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Cornell University Library
NA 485.P18 1902
A manual of gothic moldings: with direct

3 1924 015 673 217

Cornell University

The original of this book is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.





. —Decorated Moldings 47 VII.98 XII.— Capitals 76 X.—Bases 89 XI. Introductory 1 II. .. Early Moldings in general 32 V. The General Principles of Formation . 103 Descriptions of Plates 107 . . Copying Moldings 26 IV.12 III. — CONTENTS Section page I.— Conclusion . Hood-Moldings and String-Courses . .. . Perpendicular Moldings 61 VIII. Early English Moldings 38 VI. Plans of Gothic Columns 71 IX.


Paley's work is required. and also by arranging the plates so that they are more easy for reference. The Editor has been careful to keep the book within the same limits as to size so as not to increase the cost. . the Editor has endeavoured to improve it by inserting more examples in the text. As a sixth edition of Mr. and trusts that this edition will meet with the same approval which has been bestowed on its predecessors. Several small amendments have also been made. Professor Willis's Nomenclature is now so difficult to obtain that one or two extracts have been made instead of the mere reference given in the former editions. PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION.


lest he should change its whole character from an elementary treatise to one of an entirely different class. the Author was of opinion that the revision of a professional man would secure accuracy. at the request of Mr." " Decorated. and give the work that practical character which he wished it to have." and " Perpendicular" throughout. many of them cannot now be ascer- tained with certainty. so generally understood. Though it is always difficult for one person to carry out satisfactorily the work of another. the Editor has been careful to keep the book within its present limits. The additions *and alterations that have been made have chiefly been done by way of further explanation where anything might not previously have seemed clear to a student . and these are so thoroughly engrafted into the work. But the student should . at the same time. and are. A Thied Edition of the Manual of Gothic Moldings having been called for. has undertaken to prepare it for the Press. and. as these were taken from the Author's note-books when the work was first published. . that the Editor felt it would have been undesirable to attempt any alteration. The Author has employed the terms "Early English. A considerable number of woodcuts has also been inserted by way of additional illustration. EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. the localities of the examples in the plates have been indexed but. Paley. as far as practicable. besides. the present Editor.

F. Now the two latter of these terms do not fulfil this condition. are frequently employed. for very little can be learnt without measuring. W. as scale has a very important effect on the character of Moldings. not merely to read about them. Several new terms have been proposed. Elizabethan. 1st December. &c. in Moldings. Cambridge ." "late fourteenth. M. Mr Fergusson has proposed the adoption of Edwardian and Plantagenet in a manner analogous to Tudor. PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. but he who attempts to practise as an architect (however freely he may use his knowledge) must study them thoroughly. hardly an old Church existing without something worth sketching in it . The Editor." &c. and therefore. also such terms as "early thirteenth century. . There is. and often. An accurate knowledge of Moldings is indispensable to any one professing even an amateur's acquaintance of architec- ture . 1864. and have the advantage of being very precise. and to measure them accurately. but to sketch them carefully. remember that the object to be attained in nomenclature is to define clearly the date and locality at which certain kinds of work prevailed. but by actually going about observing and measuring them himself . already in common use . which at first sight would hardly be suspected. in using them. perhaps. charming little variations may be found. the student must be careful that he knows the dates to which they refer. but those here employed have become so generally adopted that no others have succeeded in displacing them. therefore. not merely by reading a work like this (though that may be of great assistance). feels that he cannot do better than advise those who wish to attain a true knowledge of the science of Gothic Moldings.

In due time he was sent to Shrewsbury. Cambridge. if in the Preface to the new edition I give some account of his life. and it will be probably of interest to our readers. Butler was then the Head Master. as well as respectful to his memory. near York. where Dr. While at Cambridge he was much interested in Architecture. and took his degree in 1838. EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. and so was not eligible to enter in the lists for Classical honours. John's College. 1815. He was born on 14th January. a grandson of Archdeacon Paley who wrote the "Evidences of Christianity. and naturally became a member of the Cambridge Camden Society. Since the last edition of this work was issued its talented Author has passed away. He held the office of Secretary from 1841—2 to its . and in 1834 he came up to St. of which parish his father was Vicar. but at that time every one going out in honours at all was obliged first to appear in the Mathematical Tripos. That such a ripe classical scholar as he was should not have appeared in the Tripos seems a little strange . Paley either could not or would not take the trouble to do this (probably the greater part of the latter). It was commonly said that he was plucked in one of the college examinations in Paley's " Evidences " because he wrote at the foot of his paper. " Tales of my Grandfather " —he being . at Easingwold." Whether true or not the tale is certainly characteristic of the man.

and had had considerable opportunity of getting a fair knowledge of them. I measured and sketched moldings as one important part of my studies. only finishing with "Part II. and taking with me. A keen and close observation was certainly a characteristic of my brother. professional or otherwise. of Lancaster. read this work with avidity.' My brother. amongst other Architectural books. A letter to me from his brother. fortunately eventuated in the publication of his book on Moldings. Paley read a paper " On the Moldings of Pointed Architecture. A. and I like to think that my brother's early interest in this work (not usually much taken up by amateurs) thus commenced. I had the pleasure to send him from time to time several of the examples that appear in the book. Mr. when it merged into the Ecclesiological Society. The first form of this book was that of papers written for the Society. consider rather dry and . and collecting examples of moldings of various dates." "Part I. Mr. which fortunately were singularly good and interesting buildings of every date from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries. Eickman's ' Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of Architecture in England. E. F.among the notices of which we find that on 13th February. and on 5th March the same notice appears. dissolution in 1845. Decorated and Perpendicular Styles.xii PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. near Stamford (about 1839 to 42). and became extremely interested in the subject of English Architecture. and frequently accompanied me in my visits to examine and sketch the neighbouring churches. Paley. Norman and Early English " . Gr. I recollect well. and developing into a systematic and careful study of the subject. and this quality may account for the somewhat remarkable fact that an amateur should give such close attention to a subject that the majority of students. says : — " I well remember going home to my father's Eectory at Gretford." He had taken great interest in these details. 1844. As a young student of Church Architecture.

— I was truly gratified by the receipt of your kind letter. " In later life he devoted himself almost entirely to Greek . This was followed at intervals by editions of all the other plays of iEschylus. — PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION." This letter shows clearly that he was fully qualified to speak when he read his paper before the Cambridge Camden Society in 1844. but are exceedingly useful to the cause as far as they go. yours most sincerely. There are few men whose appreciation I should desire more than your own. will be of the greatest service to me at the present time. In fact I have never met with any one who entertains more correct views of Church Architecture than yourself and our friend Mr. as it is therefore better received by a host of intermediate men who could not swallow strong drink. Paley 's powers as a Greek scholar were first proved in 1844 by his edition of the Supplices of iEschylus. —indeed the foundation and groundwork of the art. Mr. which displays not only his knowledge of the language and of his author. which. Augustus Welby Pugin. Paley has also sent me a letter to our Author from Mr. xiii uninteresting. Your tracing. Webb. though undated. Would it be trespassing on your goodness to ask for a few tracings from the ' Bestiary ' in the Library ? I want to give some outlines of animals." "Mr. is evidently written about this time. which you so kindly sent me. "Believe me. G. " Welby Pugin. and I am the more reconciled to its not being quite so strong as you and I could wish. and is too interesting to be omitted here : " My dear Sir. The Ecclesiologist does an infinity of good. but his power of emendation. though really of the first importance. E.

that it may be as well to remind the critical reader that the mass of illustrations were taken from Mr. the Introduction to " Illustrations of Baptismal Fonts " . " Notes on Twenty Parish Churches round Peterborough " (1860) . rather than what it originally was. This edition of his work on Moldings has been carefully revised by the Editor. and showed bis knowledge of the Latin language by editing Propertius. where he remained till he passed away. 9th December. 1888. and left Cambridge." But he was not idle on the subject of Architecture. 1856) . joined the Church of Rome. Soon after the dissolution of the Cambridge Camden Society. and several new illustrations inserted. " The Eccle- siologist's Guide to Churches near Cambridge " (1844) . Hesiod and other authors with English notes. The " Manual of Gothic Architecture " (1846) . which he always seemed to take up as a change whenever time could be found. It has become so much lately a text-book for students. and also published a translation of Pindar. and was always re- garded as one of the most careful Classical Tutors. list of his architectural works besides this book on Moldings. " Re- marks on the Architecture of Peterborough Cathedral " . " Architectural Notes on Cartmel Priory Church" (2nd edition. In 1860 he returned to Cambridge.xiv PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. literature. He remained until he accepted the post of Professor of Classical Literature at the newly-formed Roman Catholic College at Kensington. He gave most attention to the vexata qu<estio of the authorship of the Homeric poems. I believe. 1872) . if not complete. (2nd edition. Paley." are. on Sunday. a manual for the amateur. and he published editions of Euripides. Since the dissolution of that establish- ment he resided at Bournemouth. a fair. and for strict and absolute . and " The Church Restorers : a Tale. Mr. in 1847. Paley's note-book when he himself was studying the subject.

but whatever freedom he may 'allow himself in his work. How far an artist should confine him- self to copying the moldings. of ancient work is a matter each must decide for himself. xv accuracy the student must measure for himself and not depend on small scale sketches. &c. he is sure to find great value in a thorough acquaintance with the experience and work of those who have gone before him. . PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION.


INTBODUCTOKY. and were uniformly adopted in the constructive decoration of all edifices. lastly. how far the same forms were arbitrary or obligatory in ancient freemasonwork. or were assumed by some tacit agreement on the part of the masons themselves. though. perhaps. the ancient orthography of the word. without feeling the im- portance of acquiring an accurate knowledge of Moldings. whether from a natural process of gradual develop- ment. throughout the length and breadth of the land. are curious questions.* That certain conventional forms or details were in use at certain periods. has been adopted after Professor Willis. with varieties rather of combination or disposition than of the component members. which. ecclesiastical and secular. well known to and admitted by all who have paid any attention to the subject. how far they emanated from some particular source. as it was practised in this country during the Middle Ages. equally * This. are equally interesting speculations. But whence these forms arose. and were dispensed by authority through the country. is an undoubted fact. Again. or from some real or pretended secret of freehrasonry. SECTION I. No person can have devoted much time and pains to the in- vestigation of Christian architecture. A MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. or. have never yet been made the subjects of much investigation. from mere accident or caprice. B . so far as the author is aware.

as to make it evident that some system must have been observed both in designing and executing them. with varieties. or almost every ancient church would exhibit new and strange varieties in the details of its moldings. and yet there is such resemblance and decided adherence to rule. or other article of dress. to a certain extent. and even when he pretends to imitate. Or can this acknowledged uniformity be referred to no more recondite cause than fashion ? Can it be said. inde- pendently. is seen in London which is found in common use at York. in which every professor is at liberty to design just as he pleases. is apt very freely to indulge his own pleasure. that it certainly does appear strange and unaccountable. this general resemblance and uniformity. or coat. arid a considerable degree of caprice in adorning of diversifying them . There is in all these enough of licence and variety to give scope for occasional localisms. and even to ridicule the restraints of strict rule. may have been. as all these things are ex- clusively in the hands of certain bodies. as hatters and tailors. so there was at once a fashion and a mono- poly in architecture . When the difficulty which then existed of constant and speedy communication between distant parts of the country is considered. it is quite certain that a strict intercourse must have been kept up between the members of this body of artisans. but then it is one so very different from modern architectural practice. not only indeed in moldings. difficult to determine. but in all the parts and features of Church architecture. . and to make it probable that each architect worked. and a solecism in moldings would have seemed to the ancient Churchman as striking and offensive a fault as a solecism in dress is now considered ? Perhaps this is the most rational and probable view . must appear still more surprising. and that. However this . that as the same kind of hat. indeed. and no one ever dreams of employing others than these in providing them .2 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.

To these may be added the tediousness of making any considerable collec- tion of drawings and sections of moldings. Sharpe's fine work. Why should so much pains be taken in investigating these comparatively insignificant minutiae : why should they not be copied in our new churches without writing books about them. that it is to be regretted that so little has yet been done in reducing to a science this interesting and practically important department of Gothic architecture. and F. It may possibly be said. reduced (for the most part) to one-third size. that moldings are of the greatest * Since the above was written. and to induce the reader to pardon any errors or deficiencies which he may notice in the course of the present work. and so turning an amusing pursuit into a hard lesson. " Architectural Parallels. Spon. being a series of examples. Probably a fancied uncertainty and obscurity of the study.) Mr.A. 3 However. N. or a want of sufficient data. Charing Cross. all these questions are quite foreign to the object of the present work. and as such it is out of place to say anything more about them. But this may reasonably -be observed. They are all the province of the anti- quary rather than the architect. the delay and difficulty of copying them with minute accuracy.* These are causes at once sufficient to render a first attempt imperfect. b 2 .. and the apparent anomalies and inconsistencies which seem often to occur. or ignor- ance of the exact periods at which buildings were erected. M. 1871. an important work on Gothic Moldings has been published by Edward Sharpe. so as to be readily distin- guished. have all tended to deter even the most competent from writing a complete treatise on the subject. in six parts 4to. contains a large number of reduced outline plans and sections of moldings of the finest period. by imposing on beginners so much to learn ? The answer is. E. Esq.. and printed in different tints. INTRODUCTORY. especially as the writer is incompetent to give any solution of the difficulty which they involve. (London." folio. and the amount of observation and research necessary for attaining a knowledge of their history and true theory. arranged according to their dates.

apparently an original composition of the late Mr. in the details of their moldings. especially in the working of capitals and bases. and very frequently the only guides in determin- ing the dates of buildings. Hickman's. too. In practice. on the first revival of the true principles of Gotbic architecture. minor differences.". they are of the first importance. Cambridge. or accompanied by * As an molding of the archway in the centre of the instance. John's College. the cloister to the new buildings of St.* This is in striking contrast with ancient practice . and their uniformity of type. it was but too common to find the most wretched and meagre imitations of ancient examples. It may either contain a great collection of the best examples. They are by far the most certain. that some years ago. accurately reduced to a scale. the smallest and humblest churches often show very pretty and carefully worked moldings. is partly Early English and partly debased Perpendicular . In structures of that period^ even of considerable pre- tension. who are fully sensible of the great importance of correct moldings to the effect. or of architectural members . and indeed surprising mistakes were frequently committed. of course. possible importance : so much so. It must be confessed. of their designs. that they have rightly been called "the very grammar of the art. as well as to the distinctive character. is surprising. A work on moldings may have any one of the three following ends in view. with. as a map is to the study of geography. . even by architects of repute. and a general poverty of appearance prevailed. they are just as essential to a knowledge of architecture. It is gratifying to find such rapid improvement and so much increased attention on the part of our present architects.4 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. very serious. the spirit and char- acter of which were completely lost or perverted by some violation of leading principles. No one has any claim to the name of architect who thinks the science of moldings beneath his notice. There was but little discrimination of styles.

and a judicious selection out of thousands of drawings. and to point out differences . The first could perhaps be satisfactorily accom- plished only by a professional man. who has himself seen the want of some work on the subject. then. and being thrown entirely upon his own resources in examining and investigating it. . INTRODUCTORY. is of that perfect and minute accuracy which might have been obtained by a laborious reduction of full-sized outlines to one and the same scale. Such. it may be an elementary treatise. from a collection of a few hundreds of full-sized sections. and from all places where Gothic architecture has prevailed. and taking a comprehensive view of the whole subject through the medium of the Classic and Komanesque varieties . The object being to ex- plain details and formations. It is obvious that the number of examples given might be absolutely unlimited. who might be supposed to know the wants of architects and the best method of supplying them. intended only to convey plain and easy information on the most ordinary forms. or. dealing with principles rather than with bare facts. The last alone seems capable of being tolerably well treated by an amateur. and on the differences observable in each style. who may often be unable to procure in their immediate neighbourhood any available models or. it may profess to be a complete and elaborate exposition of the theory of moldings. and that to attempt a complete illustration would require many hundreds of engravings. so as to form a magazine of reference. The second would require not only very considerable acuteness and ingenuity. and thus supply the wants of practical men. is the aim and object of the present work. but the observation and collections of many years. Such exten- sive resources the author does not profess to possess . of which the method of treatment is simple and practical as far as possible. secondly. 5 measurements. made at different times and places by the eye alone. nor can he even assert that every one of the examples he has given. and aboutas many drawings. lastly.

He will learn to pronounce with some degree of confidence the date of the merest fragment of sculptured stone. almost imperceptibly. and tracing out to his own satisfaction the forms and processes through which he conceives moldings to have passed in the various stages of their development. Let him only enter upon it. . though of course highly desirable. The only necessary con- ditions are a tolerable idea of delineation. Viewed as an inductive science. and he will be rewarded for his pains. they may seem only an unmeaning cluster of hollows. and the blending forms. is unnecessary. For the same reason the measurements are only occasionally added. are not aware that every group can be analysed with perfect ease and certainty . Many persons. Possessed of these simple qualifi- cations. the shadows. that every member is cut by rule. if only by the enlarged views he will acquire of the ancient principles of effect. viewed without under- standing. A broken * Most of the woodcuts. and a general interest in Church architecture.and was in the present case quite impracticable. and shapeless excrescences. have been reduced from actual measurements. rather than examples of rare ex- ceptions to the general practice of the ancient architects. he will be led on by his subject from step to step. the study of Gothic moldings is as curious and interesting in itself as it is important in its results. But such is surely the case and a knowledge of the fact should convince the student of the reasonableness of the study. Any one who engages actively in it will he amply repaid. OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.* The specimens engraved are mostly those of ordinary occurrence. The curves. and the examples in the last five plates. this ex- treme faithfulness of delineation. . and arranged by certain laws of combination. ever observing and adding to his store of facts and examples. 6 MANUAL. arrangement and composition. are really in themselves extremely beautiful. rather than to furnish models for modern imitation. and will soon become the favourites of a familiar eye : though. nooks.

therefore. Brandon have pointed out the interesting fact. however dilapidated or defaced. It is here. The look of a molding is so very different in section. 7 piece of a capital. To however great an extent the earlier por- tion ofan edifice may have been subsequently copied. Supposing a molded archway were to be taken down. once for all explained how the engravings are to be under- stood. of which so insignificant a remnant alone remains. dug up on the reputed site of an ancient building. 10. Introduction. or a door-jamb. if he does not apply in practice that which he has learned from them. He will look at every ancient building. projected in a reduced size on paper. that the same form seen in the one may not even be recognized in the other. — for he will be sure to find in its very demolition peculiar facilities for research. perhaps overturning some of his previously formed theories." " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. with a more searching eye. these important members were always worked in strict conformity with the ordinary — system prevalent at the time of their construction. eras were always most faithfully preserved. and with the effects of light and shade upon it. INTRODUCTORY. He will regard every shattered arch with a new attention. the moldings of the respective. that although earlier styles were occasionally imitated in completing or alter- ing buildings at a later period." p. a string-course. or a geologist in an undescribed fossil. —perhaps clearly re- ducible to and confirmatory of them. from its appearance in perspective reality. . A few examples in the page of a book are as nothing. " The assimilating process never extended to the moldings. will tell him of what style and date the fabric was. and any * The Messrs. The learner must understand that the best work on Gothic moldings which could possibly be written will do no more than set him in the right way to obtain' a knowledge of the subject by his own research.* He will ever and anon meet with some new and singular conformation. a herald in an ancient escutcheon. He will find the same satisfaction in examining it which a botanist finds in a rare plant.

at right angles with it. Again. 15. sheet of one of the arch-stones placed upon a large square paper. does not give so clear a view of the forms of the separate members. and shading the cavities and projec- tions. But the student must not only observe . The shaded portion of PL. this would in the same way represent the shaded sections of these details. showing at once the flat end or upper face. sife. his knowledge will never be practically perfect. V. XII. should he lies in and the or inner with the end of the paper nearest to you. The method adopted by architects is uniformly that which has been followed in the plates illustrating the present work. the same as the templet or mold. he must copy mold- ings in order to understand them. Without the latter. soffit surface. or a capital or base down the middle. would form a diagram exactly similar to our illustra- tions. and after- wards in and out of each cavity and round each projection. fig. . obtained reduced. But this. fig. and marked off by the sharp edge of the mold- ing. which is used by workmen in marking out the stones previously to cutting them out. as in the woodcut and PL. and a piece of paper inserted in the crevice. and then a pencil were to be carried along the wall-line first. a thin plate of zinc. and the molded Beoorated door-jamb. 5. and shaded on the part which represents the flat side or bed of the stone. and so up a portion of the soffit-plane . in fact. The usual popular way of engraving Gothic mold- ings is to give a perspective sketch of a stone or slice cut out of the arch. How to do this. or part of the stone parallel which the plane of the outer wall. is a good illustration of a templet. Each example is. Northampton. tin. the outline thus. if a string-course were to be sawn across.. in such a manner that the a small size (say a scale of half an inch to a foot). or wood.8 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. parallel to one side . though its general appearance is certainly much more like the reality. Maxey.

* Nothing is better adapted for a pedestrian tourist than a block sketching book. These are to be obtained with the. INTRODUCTORY. should be kept. that though certain lines. the en- deavours to improve it will seldom be very successful. Vol. planes. As this work is not easily obtainable. which are not always geometric. of the Quarto Publications of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. and the objection to having a number of loose sheets is obviated. leaves fixed on one side. so that they form a book when complete. who was born in Bristol in 1415. and measurements may be drawn in all cases to assist the process. especially in the present dearth of terms. '+ " The Architectural Nomenclature of the Middle Ages. can scarcely be caught without considerable practice. and ensure general fidelity. and it is to be hoped they will be revived. It is taken from the Itinerarium of William of Worcester. by explaining some of the various methods which have been practised. the measurements and name of place being duly registered with each example. at the outset. they are somewhat difficult to copy accurately by the eye. Willis's treatise. Perhaps the student's first attempts will result in failure . because the exact curves. but it is sur- prising how well and how readily a practised hand can copy in a few minutes a most complex group. And if the true form is not attained by the first stroke. 1. A small note-book should be kept exclusively for copying moldings by the eye." for ruling parallel and rectangular lines. the following Schedule and diagram is here inserted. . In this treatise. 9 will shortly be shown. in the pocket of which a small " T-square. It will be found with fuller explanations in Prof. It must be understood. the learned and useful work lately published by Professor Willisf supplies an authentic source of information. some of the ancient names of moldings have been recovered ." being Part 7.* For the mediaeval nomenclature of moldings.

felet. Ij. —A ressant.—A felet. C.— A felet. 40. A few expressions used in the present work it will be neces- sary clearly to define before entering upon the subject. I. N. —Yn'the my. as in PL. fig. R. being the appearance it would present if cut through by a plane at right angles to its bearing. . M.—A boutel. is called the section or profile of a molding. 22. Thus PL. North Door of St. Facsimile of William of Worcester's drawing. —A casement with Levys. X.A filet. 8 .—A felet. —A casement.— A boutell. F.—A felet.—A felet. if cut across A b. I. A. Bristol. A drawing which represents the outline of these projections and recesses. when the edge or surface of it presents continuous lines of alternate pro- jections and recesses. —A casement. K. P. —A casement with trayler D. H. Any architectural member is said to be molded. O. -I U. 'A felet. — A cors wythqute. B. door a boutelle. fig.ides of the I A felet. — A bnwtelle. "R. would present the appearance of fig. — f AA boutel. of Levys. A casement. A drawing which represents these lines as they would appear to the eye if projected on a vertical plane placed opposite to them. 1 to 5. is called the elevation of a molding. —A double ressaunt. Stephen's Church. S. figs. —A ressant. 10. . " 10 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 24. PL. 5. T.—A felet. I G. I.

when placed in combina- tion. to be able to draw or " take " moldings. An arch of two or more orders. and. as we generally find them . with tolerable precision. these preliminary points will be explained as simply and briefly as possible. either full-sized or reduced to a scale. but A group is a bunch of moldings or separate members. either on a shaft or between two deep hollows. first to understand the general principles of formation. before entering upon the consideration of the combinations and more minute varieties of detail. Thus PL. INTRODUCTORY. Members are said to be grouped. is the section across an arch of "two orders. 5. is one which is recessed by so many successive planes or retiring sub-arches. I. . secondly. each placed behind and beneath the next before it. standing prominent or isolated. 11 A mold. com- monly signifies the entire series which ornaments a jamb or arch . reckoning from the outer wall line. or molding (the former is the ancient term). fig. but it is here generally used in the sense of a particular part or member of such series." and fig." As it is necessary for every student in this science. 7 is of "three hollow-cham- fered orders.

