You .may consider thin the outlines I have drawn on these pages are \.00 stiff and forrnal and are 0 boring way 10'1.31'1 drawing plants. You would be righl .• of course, but for a short while wemust lake a clinical look, however brief. at a few basic facts .. You cannot build a house successfully without first drawing your plansand becoming familiarwith the general shape, or if you do you willprobably get your angles wrong and then nOlhing will fil together. The same prineipleapplies when you are building upa picture ofa plant. So stan by practising basic hapes. Your subsequent free·st),le drawing wi.1I be so much easier to do and your leaves will be in correct perspective wilh aeeurately placed lines. amI-not -asoonen happens in paintings - suffering from di located joints and fraeturedmidrib inmeted by the artist through lack of knowledge or through carelessness, These mistakes can be avoided if you learn to look. Stop rushing about. pa.use and really look at a flower •.any flower. even a common daisy is beautiful if you examine it closely. It is not really essential to st.udy botany to becomea good painter of wild flowers, but a liule leamlng in. this ease.is not 8. dangerous th ing and the factsof'plaru life are so fascinating and intrigu.ingthm I hope you will not beable to resist buying a field guide to wild ftowers- one of mine, .1trust - which will help you identify individual species; a correctly named flower is far more interesting to paint than an unnamed 'weed'. Look at the general shape of your plant. see how the leaves spread their flal urfaee .. not their edges, to (he sky and how they are arr-anged on the stem so that as many as possible can receive the maximum amount of the solar energy required to keep the plant growing well. In ftg,.. 10 below you win see how plants achieve
this by various standard methods, each leaf placed where it will receive some light without. shading the one below. Then look at thestern of your pllmt (see ftg. u.) .. Is it curved or stToigbl (lhoughnever draw it with a ruler, for iii won', be as straight. as that): is it round, triangular or square? This is the point at which you can, at long. last. pick up your HB and draw sweeping strokes follewingthegeneralline your stem. Go on drawing them, all ever the paper. not in short. hesitant dashes but with SWeeping confidence, and you win get it right before lang. Do not be tempted to add curves to a naturally straight stem just to pretty up your painting; it has been made like that for a specific purpose, to support. a heavy flower perhaps, and the plant would faU· nat on its face if i1 were designed in any other way. It isooly when man demand bigger and ever bigger blooms for hisgardenthat nature bas to be given an artificial prop. I have also sketched some of the protective covers and weapons that surround the stems (ftg •.14), from bare. s.hiny skin. to wicked-.looking thorns, and the variety is endlessieven the hairs can dilfer one from another. some thick: and felted, others sparse and standing out at all angles. Thorns too can vary even within the same family: some roses, for instance, produce an Impenetrable forest of'thin, straight prickles at right angles. to thesternand others have strong. ba.c.kward~racin8 hooks; but you will net find .among them thorns which curve forward tOW8Jds the Dowering tip of the branch - although ] have seen begin ners make this mistake in theirpict ures - for they are swords which protect the plant from being de-voured by gr.azing cattle and from small climbingcrealures. (Tho-ugh the defence is 0.01 alwayssuecessful. for I have watched afield mouse shin up thcstem,. apparently unbanned, to sit in triumph at the top eating its bunch- or brunch? - of rose hips.)




Having drawn the general shape of your plant. noted its outer covering and the position and tbe angle of its leavesand how they join the stem. you must now look. at the design of the leaf in detail (8a. Z3) and try to think of it in skeleton form. The all-important central vein or midrib is the main artery and from it small veins radiale to the outer edges of the leaves, except in the leaves of the lily family. where the lines run parallel to the central vein. Collect leave from as many different plants as you can, and pick up and press the ones that fall from tall trees in autumn, and I think. you will be astonished to sec the variations that occur in the shape colour, thickness and even feci of them. to say nothing of the many decorative edg.ings, which vary from fineserrations which look as tbough they have been cut out with small pinking thears to tbe large, lobed indentations of the oaks, from the small fingers of maples to the huge hands of Horse Chestnuts. Draw your midrib first, again, as with the stem. in one continuous line (fta. ZI). This line must appear to be unbroken, even if you cannot sec all of it and however much it may curve. It must never be fractured or dis.. located anywbere along its length. The tip of the leaf may curl underneath bUI the line ,of the curve will always flow smoothly and graduaUy and never be acutely angled. After Ihis you can add the smaller veins which radiate from the midrib. but carefully check their positions first of all. They are placed precisely oppo iteeach other in some leaves. while in others they are arranged alternately. Sometime there is even an informal mixture of both within a single leaf .

Practise looking right through your leaf to the far edge. as though it were made of glass. There is something very satisfying about drawing continuous Dowi'ng lines that all meet up in the right place.


At. 25 Primrose

Fli. 'Z7



Iypa 01


004l'Y (on. 01 many n IlUtfOUNled

The cOIIStruc:don of flowers
It i not going (,0 be necessary for you to unpick the scams of aU your flower every time you wish to draw them but a in dressmaking, it help occusionally to pread out the pattern, as I have done in fip. 25 and 16. check your mea urement and see how best to achieve a perfect fit. particularly where the tube of a flower fiLS into its calyx like a leeve into an armhole. I have already mentioned how many variation occur among leaves: these are as nothing when you come face to face with flower. All those lovely shape those intricate markings. the w!ly some look straight into the eye of the sun while others hang their head in shade. Some plants produce only one flower to a tern, others a
FlJ.lI P nk

hundred or more in greal pike. corymb or racemes, umbels or panicles or any other splendid- ounding collective term for a uperabundancc of blo ms. The only problem is that the individual flowers face in all directions and you have got to get them right - fori take it for granted thar you wi h 10 draw flowers in a botanically accurate way. Thi does not, necessarily imply that your Hni hed ketch must contain every minute detail, unles you are working in an herbarium. If you prefer a freer style using only a minimum number of lines, so long as tl,ey ar in the righl plot s you can achieve excellent and recognizable impr ion of a plant which may look more alive than a more intricate drawing; and the reduct jon of detail to a mere uggestion is fun to do.

AI. 19 Primrose

Fla. 30 Slrawbeny






Flowers in penp«dve
The lillie garden pink with its single flower divided neatly into five flat petals sits fair and round like a mall plate on tOiP of its long. column-shaped calyx and provides u with the perfect-shaped model with which to practise drawing flowers in the correct perspective. Hold it upright and draw the simple T shope it present in profile (fta. zIa) and then gradually tum it toward you and draw a series of di • with a hole in the centre of each one leadling down through the throat and into the collar of the calyx underneath (fig • .JIb, e, d. These oval shapes will gradually become a full circle and the calyx just asgn dually disappear behind the flower. 'Think' your way through the flower a if it were gla . mark in the disappearing calyx with a series of dots until you are satisfIed you know how toachieve this vanishing trick accurately and easily. Then try the same exercise with a primrose or a polyanthu • turning the

back toward you a well a the front - it i equally important to gCI.the back right (fig. 29). Look closely at the calyx of a.ny flower you draw. It might best be described as a uitcase into which the Dower (and often the seed cap ule) i packed. Sometimes the calyx i discarded as soon as the flower opens, but if it is till present note how the lobes or points come between the petals which sound simple and easy until you come up again t a plant uch as a trawberry, which ha a normal calyx but also an epiealyx on top with its points up the middle of each petal (fla. ]0). Some plants, such as daisies. have numerous petals and so many points or bracts on the calyx that things get somewhat di orderly. but again I stress use your eyes. It' all a question of looking and learning. Finally please do not cause injury to your plant by drawing the flower full-face and the calyx in pr06le,tbus dislocating its neck (fig. 31) - thi has been done on many occasions, and it i a mistake which is ea ily avoided.


hom oUllines arawn with Hand HB pane:Is 10 hni hed d tails and shading wllh 28 nd 48 pencil .1"111 ..33 The advancing sta sol a pene I skolch or Blae Bryonv leaves and bemes.

