fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Bachelor of Electrical Engineering (Hons.) (Electronics) Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Universiti Malaysia Pahang OCTOBER,2008“All the trademark and copyrights use herein are property of their respective owner. References of information from other sources are quoted accordingly; otherwise the information presented in this report is solely work of the author.” Signature : ____________________________ Author : RABI’ATUL ADAWIYAH BINTI MUSTAFA Date : 28 OCTOBER 2008“I hereby acknowledge that the scope and quality of this thesis is qualified for the award of the Bachelor Degree of Electrical Engineering (Electronics)” Signature : ______________________________________________ Name : REZA EZUAN BIN SAMIN Date : 20 APRIL 2008To my belove mother and father, Mr.Mustafa Bin Sulaiman Mrs. Selamah Binti Yaakob Thank you for supporting me all the timeAKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all I am grateful to ALLAH S.W.T for blessing and giving me enough courage in completing my final year project (PSM). Secondly I would like to thank my family for giving morale support and encouragement in completing my project and also throughout my study in UMP as they are my inspiration to success. Unforgettable, I want to give a special gratitude to my

both in overseas and locally. This system is implementing by using MATLAB7. He has been very helpful to me in finishing my project and I appreciate every advice that he gave me in correcting my mistakes. Therefore. In Malaysia. this system is aimed for implementation of a recognition system for special Malaysian car plates.1 Image Processing Toolbox. I apologize to my supervisor for any mistakes and things that I done wrong while finishing my project. The development of automatic car license plate recognition system will resulted greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring system. This system is implemented to make human work easier besides can reduce the uses of human power and because of its potential application. Reza Ezuan Bin Samin for guiding and supervising my final year project throughout these two semesters. Thank you very much to all and May ALLAH bless you. cooperation and guide that is related to my project. Car plate recognition systems are used commercially. however the usage of car plate recognition system is restricted to the ordinary car plates. The system is an online system where the image will automatically extracted once after the image is .ABSTRACT The growth of technologies requested higher performance tools in order to fulfill human needs and market. which uses optical character recognition on images to read the license plates on vehicles. This means that the system is unable to detect special types of car plates. The credit also goes to all lecturers and everyone who willing to share their knowledge. Last but not lest I want to thank all my friends that have gave me advice and encouragement in completing my project.supervisor En.

Next. the image is converted into a binary image and then the chosen area will be cropped so that only the plate number is left . Dengan adanya sistem pengecaman plat kereta ini dapat meningkatkan kecekapan system pengawasan kereta.ABSTRAK Perkembangan teknologi yang pesat mendorong kepada keperluan peralatan berpotensi tinggi bagi memenuhi permintaan manusia dan pasaran.captured by webcam using image processing technique. sistem tersebut tidak dapat menegcam plat kereta yang menggunakan perkataan khas. program pemprosesan imej dibuat dengan menggunakan perisian MATLAB. sistem ini dibangunkan khas untuk mengenal pasti nombor plat kereta Malaysia. One of the important step is the integration between image processing and Graphical User Interface (GUI) where. the output of this project will displayed using GUI. the image is compliment so that the black plate background becomes white while the white plate number becomes black because the system can only detect binary image where the background should be white while the plate number should be black. imej yang diambil tadi akan ditukar kepada imej binari kemudian ia akan dipotong supaya hanya nombor plat kereta sahaja yang tinggal dan . Sistem ini merupakan sistem online dimana imej plat kereta secara automatik akan diekstrak atau diproses sebaik sahaja gambar kereta diambil. Walaubagaimanpun. Pada dasarnya. Pertama sekali. Sistem ini dibangunkan untuk kemudahan manusia disamping dapat mengurangkan kepada penggunaan tenaga manusia memandangkan ia berpotensi untuk dipelbagaikan aplikasinya. Ini bermakna. Sistem ini digunakan secara komersial sama ada di dalam mahupun diluar negara. First. di Malaysia penggunaan sistem ini terhad kepada pengecaman plat kereta biasa. Untuk mengenalpasti nombor plat kereta.

