AUSTIN CAO- MR.

SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY

THE COMPREHENSIVE APUSH STUDY GUIDE

THE COMPREHENSIVE APUSH STUDY GUIDE
INTRODUCTION

A few notes first. This is a work in progress, and probably will get updated a few times. Dearest
apologies for any errors. PM me with corrections or ideas if you like. So with that said, go ahead and
dominate that AP or SAT II test. May the odds be ever in your favor!
-Cao

TABLE OF CONTENTS
A NEW WORLD 10,000 B.C.-1607 .................................................................................................................................................... 7
Pre-Columbian Americans .............................................................................................................................................................. 7
Exploration of the Spanish .............................................................................................................................................................. 7
New Spain .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7
THE EARLY CHESAPEAKE 1607-1754 ........................................................................................................................................... 7
Incentive for the English .................................................................................................................................................................. 7
Chesapeake Colonies ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Colonial Crops ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Indentured Servitude ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Slavery..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
Stono Rebellion.................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES 1620-1754 ............................................................................................................................... 8
Puritan Society..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
Plymouth ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Rhode Island ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
Connecticut ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
Early Indian Relations ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9
THE RESTORATION COLONIES 1664-1754 ................................................................................................................................. 9
The Carolinas ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9
New Netherland .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9
The Quaker Colonies ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9
SOCIETY OF PROVINCIAL AMERICA 1730-1776 ....................................................................................................................... 9

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY

Introduction

Development of Empire ................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Decline of Piety .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
The Great Awakening...................................................................................................................................................................... 10
Other Aspects ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
EMPIRE UNDER STRAIN 1754-1776 ............................................................................................................................................ 10
The French and Indian War.......................................................................................................................................................... 10
The Proclamation of 1763............................................................................................................................................................. 10
Grenville Ministry ............................................................................................................................................................................. 10
The Stamp Act Crisis........................................................................................................................................................................ 11
The Townsend Program ................................................................................................................................................................ 11
The Boston Massacre ...................................................................................................................................................................... 11
The Boston Tea Party ...................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Republican Ideals ............................................................................................................................................................................. 11
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1776-1783 ................................................................................................................................ 11
Declaration of Independence ....................................................................................................................................................... 11
The French Alliance ......................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Conclusion of the War..................................................................................................................................................................... 12
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION 1777-1787............................................................................................................................. 12
The Young Nation ............................................................................................................................................................................. 12
Failures of the Confederacy .......................................................................................................................................................... 12
THE NEW REPUBLIC 1787-1788 .................................................................................................................................................... 12
The Constitution................................................................................................................................................................................ 13
Stuff that was not included in the Constitution.................................................................................................................... 13
Federalist Debate .............................................................................................................................................................................. 13
The Bill of Rights ............................................................................................................................................................................... 13
THE FEDERALIST ERA 1789-1800 ................................................................................................................................................ 13
Alexander Hamilton......................................................................................................................................................................... 13
George Washington.......................................................................................................................................................................... 13
The Whiskey Rebellion................................................................................................................................................................... 14
Coming to the Party ......................................................................................................................................................................... 14
John Adams is Kray .......................................................................................................................................................................... 14
THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA 1800-1915 ........................................................................................................................................... 14
The Revolution of 1800.................................................................................................................................................................. 14

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY

Introduction

Louisiana Purchase .......................................................................................................................................................................... 14
Judicial Review .................................................................................................................................................................................. 15
The War of 1812 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 15
THE ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1816-1824.................................................................................................................................. 15
James Monroe..................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
The Marshall Court .......................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Monroe Domestic Policy ................................................................................................................................................................ 15
Monroe Foreign Policy ................................................................................................................................................................... 16
JACKSONIAN AMERICA 1824-1840 ............................................................................................................................................... 16
The Corrupt Bargain........................................................................................................................................................................ 16
The Nullification Crisis ................................................................................................................................................................... 16
Indian Removal.................................................................................................................................................................................. 16
The Bank War..................................................................................................................................................................................... 16
The Rise of the Whigs...................................................................................................................................................................... 16
THE ECONOMIC REVOLUTION 1815-1860 ................................................................................................................................ 17
Transportation Developments .................................................................................................................................................... 17
The Erie Canal .................................................................................................................................................................................... 17
Impact.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17
THE OLD SOUTH 1815-1860 ............................................................................................................................................................ 17
The Cotton Kingdom ....................................................................................................................................................................... 17
White Society...................................................................................................................................................................................... 17
Black Society ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 17
The Ideals of Slavery ....................................................................................................................................................................... 18
THE CRUSADE AGAINST SLAVERY 1815-1860 ........................................................................................................................ 18
Slave Revolts ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 18
Re-Colonization ................................................................................................................................................................................. 18
Abolitionism ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 18
Abolitionism Divided ...................................................................................................................................................................... 18
Fight for Freedom............................................................................................................................................................................. 18
WOMEN OF ANTEBELLUM AMERICA 1789-1848 .................................................................................................................. 19
Republican Motherhood ................................................................................................................................................................ 19
Cult of Domesticity ........................................................................................................................................................................... 19
The Lowell Experiment .................................................................................................................................................................. 19

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY

Introduction

Rise of Feminism............................................................................................................................................................................... 19
ANTEBELLUM CULTURE AND REFORM 1815-1860.............................................................................................................. 19
The Second Great Awakening ...................................................................................................................................................... 19
Utopia .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19
Reform Movements.......................................................................................................................................................................... 19
Transcendentalism .......................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Romanticism ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
THE FIRST WAVE OF IMMIGRATION 1815-1860 ................................................................................................................... 20
Antebellum Immigration ............................................................................................................................................................... 20
Irish Immigration ............................................................................................................................................................................. 20
German Immigration....................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Nativism................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20
WESTWARD EXPANSION 1836-1848........................................................................................................................................... 21
The Lone Star Republic .................................................................................................................................................................. 21
Manifest Destiny ............................................................................................................................................................................... 21
The Mexican War .............................................................................................................................................................................. 21
THE IMPENDING CRISIS 1846- 1860 ............................................................................................................................................ 21
The Sectional Debate....................................................................................................................................................................... 21
The Kansas-Nebraska Controversy ........................................................................................................................................... 21
The Rise of the Republican Party ............................................................................................................................................... 22
The Dred Scott Case ......................................................................................................................................................................... 22
The Union in Peril ............................................................................................................................................................................. 22
THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865 .............................................................................................................................................................. 22
Secession .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 22
The Balance of Power ..................................................................................................................................................................... 23
The Campaign..................................................................................................................................................................................... 23
Legislation in the War..................................................................................................................................................................... 23
African Americans in the War ..................................................................................................................................................... 23
RECONSTRUCTION 1865-1877 ....................................................................................................................................................... 23
Executive Reconstruction ............................................................................................................................................................. 23
Radical Reconstruction .................................................................................................................................................................. 24
Impeachment...................................................................................................................................................................................... 24
The 15th Amendment ...................................................................................................................................................................... 24

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY

Introduction

A Stubborn South .............................................................................................................................................................................. 24
The Collapse of Reconstruction .................................................................................................................................................. 24
THE NEW SOUTH 1877-1900 .......................................................................................................................................................... 25
The Redeemers .................................................................................................................................................................................. 25
Economic Change.............................................................................................................................................................................. 25
Plessy v. Ferguson ............................................................................................................................................................................ 25
Jim Crow Laws ................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
The Atlanta Compromise............................................................................................................................................................... 25
CONQUEST OF THE FAR WEST 1865-1900 ............................................................................................................................... 26
Frontier Economy............................................................................................................................................................................. 26
Western Society................................................................................................................................................................................. 26
Dispersal of the Tribes.................................................................................................................................................................... 26
Romance of the West....................................................................................................................................................................... 26
INDUSTRIAL SUPREMACY 1865- 1900........................................................................................................................................ 26
Sources of the Industrial Era........................................................................................................................................................ 26
Corporation and Consolidation................................................................................................................................................... 27
Capitalism and its Critics ............................................................................................................................................................... 27
Unions.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27
Strikes.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27
THE AGE OF CITY 1865-1900 .......................................................................................................................................................... 28
THE AGRARIAN REVOLT 1880- 1896........................................................................................................................................... 28
THE IMPERIAL EMPIRE 1890-1908 .............................................................................................................................................. 28
Stirrings of imperialism ................................................................................................................................................................. 28
The Spanish-American War ......................................................................................................................................................... 28
Spanish Possessions ........................................................................................................................................................................ 28
Republican Empire........................................................................................................................................................................... 28
THE PROGRESSIVE ERA 1900-1917 ............................................................................................................................................. 29
Progressivism..................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Urban Reform ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Political Reform ................................................................................................................................................................................. 29
Women and Reform......................................................................................................................................................................... 29
African Americans and Reform ................................................................................................................................................... 29
The Square Deal and National Reform..................................................................................................................................... 30

