This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Tunnel diode is the p-n junction device that exhibits negative resistance. That means when the voltage is increased the current through it decreases.
Esaki diodes was named after Leo Esaki, who in 1973 received the Nobel Prize in Physics for discovering the electron tunneling effect used in these diodes. Esaki reported the first paper on tunnel diodes in Physical Review in 1958
Regular p-n Diode
Part I Tunnel Diode principles Concept of Electron Tunneling
…continued…Concept of Electron Tunneling
• • For thick barrier, both Newtonian and Quantum mechanics say that the electrons cannot cross the barrier. It can only pass the barrier if it has more energy than the barrier height.
Electron with energy greater than EB can pass over the barrier
Electron with energy less than EB cannot pass the barrier
Newtonian mechanics still says that the electrons cannot cross the barrier. Tunneling is caused by the wave nature of electron E=EB E=EB E=0 Si SiO2 Si Si SiO2 Si 4 Newtonian Mechanics Quantum Mechanics .…continued…Concept of Electron Tunneling • • For thin barrier. Quantum mechanics says that the electron wave nature will allow it to tunnel through the barrier. However.
In such case. the depletion region becomes very thin (~10nm).Electron Tunneling in p-n junction • • • When the p and n region are highly doped. there is a finite probability that electrons can tunnel from the conduction band of n-region to the valence band of p-region During the tunneling the particle ENERGY DOES NOT CHANGE High doping Thick depletion layer Thin depletion layer EC EC EV EV Electrons tunnel through the thin barrier p n p n 5 .
Under Forward Bias Step 1: At zero bias there is no current flow EC EF EV 6 . These are called degenerate materials.Tunnel Diode Operation • When the semiconductor is very highly doped (the doping is greater than No) the Fermi level goes above the conduction band for n-type and below valence band for ptype material.
Potential barrier is still very high – no noticeable injection and forward current through the junction. However.…continued…Operation of a Tunnel Diode Step 2: A small forward bias is applied. This will create a forward bias tunnel current EC EV Direct tunneling current starts growing 7 . electrons in the conduction band of the n region will tunnel to the empty states of the valence band in p region.
this will produce maximum tunneling current EC EV Maximum Direct tunneling current 8 .…continued…Tunnel Diode Operation Step 3: With a larger voltage the energy of the majority of electrons in the n-region is equal to that of the empty states (holes) in the valence band of p-region.
the number of electrons in the n side that are directly opposite to the empty states in the valence band (in terms of their energy) decrease. EC EV Direct tunneling current decreases 9 .…continued…Tunnel Diode Operation Step 4: As the forward bias continues to increase. Therefore decrease in the tunneling current will start.
diffusion current starts growing 10 . EC EV No tunneling current.…continued…Tunnel Diode Operation Step 5: As more forward voltage is applied. the tunneling current drops to zero. But the regular diode forward current due to electron – hole injection increases due to lower potential barrier.
…continued…Operation of a Tunnel Diode Step 6: With further voltage increase. EC EV 11 . the tunnel diode I-V characteristic is similar to that of a regular p-n diode.
EC EV 12 .…continued…Operation of a Tunnel Diode Under Reverse Bias In this case the. electrons in the valence band of the p side tunnel directly towards the empty states present in the conduction band of the n side creating large tunneling current which increases with the application of reverse voltage. The TD reverse I-V is similar to the Zener diode with nearly zero breakdown voltage.
Voltage relationships for TDs cannot be described using the Ohm’s law (2) it has a negative differential resistance (NDR) region 13 . Current .Part II Circuits with the Tunnel Diodes I R TD NDR region V Typical Tunnel Diode (TD) I-V characteristic has two distinct features: (1) it is STRONGLY non-linear (compare to the resistor I-V).
Ip I diode ⎡⎛ V ≈ I s exp ⎢⎜ ⎜ ηV ⎣⎝ th ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎟ ⎠ ⎦ Iv Vv Vp Is saturation current.Tunnel Diode I-V • The total current I in a tunnel diode is given by peak valley I = I tun + I diode + I excess • The p-n junction current. η is the ideality factor and Vth = kT/q 14 .
Tunnel Diode I-V • The tunnel current.0. I tun ⎡ ⎛ V ⎞m ⎤ V = exp ⎢− ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ R0 ⎢ ⎝ V0 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Ip Iv peak valley Typically. m = 1….5 V R0 is the TD resistance in the ohmic region The maximum |NDR| can be found as | Rd max ⎛1+ m ⎞ exp ⎜ ⎟ m ⎠ ⎝ | = R0 m Vv Vp The peak voltage Vp: ⎛1⎞ m V p = ⎜ ⎟ V0 ⎝m⎠ 1 15 .1….3. V0 = 0.
Iv Rv and Vex are the empirical parameters. This current usually determines the minimum (valley) current. in high-quality diodes. peak I excess ⎡⎛ V − Vv ⎞⎤ V = exp ⎢⎜ ⎜ V ⎟⎥ ⎟ Rv ex ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ valley Ip Iv Vv Vp Iexcess is an additional tunneling current related to parasitic tunneling via impurities.. Rv >> R0. Vex = 1….Tunnel Diode I-V • The excess current.5 V 16 .
