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Communication is the key factor in the success of any organization. When it comes to effective communication, there are certain barriers that every organization faces. People often feel that communication is as easy and simple as it sounds. No doubt, but what makes it complex, difficult and frustrating are the barriers that come in its way. some of these barriers are mentioned below. Barriers to successful communication include message overload (when a person receives too many messages at the  same time), and message complexity. Physical barriers: Physical Barriers are often due to the nature of the environment.Thus, for example, the natural barrier which exists, if staff are located in different buildings or on different sites.Likewise, poor or outdated equipment, particularly the failure of management to introduce new technology, may also cause problems.Staff shortages are another factor which frequently causes communication difficulties for an organization. Whilst distractions like background noise, poor lighting or an environment which is too hot or cold can all affect people's morale and concentration, which in turn interfere with effective communication. System design: System Design faults refer to problems with the structures or systems in place in an organization. Examples might include an organizational structure which is unclear and therefore makes it confusing to know who to communicate with. Other examples could be inefficient or inappropriate information systems, a lack of supervision or training, and a lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities which can lead to staff being uncertain about what is expected of them. Attitudinal barriers: Attitudinal Barriers come about as a result of problems with staff in an organisation. These may be brought about, for example, by such factors as poor management, lack of consultation with employees, personality conflicts which can result in people delaying or refusing to communicate, the personal attitudes of individual employees which may be due to lack of motivation or dissatisfaction at work, brought about by insufficient training to enable them to carry out particular tasks, or just resistance to change due to entrenched attitudes and ideas. Ambiguity of Words/Phrases: Words sounding same but having different meaning can convey a different meaning altogether. Hence the communicator must ensure that the receiver receives the same meaning. It would be better if such words can be avoided by using alternatives. Individual linguistic ability; is also important. The use of difficult or inappropriate words in communication can prevent people from understanding the message.Poorly explained or misunderstood messages can also result in confusion. We can all think of situations where we have listened to something explained which we just could not grasp. Physiological barriers: may result from individuals' personal discomfort, caused, for example, by ill health, poor eye sight or hearing difficulties. Presentation of information: is also important to aid understanding. Simply put, the communicator must consider the audience before making the presentation itself and in cases where it is not possible the presenter can at least try to simplify his/her vocabulary so that majority can understand.
In any communication model, noise is interference with the decoding of messages sent over a channel by an encoder. There are many examples of noise: Environmental Noise: Noise that physically disrupts communication, such as standing next to loud speakers at a party, or the noise from a construction site next to a classroom making it difficult to hear the professor. Physiological-Impairment Noise: Physical maladies that prevent effective communication, such as actual deafness or blindness preventing messages from being received as they were intended.
unclear and badly stated directions can make the receiver even more lost. For example. great anger or sadness may cause someone to lose focus on the present moment. the word "weed" can be interpreted as an undesirable plant in your yard. Psychological Noise: Certain attitudes can also make communication difficult. Disorders such as Autism may also severely hamper effective communication Communication Models Linear Communication Model Figure 1: Shannon's (1948) Model of the communication process. 2 . For instance. Organizational Noise: Poorly structured communication can prevent the receiver from accurate interpretation. For example. Syntactical Noise: Mistakes in grammar can disrupt communication. or as a euphemism for marijuana.Semantic Noise: Different interpretations of the meanings of certain words. such as abrupt changes in verb tense during a sentence. Cultural Noise: Stereotypical assumptions can cause misunderstandings. such as unintentionally offending a nonChristian person by wishing them a "Merry Christmas".
Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message.a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. social. competencies. etc. chronological or cultural.). Feedback . Medium . their responsiveness to the message.Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical.Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context. For instance . The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient. 6. and the reliance of encoder on decoder. 2. while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.Figure 4: An Interactive Model: The main components of communication process are as follows: 1. It may take written form also in form of memos. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. background. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. 3. For instance . Recipient / Decoder . 4. The views. Sender / Encoder . 5.Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message.Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. The sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. Every communication proceeds with context. and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication.Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear. sighs. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization.Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. Barriers to Effective Communication Mindsets Beliefs Principles Attitudes Prejudices Experience 3 . skills. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. reports. approach. Message . Context . etc.
Distractions Physical Physiological Psychological Semantic Factual How to Overcome These Barriers? Purpose of Communicating Avoid ambiguity Basic Principles of language -maxim of quality -maxim of quantity -maxim of relevance -maxim of manner 4 .
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