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About the Author
Ivan Bayross the human being

Open Source Varsity

The author Ivan Bayross is a 58 year old techno geek, mentor and friend. He is an M. Tech from Manchester University UK and has spent more than 30 years in the software industry rising through the ranks in the IT industry. Ivan Bayross started as a programmer, moved up to CIO, and is now the Chairman and Technology lead, in a software development house at Mumbai, India. He also owns several businesses in Mumbai India. He specializes in multi-tier, client / server, application development. Ivan Bayross is really a most approachable person and happily shares his skills with students and professionals alike.

Ivan Bayross the teacher
In the last ten years Ivan Bayross has put aside one day in the week when he guest lectures at a few MBA and Engineering colleges. If you would like him to guest lecture at your college, do get in touch.

Ivan Bayross the consultant
Additionally, being passionate about project management, he has been assisting a number of medium sized I.T. houses in stream lining their project management processes. Assisting them in any way he can to deliver their throughput to their clients in the shortest possible time and with the least bugs possible. Ivan Bayross is also very interested in Human Resource Management. HR is the most valuable resource in any company, more so today, because of the very competitive business environment in existence. He has assisted a number of medium sized companies in improving their Human Resource Management processes, helping them retain their talent, appropriately hire new talent, and cross train and improve their current employees to deliver a ton more than they currently do.

Ivan Bayross the author
Ivan Bayross is also an author, having authored and published over 68 books. He has the ability of taking a fairly complex programming or design concept and explaining this in simple to understand terms which has won him tons of fans among young information technology professionals.

© Open Source Varsity. All Rights Reserved.

Open Source Varsity

Table of Contents
PHP INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................................... 4 WHAT IS PHP? ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4 HOW PHP WORKS? ................................................................................................................................................................ 4 WHAT ARE PHP BENEFITS? .................................................................................................................................................... 5 WHAT IS A PHP FILE? ............................................................................................................................................................. 5 WHY PHP? .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5 PHP DOWNLOAD .................................................................................................................................................................. 6 DOWNLOAD PHP ................................................................................................................................................................... 6 A COMMON TECHNIQUE TO FIND PHP {ANYTHING} USING GOOGLE ................................................................................. 6 PHP INSTALLATION .......................................................................................................................................................... 10 UNINSTALLATION PHP .................................................................................................................................................... 12 BINDING PHP TO APACHE .............................................................................................................................................. 15 CONFIGURING PHP TO WORK WITH APACHE: .................................................................................................................... 15 SYSTEM SETTINGS IN WINDOWS XP - PATH ......................................................................................................................... 16 TESTING THE APACHE AND PHP RELATIONSHIP ................................................................................................................. 18 BINDING PHP TO MYSQL ................................................................................................................................................ 20 INTRODUCTION: .................................................................................................................................................................... 20 THE BINDING PROCESS: ........................................................................................................................................................ 20 PHP / MYSQL - AT THE COMMAND PROMPT ........................................................................................................... 23 SETTING THE PATH TO THE PHP RUNTIME IN WINDOWS XP .............................................................................................. 23 CREATING PHP FILES: ........................................................................................................................................................... 25 Creating PHP file For MySQL Connection: ................................................................................................................. 25 Creating PHP File for MySQL Database: ..................................................................................................................... 26 The Structure Of The MySQL StudentMaster Table: ................................................................................................. 27 Creating PHP File for MySQL Database Table: .......................................................................................................... 28 Executing PHP file at Command Prompt: ................................................................................................................... 29 Verifying the Database and Table Is Created: ............................................................................................................. 31 MYSQL AND MYSQLI ........................................................................................................................................................ 34

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© Open Source Varsity. All Rights Reserved.