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENT LIST OF TABLE LIST OF FIGURE LIST OF APPENDICES 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Kaedah ini penting kerana proses mengenal pasti nombor plat kereta akan menjadi lebih mudah dengan menggunakan imej binari.4 Project Scopes 1.5 Thesis Outline 4 4 3 2 52 LITERATURE REVIEW 6 .1 Background 1 1 1 xii xiii xv vi vii viii v ii iv 1.2 Problem Statements 1.1 What is Digital Image Processing 1.akan melalui proses yang seterusnya. Nombor kereta yang telah dikenalpasti itu akan dipaparkan di skrin khas yang dikenal sebagai GUI.1.3 Project Objectives 1.2 What is Neural Network 1. Kemudian warna imej tersebut akan disongsangkan dimana warna hitam latar belakang plat kereta tersebut bertukar menjadi warna putih manakala nombor plat kereta tersebut akan bertukar menjadi warna hitam.

3 Digital Image Processing 2.6 Character Recognition 25 25 25 3.4.2 License Plate Quantization Requirement 2.4 Neural Network Technology 7 8 9 2.6.5 Character Segmentation 3.4 Digit Filtering 24 243.4.1 Converting Image 26 .6.6.4 Verification 15 2.3.4 Neural Network Architecture 2.1 Introduction Image Processing Technique 3.6 Waterfall Methodology 2.1 Introduction 2.3 Image Acquisition System 3.5 Graphical User Interface 2.2.1 Gathering Data for Neural Network 2.2 MATLAB 7 6 2.3 Implementation 2.3 Plate Deformation 24 3.7 Optical Character Recognition 3 METHODOLOGY License Plate Cropping 3.3 Training Multilayer Perceptron 2.2 Design 15 15 14 Multilayer Perceptron 10 10 12 13 14 2.2 System Design 18 18 19 23 23 15 3.

2.3 Morphology Introduction 49 49 5.5 Software and Hardware Integration 3.4.6 Graphical User Interface 4 RESULT AND ANALYSIS 4.1 Software Items 3.3.2 Convert RGB Image to Grayscale Image Introduction 34 4.5 Threshold Function 42 43 44 41 Conclusion 50 .4 Erosion Method 3.3 Result of Optical Character Recognition 4.6 Imcomplement Function 4.4 Graphical User interface (GUI) Representation 4.4 Opening Function 404.5 Dilation Method 3.6 Discussion 47 49 45 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.2.2 Image Processing Technique 4.2.2 Future Recommendation 5.3 Image Crop 39 38 36 36 4.1 Result of Captured Image 4.2 Crop the Region Of Interest (ROI) 3.6 Threshold 28 27 27 27 26 Training Result 4.2 Hardware Items 29 29 30 34 28 3.

1 Three layer feed Forward Neural Network 11 12 8 17 29 29 46LIST OF FIGURES 2.2 Flowchart of CLPR system 3.REFERENCES 51-52 Appendix A: Gantt chart PSM 1 Appendix B: Gantt chart PSM 11 Appendix C: CLPR system coding Appendix D: CLPR system with GUI codingLIST OF TABLES TABLE NO TITLE PAGE 2.4 MATLAB command window 3.4 ADALINE network 13 14 20 2.3 Image under lighting 23 22 3.3 Square mean error (SME) training process 2.2 Car plate samples 35 .6 GUI GUIDE quick start 3.5 Guide command window 3.2 Neural Network training model 2.1 OCR Software 3.5 Waterfall methodology 3.1 Software Items 3.1 Parking entry prototype 4.7 GUI design screen 32 33 34 31 31 30 3.2 Hardware Items 4.8 GUI with activation devices 4.1 Training Results FIGURE NO TITLE PAGE 2.1 Block diagram of CLPR system 3.

13 Thresholding image 4.6 37 MATLAB function to convert RGB 38 image to grayscale image 4.17 Graphical user interface 4.4.14 Imcomplemen function 4.18 Exit option window APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A Gantt Chart PSM 1 B Gantt Chart PSM 11 C CLPR System Coding 53 55 57 41 42 42 43 44 45LIST OF APPENDICES D CLPR System with GUI Coding INTRODUCTION 1.5 Image captured using webcam 4.4 MATLAB function to capture image 4.10 MATLAB opening function 4.7 The grayscale image 38 39 4.9 Crop image 39 4.11 Opening image 40 41 40 4.16 Alphabets scanned image 4.15 Imcomplement image 4.8 MATLAB function for crop image 4.1 Background 60CHAPTER 1 This chapter explains what is Image Processing and Neural network that is used to develop the ‘Automatic Car Plate Recognition System Using Neural .3 Info for webcam 36 37 4.12 MATLAB threshold function 4.