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY

Introduction

AMERICA AND THE GREAT WAR 1909-1919 ........................................................................................................................... 30
THE NEW ERA 1919-1929 ................................................................................................................................................................ 30
THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1929-1939 .......................................................................................................................................... 30
PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 1789-1893 ................................................................................................................ 30
New Republic ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
Antebellum .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
Disunion ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 31
Gilded Age ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 31
PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITIED STATES 1889-2013 .............................................................................................................. 31
Rise in Power...................................................................................................................................................................................... 31
War and Tensions............................................................................................................................................................................. 31
Superpower......................................................................................................................................................................................... 32

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY

A NEW WORLD 10,000 B.C.-1607

A NEW WORLD 10,000 B.C.-1607
PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICANS


Iroquois Confederacy- political alliance ending much tribal warfare, rivaled Algonquin tribes and
Muskogean tribes in the Northeast, used gender-based labor
Woodland Indians- domesticated crops, Anasazis- established pueblo villages
Incas- large infrastructure, Mayas- written language and calendar, Aztecs- “savages”

EXPLORATION OF THE SPANISH


Christopher Columbus- ethnocentric Spanish explorer, introduced theme of God, glory, and gold
Hernan Cortes- conquered Aztecs, Francisco Pizarro- conquered Incas
Prince Henry the Navigator- led Portuguese expeditions, Amerigo Vespucci- namesake of America

NEW SPAIN




Columbian Exchange- horses, guns, corn, potatoes, and disease circulated trade
encomienda system- Native Americans were slaved under Spanish rulers
3 G’s- missionary services even encouraged intermarriage, also mined a lot of silver and gold
Pueblo Revolt- led by Indian leader Pope, kicked Spanish out of New Mexico over religion
St. Augustine- first permanent European settlement (by Spanish) in territory of US

THE EARLY CHESAPEAKE 1607-1754
INCENTIVE FOR THE ENGLISH



mercantilism- extraction of finite wealth to increase national prestige, England looked for new trade
Sir Thomas More- wrote Utopia describing mythical society of New World
Protestant Reformation- Martin Luther says salvation through faith, Calvinists creed mentality
English Reformation- King Henry VIII’s dispute formed Church of England, Elizabeth I continues this

CHESAPEAKE COLONIES



joint-stock companies- private expeditions funded by investors
Virginia- started for purpose of making money, Raleigh’s Roanoke attempt was in this location
Jamestown- first permanent English settlement (in Virginia), lots of disease, “starving time”
Maryland- Lord Baltimore’s refuge for Catholics, Act of Religious Toleration for protection

COLONIAL CROPS

John Rolfe- introduces the tobacco crop, huge profitability for Chesapeake colonies
cultivation- mass production necessitated new labor force and new lands

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY

THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES 1620-1754

rice and indigo- both crucial in warmer South Carolina, less labor intensive

INDENTURED SERVITUDE


servants- immigrants who seized opportunity to make a living, stung by debt and bad conditions
headright system- 50 acres for each person who comes to colony (mainly Virginia)
Bacon’s Rebellion- Nathaniel Bacon with yeomen backcountry don’t like how tidewater leaders restrict
western expansion, don’t like Indian policy, significance was the instability in the west regions, and the
need to replace white servants with dutiful slaves

SLAVERY



Caribbean- sugar cane was best crop, required African slaves
cash crops- required slaves, indentured servants stopped coming to New World, or were rebellious
Royal African Company- monopoly on slave trade is broken, floods into New World
classes- wealthy white aristocrats , poor whites still felt superior to blacks, slave codes arise

STONO REBELLION

Cato’s Conspiracy- slaves killed 25 whites, hoped to reach Florida
Negro Act- SC passed strict laws against rights of slaves after this conflict

THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES 1620-1754
PURITAN SOCIETY



John Winthrop- Massachusetts Bay Colony leader who believed colony would be a special, super
awesome, “city upon a hill” that would be a model for other Christians
God- belief of predestination, the elect and the saints, self-governed church, work ethic
structure- family based and community based, close church and state, patriarchy of labor
Harvard College- founded to train Puritan ministers

PLYMOUTH


Separatists- Puritans who wanted to break from Church of England
Mayflower Compact- document for the rule of colony by the people’s will and people’s consent
William Bradford- first governor of Plymouth

RHODE ISLAND

Roger Williams- challenged religious authority, wanted freedom of religion, founded Providence
Anne Hutchinson- claimed to have special relationship with God, challenged traditional role of women in
strict Puritan society, founded Portsmouth which combined into Rhode Island

CONNECTICUT

Thomas Hooker- wants to escape orthodoxy of Massachusetts, founds Hartford

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY


THE RESTORATION COLONIES 1664-1754

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut- formed representative government, growth of political democracy
Fundamental Articles of New Haven- formed same thing, except was for a heavily religious colony

EARLY INDIAN RELATIONS

Pequot War- first major colonial conflict with Indians, whites won
King Phillip’s War-Chief Metacom led massive Indian attacks, but they ultimately lost

THE RESTORATION COLONIES 1664-1754
THE CAROLINAS


King Charles II- his return was the Stuart Restoration, and he gave the Carolina territories to noblemen
incentives- hierarchical society, headright system, religious freedom, but ultimately, the colonies grew
very slowly, and were taken over by the crown later
Barbados- Caribbean island with close ties to South Carolina, introduced plantation and slavery

NEW NETHERLAND



Dutch West Indian Company- creates New Netherland colony, patroons- Dutch landlords
Peter Stuyvesant- last Dutch governor there who surrendered to British, renamed New York
New Amsterdam- renamed New York, one of the best ports, the British wanted it
New Jersey- became a separate colony, with much cultural diversity like New York

THE QUAKER COLONIES

William Penn- Pennsylvania was his “Holy Experiment” colony, launched a campaign to encourage
settlers to come to Pennsylvania for fertile land, religious freedom, and representative assembly
Quakers- believed in individual religious light, pacifism, tolerance and equality, honored Native
American land claims, and renounced formal church

SOCIETY OF PROVINCIAL AMERICA 1730-1776
DEVELOPMENT OF EMPIRE


Navigation Acts- first one restricted colonial trade to only English ships, second one said that all goods
from Europe would have to pass through England first, third one imposed duties on colonial trade and
appointed officials to enforce it, all were based in mercantilism and all provoked Brit-Am conflicts later
Dominion of New England- James II creates this giant administrative body under Edmund Andros to
enforce Navigation Acts and control colonial politics
Triangle Trade- rum, slaves, sugar, and other goods were traded, economy prospered everywhere

DECLINE OF PIETY

Salem Witch Trials- trial and execution of accused witches, represents the heavily religious character
Enlightenment- draws from Deism, human reason is adequate to solve problems, science!

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY


EMPIRE UNDER STRAIN 1754-1776

John Locke- social contract in which government serves people, overthrow them if they do not serve the
people, natural law theory influences Founding Fathers
Halfway Covenant- children of unconverted people were allowed to be baptized, religious decline

THE GREAT AWAKENING




Old Light- Puritan ministers who believed in elaborate theological and intellectual doctrines
New Light- Puritan ministers who stressed individual new birth, emotional search for salvation
Jonathan Edwards- wrote “Sinners… Angry God” loves divine justice and personal repentance
George Whitefield- influential speaker, it’s time to talk to God and gain forgiveness through self
significance- creates new divides and denominations in Christianity, weakens traditional church power,
promoted religious pluralism (Native Americans, African slaves, women, “New Light colleges like
Princeton)

OTHER ASPECTS




Zenger Trial- legal precedent for freedom of the press, shows continued difference between Brit-Am
women- no legal rights, loss of property in marriage, no politics, but were majority in church now
Anne Bradstreet- first published American poet (first woman too)
Phillis Wheatley- first published African American woman (was a poet)
Benjamin Franklin- founded UPenn, wrote Poor Richard’s Almanack, was a reputed boss at everything

EMPIRE UNDER STRAIN 1754-1776
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR





Albany Plan of Union- Franklin calls for colonial defense against French and NA threats, proposed Grand
Council to oversee affairs, promoted by “Join or Die” snake cartoon
New France- strict control of these colonies by government, rivalry between Britain and France
Fort Necessity- Ohio River Valley and George Washington, Seven Year’s War- larger conflict in Europe
William Pitt- British PM who led Britain, with weak colonial help, to defeat French (in Canada mainly)
Peace of Paris of 1763- Britain takes Canada, Florida, and everything east of Mississippi River, Spain
takes Louisiana Territory
significance- Iroquois Nation had decreased power, Britain became largest (naval) power, Britain had a
large debt though and for the first time, looked to the colonies strictly, also awakened colonial sense of
united identity

THE PROCLAMATION OF 1763

Appalachian Mountains- settlement west of these were forbidden to prevent Native American conflict,
but speculators and settlers wanted more land after the war, and ignored the British policy

GRENVILLE MINISTRY

Sugar Act- goal to eliminate illegal sugar trade and recoup England’s war debt

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1776-1783

Currency Act- paper money is declared illegal, Stamp Act- tax on many printed items

THE STAMP ACT CRISIS





George Grenville- Treasury guy who thinks colonists should help support Britain war efforts and debts
Stamp Act of 1765- requires stamps on documents, newspapers, cards, etc.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty- organizations fight the act and persuade stamp agents to resign
Virginia Resolves- Patrick Henry and colonial aristocrats want to challenge authority
Stamp Act Congress- rejects Congress right to tax and boycotts British goods and wins
Declaratory Act- “Parliament can make laws to bind colonies in all cases whatsoever” total power hah!