If y u intend 10 paint your flower then the drawing is ju I a means to an eod and mu t be done very lightly. a felt-tipped pen i excellent t 0 but d nOI. orget your inhibiti n and ketch herever y u are. a po ibl and no shading. use the ide of the pencil and keep it a flat as possible. and their wner give me pecimen' to take home LO paint at I i ure.n tub). who I am certain lh ught I had violated the '0 ot Pick' law which every ne I ngs to break in uch a g rden. the loutlines drawn with F and HB pencils. the shad ng done with 28 pencil 1 . )4)1 When you are hading. I u e a ketch pad with a hard back to it. 33)1 Or a more formal botanical tudy like the drawing of the orchid (fig. lam often oerwhelmed with their aener ilY especially on De ca i n when I needed a particular magnolia for a k. J4 (rlghl) A detailed botan cal study of the Common SPOiled Orch d.h pefully . overed with pink blo om and confusion. Whut i m re I really do u th rn. II ng ago decided to I. I walked through the crowds of ightseers. lei 81 ne the all-seeing eye of a televi ion camera. T much pain 'taking drawing often poils the natural flow and line of the following painting. A quick ketch with hading like the one f bryony hown here fig.the easi 1 and quicke I thing to use. but I till manage to hid the fe the ha e overl oked in ari u p ket and handbag and J alway have a uppl in the caravan. and a pale-c I ured petal d nOI 10 k go with a hard pencilled outline. That camera ured me f hyne ' in on shot. u ing an H B. Arti I arc u ually secreti e creature.ketching outdoors I ne er go anywhere without a pencil and u ketch pad if I can help it. which h vered 0 er mine nly an inch from my fac • purring into my ear a I painted m a through the filming of our W rid b ut programme. alway produce fine enough line for mall detail . Ha ing found. p feeling self-consciou about ketching in public. you mu t d ide h w you are g ing t draw it. who proceeded LO saw off everal branche nOI only from the ne tree I wanted but from any others that caught my eye. People inornwuU arc u cd to seeing meketching flower' in garden on pen Day. as few lin . I wr te to as k the owner f a large estate for penni ion to pi k one small bud and wa mel by the head gardener. Although my grandchildren like to have all my worn-out brushe and otT-cut of paper [hey are particularly avid c llectors f m tub f pencil" (t them anything under five inches i . Y u cann I rub UI pencil mark which have been painted ver. butihi i not ea y I achieve. preferring Dot t w rk with the curiou public looking over a shoulder. begged or borrow d y ur flower. anywhere and e erywhere. Fla. I find an H B pen il i .

it i u ful in mixe . In az orne of that colour ha been lifted otT with a lightly d mp bru h before the paint ha set. and in bz the edges of the highlight have been ftened. but it wor . a ide of hromium i th mo I permanent and a rather paque paint. but it is lightly grea y and not en to pply well over a large area. one f the green sh wn in Ii .u and ne waterc lour. Three of th . magenta and orang ifther wa no sea of green t separate them into i land of a ptable hades. a in br. FiI·35 or 16 . tn 33 more hading and colour have been added (0 emphasize the pattern of the veins. There ar a few exception: I think the five watereolou I have hown on the five leav in tig_ 3S are perhap the only one which are ufficiently true to nature to u oeca ionaUy on their own without mixing them with other colours. retrained green have been over-printed in too bright and har h a tone. Thi i eay to do on Fa hi n Plate HP paper. Any emerald green hould be av ided by the flower painter. Green in all its infinite variety i the colour you are going 10 need more than any other for all or nearly all plan have me greenery alta hed to them at orne time ofrhe year and thank heaven for it comfortable. but no leaf in the world i like them. the paints rna dy sit on the urface and can be r moved later if necessary. Terre Verte bring a lovely of( blue-grey tone to pine need I . Hooker' Green Dark i only ju t acceptable a a colour for leaves and hould be used paringly. When using ueh paper it i better to leave the highlight unpainted and mark tbe pauern of the veins before you start. . There are many people who e colour differently . etc. 37. two gouache c I . ]8 have been painted in a mixture of pale yellow Viridian and Sepia. but I often think I m over. AILh ugh Viridian hould never be used on its own ~ r laves. The low t leaf show how you n get much the me effect by uing either method. 36 r a combination of traight primary hades. Of the live.n itive to green in particular. ar hown in tig.LET'S START PA NTING Getting the greens right With mo t green the tempt lion to be lazy and u the colour traight from the tube or pan mu t be avoided from the outset. and k p your green quiet. nn unconventional mix. Th bryony leav in tig. with no attempt t vary it.. but rougher or thin paper: do not respond quite so ea ily and can be damaged in the pr .r choo ing a ring emeralds are acceptable.orne are colour-blind and find red and green difficult to di tinguish a they merge one into the other. cool and a uitable background t Howers. easy on the eye cooling ton and its ability 10 separate and complement all the other brilliant colours of nature in general and the garden in particular. This includ several of the hard vivid bluegreen found particularly in the gouache range colour . or household goods . Sap Green and Olive Green are not alway permanent. I can only go by the way'. colours myself. Ju I imagine the horrific effect of a flower border crammed with red and pink.) The ar a markedai ha had one nal layer of paint applied. to give the leaf a light hine and 10 indicate the veins. which ha worried me c n iderably. and there have been several occasion when my quiet.35 or one of the mixtures f c lours in fig. tfy u are designing fabrics.

18 Black Bryony WmSOf_ _ PIIrmaneni Blue Cad lum_ WMOf _ low FiI·37 gQUlleh.Fli • . 8nllll"1 GIn Mlst!nle GrH1l 11 .

nelll Ma~nI" Pemumom MagentA (Willel'lXllOll r I 28 .. 39 the rti IS' \. Permaneru Rose. However. RfId W. I n fig. The gouache Magenla is fur clearer.00 not overload yourselfwil. inpermaneru watercolour . admium an SIIOh. atereolour range alone..or gouache c lour. (0 match particular plant. for there are 0 ereighryshadesin pr bably require F . orcan be mixed sa Iisfactori ly. bUl you \. ill discover.inu. You will discover how to produce many Shade to match your Ilowers by mixingcolours together. . the colour chart supplied by the milker' you may f(. Ire h 'hades ueh lIS Lemon Yellow. Permuncnt Magenta isa ruther muddy : hade in watercolour. This reduce" the number considerably.atehing the colours of flow·ers I ha e already mentioned that the flower painter will orne additional watercol ur .t is n I absolutery permanent. 10 your di rna perha ps. A few clear..rJveyou a good start. Neer be afraid to experiment with your colours. however (empting they look.'C1 bewildered. but i. 39 I ha ve ill ustra reda select ion of usefu lex Ira "lour for flowen .h (0 mon)' to begin \ ith. Per .nllQf VlOIel W.. If you I ok at. Win'or Violet and Permanent Mauve will f:.obult Violet.ling the flilgiti. mauves and purple are sufficientlywellcarered for. Rose Dorc. There i no permanentcerise.jt.Yc colours. Start by firmly clim.MOIVoQilet . th ati trem 0 e the cerise IInd pu rples rrom the g uache runge and rno t of these hade from the warercolour runge.

