assigned to it individually. af ter we move out from the premises of the college. So a sincere and honest effort to m internship would be the utmost priority in my life at the moment. nervou sness. Personal Goals: Ever since I joined KCM. the phase where I decide what decisions I will take to mould my career as per my requirements. Internship not only prepares us to know the working realities. I always wanted to enter into professional banking and held a dignified high post in a reputed company. Academic Goals: Only theoretical knowledge is not enough in today's competitive world.Appendix : Assignment 1 Assignment 1 Goals and objectives of the Interns Nikhil Agrawal Part 1: Goals/ objectives of Internship Experience Specifically describe the goals you plan to set and how you will achieve these g oals. I actually am passi ng through one of the most important phases of my life. practical knowledge alongside is very important to know what the textbook basics actually meant. Furthermore d oing good in the internship adds value to the CGPA as well as it carries 6 credi t hours evaluation. fighting with the limit . Second and the most important part is to set a platform for the career ahead. but also helps us to incorporate our knowledge from the BBA program into a reality. This experience of my internship will definitely help me to get used to the working environment in the banking world and hence further ensure me of my goal to get into this field. Hence doing well in the internship program would incorporate various advantages to my academic career as well.

of time. The things I will learn will help in my career and also in my studies ahead. This is a very important thing as I will be able to let go of all the complexities that would inadvertently stop me from fu lfilling my dream and my career. In our day to day life we have to prioritize many issues over other so as to giv e ample attention and time for the important ones. coaching. analytical. Professionalism in terms of how to work in the office and commitment in terms of giving the best I can towards work. recruit . In Today s competitive marketplace. I suddenly am realizing that we are bound by the limitness of time whereas previously I thought I have ample time for everything. interpersonal along with motivation. Finally. Personally. my dream of being a professional seems to be a possibility and getting an experience even before I finished my studies is an important experience. This program will also help me gain knowledge about corporate marketin g. It will provide me with understanding about how to use this knowledge in my professional career. honesty and a strong work ethics. knowledge which will be essential in demonstrating my commitment t o a career in banking when I graduate. management and research. It will help me further in my MBA. This requirement of my punctu ality in my work has made me able to prioritize my career and studies over other issues like friends. This limitness of time ha s made me realize the value of time and how to organize every activity so as to give my time to other issues as well. This will also increase skills such as communication. who the big players are. Academically this internship will help me use knowledge I have learned in subjec ts such as marketing research. This realization of importance of time wil l no doubt help me in anything I do in the future as for every professional. I will also be able to let go of all the dilemmas that I have related to my career decisions like whether to enter into a job as my goal persists or to start up or continue my family business or to go for a Masters d egree right after the completion of my BBA course. Now. gaining a unique insight and understanding that cou ld not be achieved by research alone. During the internship program I will learn what it's really like to work in the financial services industry. An internship experience will allow me to d evelop proficiency in these areas. During this internship. Taking this decision would be a lot easier after the completion of the internship period as I will be able to decide what is right and what is not for my future ahead. as well as content skills including administr ative. I pursu e further to gain the maximum knowledge from the experience and enrich in my lif e and career ahead. I will learn how companies are positioned in the industry. I feel that this in ternship will develop professionalism and commitment within me. as well as the latest trends or indust ry forecasts. This internship will help me understand the working environment in banks where I int end to permanently be in the future. The anxiety of what is next in the experience of the other departments I will be recruited is very exciting as I am getting the opportunity to get into the type of working place I want to work in. finance and use practical knowledge in Commercial banking. teamw ork. tim e is the one of the rarest and important assets he has. parties etc. Rishabh Tibrewala Part 1: Goals/Objectives of Internship Experience The management internship program will help me relate to my academic knowledge t o the real working environment.