THE TOWNSEND PROGRAM


Quartering Act- aka Mutiny Act (had other restrictions), colonist must help shelter/supply British army
Townshend Duties- was an “external tax” on imports, he thought colonists would agree, he was wrong
nonimportation agreement- in Boston, organized to boycott British merchants (again)

THE BOSTON MASSACRE

happenings- British soldiers were protecting customs commissioners, hecklers confrontation, 5 dead
Samuel Adams- Committee of Correspondence dissent, Paul Revere- drawing, John Adams- legal
defense for soldiers

THE BOSTON TEA PARTY



Tea Act- British East India Company allowed to export tea to America without taxes, monopoly formed
Tea Party- dumped tea chest into harbor, also tea boycott and other things
Coercion Acts- aka Intolerable Acts closed Boston port, reduced self-government legislature power,
allowed accused royal officials to be tried elsewhere
First Continental Congress- reject British authority, endorse statement of grievances, started military
organization, cut trade with Britain

REPUBLICAN IDEALS





virtual representation- English principle that parliament was a representation of colonist, meant to refut
“no tax without rep” but didn’t go over so hot
republicanism- belief that government is based upon consent of the governed
Second Continental Congress- after Lex-Con, issues Declaration of Causes of Taking up Arms that says
submit to tyranny or rebel, George Washington becomes the able Commander-in-Chief
Olive Branch Petition- moderates at 2nd CC send this to King George III for a resolution, it fails
Virginia House of Burgesses- first democratic assembly, also helped to lead independence movement
Thomas Paine- publishes Common Sense pamphlet that attacks English king, huge circulation, influential

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1776-1783
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY



ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION 1777-1787

Thomas Jefferson- drafted the document for Continental Congress, included “self-evident truths”
natural law- used John Locke philosophy government cannot deny “unalienable rights”, must abide by
“laws of Nature and Nature’s God”
exclusions- it did not end the slave trade, hypocrite yes?

THE FRENCH ALLIANCE


George Washington- commander-in-chief, won at Trenton and Yorktown, survived Valley Forge winters
Battle of Saratoga- Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold stop British campaign that was trying to separate
the northern and southern colonies, moral boost and French support because of this victory
Franco-American alliance- French desire to come back after ignominious defeat in 7-Years War, provided
arms and naval power to destroy the British

CONCLUSION OF THE WAR


British- underestimation and lack of coordination, division in opinion on the war, pricky economic policy
America- vast size and defensive war, Washington leadership, united cause for freedom and the republic
Treaty of Paris- 1783 US independence recognized, received all land north of Florida, south of Great
Lakes, east of Mississippi River, Loyalists would be compensated and not persecuted

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION 1777-1787
THE YOUNG NATION




confederation- government with loose union among sovereign states, “league of friendship”
unicameral legislature- single house Congress, each state has one vote, fear that big states would
dominate if power by population were implemented, states weary of centralized power after the war
successes-had power to wage war, make treaties, new states, negotiated treaties with Britain n’ France
Land Ordinance of 1785- sold land for government revenue, organized distribution of land into
townships, set aside some land for public education (first!)
Northwest Ordinance of 1787- divided northwest territories, statehood after 60,000 people, slavery was
entirely prohibited in this area (new policy), was the only success of the Confederation

FAILURES OF THE CONFEDERACY


power- Congress could not levy taxes (no revenue, more debt), could not regulate commerce (British
flood of random stuff, trade deficit), no national policy or judiciary (national disputes?)
others- inflated paper currency was bad for econ, Amendments needed a consensus was bad for politics
Shays’ Rebellion- Daniel Shays lead debt-ridden farmers who wanted states to give them free money,
Boston people suppressed the rebellion, government needs more powers to maintain law and order

THE NEW REPUBLIC 1787-1788

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY

THE FEDERALIST ERA 1789-1800

THE CONSTITUTION




beliefs- perfect Union, private property, no political parties, no factionalism, etc.
provisions- taxes, war, commerce were all congressional powers, executive and judicial branches are
insulated from popular control, checks and balances, etc.
elastic clause-said that Congress gets every power not stated here, contradicts states’ rights in 10th
Great Compromise-bicameral legislature with House and Senate, combined New Jersey and Virginia Plan
3/5 Compromise- slaves are three-fifths of a person for representation and taxation

STUFF THAT WAS NOT INCLUDED IN THE CONSTITUTION


universal men suffrage, direct election of senators (17th), 2-term limit for presidents (22nd), political
party structure, presidential cabinet, Bill of Rights
slavery was not mentioned in Constitution (allowed in every state, and runaways must be returned)
women were not given any more rights, Abigail Adams says “remember the ladies… be more favorable”

FEDERALIST DEBATE





Negative Nick says “central government threatens state and individual liberties”, Positive Pete says
“national government power is limited, everything else belongs to states”
NN says “president, Senate, and judiciary branch are not directly elected by people”, PP says “separation
and checks will protect people’s will, no special interest can dominate”
NN says “republic only works in homogenous populations”, PP says “fragmented political power curbs
threat of any level of society”
NN says “no bill of rights”, PP says “we are boss”
NN is Patrick Henry and people, becomes Jeffersonian Republican
PP is Alexander Hamilton and Federalist Papers say that a republic will disperse power, protect minority

THE BILL OF RIGHTS



1st Amendment- freedom of speech, press, religion
4th Amendment- no unreasonable searches or seizures
6th Amendment- defendants right to speedy trial
more later.

THE FEDERALIST ERA 1789-1800
ALEXANDER HAMILTON

deepest darkest secrets of Hammy- business and finance guy, fund federal debt with bonds, taxes,
tariffs, have government absorb state debts from the war, make a national bank because he like money
National Bank- sparked debate between Jefferson and Hamilton, loose interpretation of Const prevailed

GEORGE WASHINGTON

Neutrality Proclamation- US is neutral in European affairs, Wash resisted joining France or Britain in war

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY



THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA 1800-1915

Jay’s Treaty- agreement with Britain, they removed their forts in Northwest Territory, and we paid preRevolution merchant debts, but southerners protested this treaty because they had to pay more
Pinckney’s Treaty- Spain gives US free navigation of Mississippi River and right of deposit in New Orleans
Washington’s Farewell Address- he warns future leaders away from permanent alliances, after WW1
many people use this as a reason not to join the League of Nations and embrace isolationism

THE WHISKEY REBELLION

excise tax- part of Hamilton’s plan, but it was on liquor too, so farmers were pissed and rebelled
significance- Wash calls up army to crush them, shows strength of new government, rebellion is no-no

COMING TO THE PARTY

Federalist Party- Alexander Hamilton and John Adams with support from North and East, strong national
government, bank and tariffs, loose interpretation of Constitution, support British
Democratic-Republican Party- Thomas Jefferson and James Madison with support from West and South,
weak central government, agricultural interests, strict interpretation of Constitution, support French

JOHN ADAMS IS KRAY


The Quasi War- French were sinking our ships, in the XYZ Affair, French asks for a bribe in order to
negotiate with the French Minister, Talleyrand, we refuse, suspend trade with French, create Navy Dept
Alien and Sedition Acts- new citizenship hurdles established against immigrants, also was illegal to speak
or write against the president (1st HERP DERP), punish the DRs or something?
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions-reaction against the Alien and Sedition Acts, encouraged states’ rights
doctrine, came up again in Calhoun’s nullification crisis

THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA 1800-1915
THE REVOLUTION OF 1800



Revolution of 1800- Jefferson is elected to presidency in a peaceful transfer of power, “we are all
Republicans- we are all Federalists” he says in his inaugural
Jeffersonian Democracy- embraced simplicity, encouraged the handshake instead of the bow, embraced
the Agrarian Ideal, believed in freedom of speech as essential
was it really a revolution?- accepts national bank, Louisiana Purchase, Embargo Act economically he
accepted the national bank but cut whiskey tax and cut army and navy, domestically he accepted
implied powers to make the Louisiana Purchase but supported public education and expanding voting
rights, foreignly he used implied powers to pass Embargo Act but remained neutral in foreign affairs
it was a revolution- peaceful transfer from parties, cut whiskey tax, cut army and navy, public education,
suffrage rights, neutrality in foreign affairs
Embargo Act of 1807- ships are not allowed to go to any foreign port, economic depression (dafuq?)