which doe somewhat alleviate the problem. It is only when your work is 10 be used for publication that you can indulge in fugitive pain uch a Bengal Rose. If however you do not have the two colour side by side. Permanent Rose. Mix Winsor 'li. and 0 fur they have remained in good condition. fll. both garden and wild . so add a llttle French Ultramarine or Cobalt Blue to wann it.oleL with Permanent Mag. Problem pinks Having advised you firmly to reject all the fugitive pink . but I know they will fade in time.'a mere iIIu ion of the colour is onen all that is needed. GOUACHE BengaIAose (lugIMJ) IIIyer 2 IS ' .h the white ones you will find flowers of paJ t pink to deep cerise growing 10gether on the same tretch of roadside bank. . Add Bright Red to Crimson Alizarin if you want a lighter red.Yellow and Cadmium Red merge to give a glowingmarigold orange. Ro Malmsi on and Ro Tyri n (fll.az Ce.mlned _ng cIltlllld WIIl'I .but fugitive. then life and the Red Campion look a little more ro y.• Red Campions pared one with the other. Other flowe .. Cobalt Violet mixed with Cobalt Blue produces a lovely grainy effect not quite a complete mix. I al 0 use these colours on my filing cards. Coeruleum may be too cold a colour on its own. but keep your colours clean and clear by limiting the number of paints you use in anyone mixture.. . more a merging of two colours a that in parts of your painting cool blue will predominate and in others the wanner mauve will sbow through. so they cannot be comFil. do not vary so much and you may well have t c mpromise and use the near I colour you can find . A touch of blue in the hadows helps to create an illusion of the correct tone as well.. nk(1ug ) . in varyingdeplhsoftone for Red Campions and it is only jus: passable (81· 40).p).and avoid painting too many difficult pink in the future unl you change 10 a medium other than walercolours.enla or with blue or red to alter the hade. The different shades you can produce are endless. according 10 how much you use of ither colour. •11. I have used one of the safe watercolours. 41) and ink uch a rmine 8g . Red Campions vary in colour a great deal and as they hybridize freely wil.. You mu t experiment to get the effect you want. as they are kept in the dark.4. 41)is far more accurate . thi is perfect for the light and hade of bluebell and campanulas. I your heart' content. for the printer will be able to catch the colour before it fad . But do not give up 100 ea ily. Bengal Rose in the gouacberange (III.. I am now going to make things worse by howing you ju t how difficult life for the flower painter can be without them. Reds a nd blues stippled or hading into each other give the impression of varying shades from cerise 10 purples.

ecreases in a fr~h"ly opened Howe. keeping it transparenl and thin as oriemal silk. delicate and paJe in comparison but blend perfectly into the landscape and the saner lighl.wheresuch hot-coloured and exotic blooms sui. You can then add a second wasbof deeper colour (ftl. the other two are very different. . wrote that the wiJdpoppy was like 'painted glass' and (his is what you must bear in mind when you paint it. If you have applied your paint too heavily you can sometimes liftoff some of the colour before it dries (8g.t the climate. a damp brush in thesame way as I have shown with the bryony leafioft. bUI. of pinks to paint flowers in glowing scarlets and redsc coleurs which areeasy to match in.0 Indian cannas..finaUyfaUs to pieces as the flower spills outand fora brief time shakes its skirts out for the heat of the sun to iron away the creases.gbt' in your petal . I have painted tbe petal in 6g .0 • (. be called reel.. 31. wbichquickJy do. I prefer their floppy. [I is far better to begin with a thin. whereas in . John Rus. 4]b).ing. who described flowers so vividly. but you will not find il casilyin Britain for this once common pretty plant has beenalmest banished from the cornfields by the use ·of weedkillcrs. It all sounds very simple until yaurealize that real red is just nat British. kin... 4]a). The tiny Scarlet Pimpernel hides awayand only opens its pale orange-red face with its surprising magenta eye when the sun shines on it. smecthpaints 10 work: witb. for purposes of demonstration. lt abounds in the Far East •. using Cadmium Red mixed with a touch of Cadmium Yellow (ftg..admum YellOw (.last of the trio the Adonis or Pheasant's Eye.t open.But among the wild flowers thal. all scintillating SC8.' I lind this an irresistible thing to do. So if I feci like splashing out with scarlet paint.aamlum Red b b gr«n suitcase whicbalways looks too smaU to hold it and is bursting at the scams.. break i. is likea small crimson buttercup. It was Ruskin too who wrote this lovely de . using. +tb).r. both wUdand garden vari .. arc my favouritechoice. for you unpack a searlet baU gown crushed intoa ]. palewasb of colour.. but this will oo"lybe successful.rfecti. They must not bepainted ina tbick opaque layer of colour through which no light could penetrate ...likelines togive youth.. to give you thesbadowsand finallya few hair . fragiJeHowers. on a high quality HP paper. permanent watercolours . Of theseonly thepoppies Haunt their scarlet for an but the farmers to admire. poppies. The .Painting poppies It is a relief to turn away from the problem.. there arejust three families which can.There are many red flowers topaint among the imported garden plants from roses to giant dahlias.. for wild poppies are glowing. with a black patch on eacb sbiningpetal.as.Britain the wild flowers aresmall. untidy shapes and crumpled petals to the stiff outlines and pure pe. (prefer to paint. This lirst thin layer is the ·sunli.fftheir petals to the passing winds. only here and there. and unpack the poppy. from gladioli 1. eties.on of many garden plants.Bothof these are 10vCly. scription: 'Gather a green poppy bud just when it shows the scarlet line 81 its side.rlel. It .

leflower.ped ftower.ing. like a circular skirt with nojo.s understate (as in fig." ComM.4Bb the bindweed has been deliberately over-painted: it. for you will comeacross thisshape many and with five stripes which broaden as (hey arc gath . is an entirely differently sha..resting feature of this plant.arigoki ]1 .e. petunias and the larger species of bindweed. with trumpets of palest pink madeall in one.hicb areoDint.46 Common Poppy FI.... each one fringed with the hairs w. 4§C1aud e) rather than over ..and enlarged for you to see =all growing in a tigblly compacted disc surrounded by the large strap.is a flower which you should practise sketching at aU angles (fig.ins ered into the yellow waistband. in Morning Glory. Feld Bindweed FlI. 46 I have paintedthe black patches which you will findal the base of each petal. times... 48. Like otber members of the daisy fam ily.. the stamens surroundingtbe future seed-bearing capsule 50 that you can see exactly how the parts fit together before I paint the who.. which likepoppies.4.important to know when to stop. II is. has lost muchof the tranparentquallly and i too opaque and heavy . florets -oneor which I have plucked out of thecentre .. which ore thickand opaque and made of pure gold (6g·. FI.apping scales or bracts.More eomfieldftowers Another transparent weed ofarabte land and roadside verges is the Field Bindweed.with overI.. Fig.t. In fig. only this time you will have a di.47).paint such flowers·. Sketch them in thesame way as I did the pink and primrose in figs. d e).look. The ftower in Og. and added some lines in deep Cadmium Red 10 the right-hand petal inorder to make it lookcreased.fferent type of calyx.5FleldBindweed .. BUI if )OU are in doubt.. it is composed of hundreds of tiny 4Sb e.like petalsor rays. In 01'· 4sa I have sill open the kirt to show you theshape. This . 281J1d 29. of the Common Poppy. I have also drawn. 4h has the correct depth of colour . Com Marigold. In Og. alway. would dearly love to run riot in thecomtields if not controlled. shows more sbadtngin order toget depth into the centre of the fto·wer which must never look Oo. R .