Memory variables are not declared to be of a specific type before they can be assigned a value to hold. created to run successfully with a host of Web servers.php> requested for by a Browser and delivered by the web server. the Browser sends out a request to the Web server. The Web server then calls the PHP script named in the URL or perhaps index. PHP really has a very simple way of working with different types of memory variables.PHP Introduction What is PHP? Open Source Varsity PHP is a widely used Open Source. When you type in the URL of a PHP website in a Browser’s address bar and hit the GO key. which has great power for manipulating. the output of the PHP script is pure HTML which is then sent back to the requesting Browser as shown in Diagram 1. PHP is not strongly typecast. Web server-side scripting language. What PHP does is that it pre-processes the contents of any <filename. They are simply created and assigned a value when required for use. If a number is assigned to a variable. How PHP Works? PHP sits between a Browser and a Web server. When the variable is later outputted to the browser. Hypertext (HTML) Pre Processor. well formatted and styled content. then it just works. HTML that has been correctly loaded with appropriate. on the fly and automatically. it just works. . PHP takes care of converting the variable from an integer-type to a string-type.php> ensures that only pure HTML is delivered to the requesting Browser. formatting and styling data and delivering this to a requesting Browser. PHP is actually an interpreter based. PHP memory variables need not be pre-declared. The PHP environment at the Web server executes the script. Pre-processing of <filename. All Rights Reserved. PHP is often referred to as a Hypertext Preprocessor and is always used in conjunction with a web server such as Apache. Diagram 1 4 © Open Source Varsity. general-purpose. PHP is especially suited for Web development.php which can be visualized as a gateway script. The fact that PHP runs at the web server has several benefits and a few drawbacks. HTML can be embedded into PHP. PHP is actually a simple language.

Hence.phtml" Why PHP? • • • • PHP runs on different platforms (Windows. or ". a lightweight. One primary example is Yahoo! Bookmarks. PHP is a purpose built language for the internet. Unlike other languages that require expensive software to be installed on the server. PHP has proven itself to be extremely secure and more than sufficient to run high risk sites such as banking or ecommerce applications. Best of all. What is a PHP File? • • • PHP files can contain text. This compatibility and extremely economical running costs makes PHP the number one choice for businesses around the world.) PHP is FREE to download from the official PHP resource: www. The most striking feature of it is that it is easy to learn.php.What are PHP benefits? PHP is a free. free server side application that can be installed on any computer in the world. There are thousands of websites. There are thousands of websites on the internet which are written using PHP. Security is a huge factor in today’s' IT world. Linux.net PHP is easy to learn and runs efficiently on the server side 5 © Open Source Varsity.) PHP is compatible with almost all servers used today (Apache. PHP just requires Apache. IIS.php". even on extremely high traffic websites. PHP has an ever growing community. open source. . etc. Web server side scripting language. etc. PHP is used by millions of people and developers around the world. HTML tags and scripts PHP files are returned to the browser as plain HTML PHP files have a file extension of ". forums and community websites dedicated to PHP.php3". Open Source Varsity That means you don't have to pay thousands of dollars in licensing fee to acquire PHP. All Rights Reserved. assistance for PHP issues is always available most often for Free or if charged for the charges are always pretty modest. It is specifically designed to run on web servers to deliver dynamic web pages as quickly as possible. PHP has the huge advantage of being supported by virtually every server in the world. ". it is easy to install. Unix.

google. . In the Google search window that opens search for php download as shown in Diagram 1.net/downloads.net/downloads.php .PHP Download Download PHP Open Source Varsity Download the latest stable build of PHP from URL http://www. Diagram 1 In the Search results window Click on the php. Diagram 2 6 © Open Source Varsity.php link as shown in Diagram 2.com in the address bar and hit GO. All Rights Reserved. A Common Technique to Find PHP {anything} Using Google Open a browser window and enter http://www.php.

When the php. . All Rights Reserved.net site opens in the Browser window click on the windows binary link as shown in Diagram 3. Open Source Varsity Diagram 3 Click on the zip file of Thread safe version of PHP as shown in Diagram 4. 7 © Open Source Varsity.

.Open Source Varsity Diagram 4 8 © Open Source Varsity. All Rights Reserved.

9 © Open Source Varsity.Save the zip file in the local drive of you system by clicking on the OK button of the window as shown in Diagram 5. All Rights Reserved. Open Source Varsity Diagram 5 The download process of PHP is successfully finished. .

All Rights Reserved.zip was downloaded to as shown in Diagram 6. .zip file to C:\php as shown in Diagram 8.PHP Installation Open Source Varsity Navigate to the folder where the PHP executable . Diagram 7 Extract all the files from the . 10 © Open Source Varsity. Diagram 6 Create a subdirectory in drive 'C' named C:\php as shown in Diagram 7.