LOUISIANA PURCHASE

Napoleon- French leader who felt that Louisiana was too much of a burden, sold it to US for $15 million

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THE ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1816-1824

Louisiana Purchase- buying land was not a right stated in the Constitution, so Jefferson used implied
powers of treaty-making to purchase the new territory (he hoped to continue the Agrarian Ideal)
Lewis and Clark Expedition- strengthen US claims to Oregon, mapped Missouri River, Sacajawea?

JUDICIAL REVIEW



Judiciary Act of 1789- created Supreme Court, given right to force government officials to do things
Judiciary Act of 1801- Adams filled judge positions with Federalists, “Midnight Appointments”
Marbury v. Madison- Chief Justice John Marshall rules that court is not allowed to force officials to do
things, thus cancelling out the Judiciary Act of 1789
judicial review- court’s power to determine the constitutionality of congressional acts

THE WAR OF 1812





James Madison- pressure from war hawks to get involved in war and end the embargo
causes- impressment and land greed (take Canada!) were the main ones
happenings- Washington D.C. and Toronto (York) were both burned, Jackson tore shit up at New Orleans
aftermath- industrialization increased, Star Spangled Banner was written, nationalism was uppity-up
Hartford Convention- Federalists who opposed the war gathered together to discuss the failures of the
government, and then we won the war, Federalist Party disappeared after this
Rush-Bagot Agreement- disarmament on the Great Lakes (first!)

THE ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1816-1824
JAMES MONROE

Era of Good Feelings- yes he was the last of the Virginia Dynasty and the last prez with a powdered wig,
but his presidency brought prosperity and nationalism and fun

THE MARSHALL COURT



Fletcher v. Peck- land grants are considered unbreakable
McCulloch v. Maryland- bank is constitutional, cannot be taxed by the state
Dartmouth College v. Woodward- college/corporate charters are considered unbreakable
Gibbons v. Ogden- the federal government can regulate commerce

MONROE DOMESTIC POLICY



American System- Henry Clay’s brainchild, it encouraged internal improvements for transportation,
tariffs to protect domestic industries, another national bank, and increased trade among regions
Tallmadge Amendment- while North dominated the House, Missouri applied for statehood as a slave
state, North wanted to phase slavery out of Missouri once it joined, South saw this as an attack
Missouri Compromise- Clay proposes that Missouri would be slave state, Maine would be free state,
new states would be free states if north of the Missouri line, the soup is boiling now
Panic of 1819- ended the Era of Good Feelings, bank failures from western land speculation

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JACKSONIAN AMERICA 1824-1840

MONROE FOREIGN POLICY


Convention of 1818-boundary for Canada, established joint occupancy of Oregon with British Canada
Adams-Onis Treaty-boundary for Mexico, we took in Florida and gave up Texas territory
Monroe Doctrine- a unilateral declaration of US dominance in western hemisphere, European
interference in New World is hostile behavior, US will not interfere in European affairs

JACKSONIAN AMERICA 1824-1840
THE CORRUPT BARGAIN



Election of 1824- Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, and William Crawford nominated
Corrupt Bargain- Jackson gets the popular vote but not electoral majority, Speaker of the House Clay
throws support to Adams, Adams names Clay the new Secretary of State
random quote- “Adams can write, Jackson can fight!”
Andrew Jackson- hero of the common man (even though he was rich), replaces caucuses with
conventions, embraces the spoils system (loyalty wah?), attacks special privileged elite

THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS




The Tariff of Abominations- tariff on imports to help Northern merchants, South wasn’t protected
John Calhoun- wrote “South Carolina Exposition and Protest” anonymously to promote the doctrine of
nullification, South Carolina lead the movement for secession (no one joined)
Webster-Hayne Debate- Senator Robert Hayne defended states’ rights and Calhoun’s doctrine, while
Senator Daniel Webster said “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!”
Force Bill- after South Carolina repudiated the tariffs, Jackson wants to use army to enforce federal laws
Compromise Tariff- Henry Clay proposes gradual tax, South Carolina rescinds its Order of Nullification

INDIAN REMOVAL


Indian Removal Act- 125,000 Indians were to be moved to newly established Indian Territory
Worcester v. Georgia- Marshall Court upheld Cherokee Nation’s legal right to land, Jackson disagrees
Trail of Tears- 17,000 Cherokees were removed from Georgia and marched to Oklahoma, ¼ died

THE BANK WAR



Nicholas Biddle- chairman of the Bank, wants to make rechartering of Bank a political issues in 1832
pet banks- Jackson vetoes the recharter of the “monster”, favors using smaller state banks
Panic of 1837- credit expanded and speculation increased without Bank regulation, economic slump
specie circular- Jackson’s answer to the Panic, wants all land to be paid for in hard money, not credit

THE RISE OF THE WHIGS

King Andrew 1- derisive term for Jackson used by Clay and Webster followers, disagreed with Democrats
Whig Party- favored protective tariffs, internal improvements, bank, they hated Jackson and Van Buren

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THE ECONOMIC REVOLUTION 1815-1860

William Henry Harrison- Whig candidate in 1840 under the Log Cabin Campaign (appeal to common
man), election of 1840 was the first modern election because of active and democratic style of campaign

THE ECONOMIC REVOLUTION 1815-1860
TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENTS



turnpikes- roads stretch across the country (like the National Road), expanded trade to Northwest
steamboats- opened up Mississippi and Ohio Rivers to bulk trade, thanks to Robert Fulton’s invention
canals- strengthened east to west ties
railroads- succeeded the canal in the 1850s, trunk lines connected cities (Northeast)

THE ERIE CANAL


Old Northwest- farmers there could not transport to east coast (forced to go to New Orleans)
Hudson River- connected to Lake Erie by canal
New York- became greatest commercial center because of canal, ties with west were strengthened,
canal building mania started

IMPACT



Market Revolution- new markets and resources, mass production, connected national economy
Northeast impact- industrialization, textile mills, wealthy urban capitalists
Midwest impact- new settlement, Chicago rail center, increased corn and wheat, connected to east
South impact- nope, same old same old, read on in the next section!

THE OLD SOUTH 1815-1860
THE COTTON KINGDOM


Eli Whitney- invented the cotton gin, 50x production satisfied the textile industry demand
King Cotton- our most valuable cash crop (50% of exports), expanded westward to Mississippi River
Deep South- 75% of slaves worked at cotton production, slavery goes up, immigration goes down,
industrialization never occurs, South forced to purchase goods from North, little urbanization either

WHITE SOCIETY



planters- 4% of population but very powerful elite, represented genteel, honor, tradition (cavaliers!)
yeomen- majority of population, middle class farmers with some or no slaves, aspirations to be planters
clay eaters- crackers, hill people, poor whites, worse off than slaves (but they still felt superior?)
random fun fact- ¾ of southern families did not own slaves

BLACK SOCIETY

slavery- African slave trade was outlawed in 1808, but natural increase of American-born slaves rose

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THE CRUSADE AGAINST SLAVERY 1815-1860

random fun fact- in 1790 over 50% of slaves were in Chesapeake, in 1860 50% of slaves in Deep South
random hard facts- overseers, task system vs. gang system, Sambo, Pidgin, The Peculiar Institution,
250,000 free blacks, nuclear family, John Randolph, etc.