I pet Is -~ 1 r.mall ) ~ .J 2 . " ~.2 large petal."u MJiyweed I Common ~ :ll . v Com Coc:Ie _IN! ..

with a tinge of Lemon Yellow.Flp. and hown you how to paint them and how not to paint them. I have twi led my bindweed in an anti-clockwi direction (il alway winds anti-clockwise). The Corn Cock le Hower is nOI ea. Try Permanent Magenta. or a mixture of'Crimson Alizarin and Cobalt Blue. The leaves must be kepi mooth.lance I prefer to ubstitute thjs member of the dai y family for it cou in the am Marigold. The while petal will cool and separate the lovely cia h of colours between the poppies and the Com Cockle. y to match. ketch the leaves accurately and paint them in a soft". leaving the vein pale but nol too obvious. 1] . France I Putting the plants together again Before I can paint my collection of cornfield flowers I must join the poppies to their terns. cool Davy' Grey. I have also added fine hair to the stems f the poppies. I paint them in two tages. You will often find Seentl Mayweed among the poppies and in this in . light colour and then add the hairs which cover the Ieaf surface . 49 (/rfi) ud SO Sketches In a cornfield. I shall leave some of the mayweed' petal unpainted except for their outline and others will be in hadowy.

0 look Ught and deUcalc.the positi. flowers.. I have painted the first washes of colour in the way] have a.FlI_ 51 Cornfield.CCC$S8ry to decide on the com .on of each ftower. without 1. which is why I have substituted tbe Scentless Maywood ror the Com Marigold.it 1. I want . first stage Plntltl&e It is first D. . using Cadmium Red plus a little yeUow for tbe poppies.. position of the picture.in. After lightlypencilUng . with the correct placing and number offtowers required to make a pleasing but uncrowded bunch.lready demonstrated (pages 30 to 33).00 many contrasting colours.

transparent shadows on the petals of the mayweed petals by adding the creases in deeper shadesvThe hove been painted .g glassis belpful.. _______ . and paint the hairs deHcntelyand carefully in a soft colour.tones Q. r· g-eeny-gr e . Use a brush with a good point . A magnifyin. JS . Never use black.' great attention 10 thefine hairs on the various stems and leaves.. -1··1 1'5 L peru 00·0I·· pay ·0.y.. finished painting SetondstlgeBecause the basic layer of paint forthe poppies and bindweed has been kept very pale.l .s possible to achieve the appearance ofthi'n..AI:. -r im .51 Camfield !lowers. it j.'1· .

Ippied 0lIl8 H!)II I JIW . It i no good painlin the nower benutifully if iI i utt ehed to u tern 1. hapely is 10 eep th r .5 which I ofrecn ribbon. h 7 11a.and hlghligbts Wh n you t p 1 nider all the p rt f f1 wer you ill realize h wimp rtnnt it i t depict them orrectly in order 1 bring OUl the plant" e senti I quality.

a an exercise in how 10 chieve the correct ba it hope of different flowers. sh po 01 • daffodd dJ nlhUll. or less than continual proti I make perfect. spots Ind stripes I am deliberately ugg ling thai for once you copy the wer ponrnin on this page (ftC. BUl a daffodil i much more mplieated. Muny are cnmained within a ircle. n You hould practise drawing the d ffodil as though it were made of gIn.apes. 54). Learn how to control your bru h when applying fine detail uch a pol and tripes. that you n accurately po ilion the ixth J)Ctal. A modern hybrid rosebud' triangular. whi h i aim I alway hIdden behind the trumpet.wh'ID apalI add od I IhfUtna )7 . and three arc! are in olved. Some are implt and easy to do. and fit the long neck of the nowcr into il column. which require only a leady hand a fine brush and nothing more.

gradually building them up until the Howers have shape and form but have not 10 I their pristine white highlighls.hey may be far easier to paint but they will look less ethereal. although it is often used in book illustrations. 55 palo VfIIY ou. which i to give form and shape to your Hower. of a whiter white than you can ever achieve with paint. or plain grey. or a mixture of colours excluding the greys.PlIJadng wbite flowers I have always liked white flowers and bave now discovered how fascinating they are to paint To begin with you may think that it is impossible: to reproduce white Howers successfully in watereolours on a white paper without 8 painted background. There is no need to use white paint for flowers on white background . giving a three-dimen ional effect which i lovely to achieve. Whatever you do. just to avoid having to tackle tbe not really too difficult task of white against while. or tinged with cool yellow. Or I might use Payne' Grey. Do not be afraid to experiment with your colours. carefully protect these dean areas until the very end' don't get into the habit of dabbing unnecessary bits of shadow here and there or you will Hni h up with an over-all dirty-grey flower. If your painting (ill looks ftat add a little deeper tone 10 exi ting shadows. I then like to watch my Dower gradually emerge as I paint the sbadows. such as Davy' Grey.lUntI nd pal shadln" . B mere touch here and there to guide me. They may be blue-grey. The paper provides pure. When you feel more confident you can apply your paint in one bold layer if you prefer. can be painted completely in shadow. or underneath the main flowers. In a medium uch as oils where darker background are normally added. Remember that there i often a pale edge to a turned-down petal which will make it tand OUI and 'Iift' it above the shadow it has ca 11 and also there will probably be a reflection of green from a leaf on the underside of a petal which adds a subtle touch of colour to the Dower. which will greatly help to emphasize the ones thai are in the light. These vary in tone according to the plant. which I use for some flowers. It is the effect of white: against white that I love. If your flower i surrounded by leav then these will provide you with a natural background and fewer shadows need be added on tbe flower itself.. Fla. but only the lighte t poible mark . I cannot bear a black outline to any white flower. If there are several flowers in the picture then a few at the back of the bunch. clean spaces between the hadow. but it can be done.l. I stan with a veTYfainlly marked outline. for white flowers are like a mirror and reflect many shades. it looks hard and unnatural. I prefer a grey tone. gradually build up your shadow in layers of paint until you are satisfied thai they are deep enough and that they have fulfilled their purpose.or Neutral Tint. but do not be tempted to twist leaves at awkward- Mite on nlte looking angles or paint them in places where they do not normally grow. using palest grey paint. You can use pencil if you prefer. occasionally on its own or more onen mixed with various colours. When you first begin.

pa.. published . a. painting shows 8' branch fun o'the while bloomier Micheli. Tresedtlf and MariorieBlarney. doltto.kof Magno.Fla. Thl.by Collins.membefof the magnolia family. 39 . 56 An Illustration from . Therust·coloured buds add 10 thepainljng ananrac:dve brightness thalconl1asts whh Ihe coolwh.The Boo.II. by Nell G. fIIowers.