SECTION II. the forms of the moldings which we call Gothic are merely nascent. which was most closely connected with the Classic. that any two styles working independently of each other from the same beginnings and elemental forms. from the first and rudest origin to the most elaborate develop- ment .12 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. as might be expected. But the convincing argument is this : that in Gothic molding all the links in the process of formation are connected and complete. a new member was introduced. and the steps are so natural. - . a supposition hardly probable in itself. could hardly fail of arriving at least at some of the same results. Augustine downwards. we cannot suppose they would have cared to copy in its details what they altogether repudiated in its kind. and one which appears scarcely ten- able. from the time of St. the transitions so easy. There are some who contend that Gothic moldings are derived. This is also the opinion of the authors of the " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. It seems certain that all the forms of Gothic Moldings are the peculiar and genuine offspring of Christian architecture. when we observe that in the Norman style (in England at least). if at this or that period. from the consideration that the mediaeval architects of this country* could have known little of Italian architecture." page 48. mediately indeed. and. yet very de- cidedly. It is also true that the intercourse with Eome was always frequent. Still it is impossible to trace in pure Gothic buildings the least symptom of Italianizing either in com- position or details. and if they had. or at least are very partially and indirectly borrowed from the Classic styles . and entirely undeveloped . although. as it * It is true that the Freemasons were an ecclesiastical body under the Pope. and not confined to this or any other particular country in Europe. some coincidences of form exist between them. from Koman . THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. Again.

and though it can hardly be said that the early Gothic forms are mere copies of Classic or Eastern ones. we find new forms. Still. it adapted details from Saracenic or Moorish. In truth. why should it not be attributed to invention. from the debased Classical. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP FORMATION. Arabian). and to enlarge its capacity of design- ing according to the requirements it met with. And it is undeniable that several forms and combinations of the ogee curve are nearly identical in Classic and in Gothic buildings. Also in matters of mere detail. and it will hereafter clearly be demonstrated that such was the case. there is such a general resemblance in the character of the work. and to satisfy special wants . About that time it must be remembered that the whole of Western Europe was engaged in the first Crusade. a new letter added to the alphabet. from Norman. if every Gothic form can be shown to be an improvement or modification of a preceding one. the discussion of this question is rather for those who have to do with the "theory of moldings. from the Byzantine . From the time of the formation of the first Christian Basilica to the middle of the twelfth century. rather than sought for in the resem- blance which an Italian molding may happen to bear to it ? However. naturally be to accustom the mind to see beauty in an entirely different class of forms.e. some of which may be traced to foreign sources : the Early English base is allowed by all to have been borrowed from the Attic . That the whole tone of Architecture was then altered is an undoubted fact. and some leading features were then introduced for the first time. Gothic architecture grew up under peculiar circum- stances. (i. as the determina- tion of it does not in the least affect the facts of which this work treats. 13 were. as to have caused it to be classed under the one title of Komanesque. the effect of travel would. in its origin eclectic. it must be concluded that the whole series is the offspring of one and the same progressive art.

They are repeated too in groups.changes of form and modifications produced by various climates. that is. round the weatherings of buttresses. Its history is truly one of " evolution " . In Gothic architecture. in the latter both are absolutely defined. and Komanesque edifices of all dates and descriptions. and may so far perhaps be regarded as lingering ves- tiges of the Classic usage. 14 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. and numerous other influences. so as to contrast and display the predominant principles of a vertical ascending sweep. and ex- tensively in base-courses. especially in the earlier styles. In their use also Gothic moldings differ as widely as possible from Classic. so as entirely to occupy the large recessed spaces in jambs and arches. and from Italian. in which posi- tions they invariably form subordinate lines. national taste or genius. and peruse. And thus in general we measure. 1844. the latter in horizontal. of successive . The combinations of the one are in a great measure arbitrary. both internal and external. . and the * For December. or in projecting curves on whichaway by degrees into shadow. catching the light in masses. and very limited in their application. or nearly so. Lombardic. churches. and are carried under windows and arcades. The former run principally in vertical lines. material. The former are repeated to almost any extent. a Grecian molding by its lights. we read. or. The latter are few in number. half Greek in design. each group being composed of the same members. if the expression may be used. An intelligent and thoughtful writer in the English Review* has the following remarks on the differences between Grecian and Gothic moldings : "Where the Grecian delighted in broad level surfaces. and in capitals and bases. horizontal moldings occur in water-tables and string-courses. though the forms themselves are fixed . They are also used very effectively to divide lofty walls into stages. the it dies Gothic roughened and encrusted them with carving.

the Gothic in concave. unbroken undula- tions . THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. In the Gothic. in the. not only what are usually called ornamental moldings. thereby producing the same result as in Gothic. even in later and degenerated specimens. and may indeed be traced to a still earlier period in the sides of doorways and similar positions. in the one case. vertical moldings are most frequent . that the vertical moldings are regulated. and they overrule and determine those which are horizontal. The Grecian throws out projections to catch the eye . horizontal entablature of the Grecians. and combines them in angles and curves. Gothic architecture revelled in the use of moldings. the Gothic in narrow. hori- zontal lines continuing to predominate. Gothic are entangled in labyrinths. and fell on each side in vertical lines into the horizontal. When the Eomans broke up. And Grecian moldings are simple and easily divisible into parts . the Grecian in broad lights. vertical moldings are rare. and perplexed with innumerable intricacies. For instance. some may be detected by a super- ficial view. The lights and shadows of the Grecian melt and slide insensibly into each other ." " Of the differences between Again : the two classes of molding. the ball-flower. othei> being subdued and rendered secondary and subordinate to the vertical principle. the Gothic fractures its lines. the Grecian delights in convex lines. &c. the Gothic endeavours to bury it in deep recesses. by means of the arch." The notion of ascending moldings is coeval with the intro- duction of the arch. though with a different effect . since . but also the plain continuous lines of light and shadow . and it is by these. such as the dog- tooth. Hori- zontal moldings form the leading lines . The Grecian leads it gently along in sweeping. the continuous . those of the Gothic are planted together in strong and bold contrast In the purest Grecian buildings. the cornice moldings were carried around it. 15 Gothic by its shadows. though they are in effect identical.

not the essentials. or an arch-mold is often found of perfectly the same profile in an abbey or a cathedral. that no ordinary pains are requisite in examining any considerable moiety of them for the purposes of investi- gating their principles. of architecture. there would have been nothing to investigate. string. internal or external. . Construction gained thereby a rich perspective. was generally molded. and made it dwell on certain parts of higher pretension and more exquisite elaboration than others. Boldness and simplicity produce effects. monial. window. so that we * This may occasionally be seen. But so little did the mediaeval masons depart from the conventional forms. different indeed in their kind. It was their ambition to work them wherever they could possibly find means and opportunity. and jamb. the former are nothing but serrated ridges. an attempering of bare prominent outlines. Every door. and in a village church at the other end of the kingdom . and it is quite evident that they delighted in their extensive use. every band. a depth of shade. Some buildings of the best periods were quite devoid of mold- ings. whence it is evident that they are not necessary even to a perfect design. indeed. It is probable that they were gene- rally worked out after the completion of a building. a fine tone. arch. groin-rib. vertical or horizontal. a base. whether of wood or stone.f every edge. Hence it is that such a vast quantity every- where remains. And yet moldings are merely the ornamental adjuncts. that a capital. But the power of moldings was appreciated to the fall by the ancient architects. yet not less solemn and striking than richness of detail. Of course the effect produced by so free and extended a use of them was magnificent in the extreme. If the uniformity in their use had not been tolerably strict.16 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. label. it had indeed been a hopeless task ever to master the subject . when the molding was left for some reason or accident partially uncut. roof.* more or less rounded and modified from the first process. t The mediaeval term for what we now call mulUon. if there had not been a system of molding. which arrested the eye.

Lincolnshire. but has more members in it. Bottisham. beginning with very early buildings. as in fig. even considerably later. especially in belfry-arches. and will be anxious to enter upon the subject at once. . I. the student would do well to notice those in other materials. by sloping or chamfering off the edges. in the annexed examples. On examining the plan of a Saxon window or doorway. . trom the screen at Burgh le Marsh. And at this point it may be well to proceed. must appear a very wonderful fact. that is. The reader will perhaps be tired of this preliminary chapter. Although the examples given here are in nearly every case from stonework. such as wood. iron. the long narrow opening has a very wide splay inside and a very small one on c . 17 might almost suspect that the very same working drawing had been used for both. according to the fine- ^IBF B i ness of the material thus. as in PL. for though the same forms will be found at the same date as in stonework. they are on a more delicate scale. So in an ordinary Early English lancet window. when it is considered. And this. Burgh. 2. fig. This may often be met with. be relieved and expanded by splaying it on one or both sides. perhaps nothing more will be found than a rude square-edged aperture in a plain wall. Dear Cambridge. Stonework. however.1 . and endeavouring to discover the origin of the practice. Woodwork. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. the monial t. in small and rude country churches. is only half the size of the stone one from Bottisham. 1. and then gradually trace the progress of development until the forms have all been analyzed and classified according to their respective dates. It may. &c.

or square edge. but was * In Transition arches. the outside. f Potter's Monastic Remains. without any interruption or change of shape. the sub- arch was no longer a separate constructive formation. 3. 18 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. III. or soffit-pilasters. a sub-arch. which is common in Early English and Decorated arches. the plan is at once obtained which was most con- stantly used. we shall find the germs of a usage which ever afterwards prevailed. or of two orders or retiring members. for centuries afterwards (PL. there may be two or more sub-arches. In practice. 5). or a projecting impost. is often corbelled off at the impost. it was not uncommon to add. This is the case in the chancel- arch at Cherry Hinton. but no alteration of principle. or simply as in fig. if the wall be very thick each one retiring behind the other. In the abbey church of St. for the sake at once of ornament and security. or sub-arch. near Cambridge. and was much in TOgue from about 1260 to 1320. without the least change of form. Of course. The same is observable in several of the Transition arches at Buildwas Abbey. as fig. of this aper- ture. which are continued from the ground with the intervention: of a mere band or string-course at the impost. and IV. Now in this rude arrangement. the nave and transept-arches are constructed of two rectangular sub-ribs. And the chamfer may be hollow. Alban's. 7. f By chamfering off each arris. In arching over the upper part of an aper- ture as fig. molded. with some improve- ments of form and detail. the inner order. the jambs being left square. which now becomes recessed. made in a thick wall of loose rubble masonry. when worked on a small scale. constructed of fine-jointed ashlar. that is. PL. . fig. 1. especially in pier arches.* or it was carried continuously down to the ground. with a small shaft at the angles. This sub-arch rested either on a pillar at each side. or under-rib. fig. . I. which is observable in many continental Romanesque churches. however. 4. like the groin- rib of a vault.

lllatS .

as was very usual in this style. near Boston. 15.fYork- shire. From this latter arrangement is derived the double roll and fillet which forms the central member of PL. XXI. the first element of moldings. Fig. an arch-mold from the choir of Ripon Minster. and fig.* bearing the date 1192 . and cutting a deep three-quarter hollow on each side. and the other is of very nearly the same period. the belfry arch of Morcot Church. Now this column seems at first to have borne a square-edged member or sub-arch. in the same county. In considering the origin of the cylindrical roll or bowtell. In Norman doorways every nook formed by the receding under-ribs. both in Lincolnshire.. but occasionally double. p. PL. fig. and arch-molds of this kind are of constant occurrence in the Norman and Transition styles. as PL. an arch from Seaton Church. Lincolnshire. These bold early moldings are generally called " edge-rolls. I. The pier- arches in the nave of Peterborough Cathedral are molded pre- t cisely in the same manner. In the latter church a Dedication inscription still remains. 158. Thus the bowtell becomes attached only by a narrow neck. and illustrates this arrangement. Both these are good examples of the same principle . In this the square edge is worked into a shallow triple roll. from which this example- is borrowed." because they occur at the external angles of the receding ordei's. 8. * Facsimile given in Eiokman's " Gothic Architecture. They are commonly single. is occupied by a detached column. Fig. XVIII. . already described. Rut- land .20 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. + See " Churches of Yorkshire. Here the howtell is formed by rounding the edge as before." Part VII. 13 is from Great Grimsby. 1 of the same plate. fig. 12 is an Early English pier-arch at Skirbeck. the influence of jamb-shafts must be taken into account. 2. and are yet not extended on each side." Seventh Edition. as fig. 14 from Clee. fig. is from Adel Church.

as in the annexed example from Croxden Abbey. Benet's. and in truth it is very frequently found in the Transition period. resembling. This member arose from a desire to decorate the angles of recessed arches. Yet something closely resembling this member often occurs in Norman work. The western porch at Ely is flanked by . 21 which projected above the impost exactly where the jamb receded below it. which seems the origin of what is called the scroll-molding. the introduction of the pointed arch. 17 is a triple respond or half- pier. Staffordshire. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP FORMATION. the plan of which may be described as a spherical triangle engaged at the base. is of constant occurrence in Early English work. and fig. 16. between two cylindrical bowtells. Lincoln. The pointed shaft. The clustered columns at Byland and Whitby Abbeys (the former circa 1190) exhibit the pointed shaft alternating with the circular. In this case the under-edge -is withdrawn at the point. by omitting altogether the impost or capital. and coeval with. Fig. the idea of continuous moldings is obtained. is the «^ pointed bowtell. This subject. Hence. Another form. 13. without either cutting away or rounding off the square edge. I. near Cambridge. Mary's Church. and which was afterwards. which occurs frequently in the Transition Norman and Early English periods. though not in the pure Norman. p' Its formation may be seen in PL. fig. This may very clearly be seen in an Early Norman doorway at Hauxton. will be spoken of more fully in treating of capitals and shafts generally. Hence its occurrence in Early Gothic may be expected. Ely. hereafter to be explained. in some cases. 19 shows its use in an Early English arch at St. 24 shows this form more at large. at Clee . however. and is generally a mark of its early date. rounded off so as to correspond in form and size with the column itself. as at a. r ^r yC/^ which is the plan of a late Norman arch in St. Fig. of very singular form. fig.

is a pier-arch of very Early English date. edges and sinking hollows. 8. clustered columns of pointed shafts. that all these moldings are formed. is the jamb of a lancet window at the east end of Rivaulx Abbey. 3 the chancel-arch at Langtoft. Fig. Vol. at Middle Easen. the outermost . This is one of the com- monest moldings at the angles of Early English window-jambs. Fig. and must never be regarded as ex- Nave Arcade. New Shoreham. 2 is a doorway at Ludborough. I. PI. 22 is a groin-rib from Eobertsbridge Abbey. Sussex. PL. from the manner adopted here of drawing the sections. Undoubtedly this form existed earlier than. 12 and 23. and in consequence. XVIII. where the fillet is at the end or central point. 4. 22 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 18 is a groin-rib from Tintern Abbey. fig 1. and fig/ 5 the jamb of the archway of the south porch at Great Grimsby. The student will already have perceived. The first three exhibit the use of the pointed bowtell. And fig. figs. fig. and afterwards led to. crescences on a plane (Brandon's Analysis.) surface secondly. PL.out of the solid block solely by removing Soffit plane. show the cylindrical and the pointed bowtells with the addition of a small fillet at one side. it may be stated that a shaft may take almost any form to suit the primary molding which it sustains on its capital. the filleted shaft and bowtell. II. II. Of all these varieties more will be said hereafter. first. . Fig. all in Lincolnshire. 25 is an Early English arch at Little Casterton. where both sides are thus filleted. that the groups lie in the planes of the uncut blocks. PL. which are so well known by the name of the " roll-and- fillet. where there are three fillets. fig. on the principle of continuous moldings already alluded to." As a general rule.

which at this time was in most cases worked exactly at an angle of 45° and as the style advanced towards the . or parallel with the soffit. although we occasionally find the jamb molded on the chamfer-plane. When this is done by accurate measurement. but then in tolerably frequent connection with the chamfer-plane. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OE FORMATION. 23 edge of each member touching the rectangular or chamfered surface. It may be . There are three planes in which moldings will be found to lie . analyzed. which was generally (not invariably) done at an angle of about forty-five degrees. the wall and soffit planes still continued to be most generally used. c the wall-plane. and sketched with precision. not being cut away so as to fall below or short of it. all attempts to do so will be futile. 10.* that Early English * " In the Anglo-Norman stylo the jamb-molds were almost always worked in the wall and soffit planes and this continued to be the general . that is. These two facts must be regarded as fundamental canons in the arrange- ment of moldings. Without attending to these facts. a is the chamfer-plane. to ascertain the plan of the arch. one at right angles to it. a group of moldings would be developed. or other feature. are represented in our engravings by dotted lines. which we shall designate the wall-plane . as a general rule. or uncut square surfaces. II. and the most complex and extensive combination. arrangement throughout the Early English Gothic period. the first point is to lay down on paper the various planes. be- fore the moldings were cut.alleged. In PL. that is. which it appears at first sight impossible to copy with anything like accuracy. the moldings shared in the pre- . the plane formed by chamfering an edge. one parallel with the outer wall. The original planes. may be readily disentangled. In considering any series of moldings previously to copying them. fig. or the chamfer-plane. It is clear that by sinking hollows in any one of these surfaces. which may be called the soffit-plane . and the third. the rest of the process becomes comparatively easy. b the soffit-plane. During the earlier portion of the Decorated Gothic period. era of decided architectural debasement.

'Fig. and if they fall on the segment of a circle. 12 is the distorted and inaccurate form it would probably assume if an unpractised and untaught draughtsman were to attempt to copy it by the eye. lie on the last. near Cam- vailing desire to produce a meretricious effect. II. Cam- bridgeshire. by no means uncommon to meet with moldings of all the styles in which some of the members are withdrawn considerably below the plane of the others. 15. . PL. 16 one at Trumpington. Cherry Hinton. Stamford.The arrangement of moldings on the original block-planes was less and less rigidly adhered to as the styles progressed. ac- lie cording to their kind. as in PL. Fig. truly copied according to the above rules. is an Early English molding from the interior of the chancel door.24 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. or on the chamfer- plane alone and that Perpendicular moldings almost always . they will generally be found referable to some other. and fig. 9 is a doorway. 14 is a door- way at Madingley. These are Early Decorated. 13 a window-jamb. that Decorated. a pier-arch at All Saints'. fig. 6 the northern doorway of the same church. most expensive kind of molding. II. however. III. figs. . Fig. both from Over. it was frequently entirely lost. fall either on these. without any reference to correctness of composition. is an example of a molding from Over. and fig. or Third-pointed. 50. It is obvious that this is the . moldings on the planes rectangular. because more has to be cut away from the solid block. If some members seem to fall short of one plane. 2 and 3. fig. and fig. fig. and in the latest. are instances of Early English moldings not uniformly falling upon the regular planes. II. PL. Fig. 8 is a pier-arch. (The semicircle round the central group represents the capital of the jamb-shaft. 11. It is.) Fig. p." —Brandon's Analysis. which is much more rarely the case. the inclination must be determined by bending a ruler or piece of lead across them. 19 is a very fine molding from the inner door of the south porch. PL. 7.

