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Sections

  • Chapter 1
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Physical layer impairments
  • 1.2.1 Linear impairments
  • 1.1.2 Non-Linear Impairments:
  • 1.2.3 Classification of physical impairments
  • 1.3 Proposed Work
  • 1.4 Organization of rest of report
  • Chapter 2
  • 2.1 Introduction to WDM
  • 2.2 Components of WDM-Network
  • 2.3 Evolution of WDM Technology
  • 2.4 Quality Of Service :
  • Chapter 3
  • 3.1 Introduction to DWDM
  • 3.2 Evolution of Fiber Optic Transmission
  • 3.3 Development of DWDM Technology
  • 3.4 DWDM System Functions
  • Chapter 4
  • 4.1 Network Model
  • 4.1.1 Network Topology :
  • 4.2 Problem Formulation
  • 4.2.1 Power loss calculation
  • 4.2.2 Channel capacity Calculation
  • 4.2.3 Q-Factor Calculation
  • 4.3 Data-path Selection Mechanism
  • 4.3.1 Data-path selection based on power loss
  • 4.3.2 Data-path selection based on Channel capacity
  • 4.3.3 Data-path selection based on Q-Factor
  • 5.1 Simulation of PLI Based WDM network
  • 5.1.1 Power loss calculation
  • Table 2 Power loss calculation
  • 5.1.2 Channel capacity calculation
  • 5.1.3 Q-Factor Calculation:
  • Table 4 Q-Factor calculations
  • Table 5 Q-Factor with client requirement
  • 5.2 Simulation of PLI Based DWDM network
  • 5.2.1 Power loss calculation:
  • Table 6 : Power loss calculation for DWDM
  • 5.2.2 Channel capacity calculation
  • 5.2.3 Q-Factor Calculation:
  • Table 8 : Q-Factor calculation for DWDM
  • Table 9 Q-Factor with client requirement
  • Figure 19 : Q-Factor calculation with respect to client requirement for DWDM
  • 5.3 Comparison of PLI based WDM/DWDM Network
  • 5.3.1 Power loss
  • 5.3.2 Channel capacity
  • 5.3.3 Quality Factor
  • 6.1 Conclusion
  • Bibliography

PHYSICAL LAYER IMPAIRMENTS BASED OPTICAL

ROUTING

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

Master of Technology
In
Telematics and Signal Processing
by
Kalyan Chakravarthi P
Roll No: 209EC1113

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela
2011



PHYSICAL LAYER IMPAIRMENTS BASED OPTICAL
ROUTING

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

Master of Technology
In
Telematics and Signal Processing
by
Kalyan Chakravarthi P
Roll No: 209EC1113
Under the guidance of
Prof. Santos Kumar Das

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela
2011






National Institute Of Technology
Rourkela


CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled, ―PHYSICAL LAYER
IMPAIRMENTS BASED OPTICAL ROUTING‖ submitted by KALYAN
CHAKRAVARTHI P (209EC1113) in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award
of Master of Technology degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering with
specialization in ―Telematics and Signal Processing‖ at National Institute of Technology,
Rourkela (Deemed University) and is an authentic work by her under my supervision and
guidance.
To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has
not been submitted to any other university/institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.


Date: Prof. Santos Kumar Das
Dept. of E.C.E
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela-769008
Email: dassk@nitrkl.ac.in


[i]

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to express my gratitude to my thesis guide Prof. Santos Kumar Das
for his guidance, advice and constant support throughout my thesis work. I would like to
thank him for being my advisor here at National Institute of Technology, Rourkela.
Next, I want to express my respects to Prof. S.K. Patra ,Prof. G S Rath, Prof. S. Meher
,Prof. K. K. Mahapatra,, Prof. S. K. Behera , Prof. Poonam Singh , Prof. U. C. Pati , Prof.
Samit Ari, Prof. N V L N Murty ,Prof. T K Dan , Prof. A. K. Sahoo and Prof. D. P. Acharya
for teaching me and also helping me how to learn. They have been great sources of
inspiration to me and I thank them from the bottom of my heart.
I would like to thank all faculty members and staff of the Department of Electronics and
Communication Engineering, N.I.T. Rourkela for their generous help in various ways for the
completion of this thesis.
I would like to thank all my friends and especially my classmates for all the thoughtful
and mind stimulating discussions we had, which prompted us to think beyond the obvious.
I’ve enjoyed their companionship so much during my stay at NIT, Rourkela.
I am especially indebted to my parents for their love, sacrifice, and support. They are my
first teachers after I came to this world and have set great examples for me about how to live,
study, and work.
Kalyan Chakravarthi P
Roll No: 209ec1113
Dept of ECE,
NIT, Rourkela