•SS. I like to vary the opacity of thi first thin layer of paint by adding more water here or extra paint there 57. In fig.) to get the effect of hadow and highlight and the extreme thinn of the petal of'these beautiful nower • which grow in our garden and look like ballet dancer in while tutu . White highlights help to round ofTthe tern . th threedimensi nail ok which I like much. A painting of bindweed on white paper is illu trated in 'fig. in rder to prove the point. it' thick enough to lake paint well and I In a I. for it i darker than the petal but paler than the hadow on tern and leave . Allow while paint to dry and harden thoroughly before adding tarnen to your Tree Pop ie . I used it (or some of the page of mainly white flowers in that book and hove used it for a great deal of other work ince then. u ing white paint here and there. you can now compare the two ways of depicting this same flower. if you prefer to use pencil. You can also compare the painting of MaglJo/ialel/ala (0&. It i a useful tone for thi demon tration. . 57d) with the one on white paper in fig. Afier th I1r t wa h you can then add to the more opaque area . which give you a lovely feeling of freedom and sansfaction. where the petal overlap for instance (fig. keep it very faint. 51" but the rest of the painting. 57 I began to paint my while p ppy for you by lightly markin in the outline. including the stamens. 57c). The terns and leaves of the Tree Poppies in fig. When you become aecu torned to the hape of the flow r you can apply your first thin wa h of colour all over the petal without bothering to do the outline. 55. with touches of yellow and of Payne Grey in the hadow. gouache paint are particularly effective on tinted paper. S7b) but do n t apply too much paint for these or for any other tran parent flowers. 51 have been painted in Terre Verte watercolour. (fig. A with all the pedes of magnolia with petals which look and feel like soft wbite kid leather. Thi giv your painting depth and distance.White flowers on rinted paper A I have already menti ned. if you ha e no g uache available. more paint i r quired to gel the 'feel' of the thicker opaque petal . 51 I only marked in the po ilion of the tern . wa don in watercol urs. If you like to leave one or two flower half-painted you can get an attractive out-offocu and distant look to them which greatly emphasize the more detailed Hower in the foreground. I used white g uache paint for the petals of the Californian Tree Poppie in fig. However. or shadow to any thicker-petalled Hower. I found it at our I I print r '. uch a bindweed (fig. n utral hade of grey I wanted when I illu (rated rile • ild Flower of Britai" and Narthern Europe. In Og. The grey paper Iud (or the Tree Popple painting i nOI pecially made for the watercolouri 1. ln fig. 57e I al 0 used waterc lour Ii r one petal. watercolours 100 are perfectly uitable for use on the pal r paper.

. Californian T... Poppiel .....

Other tinted pnper!i are made peci6cally to take water paints and will not need to be tr ated first. • fla. 59 inted p pelS . To mount ttie pa~r. ummer Rower (8 . allow the paper to stretch for five minut • then gentJy m th and roll it. provided that you either buy lh'em readx-mounted or mount them yourself.to use for watercolourpaints.More tinted paP'f'S The tinted papers hown in fig.and exciting . under a heet of lean papera n I£» 8 piecl'of finn card or hardboard. To illu irate the effect of painting n different-col ured papers.60). they are uitable . However.he thicI2'er:)lunmounledpapers will cockle 'fwater i applied. pread wallpaper paste on the back. 59 are d igned to take pa lei. Yen l. on two of the papers in fig. 59' I huve shown a rose and two petal from the fi t stage of my painting of .


with a Iiule white. I like to mate my Howers stand out paler than the background. I know I can obtain much the same effect using diluted more sympathetlc to use. Umber. I used a mixture of Crimson Alizarin and Payne's Grey for the hadows. The finished painting is illustrated in fig. I began the leaves in Terre Verteanda mixture of blue and yellow. Thi· is a method of painting (hal is far removed from the pure watereoleurist 's style and teehniq ue. Some heavy hadows help to emphasize the pastel tones of the Howers and some greens remain lighter than the tin ted paper of (he backgrou nd. I allowed the paint to harden thoroughly fora whole dayand (hen begun a second coat •. start ing with pale Cadmium Yellow and coniineing with ever-deepeningshades of Cadmium Redand flna. I. callTun painting'.•detail from fig.Summer flowers Fig. You will see how additional layers of colour have been added and how the important details. (i' Rose. an ofte ned and diluted with gouache in Naples Yellow anda little white. I merely want it to act as a base to the pale shades in the flower which I have painted on top of the white and would not otherwise be able to achieve uslng water-basedpaints on very dark paper. I Uke adding shadows that are darker than the paper..llow~green mix lures to deep tone sof Hooker' Green Darkmixed with Payne's Grey and Raw..60 shows the first stage of a painting of a bunch of summer nowerson a dark-timed pastel paper.. but I find watercolour and . while gouache iln the way I showed you whh (he Tree Poppie on pages 40 and 41. 61 as well ha had several layers of paint applied to it on top or the inhial while. using both watercolour and gouache in various shade . to show you asmuch variety of tones as possible. the roses and (he garden pinks. which I wanted to remain warm-toned.lly Crimson Alizarin.2 acrylics. Secondsttge My reason for allowing the first layerof white paint thoroughly to dry and harden is that I do 1I10t want h to 'cloud' the lOP layer. make the Hower appear more full. more delicately toned. The leave throughout the finished picture have been painted in many hades from pale grey-green and ye.. As the pict ure progresses I will add a film of deeper tones. rounded and alive . 62.. The rose which has been plucked from the finished painting and isillustrated in fig. Fil. First stage I painted all the nower in.As the final touch while was added to pinpoint the brightest highlights of the painting. ·ofcolour (and also possibly cause them to fade in time) by gelling mixed ito with them.. enjoy working with water paints a if (hey were oil or acrylics and still being able to add finer details than I can with oils. with attractive resul Is. I t is what I.6. the highlights and shadows in.


In 1982 I began my diary in February. I rarely succeed witb my annual pleasure much beyond March.ng begins early in Cornwall and I always resolve lopainl the very first flowers to bloom in . oughly recommend. no FI. but while it la. First.y diary 10 overftowing with Hower sketches.sls it is a delightful occupation which lean thor .008 the branches.January and to continue throughout the year to fill m.PAINTINGTHROUGH THE SEASONS Startingwltb spring Spn.. the green~gold hazel calkins . them. for it makes one observant and' ever-watchful for new flowers.. Many people have eyes only for these showy male Dowers and do Dol notice the tiny females bedecked with scarlet tassels which grow here and there 01.. 63 SpdnQ flowers . which is as exciting as painting. painting individual plants which caught my eye (8g_ 63).

the ommon Au riculas Dowered. The delicately veined Wood Sorrel wa oon blooming among our woodland treeand not long after. Fill.. vari _ in lone from plant to plant.rili h wild flowers. Before I found lime to paint primrose they no iOinger appeared here and there as pale.Terre Verte yet again proves B. Plants and seed can be bought from nurseries pecializi.na.nl of such a plant. These add interest to the picture.. I have painted a whole plODI growing in a woodland setting andiatroduced for tbe fi. using the good earthy shade of tbe Umbers and Sienna and Yellow Ochre. sed fairly thickly thepaint win take' over the grey background quite successfulty. i. 64). for they are part of the natural hubil.ng in alpines.. It i possibly the clear t deep blue of or B.useful colour' note the pale edge 10 the leaves.bigger than u grain of rice bUI capable of developing into bunches nut for squirrel . using Lemon Yellow for the highlighted ide andadmium YeUow Pale for the darker areas. such a dead oak leaves (fig .Thi mall world hidden beneath the woodland Door i rasci. The leaves are satinsrncothend blue-green . Stan with the pale grey silky body of the catkin .and then add the fine hairs of the stamensand finally dot on the golden pollen-bearing anthers.of luseiou omi'h cream. It makes a lovely subject to paint for an aster card and is nota difficuila.·64Pdmroses flowering inal woodland IEtUing • . The golden Pu y Willow was outearly in March.. for byebruary they hod merged together and resembled !Jowl. clear-toned individual . notthe kind left around by human but the liner of nature in the form of dying leave and broken (wig under which you will discover many different-coloured mosses. Thebe t are pure cobalt but never a intense in colour as the more famous trumpet gentians. lichen. and they are lovely to paint.ling to paint . but it. I like to pain t t heir mea Iy whiteeyes and deep Cadmium Yellow faces.. so paint them with a thin film of blue lind then add a little deeper tone for thesbadows.il looks .. I would like to encourage you to paint litter.rst lime in thi book some of the natural objects which were tucked around it.Davy's Grey is a goodcoJour to use . dormice and human . where It is rare and protected and must nol be picked..n my troughscf alpine plants. The Spring Gentian is a tiny sapphire gem and is the only member of its true-blue family (0 grow in Britain. and fungi and 'wildlife' in the hapeof ladybirds or a sleeping moth .