Fig. the angle of each will naturally form a group of three rolls with a hollow on each side. that if an archway has two sub-arches. since the architects of the period seem to have affected representations of the mystic number three. . for the central member in each group does not extend to the angle. Too much stress has frequently been laid on the theory of architectural symbolism. imagines) suggested by philosophical principles of effect. already quoted. each group having three members. These are both pure Decorated. It is clear. This section illustrates a very common peculiarity of its style. 18 is a magnificent arch-mold from the doorway of St. This is not an easy example to copy by the eye. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. Whether con- structive or symbolical. however. or con- sists of three orders. Early English and Decorated moldings very often consist of three groups. The observation of this circumstance immediately removes the principal difficulty. which may be called the triplicity of moldings. though symbolism may have had its influence. This molding consists of three distinct groups. as in fig. or (as a writer in the English Review. so that there is a triple triplicity in the entire composition. 5. Occasionally each member has three fillets. and we only mention it as an opinion entertained by some. Clement's Church. Cambridge. but falls on the line of the chamfer. we need not now consider. 25 bridge. showing the capitals of the two jamb- shafts.

are confused or altogether lost. may be found in every old abbey. how- ever. the tape. In this process. voussoirs. COPYING MOLDINGS. and thence carefully removed. are but seldom available. By these means alone a large collection of very valuable specimens may be made. is almost unavoidably bent in transferring it to the paper. There are several ways of doing this. which must be spread flat on the ground. and other molded stones. First. SECTION III. and these may readily be placed upon sheets of paper for the purpose of tracing their . or some level surface nearest at hand. their relative position to each other. and laid upon a sheet of paper. or by applying a large sheet of paper where a stone has been removed. Another way is by the use of the leaden tape. which requires both pains and practice to ensure tolerable accuracy. groin- ribs. that if the molding extends over a con- siderable space. By being manipulated and impressed upon the moldings to be copied. about a yard in length. however. But many fragments of monials.outlines. and left the edges sufficiently clear and sharp to trace their outlines by pressure against them. A thin flexible riband of this metal. by its extreme pliability and great weight. The best and simplest of all is by inserting the paper in a loose joint. there are many difficulties to over- come. that is. If this should happen. it retains the exact shape it has received.26 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. the true bearings of the members. and here care should be taken not to damage or destroy any portion of the little that is left. or by a pencil. These methods. and may be traced off with a pencil. may be rolled into a coil so as to be easily portable. it is clear. and the copy is incorrect and worth- . except in ruined buildings.

and subsequently to deter- mine their breadth and width by inserting a measure into them. moss. on the whole. COPYING MOLDINGS. dirt. though the tape has in some cases been successfully used. it is better to copy only eight or ten inches of the molding at once . and afterwards drawn upwards or down- wards till it finds exit at a broken place. pro- jection. In all cases. where the molding is much undercut. and the tape adjusted to them . in the second case. the lead when fitted into them cannot be withdrawn. it is so clumsy that it can hardly be recommended to the student. A pair of compasses with the ends bent inward is very useful in obtaining the breadth of the members . to produce such a result. is rather tedious. the rough draught of the pencil must invariably be corrected by close comparison with the original. . the width of the neck of each undercut bowtell may be exactly marked. or the planes in which the members respectively lie (that is. In using the tape. from being so far undercut that portions of the projecting members have fallen or been broken off. the depth of the hollows. and if furnished with a segmental scale-bar. by the aid of the measure. In the first instance. Sharp edges and angular hollows cannot be closely copied with the leaden tape. and whitewash must first be scraped clear away from the part to be copied. bearing. As Early English moldings are often mutilated. &c. 27 less. There is a process similar in its nature and results to the . An experienced hand is required for making an accurate copy and the process. jamb or arch) may be first marked out on the paper. the lead may frequently be manipulated into a part which is entire. it is advisable to carry the tape merely over the necks of the hollows. or the sharp and rounded edges. and every separate member should be tested as to size. or slide affixed to one leg and passing through the other. or con- tains deep and wide hollows with a narrow neck. cannot truly be ascertained. and curvature. so that these especially must be supplied by the eye . Secondly. a full-sized plan by measurement of the block.

By pouring plaster of Paris into the matrix thus formed. * If not so designed by the master. But in the case of undercutting. and the most extensive and complex moldings can be taken by its aid. or a composition purposely prepared of wax and some other in- gredients. The only disadvantages are. Geometric methods both of copying and reducing moldings are fallible . and that with great accuracy. which is very successful where the mold- ings are not too much undercut. in giving the full-sized sections of moldings from Tintern Abbey. and in this case no doubt correctly. and for ordinary purposes much the best and simplest way. and the whole operation is tedious. 58. on a reduced scale. and only fit to be applied when a model is necessary. the original molding is exactly copied. or the planes and bearings will be incorrect. clumsy. is to copy by the eye alone. plaster. and that only about a foot's width of a molding can be taken at once . so that very consider- able deviations from geometric precision must be expected in pbserving ancient examples. and is practised hy applying wet clay. Another. is an inconven- ient appendage to the equipment of a pedestrian. the form of which is thus readily and accurately obtained. and called by him the Cymagraph. for the members and curves were very often drawn libera manu* especially in earlier work . No. and of the full size. has drawn them for the most part with the com- passes. though by no means large. though the convex and concave surfaces are of course reversed. that the instrument. they certainly were often so cut by the mason. . by which moldings may be copied with the most perfect accuracy. It is described and illustrated in the Engineers' and Architects' Journal. the difficulty is here insurmountable. . It can be successfully used with a very little practice. Potter. Mr.28 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. A beautiful and ingenious instrument has been invented by Professor Willis. so that a number of separate pieces of paper must be pinned together on the spot. use of the leaden tape. This is technically called squeezing. to the part to he copied.

as PL. if tha planes in which they lie be carefully attended to. III. fig. should the molding be adopted in practical architecture. they should be given in respect of wall and soffit planes. It is indeed. it is enough to give the whole breadth or width of a series of mold- ings. 21. in copying moldings. 12. If the particular measurements of each member are required. COPYING MOLDINGS. For the sake of neatness. as in PL. and thus a great degree of accuracy is in time attained. In this. as before stated. indispensable. any inaccuracy of proportion resulting from a hasty sketch will readily be recti- fied. with their measurements. 3. may be made in two or three minutes. fig. of drawing the outer wall-line parallel with the bottom of the page. II. . I. an Early English Doorway at Louth. VIII. it is obvious that the double groove or hollow chamfer in the centre cuts off a less portion of the projecting angle than the diagram represents . This is rather a troublesome process. and the soffit parallel to the side. the measurement serves to correct the drawing. The practice of copying moldings by the eye alone. 1. as in PL. XVII. as in other cases. The depth to which hollows are sunk from the surface of any plane may readily be added. it is well to adopt uniformly the plan. which is simple and easy when they lie in one plane. 20. 29 adding the measurements of each face. For example. fig. in PL. and is apt to produce a complex diagram. The eye becomes perfectly familiar with every kind and variety by fre- quently contemplating new examples and collections previously made . 22. Generally. fig. for the line marked 3f inches is nearly as long as that marked 7. and a perfect copy of the ordinary and plainer moldings. already pointed out. In this way also moldings which are quite out of reach may be sketched very tolerably at the distance of many feet. figs. as in PL. 3. By adding the measurements of all the parts. is of the greatest importance in acquiring a sound acquaintance with the subject.

One is by bending the measure at its joint (PL. which will prevent it being placed close against the wall. Though the student should always carry his sketch-book and pencil with him. These two points. and the relative proportions of the parts. the planes in which moldings lie. There are several simple and effective means of doing." from the Journal of William of Worcester. that in the example given by Professor Willis. and the practised eye will seize the outline almost instinctively. and applying the foot rule and triangle. II. this. as in the illustrations of the pre- sent work. 30 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. in his " Archi- tectural Nomenclature. with angles of forty . with a very close approximation to truth. 15). the only difficulty is in the hinge of the rule. But as this is by no means invariably the case. fig. In copying the moldings of capitals. he must be careful not to neglect to get full- sized details whenever he has the opportunity. the plane is marked by a line. it is advisable in every instance to put it to the test. measure the depth from the top of the abacus to the under side of the neck- molding . as they will tend very much to correct the eye for sketching. It may be remarked. however small the copy may be -. Both these are easily taken by dropping a small plummet (a string. must be invariably observed. and the projection of the abacus over the shaft. Another fey the use of a triangle of wood or brass. It has been observed that edges are frequently chamfered at an angle of forty-five degrees. with a bullet is best) from the outer edge of the abacus. by which the angle can be accurately transferred to the paper. and frequently show important deviations from geometric forms which are liable to be overlooked at first sight.

Full-sized moldings are reduced by the use of the well- known instrument called the Pentagraph. . All other methods require both time and care. 12. or circles may be drawn. and thus either the dimensions a b or b c may be obtained . The best plan. whether the walls are at right angles or not. inclosing certain portions of the copy. and the enclosed angle being a right angle. Every member may be reduced separately by means of the compass and scale . the splay will be obtained correctly. which may generally be done very easily by placing the rule against one plane and sighting the end of it to a line with the other. Where the rule is placed against one plane. if the chamfer is at an angle of forty-five. and re- peated of the proportionate size in the same positions on the reduced drawing. by applying the hypotenuse of which to the chamfer the two sides will be respectively parallel to the wall- plane and the soffit-plane. as in diagram. the end just meeting the other. COPYING MOLDINGS. the direction of the chamfer is obtained. . 31 five degrees. however. in addition.fig. but not otherwise. V. See PL. the cross measurement be taken. is to measure along the wall and soffit-planes. If.

and. Norman string-courses often consist of a square projecting fillet. A square-edged rib Parti. Northamptonshire. 10. by coarse irre'gular channelling. so as to form a semi-hexagonal projection. an exact parallel to which occurs in a doorway of the Bomanesque palace of Theodoric at Bavenna . both in its groin-ribs and pier-arches. The first and rudest attempts at molding which are found in this country." a plain flat surface. the very nature of the case would lead us to conclude that the earliest element arose out of a desire to relieve. fig. Gaily Knight's " Italian Architecture. St. the theory of the first formations of moldings must now be considered more fully. From Mr. 14. indeed. This last example. Cambridge. generally semi-cylindrical. Having thus far explained the general principles and the methods of drawing moldings in section. with the angles chamfered off.32 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. III. such as occur in the Ante-Norman chancel-arch at Wittering. to which must be added the very curious and antique attempt at a molded architrave on the impost of the belfry-arch at Barna:ck. affords. for instance. and of setting off the parts . SECTION IV. EAKLY MOLDINGS IN GENEKAL. Benet's. and other churches of that date. and then removing indefinitely the remaining angles. Sepulchre's Church. Cambridge. Thus. the balustre shafts in the tower of St. PL. an excellent illustration of the first idea of forming rounds by removing edges. are the rough and coarsely chiselled members. fig. easily became a semi-cylindrical bowtell by first chamfering. XVI. PL.

the one from Glastonbury. 4. and the sub- arch cut away into a broad semi-cylindrical rib. PL. fig. as in fig. 1. others worked into rolls. 85 of Professor Willis's "Canterbury. IV. The deep rounded hollow (as contrasted with the mere notch). as fig. thus bearing the effect of a series of detached arches or ribs. PL." p. circa 1200 . Thus. Lincolnshire. the other from Peterborough. PL." where j^tffc the Contrast between ^j^. IV. rising in succession above and behind each other.. circa 1200 . From Winto . IV. The accompanying example of a similar kind is engraved in p. "Canterbury. figs. 33 thus rounded. which represents. then. XXI. is a very Early English pier-arch. 2. the Norman edge-mold b and Transition bowtell A with side hollows is well shown. fig. by which the contrast of light and shade was obtained. at Barnack. which was not developed till the Early English period. 1. when it was carried to an extravagant excess. or some edges were chamfered. 85. 5. a semi-Norman arch at Barholme. was an after-thought. fig. each independent and unconnected. or into pointed rolls. by sinking a small channel or furrow on each side a little below the surface. 7 and 8. so that roll-moldiDgs were extensively undercut or attached only by a small neck of stone . early Norman : both clearly and satisfactorily exhibiting the formation of the roll- molding or bowtell. which is an arch at Keymerston. are groin-ribs of common profile in Norman work . D . and PL. in which the first ap- pearance of the deep hollows may be traced. Norfolk. the eye being unable to penetrate to the depth of the dark hollow. a square-edged arch with its sub-arch or soffit-rib was either worked into rounds at each angle. EARLY MOLDINGS IN GENERAL.

The roll-molding being once established. . effect. and PL. 3. alternately dark and light. and without hollows of any great depth. so that this view is hardly correct. coincided with perfect accuracy. and PL. fig. Now. but is rather characteristic of the work of the first two Edwards. the outline to be followed in working out the hollows . minute members. From these two points both the hollow and the bowtells may have been extended each way. designed not on any exact geometric principle. to a certain extent. being applied to every stone to be worked. It might appear probable that the true origin of the deep three-quarter circular hollow must be looked for in the wish to form a cutting inwards. Still. VII. . in place of two or three heavy round moldings placed at the angles only. as in diagram and PL. 34 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. fig. represents such a stone. The templet. fig. Deeply recessed archways consist of several courses of molded . with a free hand. but regulated by taste. when put together. it became natural to multiply it as an ornamental feature to an unlimited extent and to prevent sameness of effect many modifications in the forms of the projecting members were introduced. VI. this inner hollow at the angle is not very observable in the earliest arches. afforded exactly the same shape for each. we find a whole series of minute and skilfully diversified members. '>i and thus a great width was covered with '. multiplication naturally implies reduction in size . IV. at the point of the interior angle. by caprice. 10. and no doubt. corresponding to the bowtell at the edge or point of the exterior rectangle of the sub-arches. so that the pieces. hollow and prominent. We may suppose the architect to have drawn on a board or a stone. till no space was left unoccupied. so that. with the profile scratched or marked on its sur- face. as well as considerable variety in the size and depth of the alternating hollows. 7.

It was reserved for the period of Transition to effect this. was found to be incompatible with the enrichment by detail in Bas-relief. the arch generally consists of a single row of voussoirs. The grouping and multiplying of members was greatly facili- tated in its development by the Gothic principle of distributing weights and thrusts under a number of different supports. it is essential to mark the joints of the different courses. or sub-arch. having its own independent construction. I. fig. 20. if so. and at the latest period the roll-moldings were often continuous. Thus each group of arch-molding in an Early English door- way is borne by a detached jamb-shaft below the impost. EAELY MOLDINGS IN GENERAL. a doorway in the precinct of Lincoln Cathedral. The Norman architects never got much beyond the plain cylindrical edge-roll and shallow hollow. and each joint being overlapped by the stone next to the back of it. that the Jp notion of alternate hollows and projections does jj§ not appear to have been fully comprehended by . or. similar to the annexed example from Coton. and all used with the most refined taste in varying the members of complex Early English grouping. They paid so much atten- tion to surface sculpture and shallow ornamental Ip work in the fiat faces of their arches. but with small pseudo-capitals and bases attached after the manner of real columns. The invention of the pointed bowtell. The first and by far the most important of these is the eoll-and-fillet. all more or less referable to this common origin. them. the shafts were engaged in the wall. PL. 35 stones. In later times. Coton. 4. and PL. fig. The introduction of this new feature may be said to have wrought a complete revolution in the system d 2 . In taking a molding of the former kind. contemporaneously with the general use of the pointed arch. each order-. When the moldings are meagre. opened the way to a great number of new forms. II.

with a slope or ogee curvature. Shelford.m cu t surface of the Wall. or was throated or widened. and Little Casterton. An example of a single side fillet. a groin-rib from Tintern Abbey. Cambridge. and in other places. the fillet was first added to the cylindrical bowtell. 12. I. It is the keynote of almost all the subsequent formations. as at Little Casterton. It may be defined to be a flat band set on the surface of a roll-molding. so as to produce- a more prominent effect. Great Shelford. String Nave. and in . 19. II. Or it may be that. the idea of a surface-line having been suggested by the pointed bowtell.Sepulchre's Selby. most commonly. IV. or as PL. St. fig. afterwards. Forms of this kind have probably first. cause. it will be found in the earliest examples that this fillet frequently falls in a line with the chamfer-plane. 15.. to the roll is figured PL. A certain analogy may be traced in the annexed examples . or from what. the fine feather edge was either cut off (PL. 9. As. and that from Selby is simply the ordinary roll-and-fillet used as a string. figs. fig. or as in PL. at first with a square under-edge. fig. in strings. 18. It. suggested the use of fillets with the roll. fig. 17. I. however. being merely the un- Ovolo and Fillet. II.. was itself a common enough feature down from Classic times. and in Norman work was used in the abaci of capitals. as at Great. of molding. This appears to be an acci- dental one. 9).36 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. It is not certain at what precise period. Rutland. Cambs. as in PL.

the eye would otherwise have an ill-defined and imperfect outline. The position of diagonal projection is undoubtedly the ordinary one throughout the Early English period . has in the central group a filleted roll between two pointed ones. a view which is certainly borne out by the general analogy of molding. a pier-arch from Cherry Hinton. Still. the north doorway at Cherry Hinton. One fact is worthy of notice in the use of the roll-and-fillet that it commonly occurs in alternation with the pointed bowtell whence it would appear to be merely a variety of the latter. 5. the earliest instances of its use may be traced to the obvious propriety of forming sharp and hard edge-lines instead of mere round mem- bers in positions in which. 8 . and the fillet is not often found coincident with either of the other planes. . the addition of the fillet presents important advantages in neatness of con- struction. But all these are mere conjectures. as well as in making them die into or spring out of plain surfaces. as in fig. from their distance. and the juxtaposition of these two forms may be noticed in many other instances. Again. 6. 8. in mitering. 37 fig. though the first seems the most probable. Perhaps. fig. introduced for the sake of contrasting and diversifying the members of a group. Its occurrence in early groin-ribs cannot have escaped the notice of the observer. . till towards the end of the thirteenth century. For example. so that it is not intended to insist on this theory of its origin. PL. EAELY MOLDINGS IN GENEEAL. So also fig. examples are not wanting in much earlier molding . II. Another plausible account of the origin of the roll-and-fillet may be offered. or joining rolls at right angles. indeed. The author has devoted considerable pains and attention to the discovery of the true origin of this very important feature. it may possibly have been left as a standing portion of the uncut surface . but without satisfying himself with any of the theories given above.

The pointed bowtell. as shown in PL. they fTjkw assume a great number of capricious |Mj forms. 4. The characteristics of the moldings of this style may be de- fined as deep undercut hollows between prominent members. would alone be quite sufficient to convey to the eye an idea of the general method. SECTION V. 2 and 3.. a great depth or extent of molded surfaces . figs. TO DEATH OF HENRY III. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. the second the pier- Ea^English Arch. The annexed section will also serve as an illustration of the ordinary forms of Early English moldings. W/a Early English moldings may llilli^ -. — . clustered.^ ^ ^^^ graph. . hollows are seldom true circles %'^^^K* an(^' ^ie ^ e P roJ ec ting parts. g^ were taken ^. FROM THE ACCESSION OF RICHARD I. r~\ 3. The m_™. 1189 TO 1272. The plain bowtell or edge-roll.arch \at Plymouth. Wmit llllllp. PL. The scroll-molding (rare). Cathedral. 5. III. 4 2. ' ^ e sa ^ *° comP r i se *ne following ( / ' p V \ members: \ ~ 1. The first is the belfry.D. and the general arrange- ment in rectangular faces. isolated. A. II. The roll-and-fillet. and repeated at certain intervals . Ripen archeS in the choir ° f E ty Cathedral. fig. which comprise a great variety of pointed and filleted bowtells. and are reduced to a scale of half an inch to a foot. 38 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.

5. II. The ordinary roll-and-fillet projecting from a ridge (PL. 18 and 19.fillet. VII. 12). figs. VII. 3. IV. figs. 9. leaving a more particular investiga- tion to the student's own exertions. This is of frequent occurrence even in semicir- cular arches. in consequence of a slight hollow immediately below. A plain bowtell or roll very often stands forward upon a short ridge or neck in Transition moldings. IV. therefore. It will be observed in PL. PL. 13. 23). fig. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. Doorway. the edges being sharp on each side. 13. this compound molding. figs. The roll-and-triple-fillet (PL. V. Sometimes only one side has a fillet attached (PL. Fountains Abbey. VI. 25 . are varieties of very frequent occur- rence. of irregular character. p. PL. . 90 of Professor Willis's " Canterbury " (fig. PL. 11 and Ripon Cathedral. fig. figs. as fig. XVIII. 6. 1. I. 5. fig. fig. V. fig. 3. one at the top. and PL. It is illustrated also in . PL. figs. naturally produces. pier-arches of the choir. It will be right. as at Fountains. and may be found in door- ways of that kind in many of our abbeys. and PL. the other on the side. each side of which is undercut by a deep hollow. 37). PL. and was the favourite form during the reigns of the first two Edwards. 12. The other forms chiefly consist of modifications of the roll- and. as in the cut from Ripon. II.) is much used in the more advanced buildings of the style. fig. PL. 12. I. fig. which are so capricious as almost to defy any attempt to assign them distinct names and formations. 7. 39 5. 8. is a form often found in labels. Angular forms. a. consisting of chamfered ridges and inter- vening projections. and therefore probably suggested. Sometimes there are two fillets. briefly to point out some of the most com- monly occurring varieties.

IV. 5. 15 is a groin-rib from Furness Abbey. York. in fact. 9 is the arch-mold of a double piscina with its capital from Histon. It contains an immense number of moldings of the finest era and the richest design. In Decorated work the fillet became extremely broad. IV. they seem to have been used together with the utmost licence. Fig. If set square on the roll. Mary's Abbey. often as much as three. especially in clustered piers. Tintern Abbey. In this case it may be said to lose its original character. both from Lincoln Minster . III. that it is difficult to disconnect the idea of the one from the other. 11 is the chancel doorway at Ludborough. which shows some other varieties. where it very often occurs. 1. as at Peterborough and Ely. fig. Lincolnshire. . which is seldom the case in this style. IV. as in those to the east of the octagon at Ely. fig. XIII. III. 11. It may often be found between the detached shafts of large doorways. Northamptonshire. An example is given. 6. are groin-ribs from Robertsbridge Abbey . and PL. in PL.* form a combination of very frequent occurrence. somewhat in the form of a fleur-de-lis. Fig. the combination of the roll-and-fillet having been once suggested. with many minor varieties of shape. or even four inches. In some cases it closely approaches the character of the roll-and-triple-fillet. But in Early English it is almost always a narrow edge-line.40 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. II. The members in PL. PL. are examples. Potter's Monastic Remains. and which every lover of Gothic archi- tecture ought to possess. figs. it is generally a sign of early work. as PL. Three pointed rolls placed together. 5 and 6 are fragments from Tintern and St. as in PL. V. PL. the beautiful Decorated window-jamb at North- borough. we may here observe. 21. the latter also illustrates the fillet as it were depressed into the roll. fig. fig. and indeed in any position. —a work. which is quite invaluable in showing the curves and geometric formations of early moldings. near Cambridge. of full size. PL. fall wholly on the chamfer- plane. 19. Fig. 4 and 7. fig. fig. See the outline diagrams in * There is sometimes so close a resemblance to the head of a fleur-de- lis in this complex molding.

IV. elliptical. or shifted a little behind the upper. II. XVII. fig. It is represented in PL. —the latter an arcade in Lincoln Minster. of Mr. An important form. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. together with the contiguous sections. PL. the first in Decorated. 4 and 9. in the moldings of the very elaborate triplet at the east end of Castle Eising Church. Almost every conceivable modifica- tion of the plain roll. but not very uncommon in advanced Early English work. from St. fig. fig. peaked. which. It is certain that this form was known and in use even in the pure lancet architecture of 1200-1240. the latter in perpendicular. The depressed %and elongated forms on each side of fig. IV. an Early Decorated door- way at Yaxley. 3. See its PL. * It occurs. and composition. VII. 14. the outer edge of which overlaps upon the side exposed to view. and that geo- metric accuracy was avoided in a rather remarkable manner the irregular shape. fig. Hunts. in respect of size. It is almost universally used in the abacus and neck of Decorated capitals. represent the jambs of the immense Early Decorated and Geometric windows in the south aisle of Grantham Church. fig. XVIII. VIII. PL. having been commonly preferred. and the freely undulating curve. depressed. It may be described as a cylinder. PL. in PL. It has been before stated that a great degree of licence is observable in the forms of Early English roll-and-fillet mold- ings. 11 are principally found in later buildings. Bowman's account of that church in his Specimens of Ecclesiastical Architecture. the under half of which is withdrawn. 19. 41 PL. Lincoln. Benet's. It also occurs. Here is seen the unusual com- bination of the scroll-molding and the side-fillet. figs. 6. 6. per- haps in an accidental or undeveloped form. generally considered distinctive of Deco- rated. so called from its resemblance to a roll of thick paper. . 11 and 16.* is the sceoll-molding . I. shape. is a proof of this. The presence of the scroll-molding in any elaborate group marks approach towards the Geometric age. engraved in PL. and in figs. might be found and catalogued by a careful observer. and very often in strings and base- moldings. for example. . grooved at the end.

