Seagate

presents

TRIVIA THAT GIVES YOU THE EDGE

Seagate
presents

TRIVIA THAT GIVES YOU THE EDGE

3 •

Mumbai • 4 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S .S m i t h Srinivasan R a m a k r i s h n a n Suprotip Ghosh Upendra Singhai Copy Editors Ram Mohan Rao Syed Nadim Siraj Design and Layout Ashwin Boricha Shivshankar Pillai Sivalal S Photographs Mexy Xavier © 2 0 0 4 Jasubhai Digital Media.The f o l l o w i n g w r i t e r s at Digit compiled t h e 1001 t e c h facts: Aparna K r i s h n a k u m a r Garfield D'Souza Meera V a n k i p u r a m Ram Mohan Rao Robert S o v e r e i g n .

CONTENTS Topic Page No. The History of Computing The Internet Networking Various Timelines Processors and Components Storage Operating Systems Companies and Personalities Supercomputer Displays Imaging Telephony Cellphones Entertainment Games Human Interface Devices Miscellaneous Tech Facts 9 19 32 35 42 52 55 60 66 70 72 77 82 85 91 95 98 mwmtm ^ .

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H H B 70 . of t h e technologies that changed our lives. we tend to lose sight of t h e pioneers. we don't really k n o w whether Gates is still h a u n t e d by that statement. Technology. Today. closer to our t e c h n o l o g y history. and people e x c h a n g e notes with malicious glee: "Did you know that Bill Gates was stupid enough to say this. Since t e c h n o l o g i c a l progress has b e e n fast e n o u g h to send every o n e of us into a tizzy. Twenty-three years later. has history. tell us if you didn't get t h a t smile o n your face. or foresighted. how did he b e c o m e t h e richest m a n on earth?" This special compilation of 1 0 0 1 amazing t e c h n o l o g y facts is n o t filled with malice. or. god forbid. let your hair down. make y o u exchange notes with malicious glee at that next Saturday night party. in an apparent m o m e n t of epiphany. and from those lessons alone alone can we shape our future. closer to t h e people w h o made it happen. We learn from history. W h a t we know for sure is that statements like these b e c o m e more t h a n just that. even t h e m o s t successful.INTRODUCTION In 1981. This b o o k is m e a n t to bring us closer to reality. put your feet o n t h e table. So sit back. like most aspects of our life that pass us by and we take for granted. William Henry Gates III told a gathering that in t h e future 6 4 0 KB of RAM ought to be e n o u g h for anybody. And yes. and let time pass you by. I mean. Ergo. people in t h e world are n o t infallible. raise your eyebrows. Gates. o n e of t h e richest m e n in t h e universe. but with stuff that would make you smile. makes most of his m o n e y selling software so heavy even a Sumo wrestler would blush.

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Alan T u r i n g is considered the f a t h e r of C o m p u t e r Science. a G e r m a n engineer.Seagate 1 0 0 1 . was developed by M i c r o s o f t . It was developed by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl in t h e mid 1960s.o r i e n t e d language was Simula. t h e Z1 t h r o u g h Z4. Fortran became c o m m e r c i a l l y available in 1957. Konrad Zuse. 9 9 9 . w i t h an Appli cation t o t h e E n t s h e i d u n g s p r o b l e m " . in 1937. Beginning in 1934. It was developed in 1956 by an IBM t e a m headed by J o h n Backus. The f i r s t high-level p r o g r a m m i n g language was Fortran. 9987 . when IBM d e b u t e d the IBM PC. The o p e r a t i n g system. 3 9 5 . too. Microsoft shipped it w i t h BASIC. he published "A M a t h e m a t i c a l T h e o r y of C o m m u n i c a t i o n " in t h e Bell System Technical J o u r n a l . 1981 was t h e year t h a t PCs began. utilising binary a r i t h m e t i c . Claude Shannon is usually called the f a t h e r of I n f o r m a t i o n Tech nology. built a series of c o m p u t e r s . he published t h e paper "On C o m p u t a b l e Numbers. The first o b j e c t . aauiMny 90 . In 1948.

J a y F o r r e s t e r and Robert Everett. 990. Examples of candidates are Charles Babbage and Konrad Zuse. 9 8 7 . was built in 1823 by Charles Babbage. The f i r s t ' c o m p u t e r ' .d r i v e n calculating machine. t h e f i r s t home c o m p u t e r . 992. In 1951. The Incredible Feat of a Seagate Read/Write Head it's like a 7 4 7 going 6 0 0 Mph 3 Feet off the ground count ing blades of grass as it flies by . c o n s t r u c t e d t h e ' Whirlwind. 991.' a 'real-time c o m p u t e r . In 1976. In 1981. priced at 9 9 3 . $10. ' w o r k i n g at twice t h e speed of t h e ENIAC. In 1969. g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s at MIT. It is much debated whether any single person can be said to have invented the first computer.9 9 4 . while w o r k i n g on t h e original version of M i c r o s o f t ' s Disk O p e r a t i n g System (DOS). 9 8 9 . in t h e May issue of Byte Magazine. Bill Gates made a r e m a r k a b l e prediction: " 6 4 0 K (of RAM) should be e n o u g h f o r anyone." The t e r m 'bug' was p r o b a b l y coined a f t e r A d m i r a l Grace Hopper 9 8 8 .600. t h e s t e a m . C h r i s t o p h e r Pile was sentenced t o 18 m o n t h s f o r releasing a t o o l k i t t h a t w o u l d boost t h e impact of existing viruses by r a n d o m i sing t h e i r codes. the t e r m "personal c o m p u t e r " first appeared in print. c o m p u t e r f i r m Honey well released t h e H316 " K i t c h e n C o m p u t e r " .

o o •o c 1* >o •o 9 8 5 . 981. Founder of t h e I n t e r n e t 1 a V i n t o n C e r f Is h a i l e d as t h e F a t h e r of t h e I n t e r n e t . His f i r s t shareware p r o g r a m was PC-Fiie. They finally called it t h e Altair. Steve Chase. J i m Knopf is known as t h e ' f a t h e r of shareware'.Seagate f o u n d a m o t h in t h e Mark II c o m p u t e r at t h e US Naval Surface W a r f a r e Center. Mitch Kapor f o u n d e d Lotus Development Corp. and ran up a daily electric bill of $ 6 0 . 9797 In 1989. in 1982 with J o n a t h a n Sachs. and Ed Roberts l/l 0 -1 < -h 01 o 9 8 3 . publisher of t h e magazine Popular The first silicon Electronics. t h e mid 1940s. w n I d . 0 0 0 v a c u u m tubes and 4 0 racks of equipment. a p a p e r t h a t g a v e t h e w o r l d T C P a n d IP. In 1970. w i t h Dr R o b e r t K a h n i n 1 9 7 3 . a large a m o u n t at the time. w h i c h was later r e f e r r e d t o as t h e Zaltair Hoax.a u t h o r e d . 980. which Knopf published under t h e 5' (D 3 (D ™ 1 0) 9 8 4 . causing t h e machine t o m a l f u n c t i o n . 0 0 0 leaflets for a non-exis t e n t c o m p u t e r . Steve Wozniak played a huge prank by d i s t r i b u t i n g 2 5 . transistor were looking for a name t o release their new c o m p u t e r under. pseudonym J i m Button. w h o was i n s t r u m e n t a l in launching Lotus 1-2-3. r e n a m e d it A m e r i c a Online. 986. The ENIAC had 2 0 . Founder Paul Gavin came up w i t h t h e n a m e M o t o r o l a when his c o m p a n y s t a r t e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g radios for m o t o r c a r s . The first c o m p u t e r t o p e r f o r m a t r i l l i o n opera tions per second was called t h e G r a v i t y Pipeline. a n d e a r n e d his n i c k n a m e w h e n he c o . in 1 9 8 2 . 9 8 2 . Les Solomon. Bulletin-Board System Q u a n t u m C o m p u t e r Services.

9 7 7 .

On 4 t h J u l y , 1996, Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith launched Hotmail. In 1997, t h e y sold it t o Microsoft f o r an e s t i m a t e d price of $ 3 8 5 million. AT&T Bell Labs was the first company to transmit human voice across the Atlantic, on January 25, 1915. The exercise was conducted to celebrate the open ing of the Panama Canal to Alexander Graham Bell.

9 7 6 .

975.
In 1991, 4 5 0 complete works of literature were published on one CD-ROM.

9 7 4 .

Paul Allen, w h o c o - f o u n d e d M i c r o s o f t w i t h Bill Gates, is now t h e c h a i r m a n of Vulcan N o r t h w e s t , an i n v e s t m e n t f i r m . M a t h e m a t i c i a n Blaise Pascal a t t e m p t e d a u t o m a t e d c o m p u t i n g as early as 1642.

9 7 3 .

9 7 2 .

In 1993, t h e US D e p a r t m e n t of C o m m e r c e c r e a t e d InterNIC t o m a i n t a i n a c e n t r a l database t o c o n t a i n all registered d o m a i n names and IP addresses. In 1998, online p o r n o g r a p h y a c c o u n t e d f o r 8 0 percent of all ec o m m e r c e . However, the f i g u r e has t o d a y fallen t o 2 0 per cent. Online p o r n o g r a p h y was a $1 billion i n d u s t r y in 1998. In 1949, J Woodland and B Silver i n v e n t e d t h e bar code. It was p a t e n t e d in 1952 and was used c o m m e r d a i l y f o r t h e first t i m e in 1974.

971.

9 7 0 .

969.
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968.

In 1971, Intel launched the w o r l d ' s f i r s t single-chip m i c r o p r o c e s s o r , t h e Intel 4 0 0 4 . The Pioneer 10 spacecraft used t h e 4 0 0 4 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r .

Vinton Cerf, co-creator of TCP/IP and the Internet

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Seagate
9 6 6 . On 9 t h March, 2 0 0 4 , t h e US g o v e r n m e n t b o u g h t t h e world's biggest ever solid state disk (SSD) f r o m Texas M e m o r y Systems. In A u g u s t 1944, J o h n Mauchly and Presper Eckert proposed t h e building of a new machine called t h e e l e c t r o n i c discrete variable a u t o m a t i c c o m p u t e r (the EDVAC). It was t o b e c o m e the first s t o r e d - p r o g r a m c o m p u t e r . 9 6 4 . Niklaus W i r t h developed t h e Pascal p r o g r a m m i n g language in 1971. 1975 saw t h e e m e r g e n c e of t h e first w o r d processing s o f t w a r e , t h e Electric Pencil. WordStar, a n o t h e r w o r d processing s o f t w a r e , was released in 1975. In 1975, M i c r o s o f t , t h e unofficial partnership of Bill Gates and Paul Allen, a t t a i n e d sales of $16,000.
Chester Carlson invented the photocopier machine at Xerox

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In 1958, Chester Carlson invented t h e Xerox machine. The i n t e g r a t e d circuit was invented at the same t i m e , enabling t h e 959. m i n i a t u r i s a t i o n of electronic devices. V i s i C a l c w a s d e v e l o p e d by Edmund Gunter of England invented t h e slide rule as early as 1692. Dan B r i c k l i n and Bob F r a n k s t o n in 1 9 7 9 . R e t a i l i n g f o r $ 9 9 apiece, V i s i C a l c sold o v e r

9 5 8 .

9 5 7 .

7 0 0 , 0 0 0 copies. The EDSAC ran its first p r o g r a m on May 6 , 1 9 4 9 . It wasn't t h e first s t o r e d - p r o g r a m c o m p u t e r , but r a t h e r , t h e f i r s t practical one.

In December 1 9 7 0 , Gilbert H y a t t filed a p a t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d " S i n g l e Chip I n t e g r a t e d C i r c u i t C o m p u t e r A r c h i t e c t u r e " , t h e f i r s t basic p a t e n t on t h e m i c r o p r o c e s s o r .
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9 5 5 .

In t h e 1940s, H u n g a r i a n - A m e r i c a n J o h n v o n Neumann devised t h e von N e u m a n n a r c h i t e c t u r e for c o m p u t e r s , w h i c h is the basic archi t e c t u r e t h a t y o u see t o d a y in v i r t u a l l y e v e r y non-parallel-processing c o m p u t e r around, and ever t o have been built. The f i r s t v o n N e u m a n n - a r c h i t e c t u r e c o m p u t e r t o be actually c o n s t r u c t e d and o p e r a t e d was the Manchester Markl,designed and built at Manches-ter University in England. In t h e s u m m e r of 1969, UNIX was developed. Linus Torvalds, t h e c r e a t o r of Linux, was born t h e same year. The first edition of the Unix Programmer's Manual, by K Thompson and D Ritchie, was released in 1971.

9 5 4 .

9 5 3 .

9 5 2 .

The Intel

Pentium in 1993

processor

was relased

9 5 1 .

In 1993, Intel released t h e P e n t i u m processor. It was a 6 0 MHz processor, i n c o r p o r a t i n g 3.2 million t r a n s i s t o r s . It sold for $ 8 7 8 apiece. In 1991, Linus Torvalds, t h e n a s t u d e n t in Finland, i n t r o d u c e d In 1991, Sun unveiled the Linux. He posted the f o l l o w i n g Solaris 2 operating w o r d s t o t h e comp.os.minix environment, fined-tuned n e w s g r o u p : "Hello e v e r y b o d y for symmetric out t h e r e using minix - I'm multiprocessing. doing a (free) o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m (just a hobby, w o n ' t be big and professional like gnu) f o r 3 8 6 ( 4 8 6 ) AT clones. In 1995, SCO acquired the UNIX Systems source t e c h n o l o g y busi-

950.

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ness f r o m Novell Corporation. In August, 1995, Microsoft Windows 9 5 was released. It sold m o r e t h a n a million copies w i t h i n t h e f i r s t f o u r days of its launch.

946.

2 0 0 4 saw Lindows changing its name to Linspire on April 14, after it lost a legal battle against Microsoft.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

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The Apple I h o m e c o m p u t e r was released in 1976.000. in 1962. o 9 4 1 . The floppy disk was invented in 1971. t h e Bell 103. The c r e a t i o n was considered a c o m p u t e r on a chip.Seagate 9 4 5 . 1981: The f i r s t IBM PC is sold. the first 'Internet'. ARPANET. i/i' 0 < 01 9 4 3 .com in December. 937. and cost a p h e n o m e n a l $18. 9 4 2 . M i c r o s o f t filed a t r a d e m a r k suit against Lindows. Ted T u r n e r launched and i m p l e m e n t e d t h e first n a t i o n w i d e p r o g r a m m i n g . C o m p u t e r s w e r e sold c o m m e r cially f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e in 1951. THE HISTORY OF COMPUTERS AND COMMUNICATION 9 4 4 . o o •o iO 3 944. 9 3 9 . Laptop computers sold t o public for the first time. The w o r l d ' s first m i n i c o m p u t e r . It w o n t h e case in early 2 0 0 4 . It could p e r f o r m 2 4 0 million calculations per second. AT&T m a n u f a c t u r e d t h e first c o m m e r c i a l m o d e m . The m i c r o p r o c e s s o r was invented in 1971. was i n t r o d u c e d in 1965. 935. Digital E q u i p m e n t ' s PDP-8. 9 3 8 . In 2001.t h e first successful fax machine.v i a satellite. Xerox i n v e n t e d t h e T e l e c o p i e r . 15D . n 3 fl> — ' a.t h e Cray 1. 9 4 0 . was launched in 1969. Cray Research Incorporated i n t r o d u c e d t h e first s u p e r c o m p u t e r in 1 9 7 6 . The world wasn't always a wired place During t h e same year. In 1966.

9 3 4 . The first cellular phone c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k was launched in J a p a n . The f i r s t cellular phone n e t w o r k was launched t h e same year in the US. The Apple Macintosh was released in 1984. Pacman. and its blue prints. a c o n s t r u c t i o n of the World Wide Web engineer at t h e Henschel A i r c r a f t C o m p a n y in Berlin. 9 3 0 . 9 3 3 . 932. K o n r a d Zuse. The Z1. was released in 1980. 928. BASIC was written in 1964 by Tom Kurtz and John Kemeny of Dartmouth. in 1979. along w i t h IBM PC AT. the father 926. Dr Brent T o w n s h e n d invented t h e 5 6 K m o d e m in 1996. to L. a pre-war electro mechanical binary c o m p u t e r designed by German i n v e n t o r K o n r a d Zuse. Sir Tim Berners-Lee. 9 2 9 . The US g o v e r n m e n t released c o n t r o l of t h e Internet in 1994.p r o g r a m c o m p u t e r was in N o v e m b e r 1951 w h e n t h e J Lyons c o m p a n y began weekly o p e r a t i o n of a bakery valuations job. 931. The first business application t o go live on a s t o r e d . Time magazine named t h e c o m p u t e r t h e Man of t h e Year in 1983. u <0 1925. one of t h e most popular arcade games of all times. and t h e WWW was born. 9 2 7 . w e r e d e s t r o y e d w i t h o u t t r a c e by w a r t i m e b o m b i n g d u r i n g WW II. 01 a) o> • 16 . developed t h e world's first p r o g r a m m a b l e c o m p u t e r in 1941.

invent ing Boolean algebra in 1854. Information Interchange) Engelbart. J o s e p h . 15. t h e A m e r i c a n Standards Association adopted ASCII (American n> 3 ® I w — r+ ° -I < S t a n d a r d Code f o r In December.Seagate 9 2 3 . d a u g h t e r of t h e poet L o r d Byron. The f i r s t mechanical calculator capa ble of m u l t i p l i c a t i o n was invented by G o t t f r i e d Wilhelm Leibniz. The QWERTY keyboard was actually designed with the intention of slowing down typists I — * ! Oi 1 O 919. They were called J a c q u a r d Looms.M a r i e J a c q u a r d invents a machine to a u t o m a t i cally c o n t r o l t h e p a t t e r n s in fabrics using punch cards. 17D . in 1971. Douglas C. 922. at MIT in early 1956. d e m o n s t r a t e d his s y s t e m of data transfer. George Boole published his M a t h e m a t i c a l Analysis of Logic. In 1972.c a r d t a b u l a t i n g machine f o r use in t h e US Census. In 1 9 6 4 . 917. H e r m a n Hollerith c o n s t r u c t s a p u n c h . 920. t h e TX-O. w h o also c o . This became t h e basis f o r c o m p u t e r design.i n v e n t e d t h e calculus. a t r a d e m a r k of t h e Xerox C o m p a n y . In 1801. published t h e first computer programs. The f i r s t t r a n s i s t o r i s e d c o m p u t e r was c o m p l e t e d . mouse and w i n d o w s at t h e Fall J o i n t C o m p u t e r Conference in San Francisco's Civic Center. 916. 1968. In 1843. keyboard. ( Gay Lussac and T h e n a r d e x t r a c t e d i m p u r e a m o r p h o u s silicon in 1811. Radio Shack i n t r o d u c e d . ' 18. In 1890. t h e f i r s t c o m p u t e r w i t h a k e y b o a r d and CRT display. in 1673. of t h e S t a n f o r d as a s t a n d a r d code f o r Research Institute. 8 921. m a t h e m a t i c i a n Ada Lovelace. Bob M e t c a l f e c r e a t e d Ethernet.

an A m e r i c a n engineer. • 18 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . Digital Equipment C o r p o r a t i o n was f o u n d e d by Ken Olsen in 1957. In 1989. by Alain Comerauer. In 1973. p a t e n t e d an electrical logic circuit called a gate or switch. J o h n Bardeen. 9 0 3 . m e r g e d in 1994F. 9 0 6 . Charles Babbage invented his Analytical Engine in 1833. and Walter Brattain.912. 9 0 7 . Microsoft's sales reached $1 billion. u < 0 > Lo w !E "ro L- « c 9) o> 3 £ o o a. S o f t w a r e A p p l i c a t i o n giants. Nikola Tesla. 9 0 4 . Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments p a t e n t e d t h e first i n t e g r a t e d circuit in 1959. in 1846. The o p t i c a l laserdisc was d e v e l o p e d by b o t h Philips and MCA in 1972. Aldus and Adobe. J o h n Backus of IBM created FORTRAN in 1954. the first year to do so. PROLOG was developed The C o m p u S e r v e online service was launched in 1979. 1951 saw t h e first c o m m e r c i a l use of t h e t r a n s i s t o r . 911. t h e f i r s t punch-card programmable general-purpose computer. was f o u n d in t h e w r i t i n g s of Sir T h o m a s Browne. 9 0 5 . 9 1 0 . 9 0 8 . 909. invented by William Shockley. 9 0 2 . In 1903. The first known English-language use of t h e w o r d ' c o m p u t e r ' . 9 0 1 .

Sweden led t h e w o r l d in I n t e r n e t p e n e t r a t i o n . 897. A Yahoo is a person w h o is repulsive in appearance and action and is barely h u m a n ! In t h e Deep Web. a s t u d e n t at McGill University in Montreal. 899. EBay. public i n f o r m a t i o n said t o be 5 0 0 times larger t h a n on t h e WWW. 9 percent of people c o n n e c t e d t o t h e Internet.1 per cent. 895. J i m Berners-Lee predicted in 2 0 0 2 t h a t t h e Semantic Web w o u l d " f o s t e r global c o l l a b o r a t i o n s a m o n g people w i t h diverse c u l t u r a l perspectives". including a f f i l i a t e d sites. Google. MSN. c r e a t e d in 1990 by Alan Emtage. Researchers consider t h a t t h e f i r s t search engine was Archie. but the project never seems t o have really taken off. t h e Time Warner N e t w o r k . c o m . 8 9 4 . The t o p visited websites in February 2 0 0 4 . were Yahoo!. Lycos.900. Yahoo! derived its name f r o m t h e w o r d Yahoo coined by J o n a t h a n Swift in Gulliver's Travels. 19 • . The w o r l d average is 11. t h e part of t h e Web not c u r r e n t l y catalogued by search engines. 896. 898. w i t h 7 6 . and A b o u t . In February 2 0 0 4 . c r e a t e d by t h e University of Nevada System C o m p u t i n g Services group. The f i r s t search engine for Gopher files was called Veronica. Canada.