THE IDEALS OF SLAVERY


“necessary evil”- Thomas Jefferson thought slaves were necessary, wanted to slowly phase out slavery
“positive good”- John Calhoun thought slavery was a justified thing (bible?), scientific theories proved it,
slaves required white guardianship, North has slave too “wage slavery”
“industrialization”- slavery and cotton has had them dependent on North, Albert Pike and James De Bow
both realize that South must become economically independent to compete

THE CRUSADE AGAINST SLAVERY 1815-1860
SLAVE REVOLTS


Prosser’s Conspiracy- a slave who bought his own freedom, his supposed plan was foiled
Vesey’s Conspiracy- would have been a massive slave uprising, but was found out, increased white fear
Turner’s Revolt- really the only slave revolt to ever happen, Nat Turner and group killed 55 whites, even
though it failed, stricter salve laws were put in place and Southern abolition movements disappeared

RE-COLONIZATION

American Colonization Society-gradual abolition of slavery, return them to Africa
Liberia-colony in Africa for free blacks, many leaders were racist, felt that blacks and whites could not
assimilate ever

ABOLITIONISM



William Lloyd Garrison- transformed into a radical abolitionist who believed that slavery was a cruel sin
The Liberator- his Boston newspaper, low circulation, but it helped start the AASS and abolitionism
random fun quote: “I will be as harsh as truth… as uncompromising as justice… AND I WILL BE HEARD!”
American Anti-Slavery Society- believed in instantaneous, complete, and moral biracial society

ABOLITIONISM DIVIDED

Liberty Party-offshoot of AASS that said Constitution was anti-slavery and that political action would
bring racial change , Free Soil Party- said that slavery was inferior system, and that it should not spread
Garrison’s views- however, Garrison still called for moral suasion in order to oppose slavery, and that
women’s rights were equally important, but his party felt that this was too impractical

FIGHT FOR FREEDOM

Harriet Tubman- runaway slave who helped on the Underground Railroad, more sectional tension
Frederick Douglass- father of American civil rights movement, captivating orator who helped persuade
many Northerners that slavery was evil and should be halted, his newspaper was the North Star

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WOMEN OF ANTEBELLUM AMERICA 1789-1848

WOMEN OF ANTEBELLUM AMERICA 1789-1848
REPUBLICAN MOTHERHOOD

women could not vote, hold office, serve on juries, but were expected to contribute to their country
they must raise patriotic sons and dutiful daughters, but many went father, caused a “role-strain”

CULT OF DOMESTICITY

four attributes were piety, purity, submissiveness, and domesticity
Doctrine of Separate Sphere- women must be wives and mothers for an idealistic home

THE LOWELL EXPERIMENT


Moses Brown- built America’s first textile mill, textile production took off after War of 1812
Francis Cabot Lowell- along with his Boston Associates, used modern tech to make textile factories
Lowell Mill- he created another one and hired young girls to board and work there, while this became an
example for future factories, it ultimately failed because the women went on strike (too troublesome?)

RISE OF FEMINISM


Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott- feminists who questioned discrimination, sexism and racism
Seneca Falls Convention- first support of women’s rights, marked beginning of women’s rights
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions- demanded divorce and custody rights, property and suffrage
rights, but they did not call for equal pay or birth control

ANTEBELLUM CULTURE AND REFORM 1815-1860
THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING



perfectionism-faith in human ability to improve with help of God, continuation of universalism and
Unitarianism, evangelical camp meetings rejected predestination, spread from west to east
Burned Over District- religious revivals in west NY, Charles Finney-says salvation thru faith and work
significance- women, blacks, Indians (Handsome Lake) joined in, seeking salvation and stability
Mormons-Joseph Smith had a vision from God, their radicalism (read: polygamy) was shunned, formed
community in Salt Lake City under Brigham Young which became Utah

UTOPIA



Utopian communities-egalitarian social order, regulate moral behavior, cooperation
Brook Farm-George Ripley’s, but destroyed by fire, New Harmony- Robert Owen’s village of cooperation
Oneida Community- John Noyes’, no marriages in this perfectionist society, communal raising of children
Shaker Community- Ann Lee’s, shake free of all your sin, women dominated it, practice celibacy

REFORM MOVEMENTS

Horace Mann-Father of the Common School Movement who reformed Massachusetts public education

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THE FIRST WAVE OF IMMIGRATION 1815-1860

Dorothea Dix- mental asylum reformer, expanded from Massachusetts to a national movement
American Society for the Promotion of Temperance- 25 million gallons of alcohol consumed a year
(woah), the temperance movement wanted to use revivalism to get rid of the Demon rum evil, it worked

TRANSCENDENTALISM


Ralph Waldo Emerson-believed in the divinity of man, the value of human intuition, and the power of
nonconformity, his essays helped shape American thought
Henry David Thoreau- believes in nature as the enlightenment of the school, Walden Pond was his place
Margaret Fuller- wrote Woman in the Nineteenth Century, rejected men rule, wanted female liberation

ROMANTICISM





Romantic Era- reaction to Deism, logic, Enlightenment, etc., emphasized nature, emotion, etc.
Hudson River School- depicted American landscapes and natural beauty and opportunity, John James
Audubon was the best, as he showed the emotions of nature
Washington Irving- the first popular American writers, reflected increasing American nationalism
James Cooper- adventure novelist, ideal of individual goodness, formed distinctive US literature
Walt Whitman- wrote Leaves of Grass, celebrates release of individual emotions (homosexual)
Edgar Allan Poe- sadddd day, no comment

THE FIRST WAVE OF IMMIGRATION 1815-1860
ANTEBELLUM IMMIGRATION


Revolutionary War, Napoleonic Wars, War of 1812, immigration practically stopped
5 million came to America between 1820 and 1860, mostly West Europeans
settled in urban areas in North or Midwest

IRISH IMMIGRATION




1.7 Irish immigrants settled here, mainly in port cities in Northeast which became overpopulated
Potato Famine and poverty in general caused many to immigrate
in general, women worked in Lowell mills while men worked on infrastructure, low paying jobs
Catholic church grows in America, native Protestants complained that Irish were ignorant and different
supported Democrats for the “common man” mentality, supported political machines

GERMAN IMMIGRATION

1.5 million German immigrants settled here, mainly in rural areas in Midwest
diverse religious followings, diverse backgrounds, assimilated well with no discrimination

NATIVISM

Pope Pius IX- represented Catholics, denounced republican institutions so Protestants became scared
Know-Nothing Party- aka American Party, strode to restrict and suppress Irish and German immigrants

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WESTWARD EXPANSION 1836-1848

Millard Fillmore- presidential candidate, KN won many congressional seats, but success was fleeting

WESTWARD EXPANSION 1836-1848
THE LONE STAR REPUBLIC



Mexican territory- Mexico invites Americans to settle in Texas, as long as they become citizens of Mexico
Texas Revolution- after Mexican government stops slave and settlers from coming to Mexico, Texas
rebels, defeat at the Alamo but victory at San Jacinto
Sam Houston- war hero who was elected president of the Republic of Texas
annexation- Jackson doesn’t annex Texas because it would be another slave state and it might provoke
war with Mexico, so it is postponed

MANIFEST DESTINY


John O’Sullivan- invents the term to represent America’s right and destiny to expand coast to coast
James Polk-president, expansionist who ran on a campaign to annex Texas and take Oregon
54’ 40” or Fight!- Polk’s slogan for supporting taking the entire Oregon from Britain, compromise is
made in the end

THE MEXICAN WAR




Rio Grande River- after Mexico breaks off diplomatic ties with US, we move troops to the Rio Grande to
support this new Texan border, a skirmish occurs and Polk declares war on Mexico in 1846
civil disobedience- abolitionists refused to support war, Lincoln and the Whig Party believe that the war
was just a pretext for expansionism, Thoreau doesn’t pay this poll tax (watch out, badass here)
Zachary Taylor- US general who becomes war hero after Buena Vista victory, along with Stephen Kearny
and Winfield Scott, New Mexico, California, and Mexico itself are taken over
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo- Mexico loses New Mexico (Arizona, Nevada, Utah), California, Texas, US
pays Mexico $15 million because we’re nice?
significance- combat experience to next generation, US becomes continental, slavery issue comes up

THE IMPENDING CRISIS 1846- 1860
THE SECTIONAL DEBATE


Wilmot Proviso-supported by North but not South, it barred slavery from any territory acquired thru the
Mexican War, he wanted to end the slavery issue and protect the rights of white freemen in the west,
formed the Free-Soil Party, alarmed the South and marked the beginning of the road to disunion
Compromise of 1850- Henry Clay’s plan was to admit California as free state, no decision made in Utah
or New Mexico, abolish slave trade in Washington DC, enact a new Fugitive Slave Act
Stephen Douglas- guided Clay’s proposal through Congress using separate bills, crisis defused

THE KANSAS-NEBRASKA CONTROVERSY

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THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865