•.first made a working sketch (flg. sweetpeas.. placing the main rose near the base and the sma. then added lavender. mauve and cream are very easy on lbccyc. to add height. incidentally. 65).Composing the fI.I.owe.easing than groups of Iwo or four.. 66).. Then I triedout the va rious colours to see how they would blend together (ftg. pM. groups of three or five loo.Uer HowelS radiatingout from it to avoid a tOp"beavy look. and finally a whole stem of fruil from the strawberry bed. a wh'itelily and some tiny miniature roses. Last of all I placed the lavender at the back.my eyes. full-blown rose for the star role. It is strange.l.in. 65 It is very tempting to pur too many nowersinlo (I - c--Lemon YeIIoow ~ STeen • cadmlurnRed ~. because I liked the clash of colours and also because the scent of old roses andthe taste of strawberries tcgetherepitomize summer . cannot bear to leave anything out I have filled my bunch of summer blooms to the very limit but t have kept to old-fashioned couage flowers in soft colours. which makes it acceptable .and only the conlrasting colour or the strawberry will have to be watched as the painting progresses.rs of summer a ccmpcsitlon. t first picked a. ~-----Fl. summer when you feel you. particularly in. how flowers in.k more pl. These shades of pink.emorI .

old-fa. I do not want anyone flower to predominate at thi ' stage. stage of this painting. hioned theme throughto the final.Witho ing to add any details.our balance .inlingi1n thin layers of paim in order to get (he right feeling ofcol. newberry slightly subdued. the former FlI. garden. Ilrstsilige 49 . I have wahed over every parloflhe pa.. They must blend into a harmoniou and pleasing over-all effect. To achieve this I will keep the leaves Firsl sllge andtheripest 10 act a a quiet background and the berry as a contrast in colour to the main rose but never n urpingitsstar part. I want to maintain the on.61F'lowers from aSlJmme.

Second stage In the finalstageIhave concent ra led on keeping (he colours soft and delicate. Imlshedpainllng so . andshadows of Paynes Grey have been painted over the greens to help 'lin' the Dowers and leaves and give the final: picture a feeling ef'depth and life. while I add all the fine details whIch I so love to do. Fill' 68 Flowers hom il' summer garden. Finally. in order to bring out the texture and feel of petals and leaves. A few more leaves have been added at the base of the picture. hairs and prickles have been putin.

Th leav f th mamental gard n I . hieh waned i seed to the wind before I could gel it home fely but lill 10 ked auractive en ugh to paint. I added a quick pencil ketch t remind me to include me in the final paintin . each one varying in orne mall wily from the next. The dhead of Old Man' Beard help (0 make any autumn pietur aura live. If you pick pindle berne. remember that they are pi nous. for they or gho tly und quiet a:nd fil] in the background ithout being 100 dominant. 70. For ur purp l am c ntent to call a blackberry a blackberry and to paint a fall n leafwhi h caught my eye beeau it was pure gold 0 er rnu h f i urfaee. not only in the colour of their dying bUI. J al 0 found a mall branch of wild pindl with bertie ofa lovely r pink' when a berry plil open 1.a dand lion clock. They or much deeper. the rnber und ienna of the dying leave mix well with the eca ional brillian fwild berne . Ii .dmllJ1Tl VeUow C4dmumRIld otumn tints The colours of autumn or all geth r diffi rent rr m the ones I u d for my umm r flo e . 69 Hedg lOW findings Old . u ually produ bright and beautiful name C'OIOUf • but I am leaving the garden thi time and I king for wild fruits and berri in the e untry id for my painljng fig. 69). [or the overc at and mi ture f admium Yellow and admium Red for the berries.Fl. not a dead Jack but a c lourful lack hich i for better mixed up from the primary colours.0 re eal the orange ed there i an exc. adrniurn R d and Permanent Blue. A wander round the country lanes pr duced among other thing . u ing admiurn eUow. and do [J t leave them Jyinga out where children may find th m.I. ir t I bru hd a layer of dmium Yellow over the whole f the leaf (tog I).iling cia h of c I urs.. I have mu trated two lag of painting a ripe fruit: k p your initial wa h pale ( rage I). Blackberrie alway aura 1 me a a painter: th unripe berri lart gre nand rnduolly turn a ft rim nand finall black.1age2 Be ar. Y u can ary and c ntrol the mi ed lou mu h better and th are far more luminous..) Blackberry lea e are very ariable. with it roth r lifele hade. . Iud Permanent Ro . n top of thi • while it wa till damp. or the am unt of hairs on the leav . y> 81 ck c. which i not really urpri ing one y u realize that there ar almo I three hundr d different kind" of black rry growing in Brit. 31 in hape. The c I urs of the flo er vary from while I mauve-pink. than taken traighl out f a tube of ready-mad bLa k paint.in alone.. I added [I wa h of e a tly the rru mi fcolours that I u for th ripe Iackberry. perhap only in ih hape of the thorns.the ein and wrinkl • fall w d when the paint wa dry and can be n in fig.uch a mapl • cherri and umachs. but tb lovely muted hade r Yellow Ochre. orne berri will how purple had . and add m re laye Ilnlil you hove the depth of col ur you w nt taking care to leave hi hlight in each of lh small seed-bearing berrie whi h make up the whole fruiting head (lag 2). The mix merg d into the yellow and made an attractive purpl -br wn lone tage 2 • The fino I detail .

t if in doubt.n. first. econdly. It would be far more pleasing to the eye if 1 had PUI fewer plantsInto this picture. leave out .and • .for they may come in useful one day.Having decided I would Iikea tinted background. nndo did some ivy berries. So when you are planning your design you should remember lila. to bow you as muny different fruits and leaves of autumn as I could fit .i..70 51 . FlI.0 overcrowd your paints ings . picked before the wood pigeons could devour the lot: theyand the beech leave art quiet-tonedand fit easily into any scheme .. warm tone and yel pale enough to luke warereolour succes fully. I havecompleted their lea es and added a dead leaf. I have cho ell acream paper on which 10 paint my wild aurumn harvest. I like to take lime orr occasionally to add to my collection of working sketches.ing.. for these autumn twigs and branches are spik y bedfellows with awk ward limb and do nOI fit together so comfortably or harmoniousty as flowers do..lwa designed with two purpo es in mind. The blackberne have been reunited 10 their terns ill order to how you how they grow.or paint two picture instead of one. A fre h dandelion clock reached my studio in perfect condition ready for the final painl.. The painting . 10 warn you nOI 1..ill1 fig. The cream is 3. I have painted some rowan bertie 100 •.