The US I n t e r n a t i o n a l Broadcasting Bureau (Voice of America. t h e n makes those indices searchable across t h e I n t e r n e t . In 1993. n a m e s of a l m o s t e v e r y Danes and Swedes call it m e n u i t e m on t h o u s a n d s ' e l e p h a n t ' s t r u n k ' . It was once considered a letter V e r o n i c a is a c o n s t a n t l y in t h e English language. t h e first Web b r o w s e r w i t h a GUI. register and c o n t r o l d o m a i n names. Marc A n d r e e s s e n f o u n d e d Netscape. Lurking is t o read t h r o u g h mailing lists or news g r o u p s and get a feel of t h e t o p i c b e f o r e posting one's o w n messages.. 8 9 1 . and Italians a snail. Iranians and o t h e r 'oppressed' people t o circumv e n t t h e i r national firewalls. Germans a of g o p h e r s e r v e r s .. SRS stands f o r Shared Registry Server. Israelis p r o n o u n c e it ' s t r u d e l s ' and t h e Czechs say 'rollmops'. relaying f o r b i d d e n pages behind silicon c u r t a i n s .a c o m m e r c i a l s o f t w a r e package t h a t allows t h e indexing of huge quantities of i n f o r m a t i o n . 8 8 6 . 8 8 7 . the Latin name f o r t h e wolf spider family. 885.1 percent. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . • 20 A n a n o n y m i s e r is a p r i v a c y s e r v i c e t h a t a l l o w s a u s e r t o v i s i t Web sites w i t h o u t allowing anyone t o gather information about which sites they visit. WAIS stands f o r 'Wide Area penetration is 11.8 9 3 . The c e n t r a l s y s t e m f o r all a c c r e d i t e d r e g i s t r a r s t o access. basi cally). c r e a t e d a p r o x y service t o allow Chinese. The world average for internet 8 9 2 . 8 8 8 . I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v e r s ' . Developed at the U n i v e r s i t y of N e v a d a . 889. What is it? The 1 sign. The search engine " L y c o s " is n a m e d f o r Lycosidae. 890. The u p d a t e d d a t a b a s e of t h e Chinese call it a little mouse. spider m o n k e y . he had already devel o p e d Mosaic.

way back in 1993. 1995. Surf Watch. In Internet t e r m i n o l o g y . Boeing was the first arliner to discover the Y2K problem.the computer world's equivalent of a music video. | On the Internet. UIML (User Interface Markup Language) is a descriptive language that lets you create a Web page that can be sent to any kind of interface device. Did you know t h a t Domain Registration was free until an announcement by the National Science Foundation on 14 t h September. 876. Did you know that the name of the famous search engine AltaVista came into existence when some one accidentally read and suggested the w o r d 'Alto' w r i t t e n near the w o r d 'Vista' on an unclean whiteboard as 'AltaVista'? n T^ 'Jbi'ST* Did you know that the 3 n 8 8 0 . 8757 Boeing was the first airline to discover the Y2K problem. Net Nanny and Big Brother are all access filters used to block access to objectionable Web sites. England. a demo is a non-interactive multimedia presentation. 'Carnivore' is the Internet original URL of Yahoo! surveillance system developed was http://akebono. a 'bastion host' is the only host computer t h a t a company allows to be addressed directly f r o m the public network. by the US Federal Bureau of stanford. who devel oped it to monitor the electronic transmissions of criminal suspects. 877. changed i t ? 21 • . 883.Seagate 884.edu/ ? Investigation (FBI). 8 7 8 . 2 o 3 8 8 1 . The Electrohippies Collective is an international group of 'hack tivists' based in Oxfordshire. 8 7 9 . c 882. Cyber Patrol. 2. Archie is an i n f o r m a t i o n system o f f e r i n g an electronic d i r e c t o r y 8 service for locating information residing on anonymous FTP sites.

to'. on Netscape's f r o n t lawn. The A m e r i c a n Registry f o r I n t e r n e t N u m b e r s (ARIN) began t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and r e g i s t r a t i o n of I n t e r n e t IP addresses in N o r t h and South A m e r i c a in March 1998. certain 8 7 2 . a m o n a r c h y in the s o u t h w e s t Pacific. 8 6 4 . 4 emails a day. A 5 5 kg laddu was made f o r L o r d V e n k a t e s w a r a at Tirumala as a Y2K p r a y e r o f f e r i n g . The I n t e r n e t was initially called t h e 'Galactic n e t w o r k ' in m e m o s w r i t t e n by MIT's J C R Licklider in 1962. •22 . 8 6 9 7The mischievous Microsoft w o r k e r s left a 10-by-12-foot letter 'e' and a balloon w i t h the message. y o u could o w n d o m a i n s as cool as 'mail. 871. "We love y o u " . and attacked more than 6 . is called t h e 6bone. t h e f i r s t t r u l y e l e c t r o n i c bank on t h e Internet. 8 6 7 . was opened by Lee Stein in 1994. 870. On an average. Morris. d o c u m e n t s . The French Culture Ministry has banned t h e w o r d 'e-mail' in all g o v e r n m e n t ministries.8 7 3 . Shokyu Ishiko. called First V i r t u a l Holdings. J r . 8 6 6 . 8 6 8 . If y o u were a resident of Tonga. 8 6 5 . The Internet was initially called Galactic Network. a d o c t o r a t e in a g r i c u l t u r e and chief priest of Daioh T e m p l e in K y o t o has created an online v i r t u a l t e m p l e which will p e r f o r m m e m o r i a l services f o r lost i n f o r m a t i o n . publications and Web sites. IPv6. The t e s t b e d for t h e Internet's new addressing system.to' and 'head. The f i r s t Internet w o r m was created by Robert T. 8 6 3 . A c c o r d i n g t o The Economist magazine. each person receives 2 6 . m o r n i n g a f t e r Internet Explorer 4 was released. 0 0 0 Internet hosts.

an e f f o r t t o wire A m e r i c a n public schools t o t h e Internet. which d e n o t e s t h e n u m b e r 'one f o l l o w e d by a h u n d r e d zeroes. Butler J e e v e s of the Internet site AskJeeves. They p r e f e r t o use the t e r m 'courriel'.com made its d e b u t as a large helium balloon in t h e Macy's Thanksgiving Day parade in 2 0 0 0 . launched the a 2> ID 8 6 0 .' Dilbert Zone was the to go first comic strip Telnet is one of t h e oldest f o r m s of I n t e r n e t connections.com'. o" 3 Rob Glaser's c o m p a n y . 8 6 1 . 853. In Beijing. w i t h help f r o m the US g o v e r n m e n t . 5 million in 1 9 9 9 . 859. 8 5 5 . 858. ' B r o w s e r safe colours' refer t o t h e 216 colours t h a t are r e n d e r e d t h e same way in b o t h t h e PC and Mac o p e r a t i n g systems. 8 5 4 . D o m a i n n a m e s c a n r e a l l y sell a t h i g h p r i c e s ! T h e m o s t expensive domain name was 'business. P r o g r e s s i v e RealAudio s y s t e m on April 10. online. 2. 852.Seagate because 'e-mail' is an English w o r d . Google got its name f r o m t h e m a t h e matical f i g u r e googol. o The German police sell used p a t r o l cars o v e r the Internet.1995. QP/" O J D . C E R N is m a i n l y i n v o l v e d in research for particle physics. 8 5 7 . T h o u g h t h e W o r l d Wide Web w a s b o r n in 1 9 8 9 a t C E R N in S w i t z e r l a n d . The 'Dilbert Z o n e ' Web site was t h e f i r s t s y n d i c a t e d comic strip site available on t h e Internet. Today. Networks. which was bought by eCompanies for $ 7 . it is used p r i m a r i l y t o access online databases. Sun M i c r o s y s t e m s sponsors NetDay. d i g i t 23D . because earlier auctions f e t c h e d low prices and only a few people tu ever s h o w e d up. the Internet c o m m u n i t y has coined t h e w o r d 'Chortal' as a s h o r t ened v e r s i o n of 'Chinese portal'.

5: The n u m b e r of UK Internet users increases by an e s t i m a t e d 7 5 percent each year. ARPA (Advanced Research Projects A g e n c y ) w e n t online.8 5 0 . c o n n e c t i n g f o u r major US universities. as c o m p a r e d t o 2 4 percent in 1998. closely catching up w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l local Ian Cobain. i n t r o d u c e d electronic mail in 1972. The idea was t o have a back up in case a m i l i t a r y attack d e s t r o y e d c o n v e n t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s systems. The f i r s t ever ISP was CompuServe. More t h a n a million new jobs were c r e a t e d by t h e US high-tech i n d u s t r y since 1993. under AOL T i m e Warner. £ c 8 4 0 . • 24 . 5 6 p e r c e n t of US companies sold t h e i r p r o d u c t s online by 2 0 0 0 . the most important a s p e c t s of t h e I n t e r n e t . London. 8 4 4 . 8 4 5 . T r a n s m i s s i o n C o n t r o l Proto c o l / I n t e r n e t Protocol (TCP/IP) was designed in 1973. 848. 8 4 6 .m o s t used a d v e r t i s i n g m e d i u m in t h e w o r l d .i n just 8 2 minutes! 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 839. ' C o n t e n t . S a t y a m Online became the f i r s t p r i v a t e ISP in December 1998 to offer Internet c o n n e c t i o n s in India. a scientist f r o m Cambridge. In 1969. It still exists. a j o u r n a l i s t f r o m t h e T i m e s . Ray T o m l i n s o n . 8 4 9 . 8 4 3 . The I n t e r n e t is t h e t h i r d . Satyam Online Online was the first private connections in India ISP to Satyam offer Internet 8 4 2 . used I n t e r n e t search engines t o t r a c k down f o u r people on Interpol's 'most wanted' l i s t . 8 4 7 . It allows people t o d o w n l o a d songs f o r an a f f o r d a b l e 9 9 cents each. E 841. He used t h e @ t o distinguish between t h e sender's name and n e t w o r k name in t h e e-mail address. c o m m e r c e and c o m m u n i t y " are referred t o as ' t h e t h r e e big Cs'. The Apple iTunes music store was i n t r o d u c e d in the spring of 2 0 0 3 .

ary . accountant. 832. By 25D .Seagate newspapers and Yellow Pages. making it t h e n a t i o n ' s largest i n d u s t r y . 8 3 8 . o o It t o o k 13 years for television t o r e a c h 5 0 million u s e r s . a c t u a r y . "A computer is a.7 spam messages per day. 8 2 9 . t h e a v e r a g e Internet user received 3. Did you know that Digital Equipment Corporation was the first computer company to register a domain name? 8 3 4 . 3 8 3 6 . AOL says spam is t h e n u m b e r one c o m p l a i n t of its c u s t o m e r s .' An e s t i m a t e d 2.5 billion h o u r s w e r e w a s t e d online last year as people w a i t e d f o r pages t o download. t h e r e are over 2 6 0 million people w i t h Internet access o" 3 worldwide. P r e l i m i n a r y e m p l o y m e n t data show t h a t t h e US high-tech i n d u s t r y e m p l o y e d 4 .. 1 o u t of 6 people used t h e Internet in N o r t h A m e r i c a and Europe. The a v e r a g e c o m p u t e r user blinks 7 t i m e s a m i n u t e . and t h a t it has t o block over one billion unso licited e-mails e v e r y day. As of now.i t t o o k t h e c 3 I n t e r n e t less t h a n 4 years. I n t e r n e t A d v e r t i s i n g in t h e US g e n e r a t e d $1.92 billion in 1998.. ft) 835. bookkeeper" actu- 8 2 8 ..2 spam messages per day in 2 0 0 2 . 8 million w o r k e r s in 1998. t h e M e r r i a m Webster D i c t i o n a r y defined c o m p u t e r as 'a person w h o tabulates numbers. bookkeeper. In 2 0 0 2 . d o u b l e t h e 1997 figure. 3 3 o" 0) If 8 3 7 . The t o t a l rose t o 6. according t o a s t u d y sponsored by N o r t e l Networks.. In 1946. 8 3 3 . 830. 831. as per a 1999 survey.

8 2 3 . 6 0 per cent of all Internet users will speak a language o t h e r t h a n English. Recent studies indicate t h a t m o r e t h a n t w o o u t of every five people in N o r t h America are now I n t e r n e t users. In 2 0 0 3 . an A t l a n t a . In 1993. and a $ 2 5 million (US) lawsuit against a s p a m m e r in Tennessee. 821. 8 2 6 . 8 1 9 . it is e x p e c t e d to reach 8 3 0 messages per day. t h e leading supplier of anti-spam s o f t w a r e .2 0 0 7 . An e s t i m a t e d 2. five billion junk e-mails were sent last year. 8 1 8 . A b o u t 6 0 percent of N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n t e r n e t users have used t h e Web t o shop. The latest s t a t s i n d i c a t e t h a t China a p p e a r s t o be t h e f a s t e s t g r o w i n g I n t e r n e t m a r k e t in t h e w o r l d .m a i L . there were 5 million web sites. The cost t o t h e e c o n o m y reaches $1 billion annually. i n just one year! 8 2 5 . B r i g h t m a i l . In Canada. there were 2 6 . .4 million (US) against a s p a m m e r in Buffalo NY. 8 1 7 . 0 0 0 domain names in use.b a s e d ISP called Earthlink w o n a lawsuit w o r t h $16. g r o w i n g f r o m 4 0 per cent to m o r e t h a n 5 6 percent of all internet e . It is e s t i m a t e d t h a t by 2 0 0 5 . 8 2 4 . In 1999. spam actually exceeded l e g i t i m a t e e-mail. A t e c h n o l o g y i n d u s t r y research f i r m called Basex says t h a t unsolicited e-mail cost nearly $ 2 0 billion in lost t i m e and expenses w o r l d w i d e in 2 0 0 0 . 822. Japanese and t h e n German are t h e most used languages on t h e Net. I % 816. • 8 2 0 . r e p o r t e d t h a t in 2 0 0 3 . A f t e r English.2 percent of t h e w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n is c u r r e n t l y online.

m a k i n g it the second-biggest t a r g e t of spam. c o m and cnn. On a per capita basis. Chinese hackers launched Denial of Service (DoS) attacks against American web sites. the US only ranks 5 t h in t e r m s of I n t e r n e t users. iw ' M4AM snwasi: if O'S Taal was the first Bollywood flick to be promoted online. a US navy spy plane and a Chinese f i g h t e r jet. c o m .co. J e f f Bezos. c o m . (1. Which companies spend t h e m o s t on Web a d v e r t i sing? Microsoft tops the list. and B u y . Subhash Ghai's film Taal was t h e first Bollywood m o v i e t o be widely p r o m o t e d on the Net. Use of h o m e PCs t o surf t h e Net has d r o p p e d by a l m o s t 4 0 percent in t h e last f o u r years as I n t e r n e t use has p e n e t r a t e d t h e workplace. 8 0 6 . 1 China had 150 billion junk e-mails last year. Where do most news addicts go t o on t h e Web? The t o p t h r e e e destinations are msnbc. w i t h Amazon.t a i l sites on t h e Web are A m a z o n . Iceland. w e a t h e r . to . He later named it amazon. 8 0 9 . Sweden & Finland have a higher percapita use. a cat. 27 • .com.com. has 8 0 7 . w h e n s t a r t i n g his business c o u l d not name his Web site Cadabra (as in 'abra cadabra') due to c o p y r i g h t issues. N o r w a y . The t o p e .Seagate 8 1 4 . r s SUBHASH CHAI sum J jgdSBUa M j i 4 El 8087 Ziggy. A f t e r t h e April 2 0 0 1 collision of TRUSTe the third. called intersaver. c o m .uk. o 3 | £ 5- 13. become t h e first animal in t h e w o r l d t o o w n shares of a d o t c o m .com t a k i n g second spot and 3 IV 8 1 0 .com. T i c k e t m a s t e r .

According to a study by Nielsen Media Research. The recipient finds out a b o u t t h e service by receiving a card f r o m his or her friend. t h e p a r t of t h e Web t h a t search engines typically do not crawl.w e l l before t h e I n t e r n e t became s o m e t h i n g t h e general public w a n t e d t o u s e . •28 . 801. households with Internet access watch 13 percent less TV than households that are not online.8 0 4 .s c o r e s of free 'bulletin b o a r d services' (BBSs) s p r a n g up a r o u n d the United States. In t h e 1 9 8 0 s . The first free public BBS was 'Cleveland Free-Net'. Yahoo! is now w o r k i n g on its C o n t e n t Acguisition P r o g r a m t o map and explore the 'Deep Web'. 798. because t h e s o f t w a r e t h a t ran t h e service c o u l d n ' t recognise t h e year 2 0 0 0 . Madcow and Syndicate. m u c h m o r e of t h e Web will be accessible via Yahool's search engines. making Britons t h e most w a t c h e d people on earth. As a result of this. J u s t like a s t r o n o m e r s w o u l d love t o f i n d t h e elusive 'Dark M a t t e r ' . 802. much.5 million t o 2 million closed circuit t e l e v i s i o n cameras in Britain. 8 0 0 . 799. 8 0 3 . The t h r e e legitimate names f o r c o p y c a t viruses inspired by t h e i n f a m o u s Melissa virus w e r e Ping. There are between 1. The M i c r o s o f t T e r r a s e r v e r is a f r e e Web site t h a t has m o r e t h a n 9 9 9 gigabytes of black-and-white photos f e a t u r i n g specific parts of t h e Earth's surface t a k e n by Russian and A m e r i c a n airplanes and satellites d u r i n g t h e Cold War. Viral m a r k e t i n g is when y o u r app 'infects' o t h e r users via usage. a > c t_ a > c c o a o E 3 E E o u Saddam: Most searched. and t h e y shut d o w n On 1 st O c t o b e r 1999.

7 9 2 . 29D . 9 3 . WWE. 5 0 0 for one s e a r c h e d . E m i n e m .f o r t e r m s on lakh e-mails. 794. created in 1990 by Alan Emtage. s i n c e Las V e g a s is i n N e v a d a . A m e r i c a n Idol.nu. Y a h o o ! w e r e Kazaa.w h i c h is n o t s u r p r i s i n g . and t h e r e was a t i m e in t h e recent past w h e n one could easily get d o m a i n names like rajesh. 5 0 Cent. t h e t o p 10 be as low as Rs 2 . For example. On 5 t h J u n e 2 0 0 1 . Yahoo! is now ^pping the •Deep Web'. Niue is a small island in t h e Pacific t h a t makes m u c h of its r e v e n u e selling d o m a i n names. B r i t n e y Spears. PhotoHighway. Prices can In 2 0 0 3 . N a s c a r and Christina Aguilera. a s t u d e n t at McGill University in Montreal. t h e site may sell y o u r e-mail t o a s p a m m e r . The c o u n t r y code is . Y o u get spam because y o u r e-mail address makes its way t o s p a m m e r s t h r o u g h various channels. N e v a d a b e c a m e t h e f i r s t U S s t a t e t o v o t e t o l e g a l i s e o n l i n e g a m b l i n g .nu. Sites m a i n t a i n e-mail lists t h a t t h e y send spam to.Seagate 9 6 . P a r i s H i s t o n . In 1999. o o 3 3 c 3_ 0 01 z o 3 r+ n 3 A 7 9 5 .com introduced the first Internet P h o t o g raphy site to o f f e r s o f t w a r e t h a t allows people t o load photos directly f r o m a digital c a m e r a t o a website. if you sign up f o r a n e w s l e t t e r . H a r r y Many researchers and surfers consider t h a t t h e first search engine was Archie. P o t t e r .

Queen Elizabeth sends her first e-mai She's t h e first state leader t o use this service.edu. w i t h network addresses identified by extensions such as .gov. (VI C O 0\ US Presidential c a n d i d a t e J i m m y Carter uses e-mail t o plan campaign events. Novelist William Gibson coins t h e tern "cyberspace". w h i t e house. s h o r t f o r "internetwork". .timeline 790.com. The w o r d " l n t e r n e t " i s used for t h e f i r s t time. 789. 01 ^ c c o ? ID O C 3 The White House launches its website. x c •»•> 784 783. 788. w w w . 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S E E o u • 30 .org and . Initial commerce sites are established and mas m a r k e t i n g campaigns are launched via e-mail. Domain Name System (DNS) is established. i n t r o d u c i n g the term 'spamming'.

• O J * " e .6 billion music files each m o n t h . and 6 million in Asia Pacific. 79. A m e r i c a Online. as t h e f o u n t a i n of i n v e s t m e n t capital dries up and t h e Nasdaq plummets.c o m m e r c e " becomes t h e new b u z z w o r d as Internet shopping rapidly spreads. CompuServe. On J u l y 8. Napster is dealt a fatal blow w h e n t h e 9 t h US Circuit C o u r t of Appeals in San Francisco rules t h a t t h e c o m p a n y is v i o l a t i n g c o p y r i g h t laws. a c o m p u t e r application t h a t allows users t o swap music o v e r the Internet. Deviant c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m e r s begin spreading viruses w i t h i n c r e a s e d f r e q u e n c y . The I n t e r n e t b u b b l e bursts. s o o c 3 3 3 0 01 «f o" 3 780. Sun Microsys terns launches Java. I n t e r n e t t r a f f i c records are b r o k e n as t h e NASA website broadcasts images t a k e n by Pathfinder on Mars. College s t u d e n t Shawn Fanning invents Napster. w i t h r o u g h l y 3 0 million of those in t h e US and Canada. A r o u n d 4 5 million people are using t h e Internet. 5 percent of t h e US p o p u l a t i o n uses the Internet.Seagate h-r Marc Andreessen and J i m Clark i n t r o d u c e the Navigator browser. maa . 77. and Prodigy start p r o v i d i n g dial-up Internet access." A s t a g g e r i n g 5 8 . |5] It's e s t i m a t e d t h a t I n t e r n e t users illegally d o w n l o a d a b o u t 2. 5" m m 3 778. 776. 9 million in Europe. 774. 7 7 2 .

7 6 3 .' i ' l w J M 771. The t e r m ' p e t a b i t ' is used in discussing possible v o l u m e s of data t r a f f i c per second in a large n e t w o r k . 764. It gives access t o non-personal i n f o r m a t i o n . 765. A hacker w i t h benign i n t e n t i o n s is called a ' w h i t e hat'. A 'blue b o m b ' is a t e c h n i q u e f o r causing t h e Windows o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m of s o m e o n e you are c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t o crash. 7697 RDF (Resource Definition F r a m e w o r k ) is a set of rules f o r c r e a t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n f o r m a t i o n available on t h e World Wide Web. 770. OCSP (Online Certificate Status P r o t o c o l ) is one of t w o c o m m o n schemes f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s e c u r i t y of a server. 768. 'Finger' is an Internet t o o l f o r locating people on o t h e r sites. SOAP (Simple Object Access P r o t o c o l ) is a p r o t o c o l for clientserver c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t sends and receives i n f o r m a t i o n 'on t o p o f HTTP. C e r t i f i c a t e Revocation List (CRL) is a m e t h o d of using a public key i n f r a s t r u c t u r e for m a i n t a i n i n g access t o servers. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 7677 Wake-on-LAN (WOL) is a t e c h n o l o g y t h a t enables a c o m p u t e r D > C I c o 766. moth e r b o a r d t o s w i t c h itself on (and o f f ) based on signals a r r i v i n g at t h e c o m p u t e r ' s n e t w o r k card. • 32 .

IBM devised t o k e n . as in ' u n i t i n g devices t h r o u g h B l u e t o o t h ' .o p t i c cable fivet h o u s a n d t h s of an inch thick can c a r r y up t o 2. or ring. hence t h e inspiration f o r t h e name. Silver is t h e most c o n d u c t i v e material. 761. The high-speed data highways of t h e Internet are called backbones.t r a n s l a t e d as B l u e t o o t h in E n g l i s h w h o lived in t h e l a t t e r part of t h e 10th c e n t u r y . 57. but copper is widely used in c o m m u n i c a t i o n s because it costs m u c h less 754. and is b e t t e r in t e r m s of s t r e n g t h and flexibility. 7 6 0 . Most intercontinental Internet traffic passes through underwater fibreoptic cables. Since its i n t r o d u c t i o n in 1985. Harald B l a t a n d . of a fibre-optic cable 33 • . A t o k e n ring controls access of individual c o m p u t e r s to the n e t w o r k . in 1988. 0 0 0 s i m u l t a n e o u s t e l e p h o n e calls. IBM researchers were w o r k i n g on this t y p e of t e c h n o l o g y t h a t connects printers. The first such layout was across the Atlantic.Seagate 7 6 2 .r i n g technology t o c o n t r o l LAN t r a f f i c m o r e e f f i c i e n t l y and reliably. f a c t o r i e s and college campuses.5 billion bits of data per second. South Pacific Railroad laid d o w n t e l e g r a p h wires across t r a c k s t o help railway s t a t i o n s keep in t o u c h . 59. IBM's tokenring a r c h i t e c t u r e has become The construction an i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d f o r LANs. Blatand united and c o n t r o l l e d D e n m a r k and Norway. Sprint and AT&T o w n t h e major backbones in t h e US. or 3 2 . 58. The name B l u e t o o t h is derived f r o m a Danish Viking King. A t y p i c a l f i b r e . Long b e f o r e t h e expression 'local area n e t w o r k ' (LAN) became part of t h e w o r l d ' s technical v o c a b u l a r y . The idea of B l u e t o o t h t e c h n o l ogy was b o r n in 1994. w o r k s t a t i o n s and various servers in o f f i c e buildings.

In 1994. a c c o r d i n g t o research f i r m In-Stat/MDR.*.net-abuse.net-abuse. 0 01 (0 o 'E 3 E E o o 748. 754. later t h e vice-president and dean of t h e Electri cal Engineering d e p a r t m e n t . 'Toothing' is random sending of sexually charged. P r o g r a m s t h a t are small and un-useful. Each individual n e w s g r o u p is o f t e n r e f e r r e d to by adding a l e t t e r to NANA. The a r c h e t y p a l noddy p r o g r a m is t h e " h e l l o w o r l d " p r o g r a m . a speciali n t e r e s t g r o u p was f o r m e d . For example. but d e m o n s t r a t e a point. Chuq v o n Rospach of Apple C o m p u t e r . and Toshiba. NANAU w o u l d refer t o news. Ericsson Mobile C o m m u n i c a t i o n s initiated a s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e the feasibility of a low-power low-cost radio interface b e t w e e n mobile phones and t h e i r accessories. are called 'Noddy' p r o g r a m s . 751. They called it FireWire. In the mid-1980s. Intel. A b o u t 6 0 million devices shipped w i t h FireWire ports in 2 0 0 2 . HTTP(HyperText T r a n s f e r P r o t o c o l ) and URLs (Universal Resource L o c a t o r s ) in 1990. c o d e n a m e d " B l u e t o o t h " by five companies: Ericsson. MIT. Noddy p r o g r a m s are o f t e n w r i t t e n by people learning a new language or system. 752. engineers at Apple C o m p u t e r d e v e l o p e d a high-speed m e t h o d of t r a n s f e r r i n g data to and f r o m t h e h a r d drives in Macintosh desktops while s i m p l i f y i n g the i n t e r n a l cabling. 753. flirtatious messages that users of Bluetooth enabled mobile devices broadcast to other Bluetooth enabled devices in the area.admin. 7 4 9 .admin. V a n n e v a r Bush. Tim Berners-Lee set d o w n t h e basics of t h e World Wide Web. In 1998. 750. NANA is t h e newsgroups news. Nokia.755. In N o r t h A m e r i c a this m i g h t be called a 'Mickey Mouse' p r o g r a m . d e v o t e d to f i g h t i n g n e t w o r k abuse and spam. circa 1983.usenet. IBM. HTML ( h y p e r t e x t m a r k u p language). coined t h e wor 'netiquette'. f i r s t proposed t h e basics of h y p e r t e x t in 1945. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S • 3 4 .

Theories f o r self-replicating p r o g r a m s are first developed. The Lehigh virus. infects c o m m a n d . MacMag and t h e Scores virus cause t h e first major Macintosh outbreaks. 7 4 6 . 1 1986 35Q . Found o n t h e Apple II oper a t i n g system. Apple Viruses 1.com files.exe and . c o m files. replace the executable code in t h e boot sector of a f l o p p y disk w i t h t h e i r o w n code designed t o infect each 3 6 0 K B floppy accessed on any drive. Basit and Amjad. I B B 1987 743. is unleashed. one of t h e f i r s t file viruses." T w o daredevil Pakistani p r o g r a m m e r s . n Fred Cohen defines a c o m p u t e r virus as "a p r o g r a m t h a t 00 o> can affect other c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s by modifying t h e m in such a way as t o include a (possibly e v o l v e d ) copy of itself. I 745. The virus a f f e c t s b o t h . the viruses spread across Texas t h r o u g h p i r a t e d games. and 3 are s o m e of t h e f i r s t viruses " i n t h e wild.Seagate COMPUTER VIRUS TIMELINE 1949 00 7 4 7 . One of t h e most c o m m o n viruses. 2." or in t h e public d o m a i n . J e r u s a l e m .

