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SKILL BUILDERS PRACTICE

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PROBLEMS

Proven to IMProve Your AlgebrA SKIllS

Mark A. McKibben, PhD

3 Gain algebra confidence with targeted practice 3 Acquire new problem-solving skills 3 Master the most commonly tested algebra problems

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1001 ALGEBRA PROBLEMS

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1001 ALGEBRA PROBLEMS

Mark A. McKibben, PhD

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Copyright © 2011 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: McKibben, Mark A. 1001 algebra problems / [Mark McKibben]. p.cm. ISBN: 978-1-57685-764-9 1. Algebra—Problems, exercises, etc. I. LearningExpress (Organization) II. Title. III. Title: One thousand and one algebra problems. IV. Title: One thousand and one algebra problems. QA157.A16 2011 512.0078—dc22 2010030184 Printed in the United States of America 987654321 For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com

He is an active research mathematician who has published more than 25 original research articles.D. His dedication to undergraduate mathematics education has prompted him to write textbooks and more than 20 supplements for courses on algebra. Mark McKibben is currently a tenured associate professor of mathematics and computer science at Goucher College in Baltimore. and calculus.ABOUT THE AUTHOR Dr. where his area of study was nonlinear analysis and differential equations. in mathematics in 1999 from Ohio University. as well as a recent book entitled Discovering Evolution Equations with Applications Volume 1: Deterministic Equations. v . precalculus. He earned his Ph. trigonometry. Maryland. published by CRC Press/Chapman-Hall. statistics.

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 SECTION 7 SECTION 8 Pre-Algebra Fundamentals Linear Equations and Inequalities Polynomial Expressions Rational Expressions Radical Expressions and Quadratic Equations Elementary Functions Matrix Algebra Common Algebra Errors ix 1 17 65 77 89 101 123 143 153 277 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS GLOSSARY vii .

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1001 ALGEBRA PROBLEMS .

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Anyone who has taken an algebra course and needs to refresh skills that have become a bit rusty—this book is for you. Or. we hope that you will find it to be a useful resource in your journey through algebra! xi . or the original cost of an item. Such a value might be the length of the side of a fence. the number of minutes a jogger needs to run in order to catch the nearest opponent. this book will provide you with some extra practice. Although you might not have realized it. Whatever your background or reason for picking up this book. Mastery of the rules and techniques embodied in the problem sets in this book will arm you with the tools necessary to attach applied problems accurately and with ease. It has been written with several audiences in mind. you’ve been doing algebra for quite some time. believe it or not! The set of rules and techniques that has come to be known as algebra revolves around finding values of some unknown quantity that. How to Use This Book This book has been designed to provide you with a collection of problems to assist you in reviewing the basic techniques of algebra. Instructors teaching an algebra course might find this repository of problems to be a useful supplement to their own problem sets. when used. Teachers and tutors might use the problems in this book in help sessions. such as “How many MP3 downloads can I buy with a certain amount of money?” or “What percentage reduction in price would lower the cost of a particular shirt to $20?” are solved using algebra.INTRODUCTION M any of the questions you ask in everyday life. if you are a student taking algebra for the first time. make a given mathematical statement true.

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In fact. integers. the properties used to simplify algebraic expressions later in the text coincide with the rudimentary properties exhibited by these number systems. As such. Translating verbal statements into mathematical ones and learning to deal with elementary algebraic expressions involving variables are the focus of the remaining four problem sets in this section. it is sensible to first gain familiarity with them and to then determine how to adapt them to a setting in which variables are involved. These properties are reviewed in the first five problem sets in this section. S E C T I O N PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS 1 .1 T he basic arithmetic properties of whole numbers. and decimals are fundamental building blocks of algebra. fractions. exponential expressions.

b. 142 799 4. d. (15 + 32)(56 – 39) = ible by both 7 and 8? a.715 nearest thousand? a. 600 + 80 + 2 b. c. 180. The whole number p is greater than 0.404 and 849 are rounded to the nearest hundred and then multiplied? a. 12(84 – 5) – (3 a.000 + 800 + 2 of 6.802? a. Estimate the value of 7. 6.000 8. 20. 16. b.000 b.465 30 4 rounded to the 2.000 to 35 ? a. a.428 d. 1 10 100 1.000 + 800 + 2 c. 128 7. 80. What is the estimated product when both 162 a. 60. b. 16. a multiple 5. How many possibilities are there for the value of p? a.000 c. What is the value of 65. 78 c. 9 d. Which of the following choices is equivalent to 74. c. 16. d.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– Set 1 (Answers begin on page 153) 6. d. 5 5? 3 5 10 5 15 125 9. 8 b.000 54) = 5 a. Which of the following expressions is equal to 60. c. 125 10.000 + 80 + 2 d. and a factor of 180. 786 796 841 54. 1.429 3. 16.000 d. Which of the following whole numbers is divis- The arithmetic properties of the set of whole numbers are reviewed in this set. 42 b.000 b. 160. Which of the following choices is equivalent 4. 243 d. 7 b.000 c. 15 c. 60. c. 11 2 . b. d. 112 d. 10 e. 8 c.

which of the following is the least value of p for which y is positive? a.4. d. 3 3 10 12. b. c. b. 2 3 3 5 d. 36 + 48 b. { } b. {2.2.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 11. 2 5 9 e. c. –25 4–9 = tors of 12 that are NOT multiples of 2? a. d. d. 4 e. 2 c. 9 10 b. an odd number? a. 37 + 47 d.6. Which of the following is the set of positive fac- The arithmetic properties of the integers are reviewed in this set.3} e. Which of the following operations will result in a. c. 17. b. In the equation y = 6p – 23. {1. (1 + 2)2 9 – 22 11 – 10 5 45 3 3 21. d. e. 19 5 –5 –19 15.12} 13. b. c. 1 b. (49 a. d. 20 8 c. 6 9 11 27 whole number. Which of the following is the prime factoriza- Set 2 (Answers begin on page 154) tion of 90? a. 90 1 c. b. 3 d. e. c. Which of the following is a prime number? a. 10 15 32 16 20. b. 7 12 e. –4 –30 –20 –5 5 13 –2 –144 144 –9 9 –6 3= a. 13 + 12 14. {1} c. Which of the following equals 24 ? 19. d. c. if p is a positive 16. {1. Which of the following expressions is equal to 5? a. –135 315 –295 –45 75 7) – (48 (–4)) = a.3} d. 5 3 . c. 5 – (–17 + 7)2 3= a. d. 18. b.

–g + h b. –g + h b. –g –h 30. –36 36 28 196 31. If g 24.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 22. If g 25. If g 26. |h| – |g| e. –g2 d. b. g + h c. 3 –3 4 –4 4 . b. which of the following quantities is always positive? a. which of the following quantities is the largest? a. b. 2g + 3h 0 and h 0. b. d. –12 –18 12 18 23. –g c. c. c. gh b. 3(5 – 3)2 –3(52 – 32)= a. b. –(–2 –(–11 – (–3 – 5) – 2)) = a. –2 (–2)2 – 22 = 0 and h 0. g – h d. –g –h –2. gh b. –(5 3) + (12 (–4)) = 28. which of the following quantities is the smallest? a. h2 a. c. which of the following quantities cannot be negative? a. b. d. If g a. c. g + h d. d. d. (32 + 6) a. d. 9 –36 15 0 2 0 and h 0. c. c. (–g)2 32. If g 27. g – h c. d. (–2[1 –2(4 – 7)]2 = a. g b. g – h c. which of the following quantities is the largest? a. 4 –4 –12 12 (–24 8) = 29. g + h d. g + h c. –5 5 4 –4 0 and h 0. –g –h d.

How many pages has she read? a. 5 18 63 100 300 45 9 20 = 1 5 12 14 1 60 a. 98 5 . Which of the following fractions is the largest? a. none of these 35. c. 1 2 1 4 2 3 3 8 English class. none of these 37. 18 2 1 1 3 5 9 a. 36 4 b. 8 d. 10 a. 15 + 5 + 6 + 10 = b. c. 20 – 6 = The arithmetic properties of the set of fractions are reviewed in this set. 216 b. d. b. What fraction of the following figure is shaded? 5 8 2 3 8 11 4 10 1 39. 4 5 d. 5 8 5 6 8 11 7 10 3 2 40. d.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 17 5 Set 3 (Answers begin on page 156) 36. b. 300 d. b. 33. d. 7 36 4 5 1 750 38. c. d. 1 – 4= 11 a. b. d. The novel is 360 pages long. 34. Which of the following fractions is between 4 and 3 ? a. Irma has read 5 of the novel assigned for her a. 72 c. c. 5 3 c. c. b. c.

5 44. n n m b. 1. b. 5 b. d. 5 . 4 e. 45. 5 . n – m e. Which of the following fractions is closest in m n m the ration 4:5? 1 1 a. m – n d. d. Which expression gives the ratio of men to women in the class? a. m c. 7 5 – 3 1 6 2 = a. 8 5 4 7= 5 14 20 8 25 32 9 16 21 –5 3 –2 –10 7 a. 5 . What is the reciprocal of 42 ? a. 1 + 7 5 10 3 = a. 2 43. 17 24 17 6 61 12 5 4 6 . 23 42 13 21 2 3 4 7 48. – 42 d. b. 2 3 3 10 5 6 3 5 2 1 What fraction of the envelopes still needs to be addressed? a. there are m men in a class of n students. c. b. b. 5 d. Which of the following pairs of fractions is in 46. 4 4 5 1 4 1 1 value to 2 ? a. c. c. – 49 42. c. c. d.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 41. 4 . 1 2 21 1 –2 d. Judy’s math class. n – m 47. Danny addressed 14 out of 42 envelopes. d. b. 3 2 1 2 1 c. 4 c. 99 49 b.

0 d. (1 – 3) –8 2 58. – 8 57. 0 b. c. –15 15 125 –125 55. 26 5 24 5 24 –5 3 –2 a. –53 = a. 121 –121 –22 22 1 –3 –2 – 1 –3 9–2 = 51. b. 4–2 1 – 2(–1)–3 = = a. 2–5 53. 8 71 –2 71 c. b. d. 1 2 1 7 . – 9 c. – 2 0 52. 49. 7 8 9 a. –1 c. – – 2 – 2 2 3 = a. d. –5(–1 –5–2) = The basic exponent rules in the context of signed arithemetic are reviewed in this set. –17 c. 1 2 28 1 a. (–11)2 = a. – 5 3 b. – 2 d. 0 1 5 20 2 –3 d. 1 64 1 – 32 a. c. What is the value of the expression 5(4˚)? a. b. – 9 d. – 54 b. – 4 56. c. b. –1 c. 12–2 d. –45 b. 1 b. c.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– Set 4 (Answers begin on page 157) 54. (2 ) = 5 (–32 + 2–3)–1= a. – 18 1 2 8 50. – 144 c. d. –12 d. d. 32 b.

– 1 –1 Set 5 (Answers begin on page 158) 3 8(– 4 ) 1 Arithmetic involving decimals and percentages is the focus of this set. 66. p3 d. On an exam. p b. – – 4 1 0 1 to determine n% of 40.4 which of the following has the largest value? a. He is given these four choices: I. 4 – 4 + 3 d. p2 c. p2 c. which of the following has the smallest value? a.6 74. p3 d. I and II I and IV II and III II and IV III and IV 61. e. b. d.9 69. p–1 8 . p3 d. – 16 60. p2 c. If p is a fraction strictly between 0 and 1. What is the result of increasing 48 by 55%? a. If p is a fraction strictly between 0 and 1.4 30. p–1 est value? a. – 10 b. (n 0. 26. p–2 d. n 100 40 II. p2 c. d.01) 40 III. p–1 63. p b.01) 40 Which two ways are correct? a. –2–2 + (–13 + (–1)3)–2 –22 = 64. 3 c. which a. p b. Bart is asked to choose two ways c. If p is a fraction strictly between –1 and 0. (n 0. Which of the following quantities has the great5 1 of the following has the smallest value? a. which of the following has the largest value? a. c. – 4 b. p–1 62. p b. b.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 59. c. 65. (n 100) 40 IV. If p is a fraction strictly between 1 and 2. –5 d.

1.04 c. (1 –0. e.052 0. 0.75 $250 III.25) $250 IV. Which of the following is not less than 5 ? 2 results in which of the following decimals? a. c. d. What percentage of 300 results in 400? a. e. Rounding 117.40 and 16 x 20 .5 74. 0.2 12 120 1.052 0. 100 b.0225 75. 0.3285 to the nearest hundredth decimals? a. 200% 1 133 3 % 500% 1. d.25 b. 0. I and III I and IV II and III II and IV III and IV a. 117.200% 9 . 2. 22.52 0. (1 + 0.5 –3. c. 0. Which of the following is the value of the point x 0.0052 72. 0. 0.52 0. d.34 68. e. Which of the following expressions show how 71. a. b.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 67.025 d.25 $250 II. c.0404 3 8 3 7 1 a.225 c. d.5% is equivalent to which of the following 69. b. 117. 1 3 2 5 3 8 3 7 4 9 labeled as A on the following number line? A –10 –5 0 5 10 d. b. c. which of the following is a possible value for x? a. b. c.5 –2. b.052 0. Which of the following is 400% of 30? a.0052 0.200 5 9 73. d.3 c.25) $250 a. 0. 2. c. 3 b.329 70.33 d. If 0. 117. d.00052 0. b. Which of the following inequalities is true? to determine the sale price of a $250 car stereo that is being offered at a 25% discount? I.5 –1.

81.3312 when a = –2? a. 28 b.25 d.01? a.03 1.015 b. 1 3% 29. –14 b. –34 b. 3. b.09 1. 1.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 76.5 d. What is the value of the expression 2ax – z 7 79.225 c. x =6. What is the value of the expression a2 + a 7a a.6% 37. –27 c.09 5 2 7 when x = –3? a.21 106 d. 0. 288 d. 3. –0. 7 4 e.5% 1 40 3 % when x = –3 ? a. – 4 d. 1. Which of the following decimals is equivalent This set contains problems that focus on evaluating algebraic expressions at numerical values.01 and 1. 0. (3.21 10–5 c. d. –7 c. 3. –10 e.21 105 80.21 10–6 b. –0. 0. Which of the following decimals is between Set 6 (Answers begin on page 159) –0. c. 18 e. –16 d. –21 c.25 b. What is the value of the expression –2x2 + 3x – to 8 – 5 ? a. b.275 78. d. –0. 44 c. what is the value of y a.03 3. 7 83.03 1012) 3 = 104 104 1012 3. 20 84. If y = –x3 + 3x –3.00000321 is equivalent to which of the following? a. –35 b. What percentage of 9 results in 3 ? 8 1 when a = 3.15 77. 0. 1. 2 82. 3.005 c. and z=–8? a. 15 d. c. 33 10 .

–3 c. What is the value of the expression 7x + x – z 12 92. c. 22 87. y = a. What is the value of the expression when x = 2 and y =3? a. – 25 c. d. What is the value of the expression 5a2 + 10a 7 3 a when a = –2? a. 24 e.4 80 a. –4 b. x =6. 36 c. c. –4 b. 384 88. 25 91. b. 0 93. –12 b. e. – 2 5 d. 52 b. –2 c. What is the value of the expression 3 – 4m + m2 10 when m = 6? a. 12 d. 6 d.8 32. 58 d.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 85. –2 d. c. –46 c. d. 46 b. 76 1 2 y and z = –8? 90. What is the value of the expression 2y2 + 3y 6x2 4x 2 1 86. 4 9 4 3 20 9 21 9 13 3 4(x –y)(2xy)(3yx) when x = 2 and y = –2? a. 12 e. –1 e. What is the value of the expression when x = 6 and z = –8? a. 8 c. 6 b. 16 11 . b. –76 d. What is the value of the expression (3xy + x) x y ab + b + a2 – b 2 when a = 1 and b = –1? a. 4 e. – 10 b. What is the value of the expression bx + z when b = –5. d. 1 256 1 16 when x = 2 and y = 5? 16 12. What is the value of the expression (xy) y x a if x = 2 and y = –x? a. 46 89.

–5a5b12c 8 (9ab3c3)? 101. b. c. Simplify the expression (3x2)3 x2x4 a. Simplify the expression 2a b a–1 (2b)–1 98. 6e –4 6e 4 36e–4 36e4 100. z =–8. –1. 4 b. b.800 a. and y = 2 ? a. a. 0 d. –5a4b36c2 d. d. c. 97. d. a. c.200 b. Set 7 (Answers begin on page 160) The problems in this set focus on simplifying algebraic expressions using the exponent rules. d. e. b. b. d. What is the value of the expression 3x2b(5a – 3b) (–45a4 b9 c5) a. x 2 – 3 – 4a when a = 3. 9 b. x5y5 104. d. b. 1 2 2a 4 a2 b2 12 . Simplify the expression (ab) . –16. Simplify the expression 4(3x3)2. c. What is the value of the expression z2 – 4a2 y when a = 3. when a = 3. d. x = 6. –28 c. x3y3 e. 1. 12x5 144x6 12x6 36x6 4 3 102. and x = 6? a. c. 4w12 4w27 12w27 64w27 . What is the simplified result of the operation 1 95. 27 c. What is the value of the expression 99.800 c. Simplify the expression (4w9)3. b. a7 a12 a7b6 a12b8 a12 b11 b 103 Simplify the expression x 2 y y –2 x xy . c.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 94. 9 x 27 x 1 xy x3 y5 x3 y3 d. 1 y a. –82 d. Simplify the expression 6(e–2)–2. c. –5a3b6c2 b. and y = 2 ? 6 –6 12 –12 a. b = –5. d. e. a. a. b. 46 96. –5a4b3c3 c.

What is the simplified expresson? a. –45p4r–6r d. 6x6y2 6x5y2 6x5y3 6x6y3 2 106. Simplify the expression 5c2 + 3c – 2c2 + 4 – 7c. 4y d. a. Express the product of –9p3r and the quantity 5p – 6r in simplified form. 6x 2 y2 109. d. 6x5y3 b. e. a b. b. 111. x c. Simplify the expression (3xy5)2 – 11x2 y2 (4y 4)2. 1 a a3 b4 a4 b4 a5 b4 b b a –2 1 a –1 . 8y b. a. 8y x 4y a. b. 6x14y4 112. Simplify the expression 3x2y(2x3y2). –4p4r – 15p3r2 b. c. c. 115. Simplify the expression –5(x–(–3y)) + 4(2y + x). c. c. the fourth power. –82x2y10 6x2y7 – 88x 2y8 –167x2y10 9x2y7 – 176x 2y8 2(3x2y)2 (xy)3 . Simplify the expression a a. 108. d. If 3x2 is multiplied by the quantity 2x3y raised to a. 110. d. c. 3(xy)2 Set 8 (Answers begin on page 161) The problems in this set focus on simplifying arithmetic combinations of algebraic expressions by using exponent rules and combining like terms. 114. The product of 6x2 and 4xy2 is divided by 3x3y. 113. a. 3c 2 – 4c + 4 –3c 4 – 4c 2 + 4 –10c2 – 21c + 4 The expression cannot be simplified further. –45p4r + 54p3r2 c. 4x 2 y2 d. 1. (4b)2x –2 7 5 7 5 a. d.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 105. b.296x16y4 c. d. 48x14y4 b. 4 a2b2x4 4 a2b2 4 a2b2x4 2 a2b2 a. –45p3r + 54 p3r2 107. c. Simplify the expression 5ab4 – ab4. –5ab4 –5a2b8 4ab4 The expression cannot be simplified further. b. 6x9y4 d. x + 7y x – 7y –x – 7y –x + 7y 13 . Simplify the expression (2ab2x)2 . d. b. Simplify the expression a. d. c. b. 4x5y3 c. to what would this expression simplify? a.

+ zx3 2y6 . b. a4c6 24b2 4a4c6 b2 6a4c6 b2 a4c6 4b2 a. b. d. –5g6 + h d. d. Simplify the expression 3(z + 1)2w3 – 2w(z + 1) ((z + 1)w2)–1 1 w . c. b. c. 62 4 9x 7 d. Simplify the expression 3x2 + 4ax – 8a2 + 7x2 – 2ax +7a2. – zx3 2y6 a. h 6 b. (–3x–1)–2 x–2 + 9 (x2)2 8 a. 9 x4 b. c. Simplify the expression (5a2 3ab) + 2a3b. Simplify the expression (ab2)3 + 2b2 – (4a)3b6. a. The expression cannot be simplified further. 118. c. Simplify the expression (2x 2)(4y 2) + 6x 2y 2. The expression cannot be simplified further. 19m7n7 19(m3n + nm3 + m3n3) 17(mn)3 + 2m3n3 The expression cannot be simplified further. –15g6 + 11h 119. 3(z + 1)2w3 – w3 b. d. –4g6 125. b. Simplify the expression –(–a–2bc–3)–2 + 5 a2c3 . 14 2b2 – 63a3b6 2b2 – 11a3b6 a3b5 + 2b2 – 12a3b6 The expression cannot be simplified further. b. (z + 1)2w3 d. Simplify the expression 9m3n + 8mn3 + 2m3n3. c. d. Simplify the expression –1 121. The expression cannot be simplified further. Simplify the expression –7g6 + 9h + 2h – 8g6. 3x–1 b. c. b –2 a. –2x –3 4z((xy–2)–3 + (x–3y6))–1 – a. e. 3(z + 1)2w3 – c. a. 10x2 + 2ax – a2 c. 117. –x–3 – x –2 d. a. y10 16(4x +1)10 2y(4x + 1)2 –2 . d. a. 8(4x + 1) –3 y–7 d. 21x2 – 8a2x – 56a2 b. Simplify the expression a.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 116. d. 15a2b + 2a3b 17a6 b2 17a3b The expression cannot be simplified further. 120. b. a. b. Simplify the expression 123. 126. 8(4x + 1)–10 y10 c. The expression cannot be simplified further. 122. x–3 – 3x –5 c. Simplify the expression 2x–3 – x4 – (x3)–1. 8zy6 x3 3zx3 2y6 2zx3 3y6 8zy6 x3 1 2y6 z x3 . –2g – 4h c. x4 c. none of the above 127. 124. 10x4 + 2a2x2 – a4 d. 12x 2y 2 14x 2y 2 2x 2 + 4y 2 + 6x 2y 2 8x 2 + y 2 + 6x 2y 2 8x 4y 4 + 6x 2y 2 –2(4x + 1)5 y–5 – ((4x + 1)y–2)–3 a.

Which of the following expressions represents half the difference between a number and five? a. Which of the following equations indicates how to compute x. (4x)2 – 2 d. (a + b + c) + ( a )( b )( c ) b. b.15y + 0. Two less than four times the square of a number can be represented as which of the following? a. Which of the following expressions represents a. 15 more than 3 times a number is 32. 3(x + 5) – 9 b. 2 x – 5 d. d.35 d. V + 4 V b.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 128.15(x – 1) + 0. the total amount Jonathon will be charged for h hours? a. which of the following expressions represents the new volume of water? 1 a. y = 0. ($30 – $40)h 136. both b and c 130.15 for each additional minute of the call. 2 – 4x2 b. 4x2 – 2 c.2x–2)–1 + 5 x2 – (2x)2 . 2 5x4 132. Simplify the expression (0.15(y – 1) + 0. a( a ) + b( b ) + c( c ) c. y = 0. (3x + 5) –9 c. 129.15x + 0. b. none of the above 83 2 20 x 2 2 9x –21 2 4 x nine less than three times the sum of a number and 5? a. 1.25V d. x = 0. c. 3 more than 15 times a number is 32. x = 0.35 c. x = $30h – $40 e. x – 5 b. 2 (x – 5) c. 9 – 3(x + 5) d. Jonathon is paying a math tutor a $30 one-time the sum of three numbers multiplied by the sum of their reciprocals? a. Which of the statements below represents the equation 3x + 15 = 32? a. If the volume V in a water tank is increased by phone call and $0.35 for the first minute of a Set 9 (Answers begin on page 162) This problem set focuses on interpreting verbal mathematical statements as symbolic algebraic expressions. V + 0.25V c. All three choices are correct. 15 . 131. Which of the following equations represents the cost y of a phone call lasting x minutes? a.35 b. x = $30 + $40h c. 32 times 2 is equal to 15 more than a number. d. 15 less than 3 times a number is 32. A hotel charges $0. c. (a + b + c) ( a + d. 9 – (3x + 5) 133. Which of the following expressions describes 1 1 1 25%. (a)(b)(c) + 1 1 b + c) 1 1 1 ( a )( b )( c ) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 fee plus $40 per hour for time spent tutoring. 5 – 2 x 135. x = ($30 + $40)h d.35 134. x = $30h + $40 b.

If her orders cost W dollars.85(W + X + Y +Z) b. 3 E 4 d. 1. If the three meals cost a. and d days in a week. Mary gets a 15% discount on all orders that 140. Suppose that a desk costs D dollars. then j is a. q – p b. d. and c dollars. mwd b. 80% larger than k.75E c. If 40% of j is equal to 50% of k. which of the following expressions represents the new enrollment? a. If q is decreased by p percent. and z file cabinets. y chairs. There are m months in a year. If an office needs to purchase x desks. which of the following expressions represents how much it will cost her after the discount is deducted from her total? a.15(W + X + Y + Z) d. (W + X + Y + Z) + 0. It is 50% smaller than d.15(a + b + c) b. xF + yD + zD 138. xD + yE + zF d.75E b. b. which of the following expressions can be used to calculate the total cost T? a. then the resulting costs E dollars. 0. It is 25% larger than d. xF + yE + zD b. both b and c 143. and a 15% tip will be added in for the waiter. and a file cabinet costs F dollars. she places at the copy store. – 100 d. E + 3 E 4 144. w weeks in a taking their father out to dinner evenly between the two of them. c. d + is increased by 75%. e. 15% larger than k. How does the resulting quantity compare to d? a. It is the same as d. 0. Two brothers decide to divide the entire cost of the resulting quantity is decreased by 50%.15(W + X + Y +Z) c. which of the following equations represents how much each brother will spend? a. a chair 141. 10% larger than k. 20% larger than k. c. 139.15(a + b +c) 2 (a + b + c) + 0. d. pq pq 100 – 1p0q0 pq 142. b. xE + yD + zF c. It is 25% smaller than d. and then quantity is represented by which of the following expressions? a. 0. b.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 137. 0. 25% larger than k. It is 50% larger than d.15(a + b + c) 2 2 d. Which of the following expressions represents the number of days in a year? a. e. mw d w d d. Y dollars. The value of d is increased by 50%. q – 1p 00 c. and Z dollars before the discount is applied. q – e. X dollars. c. (W + X + Y + Z) – 15(W + X + Y + Z) 16 . If the enrollment E at a shaolin kung fu school month. m + w + d c. E – 0.

Systems are handled similarly.2 E quations and inequalities and systems thereof. Elementary arithmetic properties (e. the associative and distributive properties of addition and multiplication). These topics are explored in the following 13 problem sets. with the additional step of shading the region on the appropriate side of the line that depicts the set of ordered pairs satisfying the inequality. and the order of operations are used to solve them. S E C T I O N LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 17 . properties of inequalities. the same is true for linear inequalities.g. made up of expressions in which the unknown quantity is a variable that is raised only to the first power throughout.. are said to be linear. although there are more possibilities regarding the final graphical representation of the solution. A graph of a line can be obtained using its slope and a point on the line.

c. What value of x satisfies the equation 10 = 15 ? 25 z – 7 = –9? a. If 11c – 7 = 8. 8. 16 146.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– Set 10 (Answers begin on page 163) 150. what is the value of 33c – 21? 147. 3 d. –3 b. 1 8 b. What value of x satisfies the equation x 2 15 11 8 3 9a + 5 = –22? a. 6 b. What value of z satisfies the equation 2.3(4 – 3. –8. b.5? a. d.13x ? a. 6 149. 145. 16 d.5p + 6 = 18. d. 2 d. 15 d. What value of a satisfies the equation a. 5 2 = – 10 16 5 3 11 6 –2? 3 b. 2 d. What value of y satisfies the equation 2. 12 c. b. 10 c. What value of p satisfies the equation This set is devoted to problems focused on solving elementary linear equations. 2 2. –9 c. What value of k satisfies the equation 8 = 8? k a.1x) = 1 – 6. –2 b. 64 152. 21 148. 24 e. 45 154.1 d. What value of b satisfies the equation b– a. 18 p 6 155. c. –3 18 . –2 e.5 a. c. –27 b.5 b. 8 c. –1 c.5 3 3. 5 b.5 153. What value of p satisfies the equation + 13 = p – 2? a. 17 –9 + 1 x = 4? 6 1 24 1 6 a. c. 20 3x 151. b. 8. 451 c. 16 e. –3 d. 8 d. 15 d. –1 c. What value of k satisfies the equation –7k – 11 =10? a.

– 5 2 d. What value of v satisfies the equation 163. 20 157. –4 160. 6 e.2 – 3x? a.3 b. What value of c satisfies the equation – 9 = 3? a. – 5 2) + 3x = 3(x + 2) – 10? 1. 43 d. 36 158. 5 c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 156. 3. –0. What value of a satisfies the equation 4a + 4 7 30 a. –21 b. 81 c. –2 164. a. 3.3 159.3 + 5x – 0. –36 d. Find the number. 12 c. –81 b. –2 c. – 37 12 b. What value of x satisfies the equation 5 2 (x – 1 a. What value of a satisfies the equation 3c 4 Set 11 (Answers begin on page 164) This problem set is focused on linear equations for which obtaining the solution requires multiple steps. 5 2 b. 4 d.25 d. 5 = 2 – 3a 4 ? c. 4 b. 161. 3 c. 16 19 . What value of x satisfies the equation –2(3v + 5) = 14? a. 0 d. 1 b. Twice a number increased by 11 is equal to 32 4(4v + 3) = 6v – 28? a.3 b. –3. 16 d. 0. What value of k satisfies the equation less than three times the number. 3 162. What value of v satisfies the equation – 2 a = –54 ? 3 a.3 d. 1 d. –1 c. –0. –4 b.1 = –1.3 c. 43 5 21 13k + 3(3 – k) = –3(4 +3k) – 2k? a. 5 1 c.

86 d.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 165. 62. 8 c. 10˚C d. What value of x satisfies the equation 2x + 8 5 14 a. a. 2. The sum of two consecutive even integers is 171. 15 b. What are the integers? a. 45˚C b.6 b. 8 b. –8 c. then 10x + 5 = 172. d. 18. 1. If 4x + 5 = 15. c. a. d. –52 173. 12 b.8(x + 20) – 4. 27 b. 114 c. 12 d. the resulting difference is 5. –80 167. b. 6 c.9x ? a. 2˚C c. 120 . 20 a 7 4a 7 a+1 7 4a + 4 7 7a – 4 7 decrease in its value is the number 93. 122˚C 175. What is the number? a. e. Find the number. –15 c. 2 169. 4 d. Ten times 40% of a number is equal to four less than six times the number. b. Solve the following equation for b: a = 7b – 4 4 using the formula F = 5 C + 32.7(5 + x) – 0. Determine a number such that a 22. e. 80 d. What value of x satisfies the equation = 5x – 6 6 ? b. 115 d. 63 166.5% 9 a. 62. 66 d. What value of x satisfies the equation a. 64 b. a. 8 170. 8 of nine times a number is equal to ten times 7 d. a. When ten is subtracted from the opposite of a number. 63 c. 3 126. d.5 15 22. c. 2. 3 8 8 3 8 3 = 8 3x + 9? b. 76 20 –14 3 0.5 = 0. c. 80 c. 1 168. Convert 50˚ Fahrenheit into degrees Celsius the number minus 17. Find the number. 64. 9 174.5 25 30 9x + a.

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 176. the result is 2x + 32. we consider more advanced linear equations and word problems that can be solved using linear equations. 15 e. Solve the following equation for A: a. –1 b. A = d. If 6x is then added to this. d.5 b. b. –88 d. T = nR –4 3 = x+8 5 ? 182. 23 b. c. 177. 1 c. 4. What is the value of the smallest number? a. what is the value of a. 9 b. 15 184. solve the following equation for x: ax + b = cx + d d+b a+c d–b c–a b–d a–c d–b a–c s if r = 30? a. A = b. 1 f 4 f 2 – 3f f d. 0 d. 21 . which of the following represents Set 12 (Answers begin on page 166) an equivalent equation solved for T? In this problem set. 13 d. A = c. what is 50% of 179. 2 – 2f e. The sum of four consecutive. 9 d. c. –8 b. 11 c. A = 5x – 2[x – 3(7 – x)] = 3 – 2(x – 8) ? a. g in terms of f ? a. If fg + 2f – g = 2 –(f + g). If 30% of r is equal to 75% of s. b. There can be no such number x. 6 c. –23 c. Assuming that a b. What is the value of x? a. 16 bers is 48. 17 181. d. PVnR = T =T 1 PV d. 88 178. What value of x satisfies the equation 1 2x a. PVR n PV nR b. odd whole num- x + 8. What value of x satisfies the equation B= C+A D–A BD – C 1+B D–C 1+B B–C C+B B+D C+B a. If PV =nRT. 23 5 –23 5 183. T = c. 12 e. 8 c. Negative four is multiplied by the quantity 180.

The average of five consecutive odd integers is –21. y = b. c. 1 c. 24 feet d. –4 1 4 b a 2 –5[x – (3 – 4x – 5) – 5x] – 22 = 4[2 –(x–3)]? a. c. y = d.5 ? Set 13 (Answers begin on page 169) Solving basic linear inequalities is the focus of this problem set. What is the solution set for 3x + 2 189. 20 56 + 50x = (x + 20) 54 c. x = b. What is the least of these integers? a. A grain elevator operator wants to mix two a. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x 3} –3} 3} –3} 22 . what is the a batches of corn with a resultant mix of 54 pounds per bushel. What value of x satisfies the equation value of a. The perimeter of the room is 66 feet. x = –1= 1–y 2 191. x = c. –25 188.5 b. 10 feet b. Solve the following equation for y: 4 – 2x 3 =y 2 – 2y 5+y 2 + 2y 5–y 2 + 2y 5+y 2 + 2y – 5+y a. 56x + 50x = 2x 54 b. b. what is the value of the number? a. 11. 9. –23 e. y = c. 20 56 + 50x = 2x + 54 d. The length of a room is three more than twice 190. 8. x = d. 4 d. b. e.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 185. If three more than one-fourth of a number is three less than the number. 25 feet 186. –21 d. 23 feet c. y = 1 – 4x 3 1 + 4x 3 4x – 1 3 1 + 4x – 3 187. b. –19 c.5 d. 56x + 50x = (x + 20) 54 192. which of the following expressions gives the amount of 50 pounds per bushel corn needed? a. 193. If –6b + 2a – 25 = 5 and b + 6 = 4. d. If he uses 20 bushels of 56 pounds per bushel corn.5 c. 10. 3 4 11? 4 6 8 12 a. What is the length of the room? a. d. Solve the following equation for x: 5x – 2 2–x the width of the room. –17 b.

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 194. b. The product of seven and the quantity two less than a number is greater than four less than two times the number. d. {x : x 2(x + 1)? –3} –3} 1 3} 1 3} 1 1 –8(x + 3) a. What is the solution set for the inequality 4x + 4 24? a. b. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x –9} –9} 9} 9} a. Which of the following statements accurately graph? –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 a. {x : x b.6} 23} –5? a. The product of seven and the quantity two less than a number is greater than four less than two more than the number. What is the solution set for 199. b. c. What inequality is represented by the following 202. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x –9} –9} –11} –11} 196. {x : x 5} c. The product of seven and the quantity two less than a number is less than four less than two times the number. {x : x 7} 198. What is the solution set for x + 5 a. d. b. d. {x : x d. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x 7 2} 3x + 9? –2} –2} 2} 60? 195. b. What is the solution set for 0. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x 3} 3} –3} –3} a. {x : x c. x x x x –4 –4 –4 –4 197. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x 115} 23} 4. {x : x 2(–2x + 10)? –10} –10} –11} –11} 3} 23 . {x : x 5} b. What is the solution set for 1 – 2x 201. d.3 –x 20? 83? a. c. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x –6} –6} –60} –60} 204. {x : x c. c. c. {x : x d. c. d. b. b. c. What is the solution set for 5x 23? 200. d. d. What is the solution set for –8x + 11 describes the inequality 2x – 4 7(x – 2)? a. b. {x : x e. 203. d. What is the solution set for –6(x + 1) a. {x : x b. What is the solution set for –4(x –1) a. {x : x 7} d. The sum of seven and the quantity two less than a number is greater than four less than two times the number. c. c.

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 205. {x : x 17} 2(13 –x)? |–x| – 8 = 0? a. What values of x satisfy the equation –5[9 + (x – 4)] a. {x : x 17} b. What is the solution set for This problem set focuses on solving linear equations and inequalities that involve the absolute value of certain linear expressions. 0 b. 0 b. 8 only b. more than 2 211. 210. –8 only c. 1 c. What is the solution set for Set 14 (Answers begin on page 170) 3(x – 16) – 2 9(x – 2) – 7x? a. What is the solution set for the compound inequality –4 3x – 1 11? a. What is the solution set for the compound equation 2|x| + 4 = 0? a. {x : 0 x 10} d. {x : x –32} 206. b. What values of x satisfy the equation |3x – 3 | – 9 = 0? a. {x : –10 x 0} c. more than 2 212. {x : –10 x 0} 70? equation –3|x| + 2 = 5|x| – 14? a. {x : x –17} d. 1 c. c. 209. How many different values of x satisfy the 207. {x : –4 x 1} d. {x : x 32} c. both –8 and 8 d. The solution set is the empty set. {x : x –32} b. 2 d. {x : 1 x –4} c. 2 d. 5 7 27 and 27 5 5 27 and – 27 7 7 27 and – 27 5 7 – 27 and – 27 2 1 24 . How many different values of x satisfy the inequality 10 3(4 – 2x) – 2 a. {x : 0 x 10} b. 208. d. There are no solutions to this equation. {x : –1 x 4} b. {x : x –17} c. {x : x 32} d.

d. b. b. –4) (5. (– . 13 3 and 1 13 – 3 and 1 13 – 3 and –1 13 3 and –1 a. b. (–4. ) 224. (3. b. What is the solution set for –7|1 – 4x| + 20 a. ) –6? 223. c. b. ) (–3. (3. – 4 ] 3 [0. ) a. What is the solution set for |x| 2 – (1 –(2 –|1 – 2x|)) a. 3 217. 1 c. 0 b. c. What is the solution set for |8x + 3| 214. d. 4) 222. (– . 1 c. 0) The solution set is the empty set. How many different values of x satisfy the a. (– . c. 1) (1. What values of x satisfy the equation 219. What is the solution set for equation |2x + 1| = |4x – 5|? a. 2 d. d. How many different values of x satisfy the equation –6(4 – |2x + 3|) = –24? a. ) (– . ). 2 d. 2 d. ) 0? 3 [– 2 . the set of all real numbers 25 . – 2 ] d. 0 b. What is the solution set for –|–x –1| 0? |3x + 5| = 8? a. |1 – (–22 + x) – 2x | |3x – 5|? 5 a. 3 ) c. c. 3) (– . ) (–4. c. What is the solution set for 218. d. What is the solution set for |2x – 3| equation 1 – (1 – (2 –|1–3x|)) = 5? a. What is the solution set for |–2x| a. (– . ) 5 b. ) the set of all real numbers (– . [0. 4) (4. 5) b. – 4 ] none of these choices 5? 221. –2] 3 –2|1 – 4x| – 15? b. ) c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 213. (–5. 3? 220. ) 3 (– . 1 c. ) (–3. more than 2 216. (– . 0) (0. d. –5) (4. 0 b. ( 3 . d. 2] [2. (– 3? 3 . How many different values of x satisfy the a. (– . more than 2 215. The solution set is the empty set. (– . The solution set is the empty set. [2. c. –1) (–1. (– . b. ) The only solution is x = –1. 4) d. d. 1) (–1. –3) c.

Consider the following graph and assume that ABCD is a square. b. What are the coordinates of point B? y B C (6. e.4) 227.6) (–3. d. y value is negative x value is positive.4) x A D (–1.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– Set 15 (Answers begin on page 173) 226. d.3) (–3. d. e. 225.–4) (–3.4) (–1. y value is negative x value is negative. c. c. a. c. y value is positive x value is positive. e.–4) (–1.–4) (3.–3) a.–3) (–4. 26 (–1.1) (–3. b. What are the signs of the coordinates of points J y in the shaded quadrant? y x x a. y value is positive none of these choices (–4. b. x value is negative.4) . What coordinates are identified by point J shown in the following Cartesian plane? The basics of the Cartesian coordinate system are explored in this problem set.

on the x-axis. or on the x-axis. or on the y-axis. or on the y-axis. Quadrant I b. If x is any real number and y is a nonnegative 229. b. Quadrant II c. d. y)? a. points whose coordinates are given by (|–x – 2|. The point (x. y) can be in Quadrant I. in Quadrant IV. Quadrant IV B C (6.a) b. –|–x – 1|) must lie in which quadrant? a. Which of the following points lies in Quadrant IV? a.(–y)2) lie in which quadrant? a. on the x-axis. y) can be in Quadrant I. b. The point (2. d. The point (x.–4) (–6.4) (–6. y) can be in Quadrant I. c. e. or on the y-axis. d. in Quadrant II.–5) lies in which quadrant? a. For all nonzero real numbers x and y. or on the x-axis. which of the following is an accurate characterization of the point (x. The point (x.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 228. c. (–a. Quadrant II c. Consider the following graph and assume that 231. The point (x. For all real numbers x ABCD is a square. b.6) (6. c. in Quadrant II. Quadrant I Quadrant II Quadrant III Quadrant IV 230. or on the x-axis. in Quadrant IV. y) can be in Quadrant I. Assume a 0. (6. (a. Quadrant III d. or on the x-axis. Quadrant I b. y) can be in Quadrant I. c. The point (x. in Quadrant IV. y) can be in Quadrant I. (–a. Quadrant III d. y) can be in Quadrant I. points whose coordinates are given by (x2. 233. What are the coordinates of point D? y –2. on the x-axis. The point (x. If x is a positive real number and y is any real x A D (–1. Quadrant IV real number. in Quadrant IV.4) 232.–4) (–4. y) can be in Quadrant I.a) d. y)? a. on the x-axis. The point (x.–3) number.–3) a. in Quadrant II. in Quadrant II.–a) c. or on the y-axis. 234. b. d. which of the following is an accurate characterization of the point (x. The point (x.–a) 27 . (a.

which of the following is an accurate characterization of points of the form (–x. Neither a or b is true. 9 242.a) d. 3 d. What is the slope of the line whose equation is 1 coordinates are given by (–y)3 . c. Quadrant IV 238. Quadrant I b. Both a and b are true. (–a2. Neither a or b is true. Quadrant II c. b. For all negative integers x and y. (a.–2) will lie in Quadrant III.8) (0.–2)? a. the point (–x. For some values of y. For some values of x. 241. The point (–x. –3 b. There is no value of y for which the point (1. (a. c.16) 1 28 .–a2) c.–a) 240. There is no slope. If y is a nonpositive real number. the point (1. 0 c.a) b. 3 b.–y) will lie in Quadrant IV. Which of the following points lies in Quadrant III? a.–a2) 0. d. (a2.– 2 ) (0. c. 3 d. ((–a)2. Assume a following is an accurate characterization of points of the form (1. (–a. b. –3 c. (a.–2) is never on the x-axis c. xy lie in which quadrant? a. 243. (–a. Quadrant III d. points whose coordinates are given by (–x3. xy2) lie in which quadrant? a. points whose The problems in this set deal with determining the equations of lines using information provided about the line. d. What is the slope of the line whose equation is 3y – x = 9? a. Set 16 (Answers begin on page 174) 237. d.2) (0. Which of the following points lies in Quadrant II? a. Both a and b are true.a2) b. What is the y-intercept of the line whose equa- 239.a2) d. Quadrant I Quadrant II Quadrant III Quadrant IV –x2 1 y = –3? a. For all negative integers x and y. tion is 8y = 16x – 4? a.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 235. Assume a 0. b.–y) is on the x axis. d. (0.–y)? a. If x is any real number. b. which of the 236.–a) c.

y = – 2 x + 4 c. c. 2). Which of the following equations describes this line? a. 6 = y – x b. y = 3 x – 2 d. y = 3x + 5 b.1)? a. y = – 2 x d. 4 e. Which of the following lines has a negative slope? a. x = 3 y + 5 d. y = 4x – 5 c. 6y + x = 7 29 . y = 2 3x 2 intercept form. A line is known to have a slope of –3 and a y-inter- cept of (0. y = – 2 x + 2 249. 2x – 15y = –9 250. 2x + 15y = –9 d. Which of the following lines contains the point 247.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 244. Which of the following equations was used to through the points (2. y = 2x + 2 c. b. –4 b. y = –2x + 3 d. y = – 2 x e. 12 251. –5x + y = 1 d. Transform the equation 3x + y = 5 into slope- (3. y = 2x + 1 b. y = –3x + 5 c. y 7 10 13 16 19 standard form. x = – 3 y + 5 248. y = 3x – 2 246. d. y = –3x + 2 c. y = x + 1 1 b. a. –2x + 15y = –9 b. 3) and (–2. 5)? a. 2x + 15y = 9 c. a. What is the equation of the line that passes 1 1 –1 e. 1 d. y = 2x – 3 b. What is the slope of the line whose equation is y = 3x + 4 y = 4x – 1 y = 5x – 2 y = 7x –3y = 12x – 3? a. none of the above 245. Transform the equation y = – 15 x – 5 into 2 3 3 3 1 construct this input/output table? x 1 2 3 4 5 a. –3 c.

a. –1 c. 13) 256. –9) are assumed to be collinear. y = 2x + 1 1 1 (0. c.–10) b. (6. 9) d. (–6. c. d. (3. assuming that all of the points are collinear. –8) e. A line with negative slope need not cross the x-axis. Determine the value of y if the points (–3. Which of the following points must also lie on this line? a. d. A line has a y-intercept of (0. A line with positive slope need not cross the x-axis. (1. y = 2 x – 1 b. 3) c. –1) and (2. –5 30 . y = 2 x + 1 c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 252. y). A horizontal line need not have a y-intercept. –6) and an 253. y = 2x – 1 d. Which of the statements is true? pletes the following table. 3). –1). (0. A line is known to pass through the points x-intercept of (9. A vertical line need not have a y-intercept. b. –3 d. 255. and (3. 0). 1 b. Determine the missing value of z that com- 254. What is the equation of this line? a. (0. x –4 –2 2 5 7 a. –11 0 3 8 y 15 11 z –3 –7 a. b.

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– Set 17 (Answers begin on page 176) The problems in this set deal with graphing straight lines. y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x x –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 b. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 y c. y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 d. 257. Which of the following is the graph of y = –3? a. y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 x –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x 31 .

It has a negative slope. It has a positive slope. b.2) (–3.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 258.0) (0.0) x x (0. 2 3 259. Which of the following is an accurate charac- terization of the slope of the y-axis? a. 32 .–5) (–2. c. c. d. Its slope is undefined. What is the slope of the line segment in the fol- the following graph? lowing graph? (10. 2 c.–6) y y a. – 2 3 d. d. What is the slope of the line segment shown in 260. 5 3 5 –3 3 –5 3 5 a. –2 b. b. It has a slope of zero.

10 8 6 4 2 2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 4 6 8 10 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y y b. 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y y 33 . 10 8 6 4 2 d. 10 8 6 4 2 c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 261. a. Graph y = 2x + 3.

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 262. 10 8 6 4 2 c. Graph y = –2x + 9. 10 8 6 4 2 2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 4 6 8 10 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y y b. 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y y 34 . a. 10 8 6 4 2 d.

y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 x –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x 35 . Which of the following is the graph of y = – 5 x – 5? 2 a.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 263. y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 d. y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 c. y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x x b.

c. What is the equation of the line shown in the 265. b. y=x+7 y=x–7 y = –x – 7 y = –x + 7 a.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 264. c. What is the equation of the line in the follow- following graph? 10 ing graph? y 10 8 6 4 2 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x x y a. d. b. y = –2x + 5 3 y = 2x + 5 3 y = –3x + 5 2 y = 3x + 5 2 36 . d.

Graph 2 y – 1 x = 0. 3 2 a. 10 8 6 4 2 c. 10 8 6 4 2 d.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 266. 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y y b. 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y y 37 .

y x x b. y x x 38 .–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 267. y d. y c. Which of the following lines has a positive slope? a.

y c. y x x b.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 268. Which of the following lines has an undefined slope? a. y d. y x x 39 .

1x – 0. 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y b.4 is shown in which of the following graphs? a.7y = 1. The equation 0. 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y 40 .–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 269.

10 8 6 4 2 –20 –16 –12 –8 –4 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 4 8 12 16 20 x y d. 10 8 6 4 2 –20 –16 –12 –8 –4 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 4 8 12 16 20 x y 41 .–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– c.

d. b. b. 273. Which of the following describes a possible Set 18 (Answers begin on page 177) scenario? a. a. A line with positive slope need not cross the x-axis. To which of the following lines is y = 2 x –5 3 scenario? a. d. y = 2 x + 5 3 b. y = 4x + 1. 271. y = 5 – 2 x 3 c. c. y = – 1 – 3 3 c. Which of the following is the equation of the line perpendicular to y = 3 x – 2 and passing 4 through the point (–6. y = 3 x –5 2 e. y = 3x + 3. y = 1 x + 5 5 e. A line with negative slope need not cross the y-axis. The line y = –2x + 8 is scenario? a.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 270. The graph of a line with positive slope can cross into both Quadrants II and IV. The graph of y = c. y = 3 x +4 4 b. d. b. must have a y-intercept. d. c. c. y = – 3 x + 5 2 274. Which of the following describes a possible This set focuses on more advanced properties of linear equations. The graphs of which of the following pairs of linear equations would be parallel to each other? a. y = 5x + 5. cannot cross the x-axis. c. Which of the following describes a possible perpendicular? a. b. y = –4x + 1 d. y = 4 x – 4 3 d. The graph of a line with negative slope cannot cross into both Quadrants I and II. 272. The graph of y =c. as well as more advanced word problems modeled using linear equations. y = 6x + 6. where c ≠ 0. A line whose equation is of the form y = –x + c can cross into three of the four quadrants. The graph of a vertical line cannot cross into both Quadrants II and III. where c ≠ 0. e. y = – 2 x – 5 3 d. y = 6x – 6 275. y = x + 4 b. A horizontal line has an undefined slope. 4)? a. where c ≠ 0. y = 2x + 4. A line with an undefined slope can cross into both Quadrant I and Quadrant II. can cross into only two of the four quadrants. The graph of x = c. y = 3 x – 4 4 c. A line whose graph rises from left to right has a negative slope. y = – 4 x – 4 3 42 . parallel to the line y = 1 x + 8 2 parallel to the line 1 y = –x + 3 2 perpendicular to the line 2y = – 1 x + 8 2 perpendicular to the line 1 y = –2x – 8 2 perpendicular to the line y = 2x – 8 276.

37 feet b. y = 3x – 8 c. y = 1 x + 8 3 d. x = –2 b.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 277.2) and (–5. y = 4 x + 12 9 b.4)? a. y = –2 c. line parallel to y = 3x + 8 and passing through the point (4.75. y = – 1 x + 8 3 278.25 before the sales tax. How long should the longest piece be? a. x = –2 b. A 60-foot piece of rope is cut into three pieces. y = – 18 x 13 b. y = d. spending exactly $40.12) and is parallel to the line passing through the points (4. y = –2 c. both a and b d. 6 canisters of Ace balls and 7 canisters of Longline balls b. y = c. The high school tennis coach bought canisters of both brands of balls. 43 feet d. Which of the following lines must be parallel to a line with zero slope? a. y = 13 18 x 18 13 x – 13 x 18 280. neither a nor b 43 . Which of the following is the equation of the line perpendicular to y = – 13 x + 5 and passing 18 through the origin? a. a canister of Ace tennis 279. At Zides Sport Shop.50 and a canister of Longline tennis balls costs $2. neither a nor b 281. y = d.6)? a. y = 3x + 4 b. If he bought one more canister of Longline balls than he did Ace balls. and the third piece must be 10 feet longer than three times the length of the second piece. 40 feet c. Which of the following is the equation of the line that has y-intercept (0. 46 feet 283. y = – 4 x + 12 9 –9x + 2 4 9 x + 12 4 The second piece must be 1 foot shorter in length than twice the first piece. 6 canisters of Ace balls and 7 canisters of Longline balls c. how many canisters of each did he purchase? a. 7 canisters of Ace balls and 8 canisters of Longline balls dicular to a line with an undefined slope? a. both a and b d. y = c. 5 canisters of Ace balls and 6 canisters of Longline balls d. Which of the following lines must be perpen- balls costs $3. Which of the following is the equation of the 282.

b. d.000 at 10% interest and $5.50 gallons of the 90% nitrogen solution b. 32 nickels and 33 dimes b. 2 hours 15 minutes c.500 at 11% interest d.500 at 11% interest 287. 3.33 gallons of the 90% nitrogen solution d. 28 nickels and 37 dimes d. 3 hours d. $2. 3 hours 12 minutes the bank contains 65 coins with a total value of 5 dollars. Lisa will be the same age as her sister was 10 years ago. If the payload specialist has some 90% nitrogen and some 30% nitrogen. How long would it take a girl bicycling at 17 $1.500 at 11% interest b.33 gallons of the 30% nitrogen solution with 6. Lori is twice as old as her sister. how many nickels and how many dimes are in the bank? a. $4.500 more than that amount at 11% interest. If mph to overtake her instructor bicycling at 7 mph along the same path. 7. 2 hours 6 minutes b. Lisa.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 284.000 at 11% interest c. assuming that her instructor had a 3-hour head start? a. One essential step to ensure the success of a 286.50 gallons of the 90% nitrogen solution c.50 gallons of the 30% nitrogen solution with 7.50 gallons of the 30% nitrogen solution with 2. $3. 25 nickels and 40 dimes 288. Lisa is 20 years old and Lori is 40 years old. 6.67 gallons of the 90% nitrogen solution 285. Lisa is 23 years old and Lori is 46 years old. Kari invested some money at 10% interest and microgravity bean seed germination project is that 10 gallons of a 70% concentrated nutrient solution be administered to the bean seeds.67 gallons of the 30% nitrogen solution with 3. 2. 44 . how many gallons (accurate to 2 decimal places) of each should she mix in order to obtain the desired solution? a. $2. Her total yearly interest was $795. What are their current ages? a. In 5 years. 30 nickels and 35 dimes c. Lisa is 15 years old and Lori is 30 years old.000 at 10% interest and $3. How much did she invest at each rate? a. A piggy bank is full of just nickels and dimes.000 at 10% interest and $4. c. Lisa is 12 years old and Lori is 24 years old.500 at 10% interest and $4.

b. Which inequality is illustrated by the following 10 8 6 4 2 graph? 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 2 –2 –4 –6 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –8 –10 y a. d. d. c. y y y y 4x – 3 –4x – 3 –4x – 3 4x – 3 45 . Which inequality is illustrated by the following graph? 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y a. d. 289. b. Which inequality is illustrated by the following graph? The problems in this set consist of graphing linear inequalities in the Cartesian plane. c. c. y y y y 2x + 7 2x + 7 –2x + 7 –2x + 7 y a.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– Set 19 (Answers begin on page 180) 290. b. y y y y –2 –2 –2 –2 291.

d.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 292. c. Which inequality is illustrated by the following graph? y 10 8 6 4 graph? y 10 8 6 4 2 2 –9 –6 –3 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 3 6 9 12 15 18 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x a. Which inequality is illustrated by the following a. d. + 2y –1 x +2y –3 x + 6y –1 1 –1 3x + 2 1 3x 46 . b. y y x x 8 8 8 8 293. b. d. y–x x–y y–x x–y 0 0 0 0 graph? y 10 8 295. c. Which inequality is illustrated by the following graph? y 10 6 8 4 6 2 4 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –4 –8 –6 –10 –8 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10 x 2 x a. b. d. c. c. Which inequality is illustrated by the following 294. b. x+y x–y x–y x+y 2 2 –2 –2 –10 a.

b. c. c. 3x + y +2 0 3x – y + 2 0 3x – y –2 0 3x + y – 2 0 a. c. c. b.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 296. b. Which inequality is illustrated by the following 299. y y y y 3x + 1 3x + 1 3x + 1 3x + 1 297. 3x + y 3x – y 3x + y 3x – y 7x + y – 8 7x + y + 8 7x + y – 8 7x + y – 8 47 . 2y + 6x 2y – 6x 2y + 6x 2y – 6x 8 8 8 8 a. Which inequality is illustrated by the following graph? y 10 8 6 4 2 graph? y 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x a. d. Which of the inequalities is illustrated by the graph? y 10 8 6 4 2 following graph? y 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x a. d. d. Which inequality is illustrated by the following 298. b. d.

10 y c. d. For which of the following inequalities is the point (3.–2) a solution? a. Which of the following graphs illustrates the inequality y a.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 300. c. –10 10 x –10 10 x –10 –10 b. 10 d. y 10 y –10 10 x –10 10 x –10 –10 48 . b. 2y –x 1 x+y 5 3y –3x 9x – 1 y 4? y 10 301.

–10 10 x –10 10 x –10 –10 b. Which of the following graphs illustrates the inequality x 4? y 10 a. y 10 c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 302. 10 d. y 10 y –10 10 x –10 10 x –10 –10 49 .

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 303. b. c. d. 28y –2x – 14(y + 10) –28y 2x – 14(y + 10) 28y 2x – 14(y + 10) –28y 2x – 14(y – 10) 50 . Which of the inequalities is illustrated by the following graph? y 18 15 12 9 6 3 x –20 –16 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –3 –2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 –3 –6 –9 –12 –15 –18 a.

c. c. –6 –1 0 1 6 306. The solution set of a linear inequality can intersect all four quadrants. d. d. c. –2 0 1 3 6 be satisfied simultaneously. y = –4 x = –23. b. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. 3(x +4) – 2y = 5 2y – 4x =8 a. d. d. The solution set of a linear inequality y – 2x < –1 includes points on the line y = 2x –1. Use the elimination method to determine the solution of the following system of linear equations: –x + 3y = 11 x – 5y = –3 a. d. Points of the form (x. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. use the elimination method to determine the value of b. 305. use the elimination method to determine the value of x. –6 –4 6 12 13 309.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 304. 5a +3b = –2 5a – 3b = –38 a. Which of the following describes a possible 307. e. e. 2x + y =6 y 2 + 4x = 12 a. d. b. where x 0. y) satisfy the linear inequality x 8. use the elimination method to determine the value of x. Points of the form (8. b. Given that both of the following equations must scenario? a. b. b. x = 17. Given that both of the following equations must Set 20 (Answers begin on page 103) Systems of 2 2 linear equations are solved using the elimination method in this problem set. c. e. y = 4 x = 1. c. b. y 4x + 6 = –3y –2x + 3 = y + 9 a. be satisfied simultaneously. d. use the elimination method to determine the value of x . y = –4 51 . c. –2 –1 1 13 15 308. y = 4 x =1. 2x). are in the solution set of the linear inequality y x.

use the elimination method to determine the value of y. d. Given that both of the following equations must 315. c. use the elimination method to determine the value of a + b. –5 –4 –2 4 6 be satisfied simultaneously. e. b. use the elimination method to determine the value of a. –5 –3 3 5 8 be satisfied simultaneously. e. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. d. b –7a + 4 = 25 b + a = 13 be satisfied simultaneously. 2 3 4 5 6 312. b. b. use the elimination method to determine the value of b. b. 5 15 20 25 45 52 . d. e. –3 4 12 13 16 311. use the elimination method to determine the value of a + b. b. 4a + 6b = 24 6a –12b = –6 a. b.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 310. 1 2 (a + 3) – b = –6 3a – 2b = –5 a. d. c. Given that both of the following equations must 314. –10 –1 2 2 5 6 a. 1 2 x + 6y = 7 –4x – 15y = 10 a. c. Given that both of the following equations must 313. c. c. c. use the elimination method to determine the value of n. e. 2(m + n) + m =9 3m –3n = 24 a. e. 7(2a + 3b) =56 b + 2a = –4 a. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. d. e. d. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously.

use the elimination method to determine the value of (y – x)2. Given that both of the following equations must 320. c. d. c. e. b. c. d. –5x + 2y = –51 –x –y = –6 a. Given that both of the following equations must 319. b. y = –2 x = –2. use the substitution method to solve the following system: x = –5y 2x –2y = 16 a. b. 321. c. –2=0 c – 6d = 0 a. Use the elimination method to determine be satisfied simultaneously. y = –2 x = –1. x = 4. 9(x – 1) = 2 –4y 2y + 7x = 3 a. e. Given that both of the following equations must Set 21 (Answers begin on page 185) be satisfied simultaneously. y = – 2 3 318. d. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. y = 10 x = 20. c. use the elimination method to determine the value of xy. 8q + 15p = 26 –5p + 2q = 24 a. x = 10. 1 4 16 25 36 Systems of 2 2 linear equations are solved using the substitution method and graphical techniques in this problem set. b. 4 5 25 49 81 317. d. d. e. y = –4 x = –5. y = 1 53 . d. b. e. y = – 1 3 x = 2. c. use the elimination c method to determine the value of d . y = –3 x = 1. b. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. use the elimination method to determine the value of (p + q)2. –27 –18 –12 –6 –3 the solution of the following system of linear equations: 4x – 3y = 10 5x + 2y = 1 a. 2 6 8 12 14 c–d 5 be satisfied simultaneously.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 316.

c. use the substitution method to determine the value of xy. –27 –18 –12 –6 –3 a. d. –2=0 c – 6d = 0 a. d. b. e. d. use the substitution method to determine the value of x. –3 4 12 13 16 54 .–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 322. 2x + y = 6 y 2 +4x = 12 a. –2 0 1 3 must be satisfied simultaneously. use the substitution method to determine the value of a. use the substitution method to determine the value c of d . b. b –7a + 4 = 25 b + a = 13 327. c. b. c. use the substitution method to determine the value of b. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. 7(2a + 3b) = 56 b + 2a = –4 a. –5x + 2y = –51 –x – y = –6 a. b. c. Given that both of the following equations 325. use the substitution method to determine the value of √a . d. c. c. e. b =b+1 3(a – b) = –21 a. e. d. e. b. 4 9 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 a 2 326. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. e. –5 –4 –2 4 6 323. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. d. 2 6 8 12 14 c–d 5 324. b.

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES–

328. Given that both of the following equations must

331. How many solutions are there to the system of

be satisfied simultaneously, use the substitution method to determine the value of ab. 10b – 9a = 6 b–a=1 a. b. c. d. e. –12 –7 1 7 12

**equations shown in the following graph?
**

y

x

329. Given that both of the following equations must

**be satisfied simultaneously, use the substitution method to determine the value of x – y. =8 2x – y = 9 a. b. c. d. e. –24 –2 0 1 2
**

x+y 3

a. b. c. d.

0 1 2 infinitely many

332. Determine the number of solutions of the

following system of equations: y = 3x + 2 y – 3x = –2 a. b. c. d. 1 0 infinitely many none of the above

330. Which of the following linear systems contains

two parallel lines? a. x = 5, y = 5 b. y = –x, y = x – 1 c. x – y = 7, 2 – y = –x d. y = 3x + 4, 2x + 4 = y

55

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES–

333. Given that both of the following equations

335. Determine the number of solutions of the linear

**must be satisfied simultaneously, use the substitution method to determine the value of 2yx . 3x – y = 2 2y – 3x = 8 a. 4 3 b. 4 5 c. 5 d. 8 e. 12
**

334. Determine the number of solutions of the linear

**system that has the following graphical depiction:
**

y

10

x

–10 10

**system that has the following graphical depiction:
**

y

10 –10

a. b. c. d.

x

–10 10

1 0 infinitely many none of the above

336. Determine the number of solutions of the

**following system of equations: y = 3x + 2 – 3y + 9x = –6
**

–10

a. b. c. d.