71 Wild 110"'851 .g.

Painting from ketches i le sari factory than workEng from live material but it is beuer than not painting alan. home. of the d ing year. Although they are classified as wild Hower . buttercup-like Howers of Winler Aconite ha e II delightful ruff of green leave round their necks. you can eh grouping se compatible partner and plan a And t hi diary ror a. 73 I combined workingdrawingsofplant from location a far apart as the Royal Horticultural Society garden at Wi Ie in Surrey. 71. and if you take care to dale your sketche and rna ke note 0 f where you found the flowers. ketch or paint nower In warmth and comfort at. thei r particular habitat and which other plam grew around or Iilower described on page 31t r 19 I I kctched a large clump of snowdrop. agardencan usually be relied upon ~o produce some 110\ ers from a sheltered corner. The delicately tinted cherry blossom alway look wa hed out by the winter rains. or the now scene in fig.·IY. The fine marking were added when the paint was dr: . I did nOI rhink cherry-pink polyanthus exactly fined the spirit. The nowdrop wa painted in the same way as the white The small. hows the Hower I picked on 8. but manages 10 bloom on and off throughoutthe coldest months of the ear. 0 I come lO the endof 'I' . where in the hard winter I had dug up and planted in a bowl while they were in rull flower. now is falling. '72 Wml6r flowers .g.infig.). \ a ITO winter' day and painted while they were till fre h.uad our 0\ n home in ornwall.loSU. 73 how Hower: painted from pre ious ketches and from memory. (hal looks natural. where I ketched the aconnes.. They neverobject to uch treatment and it is a great luxury for me to be able to it and . the delicate Winter Cherry and the snowdrop more truly represented the garden in its last sea on of the year (6g.in Britain (hey are more often seen in cultivation and spread like we-eds in gardens they happen to appro eof. To gel the right effect you need only a touch of pale t rim on Alizarinr Permanent Rose on our wet bTU h. \ hich i probably 100 acid for their taste. They ob iouly do not approve of ours.\\'interhade ven i:n a hard winter when thecountryside ha little ( offer the painter. and the' one in 6g . while outdoors a typical Cornish gale is lashing the garden .. l1. II sea on with two very different painting : the one . which ~hem. But although the were mot welcome. A pale wa h of Win or Violet mixed with a hint of Cobalt Blue wa perfect for the iris. The pale mauve winter-flowering Iris J. In mhe mild \ inter of 1982 the spring flowers arrived very earl .

FJI:_ 73 Winter woodland S5 .

It is either too cold and wind} or too hot-and then the PUiOl drie before ne has time 10 complete a sk .. sake. It is far m re per nal and sari fing than clicking aw al)' with a camera. trees and distant viewsa well as detailed foreground'.a figs.lTerfa r our art'. or .aint the vic". but v hieh can be merged and mixed together in the background. published bV CoBlns able chair and a mall table. au can sketch in comparative ease. which have 1 be p rtruyed in a. The ky play' a mail and unimportant part in the alpine garden painting. but (here are limes when it becomes the d rninant feature and oecupie a large a rca of the painting . ill nOI be able to rubout the lines after you have painted 0 erthern and they \ in show through the pale blue y U u e for rhe sky. upposed 10 su . 74) for our bo k Flowers of the ountryside. with sk . so wa I the midges and Ior the first lime in this b ok I am going t pain: me n wers within u landscape. balanced somev hut precari usly on our knees. bUI.16 and 77 iUu. 1 painted the alpine garden picture (Og. 15. so take out 11 comfort"1r. for y u . 0 much detailin the di ranee would ha e p iled the far-av y and out-of-focus effect I wanu . weare . Ir possi hie leave your pencils bell ind or on ly rge usc them lightly to mark in the po itions of certain objects . If you decide ti SUIfl Wilh. almost blinds us withits glaring whitenes .:. This painting is an example fa fairly nraightforward copy of a view of part of our garden but 11 view complicated by 11 Pili hwork of man different miniature plant.rate. Bur lenjc puinting outd orsenormously in retrospect. or IUb of flower .1I pOI in the shade and choose a subject that is not I difficult 10 begin with.THE BROADER VIEW There are surprisingly few daysin the car when one can paint outdoor: in realcomfort. hi" the cry be'( way Fcapruring the pirit of a holiday spent in the c uniry ide: or f showing If our flower-filled .. find. you can be different. his at this p intrhat I begin I wi h I. ummer garden t friends in the depth r winter. 0 (hill the paper. vista. an illusrration from FlowelS of (he Coumryside bvPhihp and Marjorie Blamev.' urgarden views. certain amount detail in the foreground in rder to make them recognizable . pcrhu p a mal I pa ved te rrace wi tha pal 0 f geraniums. such as step.l. It will certainly take more lime than photographs.ed to achieve. rth c cry moment you can spare.. So I. never pencil in the douds. Other people can do that. used oil and c uld land comfortabl in Ir ru of my easel placed where no unlightcould fall onit. or part of an herbaceous borderrather than <I I~I.et" take OUl that uncornfortablcliule 1001. but it is".14 The olpinegorden al Trelidden.. to di cover that thereis no hade what c cr tH the place ~ e want to p.

Thi combination pr duce a variety r tone' from alrno t lu ender I bi uit or cool grey. While the fir.78 A bluebell wood . 75) how a winter k. 76 flower have been painted in the f regr und the land ape. if you like. with Crim n lizarin and ell w 0 hre. Then I painted the darker.and with u p nge damp ur pre. T7 FiR. In fig. for it i nOI worth the effort of trying 1 apply rea II wet washe of paint ver rapidly c rrugating wa e f oggy paper. The colour' you use will ar ace rding to . The blue i alv ay pale t ncar the horizon and darker in the heaven. a Him piece I rn from II cheap ketchbook. Fig. t rm clouds.(retched and well-secured sheet thick paper n t. 78 als how flower in a landscape .. plea e not.IfI. our board 10 all "' the paint 10 n w with the bru h. y u can alway p nge fT orne r the blue where the n wers tire to g . they can imply be painted on top of the kyo Or. which wa painted fir t of all. When ou paint a bluc sky. The first f my thumbnail ket he (fig. uch as tea sels left landing rhr ugh the winter month". h w summer kies. If the n WCf5 are darker than the 'kyo II. The ther IW ketches (figs. \ intry blue. 76 and 77 . eather. 77 how another way of adding wer : the buttercups and dai ie ha e been painted in bel the kyline and gra se filled in between them. French ltrarnurine with u little \ arm obalt Blue gi e the mo ( uirable blue for ummer kie. lope. Fig. the p ppie are here. To Ihi ketch I c uld add me foregr und plant . Paint mall' ky cape' all er your page and at all en 'on of the year.75 Fig. ha been gi en a more detailed finish to make it land out from the background and dominate the en. I painted the pule I cloud fir I in 11 mi turc of French ltrarnarine ( r Payne' re). ne plant of W d rrel.. t \ as h was "I ill damp I added touche of eruleum between the cloud 10'u ge I a cold. n Fil.a sea of bluebell in u mixture f bait Blue and bait Vi let.. 76 Begin b planning where you \ ani our kline prefer rbl ff-eemre .