1994 737. 735. 731. is d e t e r m i n e d to be in t h e wild. It is spread t h r o u g h M i c r o s o f t Word documents. which .741.m a i l hoax t e a r s t h r o u g h t h e I n t e r n e t c o m m u n i t y . Bubble Boy is t h e f i r s t w o r m t h a t does not depend on t h e recipient o p e n i n g an a t t a c h m e n t for infection to set in. The Good Times e . 733. Bubble Boy strikes. 734. The ' r e s u m e ' v i r u s uses a Word m a c r o t o infect Outlook and spread itself. As m a n y as 1. As soon as t h e user opens t h e e-mail. sends itself o u t via Outlook. also k n o w n as t h e ILOVEYOU virus. S t r a n g e B r e w was t h e f i r s t v i r u s t o i n f e c t J a v a files. The Dark Avenger Mutation Engine (DAME) is created.exe files. Word Concept becomes one of t h e most prevalent viruses in t h e mid-1990s. 1998 1999 2000 2000 1995 736. W97M. one of t h e first a n t i . f o r w a r d s t h e d o c u m e n t to 5 0 people in the user's Outlook address book. a> o S y m a n t e c launches N o r t o n A n t i v i r u s .A. The Melissa virus executes a m a c r o in a d o c u m e n t a t t a c h e d to an e-mail. a new v a r i a t i o n of t h e Melissa virus. It also sends usernames and pass w o r d s t o t h e virus' a u t h o r . 1992 739. 740. Laroux and Staog viruses are the first to infect 0* W i n d o w s 9 5 files. Excel. I o> Tequila is t h e first widespread p o l y m o r p h i c virus f o u n d in t h e wild. P o l y m o r p h i c viruses were specially designed to make d e t e c t i o n d i f f i c u l t for virus scanners. in t u r n . It's a toolkit that turns ordinary viruses into polymorphic viruses. The Love Bug.300 viruses are in existence. 1990 738. >o o* The Baza.Resume. • 36 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . 732. The Virus Creation Laboratory (VCL) is also made available. and Linux respectively.v i r u s p r o g r a m s d e v e l o p e d by a major c o m p a n y . The hoax w a r n s of a malicious virus t h a t will erase an e n t i r e hard drive. The C h e r n o b y l virus spreads quickly via .

o o 3 •o c •a The 'Stages' virus. becomes t h e fastest spreading w o r m till date. also known as Sapphire. is sentenced t o 2 0 m o n t h s in f e d e r a l prison in New Jersey. 729. COMMUNICATIONS TIMELINE U M U 37D . 11th 3' 3 m 5" n> </) 725. In J a n u a r y . The virus is one of t h e most sophisticated t o date.Seagate China t i g h t e n s regulations against viruses. David L. A u t h o r of t h e Melissa virus. t h e relatively benign ' S l a m m e r ' w o r m . The 'Anna K o u r n i k o v a ' virus w o r r i e s analysts who believed it was w r i t t e n with a 'tool kit' t h a t would allow p r o g r a m mers to c r e a t e viruses. spreads across t h e Internet. Shortly a f t e r the S e p t e m b e r attacks. 'Stages' is hidden in an a t t a c h m e n t w i t h a false " . i n f e c t i n g 7 5 . The t a r g e t is 'denial of service a t t a c k ' on t h e SCO Group. m a n d a t i n g a fine and i m p r i s o n m e n t for people w h o spread t h e m . t x t " extension. Smith. The Sobig w o r m becomes t h e one of t h e first to join the spam c o m m u n i t y . 0 0 0 c o m p u t e r s in j u s t 10 minutes. The M y D o o m or Novarg w o r m spreads t h r o u g h e-mails faster t h a n any previous virus or w o r m . 723. disguised as a joke e-mail about the stages of life. luring recipients i n t o opening it. the Nimda virus infects c o m p u t e r s all over t h e w o r l d .

w h e r e w h a t c h a n g e d t h e w o r l d most. along w i t h the i n v e n t i o n of t h e wheel. The Egyptians develop n hieroglyphic w r i t i n g . II in First w o o d e n p r i n t i n g press invented in China. o 3 5 0 0 BC t o 2 9 0 0 BC: The Phoenicians develop an alphabet. in Tsai Lun of China invents paper as we know it.R o m a n E m p e r o r Tiberius uses m i r r o r s t o send messages.f i r s t p o r t a b l e and light w r i t i n g surfaces. 712. o m in The Greeks use a phonetic alphabet w r i t t e n f r o m left FO m o Oldest r e c o r d of w r i t i n g in China. U m t o 100 BC: Human messengers on f o o t or horseback o o c o m m o n in Egypt and China w i t h messenger relay stations built. The very first postal service. 714. (\l S o m e t i m e s fire messages used instead of humans. which used symbols carved on a w o o d e n block. . in China.p i c t o g r a p h s of o in accounts w r i t t e n on clay tablets.721. o o m o r^ w (J C O o o 0* o m v O N 1o m o n in o C D o o in on bones. 719. 710. 718. Q < 2 n The Romans establish postal services. First r e c o r d e d use of h o m i n g pigeons used to send a message t h e winners of t h e Olympic Games t o Athenians. The first encyclopedia is w r i t t e n in Syria. 713. The Greeks start t h e very first library. Many say t h a t o this. H e l i o g r a p h s . to 170 BC: Papyrus rolls and early p a r c h m e n t s made of dried r e e d s . i n v e n t e d in China by Pi Sheng. 716. 709. 711. 715. clay. f o r g o v e r n m e n t use. 0* o First m o v a b l e type. t o right. 720. 717. m o The Sumerians develop c u n e i f o r m w r i t i n g . 708.

5' "SU » 5' 705.p r i m i t i v e image making makes its e n t r y . The first newspapers appear in Europe.a machine t h a t flashed a series of still p h o t o g r a p h s o n t o a screen. J o s e p h Nicephore Ni6pce achieves t h e first p h o t o g r a p h i c image. Alexander Graham Bell patents t h e electric telephone. The US s t a r t s t h e Pony Express f o r mail delivery. Samuel Morse invents t h e f i r s t long distance electric t e l e g r a p h line. It was called t h e Einkommende Zeitung. Charles W h e a t s t o n e r e p r o d u c e s sound in a p r i m i t i v e sound box t h e first m i c r o p h o n e . Germany. Claude Chappe invents t h e f i r s t long-distance t e l e g r a p h line. First daily newspaper is published in Leipzig. Melvyl Dewey invents t h e Dewey Decimal System f o r o r d e r i n g library books. Alexander Bain p a t e n t s t h e f i r s t fax machine. Samuel Morse invents t h e Morse code. Englishman Henry Mill receives t h e f i r s t patent for a type-writer. an office c o p y i n g machine. Coleman Sellers invents t h e K i n e m a t o s c o p e . T h o m a s Edison patents t h e m i m e o g r a p h . His first p r i n t e d book? The Holy Bible. J o s e p h Henry invents t h e first electric t e l e g r a p h . r> o "o c r+ 3 J o h a n n e s Gutenberg invents a p r i n t i n g press with metal m o v a b l e t y p e .Seagate 707. Camera Obscura i n v e n t e d . 39D .

691. Emile Berliner invents t h e g r a m o p h o n e . T h o m a s Edison d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e first talking m o t i o n picture. 681. Thomas Edison patents t h e p h o n o g r a p h i t h a wax cylinder as recording m e d i u m . the firstTV camera. 684.s o m e say it was Edison. 686. This is debatable. 687. 683. some say it was Charles Cros. is invented by Vladimir Kosma Z w o r y k i n . 680. First regular comic books. 685. 1877 693. A l m o n S t r o w g e r p a t e n t s t h e direct dial telephone or a u t o matic t e l e p h o n e exchange. i m p r o v i n g t e l e p h o n e s and radios.1879 1887 6881 1894 1898 1904 1906 692. o J First c r o s s . Iconoscope. 00 00 George Eastman patents t h e 00 Kodak roll f i l m camera. First t e l e p h o n e a n s w e r i n g machines c o m e up. 689. 688. v O O First radios w i t h t u n e r s giving access t o d i f f e r e n t v stations. It allowed e l e c t r o n i c signals to be amplified. 682. Lee DeForest invents t h e e l e c t r o n i c a m p l i f y i n g t u b e or t r i o d e . J o h n Logie Baird t r a n s m i t s t h e first e x p e r i m e n t a l television signal. t h o u g h . Eadweard Muybridge invents high-speed p h o t o g r a p h y c r e a t i n g t h e first pictures t h a t c a p t u r e d m o t i o n . Guglielmo Marconi i m p r o v e s wireless t e l e g r a p h y .c o n t i n e n t a l t e l e p h o n e 5j call made. 1923 1925 • 40 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S .

First television broadcasts in England. The 4 5 . The Long Playing r e c o r d is invented. playing at 33 rpm. CBS is founded. M o v i e t o n e s y s t e m of r e c o r d i n g f i l m sound on an audio t r a c k r i g h t on t h e f i l m invented. D I G I T .Seagate 679. Scheduled TV broadcasts begin. Warner Brothers releases The Jazz Singer. First TV broadcasts in t h e US. 5" ( D 675. N e t w o r k TV starts in t h e US. 76. <•> o C TJ 3 i+ 5" >2 £ 2L 3 677. C o m p u t e r s such as H a r v a r d ' s Mark I put into public service. a m Radio p o p u l a r i t y spreads w i t h t h e Golden Age of radio. NBC s t a r t s t w o radio n e t w o r k s . 673. Warner Brothers Studios i n v e n t s a way to r e c o r d sound separately f r o m t h e film on large disks.r p m . The t r a n s i s t o r is invented. the first successful talking m o t i o n picture.r e c o r d is invented. and s y n c h r o n i s e d sound and m o t i o n p i c t u r e t r a c k s upon playback.

It was p a t e n t e d as t h e X-Y indicator in 1968. ULSI stands for Ultra Large Scale Integration. ^u w e 1 6 6 7 o. Intel is s h o r t for I n t e g r a t e d Electronics. 2 6 6 8 . ! 6 6 6 . A fat Mac application is an application p r o g r a m for the Macintosh c o m p u t e r that works on a Mac running on a Motorola 6 8 0 0 0 series chip.6 7 2 . VisiCalc. invented in 1979. used in m i c r o c h i p s w i t h over one million t r a n s i s t o r s . Douglas Engelbart invented the mouse as a pointing device for c o m p u t e r s . 671. was t h e first spreadsheet p r o g r a m available for o m p u t e r s . Intel co-founder Gordon Moore said in 1965. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 6 7 0 . FC-PGA (Flip Chip-Pin Grid A r r a y ) is a m i c r o c h i p design developed by Intel f o r its faster m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s . • 42 . In 1963. 6 6 9 . "The a m o u n t of i n f o r m a t i o n storable in one square inch of silicon will double e v e r y 18 m o n t h s . UJ u a. " This came t o be k n o w n as Moore's Law.

Soon a f t e r . f o r m e r Chairman. s t a r t e d N M Electronics. 6 5 6 . one for each member of Apple's Macintosh division as of 1982. in Russian. 1 9 9 3 . Apple introduced the Macintosh. w o •a c 661. In J u l y 1968. A message was inscribed on t h e chip. i o <> • 6 6 3 . 6 5 5 . computer 6 5 7 . o 3 o 6 6 2 . Ted Hoff. 1984 was the year of the GUI. If you happened to open up the case of the original Macintosh.i n c h square sili con chip has t h e p o w e r of t h e 1949 ENIAC c o m p u t e r . The CVAX chip used a DEC Micro VAX I microprocessor. b 6 0 . This chip is more powerful a room-sized '40s than 658. The c o m p u t i n g for t h e Pioneer 10 s p a c e c r a f t was done by t h e Intel 4 0 0 4 microprocessor. Intel's Flying Pentium Ads and t h e 'Intel Inside' logo w e r e made on an Apple Macintosh. w h e n y o u care e n o u g h to steal the v e r y b e s t " ! A m o d e r n g u a r t e r . Intel's code name for its e f f o r t t o make t h e one GHz micro processor was Project Foster. which said. 0 0 0 . was flooded w i t h over 120 names to choose f r o m f o r its latest p r o c e s s o r . "VAX. A n d r e w Grove. IBM was i n c o r p o r a t e d in 1911 under the name ComputingTabulating-Recording Company. Stan Mazor and Federico Faggin designed t h e P e n t i u m Chip t h a t was launched on March 2 2 . 6 5 9 . you would find 4 7 signatures. 43 • . In 1938. Robert Noyce and G o r d o n Moore. 664. Claude Shannon f i r s t s h o w e d t h a t e l e c t r o n i c s w i t c h i n g c i r c u i t s could p e r f o r m logical operations. the first PC with a graphical user interface. He f i n a l l y s e t t l e d on ' P e n t i u m ' a f t e r spending $ 4 0 . t h e y s t a r t e d calling it Intel. Intel Corporation.Seagate 6 6 5 . which occupied a full city block.

6 4 7 . Apple C o m p u t e r i n t r o d u c e d t h e Apple lie model l a p t o p . Hewlett Packard's first o r d e r . Windows Me s t a r t e d a new t e c h n o l ogy called System File P r o t e c t i o n t h a t p r e v e n t e d applications f r o m o v e r w r i t i n g key system files. a p r i n t e r t h a t o f f e r s a low-cost. 6 4 6 . 649. while he was making t h e film Fantasia in 1940. for eight oscillators. 6 5 2 . Hewlett Packard i n t r o d u c e d t h e mopier in 1996. a low-end p r o d u c t . 6 5 0 . It was t h e f i r s t e n t i r e l y keyo p e r a t e d calculating m a c h i n e . Intel's project on the first processor to use the new 6 4 .6 5 4 . The f i r s t microprocessor to make it into a home c o m p u t e r was the Intel 8 0 8 0 .a practical adding and listing machine. high-quality a l t e r n a t i v e to p h o t o c o p y i n g . i n t r o d u c e d in 1974.i n c h f l o p p y d r i v e . In 1 9 8 4 . The comptometer. but it was given a hasty burial a f t e r problems c r o p p e d up w i t h t h e m e m o r y t r a n s l a t o r hub (MTH). came f r o m Walt Disney. The P e n t i u m 4 runs code about 5 . • 44 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . i n t r o d u c e d in 1979 and i n c o r p o r a t e d into t h e IBM PC. Intel c r e a t e d t h e Timna processor in 2001. 651.b i t c o m p u t e r on one chip. Wintel c o m p u t e r s . w h i c h had an i n t e r n a l 5 . 6 4 8 . account for 8 0 percent of PCs in use t o d a y . PCs w i t h an Intel processor and running a Windows o p e r a t i n g system. 642.b i t a r c h i t e c t u r e was under t h e code name Merced. a c o m p l e t e 8 . calculating an early machine 6 4 5 . 2 5 . The C o m p t o m e t e r was i n v e n t e d by Dorr Felt. The f i r s t m i c r o p r o c e s s o r to make a real splash in t h e m a r k e t was t h e Intel 8 0 8 8 . 0 0 0 t i m e s faster t h a n the 8 0 8 8 . 6 4 4 .

and you'll most f e q u e n t l y see TWAIN d r i v e r s w i t h scanners.p r o f i t organisation. He c a m e up w i t h t h e n a m e ' J a v a ' while debating over it at a c o f f e e shop. ed the voltage gets boostto 30 KVolts in some parts Did y o u know t h a t t h e f i r s t c o m p u t e r t o p e r f o r m a t r i l l i o n o p e r a t i o n s per s e c o n d w a s c a l l e d G r a v i t y P i p e l i n e ? 45 • . established in 1969. . the v o l t a g e gets boosted to 3 0 . It r e p r e s e n t s t h e imaging i n d u s t r y . g d i g i t / n a monitor. It unites e n t e r p r i s e n application i n t e g r a t i o n (EAI) and business-to-business (B2B) inte. When it opened way back in 1993. 638. under AOL Time Warner. a central server. 3 6 4 0 . It still exists. o ' S t i n g e r ' was t h e c o d e n a m e M i c r o s o f t used for its s m a r t phone p l a t f o r m t h a t was unveiled in 2001. In a c o m p u t e r m o n i t o r . J a v a at Sun M i c r o s y s t e m s . TWAIN is short for ' t e c h n o l o g y w i t h o u t an i n t e r e s t i n g name'. 6 3 5 . 6 3 4 .f o r .& o g r a t i o n in a single p r o d u c t . The Trojan Room became t h e world's first I n t e r n e t site t o use a webcam. The first ever ISP was CompuServe. It took little time for It t o develop a cult following. without there being. for example. J a m e s Gosling c r e a t e d PROM ( P r o g r a m m a b l e Reado n l y M e m o r y ) is m e m o r y p r o g r a m m e d at t h e t i m e of manufacturing.Seagate 6 4 3 . •o o 3 n> 641. 637. A peer-to-peer N e t w o r k is a t y p e of n e t w o r k in which each w o r k s t a t i o n has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. 0 0 0 volts in parts of t h e circuitry. The Biztalk Server is a M i c r o s o f t p r o d u c t . o c 639. 6 3 6 . The TWAIN Working Group is a n o t .

624. 6 3 0 . The popular CD recording s o f t w a r e Nero Burning ROM is n a m e d a f t e r t h e Roman Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar A u g u s t u s Germanicus. w h o is said to have ben playing music while Rome was burning. ' B i o m e t r i c s ' is the t e r m for the technology that performs i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by f i n g e r p r i n t . In 1982. 3 CL O c < D C Uf o Q. 6 3 2 . retinal. and voice scans.6 3 3 . E o u o Q. 6 2 7 . . The ENIAC was developed way back in 1946 at the University of Penn sylvania. 6 2 5 .6 4 KB. The C o m m o d o r e 6 4 was t h e best-selling PC of its time. 6 5 1 . The CD-ROM made its debut in 1984 through the combined efforts of Phillips and Sony. k n o w n as PC-Talk. and colour graphics. The first laptop c o m p u t e r was designed in 1979 by William Moggridge of Grid Systems Corp. 6 2 6 . It had 3 4 0 kilobytes of bubble m e m o r y . low-cost f l o p p y disks. Did y o u know t h a t t h e University of Waterloo 'stole' Version 7 of Unix b e f o r e it was released? Alan Kay of the Xerox Palo A l t o Research Center envisioned t h e f i r s t notebook-sized. The high-speed data high ways of the Internet are called backbones. It was a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s o f t w a r e . p o r t a b l e c o m p u t e r called t h e Dyna book in t h e 1970s. It calculated at t h e t h e n . A n d r e w Fluegelman c r e a t e d t h e first ever s h a r e w a r e . 6 2 9 . 0 0 0 additions per second.p h e n o m e n a l r a t e of 5 . It had a large m e m o r y capacity for t h e t i m e .

Many medical schools in t h e US provide financial aid t o s t u d e n t s t o purchase handhelds as they o f f e r PDAs have come a long way since devices like the Newton 615. and t h e n said 3=a.38 M B p s . 1X equals 1. In 1980. Handheld Device Markup Language (HDML) is a simple language used t o define hyper text-like c o n t e n t and applica tions for hand held devices. < D 3 W i t h i n j u s t s i x y e a r s of 618. a n d / o r any h a r d w a r e device t h a t attaches t o a PC's I/O port to add h a r d w a r e capabilities. The C e l e r o n p r o c e s s o r w a s l a u n c h e d in 1 9 9 9 . t h e r e l e a s e of t h e 8 0 2 8 6 p r o c e s s o r . a w h o p p i n g 15 million 286-based personal c o m p u t e r s were installed globally. s o f t w a r e or b o t h w o r k i n g in c o m b i n a t i o n . 616. 620. 614. 617. if y o u said a=2. The card was designed f o r t h e Apple II computer. 622. 613. 1X is equal t o 150 KBps. Microsoft i n t r o d u c e d t h e Z8 0 SoftCard. 619.telephone and o 3 e n t e r t a i n m e n t systems. a circuit board. Passengers could o access and control in-car 3 •a navigation. and 3+3 w o u l d add up t o 4! Did you know t h a t Windows XP was code-named Whistler? The first digital c o m p u t e r w e i g h e d 3 0 tons. m a r k i n g Microsoft's first f o r a y into t h e h a r d w a r e world.Seagate Isrf 623. •o In early 2 0 0 2 . t h e n 3 would 'become' 2. as p a r t of Intel's s t r a t e g y to develop processors for specific market segments. In DVDs. Microsoft a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e BMW 7.series luxury o sedans were now running t h e Windows CE embedded o p e r a t i n g f> s y s t e m . A 'dongle' is a security or copy p r o t e c t i o n device consisting of h a r d w a r e .a little over nine t i m e s faster t h a n CDs. 47 • . TJ C In old F o r t r a n compilers. In CD-ROM drives.

CPUs typically o p e r a t e at 4 0 t o 5 0 degrees Celsius. The 'danger zone' is typically when t h e t e m p e r a t u r e goes above 6 0 degrees. Seagate Tech Factoid: W h a t does 5 0 GB of s t o r a g e r e a l l y m e a n ? Y o u c a n s t a c k 3 piles of s i n g l e s p a c e d t y p e w r i t t e n pages t a l l e r t h a n t h e E i f f e l t o w e r a n d t h e d a t a t o s u p p o r t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n is about 5 0 gigabytes. A cabinet should 'MIDI' stands for Musical I n s t r u m e n t always be properly Digital Interface. such as b e t w e e n s y n t h e sizers and c o m p u t e r s . d r u g databases. 6 0 8 . G r a f f i t i requires t h a t each l e t t e r be r e c o r d e d in one u n i n t e r r u p t e d m o t i o n . 651. expensive and complicated.t h e y r e m a i n intact even w h e n t h e m a c h i n e shuts down. 6 0 6 . But t h e N e w t o n was t o o big. It's a s t a n d a r d for ventilated sending digitally encoded music i n f o r m a t i o n between e l e c t r o n i c devices. A PDA doesn't have a hard drive. It flopped. The P e n t i u m III p r o c e s s o r One of the first PDAs to be w a s l a u n c h e d in 1 9 9 9 . 6 0 5 . advanced applications. . and has a specialised alphabet. and its h a n d w r i t i n g r e c o g n i t i o n p r o g r a m was poor. Data and p r o g r a m s added later are s t o r e d in RAM. even t h o u g h it was ahead of its t i m e .services like patient trackers. 612. I t c o m m e c i a l l y available was e n h a n c e d p e r f o r m a n c e of Apple's N e w t o n Message Pad. Two popular h a n d w r i t i n g r e c o g n i t i o n s o f t w a r e for PDAs are G r a f f i t i and J o t . It stores basic programs on a ROM c h i p . The Palm OS f i t s in less t h a n 100K. O U f . 6 1 0 . etc. w h i c h is less t h a n one percent the size of Windows 9 8 or t h e Mac OS.

597. According to Xerox. "The Xerox 9 7 0 0 Electronic Printing System. 'Pressing' is a m a n u f a c t u r i n g t e c h n i q u e very d i f f e r e n t f r o m burning. The first H e w l e t t Packard DeskJet printer for household use cost $1000." A c c o r d i n g t o IBM. most Keyboards are 'AZERTY' instead of the regular QWERTY. •o o I 3 < D 3 •a c 3 602.Seagate 6 0 4 ." The IBM 3 8 0 0 of 'QWERTY' Printing System was the i n d u s t r y ' s first high-speed. 'Colossus' was the first totally electronic computing device. 599. The nVidia GeForce 6 8 0 0 Ultra has 222 million t r a n s i s t o r s . The original laser printer called EARS was developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center beginning in 1969 and completed in November 1971. Wisconsin in French keyboards are 'AZERTY' instead 1976. Did you know t h a t t h e IBM PC once sold as 'Model 5150'? In France. " t h e v e r y f i r s t IBM 3 8 0 0 was installed in the c e n t r a l a c c o u n t i n g o f f i c e at F. Remington-Rand developed the first high-speed p r i n t e r for use on the Univac computer. 5 9 8 • The inkjet p r i n t e r was i n v e n t e d in 1976 but it took t w o decades f o r it t o become a c o m m o n h o u s e h o l d item. It used only vacuum tubes. laser p r i n t e r t h a t o p e r a t e d at speeds of m o r e t h a n 100 impressions per m i n u t e . The d i f f e r e n c e between CDRs and music CDs (or o t h e r c o m m e r c i a l l y p r o d u c e d CDs) are t h a t t h e f o r m e r are b u r n t . W o o l w o r t h ' s N o r t h A m e r i c a n data center in Milwaukee. •o r> o o er> 600. which is the r e c o r d for t h e m a x i m u m number of transistors o n a chip. W. and had no relays. the first xerographic laser printer product. d i g i t 49 • . 6 0 3 . In 1953. was released in 1977. 601. while t h e latter are pressed.