Harriet Beecher Stowe- wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin which intensified antislavery in the North
popular sovereignty- supported by Stephen Douglas, the Kansa-Nebraska Act said that the new states
would be allowed to decide whether free or slave, this repealed the Missouri Compromise
significance- it broke the sectional truce, Whig Party was destroyed, Republican Party formed
Ostend Manifesto- US agreed to invade Cuba if Spain did not sell it, public outcry over this plot to extend
slavery into other countries, so the plan was abandoned

THE RISE OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY



the Kansa-Nebraska Act ended the Democrat-Whig party system, Bleeding Kansas was a test of popular
sovereignty over the slave issue
Democrats accepted Kansa as pro-slavery, Republicans supported Kansas as antislavery
former Whigs, Free soilers, antislavery Democrats, Know-Nothings all pulled into Republican Party
John Freemont- was their 1856 presidential candidate, but lost to James Buchanan

THE DRED SCOTT CASE



Dred Scott- a slave who worked in the free territory of Wisconsin, but when he returned to Missouri
after his master’s death, he was placed as the property of his former master’s wife, he sues
Roger Taney- chief justice, says that free blacks nor slaves could sue in a federal court, that Scott did not
become free by living in a free territory
significance- using judicial review, this overturned the Missouri Compromise, it setback the Republicans
Freeport Doctrine- in LD, Douglas said settlers can prevent slavery by refusing to pass slave codes

THE UNION IN PERIL



John Brown- fervent abolitionist, he organizes an attack at Harper’s Ferry in South, he becomes martyr
Abraham Lincoln- after the Democrats became divided between moderate Douglas and radical
Breckinridge, Lincoln carries the united free states after gaining popularity thru LD debates
Crittenden Compromise- proposes restoring the Missouri Compromise, neither side supports it though
secession- South Carolina and other Deep South states secede in response to Lincoln’s election,
intransigents on both sides furthered the deepening conflict

THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
SECESSION



Fort Sumter- forced the upper South states to choose sides, so Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee
all joined the Confederate Congress, a very momentous decision
Richmond- once the Confederacy was formed, the capital was moved to Virginia
The Union- all northern states along with the border states , including Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky,
and Missouri (they were all slaveholding states but they joined anyway)
random fun quote- “I hope to have God on my side, but I must have Kentucky” (Lincoln)

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RECONSTRUCTION 1865-1877

THE BALANCE OF POWER



northern advantages- 21 million population, production of 90% manufactured goods, financial stability,
infrastructure, Lincoln’s leadership, united Republican Party
southern disadvantages- just 9 million population, little industrial capacity or railroads, quarrelsome
Jefferson Davis, weak Confederacy government was overpowered by state governments
northern disadvantages-lack of military commanders, lack of common goal (slavery? Union?),
Copperhead antiwar efforts, offensive war
southern advantages- strong military tradition and awesome commanders, King Cotton diplomacy with
Great Britain (failed), defensive war

THE CAMPAIGN



Antietam- Lee wanted to drive into Maryland and Pennsylvania, the hesitant McClellan fought him off in
the one of bloodiest battles, Europe decided to remain neutral after this, Emancipation Proc. announced
Vicksburg- Grant sieged the fortress and captured it, gaining control of the Mississippi, split Confederacy
Gettysburg- Lee tries another offensive, stopped by Meade, Confederacy is severely weakened
March to the Sea- Sherman’s Atlanta victory boosted Lincoln’s 1864 election, then he used total war all
the way through Georgia, presents Savannah as Christmas gift to Lincoln, like a boss

LEGISLATION IN THE WAR




Republican Congress- once South seceded, the Republicans could do anything they wanted (although
the Committee on the Conduct of the War was a legislative group that interfered with everything)
The Homestead Act- opened Great Plains to settlers, free land as long as you farm it nicely
The Morrill Land Grant Act- public lands donated to states for colleges in agriculture and engineering
The First Transcontinental Railroad- New Orleans railroad was cancelled after secession, instead
government granted the Central Pacific and Union Pacific land and money to connect Omaha and Sacra
The National Banking Act- war needed national currency and orderly financial system, so Lincoln did it

AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE WAR




contraband- fugitive slaves who escaped to the Union
Confiscation Acts- allowed Union troops to free all slaves that were being used for “insurrection”
Emancipation Proclamation- only freed slaves in Confederate states, this strengthened the moral
question, and swung European public opinion in favor of the Union
180,000 African Americans served in the Union after the Emancipation Proc. was announced
random fun quote- “the iron gate of our prison stands half open” (Douglass)

RECONSTRUCTION 1865-1877
EXECUTIVE RECONSTRUCTION

The 10% Plan- Lincoln’s reconstruction plan to offer full pardon to Southerners who take a loyalty oath,
if 10% take the oath, that state will be restored, “malice toward none, with charity for all”

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RECONSTRUCTION 1865-1877

The Wade-Davis Bill- majority of people to take oath for a convention to be held, proposed setting a
certain governor for each state, pocket vetoed by Lincoln
Restoration- same idea, except this is Johnson’s idea, each state had to have a convention that repeals
secession laws and ratifies the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery

RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION




Joint Committee on Reconstruction-they refuse to allow the Southern states to join the Union, radical
Democrats also pass a civil rights bill (Johnson tried to veto, but overturned by Congress)
14th Amendment- born or naturalized in US is a US citizen, blacks are guaranteed equal rights
Johnson felt that blacks should not receive citizenship, voters were outraged and he failed big time
Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens- lead a 2/3 controlled Congress of Republicans radicals
Reconstruction Act of 1867- eliminated Johnson’s plan by dividing South into 5 military districts under
the Union’s control, state re-admittance into Union only by approving 14th and giving black suffrage

IMPEACHMENT


Tenure of Office Act- Senate consent for the removal of appointed officials
Command of the Army Act- no military orders without Senate or commanding general’s approval
Johnson accused by violated Tenure of Office Act, but was acquitted

THE 15TH AMENDMENT


no denying citizens the right to vote on the basis of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”
African American finally involved in political sphere, 80% of Republican votes in South were from blacks
while blacks also served as legislatives and representatives, women were outraged that “the Negro’s
hour” has come but that they did not receive suffrage or anything

A STUBBORN SOUTH



Black Codes- although the South agreed to his plan, they tried to limit black rights (no land, no weapons,
no marrying whites, etc.)
Freedmen’s Bureausharecropper- slaves that could not afford to leave plantations sharecropped by laboring for use of land
and tool, merchants and owners use unfair prices to keep them trapped in debt
random fun fact- when Congress reconvened in 1865, many former Confederate politicians were waiting
to take back their seats in the House and Senate

THE COLLAPSE OF RECONSTRUCTION



KKK- southern resentment turned into a terrorist group of white robe, Republican governments fell
The Enforcement Acts- government should prosecute voting discriminators, suspend habeas corpus
Ulysses Grant- the Enforcement Acts were the peak of Republican power, president Grant, his scandals,
a new generation, the west, the economy and other things waned northern interest
Panic of 1873- further undermined Republican support, government backed off of social services, also
caused by unregulated business and banks, led to retirement of greenbacks and return to gold standard

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THE NEW SOUTH 1877-1900

The Compromise of 1877- Hayes beat Tilden after a bunch of disputed electoral votes, so Republicans
sought to moderate their policies, federal troops were withdrawn from South and they were given
internal improvement aid, Democrats promised to support Hayes but “home rule” in South brought back
all Democratic governments in every Southern state

THE NEW SOUTH 1877-1900
THE REDEEMERS


Bourbon- elite class of merchants, industrialists, financiers, etc. committed to “home rule”
Redeemer policy- cut taxes, cut spending, industrialize, social conservatism, white supremacy, etc.
disfranchisement- using poll taxes and literacy tests, black voters stopped voting entirely

ECONOMIC CHANGE




Lost Cause- romanticized view of the good old times, but was replaced by the ideals of business/industry
industrialization- textile industry and railroad development were both very successful
tobacco- Duke’s American Tobacco Company was a surprising success too, produced 80% of cigarettes
iron- Birmingham, Alabama became an industrial city because of its iron and steel, “Pittsburgh of South”
cotton- agriculture still dominated the Southern economy, yet income in South was 40% of that in North

PLESSY V. FERGUSON





Separate Car Law- railroads proved separate accommodations based on race
Homer Plessy- sits in the white section and is arrested, says that this violates the 14th Amendment
Judge Ferguson- ruled against Plessy, the Supreme Court agreed, establishing “separate but equal”
Judge Harlan- disagreed with the ruling, said that it puts a badge of servitude on all blacks
the Jim Crow laws pretty much ignored the Civil Rights Act of 1875, and the Courts said that the 14th
Amendment does not apply to private organizations, this trend was unchallenged for 60 years
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka- overturned this ruling

