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Samar College Catbalogan City, Samar MODULE

What is history? It is the story of mankind's past It is a record and explains what people have thought, said and done its concerned is with POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, and SOCIAL matters.

POLITICAL- Pertains to government ECONOMIC- pertains to agriculture, industry and trade SOCIAL- pertains to everyday life and culture. In analyzing history, the use of correlated disciplines is necessary to understand the reasons and consequences of human actions. By referring to philosophies of history, the theories of some great thinkers should be considered. In the investigation and interpretation of the past, these theories could explain how and why events happen in societies. For Rizal, history offers the key to national identity and the basis of future development. In his writings, he used history to show a uniquely Filipino culture. In his work Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas , he depicted the destructive effects of western colonization on early Filipino societies

Teodoro Agoncillo (1912-1985) is considered as the father of Filipino nationalist historiography. He wrote the conditions of the Philippine past by analyzing the conditions of the masses. His efforts in rewriting history like other contemporary historians were reactions to the traditional presentations of Philippine history, being colonial and elitist.

Renato Constantino Philippine history is a peoples history----------- it is not about the story of man as an individual, but man as the associated man. Our history is a story of struggle

Sources of information provides the evidence from which the historian obtains facts about the past. In writing history, the historian not only relies on past thoughts, rather, reenacts it in the context of analyzing the documents and the other records left. This is an indispensable condition in the quest for historical facts. Arts and literature Dances Oral and written stories Theater arts and drama Sports

Printed sources for the study of early Philippine history can be traced from the missionary chronicles published by the various religious orders assigned to he Philippines, which includes Augustinians, Franciscans, Dominicans, Jesuits, and Recollects A. Fray Pedro Chirino (1604) Filipinos has a hobby of drinking during leisure time

A genealogical record of sultans or datus who tried to preserve the lineage of the ruling class like the Sulu Sarsila and the Maguidanao Sarsila KITAB A book attributed to the late Hadjii Butu Abdul Baqui, Wazir of the Sulu Sultanate, who tries to record the historical and personal events of his time ----- the early 20th century

National Library of the Philippines

Is the official national library of the Philippines. The complex is located in Ermita on a portion of Rizal Park facing T.M. Kalaw Avenue, neighboring culturally significant buildings such as the Museum of Philippine Political History and the National Historical Commission. Like its neighbors, it is under the jurisdiction of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA).

3 The library is notable for being the home of the original copies of the defining works of Jos Rizal: Noli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo and Mi ltimo adis.

Why we should study History?





For knowledge: Understand other races Interdependence among people and nations Learning lesson from the past

For skills : Comprehend reading materials Discuss current issues and problems and give solutions Interpret Statistical data, maps, graphs and illustrations Differentiate fact from fictions

For attitudes: Knowing and respecting other culture. Settle differences through peaceful means Knowing and accepting traditions of others

4 SOURCES OF HISTORY (General Classification)


Are those that have witnessed the event that took place or have been part of the incident being studied (e.g. narratives, manuscripts, public documents, letters, diaries, fossils, artifacts, and testimony from living witnesses


On the other hand secondary sources have not been part of the event being considered such as magazines, newspaper, pamphlets, typescripts, and articles written above the primary sources.

Archaeology Archaeology studies and reconstruct the cultural events of the past through the material remains left by people. Archaeologist study artifacts (material equipment made by people of the past like tools, pottery, and jewelry) and fossils (preserve remains of plants, animals, and people of a remote geological past. Beyer was one of the founding members of the Department of Anthropology of the University of the Philippines. He became head of the department in 1925. After the discovery of the Novaliches dam site in 1926, he put up the universitys museum where he preserved his collections of artifacts, stonewares, prehistoric tools, jewelry, Chinese ceramics and textiles. He continued his archaeological work in Batangas, Laguna de Bay Basin, and Central Luzon. It was during this time that he published the Philippine Ethnographic Series and the Philippines Before Magellan.

5 Beyer worked on a remarkable site in Rizal province and recovered, from the RizalBulacan and Batangas surveys, a history of the Central Luzon population for more than 10,000 years. From 1936-1937 , he worked on Philippine textiles. His paper on this was published in the annual report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1942. The late President Manuel L. Quezon asked Beyer to donate all his archaeological collections provided that the government would provide an adequate museum to house them; but work on putting up a museum had not begun since the war started in 1941. Beyer was appointed Emeritus Professor of Anthropology after leaving the university in 1954. For his great contributions on the study of Philippine archaeology, ethnology and history, he was awarded an honorary doctorate in science from Silliman University, a doctor of science in anthropology from Ateneo de Manila University and a doctor of laws from the University of the Philippines. Unhistorical Data There are some narratives that have been previously accepted in Philippine history as facts but later were found out to be historical errors. A. Maragtas (Story) B. The Code of Kalantiaw C. Legend of Princess Urduja