. 11 © Open Source Varsity.Open Source Varsity Diagram 8 The installation of PHP is complete. All Rights Reserved.

Open Source Varsity Diagram 9 PHP is now totally removed from the system.ini and select the file. 12 © Open Source Varsity. Navigate to the drive where the php folder is located. All Rights Reserved. Shift /Delete this file from C:\WINDOWS as shown in Diagram 10.Uninstallation PHP Uninstalling PHP from a system requires a few easy steps. Next. Select the folder. navigate to C:\WINDOWS and search for a file named php. Shift / Delete the folder from the drive as shown in Diagram 9. .

Open Source Varsity Diagram 10 Next. .dll and select the file. navigate to C:\WINDOWS\system32 and search for a dll named libmysql. Shift / Delete this file from C:\WINDOWS\system32 as shown in Diagram 11. All Rights Reserved. 13 © Open Source Varsity.

It’s as simple as this. 14 © Open Source Varsity. All Rights Reserved. .Open Source Varsity Diagram 11 PHP has been completely removed from the system.

conf file. 15 © Open Source Varsity. .gz . All Rights Reserved. Apache's httpd.tgs add another entry as shown in Diagram 12.conf file Below the AddType application/x-gzip . amd add another LoadModule entry.conf file locate the LoadModule section. AddType application/x-httpd-php .conf. These are the entries that have to be made in Apache's httpd.opensourcevarsity.com/apachebasics/l3apachewebserverinstallation Configuring PHP to work with Apache: To bind Apache and PHP together a few changes have to be made in Apache's httpd.Binding PHP to Apache Note Open Source Varsity To know How to Install Apache Web Server refer to http://www.conf file is normally found in: C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.php Take a look at the diagram below it could help you out Diagram 12 Within Apache's httpd.2\conf subdirectory. Locate the IfModule mime_module section in the httpd.

All Rights Reserved. .Path Right click My Computer icon on the desktop and go to Properties.dll" as shown in Diagram 13. My Computer > Property > Advance > Environment Variable >System Variable – Path. and add C:\php as shown in Diagram 16. 16 © Open Source Varsity. System Properties window open as shown in Diagram 14.LoadModule php5_module "C:/php/php5apache2_2. Take a look at the diagram below it could help you out Open Source Varsity Diagram 13 Apache and PHP have been configured to work together System settings in Windows XP .

All Rights Reserved. .Open Source Varsity Diagram 14 Diagram 15 17 © Open Source Varsity.

php The content of this file is a single line of code: <?php phpinfo(). ?> (type the line exactly as shown) Place this file in: C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.Open Source Varsity Diagram 16 System settings in Windows XP completed Testing the Apache and PHP relationship Using any ASCII editor create a file named phpinfo. All Rights Reserved. Apache’s Icon will be displayed in the Window's task bar. with the tiny green triangle as shown in Diagram 17 Diagram 17 Simply double click this icon and from the Apache service monitor select 'Restart' as shown in Diagram 18 Diagram 18 18 © Open Source Varsity.2\htdocs Restart Apache. . It’s the first icon in the image below.

Diagram 19 Apache and PHP have been installed and configured successfully. .0. All Rights Reserved.0. 19 © Open Source Varsity.1/phpinfo. This indicates that Apache and PHP are working together just fine.php file using any browser by typing in the following in its Address bar.php Open Source Varsity The following as shown in Diagram 19 should be displayed in the Browser window. http://127.Execute the phpinfo.

Since PHP application code will be required to access MySQL database resources. 20 © Open Source Varsity. Next in C:\php locate a file php. Since PHP can be installed anywhere on the computer’s hard disk the value held in the extension_dir needs to be updated. Copy and paste this file into C:\windows.Binding PHP to MySQL Introduction: Open Source Varsity The installation processes of PHP and MySQL occurs independent of each other.dll. hence all further content will refer to C:\. in this case M. Make the following changes in the php. takes care of each installation process independent of the other. Windows. The Binding Process: In <driveletter>:\php locate a file named libmysql. NOTE: We have installed PHP in C:\.S.ini-recommended to php. Change this to: extension_dir = "C:\php\ext" NOTE: This directive needs to hold the path to where the ext folder exists within the PHP installation.ini-recommended. All Rights Reserved. Rename the file php. it’s necessary to inform PHP that MySQL exists. libmysql. Copy and paste this file into C:\windows\system32. Informing PHP that MySQL exists and configuring PHP to connect to MySQL successfully is known as binding PHP to MySQL. The operating system.ini file Locate the extension_dir directive under Paths and Directories as shown in Diagram 20. . Hence when both products are installed one product really does not know that the other exists.ini which in now within C:\windows.dll was placed there during the installation process of PHP.