Radio Electronics r e f e r r e d to a device called the Mark-8 t h a t used this processor. C\l 00 The 8 0 2 8 6 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . 589. Its success s k y r o c k e t e d Intel i n t o F o r t u n e 5 0 0 . 591.t h e Altair. This was Intel's first ever microprocessor. named a f t e r a d e s t i n a t i o n of t h e Starship Enterprise f r o m t h e popular Star Trek series. h a n d . c3 u a. The 8 0 0 8 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . This processor f e a t u r e d a O stagering 2 7 5 . Within just six years of its release. This processor allowed c o m p u t e r s t o process real-world data. The 8 0 8 0 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r became the brains of t h e first P C . o> CO The 4 8 6 DX m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . With this.b a s e d personal c o m p u t e r s were installed globally. It was designed specifically to fuel 32-bit server and w o r k s t a t i o n applications. The processor e v e n t u a l l y propelled speedy c o m p u t e r . t h e Mark-8 was hailed as one of t h e f i r s t c o m p u t e r s for t h e home. E o u 587. 0 0 0 transistors.a i d e d design.w r i t t e n and p h o t o images. c a > c o a.l i n e t o point-and-click c o m p u t i n g . In 1974. 0I B timeline INTEL PROCESSOR TIMELINE The 4 0 0 4 micro processor. Users could a f f o r d a kit for the Altair f o r just $ 3 9 5 . such as sound. a w h o p p i n g 15 million 2 8 6 . a u 588. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 592. The Pentium Pro processor. the user 0> g r a d u a t e d f r o m c o m m a n d . in C The 8 0 3 8 6 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . . The 8 0 8 6 and 8 0 8 8 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s became t h e brains of IBM's new superhit p r o d u c t the IBM PC. Interestingly.5 9 5 . m 0* o* The Pentium processor. 590.

While t h e 4 0 0 4 chipran at 108 kilohertz. The Intel Centrino Mobile t e c h n o l o g y launched. •a n 585. The Centrino M (Mobile) Processor debuts. aann . 80. This processor f e a t u r e s innovations specially designed f o r w o r k s t a t i o n s t h r i v i n g on business applications. . i outstanding p e r f o r m a n c e . S The Itanium 2 processor.c o m m e r c e applications. The P e n t i u m 4 processor.5 giga hertz. It delivered world-class p e r f o r m a n c e . s u p p o r t i n g business applications. along w i t h high p e r f o r m a n c e . • 5 • • s H I O Intel releases t h e P e n t i u m 4 Processor Extreme Edition t h a t s u p p o r t s H y p e r T h r e a d i n g t e c h n o l o g y . It is built on Intel's 9 0 nm f a b r i c a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . apart f r o m enabling e . IBBwy' o The Xeon processor. o > 1 0* The P e n t i u m III Xeon processor.. It f e a t u r e s a 2MB L2 cache. TJ 583.c o m m e r c e s e c u r i t y transactions. 581. It p r o m i s e d 579. The P e n t i u m II Xeon Processor. The t e c h n o l o g y o f f e r s new capabilities specifically f o r t h e mobile world. The processor has 2 MB of L3 cache. and is designed for gamers and t h e like. o o TJ fl> 3 O 3 O C 4. edit and share digital photos via t h e I n t e r n e t . 577. The processor enabled t h e speeding up of e . Users could now c r e a t e professional-quality movies and render 3D graphics in r e a l t i m e .o p t i m i z e d s y s t e m bus. This processor o f f e r s users a choice of o p e r a t i n g systems. The Itanium processor. This chip enabled PC users t o capture.Seagate ii ! 6 Ui I (J\ - The P e n t i u m II Processor. and a 4 0 0 MHz p o w e r . all at a f f o r d a b l e prices. this processor clocked a phenomenal 1. such as increased b a t t e r y life.

c 0) 1 5 7 1 . t h e newly f o r m e d Intel publicly released t h e 1103.S. The p r o d u c t i o n of a 32 MB DRAM chip t h a t weighs t w o g r a m s requires 32 Kg of w a t e r . In t h e 1950s. Static Random Access M e m o r y (SRAM) is faster and b e t t e r t h a n Dynamic Random Access M e m o r y (DRAM). w h o headed t h e IBM t e a m t h a t was t o develop t h e first RAM. was a B. In 1970. Reynold J o h n s o n . By 1972 it was t h e best selling s e m i c o n d u c t o r m e m o r y chip in t h e world. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 569.5 7 6 . 7 0 0 g m of e l e m e n t a l gases and 72 gm of hazardous chemicals. +» M o • 52 . FPM DRAM (Fast Page Mode DRAM) was t h e most c o m m o n kind of d y n a m i c RAM in p e r s o n a l computers. 573. 574. In 1970.K Static Random Access M e m o r y (SRAM) chip. Prior t o newer f o r m s of DRAM. 1. E o ——— Ul £ 5 7 0 . was t h e i n v e n t o r of RAM. 575.6 Kg of fossil fuel. of t h e IBM T J Watson Research Center. 5 7 2 . J a c o b Rabinow invented the first magnetic c o m p u t e r m e m o r y t o use a disk instead of a tape f o r data s t o r a g e . t h e first DRAM chip. Robert Heath Dennard. in Education A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Fairchild C o r p o r a t i o n invented t h e first 2 5 6 .

The f i r s t hard drive available f o r t h e Apple II had a capacity of 5 B. It floats a few micrometres above the platter. On April 2 2 n d 2 0 0 4 . inch Seagate introduced the first hard disk for PCs in 1979. Contrary to what most people believe. o o •o 3 5 6 7 . This limit is m u c h higher t h a n w h a t is achieved by c u r r e n t drives. a 4 0 GB hard disk w o u l d cost $ 4 .Seagate 5 6 8 . the information on these disks is not striped in any way or protected. c r e a t e d by Sony and Philips Electronics. M a g n e t o r e s i s t i v e (MR) head t e c h n o l o g y is used in disk drives t o allow higher storage densities t h a n t h e older inductive-head technology. In late 1955. At t h o s e prices. 53D . and sold f o r C > o o 565. a hard disk head does not touch the platter surface. 562. Sony introduced the 3-1/2 floppy disk in 1981. o Magnetic Storage 566. 561. 0 0 0 . scientists at S t a n f o r d announced t h e d i s c o v e r y of t h e upper speed limit at which data can be w r i t t e n to a hard drive. 0 0 0 . in t o d a y ' s prices. However. 3 •a can a c c o m m o d a t e m o r e t h a n f o u r t i m e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n of t h e •o c u r r e n t CD f o r m a t . t e r m e d t h e RAMAC. Reynold J o h n s o n p r e s e n t e d t h e first-ever w o r k i n g h a r d drive t o IBM m a n a g e m e n t . or Rs 18 c r o r e . It held 5 MB of data. Just a Bunch Of Disks (JBOD) is a t e r m for one or more disk drives t h a t f o r m a single volume. _ _ •a o I 3 a> 3 564. The first hard drives c o m m e r c i a l l y available w e r e a b o u t 5 t o 10 MB. 563. $100 per m e g a b y t e . Super A u d i o CD players.

and its specifications were published in an e x t e n s i o n t o t h e Yellow Book. A hard disk is v e r y v u l n e r a b l e t o vibrations: a minor b u m p can make t h e head crash into t h e disk's surface. and will be non-volatile. NRAM is a new kind of RAM 557. Philips. Sony i n t r o d u c e d t h e 3 1/2-inch floppy in 1981. GDDR3 is a new standard for RAM in graphics. in Massachusetts. 5 5 4 . The d i f f e r e n c e in CD and DVD t e c h n o l o g y lies m o s t l y in t h e laser DVDs pack the data elements closer t o g e t h e r on the disk. It is possible t o run a P-lll processor w i t h o u t a heatsink. CD-ROM XA was developed j o i n t l y by Sony.m a g n e t i c R A M . 5 5 2 . 5 5 3 . because Intel bundles along p r o t e c t i o n devices t h a t clocks d o w n t h e CPU tc get it back t o a stable t e m p e r a t u r e .5 5 9 . being developed by N a n t e r o Corp. lower power c o n s u m p t i o n . and M i c r o s o f t . . w h i c h is w h y no power supply is r e q u i r e d t o keep data intact. In c o n t r a s t . It will use nanotubes t o s t o r e 1s and Os. so a much m o r e precise laser is r e q u i r e d t o read and w r i t e data o f f DVDs. and g r e a t e r data storage density. 5 5 1 . The d a m a g e usually cannot be repaired. 558. and will replace DDR and flash. M R A M . 5 5 5 . causing data loss and h a r d disk damage. II will be faster and denser t h a n DRAM. m e m o r y like flash is magenetism-based. aimed at increasing speed and reducing power consumption. Regular RAM is electricity-based. and t h a t ' s w h y it's volatile. 556.w i l l p r o b a b l y be out this decade. It promises faster data access.

Seagate Systems 5 4 9 . 55D . w i t h just 4 MB of RAM.t h e f l o p p y . Microsoft only sent t h e 4 0 . Gates claimed t h a t Internet Explorer could not be unbundled f r o m t h e rest of Windows.i n M i c r o s o f t Office applications is w r o n g l y d e p i c t e d ? The small rectangle is on t h e right instead of on t h e left.b i t version t o India. ) 4 8 . 3 million copies were sold in t h e first t w o months. Windows 9 5 can officially r u n on a 3 8 6 D X at 2 0 Megahertz. >46. because India was under US sanctions a f t e r Pokhran. 5 4 3 . The W i n 9 5 / 9 8 logos were c r e a t e d w i t h Freehand on a Macintosh. At the trial. 'Gone Gold' is w h e n a gold c o m p u t e r disk is created. But an e x p e r t witness f o r t h e prosecution w e n t t o w o r k in t h e c o u r t r o o m and u n b u n d l e d Explorer in just 10 minutes! Did y o u know t h a t t h e 'Save' i c o n . Bill Gates went head t o head w i t h t h e United States D e p a r t m e n t of J u s t i c e over the c o m p a n y ' s bundling of s o f t w a r e . At t h e t u r n of the millennium. 4 7 .•>45. I.IHI1 . j 4 4 . T h o u g h t h e highest possible e n c r y p t i o n in Windows 2 0 0 0 was 128bit. At Microsoft. When Windows 3.1 was launched. .

serves tea. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S • 56 . It is considered by many to be superior t o Windows.p e r f o r m Macintosh! V! ance operating system E a t a r g e t e d at t h e next g e n e r a t i o n of servers under the code name K42. and it runs on PC-compatible machines. Microsoft said t h a t A d a m B a r a t z .indicating t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s o f t w a r e product coding is f r o z e n and p r o d u c t i o n would now begin. a f t e r a brand of local toilet cleaner.w a s t h e y o u n g e s t beta t e s t e r f o r Windows 9 5 . all of PARC. by people against this o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m . 537. > in 5 3 6 . 542. Adele Goldberg. C P c 5 3 4 .a 9 year o l d . and David Robson. OS/2 was developed j o i n t l y by Microsoft and IBM. The Japanese version of MS Office has a character y o u can't f i n d in any o t h e r version. > Gene A m d a h l p r o g r a m m e d t h e f i r s t o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m . V) 5 3 5 . 539. 541. IBM Research labs is w o r k i n g This logo was created on a on building a h i g h . the first truly objectoriented language and OS. Alan Kay. In t h e movie True Lies. A t one time. t h e businessman who finances t h e t e r r o r i s t s runs t h e Arabic edition of Windows 3.1. f o r t h e IBM 7 0 4 . 540. MS-DOS was r e f e r r e d t o as 'Domestos'. developed SmallTalk-72. In 1994. In 1964. David Bradley w r o t e t h e code for t h e [Ctrl] + [ A l t ] + [Delete] key sequence. 5 3 8 . The book The Rules of the Net calls UNIX 'the Swiss a r m y knife of the Net'. The 'Office Lady' is a virtual assistant t h a t bows.

M i c r o s o f t scrapped t h e WinPad p r o j e c t r e p o r t e d l y because t h e y £ c o u l d n ' t f i g u r e out how t o squeeze a v a r i a n t of Windows i n t o an « a f f o r d a b l e handheld size. A w y v e r n is g n a t w o .0 V) < 3 10 [ D I G I T 57D . ' P o r t a b l e ' means t h a t t h e OS could r u n on d i f f e r e n t hardware. 3 . tu MS-DOS was a r o u g h i m i t a t i o n of CP/M. 530. w 3 531.l e g g e d f l y i n g d r a g o n w i t h a poisonous spiked tail. g w h i c h it developed and killed b e f o r e c o m i n g up w i t h Windows CE.Seagate (C £ 32. " W y v e r n " was t h e code name f o r t h e version of Windows CE t h a t 3 s u p p o r t s colour screens f o r t h e Palm-sized PC f o r m a t . 'WinPad' was M i c r o s o f t ' s failed handheld PC o p e r a t i n g system. one of the first p o r t a b l e o p e r a t i n g systems.

SCO was f o u n d e d by Doug and L a r r y Michels as a UNIX p o r t i n g and c o n s u l t i n g c o m p a n y . I o> 01 525 UNIX had been installed on 16 sites. The third. SCO delivers its f i r s t packaged UNIX system. AT&T made a decision t o w i t h d r a w Multics and go w i t h GECOS. 2BSD was released mid 1978. smaller machine. It was publicly unveiled at a c o n f e r e n c e in October. The result was a s y s t e m w h i c h a punning colleague called UNICS (UNiplexed I n f o r m a t i o n and C o m p u t i n g S e r v i c e ) . Ken T h o m p s o n and Dennis Ritchie needed t o r e w r i t e an o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m in o r d e t o play space t r a v e l on a n o t h e r . The BESYS o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m was c r e a t e d t o deal with these needs. o | JH "5 o i/) a > c 523. and decided t o join forces with General Electric and MIT t o c r e a t e Multics (Multiplexed I n f o r m a t i o n and C o m p u t i n g Service). f o u r t h and f i f t h editions followed. 1BSD was released. • 58 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . Q. Bell Labs was a d o p t i n g t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n c o m p u t e r equip ment. When Multics was w i t h d r a w n .a n 'emascu lated Multics'.timeline Bell Labs f o u n d t h e y needed an o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m f o r t h e i r c o m p u t e r c e n t r e which at t h e t i m e was r u n n i n g various batch jobs. all w i t h i n A T & T / W e s t e r n Electric. called SCO XENIX System V for Intel 8 0 8 6 and 8 0 8 8 processor-based PCs. 3BSD was released late 1979.

Caldera shipped OpenLinux S t a n d a r d 1.1 on May 5. HP-UX 2. Ultrix 1. aT The GNU m a n i f e s t o is published in the March 1985 issue 3 of Dr. m u 59D .0 was released. Version 3.0 f o l l o w e d .5. w h i c h had acquired it f r o m AT&T's UNIX System L a b o r a t o r i e s . short for A d v a n c e d I n t e r a c t i v e e x e c u t i v e . < / > 1987: Sun and AT&T laid t h e g r o u n d w o r k f o r business c o m p u t ing in the next decade w i t h an alliance t o develop UNIX System V Release 4. was f i r s t O N e n t e r e d into t h e m a r k e t by IBM in February.0 was released on t h e 16th of October. 1987 519. 513. i/) SCO ships SCO UNIX S y s t e m V / 3 8 6 . ui o 1985 520. IRIX 6. t h e second o f f e r i n g in Caldera's OpenLinux p r o d u c t line. SCO delivered t h e UnixWare 7 o p e r a t i n g system. 3 | O 0\ AIX. was f o u n d e d by Ransom Love and Bryan Sparks. Oi Caldera Inc.0 was released in December. t h e f i r s t v o l u m e c o m m e r c i a l p r o d u c t licensed by AT&T t o use t h e UNIX System trademark. was released o n t h e 6 t h of J u l y . The Sun Solaris 7 o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m was released. FreeBSD 3. SCO acquired UNIX Systems source t e c h n o l o g y business f r o m Novell C o r p o r a t i o n . SCO also acquired t h e UnixWare 2 OS f r o m Novell. 1989 517. FreeBSD 1. The GNU project s t a r t e d a year and a half ID O c later. Red Hat Linux is i n t r o d u c e d . the f i f t h g e n e r a t i o n of SGI UNIX. 515. 1994 514. Dobb's J o u r n a l . Q J r+ 2.0 was released.— o •a (D -t 1988 5" tO 1/ <1 V) r-f a> 516. .Seagate 1984 521.

On Bill Clinton's last day in t h e White House. t h e y were a s t o n i s h e d t o f i n d t h a t none of t h e building's c o m p u t e r keyboards had Ws! Bill Gates' c o m p u t e r . recalled t h a t Gates never put sheets on his bed.g e e k image was established well b e f o r e his days at M i c r o s o f t . in h o n o u r of t h e r e n o w n e d a s t r o n o m e r Carl Sagan.5 0 6 . " T h e r e are people w h o d o n ' t like capitalism. " 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 5 0 4 . 0) 'E > 5 0 2 . his d e p a r t i n g aides played a curious practical joke on the incumbent president. Apple p r o g r a m m e r s n a m e d a beta version of a novel s o f t w a r e application 'Sagan'. g . w h o doesn't like M i c r o s o f t . 5 0 5 . When his s t a f f e r s a r r i v e d .12 • 60 . Bill Gates' home was designed using a Mac! The most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g c o m p a n y name or t r a d e m a r k o n t h e World Wide Web is IBM. But t h e r e ' s no-one w h o likes t h e PC. George W Bush.w i t h t h e w i n d o w s and door wide open. 0 01 JE 5 0 1 . Sagan sued Apple. Bill Gates once said. and w o n t h e case. a college buddy w h o later became t h e c o m p a n y ' s president. and once left f o r vacation in t h e middle of a t h u n d e r s t o r m . Steve Ballmer. and people w h o d o n ' t like PCs. 0 E o u Q. S ID l/l 503.

Seagate 500. if t h e y could use t h e Stones' hit ' S t a r t me up' in p r o m o t i o n s f o r W i n d o w s 9 5 . he asked f o r a ridiculous $12 million. 494. Stones Seagate Tech Factoid Disk d r i v e r e c o r d i n g head f l y h e i g h t (gap b e t w e e n t h e head and t h e disc w h e n t h e d r i v e is s p i n n i n g ) is less t h a n 1 microinch. which was published in Harper's Magazine in February 1999. A l m o s t jokingly. But Gates just r e m a r k e d o c t h a t t h e pie wasn't v e r y t a s t y . and was hit in t h e face < 5T w i t h a cream pie. A h u m a n h a i r is 4 . Mick J a g g e r . A p a r t i c l e of s m o g is 1 0 0 m i c r o i n c h e s . He Steve Jobs announced to e-mailed his v o t e f o r t h e Housin Apple's partnership w i t h t o n Mayoral elections in N o v e m Q > Microsoft during the ber 1997. 495. fmasM . 499. while: A red blood cell is 3 0 0 m i c r o i n c h e s in d i a m e t e r . first A m e r i c a n t o exercise his 0) r i g h t t o vote f r o m space. to 496. Before joining Apple. or 3 m t o have left t h e venue i m m e d i a t e l y . M i c r o s o f t asked Rolling Stones f r o n t . 498. He was shocked when t h e y agreed a l m o s t immediately! Mashayoshi Son f o u n d e d Softbank at age 23.m a n . 0 0 0 m i c r o i n c h e s . J o h n Sculley was CEO of Pepsi. August 1997 MacWorld I "g trade show. The audience Fifth grade student Laney Rupp booed f o r 4 2 s e c o n d s ! drew his vision of Bill Gate's $ 4 2 million mansion. The c o m p a n y h o l d s large stakes in Yahoo!. w o D Bill Gates visited Belgium in February 1998. A p a r t i c l e of t o b a c c o s m o k e is 2 5 0 m i c r o i n c h e s . The only t h i n g he missed out on was t h e e l e c t r o n i c doggy door. — n o A s t r o n a u t David Wolf was t h e 497. while a b o a r d t h e Russian space s t a t i o n Mir. Y o u ' d expect him to have pressed charges. Comdex and Kingston Technologies. t h i n k i n g t h e y ' d t u r n him down.

4 9 3 . called Shockwave Rider. J o h n Brunner is c r e d i t e d w i t h w r i t i n g t h e first c y b e r p u n k novel. Did y o u know t h a t c o m p o s e r . The w o r d f i r s t a p p e a r e d in p r i n t in relation t o c o m p u t e r science sense in 1949. began in S e p t e m b e r 1975. Byte Magazine ceased publication with its July 1998 issue < o Ted Nelson coined t h e t e r m H y p e r t e x t in 1965. 4 9 0 . Of the many rumours about Microsoft. 4 8 8 . The t e r m 'bit' was coined by J o h n Tuckey. a f o r m e r Osaka Municipal University w o r k i n g for Sharp in t h e early 1970s. 491. c o m p u t e r scientist and a u t h o r J a r o n Lanier coined t h e t e r m ' v i r t u a l reality'? The t e r m 'cyberspace' was coined by sci-fi a u t h o r William Gibson. The code name for t h e 12 engineers w h o designed t h e f i r s t IBM PC was 'The Dirty Dozen'. 1483. Sanai Mito. because Steve Wozniak liked n u m b e r s w i t h r e p e a t i n g digits! The legendary m a g a z i n e ' B y t e ' . 6 6 . 4 9 2 . c 4 8 4 . a) 4 8 6 . 4 8 9 . and appeared in his 1984 novel Neuromancer. The original retail price of t h e Apple I c o m p u t e r was $ 6 6 6 . w h i c h ceased publication w i t h its J u l y 1998 issue. and was also t h e a u t h o r of t h e book Literary Machines. one was a spoof news release in 1994 that claimed Microsoft was purchasing the Catholic Church. i n v e n t e d t h e LCD. • 62 . £ 2 4 8 5 . Did y o u know t h a t t h e t h r e e f o u n d e r s of Compaq all c a m e f r o m Texas I n s t r u m e n t s ? 4 8 7 .

I-a a > Bill Hewlett and Dave -i in Packard tossed a coin t o o 4 7 6 . When M i c r o s o f t acquired H o t m a i l in J a n u a r y 1998. Charles Wang. f o u n d e d C o m p u t e r Associates in 1976. t h e name Apache. t h e G u i n n e s s B o o k of W o r l d R e c o r d s l i s t e d M S N H o t m a i l as t h e w o r l d ' s l a r g e s t f r e e e . result was 'A PAtCHy' server. 480. 4 7 5 . The t e r m 'Silicon Valley' was coined by j o u r n a l i s t Don Hoefler. 'Apache' got its name because its f o u n d e r s got s t a r t e d by apply ng a (Dpatches t o code w r i t t e n f o r I/I NCSA's h t t p d daemon. In 2 0 0 1 . 4 7 4 .Seagate (<L 481. The code name f o r t h e project was Oracle. Sandra Kesinor and L e o n a r d Bosack s t a r t e d Cisco in 1984. w i t h more than a 100 million subscribers. Later t h e y kept t h e same name f o r t h e company. t/i o Hotmail. L a r r y Ellison and Bob Oats were company they founded P a c k a r d or P a c k a r d Hewlett. To one-up t h e m in all respects he called his c o m p a n y International Busines Machines. i. o 0 TJ 4 7 8 . f o u n d e d by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith. The name IBM was started by an 3 decide w h e t h e r t h e CD ex-employee of National Cash Register. o VI Bill Gates' The Road Ahead has been t r a n s l a t e d into 2 5 languages.m a i l p r o v i d e r . Adobe is the second largest software company in the world Adobe Scott McNealy f o u n d e d Sun M i c r o s y s t e m s in 1982. The name was simply a s h o r t e n e d version of 'San Francisco'. 4 7 3 . an i m m i g r a n t f r o m Shanghai. The 01 477. =j H o t m a i l had over 9 million c u s t o m e r s . thus. ' A d o b e ' came f r o m t h e n a m e of t h e river Adobe Creek t h a t ran behind t h e house of f o u n d e r J o h n Warnock. w e n t online on = 4 t h J u l y 1996. 63 • . 4 7 2 . 4 7 9 . w o u l d be c a l l e d H e w l e t t fl> I/I 01 3 w o r k i n g on a consulting p r o j e c t f o r t h e CIA.

was f o u n d e d in 1982. Jeff Hawkins invented the Palm Pilot. the c o m p a n y behind Photoshop. and so on. Windows CE and o t h e r pen based devices. left t h e c o m p a n y in 1999 and created a board g a m e called Derivation. In 1952. 3 C o m changed t h e name of t h e PalmPilot to simply 'Palm' because Pilot Pen Company t h r e a t e n e d a t r a d e m a r k lawsuit. •64 H'l'MIHiMim . Senior Executive at Microsoft in charge of Windows 9 5 . 1975. It remained an inde pendent c o r p o r a t i o n until m e r g i n g w i t h Siemens in 1990.. 4 6 0 . In 1969. in Germany. In t h e letter. w h i c h made s o f t w a r e to analyse t r a f f i c . Bill Gates' first c o m p a n y was called Traf-O-Data. . The irony is t h a t t h e Palm „ . 4 6 5 . t h r o w n a t him• a n d remarked it wasn t he tasty {ust Palm. The earliest r e f e r e n c e by Bill Gates made to t h e c o m p a n y name ' M i c r o s o f t ' was in a l e t t e r sent by Gates to c o . c i t i n g possible brand confusion. Heinz Nixdorf f o u n d e d Nixdorf C o m p u t e r Corp. Ifl 0) E (D Q. E o o 3 o fl> c 461. Bill Gates' m a t h ' S A T score was a perfect 8 0 0 . 4 6 6 . or Adobe Systems Incorporated. 464.t h e federal g o v e r n m e n t t h a t gave away similar s o f t w a r e for free. So 3 C o m backed d o w n and changed t h e name t o 'Palm'.f o u n d e r Paul Allen on 2 9 t h November.. t h e name was spelt 'MicroSoft'. but the hyphen was e v e n t u a l l y dropped.. b o u g h t Scientific Data Systems f o r nearly $1 billion—90 times t h e latter's earnings. Brad Chase. 4 6 8 . which is a b o u t English words and phrases and t h e i r origins and meanings. Xerox Corp.4 6 9 . Adobe. The c o m p a n y was d r i v e n o u t of business by a huge m o n o p o l y . (/> 01 o 01 Q. which enabled c o u n t y g o v e r n m e n t s t o get federal m o n e y for road projects. Pen Company makes styli usable on 463. 462. A c r o b a t . . Steven Gray f o u n d e d t h e A m a t e u r C o m p u t e r Society in 1966 and began publishing t h e ACS Newsletter. 467.