Beyond this . it has given me opportunity to grow and gain practical knowledge. The few years that I have spent in this college will be remembered all my life. Part 2: Self-Reflection Essay This is a time where I need to make the most important decisions in life startin g from education to career. and has a contemporary working environment. are open to changes. I need to decide if I am going to study further or g et into work. I gained a sense of con fidence and motivation to work. I want to be into such a career in the banking sector that pays me well firstly. I meet new people and the work there is exciting where I get to learn a lot and show my talent. It will help me build a goo d rapport with the bank and help me later when I come back after my MBA. Currently the most exciting thing in my life is the internship program that I ha ve joined. KCM has not been a college where I gained academic knowledge in certain fields b ut in all fields of nature including psychology and human behaviour. and then it should also be sat isfying and exciting. The organization that i get into should motivate new ideas . And finally. I have made decisions which I am proud of. All these decisions are going to affect my whole life and I won t be able to c hange it once I have decided. The most important thing in my life at the moment is the decision I need to make in the next few months. but also for hands-on. This is also a good chance to prove myself worthy of a good position and later consider me when the bank is making placements. The first decisi on that I am proud of is taking commerce as my background. wa . Also organizing the Daihatsu City Chase for Peace s one of the good things I did. joining Himalayan Bank Limited for my internship is worth the pain. Most of my time goes in thinking about my life. I need to decide. With project s and other events organized within and outside college. if I am going to study here in Kathmandu or go o ut. relevant experien ce. The most important thing that I want to do before I die is to prove myself usefu l to the society and my family more importantly. The studying in KCM w as the next best thing I did. Looking at the past.ers look not just for academic prowess. As an intern I will have the opportunity to acquire the skills I will need t o get a head start on my particular field of career. I need to decide where I wan t to be next.

Nepal s Ban kers Association. The trainings include Advanced Credit Analysis. Abhaya Bahadur Shah. Project Financing. This has not only posed a threat to established banks like . Mr. HBL not only provides the interns with maximum exposure to the banking sector but also provides us a plat form to set our careers of interest by letting us carry out the daily operations of the banking industry with full faith and confidence. The supervisors are not only excellent in their related fields but also are very good teachers by shari ng all their knowledge with the interns and also correcting them of their mistak es so that they learn to the optimum. I interacted with Mr.e. The major divisions in a bank are the operations department and the lending depa rtment. Mr. Banking industry has become one of the most competitive industries of Nepal as i n a small market like ours. During the course of internship. He has received various trainings in banking a nd finance from his current bank and the previous bank he worked in i. one of the senior RMs of the customer care department of the credit department divis ion.Appendix : Assignment 2 Assignment 2: Interview of supervisor at workplace Interview done by: Name of the interviewee (Supervisor): Position: Department: Organization: Nikhil Agrawal Mr. An MBA degree holder in finance from Delhi University. etc. Nepal I nvestment Bank Limited. academic knowledge. Though every work is challenging. Shah is an enth usiastic and dedicated banker for whom banking is not only a profession but a ho bby. and Management Association of Nepal. proper understanding of the project being financed and proper credit appraisal skills with a motive not to fulfill the targets given b ut for the betterment of the bank and its stakeholders. There are o ther professional institutions and organizations working as well for the betterm ent and regularization of the banking industry like Nepal Rastra Bank. The employee not only ne eds to be knowledgeable but intelligent as well because situations of using pers onal cognitive skills becomes very necessary during the credit appraisal of a cl ient as Nepal lacks proper credit ratings of people or corporate entities. Abhaya Bahadur Shah Relationship Manager Credit Department Himalayan Bank Limited Internship in Himalayan Bank Limited has not been confined to just doing what th e course work requires Interns to do but it has been an experience where I have expanded my horizon of knowledge and also increased my networking with many elit es of the banking industry and of the corporate world. such trainings and degrees also become a necessity to get acquainted with the en vironment so as be competent with the challenges that is faced by a banker. So the employees of the credit department need to very good in their analytical sk ills. credit department is the most challeng ing as the employee not only is responsible for carrying out the tasks to genera te income but also puts the wealth of stakeholder s of the bank doing the same. Trainings and degrees are just part of a banker s job as with the volatile and constantly changing environment. Shah does every task assigned with full dedication but at the same time does not forget to have fun which enables the whole department to be proactive and fun with the work they carry. Thoug h there are organizations like Credit Information Bureau to provide credit infor mation of the proposed clients but it has not been able to provide ample informa tion about clients and their present credit ratings in the industry. Risk Assessment of SBE financing. multiple numbers of financial institutions has enter ed into our country.