Required for URL redirection purposes.dll permits 30% to 40% faster data manipulation than mysql. The extensions are: 1 2 3 4 Extensions php_gd2. by deleting the . 21 © Open Source Varsity.dll php_mysqli. All Rights Reserved. The php_mysqli. These extensions are required by any internet application delivery framework. Please refer to Diagram 2.dll Represents Permits the compression of images prior their dispatch to a requesting Browser. at the start of the line.dll php_curl. NOTE: It’s a good idea to copy all four extensions to the very bottom of the extensions section and then uncomment them.Open Source Varsity Diagram 20 In the C:\windows\php. as shown in Diagram 21 Uncomment these 4 extensions. This allows the extensions to be located quickly if they have to be commented again for any reason.dll php_mysql. Required for connecting to a MySQL db engine running in memory. creating cookies and a ton of other stuff. This is an updated PHP library required to connect to a MySQL db engine running in memory.dll.ini file locate the extension section. .

Open Source Varsity Diagram 21 The PHP binding with MySQL is complete along with gd2 and curl. . 22 © Open Source Varsity. All Rights Reserved.

Diagram 23 23 © Open Source Varsity.My Computer > Properties > Advanced > Environment Variable > System Variable – Path.at the Command Prompt Open Source Varsity Before you attempt to execute any PHP program.exe (i. as shown in Diagram 25. Here is how you can do this. PATH variable of your computer. ensure that the path php. Setting the path to the PHP runtime in Windows XP Right click My Computer on the desktop and go to Properties as shown in Diagram 22. the PHP runtime) installed on your computer has been registered in the system settings.e. Diagram 22 Then traverse .PHP / MySQL . The System Properties window opens as shown in Diagram 23. All Rights Reserved. . Click on Edit as shown in Diagram 23 and Diagram 24 and Add C:\php.

e. This helps you perform "build" and “test” tasks quickly and easily. All Rights Reserved. Command line PHP script execution provides a quick way of testing PHP codespec without setting up a virtual domain and using a Web server to execute the PHP codespec. 24 © Open Source Varsity. interaction between PHP and MySQL. we have learnt how to execute a PHP program using a Browser i.Open Source Varsity Diagram 24 Diagram 25 The System settings in Windows XP are complete. In a previous tutorial. Here we will learn how to execute the same PHP files in a command window at the command prompt. .

All Rights Reserved.php will contain the codespec as shown in Example 1 below. Editplus or your favorite ASCII editor. To be able to do this from within the PHP code spec you must make available a User name.php using any ASCII editor such as Notepad. It is necessary to connect to MySQL database engine running in memory. Diagram 27 NOTE: It is a good practice to keep your MySQL database connection details in a single file for ease of maintenance. In our example we’ve used G:\and within the drive created a folder named studentdetail as shown in Diagram 26. In this case ‘localhost’ indicates that the MySQL db engine is running on the same computer in which the PHP code snippet is being executed. Dreamweaver.Creating PHP files: Open Source Varsity Creating PHP file For MySQL Connection: Go to any convenient logical drive on your hard disk and create a folder named studentdetail. as shown in Diagram 27. Password and exactly where the MySQL db engine is running. create a PHP file named config. Diagram 26 In the studentdetail folder. 25 © Open Source Varsity. config. .