[1] Digital image processing allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image processing. and the implementation of methods which would be impossible by analog means. project scope and thesis outline. 1. These elements are referred to as picture elements.1 What is Digital Image Processing An image can be defined as two-dimensional function f(x. An image is stored as a matrix using standard Matlab matrix conventions. A digital image is composed of a finite number of elements. Binary images. Intensity images. image elements and pixels. discrete quantities. digital image processing is the only practical technology for: [2] · Classification · Feature extraction · Pattern recognition · Projection · Multi-scale signal analysis .y and the amplitude values of f are all finite. In particular. and hence can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple tasks. Pixels is the term most widely used to denote the elements of a digital image. RGB images and 8-bit images The field of digital image processing refers to processing digital images by means of a digital computer. each of which has a particular location and value. This chapter also explains the problem statements of the system. objective of project. All this elements are essential parts as a guide to develop the car plate recognition system. When x. There are five basic types of images supported by Matlab. where x and y are spatial (plane) coordinates and the amplitude of f at any pair of coordinates (x. we call the image digital image. Indexed images.y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at that point.1.y). Both elements can be found in MATLAB Toolbox.Network’.

Some techniques which are used in digital image processing include: · Principal components analysis · Independent component analysis · Self-organizing maps · Hidden Markov models · Neural networks 1. determined by the connections between the processing elements and element parameters.1. In a neural network model simple nodes. An artificial neural network (ANN). or for solving artificial intelligence problems without necessarily creating a model of a real biological system.2 What is Neural Network Term neural network had been used to refer to a network or circuit of biological neurons. is an interconnected group of artificial neurons that uses a mathematical or computational model for information processing based on a connection approach to computation. They can be used to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs or to find patterns in data. In more practical terms neural networks are non-linear statistical data modeling or decision making tools. are connected together to form a network of nodes — hence the term "neural network". Artificial neural networks are made up of interconnecting artificial neurons (programming constructs that mimic the properties of biological neurons). which can be called variously "neurons". neural network refers to artificial neural networks. Its practical use comes with algorithms designed to alter the . which are composed of artificial neurons or nodes. An artificial neural network involves a network of simple processing elements (artificial neurons) which can exhibit complex global behavior. In the other side. Artificial neural networks may either be used to gain an understanding of biological neural networks. In most cases an ANN is an adaptive system that changes its structure based on external or internal information that flows through the network.

So we can know either the car is in JPJ observation or not. Extract the data from the car plate image by using digital image processing toolbox. So this project is developing to replace human to monitor the car and automatically capture the image. Besides that. Develop a car license plate recognition system using Image Processing Toolbox and Neural Network Toolbox 2. the system can automatically display the status of the car which it will compare between the car plate numbers recognized with the database from JPJ.2 Problem Statement Automatic car license plate recognition (CLPR) system is implemented to help the human to automatically detect plate number without human supervision. Thus.3 Project Objectives 1.1. 3. To integrate hardware and software. the focuses of this project are as below 1. objectives of the projects and project scopes all about. using a feed-forward network with 3 layers. Chapter 2 focuses on the project and literature review about the project that is used . 2. 4.1. Previously.4 Project Scopes This project is to develop a car plate recognition system by using neural network (CLPR). Integrate between Image Processing and Neural Network 1. To implement the system in order to recognize the car license plate. human is needed to observe and list the user car plate number manually.For implementing CLPR system we have use MATLAB Toolbox to achieve the objectives of the project. Recognize the image of the car license plate by using neural network technique.[3] 1.5 Thesis Outline Chapter 1 Explain the background of image processing and neural Network.strength (weights) of the connections in the network to produce a desired signal flow. problem statement.