1 0 infinitely many none of the above

a. b. c. d.

1 0 infinitely many none of the above

56

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES–

Set 22

(Answers begin on page 188)

**The problems in this set consist of graphing systems of linear inequalities.
**

337. The graphs of the lines y = 4 and y = x

2 form the boundaries of the shaded region. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region?

y

14 12 10 8 6 4 2

–10

–8

–6

–4

–2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 –12 –14

2

4

6

8

10

x x

a. b. c. d.

y y y y

4, y 4, y 4, y 4, y

x+2 x +2 x+2 x+2

57

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES–

338. The graphs of the lines y = 5 and x = 2 form

339. The graphs of the lines y = –x + 4 and y = x + 2

the boundaries of the shaded region. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region?

y

10 8 6 4 2

form the boundaries of the shaded region. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region?

y

10 8 6 4 2

–10 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10

–8

–6

–4

–2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10

2

4

6

8

10

x

x

a. b. c. d.

y 5, x 2 y ≤ 5, x ≤ 2 y 5, x 2 y 5, x 2

a. b. c. d.

y y y y

x +2, y x +2, y x +2, y x +2, y

–x + 4 –x + 4 –x + 4 –x + 4

58

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES–

340. The graphs of the lines y = 1 x and y = –4x form 4

**341. The graphs of the lines 2y – 3x = –6 and y =
**

5 5 – 2 x form the boundaries of the shaded region. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region?

y

10 8 6 4 2

the boundaries of the shaded region. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region?

y

10 8 6 4 2

–10

–8

–6

–4

–2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10

2

4

6

8

10

x

–10

–8

–6

–4

–2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10

2

4

6

8

10

x

a. y b. y c. y d. y

1 4 x, y 1 4 x, y 1 4 x, y 1 4 x, y

–4x –4x –4x –4x

a. b. c. d.

2y – 3x 2y – 3x 2y – 3x 2y – 3x

–6, y –6, y –6, y –6, y

5 – 5x 2 5 – 5x 2 5 – 5x 2 5 – 5x 2

59

Which of the following graphs depicts the solution set for the following system of linear inequalities? y y a. y 10 d. y –10 10 x –10 10 x –10 –10 b.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 342. y 10 –10 10 x –10 10 x –10 –10 60 . y 10 10 2 2x + 1 c.

c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 343. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region? y the boundaries of the shaded region. c. y –5 –5 –5 –5 a. b. 12(5 – x) 8(x + 5). y 3x. y 3x. b. d. 12(5 – x) 8(x + 5). y y y y 3x. 12(5 – x) 5y 5y 5y 5y 61 . The graphs of the lines y = 3x and y = –5 form 12(5 – x) = 5y form the boundaries of the shaded region. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region? y 10 8 6 4 2 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 –12 –14 2 4 6 8 10 x x –6 –8 –10 a. y 3x. d. The graphs of the lines 5y = 8(x + 5) and 344. 12(5 – x) 8(x + 5). 5y 5y 5y 5y 8(x + 5).

The graphs of the lines y – x = 6 and 11y = 2(x + 9) form the boundaries of the shaded region. 11y 6.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 345. –9y 2(x + 9) 2(x + 9) 2(x + 9) 2(x + 9) a. –9y 4x. 9(y – 4) 9(y – 4) 9(y – 4) 9(y – 4) 4x. d. 11y 6. 11y –2(x + 11) –2(x + 11) –2(x + 11) –2(x + 11) 62 . 11y 6. b. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region? y 10 8 6 4 2 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 x –16 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 12 x –10 a. c. –9y 4x. c. d. –9y 4x. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region? y 10 8 6 4 2 –2(x + 11) form the boundaries of the shaded region. The graphs of the lines 9(y – 4) = 4x and –9y = 346. b. y–x y–x y–x y–x 6.

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 347. –3 –5x. –3 1 4 (2x 1 4 (2x 1 4 (2x 1 4 (2x – 3y) – 3y) – 3y) – 3y) 63 . 2x + y –3 –3 –3 –3 a. The graphs of the lines 5x– 2(y + 10) = 0 and 348. –3 –5x. c. 2x + y 0. b. c. 2x + y 0. 7(y–5) 7(y–5) 7(y–5) 7(y–5) –5x. b. The graphs of the lines 7(y – 5) = –5x and 2x + y = –3 form the boundaries of the shaded region. 5x – 2(y + 10) 5x – 2(y + 10) 5x – 2(y + 10) 5x – 2(y + 10) 0. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region? y 10 9 8 6 6 3 4 –16 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 2 4 6 8 10 12 x 2 –3 –10 –6 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 2 4 6 8 10 x –9 –4 –6 –8 –10 –12 –15 –18 a. d. 2x + y 0. d. –3 –5x. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region? y 10 –3 = 1 (2x – 3y) form the boundaries of the 4 shaded region below.

y 2x d. For which of the following systems of linear inequalities does the solution set consist precisely of the points in Quadrant III. 2y – 6x 4. y x – 1 b. y 0 b. none of the above 350. x 0. 2y – 6x 4. y 3x + 4. y 2 + 3x c. y 0 d. y x + 3. y ≥ x d. y x – 1 c. For which of the following system of linear inequalities is the solution set the entire Cartesian plane? a. y x – 1 b. y 2 + 3x c. y x. y x – 3. x 0. y 0 352. y 2 + 3x 64 . y 2 – 3x b. For which of the following systems of linear inequalities is the solution set the empty set? a.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 349. x 0. 2y – 6x 4. 2y – 6x 4. y x + 3. x 0. For which of the following systems of linear 351. y 2 + 3x d. not including either axis? a. y x. y 0 c. 2y – 6x ≤ 4. y 3x +6 inequalities does the solution set consist of the points on a single line? a.

3 A S E C T I O N POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS lgebraic expressions consisting of sums of constant multiples of nonnegative powers of the variable are called polynomials. Simplyfying polynomials and understanding their graphical properties rely heavily on the use of factoring. These topics are the focus of the following seven problem sets. 65 .

3x2 – 13 3x–1 7 3x – 1 13 3x–9 7 3x – 9 –5x8 + 9x4 – 7x3 –x2 ? a. b. b. 2 + 8x3 –2 + 8x3 –2 – 8x3 2 – 8x3 a. Compute (2 – 3x3) – [(3x3 + 1) – (1 – 2x3)]. 0 1 A constant polynomial does not have a degree. b. c. 353. b. Compute (9a2b + 2ab – 5a2) – (–2ab – 3a2 + 4a2b). b. Which of the following is not a polynomial? 3 2 + +5x + 3 3 2 2 + 5x + 3 –x 3 2 a. The problems in this set focus on the basic definition of and addition/subtraction of polynomials. 9 1 10 x – 6 – 1 x2 – 1 x – 7 3 2 6 9 1 2 – 3 x – 10 x + 1 6 9 1 2 1 3 x – 10 x + 6 – 3 x + 5x4 –2x2 + 12? 2 a. 2 2 – 3x – x2 x – 3x–2 1 – [1 – x2 – (2 – x)] ( 7 + 3x + 1 x2). 1 361. c. –5 b. c. d. –x2 – 1 x + 3 b. 66 . c. Compute ( 1 x2 + 2 x + 1) + (2x – 2 x2 + 4) – 6 3 3 a. a. 9 d. x3 + x2 + 3x + 13 x3 – x2 + 3x + 13 x3 + x2 – 3x + 13 x3 – x2 – 3x + 13 359. c. a. c. 3x2 – b. 3x2 – c. 5a2b + 8a2 13a2b + 4ab – 8a2 5a2b + 4ab – 2a2 13a2b – 4ab –8a2 362. What is the degree of the constant polynomial 4? 356. 2 2 3 2 a. d. – 1 x2 – 3 b.–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS – Set 23 (Answers begin on page 190) 358. – 4 x2 3 –x2 + 5 3x 363. 3 a. – 3 2 c. d. 8 c. Compute (x2 – 3x + 2) = (x3 – 2x2 + 11). Compute (3x2 – 5x + 4) – (– 2 x + 5). 2 360. What is the degree of the polynomial 355. b. d. Which of the following is not a polynomial? 357. 3x2 – d. Compute ( 1 x2 – 1 x – 2 ) – ( 2 x2 – 170 x + 1 ). d. d. What is the degree of the polynomial 354. 4 d. d. d. c. –2–2x – 3–1 (2x0)–3 + 5–2x2 – 3–1x (–2x)–1 – 2 All of the choices are polynomials. 5 b. c. 3 5 3 3 2 a. none of the above a.

–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS –

364. Which of the following statements is always

Set 24

(Answers begin on page 192)

true? a. The difference of two polynomials is a polynomial. b. The sum of three polynomials is a polynomial. c. A trinomial minus a binomial is a polynomial. d. All of the above statements are true.

365. Which of the following statements is not true?

**The problems in this set focus on the multiplication of polynomials.
**

369. Compute 3x3

7x2.

a. b. c. d.

21x5 21x6 10x5 10x6

a. The quotient of two polynomials is a polynomial. b. The product of a constant and a polynomial is a polynomial. c. The degree of the polynomial, in simplified form, is the highest power to which the variable is raised in the expression. d. The degree of a constant polynomial is zero.

366. Write the expression –(–2x0)–3 + 4–2x2 – 3–1x –2

370. 2x(5x2 + 3y) is equivalent to which of the

**following expressions? a. 5x3 + 6xy b. 10x2 + 6xy c. 10x3 + 6xy d. 10x3 + 6y
**

371. Which of the following expressions is equiva-

**in simplified form. a. 1 x2 – 1 x – 185 8 3 b. c. d.
**

1 2 1 15 16 x – 3 x – 8 – 1 x2 – 1 x – 8 8 3 – 1 x2 + 1 x – 185 8 3

lent to x3 + 6x? a. x (x2 + 6) b. x (x + 6) c. x (x2 + 6x) d. x 2(x + 6)

372. Compute 2x2(3x + 4xy – 2xy3).

367. Compute –(2 – (1 – 2x2 –(2x2 – 1))) –

**(3x2 – (1– 2x2)). a. –9x2 – 1 b. 9x2 – 1 c. 9x2 + 1 d. –9x2 + 1
**

368. Compute –22(2–3 – 2–2x2) + 33(3–2 – 3–3x3).

a. b. c. d.

6x3 +8x2y – 4x3y3 6x3 +8x3y – 4x3y3 6x3 +8x3y – 4x2y3 6x2 +8x2y – 4x3y3

373. Compute 7x5(x8 + 2x4 – 7x – 9).

a. x3 + x2 +

5 2 5 2 5 2

a. b. c. d.

7x 13 + 9x9 – 14x6 – 16x5 7x 40 + 14x20 – 49x5 – 63 7x 13 + 2x4 – 7x – 9 7x 13 + 14x9 – 49x6 – 63x5

b. –x3 + x2 + c. –x3 – x2 + d. x3 – x2 –

5 2

67

–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS –

374. Compute 4x2z(3xz3 – 4z2 + 7x5).

379. What is the product of (2x + 6)(3x – 9)?

**a. – + 2z3 – 16x2z2 + 28x10z b. 12x c. 12x3z4 – 16x2z3 + 28x7z d. 12x3z4 – 4z2 + 7x5
**

375. What is the product of (x – 3)(x + 7)?

12x3z4

8x2z3

28x7z

a. b. c. d. e.

5x2 – 54 6x2 – 54 6x2 + 18x – 15 6x2 – 18x – 15 6x2 + 36x – 54

a. b. c. d. e.

x2 – 21 x2 – 3x –21 x2 + 4x – 21 x2 + 7x – 21 x2 – 21x – 21

380.Compute –3x(x + 6)(x – 9).

a. b. c. d. e.

–3x3 + 6x – 54 -x3 + 3x2 + 24x -3x3 – 3x2 – 54 –3x2 + 6x – 72 –3x3 + 9x2 + 162x

376. What is the product of (x – 6)(x – 6)?

a. b. c. d. e.

x2 + 36 x2 – 36 x2 – 12x – 36 x2 – 12x + 36 x2 – 36x + 36

381. Compute (x – 4)(3x2 + 7x –2).

a. b. c. d.

3x3 + 5x2 – 30x – 8 3x3 + 5x2 – 30x + 8 3x3 – 5x2 – 30x + 8 3x3 – 5x2 – 30x – 8

377. What is the product of (x –1)(x + 1)?

382. Compute (x – 6)(x – 3)(x – 1).

a. b. c. d. e.

–1 2 +1 x x2 – x – 1 x2 – x +1 x2 – 2x –1

x2

a. b. c. d. e.

x3 – 18 x3 – 9x – 18 x3 – 8x2 + 27x – 18 x3 – 10x2 – 9x – 18 x3 – 10x2 + 27x – 18

378. What is the value of (x + c)2?

383. Which of the following equations is equivalent

a. b. c. d. e.

x2

2

+c x + cx + c2 x2 + c2x2 + c2 x2 + cx2 + c2x + c2 x2 + 2cx + c2

2

**to (5x + 1)(2y +2) = 10xy + 12? a. 10x + 2y + 2 = 10 b. 10x + y = 10 c. 5x + y = 5 d. 5x – y = 5
**

384. Compute (2x3 – 2x2 + 1)(6x3 + 7x2 – 5x – 9).

a. b. c. d.

12x6 + 2x5 – 24x4 – 2x3 + 25x2 – 5x – 9 12x6 – 2x5 – 24x4 + 2x3 + 25x2 – 5x – 9 12x6 – 2x5 – 24x4 – 2x3 – 25x2 + 5x – 9 12x6 + 2x5 – 24x4 + 2x3 – 25x2 + 5x – 9

68

–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS –

Set 25

(Answers begin on page 193)

391. Factor out the GCF: 125x3 – 405x2

The method of factoring out the greatest common factor (GCF) from a polynomial is the focus of this problem set.

385. Factor out the GCF: 15x – 10

a. b. c. d.

–5x 2(25x – 81) 5x(25x2 – 81) 5x 2 (25x – 81) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

a. b. c. d.

–5(3x – 2) 5(3x + 2) –5(3x + 2) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

392. Factor out the GCF: 73x3 – 72x2 + 7x – 49

a. b. c. d.

–7(49x3 + 7x2 + x – 7) 7(14x3 – 7x2 – x + 7) 7(49x3 – 7x2 + x – 7) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

386. Factor out the GCF: 9x5 + 24x2 – 6x

a. b. c. d.

3(3x 5 + 8x2 – 2x) 3x(3x 4 + 8x – 2) x(9x 4 + 24x – 6) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

393. Factor out the GCF: 5x(2x + 3) – 7(2x + 3)

a. b. c. d.

(2x + 3)(7 – 5x) (2x + 3)(5x – 7) (2x + 3)(5x + 7) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

387. Factor out the GCF: 36x4 – 90x3 – 18x

a. b. c. d.

9x(4x3 – 10x2 – 2) 18(2x4 – 5x3 – x) 18x(2x3 – 5x2 – 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

394. Factor out the GCF: 5x(6x – 5) + 7(5 – 6x)

a. b. c. d.

(5x – 7)(5 – 6x) (5x + 7)(6x– 5) (5x – 7)(6x– 5) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

388. Factor out the GCF: x3 – x

a. b. c. d.

x(x2 –1) –x(x2 + 1) –x(x2 – 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

395. Factor out the GCF:

389. Factor out the GCF: 5x2 + 49

**6(4x + 1) – 3y(1 + 4x) + 7z(4x + 1) a. (6 – 3y + 7z)(4x + 1) b. (6 – 3y – 7z)(4x + 1) c. (–6 + 3y – 7z)(1 + 4x ) d. This polynomial cannot be factored further.
**

396. Factor out the GCF: 5x ( 2 x + 7) – ( 2 x + 7) 3 3

a. b. c. d.

5(x2 + 49) 5(x2 + 44) 5x(x + 49) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

a. 5x( 2 x + 7) 3

b. (5x – 1)( 2 x + 7) 3 c. (5x + 1)( 2 x + 7) 3 d. This polynomial cannot be factored further.

390. Factor out the GCF: 36 – 81x2

a. b. c. d.

9(4 – 9x2) 9(4 – x2) 9(x2 – 4) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

69

–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS –

397. Factor out the GCF: 3x(x + 5)2 – 8y(x + 5)3 + 7z(x + 5)2

a. b. c. d.

(x + 5)(3x – 8yx – 40y + 7z) (x + 5)2(–3x + 8yx + 40y – 7z) (x + 5)2(3x – 8yx – 40y + 7z) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

398. Factor out the GCF: 8x4y2(x – 9)2 – 16x3y5(x – 9)3 + 12 x5y3(9 – x)

a. b. c. d.

4x3y2(x – 9)[2x2 – 18x – 4y3x2 + 72y3x – 324y3 – 3x2y] 4x3y2(x – 9)[2x2 – 18x + 4y3x2 – 72y3x +324y3 – 3x2y] 4x3y2(x – 9)[2x2 + 18x – 4y3x2 + 72y3x – 324y3 + 3x2y] This polynomial cannot be factored further.

399. Factor out the GCF: 8x4y2z(2w – 1)3 – 16x2y4z3(2w – 1)3 + 12x4y4z(2w – 1)4

a. b. c. d.

4xyz(2w – 1)2[2x3 –4y3z3 + 6x3y3w – 3x3y3] 4x2y2z(2w – 1)2[2x2 –4y2z2 + 6x2y2w – 3x2y2] 4x2y2z(2w – 1)3[2x2 –4y2z2 + 6x2y2w – 3x2y2] This polynomial cannot be factored further.

400. Factor out the GCF: –22a3bc2(d –2)3(1 – e)2 + 55a2b2c2(d – 2)2(1 – e) – 44a2bc4(d – 2)(1 – e)

a. b. c. d.

11a2bc2(d –2)(1– e)[2a(d – 2)2(1 – e) + 5b(d – 2) + 4c2] 11a2bc2(d –2)(1– e)[–2a(d – 2)2(1 – e) + 5b(d – 2) – 4c2] 11a2bc2(d –2)(1– e)[–2a(d – 2)2(1 – e) + 5b(d – 2) + 4c2] This polynomial cannot be factored further.

70

–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS –

Set 26

(Answers begin on page 194)

407. Factor completely: 32x5 – 162x

The problems in this set focus on factoring polynomials that can be viewed as the difference of squares or as perfect trinomials squared.

401. Factor completely x2 – 36

a. b. c. d.

2x(4x2 + 9) 2x(2x – 3)2(2x +3)2 2x(2x – 3)(2x + 3)(4x2 + 9) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

a. b. c. d.

(x – 6)2 (x – 6)(x + 6) (x + 6)2 This polynomial cannot be factored further.

408. Factor completely: 28x(5 – x) – 7x3(5 – x)

a. b. c. d.

7x(x – 2)(x + 2)(5 – x) 7x(2 – x)(2 + x)(5 – x) 7x(5 – x)(x2 + 4) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

402. Factor completely: 144 – y2

a. b. c. d.

(12 – y)(12 + y) (11 – y)(11 + y) (y – 12)(y + 12) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

409. Factor completely: x2(3x – 5) + 9(5 – 3x)

a. b. c. d.

(x – 3)(x + 3)(3x – 5) (x2 + 9 )(3x – 5) (x2 + 9 ) (5 – 3x) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

403. Factor completely: 4x2 + 1

a. b. c. d.

(2x + 1)2 (2x + 1)(2x – 1) (2x + 1)2 This polynomial cannot be factored further.

410. Factor completely: x(x2 + 7x) – 9x3(x2 + 7x)

a. b. c. d.

x2(1 – 3x)(1 + 3x)(x + 7) x2(x + 7)(1 + 9x2) x2(3x –1)(3x + 1)(x + 7) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

404. Factor completely: 9x2 – 25

a. b. c. d.

(3x – 5) (3x –5) (3x + 5) (5x – 3)(5x + 3) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

411. Factor completely: 1 + 2x + x2

a. b. c. d.

(x – 1)2 (x + 1)2 (x + 1)(x +2) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

405. Factor completely: 121x4 – 49z2

a. b. c. d.

(11x2 – 7z)(11x2 + 7z) (12x2 – 7z)(12x2 + 7z) (7z – 11x2 )(7z + 11x2) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

412. Factor completely: 4x2 – 12x + 9

a. b. c. d.

(2x – 3)(2x + 3) (2x + 3)2 (2x – 3)2 This polynomial cannot be factored further.

406. Factor completely: 6x2 – 24

a. b. c. d.

(6x – 2)(x + 2) 6(x –2)2 6(x – 2)(x + 2) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

71

+ 3 – 3)2 b. Factor completely: x2 – 9x + 20 a. 3x 2(5x + 1)(5x – 1) 3x 2(5x – 1)2 3x 2(5x + 1)2 This polynomial cannot be factored further. d.–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS – 413. (4x – 10)(3x + 1) (3x – 10)(4x + 1) (3x – 2)(4x + 5) This polynomial cannot be factored further. b. c. 415. d. (9 + 2x)(1 – x) (3 + 2x)(3 – x) (3 + x)(3 – 2x) This polynomial cannot be factored further. d. c. b. 418. This polynomial cannot be factored further. c. Factor completely: 6x2 + 11x – 2 a. b. Factor completely: a. 422. 421. 425. This polynomial cannot be factored further. –3x2(3x + 1)(3x + 2) –3x2(3x – 1)(3x – 2) –3x2(3x – 1)(3x – 2) This polynomial cannot be factored further. (3 + 10x)(3x + 4)2 d. d. 72 . (x + 4)(x – 2) (x – 4)(x + 2) (x + 1)(x – 8) This polynomial cannot be factored further. b. Factor completely: 2x3 + 6x2 + 4x Set 27 a. c. c. c. b. 4x3(5 – x)(1 – x) 4x3(x – 5)(x – 1) –4x3(x –5)(x – 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further. Factor completely: 1 – 6x2 + 9x4 a. b. (1 + 3x2)2 (1 – 3x2)2 (1 – 3x2)(1 + 3x2) This polynomial cannot be factored further. b. (7x –1)(x – 5) (7x +1)(x + 5) (7x –5)(x – 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further. c. Factor completely: 12x2 – 37x – 10 + 16(3 + 10x) a. d. d. Factor completely: 75x4 + 30x3 + 3x2 419. Factor completely: 9 – 7x – 2x2 416. 423. 417. c. d. a. c. 414. b. (2x + 2)(3x – 1) (3x + 2)(2x – 1) (x + 2)(6x – 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further. d. (Answers begin on page 194) Factoring polynomials using the trinomial method is the focus of this problem set. c. Factor completely: –4x5 + 24x4 – 20x3 a. 424. 2x(2x c. a. 8x2 – 24x4 + 18x a. (x – 4)(x – 5) (x + 2)(x – 10) –(x + 4)(x + 5) This polynomial cannot be factored further. d. Factor completely: x2 + 2x – 8 2x(2x3 3)2 a. 2x(2x3 – 3)(2x3 + 3) d. b. d. (3 + 10x)(3x – 4)(3x + 4) c. c. 2(x + 2)(x2 + 1) 2(x2 + 2)(x + 1) 2x(x + 2)(x + 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further. b. b. Factor completely: 7x2 – 12x + 5 a. Factor completely: 9x2(3 + 10x) –24x(10x + 3) 420. Factor completely: –27x4 + 27x3 – 6x2 a. d. (3 + 10x)(3x – 4)2 b.

c. Factor completely: 18(x2 + 6x + 8) – 2x2(x2 +6x + 8) a. c. d. 73 . 0 b. (1 – x)2(1 + x)2(2x + 3)(3x + 2) c. 4 and 9 434. –6 and 6 d. b. b. b. (x + 1)2(x – 2)(x – 3) (x – 1)2(x + 2)(x + 3) (x + 1)2(x + 2)(x + 3) This polynomial cannot be factored further. Factor completely: 6(x + 1) a. Which of the following is a complete list of 429. 427. d. (1 – x)(1 + x)(1 + x2)(3x + 2)(2x + 3) d. Factor completely: x2(x + 1) – 5x(x + 1) + 432. 6x2(1 –x4) + 13x(1 – x4) + 6(1 – x4) a. (16 + x4)(2x + 1)(x + 1) (4 + x2)(4 – x2)(2x + 1)(x + 1) (4 + x2)(2 – x2)(2 + x )(2x + 1)(x + 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further. c. d. c. Which of the following is a complete list of 430. c. 2(x + 2)(x + 4)(3 – x)(3 + x) 2(x + 2)(x – 4)(x – 3)(x + 3) 2(x – 2)(x + 4)(3 – x)(3 + x) This polynomial cannot be factored further. There are no zeroes for this polynomial. Which of the following is a complete list of 428. –2 and 0 d. b. d. zeroes for the polynomial 5x2 + 49? a. zeroes for the polynomial 9x2 – 36? a. –6 c. d. 436. zeroes for the polynomial 9x2 – 25? a. –(x – 3)(x + 3)(x + 9) –(x – 3)(x + 3)(x –9) (x – 3)(x + 3)(x –9) This polynomial cannot be factored further. 6 b. (x + 1)(x + 3)(x – 2) ( x + 1)(x – 3)(x – 2) (x – 1)(x – 3)(x + 2) This polynomial cannot be factored further. –2 and 4 b.–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS – 426. (Answers begin on page 196) This problem set focuses on finding roots of polynomials using factoring techniques and the Zero Factor Property. Factor completely: Set 28 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 – 4) + (4 – x2) a. Factor completely: 27(x – 3) + 6x (x – 3) – x2 (x – 3) a. This polynomial cannot be factored further. b. – 3 and 3 5 5 d. zeroes for the polynomial 6x2 – 24? a. 2 and –4 d. There are no zeroes for this polynomial. –3 and 5 435. d. (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x – 1)(x + 1) (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x – 1)(x – 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further. 433. Factor completely: 2x2(16 + x4) + 3x(16 + x4) + (16 + x4) a. (1 – x)2(1 + x)2(2x + 3)(3x + 2) b. –3 and 3 c. –1 and 0 c. –2 and 2 c. – 5 and 5 3 3 b. c. Factor completely: (x2 + 4x + 3)x2 + (x2 + 4x + 3) 3x + 2(x2 + 4x + 3) a. b. Which of the following is a complete list of 431.

and 2 c. 0. 2. 3 1 10 and – 4 10 1 3 and – 4 – 130 and –4 and 7 5 7 5 7 5 c. –2. d. 0. and 4 b. Which of the following is a complete list of 443. and 2 74 . –2. 1. 0. d. –1 and 2 d. Which of the following is a complete list of zeros for the polynomial x2 – 9x + 20? a. –4 and –5 zeros for the polynomial 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 – 4) + (4 – x2)? a. 1. –2 and 2 d. Which of the following is a complete list of and 21 2 c. 1. 2. – 1 and – 221 5 b. –1. and 5 446. –2. – 9 and 1 2 444. – 2 and –1 9 b. –2 and – 1 2 b. 4 and –5 d. and 5 b. 0 and – 1 5 and – 1 5 zeros for the polynomial –4x5 + 24x4 – 20x3? a. –2. and –5 d. 2. c. –2 and 4 c. – 3 and 2 438. Which of the following is a complete list of zeros for the polynomial 5x( 2 x + 7) – ( 2 x + 7)? 3 3 a. 2 and – 5 3 7 b. 1 and – 1 5 5 b. 0. Which of the following is a complete list of zeros for the polynomial 28x(5 – x) – a. 2 3 zeros for the polynomial 12x2 – 37x – 10? a. –2. Which of the following is a complete list of 442. and 5 d. 4 and 5 b. 1 and 2 445. 2. – 9 and –1 2 d. – 2 and 1 9 c. 1. 1 5 1 5 zeros for the polynomial 9 – 7x – 2x2? a. 0. Which of the following is a complete list of zeros for the polynomial a. and –5 7x3 (5 – x)? zeros for the polynomial 2x3 + 6x2 + 4x? a. Which of the following is a complete list of 441. –2. –1. –2. 2. and 5 c. –4 and 5 c. 1 5 1 5 75x4 + 30x + 3x ? 3 2 c. 2.–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS – 437. 0. 2. 0. – 2 and 3 d. 130 and –4 b. Which of the following is a complete list of 440. 1. and 0 c. Which of the following is a complete list of zeros for the polynomial 5x(2x + 3) – 7(2x + 3)? a. 0 and d. – 1 and – 221 5 and – 221 439. and 2 b.

and 4 d.∞) 2 5 b. (–∞. [–2. –3.–2]∪[0. (–∞.– 221 )∪( 1 .∞) d.–2]∪[2. 5 ] 3 3 c. (– 1 . (–∞. Which of the following is a complete list of 452.∞) b. –1. 1 ) 5 b. (–∞.0} 5 d.∞) d.∞) c. and 4 5x(2x + 3) – 7 (2x + 3) a. (–∞.∞) 3 3 d.2]∪[5. Which of the following is the solution set for d. (–∞. [– 221 .∞) b.∞) c. the empty set 451. c.∞) 5 0? This problem set focuses on solving polynomial inequalities. and 3 c. Which of the following is the solution set for 455.∞) 2 5 c. Which of the following is the solution set for 75x4 + 30x3 + 3x2 a. Which of the following is the solution set for x2 – 36 0? a.–6]∪[6. the set of all real numbers 456. –4. (–∞. 2. the empty set 0? 5x2 + 49 0? a. 449.–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS – 447. (–∞. Which of the following is the solution set for Set 29 (Answers begin on page 197) 5x( 2 x + 7) – ( 2 x + 7) 3 3 a.5] c. 3. the set of all real numbers 450. 7 ) 2 5 d. the set of all real numbers 75 . the empty set d. –2. (–∞. and 4 b. Which of the following is the solution set for 9x2 – 25 0? a. –3. 2.– 3 ]∪[ 7 . and –2 2 b. (6.–2)∪(2.–6)∪(6. Which of the following is the solution set for 28x(5 – x) – 7x3(5 – x) 0? a. – 1 . [–2.∞) 5 c. –3. –2. (2.0) 5 c. (– 5 . (–∞. (–∞. –2. (–∞.– 3 )∪( 7 . 7 ] 2 5 0? 454. [– 5 .∞) b.0) c. (– 3 . (– 221 .0) b. Which of the following is the solution set for zeros for the polynomial 3x(16 + x4) + (16 + x4)? a. [– 3 .∞) d. 5 ) 3 3 b. {– 1 .2] 453.0]∪[5.0]∪[2. (–∞. –1 and 1 2 1 and – 1 2 –1 2 2x2 (16 + x ) + 4 6x2 – 24 0? a.– 459 ) b. –1 and 448. [ 1 . 1 ] 5 d.–2]∪[–2. Which of the following is a complete list of zeros for the polynomial 18(x2 + 6x + 8) – 2x2(x2 + 6x + 8)? a.– 5 )∪( 5 .

∞) 4 c. (–∞.–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS – 457.– 1 )∪( 130 .–1]∪[0.2) 2 b. (–∞. Which of the following is the solution set for x2 –9x + 20 0? a.–4)∪(–2. the set of all real numbers 462.– 1 ] 2 d.0]∪[1. [–1.1) 2 460. the set of all real numbers except – 9 and 1 2 d. [– 1 .–3]∪[–2.1] 2 0? 2x2(16 + x4) + 3x(16 + x4) + (16 + x4) a. (–∞.2) 2 c.– 9 )∪(1.4]∪[5.0] b. (– 1 . (–∞. (–∞.4)∪(5.– 1 ]∪[ 130 . Which of the following is the solution set for 461. Which of the following is the solution set for 9 – 7x –2x2 a. Which of the following is the solution set for 2x3 + 6x2 +4x 0? a.∞) d.∞) 2 c.–2)∪(1.1]∪[5. [– 9 . and 3 76 .–3)∪(–2.5) 458. (–∞.5] b. (– 9 . Which of the following is the solution set for d.∞) b.∞) 4 b.∞) –4x5 + 24x4 – 20x3 a. –3. (–∞. [–2. (–∞.– 1 )∪(2. (4. (–∞.∞) 2 b.2) 0? a. Which of the following is the solution set for 464.–1]∪[0. (–∞. 130 ] 4 d.∞) c.∞) 18(x2 + 6x + 8) – 2x2(x2 + 6x + 8) 0? a.1)∪(1. [0.∞) 0? b.– 1 ) 2 0? b. (–2. 130 ) 4 459.1] c. Which of the following is the solution set for 12x2 – 37x – 10 0? 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 –4) + (4 – x2) a.∞) 2 d. [–4.–1)∪(– 1 .∞) c. (–1. (–∞. (–∞.3) c.∞) 2 c.5] d.3] d.–2]∪[–1. –2. (–4. (– 1 . (–∞.– 1 )∪(1.–1]∪[– 1 . [–2. Which of the following is the solution set for 463. (–∞. (–∞. the set of all real numbers except –4.

77 . This is the focus of the following six problem sets. Simplifying and understanding the graphical properties of both polynomials and rational expressions relies heavily on the use of factoring.4 Q S E C T I O N RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS uotients of polynomials are called rational expressions.The arithmetic of rational expressions closely resembles that of fractions.

c. b. b. Simplify: z8z – 16z – 32 a.∞) 2 x 16 473. e. d. x + 8 78 . 2z – 5 z–5 2z + 5 z–5 2z – 5 z+5 2z + 5 z+5 25(–x)4 x (x + 2)(x + 6) 1 2x – 12 x+2 4x(x – 6) 2x(x + 2) x–6 471. c. = (y – 8)(y + 8) –(y – 8) 4 x+5 x+4 x x+4 x+5 x+4 x2 + 5x = (y – 8)(y + 8) 8–y = –(y + 8) b.–2)∪(2. d.20 d. c. d. d. Simplify: x(5x2)2 a. d. (–∞. x – 8 e. Simplify: x3 – 64x 474. –y + 8 –(y + 8) –(y – 8) y+8 x2 + 8x 16 e.-2)∪(2.∞) (–∞.0)∪(0.2)∪(2. a. b. Simplify: y2 – 64 8–y a. c. x+2 x–6 a.∞) (–. z(z + 4) 8 z(z – 4) 8 –z(z + 4) 8 –z(z – 4) 8 a. The domain of the expression x3 2x4x is – 3 467. –6 –4 –3 –2 –1 472. d. c. b. c.2)∪(2. c. 465. Simplify: z2 + 2z – 15 2z2 – z – 15 a. e. b. 5 2x – 25x 1 x a. Simplify: 4x3 – 16x24x 48x – 2 This problem set focuses on basic properties and simplification of rational expressions. Which of the following makes the fraction x2 + 11x + 30 4x3 + 44x2 + 120x undefined? 466. – 1 4 b. b. 1 x–8 x x–8 x+8 x–8 a. – 1 x b. Which of the following could be equal to 4xx ? a. e.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– Set 30 (Answers begin on page 202) 2x + 470. Simplify: x3 + x– – 20x 2 468. d. 0.∞) (–∞. 0 4 4 12 5 20 c. c. c.∞-2)∪(¬2. – x3 – 20x 469. b. d.2)∪(2. d.

–16 –4 –1 1 16 a. d. d. x2 + 7x + 12 x3 + 3x2 – 4x 1 3(2x – 5) 1 9(2x – 5) 1 3 1 9 476. b2 2a + 1 2 – 2ab+ 1 b2 2a – 1 2 – 2ab– 1 1 c. –4. d. b. – x 4– 2 x d. c. c.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 475. 0 . 0 –1. –1 (x – 1)(x + 2) 1 (x – 1)(x +2) a. – x – 2 d. –1. c. b. d. 5x2 477. Compute and simplify: 4x – 45 + 2xx– 99 – 3x – 91 x–9 a. b. c. b. 7 b3 478. 4 undefined? Set 31 (Answers begin on page 203) This problem set focuses on adding and subtracting rational expressions. x2 + 2 4x x2 – 2 4x 2 c. – x 4+ 2 x 479. 1 –4. Which of the following values make the expression x – 16 x2 – 16 undefined? 480. Simplify: 8a2 + 2a – 1 4ab2 – b2 2 483. 0 1 –4.4 0. 7 ab3 7a b3 3 – 2x 2–x a. x+1 2x + 1 x–1 2x + 1 x–1 2x – 1 x+1 2x – 1 6x3 – 12x 24x2 3x – 55 x–9 3x – 53 x–9 3x – 55 3x – 27 3x – 53 3x – 27 5a 2a 482. d. Simplify: b. Compute and simplify: (x + 2)(x – 1) – (x –1 )(x +2) a. – x 1 +2 79 . b. b. e. Which of the following lists of values makes the expression a. e. c. c. 7b3 c. Compute and simplify: ab3 + ab3 a. – x+ 481. Simplify: 10x2(x – 1) – 3x(x – 1) –2(x ––1) (x – 1) + 9x(x – 1) + 2(x 1) a. (2x – 5)(x +4)( ––(2x – 5)(x + 1) = 9(2x 5) a. d. d. b. 1. b.

d. – x + 1 x+3 c. b. Compute and simplify: 64zz+ 132 + 4z + 6 + 3 a. c. 2 c. 4(s + r2) s2r3 2s + r2 s2r3 4s + r2 s2r3 2(2s + r2) s2r3 – 7y – 3 (y – 1)(y +1) + 5 y+1 +4 a. Compute and simplify: x(x2. – (y – 1)(y4+ 1)2 c. b. d. – 1 2 4 5 491. x2 + 10x – 8 x(x +1)(x +2) x + 10x + 8 x(x +1)(x +2) x2 – 10x + 8 x(x +1)(x +2) x2 – 10x – 8 x(x +1)(x +2) x 1 2x2 2 3 492. Compute and simplify: x2 – 10x + 24 – x – 6 + 1 a. c. x+1 x–3 x–1 x–3 x 3 487. c. c. x–6 x+4 x+6 x+4 x–6 x–4 x+6 x–4 488. b. –2 d. Compute and simplify: (x – 5)2 + x + 1 x+5 x ) a.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 484. Compute and simplify: x(x + 1) – (x + 1)(x + 2) + x a. – (x x(5)– 9+5) – (x –x2 + 5x a. x( x + 9 ) (x – 5)(x +5) x ) c. d. 485. 2x – 3x +1 x(x – 1)(x – 2) 2x2 + 3x – 1 x(x – 1)(x – 2) 2x2 – 3x – 1 x(x – 1)(x – 2) 2x2 + 3x + 1 x(x – 1)(x – 2) 2 d. 1 2 b. d. d. d. Compute and simplify: 2x + 1 – 2x – 1 + 4x2 – 1 493. Compute and simplify: 3y + 2 (y – 1)2 a. 2z – 490. b. b. – x + 3 x– 4 486. x(x – 9) (x – 5)(x +5) 80 . (4x – 1)(x – 1) (2x – 1)(2x + 1) (4x + 1)(x – 1) (2x – 1)(2x + 1) (4x + 1)(x + 1) (2x – 1)(2x + 1) (4x – 1)(x + 1) (2x – 1)(2x + 1) b.2) – 5 – 2x (x – 2)(x – 1) y+4 (y – 1)2 y+4 (y – 1)(y +1) –1 a. – (y –y1)(y +1) y+ b. b. d. – (x x(5)+ 9+5) – (x d. Compute and simplify: x – 3 + x + x 3– 1 a. Compute and simplify: s43 + r22 r s 489. c. Compute and simplify: t(t + 2) – 2 t a. –2t t+2 –2 t+2 2 t+2 2t t+2 1 2x b. c.

d. Compute and simplify: 9 – a2 a. c. c. d. b. 2a3 3(3 – a) 2a3 3(3 + a) 2a3 –3(3 + a) 2a3 –3(3 – a) x–8 3(x + 3) x+8 3(x + 3) x–8 3x(x + 3) x–8 3x(x + 3) –(5 +x) 4(x –6) x – 6)2 504. Compute and simplify: 4x3y2 z3 y3z4 2x3 – 3) a. x+3 (3x + 2)2(x – 1) (x – 4)2(x + 3) (x – 1) x+3 (3x + 2)(x – 1)2 (x + 3)2 (3x + 2)2(x – 1) Set 32 (Answers begin on page 204) 2 x –3 – 502. Compute and simplify: 3x2 – x –2 ÷ (3x2 – 10x – 8) a. – x2 2 1 + b. – x – 2 x b. c. 5 –4 2 2 – (x – 1)(x + 1) c. b. b. c. c. c. c. d. d. b. d. x+2 x x–2 x – x –x+ 2 2x2 7y 2x 7y 2x2 7y2 2x 7y2 x2 – x – 12 3x – 3 496. b. a. 498. c. b. d. – 5(2 – x)) (9x – 2 b. 2y 6z2 x2 2y 6z x3 2y 5z x2 2y z x2 8a4 5a2 + 13a – 6 24a – 60a2 6 2 2 8x 503. 2x + 1 x +3 x+ – 2(x +31) 2(x + 1) x +3 2x + 1 – x +3 a. – (x – 1)(x + 1) 495. d. Compute and simplify: 9x––42 8 x 10 – 5x 2 – 9x a. Compute and simplify: 2x3 ÷ x 4x3x This problem set focuses on multiplying and dividing rational expressions. d. –(x – 6) 2 (x – 6) 2 –x – 6 2 x + 6) 2 81 . 2 x +1 2 a. (x – 3)2 8x3 2 x3 (x – 3) x3 a.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 494. c. Compute and simplify: –18xy y a. Compute and simplify: 2(x + 5 a. Compute and simplify: x – 2 – x2 – 2x x–1 3x – 4 12x2 500. Compute and simplify: 1 + x – 1 – x2 + 3x x 501. b. 497. d. Compute and simplify: x4 – 1 – x2 – 1 + x2 + 1 2x2 1 1 499. – (x8x3 2 b. d. Compute and simplify: xx2– 694 ÷ 6x x+ 46 – 2 – a. c. – 29(2 ––x) )2 0(9x 2 9(2 – x)2 20(9x – 2)2 –24xy3 56y3 2 2 d.

2x + 1 – (2x – 5) –(x – 3) x+1 2x2 – 3x – 5 x –3 Set 33 (Answers begin on page 205) b. 9x 4y 3x 4y 3x 16y 9x 16y3 4x2 + 4x + 1 4x2 – 4x a. b. Compute and simplify: x 4– x y ÷ 3x2 + 3x 15x2y2 a. d. d. ÷ ab – 3b2 a2 + 2ab + b2 b. ÷ 2x2 + 3x + 1 2x2 – 2x x x+6 x x–3 (x –3)2(x + 6) x x–3 x+6 10xy2 2x – 2 506. c. Compute and simplify: x+2 x2 + 5x +6 a. (2x + 1)(x + 2) 2(x – 1)(x + 1) (2x + 1)(x – 2) 2(x – 1)(x + 1) (2x + 1)(x – 2) 2(x2 + 1) (2x – 1)(x – 2) 2(x2 + 1) x2 – 1 2x + 2 1 – x2 x2 + x – 2 x2 – x 2 511. b. 5x3y3 2(x + 1) 25x3y3 4(x + 1) 5x2y2 4(x – 1) 25x2y3 4(x – 1) 507. –(2x + 1) d. c. a. Compute and simplify: a. (a + b)2 ab a2 + b2 ab 2(a + b) ab a – 3b ab 275 36 275 45 245 48 245 36 82 . d. b. c. c. d. Compute and simplify: x2 +x 512. b. 2x + 1 c. Compute and simplify: 1 – 3 4 9 16 1 4 + 5 2 – 1 2 4 509. x + 2 x –x + 2 b. 513. x x2 2 – d. d. Compute and simplify: (4x2 – 8x – 5) ÷ a. c. x x2 2 2x2 + 7x +3 4x2 + 4x + 1 6x2 + 5x + 1 3x2 + x x2 – 4 x2 + 2x a. Compute and simplify: a2 – b2 2a2 – 3ab + b2 2a2 – 7ab + 3b2 a2 +ab a. 2x + 1 2x – 5 This problem set focuses on simplifying complex fractions and performing multiple operations involving rational expressions. c. 2(x + 2) x2 –2(x + 2) x2 2x + 2 x2 –2x + 2 x2 508. x + c. d. Compute and simplify: (x – 3) ÷ x +3x – 18 a. c. d. b. b.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– x2y3 505. Compute and simplify: 914x 21y 15xy2 10x 12y3 2 x 510.

c. d. 1 d. 1 (x – 1) 1– 1+ x 5 x 5 515. c. 2(6 – x) 3 6–x 3 – –6 3 x 6+x 6 3 1 x–2 5 1 4x – 2x a. –x 2 x 2 x c. d. Compute and simplify: a. Compute and simplify: 4 4 – x 2 –1 1 1 x+2 + x–2 518. b. – x – 4 d. 2x +h x2(x +h) –(2x +h) x2(x +h) 2 2x +h x2(x +h)2 –(2x +h) x2(x +h)2 a. 16 3 17 3 17 6 15 4 2 3 3+4 3 1 4–2 519. c. –(x + 1) b. 5 x+5 1 x+5 c. Compute and simplify: (x + h)2 – x2 a. Compute and simplify: 3x2 + 6x x–5 + 2+x 5–x 3x – 1 25 –x2 520. a ab +1 4a2 (a +2)(a – 2) –4a (a +2)(a – 2) 4a a2 +4 –4a a2 +4 b. (x + 2)(x – 5) 1 1 516. Compute and simplify: a. Compute and simplify: a. ab ab + 1 ba – 1 a b 522. Compute and simplify: 5 2 (x – 1)3 – (x –1)2 2 5 (x –1)3 – (x –1)4 a. d. Compute and simplify: a.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 514. b. 0 h 521. b. d. c. d. c. –(x – 1) d. (x + 2)(x + 5) b. x+4 x–4 83 . Compute and simplify: a–2 a+2 a+2 – a–2 a–2 a+2 a+2 + a–2 a. (x – 1) c. 517. –(x + 2)(x + 5) c. b. b. 1 a+ b 1 b+ a b. –(x – 2)(x + 5) d.

b. Compute and simplify: (a –1 + b –1)–1 Set 34 (Answers begin on page 207) a. 3 2 and 3 –2 –2 and 3 3 1 528. c. c. Compute and simplify: 1 – 2 – 2x – 6x x a. y–x y +x y+x y–x a. (x + 5)(x – 1) (x – 5)(x + 1) –(x – 5)(x + 1) –(x + 5)(x + 1) x+3 x–2 a. Compute and simplify: x2 + 4x –5 2x2 + x – 3 2x + 3 x +1 a. x+3 3x + 10 3x + 10 x–2 3x + 10 x+3 x+3 x–2 533. 18 1 531. x 2 – 5x + 8 (x + 1)(x + 2) x2 + 5x + 8 (x + 1)(x + 2) x 2 – 5x – 8 (x + 1)(x + 2) 2 – (xx+–15xx+ 82) )( + a. 529. d. ab b+a b+a ab This problem set focuses on solving rational equations. –4 4 –4 and –2 4 and –2 x 2 3 1 527. –2 b. d. ab d. c. b. 1 525. c. b. c. c. Solve: 2 – 3 = 1 3 x 2 d. 2 c. b. Solve: x – 3 + x = x – 3 a. d. Solve: t 2t7 + t – 1 = 2 – 7 18 18 7 a. –18 d. Solve: x + 8 + x2 + 2x = 2 x+2 x a. c. – 2 x +2 b. Compute and simplify: [3 + x + 3 ] a. b. 1 x –3 7 5 5 7 5 526. Solve: 3 = 2 + x x c. b. 84 x+2 x x–2 x 3x + 2 3x 3x – 2 3x . –3 and 1 –3 only 1 only There are no solutions. c. b. a + b x –1 – –1 524. 0 b.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 523. d. Compute and simplify: x –1 + y –1 y a. c. b. d. 530. d. d. Compute and simplify: x + 3 – x x– 12 532. d.

85 . c. v1 = b. 9 8 9 –1 2 and 8 1 9 2 and 8 1 9 2 and – 8 1 f 541. 7 9 7 9 1 2x2 + x – 21 = b. Solve: (2x – 1)2 = 4 + 2x – 1 a. –3 and –2 2 and 3 –3 and 2 –2 and 3 2 4 535. d. 22 3 2 a. v1 = c2(v2 – v) vv2 – c2 c2(v – v2) vv2 – c2 c2(v – v2) c2 – vv2 2 a. d. b. b. d. There are no solutions. Solve: – a. Solve: x + 2 + 1 = ( 2 – x)(2 + x) 3 6 540. d. Solve: x + 1 – x + 4 = x2 + 5x + 4 x 3 3 a. q = b. c. Solve: 2p2 – 9p – 5 – 2p + 1 = p – 5 a. 2 and 4 4 0 0 and 4 t+1 4 543. 1 + x – 3 = x2 – 4x – 3 a. d. b. c. –5 and 1 –5 5 There are no solutions. 3 –5 5 There are no solutions. Solve for v1: v = 538. – b. q = d. x+1 x3 – 9x d. b. q = f (k – 1) p f (k – 1)(1 + p) p f (k + 1)(1 + p) p f (k + 1) p x–1 4 a. b. Solve: t – 1 = t2 – 1 537. Solve: x – 5 = x – 5 a. q = c. c. 1 pq 1 q –1 and 1 3 –1 –1 and 3 3 x–3 536. b. d. v1 = c. d. Solve for q: = (k – 1) + 542. Solve: x + 2 = x – 2 a. c. v1 = – c (v2 + v2) 2 1 2x2 + 13x + 21 c – vv2 539. –1 and –3 1 –3 –1 v1 +v2 1+ v1v2 c2 544. – 7 d. c. d. c. – 9 c. c. b.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 534. –4 and 1 1 and 4 –1 and 4 –4 and –1 10 3 a.

d. (8.∞) (–8. b. [–3. 547.0) 551. (– 2 .–2]∪[1.3) a. (4. a.∞) 553.8)∪(8.–2)∪[1. [–8.∞) (–1. b.∞) (–∞.∞) 2 b. Determine the solution set for the inequality z3 – 16z 8z – 32 0. c.∞) 1 2 d. (–∞. [–5.0) 552.– 5 ] 2 c. Determine the solution set for the inequality (x – 1)(x + 2) (x + 3)2 0.–2] [–3. (–3.∞) [8.–1)∪(3.–2)∪(1. 3 ) 1 2 b. [– 5 . [– 2 . d. Determine the solution set for the inequality 25(–x)4 x (5x2) 2 0. (0. c. Determine the solution set for the inequality 2z 2 – z – 15 z 2 + 2z – 15 This problem set focuses on solving rational inequalities. 3 ] 1 2 c.–2]∪[1.∞) (8. a. (–1. Determine the solution set for the inequality x2 + 8x x 3 – 64x > 0. (–2.–∞) (–∞.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– Set 35 (Answers begin on page 211) 549. a. c.8] [–8.6) a.–5)∪[– 5 . a.–5]∪[– 5 . d. the empty set the set of all real numbers (0.6] d. 1 4 – 2 x+3 x a.8) (–8.8)∪(8.1) [–2. Determine the solution set for the inequality 2 1 2 – x x–1 ≥ 0. d. (–∞. c. Determine the solution set for the inequality y2 – 64 8–y 0. b. 546.8] 86 . Determine the solution set for the inequality –x –1 0.∞) (–∞. c.∞) d.) 2 d.– 2 ]∪[ 3 .1] [–3. (–4. [–3.–2]∪[1.4) b. d.∞) 2 550. (– 2 .6) c.3) (–∞. 6x4 – x3 – 2x2 1 2 a. [–3. Determine the solution set for the inequality x2 + 9 x2 – 2x – 3 0.∞) 0. b. b.6) b. (–∞.–4) c. 545.0)∪(0. 3 ) 2 a. (–∞. 548.

c. [– 1 . (–∞. b. d. [– 1 . Determine the solution set for the inequality 3 – 2x (x + 2)(x –1) – 2–x (x – 1)(x + 2) 0.5) 559.– 1 ]∪( 1 .1] 2 4 2 d. (–1. b. d.1] (–∞.–2) [–2. ( 5 . [– 1 .3)∪(3.2] a. – 1 2x – 1 + 2x 2 4x 2 – 1 0.0)∪[2.1] 87 . (– 1 . 3)∪(3. c. Determine the solution set for the inequality 6x – 24x 24 x 2 3 a. Determine the solution set for the inequality x 2x + 1 0.– 1 ]∪[– 2 .–4) 557. d. – 7y – 3 (y – 1)(y + 1) + 5 y+1 0. (– 1 . c. a.–4] (–∞.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 554 Determine the solution set for the inequality 5x2(x – 1) – 3x(x – 1) – 2(x – 1) 0.∞) 2 (–∞. b. d. d. a.3)∪(3. (–∞. (–∞.∞) (–∞.5) (–1. Determine the solution set for the inequality 3y + 2 (y – 1)2 556.– 1 ]∪( 1 . [–2.– 1 ]∪(– 2 .1] 2 5 5 c. b.– 1 ]∪[ 1 .1] 2 5 5 b.∞) [0.– 2 )∪(– 2 .4] (–∞.1] 2 4 2 560.–2] (–∞. a. 10x2(x – 1) + 9x(x – 1) + 2(x – 1) 558.0]∪[2. a.1] 2 5 d.– 1 ] 2 4 c.5) (–∞.– 2 )∪(– 2 . c.∞) 2 5 555.1] 2 4 2 b. Determine the solution set for the inequality x+5 x–3 –x 1 x–3 0.4) (–∞. [– 1 .0]∪[2. (–∞. c. 5 ) 2 the empty set the set of all real numbers a.∞) [–2.∞) (–∞. Determine the solution set for the inequality (2x – 5)(x + 4) – (2x – 5)(x + 1) 9(2x – 5) 0. b.

.

5 A n algebraic expression involving a term raised to a fractional exponent is a radical expression. and the solutions often involve radical terms. the arithmetic of complex numbers resembles the algebra of binomials. S E C T I O N RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 89 . These topics are reviewed in the seven problem sets in this section. Sometimes. Various methods can be used to solve quadratic equations. raising a negative real number to a fractional exponent results in a complex number of the form a + bi. where a and b are real numbers and i = –1. The arithmetic of such expressions is really a direct application of the familiar exponent rules.

Simplify: 64 6 a. d. 561. 7 and –7 d. Simplify: 4 312 The definition of fractional powers and the simplification of expressions involving radicals are the focus of this problem set. none of the above 3 a. 7 only b. 2 c. 5 b. 64 3 b. b. 3 567. b. 16 d. Simplify: 515 a. 27 d. c. b. 25 d. 4 c. b. d. none of the above 563 Which of the following is the principal fourth (2b)4 = 8 2 3 4 There is no such value of b. Which of the following is a value of b that satis- fies the equation b = 4? a. d. –5 c. c.–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS– Set 36 (Answers begin on page 217) 566. root of 625? a. 2 2 b. 9 1 27 – 243 4 90 . 664 d. 35 d. Which of the following are second roots (ie. c. 1 a. –25 564. –7 only c. 343 c. c. –5 is a third root of what real number? a.807 571. Simplify: 49 2 5 6 a. c. none of the above –32 570. –625 562. 25 c. 5 15 125 625 568. b. Simplify: 5 569. Simplify: 81 –3 4 565. –5 b. Find a number b that satisfies the following: 4 square roots) of 49? a. 27 9 81 243 5 a. –125 d. 245 2 b. d. 2 2 5 –2 2 2 –2 5 a. 16..

2x –2 576. d. b. 577. Simplify:(–64) a. e. –4 c. c. x36 4x72 4x36 2x72 a. 4 c. – 116 575. x b. b. d. y 3 91 . 3 b. Simplify: a3 a3 a. x2 b. –81 578. 2 g 3 581. –12 3 d. – 11365 b. Simplify: 32 5 3 Set 37 (Answers begin on page 217) a. Simplify: 4 a. d. –16 d. c. b. 2 b. Simplify. c. x2 579. c. x 2 d. 64 573. 2x2 2 c. 8 d. b. g d. c. b. –3 3 c.–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS– 572. 1 x 1 x2 574. y 3 3 3 y 3 3 e. a4 a a5 a5 a a6 a9 4 g 4g 580. Simplify: x144 a. Simplify: 3 9 3 –3 a. Simplify: 8 27 –2 3 96 5 1 8 The simplification of more complicated radical expressions is the focus of this problem set. d. c. 2 g g e. Simplify: 27y3 27y2 a. 4 9 9 4 3 2 –1 3 a. Simplify:(4x –4) –1 2 –1 4 d. assuming x 0: x5 x7 a.

b. b. 2x 3x2 3 3x 2x2 3 3x2 2x 3 2x2 3x x3 + 40x2 + 400x 3 a. Simplify: 125 9 a. 3pr e. d. e. ab d. ab ab e. c. 10 d. c. 5 5 e. d. x4 x5 x4 x3 4 4 4 4 x x x3 x3 3 a. c. 92 . ab c. d. b. b. x +2 x + 1 c. 5 b. b. 9 4 b. x + 2 x + 2 d. what is the value of n+5 n n 2 590. 3 d.–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS– 582. If n = 20. 3pr 3 pr a. Simplify: a. b. c. c. 3p2r2 585. ab ab b. 5 2 5 591. Simplify: a. Simplify: a2b ab ab2 4 587. 8g3 8g4 8g5 8g10 8g12 9pr 3 (pr) 2 a. Simplify: 4 32x8 584. Simplify: 4 3 x2 + 4x + 4 (4g2)3 (g4) a. 3 3 4 c. d. Simplify: x21 5 ? a. x + 2 b. x + 2 589. Simplify: 243 4 a. d. 3 588. (x + 20) x x x + 2x 10 + 20 x x x + 20 This radical expression cannot be simplified further. Simplify: 54x2 c. c. x2 8 4 x2 4 4 2x 4 4 2x2 2 4 4 c. 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 9 5 592. 3 pr d. Simplify: a. a2b2 583. 25 586. d. b.

d. c. d. d. 24 + 4 24 – 4 24 + 4 24 + 4 15 + 6 15 + 6 15 – 6 15 – 6 –10 + –25 5 a. c. Simplify: xy a. c. d. 32 – 2 32 + 2 16 – 4 16 + 4 3 3 3 3 6)(6 – 6–3 6 –3 6 –3 6+3 15) 10 10 10 10 a. 12 16 20 20i a. including those involving complex numbers. b. 5 5i –5 –5i –32 600. Simplify: – a. b. d. 29 5 2 605. 593. 11y 2x 11xy 2xy 11x2y2 2 11xy2 2x 18 25 604. b. b. b. b. c. c. Simplify: (4 + 594. c. d. 10 10 10 10 3 7 21 3x)2 a. c. 12 – 16i 16 + 16i 16 – 16i 12 + 16i 21 3 7 597. b. –2 + i 2+i 2–i –2 – i a. d. Simplify: (2 + 23 2 15 29 2 15 32 2 15 a. Simplify: + 7 3 598. Simplify: + 32 9 a. c. c. b. c. Simplify: (4 + 2i)(4 – 2i) 596. b. – 8 –4 3 + 4 5 4 3–3 5 –5 3 + 4 5 8xy2 + 3y 2 18x3 603. d. d. d.–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS– Set 38 (Answers begin on page 218) 599. –3 3 –3 5 5 3 –5 5 3+4 5–8 3 602. b. Simplify: (5 – 3)(7 + 3) This problem set focuses on the arithmetic of radical expressions. Simplify: a. d. 4i 2 –4i 2 –3i 2 3i 2 48 + 2 27 – 75 601. c. Simplify: 3 a. d. Simplify: (4 + 2i)2 a. 4 3x + 7x 4 3x + 7 + x 4 + 4 3x + x 3 4 + 4 3x + 3x 93 . b. d. b. c. Simplify: 595. c. Simplify: –25 a. b.

–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS–

606. Simplify: (

a. b. c. d.

–29 – 3 –29 + 3 29 – 3 –29 – 3

3+ 21 21 21 21

7)(2 3 – 5

7)

611. If a 3 =6, then a 3 =

2

4

607. Simplify:

1 3–5 2

a. 3 b. 6 c. 3 6 d. 6 6 e. 36

612. If

a.

3 –5 2 41 2

p

4

= q–2 = – 1 , which of the following is 3

5 b. – 3 –41

a possible value of p? a. – 1 3 b. c. d. 3 e. 9

613. Solve:

3

c. d.

3+5 2 41 5 – 3 +41 2 2x 2 –3 x

1 9 1 3

**608. Simplify by rationalizing the denominator:
**

+6x a. – 2 4 2x9x +

5x – 8 = 3

b. c. d.

2 2

2x + 2x 2 – 3x 2x – 6x 4 – 9x 2x + 6x 4 – 9x

a. b. c. d.

49 –7 7i –7

3

614. Solve:

7 – 3x = –2

Set 39

(Answers begin on page 219)

**This problem set focuses on solving equations involving radicals.
**

609. Solve:

a. b. c. d.

–5 5 5i –5i

7 + 3x = 4

615. Solve: (x –3)2 = –28

a. b. c. d.

3 –3 3i There is no solution. 4x + 33 = 2x – 1

a. b. c. d.

3 2i 7 –3 2i 7 2 3i 7 –2 3i 7 10 – 3x = x – 2 –2 –2 and –3 3 There is no solution.

610. Solve:

616. Solve:

a. b. c. d.

4 –2 –2 and 4 There is no solution.

a. b. c. d.

94

–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS–

617. Solve:

a. b. c. d.

3x + 4 + x = 8 4 and 15 15 –4 and 15 4

624. Solve: x2 + 81= 0

a. 9 b. 9i c. –9,–9i d. 9,9i

618. Solve: (x – 1)2 + 16 = 0

a. b. c. d.

1 2i 1 4i –1 4i –1 2i

Set 40

(Answers begin on page 221)

**Solving quadratic equations using the quadratic formula is the topic of this problem set.
**

625. Solve using the quadratic formula: x2 – 7 = 0

619. Solve: x3 = –27

a. b. c. d.

3i –3 –3i 3

a. b. c. d.

7i 7 i 7 7

620. Solve: x2 = 225

626. Solve using the quadratic formula: 2x2 – 1 =0

a. 15i b. –15i c. 15 d. 5 5

621. Solve: x3 = – 125

a. b. c. d.

2 2 i 2 2

2 i 2

a. b. c. d.

–5 5 5i –5i

627. Solve using the quadratic formula: 4x2 + 3x = 0

a. 0,– 3 4 b. – 3 4 c. – 4 3 d.

3 4

622. Solve: (x + 4)2 = 81

a. b. c. d.

–13 5 –13, 5 There is no solution.

628. Solve using the quadratic formula: 5x 2 + 20x = 0

623. Solve: x2 + 1 = 0

a. b. c. d.

–4 0,4 4,–4 0,–4

a. 1 b. –1,–i c. 1,i d. i

95

–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS–

629. Solve using the quadratic formula:

634. Solve using the quadratic formula:

x2 a. b. c. d.

+ 4x + 4 = 0 2 2i 2 –2i

x2 + 2 2x + 3 = 0 a. 2 b. 2 c. 1 i d. i i 1 2 2

630. Solve using the quadratic formula:

635. Solve using the quadratic formula: x2 = –2x

x2 + 5x – 6 = 0 a. b. c. d. –2, –3 1,–6 –1,6 3,2

a. b. c. d.

2,0 –2,0 2i,–2i 0

636. Solve using the quadratic formula: (3x –8)2 = 45 631. Solve using the quadratic formula:

a. b. c. d.