Japanes Waler irises. AI Ihi rage I did nOI paint a er the gentian plant at all. there i not ulv ay r om in ne' home for more than a few large painting. r ic\ a a hoi ida: ' can be m re easily accomm dated and ar great UIIl to d.e the arc pale and deliC<J tel C I ured I painted them first f all. I had a finn pre-f rmed idea in my head fju I h w I wanted the final picture LI k.. wei wa h f c I ur \ ant p • ible n such a mall picture f< r I wanted it the time size a. arc a huge as i . In a painting uch a thi but on u large scale the ba kground can be painted rn re wet. &cond sla~e I deepened the colour' general] and painted in the pale flower _Then I painted ne of the gentian n wers. first 51 g a place for the 'mall and beautiful.. thai the.e painring rn figs. uld be ew plant if there were no bee 10 pollinate them. in m re ncentrated t ne it i also uituble for gentian'.. lthough m t art teacher urge one I produce big and b ld painting . hade green ~ r the lea e . als s . for they are all part f the natural \ arid of n wer and add inrere I to a painting. and thumbnail ketches of the garden. 79. and 83 I hu e illu trared Ihree stages f painting a gentian from sketche I did in the P reblend ( rench ltrarnarine and bait Blue il n t nl g d r summer skies. Third siage inally I painted the gentians in full detail. painted in res detail than the n I. hen I need him a a model. I er often include some wildlife In m painting: f n wer . I al 0 left small patche f clear paper here and there for the paler mead w n \ er 10 be added later. with UI I uching any background . I u ed a mixture of bah Diu' lind bait Violet ~ r the in c and ari u. 8. I che k the balance f col ur. Becau. e ric-to king bird i its u regularly bUI not alway" .ubje t flowers painted within a lund. 79 . and their I vel nO\ en. 80 -' I used the technique of the rniniaturis t and tippled in my dark col urs to a id piling the cri p urline f the plants. I n figs.de ur p nd. th ugh. The background ha 'en painted fair! dry. here i hardlj any k r di.. p iltion f ec ndury irnportan c. r this picture I al wanted t • hov three plane f dimini hing importance. First stage I lightly drew the outline of the plant and ketched in the m untains. a bee or butterfly. 81. II spider r a bird. and be nd thi an indistinct rna' of f liagc I upp rt but n I engulfthe 1\ 0 main subject. and 0 an ther sou enir f ur vi it I . so thi portrait wa d ne partly fr m mem ry and partly from the quick ketches I ha e made in the pa I. After all. First rage I wanted the irises t ubject in the picture. ape. hi' required a certain amount of painting in m mind' e e.• ind in quite u 1 t a detail in order to e tabli h the correct balun e f c lour and depth f I nc (fig. \ h thinks the ung trout wh c me up ur trearn and swim ar und the pond ha e been pUI there for hi. r the f1 wer will 10 k too hea y. benefit. cr in order to estubli sh it. tarn view in luded. irst f alii painted a mall p rtrait o ur fa ourire i iror. ra bli. These J panese Water lrise gro be. Thi I ely. Hov e er. up plates. (he kingfi 'her. w uld tand ut from the backgr undo cond sllige H aing e. first the d minant and detailed iri e in the immediate f regr undo then the kingfu her on the branch n the other side of the pond. you ee in fig. the m untain wa ready t bring h me.hed I he c rrect tone' f the f1 wers but bef re ompleting the detail. \ ithout an other flowers 10 di tract the auenti n. leave tome oft highlight.. there . I added the background. 79 and 80 illu (rille quite a differenr appr ach 10 the . I placed the bird in the LOp corner in rder 10 balance the C rnp 'iti n f the picture. keeping b th the flowers and the leave fairly pale. there i Fig. Then I painted the k and the fir t faint wa hes of different green for the tree and the meadow.

82 Genlian. 81 Gent an. rinished painting 59 . A . first stage . second stage FiI.8J Gentian.Fla.

ecdp d. r muk no a log) for intr ducing yet another pecics of the poppy family here (fil: . then d n 1 reel y u have t change. but an imp nant differ nee 1 n te i the stalk d top t the. This ne i... and' Ith ugh gr enish The imple approach is not alway' simple \ 'hen it c mes 10 painting. f r beginne a well as for more e peneneed painters. I passionately 10 e the "imple. Like it relution I he ommon Poppy 11 has four pet' I irnple utline. The I urs f the el h P pp' ar harp and clear and mu I remain. the cl h Papp). create II feeling of roundness La Lemon reful not to verde it. r shuding is essentiul the crumpled me area cI miurn Yellow. whi h identi U~' it us a member 0 the Mecon p_ i group un ther member i the Himalayan Blue Poppy 0 beloved of rd n r . 10 un tl. and the mp -ilion I allimportant if)' u are to a hiev a pie 1 ing and living portrait of one species from the bud right through I the ri eedpod. 84 lind 8S). cl an line of the more strictly botanical lyle of flower painting \ uh it uncluuered pa • and If you 1 0 find the imple approach more t your liking.KEEPING IT SIMPLE In order to show you as many varieties of plant' as I c n wuhm one ok. II w· ever. K ep ellov with a l uhf ad- . I have added more flower to me f my bunche tha n I would normally d . o. f r you cannot hide anything hind an ih r n \ r.So make e llent m del!'. for pplt. und prefer ne n wcr 1 a dozen. for there i a pluce for all type of flower painting. • IW Skefches of Welsh Popp .

• • . . 15 Welsh Poppies.F'Jc. finished painting .

when I acted as the yardstick . and how it gro'i S OUt of bare rock. [lowers from photographs. accompanied b note '. which II particular flower i growing. serrated edges and the contrastingcolour and differcnt textures of the two ides of the leaves (fig. We photograph the flowers because we enjoy doing it. or the height of a plant. PYJ'enee5 in Ihe FiK. In the other photograph on this page (fig.'0 to paint later to show the pale .. sue hal he t ype of plants among. run parallelto each other and only occasionally combine. in my ca c. 88). In Ballana . ely of rea on • I prefer F111..PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE FLOWER PAINTER Photographing and painting flowers arc two corn- pleiely separate art which..and collect a lear or 1\1. 87).86 Skelchlnga planl 01 Alpine Ladv's Manlle. They are al 0 . quick method of recordingcertain facts and I later refer ro them for sped lic j n forma I in.811 SI. and the resulting slide form anirnportant part of the talks we give. which can easily be judged by cornparing it to the surrounding vegetation or to some other familiar object. It i vital for me to add a fairly detailed sketch of the \0 hole plant. 86) I am sketching a plant of Alpine Lady's Mantle in the Pyrenee : this photograph i useful nly in so far a il shows the compact form of the plant. or a varinot to paint. 87 Leaves 01 Alpine Lady's Manlle HIt.8. as in thecase of the thistles in Bavaria (fig.andmg among 91<1m thlslles.

how sort the hairs are on the tern . all on one plane. or in deep hade. A cornplete drawing donen the p 1 would lake a very long time. of getting a three-dimensional look is to throw everything beyond the chosen flower OUI of focus.Fig. andHG. 92. helped me later paint the whole plant for a book. go shows detailsof Lizard Dowers at different stages of development. The Lizard Orchid is Ira nge . mauves and blues are pit rtieu lady vul nerable and vary considera bly from accuracy. 90 Uzard Orchid flowers development 01 differenlllages. because the singleeye of thecamera will only show you a flat flower portrait. The result is effectiveand often unractive. i a closer hot of the same plant.91 A lizard Orchid in woodland .The two main reason why I will not rely on photographs for more thana pa ing reference are. II is 0 important actually \0 handle the plum and look at it from all angles.. but h. 89 how a Lizard Orchid growing among the sand dunes (again I am acting a the indica lor of it heigbt).. of l-'a. together withthe painting of the florets. The pbotographs on this page show Lizard Orchids in France. . even the very be t slides do nOI al· ways gi e quite perfect colour rendering.. Norean one gauge the feelofa plant.Fig. The only way . The pai. and a rare plant in Britain. 91 shows a plant in a woodland habitat. at present. It would bea crime to pick icand in Ihi co e photograph. Fig. for there can btl a many as two hundred nowers to on each spike . or how velvety the lea es. first •. showing Ihrough from the other 'ide of the spike.urdly helps the painter to get the neees- sury details of the back view of the Aore.nting in fig•. Secondly.

If you practi • ou can only impro . 4 . lmmen pleasure and tisfaction can found mong the n wers of th field a paint th m and enjoy yourselve . then find an ea i r one and tart again. Rem mber what I wrote near the beginning of this book. and before long you will discover as I did that the first flower is nottoe diffie It after all.r even if you h ve never held one.I h pe that thr ugh thi b k I hav been obi to encourage many of'you to tart painiin • however long it was thal you I t held a bru h . If you ar not timed with your portmyal of a particular flower. I hope t 0 that you will try painting the flowers of our garden and country ide.