JIM CROW LAWS


lynching- in one decade, 1,70 African Americans were lynched
tradition- this was a method of enforcing segregation and intimidating African Americans into inferiority
Ida B. Wells- anti-lynching activist after 3 of her friends were lynched, travelled internationally to
educate the public, her goal was a federal anti-lynching law, which never happened

THE ATLANTA COMPROMISE

Booker T. Washington- former slave, formed the Tuskegee Institute to encourage blacks to develop an
education and seek economic opportunities without political agitation, “separate as the fingers, yet one
as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress”

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CONQUEST OF THE FAR WEST 1865-1900

W.E.B. Du Bois- while Washington soon became the leading spokesman because of his moderate tone,
other black leaders, like Du Bois said that this “Atlanta Compromise” was weak, and that blacks must
demand full equality economically, socially, and politically, associated with Talented Tenth and NAACP

CONQUEST OF THE FAR WEST 1865-1900
FRONTIER ECONOMY




transcontinental railroads- the sole contributor to the opening of the West, diverse groups flooded in
gold rush- Sutter’s Mill and Comstock Lode are the two most famous, attracted the prospective poor
cattle kingdom- characterized by the open range and long drives, but harsh winters effectively ended it
frontier farmer-reapers, barbed wire helped farmers conquer the West, resented industry and debt
exodusters- black pioneers who moved to Kansa to start new lives

WESTERN SOCIETY


Plains Indians- culturally diverse, but had stable democratic system with governing councils
Hispanics- aristocracy formed in New Mexican society, Stephen Kearney and territorial rings dominated
Chinese- after mining and railroad jobs were finished, hostile natives passed the Chinese Exclusion Acts

DISPERSAL OF THE TRIBES






Battle of Little Bighorn- Sioux rose up under Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull to defeat Custer’s army
Nez Perce- Chief Joseph and his peaceful tribe attempted to flee to Canada, stopped just before border
Apache Wars- last organized resistance, Geronimo and the Apache raided outposts, but were defeated
Ghost Dance- prophet Wovoka led a Sioux religious movement, whites massacred them out of suspicion
Helen Hunt Jackson- wrote A Century of Dishonor, championed Indian cause, supported the Dawes Act
Dawes Act- divided tribal lands into individual plots to turn Indians into independent farmers
significance- after these events Indian resistance effectively stopped, and their tribal lands were
continually diminished (by 1930, Plains Indians lost 2/3 of their land because of the Dawes Act)

ROMANCE OF THE WEST

Rocky Mountain School- captured the “myth of the garden”, celebrated the rugged West, romanticized
the freedom and variety of the region (Hudson River anyone?)
Frederick Turner- his Frontier Thesis stated that western expansion had shaped American democracy,
individualism, resilience, and social mobility (sadly, he ignored the Native American perspective)

INDUSTRIAL SUPREMACY 1865- 1900
SOURCES OF THE INDUSTRIAL ERA

World’s Columbian Exposition- held in Chicago, it showcased technology and inventions

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INDUSTRIAL SUPREMACY 1865- 1900

Thomas Edison- one of America’s most prolific inventors, the phonograph and light bulb came from his
famous “invention laboratory” in Menlo Park (it was the model for the modern research facility)
Duryea Brothers- built the first gas-powered car, Wright Brothers- built the first airplane
Henry Bessemer- invented the Bessemer process, in which iron is transformed into steel
iron- Mesabi Range and other places gave the US abundant supplies of resources like iron
black gold- oil was in demand, at first just for lubrication, but then for your car

CORPORATION AND CONSOLIDATION








The Railroad- single-handedly allowed a national industrial base to prosper, give it proper cred, eh?
Taylorism- scientific management theory, tried to find the most efficient way to run a labor factory
Andrew Carnegie- dominated the steel industry (vertical integration)
J.P. Morgan-dominated the banking scene, bailed out the federal government once (como un jefe)
John Rockefeller- dominated the oil industry with Standard Oil (horizontal integration)
horizontal integration- process by which a company takes control of other company competitors, in an
effort to obtain a monopoly in an industry
vertical integration- process by which a company takes control of other companies in its production
process, in an effort to control raw materials and processing and manufacturing
trusts- combine the stock of multiple companies giving power to the trustees, totes illegal
holding company- buying up a majority of stock in another company, indirect control

CAPITALISM AND ITS CRITICS






Social Darwinism- belief that in a struggle for existence, the fit will survive and get rich
random fun quote- “the growth of a corporation is merely the survival of the fittest… this is not an evil
tendency in business… it is the working out of a law of nature and a law of God.” (Rockefeller)
Gospel of Wealth- Carnegie’s essay in which he argues in favor of philanthropy
random fun quote- “the man who dies thus rich dies disgraced.” (Carnegie)
Henry George- his nonfiction bestseller, Poverty and Progress, argues for a single tax on everything
Edward Bellamy- his fiction bestseller, Looking Backwards, shows future society with wealth distribution
Horatio Alger- his self-help bestsellers, say that rags-to-riches is easy with hard work (I worked pretty
damn hard studying for this AP test, where’s my money?)

UNIONS



wages and conditions- salary disparities, 10 hour days, health hazards (US had highest accident rate)
Knights of Labor- sought to end wage slavery and promote cooperative commonwealth, relatively open
to membership, but was wrongly blamed for the Haymarket Square riot and eventually faded
American Federation of Labor- an alliance of only skilled workers led by Samuel Gompers, had simple
goals yet was a very powerful voice in national issues, replaced the Knights of Labor
The Industrial Workers of the World- the Wobbles included all workers, but was radical and communist

STRIKES

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THE AGE OF CITY 1865-1900

The Great Railroad Strike of 1877- America’s first national strike, was a response to depression and pay
cuts, paralyzed interstate railroad service, president Hayes intervened, signaled future turmoil
The Haymarket Square Riot- a bomb was detonated at a protest against violent police forces, public and
government soon were frightened of anarchists and high profile strikers
The Homestead Strike- Henry Frick took over the Homestead plant and slashed salaries, when AFL
striked, he hired Pinkertons to stop the strike, eventually the government intervened, strike collapsed
The Pullman Strike- after Panic of 1893, the Pullman town cut wages, Eugene Debs stages boycott of
Pullman cars, halting railroads nationally, Cleveland intervened and crushed the strike

THE AGE OF CITY 1865-1900
THE AGRARIAN REVOLT 1880- 1896
THE IMPERIAL EMPIRE 1890-1908
STIRRINGS OF IMPERIALISM


manifest destiny- applied internationally, drive for markets and resources elsewhere (Latin America)
John Fiske- wants white men to conquer the world, John Burgess- wants to uplift less fortunate people
Alfred Mahan- published The Influence of Sea Power upon History, navy wins trade routes and military

THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR





the splendid war- minimal casualties, Commodore Dewy and Theodore Roosevelt emerge as heroes
yellow journalism- William Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer published sensational stories against Spain
U.S.S. Maine- randomly sunk in Havana Harbor, incites the American public, “Remember the Maine!”
The Rough Riders- Roosevelt’s regiment that charged up San Juan Hill, like a boss
William McKinley- president who declared war on Spain, America transformed into world power after
de Lome Letter- secret Spanish letter that called McKinley weak, incited the war

SPANISH POSSESSIONS



Treaty of Paris- ended SPAM War, annexed the Philippines for commercial and civilization purposes
Philippine Insurrection- Emilio Aguinaldo fought for independence from Spanish and Americans, while
we eventually crushed the rebels, atrocities and deaths on both sides occurred
Teller Amendment- in declaration of war, this guaranteed Cuban sovereignty
Platt Amendment- gave the US control over Cuban foreign affairs, allowed American intervention later

REPUBLICAN EMPIRE

Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico- all become territories of US in this time period
Open Door Policy- Sec of State John Hay declares respect for every country’s influence in China, thereby
protecting American commercial interests (crushed the Boxer Rebellion too, roar)

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY


THE PROGRESSIVE ERA 1900-1917

Big Stick Diplomacy- negotiations in the Russo-Japanese War, rejected claims of the yellow Peril, sent
the Great White Fleet, established the Roosevelt Corollary to allow US to intervene in hemispheric
affairs, was applied to the debt situation in the Dominican Republic, best accomplishment was Panama
Canal after Panama revolted from Columbia (with the help of the U.S.S Nashville of course), ramble over
Dollar Diplomacy- sec of state Philander Know advocates business interests, example: Nicaragua
Moral Diplomacy- DR, Haiti, Virgin Islands, Nicaragua all part of his foreign policies, in Mexico he fought
off Victoriano Huerta’s “butchers” and Pancho Villa’s “bandits”, General Pershing pissed off Carranza