But it is more probable that it was derived from the pointed bowtell. forms are probably identical. with a long neck . Fig. and the principles of effect which suggested both Ha Ik. 1270. as in these examples from Barnwell and Ely. It may be traced from one form to the other through such gradual changes. Cambridge. Byland. The shadowed edge- line was presented by the scroll-molding as well as by the roll- and-fillet . The earliest pointed bowtell was simply the new form of the pointed arch used as a molding (as at Roche and Byland). This form has been called the keel molding. When worked in with more deeply cut moldings it stood more Rivauix. 7. but this was soon modified by having a slight sink- Barnwell. we find it occasionally turning .42 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.d. Roche Abbey. Ely. It may perhaps be regarded as a roll-and-fillet with one side left uncut. isolated. or afforded a more effective drip in strings and weather- ings. from its likeness to the section of a ship show- ing the form of the keel. 5. probably from the combination of the two forms. is a fragment from Rivaulx Abbey. either because it was removed from sight. as to leave but little doubt on the subject. so as to make it a little sharper. and. where it most constantly occurs. as in capitals. circa a. fig. Antiquaries are not agreed as to the origin of this molding. ing close to the edge. the rich and beautifully molded doorway at Northborough. exhibits the scroll form on the interior order.

expected. as it is to be found both in early work. and in this case it will be observed that it pairs off with a pointed bowtell. from . constitute the double-ogee. 33). but this can hardly be considered as a criterion of date.2*| ^mBi tell might ° J be naturally Jt* _ . York. Though the under edge of the scroll-molding is usually rounded. Mary s. i|» ^ll Ilk drawn surface is placed Jm ™^ |j| uppermost. and down to the middle of the fourteenth century. Elsworth. as it was ™™ anciently called. Cambridge. EAKLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS 43 the edge to one side. it is frequently to be found cut square where sharpness of shadow was desired .* —one of the commonest * Professor "Willis says this molding is sometimes called a brace. show how closely allied the two Jj| <Wm forms are. Two rolls-and-fillets conjoined at their |||L bases. though rarely. St. also. from which we immediately obtain the form in fig. and Tintern Abbey. XVIII. as in PL. ' > \ \aulx Abbey are an early example. in. 6. The annexed examples. in a position in | llllL P. § JSt> r ' which the pointed bow- Hil Hr' : 7. as at Elsworth. which is a regular scroll-molding . IS times. Cambridge. from St. jj| J|jj| verted. . so that their respective fillets are at / right angles to each other. Mary's Abbey. fig. as at Warmington. 2 . or double-ressant. so that the with. figs. St. and those in ^^^^^^^k the choir arches of Ei. Northants. Michael's. jjlf ^Ujimli' ^mm-- The scroll-edge is some. (PL. as in some of ** Wm the bases at Tintern Abbey Warmington. near Cambridge. Tintern. York. Northants. 1 and 10. XIV. f.

accurately formed with the compasses. II. the inner doorway of the south porch at Deopham . 12. XVII. is the west doorway of Llandaff Cathedral. They are by far the most difficult of all to copy with exactness. 3. where the shafts which carry the capitals are set together so as to form the double-ogee. fig. VII. And these hollows must be particularly observed as the real division. or to give a great number of examples. renders it an extremely tedious process to draw any of the rich and complex examples on a reduced scale. We there find a hollow of three-quarters of a circle. V. from Bottisham. fig.) . Cambridgeshire. See also PL. 1. PL. the west doorway at Hingham. IV. 11. But the extravagant display of deep cavernous undercutting is lost in Decorated moldings. The capitals which hear the two moldings in question are marked in outline. its resemblance to a printer's bracket r-*-N. The numerous deep and dark hollows constitute the most charac- teristic difference between the moldings of this and those of the succeeding style. and apparently the result of accident rather than intention when it does occur. 12. 2. IV. PL. moldings of the Decorated and Perpendicular styles. Norfolk. and PL. It is rare in Early English. as in PL. fig. from the irregular and capricious forms of the curves and undercuttings . of pure Early English detail. in the angle of every receding sub- arch. fig. Early English arch-moldings are so easy to distinguish from all others. often many feet across. fig." p. VI. 14 and 15. the same from Benington. figs. fig. and their great extent.44 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Proceedings of the Archseological Institute. ("History of Winchester Cathedral. as in PL. And the same may be constantly observed in the common arrangement of Early English and Decorated piers. 1845. 17. that it is not necessary either to say more in explanation of their peculiarities. fig. in which most of the forms already enumerated will be found to recur. fig. Lincolnshire . 6. 60. PL. is a decorated molding of sufficiently common occurrence (as in the belfry archway at Trumpington).

dividing the plainer moldings into groups. The ingenuity that was never at a loss in any difficulty of finish or constructive irregularity. 45 of the orders of moldings when they all lie on the chamfer-plane. however little it may attract the attention of ordinary observers. as if they had overgrown their original and proper limits. and in the village church as much so as in the most glorious cathedral. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. But there was evidently a feeling that the designs had become weakened by the use of a large number of small members of much the same size massed together so that the eye did not readily distinguish the different groups. are truly admirable. taste. in the Early English indi- vidual members. to see the end of some inconvenient member got rid of by throwing a flower across the point where it suddenly stops or dies into the wall . that in the Decorated they divide groups. The deepest hollows are all as cleanly and perfectly cut as the most prominent and conspicuous details . and in correcting this tendency the Decorated moldings were developed. an Early English doorway is often a wonderful piece of art. and almost imparting life and vegetation to the very stones ! There are abundance of doorways of this style which exhibit the most . The Decorated hollows are usually of larger size than the Early English . and there is this general difference in their use. to admire the floriated boss and the foliaged capital intruding their luxuriance upon the moldings and hollows. and patient labour invariably evinced in the working of Early English moldings. It is most pleasing to notice the long trails of dog-tooth lurking in the dark furrow of a label or chancelled recess . The exquisite skill. are circumstances of much interest. Still. the knots of pierced and hanging leaves extend like some petrified garland or bower of filigree work round the arch. and show a love for the art above the sordid considerations of minimum cost. and the minute- ness with which even the most concealed and darkened parts were executed. How beautifully. too.

from Beaulieu Abbey. t the southern triplet of the Eefectory . Bowman's illus- trations of that church. an arch-mold from the choir of Ripon Minster. Fig. shape and planes of projection. PL. both on a scale of half an inch to one foot. often of different sizes. Some examples occur at Bolton and Furness Abbeys. always. 2. II. 6 is from the east window of Castle Kising Church. or rather across. fig." These latter examples (6. Plate XVIII. hollows. II. Fig. VIII. * This and 10 from the same. 7. 5 is a ruined doorway at Bivaulx Abbey. .' The west fronts of several .of our cathedrals have Early English doorways of amazing magnificence. so that it would be useless to multiply illustrations. fig. whose arch-moldings extend five or six feet in width. fig. as the accompanying illustration Dog-tooth. in the south aisle of the nave. delightful varieties in their forms and groupings . that the eye cannot \\\/^j§ fathom the point of attachment. Many of the more elaborate groups of Early English moldings contain several successive trails of this decoration. 9 is borrowed from Brandon's " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. fig. 7. The entrance doorway of the Chapter House at Lichfield is a very fine example of the molding of this style. The tooth i/^jilfjJ! molding is an evident development of the f^plll|| Norman nail-head by cutting incisions on | each side. Vol. 8. shows. is a doorway in the cloisters at Peterborough . are taken from Mr. In the very beautiful west doorway at Binham Priory. fig. PL.46 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. t From Weale's Quarterly Papers.* fig. the same. yet never. Norfolk. But almost every cathedral and every ruined abbey will supply good specimens. a doorway immediately opposite. a curious variety of the dog-tooth is set in hollows of such depth. 3. 10) show the method of insert- ing the tooth ornament in.

and there are not a few instances in which. it would be impossible to say whether a molding is of the fourteenth or the fifteenth century. and the size of the . of examining the separate details. without dismembering. And the latter will be found to produce an entirely different effect. as it were. 47 SECTION VI. DECORATED MOLDINGS. And this may be done with a considerable degree of certainty by practice and attention. much greater geometrical precision may be observed in drawing both the hollows and the projecting mem- bers than prevailed in the preceding style. and. though there is quite enough of uniform system to enable us to apprehend the broad distinctive principles which obtained in the different periods. Sometimes moldings are met with of much earlier or later date than we should have expected from other characteristic marks in the building . DECORATED MOLDINGS. though in description the distinction may appear very trifling. The eye must be familiarized to the profile and general appearance of moldings of different dates. Generally. this science does not appear capable of more than general treatment . analyzing the group. and several important modifications of grouping. DURING THE REIGNS OF THE FIRST THREE EDWARDS. In fact. though it can hardly be asserted that all the differences of style admit of being reduced to unvarying and infallible rules. 1272-1377. then. The student will bear in mind that the details of Decorated moldings are in great measure identical with those of the pre- ceding style. without the aid of such marks. it may discern at a glance the style to which any example belongs. so that. with the addition of some new members.

and there was a softness of blending. 2. Early English arch-moldings have sometimes a monotonous effect. 3. and wide shallow casements of the Perpendicular period. and fanciful members. Very often plain chamfers are used in . For not only do the members vary in size. indeed. the moldings of arches and jambs differ very slightly from those of pure Early English . and its many varieties. The roll-and-fillet is formed with as little undercutting as possible. figs. effect. members is somewhat larger. Segments of circles. Rich Decorated moldings are of rather rare occurrence. that they cannot alone be taken as decisive of this or that date. both concave and convex. and. in size . only just enough is hollowed away at the sides to develop the outline. the deep hollows are principally confined to the inner angles. first. 10 : in fact. as in PL. a delicacy and gentleness of grouping. A great many of the finest buildings in this style scarcely afford as good examples of molding as small and humble churches of the Early English age. an avoid- ance of strong and violent contrasts of light and shade. repeated with little change several Ww§ Jill times over. that these moldings took the characteristic turn which brought about the surrender of the roll-and-fillet. during the reign of Edward III. It was not until the Flowing. which is but imperfectly remedied by the free use of quaint. and there is no extravagant isolation of small and unimportant parts. for the ogees. in the reign of the first two Edwards). XVII. bowtells. though much less striking. so that tbe entire I - group looks like a mere alternation of dark \ and light. between two deep hollows.48 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. rated moldings is essentially different. that each stands WgUm. were much used. secondly. irregular.). so slightly. which imparted a more pleasing. that frequently the numerous members do not vary materially . In the Geometric-Decorated age (that is. 9. The reason is. Now the composition of Deco- Decorated roii-and-fiiiet. but also in kind .Decorated era (that is.

These are : m ><. fig. is one degree richer than this. so that the jamb-moldings are. though there are many examples which it might be difficult to assign to any one of them. properly speaking. and separated from or recessed behind it only by a single order with a plain or hollow chamfer. the east window at Trumpington. the plain chamfer of two orders (PL. Frequently. the tracery of good Decorated windows stands quite flush with the wall. 19. 49 all the windows. such as bases. * In the churches of Norfolk and Suffolk this is the rule. The plain. and pier-arches . entirely omitted. 20.: a 1. Windows especially are often singularly meagre in their moldings. The monials stand near the outer surface of the wall. doorways. as it were. without any edge-lines to relieve them. which. though of equally plain character. Norfolk. fig. from the scarcity of stone in those parts. capitals. indeed. 20 and 21. have fine and elaborate details. and the like. and not the exception. the sunk and the hollow chamfer of two or more orders. VII. There appear to be three distinct kinds to which Decorated moldings may generally be referred . form only a step preparatory to molding. a window at Hingham. It is in this kind of work that we must look for the best moldings in the Decorated style. and so. and stopping short of that ulterior process. In arches. 5) is perhaps most commonly found. sepulchral recesses. how- ever rich their tracery may be. two orders being intro- duced in the monial. and windows. sedilia. the monials and tracery often consist of merely chamfered planes. fig. while minor parts.* And again. as PL. PL. doorways. I. — DECORATED MOLDINGS. i E . figs. VII.

divided by three-quarter hollows . Norfolk. or cut into a deep three-quarter hollow. fig. PL. Here the chamfers are hollow. in principle and arrangement. or other ornamental leaf-work disposed at regular inter- . 6. Koll-and-fillet moldings." The plain or hollow chamfer is extremely common in all jambs and archways (especially if they be continuous. as in diagrams PL. it might be difficult to name a better example than the west doorway of St. twenty-three inches. The wave -I ''[ . and both of these are ^Bllfe i exceedingly common moldings in this style. Ely. other varieties of the chamfer are sometimes intermixed. is similar ^%?v. it seems proper to regard them as virtually the plain chamfered edges of class 1.. which pro- duces a very bold and good effect. 11. figs. and PL. in the Early Decorated style. as PL.-. might be described in words thus : —" A double-ogee order between two hollow chamfer orders. VI. 8. VII. Of this latter arrangement. divided by hollows of three- quarters of a circle. — way at Attleborough. The inner angle which divides the orders (and which has been called the re-entering angle). 9. in kind. or have no imposts or jamb-shafts). 14.50 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 12 a door. 4. 3. fig. molding. 12. as we have observed. with hollows between each member. or quarter-circles. VI. nearly resembling. roses. as in PL. And as they rarely occupy any other position than the chamfer-plane. 16. all lying in the chamfer-plane of 43° . figs. total width across. II. Their distinctive peculiarity con- sists in the repetition of the same members in each order. quatrefoil paterae. V. slightly relieved from their flat and naked form. XVII. It is not unusual to find these two varieties com- bined. Thus PL. 2. fig. the Early English method. c — the belfry-arch at Deopham. Mary's. A succession of double ogees. is either left solid. In such cases there are often trails of ball-flowers. though. fig. 11. Norfolk.

many in- In stances the roll-and-fillet forms a member of very large size. over." 7. Cambridgeshire. a doorway at Burfield. not set square on the roll. 11. PL. fig. as PL. In the later style the fillet "is broader. VII. and PL. VI. 15. Fig. The second kind is generally. 5 is from a doorway at Lang- ham. Eutland. fig. a perceptible difference in the shape of the Early English and the Decorated roll-and-fillet. and the gently bulging ogee fl e 00 ate d Je t F 1 curvature predominates throughout. a monument at Boston. There is. - Fig. and repeated in rows in two or more of the chamfers. Fig. ar- ranged upon rectangular lines. are all of this second kind. H/ . 51 vals. While moldings of the second kind are generally borne by b 2 . Norfolk . as PL. 2 . of the Geometric age. 1. however. PL. The capricious and irregular forms of the earlier style are no longer found. are combined with those of the third. 7. fig. is from the south porch of Bottisham Church. fig. from Grantham "wll Church. fig. XX. The members in this case usually fall in squares (that is. 10 is a window-jamb.£/h is from the beautiful Decoi-ated archway of the south porch at Over. dtjyjjk single members. Suffolk. is generally one member "of the group. Sometimes moldings of this class window-jamb. 8 . fig. near Cambridge . fig. PL. 17. DECORATED MOLDINGS. XVII. XX. fig. PL. a monument in the choir of Bolton Abbey. XVII. 8. but not always. V. 12. 10. the chancel door at Willingham. VII. VII. on the wall-planes and soffit-planes in succession). and it is perhaps the most perfect and beautiful of all. as in the west doorway at Trumpington Church. and the neck is wider from the hollows between the . the roll-and-triple-fillet. . being less deeply undercut. near Cam- bridge. PL. figs. See PL. the priest's door at Hingham. PL. . fig. 3. early in the style . 3. V.

are seldom found in ancient moldings. Exceptions. fig. where they constantly occur. fig. jamb-shafts. 3. as seen in PL. 3." p. one at Hingham. VI. Sometimes a series of four or five of these together. Sometimes the group appears to have been designed on the principle of a series of squares. the wall). PL. gives a very deep and rich effect to a doorway. the west doorway at Attleborough. fig. Norfolk. 3. VII. VII. that if the sides of the re-entering angle are equal. 68. This is properly the character of the ogee itself. a. . fig. fig. Thus. as a roll-and-fillet. V. Moldings are either simple or compound. " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. a double ogee . 12. and not detached from. that is. PL. as a bowtell or three- quarter round. which is formed by a segmental inward curve conjoined continuously with a similar outward * In doorways the moldings borne by the jamb-shafts always lie on the rectangular planes. VI. 3. fig. the chamfer-plane is the diagonal of a square. in PL. fig. those which are continuous on the chamfer-planes. VII. or involves a profile of reflex or double curvature. 2. such as PL. it forms an angle of 45°.* except in pier-arches. fig. or those of one order of different size from the others. the untouched portions of the rectangular nook) almost invariably stand at right angles with each other. those of the first and third are almost always continuous. the principle of which is shown at PL. A simple molding is a plain single form. as in the Early English style (though now engaged in. XVII.. So. A compound molding is either composed of two or more distinct parts. the angle of the chamfer-plane is ascertained by measuring the two sides of the central nook. We may further observe on PL. 4. as PL. in which case they are stopped by the capitals. complete in itself. — 52 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.e. is a pier-arch at Trump- ington . It is not uncommon to find one member of a double ogee considerably larger than the other. It must be particularly observed that in the third class of Deco- rated moldings the fillets on each side of the three-quarter hollows (i. V.

" p. Scarcely any method of molding is so common in. 9. or to the fillet. DECORATED MOLDINGS. Indeed. 18. the edges at the points of junction being rounded instead of sharp and abrupt. and elsewhere. See "Architectural Nomenclature. The formation of this detail may be traced either to Tib \M the ordinary edge-roll being simply somewhat Sll Edge-roll. as PL. and in PL. this style. or merged in the block . or later Decorated. the form shown in the accom- panying outline is sometimes found. IV. XXIV. There are several modifications of it. forming a central |_ . sometimes projecting forward beyond the edges." § 16. 17.molding . the other half being considered as undeveloped. 333. PL. to which era its use was principally confined. It occurs in \~] the sedilia at Elsworth Church._ bulge or entasis. and especially of the Flowing.. Triply filleted roll. near Cambridge. from its gently undulating outline. and is represented in the " Guide to the Neigh- bourhood of Oxford. of Potter's " Buildwas Abbey" (Early English). It is composed of two ogee curvatures. but usually in the same plane with them. VII. c. from Garsington Church . 10. fig. or to the insertion of a quarter.shaft into a rectangular nook. Halt roll-and- less undercut. fig. 17. half of a triply filleted roll. which may be called the compound ogee. figs. Of the same kind is a very important and universal Decorated form. or so characteristic of. The latter is not improbable on the analogy of the earlier and later (that is. 53 curve. or the wave-molding. 19. VII. Varieties of wave . Inigo Jones applied the term ivave to the ogee.* It is represented in PL. . * Professor "Willis calls this the stuelled chamfer. the square and rounded) forms of the roll-and- fillet. It fre- quently occurs with a hollow between.

3. fig. indeed. XIX. PL. and the lowest order of fig. that this form was not unknown in Early English architecture. VII. V. 17. PL. the latter in Perpendicular. in an archway at Croxden Abbey.54 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. a double ogee would be the result. 16. Cambridgeshire. This may be termed the sunken chamfer. fig. fig. the wavy line is so faint as to be scarcely different from the plain chamfer. 16. VII. a. It is also wider and shallower in early than in late work . By cutting the central hollow down to an angle (as shown in the shaded part). See PL. XX. be taken as a presumptive evidence of the style. Isle of Ely. circa 1240. And sometimes we find nothing more than a flat surface sunk between two raised edges. VII. V. Cambridgeshire. b. fig. the side hollows are less deep. instead of scooping out in an ogee curve.* Sometimes. 23. This molding occurs in the Decorated belfry- arch at Stretham. XIX. 1 and 2. near Cam- bridge. 1. a doorway from Landbeach Church. It is clear from PL. It is so much more common in Decorated work. in the form approximating to the outline diagram in p. 8. the later the obtuse triangle. fig. 50." p. Another variety is shown in PL. as PL. figs. In this case the concaves are sometimes slightly undercut. that is. a very good specimen is engraved in the " Oxford Guide. 11 . or there is a small width of the chamfer-plane left uncut on each side. It may be called a double wave-molding. A rare form is exhibited in PL. * The formation is shown in PL. The former is most common in Decorated. 281. and the central entasis less bulging. as PL. This appears to have arisen from cutting down to an angle. fig. fig. XIX. XX. a window-jamb from Quy Church. It also occurs. It is generally a mark of Transition to Perpen- dicular. It is not of very common occurrence . fig. VII. and PL. 13. the edges are either sharp. as PL. fig. 2. that its occurrence may. one end of the member. and in the east window of the south aisle at Bottisham. It will be seen that the early form involves the equilateral. figs. 5. . from Headington Church. in default of other proofs.

however. occurs in Norman architecture. 2. 3 being the inner) of the same church. where. Its occasional appearance in the Early English style has been already mentioned. figs. whereas we can actually trace its gradual formation from the roll-and- . as PL. so common in Classic edifices. is identical in form with this part of a monial (fig. were there not abundant opportunities of self-development presented by the varieties of the roll-and-fillet. the earliest forms would be found of Classic character with the large concave portion. VII. But in this latter case. in England at least. 10. PL. between two wave-mold- ings. whatever may be the case in the Komanesque edifices in other countries. however. be regarded literally as half of that member. the rectangular plane. 11 . fig. if ever. DECORATED MOLDINGS. the rolls-and-fillets fall within. XVII. and here it must. In its most ordinary position in a window-jamb. In fig. Since. or a roll-and-fillet. the quirked ogee (see PL. and so difficult to explain fully in its origin and varied relations. 2. XVI. is from the north porch of Bottisham Church. is found in Decorated work. that it is almost impossible to do more than point out its general and leading characteristics. 2). It is believed that the ogee scarcely. of course. fig. the convex portion being much larger than the concave. it is very sparingly used. 9. 3). it always suggests to the mind the idea of one side of a roll-and-fillet . it seems extremely difficult to decide how far the form was introduced from' this or that suggestion. Cambridgeshire . In respect of its origin. It should be especially noted that whenever the ogee occurs in Decorated moldings.. that it might easily be supposed it was thence imported into the Gothic. 1. The ogee molding is a form so extensively used. or short of. the ogee curve is so prevalent in the Classic styles. it actually corresponds to a perfect roll-and-fillet in the ^ monial. 55 A plain bowtell. fig. from the outer archway of the south porch (fig. because they would otherwise have been too large.