Gates and his f r i e n d Paul Allen signed an agreem e n t w i t h C o m p u t e r Center C o r p o r a t i o n to r e p o r t bugs in PDP-10 s o f t w a r e . -a to forefront Different" of PC innovatin. A blue box a t t a c h e d t o a pay t e l e p h o n e and c r e a t e d t h e p r o p e r signals t o allow a user t o make free phone calls. 4 5 8 . One of t h e largest c o m p a n i e s in t h e world. AT&T is believed t o have e m p l o y e d o v e r a million people at one point. Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak earned money in college by selling "blue boxes" t o o t h e r students. in "Think keep- in in ing with it's trademark o . Bill Gates launched his business career in 1969 at age 14 by f o r m i n g a c o m p a n y named Lakeside P r o g r a m m i n g Group. •o Q J 3 5" 0) 3 a. in e x c h a n g e f o r c o m p u t e r time. d i g i t 65D .Seagate ICQ 4 5 9 .

c r e a t o r of high-end c o m p u t e r s . 2 s 453. a n i m a t e d graphics. nuclear energy research and petroleum exploration. 452. 3 V) c <u c I u u Q. S e y m o u r Cray. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 1 454. A m o n g s t o t h e r uses. 4 5 5 .r e c o r d holder at 3 5 . 8 t e r a f l o p s .h e died in a car crash. could not save h i m s e l f . But m a i n f r a m e s are considered m o r e p o w e r f u l because t h e y s u p p o r t m o r e m u l t i t a s k i n g . <u Q. and is expected t o slash t h e a m o u n t of t i m e it takes t o get a vehicle t o m a r k e t f r o m f o u r years t o 18 m o n t h s . General Motors has purchased an IBM s u p e r c o m p u t e r t h e companies say is t h e fastest in t h e a u t o m o t i v e i n d u s t r y . The f o u r most p o w e r f u l s u p e r c o m p u t e r s in t h e w o r l d are o w n e d by g o v e r n m e n t agencies or universities. A s u p e r c o m p u t e r executes a single p r o g r a m m u c h f a s t e r t h a n a m a i n f r a m e .upercomputing 4 5 6 . The new s u p e r c o m p u t e r . based on IBM's Power 4 and Power 5 t e c h n o l o g y . whose vehicle was t e s t e d against accidents by his o w n systems. m o r e t h a n doubles t h e c o m p u t i n g capacity of GM. • 66 . s u p e r c o m p u t e r s are used f o r w e a t h e r f o r e casting. J a p a n ' s Earth S i m u l a t o r Center is listed as t h e w o r l d .

The first fully transistorised supercomputer was the CDC 1604. o Blue Gene is t h e n i c k n a m e of t h e new s u p e r c o m p u t e r f r o m IBM t h a t would be 1. 448. 67 • .Seagate 4 5 1 . • 3 to 3 <+ t/> I T3 f* O C ID 447. T3 C 3 4 4 5 . Since it went operational in 2001. The MHz rating is not particularly useful here. n 4 5 0 . 'FLOPS' refers t o 'floating point operations per second'. The fastest s u p e r c o m p u t e r in India is the 574-CPU cluster at Intel. Each node has 4GB of MIPS stands for 'millions of instructions per second'. i n t r o d u c e d by Jack Dongarra. Bangalore. 446. 8 6 TeraFLOPs/sec. t h e Japanese Earth Simulator has consistently claimed t h e t o p spot in the list of the worlds most powerful supercomputers. as highperformance c o m p u t e r s can p e r f o r m several million m a t h e m a t i c a l operations per cycle. The p e r f o r m a n c e of s u p e r c o m p u t e r s is j u d g e d using t h e UNPACK 3 •a benchmark. T o y o t a and Daimler o & Chrysler own 12 of t h e 5 0 0 fastest s u p e r c o m p u t e r s in t h e world. Researchers making use of high-performance computing tend to be m o r e interested in this number t h a n in MIPS or the m o r e familiar clock speed MHz rating.000 times faster t h a n Deep Blue. o 4 4 9 . designed by Seymour Cray in 1958. It has been benchmarked at a speed of 3 5 . Apple powers the world's t h i r d most A view of the Japanese powerful s u p e r c o m p u t e r . This is a measure of the speed at which a computer can perform programmed instructions. 444. •o A u t o m o t i v e companies including Ford.V i r g i n i a Earth Simulator Tech's X is a cluster s u p e r c o m p u t e r t h a t contains 1100 Apple G5 systems each having t w o IBM PowerPC 9 7 0 processors rated at 2 GHz. and represents the speed at which a c o m p u t e r can p e r f o r m m a t h e matical calculations (like multiplication and division).

S. Industry analysts o f t e n say that clusters cannot provide very high p e r f o r m a n c e and this makes for interesting news-since clusters are now predominant on the list. Cluster supercomputers are made up by clustering a lot of c o m p u t e r s and connecting t h e m t h r o u g h a high speed network. ranked at 105 in the world. The nine other s u p e r c o m p u t e r s in the list of t o p 10 supercomputers are located in the United States. The CNS IBM R S / 6 0 0 0 Rack is an example of central iron. by November 2 0 0 3 . making t h e m t h e most c o m m o n architecture in t h e t o p 5 0 0 supercomputers in the world. w India's fastest supercomputer is an Intel Xeon cluster owned by Intel. traditional supercomputers-the 'stratospheric' o n e s are monolithic and have several CPUs w o r k i n g in parallel. E o CDAC's ParamPadma cluster supercomputer was ranked in June 2 0 0 3 as the world's 171st fastest.main m e m o r y and 160 GB of Serial ATA storage and 176 TB total secondary storage. H 439. it fell down to 2 5 8 with newer and more powerful supercomputers entering the list. in November 2003.28 TeraFLOPs/sec. The m a x i m u m computing speed benchmarked is 10. using shared m e m o r y 4 4 1 . 4 3 8 . and just t h r e e traditional 'stratospheric' super computers. "Central iron" is slang for a centrally funded c o m p u t i n g resource. Q. • 68 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . As of November 2 0 0 3 . t h e r e were seven 'cluster' s u p e r c o m p u t e r s in the t o p 10 list. Two hundred and eight systems on the t o p 5 0 0 super computers list are classified as clusters. 440. The Berkeley Computer Corporation was f o r m e d in 1968 t o build a supercomputer that could a c c o m m o d a t e up t o 5 0 0 users at a time. apart f r o m Japan's Earth Simulator. t h r o u g h high speed a supercomputer looks something like this interconnects. 4 4 2 .

5 0 per cent of the t o p 5 0 0 fastest systems are installed in the United o States. This 50-100 teraFLOPs machine should surpass NEC's 35 3teraFLOPs Earth Simulator and allow the US t o regain t h e t o p spot ^ in supercomputers." o g J3" [ D I G I T 69D . 2 434. t o build the world's fastest supercom 5 puter.Seagate (C 4 3 5 . 3 The US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National L a b o r a t o r y 433.a s well as perhaps the most risky-business j u d g m e n t of recent times. Also. 9 0 percent of all 5 0 0 systems are produced in the United States. Fortune magazine called the IBM 3 6 0 mainframe " t h e most crucial and p o r t e n t o u s . Cray's s u p e r c o m p u t e r will require 12 c megawatts of dedicated power! "S o When it was introduced. o has commissioned Cray Inc.

4 3 2 .

A r e f r e s h rate of 8 5 Hz on y o u r m o n i t o r means t h a t e v e r y single pixel is refreshed 8 5 t i m e s a second. Moire is a graphic effect that puts an undesirable p a t t e r n composed of small dots placed in a t i g h t p a t t e r n on a plain image.

430.

429.

A nematic liquid crystal is a t r a n s p a r e n t liquid t h a t is used in t w i s t e d nematic displays, t h e most c o m m o n f o r m of liquid crystal display. Self-Scanned A m o r p h o u s Silicon Integrated Display (SASID) technology is used in flat-panel displays in notebook and p o r t a b l e computers. TOLED (transparent organic light-emitting device) is a display technology being developed by t h e Universal Display C o r p o r a t i o n (UDC). It uses t r a n s p a r e n t electrodes and light e m i t t i n g m a t e r i a l s in an organic l i g h t - e m i t t i n g device (OLED). The stair-step e f f e c t t h a t can be seen in diagonal lines of some c o m p u t e r graphics is called 'the jaggies'.

428.

427.

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Seagate
4 2 5 . The concept of plasma display panels was first c o n c e i v e d in J u l y 1964 at t h e University of Illinois. Plasma m o n i t o r s do not c o m e w i t h in-built t u n e r . An NTSC/ATSC television signal must be passed t h r o u g h a satellite box, cable box, HDTV receiver, VCR/VHS device, or an o u t b o a r d t u n i n g device. Unlike t r a d i t i o n a l displays, where the image is scanned across the screen, in plasma displays, pixels are 'lit' all at once. Plasma t e c h n o l o g y is d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t used in o t h e r display systems in t h a t red, blue and g r e e n light is created in e v e r y A high-definition, futuristic plasma pixel, reducing space. screen looks something like this Charged electrodes between glass panels cause t i n y pockets of inert gas t o change the state of the plasma. This process causes u l t r a v i o l e t light to be produced, which in t u r n reacts w i t h t h e phosphors in each pixel t o produce visible light. Plasma screens have no scan lines due t o t h e f a c t t h a t each and every pixel has its o w n t r a n s i s t o r electrode. This creates a s m o o t h , evenly lit image across t h e e n t i r e surface of t h e display. In 1968, a research g r o u p at RCA in the US, headed by George Heilmeier, developed t h e first LCDs based on DSM, or dynamic scat t e r i n g mode. 4 1 9 . S Kobayashi of J a p a n p r o d u c e d first d e f e c t - f r e e LCD. This was in 1972. 4 1 8 . 4 1 7 . 4 1 6 . NEC, in 1986, p r o d u c e d t h e f i r s t LCD laptop c o m p u t e r . Sharp produced t h e 2 8 - i n c h TFT LCD in 1995. LCDs were first put i n t o use as displays in electronic calculators.

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D I G I T

PRINTERS AND SCANNERS
4 1 5 . A Page Description Language (PDL) specifies t h e a r r a n g e m e n t of a p r i n t e d page t h r o u g h c o m m a n d s f r o m a c o m p u t e r . Printer Control Language (PCL) is a language t h a t enables applications t o c o n t r o l HP DeskJets, LaserJets, and o t h e r HP printers. The name Epson for the popular brand of printers was coined when t h e subsequent models of t h e i r first printer 'Electronic P r i n t e r 101' were called 'Sons of Electronic Printer'. HP's f i r s t Inkjet p r i n t e r was launched in 1984. A Dichroic M i r r o r is an i n t e r f e r e n c e filter t h a t r e f l e c t s a specific part of the s p e c t r u m , t r a n s m i t t i n g t h e rest. It is used in scanners. A i r p o r t scanners in t h e UK will soon be able t o c a p t u r e naked images of travellers, even u n d e r n e a t h several layers of clothing. When desktop scanners w e r e first introduced, m a n y m a n u f a c t u r ers used f l u o r e s c e n t bulbs as light sources.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

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but now all are ' t h r e e c o l o u r ' RGB devices using separate photocells t o measure red. typically used as an i n t e r f a c e between image processing s o f t w a r e and a scanner or digital camera A f l a t b e d scanner is designed f o r scanning prints and o t h e r flat a r t w o r k . g r e e n and blue light.9 written over virtually an as of J a n u a r y 2 0 0 0 . The UPC s y m b o l set for b a r c o d e r e c o g n i t i o n is still used in t h e USA. on which t h e original is placed. 403. which were expensive and difficult t o o p e r a t e •a 5' The i n v e n t o r of t h e scanner is Robert S. The s t a n d a r d was a thousand times. 404. TWAIN is an image c a p t u r e API 405. In f i r s t released in 1992.Seagate (C 408. in and Apple Macintosh o p e r a t i n g general. ( A p p l i c a t i o n . and he was t h e f i r s t t o do medical imaging and t h r e e dimensional r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s . Before desktop scanners. source usually and the a CCD phoarray tosensitive •a 406. invented in 1973. Most have a glass bed or 'platen'. on t h e t o p of a box c o n t a i n i n g a light source and p h o t o sensitive receiver. a hard disk can be c u r r e n t l y r a t i f i e d at v e r s i o n 1. c o l o u r pre-press companies used d r u m 3 tu scanners. L a u r e r is scanner's important compoare the light device. a single row of photocells. Older scanners were o f t e n m o n o c h r o m e only. be re-written about systems. He was a p r o f e s s o r of physiology and biophysics and of radiology. considered t h e i n v e n t o r of t h e UPC or U n i f o r m P r o d u c t Code. __ A flatbed nents G e o r g e J . usually a CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) a r r a y or a CIS (Compact Image Sensor). Seagate Tech Factoid A Seagate cleanroom is 100 times cleaner than a typical hospital operating room [ D I G I T 73D . TWAIN is unlimited number of times.p r o g r a m Interface) for Microsoft Windows A CD-RW disk can. Ledley. and is contrast. w h o p a t e n t e d t h e whole-body CT ( c o m p u t e r i s e d t o m o g r a p h i c ) diagnostic X-ray scanner. 407.

The m o d e r n f i n g e r p r i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e . 1 9 5 2 . in J u n e 1974. 3 9 7 . an a u t o m a t e d scanning and s o r t i n g appliance w h i c h scanned printed material and c o m p a r e d each c h a r a c t e r t o a set of standards in a matrix. Possibly the first k n o w n example of biometrics in practice was a f o r m of finger p r i n t i n g being used in China in t h e 14th c e n t u r y . The f i r s t p a t e n t f o r t h e bar code . as r e p o r t e d by e x p l o r e r J o a o de Barros of Portugal. He developed a m e t h o d of m u l t i p l e body m e a s u r e m e n t s . . 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 394. In c o n t r a s t . t o r of t h e 'Reading Machine'. 3 9 8 . 4 0 1 . 6 1 2 . Ohio. 3 9 6 . an a n t h r o p o l ogist and police desk clerk in Paris named Alphonse Bertillon sought t o fix t h e HDCD is a new digital encoding/decodp r o b l e m of i d e n t i f y i n g ing process for CD/DVD recording c o n v i c t e d criminals and turned biometrics into a distinct field of study. J a c o b Rabinow was t h e invenu n l i m i t e d n u m b e r of t i m e s . in general. it was d e c i d e d t h a t a CD s h o u l d be long e n o u g h t o hold B e e t h o v e n ' s N i n t h S y m p h o n y at any t e m p o . .4 0 2 . • 74 . The d e p t h is t h e n calculated by measuring t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e ranged object at t h e i n s t a n t of c o n t a c t . which was developed by Richard Edward H e n r y of Scotland Yard.w r i t t e n about a t h o u s a n d t i m e s . 9 9 4 was issued t o i n v e n t o r s J o s e p h Woodland and Bernard Silver on October 7 .p r e c i s e l y 7 2 minutes. the 'Best Match Principle' t o d e t e r m i n e t h e original message.4001 A CD-RW disk can. essentially r e v e r t s t o t h e W h e n t h e CD w a s being i n v e n t e d . The first UPC scanner was installed at a Marsh's S u p e r m a r k e t in Troy. using f o r t h e f i r s t time. The simplest 3D scanners o f t e n use physical c o n t a c t using hinged arms. a hard disk can be w r i t t e n over v i r t u a l l y an 399. which got named a f t e r him-Bertillonage. be r e . In t h e 1890s.US Patent # 2 .

The Red Book is the 1980 d o c u m e n t that provides the specifications for t h e standard c o m p a c t disk developed by Sony and Philips. had 6 0 t i m e s the capacity of a 5 .r e a d . A f e m t o s e c o n d is one m i l l i o n t h of a nanosecond. e x t e n d e d a r c h i t e c t u r e ) is a m o d i f i c a t i o n of CD-ROM t h a t defines t w o new types of sectors t h a t enable it t o read and display data. The Yellow Book is t h e i n f o r m a l name for Philips and Sony's ECMA130 s t a n d a r d specification f o r c o m p a c t disk. developed The Eyedentification 7.5 personal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n unit. r e a d . in 1984. Enhanced CD (E-CD) is a c o m p a c t disk f o r m a t t h a t enables disks t o be played on either a CD player or a multimedia-capable device. video.o n l y . CD-ROM XA (Compact D i s k . 750 391. 3907 The Content Scrambling S y s t e m (CSS) is a data e n c r y p t i o n 3 8 9 . 3 8 7 . 3 8 4 . 3 8 8 . •2. EyeDentify.Seagate same m e t h o d s used by t h e Chinese for centuries. 3 8 3 . so t h a t t h e disk can be played on e i t h e r a CDplayer a t t a c h e d t o a TV or a CD-ROM XA drive a t t a c h e d t o a PC. A CD-Bridge Disc is a CD f o r m a t t h a t includes extra i n f o r m a t i o n on a CD-ROM XA track. i i m i .i n c h floppy disk. . a Belgian c o m p a n y f o u n d e d in 1976. 3 8 6 . It is a m e a s u r e m e n t s o m e t i m e s used in laser technology. developed by Philips. and audio at t h e same t i m e . 393. t h e f i r s t r e t i n a scan device made f o r c o m m e r c i a l use. The f i r s t optical data s t o r a g e disk. and a u t h e n t i c a t i o n m e t h o d used t o p r o t e c t digital versatile disk movies f r o m being illegally v i e w e d f r o m o t h e r devices. or 10"15 of a second. It was published in 1988. 2 5 . HDCD (High Definition C o m p a t i b l e Digital) is a digital e n c o d i n g and decoding process f o r CD and DVD audio recording. 5' 0) 3 OPTICAL STORAGE 3 ) 2 . The t i t l e of 'world's largest h a r d disk' would go to t h e W a v e l e n g t h Disk Drive Project by Canadian g r o u p CANARIE. The p r o j e c t aims at using n e t w o r k b a n d w i d t h t o s t o r e data. graphics.o n l y m e m o r y . 3 8 5 .m e m o r y (CD-ROM).

CD-ROM XA was developed j o i n t l y by Sony. This is possible by using t h e lead-oi t o store d a t a .t h e lead-out is used to indicate t h e end of t h e disk and contains n o t h i n g but zeroes. 3 8 1 . and Microsof and its specifications were published in an extension t o t h e Yello Book. ' O v e r b u r n i n g ' is t h e process of w r i t i n g beyond t h e official capacity of a CD-R or CD-RW. Philips. o> e o» m E • 76 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S .3 8 2 .

3 7 9 . . 3 7 8 . w h i c h may be perceived as u n f r i e n d l y or unwelcome. l a w " 77 • . is a unidirectional a n t e n n a c o m m o n l y used in c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w h e n a f r e q u e n c y is above 10 MHz. or breaking i n t o a c o m p u t e r system. 3 7 7 . 3 7 5 .3 8 0 . A Yagi antenna. Bluejacking is the practice of sending messages b e t w e e n mobile users using a B l u e t o o t h wireless c o n n e c t i o n . f o r a politically or socially m o t i v a t e d purpose. 3 7 6 . The popular phrase T h e quick b r o w n fox j u m p s over t h e lazy dog' was t h e first message sent b e t w e e n the Kremlin and t h e White house. ' c o c o o n i n g ' is t h e act of hiding oneself f r o m t h e n o r m a l social e n v i r o n m e n t . In c o m p u t e r j a r g o n . That phrase c o n t a i n s each of t h e letters of the alphabet at least once. also k n o w n as a Yagi-Uda a r r a y or simply a Yagi. Bluesnarfing is t h e t h e f t of i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection. A soft m o d e m is s o f t w a r e t h a t p e r f o r m s m o d e m f u n c t i o n s using t h e c o m p u t e r ' s CPU r a t h e r t h a n in m o d e m h a r d w a r e . when testing t h e h o t l i n e telex. 3 7 4 . Hacktivism is the act of hacking. Cloaking is the masking of t h e sender's name and address in an email note or d i s t r i b u t i o n .

but t o o k almost 10 years t o gain w i d e s p r e a d use. 1 8 8 0 . The first c o m m e r c i a l m o d e m was AT&T's Bell 103. frequency-shift keying or FSH 364. 3 6 8 . Donald Keck. Britain i m p l e m e n t e d its ' 9 9 9 ' emergency telephone system in 1937 The first 9 9 9 call r e p o r t e d a burglary. The '911' e m e r g e n c y t e l e p h o n e system was developed by AT&T ir t h e US as a public service. Hayes Corp. 3 6 9 . w h i c h t o d a y t r a n s p o r t o v e r eight percent of the w o r l d ' s telecommunications. T o u c h . and Peter Schultz. 365. p r o d u c e d t h e first m o d e m t h a t used t h e c o m m o n A' c o m m a n d set. > c o Nearly all of t h e m o r e t h a n 2 5 million kilometres of fibre-optic wir installed in t h e US t o d a y is based on t h e f i r s t " O p t i c a l Waveguid Fibers" designed by Corning Labs' Robert Maurer.t o n e service was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d c o m m e r c i a l l y in t h e US ir 1963. 3 7 0 .o p t i c wire which could c a r r y 6 5 . Modems In 1 9 7 0 . ( O o • 78 . t h e b u r g l a r was appre hended. 0 0 0 times m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n copper wire. a t e a m o f r e s e a r c h e r s the 371. were developed because < needs NAAD's data transmission at Corning Glass Works in New York made f i b r e optic c o m m u n i c a tions a reality. Bell t r a n s m i t t e d the first wireless t e l e p h o n e message on his n e w l y . 3 6 7 .. On J u n e 3 . m a n u f a c t u r e d i 1962. using f i b r e . The device allowec for the transmission of sound on a beam of light. It had full-duplex transmission.i n v e n t e d ' p h o t o p h o n e ' . Bell's p h o t o p h o n e is recognised as t h e p r e c u r s o r of m o d e r n fibre optics. Digital modems developed f r o m the need to t r a n s m i t data for Nort American Air Defence d u r i n g t h e 1950s. 366. |363.

The electric telegraph was born 1930 in the United States in 3 5 9 . Seagate Tech Factoid Seagate must keep the "wear r a t e " of its drives very low to guarantee eliability.000 rpm disk drive In a common server application. 0 0 0 . when researchers looked at crude mobile car phones and 3 6 0 . What does all this mean? If the tyres on a car were as robust as the disk overcoat on a Seagate drive.m i l e t e l e g r a p h line f r o m Washi n g t o n to Baltimore.t h a t ' s longer than four round-trip ourneys from the earth to the moon (each round trip is a mere 5 0 0 . only five years later. How low is very low? Over the typical five-year service life of a Seagate 10. The basic concept of cellular phones began in 1947. the best of which are made of material about 10 million times thicker than a disc's overcoat.Seagate and a speed of 3 0 0 bits per second or 3 0 0 bauds. the sliding distance of the head over the disk is more than two million miles . 0 0 0 .000 miles a /ear with these wonder wheels on your car. they should last one billion /ears before having to be changed. a c t i v a t e an e l e c t r o m a g n e t which caused a bell to strike. f r o m t h e old Supreme Court c h a m b e r in Washi n g t o n to Baltimore. 0 0 0 to c o n s t r u c t an exper imental 4 0 . 3 361. Tyres are made of essentially the same material as the overcoat (carbon) but most mechanics would agree that tyres become not reliable after only about 100. 1 8 4 4 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . Mow compare these numbers to car tyres.000 miles. 79d . o - . or 100 trillion miles. 0 0 0 miles or so). If you drove 10. The electric t e l e g r a p h was b o r n in 1830 when an A m e r i c a n named | J o s e p h Henry sent an e l e c t r o n i c c u r r e n t over one mile of w i r e to 2 . T h o u g h Samuel Morse gave a public d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t h e Morse Code in 1838. The message " W h a t h a t h God w r o u g h t ? " was t h e first official message sent in Morse Code on May 2 4 . t h a t ' s 1 0 0 . t h e Congress f u n d e d $ 3 0 . they should survive 1014 miles.

c o -C Q. the Federal C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Commission or FCC granted the frequency range of 4 7 .4 GHz f o r cordless phones. 3 5 6 . on J a n u a r y 16 and 17. 357. t h e Caribbean and sub-saharan Africa. By 1987. Bangkok.4 9 MHz for cordless phones. 1 9 9 6 . In 1986. It was t h e p r e c u r s o r of APNIC (Asia-Pacific N e t w o r k I n f o r m a t i o n Center). • 80 . 3 5 8 . digital spread s p e c t r u m .w i t h f r e q u e n c y reuse t h e y could increase the t r a f f i c capacity of mobile phones substantially. As of 2 0 0 3 . it took cellular phone service 37 years to become c o m m e r c i a l l y available in the United States. digital cordless phones. > •2 3 5 1 . — — — 1 —a 3 5 3 . t h e u p w a r d range was 5 . 355. were respectively i n t r o d u c e d . In 1998. However at t h a t t i m e . t h e US G o v e r n m e n t a p p o i n t e d a p r i v a t e organisation called I n t e r n e t C o r p o r a t i o n f o r Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) to oversee t h e opening of t h e Domain Name Registration s y s t e m t o o t h e r c o m p e t i n g companies. whose a u t h o r i t y it is t o m a n a g e t h e IP address space in use in N o r t h and South America. The A m e r i c a n Registry for Internet N u m b e r s (ARIN). In 1990. this became 9 0 0 MHz. The Domain Registry at t h e I n f o r m a t i o n Sciences I n s t i t u t e of the U n i v e r s i t y of S o u t h e r n California a d m i n i s t e r s t h e top-level domain '. c o (0 . APNIC was registered in Seychelles as non-profit international organisation. began o p e r a t i o n s on December 2 2 . Consumer d e m a n d quickly o u t s t r i p p e d the 1982 s y s t e m standards. In 1994. On April 3 0 . 8 g i g a h e r t z . t h e very first cordless phones w e r e i n t r o d u c e d .r a n g e of service a r e a . A Regional I n t e r n e t Registry (RIR) for the Asia Pacific region was originally p r o p o s e d at t h e APCCIRN (Asia-Pacific C o o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e for I n t e r n a t i o n a l Research N e t w o r k i n g ) m e e t i n g on 13 J a n u a r y 1993. 1 9 9 7 . The 1st APNIC m e e t i n g was held at C h e r a r o n k o n University.us'. t h e technology to do so was n o n e x i s t e n t . 1 3 5 0 . In t h e 1970s. 352. t h e FCC g r a n t e d the f r e q u e n c y range of 2.1995. cellular t e l e p h o n e subscribers exceeded one million and t h e airways w e r e c r o w d e d . Despite incredible d e m a n d .realized t h a t by using small c e l l s . 354. and in 1995. Thailand.2 <u In October 1998.