3x2

+ 5x + 2 = 0

–3 8 3 –3 8 –8 3 3 –8 3

5 5 5 5

a. –1, 2 3 b. –1, – 2 3 c. 1, – 2 3 d. 1, 2 3

632. Solve using the quadratic formula: 5x – 24 = 0

2

637. Solve using the quadratic formula:

0.20x2 – 2.20x + 2 + 0 a. b. c. d. 0.01, 0.1 10, 100 0.1, 1 1, 10

a. b. c. d.

2 5

30

2i 30 5

2

6

2i 6

638. Solve using the quadratic formula:

633. Solve using the quadratic formula:

x2 – 3x – 3 = 0 a. b. c. d.

3 3 7 2 3 7 3 2 –3 2 3 2 21 21

2x2 = –5x – 4 a. b. c. d.

–5 4 5 –5 –7 4 i 7 4 i 7 –4 i 5 i 7

96

–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS–

**639. Solve using the quadratic formula:
**

1 2 6x

644. Solve using radical methods: (3x – 8)2 = 45

– 5 x +1 = 0 3

a. b. c. d.

a. b. c. d.

–5 19 5 19 5 i 19 –5 i 19

–8 3i 5 3 –8 3 3 8 3 5 3 –8 3i 5 3 5

640. Solve using the quadratic formula:

(x – 3)(2x + 1) = x(x – 4) a. b. c. d.

–1 2 1 2 1 i 13 2 –1 i 13 2 13 13

645. Solve using radical methods: (–2x + 1)2 – 50 =0

a. b. c. d.

–1 5 2

2

1 5i 2 2 1 5 2 2 –1 5i 2 2

646. Solve using radical methods: –(1 – 4x)2 – 121 = 0

Set 41

(Answers begin on page 222)

a. b. c.

**Solving quadratic equations using radical and graphical methods is the focus of this problem set.
**

641. Solve using radical methods: 4x = 3

2

–1 11i 4 1 11i 4 1 i 11 4 –1 i 11 4

d.

a. b. c. d. i i

3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3

647. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

**tion, if they exist, using graphical methods: 5x2 – 24 = 0 a. ≈ 2.191 b. 4.8 c. ≈ 2.191 d. The solutions are imaginary.
**

648. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

642. Solve using radical methods: –3x2 = –9

a. b. c. d.

3i 3 3 i 3

643. Solve using radical methods: (4x + 5)2 = –49

a. b. c. d.

5 7i 4 –5 7i 4 –7 5i 4 7 5i 4

tion, if they exist: 2x2 = –5x – 4 a. 0.5, 1.5 b. –1.5, 0 c. –0.5, 0.5 d. The solutions are imaginary.

97

–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS–

649. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

655. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

tion, if they exist: a. 2, 3 b. 16, 36 c. –2, –3 d. 16, –36

4x2

= 20x – 24

**tion, if they exist: 1 x2 – 5 x + 1 = 0 6 3 a. ≈ 0.51, 10.51 b. ≈ 0.641, 9.359 c. 1, 4.2 d. The solutions are imaginary.
**

656. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

650. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

**tion, if they exist: 12x – =0 a. 0, –1.25 b. –1.25, –1.25 c. 0, 1.25 d. The solutions are imaginary.
**

651. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

15x2

tion, if they exist: (2x + 1)2 – 2(2x + 1) – 3 = 0 a. –11, –1 b. 1, 11 c. –1, 11 d. The solutions are imaginary.

Set 42

(Answers begin on page 227)

**tion, if they exist: (3x 45 a. ≈ –3.875, 3.875 b. –3, 5 c. ≈ 3.875, 4.903 d. The solution are imaginary.
**

652. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

–8)2

Solving equations that can be put in quadratic form via substitution is the focus of this problem set.

657. Solve: b4 – 7b2 + 12 = 0

**tion, if they exist: 0.20x2 – 2.20x + 2 = 0 a. –10, –1 b. 1, 10 c. –1, 10 d. The solutions are imaginary.
**

653. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

a. b. c. d.

2, 2, 3 2, 3 2, 3

3

658. Solve: (3b2 – 1)(1 – 2b2) = 0

a. b. c. d.

2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3

,

3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3

, , ,

**tion, if they exist: x2 – 3x – 3 = 0 a. ≈ –0.791, 3.791 b. 1, 3 c. –1, –3 d. The solutions are imaginary.
**

654. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

659. Solve: 4b4 + 20b2 + 25 = 0

a. b. c. d.

i

10 3 10 3 10 2

tion, if they exist: x2 = –2x a. 0, 2 b. –2, 0 c. –2, 2 d. The solutions are imaginary.

i

10 2

98

–2. Solve: 4x6 + 1 = 5x3 a. –1 4 2 663. 2. 2 1 2 a. 2. Solve: 2 1 + = 13 1 + w –6 a. 9 –9 16 –16 1 1 668. –1 i 1 –i a. –2. 3 3 1. d. . Solve: 3 + x– 4 + x 1 –1 2 =0 13)4 a. 2 –3. 1. . d. x=6 d. c. 16 49 49 16 – 16 49 – 49 16 667. Solve: x2 + x + 12 = 8 x2 + x 664. –2.–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS– 660. d. Solve: 16b4 – 1 = 0 665. 3 w 2 669. b.49 –9. 2 1 2 1 2 1. b. –1. – 3 1 . 1 2 –16 (1 + 16 (1 + 13)4 –16i (1 + 13)4 –16i (1 + 13)4 13)4 . 1 2 1 2 c. 2. b. c. c. . . c. Solve: 16 –56 a. i i i i 1. Solve: (x3 + 5)2 – 5(x3 + 5) + 6 0 a. – c. –2. 1. d. 3 3 3 3 2. 1 661. Solve: x – 3 a. b.–9 –49. c. 25 16 36 –16 99 . –16 (1 – 16 (1 – 13)4 –16i (1 – (1 – 13)4 16i 13)4 . d. d. c. 3 –3 3 3 –3 3 3 3 662. Solve: x + 21 = 10x 2 a. 1 4 1 . –49. b. c. –1 4 b. 1. d.9 9. 3 –3. b. 1 4 1. d. c.49 x + 49x = 0 666. b. Solve: 2x 6 – x 3 = 1 a. b. b. d. 2 –3.

b. –1. Solve: (r – r )2 – (r – r ) – 6 = 0 3 3 672. c. – 81 81 16 16 81 81 . – 16 . c. –3 671. Solve: 2a 3 – 11a 3 + 12 2 1 0 a. 64. 1. 1. –64. – b. 64. 3. 287 c. Solve: 6 x – 13 x+6 0 a. 16 – 16 . 81 81 16 – 81 . d. b. 3 2 3 2 3 21 21 i 21 2 21 2 4 a. –64. –3. 1. –3. – 27 8 27 8 d.–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS– 670. 16 16 81 100 . 287 d. –3.

such as f or g. The range of a function is the set of all possible y-values attained at some member of the domain. Such functions are generally described using either algebraic expressions or graphs. it is convenient to view the domain as the set of all values of x that can be substituted into the expression and yield a meaningful output. Basic functions and their properties are reviewed in the ten problem sets that make up this section. When we want to emphasize the inputoutput defining relationship of a function. When an algebraic expression is used to describe a function y = f(x). 101 .6 S E C T I O N ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS T he first functions to which you are typically exposed are those described by sets of ordered pairs that can be visualized in the Cartesian plane. From the graphical viewpoint. an expression of the form y = f(x) is often used. The arithmetic of realvalued functions is performed using the arithmetic of real numbers and algebraic expressions. an x-value belongs to the domain of f if an ordered pair with that x-value belongs to the graph of f. and are denoted using letters. The domain of a function can be thought of as the set of all possible x-values for which there corresponds an output y.

e. c. 0 1 2 3 4 675. In the following graph of f(x). d. b. d. e. 673. for how many y values of x does f(x) = 3? y x x a. In the following graph of f(x). 0 2 4 5 8 102 . 2 3 4 5 8 a. for how many values of x does f(x) = 0? The problems in this set focus on the notions of domain and range and the basic arithmetic of elementary functions. for how many values of x does f(x) = 10? y x a. In the following graph of f(x). c. d. b. b.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– Set 43 (Answers begin on page 231) 674. c. e.

d.4] [–4.–4) 678. d.2]∪(2. b. refer to the functions f and g.5]. The range of g is which of the following? a.4) 5 4 3 y =g(x) (–5.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 676.2)∪{3} a.4] [–4.–1) (5. the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to –4 a.1]∪(1.3) 4 3 2 1 (2. c. both defined on [–5. d.2) 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 1 2 3 4 5 x (2. 2 f(0) + [f(2) g(4)]2 = a. The domain of the function is the set of all real numbers less than or equal to 2.3] (–2. the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 0 d.–1]∪[0.2]∪{3} (–2. d. c.–1]∪[0. b. c. [–4. c. The range of the function is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 0. The domain of the function is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 0. y 5 y y =f(x) (–5. The range of f is which of the following? 680. Which of the following is true of f(x) = – 2 x 2 ? 1 a.4] none of the above 103 . The range of the function is the set of all real numbers less than or equal to 0. For questions 678–680. [–2. 18 10 8 16 679. The range of the function is the set of all real numbers less than 0.2)∪{3} [–2. b. e. whose graphs are shown here.–2) –3 –4 –5 (5. What is the range of the function f(x) = x2 – 4? 677. the set of all real numbers excluding 2 and –2 c. b. the set of all real numbers excluding 0 b. the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 4 e.

∞) (–∞. –10x2 + 6x + 2 b.∞) d.2)∪(2. d. d. (1.∞) 2 2 d. refer to the graphs of the following fourth-degree polynomial function y = p(x). –g(x) g(x) –3g(x) 3g(x) 682. 1.∞) (–∞. (–∞. The zeros of p(x) are x = a. 2(5x +2)(x + 1) 104 . –2(5x2 + 6x + 2) c. For questions 686–688. b. (–∞. Which of the following is equivalent to 3f(x) – 2xg(x) – h(1x) ? a. [1. 3 none of the above 686. b.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– For questions 681–684.∞) the set of all real numbers a. [–1.∞) d.3) b.4] c. 684.1)∪(1.–1)∪(–1. c. 0.–2)∪( –2. 2 –3.4] 683. c. (–∞.1)∪(1. Which of the following is the domain of p(x)? 687.4] 688. (1. The range of the function f(x) = 1 – x is which 2x + 1 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 1 2 3 4 (2. Which of the following is equivalent to g(x) ? a. 10x2 + 12x + 4 d. –3. use the following functions: f(x) = –(2x –(–1 –x2)) g(x) = 3(1 + x) h(x) = 1 + x2 9f(x) 1 681.3) d. Which of the following is the solution set for y 4 3 2 1 x y =p(x) the inequality –1 p(x) a. What is the domain of the function 2g(x)h(x)? a. [1. c. 3 –3. [–1.∞) b. (–∞. [–1. b.– 1 )∪(– 1 . 0.–1) of the following? a. b.2)∪(2.4] c. b. Which of the following is the range of p(x)? a.–1)∪(–1. d. [–4. [–1. [–4.3]∪{–3} c.∞) c. 2.–1)∪(1. 1.3]∪{–3} 0? 685.

B c.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– Set 44 (Answers begin on page 233) This problem set focuses on compositions of functions. D e. A and D y= √x 105 . use the following diagrams: y y A x D x x2 + y 2 = 4 y y= x 1 B x y E x y= |x | –3 y y=(x – 3)2 + 1 C x 689. and the general principles of the graph of a function. Which of the coordinate planes shows the graph of an equation that is not a function? a. the simplification involved therein. A b. For questions 689–693. C d.

7 e. c. E d. –4 e. b. C and D c. Simplify f(x + h) – f(x) when f(x) = –(x – 1)2 + 3. –1 d. B c. 3 c. h f(h) h(h – 2x + 2) –2hx + h2 – 2h 696. B and D d. D e. –7 d. B b. d. 16x –16x 64x8 –256x8 graph of a function that has the same range as its domain? a. C d. B.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 690. what is the value of g(f(–2))? a. B and D e. 11 700. D and E 693. Simplify (f ˚ f ˚ f)(2x) when f(x) = –x2. D c. If f(x) = 6x + 4 and g(x) = x2 – 1. Compute (g ˚ h)(4) when g(x) = 2x2 – x – 1 and a function that has a domain of all real numbers? a. b. 4 x. B c. 6x2 – 2 b. b. 36x2 + 48x + 16 e. If f(x) = 3x + 2 and g(x) = 2x – 3. which function has the smallest range? a. D d. d. B and E e. what is the planes. Which of the coordinate planes shows the graph of a. 36x2 + 16 c. B and E 692. a. 36x2 + 48x + 15 d. 5 d. A b. graph of a function that has a range that contains negative values? a. and D 691. c. A. 1 c. E 694. 0 b. –11 c. A b. Which of the coordinate planes shows the h(x) = x – 2 a. If f(x) = 2x + 1 and g(x) = x – 2. 697. which of the a. Simplify f(2y – 1) when f(x) = x2 + 3x –2. 4y2 + 2y – 4 4y2 + 6y – 2 4y2 + 6y – 3 2y2 + 6y – 4 following is equivalent to g(f(x))? a. c. value of f(g(f(3)))? a. B and C b. Of the equations graphed on the coordinate 698. –19 b. B and D e. Which of the coordinate planes shows the 695. –3 699. 1 b. d. 6x3 + 4x2 – 6x – 4 106 .

b. x2 – 4x + 2 x2 – 4x –4 c.0] c. a. x2 –4 d.4) 5 4 3 y =g(x) (–5.∞) 107 . 0 –1 3 undefined x2 – 4x. d.∞) c. then the ( ) a. b. 705. y 5 y y =f(x) (–5.∞) b. undefined 702. both defined on [–5. (–∞. (f ˚ g)(0) = 704.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– For questions 701–702. c.0] b. none of the above 2x2 + 18.0) d. If f(x) = a. refer to the functions f and g. whose graphs are shown here. then f(x + 2) = Set 45 (Answers begin on page 236) This problem set explores some basic features of common elementary functions. 1 2 b. 2 d. (–∞. d. f (f ( f (f(5)))) = –3x and g(x) = domain of g ˚ f is a. If f(x) = a.3) 4 3 2 1 (2. [0. |x – 2| f(x) = –x.5]. (–∞. (0.–1) (5.2) 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 1 2 3 4 5 x (2. [0.–2) –3 –4 –5 (5. –1 c.–4) 701. Determine the domain of the function 703.

∞). f(x) 0. How many x-intercepts does the function f(x) = 1 – |2x–1| have? a. The domain of the function is all real numbers greater than 0 and the range is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1 . The graphs of both f and g are increasing on their entire domains.∞) (–∞. d. The graphs of y = f(x) and y = g(x) do not intersect. The graph has one x-intercept. c. 1 c. 708. It has a slope of 2. f(x) g(x). 710. tion f(x) = x3? a. b. b.∞) none of the above 714. b. c.∞) (–∞. The domain of the function is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1 and the range 4 is all real numbers greater than 0. 712.2) (2. b.∞). The domain of the function is all real numbers greater than 1 and the range is all real 4 numbers greater than 0. b. There exists precisely one x-value for which f(x) = 1. d. Determine the domain of the function 711.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 706. c. c.∞). Which of the following is the domain of the function f(x) = a. d.–1) (–∞. Which of the following is true about the func- f(x) = 4x – 1? a. The range is (0. b. d. 709. It has one y-intercept and one x-intercept. The domain of the function is all real numbers greater than or equal to 0 and the range is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1 4 . It has no y-intercept. 4 e. e. c.∞). c. for all real numbers x. f(x) 0. f(x) 0. c.2)∪(2.∞) 707. for all real numbers x. The range of both f and g is [0. The graph of y = f(x) crosses the line y = a precisely once. for all real numbers x. the set of all real numbers (–1. 1 3 –1–x . Which of the following is true about the function f(x) = |x|? a. d. It has a range of 2. The graph of y = f(x) is decreasing on its domain. It has one y-intercept and two x-intercepts.–1)∪(–1. 713. 0 b. Consider the graphs of f(x) = x2 and g(x) = x4. Which of the following is true about the func- Which of the following statements is true? a. 2 d. d. d. The graph of y = f(x) is decreasing on the interval (0. c. 1 (2 – x)5 2 ? tion f(x) = 1 ? x a. (–∞. b. b. Which of the following is true of the function f(x) = 2? a. The domain of the function is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1 and the range 4 is all real numbers greater than or equal to 0. It is not a function. The range is [0. d. more than 2 108 . Which of the following is true of g(x) = a. for any real number a. It has no domain. for all real numbers x.

721. including monotonicity. 0 b. 1 c. What can you conclude about the graph the graphs of f(x) = a. c.0)∪(0. b.∞) (–∞. 0 b. The graph has no x-intercept. There is not enough information to conclude anything about the graph of f.–2)∪(–2.–2)∪(–2.∞) (–∞. c. c. more than 2 717. more than 2 x2 and g(x) = x ? 4 716. c. Set 46 (Answers begin on page 238) This problem set focuses on properties of more sophisticated functions. 2 d.How many points of intersection are there of 720.∞) (–∞. b. 1 c. d.0) (0. d.2)∪(2.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 715. d. What can you conclude about the graph of x = –3.∞) 718. (–∞.2)∪(2. (0. The domain of f(x) = x3 – 4x is 2x the graphs of f(x) = 3 x 2 and g(x) = 4 a. 3 is not in the domain of f. (x – 3)(x2 – 16) ? (x2 + 9)(x – 4) 719. y = 1 x = 4. 2 d. 0) There is no y-intercept. 1 c. The graph of the function cannot be defined for x-values larger than 3. 2 d. 3 is not in the range of f. The graph has neither an x-intercept nor a y-intercept. d. b. b. –2 –|2 – 3x| 722. x = 4 x = –3. How many points of intersection are there of of y = f(x) if you know that the equation f(x) = 3 does not have a solution? a. asymptotes. –1) (–1.2)∪(2. How many points of intersection are there of the graphs of f(x) = 2x and g(x) = 4x3? a. The graph has no y-intercept. y = 1 y=1 y = f(x) if you know that the equation f(x) = 0 does not have a solution? a. The graph of the function cannot have y-values larger than 3. more than 2 5 2 16 x ? a. b. Which of the following are the vertical and hor- izontal asymptotes for the function f(x) = a. What is the y-intercept of the function f(x) = 4 – 2x2 |–x| ? a. 109 . x = 4. d. c.–2)∪(2. 0 b. and the existence of inverse functions.

1) (–∞.3) 4 3 2 1 (2.–1) (5. 5). d.∞) (–3. b. –1). both defined on [–5.0)∪(2. All of the above statements are false. f has an inverse on the interval (–5.2) 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 1 2 3 4 5 x (2. 2). d. (–3.–1) a.–2) –3 –4 –5 (5. y 5 y y =f(x) (–5.2) 724. 5].–4) Which of the following statements is true? a.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 723. whose graphs are shown here.–3)∪(0. On what intervals is the graph of the following fourth degree polynomial function y = p(x) increasing? y 4 3 2 1 x y =p(x) –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 1 2 3 4 (2. c. g does not have an inverse on the interval (–5.4) 5 4 3 y =g(x) (–5. f has an inverse on the interval (0.–3)∪(0.0)∪(3. c. Consider the functions f and g.∞) (–∞. 110 . b.

The graph has a hole at x = 2. f –1(y) = –52yy––11 . f –1(y) = b. f(x) = x3 b. d. II. then f(0) is not defined. There is one vertical asymptote. III. Which of the following are characteristics of the graph of f(x) = 2 – x2 +1 x–1? I. y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote and x = 0 is a vertical asymptote. b. The domain of any polynomial function is the set of all real numbers. 727. and an oblique asymptote. c. All of the statements are true. Which of the following is the inverse function 729. f –1(y) = ≠ –2? 5 1 2y–1 5y +1 . f –1(y) = d. Which of the following are characteristics of for f(x) = x–1 5x + 2 .∞). All of the above statements are true. There is one x-intercept and one y-intercept.∞)? a. The point (4. Which of the following is the inverse of 730. c. d. f –1(4) = 1 c. no horizontal asymptote. II.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 725. b. f(x) = |x| d. A rational function must have both a vertical and a horizontal asymptote. y I. f(x) = 3 731. III.0)? a. a. 4) is on the graph of y = f(x). b. 1) must lie on the graph of y = f –1(x). y ≠ – 5 2y + 1 5y – 1 . f(x) = x3 b. y the graph of f(x) = (2 – x)2(x + 3) x(x – 2)2 ? ≠ 1 5 1 5 1 c. f (y) = c. 111 . y ≠ d. Assume that the function f has an inverse f -1. There exists a rational function whose domain is the set of all real numbers. b. f(x) = 2x + 5 c. Which of the following statements is true? a. and the point (1. I only II only II and III only I and III only a. f (y) = –1 –1 3 3 3 3 y–2 y–2 2–y 2– 3 on (0. d. If the range of f-1 is [1. x a. f –1(y) = b. f –1(y) = 2y + 1 5y +1 . I and III only I and II only I only none of these choices ≠ –5 726. d. c. There is one x-intercept and one y-intercept. f(x) = 1 x d. The function is equivalent to the linear function g(x) = 2 – (x + 1) with a hole at x = 1. Which of the following functions is decreasing on (–∞. a. Which of the following statements is false? 728. all of the above y 732. Which of the following functions is increasing f(x) = x3 + 2? a. f(x) = 2x + 5 c.

b. 0. a. There exists a polynomial whose graph remains below the x-axis on its entire domain. 0. A polynomial must have at least one turning point.9 c. There exists a rational function whose graph intersects both Quadrants I and II. Compared to the graph of y = x2. y = –(x + 1)2 – 2 d. Determine the x-values of the points of inter- would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = (x +2)3 – 3 from the graph of g(x) = x3? a. c. a. Determine the x-values of the points of inter- point in the second quadrant of the coordinate plane? a. shifted 2 units left and 2 units up e. shifted 4 units left and 2 units down 112 . The graphs do not intersect. Which of the following statements is true? This problem set focuses on translations and refelctions of known graphs. 1 2 736. Shift the graph of g down 3 units and then left two units. Which of the following sequence of shifts a. 1 4 c. Which of the following parabolas has its turning section of the graphs of f(x) =–4x and g(x) = 2 x. Shift the graph of g up 3 units and then right two units. All quadratic functions are decreasing on one side of the vertex and increasing on the other side of the vertex. Linear functions with positive slopes are increasing. All of the statements are true. All of the statements are true. Shift the graph of g up 3 units and then left two units. 4 b. Shift the graph of g down 3 units and then right two units. y = –(x + 1)2 + 1 e. b.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 733. y = (x–2)2 – 2 is a. Which of the following statements is false? Set 47 (Answers begin on page xx) a. 0. shifted 2 units right and 2 units down b. 737. d. 2 d. y = (x–2)2 + 1 739. 0 b. c. 734. the graph of section of the graphs of f(x) = x and g(x) = 3 x. y = (x + 1)2 – 2 b. shifted 2 units right and 2 units up d. y = (x–1)2 – 2 c. d. c. d. 735. 0. 738. There exists a polynomial whose graph is increasing everywhere. b. shifted 2 units left and 2 units down c.3 d.

b. would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = |x + 6| + 4 from the graph of g(x) = |x|? a. 745. Shift the graph of g up 4 units and then right 2 units. Shift the graph of g up 1 unit and then right 4 units. Shift the graph of g down 4 units and then right 6 units. Shift the graph of g down 3 units and then right 5 units. Shift the graph of g up 1 unit and then left 2 units. Which of the following sequence of shifts would 743. Shift the graph of g down 1 unit and then right 2 units. Shift the graph of g down 4 units and then left 2 units. Which of the following sequence of shifts would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = (x – 4)3 + 1 from the graph of g(x) = x3? a. b. Which of the following sequence of shifts would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = (x – 2)2– 4 from the graph of g(x) = x 2? a. b. d. d. c. c. 742. 741. Shift the graph of g up 1 unit and then right 2 units. Shift the graph of g up 4 units and then left 6 units. d. Shift the graph of g down 3 units and then left 5 units.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 740. c. b. Shift the graph of g up 3 units. Shift the graph of g up 6 units and then right 4 units. Shift the graph of g down 5 units and then left 3 units. Shift the graph of g down 1 unit and then right 4 units. Shift the graph of g down 3 units. Shift the graph of g left 3 units. c. d. Shift the graph of g down 4 units and then right 1 unit. Which of the following sequence of shifts you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = x – 5 – 3 from the graph of g(x) = x ? a. b. d. Shift the graph of g down 2 units and then left 1 unit. d. 744. Which of the following sequence of shifts would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = 2 x+3 from the graph of g(x) = 2 x? a. c. Shift the graph of g up 1 unit and then left 4 units. Which of the following sequence of shifts would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = (x – 2)3 –1 from the graph of g(x) = x3? a. c. Shift the graph of g up 3 units and then left 5 units. Shift the graph of g down 6 units and then left 4 units. b. 113 . Shift the graph of g right 3 units. Shift the graph of g up 4 units and then left 2 units. Shift the graph of g down 4 units and then right 2 units.

then reflect over the x-axis. then reflect over the x-axis. c. then reflect over the x-axis. f(x) = –|x + 3| –2 d. and then down 5 units. and then up 5 units. and then up 5 units. f(x) = – x2 +2 1 c. 747. then reflect over the x-axis. Which of the following functions’ graphs can be obtained by shifting the graph of g(x) = right 2 units and then reflecting it over the x-axis? 1 a. and then down 5 units. Which of the following sequence of shifts would 749. and then up 5 units. Shift the graph of g left 3 units then reflect over the x-axis. f(x) = –(x–5)4 752. Which of the following sequence of shifts obtained by shifting the graph of g(x) = right 5 units and then up 2 units? a. and then down 5 units. b. f(x) = –x4 + 5 b. Which of the following functions’ graphs can be obtained by shifting the graph of g(x) = |x | left 3 units.Which of the following functions’ graphs can be you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = –|x – 1| + 5 from the graph of g(x) = |x|? a. d. f(x) = – (x +2)2 1 b. Shift the graph of g right 3 units. f(x) = –|x–2| + 3 751. Shift the graph of g left 1 unit. Shift the graph of g right 1 unit. and then shifting it down 2 units? a. f(x) = –(x + 5)4 d. then reflect over the x-axis. f(x) = –|x–3| + 2 b. f(x) = – x2 – 2 1 d. then reflect over the x-axis. f(x) d. f(x) c. Shift the graph of g right 3 units. d. and then down 5 units. Shift the graph of g left 3 units. Which of the following functions’ graphs can would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = –(x + 3)3 + 5 from the graph of g(x) = x3? a. Which of the following functions’ graphs can be obtained by reflecting the graph of g(x) = 1 x over the x-axis. 748. Shift the graph of g right 1 unit. c. then reflect over the x-axis. then reflecting it over the x-axis. b. f(x) = 2 + b. b. f(x) = –|x + 2| –3 c. f(x)= x – 5 + 2 f(x) = x + 5 + 2 f(x) = x – 2 + 5 f(x) = x + 2 – 5 x 750. and then shifting it up 2 units? a. f(x) = – (x – 2)2 1 x2 114 . f(x) = –x4–5 c. and then up 5 units. c. Shift the graph of g left 1 unit. d.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 746. f(x) 1 x 1 =2– x 1 = –x+2 1 =– x – 2 be obtained by shifting the graph of g(x) = x4 right 5 units and then reflecting it over the x-axis? a.

b. c. 753. b. then e3x – 2y = a. the graph of y = bx gets very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the left. Simplify: (ex + e–x)2 This problem set focuses on the basic computations and graphs involving exponentials. –1 754.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– Set 48 (Answers begin on page 243) 757. 22x + 1 c. Which of the following statements is true? a. the graph of y = bx grows without bound as the x-values move to the left. If ex = 2 and ey = 3. 5 53x 5x + 3 5–3x x–3 a. d. b. Simplify: 761. the y-values associated with the graph of y = bx grow very rapidly as the xvalues move to the right. If b 1. b. c. If b 1. e2x + e–2x e2x + e–2x + 2 2 2 e x + e–x 2 2 e x + e–x + 2 (53x – 1)3 5x – 1 52x a. d. c. b. b. e2x – e x – 1 + e–x e2x + e x – 1 + e–x e2x + 2e x – 1 e2x + 1 – 2e–x e x(e x – e –x) + e–x (ex + e –x) e–2x 755. Simplify: e x(e x – 1) – e–x (ex – 1) a. d. 58x – 1 1253x – 2 254x – 1 6252x – 1 a. d. c. e 2x + 1 e 4x + 1 e –4x + 1 e –2x + 1 756. b. 115 . 1 d. Simplify: a. c. Simplify: a. c. d. 2x +x b. d. d. Simplify: 2x 2 x+1 9 8 8 9 758. b. c. 2x2 2– x 2–x2 2x 2 759. If b 1. c. Simplify: (4x – 1)2 16 760. as well as application of the exponent rules. If b 1. 42x + 2 4x 42x 4–2x 54x 52x – 6 1 2 a. d. the graph of y = bx gets very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the right.

then the equation bx = 0 has no solution. [1. 768. (–∞. Which of the following is a true characterization of the graph of f(x) = – a. and the y-values grow very rapidly as the x-values move to the right. 1 2 x 3x. Set 49 (Answers begin on page 245) a.1] b. All of the above statements are true. including solving equations involving exponential expressions. d. and the y-values grow very rapidly as the x-values move to the left. b. c. the graph of y = bx get very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the right. d. Which of the following statements is true? bx a. c. for all x This problem set focuses on more advanced features of exponential functions. and the y-values grow very rapidly as the x-values move to the left. the graph of y = get very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the left.∞) d. then only negative x-values can be solutions to the equation bx = 0. [0. If b 1. The range of the function f(x) = 1– 2ex is which 1 –x 2 0. The graph is increasing as the x-values move from left to right. What is the solution set for the inequality 1–3x ≤ 0? a. d. b. There exists an x-value for which f(x) = 1. . 763. b. 0. the empty set d. for all x 1 x x 0. (1. the graph of y = bx get very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the right. The graph has one x-intercept and one y-intercept. If 0 b 1. The graph is decreasing as the x-values move from left to right.1) c. c. 764. If 0 b 1. If b 0.0) (–∞. The graph is decreasing as the x-values move from left to right. (–∞. 769. If b 0. c.∞) c.0] the empty set the set of all real numbers 767. then the equation =–1 has a solution.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 762. b. of the following? a. the set of all real numbers 116 . c. d. 2x b. 765. then the equation bx = 1 has two solutions. If 0 b 1.∞) b. The graph has one x-intercept and one y-intercept. If 0 b 1. b. for any real number x. and the y-values grow very rapidly as the x-values move to the right. (–∞. What is the solution set for – 3 2 2x ≤0? a. the graph of y = bx get very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the right. [1.∞) d. Which of the following statements is true? bx 15 7 3x ? a. The graph is increasing as the x-values move from left to right. d. If 0 b 1f. c. Which of the following statements is true? 766. Which of the following is a true characterization of the graph of f(x) = – 3 4 x ? a. There exists an x-value for which f(x) = 1.

1 4 c. Which of the following are characteristics of the graph of f(x) = –e2 – x –3? a. –2 780. –3 c. Solve: 4x + 1 = 2 a. if any. –5 and –2 –2 and 5 –5 and 2 2 and 5 778. b. Solve: 125x = 25 tion 27x a. –1 0 1 none of the above c. Determine the values of x. Solve: x 3x + 5 3x = 0 a. c. Solve: 42x – 3 = 4x a. b. d. – 1 2 d. d. c. a. – 2 3 d. d. b. b. d. x d. The graph of f lies below the x-axis. Solve: 163x – 1 = 42x + 3 a. d. –3 3 2 8 774. x 2 –1 = 43x. 2 3 37 14 1 =– 7 and x = 1 = 1 and x =–1 7 777. d. b. y = –3 is the horizontal asymptote for the graph of f. x = b. 3 b. –5 5 0 0 and –5 2x 781. – 4 5 c. – 3 2 c. – 1 3 117 . The domain is . all of the above 773. b. d. d. Solve: 10x + 1 = 100 a. Solve: 2x – 5 = 8 779. Solve: (e x) x – 3 = e10 771. 4 5 5 4 1 2x 772. c. log5 3 d. 1 0 –1 none of the above 1 a. – 5 4 b. Determine the values of x that satisfy the equa- 776. c. that satisfy the equation 5 x + 1 = a. x = c. b. –2–2 b. Solve: 32x = 9 3x – 1 a. –1 2 1 3 1 3 5 775. c. c. no solution 1 25 .–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 770. 37 a. 3 2 –3 14 3 b.

2 and 3 0 –3 and –2 –3. log7 7= a. 2 –2 3 –3 787. 1 2 d. c. 16 8 4 2 a. c. c. log16 64 = 784. d. log3 9 = a. d. 6 12 36 –36 a = x . loga 5 c. b. c. 4 d. 3 2 Set 50 (Answers begin on page 247) 791. log 1 8 = 2 a. 0 b. loga 5 + 2 loga a d. 2 3 b. log3(34 93) = 786. c. 8 10 6 12 a. Solve: e2x +5ex– 6 = 0 a. b. c. c. Solve: 2x2 . 785. 2 3 3 2 3 2 and 2 and –2 and 2 and 2 –2 3 a. 1 c. d.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 782. c. – 1 5 790. 0 b. b. then x = This problem set focuses on basic computations involving logarithms. b. – 2 3 c. –2. Solve: 2 x 2=8 788. loga 5 – 2 loga a 793. 16 3 –3 4 118 . log3 27 = a. b. d. –2 2 –3 3 1 792. and 0 a. then loga x = 1 2 loga a + 1 loga a 2 a. –1 789. d. If log6 x = 2. 1 5 c. If 5 a. loga 5 – b. d. d. b. 1 d. b. b. ex – 7x ex + 6 ex = 0 a. log5 1 = 783. d.

– 2 5 c. then x = a. Simplify: log8 2 + log8 4 4 y3 797. c. e – 1 ln 3 2 803. 2 5 b. If 3 ln x = ln 8. c. b. ln [y3] + ln [x4] 802. – 1 (1–log5 7) 3 d. – b. Which of the following is equivalent to 796. 2 ln 3x c. Which of the following is equivalent to 3 3 3 ln 18x3 – ln 6x? a. –3(1 + log5 7) c. c. 8 –8 2 –2 804. 3log 3 = a. 7) b. Simplify: 4 log9 3 = 3 3 3 a. – 1 2 d. d. – 5 2 e2y x = a. –2 799. ln [ x4 ] b. then ln a. 2 c. 2 1 0 –1 3 ln (xy2) – 4 ln(x2y) + ln(xy)? a. ax 0 x xa 1 798. 1 –1 2 log8 2 3 b. d. 5 2 d. –2 3 11 –3 2 8 2 Set 51 (Answers begin on page 249) This problem set focuses on basic features of logarithmic functions. loga(ax) = a. ln [y3x4] c. 801. If ln x = 3 and ln y = 2. b. 1 2 a. b. d. ln [ x3 ] y d. ln (108x4) 119 . ln (3x)2 d. d. d. c. If 53x – 1 = 7. b. c. If loga x = 2 and loga y = –3. then loga y3 = x 1 3 (1–log5 800. – 3 3 a. and simplifying logarithmic expressions using the logarithm rules. c.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 794. ln 3x2 b. b. then x = a. 1 (1 + log5 7) 3 795. d.

2 3 812. d. ln 2 – c. Which of the following is equivalent to log2 4 – a. As the x-values move to the right. c. d. 2 log3 (x) c.∞) [0. 2 log3 (x) + b. Which of the following is equivalent to –3 2 3 2 log3 x2 2x – 1 3 ? (2x + 1) 2 1 2 log3 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) 3 – 2 log3 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) + 1 log3 (2x – 1) – 3 log3 2 2 2x – – 3 log3 2x + 1 1 2 a. –2 d. 2 log3 (x) 807. log2 2 b. Which of the following is equivalent to a. (–∞. b. 2 log3 (x) d. 2 3 2 2 3 log2 8 + log2 2? a. c. Simplify: log7 49 – log7 7 2 2 811. 8yz4 x2 ? 3 + log2 y – 4 log2 z – 2 log2 x 3 – log2 y – 4 log2 z + 2 log2 x 3 + log2 y + 4 log2 z + 2 log2 x 3 + log2 y + 4 log2 z – 2 log2 x tion of the graph of f(x) = ln x? a. 1 2 ln 2(x + 1) + 4 ln (x2 + 3) a. logb 1 x2 a. d. –log 2 + 3 log x c. the y-values increase very slowly. (–∞. the y-values decrease very slowly. 2 b. – 2 3 b.∞) [0. log 2 – 3 log x b. As the x-values move to the left. Which of the following is equivalent to 813. Which of the following is a true characteriza- log3 a. As the x-values decrease toward zero. ln 2 d. log 2 + 3 log x d. logbx(x + 3) d. Simplify: 3 log4 3 + log4 27 2 ln[(2 a. Which of the following is equivalent to (2x + 1) log (2x3)? a. – 429 806. b.∞) the set of all real numbers 120 .–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 805.0) (0. d. –log 2 – 3 log x 808. b. –1 c. –1 c. the y-values plunge downward very sharply. b. What is the domain of b(x) = log5(x2 + 1)? 810. c. As the x-values decrease toward zero. c. d. Which of the following is equivalent to 3 logb (x + 3)–1– 2 logb x + logb (x + 3)3 ? a. the y-values shoot upward very sharply. 429 d.∞) the set of all real numbers 815.0) (0. c. 1 2 x + 1)(x2 + 3)4]? 1 2 2 ln (x + 1) – 4 ln (x + 3) + 1 ln (x + 1) + 4 ln (x2 + 3) 2 ln 2(x + 1) – 4 ln (x2 + 3) b. 814. 2 logbx b. What is the domain of k(x) = log3(–x)? 809. –logbx c.

[–1.∞) 1 ( 2 . both a and b d. d. 0) (0. What is the x-intercept of f(x) = log2 x? 821.x>0 –x . The domain of the function f(x) = ln (x2 – 4x + 4) 824. Solve: ln(x – 2) – ln(3 – x) = 1 This problem set focuses on more advanced features of logarithmic functions and solving equations and inequalities involving logarithms. 0) c. f(x) = e–x and g(x) = ln b. b. c. d. inverses? a. 3 9.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 816. The y-intercept is (e. (–1. y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote. c. –2 and 5 2 and 5 –5 and 2 2 graph of f(x) = ln(x + 1) + 1? a. x = –1 is a vertical asymptote of f. 0) b. c. f(x) = e2x and g(x) = ln x. are x-intercepts of the functionf(x) ln (x2–4x + 4)? a. 1 (–∞. (–∞.3 2 –2 + ln 2 3. 3 3e + 2 e+1 3(e + 2) e+1 which of the following? a. Which of the following. (–∞. d.∞) b. (–∞. 1). 2) (2. x > 0 2x . 1) (1. (2. b. Determine the solution set for the inequality is which of the following? a. There is no x-intercept.∞) c. Solve: log x + log(x + 3) = 1 a. The range of the function f(x) = ln(2x – 1) is a. f(x) = e2x and g(x) = ln c. c. 0) This function does not have an x-intercept. 3 e–2 –2 + ln 2 3 . Determine the solution set for the inequality 5 a.0) (0.x>0 x. c. (1. f(x) = e–x and g(x) = ln d. d. 3 2 – ln 2 2 3 .1) b. b. d. 818. b.1) d.– 2 ) 1 [ 2 . Which of the following choices for f and g are a. b.1] 825. neither a nor b 819. Which of the following is a characteristic of the ln(1–x2) 0.∞) d. 2 d.–1) ((1. 820. (2. b. x > 0 Set 52 (Answers begin on page 250) 822.2) c. 817. if any. (3. 4e2 – 3x + 1 2 – ln 2 e–2 3 . c. a. (–1.∞) 823. 121 .

d. c. t = –k ln 1 P (P ) 0 P 0 829. 0 1 0 and 1 none of the above a. d. solve: b3 logbx = 1 a. Solve for x: l + ln (x y) = In z a. Solve for: 3 ln 4y + ln A = ln B: a. 828. 3 c. Assuming that b 302 831. Solve: log2 (2x – 1) + log2 (x + 2) = 2 830. b. b. y =– 4 e3 (ln A) d.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 826. x = – a (ab + ln y) b. x = –b + ln y c. c. t = k ln (– P ) d. x = e ln z + ln y–1 x = e ln z–ln y + 1 x = e ln z–ln y–1 x = e –(ln z + ln y–1) 1. 2 d. Solve: log(x – 2) = 2 + log(x +3) a. t = – k ln ( P ) 0 1 P b. y = 4 e3 (ln B–ln A) b. 99 b. Solve for t: P = Poe–kt a. Solve for x: y = e 1 c. y = 4 e3 (ln B + ln A) c. b. x = –ab + ln y a 1 ln ( P0 P ) 122 . t 1 = –k a. There is no solution to this equation. d. c. b b2 0 1 –a(b + c) 832. y =– 4 e3 (ln AB) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B 827. x = a (ab–ln y) d.

which involves the use of matrices. computing determinants and inverse. 123 . and applying back substitution and Cramer’s rule to solve systems of linear equations. Matrix operations.7 S E C T I O N MATRIX ALGEBRA S ystems of linear equations can also be solved using Cramer’s rule. are reviewed in the seven problem sets in this section. including matrix arithmetic.

This computation is not well-defined. none of the above d. R V S1W S0W 837. > –3 –3 0 H 0 –9 –3 –3 3 0 H 0 9 3 3 3 0 H 0 9 –3 [1 2 a. > –4 –6 H 1 –12 b. 1 – 1 0 ]? 4 4 1 1 834. > 12 –1 H 6 4 c. > b. Compute. This computation is not well-defined. > c. 2 2 d. What are the dimensions of the matrix R V S 0 –2 W S0 1 W S 0 –2 W ? S W S0 0 W T X a. > V 1W 5W 0W X –1 0 H –3 1 V 1W 0W 0W W 0W X d. if possible: 9 1 –1 –2 2 C + S W S1W S –5 W a. > 0 c. 833. Which of the following matrices has dimen- sions 3 2? R S2 a. 4 b. 4 2 c. What are the dimensions of the matrix –1 –1 0 H 0 –3 1 a. 2 4 b. 1 c. S 3 S2 T –1 b. > –12 1 H –6 –4 3 3 H 3 3 d. Compute.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– Set 53 (Answers begin on page 252) 836. 838. S S –5 0 0 T 835. 4 4 d. Compute. This computation is not well-defined. S –1 W S W S –3 W T X R –1 –2 S 1 S 0 0 0 S 1 0 0 c. 124 . if possible: 2 > –3 –1 H –3 > 2 0 1 2 –1 H 2 a. 4 d. if possible: –3 > Basic features of matrices and the arithmetic of matrices are explored in this problem set. 9 2 –1 –1 –3 C T X R V S2W S –1 W b.

0) a.– 3 ) b. 2 d. 1) (0. 841. d. that make the following equality true: > 845. Determine the values of x. a. All of the above statements are true. Compute. infinitely many 843. 0 b. if any exist. y make the follow- ing equality true: R R V V S0 2 W S 0 –6 W 3 S 1 1 W = –1 S –3 –3 W? S S W W S1 x W S –3 6y W T T X X a. S 5 5W S 0 –2 2 W S 5 5 W X T R V S2 0 2W 5W S5 S2 0 2W b. a. 3 ) 844. that makes the following equality true: > x –2 1 6 –4 H= > H 2 0 4 0 2 3 –3 6 There is no such x-value.(–2. if possible: S 1 0 5S S 0 1 T V R S 2 0 –2W 5W S 5 S– 2 0 – 2 W a.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– R S –1 0 2 839. b. (–2. 1. 1) (0.– 3 ) c. d. 3 ) d. y) that makes the following equality true: –4 > 2x 10 6 3 x – 2 0 –2 4x + 2 1 –5 H H –2 > H=> 4 y 6 2 y –1 2 4 – 3 y –1 –2 8 a. c. that make the following equality true: > exists. A constant multiple of a 3 1 matrix need not be a 3 1 matrix. z) if one 8 8 8 d. S5 5W S0 2 2W S 5 5W T X V R S– 2 0 2 W 5 W S 5 S 2 0 2 W c. Determine the values of x. d. b. This computation is not well-defined. c. (2. 1. 840. (2. The sum of two 4 2 matrices must be a 4 2 matrix. 0. The sum of a 4 2 matrix and a 2 4 matrix is well-defined. 125 . Determine an ordered triple (x. 1. b. b. d. S 5 5 W S 0 2 –2W S 5W 5 X T V 1 W 1 W W –1 W X 842. How many ordered pairs x. y. if any exist. Which of the following statements is true? –1 4 –1 x 2 H=> H 6 –1 3x –1 –1 and 1 –2 and 2 –2 2 a. 0) (0. x 2y 2x 3y 3x 4y H–> H=> H 3z 4 4z 4 –2z 0 (1. c. c. Determine an ordered pair (x. 1 c.

Which of the following statements is true? a.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 846. 4 c. 2 d. z) (where x. > 2 –1 2 –1 H+> H = > H –1 3 –1 3 c. > 1 1 0 0 d. > R SX S0 b. How many ordered triples (x. 8 b. –1 –1 0 0 H+ 1 = > H –1 –1 0 0 1 X 0 0 0 1 X 0 V R V 0 W S 15 1 0 0 W 0 W S 0 15 1 0 W = 1 W S 0 0 15 1 W W S W X W S 0 0 0 15 W X T X 848. 0> –1 2 H= 0 2 –1 b. All of the above statements are false. All of the above statements are false. There is an X-value that makes the following equation true: –3 S S0 S0 T 1 1 0 0 H–9 1 1 C–9 1 1 C = > H c. Which of the following statements is true? a. y. and z are real numbers) make the following equation true: R V R V 2 S 1 x – 2 –1 –1 W S 1 –x –1 –1 W S –3 –1 2 y 1 W S –3 –1 y 2 1 W = S –2 1 1 4z 2 W S –2 1 1 8z W ? S W S W S0 –3 –4 0 W S 0 –3 –4 0 W T X T X a. 3 9 –1 0 0 C –2 9 0 1 0 C + 9 0 0 –1 C = – 9 3 2 1 C d. y. 0 126 . 847.

use the following matrices: R–1 2 V W S A=S0 2W S –1 –1 W X T 1 –2 –1 B => H 3 5 0 C => 0 1 H 1 –4 0 F=> H 0 R–2 –1 0 1 V S W G = S –1 –2 –1 0 W S 1 –1 –2 –1 W T X R V S 3 1 –1 W S 1 –2 1 W H=S W S 0 0 –2 W S –2 1 0 W T X R2 V S W I = S2 W S1 W T X 850. > c. not possible 127 . if possible: (2G)(–3E) V R S 3 2 1W D = S 0 1 2W W S S –1 –1 0 W X T E = 9 –4 –2 0 C 849. 9 0 0 C 0 b. > H 0 c. if possible: CF a. For questions 849–864.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– Set 54 (Answers begin on page 254) The multiplication of matrices and matrix computations involving multiple operations are the focus of this problem set. > 0 0 H 0 0 R V S –1 1 0 W a. Express as a single matrix. S 0 1 0 W S W S 1 0 1W T X b. not possible 9 –1 –1 1 C d. 1 0 H 0 1 d. Express as a single matrix.

not possible d. Express as a single matrix. d. if possible: 4BA 0 0 a. if possible: FF a. S W S –4 –3 1 W T X d. > H 0 c. if possible: (BG)H a. > b. > –3 –7 –3 H –52 18 8 V R S –3 –52 W b. if possible: (–2D)(3D) R V S 5 2 –1 W S 8 3 –2 W S W S5 3 0 W T X V R S –5 –2 1 W S –8 –3 2 W W S S –3 –3 0 W X T R V S 1 –2 5 W S –8 –3 2 W S W S 1 –3 –5 W T X not possible a. b. b. if possible: IE + D a.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 851. > c. Express as a single matrix. Express as a single matrix. d. > –3 1 H R V S 5 12 1 W S 6 10 0 W c. if possible: AB 854. c. Express as a single matrix. not possible 852. Express as a single matrix. R V S –48 –42 –42 W S 12 6 –12 W S W S 18 18 18 W T X V R S –6 –7 –7 W S 2 1 –2 W W S S3 3 3W X T R V S 48 42 42 W S –12 –6 12 W S W S –18 –18 –18 W T X not possible 856. 9 0 0 C d. 853. c. S 7 –18 W S W S 3 –8 W T X d. Express as a single matrix. S –7 18 W W S S –3 8 W X T R V S 3 52 W c. not possible 855. 5 12 > H 6 10 12 1 b. > 64 –4 H –12 0 0 4 H 12 –64 0 –4 H –12 64 a. > 0 0 H 0 b. not possible 128 .

not possible 863. S –17 –14 7 W W S 5 0W S 9 X T R V S –10 –17 –2 W c. > 2 –1 2 H 1 1 –2 R2 1 V W S b. Express as a single matrix. > H 0 b. > 36 H –164 c. b. if possible: c. 9 0 0 C 0 c. if possible: a. S –1 1 W S 2 –2 W X T c. if possible: E(G + A) 1 0 a. > 0 0 H 0 0 d. Express as a single matrix. not possible 860. not possible 129 . S 17 14 –7 W S W S –9 –5 0 W T X V R S –10 –17 2 W b. 9 36 –164 C b. d. S –17 –14 –7 W S W S –9 –5 0 W T X d. 22 33 66 not possible (2C)(2C)(2C)F 0 a. 9 –36 164 C c. c. if possible: (EG)(HI) 861. 9 0 0 C 858. Express as a single matrix. > H 1 0 b. if possible: (EAF)(CF) a. > 0 0 H 0 0 d. Express as a single matrix. not possible 859.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 857. Express as a single matrix. not possible 862. if possible: (ED)(AC) a. > H 0 d. Express as a single matrix. not possible 3D – 2AB + GH R V S 10 17 –2 W a. –1 d. Express as a single matrix. > –2 H 1 b. > 0 0 H 0 0 d. if possible: 4B – 3FE a.

d. Compute the determinant: > a. Compute the determinant: > a. Compute the determinant: > a. b. 0 a ab b 873. c. b. c. > b. c. not possible a. c. –1 1 –3 3 874. c. Compute the determinant: > 3 2 c. c. d. c. c. Compute the determinant: > (2F)(–2E) + 2B a.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 864. Compute the determinant: > a. Express as a single matrix. b. a 0 H 0 b 25 –25 –4 4 1 –4 H 0 25 866. > 2 1 H –1 0 –2 –5 H 4 2 a. b. if possible: 869. c. –10 –6 6 0 –1 2 H 2 –4 870. –20 20 –22 22 –3 4 H 4 2 a. b. b. 2 3 H 1 1 24 36 –6 –24 –2 0 H –12 3 868. d. Compute the determinant: > a. b. b. –2 2 1 –1 0 1 H –2 –1 130 . d. c. –38 –26 22 –22 –3 7 H 1 5 872. d. d. Compute the determinant: > a. Compute the determinant: > a. –5 5 1 –1 875. > H 1 5 d. Compute the determinant: > a. 865. d. 1 2 H 2 3 1 –1 –5 5 3 –1 H 1 –2 867. b. d. d. c. Compute the determinant: > Set 55 (Answers begin on page 257) This problem set is focused on computing determinants of square matrices. d. b. 9 0 16 –16 6 3 H 2 1 871. b. d.

1 0 –1 2 –1 –1 H –1 0 a. > d. 2 –2 8 –8 0 2 H 4 0 c. 48 d. > 1 0 x a H > H=> H 0 1 y b 1 1 x a H > H=> H 0 0 y b 0 0 x a H > H=> H 1 1 y b 1 0 x b H > H=> H 0 1 y a x + 2y = 4 2x + 3y = 2 880. Write this system in matrix form: * –3x + 7y = 2 x + 5y = 8 877. d. > b. b. > c. > d. Compute the determinant: > a. d. 0 b. c. 881. Write this system in matrix form: * y = b a. Compute the determinant: > 9 –6 a. Compute the determinant: > 882. > b. 2 1 –2 0 –1 0 H 2 –1 Set 56 (Answers begin on page 257) This problem set is focused on writing systems in matrix form.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 876. > 3 –7 x 2 H > H=> H 1 5 y 8 –3 7 x 2 H > H=> H –1 –5 y 8 –3 1 x 2 H > H=> H 7 5 y 8 –3 7 x 2 H > H=> H 1 5 y 8 x=a 3 –2 H 878. > 883. Compute the determinant: > a. c. c. Compute the determinant: > a. –15 879. d. b. 15 c. c. > 3 2 x 4 H > H=> H 2 1 y 2 1 2 x 4 H > H=> H 2 3 y 2 1 2 x 2 H > H=> H 2 3 y 4 3 2 x 2 H > H=> H 2 1 y 4 131 . b. > c. > d. Write this system in matrix form: * a. d. b. 0 5 12 –12 3 2 H 3 2 a. > b.

> –2 1 0 x H > H=> 1 H –4 5 y 5 1 1 0 x H > H=> 5 H –4 5 y –2 1 1 –4 x H > H=> 5 H 0 5 y –2 886. > d. > H > H=> H 1 1 y –2 d. > c. > c. 4 –3 –x + 2y = 3 885. > –1 2 x –6 H > H=> H 2 –4 y 3 –1 2 x 3 H > H=> H 2 –4 y –6 –4 2 x –6 H > H=> H 2 –1 y 3 6x + 3y = 8 2x + y = 3 Z ] –2 = x – 4y 1 [ 888. > 0 5 y 5 b. > d. > d. Write this system in matrix form: a. > 132 . Write this system in matrix form: ] 5y = 5 \ –2 1 –4 x H > H=> 1 H a. > c. > > 2 4 x 1 H > H=> H 4 –3 y –3 –3 4 x –3 H > H=> H 4 2 y 1 3 4 x 1 H > H=> H 4 2 y –3 H > H=> H y 1 2 3 x 1 c. > b. > d. > 2 1 x –2 H > H=> H 3 1 y 1 c. > H > H=> H 2 –1 y –6 b. > b. > d. > b.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 884. Write this system in matrix form: * 2x + 3y = 1 x + y = –2 887. > 2 1 x 1 H > H=> H 3 1 y –2 2 3 x –2 H > H=> H 1 1 y 1 a. Write this system in matrix form: * 889. > b. > c. Write this system in matrix form: * –3x = 1 – 4y 2y + 3 = –4x a. Write this system in matrix form: * 2x – 4y = –6 –4 2 x 3 a. > 6 3 x 3 H > H=> H 2 1 y 8 6 2 x 3 H > H=> H 3 1 y 8 6 2 x 8 H > H=> H 3 1 y 3 6 3 x 8 H > H=> H 2 1 y 3 * x – 2 = 4x – y + 3 6 – 2 y = –3 – x –2 1 x 5 H > H=> H 1 –3 y –9 –3 1 x 5 H > H=> H 1 –2 y –9 –3 1 x –9 H > H=> H 1 –2 y 5 –2 1 x –9 H > H=> H 1 –3 y 5 a.

> H > H=> H –2 − 1 y –4 0 –2 x –4 d. * d. > b. Write this system in matrix form: 892. > H > H=> H –2 0 y 0 0 1 x 0 c. * b. > –1 0 x −2 H > H = > H? 2 –1 y 1 –x = –2 –2x + y = 1 x = –2 2x – y = 1 –x = –2 2x – y = 1 –x = –2 2x + y = 1 a. Which of the following systems can be written in the matrix form > 0 1 x −4 a. * * 2x − 3y + 5 = 1 + 2x − 4y 3 − x − 2y = –y + x + 3 893. * b. * c. * 133 . > c. Which of the following systems can be written * –1 = –3 – 2x 2 – 3y = 6 (1 – 2x) –3 0 x –2 H > H=> H 12 2 y 4 2 0 x –2 H > H=> H 12 –3 y 4 2 12 x –2 H > H=> H 0 –3 y 4 2 12 x 4 H > H=> H 0 –3 y –2 in the matrix form > a. Write this system in matrix form: d. * c.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 890. > d. * 891. > H > H=> H –2 –1 y 0 –1 1 x –4 b. > H > H=> H 1 –1 y 0 3 2 x −2 H > H = > H? 3 2 y 1 2 x – 3 y = –2 2x – 3y = 1 2x + 3y = –2 2x + 3y = 1 3x – 2y = –2 3x – 2y = 1 3x + 2y = –2 3x + 2y = 1 a.

* c. Which of the following systems can be written 896. Which of the following systems can be written in the matrix form ? > Set 57 (Answers begin on page 261) – 1 –1 x –1 H > H = > H? –1 0 y 1 x – y = –1 x=1 –x – y = –1 –x = 1 –x + y = –1 x=1 This problem set is focused on computing inverse matrices. * d. Compute the inverse. > c. * d. * 3x – 2y = 4 9x – 6x = 12 3x – 2x = 4 9y – 6x = 12 895. * b. > – 5 22 1 22 7 – 22 3 H – 22 5 – 22 1 22 7 22 3 22 H –y + x = –1 d. * 3x – 2y = 4 9x – 6y = 12 c. * c.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 894. > b. Which of the following systems can be written in the matrix form > in the matrix form > 3 –2 x 4 H > H=> H? 9 –6 y 12 –3y + 2x = 4 –9y + 6x = 12 0 2 x 14 H > H=> H? 4 0 y –20 2x = 14 4y =− 20 2y = 14 4x = –20 2y = 14 4y = –20 2y = 14 4x = –20 a. The inverse does not exist. * b. * b. if it exists: > a. * –3 7 H 1 5 a. * a. 134 . 897. * –y = 1 5 –7 H –1 –3 d.

if it exists: > 901. > –2 1 3 –2 H c. > 2 –1 H 3 –2 H b. The inverse does not exist. Compute the inverse. > 6 –3 H –2 1 1 –3 H –2 6 d. The inverse does not exist. > c. Compute the inverse. > 1 –2 H 1 –3 b. d. 135 . The inverse does not exist. > 0 0 b. > b. Compute the inverse. Compute the inverse. > H –1 2 > 2 4 H 4 –3 2 –4 H –4 –3 c. > –1 0 b. The inverse does not exist. if it exists: > 6 3 H 2 1 1 3 a. > 1 – 11 2 11 2 11 3 22 H –1 3 a. 902. if it exists: > –1 2 H 2 –4 a 0 H 0 b 1 a. > H 0 –b d. if it exists: > d. The inverse does not exist. > 2 6 H b. > –2 1 d. > c. if it exists: > 2 3 –3 2 a.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 898. 1 2 H 899. > c. > 1 H b 1 –2 H –2 4 1 2 H 2 4 –4 2 H 2 –1 a a. 900. if it exists: > –3 4 H 4 2 2 3 H 1 1 a. 1 2 H d. 903. Compute the inverse. > a H 0 –1 b –a 0 c. Compute the inverse. The inverse does not exist. Assume that a and b are not zero.

> 2 0 H d. > b. if it exists: > 3 2 H 3 2 3 0 a. > 2 –2 H –3 3 2 –3 H –2 3 d. > c. Compute the inverse. > –2 –1 H 1 3 –2 1 H –1 3 2 5 1 0 a. if it exists: > 0 1 H –2 –1 1 a. > 4 25 1 25 H –1 –1 2 > 2 a.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 904. 906. > –1 1 H –2 0 1 0 H –4 25 25 4 H 0 1 –1 –1 c. 136 . > 3 3 H b. > 1 2 H 0 1 –1 0 H –2 –1 – 1 5 –1 5 H –3 5 d. > c. > 0 b. d. The inverse does not exist. –2 0 H –12 3 909. Compute the inverse. > –12 –2 H b. > c. The inverse does not exist. > c. if it exists: > –1 0 H 2 –1 a. The inverse does not exist. The inverse does not exist. Compute the inverse. > c. if it exists: > d. Compute the inverse. The inverse does not exist. 905. The inverse does not exist. 1 0 H b. Compute the inverse. if it exists: > 1 –4 H 0 25 907. 3 –1 H 1 –2 908. > 2 1 H b. > 0 H 2 –1 3 3 0 H 12 –2 1 2 2 2 a. Compute the inverse. if it exists: > d.

–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 910. > –2 3 c. The inverse does not exist. y = b x = b. > –1 H 0 equivalent matrix equation: * x=a y=b There is no solution. y = 6 There is no solution. b. x = a. if it exists: > –1 –1 H c. The inverse does not exist. d. > 0 1 2 1 4 x + 2y = 4 2x + 3y = 2 x = 8. y = 11 – 23 . There are infinitely many solutions. y = –6 x = –8. x = d. d. 0 – 41 H –1 0 2 d. > –1 1 H 1 b. if it exists: > 3 –2 H 9 –6 Set 58 (Answers begin on page 264) –6 –2 a. 912. The inverse does not exist. > –6 2 H –9 3 This problem set is focused on solving matrix equations of the form Ax = b. There is no solution. 911. 0 2 H 4 0 d. 137 . x = b. y = – 13 11 11 a. Solve this system by first converting to an –1 0 0 –1 a. > –4 0 H b. Compute the inverse. There are infinitely many solutions. 0 H a. d. Solve this system by first converting to an equivalent matrix equation: * 0 –2 a. y = a 1 1 H 1 0 a. b. 914. Compute the inverse. > –1 c. 913. c. Compute the inverse. > c. > 9 3 H –6 9 H b. if it exists: > 915. c. Solve this system by first converting to an equivalent matrix equation: * –3x + 7y = 2 x + 5y = 8 23 13 11 . There are infinitely many solutions.

There are infinitely many solutions. There is no solution. There are infinitely many solutions. x = b. Solve this system by first converting to an d.y=–7 – 179 .–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 916. equivalent matrix equation: * a. c. Solve this system by first converting to an a. y = 136 919. c. x = b. d. d. d. y = –5 x = –7. There are infinitely many solutions. y = – 136 x = 1. c. y = –4 x = –2. d. y = – 252 7 5 11 . b. y = 272 a. Solve this system by first converting to an equivalent matrix equation: –x + 2y = 3 * 2x – 4y = –6 a. There is no solution. y = – 215 c. y = –6 There are infinitely many solutions. x = 2. There is no solution. 918. There are infinitely many solutions. x = –3. b. y = –6 x = 4. b. c. a. Solve this system by first converting to an equivalent matrix equation: * a. y = –3 There is no solution. Solve this system by first converting to an 917. Solve this system by first converting to an equivalent matrix equation: * 6x + 3y = 8 2x + y = 3 x = –4. d. y = 5 There is no solution. x = 2x – 3y + 5 = 1 + 2x – 4y 3 – x – 2y = –y + x + 3 There is no solution. y = 4 c. Solve this system by first converting to an equivalent matrix equation: * 2x + 3y = 1 x + y = –2 x = 1. There are infinitely many solutions. c. y = 2 x = 2. x = –1. equivalent matrix equation: * –3x = 1 – 4y 2 y + 3 = –4 x – 171 . 921. There are infinitely many solutions. b. y = 215 25 b. d. b. y = 22 923. x = c. 138 . equivalent matrix equation: Z ] –2 = x – 4y [ 5y = 1 ] 5 \ a. –1 = –3 – 2 x 2 – 3y = 6 (1 – 2x) There is no solution. equivalent matrix equation: * x – 2 = 4x – y + 3 6 – 2y = –3 – x 19 22 7. a. d. x = – 46 . There are infinitely many solutions. There is no solution. Solve this system by first converting to an 920. 922. x = 46 25 .

y = 2 There is no solution. c. y = –1 There are infinitely many solutions. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: * x + 2y = 4 2x + 3y = 2 x = 8. y = – 13 11 11 930. b. d. b. There is no solution. y = 7 x = 5. c. Solve this system: > 2 –1 0 x –2 H > H=> H –1 y 1 Set 59 (Answers begin on page 270) a. d. There are infinitely many solutions. x = 9. y = 2 x = 1. 928. x = –2. 929. x = –2. x = –1. b. There are infinitely many solutions. Solve this system: > 9 –9 H > y H = > 12 H tem using Cramer’s rule: * a. d. y = –2 x = –9. Assume that a and b are nonzero. b. d. d. y = –7 a. There are infinitely many solutions. d. There is no solution. y = 3 There is no solution. There are infinitely many solutions. c. b. y = a x = a. c.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 924. c. b. x = – 23 . b. 3 2 x –2 H > H=> H 3 2 y 1 This problem set is focused on solving matrix equations of the form Ax = b using Cramer’s rule. x = –5. 927. c. 139 . 3 –2 x 4 a. y = –1 x = 2. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: * 2x + 3y = 1 x+y= — 2 x = –7. y = –2 0 2 x 14 H > H=> H 4 0 y –20 931. There are infinitely many solutions. Solve this system: > a. y = –5 There is no solution. y = –6 x = –8. There are infinitely many solutions. –1 –1 x –1 H > H=> H –1 0 y 1 x=a y=b x = b. b. y = 5 x = 7. x = 23 . There is no solution. Solve this system: > * –3x + 7y = 2 x + 5y = 8 a. There is no solution. y = b There is no solution. d. Solve this sys- 926. c. d. Solve this system: > a. b. There are infinitely many solutions. c. y = 6 There is no solution. a. y = –3 x = 2. a. 932. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: 925. There are infinitely many solutions. y = 13 11 11 d. c.