To be able to do this within the PHP code spec include the config. $user. as given in Example 2.e. it will be included just once. createdb. $host = "localhost". Creating PHP File for MySQL Database: In the studentdetail folder.php file in createdb. This is a behavior similar to the include() statement. Dreamweaver.php will contain the codespec as shown in Example 2 below.php. if($con) { echo "Connection Established!". The codespec to include the config.php and save this file in: G:\studentdetail There is a minimum of error handling added to the PHP code within config. $pwd) or die("Connection Failed!"). . Diagram 28 To create a MySQL database (i. As the name suggests.Example 1 <?php Open Source Varsity $user = "root".php using any ASCII editor such as Notepad. $pwd = "passwd". create a php file named createdb. } ?> Copy paste the above codespec into the file named config. Edit Plus or your favorite ASCII editor. The include_once() statement. a message “Connection Established!” will be displayed on the Command Window. If the connection to MySQL succeeds. All Rights Reserved.php file once.php is as given in Example 2. with the only difference being that if the code from a file has already been included. as shown in Diagram 28. it will not be included again. $con = @mysql_connect($host. studentdb. includes and evaluates the specified file during the execution of the script. 26 © Open Source Varsity.). it is necessary to connect to MySQL database engine running in memory.

it is necessary to populate this empty container with table structure(s) to hold user data which can in turn be manipulated using PHP code. Let’s take a look at the structure of the MySQL table StudentMaster: The Structure Of The MySQL StudentMaster Table: Table Definition: Table Name: Column Definition: Column Name StudentID StudentName StudentDegree Speciality DOB StudentMaster Data Type INTEGER VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR Width 3 25 25 35 15 27 © Open Source Varsity. $qry="create database studentdb". After creating the MySQL database . a message “The MySQL Database Creation Failed” will be displayed on the Command Window.php'). $result=mysql_query($qry). which is an empty container.php and save this file in: G:\studentdetail There is a minimum of error handling added to the PHP code within created. The first table we are going to create using PHP code within the MySQL database – studentdb is the table StudentMaster. a message “Connection Failed!” will be displayed on the Command Window. If the connection to MySQL and the database creation succeeds.php.studentdb. All Rights Reserved. If the connection to MySQL database creation fails. This MySQL table will be populated with student data to be manipulated later on demand using PHP codespec. If the connection to MySQL fails. } else { echo("The MySQL Database Creation Failed!"). a message “The MySQL Database Successfully Created” will be displayed on the Command Window. .Example 2: <?php include_once('config. if($result) { echo("The MySQL Database Successfully Created!"). } ?> Open Source Varsity Copy paste the above codespec into the file named createdb.

"). $query = "CREATE TABLE StudentMaster( StudentID INTEGER(3). StudentDegree VARCHAR(25). create a php file named studentmaster. $db = "studentdb". } else { echo("Error creating table"). mysql_select_db($db) or die("Could not select database!"). . if (@mysql_query($query)) { echo("Table created successfully. Diagram 29 Example 3: <?php include_once('config.Table Description: Column Name StudentID StudentName StudentDegree Speciality DOB Description of column contents Holds an identity number of the student Holds the name of the student Holds the degree acquired by the student Holds the specialty of the student Holds the Date of birth of the student Open Source Varsity Creating PHP File for MySQL Database Table: In the studentdetail folder. } ?> 28 © Open Source Varsity. DOB VARCHAR(15))". as shown in Diagram 29.php'). StudentName VARCHAR(25). All Rights Reserved.php using any ASCII editor such as Notepad. Speciality VARCHAR(35). echo "The MySQL Database Connection Established!". Dreamweaver. Editplus or your favorite ASCII editor.

If the query is executed successfully. A window pops up. type in the path of the file or the drive in which your file is saved and press Enter as shown in Diagram 31. There is a minimum of error handling added to the PHP code within studentmaster. go to start -> Run. Executing PHP file at Command Prompt: To run this file on the command prompt. Next. If the database connection is established. Diagram 30 Next. Diagram 31 29 © Open Source Varsity.php and save this file in: G:\studentdetail Open Source Varsity If the MySQL connection gets established. in ‘Open:’ . All Rights Reserved.php. . a message “The MySQL Database Connection Established!” will be displayed on the Command Window. Click on OK as shown in Diagram 30. type in cmd as shown in Diagram 30.Copy paste the above codespec into the file named studentmaster. It will then create a table in a MySQL Db engine running in memory. a message “Connection Established!” will be displayed on the Command Window. For example: <system prompt> G: [Enter] You will notice that the prompt has now changed.” on the Command Window. it will display “Table created successfully. This indicates that you are now in G:\ drive.