3 4 7 . The f i r s t c o m m e r c i a l m o d e m was t h e Dataphone f r o m AT&T. the most widely-used DSL s t a n d a r d in the US. 3 4 8 . can d o w n l o a d at speeds b e t w e e n 1. t h e y ' r e used mostly by ISPs. Of course. ADSL. fcanarar . 3G. s h o r t for " t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n " . refers to wireless t e c h n o l o g i e s designed for high-speed voice and data transmission. 3 4 6 . in 1960.5 and 9 Mbps.Seagate 3 4 9 . The fastest t y p e of i n t e r n e t c o n n e c t i o n is t h e T3. w h i c h can go up t o 4 4 Mbps. and can upload at speeds between 16 and 6 4 0 Kbps. It promises p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t ' s h u n d r e d s of times faster t h a n t o d a y ' s technology.

Citizens of N o r w a y can s u b m i t t h e i r tax f o r m s by SMS. Cell phones w e n t public in 1977. CDMA t e c h n o l o g y uses multiple channels s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Bell Labs conceived t h e idea of t h e cellular phone in 1947.m a i l and fax confessions are not secure enough. The Nokia 5160 series included an edition w i t h Disney characters Mickey. Michael Faraday's e x h a u s t i v e research i n t o w h e t h e r space could conduct e l e c t r i c i t y had an incalculable e f f e c t on cellular phone d e v e l o p m e n t . » i l . Dr. l » I I I ! I I M « . 344.3 4 5 . Minnie. 341. a dentist. J a p a n began t e s t i n g cellular phone services in 1979. Mahlon Loomis of Virginia. 340. when Chicago began public cell phone trials w i t h 2 0 0 0 c u s t o m e r s . Goofy and Donald. 338. It does this by assigning each user a code t h a t is used in t h e multiplexing of data. may have been t h e first person t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h r o u g h wireless via t h e a t m o s p h e r e . 342. Catholics in the Philippines are not allowed t o confess their sins via t e x t m e s s a g i n g because t h e Bishops f e e l t h a t e . 339. 343.

Nearly 4 5 countries. y o u can be f i n e d $ 3 8 0 a n d / o r face i m p r i s o n m e n t f o r t h r e e months. A s t h e f o r m e r GM f o r t h e S y s t e m s division at M o t o r o l a . ID 3 3 4 . Mobile phone r i n g t o n e s was t h e most searched-for t e c h n o l o g y t e r m in Yahool's annual survey. gets absorbed by t h e user's head. Multiple independent t e s t s have confirmed t h a t t h e r a d i a t i o n f r o m t h e e a r p i e c e of a c e l l p h o n e is up t o f o u r times that from the antenna. f o l l o w e d by digital c a m e r a s and mobile phones. 330. A large a m o u n t of t h e r a d i a t i o n e m i t t e d by a cell phone. O 3 IB VI 333. r> 01 O 3 O Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) t e c h n o l o g y was originally developed f o r m i l t a r y use in t h e late 1960s. The WHO says t h e r e is still no dangerous evidence t o prove t h a t cellular phones pose any h e a l t h risks. 329. including India. 336. Japanese t e l e c o m c a r r i e r NTT DoCoMo launched t h e w o r l d ' s f i r s t 3G mobile phone services in J a p a n in October 2001.Seagate 3 3 7 . 83 • . Or M a r t i n C o o p e r is c o n s i d e r e d t h e i n v e n t o r of the first portable handset. have banned t h e use of cell phones while driving. o o 3 3 335. but f u r t h e r research is needed. Studies c o n d u c t e d by NASA show t h a t the use of cell phones and other personal e l e c t r o n i c devices inside and in t h e vicinity of a i r c r a f t is potentially dangerous. A similar amount of radiation comes f r o m t h e keypad and t h e m o u t h D i e c e as w e l l Studies phone aircraft by NASA show is potentially that cellof usage in the vicinity 332. 31. he w a s t h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o m a k e a c a l l on a portable cellular phone. When cordless phones and t h e first analogue cellphones hit t h e m a r k e t . In Ireland. anybody w i t h a scanner t h a t o p e r a t e d at t h e right f r e q u e n c y could easily listen in on calls not i n t e n d e d f o r t h e m .

8 GHz f r e q u e n c y bands.4 GHz band is generally a delicensed band. specified as t h e 9 0 2 9 2 8 MHz band. c o m p a r e d t o a b o u t 5 0 percent of A m e r i c a n s . Cellphones o p e r a t e in t h e 9 0 0 MHz. The Chameleon Card is a p r o g r a m m a b l e card in d e v e l o p m e n t at Chameleon N e t w o r k t h a t can represent each of t h e o w n e r ' s credit. and c u s t o m e r cards as required.t o his colleagues at Vodafone in Britain. debit. Scientific and Medical (usage). and Wi-Fi and WiMax o p e r a t e on t h e 2 . which means that y o u do not have t o apply f o r a license f o r using devices on this band. which stands f o r I n s t r u m e n t a tion.m o r e t h a n 9 0 percent of Europeans o w n a cell phone. The 2. 325. 1 9 9 2 . Cellphones are m o r e popular in European and Asian countries t h a n t h e y are in t h e United S t a t e s . B l u e t o o t h uses t h e 2. t h e 2 4 0 0 .5 7 8 0 MHz band. so t h a t one doesn't c a r r y all of t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d . 1800 MHz and 1 9 0 0 MHz bands.4 GHz band.2 4 8 3 MHz band and t h e 5 7 2 5 . On December 3 . 3 2 6 . an engineer named Neil Papworth sent the first SMS-"MERRY CHRISTMA S " .3 2 7 . 323. The 2. The WHO is researching posed by cellphone the risks usage <u c o o u <0 o E E o o • 84 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . 4 GHz and 5. 3 2 2 .4 GHz band comes under t h e so-called ISM band. 3 2 4 .

319. 320. On November 2 2 . The m a t c h lasted 9 m o n t h s and was w o n by t h e Soviet c o m p u t e r . Today.c o m p u t e r championship was held in New York and w o n by CHESS 3 . 0 (CDC 6 4 0 0 ) . 317. Nintendo's release in 1983 of t h e Famicom. 316. was as p o w e r . A t k i n and Gorlen at N o r t h w e s t e r n University. 318. released in 1982.f u l as t h e most p o w e r f u l PCs at t h a t t i m e . m a r k e d t h e second age of h o m e video games and the s t a r t of Nintendo's dominance in t h e g a m i n g w o r l d .M c C a r t h y MIT chess p r o g r a m .p u b l i s h e r s of t h e f a m o u s Unreal game series.m e t r e long waveguide. In 1970. a p r o g r a m w r i t t e n by Slate. Nolan Bushnell originally named his company 'Syzygy'. 1 9 6 6 . . w h i c h is 14" wide. this c o m p a n y is known as A t a r i . houses a o n e . The Bose Wave radio. t h e first a l l .Seagate ^ 321. The Coleco C o l e c o v i s i o n c o n s o l e . a USSR chess p r o g r a m m e began a correspondence m a t c h w i t h t h e K o t o k . in J a p a n .

It • 86 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . Did you know t h a t Sega released Sonic t h e Hedgehog in 1991 as a direct response t o Nintendo's Super NES g a m i n g s y s t e m ? In 1962. He was assisted by J o h n McCarthy of Stanford. 3 1 4 . 0 0 0 instructions per second and used 7 0 K of m e m o r y . known as t h e f a t h e r of t h e video cassette recorder. and established it as an inde pendent c o m p a n y c h r i s t e n e d ' P i x a r ' . Alan Kotok w r o t e t h e first MIT chess p r o g r a m f o r his B. I In 1951. led a research t e a m at Ampex C o r p o r a t i o n in developing the first practical v i d e o t a p e recorder. In 1952. It was t h e first ' p r o p e r ' chess playing p r o g r a m . this-it 3 0 6 . 3 0 4 . w h o w r o t e t h e f i r s t c o m p i l e r . thesis project. In 1986. The Sega Genesis. 3 0 9 . 310. Charles Ginsburg. mathematician Alan Turing wrote the first chess program. In 1950. one o u t of e v e r y f o u r households in t h e United States had a PlayStation. 3 0 5 . which could do 4 2 . A t a r i released its VCS (Video C o m p u t e r System). Alick Glennie. released as MegaDrive in J a p a n in 1988. 311. 307. 313. The still video or digital c a m e r a was first d e m o n s t r a t e d in 1981.S.3 1 5 .b i t video console and r e v o l u t i o n i s e d t h e h o m e video game m a r k e t . He was t h e first person t o beat a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m at chess. also called t h e The first VCR didn't look like 2 6 0 0 . The first VCR (Video Cassette Recorder) was made in 1956 and was t h e size of a piano. In 1977. Alex Bernstein w r o t e a chess p r o g r a m in 1957 for an IBM 7 0 4 . It was t h e f i r s t A t a r i was the size of a piano! 8 . A c c o r d i n g t o a s u r v e y in May 2 0 0 0 . 3 0 8 . Steve J o b s purchased t h e c o m p u t e r graphics division of Lucas Films L t d for $10 million. m a r k e d Sega's e n t r y into t h e video game m a r k e t . T u r b o C h a m p . d e f e a t e d Alan Turing's chess p r o g r a m .

The first c o m m e r c i a l blank videotape was o f f e r e d by 3M Corp.Seagate (L used a f a s t . 1956. The mass p r o d u c t i o n of c o m p a c t audio cassettes began in 1965 in Hanover. including WipeOut and D e s t r u c t i o n Derby. 'Watchman'. 3 . Sony's first f o r a y i n t o t h e audio cassettes began in 1965 3 0 0 . as did c o m m e r c i a l sales of p r e . and 8 r e c o r d e d on it up t o 5 0 images f o r m e d in a solid-state device in t h e 3 camera. 'Walkman'. and is responsible f o r some of the PlayStation's best games. 2 9 5 . Masaru Ibuka and Kozo Ohsone i n v e n t e d t h e p o r t a b l e 'Sony Walkman' audio cassette player.Q < D 3 01 3' 3 301. 2 9 6 .r o t a t i n g m a g n e t i c disc t w o inches in d i a m e t e r . Sony's name takes f r o m t h e Latin w o r d 'sonus'. broadcast on CBS on N o v e m b e r 30. The first v i d e o t a p e d m a t e r i a l on a TV show was "Douglas Edwards and t h e News". t h e y a l w a y s play t h e s a m e t u n e at t h e e n d of t h e 87D 2 9 4 . 2 9 8 . m e a n i n g sound. and t h e English w o r d 'sunny'. a relatively u n k n o w n European devel oper. j | | J | | . in 1957. 2 9 9 . w h e n it e m b a r k e d on a deal w i t h Nintendo to develop a CD-ROM drive for t h e Super NES. Germany. Sony acquired Psygnosis. In 1963. and 'Discman' are Sony trademarks. 'Pressman'. 3 0 3 . It was released in 1979. Philips d e m o n s t r a t e d its first 'Compact A u d i o Cassette 1 using BASF 1/8-inch tape.r e c o r d e d music cassettes. 2 9 7 . Akio Morita. for $ 4 8 million. 302. It was priced at $ 3 0 7 per reel. This was later renamed Sony. It was r e n a m e d Sony I n t e r a c t i v e E n t e r t a i n ment. g a m i n g market was in 1988. known as musicassettes. Akio Morita along w i t h Masaru Ibuka f o u n d e d t h e T o k y o Tele c o m m u n i c a t i o n s Engineering C o r p o r a t i o n in 1946. W h e n H e w l e t t P a c k a r d ' s c o m p u t e r d i v i s i o n e x h i b i t s at t r a d e shows.

and m a n u f a c t u r e d in Tijuana.G r a e m e Fergu son. On August 6 .t h e p o p u l a r h y m n A m a z i n g Grace. CD sales surpassed LP sales for t h e f i r s t t i m e . 2 9 0 . 2 8 9 . 2 0 0 0 . was sold on 2 8 7 .com was f o u n d e d by Michael Robertson w i t h 3 . HBO began HDTV satellite m o v i e broadcasts. which would use t h e same laser t e c h n o l o g y as t h e audio CD. 2004. a film by Stefan Avalos and Lance Weiler. It was a 56-inch Panasonic set t h a t was developed at t h e c o m p a n y ' s research and d e v e l o p m e n t c e n t r e in San Diego. Disney released Fantasia 2 0 0 0 in the IMAX film f o r m a t w i t h 6-channel digital sound on J a n u a r y 1. The first HD card radio January 5. 285. 284. co-sponsored by Texas I n s t r u m e n t s using its DLP digital cinema p r o j e c t o r . In the next 12 m o n t h s . c 286. The first HD car radio was sold on J a n u a r y 5. d e b u t e d a t h e Reuben H FleetSpace T h e a t r e in San Diego. E o u • 8 8 . Iowa. r a t h e r t h a n t h e c u m b e r some multiple p r o j e c t o r s used at t h e time. Roman K r o i t o r and Robert Kerr-decided to design a new s y s t e m using a single. 1 9 9 9 . t h e n called t h e Omnimax. 2 9 1 . The IMAX s y s t e m has its roots in t h e EXPO ' 6 7 in Montreal. in 1973. San Diego's MP3. 4 9 9 t o t h e public in San Diego. p r e m i e r e d as " t h e first desktop f e a t u r e f i l m " . In 1998. 0 0 0 songs available for f r e e d o w n l o a d . California. p o w e r f u l projector. t h e f i r s t HDTV set went on sale f o r $ 5 . 2 8 8 . In 1985. A small g r o u p of Canadian f i l m m a k e r s and e n t r e p r e n e u r s . The Last B r o a d c a s t . leaving the CD and the audio cassette as the t w o d o m i n a n t c o n s u m e r f o r m a t s . In November 1997. In 1988. 2 9 2 . From March 6 . 1 9 9 8 . Sony and Philips produced t h e s t a n d a r d f o r CD-ROM disks. produced and exhibited digitally. 2 9 3 . s t a r t i n g w i t h "US Marshals" at 8 pm. The IMAX dome. 10 0 1 T E C H F A C T S J <D c "(0 e <D A-* c IV cr c 3 Q. it became the #1 music site on t h e I n t e r n e t w i t h 3 million hits m o n t h l y . 2 0 0 4 in Cedar Rapids.s h o w in t h e i r b o o t h .

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2 8 3 . DVD players were i n t r o d u c e d in J a p a n in 1996 and later in t h e US o o 3 in 1997. •a By 2 0 0 3 , in t h e US, DVD rentals increased 51.2% and VHS rentals d r o p p e d 2 9 % f r o m the previous year; DVD sales increased 4 2 . 2 % t o $12.1 billion, and VHS sales d r o p p e d 3 4 . 8 % t o $2.4 billion, according to Video Store Magazine. 2 8 0 .

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Dick Tracy, released J u n e 15, 1990 was the first 3 5 m m f e a t u r e film d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h a digital soundtrack by Cinema Digital Sound (CDS), developed by East man Kodak and Optical Radiation Corp. In t h e s t o p - m o t i o n kind of a n i m a t i o n , one must m o v e each joint of each character f o r e v e r y f r a m e , which means y o u need to stop the camera and m o v e a n y t h i n g t h a t is moving for e v e r y f r a m e . The biggest drawback of this kind of a n i m a t i o n is t h a t it is v e r y t i m e consuming. The longest example of stopm o t i o n a n i m a t i o n was The N i g h t m a r e Before Christmas, d i r e c t e d by Henry Selick. This movie lasted for 7 4 minutes, w h i c h required a t o t a l of 1 0 6 , 5 6 0 frames! Each of these had t o be filmed individually. The characters in t h e m o v i e were puppets made of f o a m rubber. Producing t h e e n t i r e movie required a t o t a l of 3 0 0 puppets for the 7 4 roles.
Tron r e l e a s e d in In 1993, Jurassic Park released on May 3 0 as t h e f i r s t f i l m w i t h DTS sound, developed by T e r r y Beard, f o u n d e r of Digital T h e a t r e Systems in Westalke Village, CA, partly o w n e d by Steven Spielberg and Universal Pictures. This digital sound f i l m f o r m a t records six tracks on s e p a r a t e CD-ROM disks, s y n c h r o n i s e d by an optical t i m e code t r a c k r e c o r d e d on t h e film, co-existing w i t h a backup optical s o u n d t r a c k similar t o Dolby Stereo.

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MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) develops s t a n d a r d s for digi tal video and digital audio compression. It o p e r a t e s under t h e auspices of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Organisation f o r S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n (ISO). _ _ In 1995, amidst g r e a t f a n f a r e , Pixar A n i m a t i o n Studios and Disney released t h e f i r s t f u l l - l e n g t h c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d film, Toy Story. Toy Story d i r e c t o r J o h n Lasseter had w o n an a c a d e m y a w a r d for a previous c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d short film, Tin Toy. The sci-fi flick Gog (1954), in which a nuclear 'brain' takes over a secret laboratory, was the first film to feature a c o m p u t e r as the main character in a movie. The first true digital camera for the consumer was introduced to t h e world in 1990. It was the Dycam Model I, and it produced black and white photos at a resolution of 3 2 0 x 2 4 0 pixels. The camera was capable of storing 32 compressed images on 1MB of built-in RAM. The images could be downloaded, using a cable, t o a PC or a Mac. The world's first portable video recording system, t h e D V - 2 4 0 0 Video Rover, was launched by Sony in 1967. It filmed in B&W only, and required a separate unit for playback.
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In the late 1980s, Sony introduced their professional ProMavica M V C - 5 0 0 0 . Mavica was short for "magnetic video cam", and that's really what it was. It was a professional level digital camcorder that had the ability to take freeze-frame pictures, and not a still digital camera. In 1992, Sharp, in its quest to make filming easier, introduced the first colour LCD screen, so videographers could see the display on a screen, w i t h o u t having to squint t h r o u g h a viewfinder. Today, this is a standard f e a t u r e on all camcorders. Phillips developed the first wearable CD player. It was manufactured attached to a jacket, in 2003.
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Tetris has sold o v e r 4 0 million copies worldwide, since it began in 1982. That comes t o $ 8 0 0 million in revenues! The first all-computer c h a m p i o n s h i p was held in New York in 1970, and was w o n by CHESS 3 . 0 - a p r o g r a m w r i t t e n by Slate, Atkin and Gorlen at N o r t h w e s t e r n University, Illinois. In Spring 1967, MacHACK VI became t h e f i r s t chess p r o g r a m t o beat a human, at t h e Massachussets State Chess Championship. The Sega Dreamcast, released in 1999, was t h e f i r s t console game machine to sport a 128-bit a r c h i t e c t u r e .

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On 2 2 n d November, 1966, a USSR chess p r o g r a m m e began a correspondence m a t c h w i t h t h e K o t o k - M c C a r t h y MIT chess p r o g r a m . The m a t c h lasted 9 m o n t h s and was won by t h e Soviet c o m p u t e r , w i t h 3 wins and 1 loss. Sega released Sonic t h e Hedgehog in 1991 as a d i r e c t response to Nintendo's Super NES g a m i n g system.

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In 1968, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Master David Levy made a $ 3 , 0 0 0 bet w i t h J o h n McCarthy, r e s e a r c h e r in Artificial Intelligence at S t a n f o r d University, t h a t no chess c o m p u t e r would beat him in 10 years. He w o n his bet!

D I G I T

In 1988. The first c o m p u t e r book t o sell one million copies was 101 BASIC Computer Games. T h e g a m e w a s r e l e a s e d in 1 9 7 7 . t h e f i r s t c o m m e r c i a l home game s y s t e m was launched t h e Magnavox Odyssey.o l d R o m a n i a n boy c o l l a p s e d and was 251.C o u n t e r S t r i k e . . was t h e f i r s t t o challenge Nintendo's monopoly. The console. w i t h its 16bit processor. In 1972. by Magnavox. Sega e n t e r e d t h e video g a m e m a r k e t w i t h Genesis. 2 5 2 . A t a r i Football became the first arcade g a m e t o use a track ball. 2 5 4 . It was called Net Yaroze.2 6 0 . A matte black version The first s o f t w a r e t o be PlayStation i m p o r t e d f r o m t h e Soviet Union to t h e US was Tetris. which was called MegaDrive in Japan. It was published in the US by Creative Computing in 1978. a 1 4 . 259. in t h e US. 2 5 8 .y e a r . The Mattel Intellivision was released in 1980. i/) < D E m w In 2 0 0 3 . Sony released a m a t t e black version of its P l a y S t a t i o n in 1997. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S • 9 2 . and was t h e f i r s t 16-bit h o m e g a m e console. which enabled p r o g r a m m e r s t o c r e a t e t h e i r o w n video games in the C p r o g r a m m i n g language. In 1978. hospi t a l i s e d b e c a u s e he'd been p l a y i n g a c o m p u t e r g a m e . 253. The first 32-bit h o m e video game s y s t e m was t h e Panasonic 3 D 0 released in 1993. developed in 1985 by Alexey Pazhitnov. of the Sony 2 5 6 . 2 5 7 . 2 5 5 . The f i r s t a r c a d e v i d e o game t h a t used vector g r a p h i c s i n s t e a d of a r a s t e r d i s p l a y w a s Space Wars.f o r nine d a y s in a r o w .

was named after Nintendo's landlord. Deep Thought and Grandmaster Tony Miles shared first place in the US Open chess championship. Mario. is also the year the great crash of the video game market occurred. Deep Blue's chess playing p r o g r a m is w r i t t e n in C and runs under the AIX operating system. one of the best known video game characters. Playstation 2 hit the shelves in Japan on March 4. William Higginbotham created what might have been the first video game. His game. made famous by George Orwell. — n > VI 2 4 9 . the first commercial video game console that could be used in the home. a clip in which Jesus Christ and Santa Claus get into fistfight over the t r u e meaning of Christmas. 2 4 2 . Designed by Ralph Baer. 0 0 0 units in four hours. called 'Tennis for Two'. was released by Magnavox in 1972.1980. It is capable of evaluating 10 crore positions per second. was characters created and played on a Brookhaven National L a b o r a t o r y oscilloscope. The year 1984. 244. .Seagate 2 5 0 . 2 4 3 . the Odyssey. On June 17. Did you know that an estimated 1 lakh copies of the PlayStation game Tiger Woods 9 9 were recalled after The Spirit of Christmas. 2 4 8 . was discovered in a hidden file on the CD-ROM? The recall was necessitated due to the fact that the clip was unauthorised and was full of expletives. in 1958. 2 4 6 . 2 4 5 . Atari's 'Asteroids' and 'Lunar Lander' were the first two video games to ever be registered in the Copyright Office. and sold 9 8 . 2 0 0 0 . In 1988. 2 4 7 .

Gunpei Yokoi was t h e c r e a t o r of t h e Game Boy and V i r t u a l Boy. which was p r e v i o u s l y t h e arcade game Donkey Kong. . The most expensive game ever developed was ShenMue for Sega Dreamcast. meaning " t o m u n c h " . 2 3 9 . PacMan got its name f r o m t h e Japanese w o r d " p a c u " . He w o r k e d on Famicom. its name was changed to " P a c M a n " . Game Boy Pocket. guided by Gunpei Yokoi. In 1981. 234. Nin-ten-do. p r o g r a m m e d on t h e EDSAC vacuumt u b e c o m p u t e r . In 1952.2 4 0 . which made special playing cards called Hanafunda ( " f l o w e r cards"). which had a cathode ray t u b e display. These characters can be t r a n s l a t e d into " H e a v e n blesses hard w o r k " . Fusajiro Yamauchi. 2 3 8 . 237. 235. Shigeru M i y a m o t o . only w i t h a 'p' sound. The w o r d N i n t e n d o is c o m p o s e d of t h r e e J a p a n e s e Kanji characters. t h e Metroid series. A S Douglas Microsoft's Flight Simulator was the c r e a t e d t h e f i r s t graphical bestselling PC game of all time c o m p u t e r game. f o u n d e d N i n t e n d o Koppai. It was a version of Tic-Tac-Toe. and did extensive w o r k on t h e s y s t e m we know t o d a y as t h e Nintendo E n t e r t a i n m e n t System. It cost $ 2 0 million. Nintendo s t a r t e d its e n t e r p r i s e in 1889.g r a n d f a t h e r of the c u r r e n t Nintendo president. Since " p a c u " is p r o n o u n c e d t h e same as " f — y o u " . w h e n t h e g r e a t . made the first game f o r Nintendo s t a r r i n g Mario.