[ii]

ABSTRACT


In optical networks, physical layer impairments (PLIs) incurred by non-
ideal optical transmission media, accumulates along the optical path. The overall effect of PLIs
determines the feasibility of the light-paths. It is important to understand the process that
provide PLI information to the central manager and use this information efficiently to compute
feasible routes and wavelengths. Based on the PLI impairments like fiber attenuation,
chromatic dispersion ,cross talk, amplifier spontaneous noise and polarization mode dispersion,
which reflects the Quality of service, factors (Q-Factor); In this project we worked about both
linear and non linear physical layer impairments and calculated parameters like power loss ,
channel capacity and Quality factor of all possible paths. From that we proposed centralized
PLI based routing algorithm is proposed for the selection of data-paths.











[iii]


Contents

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ............................................................................................................. i
ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................................. ii
LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................. vi
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................... vii
ACRONYMS .......................................................................................................................... viii
Chapter 1 : Introduction ..............................................................................................................1
1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 2
1.2 Physical layer impairments ................................................................................................... 2
1.2.1 Linear impairments ................................................................................................ 2
1.1.2 Non-Linear Impairments ........................................................................................ 7
1.2.3 Classification of physical impairments .................................................................. 10
1.3 Proposed Work .................................................................................................................... 10
1.4 Organization of rest of report ............................................................................................. 10
Chapter 2 : WDM Network ....................................................................................................... 11
2.1 Introduction to WDM .......................................................................................................... 12
2.2 Components of WDM-Network ......................................................................................... 12
2.3 Evolution of WDM Technology ......................................................................................... 16
2.4 Quality Of Service ............................................................................................................... 16
Chapter 3 :DWDM Network ..................................................................................................... 17
3.1 Introduction to DWDM ....................................................................................................... 18
3.2 Evolution of Fiber Optic Transmission .............................................................................. 18
3.3 Development of DWDM Technology ................................................................................ 19
3.4 DWDM System Functions .................................................................................................. 20
3.5 Quality of Service ............................................................................................................... 22

[iv]


Chapter 4 : Network Model & Problem Formulation ................................................................. 23
4.1 Network Model ..................................................................................................................... 24
4.1.1 Network Topology ................................................................................................. 26
4.2 Problem Formulation .......................................................................................................... 27
4.2.1 Power loss calculation ............................................................................................ 27
4.2.2 Channel capacity Calculation.................................................................................. 28
4.2.3 Q-Factor Calculation .............................................................................................. 28
4.3 Data-path Selection Mechanism .......................................................................................... 30
4.3.1 Data-path selection based on power loss ................................................................. 30
4.3.2 Data-path selection based on Channel capacity ....................................................... 31
4.3.3 Data-path selection based on Q-Factor .................................................................... 31
Chapter 5 : Simulation Results .................................................................................................. 33
5.1 Simulation of PLI Based WDM network ............................................................................ 34
5.1.1 Power loss calculation ............................................................................................ 34
5.1.2 Channel capacity calculation .................................................................................. 35
5.1.3 Q-Factor Calculation .............................................................................................. 37
5.2 Simulation of PLI Based DWDM network .......................................................................... 41
5.2.1 Power loss calculation ............................................................................................ 41
5.2.2 Channel capacity calculation .................................................................................. 43
5.2.3 Q-Factor Calculation .............................................................................................. 45
5.3 Comparison of PLI based WDM/DWDM Network............................................................. 49
5.3.1 Power loss .............................................................................................................. 49
5.3.2 Channel capacity ..................................................................................................... 49
5.3.3 Quality Factor ......................................................................................................... 51



[v]