There are infinitely many solutions. y = b. c. 938. b. d. 140 . 936. There are infinitely many solutions. b. d. x = – 46 . d. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: 937. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: * –1 = –3 – 2 x 2 – 3y = 6 (1 – 2x) 16 3 = 136 a. x = 1. There are infinitely many solutions. There is no solution. There are infinitely many solutions.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 933. b. x = 46 25 . y 5 22 a. There is no solution. x = = c. b. x = –12. y = 25 d. = a. y c. y = 4 x = 12. y = 4 There is no solution. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: 935. y = 3 There is no solution. y = –4 There are infinitely many solutions. y = –3 x = 2. There are infinitely many solutions. c. x = – 1 . Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: * –3x = 1 – 4y 2 y + 3 = –4 x 7 11 . x = –1. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: 6x + 3y = 8 * 2x + y = 3 a. Z ] –2 = x – 4y [ 5y = 1 ] 5 \ a. y = –4 x = –2. There is no solution. d. a. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: * 2x – 3y + 5 = 1 + 2x – 4y 3 – x – 2y = –y + x + 3 x = 2. y = – 252 b. There is no solution. x = 1 . a. 939. y = –5 There is no solution. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: > –1 0 x –2 H > H=> H 2 –1 y 1 x = –2. y 1 25 – 215 940. b. c. There is no solution. There are infinitely many solutions. There are infinitely many solutions. c. d. x = – 171 . b. c. d. y = 5 d. * x – 2 = 4x – y + 3 6 – 2y = –3 –x a. c. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: * –x + 2y = 3 2x – 4y = –6 x = 2. y = 5 22 5 – 252 934. y = 5 x = –2.

c. b. y = 7 There is no solution. a. b. d. c. y = 2 There is no solution. There are infinitely many solutions. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: > 3 2 x –2 H > H=> H 3 2 y 1 x = –5. y = –7 x = –5. 942. There is no solution. c.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 941. y = 3 There are infinitely many solutions. y = 4 x = 1. a. > –1 –1 x –1 H > H=> H –1 0 y 1 x = 1. d. 141 . b. y = –2 x = –1. a. There are infinitely many solutions. > 0 2 x 14 H > H=> H 4 0 y –20 x = 5. b. y = –3 x = 5. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: 943. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: > 3 –2 x 4 H > H=> H 9 –6 y 12 x = –1. a. y = –4 There is no solution. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: 944. c. d. d. There are infinitely many solutions.

.

if any. identify the choice that best describes the error.8 COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS I t is common and expected for those who are learning algebra for the first time or reviewing the subject after having been away from it for a while to make errors. For all of the questions in this section. Several of the most typical errors made are explored in the four sets in this section. made in each scenario. S E C T I O N 143 .

3 10–3 because there are three zeros before the decimal point. not 0. and this is then multiplied by –1. a. The answer should be –1 because (– 2 )0 = 3 –( 2 )0 = –1. 946. 945. you should multiply 50. 4 + 2 = 6 . (–3)–2 = 6 a. c. There is no such quantity as “200%. b. (–3) (–3) 9 c. a. The statement should be0.” c. There is no error. a. There is no error. b. a+2 a = 2. There is no error.00013 = 1. 4 4 8 b. There is no error. you should multiply 0. 950. You must first get a common denominator before you add two fractions. You must first get a common denominator before you add two fractions. The answer should be zero because you should multiply the base and exponent. b.00013. In order to compute this percentage. 4 is 200% of 8. The placement of the quantities is incorrect.50% of 10 is 0. This is incorrect because you cannot cancel members of a sum. 0. 3 a 3+a (– 2 )0 3 =1 a.05.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – Set 61 (Answers begin on page 274) 949.05. a a c. c. The statement should be 0.3 104 because the decimal point must move four places to the left in order to yield 0. The answer should be –9 because (–3)–2 = –3 3.00013 = 1.3 a. 104 a. 948. The answer should be 1 because (–3)–2 = 9 1 =1. Some common arithmetic and pre-algebra errors are explored in this problem set.00013 = 1. A correct statement would be “200% of 4 is 8.50 times 10 to get 5. There is no error. In order to compute this percentage. c. –42 = –16 a. 0. The answer should be –8 because 42 = 8. The correct result should be 3 because a = 1 a and a + 2 = a + 2 = 1 + 2 = 3. not 0. The correct a computation is: 3 + 2 = 3 + 24a = 3 + 2a . There is no error.05. 947.” You cannot exceed 100%. 952. you can cancel only factors that are common to the numerator and denominator. There is no error. 4 4 4 c. 144 . for any nonzero value of a. There is no error.0 times 10 to get 500. c. 951. for any real number a. b. The correct a computation is: 3 + 2 = 3 + 24a = 3 + 2a . b. The answer should be 16 because –42 = (–4)(–4) = 16. b. 3 b.

for any non-negative real a. and then combine with 3 to conclude that 3 + 6 = 3 3. The correct denominator should be 22+2 3 + number x. b. x. The correct answer should be e8x because 2 (e4x) = e4x 2 = e8x. not added.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 953. The correct answer should be x25 because 2 2 (x5) = x5 . There is no error. There is no error. c. b. 960. c. 3 = 2 3. 959. The second equality is wrong because the fraction on the far right should be 24 . for any real number 954. There is no error. 3 27x3 = 3 27 3 x3 = 3x. a. c. 958. c. which 20 cannot be simplified further. The calculation is correct until the last line. The third equality is incorrect because the binomial was not squared correctly. There is no error. The exponents should be multiplied. The first equality is wrong because you must multiply the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator. for any real number x. The rest of the equalities are correct. The first equality is wrong because the radical of a product is not the product of the radicals. 1 2+ 3 2+ 22 + ( 3 5 957. the fifth root of a negative number is not defined. so that the correct answer should be x10. 2+ 2+ 3 3 b. 145 . The first equality is incorrect: the radicals cannot be combined since their indices are different. You must first simplify 6 as 6 = 2 . = x12x3 = x12 + 3 = x15. The first equality is wrong because multiplying by changes the value of the expression. There is no error. 956. 6 + –38 = (2+3) 6 – 38 = –32 = –2 a. c. b. The sum 3 + 6 cannot be simplified further because the radicands are different. = 3 3)2 1 2+ 3 2+ 2+ 3 3 = 2+ 3 (2 + 3)2 = a. a. 3+ 6= 3+6= 9=3 a. The second equality holds only if x is not negative because you can only take the cube root of a non-negative real number. 3 4 8 5 = 3 4 8 5 = 6 5 955. The correct answer should be x36 because x12 x–3 x12 x–3 ( 3) 2 = x12x3 = x12 3 = x36. The correct answer should be x15 because c. (e4x)2 = e4x+2 b. = 7 + 2 3. 2 b. There is no error. There is no error. The correct answer should be e16x because 2 2 2 2 2 (e4x) = e(4x) = e4 x = e16x . (x5) = x7. x–3 = x –3 x12 12 = 2+ 3 4+3 = 2+ 3 7 = x–4. 2 a. c. b. b. There is no error. c. a.

b. are explored in this problem set. The inequality sign must be switched when multiplying both sides by a negative real number.∞). 961. b. 966. 4 x+3 Some common errors in solving equations and inequalities. The solution of – x + 7 = x + 7 is x = –7. There is no error. the complex solutions should be x = i 5. 146 . While x = 1 satisfies the original equation. The signs used to define the binomials on the right side should be switched. a. The real statement should read log30 = 1. As such. There is no error. This is incorrect because multiplying the binomials on the right side of the equality yields x2 – 21. x = –1 cannot because negative inputs into a logarithm are not allowed. The solutions of the equation log5x + log5(5x3) = 1 are x = –1 and x = 1. not divide by –6. c. There is no error. b. The solution of an absolute value equation cannot be negative.–4). The correct solution set should be (–144. The equation obtained after multiplying both sides by x + 7 was not solved correctly. There is no error. a. c. this equation has no solution. 1 5 . There is no error. as well as simplifying algebraic expressions. As such. As such.∞). which in this case is 2. b.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – Set 62 (Answers begin on page 274) 964. b. log31 = 0 obtained using the quadratic formula are given by x = 0 02 – 4(1)(5) 1 = 2i 5. x2 – 4x – 21 = (x + 7)(x – 3) a. x = –7 cannot be the solution because it makes the terms in the original equation undefined—you cannot divide by zero. namely x = –1 and x = 3. 963. 967. not 1. b. c. The solution set for the inequality –6x 24 is (–4. Both solutions should be divided by that is. c. c. the solutions should be x = 5. The correct factorization is (x – 7)(x + 3). You should multiply both sides by –6. a. a. There are no complex solutions to this equation because the graph of y = x2 + 5 does not cross the x–axis. The solution set for the equation |x – 1| = 2 is {–1}. The input and output are backward. The denominator in the quadratic formula is 2a. c. The only solution is x = 3. a. 1 is an invalid input for a logarithm. b. The correct solution should be x = 1. There is no error. 965. c. There are two solutions of this equation. The correct solution set should be (∞. a. There is no error. The complex solutions of the equation x2 + 5 = 0 962. the quantity log3 is undefined. which is not the left side listed above.

The correct statement should be (x – y)2 = x2 – 2xy + y2. The left side must be expanded by FOILing.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 968. Since taking the square root of both sides of the 972. –7) should be deleted because an absolute value inequality cannot have negative solutions. The –1 must be squared. The left side is not a difference of squares. –7]∪[3. b. you do not square the –1. the statement should be ln(ex + e2y) = ln(ex) ln(e2y) = 2xy. There is no error.∞). There is no error. the solution set is (–∞. The correct solution is x = –4 because when you square both sides of the equation. b. a. This equation has no real solutions because the output of an even–indexed radical must be nonnegative. c. The solution of the equation = = 2 x 1 x – + 1 y 4 y = 2y xy y xy – + x xy 4x xy = 2y – x xy y + 4x xy = 2y – x xy 2y – x y + 4x c. as seen by squaring both sides of the equation.2]. So. 969. You cannot cancel terms of a sum in the numerator and denominator. As such. c. When taking the square root of both sides of an equation. the correct statement should be x 2. There is no error. c.2]. a. The solution set of the inequality |x + 2| is (–∞. a. The correct factorization of the left side is x2 + 25 = x2 + 52 = (x + 5)2. You must include the values that make the left side equal to 5. factor (if possible). As such. There is no error. b. b. 4 2 x–1 b. (x – y)2 = x2 – y2 a. x2 + 25 = (x – 5)(x + 5) inequality x2 4 yields the statement x 2. ln(ex + e2y) = ln(ex) + ln(e2y) = x + 2y x = –2 is x = 4. 147 . so that the solution set is (–∞. you use only the principal root. b. x–1 + 4y–1 = 1 + 4 = 5 2x–1 – y–1 2–1 1 a. b. The first equality is incorrect because the natural logarithm of a sum is not the sum of the natural logarithms. The first equality is incorrect because the natural logarithm of a sum is the product of the natural logarithms. The correct solution set should be [–2. In fact. Since both statements must be satisfied simultaneously. the expression on the extreme left side of the string of equalities cannot be simplified further. There is no error. –7)∪(3. 973. c. You must move all terms to one side of the inequality. not 1. and construct a sign chart to solve such an inequality. There is no error. You can only cancel factors common to both. the correct statement –1 – y–1 should be 2x +4y–1 = 2 = 1 . The interval (–∞. The complex fraction must first be simplified before any cancelation can occur. 5 971. c. the solution set should be (–∞. It cannot be factored further. determine the values that make the factored expression equal to zero. There is no error. a. Cancelling the terms x–1 and y–1 leaves 0 each time. So. The correct statement should be (x – y)2 = x2 + y2. The correct statement is: 2x–1 – y–1 x –1 + 4y–1 xy y + 4x a. –2]. 974. 970.∞) c.

b.∞) in order for f to have an inverse. c. The correct statement should be ln(4x2 – 1) = ln(4x2) – ln(1) = ln(4x2) – 0 =ln(4x2). There is no error. 981. f cannot have an inverse because it doesn’t pass the vertical line test. c. 976. In such case. computing with.) This problem set highlights common errors made in graphing. a. provided that b ≠ d. The statement is true except when a = 0. The slope is actually equal to the quantity m = b – a . c. 982. a. The inverse of the function f(x) = x2. The first equality is incorrect because 2log5(5x) = log5(5x2) = log5(25x2). The lines are parallel since their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. b. 979. c. log5(5x2) = 2log5(5x) = 2[log5(5) + log5(x)] = 978. Using the fact that the natural logarithm of a difference is the quotient of the natural logarithms. +4 a. The other equalities are correct. b. is the function f –1(x) = x. b. the given function f –1(x) = x is indeed its inverse. The point (–2. The lines cannot be perpendicular since the product of their slopes is not 1. The “natural logarithm of a difference rule” was not applied correctly. The other equalities are correct. 1) lies in Quadrant IV. provided that a ≠ c. c. ln(4x – 1) = ln[(2x – 1)(2x + 1)] + ln(2x – 1) + 2 number a. and interpreting functions. for any real 2[1 + log5(x)] a. The slope of a line passing through the points (a. The vertical asymptote for the graph of x f(x) = x2 + 2 is y = 0. The line x = a has a slope of zero. The domain of f must be restricted to [0. a–c a. we can conclude that the vertical asymptote for f is x = 2. so the expression is not well–defined. The slope is actually equal to the quantity m a–c = b – d . b. b. There is no error. The expression should be factored and sim1 plified to obtain f(x) = x – 2 . b) and (c. b. b. 148 . The point is actually in Quadrant II. The point is actually in Quadrant III. The y–axis cannot be described by such an equation. There is no error. There is no error. Then. 977. perpendicular. c. There is no error. d–c c. There is no error. There is no error.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 975. where x is any real number. c. The very last equality is incorrect because log5 5 = 0. There is no error. a. The line is vertical. The last expression in this string of equalities cannot be simplified because the exponent 2 does not apply to the entire input of the logarithm. The lines y = 3x + 2 and y = – 3 x + 2 are 1 Set 63 (Answers begin on page 275. a. provided that c ≠ d. we see that the expression ln(4x2 – 1) 4x2 4x2 = lnl(n1 ) = ln(0 ) . ln(2x + 1) a. so its slope is undefined. The line y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote for f. 980. d) is m = b – d .

The graph actually has a horizontal asymptote at x = 8 because this value makes the denominator equal to zero. c. The graph of y = f(x + 3) is obtained by shifting the graph of y = f(x) to the right 3 units. 985. The composition was computed in the wrong order. a. The graph of y = f(x + 3) is actually obtained by shifting the graph of y = f(x) to the left 3 units. The coordinates of the point that is known to lie on the graph of y = f(x) are reversed.∞). The correct output should be 5. 2) must be on the x. 1). The graph of f is the graph of g(x) = x2 shifted vertically down one unit. 989. Since the range of g is [0. it follows that the range of f must be [–1. c. There is no error.∞). a. Since the range of g is [0. There are no x–intercepts for this function because x3 + 1 is always positive. b. If f(x) = 5 and g(x) = open hole at x = 8. so that the composition is not defined at –2. it should be (2. graph of y = f(x).∞). –2 is not in the domain of g. c. There are intervals on which the graph of g is increasing and others on which it is decreasing.5). There is no error. 987. All that can be said is that 2 is in the range of f. from left to right through the domain.1) is the y–intercept of f. There is no error. The graph of g is actually decreasing as x moves from left to right through the domain. not the x–intercept. b. 984. There is no error. The given information is insufficient to make any conclusion about a point being on the graph of y = f(x). There is no error. There is no error. 149 . it follows that the range of f must be [1. c. b. 988.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 983. c. a. c. a. The point (0. c. b. The graph actually has a vertical asymptote at x = 8 because this value makes the denominator equal to zero. If f(2) = 5. b. b. a. The graph of y = f(x + 3) is actually obtained by shifting the graph of y = f(x)vertically up 3 units. then the point (5. a. The graph of f is the graph of g(x) = x2 shifted vertically up one unit. There is no error. The graph of g(x) = 2–x is increasing as x moves is [0. b. it follows that (f ˚ g)(–2) = 5.∞). The graph of the function f(x) = x2 – 64 has an 8–x 986. The range of the function f(x) = (x – 1)2 a. The x–intercept of f(x) = x3 + 1 is (0.∞).

The fact that y = 5 does not pass the horizontal line test does not imply it is not a function. there are infinitely many solutions of this system. so the system has a unique solution. Set 64 (Answers begin on page 276) This problem set highlights common errors made when dealing with linear systems of equations and matrix algebra. As such. 4x – 10y = –2 a. The two lines comprising the system intersect. There is no error. There is no error. because it does not pass the horizontal line test. Since multiplying the first equation by –2 and then adding the two equations results in the true statement 0 = 0. The system * 2x + 3y = 6 has infinitely many solutions. Since adding the two equations results in the false statement 0 = 8. The graph of y = f(x) – 2 is obtained by shifting the graph of y = f(x) to the right 2 units. since the range of a function must consist of more than a single value. As such. 993. b. not invertible. so it represents a function. b. 150 . the correct statement should be f(x – h) = (x – h)4. we conclude that it y = 5 cannot represent a function.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 990. The graph of y = 5 passes the vertical line test. then f(x – h) = f(x) – f(h) = x4 – h4. a. there can be no solution of this system. however. There is no error. c. the correct statement should be f(x – h) = f(x) – f(h) = x4 + h4 . b. It is. –2x – 3y = 2 a. c. There is no error. c. f(x) = x4. The graph of y = f(x) – 2 is obtained by shifting 992. As such. The system * 2x – 5y = –1 has no solutions. b. b. There is no error. 994. The graph of y = f(x) – 2 is obtained by shifting the graph of y = f(x) to the left 2 units. The graph of y = 5 does not represent a function the graph of y = f(x)down 2 units. the lines are perpendicular. 991. c. a. so the system has a unique solution. However. c. a. The second equality is incorrect because you must also square the –1. If. The slopes of the two lines comprising the system are negatives of each other. You cannot distribute a function across parts of a single input.

c. The correct statement 4 2 should be det > H= (4)(2) – (1)(–1) = 9. 996. –4 –2 y 4 2 –4 1 H is zero. namely 9 –1 2 C . 999. > 1 1 0 –1 0 1 H = –> H=> H 1 0 –1 1 1 –1 should be > –1 a. The two matrices on the left side of the equality do not have the same dimension. There is no error. b. The wrong pairs of entries are being multiplied to form the determinant. 9 2 –1 C = > a.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 995. Therefore. the inverse 0 –1 H. > H + > 0 1 0 1 0 1 H=> H 0 0 1 0 a. The correct statement should be det > H = (4)(–1) 1 –1 – (2)(1) = –6. c. There is no error. The right side should be > 1 0 0 c. they cannot be multiplied. not –1. There is no error. The system has a unique solution given by > H = > H > H. The difference is computed in the wrong order. 9 2 1 C = (–1) (2) + (2) (–1) = –4 . The inverse does not exist because several of the entries are the same real number. the system has no solution. –1 1 b. 0 0 1 H. Since the determinant of the coefficient matrix > x 2 1 –2 b. The matrix equation > 2 1 x –2 H> H = > H has infinitely many solutions. y –4 –2 4 c. 9 –1 2 C . 997. The inner dimension of the two matrices on the left side are not the same. As such. their sum is undefined. There is no error. c. There is no error. b. The product should be a real number. 998. –2 –1 a. As such. The matrices were added incorrectly. det > –2 1 H 4 –2 4 2 H= (2)(1) – (4)(–1) = 6 1 –1 a. 151 . The constant multiple on the right side of the first equality should be 1. 1 –1 4 2 b.

c. The 1 should be added only to the diagonal entries. Therefore. There is no error.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 1000. The correct product should be 9 1 1 1 1 C . > –1 1 1 1 1 H . You cannot add a 2 2 matrix and a real number because their dimensions are different. 9 –1 –1 –1 –1 C = > H –1 1 1 1 1 a. the sum is not well–defined. The product is not well–defined because the matrices must have the same dimensions in order to be multiplied. 1001. so that the correct statement should be 1 –2 2 –2 > H+ 1 = > H. b. 2 3 2 4 c. b. There is no error. 152 . > 1 –2 2 –1 H+ 1 = > H 2 3 3 4 a.

compute the quantities within each set of parentheses first. Finally. b. compute sums and differences from left to right as they arise.000. Approximate 7.400. b. and rounding 849 to the nearest hundred yields 800 (since the tens place is less than 5). 3. Then. which is an estimation of the product of 162 and 849. c. Since the hundreds place is not 5 or greater. c. 4.400 74 = 100 is a good approximation of the quotient 7.400 74. Dividing 65. 6.715 by 4 results in 16. Computing the sum 60. as follows: 12(84 – 5) – (3 54) = 12(79) – (162) = 948 – 162 = 786 5.000. Multiply the contents of each set of paren- Then.000 + 800 + 2 yields theses first. rounding the quotient to the nearest thousand yields 16. multiply the resulting products: (15 + 32)(56 – 39) = (47)(17) = 799 2. Multiplying 200 times 800 yields a product of 160. The quotient 7= 16 and 112 8 = 14. 7. a. we conclude that 112 is divisible by both 7 and 8. Since 112 remainder of 3.428 with a 60. d. 200 (since the tens place is greater than 5). Using the order of operations. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 1—Pre-Algebra Fundamentals Set 1 (Page 2) 1. Rounding 162 to the nearest hundred yields 7. 153 . multiply left to right as such products arise.404 by 7.802.

12. divide left to right: – 25 |4 – 9| = – 25 |–5| = –25 5 = –5. Applying the order of operations. 144. 36. 54. Then. compute the difference from left to right: –(5 3) +(12 –15 – 3 = –18 ( – 4)) = –(15) + (–3) = perform exponentiation. Applying the order of operations. Multiplying 5 times 5 yields 25. and 3 number. 30. c. 96. e. d. Then. 6. Since there are an odd number of negative 10. 35 = 3 3 3 3 3 = 243. which is an odd pute the quantities enclosed in parentheses. c. mul- Set 2 (Page 3) 17. only 1 and 3 are not multiples of 2. 2. 24. c. 30. 4. 126. 24 = 2 in for p in the equation y = 6p – 23 yields –17. 90. c. Begin by simplifying the absolute value tiplying this product by 5 results in 125. c. 156. 138. Then. Applying the order of operations. respectively. –11. and finally compute the resulting difference: 5– (–17 + 7)2 3 = 5 – (–10)2 3 = 5 – 100 3 = 5 – 300 = –295 20. a. c. 18. compute the resulting difference: (49 7) – (48 (–4)) = (7) – (–12) = 7 + 12 = 19 21. By the definition of an exponent. multiply from left to right as products arise. Thus. Then. then multiply left to right. then subtract from left to right to obtain 9 – 22 = 9 – 4 = 5. The factors of 12 are 1. the product will be negative. Of these. we first pute the quantities enclosed in parentheses. The only choice that is divisible by only 1 23. 5 5 5= 125. c. the following are the multiples of 6 between 0 and 180: 6. b. 60. Applying the order of operations. 18. and –5. b. 78. 11. 9. 12. 162. 3. The sum of 13 and 12 is 25. both exponentiated quantities first. compute the resulting difference: –2(–2)2 – 22 = –2(4) – 4 = –8 – 4 = –12 154 . 36. substituting 4 in for p results in the positive number 1. Computing this product yields –4 –2 –6 3 = –144 19. 174.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 8. Then. 168. then square it. 36 + 48 = 84 14. However. a. Finally. 37 + 47 = 84. 84. 16. Each of the other operations produces an even number: 20 8 = 160. first sim- plify the quantity enclosed in parentheses. the set of positive factors of 12 that are NOT multiples of 2 is {1. 102. 15. 72. 12. first com- 2 2 2 = 16. 180 Of these. 22. compute and itself is 11. Each of the other choices has factors other than 1 and itself. The only choice that is a product of prime signs. By the definition of an exponent. 180 There are eight possibilities for the whole number p. Applying the order of operations. we have quantity. b. 18. 66. c. d. First. the following are also factors of 180: 6. 48. 132. Note that substituting the values 1. 120. So. 108. Thus. 42.3}. of the choices listed. 12. 150. first com- numbers equaling 90 is 2 3 3 5. 114. 13. 90. 60. 2. 7 12 = 84. the least value of p for which y is positive is 4.

a. c. Since h < 0. Then. First. Observe that –g – h = –(g + h). compute the quantities enclosed with parentheses. Here we have an expression consisting of terms within parentheses which are. c. c. first com- lows that g + h must be negative. each of the sums –g + h and –g – h consists of one positive integer and one negative integer. Since we form the exponentiation. –g – h = –(g + h) is positive. As such. As such. its values cannot be smaller than g + h since this sum consists of two negative integers. it fol- pute quantities enclosed within parentheses and exponentiated terms on the same level from left to right. Since g < 0 25. Thus. Next. d.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 24. d. Moreover. First. we conclude that – g – h is the largest of the four expressions provided. in turn. Proceed as follows: (–2[1 – 2(4 – 7)])2 = (–2[1 – 2( – 3)])2 = (–2[1 – (–6)])2 = (–2[7])2 = (–14)2 = 196 26. we know that –(g + h) is larger than g + h. Applying the order of operations. in turn. compute the resulting quotient: (32 + 6) ( – 24 (15) ( –3) = –5 8) = (9 + 6) ( –3) = are also given that g > 0. we see that g – h = g + (–h) is the sum of two positive numbers and hence. As such. while it is possible for one of them to be positive. 30. Repeat this until all such quantities are simplified. enclosed within parentheses. and the whole thing is raised to a power. enclosed within parentheses. we conclude that g + h is the smallest of the four expressions provided. while it is possible for one of them to be negative. compute the resulting difference: 3(5 – 3)2 – 3(52 – 32) = 3(2)2 – 3(25 – 9) = 3(4) – 3(16) = 12 – 48 = –36 27. –g is an integer larger than 2 (which follows by multiplying both sides of the given inequality by –1). while both –g and (–g)2 are positive. so –g – h = –(g + h) is positive. note that since we are given that g < –2. 32. Squaring an integer larger than 2 produces an even larger integer. b. Applying the order of operations. so –(g + h) is positive. This one is somewhat more complicated and h < 0. we conclude that (–g)2 is the largest of the four expressions provided. note that since g < 0 and h < 0. 155 . 31. Next. it follows that both g and – g2 are negative. is itself positive. Finally. First. multiply from left to right. d. Finally. As such. it follows that –h > 0. Then. it follows that g + h < 0. Thus. Proceed as follows: –(–2 – ( –11 – (– 32 – 5) – 2)) = –(–2 – (–11 – (–9 – 5) – 2)) = –(–2 –( –11 – (–14) – 2)) = –(–2 –(–11 + 14 – 2)) = –(–2 –(1)) = –(– 3) =3 lows that g + h must be negative and so. As such. 29. note that since g < 0 and h < 0. we know that –(g + h) is larger than g + h. a. its values cannot exceed that of –g – h since this sum consists of two positive integers. it fol- since we have an expression consisting of terms within parentheses which are. each of the sums –(g + h) and g – h consists of one positive integer and one negative integer. first per- 28.

Then. b. Discard whichever is smaller and compare the remaining one with the next in the list. which is 60.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 3 (Page 5) 33. and then multiply: 18 5 9 20 numerator and denominator. A reasonable strategy is to begin with one of 42. Rewrite this as a multiplication problem. 8 11 2 common denominator. Repeat this until you reach the end of the list. The fact that 4 < 8 < 3 is evident from the following two comparisons: Comparison 1: ? 1<5 4 8 35. Comparison 1: 5 ? 2 8 > 3 lent to 2. a. we conclude that choices. The remaining 28 (of 42) envelopes need to be addressed. a. Then. c. 8 ? 4 11 > 10 Comparison 3: that 8 11 Cross multiplying 34. 1 5 is the largest of the 39. Thus. say 5 . c. then multiply: 5 8 4 7 = 18 5 20 9 = 9 2 5 4. d. which is equiva- the fractions. so the original inequality is true. c. so the original inequality is true. Observe that 1 is 5 times the 4 4 value of 1 . and compare it to the next 8 one in the list.5 9 = =8 5 4 2 4 7 = 5 14 21 42 38. Thus. 5 44. This implies is larger. Cancel factors that are common to the 37. c. Comparison 2: 5 ? 2 8 > 3 Cross multiplying yields common denominator. rewrite both fractions using the least the true statement 8 < 20. 40. a. This implies that 8 11 = is larger. 2 This implies that 3 is larger. cancel factors that are common to the numerator and denominator. d. which is 30. Doing so results in the following three comparisons: Cross multiplying yields the false statement 15 > 16. Since 5 (360) = 5 (5 72) = 216. The reciprocal of 42 is 21 . then add: 5 – 9 5 4 – 1 9 = 20 – 396 = 203– 9 = 11 9 4 4 9 36 6 36 the false statement 22 > 24. First. b. First. the fraction of envelopes that needs to be addressed is 28 = 2 14 = 2 . 43. rewrite all fractions using the least yields the true statement 80 > 44. 3 of which are shaded. a. 36. 41. Two real numbers are in a ratio of 4:5 if the second number is 5 times the value of the 4 first number. Express both fractions using the least com- Comparison 2: 1 4 2 ? 8 3 > 11 Cross multiplying yields mon denominator. 42 3 3 14 156 . subtract: 17 20 the true statement 15 < 16. we conclude 3 3 – 5 6 = 17 3 20 3 – 5 10 6 10 = 51 60 – 50 60 = 51 – 50 60 = 1 60 that Irma has read 216 pages. 3 of the 8 figure is shaded. The square is divided into 8 congruent Cross multiplying yields parts. add: 2 15 = = = = + + + 130 = 125 22 4 6 5 9 30 + 30 + 30 + 30 4+6+5+9 30 24 30 4 5 1 5 1 6 + 1 6 5 6 + 1 5 6 5 + 3 3 10 3 Thus.

simplify: – –3 2 – –1 –2 = –1 5 – 2 3 2 3 2 2 = – –2 3 2 3 2 2 – 2 2 3 2 = 2 2 – =– 2 3 – 2 3 =0 The smallest absolute value of these four differences is 110 . d. 52. (–11)2 = (–11) 5 5) =1+ =1+ =1– =1 =1 =1 2 7 3 7 –3 –1 2 10 3 10 3 (– 170 ) (– 170 ) 14 3 3 14 (7 5 ( 134 ) 5 2 3 (–11) = 121. –53 = –(5 = –125. first sim- 56. Of the four choices. apply the definition of a negative exponent to simplify the two terms to which it applies. compute the resulting difference by first rewriting both fractions using the least common denominator.” Then. Then. e. not to the 7 (5 5 2 3 ) ( – 2) 1+ – 170 7 (5 10 3)=1+ 10 3 – 170 –1 multiplied in front. a. 2 5 48. So. The exponent applies only to 5. 50. ) 51. b. c. c. c. apply the order of operations: –(– 1 )–3 – 2 (– 1 )2 3 9–2 = –(–2)3 – –1 –1 3 3 (– 1 )2 3 ( 1 )2 9 plify the exponentiated term. c. Then. So. the one closest to 1 is 3 . Applying the exponent rules yields: (22)–3 = 2(2x – 3) = 2–6 = 1 26 = 1 64 53. Next. Apply the order of operations: – 5 3 Set 4 (Page 7) 49. Applying the order of operations and the definition of an exponent yields: (1 – 3)2 –8 46. which is 12: 7 5 6 = –[(–2)(–2)(–2)] – = –[–8] – =8– 1 9 =8–9 =–1 1 9 1 81 1 9 1 9 –3 – 1 2 2 =7 5 6 9 12 –3 = 61 12 1 4 = 35 6 – 3 4 = 81 1 35 2 6 2 3 3 4 3 = 70 – 12 157 . compare the absolute values of these differences. the ratio of men to women in the class is n mm . The differences are as follows: 2 2 1 4 3 1 3 – 2 = 6 – 6 = 6 3 3 5 2 1 10 – 2 = 10 – 10 = – 10 5 1 5 3 2 1 6 – 2 = 6 – 6 = 6 = 3 6 5 3 1 1 5 – 2 = 10 – 10 = 10 1 2 definition of an exponent yields: –5(–1 – 5– 2) = –5(–1 – 215 ) = –5(– 25 – 25 26 –5(– 26 ) = 5( 5 5 = 256 25 1 25 ) = 55. rewrite the resulting first term using the fact that “a product raised to a power is the product of the powers. Using the fact that any nonzero base raised to the zero power is 1. Finally. the choice that produces the smallest difference is the one closest to 1 . = (–2)2 –8 = (–2) –8 (–2) = 4 –8 = –1 2 there must be n – m women in the class. – 47. multiply left to right. we have 5(40) = 5(1) = 5. d. b. By definition. First. Compute the difference between 54. Since there are m men in a class of n students. First.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 45. Applying the order of operations. apply the definition of a negative exponent to simplify the first term within the brackets. Then. b. Applying the order of operations and the and each of the four choices. a.

we conclude that p2 is positive and is. c. 4 61. of the four expressions provided. c. multiplying both sides of the inequality . Applying this to 40 yields the equivalent expressions I and II. Moreover. Apply the order of operations and exponent rules: –( 2 )0 (–32 + 2– 3)–1 = –1 ( – 9 + 5 = –1 = –1 = –1 = –1 = rules: 4– 2(1 – 2(–1)– 3)– 2 = 1 16 (1 1 144 8 71 1 –1 23 ) ( – 9 + 1 )–1 8 72 1 –1 (– 8 + 8 ) (– 781 )–1 (– 781 ) 1.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 57.) As such. Also. a. Thus. d. Therefore. the one with the smallest value is p3. c. the largest of the four choices. 62. and p–1 are 1–2 = 1 –1 3 –2 = – 2( – 1))– 2 = 1 122 1 –2 16 (3) 1 1 16 32 = = = 12–2 59. So. therefore. d. d. Raising a fraction p strictly between 0 and 1 to a positive integer power results in a fraction with a smaller value. The price resulting from discounting $250 by 25% is given by $250 – 0. Simplify each expression: (– 1 )–1 = (–4)1 = –4 4 3 = – –32 = 3 2 1 8(– 4 ) 4(– 1 ) + 3 = –1 + 3 = 4 –(– 1 )0 = –(1) = –1 4 – a positive integer power results in a larger fraction. (To see this.55(48) = 74. Raising a fraction strictly between 1 and 2 to rules: –2 – 2 + –1 4 + (–13 +(–1)3) – 2 –2 2 1 = – 22 + 1 (–2)2 (– 1 + (–1))–2 –4 = (–2)–2 –4 1 16 = –1 4 + –4 = –1 4 + 1 4 –4 = –1 – 4 = – 156 60.25) $250.) We know that 0 p3 2 p2 p 1. Note that the expressions p.25($250). raising a fraction p strictly between 0 and 1to a positive integer power results in a fraction with a smaller value. In particular. The quantity n% means “n parts out of Hence.4. d. The result of increasing 48 by 55% is given between 0 and 1 is necessarily larger than 1. 2 Set 5 (Page 8) 65. p–1 1. we conclude that the smallest of the four expressions is p–2. 158 . the one with the largest value is p–1. which shows that p–1 is smaller than both p and p2. try it out with p = 1 . p– 1 1.” It can be written as 1n or equivalently as 00 n 0. p–1 1 by p–1 shows that p–2 = p–1 p–1 p–1. 63.01. the reciprocals of fractions larger than 1 are necessarily less than 1. Apply the order of operations and exponent all negative since it is assumed that p is a fraction between –1 and 0. This quantity is equivalent to both 0. b. p–1 1. Since squaring a negative fraction results in a positive 1. the expression with the largest value is 4(– 1 ) + 3. So. (Try this out with p = 1 . we know that 1 p p2. both p2 2 3 are less than p and are not larger than and p by 48 + 0. 64. Apply the order of operations and exponent 1 42 between 0 and 1 is necessarily larger than 1. The reciprocal of a fraction p strictly 58. Therefore.75 $250 and (1 – 0. p3. 66. So. Finally. The reciprocal of a fraction p strictly 100. 67. of the four expressions provided. c. d.

052.03 1012. Note that 5 = 0. To see that – 0. c.000. 77.0052 is equivalent to dividing 0. we conclude that 37. 75. 0. So.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 68. 5 76.40.5 just after the first nonzero digit.03 1012.5% is equivalent to 100 . 69. So. c. b. Alternatively. 3.225. 3 71. Solve for n. so the original inequality is true. Starting with 0. Apply the order of operations as follows: 7(–2) (–2)2 + (–2) not less than 2 . We must determine the value of n for which Next. The value of n that satisfies this equation is 133 1 .000. b. d.000. resulting in 117. b.052 by 10.33. The phrase “400% of 30” is equivalent to the = 1.40 and 7 ≈ 0. we compare these two fractions. Simplifying 73. Observe that 8 – 5 = 40 – 40 = 40 = 0.225.0052 is smaller than 0. 74.000. 80. It also satisfies the condition 156 < x < 290 .030.0000321 requires that we move the decimal place 5 units to the right. which satisfies the condition 0.5.5 8 9 Thus. Since the digit in the thousandths place is 8. so the inequality is true. 79. To this end.375.21 10–5. its value is –2.000 and divide by 3 to obtain 1. you could first rewrite 3.09 1012) 3 = 3 1012 5 2 25 16 9 300 = 400. c. 22. which is equal 22. so the original inequality is true. Move the decimal place to the right until mathematical expression 400 100 this expression yields 120.01 and 1.01. Cross multiplying in the latter inequal200 ity yields the true statement 200 > 100.005 is clearly less than 1.01. we round the digit in the hundredths place up by 1.000.005. 70. Therefore. 3 Set 6 (Page 10) 81. The point A is exactly halfway between –2 and –3 on the number line.42857. b.01 < – 0. we conclude that 3 133 1 % of 300 results in 400. b. Observe that (3.0000321 is equivalent to 3. 72. Doing so in 0. which is equivalent to 1. therefore.090.5% of is 1 . 3 30. b.09 78. as follows: 3 = 1 3 1 3 3 = 8 3 300 8 = 8 ? = n = 100 = 37.34 < x < 0. each place moved contributes an additional –1 power of 10. a. d. c. which is seen by performing the following two comparisons using cross multiplication: Comparison 1: 156 3 Cross multiplying yields 8 the true statement 40 < 48. Since –0.005 is between –0.052.09 1012 as 3.005 = – 10500 = – 21 00 00 159 . Apply the order of operations as follows: to 0. first convert = –14 4–2 = – 14 = –7 2 both to their equivalent fractional form: –0. ? Comparison 2: 3 290 Cross multiplying yields 8 the true statement 60 < 72. 7 is 2 3 3 –2(–3)2 + 3(–3) – 7 = –2(9) –9 – 7 = –18 – 9 –7 = –34 82. b. c. so that 0. moving the decimal n 100 place to the left one unit to obtain 0. Note that x = 8 = 0. We must determine the value of n for which n 100 n 100 n 100 8 9 8 9 9 8 = 1 . we conclude that –0.01 = – 11 – 0. note that – 11 – 21 is equivalent to 11 00 00 00 1 .

Apply the order of operations as follows: = 42b2x –2 22a2b 4x2 = 16b2 22a 2b 4x 2x 2 = 16b2 4a2b4x4 (1)(–1) + –11 + (1)2 – (–1)2 = –1 – 1 + 1 – 1 = –2 93. a. (9ab3c3) = 9ab3c3 = –5a3b6c2 101. Apply the order of operations as follows: a3b3 b x2 y2 y–2 x–2 4 = (a3b2)4 = a12b8 x2 y2 x2 y2 x4 y4 (3(2)(5) + 2) 2 5 =(32) 2 5 = 64 5 = 12. b. a. (ab)3 b 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 100. Apply the order of operations as follows: 95. (–45a4b9c5) –45a4b9c5 88. apply 110. 6(e– 2)– 2 =6e4. Apply the order of operations as follows: 7 5(–2)2 7 20 + 3 10(–2) –2 = –2 7 5. c. then y = –2. Apply the order of operations as follows: 4(2–2 )(2(2) )(3( – 2) )=4 =6 –2 2 1 4 2 1 4 (3 4) = since it is not enclosed in the parentheses to which the exponent applies. d.4 + 1 5 3 10(–2) –2 –2 a–1 (2b)–1 = 2a b 2b a = 4baab = 4 b–2 a–2 2 = 105. b. b. Apply the order of operations as follows: 7(6) + 12 6 – (–8) = 42 + 2 + 8 = 52 = 89. e. Apply the order of operations as follows: 1 6 2 [( 2 1 1 – 3) – 4(3)] = 2 [(3 – 3) – 12] = 2 [–12] = – 6 2(3)(6) – ( – 8) = 36 + 8 = 44 84. a. y ( x )2( x )–2 y xy 2a b = xy = xy = xy = x4 y4(xy) = x3 y5 90. “The product of 6x2 and 4xy2 is divided by 3x3y” can be expressed symbolically as which is simplified as follows: (6x2)(4xy2) 3x3y 24x3y2 3x3y (6x2)(4xy2) 3x3y . 109. Note that the power –2 does not apply to the 6 3x2 3 – 4(6) + 10 = = –2 36 3 33x6 – 4(6) + 10 = 12 – 24 + 10 87. x2x4 = x6 = 33 = 27 98. b. b. Apply the order of operations as follows: Set 7 (Page 12) 97. b. the order of operations as follows: (((2)(–2)–2)2 = ((–4)– 2)2 = (–4)– 2 = 1 (–4)4 1 = 256 2 = (–4)–4 = = 8y 160 . b. d. b. 4(3x3)2 = 4(32x6) = 36x6 102. a. Apply the order of operations as follows: = –30 – 8 (–5)(6) + (–8) –30 –8 2 = –30 – 16 = –46 62 3 (1) 2 = 3(6)2(–5)(5(3) – 3(–5)) = 3(36)(–5)(15 = 3(36)(–5)(30) = –16.8 103. Note that if x = 2. (3xy5) – 11x2y2(4y4) = 32x2y10 – 11x2y2 42y8 = 9x2y10 – 176x2y10 = 167x2y10 108. (4w9)3 = 43w27 = 64w 27 99.200 15) 86. c. c. c. Apply the order of operations as follows: 6(2)2 2(3)2 24 18 107. Apply the order of operations as follows: y = –(– 3)3 + 3(–3) – 3 = –(–27) –9 – 3 = 27 – 9 – 3 = 15 85. a. d. ( b )2( a )–2( a )–1 = 2 b 2 – 3 –2 20 = 4 20 = = 52 = 25 a b 1 a2 a 1 = a2 b2 a2 b2 a 1 = a5 b4 91. 2(3x2y)2(xy)3 3(xy)2 (4b)2x –2 (2ab2x)2 + 16 18 4(2) 3(3) = 40 18 6 4 2 9 + 4(2) 3(3) = 24 18 + 8 9 = = + = = 20 9 2(32x4y2)(x3y3) 3(x2y2) = 18x7y5 3x2y2 =6x5y3 = 4 a2b2x4 92. b. d. Apply the order of operations as follows: 94. d. 3x 2y(2x 3y 2) = 6x5y3 106. a. 104. Now. Apply the order of operations as follows: 1 2 (–8)2 – 4(3)2( 1 ) = 64 – 4(9)( 1 )= 64 – 18 = 46 2 2 96.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 83. c. Therefore. d. c.

c. which is simplified using the distributive property as follows: (–9p3r)(5p – 6r) = –45p4r + 54p3r2. b. b. Gather like terms. b. c. (2x2)(4y2) + 6x2y2 = 8x2y2 + 6x2y2 = 14x2y2 120. d. b. So. (–3x–1)–2 x–2 (0. b. (5a2 3ab) + 2a3b = 15a3b + 2a3b = 17a3b 121. –2(4x +1)5y –5 – ((4x + 1)y–2)–3 = – = (– = – 2(4x +1)5 y5 2(4x +1)5 y5 2y(4x + 1)2 –2 – – 2y(4x + 1)2 –2 ((4x + 1)–3y 6 2(4x + 1)5 – 2 ) y5 Set 8 (Page 13) 113. a. – 7g + 9h + 2h – 8g =(–7g – 8g ) + 6 6 6 6 = 4z((x–3y6) + (x – 3y6))–1 – = 4z(2(x–3y6))–1 – = 4z(2–1x3y – 6))–1 – = = 128. The base expressions of the three terms used 4z((xy–2)–3 + (x–3y6))–1 – to form the sum 9m3n + 8mn3 + 2m3n3 are different. The expression described by the phrase “3x2 is multiplied by the quantity 2x y raised to the fourth power” can be expressed symbolically as (3x2)(2x3y)4.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 111. 4zx3 2y6 3zx3 2y6 5x4 (2x)2 5x4 4x2 2y6 zx3 zx3 2y6 –1 –1 (9h + 2h) = –15g6 + 11h 119. which is simplified as follows: (3x2)(2x3y)4 = (3x2)(24x12y4) =48x14y4 112. (ab2)3 + 2b2 – (4a)3b6 = a3b6 + 2b2 – 43a3b6 = 2b – 63a b 123. d. 5c2 + 3c – 2c2 + 4 – 7c = (5c2 – 2c2) + 4(4x +1)5 –2 y5 y5 2 (3c – 7c) + 4 = 3c2 – 4c + 4 115. a.2x–2)–1 + 2 x2 – 5 = 2 10 + 8 (x2)2 = 9 8x4 9 x2 (–3x–1)2 8x4 9 + 8x4 9 = x–2 –1 + 2 x2 – 5 x2 (–3)2x–2 + = –2 x4 9 + = x4 –2 = 5x2 + 2 x2 – 5 x2 5 4 = ( 12000 + = 83 2 20 x 8 20 124. 118. 3(z + 1)2w3 – ((z + 1)w2)–1 2w(z + 1) = 3(z + 1)2w3 – 2w(z + 1) ((z + 1)w2) = 3(z + 1)2w3 – 2(z + 1)2w3 = (z + 1)2w3 126. “The product of –9p3r and the quantity 3 125. a. b. b. a. 2x – 3 – x4 – (x3)–1 = x3 – x5 – x3 = 1 x3 3x–1 2 3 1 – zx3 2y6 – 2 3 x5 = x–3 –3x–5 3 6 122. 5p – 6r” can be expressed symbolically as (–9p3r)(5p – 6r). c. –(–a–2bc–3) + 5 b a2c3 5a4c6 b2 = –(a4b–2c6) + 4a4c6 b2 – 25 2 20 )x 5 b–2 –4 –6 a c = – abc + 2 4 6 = 161 . c. they cannot be combined. – 5(x – ( – 3y)) + 4(2y + x) = – 5(x + 3y) + = – 4(4x + 1)5 = 2 (–1)2y10 4 (4x + 1)10 2 4(2y + x) = – 5x – 15y + 8y + 4x = – x – 7y 116. a. y10 16(4x + 1)10 1 2y6 z x3 2y6 zx3 –1 + 7x2 – 2ax + 7a2 = (3x2 + 7x2) + 4ax – 2ax) + (–8a2 + 7a2) = 10x2 + 2ax – a2 117. 5ab4 – ab4 = 4ab4 114. as follows: 3x + 4ax – 8a 2 = 127.

three times this quantity is 3(x + 5). a.15(x – 1) + 0. Next.40j = 0.” we conclude that the given equation is described by choice c. Since the original 4 volume of the tank is being increased by this quantity. Then.” Finally. First.which is equal to 1. we first the number of weeks in m months must be mw. The sum of the reciprocals is ( a c 1 + b + 1 ). it is 25% smaller than d. The phrase “40% of j” is expressed symboli- interpret parenthetical quantities and then multiply. the product of these two c 1 1 sums is given by (a + b + c)( a + b + 1 ). b and 1 . Then. c 136. we the expression d + 0. Thus. (a + b + c).40 then results in the equivalent equality j = 0. c. 137. then multiplication. According to the order of operations. then multiply. we add it to the original volume V.35. they are all correct choices.35 and the cost for the remaining x – 1 minutes is $0. c.50d – 0. The difference between a number and five is represented by the expression (x – 5). increasing d by 50% is described by number hours of tutoring is $40h.50d.25V. Adding the coefficient of V 4 in the first expression yields another equivalent expression 1. since there are w weeks in one month. The expression 3x is described by the phrase which is equivalent to 1 V. Hence. two less is 4x2 – 2.50d) = 1. Equating these quantities yields the statement 0. Dividing both sides by 0. b. The first minute costs $0. cally as 0. The square of a number x is x2.25k. The reciprocals of these numbers 1 1 1 are a .25V and V + 1 V. we conclude that there are mwd days in one year. d. and the number of weeks in a year is mw.50d – 0. interpret parenthetical quantities first. 134. The total cost for a phone call lasting x min- utes is the cost for the first minute plus the cost for the remaining x – 1 minutes. The amount of money paid for the total “3 times a number. the quantity mw represents the number of weeks in one year.. 130. we conclude that j is 25% larger than k. So. 131.50k. note that 25% of V is equal to 0. b.75d = 0.” So. Similarly. a. 139. each of which costs D dollars. Four times this quantity is 4x2.40j and the phrase “50% of k” is expressed symbolically as 0.15(x – 1). First. The quantity the sum of a number and 5 is (x + 5).50(1. and so. 132.50 k = 1. Since we are told that there are m months in one year. 0 40 This says that the value of j is 125% of k. 140. This results in the equivalent expressions V + 0. The sum of three numbers is represented by perform exponentiation first. According to the order of operations. a. 1 half of this difference is 2 (x – 5). 133. and then subtract. a decrease of this quantity by 50% is described by the expression 1.50k. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 9 (Page 15) 129. since the word “is” is interpreted as “equals. d. According to the order of operations. respectively. and finally. and finally nine less results in 3(x + 5) – 9.25V. c. since there are d days in one week. Adding the one-time fee of $30 to this amount results in x = $30 + $40h. and then subtraction. we 135. The sum of these results in the total cost y = 0. 162 . the total cost T is equal to xD + yE + zF. The cost for x desks. So. is xD. 138.50d. First.75d This value is 75% of the original value d. the costs for the chairs and file cabinets are yE and zF. Now. the sum of 3x + 15 is described by the phrase “15 more than 3 times a number. a.

5 15 25 z – 7 = –9 z – 7 + 7 = –9 + 7 z = –2 =5 = 3x 10 10 ( 3 ) = 15 10 25 ( 3 ) x= 150 75 =2 163 . which is equivalent to 3 4 E. 3x 10 12. the resulting quantity is represented by q – 1p . e. Now.5p + 6 = 18. As =8 8=8 8 k = 64 147. a.5p = 12.15(W + X + Y+ Z). a. This latter value is added to the cost of the three meals to obtain the total cost of the dinner. since we are decreasing q by this quantity. namely (a + b + c) + 0. A 75% increase in enrollment E is represented –7k – 11 = 10 –7k – 11 + 11 = 10 + 11 –7k = 21 –7k – 1 = 21 – 1 7 7 k = –3 148. A 15% discount on this amount is represented symbolically as 0. a.5 – 6 2. symbolically as 0. c.5p + 6 – 6 = 18.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 141.5 p= 151.15(a + b + c). d.15(W + X + Y+ Z). The phrase “p percent” can be represented 146. p 6 p 6 p 6 p 6 count is applied. So. 00 142. her total cost is (W + X + Y+ Z). is represented by the sum W + X + Y + Z. b. before the dis- 9a + 5 = –22 9a + 5 – 5 = –22 – 5 9a = –27 9a 1 9 = –27 1 9 a = –3 149. which is equivalent to 0.15(a + b + c) = 1. The total cost of her orders. a.15(a + b + c). 2. + 13 = p – 2 + 13 – 13 = p – 2 – 13 = p – 15 – p = p – p – 15 – 56p = –15 –5 p – 6 = –15 – 6 6 5 5 Section 2—Linear Equations and Inequalities Set 10 (Page 18) 145. a. which is the new 4 enrollment. splitting this cost evenly between the two brothers amounts to dividing this quantity by 2. 144. p = 18 150. 143. and a 15% tip is represented by. 0. (W + X + Y+ Z) – 0.85 (W + X + Y+ Z). this is represented by choices b and c.5 2. Adding this to the original enrollment E results in the sum E + 3 E.75E. k 8 k 8 symbolically as such. The cost of the three meals is (a + b + c) p 100 . d.5 2.

a. the correct choice is b. So.2 5x = –2. d.2 – 7.2 – 3x 1. c.2 + 5x – 1. 2.13x + 7. 1.1 = –1. 153. x 1 2 + 6x = 4 6x 2x 12 + 12 = 4 8x 12 = 4 8x 12 12 12 8 = 4 8 4(4v + 3) = 6v – 28 16v + 12 = 6v – 28 16v + 12 – 12 = 6v – 28 – 12 16v = 6v – 40 16v – 6v = 6v – 6v – 40 10v = –40 v = –4 160. An application of the distributive property shows that 33c – 21 = 3(11c – 7).3 + 5x – 0.2 = 41 5 . b.4 – 3x + 3x 8x = –2. d. we conclude that 33c – 21 = 3(8) = 24.13x 9. x=6 155.1x) = 1 – 6.2 – 1 = 1 – 1 + x 8.2 – 3x 1.2 + 5x = –1. d. b. since 11c – 7 = 8. 158. b. d.2 = –1.3(4 – 3. 5 2 2 = –3 –5 + 5 = –2 2 2 3 4 15 = –6 + 6 = 161 + 5 2 13k + 3(3 – k) = –3(4 + 3k) – 2k 13k + 9 – 3k = – 12 – 9k – 2k 10k + 9 = –12 – 11k 10k + 9 – 9 = – 12 – 11k – 9 10k = – 21 – 11k 10k + 11k = – 21 – 11k + 11k 21k = – 21 21k 1 21 = –21 1 21 3c 4 –9=3 3c 4 –9 + 9 = 3 + 3c 4 = 12 3c 4 4 4 3 = 12 3 k = –1 9 Set 11 (Page 19) 161.2 – 7.4 – 3x 5x + 3x = –2.13x = 1 – 6. d.2 = 1 + x 9.13x 9.4 x = –0. 2a 3 = –54 –2a –3 = 3 2 –2(3v + 5) = 14 –6v – 10 = 14 –6v = 14 + 10 = 24 24 v = –6 = –4 –54 – 3 2 a = 81 164 .13x 9.2 = x Since 8.3 159.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 152.2 – 3x – 1.13x = 1– 6. 154.13x + 7. c = 16 157. b– b b b 156.

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS–

162. b.

5 2 (x – 2) + 3x = 3(x + 2) – 5 2 x – 5 + 3x = 3x + 6 – 10 11 2 x – 5 = 3x – 4 11 2 x – 3x – 5 = –4 5 2 x = –4 + 5 = 1 x= 2 5

166. b.

10

**0.8(x + 20) – 4.5 = 0.7(5 + x) – 0.9x 8(x +20) – 45 = 7(5 + x) – 9x 8x + 160 – 45 = 35 + 7x – 9x 8x + 115 = 35 – 2x 10x = –80 x=–8
**

167. e. First, we solve the equation 4x + 5 = 15 for x:

163. c. Let x be the unknown number. The sentence

“Twice a number increased by 11 is equal to 32 less than three times the number” can be expressed symbolically as 2x + 11 = 3x – 32. We solve this equation for x, as follows: 2x + 11 = 3x – 32 2x = 3x – 32 – 11 2x – 3x = –43 –x = –43 x = 43

164. d.

4a + 4 7

**4x + 5 = 15 4x = 10 x = 140 = 2.5 Now, substitute x = 2.5 into the expression 10x + 5 to obtain 10(2.5) + 5 = 25 + 5 = 30.
**

168. d. Let x be the unknown number. 40% of this

= – 2 –43a

4a + 4

number is represented symbolically as 0.40x. Therefore, the sentence “Ten times 40% of a number is equal to 4 less than six times the number” can be expressed as the equation 10(0.40x) = 6x – 4. We solve this equation for x: 10(0.40x) = 6x –4 4x = 6x – 4 4x + 4 = 6x 4 = 2x x=2

169. b. Let x be the unknown number. The sentence

7 “ 8 of nine times a number is equal to ten times the number minus 17” can be expressed as the equation 7 (9x) = 10(x – 17). Solve this equa8 tion for x: 7 8 (9x) = 10(x 8 7 (9x) = 8 8

**28 ( 7 ) = 28 (– 2 –43a ) 4(4a + 4) = –7(2 – 3a) 16a + 16 = –14 + 21a 16 = –14 + 21a – 16a 16 + 14 = 5a 30 = 5a a=6
**

165. a. Let x be the smaller of the two unknown

integers. The next consecutive even integer is then x + 2. The sentence “The sum of two consecutive even integers is 126” can be expressed symbolically as x + (x + 2) = 126. We solve this equation for x: x + (x + 2) = 126 2x + 2 = 126 2x = 124 x = 62 Thus, the two integers are 62 and 64.

– 17) 10(x – 17)

63x = 80(x – 17) 63x = 80x – 1360 –17x = –1360 x = 80

165

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS–

170. d.

**175. d. Let x be the unknown number. A 22.5%
**

7b – 4 4 7b – 4 4

a=

4a = 4

4a = 7b – 4 4a + 4 = 7b b=

171. b.

2x + 8 5x – 6 5 = 6 + 30 2x 5 8 = 30 5x – 6 6 4a + 4 7

decrease in its value can be expressed symbolically as x – 0.225x = 0.775x. We are given that this quantity equals 93, which can be expressed as 0.775x = 93. We solve this equation for x: 0.775x = 93 x=

93 0.775

= 120

176. c. The scenario described in this problem can

be expressed as the equation 4(x + 8) + 6x = 2x + 32. We solve this equation for x: 4(x + 8) + 6x = 2x + 32 4x + 32 + 6x = 2x + 32 10x + 32 = 2x + 32 8x = 0 x=0

**6(2x + 8) = 5(5x – 6) 12x + 48 = 25x –30 12x = 25x – 78 –13x = –78 x=6
**

172. b. Let x be the unknown number. The sentence

“When ten is subtracted from the opposite of a number, the resulting difference is 5” can be expressed symbolically as the equation –x –10 = 5. We solve this equation for x as follows: –x – 10 = 5 –x = 15 x = –15

173. b.

Set 12 (Page 21)

177. c.

1 2x

–4 3

=

1 2x

x+8 5 –4 3

15

= 15

x+8 5

5 ( 1 x –4) = 3(x + 8) 2

5 2x

9x +

8 3

= 8x + 9 3

– 20 = 3x + 24

**3 (9x + 8 ) = 3 ( 8 x + 9) 3 3 27x + 8 = 8x + 27 27x – 8x + 8 = 27 19x = 27 – 8 = 19 x=1
**

174. c. Substitute F = 50˚ into the formula F =

9 5C

2 ( 5 x – 20) = 2(3x + 24) 2 5x – 40 = 6x + 48 5x – 88 = 6x –88 = x

178. a.

**+ 32 and then solve the resulting equation for C, as follows: 50 = 9 C + 32 5 5 50 = 5 ( 9 C + 32) 5 250 = 9C + 160 90 = C C = 10
**

166

5x – 2[x – 3(7 – x)] = 3 – 2(x – 8) 5x – 2x + 6(7 – x) = 3 – 2(x – 8) 5x – 2x + 42 – 6x) = 3 – 2x – 16 –3x + 42 = 19 – 2x 23 = x

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS–

179. d.

183. b. 30% of r is represented symbolically as 0.30r,

ax + b = cx + d ax – cx =d – b (a – c)x = (d – b)

(d – b) (a – c)x (a – c) = (a – c) d–b x = a–c

and 75% of s is represented symbolically as 0.75s. The fact that these two quantities are equal is represented by the equation 0.30r = 0.75s. We are interested in 50% of s when r = 30. So, we substitute r = 30 into this equation, solve for s, and then multiply the result by 0.50: 0.30(30) = 0.75s 9 = 0.75s s = 0.9 = 12 75 So, 50% of s is equal to 0.50(12) = 6.

184. e. We must solve the given equation for g:

180. a. Let x be the smallest of the four whole num-

bers. The next three consecutive odd whole numbers are then x +2, x + 4, and x + 6. The sentence “The sum of four consecutive, odd whole numbers is 48” can be expressed as the equation x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) + (x + 6) = 48. We solve this equation for x as follows: x + (x +2) + (x + 4) + (x + 6) = 48 4x + 12 = 48 4x = 36 x=9 Thus, the smallest of the four whole numbers is 9.

181. a. In order to solve for T, we must simply

fg + 2f – g = 2 – (f + g) fg + 2f – g = 2 – ( f + g) fg + 2f – g = 2 – f – g fg = 2 – f – g– 2f + g fg = 2 – 3 f g = 2 –f 3f

185. b. Let x be the width of the room. Then,

**divide both sides of the equation by nR. This results in the equation T = PV\nR.
**

182. a.

B=

C+A D–A

the length of the room is equal to 2x + 3. The perimeter of the room is given by 2x + 2(2x + 3). Since this quantity is known to be 66, we must solve the equation 2x + 2(2x + 3) = 66 as follows: 2x + 2(2x + 3) = 66 2x + 4x + 6 = 66 6x + 6 + 66 6x = 60 x = 10 Thus, the length of the room is 2(10) + 3 = 23 feet.

B = (D – A) = C + A BD – BA = C + A BD – C = A + BA BD – C = A (1 + B) A=

BD – C 1+B

167

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS–

186. b.

4 – 2x 1–y 3 –1= 2 6 4 –32x – 6 1 1–y 2

Plugging this in for b in the expression a = –2b yields a = –2(–3) = 6. Finally, we substitute =6 these numerical values for a and b into obtain

–3 6

2

2(4 – 2x) – 6 = 3(1 – y) 8 – 4x – 6 = 3 – 3y 2 – 4x = 3 – 3y 3y = 1 + 4x y=

1 + 4x 3

= –1 2

2

b a

2

to

= 1. 4

189. d. Let x be the unknown number. The sentence

187. e. Let x be the smallest of five consecutive odd

“Three more than one-fourth of a number is three less than the number” can be expressed as the equation 1 x + 3 = x – 3. We must solve 4 this equation for x as follows: +3=x–3 4 ( 1 x + 3) = 4 (x – 3) 4 x + 12 = 4x – 12 x + 24 = 4x 24 = 3x x=8

190. c.