This detail is the most usual in Transition to Perpendicular. PL. fig. is used. Vi 6 - ressant. Sometimes a semicircle sunk in the chamfer-plane is found. fig. PL. or three-quarter round. The following. Double ogee. 14. and PL. 9. 8. When this is the case. VII. / gjj • jflnP 2. it was extremely common in Perpendicular. fig. Other minor varieties might be added of forms which are principally found in Decorated work. VI. 56 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. V. fig. 5. and perhaps it is not of sufficiently frequent occurrence to render a particular term desirable. or swelled chamfer. fig. at Swanton Morley. VII. VII. and PL. and the hollow gradually gaining in importance in later work . b. So also PL. are the principal forms found in Decorated moldings : 1. so that it would not perhaps be saying too much to vindicate for Gothic architecture the self-development of the ogee. 7. Ogee and fillet. is a doorway of Transition date. fillet. 18. a window at Hing- ham. therefore. VII. 2. Wave-molding. a fragment from Rivaulx Abbey. Norfolk. 16. The roll-and-fillet. Norfolk . a very fine archway at Hardingham. in which the bowtell occupy- ing the centre forms an engaged shaft. Roll-and-triple-fillet. 13. fig. Rife ti^k. <mm m 5^m «jj 4. Plain or hollow chamfer. rather than refer it to an imitation of uncongenial Classic details. Sunken chamfer. or double l*^ ^ I& _ ^m^W ' 8 : I . a door- way at Deopham. 14. It is difficult to give a name to the form shown in PL. VI. Norfolk . 6. circa 1360—80. or ressant lorymer. in Decorated work. — . Scro11 molding. PL. having at first the roll the predominant portion. The bowtell. V. fig. . as PL. but rather sparingly. fig.

show the method of principal and secondary monials. 14. are Late Decorated. fig. as in figs. fig. XVII. as in these examples. V. for shortness' sake. figs. Thus the outer edge represents the actual profile of the jamb. Yet these orders are not always of the same nature as those we have before described as such —namely. a window at Fen Stanton.the inner jamb of the east window at Heckington PL. merged into one another. except in very advanced work. fig. parallel with the wall-plane. 5. 1. 14. VI. VII. fig. the same part of a window in the chancel at Boston . V. as PL. . the monial-members may be represented by lines across. Leicestershire. II.' 9. 5. 15. so that. which. The occurrence of the small three-quarter round. 1. 4. the group of members constituting the separate sub-arches .* Sometimes the bowtell is seen in juxta- position with the sunken semicircle. may of course be also taken to represent one side of the monials. XVI. is from Stoke Golding. The moldings are. for the face of the smaller * All the examples in PL. fig. 3. and in the corresponding parts or planes of the jamb . fig. VI. PL. all of which are late in the style. See also PL. 15. 1. PL. 4. architects generally draw double monials. fig. V. to which this example belongs. as being identical in detail. of course. figs. 5. coincident in every part of the tracery and monials. 14. it is obvious that they carry distinct planes or orders of moldings. PL. is a sure indication of approach to Perpendicular. This should be noticed as a very characteristic detail of Decorated moldings of the second class. as in PL.3. a small tongue- shaped member projects from the inner side of the principal roll-and-fillet. This occurs also in jambs and arches. 6. fig. When a window has primary and secondary monials. 48. . and PL. DECORATED MOLDINGS 57 the fillet is seldom wanting. But the plain roll appears in PL. In PL. is . In drawing the section of a window- jamb. V. A combination extremely common in labels and capitals is shown in PL. V. figs. 1. 5. VI.

the second- M y / - '<fm W l ary a single shaft. The difference of inclination is sometimes very slight. Wells Cathedral. In Decorated windows the face of the monials is generally a flat edge or fillet . fig. and is furnished with small bases resting on the cill. both the monials combined carry (properly speaking) the same order. . 14. monial often falls within or behind that of the larger only by a single retiring step. This roll-tracery is very common in Perpendicular windows . bat this point must be carefully attended to in copying moldings. they are different in section above the capitals. VI. as in the last example. The plane in which the outer moldings of the jamb lie is seldom coincident. or member of a group. . fig. See PL. In these cases the moldings of the ^^'IjIf < tracery follow the *' t common law of pier- Sleaford. arches and shafted doorways. Many Decorated windows have shafts in the jambs and monials both internally and externally. 5 PL. it has small stilted bases in the jamb. 58 -MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. a triple. but different members of it. XX. but in some early examples a roll- molding is carried all round. on the other hand. follow the principle of continuous archways. fig. This produces a very fine effect. Thus. and sometimes. VIII. especi- ally when the pri- < 1 !i mary monials carry '. . for this would in most cases give too great thickness to the monials themselves. that is. 8. Ordinary windows. j JJ ' . in PL. the slope or inclination of which must of course be the same on both sides of each aperture or light. as at the west end of King's College Chapel. with that on which the monial members are arranged.

2. figs. This latter example is un- usually bold and deep. Willis's " Architectural Nomencla- ture. as in PL. 7 from a monument at Boston. fig. DECORATED MOLDINGS. 57. PL. the rear-shaft.* except in very plain and inexpensive buildings. and II. because a strong presumption of coeval date is thence to be derived. There is a close resemblance in the composition of this and of fig. windows in these styles. and the south choir-aisle of St. Norfolk. and fig 13. the north doorway at Hing- ham . 59 The interior arch. a monument in the same church. form a very essential part in the composition of the more elaborate. The character of these two examples is rather late . fig. 6. Fig. from being cut away too deeply and widely from the block surface. 1 and 10. that it is very important to compare their moldings with other parts of the same church. . Fig. or rear-rib. afford most beautiful instances of shafted window- ." p. 8. are often undercut by a three-quarter circle. And monuments especially were so often inserted subsequently. V. but in the neighbouring edifices. doorways at Little Ellingham. fig. 4 is the inner doorway of the south porch at Boston. of Early English and Geo- metric windows is generally borne by a shaft. is a doorway at Great Ellingham. VI. * Called anciently. 1. It closely resembles PL. in fact. though of rather late Decorated date. Fig. Mary's Church. betraying the hand of the same artist. Shafts. not only in the same church. and they are wiry and poor in their effect. It measures three feet across from outer face of the label to the soffit. Fig. The labels or hood-moldings of the date of Edward I. This resem- blance should always be attended to. 4 is the molding of the pier-arches in the same church. VI. The aisles and clerestory in the nave of St. of unusual and decidedly early character. sunk in the surface of the wall. 5 is the interior of a window jamb at Sleaford. Stafford. and the effect is remarkably fine. the soffit at a. Alban's Abbey. at Hardingham.

9 is a very common plan of a Decorated window. Lincolnshire. PL. an effective decorated group. V. 10 the exterior of the same. to illustrate the difference in appearance which exists between the same molding exhibited in section and in elevation. a 60 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Fig. Lincolnshire . It is shown in perspective. 13 is one side of the belfry-arch at West Keal. Suffolk. near Market Deeping. 12 is a Decorated window from the chancel at Over. the molding at the angle of a piscina. 4. Fig. fig. Thurlby. and must not be depended upon. Fig. Fig. is from a fine Decorated tomb at Ewerby Church. 15. Lincolnshire. Hunts. with double jamb-shafts. Peterborough . and the profile beautifully relieved by the deep side- hollows with which it is necessarily connected. Andrew's. Fig. 22. the south doorway at Langtoft. 13 is from the outer porch doorway at North- borough. Fig. 7. The roll-and-triple-fillet produces a fine effect in moldings of this style. V. fig. a noble structure. or Ketton. 10 is from Clipsham. XX. and fig. 16. from Horbling. It is taken from Yaxley. 5. . Kutland — window which is elegantly enriched by a trail of ball-flowers in the hollow chamfer of the outer order. a doorway from West Keal .* PL. 23. This also is a very common form in Decorated windows. a groin-rib from Rivaulx Abbey. Fig. fig. Lincolnshire. fig. is an archway in the cloisters at Peterborough. 8 is the interior of a window-jamb at Heckington. fig. Fig. * This example is badly copied. 21 is a window from the fine Decorated chancel at Keddington. is the interior of a window-jamb at Bennington. PL. Its edge-lines are sharp and deli- cate. fig. the celebrated St. 11. fig 8. Hecking- ton. VII. which almost rivals its immediate neighbour. PL. Fig. Lincolnshire. This molding is a good and effective composition. is the outer archway of the west entrance to the precinct.

in early work. In the moldings of this style a debasing influence will at once be perceived in the comparatively meagre save-trouble method of working them. . which is a marked feature of the Perpendicular period. cutting channels that the moldings are developed from it Three peculiarities are so * This might fairly be divided by the student into Perpendicular and Tudor. in which case the outer edges of each molding of course coincide with it. perpendicular moldings. there is such a mass of really high art in the work of this period. commencing the latter with the reign of Henry VII. since it is only by Fireplace. with little of minute and delicate detail. would have been filled with groups of separate moldings . Add to these. from the accession of richard ii. Large and coarse members.* a. gives a flatness which is unpleasing to the eye in comparison with the rectangularly recessed grouping of the two preceding styles. are all con- spicuous characteristics. Wells. 61 SECTION VII. PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. and general shallowness of cutting. The mold- ings of this style frequently die into a basement composed of the simple uncut chamfer . wide and shallow hollows. At the same time. that their general arrange- ment on the chamfer-plane. occupying spaces which. to death of henry viii. that the student must be careful not to slur it over. hard wiry edges in place of rounded and softened forms. plane..d. 1485. Vicar's Close. 1377 to 1546. in indulging any predilection he may have formed for earlier work.

4. sunken but little below the chamfer-plane. 13. Frequently. and IX. figs. as seen in PL. and sometimes. as in PL. and in those of the older portions of St. so stretched as to become almost or quite a flat surface. of three-quarters of a circle. A wide shallow casement. a window in the chancel of Grantham Church. fig. IX. and some varieties of it peculiar to the period. fig. XX. VIII. the most frequent are those represented in PL. VIII. and PL. or PL. of late when wide and shallow. Of many forms which the casement assumes. It is very common to find one or both ends of the hollow returned in a kind of quasi-bowtell. — . fig. fig. The casement alluded to may undoubtedly be regarded as an elongation or extension of the Decorated three-quarter hollow. These are : 1. 14. or beads. PL. 11. 2. The frequency of the double ogee. IX. John's College. . and if the student . VIII. Accordingly. compares the three plates of Decorated moldings. 3. the ends are sharp and angular. Botolph's Church. it is generally a mark of early Perpendicular work when the casement is deep and narrow. perhaps generally. and often used as such 3. fig. 3. and PL. IX. usually occupying the centre of the group. figs. in the same group with the great casement or central hollow. VIII. Cambridge. as PL. and equal to about one-third of the width 2. the arch-mold of the nave of Lancaster Church. he will per- ceive the importance of assigning this feature as a peculiarity . The constant use of bowtells. G2 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. or external line of the group. and of debased when it is. common in Perpendicular moldings. as it were. The bowtell will be observed in some form or other in almost every example given in PL. 14. by which width is gained at the sacrifice of depth. The three-quarter hollow also occurs in this style. 16. 10. The latter result may be observed in the windows of St. or hollow. however. resembling small shafts. figs. 2 and 15. that their absence almost forms the exception to general Tisage. XX.

Occasionally it stands like an excrescence on the surface of a plane. figs. the Perpendicular appears rather to be composed of a semicircular hollow continued in a bowtell. figs. are the double ogee with a bowtell in the centre. 16.* fig. There is some difference. IX. All these may be considered as dis- tinctive criteria of the style. but this is a departure from the usual practice. 10. the western doorway at Newtown Church. as PL. always represents the profile of the half of a roll-and-fillet. figs. The double ogee is much more common in Perpendicular than in Decorated moldings. from Rivaulx Abbey a small double bowtell forms the central member. as fig. 17 . PL. fig. 5. 10. PL. 7. It is often formed from a plane by sinking a channel on each side. IX. j OP ings. as before stated. 4 ib* and 5. . PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. a "doorway in Ripon Minster. fig. an ogee combined with a quarter-circle. . u. XVI. and the combination exhibited in fig. : — all contain examples of the cylindrical bowtell. too. IX. fig. 8. as in PL. VIII. J||lllllS> mon in Perpendicular mold. PL. as PL. 13. in the form which it assumes in the later style. 3. 1. * This is one of the commonest and most decisive combinations in Perpendicular moldings. For whereas the Decorated ogee. 6. b. Fig. 11 and 12. is extremely com. 6. In PL. figs. double ogee. However. both from Bolton Abbey . fig. figs. fig. 3. forming a section more like the letter S— see PL. Other varieties. peculiar to the style. IX. XX. where the depth of the hollows is generally conclusive. from a small door- way in the choir of Grantham Church and . 63 of the Perpendicular. 10 and 14 PL. near Camhridge . the earlier -^^ vm form. 15. XX. an ogee with a small bead or fillet at the base. 9 . fig. 5 . 5. fig. an ogee with a bowtell forming one side of the great casement. and especially in the \-/ Perpendicular members. c . VIII. 1. as well as from the true principle of moldings. figs.

varieties of the Per- pendicular roll-and-fillet. it was not extensively used. as in PL.fillet in a debased form as in 'Ijjljl' PL. it usually springs from the capital of a small bowtell. fig. of the ogee curve and the breadth of the fillet will be found to follow the rules laid down. one of the most remarkable -features in the moldings of the late Gothic. 3. is. In PL. It occurs in Early English work.V grams the upper figure represents the Early Ijjp English. the inner doorway of the south porch at Great Shelford. When' itdoes occur. VIII. fig. In Decorated. A half roll-and-fillet frequently occurs. IX. fig. PL. it is shown in fig. VII. it is usually rather small. PL. The debased form of the bowtell mold. Sometimes we find the roll-and-triple. The form of the roll-and-fillet.* is that of the diagram between figs. with the roll or bowtell plain and not filleted. in a doorway at Fountains Abbey. in fact. The form represented in outline in the preceding woodcut is found in all the styles. VIII. it is of the Transition period. a doorway from Bolton Abbey. XX. except in a very corrupted form. The pointed bowtell is very rare in this style . and it * The absence of the roll-and-fillet. and is principally confined to the outer members of door- ways and windows. The shape. IP Cambridgeshire. 7. The double ogee is sometimes of large and clumsy size in Perpendicular arch-moldings. 13. 64 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. however. 9. fig. A roll-and-fillet between two ogees is properly a late Decorated combination. a window-jamb from the south aisle of the nave at Eipon Cathedral . however. . In the annexed dia- V'^. as in PL. 3. the belfry arch at Haslingfield. 16. the Other two. prevalent in this style. that is. 21. 16. before 1400. near Cambridge. in which. fig. 10 and 11. it is much used in base- Jjjjl ment moldings and capitals. 14 PL. IV. Two other corrupted varieties are exhibited in fig. . fig. is also jBjlllI peculiar to the style . II. fig.

4 from Fishtoft. VIII. though the tracery is generally set deeper in the wall than in the preceding style. represents the almost universal plan of Perpendicular windows. or hollow. little remains to be said on this part of the subject. fig. and. Lincolnshire.. 3 the same. in the same county . for many points may be found. without any casement in the angle. Norfolk. which form groups of considerable delicacy. especially in earlier examples. PL. a larger space is available for the pur- pose. VIII. Sometimes. John's Church. Rich and good Perpendi- cular moldings are not very common. which offer nothing either novel or interesting to the view . 65 occurs in the aisle windows at the west end of St. 6 F . Fig. Having pointed out these facts (which deserved to be regis- tered as essential and characteristic differences). 1. PL. 2 is the same. and the monial-members on the inside — by which term those moldings of the : jamb are meant which coincide with the monials. is from the west doorway at Uffington. comprising the first order. fig. early in the style. fig. PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. such as the jamb-shafts in deeply recessed doorways. while in the two pre- ceding styles there is ever something singular. and the monial-members occupying the next.. consequently. 12. Stamford. But Perpendicular work is by no means to be despised. to arrest our atten- tion and add to our store of knowledge. and illus- trate the remarkable uniformity which prevailed in the use of moldings. most examples consisting but of three or four very ordinary members. or beautiful. figs. however. or ingenious in the treatment of the moldings. we find the double ogee externally. from the isolated tower at Dereham. PL. are taken from different churches. 12 and 18. Fig. Window-moldings are usually extremely meagre. from Saham Toney . IX. Fig. near Stamford. 5 is from the east window at Leverton. But the great casement. encroaches so much upon the group that little room is left for more than a double ogee on the outside" of it. fig.

* The two moldings. that in many cases the chamfer-plane is either more or less tban an angle of 45° . fig. fig. 8 from Stewton. 13 the belfry-arch at Haslingfield . and fig. fig." and 11 and 16. Stamford . 9 from an oriel window in Lin- coln . fig. Martin's. 16 from St. 7 a window. a window-jamb. 7 from Louth. Rutland. 2 the west doorway of the same . fig. as PL. fig. from Histon. 6 the west doorway. Martin's. 16 from Great Shelford . from Byhall.* fig. from Messrs. fig. fig. Lincoln Cathedral fig. Neots . from Partney . fig. fig. VIII. 10 the east window at Chesterton. fig. fig. fig. fig. near Cambridge . Albans. and that occasionally. near Cambridge . 13 an arch in St. 8 and 10. 9 the north doorway at Harlton. and fig. fig. 4 from the Bede House in that town . 12 from the south Choir Chapel. 1. are borrowed from the " Churches figs. Sepulchre's Church . 18 a window. 11. 17 a pier-arch from Holy Trinity. 14 from a niche at Great Gransden. near Cambridge . 8 is from the chancel door at Skirlaugh. Hampshire . fig. fig." . while it is seldom undefinable in Decorated moldings. Colchester . The former has large sculp- tured paterae in the central casement. IX. is from the east window of St. two parallel planes are taken for the basis of the arrangement. work. both doorways . fig. the " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. Fig. near Cambridge . 3 the same from St. It also appears. 18 the same from Long Melford. Stamford . fig. 11 from Basingstoke. 10 the south doorway. fig. 19 a doorway at St. fig. Stamford. Yorkshire. of Yorkshire. fig. Skirlaugh. 17 a doorway. 20 the pier-arches of the same church. 5 is from a pier-arch in the noble church of All Saints . 14 the south doorway at Grantchester . 12 a window of common form . 66 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 21 from Louth. near St. from the examples given. fig. fig. Brandon's excellent figs. It will be observed that the distinction of the orders is often completely lost in this style. fig. . PL. John's Church. fig. fig. 15 a molding of constant occur- rence . 15 the east window at Stapleford. Suffolk . fig.

In the annexed example from p 2 . This is the custom of ending with a repetition of the same members which commenced U|| the group. capital. the variation of the same feature. An instance may be noticed in the west The w ° ' GranteTeste^ch^b Ki«. This may be illustrated by PL. and in many other accounts of cathedrals by the same author. of weakening the jamb. In early work the jamb is frequently formed with detached shafts carrying their own capitals. figs. **^ll \:lass This is a great fault. Students of the present subject will find a very valu- able series of illustrations of base." published by the Archaeological Institute. molds of the three styles in pp. Norfolk. in the arch-jamb of a doorway or window. Overstrand. 76. and always produces a very unsatisfactory result to the eye which desiderates the idea of perfect and substantial support. IX. 8 or by the annexed cut. x and arch- West doorway. 67 The casement is sometimes so extravagantly hollowed as to give the appearance. for instance. 6. PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. and on these capitals elaborate arch moldings are often arranged. One principle of composition may sometimes be traced in moldings. 3. the centre being occupied by a different one. i'tafto itt window of Grantchester Church. 77 of Professor Willis's " Architectural History of Win- chester Cathedral. and probably the actual effect. or of the arch and column in an arcade. The question of composition involves that of the grouping of molding. especially in late ones. as. 1845.

Inner door. 1 in. Lincolnshire. in Norfolk this is clearly shown. and it will be noticed that the fore- most angles of the jamb are in position immediately below the re- 1 «# entering angle of the arch- mold. 2 in. . to 1 ft. Heacham. Scale. In this example the square of the stone out of which the moldings are cut is dis- tinctly seen. to 1 ft.68 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Heacham. Heckington. Norfolk. Scale. Even in this case the chamfer forming the inner member close to the Priests' door. south porch.

The Early English columns in an arcade with the detached shafts carried arch moldings which at first sight seem to have but little connection with the shaft as an example. As the styles developed the detached were superseded by engaged columns. Cam- bridge. south porch. as in the annexed example from KiDg's College Chapel. PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. Lincolnshire . being the same in the jamb and in the arch-mold. indeed. but frequently amuch larger proportion of the moldings are continuous and common to both. Cambridge. The shafts are smaller and a larger number of the members are continuous. Portion of Arch and Jamb. 69 door itself is continuous. inner door. In Decorated work the plain octagon shaft carries the sub and main arch-molds with their hollow chamfer or other mold- . 1 in. King's College Chapel. they become mere beads. When we get into Perpendicular work we find the fiat case- ment very com- mon and it was invariably con- tinuous. Scale. but we still frequently find considerable variety in the jamb and arch-mold. The same as- sertion of the continuous molding is found in other positions as the styles advanced. to 1 ft. This is shown in the annexed example from Heckington Church. Some- times.

The real master of his craft never hesitated to make his moldings exactly what he thought best suited for the position they were in. In tracery also the mullion will have all the different orders. or rather sub-orders. but when we get to later work we find the molding continuous. in the hands of the master designer. excepting for small shafts which carry a varied arch-mold. contained in it. . and these will branch out and break into the different forms so well known under the name of tracery . but beyond this the moldings are wonderfully plastic. ings.70 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. as in accompanying diagram. and where a member which seemed only sufficiently strong in a mullion looked heavy in tracery it was frequently thinned down. so much was thought of real artistic effect and so little of what one may term cast-iron regularity.