0 0 0 w o r d s w i t h o u t t h e f i n g e r s reaching out t o t h e other rows. Mice first broke o n t o t h e public stage w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Apple Macintosh in 1984. R. Everytime a mouse moves or t h e user clicks a b u t t o n .Seagate (C 2 3 3 . n a m e d a f t e r Dr A u g u s t Dvorak. This allows y o u t o w r i t e over 3 . 2 2 7 . G. New York. p r o d u c e d by g u n m a k e r s E Remington & Sons in llinois. only about 5 0 w o r d s can be t y p e d on a QWERTY k e y b o a r d w i t h o u t reaching o u t t o t h e middle or home row. Stibitz d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e Model 1 228. have nine of t h e most used letters in t h e middle row of the keyboard. t h e mouse sends t h r e e bytes of data t o t h e c o m p u t e r it's a t t a c h e d to. The first i n f r a r e d wireless k e y b o a r d for M i c r o s o f t ' s WebTV set-top box was m a n u f a c t u r e d by Sejin Electron Inc in Korea. In September of 1940. 2 3 0 . 231. 2 2 9 . In c o n t r a s t . The QWERTY k e y b o a r d was present on t h e v e r y f i r s t t y p e w r i t e r called the 'Sholes & Glidden Type Writer'. 2 3 2 . [ D I G I T 95D . The QWERTY k e y b o a r d layout is 129 years old! Dvorak keyboards.

changing size. f o r t h e first t i m e . the RAND tablet. p r i m a r i l y 1984 by t h e Military and DARPA. A m i t Teitelman. and using c o n s t r a i n t s . which. w h e r e visible objects on t h e screen are d i r e c t l y m a n i p u l a t e d w i t h a pointing d e v i c e . was f u n d e d by ARPA. It wasn't until t h e early 1980s t h a t the t e c h n o l o g y reached the commercial market. developed t h e first trainable g e s t u r e recogniser. A v e r y early d e m o n s t r a t i o n of g e s t u r e 225. G o v e r n m e n t . including g r a b b i n g objects. utilised input f r o m a t e l e t y p e k e y b o a r d or paper tape and p r e s e n t e d o u t p u t on t h e m as well. Research o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s A u t o m a t i c Speech Recognition and T r a n s c r i p t i o n technologies began in 1936 at AT&T's Bell Labs. The now u b i q u i t o u s direct m a n i p u l a t i o n i n t e r f a c e . 0 > U 10 224. some t h i n g t h a t w o u l d not be duplicated for a n o t h e r decade. Later.which was his 1963 MIT PhD thesis. The s y s t e m was built at Lincoln Labs w i t h s u p p o r t f r o m the Air Force and NSF. The QWERTY 129 years old keyboard layout is • 96 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . This d e m o n s t r a t i o n was additionally unique in t h a t it was accomplished in r e m o t e fashion over t e l e p h o n e lines. m o v i n g t h e m . SketchPad s u p p o r t e d t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n of objects using a light pen.w a s f i r s t d e m o n s t r a t e d by Ivan S u t h e r l a n d in SketchPad. 226. in 1964.c o m p u t i n g device. At t h a t t i m e . most • • • • H I research was f u n d e d and The mouse became popular when p e r f o r m e d by Universities and Apple Macintosh was launched in t h e U. The first pen-based input device.l i k e w i t h a mouse or a light p e n .S.

The 'Lincoln Wand' by L a r r y Roberts was an ultrasonic 3D location sensing system. 3 a a 5 01 o < D [ D I G I T 97D . The first 3-D s y s t e m was p r o b a b l y T i m o t h y J o h n s o n ' s 3-D CAD system. as one of t h e chief designers of t h e Xerox Star. developed at Lincoln Labs in 1966. 2 2 3 . S m i t h later popularised icons. « (Jn .Seagate (C r e c o g n i t i o n was T o m Ellis' GRAIL system on t h e RAND tablet. g 3 TS o 221. in 1963. f u n d e d by ARPA and NIMH. — 2 2 2 . An early use was f o r m o l e c u l a r modelling. David Canfield S m i t h coined t h e t e r m ' i c o n ' i n his 1975 S t a n f o r d PhD thesis on Pygmalion.

' P r o j e c t B a n j a r a ' was t h e c o d e n a m e g i v e n by t o its d e v e l o p m e n t of J U M P (Java User M i g r a t i o n Path). 215. 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . 217. a p r o g r a m . f o r t h e video Deep Forest. T i t a n i u m is t h e name of a popular laptop c o m p u t e r f r o m It's called so because it's encased in t i t a n i u m . 219. o The first Indian s o f t w a r e e n t e r p r i s e to c r e a t e a video t h a t went on t o win a G r a m m y was Bangalore-based 'Thinking Pictures'. The 'Quiet zone' is t h e blank m a r g i n on e i t h e r side of a bar code t h a t is used t o tell t h e barcode reader w h e r e a barcode's symbology starts and stops. To 'quiesce' is t o put a c o m p u t e r . 216. In graphic design. OXGA ( Q u a n t u m Extended Graphics A r r a y ) is a display specificat i o n capable of s u p p o r i n g a r e s o l u t i o n of 2 0 4 8 x 1536. or s o m e o t h e r c o m p u t e r r e s o u r c e i n t o a t e m p o r a r i l y i n a c t i v e or inhibited state.220. Microsoft 218. a t h r e a d . t o ' f e a t h e r ' is to s o f t e n an edge of an image by m a k i n g t h e edge gradually fade o u t until it becomes transparent. The project was e x e c u t e d at Hyderabad. 10 3 o I <v VI 214. Apple.

A car named Fingo was in t h e news when it w e n t a r o u n d t h e world. like a Plug and Play device. PERL. but not for cars. 210. who. 'Worm' was coined by writer John Brunner in 1975 for selfreplicating malicious programs. the p r o g r a m m i n g language. It was once f e a r e d t h a t on September 9 . It was d e v e l o p e d by Fernando Lopez and Osvaldo Malvestitti of A r g e n t i n a . Despite having radios and e-mail. In t h e IT world. 2 0 9 . Mobile service p r o v i d e r Orange had bought Ananova. D I G I T 99D . c o m p u t e r s would shut down because p r o g r a m m e r s o f t e n use a series of nines as a code t o shut d o w n systems. 'Nerd' was coined in 1950 by Dr Seuss in the book 'If I Ran the Zoo'. i/i o 01 3 m o 211. A special parallel-processing c o m p u t e r called ' B e o w u l f was used f o r t h e special e f f e c t s in t h e multiOscar-winning m o v i e Titanic. 2 0 7 . f o r 9 5 million pounds. was c r e a t e d by L a r r y Wall w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of re-humanising c o m p u t i n g technology. They had developed t h e p r o g r a m m a b l e pacemaker for the h u m a n heart. 212. 2 0 6 . f r o m Digital A n i m a tions Group based in Bellshill near Glasgow. 1 9 9 9 .213. a 'PnP r e c r u i t ' means an e m p l o y e e . can i m m e d i a t e l y be p r o d u c t i v e t o t h e c o m p a n y because of his skills and knowledge. orange Orange bought Ananova for 95 million pounds 2 0 5 . t h e Orissa state police force uses 7 0 0 'pigeon police' t o s h u t t l e messages b e t w e e n distant stations. because it was r e m o t e c o n t r o l l e d and had no steering wheel. 2 0 8 . t h e virtual newscaster. Fiat claimed t h a t it had made one of the most p o w e r f u l engines.

201. to stand for 'Mouse-Activated Computer'. the 'Annie' awards. Loudspeakers were also invented t h e same year.2 0 3 . The NEC Turbografx-16. and Edward Bennett of Prodigy w r o t e and signed a letter to Microsoft CEO Bill Gates. :i((§|P' 1 n 196. 202. released in J a p a n in 1988 as t h e PCEngine. V a l d e m a r Poulsen invented the f i r s t m a g n e t i c recordings. • 100 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . using m a g n e t i s e d steel tape as t h e r e c o r d i n g medium. In 1994.t h e f i r s t r a d i o signal across the Atlantic. In 1899. 2 0 0 . It f e a t u r e d a n i m a t e d Polar Bears. urging him t o un-bundle t h e M i c r o s o f t N e t w o r k (MSN) f r o m Windows 95. went for the first t i m e t o a c o m p u t e r generated animated commercial done for Coca Cola. The original Apple C o m p u t e r logo p i c t u r e d Sir Isaac Newton. Bob Massey of CompuServe. 198. Steve Case of AOL. W T . called t h e 520ST. V % on the logo orig- Newton was pictured Computer ) ik inal Apple In 1 9 0 2 . In J u l y 1995.b i t public key and o f f e r e d $100 to anyone w h o could d e c r y p t t h e message. The message was d e c r y p t e d in 1994. Atari's c o m p u t e r . 199. In 1977. was t h e first s y s t e m to have a CD player a t t a c h m e n t . Apple had once planned t o s h o r t e n t h e n a m e of t h e Macintosh computer to simply 'Mac'. was d u b b e d 'Jackintosh' after Atari owner Jack Tramiel. G u g l i e l m o M a r c o n i t r a n s m i t t e d r a d i o s i g n a l s 195. f r o m C o r n w a l l t o N e w f o u n d l a n d . using parallel c o m p u t i n g resources. given each year f o r t h e best a n i m a t e d c o m m e r c i a l s . the c r e a t o r s of t h e RSA129 e n c r y p t i o n scheme e n c r y p t e d a message w i t h a 4 3 0 .

SWF/LFM-926 was t h e first c o m p u t e r virus t o use Macromedia's Shockwave Flash files t o t r a n s m i t itself w h e n a v i c t i m ran t h e Flash movie. t h e average A m e r i c a n depends on m o r e t h a n 2 5 0 c o m p u t e r s per day. by Michelle Weil and Larry Rosen. and was built by Swiss company Staubli Unimation. Number t w o is g a m i n g . From t h e smallest m i c r o p r o c e s s o r t o t h e largest of m a i n f r a m e s . 1 9 2 . 189. in to 5T to o 3 1 9 3 . it c l a i m s . Did y o u know t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t to have a bar code on its package was Wrigleys c h e w i n g g u m ? More t h a n 3 0 0 t e c h n i c a l s t a f f e r s g a t h e r e d at M i c r o s o f t ' s head The first product to use a barq u a r t e r s on New Year's Eve of code was Wrigleys chewing gum 2 0 0 0 . 1 8 7 .Seagate (C 194. In the 1997 book 'TechnoStress'. [ D I G I T 101D . 1 8 6 . MetaCreations' Fractal Design Painter. 191. a s y n d r o m e called 'technosis'. N o t h i n g happened. it's m e n t i o n e d t h a t some people b e c o m e so i m m e r s e d in t e c h n o l o g y t h a t t h e y risk losing t h e i r o w n ident i t y . expecting s o m e t h i n g t o go w r o n g as t h e new m i l l e n n i u m dawned. c a n r e p e l m o s g u i t o e s . 190. It is the most c o m m o n l y used robot for assembly lines and u n i v e r s i t y laboratories. Puma ( P r o g r a m m a b l e Universal Machine f o r A s s e m b l y ) was designed by Vic S c h i e n m a n in t h e 1970s. Using v i r t u a l reality h e a d s e t s is k n o w n t o r e s u l t in a h e a l t h d i s o r d e r called binocular dysphoria. a graphics s o f t w a r e . 1 8 8 . is pac aged in a paint can! S o u t h K o r e a ' s SK T e l e c o m o f f e r s an i n a u d i b l e r i n g t o n e t o i t s c u s t o m e r s w h i c h . The n u m b e r one use f o r home c o m p u t e r s is w o r d processing.

designed 1997 in 1 7 6 . 182. 1915. Dr. or A d o b e Systems Incorporated.a red. 1 7 9 . AT&T Bell Labs was t h e first c o m p a n y to t r a n s m i t h u m a n voice across t h e A t l a n t i c on 2 5 t h J a n u a r y . was designed. Seymour Papert. weighing 130 kg. 181. and a green one. In 1986. a blue. 177. 178. 'Convergence' refers to how sharply an individual color pixel on a monitor appears. in 1968. It r e v o l u t i o n i s e d t h e communications industry. 180. Adobe. It was named ' H u m a n o i d P3'.'Booting' y o u r c o m p u t e r means s t a r t i n g it up. C o r n i n g Glass i n v e n t e d t h e O p t i c a l F i b r e in 1 9 7 0 . In 1971. . t h r e e d o t s . but did y o u know t h a t t h e w o r d comes f r o m 'pulling yourself up by y o u r bootstraps'? 183. It unites e n t e r p r i s e application i n t e g r a t i o n (EAI) and business-to-business (B2B) i n t e g r a t i o n in a single product. The Biztalk Server is a Microsoft product. created t h e Logo language. Ken T h o m p s o n designed t h e 'B' language for c o m p u t e r s t h a t were s w i t c h e d t o C in t h e early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie. 175. after Microsoft. aimed at teaching p r o g r a m m i n g to schoolchildren. H e a r s a y . is t h e second-largest PC s o f t w a r e c o m p a n y in the world. • 102 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . t h e f i r s t s p e e c h r e c o g n i t i o n s o f t w a r e . w a s d e v e l o p e d in India. Each pixel is composed of Humanoid September P3. as GE a n d A T & T began testing the transference of s o u n d a n d i m a g e d a t a t h r o u g h these fibres. Honda c o m m e n c e d the h u m a n o i d research p r o g r a m . It was in S e p t e m b e r 1997 t h a t a r o b o t .

Beijing and Hong Kong. The s y m b o l has no particular designation. M o s c o w . for example. w h i l e half of all I n t e r n e t u s e r s were native English speakers. The Bell Telephone C o m p a n y set up by Alexander Graham Bell in 1877 has m o r p h e d over t h e years into t o d a y ' s AT&T. s t a r t e d in New York and quickly f o r m e d in cities w o r l d w i d e . who is a Republican. (/i o <0 172.Seagate (C 74. Project Chicago was t h e code name for Windows 9 5 . "To get a m a z o n n e d " means t h a t one has lost a significant p o r t i o n of one's business t o a dotcom enterprise. with each one c o n n e c t e d t o t w o others. w e b s i t e s w e r e in E n g l i s h . consisting of a n e t w o r k e d ring w i t h connections in Chicago. A s of t h e y e a r 2 0 0 0 . " A u d i o m i n i n g " is t h e t e r m used to refer t o e x t r a c t i n g data f r o m audio recordings. 9 6 per c e n t of all e . t h e bus and t h e star are ways in w h i c h c o m p u t e r s are a r r a n g e d in a LAN. [ D I G I T 103D . a l t h o u g h i t is o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as t h e ' c o m m e r c i a l a'. 169. Garret Gruener. 1 6 7 . was a Democratic candidate in t h e f a m o u s recall election of California involving Arnold Schwarzenegger. L i t t l e GLORIAD (Global Ring N e t w o r k f o r Advanced A p p l i c a i ' development) started operations.f o u n d e r of AskJeeves. 7 3 . organised over t h e 'Net. t h e c o m p u t e r s are c o n n e c t e d in a ring-like fashion. In a ring. The process uses speech recognition techniques. In December 2 0 0 3 . c o . 1 6 6 . Graham stration Bell giving of his a demon- invention 170. The ring.com. A m s t e r d a m . 168. flash mobs. 171.c o m m e r c e 165. In 2 0 0 3 .

A c c o r d i n g to t h e book 'The Cuckoo's Egg' by Clif f o r d Stoll. " T r e e w a r e " is s l a n g f o r a n y p a p e r . In 1993.164. propounded by the d e s i g n e r of t h e E t h e r n e t protocol. The second v e r s i o n was called J a g u a r . In CDs. 163. The bumps and flats are a r r a n g e d in a c o n t i n u o u s spiral track t h a t is five k i l o m e t r e s in length. Metcalfe's Law. 161. bumps and flat areas on t h e disk's s u r f a c e represent 1s and Os. MP3 stands f o r 'MPEG Layer3'. J e f f Hawkins invented Graffiti.b a s e d m a t e r i a l . This happened in t h e late 1980s. The vi editor was the de facto Unix standard editor until about 198' when Emacs t o o k over. states t h a t the u t i l i t y of a n e t w o r k is proportional t o t h e square of t h e n u m b e r of u s e r s . t h e h a n d w r i t i n g recog nition s y s t e m used in some PDAs. a fire destroyed a Sumitomo Chemical Company plant in Japan and memory prices skyrocketed. Apple first has come release a long way since its a u t h o r t o u n c o v e r a German hacker ring. since the plant supplied 6 0 percent of the world's supply of Cresol. used in memory chip casings.0. led t h e 158. 159. The Economist magazine r e p o r t e d t h a t Lee Stein opened the firs t r u l y e l e c t r o n i c bank on t h e Internet in 1994 called 'First V i r t u a l Holdings'. 1 5 6 . The a c r o n y m stands f o r Visual Interface. In 1994. 160. Apple named t h e f i r s t release of its Mac OS X 10. 157. T e c h i e s use it t o r e f e r t o d o c u m e n t a t i o n m a n u a l s . • 104 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . Germany. 162. Leonardo Chiariglione and o t h e r s developed t h e MP3 f o r m a t in 1988 at t h e University of Erlangen. an a c c o u n t i n g discrepancy of 7 5 cents on a c o m p u t e r at L a w r e n c e Berkeley Labs.

152. 1 4 9 . England. 'a happy man'.Seagate 1 5 4 . of t h e breaking of t h e German codes at Bletchely park.k n o w n as c y b e r s q u a t t i n g . In 1980. as he asserts. in 1996. called the abacus. In 1990. The Chinese had a similar device with beads. d u r i n g World War II. 3 D) n = 153. 1 4 8 . The FBI r e c r u i t e d t h r e e 14-year-old girls in J u n e 2 0 0 3 t o t e a c h agents how t o c o m m u n i c a t e like y o u n g girls on the 'Net. In t h e 1980s. in his book Enigma. One of t h e earliest f o r m s of mechanical i n f o r m a t i o n storage was an ancient Peruvian device consisting of a c o r d w i t h k n o t t e d strings of various colours a t t a c h e d . f a m e d c o m p u t e r e d u c a t o r Donald Knuth gave s o m e t h i n g up and is now. there was only one country in the world with no telephonesBhutan. Thriller w r i t e r Robert Harris w r o t e a semi-fictional a c c o u n t .o f registering t r a d e m a r k d o m a i n names for t h e sole purpose of resale and p r o f i t . 1 4 6 . The device was called t h e Ouipu. o c i/i 151. 147. a stir was c r e a t e d in the Unix c o m m u n i t y when a publicly d i s t r i b u t e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of Unix f o r PCs was released. The first c o m p u t e r t h a t was operated w i t h a mouse was t h e Xerox Alto. S o f t w a r e c r e a t e d under t h e GNU Public License is f r e e t o r e p r o d u c e but carries c e r t a i n . The o p e r a t i o n aims at t r a c k i n g d o w n paedophiles. The US Congress passed laws in 1999 t o discourage t h e p r a c t i c e . GNU s o f t w a r e is c o p y r i g h t e d . to reach a million in sales 1 5 0 . It was called Minix. He was r e f e r r i n g t o e-mail.

. 1 3 6 . and t h e i r f i r s t p r o d u c t . 138.. I Did you know that the first glossary of computer I technology came out in 1954? it was edited by Rear I Admiral Grace Hopper of the US Navy. Initially called 'WebRunner'.h a n d e d t y p i n g m e t h o d . The domain is registered in Australia... The s o f t w a r e is f r o m Estonia. it was later . 1 3 5 . American cartoon artist Paul Kinsella has set up a Web site called 'Afterlife telegrams'. r e n a m e d H o t J a v a 139.. ' 137. The first web browser w r i t t e n in Java was by J a m e s Gosling. the FBI recruited teenage girls this year to teach officers to behave like girls on the Net . a n n o u n c e d in N o v e m b e r 1982. 'Stewardesses' is the longest w o r d you can t y p e w i t h y o u r left hand using t h e usual t w o . was the Compaq Portable? 143. • 106 . w h i c h was used to test sound e q u i p m e n t .a resistance capacity audio oscillator.restrictions. Did you know t h a t Bill Gates and Paul Allen s t a r t e d a c o m p a n y called Traf-O-Data t o m o n i t o r t r a f f i c f l o w ? HP's first p r o d u c t to hit the market 2 0 0 A . Did you know that the world's first transistor is located at Murray Hill. This concept is called ' c o p y l e f t ' . The DVD of t h e movie 'Matrix' was the f i r s t t o reach one million in sales. 144. 140. 142. and the c o r p o r a t i o n is on a South Pacific island. Did you know C o m p a q C o m p u t e r was f o r m e d in 1982.t h e world's f a v o u r i t e P2P s o f t w a r e . in 1938. That's K a z a a . New Jersey? 141. The first ' t e c h n o l o q y ' c o r p o r a t i o n t o m o v e into California's Silicon Valley was Hewlett-Packard. The servers are in Denmark. T° counter paedophiles. where the living can send telegrams to the dead.

127. Did you know that Seagate was the first company to manufacture hard disks for microcomputers? 107O . 121. an o r d i n a r y . Sending e-mails w i t h CCs m a r k e d t o f a m o u s personalities are called mail droppings in t h e IT world.a b o u t ha 7 2 . free of charge. p r o d u c e d the film Stone Crusher. 129. Messages were left by 5. Toonz A n i m a t i o n India. Before c o ." 3 £ = 132. S a t y a m Infoway. 7 2 0 Kg of paper per day. Steve J o b s w o r k e d f o r Atari.8 lakh people on t h e official Web site of t h e British m o n a r c h y in S e p t e m b e r 1997. An average of 4 0 million H o t m a i l e-mails are sent each day. The Apple ' T h i n k D i f f e r e n t ' c a m p a i g n used M a h a t m a Gandhi's philosophy in one of its ads. t h e c o m p u t e r and video g a m e maker. 130. for UNICEF. 124. an a n i m a t i o n c o m p a n y based in T h i r u v a n a n t h a p u r a m . called Chai.f o u n d i n g Apple. in 2001. postal mail is called snail mail. Vajpayee Infoway's was first Satyam subscriber 123. HP came up w i t h an a l t e r a t i v e t o Java.Seagate 133. 128. 122. o |j| 131. 125. In c o m p u t e r slang. f o l l o w i n g t h e death of Princess Diana. and MSN has e s t i m a t e d tth a tt t h e i r service saves 5 0 0 t r e e s . Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems has a dog called Network. The lobby of Cyrix Corporation's c o r p o r a t e h e a d q u a r t e r s has a m a u s o l e u m w i t h t h e inscription " I n t e l Inside. Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee was t h e f i r s t subscriber t o India's first p r i v a t e I n t e r n e t Service Provider. 'Bloatware' is s o f t w a r e t h a t ' s t o o large for its utility. 126.

b y . 119. t h e well-known British m a t h e m a t i c i a n and c o m p u t e r scientist. A 'Turing m a c h i n e ' defines our n o t i o n t o d a y of w h a t a c o m p u t e r is.w i r e tech- 113. Infosys was t h e f i r s t Indian c o m p a n y t o release its annual r e p o r t in CD-ROM format. Windows 1. In t e c h parlance.b y . The first f l y . 'chip j e w e l l e r y ' is an o u t d a t e d c o m p u t e r . Bill Gates and Apple CEO J o h n Sculley signed c o n f i d e n t i a l a g r e e m e n t s t h a t allowed Microsoft t o use e l e m e n t s of the Apple GUI in its soft Steve Wozniak. 117. which t h e n gives t h e a p p r o p r i a t e response t o t h e a i r c r a f t ' s h y d r a u y l i c systems. 115. The T u r i n g A w a r d . It is r e f e r r e d t o as 'the Nobel Prize of c o m p u t i n g ' . Hewlett Packard started at a garage in Palo Alto in 1939. The first passenger a i r c r a f t t o get f l y . . worked for Hewlett-Packard as a summer trainee. It consists of a tape head. a tape w i t h 1s and Os on it which can scroll in either d i r e c t i o n .120. is a w a r d e d t o people w h o have made significant c o n t r i b u t i o n s of a technical n a t u r e t o t h e c o m p u t i n g c o m m u n i t y .w i r e test flight was held in 1972 on a NASA F-8 test plane. 112. 116.0 was released in 1985. co-founder ware. of Apple. given by t h e Association f o r C o m p u t i n g Machinery. and is named after Alan Turing. based in New York. Fly-by-wire is a t e c h n o l o g y where a c o m p u t e r c o n t r o l s the flight of an a i r c r a f t and w h e r e the pilot's responses are relayed t o a c o m p u t e r . A demonstration of the Univac in action 114. and something to interpret what t h e sequence of 1s and Os mean.