1 4x

integers. The next four consecutive odd integers are given by x +2, x + 4, x + 6, and x + 8. The average of these five integers is equal to their sum divided by 5, which is expressed symbolically by

x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) + (x + 6) + (x + 8) . Since 5 x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) + (x + 6) + (x + 8) 5

**this quantity is given as –21, we must solve the equation = –21, as follows:
**

x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) + (x + 6) + (x + 8) 5 5x + 20 5

= –21

= –21

**x + 4 = –21 x = –25 Thus, the least of the five integers is –25.
**

188. a. First, we solve b + 6 = 4 for a:

a a b a b

(2 – x) 2 – x = (2 – x) y 5x – 2 = y(2 – x) 5x – 2 = 2y – xy 5x + xy = 2 + 2y x(5 + y) = 2 + 2y x=

2 + 2y 5+y

5x – 2

191. b. Solve this problem by determining the

+6=4

weight of each portion. The sum of the weights of the initial corn is equal to the weight of the final mixture. Therefore,

56 pounds bushel 50 pounds bushel

= –2 a = –2b (20 bushels) Next, substitute this expression for a into the equation –6b + 2a – 25 = 5 and solve for b: –6b + 2a – 25 = 5 –6b + 2(–2b) – 25 = 5 –6b –4b – 25 = 5 –10b – 25 = 5 –10b = 30 b = –3 (x bushels)

+ =

[(20 + x) bushels]

54 pounds bushel

Suppressing units yields the equation 20 + 50x = (x + 20) 54.

56

168

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS–

192. d.

–5[x – (3 – 4x – 5) – 5x] = 4[2 –(x –3)] –5[x – 3 + 4x – 5) – 5x] – 4 = 4[2 – x + 3] –5[2] – 4 = 4[5 – x] –10 – 4 = 20 – 4x –14 = 20 – 4x –34 = –4x x = ––344 = 127 = 8.5

–22

**(Note: Remember to reverse the inequality sign when dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative number.)
**

199. c.

Set 13 (Page 22)

193. c.

**–4(x – 1) 2(x + 1) –4x + 4 2x + 2 4 6x + 2 2 6x 1 2 x 3 = 6 The answer can be written equivalently as x 1. 3
**

200. c.

3x + 2 3x 9 x 3

194. c.

11

5x x

195. a.

23 5

23 = 4.6

**x + 5 3x + 9 5 2x + 9 –4 2x –2 x The answer can be written equivalently as x –2.
**

201. d.

1 – 2 x –5 –2x –6 x 3 (Note: Remember to reverse the inequality sign when dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative number.)

196. d. All values to the right of and including –4

–6(x + 1) 60 –6x – 6 60 –6x 66 x –11 (Note: Remember to reverse the inequality sign when dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative number.)

202. b. The right side of the inequality 2x – 4

**are shaded. Thus, the inequality that depicts this situation is x –4.
**

197. b.

7

4x + 4 24 4x 20 x 5

198. a.

–8x + 11 8x 72 x –9

83

(x – 2) can be described as “the product of seven and the quantity two less than a number,” and the left side can be described as “four less than two times the number.” Reading from right to left, the quantity on the right side is greater than the one on the left. Hence, the correct choice is b.

169

a. The caveat in the latter 170 . both –8 and 8 are solutions of this equation. so there can be no solution to this equation. We proceed as follows: –4 –3 –1 3x – 1 11 3x 12 x≤4 (Note: Remember to reverse the inequality sign when dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative number. d. b. which the only expression involving the variable is located between the two inequality signs and is linear.) 204. is equivalent to solving –x = 8. 210. We solve these two equations separately: –x = 8 x = –8 –x = –8 x=8 So. and then to divide all three parts of the inequality by the coefficient of x.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 203. b. we see that solving the equation |–x| – 8 = 0. a. Set 14 (Page 24) 209. b.3 x 20 (–0. as follows: 2|x| + 4 = 0 2|x| = –4 |x| = –2 The left side must be nonnegative for any value of x (since it is the absolute value of an expression). c. proceed as follows: 10 3(4 – 2x) –2 70 10 ( 12 – 6x – 2 70 10 10 – 6x 70 0 – 6x 60 0 x –10 The last compound inequality above can be written equivalently as –10 x 0. 208. the goal is to simplify the inequality by adding/subtracting the constant term in the middle portion of the inequality to/from all three parts of the inequality. We rewrite the given equation as an equiva- lent one solved for |x|. 207. and the right side is negative. When solving a compound inequality for b.3)(20) = –6 step is that when the coefficient of x is negative. Using the same steps as in question 207. or equivalently |–x| = 8. both inequality signs are switched. Using the fact that |a| = b if and only if a = –5[9 + (x – 4)] 2(13 – x) –5[5 + x] 2(13 – x) –25 – 5x 26 – 2x –51 – 5x –2x –51 3x –17 x The answer can be written equivalently as x – 17. a. –x 0. 3(x – 16) – 2 9(x – 2) – 7x 3x – 48 – 2 9x – 18 – 7x 3x – 50 2x – 18 x – 50 –18 x 32 206. –8(x + 3) 2(–2x + 10) –8x – 24 –4x + 20 –24 4x + 20 –44 4x –11 x 205.

The solution of this equation is x = – 3 . b. 2 1 or equivalently |3x – 3 | = 9 . 212. First. both 257 and equation. we rewrite the equation in an equiva- b. b. a. c. First. We solve these two equations separately: 2x + 1 = (4x – 5) 6 = 2x 1 3 =x 2x + 1 = –(4x – 5) 2x + 1 = –4x + 5 6x = 4 x= 2 3 Thus. 171 . We rewrite the given equation as an equiva- 214. we see that solving the equation |3x – = 0. We solve these two equations 3 9 separately: 2 1 3| – 9 lent form: 1 – (1 –(2 –|1 – 3x|)) = 5 1 – (1 – 2 + |1 – 3x|) = 5 1 – (–1 + |1 – 3x|) = 5 1 + 1 – |1 – 3x| = 5 2 – |1 – 3x| = 5 –|1 – 3x| = 3 1 –3x| = – 3 Since the left side is non-negative (being the absolute value of a quantity) and the right side is negative. b. using the fact that |a| = b if and only if a = b. we rewrite the equation in an equiva- lent one solved for |x|: –3|x| + 2 = 5|x| – 14 –3|x| + 16 = 5|x| 16 = 8|x| 2 = |x| Using the fact that |a| = b if and only if a = b. it follows that the two solutions of the equation 2 = |x| are x = 2. the solutions to the equation are x = – 133 and x = 1. we see that solving the equation |2x + 1| = |4x – 5| is equivalent to solving 2x + 1 = (4x – 5).ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 211. We solve these two equations separately. 213. Using this fact. 215. c. a. is equivalent to solving 3x – 2 = 1 . So. there are two distinct values of x that satisfy the given equation. as follows: 3x + 5 = –8 3x = –13 x = – 133 3x + 5 = 8 3x = 3 x=1 Thus. we see that solving the equation |2x + 3| = 0 is equivalent to solving 2x + 3 = 0. there are two solutions to the original equation. Note that |a| =|b| if and only if a = 3x – 2 1 3 =– 9 3x = 2 – 1 = 5 3 9 9 5 x = 27 2 1 3 = 9 3x = 2 + 1 3 9 7 x = 27 3x – = 7 9 So. Using the fact that |a| = b if and only if a = we see that solving the equation |3x + 5 | = 8 is equivalent to solving 3x + 5 = 8. there can be no value of x that satisfies this equation. 216. Thus. we 2 conclude that there is only one value of x that satisfies this equation. 7 27 are solutions to this b. Using the fact that |a| = b if and only if a = lent form: –6(4 – |2x + 3|) = –24 –24 + 6|2x + 3| = – 24 6|2x + 3| = 0 |2x + 3| = 0 Now.

The values of x that satisfy the inequality |2x| 0 are those that satisfy either 2x 0 or 2x 0. Note that |a| c if and only if –c a c. we see that the values of x that satisfy the inequality |8x + 3| 3 are precisely those values of x that satisfy either 8x + 3 3 or 8x + 3 –3. c if and only if (a c or a –c). Using this fact. First.– 3 ] 4 221. Note that |a| So. Using this fact. Using this fact. the solution set is (–∞. Note that |a| c if and only if (a c or a –c).0)∪(0. We solve this compound inequality: –9 –10 5 x 1 – 2x –2x –4 9 8 0 is equivalent to |–x – 1| 0. We solve this compound inequality as follows: The last inequality is equivalent to |1 – 4x| 7. we rewrite the given inequality in an 218. the solution set is [0. note that |–2x| = |–1| |2x| = |2x|. c.–3)∪(3.5). a. we see that the values of x that satisfy the inequality |1 –2x| 9 are precisely those values of x that satisfy –9 1 – 2x 9.∞). The left side must be nonnegative since it is the absolute value of a quantity.4). Using this fact. Also. we see that the values of x that satisfy the inequality |2x –3| 5 are precisely those values of x that satisfy –5 2x – 3 5. Now. This happens only when x + 1 = 0. c. Using this fact. d. |a| c if and only if (a c or a –c). So. We solve these two inequalities separately: 8x + 3 8x 0 x 0 3 8x + 3 –3 8x –6 x –6 = –3 8 4 220.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 217. we see that the values of x that satisfy the inequality |x| 3 are precisely those values of x that satisfy either x 3 or x –3. Dividing both of these inequalities by 2 yields x 0 or x 0. which occurs when x = –1. First.∞)∪(–∞. since |–x – 1| = |–(x + 1)| = |–1| |x + 1| = |x + 1|. First. the solution set is (–∞. d. we rewrite the given inequality in an equivalent form: –7|1 – 4x| + 20 –7|1 – 4x| + 35 35 5|1–4x| 7 |1 – 4x| –2|1 – 4x| – 15 –2|1 – 4x| Thus. note that |a| c if and only if if –c a c. the solution set is (–1. |a| c if and only if (a c or a –c). we see that the values of x that satisfy the inequality |1 – 4x| 7 are precisely those values of x that satisfy either 1 – 4x 7 172 . c. the solution set is (–4. this inequality is also equivalent to |x + 1| 0. Moreover. 222. –5 –2 –1 2x –3 5 2x 8 x 4 Thus. 219. So. First.∞). a. The only way that it can be less than or equal to zero is if it actually equals zero. 223. note that the inequality –|–x – 1| equivalent form: 2 – (1 – (2 – |1 – 2x|)) –6 2 – (1 – 2 + |1 – 2x|) –6 2 – (–1 + |1 – 2x|) –6 2 + 1 – |1 – 2x| –6 3 – |1 –2x| –6 –|1 – 2x| –9 |1 – 2x| 9 Now.

points whose coordinates are given by (|–x –2|. We need to choose the selection that has a of B will be the same as the x-coordinate of A. a. (2. 229. d. lie in Quadrants I or IV. every real number x satisfies the inequality. note that |–x –2| = 0 only when x = –2 |1 – (–22 + x) – 2x | | 3x – 5 1 – (–4 + x) – 2x | | 3x – 5 |1 + 4 – x – 2x | | 3x – 5 |5 – 3x| |3x – 5| Now. so it cannot lie in Quadrants III or IV.–5) lies in Quadrant IV. 228. e. The fact that x is a positive real number requires that the point (x. The point can also be on the y-axis if it is the origin. The x-coordinate of J is –3 and the y-coordinate is 4. b.–a2).y). Since ABCD is a square. the original inequality is actually equivalent to |3x – 5| |3x –5|. So. 233. so points of the form (x2. the Set 15 (Page 26) 225. c.y) lie to the right of the y-axis. J is identified as the point (–3. Therefore. or be on the x-axis. So. the correct choice is b. a. Because y is a non-negative real number. and the y-coordinate of B will be the same as the y-coordinate of C. 4). the solution set is the set of all real numbers. 227. the solution set is (– equivalent form: [2. 226. the x-coordinate of positive x-coordinate and negative y-coordinate. note that the left side of the last inequality is equivalent to |5 – 3x| = |–1(3x – 5)| = |–1| |3x – 5)| = |3x – 5| Thus. however. d. Note that for any nonzero real number. which is –3. 235. the x-coordinate point (x. Since the left and right sides of the inequality are identical. and |–x – 1| = 0 when x = –1. these expressions are positive. Since a 0.–3). so it cannot lie in Quadrants II or III.y). b. namely 4. Since ABCD is a square. 234. so the correct choice is c. which is 6. We solve these two inequalities separately: 1 – 4x 7 –4x 6 x –6 = –3 4 2 1 – 4x –7 –4x –8 x 2 3 .a).ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– or 1 – 4x –7. it follows that –a 0. First. the choice that lies in Quadrant IV is (–a. So. The choice that lies in Quadrant III is (a.4). 230. First. b. e. both x2 and So. d. we conclude that |–x – 2| 0 and –|–x –1| 0. 231. the coordinates of B are (–1. So. c. Thus.(–y)2) must lie in Quadrant I. For all other values of x. For all real numbers x –2. 224. Points in Quadrant IV have positive x- coordinates and negative y-coordinates. It can. and the y-coordinate of D is the same as coordinate and negative y-coordinate. that –a2 0 and (–a)2 0. namely –1. Therefore. ). –|–x–1|) must lie in Quadrant IV. The fact that y can be any real number does not further restrict the location of (x. or be on the y-axis. –2] the y-coordinate of A. the coordinates of D are (6. 173 . For all nonzero real numbers. Hence. The coordinates of points in the third quadrant are both negative. 232. The fact that x can be any real number does not further restrict the location of (x. The correct selection will have a negative x- D is the same as the x-coordinate of C. we rewrite the given inequality in an (–y)2 are positive.y) must lie on or above the x-axis.

Hence. 2 244. –y) is positive compute the slope. Neither a nor b is true. choose two of the five points listed and symbolically as y 0. Next. Since the y-coordinate of the point (–x. Using the fact that x and y are both assumed Set 16 (Page 28) 241. a. since x and y are both negative integers. but have different x-values. the point must lie somewhere strictly below the xaxis. so that it lies in Quadrant III. we must determine the –x signs of the coordinates of the point ( (–y)3 . b. So. it follows that for any real number x. It can be on the x-axis if y = 0. The slope-intercept form of a line with slope m and y-intercept (0. the equation of the line with slope –3 and y-intercept of (0. a. d. So. Any two distinct points on the line share the same y-value. Convert the given equation 3y – x = 9 into slope-intercept form by solving for y. The xcoordinate of the given point is therefore negative (since the numerator is negative and denominator is positive. Since the x-coordinate of the point (1. xy ). 2 1 To this end. Convert the given equation 8y = 16x – 4 into slope-intercept form by solving for y: 8y = 16x – 4 y = 2x – 1 2 So. b. The line whose equation is y = –3 is hori- to be negative integers. the y-intercept is (0. the correct choice is c. a. The choice that lies in Quadrant II is (–a. and xy is positive (since it is a product of an even number of negative integers).– 1 ). it follows that –a 0. the x-coordinate of the point is negative. So. such as (1. which implies that the point (3.b) is y = mx + b.7). The phrase “y is nonpositive” can be expressed tion y = 2 x – 1 yields the true statement 1 = 3 2 (3) – 1. (–y)3 is positive (since –y is a positive integer and the cubes of positive integers are positive integers). computing the slope as “change in y over change in x” results in 0. note that –x2 is negative. Substituting x = 3 and y = 1 into the equa- is –2. while it lies in Quadrant IV if x 0 and on the y-axis if x = 0. then –x3 = and the y-coordinate is not negative. namely 1 .2) is y = 3x + 2. 239. Note that if x is a negative integer. a). So. use one of the points. 237. –(x)(x)(x) must be positive (because it is a product of an even number of negative integers). the point must be in Quadrant I or on the x-axis. no matter which two points are used. and the slope m = 3 to write the equation of 174 . As such. Look for the selection that has a negative x- coordinate and positive y-coordinate. c.10). So.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 236. (1. b. Since a 0.7) and (2. 246. d. If x 0. d.1) is 3 on this line. 3 242. 240. We will use the first two 0 listed. thereby creating a quotient involving an odd number of negative integers) and the y-coordinate is positive. the point lies in Quadrant II. xy2 is negative (because it is a product of an odd number of negative integers). –y 0. The slope is m = 12 ––17 = 3. a. as follows: 3y – x = 9 3y = x + 9 y= 1 x+3 3 The slope of this line is the coefficient of x. First. the point lies in Quadrant IV. 245. the x-coordinate of (–x3. Likewise. 243. 238. xy2) is positive and its y-coordinate is negative. –2) zontal.

–1) and (3. Applying this yields the equation y – 7 = 3(x – 1). the slope of the line containing the points (2. which simplifies to y – 3 = 2x – 4. This yields the equation y – 3 = – 1 (x – 2). and (3. The 252. We must first determine the equation of the line. at least one of the points on it must have an x-coordinate of 0. which can be done by simply dividing both sides by –3. 247. 2 249. c. First. such as (2.3) is m = one of the points.–9) can be computed using any two pairs of these points. We must solve the equation –3y =12x – 3 points on this line are of the form (2.3) and (–2. Next. A vertical line need not have a y-intercept. The substitution yields y = –2(2) + 7 = 3.–9). in order for this line to have a y-intercept. as follows: x y= –15y = 2x + 9 0 = 2x + 15y + 9 2x + 15y = –9 – 125 –3 5 – 125 3 5 250. or equivalently y = 2x – 1.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– the line using the point-slope formula y – y1 = m(x –x1). 2 which simplifies to y – 3 = – 1 x + 1.–1). a. This yields y = –4x + 1. Specifically. 255. d. 248. where (x1. we see that 175 . or equivalently y = –2x + 7. 253. Now.3). and the slope m = –2 to write the equation of the line using the point-slope formula y – y1 = m(x – x1). However.–1) and (2. the point (–6. 6 –1 6 x+ 7 6 . we must determine the equation of for y. use 2 5–3 (–2)–2 = 2 –4 = points (0.–10) 3 lies on this line. First. c. The slope of a line containing the points –2.3). which is not the case. (–3. b. c. using (–3. The slope of this line is –4. Now. which simplifies to y – 15 = –2x – 8. 3 observe that substituting the point (–6. or equivalently y = 3x + 4. where.–10) into the equation yields the true statement –10 = 2 (–6) – 6. where y can be any real number. (–4.15) and (–2. Therefore. to determine the missing value z. the slope is m = 15 – 11 (–4) – (–2) = 4 –2 = 256.15). choose two of the five points listed and compute the slope. Consider the line whose equation is x = 2. a. y1) is the point on the line. and the slope m = – 1 to write the equation of 2 the line using the point-slope formula y – y1 = m(x –x1). b. –6). To do so. a. and the slope m = 2 to write the equation of the line using the point-slope formula y – y1 = m(x – x1). 254. The slope of the line is given by m = 0 – (–6) = 9–0 6 9 = 2 . we conclude that the equation of the line is y = 2 x – 6. y1) is the point on the line. First.11). the equivalent equation y = slope of this line is 1 . This yields the equation y – 3 = 2(x – 2). the slope of the line containing the slope-intercept form simply requires that we solve for y to obtain the equation y = –3x + 5. such as (2. All x– into standard form Ax + By = C. d.y). or equiva2 lently y = – 1 x + 4. 3 – (–1) 2–0 = 4 2 = 2. (0.5) is m = – 1 .y1) is the point on the line. Solving the equation 6y + x = 7 for y yields the line. Using (–4. Applying this yields the equation y – 15 = –2(x – (–4)). which simplifies to y – 7 = 3x – 3. Next. Since the y-intercept of the 3 line is given to be (0. 251. We transform the equation y = Next. we simply substitute x = 2 into this equation.y). Transforming the equation 3x + y = 5 into where (x1. the resulting value of y is equal to the missing value of z. (x1 –y1) is the point on the line. use one of the points. where (x1. use the points.

This set of points forms a horizontal line containing the point (0. 267. its y= = 3x 4 slope is undefined. The line falls from left to right at a rate of equate the expression obtained by computing the slope of this line using the points (–3.–3). Thus.9). First. The points on the line y = –3 are of the form the line. Using the two points (0.7 x (so that the graph of the line falls from left to right at a rate of five vertical units down per two horizontal units right) and the y-intercept is (0. and solve for y: 3 y – (–1) 0 – (–3) y+1 3 = –4 3 one vertical unit down per one horizontal unit right. and the correct graph is shown in choice c. The correct graph is shown in choice a.5) and (–9. the equation of this line is y = 2 x + 5.7). 268. The slope is –2 (so that the graph of the line From this. and it crosses the y-axis at the point (0. The slope is 2 (so that the graph of the line rises from left to right at a rate of two vertical units up per one horizontal unit right) and the y-intercept is (0. 3 259.1x – 1. The slope of this line segment is m= 2 –(–6) 10 –(–2) = 8 12 = 2. First. The correct graph is shown in choice c. Hence. 265. 3 261.4 0.5). –5 2 – 1. a. 269. the slope of the line is –1 and its y-intercept is (0.7y y= 0.4 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– the slope is m = (–1) – (–9) (–3) –3 = – 8 = – 4 . b. The y-axis is a vertical line and hence. d.4 = 0. Now. we observe that since the slope is 3 .7).y) to – 4 .7 = 1x – 2 7 176 . b. b. The correct graph is given by choice d. So. c. its slope is 6 2 9 = 3 . The slope of this line segment is m = –3 – 0 0 – (–5) slope-intercept form: 2 3y 2 3y – 1x = 0 2 = 1x 2 3 2 1 2x = –5. b. 260. 3 266. a. we 6 3 264. d. Also. The only line that rises from left to right is the one in choice b. The y-intercept is the origin. 258.4 0.1x – 0.3). A line with a positive slope rises from left to right. The only graph that satisfies this criterion is choice a. Its equation is therefore y = –x + 7. A line with an undefined slope must be ver- falls from left to right at the rate of two vertical units down per one horizontal unit right) and the y-intercept is (0. c. The slope is tical. The correct graph is in choice d. convert the equation 3 y – 2 x = 0 into 2 1 (x. 4 the graph of the line rises from left to right at a rate of 3 vertical units up per 4 horizontal units right.–3). it crosses the y-axis at (0. we observe that the line rises from left to right at a rate of six vertical units up per nine horizontal units right. d. 263.–1) on = –4 3 y + 1 = –4 y = –5 Set 17 (Page 31) 257.–1) and (0. 262.7y + 1. for all real numbers x. convert the equation into slope-intercept form as follows: 0. d.–5).7y = 1.1x = 0.1 0. d.

3 277. which simplifies to y = 3x – 8. e. The yintercept is (0. the graph crosses into only Quadrant I and Quadrant II. we must use m2 = – 4 1 3 4 = –4 3 as the slope. a.–2). have a slope m = 2 . Since we want a line perpendicular to a line either above or below the x-axis. b. which simplifies to y = 18 13 x. The graph of y = c. 279 c. Only vertical lines have undefined slopes.4). 177 . The have the same slope. For instance. b. 272. If it lies above the x-axis.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Since the slope is 1 .12).0). is a horizontal line that lies either above or below the x-axis. Using this slope with the point Observe that the graph does indeed cross into three of the four quadrants. Two lines are parallel if and only if they 3 280. we conclude that the correct answer is b. b. e. consider the line whose equa- tion is y = –x – 1. we see that the point-slope form of the equation of the line we seek is y – 0 = 18 13 (x – 0). namely –2. 4 which simplifies to y = – 9 x + 12. A line perpendicular to the given line must (0. it crosses into only Quadrant III and Quadrant IV. and the correct graph is given by choice d. a. A line parallel to y = 3x + 8 must have 0. Its graph is shown here: 10 8 6 4 2 slope 3. Set 18 (Page 42) 276. The line provided in choice b is equivalent to y = –2x +6. d. Only horizontal lines have zero slopes. 281. This is true for the line provided in choice e since the slopes of both this lineand the given one are 6. The slope of the line passing through the –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x two given points is m = –5 – 4 = – 9 . b. we see that the equation of the line we seek is y – 4 = 3(x – 4). 271. b. 270. This is actually the slope of the line we seek because the line parallel to the one containing the two given points. Since this has the same slope as the given line.4) must be on the line. 278. Since the point (–6. 273. The graph of y = c is a horizontal line that is 275. while if it lies below the x-axis. 274. only horizontal line among the choices provided is given by choice b. c. we see that the point-slope form of the 4 equation of the lines is y – 12 = – 9 (x – 0). Using the point-slope formula for a line with the point (4. Using this slope with the point (0. and must cross the y-axis. the line given in choice e is the correct choice. A line perpendicular to the given line must 6–2 4 y have slope 18 13 . the graph of the line rises 7 from left to right at a rate of one vertical unit up per seven horizontal units right. This is equivalent to the 3 equation y = – 4 x – 4. The only vertical line among the choices provided is given by choice a. So. where c with slope m1 = 3 . the point-slope formula for the line is y – 4 = – 4 (x + 6).

70(10) 30x + 90(10 – x) = 70(10) 30x + 900 – 90x) = 700 –60x + 900 = 700 –60x = –200 x = ––26000 = 130 Thus. x + 1 = number of canisters of Longline balls. The important observation is that multiplying the price of one canister of Ace balls by the number of canisters of Ace balls results in the portion of the total amount spent on Ace balls. 284.33 gallons of the 30% nitrogen solution with 6. Let x = the number of gallons needed of the 30% nitrogen. So. A similar situation holds for the 90% nitrogen. it must be the case that 10 – x = the number of gallons needed of the 90% nitrogen. the length of the first piece is 6 feet.25 yields the solution x = 6.30x + 0. Multiplying the number of gallons of 30% nitrogen by its concentration yields the amount of nitrogen contained within the 30% solution.90(10 – x) = 0.90(10x – x) = 0. Let x = number of canisters of Ace balls. Subtracting 2. which is solved as follows: 0. The same reasoning is true for the Longline balls. This is represented as the equation x + (2x – 1) + 3 (2x – 1) + 10 = 60.70(10). this equation becomes 3.25.25x + 2.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 282. 2x – 1 = the length of the second piece and 3(2x – 1) + 10 = the length of the third piece. Let x = the length of the first piece. 283. we conclude that the longest piece of rope is 43 feet long. Then. the second piece is 11 feet. we must solve an equation of the form: amount spent on Ace balls + amount spent on Longline balls = total amount spent Using the information provided. since we are supposed to end up with 10 gallons. this equation becomes 0. Therefore. we first simplify the left side to obtain 9x + 6 = 60. So. To solve this equation. Then. b. we conclude that he bought 6 canisters of Ace balls and 7 canisters of Longline balls.50x + 2. as well as for the final 70% solution. c. rounding to two decimal places. we conclude that she should mix approximately 3. Then.75 from both sides and then dividing by 6.75(x + 1) = 40. Simplifying the left side of the equation yields 6. the third piece is 43 feet long. and finally. The sum of the lengths of these three smaller pieces will be the length of the original piece of rope. So.30x + 0. d. We must solve an equation of the following form: amount of nitrogen contributed + amount of nitrogen contributed = total amount of nitrogen from the 30% solution from the 90% solution in the entire 10 gallons Using the information provided. 178 .67 gallons of the 90% nitrogen solution to obtain the desired mixture.25. Solving this equation gives us x = 6.75 = 40.

000 at 10% interest and $4. Let Rg Tg Dg RI TI DI = = = = = = rate of the girl = 17 mph time the girl is bicycling when she meets her instructor = x hours distance the girl has biked when she finally intercepts the instructor = 17x rate of the instructor = 7 mph time the instructor is bicycling when he meets the girl = 3 + x hours distance the instructor has biked when he is intercepted by the girl = 7(3 + x) Using the information provided. as follows: 17x = 2(3 + x) 17x = 21 + 7x 10x = 21 x = 2.1 hours (or 2 hours 6 minutes) to overtake her instructor. and at precisely what time the girl and the instructor meet and have therefore traveled the exact same distance from the starting point.11(1. then equate them. we must determine expressions for the distances traveled by both the girl and her instructor. a.21x = 630 6 x = 0.500 + x) = 795 0.10x. she invested 1. time. To this end. and the amount of interest earned in one year from the 11% investment is 0. Since her total yearly interest earned is 795 dollars.1 Thus. d. 179 . The important concept in this problem is how rate.11(1.500 + x) = 795 This equation is solved as follows: 0.11x = 795 0.500 + x dollars at 11% interest. Then. Then.10x + 0.10x + 0. and one for the instructor that relates their respective times. and distance traveled. 286.11(1. We need to determine the amount of time that the girl is bicycling.30 = 3.000 21 Hence. the amount of time that he has been bicycling when the girl catches him must be 3 + x hours. she invested $3. rates. So. Now.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 285. and distance interrelate.500 + x).500 at 11% interest. since the instructor had a 3-hour head start. the following equation describes this scenario: 0. It is known that distance = rate time. it takes the girl 2. we must solve the equation 17x = 7(3 + x). write an equation for the girl. Let x = the amount invested at 10% interest. The amount of interest she earns in one year from the 10% investment is 0. let x = number of hours the girl has been bicycling when she intercepts her instructor.10x + 165 + 0.

Set 19 (Page 45) 289. Let x = Lisa’s current age (in years). say (0. Finally.5 x = ––01. The graph of the line is dashed.00.10(65 – x). Finally. all points in the solution set have an x-value that is less than or equal to 8. c. its slope is –4. so it is not age is 2x. b. Hence. 0. a.10(65 – x) = 5. we conclude that the equation of the line is y = 2x + 7. The graph of the line is solid. so the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (that is. This can be verified by choosing any point in the shaded region.05x = –1.05x + 0.00 0. since the graph of the line rises from left to right at the rate of two vertical units up per one horizontal unit right. the inequality illustrated by this graph is y 2x + 7.00 –0. And.00 The equation is solved as follows: 0. b. The statement. so it is not means that it is included in the solution set. there are 30 nickels and 35 dimes in the piggy bank.–4). Lisa is currently 15 years old and Lori is 30 years old.–3). since it crosses the yaxis at (0. Lori’s included in the solution set and the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (either or ).10(65 – x) = 5. since the graph of the line falls from left to right at the rate of four vertical units down per one horizontal unit right. b.10x = 5. the shaded region is below the line y = –4x – 3. Next. Next. all points in the solution set have a y-value that is less than or equal to –2. The amount contributed to the total by the nickels is 0. the inequality illustrated by this graph is x 8. its slope is 2.5 – 0. the inequality illustrated by this graph is y – 2. 292. This can be verified by choosing a point in the shaded region. Since the total in the bank is $5. The fact that the graph of the line is solid included in the solution set and the inequality describing the shaded region must not include equality (it must be either or ). included in the solution set and the inequality describing the shaded region must not include equality (it must be either or ).05x + 0.. and observing that substituting it into the inequality results in the true statement –4 –3. since the shaded region is below the line y = 2x + 7. The graph of the line is dashed. Hence. and observing that substituting it into the inequality results in the true statement 0 7. which is solved as follows: x + 5 = 2x – 10 x = 15 Thus.05x + 6. so it is bank. Lisa will be the same age as her sister was 10 years ago” can be expressed symbolically as the equation x + 5 = 2x – 10. we must solve the following equation. Let x = the number of nickels in the piggy 290. say (0. since the shaded region is below the horizontal line y = –2.055 = 30 Thus. 291.05x and the amount contributed by the dimes is 0. Then there are 65 – x dimes in the bank.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 287. Next. it must be either or ). Since it crosses the y-axis at (0. b. 180 . since the shaded region is to the left of the vertical line x = 8. we conclude that the equation of the line is y = –4x – 3. “In 5 years. Next. so we conclude that the inequality illustrated by this graph is y –4x – 3.7). 288.0).

a. Next. Since it crosses the y-axis at (0. the equation of the line is y = x + 2. 4). the equation of the line is y = x. which results in the true statement 2 > –1. so the equation of the line is y 1 1 = – 6 x – 2 . Moving the y-term to the right results in the equivalent inequality 3x – y 181 . since the shaded region is above the line y = 3x – 2. since the graph of the line falls from left to right at the rate of one vertical unit down per six hori1 zontal units right. And.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 293. we conclude that the equation of the line is y = –3x + 4. 297. Finally.0). so the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality ( it must be either or ≤). The shaded region is below the line y = –3x + 4. Multiplying both sides of this inequality by 2 and moving the x-term to the left results in the equivalent 1 inequality 3 x + 2y –1. such as (0. so it is not know that it is included in the solution set. so it is included in the solution set and the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (it must be either or ). its slope is 3.3). since the shaded region is above the line y = x + 2. we conclude that the inequality illustrated by this graph is y 3x – 2.We can verify this by substituting any point from the shaded region. We can verify this by choosing any point in the shaded region. a. so we conclude that the inequality illustrated by this graph is y x. This can be further verified by choosing a point from the shaded region. so it is not included in the solution set. into the inequality. the graph of the line falls from left to right at the rate of three vertical unit down per one horizontal unit right. the equation of the line is y = 3x – 2. which is equivalent to x – y –2. Since it crosses the y-axis at (0. since the graph of the line rises from left to right at the rate of one vertical unit up per one horizontal unit right. the inequality illus1 1 trated by this graph is y – 6 x – 2 . and observing that substituting it into the inequality results in the true statement –3 –2.– 2 ). 296. The shaded region is above the line y = x. Next. And. its slope is – 6 . since the graph of the line rises from left to right at the rate of three vertical units up per one horizontal unit right. since it crosses the y-axis at (0. 295. which is equivalent to y – x 0. such as (0.1). so its slope is –3. and the inequality describing the shaded region must not include equality (it must be either or ). since the shaded region is included in the solution set and the inequality describing the shaded region must not include equality (it must be either or ). c. c. we means that it is included in the solution set.0). It crosses the 1 y-axis at (0.3) into the inequality results in the true statement 3 0. since it crosses the y-axis at (0. c The fact that the graph of the line is solid 1 1 above the line y = – 6 x – 2 . and observing that substituting it into the inequality results in the true statement 0 0. Next. so the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (it must be either or ≤). the inequality illustrated by this graph is y x + 2. its slope is 1. such as (0. The graph of the line is dashed. 294. such as (0. Next. Finally. Because the graph of the line is solid. its slope is 1. so the inequality illustrated by this graph is y –3x + 4 Multiplying both sides of the inequality by 2 and moving the x-term to the left results in the equivalent inequality 2y + 6x 8.–2). since the graph of the line rises from left to right at the rate of one vertical unit up per one horizontal unit right. Finally. Substituting a point from the shaded region. Next. The graph of the line is solid.2). The graph of the line is dashed.

And. substituting it into the inequality to produce the true statement 5 4.5). First. any point in the solution set (the shaded region) must have an x-coordinate that is larger than 4. since it crosses the y-axis at (0. the horizontal line y = 4 is not included in the solution set and should be dashed. and substituting it into the inequality. b. such as (2. 299. It crosses the y-axis at (0. and the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (it must be either or ≤). and observing that we can verify this by substituting a point from the shaded region. We can therefore conclude that (3. The graph of the line is solid.0). such as (0. This can be verified by choosing any point in the shaded region. The correct graph is shown in choice c. and that the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (either or ). 298. Observe that simplifying –28y 2x – 14(y + 10) results in this inequality. The graph of the line is solid. Finally. Next. 303. This can be verified by choosing a point in the shaded region. Since the given inequality does not include equality. it must be either or ). Substituting x = 3 and y = –2 into the inequality 9x – 1 y yields the true statement 26 –2. so 1 the equation of the line is y = – 7 x + 10. 302. in the solution set. 1 its slope is – 7 . Finally. its slope is –2. the inequality illustrated by this graph is 1 y – 7 x + 10.1). This can be verified by choosing any point in the shaded region. 304. since x 4. 301. the inequality illustrated by this graph is y 3x + 1. This can be verified by choosing an arbitrary point in the shaded region. such as (0. It crosses the y-axis at (0. Such points occur to the right of the line x = 4. a. The fact that the graph of the line is solid include equality. Next. its slope is 3. since the given inequality does not that it is included in the solution set. such as (0. Observe that simplifying 3x – y 7x + y – 8 results in this inequality. Because y 4. 1 since the shaded region is below the line y = – 7 x + 10. so it is included means that it is included in the solution set. d.0) into the inequality. so we know 300. since the graph of the line falls from left to right at the rate of two vertical unit down per one horizontal unit right. and substituting it into the inequality to produce the true statement 5 10.10). whose solution set intersects all four quadrants. so the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (that is. since the graph of the line falls from left to right at the rate of one vertical unit down per seven horizontal units right.5).4). 182 . which results in the true statement 2 1. resulting in the true statement –2 0. The correct graph is given by choice d. c. The following graph illustrates the inequal- ity y ( 2x + 7. the vertical line x = 4 is not included in the solution set and should be dashed. we conclude that the inequality illustrated by this graph is y –2x + 4. d. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– – 2 0.0). Next. say (0. since the shaded region is above the line y = –2x + 4. since the graph of the line rises from left to right at the rate of three vertical unit up per one horizontal unit right.–2) satisfies this inequality. Finally. we conclude that the equation of the line is y = –2x + 4. Also. d. so the equation of the line is y = 3x + 1. since the shaded region is above the line y = 3x + 1. any point in the solution set (the shaded region) must have a ycoordinate that is larger than 4. Such points occur only above the line y = 4.

multiply the equation by 2 and add it to the first equation to obtain –6 = –y. c. Add the two equations together to get the = –1. To find b. Adding the two equations together yields the equation 10a = –40. Now. Then. results in 14a + 21b = 56. the value of x = y –6 6 y Set 20 (Page 51) 305. the solution of which is b = 6. In the first equation. 312. First. Now. which simplifies to x = 3. substitute –4 in for a in the first equation and solve for b: 5(–4) + 3b = –2 –20 + 3b = –2 3b = 18 b=6 306. 311. 309. which simplifies to n = –3. a = –3. substitute –4 for y in the second equation and solve for x: x – 5(–4) = –3 x + 20 = – 3 x = – 23 307. Now. Then. which simplifies to y = –4. multiply the (x + 4) term by 3 to obtain 3(x + 4) = 3x + 12. multiply the first equation by –4 to obtain 28a – b = –100. multiply the (m + n) term by 2 and add m to obtain 2(m + n) + m = 2m + 2n + m = 3m + 2n Now. subtract the first equation from this one to obtain 6x = 18. substitute this value into the second equation to obtain b + (–3) = 13. Then. The second equation becomes –2x – 6 = y.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 10 8 6 4 2 308. or x = –1. adding these two equations together yields 14b = 84. Now. Next. simplify the second equation by sub2 4 6 8 10 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 x tracting 9 from both sides of the equation. Simplifying the left side of the first equation equation –2y = 8. d. subtract 12 from both sides of the equation. In the first equation. Multiplying the second equation by –7 yields –7b – 14a = 28. 183 . so that the first equation becomes 3x – 2y = –7. the solution of which is y = 6. e. b. d. substitute the value of y into the first equation and solve for x: 4x + 6 = –3(6) 4x + 6 = –18 4x = –24 x = –6 Since x = –6 and y = 6. multiply the second equation by 2 to obtain y +8x = 24. so b = 16. 310. add this to the second equation to obtain 29a = –87. the solution of which is a = –4. add the two equations together to obtain –x = 1. a. Then. First. b First. subtract the second equation from the first equation to obtain the equation 5n = –15. b.

substitute the value of x into the second equation and solve for y: 2y + 7(–1) = 3 2y – 7 = 3 2y = 10 y= 5 Since y = 5 and x = –1. subtract 3 2 2 2 from both sides to further obtain 1 a – b = – 125 . Now. d. b. Then. substitute this value into the second equation and solve for c: c – 6(2) = 0 c = 12 So. subtract the second equation from this to obtain 5d = 10. 315. the value of c d is 12 2 = 6. which simplifies to y = 2. Now. substitute the value of b into the second equation and solve for a: 3a – 2(10) = –5 3a – 20 = –5 3a = 15 a=5 plying (x – 1) by 9 to obtain 9(x – 1) = 9x – 9. e. substitute the value of a into the first equation and solve for b: 4(3) + 6b = 24 12 + 6b = 24 6b = 12 b=2 Since a = 3 and b = 2. c. the value of a + b = 3 + 2 = 5. the solution of which is a = 3. Adding this to the second equation in the system results in the equation 33y = 66. 184 . Now. or b = 10. The first equation becomes 9x + 4y = 11. simplify the first equation by multi- plying (a + 3) by 1 to obtain the equivalent 2 equation 1 a + 3 – b = –6. the value of xy is (9)(–3)= –27. 316. Now. multiply the equation by –6 and add it to the second equation to obtain the equation 4b = 40. b. 317. Multiply the first equation by 8 to obtain Since a = 5 and b = 10. Now. 2 Next. Then. Multiply the first equation to 5 and simplify the equivalent equation 4x + 48y = 56. which simplifies x = 9. or d = 2.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Finally. 318. First. add 9 and 4y to both sides of the equation. simplify the first equation by multi- to the first equation to obtain –7x = –63. 314. then add to the first equation to obtain the equation 7a = 21. the value of a + b = 5 + 10 = 15. substitute this value into the second equation and solve for y: –9 – y = –6 –y = 3 y = –3 So. Then. Multiply the second equation by –2 and add it to the first equation to obtain –5x = 5 or x = –1. Divide the second equation by 2 and add it to obtain c – d = 10. the value of (y – x)2 = (5 – (–1))2 = 62 = 36. First. Multiply the second equation by 2. substitute this into the second equation and solve for a: 6 + 2a = –4 2a = –10 a = –5 313. a.

substitute this expression for a in the second equation to find b: 3(2b + 2 – b) = –21 3(b + 2) = –21 3b + 6 = –21 3b = –27 b = –9 Substitute the value of b into the first equation and solve for a: = –9 + 1 = –8 a = –16 Since a = –16 and b = –9. Now. Multiply the first equation by 2 to obtain 2x + y = 6 y = 6 – 2x Substitute this expression for y in the second equation and solve for x: + 4x = 12 3 – x + 4x = 12 3x + 3 = 12 3x = 9 x=3 323. Then. d. y = –2. 320. the value of (p + q)2 = (–2 + 7)2 = 52 = 25. 185 . which simplifies to x = 1. y = –2. a. Multiply the second equation by 3 and add 322. Hence.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 319. substitute this value for y into the first equation to find the corresponding value of x: x = –5(–2) = 10. b –9 9 3 a 2 a 2 Set 21 (Page 53) 321. the value of a = –16 = 16 = 4 . substitute the value of q into the second equation and solve for p: –5p + 2(7) = 24 –5p + 14 = 24 –5p = 10 p = –2 Since p = –2 and q = 7. the solution of the system is x = 1. b. by multiplying both sides of the equation by 2 to obtain a = 2b + 2. add these equations to obtain 23x = 23. which simplifies to q = 7. d. Since the first equation is already solved for x. Now. c. substitute it directly into the second equation and solve for y: 2(–5y) + 2y = 16 –10y + 2y = 16 –8y = 16 y=–2 Now. substitute this into the first equation and solve for y: 4(1) – 3y = 10 –3y = 6 y = –2 So. Solve the first equation for y in terms of x: it to the first equation to obtain 14q = 98. the solution of the system is x = 10. Solve the first equation for a in terms of b 6 – 2x 2 8x – 6y = 20 and the second equation by 3 to obtain 15x + 6y = 3. Now.

b. Solve the second equation for c in terms of d: c – 6d = 0 c = 6d Substitute this expression for c in the first equation and solve for d: c–d 5 –2=0 6d – d 5 –2=0 5d 5 –2=0 b–a=1 b=a+1 Substitute this expression for b in the first equation and solve for a: 10(a + 1) – 9a = 6 10a + 10 – 9a = 6 a + 10 = 6 a = –4 d–2=0 d=2 186 . Solve the second equation for b in terms of a: b + 2a = –4 b = –2a – 4 Substitute this expression for b in the first equation and solve for a: 7(2a + 3(–2a – 4)) = 56 7(2a – 6a – 12) = 56 7(–4a – 12) = 56 –28a – 84 = 56 –28a = 140 a = –5 326. a. Solve the second equation for y in terms of x: = 25 = 116 29b = 464 b = 16 325. e. Solve the second equation for b in terms of a: –x – y = –6 –y = x – 6 y = –x + 6 Substitute this expression for y in the first equation and solve for x: –5x + 2(–x + 6) = –51 –5x – 2x + 12 = –51 –7x + 12 = –51 –7x = –63 x=9 Substitute the value of x into the second equation and solve for y: –9 – y = –6 –y = 3 y = –3 Since x = 9 and y = –3. e. Solve the second equation for a in terms of b: b + a = 13 a = 13 – b Substitute this expression for a in the first equation and solve for b: –7a + b 4 Substitute the value of d into the second equation and solve for c: c – 6(2) = 0 c – 12 = 0 c = 12 Since c = 12 and d = 2. –7(13 – b) + 7b – 91 + 29b 4 b 4 = 25 327. the value of xy = (9)(–3) = –27. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 324. 328. the value of c d = 25 b 4 = 12 2 = 6.

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Substitute the value of a into the second equation and solve for b: b – (–4) = 1 b+4=1 b = –3 Since a = –4 and b = –3. Now. and the slopeintercept form of the line 2 – y = –x is y = x + 2. since the slope of this line. c. the value of ab = (–4)(–3) = 12. Since the two lines are parallel. they never intersect. Observe that dividing both sides of the sec- have the same slope. so. as follows: 2(3x – 2) – 3x = 8 6x – 4 – 3x = 8 3x – 4 = 8 3x = 12 x=4 Next. Thus. b. There are infinitely many such points. Since there are infinitely many such points. so the system has no solution. Since the graph consists of a single line. 333. The slope of each of these lines is 1. 332. Their graphs never intersect. b. substitute this into the second equation and solve for x. we conclude that the lines are parallel. The slope-intercept form of the line y – 3x = –2 is y = 3x – 2. 330. 4 334. Two lines are parallel if and only if they is 2(4) 10 = 5. As such. so every point on the line is a solution of the system. b. the system has infinitely many solutions. (3) is the same as the slope of the line given by the first equation. The slope-intercept form of the line x – y = 7 is y = x – 7. we conclude that the system of equations represented by the graph has one solution. Solve the second equation for y in terms of x: 331. the value of 2x y =8 =8 x–3=8 x = 11 Substitute the value of x into the second equation and solve for y: 2(11) – y = 9 22 – y = 9 –y = –13 y = 13 Since x = 11 and y = 13. 336. c. Since the two lines intersect in exactly one point. Solve the first equation for y to obtain y = 2x – y = 9 –y = –2x + 9 y = 2x – 9 Substitute this expression for y in the first equation and solve for x: x + 2x – 9 3 3x – 9 3 3x – 2. we conclude that the two equations that make up the system are exactly the same. they are parallel. c. b. so any point that satisfies the first equation automatically satisfies the second. 335. the value of x – y = 11 – 13 = –2. This means that the equations are identical. b. 187 . substitute this value of x into the first equation to determine that the corresponding value of y is y = 3(4) – 2 = 10. ond equation –3y + 9x = –6 by –3 and rearranging terms results in the first equation. 329. There are no solutions of this system.

The slope-intercept form of the line 2y – 3x are dashed. 343. so that the inequality signs used in both of the inequalities comprising the system are either or . 1 so the corresponding inequality should involve one of the signs or . The graph of the line y = 3x is dashed. The graph of y = –5 is solid. b. Next. but the second inequality does. a. d. a. a. Next. The slope-intercept forms of the lines 5y = + 4 and y = x + 2 are dashed. a. The intersection of these two regions is given by the illustration in choice a. The graph of y = –4x is solid (so the corresponding inequality should involve one of the signs or ). Next. 340. note that points in the shaded region lie below the line y = x + 2 and below the line y = –x + 4. First. the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by y 5. 8 12 y = 5 x + 8 and y = – 5 x + 12. 342. Given that the first inequality does not 3 solid. y –x + 4. the graph of the line y = 4 x is dashed. The graph of y = – 5 x + 12 is dashed. The graphs of the lines y = 5 and x = 2 are = –6 is y = 2 x – 3. which means that the inequality signs used in both of the inequalities are either or . y –4x. 8(x + 5) and 12(5 – x) = 5y are. The graphs of the lines y = 4 and y = x + 2 341. x 2. This means that the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by 2y – 3x 5 –6. Therefore. c. Points in the 1 shaded region lie above the line y = 4 x and below the line y = –4x.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 22 (Page 57) 337. 344. so the inequality signs used in both of the inequalities are either or . 339. 338. The graphs of this line and 5 y = 5 – 2 x are solid. y 5 – 2 x. note that the graphs of the lines y = –x include equality. note that points in the shaded region lie above (or on) the line y = 5 and to the left of (or on) the line x = 2. we know that the graph of the line y = 2 is dashed and the graph of the line y = 2x + 1 is solid. This implies that the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by y x + 2. Therefore. First. y x + 2. 12(5 – x) 5y. Points in the shaded region lie below (or on) the line 5y = 8(x + 5) and below the line 12(5 – x) = 5y. note that points in the shaded region lie above the line y = 4 and below the line y = x + 2. This implies that the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by 5y 8(x + 5). Points that satisfy the inequality y 2 must be above the line y = 2. Note that points in the shaded region lie 188 . respectively. Points in the shaded region lie above (or on) the line 2y – 3x = – 6 and above (or on) 5 the line y = 5 – 2 x. the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded 1 region is the solution set is given by y 4 x. so that the corresponding inequality should involve one of the signs or . so that the corresponding inequality should involve one of the signs or . so that the corresponding inequality should involve one of the signs < or >. This means that the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by y 4. The graph of 8 the line y = 5 x + 8 is solid (so that the corresponding inequality should involve one of the 12 signs or ). and those satisfying y 2x + 1 must lie below the line y = 2x + 1. which means that the inequality signs used in both of the inequalities in the system are either or . d.

The system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by 2 y x + 6. 347.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– above the line y = 3x and below (or on) the line y = –5. so the inequality signs used in both of the inequalities comprising the system are either or . remember that multiplying both sides of an inequality results in a reversing of the inequality sign. 345. remember that multiplying both sides of an inequality results in a switching of the inequality sign. Points in the 5 shaded region lie below the line y = – 7 x + 5 2 and below the line y = 3 x + 4. note that points in the shaded region lie below the 4 2 line y = 9 x + 4 and above the line y = – 9 x – 2. which can be seen by reversing the simplification process used to obtain the slope-intercept forms of the lines in the first step. respec2 5 tively. 11y –2(x + 11). b. 348. y – 9 x – 2. 349. The system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by y 3x. 346. The solution set for the system in choice a is 1 2(y + 10) = 0 and 2x + y = 3 are. This tells us that the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution 4 2 set is given by y 9 x + 4. This system is equiva1 lent to 7(y – 5) –5x. In doing so. so the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by 5 y 2 x – 10. Next. This system is equivalent to 9(y – 4) 4x. y – 11 x – 2. which can be seen by reversing the simplification process used to obtain the slope-intercept forms of the lines in the first step. The slope-intercept form of the lines 9(y – 4) = 4x and –9y = 2(x + 9) are. In doing so. This system is equivalent to y – x 6. y –5. respectively. the solution sets of 189 . which can be seen by reversing the simplification process used to obtain the slopeintercept forms of the lines in the first step. 2x + y –3. The graphs of both lines are dashed. y = 4 2 9 x + 4 and y = – 9 x – 2. y = – 7 x + 5 and y = 3 x + 4. and the solution set of the system in choice c consists of only the points that lie on the line y = x. The graphs of both lines are dashed. remember that multiplying both sides of an inequality results in a reversing of the inequality sign. which means that both inequality signs are either or . This tells us that the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by y 5 2 – 7 x + 5. In doing so. d. c. c. y 3 x + 4. which can be seen by reversing the simplification process used to obtain the slope-intercept forms of the lines in the first step. y 5 = 2 x – 10 and y = –2x 3. Next. so the inequality signs used in both inequalities are either or . points in the shaded region lie above (or on) the line y = 2 x + 6 and above (or on) the line y = – 11 x – 2. b. –3 4 (2x – 3y). The slope-intercept forms of the lines y – x lines are solid. The graphs of both the empty set. The slope-intercept forms of the lines = 6 and 11y = –2(x + 11) are y = x + 6 and y = 2 – 11 x – 2. So. –9y 2(x + 9). The slope-intercept forms of the lines 5x – 7(y – 5) = –5x and –3 = 4 (2x – 3y) are. respectively. The graphs of both lines are solid. Points in the shaded region lie above (or on) the line y = 5 2 x – 10 and below (or on) the line y = –2x – 3. respectively. The solution set for the system in choice b consists of only the points that lie on the line y = 3x + 2. y –2x – 3 This system is equivalent to 5x – 2(y + 10) 0. so the inequality signs used in both inequalities are either or .

c. We conclude that the system with this solution set is given by x 0. a. 7 1 10 x + 2 ) 1 1 2 2 7 1 = 3 x2 – 5 x – 3 – 3 x2 + 10 x – 2 1 2 1 7 2 1 = 3 x2 – 3 x2 – 5 x + 10 x – 3 – 2 1 2 7 4 3 = – 3 x2 – 10 x + 10 x – 6 – 6 1 5 7 = – 3 x2 + 10 x – 6 1 1 7 = – 3 x2 + 2 x – 6 13 15 2 2 2 2 x-axis and y-axis. is equivalent to y 2 + 3x. the solution set of this system is the empty set. both inequalities comprising the system we seek must involve one of the signs or . The boundaries of Quadrant III are the (x2 – 3x + 2) + (x3 – 2x2 + 11) = x3 + x2 – 2x2 – 3x + 2 + 11 = x3 – x2 + 3x + 13 354. 351. d. (3x2 – 5x + 4) – (– 3 x + 5) = 3x2 – 5x + 4 + 3 x – 5 = 3x2 – 5x + 3 x + 4 – 5 = 3x2 – 3 x + 3 x – 1 = 3x2 – 3 x – 1 355. and y = x – 1 are parallel. y mx + b. or y 2 + 3x. respectively. the equations of these axes are y = 0 and x = 0. d.and y-coordinate of a point in Quadrant III is negative. b. The solution set consists of those points on the line y = 3x + 2. where the graph of y = x + 3 lies strictly above the graph of y = x – 1. tion set consists of the points on a single line must be of the form y mx + b. Note that the graphs of the lines y = x + 3 Section 3—Polynomial Expressions Set 23 (Page 66) 353. Hence. ( 6 x2 + 3 x + 1) + (2x – 3 x2 + 4) – = 6 x2 + 3 x + 1 + 2x – 3 x2 + 4 – = 6 x2 – 3 x2 – = 6 x2 – = –x2 – 1 1 2 1 2 2 7 2 1 2 2 7 2 + 3x + 2 x2) 1 7 2 1 – 3x – 2 x2 1+4– 1 2 2 2 x + 3 x + 2x – 3x + 4 3 2 7 2 2 6x –6x + 3x – x + 5 – 2 1 3 3x + 2 190 . Next. by the previous observation. b. y 0. and therefore. y x – 1 would necessarily be above the line y = x + 3. so this system is of the form specified. 350. it is impossible for such a system of linear inequalities to have a solution set that spans the entire Cartesian plane. b. assuming that the lines are not vertical. also above the line y = x – 1. which is not possible. Observe that the first inequality in the system 2y – 6x 4. any point that it is in the solution set of the system to y x + 3. 352. a. A system of linear inequalities whose solu- ( 3 x2 – 5 x – 3 ) – ( 3 x2 – 1 1 2 2 356. the second inequality in the system requires that the point be below the line y = x – 1. In fact.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– none of these systems span the entire Cartesian plane. note that the sign of both the x. (9a2b + 2ab – 5a2) – (–2ab – 3a2 + 4a2b) = 9a2b + 2ab – 5a2 + 2ab + 3a2 – 4a2b = 9a2b – 4a2b + 2ab + 2ab – 5a2 + 3a2 = 5a2b + 4ab – 2a2 357. However. Using the first inequality specified in the system. Since points in the solution set are not to be on either axis.

b. 365. 362. + a1x + a0 where a0. a. note that the first term is really just a constant since x0 = 1. c. d. which is not a polynomial. 364. 361. which cannot be a polynomial 1 because of the term – 2 x–1. 363. and follow from the fact that simplifying such arithmetic combinations of polynomials simply involves adding and subtracting the coefficients of like terms. By definition.. 360. b.. . the expression x – 3x–2 is not a polynomial. by definition. Note also that. so the degree of the polynomial is 4. we obtain 1 – 2 x–1 – 2. The expression in choice b is a polynomial for similar reasons. 3 the term involving the highest power of x is 5x 4. the degree of the constant polynomial 4 is zero. In general. If we simplify the expression (–2x)–1 – 2 using the exponent rules. an are real numbers and n is a nonnegative integer. A constant polynomial is of the form cx0 = true. . where a0. a. not the variable. it cannot contain negative powers of the variable x. Note that the 1 2 16 x – 3x – 15 8 367. a1. The degree of a polynomial is the highest power to which the variable x is raised.. d. c.. where c is a constant... the term involving the highest power of x is –5x8. it cannot contain negative powers of the variable x. an are real numbers and n is a nonnegative integer. once the expression has been simplified.. –(–2x0)–3 + 4–2x2 – 3–1x – 2 = –(–2)–3 + =– =– = 1 (–2)3 1 –8 1 2 42 x 1 2 42 x 1 – 3x – 2 – 3x – 2 1 1 + + 1 1 16 x2 – 3x – 2 anxn + an–1x n–1 + .. and c are all 359. Therefore. a1. so the degree of the polynomial is 8. For instance. a trinomial is a polynomial with three terms and a binomial is a polynomial with two terms. dividing one polynomial by c. + a1x + a0. (2 – )– + 1) – (1 – 3 – [3x3 + 1 – 1 + 2x3] = 2 – 3x = 2 – 3x3 – [5x3] = 2 – 3x3 – 5x3 = 2 – 8x3 3x3 [(3x3 2x3)] expression given in choice a is a polynomial.. d. That is. –(2 – (1 – 2x2 – (2x2 – 1))) – (3x2 – (1 – 2x2)) = –(2 – (1 – 2x2 – 2x2 + 1)) – (3x2 – 1 + 2x2) = –(2 – (2 – 4x2)) – (5x2 – 1) = –(2 – 2 + 4x2) – (5x2 – 1) = –4x2 – 5x2 + 1 = –94x2 + 1 191 . once the expression has been simplified. the quotient of even 3 the very simple polynomials 3 and x2 is x2 = 3x–2. c. Put simply. The statements in choices a. 366. b. A polynomial is an expression of the form another will result in an expression involving a term in which the variable is raised to a negative power. For the polynomial –5x8 + 9x 4 – 7x 3 – x2. By this definition.. For the polynomial – 2 x + 5x 4 – 2x2 + 12.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 358. a polynomial is an expression of the form anxn + an–1x n–1 + . involve negative exponents. the coefficients.

the inside terms. = 7x13 + 14x9 – 49x6 – 63x5 374. b. a. b. Use FOIL to find the product of two bino- –22(2–3 = –4 = –4 1 1 23 1 8 – – 2–2x2) 1 2 22 x 1 + 33(3–2 1 32 – – 3–3x3) 1 3 33 x mials. the outside terms. 2x(5x2 + 3y) = 2x(5x2) + 2x(3y) = 10x3 + 6xy 371. e. add the products: (x – 3)(x + 7) = x2 + 7x – 3x – 21 = x2 + 4x – 21 (x – 4) (3x2 + 7x – 2) = x(3x2 + 7x – 2) – 4(3x2 + 7x – 2) = x(3x2) + x(7x) – x(2) – 4(3x2) –4(7x) – 4(–2) = 3x3 + 7x2 – 2x – 12x2 – 28x + 8 = 3x3 – 5x2 – 30x + 8 382. a. 4x2z(3xz3 – 4z2 + 7x5) = 4x2z(3xz3) + 4x2z(–4z2) + 4x2z(7x5) = 12x3z4 – 16x2z3 + 28x7z 375. the outside terms. use FOIL to find the product of the two binomials. and the last terms (FOIL). add the products: (x – 6)(x – 6) = x2 – 6x – 6x + 36 = x2 – 12x + 36 377. Then. (3x3) (7x2) = (3 7) (x3x2) = 21(x3+2) = 21x5 370. a. c. e. mul- tiply the first term of each binomial. d. Then. multiply the two binomials. b. Then. 376. and the last terms. To find the product of two binomials. mul- – 2x (2xy ) = 6x + 8x y – 4x y 373. 2x (3x + 4xy – 2xy ) = 2x (3x) + 2x (4xy) 2 3 2 2 Then. add the products: (x + c)(x + c) = x2 + cx + cx + c2 = x2 + 2cx + c2 379. 2 3 3 3 3 3 tiply the first term of each binomial. x3 + 6x = x x2 + 6 x = x(x2 + 6) 372. Finally. add the products: (x – 1)(x + 1) = x2 + x – x – 1 = x2 – 1 378. To find the product of two binomials. mul- + 27 1 9 – 4 x2 + 27 – 1 3 27 x = – 2 + x2 + 3 – x3 = –x3 + x2 + 5 2 tiply the first term of each binomial. Begin by multiplying the first two terms: 7x5(x8 + 2x4 – 7x –9) = 7x5(x8) + 7x5(2x4) – 7x5(7x) – 7x5(9) + (7 2) = (7) 5) (7 9) (x (x5x8) (x5x4) – (7 7) (x 5x) – –3x(x + 6) = –3x2 – 18x. add the products: (2x + 6)(3x – 9) = 6x2 – 18x + 18x – 54 = 6x2 – 54 380. and the last terms. c. c. To find the product of two binomials. e. Then. the inside terms. Then. Set 24 (Page 67) 369. the inside terms. note that (x + c)2 = (x + c)(x + c). –3x2 – 18x and x – 9: (–3x2 – 18x)(x – 9) = –3x3 + 27x2 – 18x2 + 162x = –3x3 + 9x2 + 162x 381.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 368. the outside terms. First. Begin by multiplying the first two terms: (x – 6)(x – 3) = x2 – 3x – 6x + 18 = x2 – 9x + 18 Then. c. d. multiply (x2 – 9x + 18) by (x – 1): (x2 – 9x + 18)(x – 1) = x3 – 9x2 + 18x – x2 + 9x – 18 = x3 – 10x2 + 27x – 18 192 .