" pp. Cambridge. And of these the bases and capitals will generally afford the surest indications. circular. See Professor Willis's "Architectural Nomen- clature. PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. capitals. London (pro- bably the earliest piece of Norman architecture in England). when consisting of a core surrounded by smaller shafts. and verges. St. as is proved by those in the ancient chapel in the White Tower. was the patin. 39-41. III. and these forms are either simple or complex. and Decorated * The mediaeval terms for columns. or parallelogramic . PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. The earliest form of column is the circular. whether Harold's Church or not. detached or engaged. and shafts.* This subject falls properly under the head of Moldings. octagonal. and by similar examples at Waltham Abbey (which. is undoubtedly early). not involving a number of aggregate parts. Simple. since the forms of piers or columns more or less partake of the details of the arch-moldings. Complex. at Norwich Cathedral. and many other places. that is. when composed of one plain member. or footing of columns. chapiters. support the eastern transept walls at Peterborough Cathedral. The the plinth. Polygonal Norman piers. Sepulchre's Church. And these simple forms continued in common use throughout the Transitional. . But it is one of such extensive scope that only a few general rules can here he given for dis- tinguishing the styles. diamond-shaped. 71 SECTION VIII. were respec- tively pillars. A few sections have been given for the purpose in PL. of vast size and strength. Early English. The general plan of the columns which support the nave or other principal arches is either square.

where they are some- times disposed alternately. to which they are at intervals attached in reality as well as in appearance. The Purbeck limestone. or eight. MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. fig. a regular clustered shaft. the Lady Chapel of Fountains Abbey (PL. perhaps. But a very common arrangement is that of the square plan. six. The clustered capitals and bases are often worked out in one large piece. which.72. 8). in construction at least. during the Early English period. composed of comminuted freshwater shells (whence it is called lumachella marble). periods in ordinary parochial churches. thus it was sometimes cut with angular recesses. was brought to a wonderful degree of lightness and elegance. where the flat face of the pier was continuous with that of the wall .* or of some other kind of stone than the central pillar. being part of the "Wealden formation. by molded bands or fillets. is a beautiful and common device. was much used in the thirteenth century. A circular column. more so. XIX. They are so varied in arrangement that it would be impossible in this place to do more than notice their general characteristics^ which consist principally in the number of smaller isolated shafts clinging to a central column. or in opposite rows. the choir-aisles at Ely. smaller detached shafts. but much more sparingly afterwards. though liable to disintegrate. like the arch and sub-arch. except for tombs and the beds of sepulchral brasses. though in a heavy and simple form. These complex Early English piers are often extremely beau- tiful . and these recesses were soon filled with small shafts. With circular columns the vault- ing shafts were commonly stopped above the capitals by a corbel. and taking a fine polish. . surrounded by four. and many parts of West- * It is a curious fact that the mediaeval English architects appear never to have used any foreign marbles. but they were frequently brought down to the ground with the rectangular plan. or forms derived from it . Thus we obtain. than those of any other style. These shafts are generally of native marble. and the member also carry- ing the sub-arch was often made into a semicircular form. Examples are very common .

and is ^jIlP reduced from the section given in Mr. and are some- times worked into smaller pointed beads. fig. X. figs. Mary's Abbey. HP Ruskington. 40. The fillets running up the face of each shaft usually pass over or round the astragal. fig. 16. 12 from St. In this case there is always a midway band or bonding-stone. V. III. In some cases the column is made up of several shafts. at Lincoln. and fig. 8. without any central core. the addition of the shafts changes the outline to the diamond form. the shafts or . York . 6 is from Grantham w/ m^^ / Church. and in PL. as in the round nave of the Temple Church. Lincolnshire. fig. PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. Towards the Geometric era. 13 from Ruskington. The lower part of a similar one. Peter Gowt's. 17. Stamford . and this is a very common form of Early English and Decorated piers. fig. 11. It forms an ex- quisitely graceful feature in the Chapter House of Furness Abbey. have this kind of compound pillar. 15. ^m^-^-^---^ Bowman^s illustrations of that church. still stands in the vestibule of St. 73 minster Abbey. is a beautiful example of the ^>Wg. fig. rather later in date. PL. as fig. worked into annular fillets to the shafts. with some varieties. XIX. as in PL. Lin- colnshire . former style. Fig. 17 is from Skelton. placed close together. \M \ Rutland. after 1240. and there is a very good example at Exton. Rutland. PL. PL. Fig. generally four. near York . The shafts are not always separately applied. 5. is of constant occur- rence. The square being set to the cardinal points. III. that is. The annexed is from Rus. the corners of which project.\^'^ wS^ kington Church. from Stretton Church. and die into the bell of the capital. . though usually so in the pure lancet style. is from All Saints'. Half of a roll-and-fillet set on each side of a square. is an instance of attached shafts so deeply undercut that they have the appearance of complete isolation.

erected at the above period. but the richness and extent of the great piers in cathedrals and abbeys it would require a volume to set forth. III.. 18. The principle which led to this form was the desire to obtain width in the direction of the thickness of the wall. from Saffron Walden." p. or soffit-moldings. figs. are among the commonest forms . is entirely different. of the arch .74 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. isfrom Attleborough. ( of late Decorated date. 14 and 16. from St.shafts are attached. Fig. Perpendicular piers are generally of oblong or parallelogramic plan. PL.which bear the innermost order. without the interruption of any impost. The construction. real or apparent. On the east and west sides half. — . PL. the whole dia- metric section being worked out of one block. and became instead firmly compacted into a mass the bands. for the sake of greater strength. Mary's. " Brandon's Analysis. verges.* This will be seen in the choir of the Temple Church. 14 is from Utterby. Cam- bridge. III. a plain but good illustration of this almost universal method. the rest. Essex. 4. . PL. 2. fig. therefore. the longitudinal direction extending from north to south. * Shafts ceased to stand detached or banded into clusters. . Very good examples exist at Great St. Norfolk. as they were anciently called. John's. and is remarkable for the hollow faces. where vaulting shafts arealso added on the northern and southern faces. being suppressed. Stamford. fig. Decorated piers always have their shafts engaged. 15. no longer of any use. fig. PL. XIX. or attached to the central mass. being usually continuous. iitl III. including the great casement or hollow. Lincolnshire. which are seldom found but in small shafts in Perpendicular work. began to be generally engaged. so that a clustered column is in reality formed by chan- nelling the surfaces of the mass in lines and hollows of graceful lights and shadows.

1400. the angles are chamfered away . the angles being cut away into the wave-molding. III. 20). re- . built about. PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. in some late H churches. Another form. with a three-quarter circular shaft engaged on each face. carries an engaged shaft. however. occurs not 'infrequently in Perpendicular columns. fig. PL. in the second. In these the ground-plan is a square. The nave columns in this church consist of a square. In the first case. as in Long Ashton Church. PL. a hollow is sunk in the face between the shafts." PL. as at Swavesey. 19 and 20. the first from St. Wood Ditton Church. they fo/K become nothing more nor less than exaggerated monials with shafts attached to carry the sub. the second from St. or rather before. 7. if set diamond.wise. Mary's. which runs continuously round the arches. This is usually of later date than the parallelbgramic plan. examples are \ / IP Long Ashton. or each angle (as fig. In this they followed the j& plan of window monials . 75 combined with the least possible bulk. figs. XIX. Martin's. 1 arch. in fact. IV. Somersetshire. which is shown in Swavesey. Stamford. Still. 19). The example is taken from Bowman's " Specimens of Ecclesias- tical Architecture. and the greatest span between the columns. and each face (as in fig. near Cambridge. Ensham Church. not wanting of early Perpendicular character.

erect. provided it possessed any character at all. a great square stone would naturally be placed upon the top of the pillar or post. near Newmarket. to mistake the details of a Decorated for those of a Perpendicular archway . This failure suggested the necessity of a plinth. This arrangement we may often observe in the construction of wooden sheds or rustic homesteads of rude timber-work. Again. as the bed or . but not until the close of the style. 139. It. given in " The Oxford Architectural Guide. And they have the peculiar advantage of being more definitely marked. c. by a great superincum- bent pressure. but no one moderately acquainted with the subject could hesitate in pronouncing the style of a capital or base. extensive.76 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. even for an experienced eye. we may suppose that an upright post planted in the earth was found to sink. The woodcuts on the previous page represent such a column from "Wood Ditton Church. or broad footing of masonry." p. on which it might stand firm. than any other kind of moldings. presents a column of good Decorated date in the crypt at Gran- tham. To go very rapidly through the history of a column. The parallelogramic plan is sometimes found in Decorated columns. 1400. and immovable. and important part of the study. and that from Ensham Church. The moldings of capitals and bases form not the least in- teresting. SECTION IX. in which the same principle of formation is exhibited. in the various periods of by no means impossible. CAPITALS. or decline from the perpendicular.

but the mediaeval builders preferred to decorate what as yet they did not wish to cut away. so that we have positive fact to guide us instead of mere theory. and it is seen in the ordinary form of what has been called the cushion capital. Mary Bishophill Junior. York. In the Norman period. CAPITALS. respectively called the abacus and the plinth (anciently the patin) were square. How this was done in Norman capitals is Cushion Capital. fig. with a great many others of probably much later date. is worthy of observation. whether arch or entabla- ture. the parts immediately below the one and above the other being rounded off to suit the shape of the shaft. . X. Even in the advanced Early English columns in Westminster Abbey instances of floriated bases may be observed. The lingering re- luctance to get rid of the square plinth. Transition' Norman Capitals. 77 cushion to receive the superstructure. and extend to the otherwise vacant and superfluous angles of the plinth. It was felt that these angles were not necessary . in the tongue-shaped leaves or other grotesques which are often seen to issue from the circular moldings of Transition-Norman bases. resting upon and surmounted by rude and clumsy blocks of stone. shown in PL. have square pillars on each side. Bolton Abbey. Examples fully as rude as this do actually exist in English ecclesiastical architecture. the highest and lowest members only. 2. when the shaft was round. The ante-Norman belfry arches at Barnack and St. It was from such an origin that the highly elaborated Gothic base and capital arose.

practical member. and similarly octagonal plinths were retained long after circular capitals had become universal." pi. 4). but this method of relieving and lightening the massive impost does not seem to have occurred to the Komanesque builders. Tbe lowest member. rectan- gular nooks were cut in the angles of the square abacus. They either cut off or cut out the corners. as it were. and examples may also be seen in Potter's " Illustrations of Buildwas Abbey. and either by removing angles indefinitely. by adopting the shape of the shaft. But capitals became octagonal before plinths . and is the relic of the rude impost which first surmounted the stone post. That is. molded and floriated. or abacus. I. from which it was transferred. corresponding to the graduation of the sub-arch. ^^ ^^ or involving a sub-arch (PL. In the Transi- . to be the primary and essential. through the medium of the Classic to the Christian styles. we obtain the circular capital and base of the first and second Gothic periods. But the simple square was sure to undergo some changes. In the more elaborate Classic styles. left a portion of the bearing surface unemployed and superfluous. and this took place first in capitals. and. or. but in floriated capitals foliage covers the intermediate space. as soon as the pier-arch.78 MANUAL OK GOTHIC MOLDINGS. fig. is also common to both kinds . The upper member. more probably. Gothic capitals may be divided into two kinds. [form . 6. by becoming recessed Hy . in fact. as in the accompanying cut. which is otherwise occupied by the overhanging and undercut member called the bell. called the neck or astragal. This seems. From the former process came the octagonal. the others being only decorative adjuncts. is common to both. with its accompanying moldings. the sides were cut out or curved inwards —a feature some- times seen in Perpendicular octagonal capitals .

79 tion-Norman and Early English. Suffolk. very differently worked. The dog-tooth. It is enough to observe that the origin of foliage is probably Classical. since in the Bomanesque we find the style of it. in the Decorated it twines horizontally. CAPITALS.* Or a subject is intermixed with the foliage. floriated capitals are rare . as the author has suggested in the " Manual of Gothic Architecture. or crestings of minute battlements (occasion- ally floriated). while a chained ape is laying hold of it behind.. The Decorated capitals in Oakham Church exhibit the same design. are also frequently found. or the Ionic volute . and in the choir of Wingfield Church. however. will have it that * On one of the capitals (which are Decorated) a fox is carrying off a goose. Classical in general features. the ball-flower. But the vine and the strawberry leaf is sometimes seen. and other orna- mental moldings. the foliage. for example. Lincolnshire. from the deep overhanging foliage of the earlier styles. as in the belfry-arch of Great Shelford. and in later work the Tudor flower. Even angels' heads with spread wings are sometimes found. more frequently small leaves. as in some very interesting Early English capitals in the south transept and the north porch of Wells Cathedral. is arranged vertically. seem clearly to be. Of this there is a very curious example at West Keal. But of floriated or sculptured work it is not at present our province to speak. Occasionally (in Norman work commonly) some subject is grotesquely sculptured below the abacus. 110. as used in capitals. and not unfrequently in parochial churches (as at Barnack). the Transitional Norman capitals at the east end of Canterbury Cathedral. very closely approaching the Corinthian acanthus. however. near Cambridge. Others. Cambridge. . the nail-head. This kind of capital may be called Pictorial. Mary's Church. being only a shallow kind of surface ornament." p. among others. as is well known. In Perpendicular. round the capital. as in Great St. or patera. or rather transversely. are set like studs at intervals round the shaft above the neck. sometimes occur in capitals. and almost so in their details.

. they must either die away at the spring (in which case they are called discontinuous) or be abruptly stopped by a projecting impost. the others carried by shafts. mere bowtells. they are engaged. In Decorated. Here the soffit or innermost moldings are borne by a shaft. There can be little doubt that the influence of both prevailed in the introduction of foliage into Gothic capitals. as we before remarked. less prominent. This. And in Perpendicular they become entirely subordinate. as in PL. In many cases the moldings are partly continuous and partly stopped by the capitals . in the latter so far that the hand. The use of capitals. are furnished with quasi-capitals and bases. II.* while the intervening hollows are continued to the ground.—"Willis's "Architecture. 18 and 19. the origin of the foliated capitals is rather from the East.e. II. less important in the apparent work of support. certain groups being borne by shafts. fewer in number. For. figs. . i. Hence. The mold- ings would in reality remain in their places as well without as with the bearing shafts. in Norman and Early English. to speak constructively. apparent construction. by an ulterior debasement. when the arch-molds are not wholly identical with those of the jamb or column. the outer being continuous while in Early English doorways the soffit is generally con- tinuous. is particularly the case in Perpendicular piers and arches. forming at the same time deep lines of division between the groups of arch-molds above and the separate jamb-shafts below. from whence it was subsequently transferred to other parts of buildings. or even the arm. Again. the shafts stand isolated . In some cases a member of the same projection and diameter as * By what is called decorative. and merely decorative. 80 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. and not con- tinued down to the ground. may be passed round them." Chap. as may be observed in the porches and doorways of King's College Chapel. . is to receive the clusters of arch-molds which are stopped by it at the summit of the column. as described in Section VII. in pure Gothic architecture.

PL. and the reason is. Small in projection. fig. and gave a heavy appearance. Take. The moldings of pier-arches became entirely continuous only in very late work . as a mere matter of decoration. the shafts themselves. and therefore the impost. they intercept and at the same time form a satisfactory termination to the vertical lines above and below. and Hingham. while. A good Gothic capital is a feature of remarkable beauty. and the under edge rather plainly chamfered or cut into a flat ovolo . or the woodcuts on pages 77. 3 is from Laceby. both in the same county. 81 the bowtell is continued above this quasi-capital (if the term be allowable). but slightly varied in form and profile. 16. fig. Norfolk. but the lower edge- . while in the jambs of doorways and entrance arches. PL. The most certain evidence of date is furnished by the mold- ings of the abacus. figs. Cambridge- shire. or those in which the members have not been worked out. that the idea of a capital or impost is essential to that of an isolated column. b the bell. by their reversed or horizontal outlines. the abacus. Fig. The earlier forms of the abacus had the upper edge always left square. c the neck. yet judi- ciously subordinate to both arch and pier. and fig. the bell. ' It will be observed that Gothic capitals may generally be reduced to this outline. for example. Such may occasionally be met with in village churches. they seem to bind into one the bundles of shafts which form the column. complex and graceful in their members. And these parts are distinctly visible in block capitals. CAPITALS. Lincolnshire . 78. 1 shows the two uppermost members in their rudest state. 5 from Walesby. X. XII. as fig. and the neck. may be omitted or added at will. at first the fillet was large in proportion. 4 from Middle Rasen. from Great Abington. Hera a is the abacus. 11 and 15. Cambridge. those of the piers in the nave of Trumping- ton Church. Gothic capitals consist of three parts .

mold gradually became more important, and was frequently cut
into a hollow chamfer, and sometimes quirked and finished also
with a bead, as at Heacham, Norfolk. By this means a light

t i I s \ I 4
Coton. St. Sep., Cant. Oath. Blatherwick, Byland. Heacham, Wadenhoe,
Cambridge. Crypt. IXorthants. Norfolk. Korthanta.

abacus was obtained, which held its ground far into the Early
English style, as maybe seen at the Eefectory, Eivaulx, &c.
But then they began to cut away the upper edge, the projec-

tion was made greater, and the under side was cut or hollowed
out, so that it seems to overhang the bell just as the bell does
the shaft, and with the same profile, consisting of the half of a
roll-smd-fillet. The Decorated abacus has the scroll-molding,

with a cylindrical roll of rather less size below it. PL. X.
figs. 38 and 39, represent these peculiarities, and an examination
of the sections of the capitals of both styles will show how rarely

this distinctive mark is wanting. In Early English capitals the
abacus is sometimes quite plain, as fig. 17, from Thurlby, and
fig. 8, from Frieston, Lincolnshire. In the reign of Edward I.

a peculiar molding occurs, something between the two, which
may be called an undercut scroll-molding. This is seen in
fig. 9, from Stickney, and fig. 12, from Lincoln Cathedral, and
it may be considered a characteristic of Transition from Early
English to Decorated.

The moldings of the bell are generally kept within the limits

shown in fig. 5, but in very minute work exceptions are some-
times found; for instance, at Temple Balsal, Warwickshire,
the capitals to the small shafts on the moni-als of some of the
windows have the bell projecting quite beyond the abacus.
The woodcut is taken from Bowman and Crowiher's " Churches
of the Middle Ages." Where foliage is introduced it often


projected a long way even in large capitals, and a molding
seems to have been allowed the same
license when the scale was small. Small
capitals and bases appear frequently to

have been turned in lathes, and this
might account for treating a molding like

foliage where the effect of foliage was
desired. In Early English capitals the
bell has sometimes a double set of
moldings, which gives a very handsome " —W— (111
effect. This is seen in PL. X. figs. 19,
28, from Tintern ; fig. 22, from Furness ; capital onMoniafK window.
and fig. 24, from Bolton.
Capitals occur in their greatest perfection in shafts. The
larger piers, of octagonal or circular form, are seldom so
elaborate or so decidedly marked. In these the abacus is the
only member which affords any sure indication of date.
The distinguishing feature of Decorated capitals has been
stated to be the scroll-molding
of the abacus, and in perhaps
ninety-nine out of every hundred
examples the rule holds good.
Yet some capitals presenting the

same feature are said to be of
Early English date. It is believed

that the Early English abacus
scarcely ever occurs in pure Deco- Decorated Capital, Grantham.

rated work.
The bell is seldom so prominent or so deeply undercut in this
as in the preceding style. As a general rule, the projection

(i.e. the relative diameter to that of the shaft) became gradually
less, both in capitals and bases, as the styles advanced. The
above cut furnishes an exception to the rule. Thus, in Per-
pendicular work, when the shafts became, as it were, mere parts
g 2

of the entire groups of moldings, both these features became
minute and subordinate. Decorated capitals preserve the happy
medium between the clumsiness of constructive members, and
the inutility of mere ornaments. In this their remarkable
beauty really consists, in that they occupy the truest and most
consistent position as architectural parts of the whole. With
respect to their details, the moldings of the bell present the

principal varieties ; but these are generally some modification or
corruption of the roll-and-fillet. Very often the under
part of the bell is composed of an entire roll-and-fillet,

as in PL. XII. figs. 3, 8, and PL. XI. figs. 12, 20.

It is still more frequently formed by the compound
member shown in the cut, and in PL. XL fig. 4.

Out of forty-three examples of Decorated capitals given in

PL. XI. and XII. ten of them have the bell thus formed, and
others present some slight variety of it. It is seen in elevation

in PL. XII. fig. 15, the beautiful capital of the nave-piers at
Decorated capitals seldom have double moldings to the bell,

at least much less frequently than in the Early English style.

Three examples are given, PL. XI. fig. 2, from Yaxley, Hunts,
very early in the style, as appears by the abacus, PL. XII. fig. 9,

and the annexed cut, from Harringworth, Northants.
The neck, or astragal, forms
an important detail in deter-
mining the dates of capitals. In
the Early English it is usually
a heavy and bold annular mold-
ing, of a stilted or oval shape, or

rather more than half a circle,
as PL. X. fig. 11. Either this
or the semi-hexagon (fig. 15) is
n ;

the prevailing form. The Deco-
rated neck is almost always the scroll-molding ; but both the



Early English forms, with many others, will be found to occur.
The capitals of both styles are often so nearly identical in
general character and principles of formation, that a practised
eye may now and then be deceived in their date. And it is

here important to remark, that though the vast majority of
capitals in all English buildings will be found to fall in with the

rules laid down in this work, anomalies do occur which present
difficulties in any attempt to classify them and the same
; is true
of bases.

Perpendicular capitals present very marked features, which
are seldom liable to be mistaken. The moldings are large,
angular, meagre, and few. Neither abacus nor bell is so clearly

defined — a fact similar to that already stated with regard to
the arch-moldings of this style, that the distinction of orders is

generally lost. Frequently the abacus appears so far blended
into the other part of the capital as hardly to be a separate

member, and the bell either wholly vanishes or is very- im-
perfectly developed. The upper part of the abacus is usually
sloped off to a sharp edge, like the chamfer of an angle ; the
section of the molding below resembles the letter S, being an
ogee formed by a bold concave returning into a
prominent convex (as at Coton) ; and, above all, %
the capital is nearly always octagonal, while that K>
of the preceding styles is commonly round. The <j^

shaft, however, is circular in Perpendicular work
while octagonal capitals only occur in the other
styles in the case of large single columns of
,. i /. , n n Coton, Cam b.
the same shape, it we except a few cases ot

Early English arcading shafts with octagonal capitals, as in

the transepts at Histon, near Cambridge, the west front of
Peterborough Cathedral, and in the choir-aisle of Fountains
The same principle which induced the latter architects to

prefer sharp edges and abrupt lines in their moldings to the

29. VIII. and 12. The section of the Perpendicular abacus is a mere corruption of the Decorated scroll-molding. is either a Lancaster Church. figs. as in figs. soft and blending Decorated forms. m The bell with its overhanging and undercut moldings having vanished. an arrangement which is rare in the preceding style. 22. are from Frieston. XIII. 21. and the neck of fig. 3 and 5. XIII. figs. and octagonal below. made them revert to the octagonal capital to the rejection of the circular. Lincolnshire. PL. . 26. 8. 20. however. as in the abacus. as in PL. 1 and 2. 7. fig. 16. This debasement of the scroll- molding is separately shown in PL. The base. Thus in PL. or neck. 10. is that shown in PL. 8. The astragal. is generally circular in its upper members. com- mon to both members. X. XY. Its form seems capricious. the projection of the capital is often produced by a meagre slope. IV. Another form. the bell remains. figs. fig. which occurs in the abacus of PL. Perpendicular capitals are often embattled. resembling a coarse keel-mold. XII. and by omitting the under roll. we see nearly the same form as in the Decorated .86 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. p j ain ^^ ^ & j^ of deba8fld scroll-molding with the upper edge chamfered. as figs. as PL. and reducible to no certain rule. 15. but not very often. It will not be necessary to occupy much space in stating the places from which our numerous sections of capitals and bases are taken. ill 21. & 'M fig. 15. figs. 22. though the profile is often much the same as in Decorated work. we obtain the ordinary profile of fig. 7. A few only of the most remarkable shall be thus specified. Perhaps greater license was taken in general in designing the moldings of this style than in any other. Sometimes. however.