5 o u t ' comes f r o m t h e process billion due to piracy in of creat ing an optical mask for Asia. Google recently added linear local search capabilities to its existing services. At t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin.Seagate nology was t h e Airbus A 3 2 0 . 107. 0 0 0 on an ' a e r o d y n a m i c analysis of t h e self-suspended flare'. In 1952. launched in 1988. It was done by laying out p i e c e s ' o f ' tape r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e various parts of t h e chip on large tables. N o v e m b e r 4. t h e toll was one h u m a n and f o u r machines. is an a c r o n y m for Beginners' A l l . Macquariums are aquariums made from old Macintosh computers. 1 0 5 . Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson. alleging monopolistic practices in its c o m p u t e r business. nally called OS/2 magazine 1 0 4 . On election night. In 2 0 0 3 . CBS News b o r r o w e d a UNIVAC t o make a scientific prediction of t h e o u t c o m e of t h e race for t h e presidency between Dwight D. software The origin of t h e t e r m 'taped companies lost $5. J 109O . 110. The US Navy spent $ 3 7 5 . i/> o 2L 57 3 o c tfl m 1 0 9 . in v i o l a t i o n of t h e Sherman Act. 1 0 6 . 1 0 8 . 1952. BASIC. a s e m i c o n d u c t o r device. t h e name of t h e popular beginners' p r o g r a m m i n g language. The research proved t h a t the frisbee was not feasible as m i l i t a r y h a r d w a r e . V i e t n a m War p r o t e s t e r s a t t a c k e d u n i v e r s i t y c o m p u t e r centres in 1970.p u r p o s e Symbolic Instruction Code. a c o m p l a i n t was filed against IBM.

a cool and a f f o r d a b l e line of c o n s u m e r PCs and laptops. on since February 1992. and Internet services. Dropping a c o m p u t e r one f o o t o n t o a flat surface was an Appleendorsed p r o c e d u r e for t h e Apple III t o ensure t h a t t h e machine's i n t e g r a t e d circuits were securely in t h e i r sockets.102. at a place called Astoria. In Silicon Valley slang. HDTV made its debut but still hasn't gotten a long time to the ago. "10. The Sony VAIO. masses 95. 9 4 . is a popular brand. ' m e a t l o a f ' means unsolicited personal mass mailings.38" was t h e f i r s t ever Xerox taken. 1 9 3 8 . By t h e early 1980s. There are more than 2 0 0 satellites orbitinq earth just for private communications services-including the pager. 9 9 . The publication 'Windows Magazine'. Content P r o t e c t i o n f o r Removable Media (CPRM) is a hardware-based t e c h n o l o g y designed t o e n f o r c e copy p r o t e c t i o n restrictions. on October 2 2 . by Xerox Machine f o u n d e r Chester Carlson.22. 100. 'VAIO' stands for 'Video A u d i o I n t e g r a t e d Operation'. •110 1001 TECHFACTS . MS Word had became t h e most popular w o r d processing p r o g r a m . was launched in 1990 under t h e name 'OS/2 Magazine'. 0 0 0 visitors. telephone. Half a b y t e is c a l l e d a nibble. The f i r s t Comdex was held in 1979 w i t h 150 companies and 4 .

New York. 89. ' s e r v i t u d e ' .U. 5T 3 < D O c IA 90. Taxes made headlines in 2 0 0 3 . t h e Electric Pencil. In 1989. Air c o n d i t i o n ing wasn't used f o r cooling people until 1924 w h e n it made its debut at t h e J L Hudson D e p a r t m e n t S t o r e in Detroit. The t e c h n o l o g y c o n t a i n e d in a s i n g l e G a m e B o y u n i t in 2 0 0 0 e x c e e d s all t h e c o m p u t i n g p o w e r t h a t w a s used t o p u t t h e f i r s t m a n on t h e Moon in 1 9 6 9 . u> o 2. The w o r d came into English in t h e early 1920s f r o m a play. 91. as US I n t e r n e t retailers collected taxes on all purchases. many Christians were against it because 6 6 6 is ' S a t a n ' s n u m b e r ' . or ' f o r c e d labour'. 12 per cent had cut back on seeing t h e i r friends.Seagate 92. Capek's b r o t h e r suggested t h e word. 8 4 0 W h e n t h e O r i g i n a l Mac was introduced. priced at $ 6 6 6 . 1975 saw t h e e m e r g e n c e of t h e first w o r d processing s o f t w a r e . Czech w o r d ' r o b o t a ' meaning ' d r u d g e r y ' . by Karel Capek.R (Rossum's Universal Robots). 1 Macs ^ 87. p r i n t e r t o get decent c o l o u r d u r i n g hot. Air c o n d i t i o n i n g was invented by Willis Carrier t o help a Brooklyn. humid w e a t h e r . WordStar was released in 1978. HDTV made its debut in Japan. Some US states taxed I n t e r n e t b a n d w i d t h and t h e EU r e q u i r e d all I n t e r n e t companies t o collect Value Added T a x ( V A T ) o n digital d o w n l o a d s . 86. The w o r d r o b o t comes f r o m t h e One of the first Apple 88. A NUKE InterNETWORK poll in 2001 f o u n d t h a t 5 2 per cent of Internet users had cut back on w a t c h i n g TV in o r d e r to spend m o r e t i m e online. Michigan. R. D I G I T . 2001 was t h e serial n u m b e r of t h e f i r s t Apple t h a t rolled out of t h e assembly line.

77. w h i c h is open source. and MacOS9. the Union Budget was made on Apple computers gifted to the Finance Ministry. 8 2 . IRIX. In the late 8 0 s and early 90s. SGI machines. that the New York Times began using computerised word processing. 78. It was only on the 3rd of July. it was t h e f i r s t successful version of Windows t h a t finally o f f e r e d satisfactory p e r f o r m a n c e to PC users. 79. Alan turing 80. Apple's MacOS X utilises elements f r o m BSD Unix. as a part of a deal w i t h Intel t o m a n u f a c t u r e and use the 8 0 8 6 processors in t h e i r Display Write Intelligent T y p e w r i t e r . Steve J o b s and Steve Wozniak f o u n d e d Apple C o m p u t e r in 1976. WordStar was released in 1978. IBM exchanged t h e IPR f o r Bubble M e m o r y w i t h Intel. The Unix base of OS X is Darwin. sales of CD b u r n e r s and blank CDs skyrocketed. In 1990. 1975 saw t h e e m e r gence of t h e f i r s t w o r d processing soft ware. use a c u s t o m developed UNIX-like OS. OpenStep. IBM developed an early m e m o r y t e c h n o l o g y k n o w n as Bubble M e m o r y . and used to use CPUs f r o m a c o m p a n y called MIPS. DEC ( m e r g e d w i t h Compaq. The r e c o r d i n g i n d u s t r y lost m o n e y as a result of t h e 'Napster Revolution'. •112 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S . M i c r o s o f t was l a t e r o f f i c i a l l y f o u n d e d in 1977. hailed as high p e r f o r m a n c e graphics w o r k s t a t i o n s .0 o n May 22. 81. but some people did make m o n e y off it: f r o m 1999 t o 2001. 1978.84. which has since m e r g e d w i t h HP) used t o assemble Apple Macs in India. M i c r o s o f t shipped Windows 3. Compatible w i t h all DOS p r o g r a m s . the Electric Pencil.

The Loebner Award. 67. < D o c i/> 72. The processor f o u n d limited m a r k e t s in w o r k s t a t i o n s as a graphics a c c e l e r a t o r . a h u m a n in t h e other. It was s h o r t lived. it did eventually become possible t o r u n t h e classic Mac OS on x 8 6 PCs by using t h i r d . It was c r e a t e d by Digital Equipment C o r p o r a t i o n . but later sold t o Intel. which was released in 1989. an work on in 1992. being cancelled only one year later in 1993. t h e l a t t e r is declared intelligent. w i t h t h e goal not having been met. The Turing Test d e t e r m i n e s w h e t h e r Al has been reached. A l t h o u g h a direct port was never released. Intel produced t h e i 8 6 0 . The S t r o n g A R M m i c r o p r o c e s s o r is a f a s t e r v e r s i o n of t h e Advanced RISC Machines ARM design. 68. The Loebner A w a r d is a prize consisting of a solid 2 4 .p a r t y M a c i n t o s h e m u l a t o r s . a RISC microprocessor. for a machiIf t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r c a n n o t make ne passing the Turing Test out the h u m a n f r o m t h e c o m p u t e r . PCs. used this project was t o c r e a t e a Transputer CPUs from a version of Mac OS t h a t w o u l d British company called run on I n t e l . due t o political infighting. such as vMac and Basilisk II. 70. and an i n t e r r o g a t o r in t h e t h i r d . The setup is of a c o m p u t e r in one room. The goal of early PARAM. The r e c o r d i n g m e d i u m was a t h i n band of solid steel. [ D I G I T Did you know Apple and Sun came very close to a merger in 1996? 113D .k a r a t gold medal t o one w h o makes a machine pass t h e T u r i n g Test.c o m p a t i b l e x 8 6 INMOS. w h o continues t o produce it t o d a y as t h e XScale. Magnetic t a p e was f i r s t used t o r e c o r d data in 1951.Seagate (C 74. code-named Project Star Trek. An i n t e r e s t i n g historical aspect of t h e classic Mac OS was a relatively u n k n o w n One of India's first parallel secret p r o t o t y p e Apple s t a r t e d processing computers. 69.

and developed a new drive of this size s t o r i n g 110 KB. The chances of an eavesdrop per being u n d e t e c t e d are one in trillions or quadrillions. A c c o r d i n g t o this definition. Adkisson asked Wang what size he t h o u g h t t h e disks should be. Adkisson t o o k t h e napkin back to California. Apple was t h e first mass-market c o m p u t e r m a n u f a c t u r e r to eschew t h e floppy a l t o g e t h e r . aciudiiy has six s t r u m m a b l e strings. which means for all practical purposes in t h e universe. Xerox was the first company to develop technology to protect digital intellectual property rights. and a c c o r d i n g to t h e researchers. Q u a n t u m c r y p t o g r a p h y is the u l t i m a t e f o r m of c r y p t o g r a p h y . i v iMILI urneiei :> IUMLJ. w i t h t h e release of t h e iMac in 1998. OI14 . is t h e next step t o w a r d s replacing silicon in a v a r i e t y of e l e c t r o n i c applications. The first iMac had no f l o p p y disk drive.25 inches wide. The 'nanoguitar'-a guitar on the w h o felt t h a t t h e 8 " f o r m a t of nanoscaie with actual strings t h e t i m e was t o o large f o r t h e desktop w o r d processing machines he was developing at t h e time. nil. Peter Burke and his t e a m at t h e University of California at Irvine built a high-speed. J i m Adkisson. How t h e 5. In 1976. 60. a slide rule and a pocket calculator are computers. and Wang p o i n t e d t o a napkin and said " a b o u t t h a t size".66. 61. Under Hong Kong laws. 6 3 . was a p p r o a c h e d by An Wang of Wang Laboratories. processing or r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n " .25 inch floppy is t h a t large is i n t e r e s t i n g . 64. This is t h e latest in a string of devices t h a t can be made w i t h nanotubes. f o u n d it t o be 5. c a r b o n n a n o t u b e t r a n s i s t o r . 6 2 . t h e t e r m " c o m p u t e r " is defined as " a n y device f o r s t o r i n g . A f t e r m e e t i n g in a bar in Boston. On 3 0 t h April 2 0 0 4 .

w o r l d w i d e piracy cost t h e US enter t a i n m e n t s o f t w a r e i n d u s t r y $3. 5 6 . shows special promise. for example. not e n v i s i o n e d by t h e p r o g r a m m e r s . and J a v a . which all c o m p u t e r s can use so t h a t t h e y b e c o m e " a u t o m a t i c a l l y " m o r e intelligent. P r o g r a m m i n g languages are c o m m o n l y divided i n t o f o u r g r o u p s . Xerox and TDA research are w o r k i n g on p r o j e c t s t h a t could ulti m a t e l y lead t o t h e r e p l a c e m e n t of silicon in chips by plastic polymers. and produce results. beyond what the p r o g r a m m e r s defined in t h e first place. m u c h longer t h a n t h e age of t h e universe t o crack a message e n c r y p t e d using it. it is e s t i m a t e d . 5 0 .s e n s e . An expert s y s t e m is a c o m p u t e r s y s t e m t h a t answers questions t h a t would t a k e a h u m a n e x p e r t t o be a n s w e r e d p r o p e r l y . 5: Q) A c c o r d i n g t o an IDSA estimate. 5 5 .Seagate (wLi 5 8 . declarative. Lisp. 53. it w o u l d still t a k e longer t h a n t h e age of t h e universe t o crack it. or behaviours. One p o l y m e r . Even 2 0 years f r o m now.i m p e r a t i v e . t h e one billion m a r k for n u m b e r of PCs sold was reached. life-like behaviours in c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s . in medical diagnosis. 51. or. The 2 billion mark. They are used. Pedot. one of t h e oldest expert systems. 128-bit SSL e n c r y p t i o n is so s t r o n g t h a t it w o u l d t a k e much. Prolog. is m o r e a c c u r a t e t h a n a h u m a n d o c t o r at answering questions a b o u t diagnosis. logical. if c o m p u t e r s are a million times faster.o r i e n t e d . aims at c r e a t i n g a database of c o m m o n . will be r e a c h e d in 2 0 0 8 . p i o n e e r e d by Doug L e n a t . and o b j e c t . Respective examples are C. Apple selected t h e Sony 3 1/2" f o r m a t for t h e i r Macintosh c o m p u t . 52. D I G I T 115D . A r t i f i c i a l Life can evolve. In 2 0 0 2 .2 billion in 1998. The Cyc p r o j e c t . t h e r e b y f o r c i n g t h e 3 1/2" t o become t h e s t a n d a r d f o r m a t f o r $ floppy drives in t h e US. 2002:1 billion PCs sold so far 5 4 . Mycin. § 5 5 7 .3 ers. The field of A r t i f i c i a l Life aims at c r e a t i n g complex.

This paper f o u n d e d t h e subject of i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y . and t h a t ' s notable because it's still running. It m i m i c k e d a psychiatrist talking to one of her patients. 4 4 .c o m m i t t e e was set up by t h e ISO in t h e late 1980s t o r e c o m m e n d a file f o r m a t for t h e s t o r a g e of high quality still images. A c c o r d i n g t o a N o v e m b e r 2 0 0 3 e s t i m a t e . 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S I<0 3 9 . It was in 1972 t h a t Ray Tomlinson developed t h e first n e t w o r k e d based e-mail p r o g r a m . F o r t r a n became c o m m e r c i a l l y available in 1957. The f i r s t high-level p r o g r a m m i n g language was Fortran. he published " A M a t h e m a t i c a l T h e o r y of C o m m u n i c a t i o n " in t h e Bell System Technical J o u r n a l . a l t h o u g h it was not c o m p l e t e l y o b j e c t . 47. Google receives a 2 0 0 million hits a day. Actually. In 1948. an image c o m p r e s s i o n standard. The t e r m ' b a n d w i d t h ' is c o m m o n l y used t o refer t o how fast data can t r a v e l over a connection. instead. b a n d w i d t h refers t o t h e range of f r e q u e n c i e s t h a t t h e data is t r a n s m i t t e d over. JPEG stands f o r J o i n t P h o t o g r a p h i c Experts Group.49.com d o m a i n names registered worldwide. Claude Shannon is arguably t h e f a t h e r of I n f o r m a t i o n Technology. and was reasonably realistic f o r t h e t i m e . 46. a l t h o u g h it's been b o u g h t by AOL. ICO was t h e first instant messaging p r o g r a m . 4 2 . w i t h a rate of 19%. "53 • 116 . 00 • Claude Shannon The f i r s t o b j e c t . It was developed in 1956 by an IBM t e a m headed by J o h n Backus.o r i e n t e d language was Simula. He i n t r o d u c e d t h e '<E>' sign in addresses. 40. There are a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 5 million . Urban India stands at position 11 in t h e w o r l d in t e r m s of I n t e r n e t p e n e t r a t i o n . 45.o r i e n t e d . 4 3 . The c o m m i t t e e delivered. The JPEG s u b . It was d e v e l o p e d by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl in t h e mid 1960s. (/) 3 O < u c u </) ELIZA was t h e first well-known example of a " t a l k i n g " Al p r o g r a m .

Bridgeville in N o r t h e r n California. Iomega Corp. DVD-18 is a s t a n d a r d t h a t increased DVD capacities t o 17 GB. t h e study of ways t o c o n v e r t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m its normal. says he n a m e d it a f t e r t h e sound t h a t a sonar makes. ( " t o w r i t e " ) . The t e r m 'silver bullet'. 3 7 . o r i g i n a t e s f r o m t h e f r o m Greek w o r d s ' k r y p t o s ' ( " h i d d e n " ) and 'graphein'. 3 4 . 0 0 0 . c o m p r e h e n s i b l e f o r m into an o b s c u r e d and unreadable guise. The n e t w o r k 'ping' p r o g r a m get its name f r o m t h e sound of a sonar. A m o n g Unix users. The Stand.5 a share t o $ 4 8 . the f o r a gain of 1396%. T h r e e MIT s c i e n t i s t s . was released in October 1999. The RSA public-key e n c r y p t i o n a l g o r i t h m remains t h e most widely-used e n c r y p t i o n s t a n d a r d by secure Web sites etc. t h e f i r s t t o w n t o be a u c t i o n e d on eBay. which applies t o any new t e c h n o l o g y or practice t h a t will easily cure a major prevailing problem. 3 3 . '. 3 5 . inspired by the principle of echo-location. The c r e a t o r . 2 9 .Seagate r e 3 8 . a bang is an e x c l a m a t i o n point. t h a t is. dual-sided dual-layered. H Q D 117 • . was p u r c h a s e d recently f o r $ 7 0 0 .t e c h stocks ever. C r y p t o g r a p h y . Nieman-Marcus o f f e r e d a Honeywell H316 c o m p u t e r in 1969 f o r $10. 3 2 . 6 3 .600. Rivest. Mike Muuss. It was later used by several countries to pass messages through insecure channels. The technique of compressing text or images into microdots to prevent their viewing by unintended recipients was invented by the Germans during World War II. The s t a n d a r d provides f o r 2 layers of data on e i t h e r side of t h e disk. Shamir and Adleman. A d i S h a m i r . and L e o n a r d A d l e m a n i n v e n t e d t h e RSA cipher in 1978. This made men behind RSA encryption it t h e c o m p a n y t o have t h e greatest p e r c e n t a g e gain of all NASDAQ h i g h . The f i r s t c o m m e r c i a l DVD-18 title. Ronald Rivest. That was t h e first t i m e a h o m e c o m p u t e r was o f f e r e d f o r sale by mail o r d e r . went f r o m $3. In 1995. originates f r o m t h e m y t h t h a t only a silver bullet could kill a w e r e w o l f . by a S o u t h e r n Cali f o r n i a financial adviser.

public i n f o r m a t i o n is 5 0 0 t i m e s larger t h a n on the WWW. M S were first patented France 2 5 . All of the special effects shots took just eight hours to generate. According to this definition. 2 3 . 21. released in 1984 and directed by Nick Castle. Under Hong Kong laws. The Deep Web contains 7 . It contains nearly 5 5 0 billion indi vidual d o c u m e n t s c o m p a r e d t o t h e 1 billion of t h e surface Web. When y o u define f u n c t i o n s in LISP. All shots of spaceships and space were generated on a Cray computer.w h i c h means cars esfRSH can be i d e n t i f i e d using photos A ^TTW—"""III • 1 B • K 2 2 Z X Z 2 H f r o m these satellites! George Philbrick was a pioneer in analogue c o m p u t i n g . The Quick bird satellite can go upto a reso lution of 0 . was the first movie to do all special effects (except makeup) on a computer. the term "computer" is defined as "any device for storing. t i n y secure c o m p u t . o <u a > u V) 1 2 0 . LISP is a p r o g r a m m i n g language w r i t t e n in LISP itself. • 118 . The IKONOS satellite. Alan Turing is well-known f o r cracking German codes d u r i n g WWII. and some say it's due t o him t h a t we Indians speak English now instead of German. can c a p t u r e satellite images u p t o a r e s o l u t i o n of 1m. t h e e n t i r e language gets modified. some say it is J o h n McCarthy. 2 2 . used for c o m m e r c i a l satellite p h o t o g r a p h y . which was key t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of analogue c o m p u t e r s . Some regard Alan T u r i n g as t h e f a t h e r of Al. t h e part of t h e Web not c u r r e n t l y catalogued by search engines. 7 m . Smart cards. 5 0 0 t e r a b y t e s . Many researchers and surfers consider t h a t t h e first search engine 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S 24. c o m p a r e d t o 19 t e r a b y t e s o n t h e surface Web. 2 6 . a slide rule and a pocket calculator are computers. In t h e Deep Web.ers f o r c a r r y i n g out c r y p t o graphic o p e r a t i o n s e m b e d d e d w i t h i n a credit card-sized or smaller cards were i n v e n t e d and p a t e n t e d in France by Roland Moreno in t h e 1970s. 2 7 .2 8 . processing or retrieving information". he developed the o p e r a t i o n a l amplifier. • Smart cards and used in cassor-- MttJA * V E TA O A S. During t h e 9 3 0 s . The Last Starfighter. M c C a r t h y also invented t h e LISP language.

When QuickTime was developed. 0 0 0 . with no compression. Video for Windows was released as an AVI f o r m a t . [ D I G I T . Only a f e w m o n t h s a f t e r QuickTime's release. you can increase t h e price of a G3 by $130 for it t o have audio-visual capabilities. Business users. QuickTime. QuickTime 1. That was because it t r i e d t o be s o m e t h i n g § of e v e r y t h i n g . 119D 15. y o u can achieve b r o a d c a s t . a school district can utilise digital video at a very low cost and can produce digital video technologies for as little as $ 2 . In 1992. and scientific users m i g r a t e d t o Fortran. 0 0 0 at s t a r t up. or Basic I n p u t / O u t p u t System. Today. a s t u d e n t at McGill University in M o n t r e a l . began using COBOL. . The first high-level p r o g r a m m i n g language was F o r t r a n . 17. 14. The BIOS. 18.Seagate (C was Archie. c r e a t e d in 1990 by Alan Emtage.q u a l i t y f r a m e rate and speed w i t h some digital video and s t r e a m i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s . It was in t h e early 1990s t h a t digital video was i n t r o d u c e d o n t o the t e c h n o l o g y f r o n t . The first o b j e c t . s o m e t h i n g usable in business. 12. Today. .o r i e n t e d language was Simula. the most in 1992. popular was codec 16.o r i e n t e d . 3 o < p 2j 19. It was developed by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl in the mid 1960s. it played 5 f r a m e s per second. w o r k i n g w i t h digital video t e c h n o l o g y r e q u i r e d at least $ 6 . This is a 9 7 % decrease in 5 years t i m e . In 1992. Today. To a u t h o r and p r o d u c e digital video t e c h n o l o g y w h e n it first appeared on t h e scene averaged $ 2 0 . will be superseded by technologies such as Phoenix's CME (Content M a n a g e m e n t Engine) and t h e EFI (Extensible F i r m w a r e Interface). It was developed in 1956 by an IBM t e a m headed by J o h n Backus. 11. a l t h o u g h it was not c o m p l e t e l y o b j e c t . 0 0 0 . F o r t r a n b e c a m e c o m m e r c i a l l y available in 1957. and 5 other disciplines. 13.0 a r r i v e d on t h e scene as t h e p r i m a r y codec p r o g r a m . for example. m a t h e m a t i c s . PL-I is a c o m p u t e r language developed by IBM t h a t never reached wide usage.

or f o u r video scenes of five seconds each w i t h sound. Nobel laureate Herbert Simon said t h a t w i t h i n 10 years. In 1957. d e f e a t e d British m a t h e m a t i c i a n Alan Turing's chess p r o g r a m . w h o w r o t e t h e f i r s t c o m p u t e r compiler. Up to eight 6 4 0 x 4 8 0 r e s o l u t i o n images could be s t o r e d in internal m e m o r y It had a fixed-focus 5 0 m m lens. t h e Apple Quick Take 100 was t h e first mass-market colour digital camera.S. or 152 crore. 0 0 0 . The f i r s t mass usage of ' s m a r t cards' was p a y m e n t in French payphones. " 8. 0 0 0 . The f i r s t device w i t h an in-build h a r d drive f o r image r e c o r d i n g was t h e Kodak DCS 2 0 0 . T u r b o C h a m p . 6. 9. This was in 1995. t h e US p a t e n t o f f i c e said t h a t it m i g h t as well close. In 1952. He was t h e first person t o beat a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m at chess. 4. In 1994. 2. This is similar t o w h a t physicist L o r d Kelvin said in 1900: " T h e r e is n o t h i n g new t o be discovered in physics n o w . 1 . because e v e r y t h i n g t h a t could be invented had already been invented. The RDC-1 was t h e first digital c a m e r a t o o f f e r b o t h still and m o v i n g image and sound r e c o r d i n g / r e p r o d u c t i o n . Its r e c o r d i n g capacity on a 2 4 M B PC card was 2 4 6 still pictures in s t a n d a r d mode. and an in-built flash. 5. beginning in 1983. A r t i f i c i a l Intelligence was listed by Wired Magazine in 2 0 0 3 as one of t e n 'ideas t h a t failed'. It is said t h a t in t h e late 1800s. miles of t e l e p h o n e wire is s t r u n g across t h e U. 1.10. 3. They w e r e called 'Telecartes'. 5 2 5 . 7. in 1992. or 4 9 2 in e c o n o m y mode. It had a 6 4 0 x 4 8 0 pixel CCD. a digital c o m p u t e r would be t h e w o r l d ' s chess c h a m p i o n . • 10 2 g ^ M M M g i W i i S ^ ^ 10 0 1 T E C H F A C T S j . MPEG1/Motion JPEG arrived on the scene as the latest codecs in 1995. Alick Glennie.

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