15x – 10 = 5(3x) – 5(2) = 5(3x – 2) 386. b. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 383. simplify the left side of the equation: 392. b. = 7(49x3 – 7x2 + x – 7) 393. Set 25 (Page 69) 385. b. a. 390. x3 – x = x(x2) + x(–1) = x(x2 –1) 389. 5x( 3 x + 7) – ( 3 x + 7) = (5x – 1)( 3 x + 7) 397. c. 8x4y2(x – 9)2 – 16x3y5(x – 9)3 + 12x5y3(9 – x) = 8x4y2(x – 9)2 – 16x3y5(x – 9)3 – 12x5y3(x – 9) = 4x3y2(x – 9)[2x(x –9)] + 4x3y2(x – 9)[–4y3(x – 9)2]+ 4x3y2(x – 9)[–3x2y] = 4x3y2(x – 9)[2x(x –9) – 4y3(x – 9) – 3x2y] = 4x3y2(x – 9)[2x2 – 18x – 4y3(x2 – 18x + 81) –3x2y] = 4x3y2(x – 9)[2x2 – 18x – 4y3x2 + 72y3 – 324y3 –3x2y] 399. 9x5 + 24x2 – 6x = 3x(3x4) + 3x(8x) – 3x(2) = 3x(3x4 + 8x – 2) 387. 73x3 – 72x2 + 7x – 49 = 7(72x3 – 7x2 + x – 7) (5x + 1)(2y + 2) = 10xy + 2y + 10x + 2 Now. a. b. 2 2 2 (2x3 – 2x2 + 1)(6x3 + 7x2 – 5x – 9) = 2x3(6x3 + 7x2 – 5x – 9) – 2x2 (6x3 + 7x2 – 5x – 9) + (6x3 + 7x2 – 5x – 9) = 12x6 + 14x5 – 10x4 – 18x3 – 12x5 – 14x4 + 10x3 + 18x2 + 6x3 + 7x2 – 5x –9 = 12x6 + (14x5 – 12x5) + (–10x4 – 14x4) + (–18x3 + 10x3 + 6x3) + (18x2 + 7x2) – 5x –9 = 12x6 + 2x5 – 24x4 – 2x3 + 25x2 – 5x –9 3x(x + 5)2 – 8y(x + 5)3 + 7z(x + 5)2 = (x + 5)2(3x) + (x + 5)2 (–8y(x + 5)) + (x + 5)2(7z) = (x + 5)2(3x – 8y(x + 5) + 7z) = (x + 5)2(3x – 8yx – 40y + 7z) 398. a. c. c. 36x 4 – 90x3 – 18x = 18x(2x3) + 18x(–5x2) + 18x(–1) = 18x(2x3 – 5x2 –1) 388. d. c. 125x3 – 405x2 = 5x2(25x) + 5x2(–81) = 5x2(25x – 81) 193 . First. 5x(2x + 3) – 7(2x + 3) = (2x + 3)(5x – 7) 394. a. c. 6(4x + 1) – 3y(1 + 4x) + 7z(4x + 1) = 6(4x + 1) – 3y(4x + 1) + 7z(4x + 1) = (6 – 3y + 7z)(4x + 1) 396. a. simplify the equation by rearranging and combining like terms: (5x + 1)(2y + 2) = 10xy + 12 10xy + 2y + 10x + 2 = 10xy + 12 2y + 10x + 2 = 12 10x + 2y = 10 5x + y = 5 384. 36 – 8x4y2z(2w – 1)3 – 16x2y4z3(2w – 1)3 + 12x4y4z(2w–1)4 = 4x2y2z(2w – 1)3[2x2] + 4x2y2z(2w – 1)3[–4y2z2] + 4x2y2z(2w – 1)3[3x2y2(2w – 1)] = 4x2y2z(2w – 1)3[2x2 – 4y2z2 + 3x2y2(2w – 1)] = 4x2y2z(2w – 1)3[2x2 – 4y2z2 + 6x2y2w – 3x2y2] 81x2 = 9(4) – 9(9x2) = 9(4 – 9x2) 391. c. 5x(6x – 5) + 7(5 – 6x) = 5x(6x – 5) – 7(6x – 5) = (5x – 7)(6x – 5) 395. 5x2 + 49 cannot be factored further.

b. 4x2 – 12x + 9 = 4x2 – 6x – 6x + 9 = (4x2 – 6x) – (6x – 9) = 2x(2x – 3) – 3(2x – 3) = 2x – 3)(2x – 3) = (2x – 3)2 413. b. a. 6x2 – 24 = 6(x2) – 6(4) = 6(x2 –4) = 6((x)2 – (2)2) = 6(x – 2)(x + 2) 407. b. b. 32x5 – 162x = 2x(16x4 – 81) = 2x[(4x2)2 – 92] = 2x(4x2 – 9)(4x2 + 9) = 2x[(2x)2 – 32](4x2 + 9) = 2x(2x – 3)(2x + 3) (4x2 + 9) 408. x2 402. 144 – y2 = 122 – y2 = (12 – y)(12 + y) 403. 1 – 6x2 + 9x 4 = 1 – 3x2 – 3x2 + 9x 4 = (1 – 3x2) – 3x2(1 – 3x2) = (1 – 3x2)(1 – 3x2) = (1 – 3x2)2 416. 9x2(3 + 10x) – 24x(10x + 3) + 16(3 + 10x) = 9x2(3 + 10x) – 24x(3 + 10x) + 16(3 + 10x) = (3 + 10x)(9x2 – 24x + 16) = (3 + 10x)(9x2 – 12x – 12x + 16) = (3 + 10x)(3x(3x – 4) – 4(3x –4) = (3 + 10x)(3x – 4)(3x – 4) = (3 + 10x)(3x – 4)2 415.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 400. 9x2 – 25 = (3x)2 – (5)2 = (3x –5)(3x + 5) 405. a. a. 4x2 + 1 cannot be factored further. –22a3bc2(d – 2)3(1 – e)2 + 55a2b2c2(d – 2)2(1 – e) – 44a2bc4(d – 2)(1 – e) = 11a2bc2(d – 2)(1 – e)[–2a(d – 2)2(1– e)] + 11a2bc2(d – 2)(1 – e)[5b(d – 2)] + 11a2bc2 (d – 2)(1 – e)[ –4c2] = 11a2bc2(d – 2)(1 – e)[ –2a(d – 2)2(1– e) + 5b(d – 2) –4c2] 1 + 2x + x2 = x2 + 2x + 1 = x2 + x + x + 1 = (x2 + x) + (x + 1) = x(x + 1) + (x + 1) = (x + 1)(x + 1) = (x + 1)2 412. b. x2 + 2x –8 = x2 + 4x – 2x – 8 = (x2 + 4x) – x(x2 + 7x) – 9x3(x2 + 7x) = (x – 9x3)(x2 + 7x) = [x(1 – 9x2)][x(x + 7)] = x(1 – (3x)2) x(x + 7) = x(1 – 3x)(1 + 3x) x(x + 7) = x2(1 – 3x)(1 + 3x)(x + 7) 194 (2x + 8) = x(x + 4) – 2(x + 4) = (x + 4)(x – 2) 418. 411. b. c. 28x(5 – x) – 7x3(5 – x) = (28x – 7x3)(5 – x) = 7x(4 – x2)(5 – x) = 7x(22 – x2)(5 – x) = 7x(2 – x)(2 + x)(5 – x) 409. Set 26 (Page 71) 401. b. a. d. x2 – 9x + 20 = x2 – 5x – 4x + 20 = (x2 – 5x) – (4x – 20) = x(x – 5) – 4(x – 5) = (x – 4)(x – 5) . – 36 = x2 – 62 = (x – 6)(x + 6) 75x4 + 30x3 + 3x2 = 3x2[25x2 + 10x + 1] = 3x2[25x2 + 5x + 5x + 1] = 3x2[5x(5x + 1) + (5x + 1)] = 3x2[(5x + 1) (5x + 1)] = 3x2(5x + 1)2 414. c. a. a. 404. a. Set 27 (Page 72) 417. 121x4 – 49z2 = (11x2)2 – (7z)2 = (11x2 – 7z)(11x2 + 7z) 406. c. 8x7 – 24x4 + 18x = 2x(4x6 – 12x3 + 9) = 2x[4x6 – 6x3 – 6x3 + 9] = 2x[2x3(2x3 – 3) – 3(2x3 – 3)] = [(2x3 – 3)(2x3 – 3)] = 2x(2x3 – 3)2 x2(3x – 5) + 9(5 – 3x) = x2(3x – 5) – 9(3x – 5) = (x2 – 9)(3x – 5) = (x – 3)(x + 3)(3x – 5) 410. c.

a. b. 2x3 + 6x2 + 4x = 2x(x2 + 3x + 2) = 2x(x2 + x + 2x + 2) = 2x(x(x + 1) + 2(x + 1) = 2x(x + 2)(x + 1) 424. 18(x2 + 6x + 8) – 2x2(x2 + 6x + 8) = (x2 + 6x + 8)[18 – 2x2] = (x2 + 6x + 8)[2(9 – x2)] = (x2 + 4x + 2x + 8)[2(32 – x2)] = (x(x+ 4) +2(x + 4))[2(3 – x)(3 + x)] = 2(x + 2)(x + 4)(3 – x)(3 + x) –27x4 + 27x3 –3x2(9x2 – = – 6x – 3x + 2) 6x2 –3x2(9x2 – 9x + 2) = 431. x2(x + 1) – 5x(x + 1) + 6(x + 1) = (x + 1)(x2 – 5x + 6) = (x + 1)(x2 – 2x – 3x + 6) = (x + 1)[x(x – 2) – 3(x – 2)] = (x + 1)(x – 3) (x – 2) 427. a. a. 9 – 7x – 2x2 = 9 + 2x – 9x – 2x2 = 1(9 + 2x) – x(9 + 2x) = (9 + 2x)(1 – x) 423. c. 6x2(1 – x4) + 13x(1 – x4) + 6(1 – x4) = (1 – x4) [6x2 + 13x + 6] = (1 – x4)[6x2 + 4x + 9x + 6] = (12 – (x2)2)[2x(3x + 2) + 3(3x + 2)] = (1 – x2)(1 + x2)(2x + 3)(3x + 2) = (1 – x)(1 + x)(1 + x2)(2x + 3)(3x + 2) 2x2(x2– 4) – x(x2 – 4) + (4 – x2) = 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 – 4) – (x2 – 4) = (x2 – 4)[2x2 – x – 1] = (x2– 4)[2x2 – 2x + x – 1] = (x2 – 4)[2x(x – 1) + (x –1)] = (x2 – 4)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = (x– 2)(x + 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) 195 . c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 419. b. 12x2 – 37x – 10 = 12x2 + 3x – 40x – 10 = 3x(4x + 1) – 10(4x + 1) = (3x – 10)(4x + 1) 421. a. c. 2x2(16 + x4) + 3x(16 + x4) = (16 + x4) = (16 + x4)[2x2 + 3x + 1] = (16 + x4)[2x2 + 2x + x + 1] = (16 + x4)[2x(x + 1) + (x + 1)] = (16 + x4)(2x + 1)(x + 1) 432. b. 7x2 – 12x + 5 = 7x2 – 5x – 7x + 5 = x(7x – 5) – (7x – 5) = (7x – 5)(x – 1) 422. c. 428. –4x5 + 24x4 – 20x3 = –4x3(x2 – 6x + 5) = –4x3(x2 –x – 5x + 5) = –4x3(x(x – 1) – 5(x –1)) = –4x3(x – 5)(x –1) 425. b. a. = –3x2[(9x2 –6x) – (3x – 2)] = –3x2[3x(3x – 2) – (3x – 2)] = –3x2(3x – 1)(3x – 2) 426. + 11x – 2 = – x + 12x – 2 = – x) + (12x – 2) = x(6x – 1) + 2(6x – 1) = (x + 2)(6x – 1) 6x2 (6x2 27(x – 3) + 6x(x – 3) – x2(x – 3) = (x – 3)(27 + 6x – x2) = (x – 3)(27 + 6x + x2) = –(x – 3)(x2 – 6x – 27) = –(x – 3)(x2 – 9x + 3x – 27) = –(x – 3)(x(x – 9) + 3(x – 9)) = –(x – 3)(x + 3)(x – 9) 429. 6x2 420. (x2 + 4x + 3)x2 + (x2 + 4x + 3)3x + 2(x2 + 4x + 3) = (x2 + 4x + 3)[x2 + 3x + 2] = (x2 + 3x + x + 3)[x2 + x + 2x + 2] = (x(x + 3) + (x + 3))[x(x + 1) + 2(x + 1)] = ((x + 1)(x + 3))[(x + 2)(x + 1)] = (x + 1)2(x + 2)(x + 3) 430. c.

First. set 3 each factor equal to zero and solve for x. First. 436. set each of the factors equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are –6 and 6. Now. a. –2. 438. and x + 2. d. d. 437. so there is no x-value that makes the expression equal to zero. Now. a. Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are –2 and 2. Begin by factoring. and 5. Now. set each of these factors equal to zero and solve for x. First. the sum is positive. 434. x – 2. c. Since both terms are positive. The zeros of the polynomial are 4 and 5. 5 196 . factor the polynomial: further. a. c. 4 5x( 2 x + 7) – ( 2 x + 7) = (5x –1)( 2 x + 7) 3 3 3 The factors are 5x – 1 and 2 x + 7. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x. the polynomial: x2 – 9x + 20 = x2 – 5x– 4x + 20 = (x2 – 5x) – (4x – 20) = x(x – 5) = (x – 4)(x – 5) Now. First. factor the polynomial: 28x(5 – x) – 7x3(5 – x) = (28x – 7x3)(5 – x) = 7x(4 – x2)(5 – x) = 7x(22 – x2)(5 – x) = 7x(2 – x)(2 + x)(5 – x) There are four factors: 7x. factor the polynomial: 9x2 – 25 = (3x)2 – (5)2 = (3x – 5)(3x + 5) The factors are 3x – 5 and 3x + 5. Begin by factoring the polynomial: 5x(2x + 3) – 7(2x + 3) = (2x + 3)(5x – 7) The factors are 2x + 3 and 5x – 7. factor the polynomial: 6x2 – 24 = 6(x2) – 6(4) = 6(x2 – 4) = 6((x)2) = 6(x – 2)(x + 2) The factors are 6. Begin by factoring the polynomial: x2 – 36 = x2 – 62 = (x – 6)(x + 6) Now. The zeros of the polynomial are 0. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to find that the zeros of the polynomial are 130 and – 1 . b. First. c. 2. factor the polynomial: 439. and 5 – x. 5 441. Now. First. First. Now. 2 + x. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to find 3 7 that the zeros of the polynomial are – 2 and 5 . set each factor on the right side of the string of equalities equal to zero and solve for x. 2 – x. d. note that 5x2 + 49 cannot be factored 75x4 + 30x3 + 3x2 = 3x2[25x2 + 10x + 1] = 3x2[25x2 + 5x + 5x + 1] = 3x2[5x(5x + 1) + (5x + 1)] = 3x2[(5x + 1) (5x + 1)] = 3x2(5x + 1)2 The factors are 3x2 and (5x + 1)2.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 28 (Page 74) 433. factor the polynomial: 12x2 – 37x – 10 = 12x2 + 3x – 40x – 10 = 3x(4x + 1) – 10(4x + 1) = (3x – 10)(4x + 1) The factors are 3x – 10 and 4x + 1. 440. Now. The zeros of the polynomial are 1 and – 221 . 442. 435. The 5 5 zeros of the polynomial are – 3 and 3 . set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are 0 and – 1 .

and x + 1. b. d. First. Now. and x – 1. Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x. 2 448. factor the polynomial: Set 29 (Page 75) 449. The zeros of the polynomial are – 9 and 1. and x + 1. set each factor equal to zero. Now. –3. and record the sign of the expression above each: 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 – 4) + (4 – x2) = 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 – 4) – (x2 – 4) = (x2 – 4)[2x2 – x – 1] = (x2 – 4)[2x2 – 2x + x – 1] = (x2 – 4)[2x(x – 1) + (x – 1] = (x2 – 4) (2x +1)(x – 1) = (x– 2)(x + 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) Now. and 3. First. 2 444. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are –6 and 6. –4x5 + 24x4 – 20x3 = –4x3(x2 – 6x + 5) = –4x3(x2 – x – 5x + 5) = –4x3(x(x – 1) – 5(x – 1)) = –4x3(x – 5)(x – 1) The three factors are –4x3. To this end. Doing so requires that we first factor the polynomial: x2 – 36 = x2 – 62 = (x – 6)(x + 6) Next.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 443. and 0. 2x + 1. choose a real number in each of the subintervals. 445. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to find that zeros of the polynomial: 0. set each of the four factors equal to zero and solve for x. c. factor the polynomial: 18(x2 + 6x + 8) – 2x2(x2 + 6x + 8) = (x2 + 6x + 8)[18 – 2x2] = (x2 + 6x + 8)[2(9 – x2)] = (x2 + 4x + 2x + 8)[2(32 – x2)] = (x(x + 4) + 2(x + 4))[2(3 – x)(3 + x)] = 2(x + 2)(x + 4)(3 – x)(3 + x) Set each of the four factors equal to zero and solve for x. factor the polynomial: 2x3 + 6x2 + 4x = 2x(x2 + 3x + 2) = 2x(x2 + x + 2x + 2) 2x(x(x + 1) + 2(x + 1) = 2x(x + 2)(x + 1) There are three factors: 2x. factor the polynomial: 447. –2. Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are –2. and – 1 . we form a number line. Now. The strategy is to determine the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. x – 5. First. The zeros of the polynomial are –4. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. x + 2. Solve for x to find that zeros of the polynomial: –1 and – 1 . –2. First. b. 2 + –6 – 6 + 197 . b. Begin by factoring the polynomial: 9 –7x – 2x2 = 9 + 2x – 9x – 2x2 = 1(9 + 2x) –x(9 + 2x) = (9 + 2x)(1 – x) The factors are 9 + 2x and 1 – x. 1. –1. Begin by factoring the polynomial: 2x2(16 + x4) + 3x(16 + x4) + (16 + x4) = (16 + x4)[2x2 + 3x + 1] = (16 + x4)[2x2 + 2x + x + 1] = (16 + x 4)[2x(x + 1) + (x + 1)] = (16 + x4)(2x + 1)(x + 1) The three factors are 16 + x4. d. 446 a. 2. and 5. The zeros of the polynomial are 1.

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Since the inequality does not include “equals. b. Form a number line. Begin by factoring the polynomial. note that 5x2 + 49 cannot be factored further. Determine the x-values that make the that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. the solution set is (–∞. Solve for x to find that the zeros of the polynomial: –2 and 2. 5 ]. ∞). Therefore. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are – 5 and 5 . Now. factor the polynomials: 9x2 – 25 = (3x)2 – (5)2 = (3x – 5)(3x + 5) Next. –6)∪(6. 3 3 451. factor the polynomial: 6x2 – 24 = 6(x2) – 6(4) = 6(x2 –4) = 6((x)2 – (2)2) = 6(x –2)(x + 2) Next. 453. ∞). The zeros of the polynomial: – 3 and 7 . if possible. the sum is positive for every value of x. Moreover. First. and record the sign of the expression above each: expression on the left side equal to zero. the solution set is the empty set. To this end. c. 450. The solution set is [– 5 . and record the sign of the expression above each: + –2 – 2 + + –5 3 – 5 3 + Since the inequality includes “equals. However. a. Determine the x-values that make the 452. and record the sign of the expression above each: expression on the left side equal to zero.” we include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. Next 2 5 assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. assess the sign of the 3 3 expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Now. a. Doing so requires that we first factor the polynomial: 5x(2x + 3) – 7(2x + 3) = (2x + 3)(5x + 7) Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x.” include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero.” we do not include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. The solution set is (–∞. assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. First. choose a real number in each of the duly formed subintervals. Therefore. set each factor equal to zero. The strategy is to determine the x-values Since the inequality includes “equals. since both terms are positive for any value of x. choose a real number in each of the subintervals. + –3 2 – 7 5 + 198 . form a number line. –2]∪[2. Find the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. choose a real number in each of the subintervals. Form a number line.

5 Assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values: Form a number line. ∞). Now. set each factor equal to zero. 2]∪(5. the solution set is(–∞. Assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. c.” so we include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. The solution set is(–∞. First. and record the sign of the expression above each: Since the inequality includes “equals. then solve for x to find the zeros of the polynomial: 0 and – 1 . Determine the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. namely {– 1 . choose a real number in each of the subintervals. c. Doing so requires that we factor the polynomial: 75x4 + 30x3 + 3x2 = 3x2[25x2 + 10x + 1] = 3x2[25x2 + 5x + 5x + 1] = 3x2[5x(5x + 1) + (5x + 1)] = 3x2[(5x + 1) + (5x + 1)] = 3x2(5x + 1)2 Set each factor equal to zero. which are 0. and record the sign of the expression above each: + – 21 2 – 1 5 + The inequality includes “equals. Find the x-values that make the expression each of the subintervals. The zeros of the polynomial are 1 and 5 – 221 . 1 ]. Form a number line.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Since the inequality does not include “equals. factor the polynomial: 5x( 2 x + 7) – ( 2 + 7) = (5x – 1)( 2 x + 7) 3 3 3 Next.” include the values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero.” so we include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. and record the sign of the expression above each: + –2 – 0 + 2 – 5 + on the left side equal to zero. and 5. As such. The solution set is [– 221 . Solve for x to find the zeros of the polynomial. 0}. c. the solution set consists of only the zeros of the polynomial. Since every x-value that is not a zero of the polynomial results in a positive quantity. factor the polynomial: 28x(5 – x) – 7x3(5 – x) = (28x – 7x3)(5 – x) = 7x(4 – x2)(5 – x) = 7x(22 – x2)(5 – x) = 7x(2 – x)(2 + x)(5 – x) Next. To this end. To do this. – 3 )∪( 7 . 5 199 . 456. determine the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. choose a real number in + –1 5 + 0 + The inequality includes “equals. ∞). 5 455. choose a real number in each subinterval. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x. –2)∪[0. 2. First.” do not include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. we form a number line. –2. 2 5 454.

To this end. The strategy is to determine the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. d. find the x-values that make the expres- – –9 2 + 1 – sion on the left side equal to zero. Now.1). 130 ). Form a number line. we assess the sign of 4 the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values.” so we exclude those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. Find the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. we form a number line.” so we do not include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. To this end.” we exclude those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. 4 459. choose a real number in each subinterval. form a number line. Determine the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. Therefore. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Begin by factoring the polynomial: x2 – 9x + 20 = x2 – 5x – 4x + 20 = (x2 – 5x) – (4x – 20) = x(x – 5) – 4(x – 5) = (x – 4)(x – 5) Set each factor equal to zero. 2 460. choose a real number in each subinterval. Now. which are 4 and 5. 458. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are 130 and – 1 . b. we first factor the polynomial: 9 – 7x – 2x2 = 9 + 2x – 9x – 2x2 = 1(9 + 2x) – x(9 + 2x) = (9 + 2x)(1 –x) Next. then solve for x to find the zeros of the polynomial. d. d. choose a real number in each subinterval. and record the sign of the expression above each. First. First. The solution set is (– 9 . Now. as follows: The inequality does not include “equals. The solution set is(– 1 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 457. choose a real + –1 4 – 10 3 + 200 . and record the sign of the expression above each: Because the inequality does not include “equals. we assess the sign of the 2 expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values.5). To do this. assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Now. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are –2. Doing so requires that we factor the polynomial: 12x2 –37x – 10 = 12x2 + 3x – 40x – 10 = 3x(4x + 1) – 10(4x + 1) = (3x – 10)(4x + 1) Next. –1. and 0. the solution set is (4. factor the polynomial: 2x3 + 6x2 + 4x = 2x(x2 + 3x + 2) = 2x(x2 + x + 2x + 2) = 2x(x(x + 1) + 2(x + 1)) = 2x(x + 2)(x + 1) Next. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to find the zeros of the polynomial which are – 9 and 1. To this end. and record the sign of the expression above each: + 4 – 5 + The inequality does not include “equals. we form a number line.

First. First. choose a real number in each subinterval. choose a real number in each subinterval. The zeros of the polynomial are – 1 and – 1 . a. –1]∪[0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– number in each subinterval. To this end. c. 2. – 1 )∪(1. The solution set is[–2. 5).” so we include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. form a number line. and 5. and record the sign of the expression above each: 462. 461. –2. a. Determine the x-values that make the The inequality includes “equals. factor the polynomial: 2x2(16 + x4) + 3x)16 + x4) + (16 + x4) = (16 + x4)[2x2 + 3x + 1] = (16 + x4)[2x2 +2x + x + 1] = (16 + x4)[2x(x + 1) + (x + 1)] =(16 + x4)(2x + 1)(x + 1) Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x. The solution set is(–∞. This requires that we factor the polynomial: 2x2(x2 –4) – x(x2 – 4) + (4 – x2) = 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 – 4) – (x2 – 4) = (x2 – 4)[2x2 –x –1] = (x2 – 4)[2x2 – 2x + x – 1] = (x2 – 4)[2x(x – 1) + (x – 1)] = (x2 – 4)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to find the zeros of the polynomial are 1. 2 Assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these 201 . factor the polynomial: –4x5 + 24x4 – 20x3 = 4x3(x2 – 6x + 5) = –4x3(x2 – x – 5x + 5) = –4x3(x(x – 1) – 5(x – 1)) = –4x3(x – 5)(x – 1) Next. ∞).” so we exclude those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. The zeros of the polynomial are 0. and record the sign of the expression above each: + 2 – –1 2 + 1 – 2 + + 0 – 1 + 5 – The inequality does not include “equals. expression on the left side equal to zero. 2). and – 1 . we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values: We form a number line. determine the x-values that make the – –2 + –1 – 0 + expression on the left side equal to zero. Find the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. The solution set is (–2. Assess the sign of the expression on 2 the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. 0]∪[1. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x. First.” we include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. Now. and record the sign of the expression above each: Since the inequality includes “equals. 2 463. 1.

form a number line. choose a real number in each of the subinterval. –2. factor the polynomial: 18(x2 + 6x + 8) – 2x2(x2 + 6x + 8) = (x2 + 6x + 8)[18 – 2x2] = (x2 + 6x + 8)[2(9 – x2)] = (x2 + 4x + 2x + 8)[2(32 – x2)] = (x(x + 4) + 2(x + 4))[2(3 – x)(3 + x)] = 2(x + 2)(x + 4)(3 – x)(3 + x) Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to find the zeros of the polynomial. choose a real number in each subinterval. A rational expression is undefined at any value of x that makes the denominator equal to zero even if the corresponding factor cancels with one in the numerator. x + 8x x3 – 64x 2 y2 – 64 The inequality includes “equals.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– values: Form a number line. – 1 ]. a. z2 + 2z – 15 = (z + 5)(z – 3) = z + 5 466. as follows: Section 4—Rational Expressions Set 30 (Page 78) 465. the values of x that must be excluded from the domain are the solutions of the equation x3 – 4x = 0. d. 472. and –6. 2 464. First. b. –3. a. and record the sign of the expression above each. and record the sign of the expression above each: 1 2x – 12 471. Find the x-values that make the expression z(z –4)(z + 4) + = z(z 8 4) 8(z – 4) (y – 8)(y + 8) (y – 8)(y + 8) = –(y – 8) = –(y + 8–y x(x + 8) x(x2 – 64) z(z2 – 16) 8) = = x(x + 8) x(x + 8)(x – 8) = 1 x–8 2x2 + 4x 4x3 – 16x2 – 48x 2x(x + 2) 4x(x – 6)(x + 2) = = 2x(x + 2) 4x(x2 – 4x – 12) 1 2(x – 6) = = on the left side equal to zero. 8z – 32 = = 8(z – 4) 468. the expression is defined for any x in the set (–∞. 470. The domain of a rational expression is the – –4 + –3 – –2 + 3 – set of all real numbers that do not make the denominator equal to zero. The solution set is(–4. Therefore. c. b.” we exclude those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. c. 8 – y = 469. To this end.0) ∪(0. Because the inequality does not include “equals. –5. Observe that the denominator factors as 4x3 + 44x2 + 120x = 4x(x2 + 11x + 30) = 4x(x + 5)(x + 6). and 2.∞). the solution set is [–1.–2) ∪(2. Setting each factor equal to zero shows that the rational expression is undefined at x = 0. –3)∪(–2. 0. For this function.–2)∪(–2. 3). which are –4. Assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Factoring the left side yields the equivalent equation x3 – 4x = x(x2 – 4) = x(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 The solutions are x = –2.” so we include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. 25(–x)4 x(5x2)2 z3 – 16z 2z2 – z – 15 (2z + 5)(z – 3) 2z + 5 + –1 – – + 1 2 = 25x4 x 25x4 = 1 x 467. a. 202 . d. and 3. Hence.

0. 8a2 + 2a – 1 = (4a – 1)(2a + 1) = 2a + 1 480. a. c. both 4 and –4 make the denominator equal to zero. Any value of x that makes the denominator (4x – 45) + (2x – 9) – (3x + 1) x–9 4x – 45 + 2x – 9 – 3x – 1 x–9 equal to zero. c. t(t + 2) – t = t(t + 2) – t(t + 2) = –2t t(t + 2) 4 2 = = (x –1)(5x + 2)(x – 1) (x –1)(5x + 2)(2x + 1) = –2 t+2 487. b. even if it also makes the numerator equal to zero. x 4x = 1 4 = 5 20 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 473. 476. b. 5x2(x – 1) – 3x(x – 1) – 2(x – 1) 10x2(x – 1) + 9x(x – 1) + 2(x – 1) (x – 1)(5x2 – 3x – 2) (x – 1)(10x2 + 9x + 2) x–1 2x + 1 3 – 2x (x + 2)(x – 1) 1–x ( x – 1)(x + 2) – = = 2–x (x – 1)(x + 2) –(x – 1) (x – 1)(x + 2) 4s s2r3 = 3 – 2x – (2 – x) (x – 1)(x + 2) 1 x+ 2 = =– = 484. To determine these values for the given expression. 483. For the given expression. b. 2x – 9 x–9 – 3x + 1 x–9 = = 475. renders a rational expression undefined. d. Any value of x that makes the denominator = 3x – 55 x–9 482. b. even if it also makes the numerator equal to zero. and 1 all make the given expression undefined. Note that the values –4. x 2x + 1 1 2x –1 – 1 2x – 1 2x + 1 2x + 1 + + 2x2 4x2 – 1 2x2 4x2 – 1 = = x 2x + 1 2x –1 2x – 1 – x(2x – 1) – 1(2x + 1) + 2x2 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) 4x2 – 3x – 1 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) = 2x2 – x – 2x – 1 + 2x2 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) = = (4x + 1)(x – 1) (2x – 1)(2x + 1) 203 . b. 4 sr3 + – 2 rs2 + 2r2 s2r3 4s + 2r2 s2r3 = 2(2s + r2) s2r3 2 x(x – 2) 5 – 2x (x – 2)(x – 1) x x 2 = 2 x(x – 2) (x – 1) (x – 1) – 5 – 2x (x – 2)(x – 1) 2x – 1 – 5x + 2x x(x – 1)(x – 2) = 2(x – 1) – x(5 – 2x) x(x – 1)(x – 2) 2 = = 2x – 3x – 1 x(x – 1)(x – 2) 4 2(t = 2) 4 – 2(t + 2) t(t + 2) = = 486. d. x3 + x2 – 20x = x(x2 + x –20) = x(x + 5)(x – 4) = x+4 x2 + 5x x2 – 16 (x – 4)(x + 4) (x – 4)(x + 4) Set 31 (Page 79) 481. 485. b. renders a rational expression undefined. 4x– 45 x–9 474. provided + that x is not zero. e. 478. d. (2x – 5)(x + 4) – (2x – 5)(x + 1) 9(2x – 5) (2x – 5)((x + 4) – (x + 1)) 9(2x – 5) b2(4a – 1) – 2x (x + 1)(x + 2) + 3 x (x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 1)(x + 2) = = = 1 3 x + 2 – 2x2 + 3(x + 1)(x + 2) x(x + 1)(x + 2) = = x2 + 10x + 8 x(x + 1)(x + 2) = 3 9 x + 2 – 2x2 + 3x2 + 3x + 6x + 6 x(x + 1)(x + 2) 488. a. we factor the denominator as x3 + 3x2 – 4x = x(x2 + 3x – 4) = x(x + 4) (x – 1). 5a ab3 + 2a ab3 = 5a + 2a ab3 = 7a ab3 = 7 b3 equal to zero. 6x3 – 12x 24x2 4ab2 – b2 = 6x(x2 – 2) 4 6 x x = x 4– 2 x b2 2 1 x(x + 1) – 2x (x + 1)(x + 2) x x + 3 x = 1 x(x + 1) (x + 2) (x + 2) 479. a. b. 477.

c. x2 – x – 12 3x2 – x – 2 1 3x2 – 10x – 8 + x+1 x+5 = –x(x + 5) (x – 5)(x + 5) (x + 1)(x – 5) (x + 5)(x 5) (3x2 – 10x – 8) = = (x – 4)(x + 3) (3x + 2)(x – 1) x2 x – 12 3x2 – x – 2 –x(x + 5) + (x + 1)(x – 5) (x – 5)(x + 5) x – 9x (x – 5)(x + 5) 2 = –x2 – 5x + x2 – 4x – 5 (x – 5)(x + 5) = x(x – 9) (x – 5)(x + 5) 1 (3x + 2)(x – 4) = 494. x x2 –10x + 24 – 3 x–6 +1= x (x – 6)(x – 4) – 3 x–6 +1 8a4 9 – a2 5a2 + 13a – 6 24a – 60a2 = 8a4 (3 – a)(3 + a) (5a –2)(a + 3) 12a(5a – 2) = x (x – 6)(x – 4) – 3(x – 4) (x – 6)(x – 4) + (x – 6)(x – 4) (x – 6)(x – 4) = (5a – 2)(a + 3) 12a(2 – 5a) 2a3 –3(3 – a) = 8a4 (3 – a)(3 + a) = x – 3(x – 4) + (x – 6)(x – 4) (x – 6)(x – 4) = x – 3x + 12 + x2 – 10x + 24 (x – 6)(x – 4) = 493. b. –x2 + 5x (x – 5)2 –x x–5 + x+1 x+5 = –x(x – 5) (x – 5)2 + + x+1 x+5 12x2y –18xy –24xy2 56y3 = (12)(–24)x3y3 (–18)(56)xy4 = = = = 501. 6z + 12 4z + 3 8z + 6 4z + 3 4 + –1 2z – 6 4z + 3 = 6z + 12 + 2z – 6 4z + 3 –1 = x(x + 3) + (x – 1)(x + 3) – (3x – 3) x(x + 3) x2 + 3x + x2 + 2x – 3 – 3x + 3 x(x + 3) 2x2 + 2x x(x + 3) = = = 2(4z + 3) 4z + 3 4 =2 = –1 1 2 4 x+5 = 2x(x + 1) x(x + 3) = 2(x + 1) x+3 491. x2 – 12x + 36 (x – 6)(x – 4) = (x – 6)(x – 6) (x – 6)(x + 4) = x –6 x+4 499. 505. 1+ x–1 x – 3x – 3 x2 + 3x =1+ – x–1 x – 3x – 3 x(x + 3) = = (y + 4)(y + 1) (y – 1)2(y + 1) –1 = y+4 (y – 1)2 –1 x(x + 3) x(x + 3) + (x – 1)(x + 3 x(x + 3) 3x – 3 x(x + 3) = 490. 2(x 6)2 x+5 9x2y3 14x –(5 + x) 4(x – 6) 21y 15xy2 10x 12y3 = = 3x 4y 204 . d. 2x2 (x – 1)(x2 + 1) x–3 2x3 x2 – 64 x2 –9 x2 – 3x 4x x–3 4x 2 = x3 2x3 x(x – 3) 6x2 + 48x x2 – 64 2x – 6 2x – 6 = x2 –9 6x2 + 48x = = x2 – 1 (x2 –1)(x2 + 1) 2x –2 (x2 – 1)(x2 + 1) 2 = = 2x2 – x2 –1 + x2 – 1 (x2 – 1)(x2 + 1) 2(x – 1) (x2 –1)(x2 +1) 2 = 2 x2 + 1 (x – 8)(x + 8) 2(x – 3) (x – 3)(x + 3) 6x(x +8) = = x –8 3x(x + 3) –(x – 6) 2 (9)(21)(10)x3y4 (14)(15)(12)x2y5 = 504. c. a. – 7y –3 (y – 1)(y + 1) (y – 1) (y – 1) + + 5 y+1 5 y+1 = 3y + 2 (y – 1)2 (y – 1) (y – 1)2 2 2 y+1 y+1 x–1 x– 2 – 3x – 4 x2 – 2x = x–1 x–2 – 3x – 4 x(x – 2) 2 = x(x – 1) x(x – 2) – = – 7y – 3 (y – 1)(y + 1) = 3x – 4 x(x – 2) 2 = x(x – 1) – (3x – 4) x(x – 2) = x – x – 3x + 4 x(x – 2) (3y + 2)(y + 1) – ( 7y – 3)(y – 1) + 5(y – 1) (y – 1)2(y + 1) = = = x – 4x + 4 x(x – 2) = (x – 2) x(x – 2) 2 – x–2 x 3y2 + 5y + 2 – (7y2 – 10y + 3) + 5(y2 – 2y + 1 (y – 1)2(y + 1) 3y2 + 5y + 2 – 7y2 + 10y – 3 + 5y2 – 10y + 5 (y – 1)2(y +1) y2 + 5y + 4 (y – 1)2(y + 1) 496.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 489. 4 –(x + 5) x–3 x–1 = – x–3 = x+1 x–3 Set 32 (Page 81) 3 2 y3z4 4x3y5z4 2y5z 497. a. b. 4x 3y 2x5 = 2x5z3 = x2 z 498. d. x –3 + 3 – x = x – 3 + –(x – 3) = x – 3 – x – 3 x+5 x+5 = 492. 503. c. 2x2 x4 –1 1 x +1 2 x+3 (3x + 2)2(x – 1) 1 x2 –1 – = 1 x2 –1 2 + 1 x2 + 1 = – 2x2 (x2 –1)(x2 + 1) x2 + 1 (x – 1)(x2 + 1) 2 – + + 502. a. a. a. c. 9x – 2 8 – 4x 10 – 5x 2 – 9x = 9x – 2 4(2 – x) 5(2 – x) –(9x – 2) = 2x2 7y 5 –4 500. d. a. 3y + 2 (y – 1)2 495. c. b.

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 506. b. b. Set 33 (Page 82) –(x – 3) x+1 –(x –3) x+1 2x2 – 3x – 5 x–3 513. b. b. a2 – b2 2a2 – 3ab + b2 a –b 2a2 – 3ab + b2 (a – b)(a + b) (2a – b)(a – b) (a + b) (2a – b) 2 2 = = 1– 1 4 (2x – 5)(x + 1) x–3 3 4 9 16 1 4 + 2 5 2 – 1 4 2 = 1 – (3 4 9 16 ) 1 4 9 16 ) + [–(2x – 5)] = (2x + 1) = –(2x + 1) ab – 3b2 a2 + 2ab + b2 a + 2ab + b ab – 3b2 2 2 2 10 – 1 4 3 4 1 3 16 9 81 16 = 1 – (3 4 1 4 + 4 3 81 16 = + 81 16 1 –(2x – 5) 1– 1– = 514. c. (4x2 – 8x – 5) (2x + 1)(2x – 5) (2x + 1)(2x – 5) (2x + 5) 509. x –1 x2 + x 2 512. b. a. 4x2 + 4x + 1 4x2 – 4x 2x2 – 2x 2x2 + 3x + 1 2x2 + 3x + 1 2x2 – 2x 511. d. (x – 3) x + 3x – 18 x x (x – 3)(x + 6) = (x – 3) x x+6 x x + 3x –18 2 3x(x + 2) – (x + 2) x–5 = (3x – 1)(x + 2) x–5 = –(x + 2)(x + 5) –(5 – x)(5 + x) 3x – 1 (x – 3) = 205 . 2 3 3 4 + – = = 17 12 1 4 4= (2a – b)(a – 3b) a(a + b) (a + b)(a + b) b(a – 3b) = 3x2 + 6x x–5 3x(x + 2) x–5 + – 2+x 5–x x+2 x–5 3x – 1 25 – x2 = = = (2a – b)(a – 3b) a(a + b) (a + b)(a + b) b(a – 3b) = (a – 3b) a (5 – x)(5 + x) 3x – 1 –(5 – x)(5 + x) 3x – 1 (a + b)(a + b) b(a – 3b) = 2 (a + b)2 ab 510. + 81 16 =1– 1 = 275 48 17 3 1 4 = 2a2 – 7ab + 3b2 a2 +ab 2a – 7ab + 3b a2 +ab 2 2 + 3 4 1 2 = 8 12 3 4 48 – 16 + 243 48 + – 9 12 2 4 = 515. a. b. 2x + 1 – x2 x +x–2 x2 – x (x +2)(x – 1) x(x –1) 2 = = (x – 1)(x + 1) x(x + 1) (x – 1) x 2 –(x – 1) x+2 x2 + 5x + 6 x+2 (x + 2)(x + 3) (x – 2)(x + 2) x(x + 2) 2x2 + 7x + 3 4x2 + 4x + 1 6x2 + 5x + 1 3x2 + x x2 – 4 x2 + 2x = 2(x + 1) (1 –x)(1 + x) (x + 2) x (2x + 1)(x + 3) (2x + 1)(2x + 1) (3x + 1)(2x + 1) x(3x + 1) = –2(x + 2) x2 = x–2 x2 508. = 4x2 + 4x + 1 4x2 – 4x x2 – x 4y 15x2y2 3x2 + 3x 25x4y4 4xy(x +1) 10xy2 2x – 2 3x2 + 3x 15x2y2 10xy2 2(x – 1) = x2 – x 4y 15x2y2 3x(x + 1) 10xy2 2x – 2 = (2x + 1)2 4x(x – 1) 2x(2x – 2) (2x + 1)(x + 1) = = = x(x – 1) 4y 25 x3y3 4(x + 1) = (2x + 1)(x – 2) 2(x – 1)(x + 1) 507.

a. – – 1 x2 x2 x2 h= – 1 x2 (x + h)2 (x + h)2 a–2 a+2 a–2 a+2 – + a+2 a–2 a+2 a–2 = (a + 2)(a + 2) (a + 2)(a – 2) (a + 2)(a + 2) (a + 2)(a – 2) h= h= (a – 2)(a – 2) (a + 2)(a – 2) (a – 2)(a – 2) (a + 2)(a – 2) – + = x2 – (x + h)2 x2(x + h)2 –h(2x + h) x2(x + h)2 1 h h= = + + 3 x 5 4x 1 b 1 a x2 – x2 – 2hx – h2 x2(x +h)2 (a – 2)(a – 2) – (a + 2)(a – 2) (a + 2)(a – 2) (a – 2)(a – 2) + (a + 2)(a + 2) (a + 2)(a – 2) = –(2x + h) x2(x + h)2 517. 1 (x + h)2 1 (x + h)2 521. x 5 x 5 5+x 5 x2 4 – x2 x2 – 4 2x = x –(x2 – 4) 1 1 =– x 2 523. d.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 516. 3 x 5 4x a+ b+ 1 b 1 a = ab b ba a = 1 2 1 2x ab + 1 b a ba + 1 = a b a2 – 4a + 4 – (a2 + 4a + 4) (a + 2)(a – 2) = a2 – 4a + 4 + (a2 + 4a + 4) (a + 2)(a – 2) – – 1 2 1 2x 3 x 4x – – = (a + 2)(a – 2) a2 – 4a + 4 + (a2 + 4a + 4) = – 4x – 4x 4x 1 2 1 2x = a2 – 4a + 4 – (a2 + 4a + 4) (a + 2)(a – 2) 2(6 – x) 3 4x 4x 5 4x = 12 – 2x 5–2 = = – 2a8a 8 = 2 + 522. (a–1 + b–1)–1= a + b 1+ x x+5 x 5 = b+a ab y–x xy –1 = = ab b+a y–x y+x 1– 1– =1– = x+5 x+5 x = 1 – (5 5 x + 5) = – x x+5 = 5 x+5 524. a. 4 4–x2 – 1 1 1 x+2 + x–2 4a a2 + 4 519. 518. d. a. b. 5 (x – 1)3 2 (x – 1)3 5 (x – 1)3 = 4 – x2 – – 2 (x – 1)2 5 (x – 1)4 (x – 1)4 (x – 1)4 2 (x – 1)3 = = = = = (x – 1)4 – – 5 (x – 1)4 (x – 1)4 – 4 – x2 x–2 x+2 (x + 2)( x – 2) + (x + 2)( x – 2) 4 – 4 + x2 4 – x2 x – 2 + x +2 (x + 2)(x – 2) 4 – x2 = (x – 1)4 5(x – 1) – 2(x – 1)2 2(x – 1) –5 –2x + 9x – 7 2x – 7 2 = 2 5x – 5 – 2x2 + 4x – 2 2x – 7 = (x + 2)(x – 2) 2x = –(2x –9x + 7) x–7 = –(2x – 7)(x – 1) 2x – 7 x2 4 – x2 = x2 4 – x2 x2 – 4 2 –1 (x + 2)(x – 2) 2x = – (x – 1) 520. d. x–1 + y–1 = x–1 – y–1 1 x 1 x – + 1 y 1 y = y–x xy y+x xy = xy y+x 206 . a. c.

12 – 9 + 1 6x = 6x – 4 6x = 207 . solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 2 3 2 3 + 1 6x – 3 x = (6 ( 26x) – 3(3) 6x 6x – + = 3x – 2 3x 1 2 3 x 6x = 1 2 6x 4x – 18 = 3x x = 18 This value does not make any of the expressions in the original equation. or any subsequent step of the solution. clear the fractions from all terms in the x+5 x+1 2 x+2 (x = 5)(x – 1) (2x + 3)(x – 1) (x + 5)(x + 2) (x + 1)(x + 2) 2x + 3 x+1 – = – = equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator (LCD). we conclude that both of them are solutions to the original equation. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 3 x – 2(x + 1) (x + 2)(x + 1) = = =2+x 3 x (x + 5)(x + 2) – 2(x + 1) (x +1)(x +2) x2 + 5x + 8 (x + 1)(x + 2) = x2 + 7x + 10 – 2x – 2 (x + 1)(x + 2) x = x (2 + x) 3 = 2x + x2 x2 + 2x – 3= 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 526. First. c. Then.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 525. so we conclude that it is indeed a solution of the original equation. First. b. 530. undefined. Then. x2 + 4x – 5 2x2 + x – 3 2x + 3 x+1 Set 34 (Page 84) – 2 x+2 = 2 x+2 529. a. undefined. x+5 x–3 –x 2 1 x–3 – x+5 x–3 – x(x – 3) x–3 1 x–3 x + 3 = 0 or x – 1 = 0 x = –3 or x = 1 = x + 5 – x + 3x x–3 2 (x – 3) = – (x – 4x – 5) – (x – 5)(x + 1 527. 1– 1– 1– 1– 2 x 2 x – – – 1 6x = = 1 6x ) equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. c. or any subsequent step of the solution. d. d. clear the fractions from all terms in the 3x + 10 x+3 = 3x + 10 x+3 528. 3+ 1 x+3 x+3 x–2 3 2x 3 2x x+3 x–2 + = [ 3(xx+ 33) + 1 x + 3] x+3 x –2 = Since neither of these values makes any of the expressions in the original equation.

1 Neither of these values makes any of the expressions in the original equation. 532. 2 3(2 – x) + 4 – x2 = 6 10 – 3x – x2 = 6 x2 + 3x – 4 = 0 (x + 4)(x – 1) = 0 x = –4. c. First. –2 Because x = 3 makes some of the terms in the original equation undefined. so it cannot be a solution of the equation. Then. c. it is indeed a solution of the original equation. a. clear the fractions from all terms in 2(t – 7)(t – 1) = 2t(t – 1) + (t – 7) = 2(t – 7)(t – 1) 2t2 – 2t + t – 7 = 2t2 – 16 + 14 –t – 7 = –16t + 14 15t =21 t= 21 15 = 7 5 Since this value does not make any of the expressions in the original equation. a. clear the fractions from all terms in 533. we conclude that the only solution of the equation is x = –4. 208 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 531. First. Then. Then. First. First. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 3 x+2 3 x+2 the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: (t – 7)(t – 1) 2t t–7 2t t –7 1 +t – 1 1 (t – 1) the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. so we conclude that both of them are solutions to the original equation. clear the fractions from all terms in the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. Thus. undefined. or any subsequent step of the solution. 534. it cannot be a solution of the equation. or any subsequent step of the solution. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: x(x + 2) x+8 x+2 +1= 6 (2 – x)(2 + x) (2 – x)(2 + x) + 1 (2 – x )(2 + x) = (2 – x)(2 + x) + x(x + 2) 12 x2 + 2x = x(x + 2) 2 x 6 (2 – x)(2 + x) x(x + 8) + 12 = 2(x + 2) x2 + 8 + 12 = 2x + 4 x + 6x + 8 = 0 (x + 4)(x + 2) = 0 x = –4 or x = – 2 Note that x = –2 makes some of the terms in the original equation undefined. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: x x–3 x x–3 2 = 2 (t – 7)(t – 1) (t – 7)(t – 1) = + 2 x – 3 x–3 2 x (t – 7)(t – 1) + x(x – 3) + x(x – 3) = 3 x–3 x(x – 3) x + 2(x – 3) = 3x x2 – x – 6 = 0 (x – 3)( x + 2) = 0 x = 3. Then. Thus. we conclude that the only solution of the equation is x = –2. undefined. clear the fractions from all terms in the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator.

solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 22 2p2 – 9p – 5 Since neither of these values makes any of the expressions in the original equation. both of them are solutions to the original equation. Then.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 535.8 the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques. clear the fractions from all terms in 10 = 4(2x – 1) + 3(2x – 1) 10 = 16x2 – 16x + 4 + 6x – 3 10 = 16x2 – 10x + 1 16x2 – 10x – 9 = 0 (2x + 1)(8x – 9) = 0 x= –1 9 2. clear the fractions from all terms in 537. 538. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 10 (2x – 1)2 10 (2x – 1)2 =4+ 3 2x – 1 3 2x – 1 the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. we conclude that the equation has no solution. 536. Then. or any subsequent step of the solution. d. First. clear the fractions from all terms in the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. First. Then. so the equation has no solution. b. b. d. 1 f(k – 1) 1 f(k – 1) + f(k – 1)pq = [ p1q + 1 ] f(k – 1)pq q pq = f(k – 1) + f)k – 1)p q= q= f(k –1) + f(k – 1)p p f(k –1)(1 + p) p 209 . as follows: x–1 x–5 (2x – 1)2 = 4 (2x – 1)2 + = (2x – 1)2 2 (x – 5) 4 x–5 x–1 x–5 = (x – 5) 4 x–5 x–1=4 x=5 Because this value of x makes the expressions in the original equation undefined. 1 f – 3 2p + 1 = 2 p–5 22 (2p + 1)(p – 5) – 3 2p + 1 = 2 p–5 (2p +1)(p – 5) 22 (2p + 1)(p – 5) 3 2p + 1 – 2 p –5 (2p + 1)(p – 5) = (k – 1) = 1 pq 1 pq = (2p + 1)(p – 5) + 1 q 1 q 22 – 3(p – 5) = 2(2p + 1) 22 – 3p + 15 = 4p + 2 –3p + 37 = 4p + 2 35 = 7p p=5 This value of p makes the expressions in the original equation undefined. undefined. First.

542. 541. Then. d. 540. or any subsequent step of the solution. we conclude that the only solution of the equation is x = –1. clear the fractions from all terms in the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator (LCD). Then. Therefore.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 539. Then. Thus. it cannot be a solution of the equation. it is indeed a solution of the original equation. clear the fractions from all terms in the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. First. Then. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: x x+1 x x+1 – – 3 x+4 3 x+4 = = 3 x2 +5x + 4 3 (x + 1)( x + 4) 3 x + 4] x (x + 1)(x + 4) [ x + 1 – = the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator (LCD). First. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 3 x+2 3 (x + 1)(x + 4) [ (x + 1)(x + 4) ] = x–3 x–2 x–3 x–2 x(x + 4) – 3(x + 1) = 3 x2 + 4x – 3x – 3 = 3 x2 + x – 6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3 or x = 2 Neither of these values makes any of the expressions in the original equation. b. undefined. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: x+1 x2 – 9x subsequent step of the solution. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 1+ 1+ 2 x–3 2 x–3 x(x– 3)(x+ 3)(2x+ 7) x+1 (x – 3)(x + 3) – 1 (2x + 7)(x – 3) = = 4 x2 – 4x + 3 4 (x – 3)(x – 1) = x(x – 3)(x + 3)(2x + 7) 1 (2x + 7)(x – 3 ) (x + 1)(2x + 7) – x(x + 3) = x(x – 3) 2x2 + 9x + 7 – x2 – 3x = x2 – 3x x2 + 6x + 7 = x2 – 3x 6x + 7 = –3x 9x –7 x = –7 9 Since this value does not make any of the expressions in the original equation. c. undefined. clear the fractions from all terms in – 1 2x2+ x – 21 = 1 2x2 + 13x + 21 x+1 x(x – 3)(x + 3) – 1 (2x + 7)(x – 3) = 1 (2x + 7)(x + 3) the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. clear the fractions from all terms in (x – 3)(x – 1) (x – 3)(x – 1) 1+ 2 x–3 = 4 (x – 3)(x – 1) (x – 3)(x – 1) + 2(x – 1) = 4 x2 – 4x + 3 + 2x – 2 = 4 x2 – 2x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 1) = 0 x = 3 or x = –1 Because x = 3 makes some of the terms in the original equation undefined. First. c. or any 210 3 (x + 2)(x – 2) x + 2 = (x + 2)(x – 2) 3(x – 2) = (x + 2)(x – 3) 3x – 6 = x2 –x – 6 x2 –4x = 0 x(x – 4) = 0 x = 0 or x = 4 . First. we conclude that both of them are solutions to the original equation.

211 . 543. undefined. observe that these values are x = –3. To this end. 1]. observe that these values are x = –1 and 3. choose a real number in each of the subintervals. 546. The solution set is [–2. Then. so it cannot be a solution of the equation. clear the fractions from all terms in Set 35 (Page 86) 545. 544. To this end. determine the x-values that make the the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. choose a real number in each subinterval. First. we conclude that the only solution of the equation is t = –3. a. ∞).ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Since neither of these values makes any of the expressions in the original equation. we must make certain that the numer- ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: x2 + 9 x2 – 2x – 3 = x2 + 9 (x – 3)(x + 1) v= v1 + v2 1+ v1v2 c2 v[1 + v+ vv1v2 c2 v1v2 c2 ] = v1 + v2 Next. we form a number line. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: t+1 t–1 t+1 t–1 = = 4 t2 – 1 4 (t – 1)(t + 1) expression on the left side equal to zero or undefined. b. First. determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. Therefore. First. the solution set is (–∞. Now. c. or any subsequent step of the solution. – 1)∪(3. Then. we form a number line.” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. and 1. –2.” we do not include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. Then. Since the inequality includes “equals. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Thus. and record the sign of the expression above each: vv1v2 c2 = v1 + v2 + –1 2 – 3 + –v1 = v2 –v 2 v1( c 2 – 1) = v2 – v v1 = vv2 2 c vv v2 – v –1 = v2 – v vv2 – c2 c2 = (v2 –v) c vv2 – c2 = c (v2 –v) vv2 – c2 2 Since the inequality does not include “equals. c. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Now. we conclude that both of them are solutions to the original equation. and record the sign of the expression above each: + –3 + –2 – 1 + 1 (t – 1)(t + 1) [ tt + 1 ] = (t – 1)(t + 1) – 4 (t + 1)(t – 1) (t + 1)(t + 1) = 4 t2 + 2t + 1 = 4 t2 + 2t – 3 = 0 (t + 3)(t – 1) = 0 t = –3 or t = 1 Note that t = 1 makes some of the terms in the original equation undefined.

Then. 2 3 So. First. we must make certain that the numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled. a. as follows: –x2 – 1 6x4 – x3 – 2x2 1 2 – x–1 x2 1 4 x + 3 – x2 0. a. and record the sign of the expression above each: = x2(x + 3) x2 – 4x – 12 –(x2 – 2x + 1) x2(x – 1) –(x – 1)2 (x2(x –1) = x2(x + 3) (x – 6)(x + 2) = – (x –1)(x + 3) (x – 6)(x + 2) – –3 2 + 0 + –2 3 – Since the inequality includes “equals. Now. x+2 Next. Determine the solution set for the inequal- ity –x2 – 1 6x4 – x3 – 2x2 ≥ 0. 212 . ((x – 6))((x + 3)) 0. and 6. and 2 . we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. –2)∪[1. To this end. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. To this end. we must simplify the complex fraction on the left side of the inequality: 1 2 – x–1 x2 1 4 x + 3 – x2 2(x – 1) – x2 x2(x – 1) x2 – 4(x + 3) x2(x + 3) = = –(x2 + 1) x2(6x2 – x – 2) = –(x2 + 1) x2(2x +1)(3x – 2) Next determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. we determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. 0. we form a number 2 3 line.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 547. observe that these values are x = –3. 1. ity First.” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. Determine the solution set for the inequal- 548. Now. observe that these values are x = – 1 . choose a real number in each subinterval. 6). choose a real number in each subinterval. including the values that make any factors common to both numerator and denominator equal to zero. Since none of these values make the numerator equal to zero. we form a number line. 0)∪(0. –2.” so we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. Then. 2 ). the original inequality can be written as x –1 – ((x – 6))((x + 3)) ≥ 0. we conclude that the solution set is (– 1 . and record the sign of the expression above each: + –3 – –2 + 0 + 1 – 6 + The inequality includes “equals. The solution set is [–3. 0. or equivalently (upon multix+2 x –1 plication by –1 on both sides).

determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. Now. d. the solution set is (–∞. the strategy is to determine the z-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. as follows: – 0 + 213 . To this end. First. –5)∪[– 5 . Then.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 549. 0). we must make certain that the numer- Now. we form 2 a number line. we must make certain that the numer- ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: 2z2 – z – 15 z2 + 2 z – 15 = (2z + 5)(z – 3) (z + 5)(z – 3) = (2z + 5) z+5 Since. determine the z-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. observe that these values are z = –5. d. we conclude that the solution set is (–∞. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values.” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. Next. Our first step is to make certain that the Next. Next. the inequality includes “equals. 0. the inequality includes “equals. and record the sign of the expression above each: + –4 – 0 + 4 + numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: 25(–x)4 x(5x2)2 Since the inequality does not include “equals. choose a real number in each subinterval. – 5 . 551. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values.” we do not include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. Since none of these values make the numerator equal to zero. 2 550. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Then. and record the sign of the expression above each. 4. we form a number line.∞). observe that these values are z = –4. Therefore. and record the sign of the expression above each: ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: z3 – 16z 8z – 32 = z(z2 – 16) 8(z – 4) = z(z – 4)(z + 4) 8(z – 4) = z(z + 4) 8 + –5 – –5 2 + Since. choose a real number in each of the duly formed subintervals. To this end. 0). Then. First. c. observe that the only value for which this is true is x = 0. choose a real number in each subinterval. = 25x4 x 25x4 = 1 x Now. The solution set is (–4. we form a number line. To this end.” so include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero.

we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. we form a number line. the solution set is (8. – 2 )∪(– 2 . Now. Now. choose a real number in each subinterval. Next. Then. determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. a. Then. 1]. we form a number line. we form a number line. and record the sign of the expression above each. 2 5 choose a real number in each subinterval. 2 5 5 Next. To this end. – 2 . determine the y-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. To this end. 8. To begin. ∞). we must make certain that the numer- Next determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. Then. To this end.” we do not include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. Therefore. 1. and record the sign of the expression above each: – –8 – 8 + 214 . b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 552. a. as follows: numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: 5x2(x – 1) – 3x(x –1) – 2(x – 1) 10x2(x – 1) + 9x(x – 1 +2(x – 1) (x – 1)(5x + 2)(x – 1) (x – 1)(5x +2)(2x + 1) = (x – 1)(5x2 – 3x – 2) (x – 1)(10x2 + 9x +2) = = x–1 2x + 1 + –8 – 8 – The inequality includes “equals. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. We conclude that the solution set is [–8. we must make certain that the numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: y2 – 64 8–y Since the inequality does not include “equals.” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. and record the sign of the expression above each: + –1 2 – –2 5 – 1 + ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: x2 + 8x x2 – 64x = x(x + 8) x(x2 – 64) = x(x + 8) x(x + 8)(x– 8) = 1 x–8 The inequality includes “equals.” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. we must make certain that the = (y – 8)(y + 8) (8 – y) = (y – 8)(y + 8) –(y – 8) = –(y + 8) Now. ∞). We conclude that the solution set is (– 1 . 8. 8)∪(8. choose a real number in each subinterval. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. To begin. 553. observe that these values are x = – 1 . observe that these values are x = –8. First. 554. observe that these values are y = –8.

” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. as follows: 3 – 2x (x + 2)(x – 1) 1–x (x – 1)(x + 2) – –2 + 0 – 2 + – = 2–x (x – 1)(x + 2) –(x – 1) (x – 1)(x + 2) = 3 – 2x – (2 – x) (x – 1)(x + 2) = Since the inequality includes “equals. we must make certain that the numer- – 5 2 + ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: 6x3 – 24x 24x2 = 6x(x2 – 4) 4 6 x x = x2 – 4 4x = (x – 2)(x + 2) 4x Now. choose a real number in each subinterval. choose a real number in each of the duly formed subintervals. we form a 2 number line. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. and furthermore. 556. ∞). Then. 0)∪(2. determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. Now. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. which are x = –2 and 1. First. 2.”so we do not include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. 557. we form a number line. we form a number line. the strategy is to determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. Then.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 555. –2). determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. choose a real number in each subinterval. 215 . There are no such values. First. Then. we must make certain that the numer- 1 = –x + 2 ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: (2x – 5)(x + 4) – (2x – 5)(x + 1) 9(2x – 5) (2x – 5)((x + 4) – (x + 1)) 9(2x – 5) = = 1 3 Next. Next. c. 0. Therefore. c. The solution set is (–∞. c. and record the sign of the expression above each: Since the inequality does not include “equals. The solution set is [–2. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. observe that the only value for which this is true is x = 5 . which are x = –2. To this end. and record the sign of the expression above each: Since the inequality includes “equals. the expression is always positive. Now. the solution set is the empty set. make certain that the numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled. First. and record the sign of the expression above each: = 3 9 + –2 – 1 – Now.” so we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero.

we must make certain that the numer- – –1 + 3 + 5 – ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled. As such. 5. observe that these values are x = – 1 . 3)∪(3. First. 559. the strategy is to determine the y-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. 5). b. To this end. and record the sign of the expression above each: + –1 2 – 1 4 + 1 2 + 1 – Since the inequality includes “equals. we form a number line. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Then. and 1. we conclude that the solution set is [–1. Next. 1. we form a number line. we must make certain that the numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: 5 [ x + 3 – x] x– x + 5 – x2 + 3x x–3 1 x–3 5 = [x + 3 – x– x(x – 3) x–3 ] 1 x–3 = (x – 3) = – (x2 – 4x – 5) = undefined. choose a real number in each subinterval. 1 .” we would not include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. choose a real number in 216 . d. –1. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Now. 2 4 2 560. observe that these values are x = –1. the strategy is to determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or Now.” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. Our first step is to make certain that the – 7y – 3 (y – 1)(y + 1) + 5 (y + 1) = 3y + 2 (y – 1)2 (y –1)2 (y – 1)2 – 7y – 3 (y – 1)(y + 1) y –1 y–1 + 5 y+1 = (3y + 2)(y + 1) – (7y –3)(y – 1) + 5(y –1)2 (y – 1)2(y +1) = = 3y2 + 5y + 2 – (7y2 – 10y + 3) + 5(y2 – 2y + 1) (y – 1)2(y + 1) 3y2 + 5y + 2 – 7y2 + 10y – 3 + 5y2 – 10y + 5 (y – 1)2(y + 1) y2 + 5y + 4 (y – 1)2(y + 1) numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: x 2x + 1 = = – 1 2x – 1 + 2x 4x2 – 1 2 = x 2x + 1 2x – 1 2x – 1 – 1 2x – 1 (y +4)(y + 1) (y – 1)2(y + 1) = y+4 (y – 1)2 2x + 1 2x + 1 + 2x2 4x2 – 1 = = x(2x – 1) – 1(2x + 1) + 2x2 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) 4x2 – 3x – 1 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) = 2x2 – x – 2x – 1 + 2x2 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) (4x + 1)(x – 1) (2x – 1)(2x + 1) = Now. choose a real number in each subinterval. observe that these values are y = –4. d. Next. – 1 ]∪( 1 . and record the sign of the expression above each: –(x –5)(x + 1) Determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. – 1 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 558. as follows: 3y + 2 (y – 1)2 y +1 y+1 Since the inequality does not include “equals. 1]. The solution set is (– 1 . we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. 3. Then. 2 4 2 form a number line. Then. To begin. To this end. To this end.

c. 4 That leaves 2 = 2. 1 x2 9 1 The inequality does not include “equals. since (3y)(3y)(3y) 43 = 64. Since 1 (2b)4 = 2b. 567. a. d. 579. 569. Simplify the fraction by multiplying the 3 numeratorand denominatorby : 3 : 1 3 3 ( 3 )( 3 ) = 3 . a. Since(–2)5 = –32. Next. the coefficients of each radical and multiply the radicands of each radical: (a b)(b a) = ab ab. c. 4 –2 1 –1 2 = (2x–2) = =2 x144 = 4 (x72)2= 4x72 Set 37 (Page 91) Section 5—Radical Expressions and Quadratic Equations Set 36 (Page 90) 561. Factor roots) since (–7)2 = 49 and (7)2 = 49. and record the sign of the expression above each: 572. since (3y)(3y) = 9y2. c. b. We break up the fractional exponent into = 27y3. We break up the fractional exponent into 5 1 two separate exponents to obtain 49 2 = (49 2 )5 = 75 = 16. c. Factor the denominator into two radicals: 27y2. d. The solution set is (–∞. c. 563. Simplify the fraction by dividing the numerator by the and denominator. –4). b. a3 = x5 x7 = = 1 x 2 = a3 = a3 a2a = a3a a = a4 a 580. b. The expression is now ab ab ab . multiply the two radicals. the principal root of 625 is 5. 573. 4g into two radicals. The cube root of 27y3 = 3y. 562. Note that 625 = 54. a. 581. 4 5 312 = 515 = 4 (33)4 = 33 = 27 (53)5 = 53 = 125 568. a. 3 9 –3 = (–3)3 = –3 x5 x7 3 3 3 (9)(–3) = 1 x2 3 –27 = 1 x 578. 4 is a perfect square. a. so factor 4g into 4 g = 2 g. Multiply 1 1 33 = 27 . 64 6 = (26) 6 = 2 570. 4 5 5 –32 = –2. c. 564. So. a.” so we do not include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. –125 since (–5)3 = –125. Cancel 217 . Cancel the g terms from the numerator and denominator. 571. We break up the fractional exponent into – –4 + –1 + 1 + two separate exponents to obtain 32 5 = (32 5 )3 5 = ( 32)3 = (2)3 = 8. ( 27 )– 3 = ( 3 )3 574. b = 3 satisfies the 1 equation. (4x–4) 576. –7 and 7 are both second roots (square 577.807. a. b. = 9y2 3.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– each subinterval. = [(–4)3]– 3 = (–4)–1 = = (2x–2) –2 1 –4 –1 = –4 1 2x–2 575. (–64) –3 3 1 8 2 2 –3 2 = ( 3 )–2 = ( 2 )2 = 1 2 3 32 22 = 4. b = 64 satisfies the equation. leaving 1 . Factor each term in the numerator: a2b = b2 = a2 b b = a b and ab2 = a two separate exponents to obtain 81– 4 = (81 4 )–3 = 3–3 = 1 3 a. a. The square root of 2 9y = 3y. we write 565. 582. c. The expression y is now equal to 3y 3 . Since 566. Cancel the 3y terms from the numeratorand denominator. b.

First. so =3(pr) (pr) = 3(pr)2 = 3p2r2. (5 – 125 9 = = 4 = 4 5 3 5 – 3)(7 + 3) = 5(7) + 5( 3) – 7( 32 = 35 + (5 – 7) 3 – 3 = 32 – 2 3 3) 600. 2 + 3 2 1 } } Same Same = 4 2 = 2. b. cube the 4g2 term. multiply 64g6 by g4. we can add the coefficients: xy 8xy2 + 3y2 18x3 =xy(2y) 2x + 3y2(3x) 2x = 2xy2 2x + 9xy2 2x = 11xy2 2x another way of representing the square root of the value. 20 + 5 20 3 2 1 2 598. 594. 591. Then. d. 590. d. so it can be rewritten in the numerator with a positive exponent. a. c. a. First. 589. First. Next. Substitute 20 for n: 25 20 (2 20 5) = 5 find the LCD and add. c. 4 4 243 243 = 3 = 4 3 x2 + 4x + 4 = 81= 34 = 3 4 6)(6 – 15) = 24 – 4 15 + 6 6 – 90 = 24 –4 15 + 6 6 – 3 10 –10 + –25 5 (x + 2)2 = x + 2 24 4 4 32x8 = = 2x2 4√4 4 3 4 24 2 (x2)4 = 4 2 4 601. The expression is now 3(pr) (pr) . 583. Cancel the 5 2 + 3 3 32 9 = 2 3 18 25 5 5 + = 9 32 9 = 3 5 2 2 + = 4 3 2 = terms and multiply the fraction by 10: (10 5) = 586. b. since a value raised to the exponent is 3 2 1 2 because the variable/radical parts are alike. 9pr = 3 2 – 48 + 2 27 – 75 = – 42 3 + 2 32 3 – 52 3 = –4 3 + 6 3 – 5 3 = (–4 + 6 – 5) 3 = –3 3 596. (4 + 587. e. d. a. The expression pr can be written as ( pr) 1 2 1 2 –5 3+4 5–8 3+4 5 3 = (3 – 8) 3+ 4 5 = 597. d. (4 + 2i)2 = 16 +(4)(2i) + (2i)(4) + (2i)2 = x3 + 40x2 + 400x = x(x + 20)2 = (x + 20) x(x2 + 40x + 400) = x 16 + 16i + 22i2 = 16 +16i –4 = 12 + 16i 218 . (64g6)(g4) = 64g. 3 denominator. Add the exponents of the g terms. we 585. c. = –10 + 25 5 –1 = –10 + 5i 5 = (x2)4 4 5(–2 + i) 5 = –2 +i x21 = 4 (x5)4 x = 3 (x5)4 x = x5 3 x 602. find the square root of 9pr. d. leaving ab. taking the square root of 64g10 yields 8g5.10 Finally. b. 588. 3 9 pr = 3 pr. The denominator (pr) has a negative exponent. (4 + 2i)(4 –2i) = 16 – (2i)2 = 16 – 22i2 = 54x5 = 2 33 x3 x2 = 3x 2x2 16 – (4)(–1) = 16 + 4= 20 603. 18 25 3 5 5 2 (10 5) = 5(10) 2 125 9 5 2 5 (10 5). a. since (8g5)(8g5) = 64g. –32 = 4i 2 595. a. 592. To multiply the pr terms. 4 +4 2 + 20 15 29 2 15 = 50 2 = 25 52 5 32 599. c. d.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– the ab terms from the numerator and Set 38 (Page 93) 593.10 584. Cube the constant 4 –25 = 25 (–1) = 2 5 i2 = 5i (32(–1) = 52 32 i2 = –1 = (4√2)(i) = and multiply the exponent of g by 3: (4g2) = 64g6. Then. We first simplify each fraction. simplify each radical expression. b. e. add the exponents.

d. ( p)4 = (p 2 )4 = p2. so it is indeed a solution. d. Take the square root of both sides and solve 3 solve for x: 4x + 33 = 2x – 1 ( 4x + 33)2 = (2x – 1)2 4x + 33 = 4x2 – 4x + 1 0 = 4x2 – 8x – 32 0 = 4(x2 – 2x – 8) 0 = 4(x – 4)(x + 2) x = 4. raise both 3 608. d. 611. raise both 3+5 2 9 – 52( 2)2 =– 3+5 2 41 x x sides to the third power and solve for x: 5x – 8 = 3 5x – 8 = 33 = 27 5x = 35 x=7 Substituting this value into the original equation yields the true statement 3 = 3. d. so we know that it is indeed a solution. 1 3–5 2 3)( 2 3) + 7)(5 7) = 5( 7)2 = 2 3 21 – 35 = 612. 615. b. d. but substituting x = –2 into the original equation results in the false statement 5 = –5. this equation is equivalent to p2 = 9. –2 for x: (x – 3)2 = –28 (x – 3)2 = ± –28 x – 3 = ±2i 7 x = 3 ±2i 7 219 . 3x)2 3x)2 = 4 + (2)( 3x) + ( = 4+4 3x + 3x Substituting x = 4 into the original equation yields the true statement 7 = 7. e. b. Square both sides of the equation and then sides to the third power and solve for x: 7 3x = –2 7 – 3x = (–2)3 = –8 –3x = –15 x=5 Substituting this value into the original equation yields the true statement –2 = –2. only x = 4 is a solution to the original equation. 2( 2x 2–3 x 2+3 2+3 = = 2 2x + 6x 4 – 9x 2x) + (3 x)( 2x) 22 – (3 x)2 = 2 2x + 3(2x) 4 – 32( x)2 Set 39 (Page 94) 609.(2 + ( 606. To eliminate the radical term. So. 610. a. We must solve the equation 1 ( p)4 = 9 for p. 613. Since. Square both sides of the equation and then solve for x: 7 + 3x = 4 ( 7 + 3x)2 = (4)2 7 + 3x = 16 3x = 9 x=3 Substituting this value into the original equation yields the true statement 4 = 4. a. so it is indeed a solution. 4 2 ( 3 + 7)(2 3 – 5 7) = ( ( 7)(2 3) – ( 3)(5 7) – ( 2( 3)2 = 2 7 3 – 5 3 7 – + 2 21 – 5 21 – 5 7 = 6 – 3 –29 – 3 21 607. 614. a. 21( 21( 3+7 21 3 7 + 7 3 ) = 21 3 3+ 7 7 7 3 = ) = 10 3x)(2) + 605.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 604. a 3 = (a 3 )2 = 62 = 36. a. = = = 1 3–5 2 3+5 2 9 – 25(2) 2x 2–3 x 3+5 3+5 2 2 = 3+5 2 2 3 – (5 2) 2 = the solutions of which are –3 and 3. To eliminate the radical term. Observe that (– 3 )–2 = (–1)–2 ( 3 )–2 = 1 1 1(–1)2 3 2 1 = 9.

but substituting x = –2 into the original equation results in the false statement 4 = –4. –2 Substituting x = 3 into the original equation yields the true statement 1 = 1. c. Therefore. x2 = 225 x2= ± 225 x = ± 15 621. Square both sides of the equation and then 619. a. and then. –13 623. c. Isolate the squared expression on one side (x + 4)2 = 81 (x + 4)2 = ± x + 4 = ±9 x = – 4 ±9 x = 5. 617. 618. x3 = –125 3 3 x3= –125 x = –5 622. b. solve for x: 3x + 4 +x = 8 3x + 4 = 8 – x ( 3x + 4)2 = (8 – x)2 3x + 4 = 64 – 16x + x2 0 = x2 – 19x + 60 0 = (x – 4)(x – 15) x = 4. but substituting x = 15 into the original equation results in the false statement 22 = 8. b. Square both sides of the equation and then x3 = – 27 3 3 x3 = –27 3 x = (–3)3 x=–3 620. d. only x = 4 is a solution to the original equation. take the square root of both sides and solve for x: (x – 1)2 + 16 = 0 (x – 1)2 = – 16 (x – 1)2 = ± –16 x – 1 = ± 4i x = 1 ± 4i x2 + 81 = 0 x2 = –81 x2 = ± –81 x = ±9i 220 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 616. d. solve for x: 10 – 3x = x – 2 ( 10 – 3x)2 = (x – 2)2 10 – 3x = x2 – 4x + 4 0 = x2 – x – 6 0 =(x – 3)( x + 2) x = 3. c. b. Only x = 3 is a solution to the original equation. 81 x2 + 1 = 0 x2 = – 1 x2 = ± – 1 x = ± i2 x=±i 624. 15 Substituting x = 4 into the original equation yields the true statement 8 = 8.

Apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. d. b = –5. b = 5. and c = –1 to obtain: x= ± 4 –b ± 8 b2 – 4ac 2a 2 2 4 = –(0) ± (0)2 –4(5)(–24) 2(5) 30 5 = = –(0) ± 2 2 (0)2 – 4(2)(–1) 2(2) = ± =± 4 30 10 =± 2 633. b = 2. b. c. and c = –24 to obtain: x= –b ± 480 10 b2 –4ac 2a 626. a. and c = 0 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 –4ac 2a = –(–5) (–5)2 – 4(1)(–6) 2(1) = = 5±7 2 = –(2) ± = –1. Now. b. – 4 = –(5)± (5)2 –4(2)(4) 2(2) = –5 4 –7 628. 6 (2)2 –4(1)(0) 2(1) = –2 ± 4 2 = –2 ±2 2 = –2. 631. (20)2 –4(–5)(0) 2(–5) = –(20)± b = –2 = x= –(–2 2 –b ± 2 . and c = 0 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 – 4ac 2a 634. a. b = 0. 0 221 . 2) ± b = 4. Now. apply the quadratic formula with a = 2. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 40 (Page 95) 625. and c = 4 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 – 4ac 2a = 2 2 ± 8 –12 2 = = –(4)± (4)2 –4(1)(4) 2(1) 2 ± –4 2 = 2 = 2±i = 635. and c = –6 to obtain: x= 5± 2 –b ± 49 b2 – 4ac 2a by moving all terms to the left side of the equation to obtain the equivalent equation x2 + 2x = 0. –5 ±i 7 4 b = 20. apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. and c = 4 to obtain: x= = –b ± b2 –4ac 2a –3 ± 9 8 = –3 ± 3 8 = 0. and c = 3 to obtain: b2 –4ac 2a (–2 2(1) –20 ± 202 –10 = –20 ± 20 –10 = 0. b = 0. a. First. Apply the quadratic formula with a = –5. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 2. put the equation into standard form –4 ± 0 2 = –2 (repeated solution) 630. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 4. b = 3. a. 4 = 2)2–4(1)(3) 2 ±2i 2 629. b. b = 0. and c = 0 to obtain: x= = –b ± b2 – 4ac 2a = –(3)± (3)2 – 4(4)(0) 2(4) 3 by moving all terms to the left side of the equation to obtain the equivalent equation 2x2 +5x + 4 = 0. – 3 =± =± 7 632. First. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 5. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. and c = 2 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 –4ac 2a and c = –7 to obtain: x= ± –b ± 28 2 b2 – 4ac 2a 2 7 2 = –(5) ± 2 (5)2 –4(3)(2) 2(3) = = –(0) ± (0)2 – 4(1)(–7) 2(1) = –5 ± 1 6 = –5 ± 1 6 = –1. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. a. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 3. put the equation into standard form =± =± 627. b = 5.

Now. b = –11. d. Isolate the squared expression on one side. Set 41 (Page 97) 641. 10 638. We first multiply both sides of the equation by 100. a. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. First. b = –1. and c = 6 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 –4ac 2a = –(–10) ± (–10)2 –4(1)(6) 2(1) = 10 ± 76 2 = 10 ± 2 19 2 = 5 ± 19 640. apply the quadratic formula with a = 9. apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. The simplification process will be easier if by expanding the expression on the left side. put the equation into standard form 639. and c = –3 to obtain: x= 3± 2 –b ± 21 b2 –4ac 2a = –(–3) ± (–3)2 –4(1)(3) 2(1) = take the square root of both sides. First. and c = –3 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 –4ac 2a 637. Doing so yields the equivalent equation x2 – 11x + 10 = 0. as follows: 4x2 = 3 x2 = 3 4 3 4 x=± =± 3 4 =± 3 2 222 . and c = 19 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 –4ac 2a we first eliminate the fractions by multiplying 1 5 both sides of the equation 6 x2 – 3 x + 1 = 0 by 6. and then moving all terms to the left side of the equation: (x – 3)(2x + 1) =x(x – 4) 2x2 – 6x +x – 3 =x2 – 4x x2 –x – 3 = 0 Now. this will help with the simplification process. Now. apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. Doing so yields the equivalent equation x2 – 10x + 6 = 0. apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. b = –48. b. put the equation into standard form = –(–48) ± (–48)2 –4(9)(19) 2(9) –8 ±3 5 3 = –48 ± 1620 18 = –48 ±18 5 18 = by expanding the expression on the left side. then divide both sides by 20 in order to make the coefficients integers. and solve for x. and c = 10 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 –4ac 2a = –(–1) ± = –(–11) ± (–11)2 – 4(1)(–10) 2(1) (–1)2 –4(1)(–3) 2(1) = = 11 ± 81 2 = 11 ±9 2 1 ± 13 2 = 1. b = –3. b. d.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 636. b = –10. c. and then moving all terms to the left side of the equation: (3x – 8)2 = 45 9x2 – 48x + 64 = 45 9x2 – 48x + 19 = 0 Now.

c. We conclude that the solutions are approximately ±2. To solve the given equation graphically. let y1 = 2x2. b. and solve for x: (–2x + – 50 = 0 2 (–2x + 1) = 50 –2x + 1 = ± 50 –2x = –1 ± 50 x= –1 ± 50 –2 y1 1)2 6 4 2 = 1± 2 50 = 1 ±5 2 2 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –2 –4 –6 –8 1 2 3 4 5 646. b. c. 223 . Take the square root of both sides. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: y2 10 8 645. and solve for x: –3x2 = –9 x2 = 3 x=± 3 643. Take the square root of both sides. and solve for x: (3x – 8)2 = 45 3x – 8 = ± 45 3x = 8 ± 45 x= 8± 3 45 8 ±3 5 3 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. Isolate the squared expression on one side. To solve the equation graphically. 648. y2 = 0. let y1 take the square root of both sides. Since the curves do not intersect. take the square root of both sides. 647. = y2 = –5x – 4. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: y1 9 6 3 –4 –3 –2 –1 –3 –6 –9 –12 –15 –18 –21 –24 1 2 3 4 y2 for x: (4x + 5)x2 = –49 4x + 5 = ± –49 = ±7i 4x = –5 ± 7i x= –5 ±7i 4 644. and solve for x: –(1 – –121 = 0 2 = –121 (1 – 4x) 1 – 4x = ± –121 –4x = –1 ± –121 x= –1 ± –121 –4 4x)2 –10 = 1± –121 4 = 1 ±11i 4 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. and solve = 5x2 – 24. the solutions are imaginary.191. d. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 642. Isolate the squared expression on one side. Isolate the squared expression on one side. a. take the square root of both sides.

y2 = 45. To solve the given equation graphically. let 651. 3. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: 4 3 2 1 y2 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 y1 1 2 2 (3x – 8)2. The solutions are x = 2. c. a.25. To solve the given equation graphically. We conclude that the solutions are approximately x = 3. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: y1 60 50 40 30 20 10 –4 –3 –2 –1 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 y2 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. let y1 = y1 = 12x – 15x .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 649. 1.875.5 4 4.5 1 1. 224 .903.5 3 3. To solve the equation graphically. y2 = 0. 650. so the solutions are x = 0.5 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –6 –12 y1 60 54 48 42 36 30 24 18 12 6 1 2 3 4 y2 –6 5 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation.5 2 2. c. The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. 4. y2 = 20x – 24. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: y1 y2 60 54 48 42 36 30 24 18 12 6 0. let y1 = 4x2.

791. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: 10 8 6 4 y1 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 2 4 6 8 10 y 2x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 2 1 2 3 4 5 –2 –4 –8 y2 –10 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation: approximately x = –0. We conclude that the solutions are x = 1. 653. y2 = 0.20x2 – 2. let y1 – 3x – 3.791. To solve the given equation graphically.20x + 2. 10. To solve the equation graphically. let y1 = 0. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: y1 10 8 6 4 x2 =x2 and y2 = –2x. The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation: x = –2. let y1 = 654. 225 . 3. y2 = 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 652. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: y1 10 8 6 4 2 y2 –9 –6 –3 –2 3 6 9 12 15 18 –4 –6 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. 0. b. a. b. To solve the given equation graphically.

let y1 = 6 x2 – 3 x + 1. 226 . y2 = 0. To solve the equation graphically. y2 = 0.359. 656. let y1 = (2x + 1)2 – 2(2x + 1) – 3. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: 10 8 6 4 2 y1 –4 –3 –2 –1 –2 –4 1 2 3 4 y2 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. b.641.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 655. Graph these on the same set of axes and 1 5 identify the points of intersection: y1 10 8 6 4 2 y2 –9 –6 –3 –2 3 6 9 12 15 18 –4 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. 9. 1. c. To solve the equation graphically. The solutions are x = –1. We conclude that the solutions are approximately x = 0.

a. 2 660. Solving this equation for u 5 yields the solution u = – 2 . 227 . Let u= b2. rewriting the previous equation yields the equation u2 – 7u+ 12 = 0. which gives us 1 4 b=± =± 2 2 b=± = ±2 1 The solutions of the original equation are b=± 2 2 . Factoring the left side results in the equivalent equation (2u + 5)2 = 0. which is quadratic.± 3 3 . In order to solve the original equation. ± 3. the solutions of the original equation are b = ±i( 10 ). which gives us b=± – 5 = ±i 2 5 2 5 5 = ±i( 10 2 ) Therefore. which gives us b = ±2 u = 3 is the same as b2 = 3. Observe that (3b2 – 1)(1– 2b2) = 0 as 4(b2)2 + 20(b)2 + 25 = 0. Note that 4b4 + 20b2 +25 = 0 can be written as (b2)2 – 7(b)2 + 12 = 0. Solving this equation for u yields the solutions u = 4 or u = 3. In order to solve the original equation. b. Let u = b2. Observe that b4 – 7b2 + 12 = 0 can be written 659. which gives us b=± 3 The solutions of the original equation are b = ±2. which is quadratic. Factoring the left side results in the equivalent equation (4u– 1)(4u+ 1) = 0. Solving this equation for u yields 1 1 the solutions u = 3 or u= 2 . Let u = b2. which gives us 1 3 1 b=± u= 1 2 =± 3 3 1 ±i( 2 ) 1 1 is the same as b2 = 2 . d. Solving the original equation requires that we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable b: u= – 2 is the same as b2 = – 2 . In order to solve the original equation. which gives us 1 2 u= 1 4 is the same as b2 = 4 . The solutions of the original equation are 1 1 b = ±i( 2 ). Factoring the left side results in the equivalent equation (u– 4)(u– 3) = 0. Observe that 16b4 – 1 = 0 can be written as 16(b2)2 – 1 = 0. we must go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable b: u= – 4 is the same as b2 = – 4 . b. which is quadratic. ± 2 . Then. Solving this equation for u yields the solution u= ± 4 . 4u2 + 20u+25 = 0. which gives us b = ± – 1 = ±i 4 1 4 1 1 1 can be written as (3u– 1)(1– 2u) = 0. Rewriting the original equation yields the equation. which is quadratic. we must go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable b: u = 4 is the same as b2 = 4. Rewriting the original equation yields the equation 16u2 – 1 = 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 42 (Page 98) 657. Let u= b2 . 658. we must go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable b: u= 1 3 is the same as b2 = 3 .

which gives us 4 Therefore. Let u = x. we must go back to the actual substitution and solve the new equations obtained by substituting in this value of u. Specifically. Solving this equation for u yields the solutions u = –2 or u= 3. 49. This is easily solved by raising both sides to the power 6. We must first write the equation in the cor- rect form: 2x6 –x3 – 1 = 0 1 1 x3 – 2x6 + 1 = 0 1 1 (x6)2 – 2(x6) + 1 = 0 Next. we must go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable x: u = –2 is the same as x = –2. or equivalently x – x – 6 = 0. let u = x6. Rewriting the original equation yields the equation 16 – 56u+ 49u2 = 0. which is quadratic. which gives x = 32 = 9 1 u = 7 is the same as x2 = 7. we must solve the equation u2 – 2u+ 1 = 0. which does not have a solution u = 3 is the same as x = 3. Factoring the left side results in the equivalent equation (u– 3)(u– 7) = 0. which is quadratic. Then. Let u= x. Observe that factoring this equation yields (u– 1)2 = 0. a. u = 1. rewriting the original equation yields the equation u2 – 10u+ 21 = 0. x + 21 = 10x 2 or equivalently. c. x – 10x2 + 21 = 0 can be written as (x2)2 – 10(x2) + 1 21 = 0. Let u=x2.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 1 661. can be written as ( x)2 – ( x) – 6 = 0. Observe that 16 – 56 1 1 1 1 663. rewriting the above equation yields the equation u2 – u– 6 = 0. Consequently. Solving this equation 4 for u yields the solution u= 7 . solution of the original equation is 16 x = 49 . which gives x = 72 = 49 The solutions of the original equation are x = 9. Note that x – x = 6. Then. Next. Note that.Then. we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable x: u = 3 is the same as x2 = 3. 1 1 1 x = 7 . In order to solve the original equation. so that x = 9 Therefore. Factoring yields the equivalent equation (u– 3)(u+ 2) = 0. 1 we must solve x6 = 1. Factoring the left side results in the equivalent equation (4 – 7u)2 = 0. c. The result is that x = 1. 662. In order to solve the original equation. the solution of the original equation is x = 9. Solving this equation for u yields the solution u = 3 or u = 7. x + 49x = 0 can be written as 16 – 56 x+ 49( x)2 = 0. 228 . a. which is quadratic. we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable x: u = 7 is the same as 4 16 x = ( 7 )2 = 49 4 664. In order to solve the original equation.

Using the quadratic formula yields u= –1 ± 1 – 4(–1)(3) 2(–1) –1 –1 –1 = –1 ± 13 –2 = 1± 2 13 . 666. Rewriting the original equation yields the equation 4|u|2 – 5|u| + 1 = 0. d. the two solutions to the original equation are x = . Factoring yields the equivalent equation (4u – 1)(u – 1) = 0. the equation (x3 + 5)2 – 5(x3 + 5) + 6 = 0 can be written equivalently as u2 – 5u+ 6 = 0. Then. which is quadratic. so we conclude that u= 3. Let u = x3 + 5. Now. 2. Observe that 4x + 1 = 5x . 229 . 1. Next. so that x = 1 The solutions of the original equation are x = 3 1 4 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 665. b. Solving this equation for u yields the solu1 tions u = 4 or u = 1. This factors as (u– 3)(u– 2) = 0. c. the two solutions to the original equation are x = 6 3 6 –2. 2 667. we must solve the following equations obtained by going back to the actual substitution: x3 + 5 = 3 x3 = –2 1 1 (x3)3 = (–2)3 3 x = –2 x3 + 5 = 2 x3 = –3 1 1 (x3)3 = (–3)3 3 x = –3 3 So. or equivalently 4x – 5x + 1 = 0. We must first rewrite the equation in a nicer form. can be written as 4(x3) – 5(x3) + 1 = 0. Solving the original equation requires that we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable x: u= 1 4 is the same as x3 = 4 . solve the quadratic equation –u2 + u+ 3 = 0. Observe that 3 +x 4 –x 2 = 0 –1 –1 –x 2 +x 4 = 0 –1 –1 – (x 4 )2 + (x 4 ) + 3 = 0 Let u = x 4 . we must go back to the actual substitution and solve the following equations involving the original variable x: x4 = –1 –1 1+ 2 13 1+ 2 13 –4 ) 16 (1 + 13)4 x4 = –1 –1 1– 2 13 1– 2 13 13 –4 ) 16 (1 – 13)4 16 (1 + 13)4 (x 4 ) –4 = ( x = ( 1+ 2 (x 4 )–4 = ( x = ( 1– 2 13 )4 = )4 = So. so that x = 1 3 1 4 u = 1 is the same as x3 = 1. 3 Let u = x3. Then. 16 (1 – 13)4 . 3 –3.

a. this time in w. Similarly. Factoring yields the equation (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0. can be written as 2u2 – 13u + 6 = 0. 3 u = –2 is the same as r– r = –2. that must be solved. which is quadratic. Solving the original equation requires that we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable w. Let u = r– r . Similarly. so that w = 25. can be written as u2 – 8u + 12 = 0. = 3± 2 21 . Observe that 2 1 + w 2 = 13 1 + 2 1+ w w – 6. Let u=x2 +x. Factoring yields the equation (x + 2)(x – 1) = 0. To solve the original equation. which has no solution. which is quadratic. u = 2 is the same as x2 +x = 2. 669. Factoring yields the equivalent equation (u – 6)(u – 2) = 0. u= 2 is the same as 1 + w = 2 . so that x = –3 or 2. Multiply both sides by r and solve for r: r– r = – 2 r2 – 3 = – 2r r2 + 2r– 3 = 0 (r + 3)(r– 1) = 0 r = –3. a. The solution of the original equation is w = 25. Multiply both sides by r and solve for r: r– r = 3 r2 – 3 = 3r r2 – 3 r – 3 = 0 Using the quadratic formula then yields r = –(–3) ± (–3)2 –4(1)(–3) 2(1) 3 3 3 w. 1. –2. u = 3 is the same as r– r = 3. The solutions of the original equation are r = –3. u = 6 is the same as x2 + x = 6. Doing so yields two more radical equations. 3± 2 21 . Factoring yields the equivalent equation (2u– 1)(u– 6) = 0. Doing so yields two more quadratic equations. 1. Factoring yields the equivalent equation (u – 3)(u + 2) = 0. that must be solved: First. that must be 1 1 solved. 1 Similarly. this time in x. Isolating the radical term yields w = 5. Therefore. we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable x. 1 Isolating the radical term yields w = – 2 . First. or equivalently x2 +x – 2 = 0. 230 . or equivalently x2 + x – 6 = 0. so that x = – 2 or 1. Doing so yields two more equations involving rational expressions. u = 6 is the same as 1 + w = 6. b. which is quadratic. Solving this equation for u yields the solutions u = 2 or u= 6. we must go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable r. Let u = 1 + 6 = 0 can be written as u2 – u– 6 = 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 668. the solutions of the original equation are x = –3. Solving this equation for u yields the solutions u = – 2 or u= 3. this time in r. or 2. Observe that (r– r )2 – (r– r ) – 3 3 3 8(x2 +x)or equivalently (x2 +x)2 – 8(x2 +x) + 12 = 0. In order to solve the original equation. Solving this equation 1 for u yields the solutions u= 2 or u= 6. First. Observe that (x2 +x)2 + 12 = 670. or equivalently 2 – 13 1 + w + 6 = 0.

All real numbers can be substituted for x in the function f(x) = x2 – 4. d. there are 5 values for which f(x) = 0. produce a meaningful output. 675. Let u = a 3 . which is quadratic. so that x = ( 3 )4 = 81 . Therefore. the set of all values that. The range of f(x) is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to –4. The domain of a real-valued function is 3 1 3 3 27 8 u= 4 is the same as a 3 = 4. Therefore. so the domain of the function is the set of all real numbers. while the range of a function is the set of all possible outputs. b. Rewriting the original equation yields the equation 2u2 – 11u + 12 = 0. Therefore. 676. Therefore. In order to solve the original equation.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 671. there is one value for which f(x) = 3. Rewriting the original equation yields the equation 6u2 – 13u + 6 = 0. 16 . The x-axis is the graph of the line f(x) = 0. Observe that f(0) = 02 – 4 = –4. Solving the original equation requires that we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable x: u= 3 is the same as u= 2 is the same as 16 81 81 . the solution of the original equation is x = 672. 2 4 x = 3 . Observe that 2a 3 – 11a 3 + 12 = 0 can be written as 2(a 3 )2 – 11(a 3 ) + 12 = 0. Draw a horizontal line across the coordinate Therefore. e. the smallest value that this term can equal is 0 (when x = 0). which is quadratic. x = 2 . Draw a horizontal line across the coordinate plane where f(x) = 3. The graph of f(x) touches the x-axis in 5 places. Let u = 4 x . so that x = ( 2 )4 = 16 . so x = (4)3 = 64 The solutions of the original equation are 27 a = 64. there are 2 values for which f(x) = 10. The arrowheads on the ends of the curve imply that the graph extends upward. as x tends toward both positive and negative infinity. we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable a: u = 2 is the same as a 3 = 2 . b. 3 3 81 2 2 16 3 4 so every time the graph touches the x-axis. when substituted for the variable. Factoring yields the equivalent equation (2u – 3)(3u – 2) = 0. Solving this equation 3 for u yields the solutions u = 2 or u= 4. This line touches the graph of f(x) in exactly one place. 231 . c. 674. 8 . b. Observe that 6 x – 13 x + 6 = 0 can be 4 4 written as 6( x )2 – 13( x ) + 6 = 0. Solving this equation 2 3 for u yields the solutions u = 3 or u= 2 . so x = ( 2 )3 = 1 1 1 plane where f(x) = 10. Factoring yields the equivalent equation (2u – 3)(u– 4) = 0. This line touches the graph of f(x) in 2 places. without bound. the smallest value that f(x) can attain occurs when x = 0. Since the x term is squared. 1 2 1 4 Section 6—Elementary Functions Set 43 (Page 102) 673.

Substituting these values into the given expression yields 2 f(0) + [f(2) g(4)]2 = 2(0) + [(–1)( –4)]2 = 0 + 42 = 16 681. You must identify all possible y-values that and g(4) = –4. This yields the set [1. the range is [–4. we conclude that the graph attains all y-values except –2.4] do belong to the range. 3]∪{–3}. The set of y-values corresponding to the bottommost segment is (–2. real numbers. Every other x value will result in a negative value for f(x). b.1). so the smallest possible yvalue attained is –1. x = 1 and a horizontal asymptote at y = –2. 4]. 2)∪(2. ∞).e. and it does not cross the horizontal asymptote. the largest value that this term can equal is 0 (when x = 0). –1). The domain of the function is the set of all 680.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 677. 679. there are infinitely many other x-values in [–5. d. Since there is no x-value in [–5. Hence. The graph of f is comprised of three distinct components. then made negative. ∞). 683. –1]∪[0. thereby requiring that it be included in the range. the range is (–2. Once this is done. each of which contributes an interval of values to the range of f. – 2)∪(–2. c. The range of a function is the set of all possible outputs of the function.–4). c. Thus. Hence.5] whose functional value is 3. Further. The graph of f has a vertical asymptote at left to right. the x-axis).–1]. The graph of g is steadily decreasing from occurs at (2. 678. we exclude the x-values of the points where the graph of y = p(x) intersects the line y = –1 (because of the strict inequality). 684.3). Since the graph follows the vertical asymptote up to positive infinity as x approaches x = 1 from the left and down to negative infinity as x approaches x = 1 from the right. which are –3. this value must be excluded from the range. every real number greater than –1 is also attained at some x-value. 685. the range is [–1. b. so any real number can be substituted for x..2).–4) and ending at (5. and 3. the horizontal segment contributes the singleton {3} to the range. Thus. d. note that 2 is excluded from the range for the same reason –2 is excluded. 232 . Since the x term is squared. The domain of any polynomial function is because any real number can be substituted in for x in p(x) and yield another real number. The lowest point on the graph of y = p(x) are attained within the graph of f. Next. All other values in the interval [–4. 1.5] whose functional value is 1. Using the graphs yields f(0) = 0. with the only gap occurring in the form of a hole at (0. the range is (– ∞. beginning at the point (–5. f(2) = –1. 2)∪{3}.1)∪(1. c. The zeros of a polynomial are precisely its x- intercepts. and we include those x-values of the points where the graph of y = p(x) intersects the line y = 0. note that –2 is excluded due to the open hole at (5. the portion of the range corresponding to the middle segment is [0.–2) on the graph. b. and there is no other xvalue in [–5. As such. 682.5] whose functional value is –2. the range of f(x) is the set of all real numbers less than or equal to 0. b. even though there is a hole in the graph at (0. We must identify the x-values of the por- tion of the graph of y = p(x) that lies between the horizontal lines y = –1 and y = 0 (i. Finally.

The equations graphed in diagrams B and D are functions whose ranges contain negative values. A function is an equation in which each unique input yields no more than one output. the domain is the set of all real numbers. Therefore. its domain is the set of all those x-values for which the denominator is not equal to zero. Any real number can be substituted into this equation. 691. Find the coordinate planes that show a graph that extends below the x-axis. and D extend below the x-axis. b. g(x) = –9(x + 1) 2 3(x + 1) 9f(x) 9[ –(2x – (–1 – x2))] 3(1 + x) = –9(x2 + 2x + 1) 3(x + 1) = = –3(x + 1) = –g(x) 6(x + 1) 687. this x function will be undefined. d. The equation of the graph in diagram D is y = 1 . The range of a function is the set of possible outputs of the function. there are two y-values (outputs). b. Therefore. and the x domain and range of the equation are the same. 1 h(x) 1 1 3f(x) – 2xg(x) – = 3[– (2x – (–1 – x2))] – 2x[3(x + 1)] – x2 + 1 = –3(x2 + 2x + 1) – 6x(x + 1) – (x2 + 1) = –3x2 – 6x – 3 – 6x2 – 6x – x2– 1 = – 10x2 – 12x – 4 = – 2(5x2 + 6x + 2) y = |x| – 3. Dividing 1 by a real number (excluding 0) will yield real numbers. There is no real number x that satisfies the equation x2 + 1 = 0. which means that the range of the equation contains negative values. 692. the domain of this function is all real numbers excluding 0. and the domain and range of the equation are the same.With this equation as well. If x = 0. Therefore. this function x will be undefined. The square roots of real numbers greater than or equal to 0 are also real numbers that are greater than or equal to 0. the domain of this equation is all real numbers greater than or equal to 0. excluding 0. The equation in diagram A fails the vertical line test for all x-values where –2 x 2. The equation of the graph in diagram B is rational function. Since the square root of a negative number is imaginary. The equation of the graph in diagram D is y = 1 . In each of the five equations. b. the range of the equation y = x is all real numbers greater than 0. b. It fails the vertical line test for all x-values where –2 x 2. the range of the equation y = 1 is all real numbers excluding 0. However. The equation of the graph in diagram C is y Set 44 (Page 105) 689. The graphs of the equations in diagrams A.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 686. any real number can be substituted for x—there are no x-values that will generate an undefined or imaginary y-value. 690. If x = 0. Since the function 2g(x)h(x) = x2 + 1 is a A is not a function. B. These equations have negative y-values. Any real number can be substituted 233 . For each of these x-values (inputs). the set of possible y-values that can be generated for the equation is the range of the equation. There are no x-values that will generate an undefined or imaginary y-value. The equation of the graph in diagram B is y = |x| – 3. 688. d. the domain of this function is all real numbers excluding 0. Therefore. The equation of the graph in diagram E is y = (x – 3)2 + 1. Only the functions in diagrams B and E have a domain of all real numbers with no exclusions. The graph of the equation in diagram A is not a function. the graph of the equation in diagram = x. e. Therefore.

Any x-value greater than or less than 3 will generate a y value that is greater than 1. and then simplify: f(2y – 1) = (2y – 1)2 + 3(2y – 1) – 2 = 4y2 – 4y + 1 + 6y – 3 – 2 = 4y2 + 2y – 4 695. the range of this equation is all real numbers greater than or equal to 0. Simplifying f(x + h) requires we substitute not a function. e. excluding 0. since the set of real numbers that are greater than or equal to 1 is smaller than the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to –3 (B). the range of the equation y = (x – 3)2 + 1 is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1. However. The equation of the graph in diagram E is y = (x – 3)2 + 1. However. the range of the equation y = |x| –3 is all real numbers greater than or equal to –3. no values less than 1 can be generated by this equation.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– into this equation. the equation y = (x – 3)2 + 1 (E). Therefore. it is impossible to generate a y-value that is less than –3. The domain and range of y = (x – 3)2 + 1 are not the same. Therefore. any real number can be substituted for x—there are no x-values that will generate an undefined or imaginary y-value. Therefore. The equation of the graph in diagram E is y = (x – 3)2 + 1. the range of the equation y = (x – 3)2 + 1 is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1. Substitute the expression 2y – 1 for every occurrence of x in the definition of the function f(x). Therefore. Any xvalue greater than or less than 3 will generate a y-value that is greater than –3. b. c. it is impossible to generate a y-value that is less than 1. the range of the equation y = |x| – 3 is all real numbers greater than or equal to –3. in anticipation of simplifying f(x + h) – f(x). and then simplify: f(x + h) = –((x + h) –1)2 + 3 = –[(x + h)2 – 2(x + h)+ 1] + 3 = –[x2 + 2hx + h2 – 2x – 2h + 1] + 3 = –x2 – 2hx – h2+ 2x + 2h – 1 + 3 = –x2 – 2hx – h2+ 2x + 2h + 2 Next. 1 the range of the equation y = x is all real numbers the expression x + h for every occurrence of x in the definition of the function f(x). The equation of the graph in diagram B is y = |x| – 3. There are no x-values that will generate an undefined or imaginary y value. Dividing 1 by a real number (excluding 0) will yield real numbers. Any x-value greater than or less than 3 will generate a y-value that is greater than 1. 693. With this equation as well. The equation of the graph in diagram D is y = 1 x . we simplify the expression for f(x) = –(x – 1)2 + 3 in order to facilitate combining like terms: 234 . There is no value for x that can make y = 0. The graph of the equation in diagram A is excluding 0. The domain and range of y = |x| –3 are not the same. Therefore. It fails the vertical line test for all x-values where –2 x 2. has the smallest range (fewest elements). 694. Since the square roots of negative numbers are imaginary. Any x-value greater than or less than 3 will generate a y value that is greater than –3. and smaller than the set of all real numbers excluding 0 (D). Of the four equations that are functions. The equation of the graph in diagram C is y = x. smaller than the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 0 (C). no values less than –3 can be generated by this equation.

which is equivalent to x 0. g(7) = 7 – 2 = 5 values of x for which the quantity f(x) is defined (that is. so g(h(4)) = g(0) = 2(0)2 – 0 – 1 = –1. f(f(f(2x))) = f(–16x4) = – (–16x4)2 = –256x8. b. it follows that all x-values in the interval (–∞. f(g(f(3))) = 11. d. b. g(f(–2)) = –11 699.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– f(x) = –(x – 1)2 + 3 = –(x2 – 2x + 1) + 3 = –x2 + 2x – 1 + 3 = –x2 – 2x + 2 Finally. Since the domain of g(x) = 2x2 + 18 is the set of all real numbers. By definition. 700. Begin with the innermost function: Find f(3) by substituting 3 for x in the function f(x): f(3) = 2(3) + 1 = 6 + 1 = 7 Next. and that. substitute that result for x in g(x). Then. the domain of g ˚ f is (–∞. You are given the value of f(x): f(x) = 6x + 4. substitute the result for x in g(x). Thus. substitute this result for x in f(x): f(5) = 2(5) + 1 = 10 + 1 = 11 Thus. we conclude that (g ˚ h)(4) = –1. Simplify the given expression: f(x + 2) = (x + 2)2 – 4(x + 2) = x2 + 4x + 4 – 4x – 8 = x2 – 4 704. e. we have that h(4) = 4 – 2 4 = 4 – 2(2) = 0. x belongs to the domain of f) and for which f(x) belongs to the domain of g. f(f(2x)) = f(–4x2) = – (–4x2)2 = –16x4. Since f(5) = 0 and f(0) = 0. Finally. 702. simplify the original expression f(x + h) – f(x): f(x + h) – f(x) = (–x2 – 2hx – h2 + 2x + 2h + 2) – (–x2 + 2x + 2) = –x2 – 2hx – h2 + 2x + 2h + 2 + x2 – 2x –2 = –2hx – h2 + 2h = h(h – 2h + 2) 696. 0]. b. For the present scenario. 698. Thus. these are the only permissible inputs. and then simplify: g(6x + 4) = (6x + 4)2 – 1 = 36x2 + 24x + 24x + 16 – 1 = 36x2 + 48x + 15 Therefore. (f ˚ g)(0) = f(g)(0)) = f(2) = –1. Observe Finally. c. 0] are permissible inputs in the composition function (g ˚ f)(x). we conclude that (f ˚ f ˚ f)(2x) = –256x8. in fact. we work from Working from the inside outward. we first note that f(2x) = –2(x)2 = –4x2. The domain of g ˚ f consists of only those f(–2) by substituting –2 for x in the function f(x): f(–2) = 3(–2) + 2 = –6 + 2 = –4 Then. 701. g(–4) = 2(–4) – 3 = –8 – 3 = –11 Thus. g(f(x)) = 36x2 + 48x + 15. (f ˚ f ˚ f)(2x) = f(f(f(2x))). Begin with the innermost function. 697. c. c. Therefore. Substitute this expression for x in the equation g(x). 235 . Begin with the innermost function: find the inside outward to obtain f(f(f(f(5)))) = f(f(f(0))) = f(f(0)) = f(0) = 0 703. (g ˚ h)(4) = g(h(4)). By definition. Since g(0) = 2 and f(2) = –1. the domain of f consists of only those x-values for which –3x 0. b.

it cannot have another x-intercept. since it passes the vertical line test: A vertical line can be drawn through the graph of y = 2 at any point and will cross the graphed function in only one place. Therefore. we have: 4x – 1 0 4x 1 x 1 4 Hence. The intersection of the graph of f(x) = x3 term (e. 706. is equivalent to x 0. 0]. The square root of a negative value is imagi- nary. 2). √4( 14 ) – 1 = 0 = 0. Horizontal lines have a slope of 0. The graph of f(x) = |x| has its lowest point 711.–1)∪(–1. the range of y = 2 is 2. ∞). The radicand of an even-indexed radical 709. and its value is 4 at the origin. Hence. For the present function. which is meaningful for any real number a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 45 (Page 107) 705. it would not pass the vertical line test. The domain of the function is infinite. since if it had more than one. d. decreasing on 1 its entire domain. b. Hence. the domain of f(x) is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 1 . Since f(x) 0 or any nonzero real number x. but all x-values yield the same y-value: 2.g. This line is a function. There is no restriction on the radicand of an and the graph of the horizontal line y = a can be found by solving the equation x3 = a. which is equivalent to x ≠ –1. whereas the radicand of such a radical term must be nonzero if it occurs in the denominator of a fraction. b. which is both an x-intercept and a y-intercept. this restriction takes the form of the statement –1 – x ≠ 0. not just (0. a square root) must be nonnegative if in the numerator of a fraction and strictly positive if in the denominator of a fraction. so the value of 4x – 1 must be greater than or equal to 0. c. Taking the cube root of both sides yields the solution 3 x = a. 236 . b. The small4 est value of f(x) occurs at x = 1 . 708. For the present function. So. ∞). the 1 domain of the function g(x) = is –1 – x (–∞. The equation y = 2 is the equation of hori- zontal line that crosses the y-axis at (0. c. Moreover.. the range of the function is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 0. 710. a function can have only one yintercept. The graph of f(x) = x .. this restriction takes the form of the inequality –x 0. a cube root) if it is in the numerator of a fraction. which upon multiplication on both sides by –1. the domain of the function f(x) = –x is (–∞. in fact. Symbolically.g. Its graph is given here: 10 8 6 4 2 odd-indexed radical term (e. 3 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 707. b.

Therefore. 0). the range of both functions is [0. b. the restriction takes the form of the statement 2 – x ≠ 0. –1). There are 2 2 2 2 more than two points of intersection. So. Using the fact that |a| = b if and only if a = ±b. –2√ 1 ).0). b. c.0). the y-intercept is (0. we solve the two equations 2x – 1 = ±b separately: 2x – 1 = – 1 2x = 0 x =0 2x – 1 = 1 2x = 2 x=1 So. d.1): there are more than two points of intersection. the graphs of both f and g intersect the horizontal line y = a twice.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 712.0). there is only one point of intersection. and (1. 2√ 1 ). 237 . 1 The points of intersection are (–1. The x-values of the points of intersection of the graphs of f(x) = 3 x2 and g(x) = 4 satisfy the equation 3 x2 = 4 is solved as follows: 3 2 4x 3 2 4x 5 16 5 16 5 16 5 2 16 x must x2. which is equivalent to x ≠ 2. This equation Thus. The x-values of the points of intersection of occurs at their vertex. (0. a fifth root) must be nonzero if it occurs in the denominator of a fraction. ±√ 1 ) 2 satisfying the equation 1 – |2x – 1| = 0. which is equivalent to |2x – 1| = 1. The x-values of the points of intersection of = – x2 x2 = 0 =0 the graphs of f(x) = x2and g(x) = x4must satisfy the equation x4 = x2. 0. (√ 1 . The x-intercepts of f are those values of x x =0. 713. Thus. The y-intercept for a function y = f(x) is the point (0. As such. 717. the points of intersection are (0. which is presently the case. ∞). d. The radicand of an odd-indexed radical the graphs of f(x) = 2x and g(x) = 4x3must satisfy the equation 4x3 = 2x. f(0)). Observe that f(0) = = –2––02 = 4 –4 4 –2 –|2 – 3(0)| 4 – 2(0)2|–0| = –1. ∞). The minimum value for both functions 716. This equation is solved as follows: 4x3 = 2x 4x3 – 2x = 0 2x(x2 – 1) = 0 4x(x2 – 1 ) = 0 2 4x(x – √ 1 )(x + √ 1 ) = 0 2 2 term (e. c. 715. there are two x-intercepts of the given function.1). (0. which occurs at (0. and (–√ 1 ..2) (2. 714. This equation is solved as follows: x4 = x2 x4 – x2 = 0 x2(x2 – 1) = 0 x2(x – 1)(x + 1) = 0 x = –1. 718. Also. the domain is (–∞. c. (3– 4 5 2 16 )x x2 = 0 x=0 Hence. for any positive real number a.g.

so f(0) is undefined. the values of x that must be excluded from the domain are the solutions of the equation x3 – 4x = 0. 0. requires that we solve for x in the expression y = x3 + 2: y = x3 + 2 y – 2 = x3 3 x= y–2 Hence. Remember that the domain of f is equal to follows: (x – 3)(x2 – 16) (x2 + 9)(x – 4) (x – 3)(x + 4) (x2 + 9) = (x – 3)(x – 4)(x + 4) (x2 + 9)(x – 4) = = x2 + x – 12) x2 + 9 the range of f –1. there is no vertical asymptote. For this function. and 2. Determining the inverse function for f requires that we solve for x in the expression y= y= x–1 5x + 2 x–1 5x + 2 Set 46 (Page 109) 721. this is equivalent to saying that (4. or that f –1(4) = 1. We must identify the intervals in the domain tion. 724. 4) is on the graph of y = f(x) means that f(1) = 4. b. 720. there is no x-value that makes the denominator of the simplified expression equal to zero. 722. All three statements are true.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 719. the domain is (–∞. b. c. 0)∪(0. If there is no x-value that satisfies the equa- of p(x) on which the graph of y = p(x) rises from left to right. 238 . First. Determining the inverse function for f While there is a hole in the graph of f at x = 4. Therefore. This happens on the intervals (–3. As such. But. 727. since 0 does not belong to the range of f –1. Factoring the left side yields the equivalent equation x3 – 4x = x(x2 – 4) = x(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 The solutions of this equation are x = –2. d. 3 is not in the range of f. 2)∪(2. there is a horizontal asymptote given by y = 1 (since the quotient of the coefficients of the terms of highest degree in the numerator and denominator is 1 1 = 1). b. f(x) = 0 then the graph of y = f(x) does not cross the horizontal line y = 0.–2)∪( –2. ∞). since the degrees of the numerator and denominator are equal. The graph of f passes the horizontal line test tion. the fact that (1. so. 725. the inverse is f –1(y) = 3 y – 2. it has an inverse. The domain of a rational function is the set : of all real numbers that do not make the denominator equal to zero. Hence. which is the x-axis. f(x) = 3 then there is no point on the graph of y = f(x) when y = 3. ∞). If there is no x-value that satisfies the equa- 723. b. y ≠ 5 is the inverse function of f. c. 1) is on the graph of f –1. 726. 0)∪( 2. d. Hence. it does not belong to the domain of f. we conclude that the function f –1(y) = –2y –1 1 5y – 1 . Also. simplify the expression for f(x) as y(5x + 2) = x – 1 5xy + 2y = x – 1 5xy – x = –2y – 1 x(5y – 1) = –2y – 1 x= –2y – 1 5y – 1 Now. b. on this interval.

f(x) = 0 which is equivalent to 2– x2 + 1 x–1 Next. 730. statement I holds. The x-values that satisfy such an equation are those that make the numerator equal to zero and do not make the denominator equal to zero. there is a hole in the graph of f at this value. statement II holds. Finally.3).ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 728. since x = 0 is a vertical asymptote. we can conclude that the graph has no horizontal asymptote. x2 – 2x + 3 = 0. but does not make the numerator equal to zero. So. while there is a y-intercept. 729. Since the numerator does not factor. we conclude that there are no x-intercepts. b. First. note that x2 + 1 does not factor. Hence. So. and there is no yintercept. Hence. but does have an oblique asymptote. since the degrees of the numerator and denominator are equal. so x = 1 is a vertical asymptote for the graph of f. we must consider the equation. b. Using the quadratic formula yields x= –(–2) ± (–2)2 –4(1)(3) 2(1) values move from left to right. there is a horizontal asymptote given by y = 1 (since the quotient of the coefficients of the terms of highest degree in the numerator and denominator is 1 1 = 1). statement III does not hold. To see this. c. So. Next. (0. The y-values of f(x) = x get smaller as x1 = 2(x – 1) – (x2 + 1) x–1 = –(x2 – 2x + 3) x–1 = 0. there is no x-intercept. II is a characteristic of the graph of f. III is not a characteristic of the graph of f. 239 . Because x = 0 makes the denominator equal to zero. The graph is as follows: 10 8 6 4 2 = 2± –8 2 =1±i 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 Since the solutions are imaginary. so we need only solve the equation. it is a vertical asymptote. Since the degree of the numerator of the fraction is exactly one more than that of the denominator. The expression for f can be simplified as follows: (2 – x)2(x + 3) x(x – 2)2 (x – 2)2(x + 3) x(x – 2)2 = = (–(x – 2))2(x + 3) x(x – 2)2 x+3 x = Since x = 2 makes both the numerator and denominator of the unsimplified expression equal to zero. we know that (x – 1) is not a factor of it. the graph of f cannot intersect it.

Their graphs are as follows: f(x) = x3 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x 10 8 6 4 2 f(x) = 2x + 5 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x 10 8 6 4 2 f(x) = |x| –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x 240 . d. The y-values on all three graphs increase as 10 8 6 4 2 the x-values move from left to right in the interval (0. ∞).ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 731.

Their graphs are as follows: 10 8 6 4 2 f(x) = x3 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 10 8 6 4 2 g(x) = –1 – x2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 241 . The function f(x) = x2 + 3 has no vertical asymptote since no value of x makes the denominator equal to x2 + 1 zero. c. And the func- tion g(x) = –1 – x2 illustrates the truth of statement c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 732. The function f(x) = x3 is an example that shows that both statements a and b are true. d. and has the horizontal asymptote y = 1. 733.

In order for the turning point of the parabola –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 to be in Quadrant II. b. The x-values of the points of intersection of positive slope of m means that the graph of the line rises vertically m units for every positive unit increase in x.) Statement c is true because the vertex is the point at which the maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function occurs. Statement a is true because. observe that f(x) = (x + 2)3 – 3 = g(x + 2) – 3. Here. so the correct choice is d. We apply the general principle that the graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. k 0). observe that f(x) = (x – 2)2 – 4 = g(x – 2) – 4. left) h units if h 0 (resp. b. (See the following graph. d. The turning point of y = (x – 2)2 – 2 is (2. by definition. and up (resp. which is Set 47 (Page 112) 737. For example the graph of 1 the function f(x) = x2 intersects both Quadrants I and II. observe that f(x) = (x – 4)3 + 1 = g(x – 4) + 1. a 736. b. so the correct choice is d. k 0). 740.0). and up (resp. 10 8 6 4 2 the graphs of f(x) = satisfy the equation solved as follows: x=3 x x–3 x=0 –2 x = 0 x=0 x and g(x) = 3 x must x = 3 x. Here. The x-values of the points of intersection of the graphs of f(x) = –4x and g(x) = 2 x must satisfy the equation–4x = 2 x. illustrating the truth of statement b. 741. Therefore. which is solved as follows: –4x = 2 x (–4x)2 = (2 x)2 16x2 = 4x 16x2 – 4x = 0 4x(4x – 1) = 0 x = 0. c. so the correct choice is c. down) k units if k 0 (resp. –2). Here.) down k units if k 0 (resp. 242 . h 0). d. The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by 735. h 0). Note that the turning point of y = –(x + 2)2 + 1 is (–2. we would shift the graph of y = x2 to the right 2 units and down 2 units. so that the correct choice is d. while the turning point of y = x2 is (0. h 0). its x-coordinate must be negative and its y-coordinate must be positive. 738. 1). down) k units if k 0 (resp. k 0). The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. d. so that the graph is indeed decreasing on one side of the vertex and increasing on the other side of the vertex. left) h units if h 0 (resp. and up (resp. left) h units if h 0 (resp.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 734. 1 4 shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. d. 739. These graphs resemble the letter U or an upside down U.

b. down) k units if k > 0 (resp. f(x) = |x + 6| + 4 = g(x + 6) + 4. 42x2 756. The graph of y = –g(x + h) + k is obtained shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. 746. h 0). then reflecting the graph over the x-axis. The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. k 0). left) h units if h 0 (resp. down) k units if k 0 (resp. down) k units if k 0 (resp. down) k units if k 0 (resp. then reflecting the graph over the x-axis. b. and up (resp. observe that f(x) = –(x + 3)3+ 5 = –g(x + 3) + 5. then reflecting the graph over the x-axis. down) k units if k 0 (resp. k < 0).ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 742. so the correct choice is d. k 0). Here. so the correct choice is a. and finally shifting the graph up (resp. and up (resp. h 0). Here. and up (resp. then reflecting the graph over the x-axis. Here. The graph of y = –g(x + h) + k is obtained shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. 2x 2x+1 = 2x+x+1 = 22x+1 755. 751. The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. The graph of y = –g(x + h) + k is obtained by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. The graph of y = –g(x + h) + k is obtained shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. Hence. and finally shifting the graph up (resp. Here. observe that f(x) = x – 5 – 3 = g(x – 5) – 3. Hence. b. down) k units if k 0 (resp. left) h units if h 0 (resp. 750. Hence. Hence. then reflecting the graph over the x-axis. h 0). b. c. down) k units if k 0 (resp. down) k units if k 0 (resp. left) h units if h 0 (resp. k 0). the correct choice is d. The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. the correct choice is d. the correct choice is c. so the correct choice is b. left) h units if h 0 (resp. c. Here. k 0). b. Hence. h 0). then reflecting the graph over the x-axis. Here. 743. c. h 0). left) h units if h < 0 (resp. The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by 748. so that the correct choice is a. and up (resp. d. k 0). h 0). observe that f(x) = –|x – 1| + 5 = –g(x – 1) + 5. observe that f(x) = 2 x + 3 = g(x + 3). observe that f(x) = (x – 2)3– 1 = g(x – 2) – 1. b. h 0). The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. k 0). so the correct choice is b. 752. k 0). left) h units if h 0 (resp. e3x–2y = e3xe–2y = (ex)3(ey)–2 – 233–2 = 9 754. b. down) k units if k 0 (resp. d. and up (resp. Set 48 (Page 115) 753. the correct choice is b. the correct choice is a. and finally shifting the graph up (resp. h 0). b. 749. 744. left) h units if h 0 (resp. h > 0). left) h units if h 0 (resp. left) h units if h 0 (resp. k 0). d. k 0). d. down) k units if k 0 (resp. (4x–1)2 16 = 42(x–1) 16 = 42x–2 42 = 42x–2+2 = 8 by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. and finally shifting the graph up (resp. h 0). 745. observe that. The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. 747. k 0). 54x 52x – 6 1 2 = (54x–(2x–6)) 2 = (52x+6)) 2 = 5 2 (2x+6) 1 1 1 = 5x+3 243 . left) h units if h 0 (resp. so the correct choice is d. and finally shifting the graph up (resp. The graph of y = –g(x + h) + k is obtained shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. and finally shifting the graph up (resp. down) k units if k 0 (resp. h 0). left) h units if h 0 (resp.