In addition. like commercial vehicle operations or secure-access control. this chapter discusses detail about the method used for this project and some mathematical algorithm applied in the project. For implementing LPR system we have used digital image processing technique and artificial neural references that helps me in order to finishing my final year project.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. such as electronic toll collection and red-light violation enforcement. [4] License plate recognition (LPR) is a new tool for automatic vehicle and traffic monitoring by using digital image processing. This chapter also discusses the problem and the recommendation for this project and the overall CLPR system for the future development or modification. occupying lanes reserved for public transport. Chapters 3 explain and discuss details about digital image processing process and neural network process. In others.1 Introduction License plate identification/recognition (LPI/R) is one form of ITS technology that not only recognizes and counts vehicles. but distinguishes each as unique. The LPR system can be used to traffic control management for recognize vehicles that commit traffic violation. For some applications. crossing red light. . All the discussions are concentrating on the results and overall performance of Car Plate Recognition (CLPR) system. a vehicle's license plate is checked against a database of acceptable ones to determine whether a truck can bypass a weigh station or a car can enter a gated community or parking lot. LPI/R records a license plates alphanumeric so the vehicle owner can be assessed the appropriate toll or fine. Chapters 5 discuss the conclusion of development of the whole CLPR system. such as entering restricted area without permission . Chapter 4 this chapter will discuss about all result obtained from the system and the limitation of the project.

detection of the plate's position. filtering. as a script or encapsulated into a function. creation of user interfaces. implementation of algorithms. [8] . extending the commands available.[5] 2. allowing access to computer algebra capabilities.3 Digital Image Processing The paper represents the automatic plate localization component of a Car License Plate Recognition system. Sequences of commands can be saved in a text file. Created by The MathWorks. plotting of functions and data. Although it is numeric only. sometimes called M-code or simply M. and character segmentation and recognition. slope evaluation. This project could be successfully implementing an initial program to recognize car plate using MATLAB. edge detection. typically using the MATLAB Editor. The purpose for which this system is implemented real time applications. and interfacing with programs in other languages. etc. The approach concerns stages of preprocessing. [7] 2.breaking speed limits . In this way. Single frame gray-level images are used as the only source of information. in the Command Window. >> . an optional toolbox interfaces with the Maple symbolic engine. one of the elements of the MATLAB Desktop. Image Processing Toolbox and Neural Network Toolbox are used to implement the system. this system is using advance and new techniques of digital image processing such as pattern recognition for recognize characters of license plate and artificial neural network to extract the data. The simplest way to execute M-code is to type it in at the prompt.2 MATLAB MATLAB is a numerical computing environment and programming language. MATLAB allows easy matrix manipulation. MATLAB can be used as an interactive mathematical shell. [6] MATLAB is built around the MATLAB language.

Again. indirectly based on the nervous systems of humans and animals. When the network is executed (used). it is possible to define networks that are partially-connected to only some units in the preceding layer. A typical feed forward network has neurons arranged in a distinct layered topology.1: Three layer feed –forward Neural NetworkNeural networks are data analysis methods and algorithms. and then the hidden and output layer units are progressively executed. however. The activation value is passed through the activation function to produce the output of . and subtracting the threshold. Plate orientation and sizing – compensates for the skew of the plate and adjusts the dimensions to the required size 3.There are four primary algorithms that the software requires for identifying a license plate: 1. The input layer is not really neural at all: these units simply serve to introduce the values of the input variables. for most applications fully-connected networks are better. A median filter may also be used to reduce the visual "noise" on the image. Each of them calculates its activation value by taking the weighted sum of the outputs of the units in the preceding layer. During the third phase (normalisation) some systems use edge detection techniques to increase the picture difference between the letters and the plate backing. Plate localisation – responsible for finding and isolating the plate on the picture 2. [9] 2. The hidden and output layer neurons are each connected to all of the units in the preceding layer. Character segmentation – finds the individual characters on the plates The complexity of each of these subsections of the program determines the accuracy of the system. Normalisation – adjusts the brightness and contrast of the image 4.4 Neural Network Technology Figure 2. the input variable values are placed in the input units.

Numeric data is scaled into an appropriate range for the network.the neuron. the outputs of the output layer act as the output of the entire network.4. and how many (and which) cases to gather.[10] 2. if there is missing data. or if data is non-numeric. The first decisions you will need to make are: which variables to use. When the entire network has been executed. This presents a problem if data is in an unusual range. and missing . each containing values for a range of input and output variables. we will need to gather data for training purposes. Fortunately.[11] Neural networks process numeric data in a fairly limited range. The training data set includes a number of cases.1 Gathering Data for Neural Networks Once we have decided on a problem to solve using neural networks. there are methods to deal with each of these problems.