11. figs. 87 Here the bell is of rather unusual form. as appears from the undercut scroll-abacus. 30 from Saffron Walden. Fig. 10 from Stickford. a noble capital from Stickney. and almost identical. 9 from Sibsey. fig. 6. drawn on a large scale. the former from Lincoln Cathedral. those who are unacquainted with the details of the styles may form a correct idea of the leading characteristics of the capitals of this period. of much larger size than usual. 3 is from Fletton. fig. 17. 10 is from the same place. 9. 17. by studying which. with the nail-head in the hollow above the bell. XII. figs. 12 is from Legburn. The sections of Decorated capitals in PL. 28 is from Tintern. 18 is from Aswardby. Fig. 11 from Partney — all in Lincolnshire. Hunts . the latter from Kuskington. and has the double bell . fig. XL figs. 7. 18 is from the Chapter House of Furness Abbey. are mostly from churches in the neighbourhood of Cambridge. 24. 22 is shown in elevation. XI. 16. rather late. Fig. PL. 15. 16. Fig. fig. This is the form of the pier capitals at Heckington.* Fig. 13 from Waltham. fig. fig. perhaps more so in this than in the next style. of large size (15 inches in depth) fig. Fig. 1 and 2. are from Yaxley . Fig. Fig. X.' * The student is again referred to Potter's illustrations of this abbey for many beautiful capitals and bases. CAPITALS. in a chapel used as the vestry in the church at Boston. 29 is from Arreton. 4 is a fine capital of very unusual size and depth. 37 is from Bolton Abbey. Isle of Wight. Fig. Cambridgeshire. in the same county. 9. Lincolnshire. 40 is the elevation of the most ordinary form in shafts and clustered piers. Fig. 22 is from Abington. * . 14 is not uncommon in Transition caSindge. fig. Lincolnshire. It is from Furness Abbey. late in the style. Of the same date and character are 12 and 13 . from Leverton. are all from Lincolnshire. Figs. Fig. very rich and fine in its profile. as in PL. 26 are from Bolton Abbey. Fig. depth one foot . Figs. 19 from Tintern Abbey. and remarkable in its profile. PL. 15. 23.

This has a battlement above. 1. near Cambridge . 16 from Dry Drayton. This and the next illustrate the methods of obtaining the plane of the moldings. 4 from Louth . from Colchester . fig. 8. is from Careby. fig. Northamptonshire. Norfolk. fig. 29 from the Bede House. is from Uffington. 22. the abacus. the bell and neck circular. 12. in the same position. in the Decorated capitals of the nave columns at Dunchurch. 19 from Saham Toney. 23. 14 from Harston.* Norfolk . fig. it occurs at Maxey. and at Louth (see PL. from Fen Ditton . Suffolk . fig 17 from Mat- tishall. 28 from St. figs. 24. Here the abacus is octagonal. PL. near Cambridge. and fig. John's. 26 and 27 from St. XL fig. XII. PL. 19. Warwick- shire. is from Long Melford. fig. 9. fig 13. 28). fig. to Perpendicular . are from St. figs. 13 is from a fine monu- ment at Little Shelford.88 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. which in this style should be attended to. Figs. A similar feature is the wave molding. all in Stamford. Martin's. * An interesting specimen. 18 is from Els worth Hall. near Stamford. fig. 16. of a moated mansion of the Fifteenth Century. George's. fig. Fig. XII. very little known. The rest of the sections in this plate are Perpendicular. . Fig. and the double ogee below. PL. Lincolnshire. near Cambridge . XIII.

BASES. and consisting only of the single member thus presented to view. a series of annular rolls. in early work. of at least two distinct members —the plinth. or hollows. In shafts. Often a bold . it will be sufficient to direct the attention of the student to the upper members. of solid masonry. and forming an ornamental junction between the shaft and its essential constructive member. BASES. 89 SECTION X. The earliest examples of bases must be looked for in the rude monolith blocks which support the pillars or pilasters in the Ante-Norman churches. by gradually spreading courses. in which the character of a base may be said principally to consist. or lower step. Norman architecture first adopted a more regular method in constructing the footing of a column. or tables. each separated from the next by a plain or molded chamfer. In Decorated and Perpendicular columns. Of Norman bases it is not necessary to treat at length. and from that arrange- ment those of the subsequent styles are readily deduced. The varieties of form are not numerous . the plinth is usually divided into heights. the one might be substituted for the other with scarcely any perceptible change of appearance. generally square in early work. and the base-moldings. the plinth. near Stamford. such as at "Wittering. Bases consist. taking the form of the column. like the after styles. and as they do not involve complex moldings. The Classic pillar was evidently the prototype of all these. but octagonal in later . stages. slopes. laid down as they were raised from the quarry. in some instances. These are often mere shapeless lumps. and others already mentioned. the base often resembles the capital inverted .

figs. we shall find them rather identical with than similar to the Classic. from the Chapter House of the same place. only a few inches wide. is from Fountains Abbey. figs. 3. quirked on the under side (as seen iu PL. From Willis's " Architecture of the Middle Ages. A very common form is shown in PL. . fig. XIV. The uppermost fillet and curve. . 5. fig.1 Cambridge. which alone remained in the eight massive columns of the circular part. A little before the Transition period. and this is more like Classic work than English archi- tecture generally. Huntingdon. 9. St. XIV. however. a modification (often with very trifling departure from the Classic) of the Attic base was introduced. 8. 3. Yorkshire."* " and gener- ally consist of two reverse curves. figs. If we compare this form with some of the early Italian-Gothic bases.90 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 10 is a little later. omitted in most if not in all * Willis's " Canterbury. fig. Cambridge. XXI. IU the early part 01 tJie twelfth century. 4. annular roll. Sepulchre's. was. a concave above and a convex below. Fig. This occurs in St." f % Canterbury Cathedral has a very French character in the work of William of Sens. HelmsloyCh." Nothing approaching to developed isolated members and dis- tinct gradations was known St. It consists of two rounds. 1 and 2. 76. PL. or first member at the lower ex- tremity of the shaft. 7). e . The Attic base is given in PL. . Mary's. with an intervening hollow separated from them by fillets. XIV. . j. where the present bases were cut from a very small piece. divides the shaft from the plinth. The moldings of the earliest Norman bases are frequently "little better than scratches upon the surface. from the nave of Peterborough Cathedral.. Sepulchre. from which the Early English is directly derived." p. and with one from Canterbury Cathedral j (date about 1180).

7. which may often be observed standing in exterior bases. as fig. the bases of the choir columns in Eivaulx * The bases of the pointed Nornian columns in the nave of Buildwas Abbey are nearly identical with this. as fig. as in figs. . and may commonly be met with in pointed Norman work. 12). shortly after some extensive excavations had revealed a great part of the ground- plan and lower portions of the columns of that once splendid church. See Potter. It must be perfectly remembered that this water-holding base is contemporary with the first dawn of the Transition style. as early as 1160 or 1170. i. 91 " cases . are naturally formed by cutting off the feather edges seen in fig. •*' V or from supplying its place by another > ("" similar roll. BASES. and extended from half to three-quarters of a circle. f There are two kinds of Early English bases. was very much in vogue. A valuable example of the Transition base is fig.* This example leads us at once to the ordinary Early English base (fig. The first. 3. from Peterborough Cathedral. XIV. or plinthiform 12 u member. 6. 12 . fig. 15. taken from the great central piers of Byland Abbey. the other seems to be derived either from omitting the hollow JSm. Here we most distinctly recognise the peculiar feature of the Attic base. and by far the most common. 9. above and below the hollow. and iBI ttmJlm thus bringing the rolls into contact. is the form given in PL. — f Willis's " Canterbury. 11. The filleted rolls on each side. f . 10. the side-hollow of fig. X. or even by an IIIIIIf IPPwK* interposed square edge. PL. the chief peculiarity of which consists in the intermediate hollow being cut downwards rather than sideioays.e. so that it is capable of containing water. It is found in the Transition work of William of Sens at Canterbury." p. 76. 1 — the lateral semi- circle in place of the descending three-quarter circle. and the form in fig. JBm altogether.

single. the latter from Furness Abbey. 35. as PL. Generally. The examples given in elevation. figs. XIV.92 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. from Furness Abbey. the former from Tintern. from Lincoln Cathedral. 20. the hollow again approaches that of the Attic base. 7 is from York Cathedral. where the bases are worked out of hard Purbeck marble. is remarkable for the omission of the hollow in the upper member. will convey a correct idea of the general appearance. of the most ordinary form. fig. XIV. or nearly so. 33. is the base of a great pier in Lincoln Cathedral. Fig. from Ely. Fig. of great richness and considerable spread. 18.* The spread of the base generally equals that of the capital. or even triple. XXI. from the beautiful Galilee at Ely. It is seldom found except in tbe more advanced or florid period of the Early Englisb. And below these. Peterborough Cathedral. Hence was at once derived the ordinary Decorated base. . 25. * These engravings are slightly incorrect. is a fine piece of detail. PL. when geometric windows of two or more lights had begun to supersede the single lancet. from the revestry or chapter-room at Kipon Cathedral. and often a little depressed inwardly. Fig. occur other series of very bold annular rolls. 16. 28 and 29. Fig. near York. Sometimes the fillet is omitted in the upper roll. 30. 34. 27 is from Skelton. tbis intermediate roll is rather smaller. Fig. Abbey. as fig. PL. fig. 4. double. 26. 18. at some distance. fig. In fig. In very rich Early English bases there are often double hollows between filleted rolls — after the analogy of the double row of moldings to the bell in capitals. from the shaft not standing true in the centre. and have all been elaborately polished. figs. Tbis base occurs almost invariably in Westminster Abbey. is an example.

but they are seldom very complex.. fig. when found in work of the thirteenth century. is worked out of the block. The plainer form (figs. as it will almost invariably be found to be. Lincolnshire. One of the commonest Decorated bases is that shown in PL. and it is mentioned particularly with reference to Decorated bases. XXI. fig. Not a few modifications of this form occur . 15. but often only two. 40. In Early English bases it is also to be remarked that the large spreading roll. In fig. 10. near Cambridge) or a flat under-edge. 43 is from the nave-pillars at Bottisham. the base of the beautiful central column in the Chapter House at Wells . . either from the difficult and complex work of the latter. 11. 35 . 17. from St. from Fishtoft. moss. from the doorway in the same place . 45. as PL. by a quirk or angular nook. York. from the nave-piers at Trumpington . 35. Probably the desire of forming a better weather- ing had much influence in the change. 93 There is something extremely elegant in the form of this. which forms the lower of the two mem- bers between which the deep hollow is placed. by which the shaft is fastened. more- over. 5. XIV. fig. or earth. 39. or the part of the base below it cut away. the number of rolls being generally three. BASES. 34. as fig. Fig. Here we usually find either the scroll-molding (fig. 42. where a marked difference in this part is observable. or in the same plane. 37. fig. the more usual kind of Early English base . so that it overhangs clear. an elegant base from the library of York Cathedral. but the uppermost is of lead. as fig. 39 there are four . 21) may possibly have gradually superseded the more elaborate. fig. or because the hollow was exter- nally apt to be filled up with standing water. and internally with dust and dirt. This is generally a mark of late or florid Early English. as fig. surprising to notice the uniformity which everywhere pre- vails hoth in it and the capital of this period. with which it usually stands flush. 16. from Coton. Mary's Abbey. and it is. This is almost invariable .

94 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. XV. with the plinth formed by graduated stages or tables. near Cambridge . as it were. the base-moldings are raised a considerable height from the floor. XXI. fig. is from the nave-piers at Tintern — already noticed as a specimen of the inverted scroll- molding. 36 (from the Lady Chapel. is of un- usual profile . In the Decorated columns support- ing the vault of the Lady Cbapel at Wells. 44 is from Boston. This is seen in PL. Decorated bases are often stilted. Compare PL. as in the columns which support the octagon at Ely . 41. This form is not unusual late in the style. fig. a Perpendicular base from Ripon . but often the first. In the choir at the Temple Church (1240). an example which retains a singular trace in its upper member of the side hollow of the Attic base. the uppermost member stands six or even eight feet from the ground. 33. is sometimes. XIV. 6. figs. 3. figs. fig. Ely). Fig. This principle was carried to an extravagant excess in the next style . and 42. 40. Hence the bell-shaped base of the next style (PL. generally the second. which is not uncommon. PL. 38 is from the arcade in the Lady Chapel at Ely. with fig. in what might be called the inverted wave-molding. it is from the chancel at Over. the principle of stilting the bases * may be seen. as those under the western tower at Ely. worked in Purbeck marble. scooped out in the middle. and sometimes these faces are fluted or hollow-chamfered. fig. 8. Transition to Perpendiculav. or raised above the floor. 1 and 2) was immediately derived. in some instances. from Over and Histon . or polygonal. XV. one member. as before described. and the moldings approximating to the Decorated profile. the plinth being very large and high. It is partially developed in fig. a Decorated base from the nave of York Cathedral. so as to form an ogee curvature. Instead of the three half-rounds which ordinarily constitute the Decorated base. Here the lower member is the roll-and-fillet. PL. XIV. The lower part of Decorated bases is sometimes octagonal.

and where any difficulty occurs in determining their date. the upper being generally round. BASES. It does not appear to occur in early. The prevailing- characteristic is a large bell-shaped spread in the upper part. especially in shafts. they are not so . or geometric Decorated. The bases of Perpendicular columns are various . PL. and give a correct representation of the most ordinary kind. being a natural variation to avoid repetition. figs. octagonal. 1 and 2. however. but rather in degrees of richness and the number of gradations than in difference of form in the principal members. often rest- ing on a cushion-like member. will readily remove it. They are for the most part of decided character . The sharp under-edge of the second member in the former example is a peculiar feature. From the great size and height of the best examples. because any important varieties from the forms described are not of sufficiently frequent occurrence to render it necessary to illus- trate them. But few examples of Decorated bases have been given. are the two forms. as Lancaster. and thus of modest and unpretending contour. are from Crosby Hall. according to the rules already laid down. and forming with it the contour of a double ogee in section. though sometimes. decisive of Decorated work. XV. It will be particularly observed that the lower part is almost invariably octagonal. often standing but a little above the floor-line. that some pure Deco- rated bases may occasionally be found which would have been equally correct in a Perpendicular column. They are very chaste and elegant in profile . This ogee curve seems to be derived from the several rolls which we have seen were used in the bases. $he capital always is. . So similar. 95 Cathedral. an inspection of the capital.

Cambridge . 5. Fig. Colchester . — — . fig. with clene hewen Asshler altogedir in the outer side unto the full hight of the said Quire and all . thus. fig. the inner side of rough stone except the bcncli-table-sloncs. This is often the * The following note is taken from Willis's "Architectural Nomen- clature. At the end of the Fotheringhay contract it is covenanted that the mason. 20 from St. to the legement-table." § 39 : The word leggement simply implies lying or horizontality . Stamford . 13 from All Saints'. 18 from Holy Trinity. Edward's. 5 is from Louth . W. fig. — ground-table. basement." The direc. 15. then he shall haf vj 11 xijj iiij d . ' easily engraved iu a small space.. PL. to the- . as figs. This passage shows that the legement-table was immediately above the ground-table. Horwode. shall be paid by instalments as the work rises. contains enough specimens to guide the student under ordinary circum- stances. and the wall thereto wythyn and without as it ought 8 to be well and duly made." etc. the basement moldings are described under this epithet. for the uppermost member. ments and alio the remanent of the said body and isles unto the full bight of the said Quire. All Perpendicular bases have an annular roll. the whole mass of which lies on the ground below the wall and this is confirmed by the two examples of Fotheringhay and Eton. in which. tions for these members in the body of the contract are unfortunately interrupted by an illegible portion. . The ancient name' for the lower member was the ground-table* (especially when applied to mural basement moldings). " when he hath hewyn and set his ground-table stones and his Ugements. s Almost every Perpendicular base has either one or more stages. fig. but as all tables are horizontal the epithet cannot be in this case applied in its general sense. XV. fig. "The ground of the same body and isles to be maad within the erthe under *he ground-table-stones with rough stone and fro the ground-table-stone (to the lege- . but may fairly be taken in the more limited one of a . and d. or by a second bell-shaped slope. which I shall venture to supply as follows : — XXXIII. 14. 17. as I shall show. Kent. in adjoining example. resembling the neck of capitals. . however. 16. 21 from Heme. 96 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. to begin. and we may therefore assign b. 6. as figs. sloping off by a hollow ledgement or -chamfer. . . 17 from Haslingfield .

as in PL. 22 from Saffron Walden. 6 from Carbrook . . fig. from Colchester fig. 21. fig. Stamford . rising. fig. as it does. 7 from Saham . as in the interior of King's College Chapel. almost every point being carefully rounded off. and perhaps few will prefer the contour of PL. 14 from St. There is a peculiar naknedess in the straight unbroken line of the lower or ground-table. 1 5. figs. Albans . to that of PL. fig. XV. 11 from Swanton Morley — all in Norfolk . 12. figs. XV. fig. XIV. 9 from Norwich Cathedral . 10 from Mattishall . It is singular that edge lines occur less in Perpendicular than in any other bases. but the bell is of remarkably graceful form. 1 and 2. 4 is from the Lady Chapel. 29 or 32. and is not found in the same isolated form in any other style. BASES. 18. 97 debased roll-aud-fillet shown in PL. or the debased scroll-molding. This feature is almost invariable. 8 from Dereham . abruptly from the floor to the height of two feet and more. fig. Fig. Peterborough . fig. John's. . XV. fig. as in PL. 15. fig. figs. 16 from St. "VIII. fig. fig.

both within and without . and other parts of edifices. round buttresses and other angular projections . details. They consist of pro- jecting ledges of stone. carried below windows.98 MANUAL. being in fact very. often identical.OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. and the importance of them will be felt when it is remembered that all masonry is made up of successive layers. used as dividing lines to set off one particular portion as distinct from another. Of the immense diversity of forms only some of the most ordinary can be enumerated . as they. and are • almost essential to the feeling of repose. the character is generally maintained. for capricious irregularities constantly occur.wn the principles of a system. It has been before observed that string-courses may be regarded as the successors of the horizontal lines by which Classical is principally distinguished from Gothic architecture . which. HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. and in cornices. seem reducible to no certain rule. so that they form a most genuine piece of decorative construction. contains a series of moldings of this sort (for hood- moldings and string-courses must be classed together. divided into three parts. the varieties and peculiar characteristics of the styles being as well defined in such details as in any hitherto described. SECTION XI. and seemingly insignificant.from the other). though the form may be arbitrary. This is by no means an unimportant branch of the study of Gothic moldings. Yet. illustrating the three styles. they rise in graduated and rectangular heights. parapets. XVI. Though subordinate. Sometimes. . breaking playfully from the horizontal. they are of the greatest possible importance in imparting a character to a building. or the one continued . PL. tower-stages. hardly claim a place in laying do.

Cambridge. are given in PL. XVI. as specimens of the kind. nothing baffled by it. Norman string-courses are generally of heavy and massive profile — full of edges or hard chamfered surfaces. 10 and 12 may also very often be found. XVL. The latter is from the chancel- arch. The. now. the chevron. HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. 7. especially in windows. or square bead with chamfered angles. Two or three only are given in PL. The upper edge is often left square. In most cases. and of course adapts its upper surface especially to this end. figs. XIX. Hood-moldings. 22. 8. is one of the commonest forms. is frequently found. erected before the year 1100. strings are those given in PL. 99 Sometimes carried over a doorway or round an arch . grooved or worked on the middle of the outer face similar to that in fig. when used internally. and the like. 18. and the wide but shallow form presents an appearance suiting well with the massive character of the work and the low relief decoration. now starting aloof into a window-label.than eleven of this form. The semi-hexagon. 15. it forms a real drip or weathering. passing into some interrupting projection. 13. plain half-hexagon. In most cases they are adorned with some sculptured decoration of the style. Figs. 25. and. of Potter's work on Buildwas Abbey. and playing the most fantastic tricks before again descending . now dying into the wall . a string-course at once relieves naked masonry. the hatched or serrated molding. 6. but they form a decorative finish of too important a kind to be neglected with impunity. instead of being weathei*ed off.. h 2 . and binds into a whole the geemjngly detached portions of a rambling and irregular construction. reappearing on the other side . with varieties scarcely perceptible and merely accidental. figs. though not relieved by the dark shadows caused by undercutting the lower surface. Giles's. Not less. 8. and 9. cannot he said to have any real use . as the billet. The commonest Early English. viz. as it were.* at St. They follow the same changes as the * Rebuilt in the South Aisle of new Church.

the angular or chamfered of the last —although this peculiarity is also very com- mon in late Decorated buildings. . 19 from Eivaulx . 36. Fig. 25 has the scroll-molding. though the date is about 1200. figs. 28 generally marks the time of Edwards I. fig. fig. Fig. The scroll-moldiDg with a half-round next below it. 43 is from the vestibule of the Chapter House at Wells. early in the style. rally found in Transition to Perpendicular. and II. 52 and 55. as fig. are also very common. in which even the characteristic Perpen- dicular ogee of fig. Fig. is characteristic of the first two styles . The rounded form of the upper side. Fig. 17 from Tintern fig. XVI. 44. 49. It is peculiarly elegant. 21 from Byland. Fig. from Furness.* PL. 45 from Bottisham. Figs. 24 is from All Saints'. and of frequent occurrence.. which perhaps accounts for this fact. Early English. respect a i so string-courses follow the prin- ciple of the abacus of capitals. near Cambridge fig. The same remark applies to fig. 50 is from Over. abaci of capitals of which several successive forms are given on page 77. 53. the same as in the abacus of capitals of this period. Fig. In this Tradition strings. 35 or 48. Fig. 26 the roll-and-fillet complete. as of all other moldings of the style. Fig. 4 occurs. 100 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. form The latter is curious from its late (see fig. but the undercutting is the most striking characteristic of this. . 23 is from Lincoln Minster. 20. or weathering. 41 is gene- Decorated. The most frequent Decorated form is perhaps figs. Both are equally common in Decorated work. may * Early English strings are often continued from the abaci of capitals. 71). 11 is from Furness Abbey . Stamford. fig. is very characteristic. The rounding of the upper edge began in this style.