Chapter 6 : Conclusion & Scope of Future work........................................................................ 53
6.1 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 54
6.2 Scope of Future work ............................................................................................................. 54
Bibliography ............................................................................................................................. 56






















[vi]

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No Page No
Figure 1: Classification of Physical impairments .................................................................... 10
Figure 2 : The optical spectrum and 8 wavelength channels. ................................................... 12
Figure 3 : The basic components of the wavelength routed network. Wavelength selective
cross-connect (WSXC) routes incoming signals per wavelength basis, while wavelength
interchange cross-connect (WIXC) has also capability to perform wavelength ....................... 15
Figure 4: WDM with two channels ........................................................................................ 19
Figure 5 : Growth in Fiber Capacity ....................................................................................... 20
Figure 6 : DWDM schematic for four channels ...................................................................... 20
Figure 7 : Physical Topology .................................................................................................. 24
Figure 8 : Network Topology Graph ....................................................................................... 26
Figure 9 : Flowchart for Data-path Selection based on Power Loss......................................... 30
Figure 10 : Flowchart for Data-path Selection based on Channel Capacity ............................. 31
Figure 11 : Flowchart for Data-path Selection based on Q-Factor ........................................... 32
Figure 12 : Power loss calculations......................................................................................... 35
Figure 13 : Channel Capacity ................................................................................................. 37
Figure 14 : Q-Factor calculation ............................................................................................. 39
Figure 15 : Q-Factor calculation with respect to client requirement ........................................ 41
Figure 16 : Power loss calculations for DWDM...................................................................... 43
Figure 17 : Channel Capacity for DWDM .............................................................................. 45
Figure 18 : Q-Factor calculation ............................................................................................. 47
Figure 19 :Q-Factor calculation with respect to client requirement for DWDM ...................... 49
Figure 20: comparisan of Channel capacity for single and multiple wavelengths .................... 51
Figure 21: Comparison of Q-Factor ........................................................................................ 52







[vii]



LIST OF TABLES

Table No. Page No.
Table 1 Parameters Used in Simulation .................................................................................... 27
Table 2 Power loss calculation .................................................................................................. 34
Table 3 Capacity Calculation..................................................................................................... 36
Table 4 Q-Factor calculations .................................................................................................... 38
Table 5 Q-Factor with client requirement .................................................................................. 40
Table 6 : Power loss calculation for DWDM ............................................................................. 42
Table 7 : Channel capacity calcuation for dwdm ....................................................................... 44
Table 8 : Q-Factor calculation for DWDM ................................................................................ 46
Table 9 Q-Factor with client requirement. ................................................................................. 48
Table 10 comparison of Channel capacity for single wavelength and multi wavelength ............. 49
Table 11 comparison of Q-Factor for single λ and multiple λ .................................................... 51











[viii]

ACRONYMS

PLI – Physical Layer Impairments
WDM – Wavelength Division Multiplexing
DWDM-Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Q-Factor- Quality Factor
DP-Data-path
SN-Source Node
DN-Destination Node
PP-Possible paths
ASE – Amplifier Spontaneous Emission
CD-Chromatic Dispersion
OSNR- Optical Signal to Noise Ratio
PL: Power Loss
BP: Best path
AQF: Average Q-Factor required from Clients)
BPPRN: Best possible path reference number according to highest overall Q-Factor








[1]





Chapter 1
Introduction









Introduction

[2]