If b 0. A typical graph is as follows: 10 8 6 4 2 763. b. the solution set is [0. c. the solution set for the inequality – 2 3 empty set. (53x–1)3 5x–1 52x = 59x–35x–1 52x = 510x–4 52x = 58x–4 = (54)2x–1 = 6252x–1 759. 1 –x 0. If b 1.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 757. Observe that – 3 = 4 x 9 . which is strictly positive. b. The graph of y = 3x is always increasing and is equal to 1 when x = 0. b. If 0 + 2 + e–2x = e2x + e–2x + 2 758. d. Observe that 1 – 3x 2 4 6 8 10 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 0 is equivalent to 3x 1. d. Therefore. 3x 1. the graph of y = bx gets very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the right. for any real number x. so the equation bx = 0 764.Hence. A typical graph is as follows: 10 8 (e–x)(–1) = e2x – ex – 1+ e–x 760. c. 2 2x 766. The graph of y = 2x is always above the x-axis. ∞). (ex + e–x)2 = (ex)2 + 2(ex)(e–x) + (e–x)2 = e2x 762. the graph of y = bx gets very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the left. c. then bx has no solution. b. 765. ex(ex – e–x) + e–x(ex + e–x) e–2x 6 4 2 = = = (ex)(ex) – (ex)(e–x) + (e–x)(ex) + (e–x)(e–x) e–2x e2x – 1 + 1 + e–2x e–2x e2x + e–2x e–2x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 = e4x + 1 761. b. 2x 0 is the 244 . Note that 2 = 2x. and the y-values grow very rapidly as the x-values move to the left. ex(ex –1) – e–x(ex – 1) = (ex)2 – ex – (e–x)(ex) – b 1. so statement c is true. so for all x thereafter.

d. and the graph of f always stays below this asymptote. c. But the left side of this equation is nonnegative for any x-value that does not make the radicand negative. scaling it by a factor of 2. The graph of f(x) = – 4 is always below the x-axis and increases as x moves from left to right. equate the exponents and solve for x: 7x2 – 1 = 6x 7x2 – 6x – 1 = 0 (7x + 1)(x – 1) = 0 The solutions are x = – 1 and x = 1. the equation has no solution. as shown by its graph: 10 8 6 4 2 3 x Set 49 (Page 116) 769. the original equation is 1 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 equivalent to 5 x+1 = 5–2. The graph of f(x) = – 7 is always below the x-axis and is decreasing as x moves from left to right. Hence. as shown by its graph: 10 8 6 4 2 15 3x –6 –8 770.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 767. 245 . and then translating it up one unit. Now. the original horizontal asymptote y = 0 for g becomes y = 1. 1). In doing so. b. Hence. as 43x = (22)3x = 26x. 4 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 2 4 6 8 10 2 –4 –3 –2 –1 –6 –8 1 2 3 –2 –4 –10 768. The x-values that satisfy this equation must satisfy the one obtained by equating the exponents of the expressions on both sides of the equation. c. 7 771. d. The graph of f(x) = 1 – 2ex is obtained by reflecting the graph of g(x) = ex over the x-axis. Since 25 = 5–2. Rewrite the expression on the right side of the equation as a power of 2. the range is (–∞. See the following graph. which is x+1 = –2. and substitute into the original equation 2 to obtain the equivalent equation 27x –1 = 26x.

d. note that 125 and 25 are both powers of 5. d. and then solve for x: 125x = 25 (53)x = 52 53x = 52 Equating exponents yields 3x = 2. 774. We use this fact in order to first rewrite the equation in a more convenient form. 773. as follows: 32x = 9 3x–1 32x = 32 3x–1 32x = 32+x–1 32x = 3x+1 Equating exponents yields 2x = x + 1. Thus. Solving this equation yields x = 1. c. b. First. rewrite 9 as a power of 3. simplify the left side. The power to which 125 should be raised in 1 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 order to yield 25 is not obvious. sim- a power of 4. First. Then. Multiply both sides by the denominator on obtained by reflecting the graph of g(x) = about the y-axis. Since 8 can be expressed as a power of 2. The graph is as follows: 4 2 e–x the right side. (ex)x–3 = e10 ex2–3x = e10 x2 – 3x = 10 x2 – 3x – 10 = 0 (x – 5)(x + 2) = 0 x = 5. b. 42x–3 = 4x 1 42x–3 4x = 4x 4x 42x–3+x = 1 43x–3 = 40 3x – 3 = 0 x=1 776. we conclude that the solution is x = 2 . then reflecting it over the x-axis. observe that 1 = 40. d. 3 777. then shifting it to the left 2 units. The graph of f(x) = –e2–x – 3 can be 775. then equate the exponents and solve for x: 163x–1 = 42x+3 (42)3x–1 = 42x+3 42(3x–1) = 42x+3 2(3x – 1) = 2x + 3 6x – 2 = 2x + 3 4x = 5 x= 5 4 plify the right side. However. we exponents and solve the resulting equation. 246 . x = –2 778. We rewrite the left side of the equation as can write the following: 2x–5 = 8 2x–5 = 23 Equating exponents yields x – 5 = 3. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 772. b. Then. and finally shifting it down 3 units. and c hold. d. equate the –12 –14 It is evident that all three characteristics provided in choices. Then. so x = 8 is the solution.

we 9 9 conclude that the solution of this equation is –2. Since 8 = 23 = (2–1)x = 2–x. Finding x such that log3 9 = x is equivalent –1 ± 2 5 1 to finding x such that 3x = 1 . we conclude that the solutions are 3 and 2. Finding x such that log7 7 = x is equivalent 7. b. c. then equate the exponents and solve for x: 4x+1 = ( 1 )2x 2 (22)x+1 = (2–1)2x 22(x+1) = 2–2x 2(x + 1) = –2x 2x + 2 = –2x 4x = –2 x = –1 2 780. We rewrite both sides of the equation as a power of 10. the solution of this equation is 3. 787. c. factor equal to zero. We rewrite both sides of the equation as a 783. b. b. Since 27 = 33. Factor the left side of the equation. this equation is equiv- alent to 23 = 2–x. and solve for x. However. we conclude that the only solution is x = –5. b. Factor the left side of the equation. c. then equate the exponents and solve for x using the quadratic formula: (10x+1)2x = 100 102x(x+1) = 102 2x(x + 1) = 2 2x2 + 2x = 2 2x2 + 2x – 2 = 0 x2 + x – 1 = 0 x = –1 ± 1 – 4(1)( –1) = 2(1) Set 50 (Page 118) 785. then equate the exponents and solve for x using the quadratic formula: 2=8 x +1 = 23 x+1=3 x=2 x=4 2 2 x to finding x such that and 1 x 2 1 2 = 8. Since 1 = 3–2. and solve for x: 2x2 ex – 7x ex + 6 ex = 0 ex (2x2 – 7x + 6) = 0 ex (2x – 3)(x – 2) = 0 ex = 0 or 2x – 3 = 0 or x – 2 = 0 Since ex = 0 has no solutions. 2 784.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 779. Factor the left side of the equation. the second equation is satisfied when x = 0. d. 2 247 . the first equation has no solution. the solution of which is –3. set each factor equal to zero. Finding x such that log 1 8 = x is equivalent 2 x 782. c. 781. 786. we conclude that the solution of this equation is 1 . Since 7= to finding x such that 7x = 1 2 7 . 788. set each power of 2. and solve for x: e2x + 5ex – 6 = 0 (ex) 2 + 5(ex) – 6 = 0 (ex + 6)(ex – 1) = 0 ex + 6 = 0 or ex – 1 = 0 ex = – 6 = 0 or ex = 1 Since ex is always positive. We rewrite both sides of the equation as a power of 2. as follows: x 3x + 5 3x = 0 3x(x+ 5) = 0 3x = 0 or x + 5 = 0 Since 3x = 0 has no solutions. set each factor equal to zero. c. Finding x such that log327 = x is equivalent to finding x such that 3x = 27.

log3(3 4 800. 797. write the expression on the left side as to finding x such that = 1. 248 . We conclude that the solution of this equation is 0. c. Finding x such that log51 = x is equivalent 798. b. The equation 3log32 = x is equivalent to log3x = log32. Indeed. b. First. which is x = 6 = 3 . d. the value of x we seek is the solution of the equation 4x = 6.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 789. The given expression can be written as one involving the terms ln x and ln y: ln e2y x 9 ) = log3(3 ) + log3(9 ) = 3 4log3 3 + 3log39 = 4(1) +3(2) = 10 794. 790. c. a) = loga5 + loga( a) = 4 3 1 ln3 792. b. the solution is x = 36. d. b. e 1 2 –1 2 –1 3 =8 –1 3 x= 62 = 36. 3ln ln 1 x 1 x 3 1 x 3 = ln8 = ln8 to finding x such that 16x = 64. So. So. We rewrite the expressions on both sides of the equation using the same base of 2. b. Finding x such that log1664 = x is equivalent 5x the ln of a single expression. 4 2 791. b. the solution is x = 2. The equation 53x–1 = 7 is equivalent to = x) = 1 ln (e2y) – ln( log5 7 = 3 – 1. The given expression can be written as one ln (e2) + ln y – ln(x 2 ) = 2ln(e) + ln y – 1 2 ln x = 2 + ln y – 1 ln x 2 Substituting ln x = 3 and ln y = 2 into this expression yields ln ( 4– e2y x 3 2 involving the terms logax and logay: loga x y3 ) = 2 + ln y – 5 2 1 2 ln x = 2 + 2 – 1 (3) = 2 = logax – loga(y3) = logax – 3logay = Substituting logax = 2 and logay = –3 into this expression yields loga x y3 = loga x – 3loga(y) = 2 – 3(–3) = 2 + 9 = 11 796. it follows by definition that f(g(x)) = loga(ax) = x. logax = loga(5 = e ln(3 –1 2 ) =32 = –1 1 3 = 3 3 loga5 + loga(a 2 ) = loga5 + 1 logaa 2 793. b. observe that 16x = (24)x = 24x and 64 = 26. Hence. c. Since f(x) = logax and g(x) = ax are inverses. The equation log6x = 2 is equivalent to =8 x–3 = 8 (x–3) x= 799. This equation is solved as follows: log5 7 = 3x – 1 3x = 1 + log5 7 x = 1 (1 + log5 7) 3 795.

3 logb (x + 3)–1 – 2logb x + logb (x + 3)3 = –3 logb (x + 3) – 2logb x + 3logb (x + 3) = – 2logb x = logb x–2 = 1 logb ( x2 ) 814. c. ln (2 ln (2 ln (2 x + 1)(x2 + 3) = x + 1) + ln(x2 + 3) = x + 1) + 4ln(x2 + 3) = x + 1) + 4ln (x2 + 3) = 1 4 4 3ln(xy2) = – 4ln(x2y) + ln(xy) = ln(xy2) = – ln(x2y) + ln(xy) = ln ln ln ln (xy2)3 (x2y)4 3 4 + ln(xy) = ln 2 + ln ( = (xy2)3(xy) (x2y)4 x3y6xy x8y4 y3 x4 ln 2 + ln (x + 1) 2 + 4ln (x2 + 3) = ln 2 + 1 ln (x + 1) + 4ln (x2 + 3) 2 812. yz log2 ( 8x2 ) = log2 (8yz4) – log2 x2 = log2 8 + log2 y + log2 z4 – log2 x2 = 3 + log2 y + 4log2 z – 2log2 x 4 y-values on the graph of f(x) = ln x plunge downward very sharply. c. b. log7 49 – log7 7 = log7( 49 7 ) = log7( 49 18x3 2 7) log3 x2 2x – 1 3 (2x + 1)2 3 = log3 (x2 2x – 1) – log3 (2x + 1)2 = log3 (x2) + log3 ( 2x – 1) – log3 (2x + 1)2 = log3 (x2) + log3 (2x – 1) 2 – log3 (2x + 1)2 = 2log3 (x) + 1 2 1 3 3 = 8 27 log7 1 7 = –1 2 2 3 2 806.4) = log8 8 =1 803. Using the logarithm rules yields 811. b. 249 . Since the input in this case is –x. Thus the domain of k > is (–∞.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 51 (Page 119) 801. b. d. As the x-values decrease toward zero. log (2x3) = log 2 + log x3 = log 2 + 3 logx 808. b. log8 2 + log8 4 = log8(2. The inputs for logarithmic functions must be positive. then the inequality –x 0 must be satisfied. c. Clearly –x 0 = x < 0. ln18x3 – ln6x = ln( 6x ) = ln3x2 2 2 2 2 2 805. 0). d. 3 log4 3 + log4 27 = log4 ( 3 )3 + log4 27 = log4 log3 (2x – 1) – 3 2 log3 (2x + 1) + log4 27 = log4 ( 287 27) = log4 8 = 813. 3 2 2 log2 4 – 3 log2 8 + log2 2 = 3 2 2 3 2 log2 2 – 3 log2 2 + log2 2 = 3 2 2 (2) – 3 (3) + 1 = x 3–2+1= 2 810. the 807. = 802. c. as can be seen in the following graph: 4 3 2 1 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 809. d. d. b. 4 log9 3 = log9(34) = log9 81 = 2 804. b.

The x-intercepts of the function f(x) = ln – 4x + 4) are those x-values that satisfy the equation x2 – 4x + 4 = 1. we conclude that the x-intercept is (1. solved as follows: x2 – 4x + 4 = 1 x2 – 4x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x – 1) = 0 The solutions of this equation are x = 3 and x = 1. (x2 Substituting this value for x in the original equation reveals that it is indeed a solution. So. The domain of the function f(x) = ln(x2 – 4x Since x2 + 1 > 0 for any real number x. 2)∪(2. g(f(x)) = ln e2x = ln all real numbers x (ex)2 = ln(ex) = x. . 816. the range of g is also .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 815. the x-intercepts are (1. which is satisfied by all real numbers x except 2. Since log2 1 = 0. 819. 820. we conclude that these choices for f and g are inverses. The inputs of a logarithm must be positive. 250 . b. c. c. This inequality is equivalent to (x – 2)2 0. + 1 occurs at those x-values that make the input of the ln portion equal to zero. for 1 1 Hence.0) and (3. for all x > 0. Using exponent and logarithm rules yields Set 52 (Page 121) 817. namely x = –1. The vertical asymptote for f(x) = ln(x + 1) (x.0). ∞). 821. d.0). d. b. b. So. The graph is provided here. c. Since using 2x – 1 as the input for g for all x 1 2 covers the same set of inputs as g. The range of the function g(x) = ln x is . the domain is (–∞.0). 10 8 6 4 2 f(g(x)) = e2(ln x) = e2ln(x 2 ) = e2( 2 ) lnx = elnx = x. 822. The x-intercept is the point of the form + 4) is the set of x-values for which x2 – 4x + 4 0. it follows that its domain is the set of all real numbers. Apply the logarithm properties and then solve for x: ln(x – 2) –ln(3 – x) = 1 2 4 6 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 ln x–2 3–x x–2 3–x =1 =e x – 2 = e(3 – x) x – 2 = 3e + ex ex + x = 3e + 2 (e + 1)x = 3e + 2 x= 3e + 2 e+1 818.

the solution is 1. which is solved as follows: log2 (2)x + log2 (x + 1) = 2 log2 (2x(x + 1)) = 2 2x(x + 1) = 22 2x2 + 2x = 4 2x2 + 2x – 4 = 0 2(x – 1)(2x + 2) = 0 x = 1. We combine the two logarithms. which is equivalent to –1 x 1. that is true for every x in the interval (–1. 825. note that the expression ln (1 – x2) is only defined when 1 – x2 0. = 102 302 99 x + 2 = 100(x – 3) x = 828. b. x = 1 is the only solution. –2 We must exclude x = –2 because it is not in the domain of either logarithm in the original equation. y = e–a(b+x) ln y = –a(b+x) ln y = –ab – ax ab + ln y = – ax – 1 (ab + ln y) = x a 251 . We combine the two logarithms. b. First. and then x> –2 + ln 2 –3 2 – ln 2 3 x≤ 2 3 2 – ln 2 3 So. convert the resulting equation to the equivalent exponential equation and solve: log x + log (x + 3) = 1 log (x(x + 3)) = 1 (x(x + 3)) = 101 x2 + 3x – 10 = 0 (x + 5)(x – 2) = 0 x = –5. rewrite the left side as a single logarithm. or equivalently logb x = 0. 1). First. Since the only values of y for which ln y 0 are 0 y 1. 1). and then 5 +1<9 2–3x 4 4e <8 2–3x <2 1 e ln 1 2 – 3x ln 2 –2 + 0 ≤ –3x –2 + ln 2 2 3≥ 4e2–3x change to the equivalent exponential equation. we must determine the value of x such that 3logb x = 0. Beause. c. d. the solution set is . b. Hence. d.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 823. 829. x = 2 is the only solution. So. This equation can be written in the exponential form x = b0 = 1. Thus. change to the equivalent exponential equation. the solution set of the inequality ln (1 – x2) 0 is (–1. we must determine which of these values satisfies the more restrictive inequality 0 1 – x2 1. which is solved as follows: log (x – 2) = 2 + log (x + 3) log (x + 2) – log (x + 3) = 2 2 log ( x + 3 ) = 2 x– x+2 x–3 Then. x = – 5 cannot be a solution since – 5 is not in the domain of log x. Thus. However. 2 However. b to a power is equal to zero if and only if the power is zero. 827.2 . 826. 3 824. b.

S 1 –2 W S0 0 W X T 835. b. b. The matrix in choice a is the correct choice. 838. 832. 2 > 2 –1 –3 –1 –6 –2 6 –3 –12 1 H –3 > H=> H–> H=> H 0 1 2 2 0 2 6 6 –6 –4 V V R 2 R 2 S –1 0 1 W S – 5 0 5 W 2 S 1 0 1 W= S 2 0 2 W 5 5 839. c. These matrices cannot be added because they do not have the same dimensions. 5 S 0 1 –1 W S 0 2 – 2 W W S S 5 5 W X X T T 252 . so its dimensions are 4 2. a. c. c. b. b. 836. 3 ln 4y + ln A = ln B 3 ln 4y = ln B – ln A ln 4y = 1 (ln B – ln A) 3 4y = e y= 831. The matrix 9 1 2 –1 0 C has one row and four columns. V R S 0 –2 W S0 1 W 834. A matrix with dimensions 3 2 has three rows and two columns. so its dimensions are 1 4. c. 1 3 1 3 P = P0e–kt P P0 = e–kt P P0 ln = –kt P P0 (ln B – ln A) 1 (ln B – ln A) 4e – 1 ln k =t 1 + ln (x y) = ln z 1 + ln x + ln y = ln z ln x = ln z –ln y – 1 x = eln z –ln y – 1 Section 7—Matrix Algebra Set 53 (Page 124) 833. d. The matrix S Whas four rows and two columns. –3 > 3 3 0 –1 –1 0 H=> H 0 –3 1 0 9 –3 837.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 830.

Therefore. First. Hence. simplify the left side of the equation: –4 > 2x 10 6 3x – 2 0 –2 4x + 2 1 –5 H H –2 > H=> 4 y 6 2y –1 –2 2 4 – 3 y –1 > –12 + 8 0 8 –8x – 4 –10 2 2x 10 6 H– > H= > H 8 –8y 4 4 8 – 6 y –2 4 y 6 –4 + 12 10 6 2x 10 6 H=> H 4 –2y – 8 6 4 y 6 > Equating corresponding entries reveals that the following equations must hold simultaneously: –4x + 12 = 2x and –2y – 8 = y. Therefore. and –z = –2z. d. Two matrices are equal if and only if each pair of corresponding entries are the same. a.0. The solutions of the first equation are x = –2 and 2. Since there are infinitely many possible values of x. we find that x = y = z = 0. d. the equation 0 2 2 0 4 is equivalent to 0 2 which occurs only when x = 3. Two matrices are equal if and only if each pair of corresponding entries is the same. Hence. we conclude that the only x-value that makes the equality true is x = 2.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 840. Solving these equations. Observe that R V R V V V R R S0 2 W S0 6 W S 0 –6 W S 0 6 W 3 S 1 1 W = S 3 3 W and –1 S –3 –3 W = S 3 3 W . The two matrices are equal if and only if 3x = – 6y. 0 2 . 843. c.y) makes the 2 equality true. Two matrices are equal if and only if each pair of corresponding entries are the same.0). 841. the ordered triple that makes the equality true is (0. Simplifying the left side of the equation yields the equivalent equation > H=> H . Thus. Solving these equations. the same dimensions). 3 –x –y 3x 4y 844. Statement a is true. both x2 = 4 and 3x = 6 must hold simultaneously. a. the resulting matrix is one with the same number of rows and columns. we find that x = 2 and y = – 8 . S W S W W W S S S 1 x W S 3 3x W S –3 6y W S 3 –6y W T X T X X X T T This implies that for any given real value of x. 845. but only x = 2 also satisfies the second equation. the ordered pair (x.e. 253 . 842. – 8 ). the ordered pair that 3 makes the equality true is (2.. we conclude that infinitely many ordered pairs make this equality true. if we choose y = – 1 x. Note that x –2 3 –2 x –2 1 6 –4 = 3 –2 1 6 –4 > H=> H > H > H > H= > H 2 0 4 0 2 . Equating –z 0 –2z 0 corresponding entries reveals that the following equations must hold simultaneously: –x = 3x. The sum of two matrices is defined only when both matrices have the same number of rows and columns (i. –y = 4y. b.

(–2. 2) 4. There is no X-value that makes these two matrices equal. (1. 3 9 –1 0 0 C –2 9 0 1 0 C + 9 0 0 –1 C = 9 –3 0 0 C + 9 0 –2 0 C + 9 0 0 –1 C = 9 –3 –2 –1 C = –9 3 2 1 C 847. V R R –1 2 V S 5 12 1 W W 1 –2 –1 S 851. Since the inner dimensions are not equal in the terms of the product. 0). R V R V 0 0 W S 15 1 0 0 W S –3x –3 S 0 –3x –3 0 W S 0 15 1 0 W = S 0 0 –3x –3 W S 0 0 15 1 W S W S W S 0 0 0 –3x W S 0 0 0 15 W T X T X While X = –5 makes the corresponding entries along the diagonals of the two matrices the same. statement c is false since you cannot subtract two matrices that have different dimensions. 0). 1 We must form all combinations of x. First. simplifying the left side of the equation in choice b yields the equivalent equation. 0. 2). 1 3. (1. (1. 0). Equating corresponding entries reveals that the following three equations must hold simultaneously: x – 2 = – x2. 3 3 4. And finally. b. The matrix 2G has dimensions 3 4 and the matrix –3E has dimensions. y. a. d. d. the product is not defined. (–2. (–2. 0. (2G) (–3E). As for statement b. c. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 846. 0. the entries to their immediate right are not equal. There are eight such ordered pairs: (–2. 848. 2 y = y2. 2). 2 x – 2 = –x2 x2 + x – 2 = 0 (x + 2)(x – 1) = 0 x = –2. 3 3 4. Statement a is false because you cannot add a real number to a matrix. (1. 4 4z2 = 8z 4z2 – 8z = 0 4z(z – 2) = 0 z = 0. solve each equation: 2 y = y2 4y = y4 y4 –4y y(y3 – 4) = 0 3 y = 0. CF = > 0 1 0 0 H> H = > H 1 –4 0 0 850. 4. and z values to form the ordered triples that make the equality true. 2) Set 54 (Page 127) 849. and 4z2 = 8z. AB = S 0 2 W> H = S 6 10 0 W W S S –1 –1 W 3 5 0 S –4 – 3 1 W X T X T 254 . 0). 0.

S –1 –2 –1 0 WO. S –1 W = 66 S –2 W S W S –2 W T X 1. S 0 1 (ED ) (AC) = S K K S –1 –1 L T V R S 2 –9 W C = 9 –12 –10 –8 C. b. 3 1 –1 W R –2 –1 0 1 VN S J W S 1 –2 1 WO S K 1 –2 –1 S H . K S 1 –2 1 W. (Note that a real number is indeed a matrix with dimensions 1 858. c. S –1 –2 –1 0 WO . S 0 0 –2 W (BG)H = K > W 3 5 0 K S 1 –1 –2 –1 WO S –2 1 0 W W L T XP S X T R V 3 1 –1 W S –3 –7 –3 –1 4 4 2 . The product FF is not defined because the inner dimensions do not match. R J S3 2 K K 9 –4 –2 0 C $.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– R –1 2 V W 1 –2 –1 S 0 –1 0 –4 852. > 1 –4 H O WO K S W O 0 WO L T –1 –1 X P XP 164 C 255 . $ S 2 –8 W = 9 –36 W S S –1 3 W X T VN J R V N 1 WO K S –1 2 W 0 1 O 2 WO . S 2 WO S 1 –1 –2 –1 WO K S 0 0 –2 W S WO K 1 L T XP K S –2 1 0 W T XO LT P X R V S7 W = 9 10 8 2 –4 C . Note that the dimensions of the matrix F are 2 1. d. 4BA = 4 > HS 0 2 W = 4 > H=> H 3 5 0 S –3 16 –12 64 –1 –1 W X T V V R R R VR V S 8 7 7 W S –48 –42 –42 W S 3 2 1 WS 3 2 1 W 6 –12 W 853. a. V R V R R V R V R2 V S 3 2 1 W S –8 –4 0 W S 3 2 1 W S –5 –2 1 W S W W W S S 855. a. S 1 –2 1 W => => H H –11 –13 –5 3 S 0 0 –2 W –52 18 8 S W S –2 1 0 W T X 857. (–2D)(3D) = –6D D = –6 S 0 1 2 WS 0 1 2 W = –6 S –2 –1 2 W = S 12 W W S S S WS W S –3 –3 –3 W S 18 18 18 W S –1 –1 0 WS –1 –1 0 W X X T T T XT X 854. c. K S 0 2 W. b. V JR N R –2 –1 0 1 VN K S 3 1 –1 W R VO J 2W S WO K S K WS O (EG) (HI) = K 9 –4 –2 0 C . 1E + D = S 2 W9 –4 –2 0 C + S 0 1 2 W = S –8 –4 0 W+ S 0 1 2 W = S –8 –3 2 W S W S W S1 W S –1 –1 0 W S –4 –2 0 W S –1 –1 0 W S –5 –3 0 W T X X T X T T X T X V R 856.

Moreover.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 859. > H O . > H O 0 O S –1 –1 W 0 O K P P L T X Note that both products enclosed by parentheses are well-defined when computed from left to right since the inner dimensions are the same for each product to be computed. 0 O 0 0 The original product becomes 0 > H > H O. (2C) (2C) (2C) F = 8(C C C F) = 8 f > 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 H> H> H > Hp 1 –4 1 –4 1 –4 0 = 8 f> 1 –4 . First. c. > 1 –4 H. which is simplified as follows: 0 > H > H O= 0 > H = > H 1 –4 0 O 1 –4 0 O 0 0 P P 863. > 3 5 0 S 0 0 –2 W S W S W 1 –1 –2 –1 W S S –1 –1 0 W –1 –1 W X S –2 1 0 W T T X T X X T R V R V R V S 9 6 3 W S 5 12 1 W S –9 1 1 W S W S W = S 0 3 6 W–2 S 6 10 0 W+ S –5 3 1 W S – 3 – 3 0 W S –4 –3 1 W S 4 2 2 W X T X T X T V R V R R V V R S 9 6 3 W S –10 –24 –2 W S –9 1 1 W S –10 –17 2 W = S 0 3 6 W+ S –12 –20 0 W+ S –5 3 1 W = S –17 –14 7 W W W S S S W 6 –2 W S 4 2 2 W S 9 S –3 –3 0 W S 8 5 0W X T X T X T T X N O O O O P N O O O P 256 N O O O O P . 860. The product FE is not defined because the inner dimensions of F and E are not the same. Therefore. > H = 0 0 0 S –1 –1 W T X N N 0 1 . b. The sum G + A is not defined because G and A have different dimensions. S 0 2 W. this entire computation is not well-defined. S = 3 S 0 1 2 W–2 S 0 2 W . 3D – 2AB + GH V R R V R V S 3 1 –1 W R V S 3 2 1 W S –1 2 W 1 –2 –1 S –2 –1 0 1 W S 1 –2 1 W H+ S –1 –2 –1 0 W. > H = 9 4 –12 C . a. we insert the actual matrices into the expression: R –1 2 V N N J S W 0 O 0 1 K 0 O (EAF) (CF) = K 9 –4 –2 0 C. S 0 2 W. 0 O 0 1 . 861. 0 H> H > H p = 8 f> H > H p = 8> H = > H –4 17 1 –4 0 0 0 17 –72 0 862. 0 1 . So. d. d. 0 0 0 –4 17 . the product enclosed in the first set of parentheses results in a real number: R –1 2 V S W 0 0 9 –4 –2 0 C . this entire computation is not well-defined.

det > 879. Since the inner dimensions of F and E do not match. det > 871. det > 870. det > 872. d. det > 877. det > 869. det > 873. Extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 by x y 2 coefficient matrix. d. a. b. det > 878. Note that (2F)(–2E) = -4FE. c. det > H = (–2) (3) – (–12) (0) = –6 –12 3 0 1 875. a. d. det > the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a 2 plying this by as a 2 system * x y 2 coefficient matrix. we can rewrite the x + 2y = 4 as the following matrix 2x + 3y = 2 equation: > 1 2 x 4 H> H = > H 2 3 y 2 257 . b. det > 867. det > 866. d. d. the entire computation is not well-defined. we can rewrite the system x=a as the following matrix equation: * y=b > 1 0 x a H> H = > H 0 1 y b 883. b. Begin by extracting the coefficients from –2 0 874. we can rewrite the system –3x + 7y = 2 * as the following matrix x + 5y = 8 equation: > –3 7 x 2 H> H = > H 1 5 y 8 882. Multiand identifying the right side –1 0 H = (–1) (–1) – (2) (0) = 1 2 –2 3 2 H = (3 ) (2 ) – (3 ) (2 ) = 0 3 2 3 –2 H = (3) (–6) – (9) (–2) = 0 9 –6 –1 –1 H = (–1) (0) – (–1) (–1) = –1 –1 0 1 constant matrix. Multiplying this and identifying the right side as a 2 1 constant matrix. First. c. det > terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y –3 7 H = (–3) (5) – (1) (7) = –22 1 5 a 0 H = (a) (b) – (0) (0) = ab 0 b 1 2 H = ( 1 ) ( 3 ) – ( 2 ) ( 2 ) = –1 2 3 2 3 H = ( 2 ) ( 1 ) – ( 1 ) ( 3 ) = –1 1 1 –1 2 H = (–1) (–4) – (2) (2) = 0 2 –4 6 3 H = (6 ) (1 ) – (2 ) (3 ) = 0 2 1 –3 4 H = (–3) (2) – (4) (4) = –14 4 2 1 –4 H = (1) (25) – (0) (–4) = 25 0 25 3 –1 H = (3) (–2) – (1) (–1) = –5 1 –2 2 coefficient matrix. a. 880. As such. a. extract the coefficients from the variable Set 55 (Page 130) 865. d. c. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 constant matrix. c. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 864. det > 0 2 H = ( 0 ) ( 0 ) – ( 4 ) ( 2 ) = –8 4 0 Set 56 (Page 131) 881. b. det > 868. a. det > H = (0) (–1) – (–2) (1) = 2 –2 –1 876. this product is not defined.

c. we rewrite the system by moving all terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y 2 coefficient matrix. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 variable terms to the left sides of the equations and all constant terms to the right sides to obtain the following equivalent system: Z ] x – 4y = –2 [ 5y = 1 ] 5 \ Now. First. a. we can rewrite this system as the following matrix equation: > –2 1 –4 x H> H = > 1 H 0 5 y 5 258 . extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y constant matrix. we can rewrite the system 6x + 3y = 8 as the following matrix equation: * 2x + y = 3 6 3 x 8 > H> H = > H 2 1 y 3 2 coefficient matrix. Multiplying this and identifying the right side as a 2 1 constant matrix. Extract the coefficients from the variable 887. d. extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y 2 coefficient matrix. we can rewrite the system * > –3 4 x 1 H> H = > H 4 2 y –3 –x + 2y = 3 as the following matrix equation: 2x–4 = –6 888. c. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 885. First. we rewrite the system by moving all –1 2 x 3 > H> H = > H 2 –4 y –6 886. First. we can rewrite the system * * > 2x + 3y = 1 as the following matrix equation: x + y = –2 2 3 x 1 H> H = > H 1 1 y –2 –3x + 4y = 1 4x + 2y = –3 Now. we can rewrite this system as the following matrix equation: 2 coefficient matrix. c. Extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y 2 coefficient matrix. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 constant matrix. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 variable terms to the left sides of the equations and all constant terms to the right sides to obtain the following equivalent system: constant matrix.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 884. extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 by x y constant matrix.

First. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 2 coefficient matrix. Compute the product on the left side to variable terms to the left sides of the equations and all constant terms to the right sides to obtain the following equivalent system: write it as a single matrix. b. we can rewrite this system as the following matrix equation: > * 2 0 x –2 H> H = > H 12 –3 y 4 259 . we can rewrite this system as the following matrix equation: > constant matrix. we can rewrite this system as the following matrix equation: > –3 1 x 5 H> H = > H 1 –2 y –9 0 1 x –4 H> H = > H –2 –1 y 0 890. First. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 constant matrix. extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y –2 –1 0 x H> H = > H 2 –1 y 1 –x –2 H=> H 2x – y 1 –x = –2 2x – y = 1 2 coefficient matrix. and then equate corresponding entries in the matrices on the left and right sides of the equation to obtain the desired system: > > * 2x = –2 12x – 3y = 4 Now.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 889. we rewrite the system by moving all variable terms to the left sides of the equations and all constant terms to the right sides to obtain the following equivalent system: variable terms to the left sides of the equations and all constant terms to the right sides to obtain the following equivalent system: * –3y + y = 5 x – 2y = –9 * y = –4 –2x – y = 0 Now. a. b. extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y 2 coefficient matrix. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 constant matrix. we rewrite the system by moving all 892. we rewrite the system by moving all 891. c. First. extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y Now.

and then equate corresponding entries in the matrices on the left and right sides of the equation to obtain the desired system: > > 3 2 x –2 H> H = > H 3 2 y 1 –2 3x + 2y H=> H 3x + 2y 1 3x + 2y = –2 3x + 2y = 1 –1 –1 –1 x H> H = > H –1 0 y 1 –x – y –1 H=> H –x 1 –x – y = –1 –x = 1 * * 894. compute the product on the left side to write it as a single matrix: then equate corresponding entries in the matrices on the left and right sides of the equation to obtain the desired system: > > to write it as a single matrix. Compute the product on the left side to 3 –2 x 4 H> H = > H 9 –6 y 12 3x – 2y 4 H=> H 9x – 6y 12 3x – 2y = 4 9x – 6y = 12 write it as a single matrix. b. and then equate corresponding entries in the matrices on the left and right sides of the equation to obtain the desired system: > > 0 2 x 14 H> H = > H 4 0 y –20 2y 14 H=> H –20 4x 2y = 14 4x = –20 * * 260 . d. First. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 893. First. Compute the product on the left side to write it as a single matrix. b. and then equate corresponding entries in the matrices on the left and right sides of the equation to obtain the desired system: > > 896. compute the product on the left side 895.

Applying det A –c a c d this formula with A = > 2 3 H yields the following: 1 1 1 –3 –1 3 A –1 = 1 > H=> H –1 –1 2 1 –2 901. then A –1 = 1 > H. so the matrix does not have an inverse. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. then A –1 = det A –c a c d the determinant of A = > –1 2 H is zero. then A –1 = 1 > H. d. It is known that if A = > a b d –b H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula withA = > a 0 H yields the following: 0 b V R S1 0W b 0 A –1 = 1 > H= S a 1 W ab 0 a W S0 S bW X T a b d –b H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. Note that H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 57 (Page 134) 897. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. It is known that if A = > this formula with A = > 1 2 H yields the following: 2 3 3 –2 –3 2 A –1 = 1 > H=> H –1 –2 1 2 –1 900. a. a. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. Applying det A –c a c d 899. a. 2 –4 261 . It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 H. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. then A –1 = det A > –c a c d this formula with A = > –3 7 H yields the following: 1 5 7 22 3 22 5 5 –7 – 22 A –1 = 1 > H=> 1 –22 –1 –3 22 H 898. b.

Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. then A –1 = det A –c a c d 903. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. c. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. 2 1 d –b a b 1 > H. It is known that if A = > this formula with A = > –3 4 H yields the following: 4 2 2 11 3 22 1 2 –4 – 11 A –1 = 1 > H=> 2 –22 –4 3 11 H 904. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. Note that H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula with A = > 2 0 H yields the following: 12 –3 1 –3 0 0 2 A –1 = 1 > H=> H –6 –12 2 2 –1 3 262 . Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. d. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula with A = > –3 1 H yields the following: 1 –2 –2 –1 –2 –1 5 5 A –1 = 1 > H=> 1 H 5 –1 –3 –5 –3 5 906. a. then A –1 = det A –c a c d the determinant of A = > 6 3 H is zero. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula with A = > 25 4 1 A –1 = 1 > H=> 25 0 1 0 1 –4 H yields the following: 0 25 4 25 1 25 H 905. b. so the matrix does not have an inverse. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 902.

Note that H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. so the matrix does not have an inverse. 9 –6 d –b a b 1 > H. then A –1 = det A –c a c d 910. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula with A = > –1 0 H yields the following: 2 –1 –1 0 –1 0 A –1 = 1 > H=> H 1 –2 –1 –2 –1 909. Note that H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. It is known that if A = > this formula with A = > –1 –1 H yields the following: –1 0 0 1 0 –1 A –1 = 1 > H=> H –1 1 –1 –1 1 912. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula with A = > 0 2 H yields the following: 4 0 0 –2 0 1 4 A –1 = 1 > H=> 1 H –8 –4 0 0 2 263 . It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. a. 3 2 d –b a b 1 > H. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula with A = > 0 1 H yields the following: –2 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 2 A –1 = 1 > H=> 2 H 2 2 0 1 0 908. b. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. a. c. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. so the matrix does not have an inverse. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. d.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 907. then A –1 = det A –c a c d the determinant of A = > 3 2 H is zero. d. It is known that if A = > the determinant of A = > 3 –2 H is zero. then A –1 = det A –c a c d 911.

a. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. 264 . 914. c. The solution is 1 5 y 8 x –3 7 2 H > H. d. given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > –1 1 2 x 4 H> H = > H . y = b. From Problem 881. and f are real numbers. The solution is 2 3 y 2 x 1 2 4 therefore given by > H = > H > H . b. e. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. y = 11 of solving the matrix equation. c. the solution of the system is x = –8. Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 899 yields the y 2 3 2 following solution: x –3 2 4 –8 > H=> H> H = > H y 2 –1 2 6 So. where a. where a. c. without needing to go through the formal procedure a b x e H> H = > H .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 58 (Page 137) 913. y = 6. 915. is c d y f x a b e H > H. From Problem 883. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 13 11 . and f are real numbers. b. d. Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 897 yields the therefore given by > H = > y 1 5 8 following solution: R R V V R V 7 W S 46 W S 23 W S– 5 x 22 22 W> 2 H = S 22 W = S 11 W > H= S 1 3 W8 y S 26 W S 13 W S S 22 W S 11 W S 22 22 W T T X X T X So. The solution of this system is clearly x = a. is c d y f x a b e H > H . given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > –1 –3 7 x 2 H> H = > H. the solution of the system is x = 23 . e. b.

so we cannot apply this principle. e. d. and f are real numbers. is c d y f x a b e H > H . provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. is c d y f x a b e H > H. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . c. Rather. d. and f are real numbers. so the system has infinitely many solutions. From Problem 884.The solution is 1 1 y –2 x 2 3 1 therefore given by > H = > H > H . y = 5. The two lines are identical. 265 . the solution of the system is x = –7. it follows that > 2 –4 2 –4 we must inspect the system to determine whether there is no solution (which happens if the two lines are parallel) or if there are infinitely many solutions (which happens if the two lines are identical). b. H = 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 916. Note that since 2 –4 y –6 –1 2 –1 2 H does not exist. b. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . where a. 917. Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 900 yields y 1 1 –2 the following solution: x –1 3 1 –7 > H=> H> H = > H y 1 –2 –2 5 So. c. given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > –1 2 3 x 1 H> H = > H . e. where a. From Problem 885. The second equation in the system is obtained by multiplying both sides of the first equation by –2. b. d. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > det > –1 –1 2 x 3 H> H = > H.

c. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. we conclude that the two lines must be parallel (which can also be checked by graphing them).ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 918. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 903 yields therefore given by > H = > y 4 2 –3 the following solution: 1 x – 11 > H=> 2 y 11 2 11 3 22 –1 H> 7 1 – 11 H=> 5 H –3 – 22 So. where a. 266 . The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H. where a. b. d. c. d. From Problem 886. y = – 252 . provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. e. and f are real numbers is c d y f x a b e H > H . d. given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > det > –1 6 3 x 8 H> H = > H. e. Note that since 2 1 y 3 6 3 6 3 H does not exist. a. 920. From Problem 887. a. b. c. Subtracting this from the first equation yields the false statement 0 = –1. The solution is the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > 4 2 y –3 x –3 4 1 H > H. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. Hence. e. b. and f are real numbers. where a. From this. is c d y f x a b e H > H. the solution of the system is x = – 171 . and f are real numbers is c d y f x a b e given by > y H = > c d H > f H . The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . it follows that > 2 1 2 1 must inspect the system to determine whether there is no solution (which happens if the two lines are parallel) or if there are infinitely many solutions (which happens if the two lines are identical). the system has no solution. d. From Problem 888. given by > H = > y c d f –3 4 x 1 H> H = > H. Multiplying both sides of the second equation by 3 yields the equivalent equation 6x + 3y = 9. Rather. so we cannot apply the above principle. we H = 0. 919.

is c d y f x a b e H > H . the solution of the system is x = – 179 . Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 906 yields therefore. Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 905 yields therefore given by > H = > y 1 –2 –9 the following solution: x –2 –1 5 –1 5 5 5 > H=> 1 H> H = > 22 H y – 5 – 3 –9 5 5 So. From Problem 890. b. 267 . The solution is –1 x 1 –4 –2 > H=> H > H. the solution of the system is x = – 46 . c. e. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 1 –4 x –2 the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > 0 25 H> y H = > 1 H. The solution is 1 –2 y –9 x –3 1 5 H > H. From Problem 889. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . The solution to the matrix equation > –1 22 7. The solution is. a b x e H> H = > H . b. d. 12 –3 y 4 x 2 0 –2 H > H. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. b. and f are real numbers. So. d. y = 922. e. is c d y f x a b e H > H . provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. c. y = 25 921. and f are real numbers. the solution of the system is x = –1. given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > –1 2 0 x –2 H> H = > H. given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > –1 –3 1 x 5 H> H = > H. Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 904 yields therefore given by y 0 25 1 the following solution: x 1 > H=> y 0 4 25 1 25 H> –2 – 46 25 H=> 1 H 1 25 1 25 . given by > H = > y 12 –3 4 the following solution: 1 –1 x 0 –2 2 > H=> H> H = > 16 H –3 y 2 –1 4 3 So. where a. where a. y = – 136 .

e. d. Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 907 tion is. The solu891. therefore. 925. c. c. the solution of the system is x = 2. e. c. b. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. it follows that > H does not exist. e. b. y = –4. From this. and f are real numbers is c d y f x a b e –1 0 x –2 H > H . Therefore. From Problem given by > H = > y c d f 0 1 x –4 H> H = > H. Subtracting the second equation from the first equation yields the false statement 0 = –3. d. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 –1 a b x e H> H = > H . and f are real numbers is c d y f x a b e H > H. d. given by > H = > H > H. b. we conclude that the two lines must be parallel (which can also be checked by graphing them). where a. is c d y f x a b e H > H . Hence. c. 268 . and f are real numbers. given by > H = > y –2 –1 0 yields the following solution: x 2 – 1 – 1 –4 2 > H=> 2 H> H = > H y 0 –4 1 0 So. the solution of the system is x = 2. therefore. we 3 2 3 2 –1 must inspect the system to determine whether there is no solution (which happens if the two lines are parallel) or if there are infinitely many solutions (which happens if the two lines are identical). Using the calculation for the inverse from y 2 –1 1 Problem 908 yields the following solution: x –1 0 – 2 2 > H=> H> H = > H y –2 –1 1 3 So. the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > –2 –1 y 0 x 0 1 –4 H > H. b. > H> H = > H. given by > H = > y c d f 2 –1 y 1 x –1 0 –2 The solution is. Note that since given by > H = > y c d f det > 3 2 3 2 H = 0. d. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 –1 a b x e H> H = > H . 924. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 923. y = 3. the system has no solution. where a. where a. Rather. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . we cannot apply the principle. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists.

and f are real numbers is c d y f x a b e –1 –1 x –1 H > H . y c d f –1 0 y 1 x –1 –1 –1 The solution is therefore given by > H = > H > H. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. Note that since given by > H = > y c d f det > 3 –2 3 –2 H does not exist. the two lines are identical. where a. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . so we cannot apply this principle. d. d. b. c. Using the calculation for the inverse from Proby 4 0 –20 lem 912 yields the following solution: x –5 0 1 14 4 > H=> 1 H> H=> H y 7 0 –20 2 So. 927.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 926. c. c. > given by > H = > 4 0 y –20 y c d f x 0 2 14 The solution is therefore given by > H = > H > H. e. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. Rather. Using the calculation for the inverse from y –1 0 1 Problem 911 yields the following solution: x 0 –1 –1 –1 > H=> H> H = > H y –1 1 1 2 So. The second equation in the system is obtained by multiplying both sides of the first equation by 3. it follows that > 9 –6 9 –6 –1 inspect the system to determine whether there is no solution (which happens if the two lines are parallel) or if there are infinitely many solutions (which happens if the two lines are identical). 928. and f are real numbers. the solution of the system is x = –1. d. so the system has infinitely many solutions. y = 2. b. d. and f are real numbers. Therefore. we must H = 0. > given by > H = > H> H = > H. where a. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. c. the solution of the system is x = –5. y = 7. –1 269 . e. where a. e. b. H > H . c. is c d y f x a b e H > H. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . is c d y f –1 0 2 x 14 x a b e H> H = > H.

First. we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D So. First. the solution is x = a. y = 5. Thus. y = 13 11 . we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D So. rewrite the system as the following 930. b. 1 1 y –2 Next. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: D= Dx = –3 7 = (–3) (5) – (1) (7) = –22 1 5 7 = (2) (5) – (8) (7) = –46 5 2 = (–3) (8) – (1) (2) = –26 8 Next. y = b. from Cramer’s rule. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: D= Dx = 1 2 = (1) (3) – (2) (2) = –1 2 3 2 = (4 ) (3 ) – (2 ) (2 ) = 8 3 4 = (1) (2) – (2) (4) = –6 3 8 = –8 –1 –6 = 6 –1 2 8 –3 Dy = 1 4 2 1 Dy = 2 So. y = 6. 23 11 . b. 2 3 y b Next. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: 1 0 a Dx = b 1 Dy = 0 D= 0 = (1 ) (1 ) – (0 ) (0 ) = 1 1 0 = (a ) (1 ) – (b ) (0 ) = a 1 a = (1 ) (b ) – (0 ) (a ) = b b a =a 1 b =b 1 2 3 x 1 H> H = > H . we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D Thus. rewrite the system as the following 931. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: D= Dx = 2 3 = (2) (1) – (1) (3) = –1 1 1 3 = (1) (1) – (–2) (3) = 7 1 1 = (2) (–2) – (1) (1) = –5 –2 –7 = –7 –1 –5 = 5 –1 1 –2 2 Dy = 1 So. rewrite the system as the following equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 916: > equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 882: 1 0 x a > H> H = > H . rewrite the system as the following equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 915: > equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 913: > –3 7 x 2 H> H = > H. the solution is x = –8. 270 . from Cramer’s rule. the solution is x = Thus. 0 1 y b Next. 932. 1 5 y 8 1 2 x a H> H = > H . the solution is x = –7. we have: x = D x = –46 = 23 D –22 11 D y –26 13 y= = = D –22 11 Thus. First. First. from Cramer’s rule. from Cramer’s rule. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 59 (Page 139) 929. c.

y = – 252 . First. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: D= Dx = –3 4 = (–3) (2) – (4) (4) = –22 4 2 equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 918: > 1 4 = (1) (2) – (–3) (4) = 14 –3 2 –3 1 Dy = = (–3) (–3) – (4) (1) = 5 4 –3 So. 2 1 y 3 Next. First. a. 2 –4 y –6 Next. 935. so the system has infinitely many solutions. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: 6 2 8 Dx = 3 D= Dy = 3 = (6 ) (1 ) – (2 ) (3 ) = 0 1 3 = ( 8 ) ( 1 ) – ( 3 ) ( 3 ) = –1 1 6 8 = (6 ) (3 ) – (2 ) (8 ) = 2 2 3 271 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 933. as in Problem 917. We must consider the equations directly and manipulate them to determine which is the case. Subtracting this from the first equation yields the false statement 0 = –1. To this end. from Cramer’s rule. To this end. rewrite the system as the following equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 919: > –3 4 x 1 H> H = > H . we can conclude only that the system either has zero or infinitely many solutions. the two lines are identical. First. we have: x = D x = 14 = – 7 D –22 11 Dy y= = 5 =– 5 D –22 22 Thus. d. as in Problem 918. 6 3 x 8 H> H = > H . we note that the second equation in the system is obtained by multiplying both sides of the first equation by –2. From this. 4 2 y –3 Next. Hence. We must consider the equations directly and manipulate them to determine which is the case. rewrite the system as the following Since applying Cramer’s rule requires that we divide by D in order to determine x and y. we can only conclude that either the system has zero or infinitely many solutions. the solution is x = – 171 . note that multiplying both sides of the second equation by 3 yields the equivalent equation 6x + 3y = 9. d. rewrite the system as the following equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 917: > –1 2 x 3 H> H = > H . 934. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: D= Dx = Dy = –1 2 = ( –1 ) ( –4 ) – ( 2 ) ( 2 ) = 0 2 –4 3 2 = (3) (–4) – (–6) (2) = –24 –6 –4 –1 3 = (–1) (–6) – (2) (3) = 0 2 –6 Since applying Cramer’s rule requires that we divide by D in order to determine x and y. the system has no solution. Therefore. we conclude that the two lines must be parallel (which can also be checked by graphing them).

First. Thus. 939. rewrite the system as the following 937. rewrite the system as the following equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 920: > equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 922: > 1 –4 x –2 H> H = > H . First. from Cramer’s rule. rewrite the system as the following equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 921: –3 1 x 5 > H> H = > H . c. the solution is x = 2. 0 25 y 1 2 0 x –2 H> H = > H . y = –4. 1 –2 y –9 Next. y = 25 1 25. the solution is x = –1. from Cramer’s rule. we have: x = D x = 46 D 25 Dy y= = 1 D 25 Thus. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s Rule: 0 1 D= = (0) (–1) – (–2) (1) = 2 –2 –1 –4 1 = (–4) (–1) – (0) (1) = 4 0 –1 0 –4 Dy = = (0) (0) – (–2) (–4) = –8 –2 0 Dx = So. the solution is x = – 46 . –2 –1 y 0 Next. First. the solution is x = – 1 . from Cramer’s rule. y = – 136 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 936. we have: x = Dx = – 1 D 5 D y 22 y= = D 5 Thus. c. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: 2 0 D= = (2) (–3) – (12) (0) = –6 12 –3 –2 0 = (–2) (–3) – (4) (0) = 6 4 –3 2 –2 Dy = = (2) (4) – (12) (–2) = 32 12 4 Dx = So. we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D 6 = –1 –6 32 = – 16 –6 3 So. 12 –3 y 4 Next. we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D 4 =2 2 –8 = –4 2 22 5. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s Rule: 1 –4 = (1) (25) – (0) (–4) = 25 0 25 –2 – 4 Dx = = (–2) (25) – (1) (–4) = –46 1 25 D= Dy = 1 –2 = ( 1 ) ( 1 ) – ( 0 ) ( –2 ) = 1 0 1 Next. y = 5 equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 923: > 0 1 x –4 H> H = > H . a. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: –3 1 D= = ( –3 ) ( –2 ) – ( 1 ) ( 1 ) = 5 1 –2 5 1 Dx = = (5) (–2) – (–9) (1) = –1 –9 – 2 –3 5 Dy = = (–3) (–9) – (1) (5) = 22 1 –9 So. rewrite the system as the following 938. b. from Cramer’s rule. 272 . Thus. First.

we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D 1 = –1 –1 –2 = 2 –1 Thus. From this. d. The two lines are identical. b. the solution is x = 2. Hence. We must consider the equations directly and manipulate them to determine which is the case. To this end. y = 2. the solution is x = –1.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 940. y = 3. 941. –1 –1 = (–1) (0) – (–1) (–1) = –1 –1 0 –1 –1 = (–1) (0) – (1) (–1) = 1 1 0 –1 –1 Dy = = (–1) (1) – (–1) (–1) = –2 –1 1 So. we conclude that the two lines must be parallel (which can also be checked by graphing them). as in Problem 925. we can only conclude that the system has either zero or infinitely many solutions. we have: x = Dx = 2 = 2 D 1 Dy 3 y= = =3 D 1 Thus. b. Identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule for the matrix equation > –1 0 x –2 H> H = > H: 2 –1 y 1 used in the application of Cramer’s rule for the matrix equation > D= Dx = Dy = 3 –2 x 4 H> H = > H : 9 –6 y 12 –1 0 D= = ( –1 ) ( –1 ) – ( 2 ) ( 0 ) = 1 2 –1 –2 0 Dx = = (–2) (–1) – (1) (0) = 2 1 –1 –1 –2 Dy = = (–1) (1) – (2) (–2) = 3 2 1 So. 273 . subtracting the second equation from the first equation yields the false statement 0 = –3. the second equation in the system is obtained by multiplying both sides of the first equation by 3. Identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule for the matrix equation > D= Dx = –1 –1 x –1 H> H = > H : –1 0 y 1 3 –2 Dy = = ( 3 ) ( 1 ) – ( 3 ) ( –2 ) = 9 3 1 Since applying Cramer’s rule requires that we divide by D in order to determine x and y. 943. from Cramer’s rule. we can conclude only that the system has either zero or infinitely many solutions. Identify the following determinants to be 3 –2 = ( 3 ) ( – 6 ) – ( 9 ) ( –2 ) = 0 9 –6 4 –2 = (4) (–6) – (12) (–2) = 0 12 –6 3 3 = (3) (12) – (9) (3) = 9 9 12 used in the application of Cramer’s rule for the 3 2 x –2 H> H = > H : matrix equation > 3 2 y 1 3 2 D= = (3 ) (2 ) – (2 ) (3 ) = 0 3 2 Dx = –2 2 = (–2) (2) – (1) (2) = –6 1 2 Since applying Cramer’s rule requires that we divide by D in order to determine x and y. the system has no solution. Identify the following determinants to be 942. as in Problem 926. d. from Cramer’s rule. To this end. so the system has infinitely many solutions. We must consider the equations directly and manipulate them to determine which is the case.

a. Therefore. The sum 3 + 6 cannot be simplified further because the radicands are different. 9 multiply the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator. The first equality is wrong because you must = 1. 956. c. 949. we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D 40 = –5 –8 –56 = 7 –8 of 10. a. b. 963. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 944. The placement of the quantities is incorrect. There is no error. c. The correct denominator should be 22 + 2 3 + ( 3)2 = 7 + 2 3.0050 to get 0. 4). 274 . The value x = –7 cannot be the solution because it makes the terms in the original equation undefined—you cannot divide by zero. one must write (–4)2. a. a. b. The power doesn’t apply Set 62 (Page 146) 961. 959. binomial was not squared correctly. y = 7. There are two solutions of this equation. The exponents should be multiplied. 960. b. a.05.” 952. b. The correct answer should be x15 because x12 x–3 946. from Cramer’s rule. This is incorrect because you cannot cancel multiplying both sides by a negative real number. 953. c. b. a. 0 2 = ( 0 ) ( 0 ) – ( 4 ) ( 2 ) = –8 4 0 A correct statement would be “200% of 4 is 8. the solution is x = – 5. In order to compute 0. b. members of a sum. The correct a computation is: 3 + 2 = 3 + 24a = 3 + 2a 4 4 4 951. 948. b. c. 954. so the correct answer should be x10. the radicals cannot be combined because their indices are different. 955. There is no error. this equation has no solution. you multiply 10 by 0. 957. There is no error. The correct solution set should be (–∞. There is no error. 947. The correct answer should be e8x because 10–4 because the decimal point must move to the left four places in order to yield 0. You must first get a common denominator used in the application of Cramer’s rule for the matrix equation > D= 0 2 x 14 H> H = > H: 4 0 y –20 before you add two fractions. b. The statement should be 0. not Section 8—Common Algebra Problems Set 61 (Page 144) 945. 962. 964.00013 = 1. There is no error. a. Any nonzero quantity raised to the zero power is 1. The answer should be 9 because (–3)–2 = 1 (–3) (–3) 1 added.50% 14 2 Dx = = (14) (0) – (–20) (2) = 40 –20 0 0 14 Dy = = (0) (–20) – (4) (14) = –56 4 –20 So. x = –1 and x = 3. The first equality is incorrect. you can cancel only factors that are common to the numerator and denominator.3 = x12x3 = x12+3 = x15. (e4x)2 = e4x 2 = e8x. 958.00013. In order to square the entire –4. Identify the following determinants to be 950. The inequality sign must be switched when to the –1 in front of the 4. The third equality is incorrect because the Thus. c.

991. 972.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 965. 987. c. There is no error. is 2a. a. c. You cannot cancel terms of a sum in the composition is not defined at –2. ∞) inequality. x 975. 968. In fact. The first equality is incorrect because the natural logarithm of a sum is not the sum of the natural logarithms. 969. The other equalities are correct as written. The denominator in the quadratic formula (5x) = log5(5x)2 = log5(25x2).1) is the y-intercept. a. There is no error. 985. You must move all terms to one side of the for f. 971. The graph of y = f(x + 3) is actually obtained = 2 x 1 x – + 1 y 4 y = 2y xy y xy – + x xy 4x xy = 2y – x xy y + 4x xy = by shifting the graph of y = f(x) to the left 3 units. 967. In such case. The correct factorization is (x – 7)(x + 3). in order for f to have an inverse. factor (if possible). c. of f. b. The signs used to define the binomials on Set 63 (Page 148) 977. The point is actually in Quadrant II. a. b. the expression on the extreme left side of the string of equalities cannot be simplified further. The graph of g is actually decreasing as x moves from left to right through the domain. 986. a. The line y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote the right side should be switched. The left side must be expanded by FOILing. b. so it represents a function. It is.5). the correct statement should be f(x – h) = (x – h)4. c. a. 275 . c. There is no error. As such. determine the values that make the factored expression equal to zero. While x = 1 satisfies the original equation. the given function f –1(x) = x is indeed its inverse. a. b. a. 973. a. There is no error. The line is vertical. There is no error. The coordinates of the point that is known The correct statement should be (x – y)2 = x2 – 2xy + y2. and construct a sign chart to solve such an inequality. 988. 970. 966. The domain of f must be restricted to [0. not the numerator and denominator. You cannot distribute a function across xy y +4x = 2y – x y + 4x 974. 978. a. There is no error. a. b. The complex fraction must first be simplified before any cancellation can occur. because negative inputs into a logarithm are not allowed. The first equality is incorrect because 2 log5 = –1 cannot. 981. so that the cannot be factored further. a. The point (0. c. not invertible. however. The correct statement is: 2x–1 – y–1 x–1 + 4y–1 2y – x xy x-intercept. b. b. The correct solution set should be [–2. The left side is not a difference of squares. b. 2]. The complex solutions should be x = i 5. 990. so its slope is undefined. The graph of y = 5 passes the vertical line test. -2 is not in the domain of g. 982. 976. You can cancel only factors common to both. a. they should be (2. 983. which in this case is 2. 980. 989. 992. 979. b. There is no error. not 1. parts of a single input. It to lie on the graph of y = f(x) are reversed. This equation has no real solutions because the output of an even-indexed radical must be nonnegative. c. 984.

1 –1 and then adding the two equations results in the true statement 0 = 0. a. they cannot be multiplied. The difference is computed in the wrong order. 276 . 998.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 64 (Page 150) 993. 994. 995. there can be no solution of this system. The inner dimension of the two matrices on the false statement 0 = 8. c. c. 1001. The correct statement should be det > 4 2 H= (4)(–1) – (2)(1) = –6. there are infinitely many solutions of this system. You cannot add a 2 equality do not have the same dimension. so their sum is undefined. a. Therefore. c. b. a. Since adding the two equations results in 997. 1000. b. The two matrices on the left side of the 999. The sum is not well-defined. Since multiplying the first equation by –2 the left side are not the same. There is no error. There is no error. 2 matrix and a real number because their dimensions are different. 996. There is no error. a.

or . algebraic inequality an algebraic expression not equal to a number or another algebraic expression. In the term 3x. binomial coefficient constant an expression that contains two terms. 277 . such as (4. such as x + 4 = –1 algebraic expression one or more terms. addend a quantity that is added to another quantity. a number that has at least one other positive factor besides itself and 1. such as x + 2 > 8 base a number or variable that is used as a building block within an expression. The degree of a polynomial is the highest degree of its terms.GLOSSARY absolute value the absolute value of a is the distance between a and 0. composite number coordinate pair coordinate plane cubic equation decreasing function a function whose graph falls vertically from left to right degree The degree of a variable is its exponent. containing ≠ . In the equation x + 3 = 5. such as 4 or 10 a term. x and 3 are addends. in parentheses separated by a comma. that never changes value an x-value and a y-value. at least one of which contains a variable. >. x is the base. 3 is the coefficient. 2) a two-dimensional surface with an x-axis and a y-axis an equation in which the highest degree is 3. In the term 3x. additive inverse the negative of a quantity algebra the representation of quantities and relationships using symbols algebraic equation an algebraic expression equal to a number or another algebraic expression. or factor. but does not contain an equal sign. The degree of x5 is 5. such as 3. of an algebraic term. The equation y = x3 + x is cubic. An algebraic expression may or may not contain an operation (such as addition or multiplication). and the degree of x3 + x2 +9 is 3. such as (2x + 1) the numerical multiplier. . In the term 24. <. 2 is the base.

Last. matrix an array of real numbers composed of m rows and n columns an expression that consists of products of powers of variables. which can be written as 3i.–GLOSSARY– distributive law a term outside a set of parentheses that contains two terms should be multiplied by each term inside the parentheses: a(b + c) = ab + ac. 2 is the divisor. and the exponents of the variables are 1. those numbers are factors of that product. <. like terms two or more terms that have the same variable bases raised to the same exponents.2) lines that have the same slope. Parallel lines never intersect. which are the pairs of terms that must be multiplied in order to find the terms of the product of two binomials. divisor the number by which the dividend is divided in a division problem (the denominator of a fraction). lines that intersect at right angles. The product of the slopes of two perpendicular lines monomial ordered pair parallel lines percent a number out of 100. Examples of integers are 2 and –2. such as 3 + 6 = 9 exponent a constant or variable that states the number of times a base must be multiplied by itself. such as x2 + 2x + 1. each with whole numbered exponents 278 . >. . In the number sentence 6 2 = 3. 6 is the dividend. domain equation the set of all values that can be substituted for x in an equation or function two expressions separated by an equal sign. such as the square root of –9. In the term 3x2. The expression 36% is equal to 36 out of 100. factor If two or more whole numbers multiplied together yield a product. or zero. such as 3x2 and 10x2 or 7xy and 10xy linear equation an equation that can contain constants and variables. such as (4. 2 and 4 are factors of 8. Inner. The equation y = 3x + 8 is linear. 2 is the exponent. the negative of a whole number. factoring breaking down a product into its factors FOIL an acronym that stands for First. In the number sentence 6 2 = 3. Since 2 4 = 8. inverse functions Two functions are inverses of each other if and only if each composed with the other yields the identity function (y = x). The graphs of inverse functions are reflections of each other over the line y = x. but may have different coefficients. Outer. in parentheses separated by a comma. or two unequal expressions that are compared using the symbol a whole number. perpendicular lines is –1. such as 3x2 an x-value and a y-value. dividend the number being divided in a division problem (the numerator of a fraction). polynomial an expression that is the sum of one or more terms. (a + b)(c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd function an equation that associates a unique y-value to every x-value in its domain greatest common factor (GCF) the largest monomial that can be factored out of every term in an expression imaginary number a number whose square is less than zero. increasing function inequality integer a function whose graph rises vertically from left to right .

radical radicand range ratio root an equation in which the highest degree is 2. subtraction. 3 is the quotient. = 4 3 16 12 the result of multiplication. where m is the slope of the line and b is the y-intercept system of equations a group of two or more equations for which the common variables in each equation have the same values quotient the result of division. term a variable.–GLOSSARY– prime factorization the writing of a number as a multiplication expression made up of only prime numbers. the set of all y-values that can be generated from x-values in an equation or function a relationship between two or more quantities. such as 2x or 5 in the expression (2x + 5) trinomial unknown an expression that contains three terms. usually represented by a letter unlike terms two or more terms that have different variable bases. that takes the place of a number vertical line test the drawing of a vertical line through the graph of an equation to determine if the equation is a function. or an equal sign. the product of which is the original number prime number product proportion a number whose only positive factors are 1 and itself. 8 is the radicand. such as quadratic equation equation. If a vertical line can be drawn anywhere through the graph of an equation such that it crosses the graph more than once. 8 is the product. or product of both. In the number sentence 6 2 = 3. such as 3:2 the quotient of two polynomials a value of x in the domain of a function for which f(x) is 0 rational expression slope a measurement of steepness of a line computed as follows: the change in the y-values between two points on a line divided by the change in the x-values of those points slope-intercept form y = mx + b. with or without an exponent. such as 3x2 and 4x4 variable a symbol. In the number sentence 2 an equation that shows two equal ratios. then the equation is not a function. such as (6x2 + 11x + 4) a quantity whose value is not given. constant. or two or more terms with identical variables raised to different exponents. The equation y = x2 + 1 is a quadratic a root of a quantity the quantity under a radical symbol. that is usually separated from another term by addition. such as x. In 3 8. such as 3 or 7 4 = 8. x-axis y-axis the horizontal line on a coordinate plane along which y = 0 the x-value of a point where a curve crosses the x-axis the vertical line on a coordinate plane along which x = 0 x-intercept y-intercept the y-value of the point where a curve crosses the y-axis 279 .

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