77. i p t i Perpendicular Strings. Perhaps the most ordinary forms are PL. figs. 58. or even overhangs. 59. fig. as fig. 60. 66. occur principally in the time of Edwards I. Embattled string-courses occur now and then in this style. 71. 57. it is better to draw the parts of the wall above and below perpendicularly on the paper. Fig. yet. figs. 68. is also a common variety. as figs. but also because the wall often recedes above the string. to be said on the subject . XX. 51. without this. XVI. more or less clearly developed. already described. not only for a guide to show the direction of inclination or projection. .. Fig. 68.. and others. and II. 32. as fig. is another example. The details of the parts underneath are so varied as to render it almost impossible to give anything like a complete account of them. 101 therefore be pronounced late in the style. Undercuttings. Sometimes a foot-rule may be bent against the wall and the under part. and thus the exact angle can readily be transferred to paper. 44. Much more might. 64. nu- merous as they are. Usually there is a small bowtell in the lowest part. as" fig. PL. is rather a characteristic mark of the style. 62. Norfolk. 60. 61. as in fig. 18 is a string-course from the same place. The double ogee. often occur. 67. HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. The angles of the chamfers can best be attained by bending a piece of lead across them. XVI. and indeed ought. as in figs. which. it has already been remarked. Perpendicular strings and hood-moldings are generally marked by the sloping plane of the upper surface. they will generally be found to recur with tolerable uniformity. 56. from Grantham Church. as in the cornice of the aisles at Cromer Church. This . is left quite indefinite. In copying string-courses. and the combination of the ogee with the under fillet. 78 exhibits the peculiar Perpendicular form already pointed out. as in figs. as PL. 61. 16. A semicircle sunk in the under side of half a square pro- jecting diagonally. 71.

of moldings, were it the intention of the writer to attempt any-
thing like a complete essay. For example, there yet remain
wholly unnoticed several important cases of the application of
moldings in Gothic architecture. Basements, weatherings of
buttresses, cappings of parapets and battlements, plans of
monials, groin-ribs, timbers of roofs, and other wood-work,
besides the many and interesting varieties of ornamental or

floriated moldings, are all well deserving of the closest attention.

But a great book is a great evil, as a philosopher of old has

declared ; and it has been the wish of the author rather to win
the attention of the reader, by pointing out the way to copy and
observe, than to deter him by the uninviting form of a grave
and heavy book. Quite enough has been said, it is conceived,
to illustrate the really essential principles of the science. And
no one need feel any difficulty or perplexity in recognizing the
details of the styles, who will take the trouble to apply the rules

laid down in this little work.




In studying the history and development of moldings in the
ancient buildings in this country there is much that is of great
interest to the antiquary, but that interest is very much en-
larged when the student feels that he is learning not only what
has been done heretofore, but, if I may so term it, his alphabet,
for designs he may himself make in the future.
Whatever building he may have the opportunity of designing
he is so sure to find himself requiring some ornament of this

kind, that the study of the subject will assist him in bringing
his design to a successful issue.' Whatever the class of building

may be, whether he is wishing to make it effective by its mas-
siven'ess and its solid character, or by its delicacy of treatment
and carefully adjusted proportion, whether he chooses to
render this by the flat broad moldings of the Norman period,
or the deeply cut and sharply defined molding of the Early
English period, or the softer and rounder outlines of the
Decorated, or if he chooses later work, his knowledge of what
has been done, and his experience of the effect produced, will,

more surely than anything else, enable him to set out such

work as will. produce the effect he is aiming at.

Whether, again, he limits his aims to mere selection, or

whether he uses his study to enable him to design, as far' as he
has powers to do so, or even if he indulges in mere inventing,
his knowledge of what has been done must be of value to him.
One of the first things to be considered in designing a
molding is the use it is intended for. Mr. Euskih forcibly

brings an example of what I mean, though it is a very simple

case. He illustrates the ordinary square angle, and shows that

in order to prevent the probable chipping and breaking of
a fine edge, the angle was simply rounded ; but, as he says, this
was not Art : it was only when the angle was treated further,


M1 A
m Wm^ W illk

either as a simple bead or a more enriched molding, that the
mind of the artist stepped in ; and yet the use of this molding
really was to obtain a surface that would have a fair chance of
retaining its form without damage.
A very prominent use of the ordinary exterior string-
course is to throw the water off the building and prevent its

running down and staining the wall ; and care should be taken
that it will do this —a care not always thought of in modern
Take, again, the case of the ordinary Arcade found in almost
.every church. The wall carrying the main roof is to be pierced
so as to extend the area of the floor into the aisles : if this were
done simply by leaving square piers and rectangular arches,
the value of much space would be lost, and therefore the
columns were reduced in section and the strength maintained
by making them solid stone instead of mere walling. And the
work of the Artist comes when this column has to be enlarged
at the base so that there is the same support from the founda-
tion, and where the capital is formed to receive the arch, and
again where the arch is divided into its various parts to make
it work harmoniously with the capital, &c. The manner of
accomplishing these ends may be varied immensely. Some of
the methods used in ancient work are described above, and the
object of the Artist is so to bring all these parts together, that



while gaining the utmost utility the design forms one harmo-
nious whole.
In order to obtain this there are one or two points which
should be carefully studied. In the first place, moldings should

be designed with a careful attention to the position from which
they will be most commonly seen. To say that the upper
surface of the base and the lower side of the capital should be

those molded seems too obvious to need pointing out ; but the
same principle should be carried out where it is not quite so
obvious, and where it requires a little thought
to make it effective. As an instance of this in
old work, I may mention a purlin which was
taken down in Pembroke College, Cambridge. ^^HUli )>

The natural tendency of the draughtsmen in
an office would be to set out the moldings
symmetrically, the roll being placed so that the hollow molds
on each side were alike ; but the Artist who built Pembroke
noted the fact that the upper side would be much less seen
than the lower when viewed from the floor, and therefore
widened the upper side thus.
Other instances will continually occur, and ^..^^^
the thought of where the molding will be -'ij|||jjf\
chiefly seen from should be continually pre- ^^^H/^

The question of scale, is also a most impor-
tant consideration. Few have any idea, until they have been
startled with the appearance of their finished work, how small
a molding looks when executed and placed a few feet from the

eye, that had seemed very large when on the drawing-board.
And nothing but actual measurement of executed work, new or
old, will ever fix this on the mind.
When this preliminary difficulty is overcome, there still

remains that of 'whether the work will be coarse from an over
attempt to be bold, or weak from a too intense desire to bo

refined. To steer clearly between these — to know when to allow

free scope and emphasize a feature by a little over boldness,
and when to draw attention by an exceeding delicate treatment,

is the knowledge of the Artist which study and experience alone
can give. The principles of design are beyond the scope of

this little book, but it has been thought well to note a few
points that may be useful to the student and those commencing
their career, in the hope that, when they look back in future

years on their early work, they may find that they have learnt

by study and observation what others have had to discover by
the experience of failure in obtaining the results they were
aiming at.


. Gurney & Ja-dkaaa. Plate 1 J.if. Paternoster Bow.ZelX&tji.i! sc.. London..

25. Fig. 2. 21. Little Casterton. Early English Pier Arch. Mary's. Broach Stop. 1190. 6. 19 enlarged. Bobertsbridge Abbey — Groin Bib. 19. do. Clee. Example of Thirteenth-Century Chamfered Window. Example of Chamfer. Friesland. do. 16. near Leeds. PLATE I. 3. Cherry Hinton— Cambridgeshire — Chancel Arch. 10. Tintern Abbey —Groin Eib. Diagram of Sub-arch. Cambridgeshire c. 12. 7. Plain Saxon "Window (Diagram). 20. 23. 14. St. 13. — Horningsea. 9. St. 17. Rutland. Skirbeck. Little Casterton—Arch Mold.Chamfered. Lincolnshire — Norman Pier Arch. Do. . Fig. Lincoln. do. Ely. 18. . 5. Little Casterton — Transition Norman Arch. Great Grimsby. Lincolnshire —Respond. 6 enlarged. Clee. Waterbeach. 24. Diagram of Pointed and Side Filleted Bowtell. 8. 15. Adel. Lincoln Cathedral — Doorway in Precincts. 1. 4. 22. Lincolnshire. 11. Benet's.



&uni«y * Jaiiceoii. Plate 11 4 i m# § j Ulsii 3Hifii_ f- ul London. Paternoster Row .

do. . Jamb. Chancel Arch. — Cherry Hinton. Do. do. 11. do. do. 1. Cambridgeshire North Door. Cambridge. South Porch. Do. do. Clement's — South Doorway. b Soffit Plane. 10. Window Jamb. 3. 15. Trumpington. Lincolnshire Doorway. 7. 2. Stamford. Over. c Wall Plane. Do. — Middle Basen Early English Pier Arch. Interior. St. 5. Doorway. 13. Madingley. Cherry Hinton— Inner Door. . 19. do. All Saints'—Pier Arch. — PLATE II. 16. do. 8. 6. 14. South Porch. Langtoft. 17. Cambridgeshire —Doorway. Cambridgeshire. do. Tintern Abbey— Groin Bib. — Ludborough. Pier Arch. Chancel Door. Diagram of Planes a Chamfer Plane. 9. Great Grimsby. Over. 18.



:r jr London. Paternoster Row.Ze A' i.: Gurney & Jackson. . J ^HW J.. S3 Plate m Fiji ml mK mm 1 im l _ ' * • A HI 1 k Hi V '.If.

4. 10. St. All Saints'. 19. Histon. — Plymouth Belfry Arch. 13. do. — Louth Early English Doorway. St. — Ely Cathedral Pier Arches. 6. Choir. 9. 15.— 7. — Eobertsbridge Abbey Groin Bib. 11. 12. . 18. near York. PLATE III. York Fragment. 20. St. do. Stamford. Mary's Abbey. Common form of Decorated Pier. Martin's. 17. 14. Norfolk. St. — Tintern Abbey Fragment. 16. Attleborough. 3. — Northants Chancel Arch. — Robertsbridge Abbey Groin Rib. St. Wittering. Stamford. John's. Euskington. Peter Gowts. 8. do. 5. Lincolnshire. Cambridgeshire —Arch over Piscina and Capital. Mary's. Furness Abbey — Chapter House. Skelton. Utterby. 1. 2. Lincoln.



. jOP^'lS Lon&tm: Girrney* Jaclnjoiv. Paternoster Row. BARXT EWGLISH.

2. 6. Ludborough. PLATE IV. Glastonbury— c. 1200— Groin Bib. Do. Do. — Lincoln Cathedral Arcade. — Furness Abbey Groin Bib. Fleur-de-lis Molding. . Diagram of common form. Broad Fillet. Do. Diagram of Boll and Fillet. 18. — Trumpington Belfry Arch. Beymerston. Do. 15. Lincolnshire — Chancel Doorway. 19. 3. 5. Scroll Molding. 20. Yaxley. Do. 7. 8. 10. Diagram of first sketch of Mold. Diagram of possible first formation of Fillet. Hunts —Doorway. Diagram of Boll Molding. 21. Peterborough Cathedral— Groin Bib. .) Lincoln Cathedral. Norfolk. — Barnack Early English Arch. 13. — Barholme semi-Norman Arch. 16. 22. do. 12. 1.} 14. 9. 11. variety of Scroll Molding. 17. 4. Boll and Triple Fillet.



Lantfon: Oaww * Jackson. DECORATED. Paternoster Row. .

Boston—Inner Doorway. Interior of Window Jamb. 16. — Boston Monument. Lincolnshire —Belfry Arch. Northborough. 2. Benington. 6. 11. 12. 9. Northants—Window Jamb. Norfolk—West Doorway. Lincolnshire — Interior of Window Jamb. Do. 15. Hingharn. 1. 13. 7. Ewerby— Monument. 5. Norfolk — Chancel Doorway. 10. Inner Jamb. East Window. Hingharn —Window. do. PLATE V. South Porch. West Keal. 17. Attleborough — Doorway. do. Variety of Decorated Pier. 8. Stretham. 3. Heckington. . do. Benington. — Great Ellingham Doorway. Exterior Jamb of Window. 14. Cambridgeshire. Variety of Decorated Pier. 4. Attleborough.



tc Jackson.ff.. Qurncy . Paternoster Row. .ZcfiTctucso- London. DECORATED J.

6. 7. Norfolk Doorway. Norfolk —West Door. Hingham. Lincolnshire South Porch. Leicestershire. — Boston East Window. 15. 13. 10. — Hingham North Doorway. 9. Double Ogee and Hollow. Double Ogee and Hollow. — Hardingham. Sleaford —-Window Jamb. Boston—Pier Arch. 3. — Deopham Inner Doorway. — Deopham Doorway. Do. 5. . Do. 4. — Boston Monument in Church (a. 2. 12. Soffit). 1. Norfolk Archway. Little — Ellingham. PLATE VI. do. 11. Norfolk — Doorway. 8. 14. Little Ellingham. — Benington. South Porch. Stoke Golding. Pier Arch.



.Qurney tc Jackson. London. Paternoster Row. DECORATED.

1. Hunts Window. 2. 16. Suffolk — Chancel Window. Hunts —Window. 5. Northants Doorway. 19. — West Keal Doorway. Fen Stanton. 20. — Northborough Outer Porch Doorway. Trumpington —East Window. 18. — Over. — Eivaulx. 22. — Peterborough Outer Archway. Keddington (or Ketton). 23. a Shallow Wave Mold. Swanton Morley. Diagram. 14-. 8. Window. Yorkshire Fragment. Groin Eib. Lincolnshire — Piscina. 12. 13. Thurlby. Lincolnshire — South Doorway. 9. 10. Wave Molds and Hollow. 3. — Trumpington West Doorway. Do. Norfolk. west entrance to precincts. 4. Lincolnshire. . Clipsham. Horbling. Double Chamfer. 15. Langtoft. — Northborough. 17. 11. — Eivaulx Fragment. b Sunken Chamfer. Hingham. — c Deopham Belfry Arch. Llandaff Cathedral — West Doorway. Butland. — Yaxley. do. 6. Cambridgeshire Window in Chancel. do. 7. 21. _ Do. Pier Arch. PLATE VII.



Qnrney & Jaokaorv. Fa. JILZcSkuo. London. Row.temoet.. .

PLATE VIII. 17. Saham Toney. 1. . do. Cambridge Arch. Doorway.' Hunts Niche. Dereham. 16. Do. 19. Partney. 20. do. Sepulchre's. Doorway. near Stamford —West Doorway. Window Jamb. Neots. do. Pier Arch. Cambridgeshire East Window. — Staplefprd. Leverton. 15. Norfolk—West Doorway in isolated Tower. Long Melford. 7. do. South Porch. — Holy Trinity. —West Doorway. do. Louth. — Chesterton. Inner Doorway. 2. Uffington. do. 9. Martin's. Colchester Pier Arch. 18. St. 12. — Lincoln Cathedral South Choir Chapel. Lincoln— Oriel Window. Lincolnshire. Louth. — St. 4. Suffolk-Pier Arch. 14. Great Shelford. 13. Stewton. 21. Fishtoft. near St. Stamford — Doorway. 10. 8. 3. 6. 5. — Great Gransden. do. East Window. Cambridgeshire East Window.



Paternoster How. 7 KfiPENDICULAB. . Landaxt: Oanuy * JacTcson.H. £$ JO-t. . . J. jt so.




^ in? a =fT' J.ff. Paternoster Sow.EATU.: Qumey & Jackson.Y ENGLISH CAPITALS. .Ed HTsuas. sc- Londbn.

. 24. Stiekney. 1. 4. PLATE X. Bolton Abbey. Lincoln Cathedral. Yorkshire. 23. do. do. 40. 28. 10. Kuskington. Do. do. Thurlby. do. 30. Essex. Early English Capital. Walesby. 26. Lincolnshire. 16. 3. Isle of Wight. Decorated Abacus. Middle Basen. Saffron Walden.. 8. 7. 9. 38. Do. 13. Lincolnshire. Arreton. ' < Do. Laceby. 29. 12. Tintern Abbey. do. Tintern Abbey. Frieston. Cambridgeshire. Furness Abbey. 39. Do. do. Chapter House. Furness Abbey. 19. Early English Abacus. 5. do. 22. . do. 18. Great Abington. Diagram of rudimentary Capital. 37. 17. Bolton Abbey.



. BE C ORATED CAPI TAL S £ITJ. toiidon: \XBCBxy k Jackaon PateragaJSP.eZe. Rov .«K. .'J«.

do. 2. do. Stickford. Cambridgeshire. 13. 7. do. 11. do. 18. 12. Do. Hunts. PLATE XI. do. Lincolnshire — Chapel used as Vestr* 6. Hunts. 1. 4. 10. do. Abingtbn. Yaxley. 3. Partney. Boston. do. Legburn. do. Aswardby. 28. Waltham. Fletton. • 9. Leverton. Louth. do. Do. 22. . Sibsey.



. Onrney A. Jackson Pat ernoster Row. .London.

15. 27 28. Maxey.' 29. PLATE XII. 11. Cambridgeshire — Capital of Nave Pier. Lincolnshire. St. do. Little Shelford. do. . Northamptonshire. George's. Stamford. Trumpington. 24. 19. Martin's. -I 23. Uffington. 13. J 26. do. 14. do. John's. Bede House. 22. 16. Monument. 1st. Norfolk Nave Piers."\ J-St. do. Careby. — Hinghan.



London: Qurxicy 6c Jackeon.PERPENDICULAR CAPITALS.. Paternoster Row .

do. Saham Toney. Cambridgeshire. Elsworth Hall. Norfolk. PLATE XIII. 1. 16. k 2 . }-Colchester. Fen Ditton. Long Melted. do. 17. Louth. 4. Dry Drayton. Lincolnshire. do. Harston. 19. 18. Mattishall. J 13. do. 12. 14. Suffolk. 9.



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17. Over and Histon. 20. Ely Cathedral— Lady Chapel. York. Ely Cathedral— Galilee. 44. . Central Column. — Wells Cathedral Doorway. Ely Cathedral. Coton. a /Attic Base. 33. do." 5. from Willis's " Architecture of the Middle 4.\Italian Gothic Bases. 26. Skelton. Cambridgeshire. 36. 41. — Bottisham. 38. near York. - 7. 35. Bivaulx Abbey — Choir Columns. Lincoln Cathedral — Base of Great Piers. i}' 3. 40./ Ages. 6. By land Abbey — Central Piers. PLATE XIV. Chapter House. do.' Lincolnshire. 43. Do. Furness Abbey. Do. Ely Cathedral— Lady Chapel. 18. Canterbury Cathedral. Tintern Abbey. Fishtoft. 29. — Trumpington Nave Pier. do. Mary's Abbey. v 8. Cambridgeshire. Boston. 9. Cambridgeshire Nave Piers. do. '37. Do. 30. 16. Peterborough Cathedral. Do. 45. Furness Abbey. 42. 27. 39. 28. — Tintern Abbey Nave Piers. St. do.



ZeJfouc..tf6> London. 2E. . Paternoster Row. Ourney &* Jackson..

13. 4. 5. Do. Cambridge. Heme. 12. 8. Norfolk. 21. do. — Over. Carbrook. John's. 18. Colchester. do. PLATE XV. do. Essex. Swanton Morley. Edward's. Holy Trinity. 7. Crosby Hall. 20. 2. All Saints'. — Peterborough Cathedral Lady Chapel. 10. Kent. St. 11. Norfolk. Colchester. Cambridgeshire. 22. do. Saffron Walden. 17. 1. St. Cambridgeshire Chancel. Haslingfield. Alban's Abbey. Stamford. 3. Colchester. Louth. 15. 6. Mattishall. 16. St. do. Norwich Cathedral. 9. . 14. Dereham. Sahara.



STRINGS -AND LABELS.ZeJJ!ewx:. jr. London. .3..: Qurnajr tk Jaeltoon. J. Paternoster Row.

PLATE XVI. &c. / 'd ^ . from various sources. Examples of Strings. Hood Molds.



Paternoster Row. . Plate XV11 LanSaa..: Quinsy it Jackson.

— Grantham. Eutland Doorway. 1. Lincolnshire South Aisle Window. 6. Lincolnshire South Aisle Window. 2. 4. 9. — Langham. Do. North Porch. — Over. Cambridgeshire — South Porch. 8. Do. PLATE XVII. Inner Doorway. — Grantham. 10. Bottisham. — Grantham -Window Jamb. do. . 5. Cambridgeshire South Porch. do. — Grantham South Aisle Window. 3. South Porch.



rn.: G-u. Plate XVM1 London.ey A Jackson. . . Paternoster Row.

8. 6. Peterborough Cathedral —Doorway opposite South Aisle of Nave: half-inch scale. do. 7. 10. Do. 2. Norfolk. Bivaulx Abbey— Window Jamb. 5. Castle Bising. 1. . 3. do. Doorway in Cloister : half-inch scale. 4. — Beaulieu Abbey South Transept Befectory. Bivaulx Abbey. Norfolk — East Window. Do. PLATE XVIII. — Bipon Cathedral Choir. Buined Doorway. Castle Bising.


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t," ^Diagrams showing the formation of the Wave Molding.

3. Bottisham, Cambridgeshire — East Window, South Aisle.
4. Saffron Walden, Essex.
5. Stretton, Eutland.
6. Grantham, Lincolnshire.
7. Do. do. Crypt.
8. —
Fountains Abbey Lady Chapel.



. Patornoatoi.: Currier & Jackson. Row. London.Tvrnbuil sc. T.

6. near Cambridge West Doorway. — Peterborough Cathedral Archway in Cloister. 5. — Bipon Cathedral Window Jamb. 16. — Landbeach. — Grantham Chancel Window. Eivaulx Abbey. 12. do. 9. — Grantham Choir Doorway. — Bolton Abbey Monument. 15. Cambridgeshire Doorway. Grantham. . 11. 10! — Newton. 2. Window. 18. Ripon Cathedral. do . — Lancaster Arch Mold of Nave. 14. — Bolton Abbey Doorway. 7. Guy. 13. Bolton Abbey. Do. PLATE XX. 17. Grantham. — WOlingham. South Aisle. 3. 1. Cambridgeshire Chancel Door. 4.



. Qupn«y & Jackson.TurnbuZL jo. Plate XXI T. . Louden.. Paternoster Row.

Seaton. Do. York Cathedral—Library. 2. do. . Do. 10. 9. 7. Nave. Chapter House. 4. Fountains Abbey. PLATE XXI. Do. Rutland. do. do. — Ripon Cathedral Revestry or Chapter Room. 5. 1. 6. Moroot. 8. Ripon Cathedral. do.


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