Open Source Varsity Diagram 32 Navigate your prompt where your files are located as shown in Diagram 33.php [Enter] As soon as you click on [Enter]. This means that the MySQL database is created successfully. <system prompt> dir [Enter] A list of files is displayed as shown in Diagram 32. 30 © Open Source Varsity. Diagram 33 In order to create database.ext> at the command prompt as shown in Diagram 34. Enter php followed by the <filename. you need to run createdb. the output is displayed “Connection Established! The MySQL Database Successfully Created! ”.php at the command prompt. All Rights Reserved. <system prompt> php createdb.To take a look at the files in this directory at the < System Prompt > enter dir and press Enter. NOTE: The dir command displays the files in the current directory. .

php [Enter] As soon as you click on [Enter]. studentmaster) has been created successfully as shown in Diagram 35.php at the command prompt. .ext> at the command prompt. 31 © Open Source Varsity. All Rights Reserved.e. Enter php followed by the <filename. <system prompt> php studentmaster.e. you need to run studentmaster. ”. As soon as the system prompt changes to mysql> you are ready to verify the database created. This means that inside the MySQL database (i. the MySQL table (i. Diagram 35 Verifying the Database and Table Is Created: Log into MySQL as root with appropriate password as shown in Diagram 36.Open Source Varsity Diagram 34 In order to create table(s) inside the database. the output is displayed “Connection Established! The MySQL Database Connection Established! Table created successfully. studentdb). Diagram 36 Use the SHOW statement to find out what database(s) currently exist on the server as shown in Diagram 37.

The studentmaster table is successfully created in the database. The USE command specifies which database the MySQL db engine should set as active as shown in Diagram 39. All Rights Reserved. Open Source Varsity Diagram 37 MySQL responds and displays a list of all the databases. . mysql> Use studentdb. which it controls as shown in Diagram 38.mysql> Show databases. The studentdb database is successfully created. 32 © Open Source Varsity. mysql> Show tables. Diagram 39 Use the SHOW statement to find out what table(s) currently exists on the database as shown in Diagram 40. Diagram 38 Before working with data held within a table it is necessary to inform the MySQL db engine which database holds the tables.

Open Source Varsity Diagram 40 33 © Open Source Varsity. . All Rights Reserved.

MySQL. which was simply a means to manage databases over servers. and Microsoft Windows. MySQLi Extension (or simply known as MySQL Improved or MySQLi) is a relational database driver that is used mainly in the PHP programming language. support for a variety of statements. All Rights Reserved. There are a few that are more prominent than others. 34 © Open Source Varsity. The MySQLi extension comes equipped with many benefits that compliment as well as improve those that were provided by its predecessor. an enhanced level of debugging support. FaceBook. It provides an interface to the already founded MySQL databases. It is possible for users to use a command line tool or download MySQL Frontends from a variety of parties that have the software necessary and web applications to manage the databases. Google. it is not required that MySQL be shipped with GUI tools in order to administer the databases or manage the data therein. This RDMS runs as its own server and provides multi-user access to multiple databases at once. and work with the data records. Each one of these websites use MySQL for storage and the logging of user data. As well as being the prototype of several branches. The code is comprised of the C and C++ languages and uses many different system platforms –including Linux. Wikipedia. The source code of MySQL is available under the terms set forth in the GNU General Public License as well as a plethora of proprietary agreements. Its use can be seen widely in such popular web sites as Flickr. support for any kind of transaction that takes place. and YouTube. It is quite literally an improved version of its predecessor. MySQL. These features that are meant to enhance the functionality of the MySQL (as well as provide an update to the database manager as a whole) are an object oriented interface. support for statements that have been previously prepared. . build the databases. Mac OS X.MySQL and MySQLi Open Source Varsity MySQL is a relational database management system (or RDBMS) –meaning that it is a database management system based on the relational model. As an RDBMS. and an enhanced level of server support that is already embedded in the infrastructure of the database. MySQL can be found in many web applications as the database component of a solution bundle (or LAMP) software stack. most free software projects that must have a full featured database management system (or DMS) use MySQL. Members of the MySQL community have created many different branches of the RDMS –the most popular of which are Drizzle and MariaDB. Nokia.

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