Also a proper working environment is necessary f or the same. Pawan Agrawal Position: Credit Analyst Department: Risk Management Division Organization: Himalayan Bank Ltd. Besides this. We have been interacting with people from the banking field as well as people from othe r field of work. This challenge is one of the most fascin ating reasons for bankers to enter into this profession. the emplo yees have to work over time for which a passion for the work is important to mai ntain motivation in their work. the most rewarding thing in this profession is the respect the person gains in becoming a banker as the image of professionalism and learnedness combines which gives the person a nice status in the society and the meetings with other people. The working environment in HBL is considered to be the b est among the financial institutions with friendly environment and no dominance of higher posts upon the lower posts as all employees are considered to be equal . and Financial Management are necessary with personal strength s like good interpersonal communication skills and good analytical skills. good interperson al skills and cognitive intelligence is also a necessity to excel in the career as it is easily noticed and appreciated. Interview done by: Rishabh Tibrewala Name of the supervisor: Mr. has been quite an experience till now. credit approval and site visits. Internship at Himalayan Bank Ltd. He fu rther suggested maintaining professionalism in any field I pursue because that d ifferentiates an excellent employee with a good performer. Attaining a manager s level position for Mr. Besides these. According to him. Besides this. Shah was not an easy task as it requi red him years of dedication towards the work to gain confidence among seniors so as to prove one capable of attaining promotions. Another recent trend of promotion in jo b shift. We have been going on site visits where we get to interact with business people associated with both small and large enterprises. This ad vantage covers up the small disadvantages that are associated with such jobs tha t is the small growing opportunities of employees as there increments are confin ed in a certain pattern whereas setting up own business seems to be more profita ble and growing. masters in finance is a necessity to enter into a credit de partment. For such analysis there are organizations like Banke r of the Year for their proper ratings. Most of the time. The managers at the bank are willing to teach the i .Himalayan Bank but also poses a competitive environment for financial institutio ns to excel in their field. This is one of the most differentiating factors of the bank in fron t of their competitors. to enter into the banking industry a MBA degree or masters in t he interested field. I learnt many insights about the banking industry from Mr. Besides this. to excel i n any business maintaining a network of every class and every field of people is a must because it indirectly comes useful in various stages of your working lif e. proper acquaintances to subjects such as Strategic Mana gement. Shah and got some use ful recommendations and tips for my career as well. This has been possible only because Himalayan Bank Ltd has an open culture where an intern al so gets to show his talents. Economics. This friendly and professional working environment motivates the employees to dedicate themselves to their work better. For a banker in the credit department. the major portion of the working hours is spent in meetings. a careful and strategic move towards job shifting can enable a person t o excel in his or her career which has been triggered by the current boom in the number of financial institutions.