THE PROGRESSIVE ERA 1900-1917
PROGRESSIVISM


goals- championed antimonopoly, social cohesion, principles of knowledge, and government stability
spirit- represented the shift from rural to urban, just society could be created through reform
muckrakers- Roosevelt coined the term for writers that exposed societal problems, Ida Tarbell
documented Standard Oil’s ruthlessness, Lincoln Steffens describes political machines in Shame of the
Cities, David Phillips and Charles Adams attacked railroad connections with senators

URBAN REFORM


Jacob Riis- wrote How the Other Half Lives, pushed for tenement and slum reform in New York
Jane Addams- owned the Hull House, helped immigrants and the lower class in these settlement houses
Walter Rauschenbusch- theorized the Social Gospel, churches should serve the poor, Christian loves all

POLITICAL REFORM



city manager plan- like the commission system, this placed city power in hands of a professional admin
who worked with the council and mayor, it was supposed to encourage reform and limit corruption
Tom Johnson- was the mayor of Cleveland, successfully fought off private business interests in his city
Robert La Follette-was the governor of Wisconsin, pushed for the direct primary, the initiative, the
referendum, and the recall, he was very successful in passing legislature and encouraging the public
progressive amendments- 16th allowed for income taxes, 17th provided a popular vote for senator
elections, 18th forbade liquor sales, 19th gave women the right to vote

WOMEN AND REFORM




The New Woman- domestic center disappeared, more single women took up activist positions
Boston marriages- acceptance of homosexuals in the progressive era
Muller v. Oregon- justified sex discrimination, for the benefit of women
Women’s Christian Temperance Movement- led by France Willard, moral crusade against alcohol,
worked with the Anti-Saloon League, eventually succeeded in the 18th Amendment, win!
Nat. Am. Woman Suffrage Association- led by Carrie Catt, break through the female sphere, movement
gained in the West, eventually succeeded in the 19th Amendment, another win!

AFRICAN AMERICANS AND REFORM

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY


(work in progress!)

The Niagara Movement- led by W.E.B. Du Bois and the Talented Tenth, opposed Jim Crow laws and
segregation of any kind, didn’t gain support among whites
Nat. Am. for the Advancement of Colored People- sought biracial cooperation, the first black national
reform effort, successfully struck down the “grandfather clause” laws and residential segregation laws

THE SQUARE DEAL AND NATIONAL REFORM










Theodore Roosevelt- took over for the assassinated McKinley, TR championed progressivism
Department of Commerce and Labor- publicly investigate corporations
Sherman Antitrust Act- forbade organizations that restrict trade, used to break up trusts, but also unions
Northern Securities Company- broken up after monopolizing rails in the Northwest, “trustbuster” TR
Interstate Commerce Act- was before Roosevelt, and had largely failed to do any regulatin’
Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act- Roosevelt revamps it, restores fed authority to control railroads rates
Anthracite Coal Strike- after United Mine Workers striked, Roosevelt pressured management to concede
to the workers’ demands, first president intervened as impartial arbiter, champion of square deals!
Food and Drug Act- restrict dangerous medicines
Meat Inspection Act- regulate meat industry (Sinclair is happy)
National Forest Service- headed by Gifford Pinchot, it promoted Roosevelt’s regulation, conservation,
and preservation in developing wilderness lands
Newlands Act- federal funds to public reclamation projects, beginning of federal aid for development

(WORK IN PROGRESS!)
AMERICA AND THE GREAT WAR 1909-1919
THE NEW ERA 1919-1929
THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1929-1939
PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 1789-1893
NEW REPUBLIC




George Washington (1789-1797, no party)- Whiskey Rebellion, Treaty of Greenville, Farewell Address
John Adams (1797-1801, Federalist)- XYZ Affair, Alien and Sedition Acts, Judiciary Act of 1801
Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809, Demo-Repub)- Marbury v. Madison, Louisiana Purchase, Embargo Act
James Madison (1809-1817, Demo-Repub)- War of 1812, Clay’s American System, the National Road
James Monroe (1817-1825, Demo-Repub)- Rush-Bagot Treaty, Adams-Onis Treaty, Monroe Doctrine

ANTEBELLUM

John Quincy Adams (1825-1829, Nat. Repub)- Corrupt Bargain, Erie Canal, Tariff of Abominations

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY






PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITIED STATES 1889-2013

Andrew Jackson (1829-1837, Democratic)- Trail of Tears, Nullification crisis, species circular
Martin Van Buren (1837-1841, Democratic)- Panic of 1837, Aroostook War, Treasury Bill of 1840
William Henry Harrison (1841, Whig)- Log Cabin Campaign, Tippecanoe
John Tyler (1841-1845, Whig/ish)- Webster-Ashburton Treaty, Treaty of Wang-Hya, Texas annexation
James K. Polk (1845-1849, Democratic)- “dark horse”, Mexican War, Oregon Treaty
Zackary Taylor (1849-1850, Whig)- California Gold Rush, cherries LOLOLOLOL

DISUNION





Millard Fillmore (1850-1853, Whig)- Compromise of 1850, Matthew Perry, Know-Nothing Party
Franklin Pierce (1853-1857, Democratic)- Young America, Ostend Manifesto, Kansas-Nebraska Act
James Buchanan (1857-1861, Democratic)- Dred Scott v. Sanford, Harper’s Ferry Raid, SC secession
Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865, Republican)- Homestead Act, Emancipation Proclamation, 10% Plan
Andrew Johnson (1865-1869, Democratic/ish)- 13/14th Amendment, Tenure of Office Act, Seward’s Folly
Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877, Republican)- Credit Mobilier (and others), TC Railroad, Enforcement Acts

GILDED AGE




Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881, Republican)- Compromise of 1877, Great Railroad Strike of 1877
James A. Garfield (1881, Republican)- Stalwarts v. Half-Breeds, (Curse of Tippecanoe is gettin’ real scary)
Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885, Republican)- Chinese Exclusion Act, Pendleton Act
Grover Cleveland (1885-1889, 1893-1897, Democratic)- Mugwumps, Pullman Strike, Dawes Act
Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893, Republican)- Sherman Antitrust Act, McKinley Tariff, Turner’s Frontier

PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITIED STATES 1889-2013
RISE IN POWER





William McKinley (1897-1901, Republican)- Front Porch Campaign, SPAM War, Open Door Policy
Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909, Republican)- Square Deal (and more), BSD, Bull Moose Party
William Taft (1909-1913, Republican)-16/17th Amendment, Payne-Aldrich Tariff, Ballinger Affair
Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921, Democratic)- 18/19th Amendment, Federal Reserve, Selective Service Act
Warren G. Harding (1921-1923, Republican)- Normalcy, Washington Naval Conf., Teapot Dome Scandal
Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929, Republican)- Dawes Plan, National Origins Act, Scopes Trial, KB Pact

WAR AND TENSIONS





Herbert Hoover (1929-1923, Republican)- Black Tuesday, Bonus Army, Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945, Democratic)- Good Neighbor Policy, New Deal (and more), Yalta Conf.
Harry S. Truman (1945-1953, Democratic)- Fair Deal, Berlin Airlift, UN/NATO, Korean War
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961, Republican)- McCarthy hearings, Montgomery Boycott, U2 incident
John F. Kennedy (1961-1963, Democratic)- New Frontier (and more), Cuba, March on Washington
Lyndon B. Johnson (1963- 1969, Democratic)- Great Society (and more), Civil Rights Acts, Vietnam War

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AUSTIN CAO- MR.SLOMA’S APUS HISTORY

PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITIED STATES 1889-2013

SUPERPOWER








Richard Nixon (1969-1974, Republican)- Vietnamization, War Powers Act, Roe v. Wade, Watergate
Gerald Ford (1974-1977, Republican)- pardon of Nixon, WIN campaign, Helsinki Accords
Jimmy Carter (1977-1981, Democrat)- Camp David Accords, “malaise” speech, Iran hostage crisis
Ronald Reagan (1981-1989, Republican)- Reaganomics, New Right, INF Treaty, SDI LOLOLOLOL
George H. W. Bush (1989-1993, Republican)- Three-Mile Island, S&L Bailout, Persian Gulf War, ADA
Bill Clinton (1993-2001, Democratic)- NAFTA/GATT, government shutdowns, healthcare initiative
George W. Bush (2001-2009, Republican)- Kyoto Protocol, War on Terror, No Child Left Behind Act
Barack Obama (2009-incumbent, Democratic)- START treaty, ARR Act of 2009, bin Ladan (AW YEAH)
Sarah Palin (2012-???, ???)- paved roads with gold?

*have you guys read the Wikipedia entry for US History? It’s a surprisingly interesting read, and will help
guide your review: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_States

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