The Maragtas is a work by Pedro Alcantara Monteclaro The Maragtas is an original work by the author, based on written and oral sources available to him. In particular, the author makes no claim that the work contains a transcription of particular prehispanic documents. The work consists of a publisher's introduction by Salvador Laguda, a Forward by the author, six chapters, and an epilog. The first chapter describes the former customs, clothes, dialect, heredity, organization, etc. of the Aetas of Panay, with special mention of Marikudo, son of old Chief Polpulan; the second chapter begins a narrative of the ten datus flight from Borneo and the tyranny of Datu Makatunaw there, and their purchase of the island of Panay from Marikudo; the third chapter tells of the romance of Sumakwel, Kapinangan and her lover Gurung-garung; the fourth chapter concludes the tale of the ten datus, telling about their political arrangements and their circumnavigation of the island; the fifth chapter describes language, commerce, clothing, customs, marriages, funerals, mourning habits, cockfighting, timekeeping techniques, calendars, and personal characteristics; the sixth and final chapter gives a list of Spanish officials between 1637 and 1808; the epilog contains a few eighteenth-century dates.

6 The Code of Kalantiaw The Code of Kalantiaw was a legendary legal code in the epic story Maragtas. It is said to have been written in 1433 by Datu Kalantiaw, a chief on the island of Negros in the Philippines. Laws of the Code of Kalantiaw Article I You shall not kill, neither shall you steal, neither shall you do harm to the aged, lest you incur the danger of death. All those who infringe this order shall be condemned to death by being drowned in the river, or in boiling water. Article II You shall obey. Let all your debts with the headman be met punctually. He who does not obey shall receive for the first time one hundred lashes. If the debt is large, he shall be condemned to thrust his hand in boiling water thrice. For the second time, he shall be beaten to death. Article III Obey you: let no one have women that are very young nor more than he can support; nor be given to excessive lust. He who does not comply with, obey, and observe this order shall be condemned to swim for three hours for the first time and for the second time, to be beaten to death with sharp thorns. Article IV Observe and obey; let no one disturb the quiet of the graves. When passing by the caves and trees where they are, give respect to them. He who does not observe this shall be killed by ants, or beaten to death with thorns. Article V You shall obey; he who exchanges for food, let it be always done in accordance with his word. He who does not comply, shall be beaten for one hour, he who repeats the offense shall be exposed for one day among ants. Article VI You shall be obliged to revere sights that are held in respect, such as those of trees of recognized worth and other sights. He who fails to comply shall pay with one month's work in gold or in honey. Article VII These shall be put to death; he who kills trees of venerable appearance; who shoot arrows at night at old men and women; he who enters the houses of the headmen without permission; he who kills a shark or a streaked cayman.

7 Article VIII Slavery for a doam (a certain period of time) shall be suffered by those who steal away the women of the headmen; by him who keep ill-tempered dogs that bite the headmen; by him who burns the fields of another. Article IX All these shall be beaten for two days: who sing while traveling by night; kill the Manaul; tear the documents belonging to the headmen; are malicious liars; or who mock the dead. Article X It is decreed an obligation; that every mother teach secretly to her daughters matters pertaining to lust and prepare them for womanhood; let not men be cruel nor punish their women when they catch them in the act of adultery. Whoever shall disobey shall be killed by being cut to pieces and thrown to the caymans. Article XI These shall be burned: who by their strength or cunning have mocked at and escaped punishment or who have killed young boys; or try to steal away the women of the elders. Article XII These shall be drowned: all who interfere with their superiors, or their owners or masters; all those who abuse themselves through their lust; those who destroy their anitos (religious icons) by breaking them or throwing them down. Article XIII All these shall be exposed to ants for half a day: who kill black cats during a new moon; or steal anything from the chiefs or agorangs, however small the object may be. Article XIV These shall be made slave for life: who have beautiful daughters and deny them to the sons of chiefs, and with bad faith hide them away. Article XV Concerning beliefs and traditions; these shall be beaten: who eat the diseased flesh of beasts which they hold in respect, or the herb which they consider good, who wound or kill the young of the Manaul, or the white monkey. Article XVI

8 The fingers shall be cut-off: of all those who break anitos of wood and clay in their alangans and temples; of those who destroy the daggers of the catalonans(priest/priestess), or break the drinking jars of the latter. Article XVII These shall be killed: who profane sites where anitos are kept, and sites where are buried the sacred things of their diwatas and headmen. He who performs his necessities in those places shall be burned. Article XVIII Those who do not cause these rules to be obeyed: if they are headmen, they shall be put to death by being stoned and crushed; and if they are agorangs they shall be placed in rivers to be eaten by sharks and caymans. URDUJA. a legendary warrior princess who is recognized as a heroine in Pangasinan, Philippines. After reaching Samudra in what is now Sumatra, Ibn Battuta passed by Tawalisi on his way to China. Princess Urduja was described as a daughter of a ruler named Tawalisi of a land that was also called Tawalisi. The ruler of Tawalisi, according to Ibn Battuta, possessed many ships and was a rival of China, which was then ruled by a Mongol dynasty.Ibn Battuta sailed for 17 days to reach China from the land of Tawalisi. Ibn Battuta described Urduja as a warrior princess whose army was composed of men and women. Urduja was a woman warrior who personally took part in the fighting and engaged in duels with other warriors. She was quoted as saying that she will marry no one but him who defeats her in duel. Other warriors avoided fighting her for fear of being disgraced.