The main points of the i nterview have been highlighted in the essay below. There are basically two sectors. e xcellent negotiation skills so that a better Credit Approval Package can be desi gned to satisfy both the customer and the bank s interest and analytical skills to be able to see the capabilities of the client in terms of industry. f inancials. It is a much gl amorized sector of the economy but it is not always true. the NBA or Nepal Bankers Association and the CIB or the Credit Information Bureau. Himalayan Bank established in 1993 was one of the first private commercial bank. The bank provides training with regards to Project Financing. the bank cannot develop a uni que product but because of the good financial position and cheaper cost of funds . one is the lending or the credit and the second is the operations which include s everything else such as deposits. Credit Analyst. Advanced Cr edit Analysis and Infrastructure Financing for the job of an analyst. one should have good communi cation and presentation skills which is needed while dealing with the clients. trade. treasury etc. I was even lucky as I got to interview one of the Credit Analyst of the bank. It has established a name for itself in the market and has been a market leader ever since. At this bank. A banker is perceived as a person with professionalism in what they do. Being in this competitive sector. was really kind to give some of his v aluable time for this assignment. If he is good in it. Hence if a person wants to grow. Mr.nterns even when it takes up their time and talents are appreciated. every individual gets to develop these skills as the environment i s supportive. Any person can find this when he visits any of the banks in Nepal. I have been lucky to get a chance to work in such a work place. security. The required skills are learnt through experience and tra ining. this secto r has not been able to develop itself properly. credit is very attractive because one needs to meet a lot of people and interaction is always fun. One gets to try new stuff and learn by doing. Himalayan bank has been a leader in its market. These help the banks in proper operations and administration but in Nepal. to be able to go up high in the hierarchy. The level of professionalism tha t banks should have is not seen in any of the banks and there has been almost no progress. management and technical aspects. The most important profile that a person should have to get into the bank is a m aster lever degree. Risk Management Division. Further. business is a better option. Credit Appraisal Techn iques and an understanding of the Project Financing is a must. If a person wants to get into the banking sector. where the market is really small and new players have come with very aggressive marketing. He was really helpful and was genuinely intere sted to answer all my questions with positive attitude. Getting into this sect or limits your growth possibility. he needs to be good in finance and should have analytical and communication skills. Also. Th . There are only a few professional organizations that administer the banking sect or in Nepal which are the Nepal Rastra Bank (the Central Bank of Nepal). then one can easily decide on the sector of banking. One cannot earn in this sector as much as he can in business. The USP of the bank has been its brand image which has been gained with long presence in the ma rket. Th is brand image has helped the bank develop a good customer base. People often get impressed with the overall personality of a banker. This way every perso n working at the bank enjoys freedom to use his intelligence and give something to the bank in return. For a job title of an Analyst good financial analytical skill. This inspires a lot of people to come into banking sector. Pawan Agrawal. It is preferred to have an MBA in Finance as this lays found ation towards better understanding in the financial sector of the economy. It has an established brand name which is a strong point for it.

T his job shift helps one improve his living standard but needs to be strategicall y planned or else can lead to failure. One does not always have the required st artup capital which often acts as a limitation.e managers don t run of deadlines and no work is actually done the way it should b e done. people recognize you as a capable person. Some get good oppo rtunity in terms of the pay whereas some get a better organization to work in. Interview with Mr. Credit needs to be give n solely on the basis of common sense and personal judgment as statistics aren t a vailable. Often people make job changes in search of better lifestyles. I bachelors degree holder does not hav e a good chance to grow as he will be given a job of a teller or alike and it wi ll take long for him to get to an assistant or a manager level. being in a bank is very satisfactory as it is the most professional organizatio n and highest paying sector of the economy. For a person with MBA level degree. Business is always benef icial but there are certain cons of it. Further. Along with the level of professionalism. bankers also face one more problem. Pawan helped me understand where I stand and how good my chan ces are if I want to get into this field. the o ther best alternative is to start up with own business. The re is not proper database available for them to rely on. Internally. . I came to know the pros and cons of working at a bank. one needs to have that leadership quality or else he risks of losing his money. The most rewarding aspect of working in a bank is that people give respect to yo u. This interview has been really advantageous as it gave me an insight of the bank ing career. This interview will surely be useful while deciding upon my career in the future . Any person who n eeds to get into this field should at least have a MBA in finance which will hel p him to get a head start and will take him up much faster. It helped me understand what a banker really feels and what the best thing to do in life is. Once you are in a bank. This leads to wrong decisions and often it is seen that credit is prov ided to people who have been declared bankrupt.