NDR of the Tunnel Diode Tunnel Diode differential resistance is NEGATIVE in the voltage range 100 mV – 200 mV 17 .
Energy dissipation in resistors and Energy generation in Negative Resistors R + VS Power = Voltage x Current = I2 R If current direction is from “-” toward “+”. then R =V/I is negative. 18 . P <0. conversion into the Joule heat). For R<0. Negative power corresponds to the power GENERATION (Energy supply).g. Positive power means energy dissipation (e.
R ≠ Rd: I α I Rd < R V I α I Rd << R I α2 α1 Rd2 < 0 TD α3 V Diode (forward bias) V Zener Diode (reverse bias) V V 19 .Differential resistance and negative differential resistance Static resistance: R = V/I I R I Differential resistance: Rd = I R ∂ V ΔV ≈ ∂ I ΔI ΔI Rd = cot (α ) α ΔV V V V For linear (“Ohmic”) components. R = Rd. For many semiconductor devices.
Transients in Negative Differential Resistance Circuits R VS After turning the switch ON: C VS -t/(RC) i (t ) = ×e R i R>0 R<0 t t 20 i .
Tunnel Diode as a microwave oscillator Tunnel diode Cd Microwave cavity (LC. the total circuit differential resistance is negative 21 .resonance circuit) ~ Rd us RL R Load resistance is chosen so that RL < |Rd | in the NDR region At the TD operating point.
2 -0.Tunnel Diode as a microwave oscillator Transient in resonant cavity after turning the bias voltage ON 1 Cd 0. Maximum frequency of the TD-oscillator is limited by the characteristic tunneling time: -0.6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The resonant circuit with NDR can oscillate.4 -0.8 -1 Rd >0 or Rd<0 and RL > |Rd| 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 0 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 fMAX ≤ (1/2π) (1/τtun) Tunneling time in TDs is extremely small: << 1 ps FMAX > 100 GHz Rd<0 and RL < |Rd| 22 .2 ~ Rd us RL R LC 0 -0.6 0.4 0.8 0.
18. Reddy et. VOL.Tunnel Diode microwave oscillators After: M. IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS. MAY 1997 ~ 600 GHz oscillation frequencies has been achieved. NO. 5. 23 .al.
Vs y ⎛V s ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ R⎟ ⎠ slope = − 1 R Y − axis intercept. c = Slope. m = − 1 Vs R Vs x 24 R .Nonlinear Circuit Analysis: Load Line technique Vs = Vd + IR ⇒I=− Vd Vs + R R Vs R Vd ⎛ Vs ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ I = ⎜ − ⎟Vd + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ R⎠ ⎝R⎠ y = mx + c X − axis intercept.
when the voltage across the diode is Vd. Hence the actual operating point is given by the load line – I-V intercept. Id must be equal IR. in this circuit. I Vd Vs R ⎛ Vs ⎞ ⎜ R⎟ ⎝ ⎠ slope = − 1 R Diode I-V Id1 Vd1 Vs V 25 . the diode current is given by the diode I-V curve For example. when the diode voltage is Vd1 the diode current is Id1 However. I is the resistor current when the voltage across the diode is Vd On the other hand.Nonlinear Circuit Analysis: Load Line technique Vs = Vd + I × R ⎛ Vs ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ I = ⎜ − ⎟Vd + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ R⎠ ⎝R⎠ In the load line equation.
Load Line : example Vd Vs 2V Id=2.78V R 500Ω Vd=0. Vs = 2 V I axis intercept.4 mA Id=2. (Vs/R) = 4 mA Vd=0.4 mA V axis intercept.78V 26 .
4 mA Vd=0. (Vs/R) = 2 mA Vd=0.76V R 1250Ω Id=1.5 V I axis intercept.4 mA V axis intercept.5V Id=1.Load Line : another example Vd Vs 2.76V 27 . Vs = 2.
…continued… Load Line (Variation of R) Vd Vs 2.0V R R= 500Ω R= 750Ω R= 1000Ω 28 .
…continued… Load Line (Variation of Vs) Vd Vs R 1000Ω Vs= 1V Vs=2V Vs=3V 29 .
point 4. ⇒ Ιmax ≈ 30 mA The circuit has only one operating point . mA 3 2 TD V.7 V.3 0. Point 2 is typically unstable (depending on parasitic L and C components. Example 2: Vs = 0.4 0.1 0.5 0. R = 100 Ω. R ≈ 10 Ω. V Vs Vd R 0.3 V.7 Example 1: Vs = 0. Depending on the L and C components. The circuit will operate at the point 1 or point 3 depending on the history. ⇒ Ιmax = 0.6 0. the circuit can be stable (amplifier) or unstable (oscillator) 30 .7V/100 Ω = 7 mA The circuit has three possible operating points. The total differential resistance is NEGATIVE (because R < |Rd|).2 0.Circuit with the Tunnel Diode and Resistor 8 6 4 2 4 1 I.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.