1.1 Introduction
Day to day growth in telecommunication network requires functionalities like dynamic data-
path selection with guaranteed Quality of service (QoS) [1] [2], which are essential for any
optical network. Data-path selection of the WDM network depends on the physical as well as
IP layer information. The degradation of data-path may happen due to Physical layer
impairments (PLI).
WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) technology is growing day-by-day in
accordance with the requirement of clients. The basic requirement of clients is QoS (Quality
of Service), which depends on various parameters in network as well as in physical layer. In
order to satisfy such Requirements, it is necessary to search for a data-path in WDM network.
The optical information on data-paths are generally affected or degraded by various
constraints such as physical layer impairments [1] .
Q-Factor can be widely used as a system performance indicator for optical communicat ion
systems since it is directly related to system-bit error rate [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] . This also
can be used for light-path routing. There are few PLI based routing algorithms considered in
[7] [8]. The advantages of Q-Factor [9] include rate transparency and in service performance
monitoring in addition to fast and compete performance analysis.
1.2 Physical layer impairments
PLIs are broadly classified in to two categories: linear and non-linear impairments [3] [4] [5]
[6]. The terms linear and non-linear in fiber optics mean intensity-independent and intensity-
dependent, respectively. The linear impairments are static in nature and non-linear
impairments are dynamic in nature [9]. The non-linear impairments strongly depend on the
current allocation of route and wavelength, i.e., on the current status of allocated light paths.
Linear impairments are independent of the signal power and affect each of the wavelengths
(optical channels) individually, whereas nonlinear impairments affect not only each optical
channel individually but they also cause disturbance and interference between them [10].
1.2.1 Linear impairments
The important linear impairments are: fiber attenuation, component insertion loss, amplifier
spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, chromatic dispersion (CD) (or group velocity dispersion
(GVD)), polarization mode dispersion (PMD), polarization dependent losses (PDL), crosstalk
(XT) (both inter- and intra-channel), and filter concatenation (FC). Optical amplification in
Introduction

[3]

the form of EDFAs always degrades the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR). The amplifier
noise is quantified by noise figure (NF) value, which is the ratio of the optical signal to noise
ratio (OSNR) before the amplification to the same ratio after the amplification and is
expressed in dB [10].
Chromatic dispersion causes pulse broadening, which affects the receiver performance by: (1)
reducing the pulse energy within the bit slot and (2) spreading the pulse energy beyond the
allocated bit slot leading to inter-symbol interference (ISI). CD can be adequately (but not
optimally) compensated for on a per link, and/or at transmission line design time [10]
PMD is not an issue for most type of fibers at 10 Gbps, however it become an issue at 40
Gbps or higher rates [11], [12] [13] [14] In general, in combination with PMD there is also
polarization dependent loss (PDL). It can cause optical power variation, waveform distortion
and signal-to-noise ratio fading.
Imperfect optical components (e.g. filters, de-multiplexers, and switched) inevitably
introduce some signal leakage either as inter-channel (also incoherent or out-of-band) or
intra-channel [15] (or intra-band) crosstalk in WDM transmission systems.
Filter concatenation is the last physical impairment that we consider and define in this
category. As more and more filtering components are concatenated along the light-path, the
effective pass band of the filters becomes narrower [16]. This concatenation also makes the
transmission system susceptible to filter pass band misalignment due to device imperfections,
temperature variations and aging.
A. Power Losses: Power loss can be defined as the optical loss that is accumulated from
source to destination along fiber links and is normally made up of intrinsic fiber losses and
extrinsic bending losses [1] . Intrinsic fiber losses are due to attenuation, absorption,
reflections, refractions, Rayleigh scattering, optical component insertion losses, etc. Let Pin
be the power launched at the input of a fiber of length L; then the output power Pout is given
by Pout = Pin · e
−αL,
where α is the fiber attenuation coefficient. The loss introduced by the
insertion of optical components, such as couplers, filters, multiplexers/ de multiplexers, and
switches, into the optical communications system is called insertion loss and is usually
independent of wavelength.
The extrinsic losses are due to micro and macro bending losses. Additional losses
occur due to the combined effects of dispersion resulting from inter symbol interference (ISI),
mode-partition noise, and laser chirp as discussed later in this section.
Introduction

[4]

B. Chromatic Dispersion (CD): The degradation of an optical signal caused by the
various spectral components traveling at their own different velocities is called dispersion.
CD causes an optical pulse to broaden such that it spreads into the time slots of the other
pulses. It is considered as the most serious linear impairment for systems operating at bit-
rates higher than 2.5 Gb/s. CD depends on bit-rate, modulation format, type of fiber, and the
use of dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) modules.
The total dispersion at the end of a light-path is the sum of dispersions on each fiber-
link of the considered light-path, where the dispersion on a fiber-link is the sum of
dispersions on the fiber-spans that compose the link. Most commonly deployed compensation
techniques are based on DCF. Dispersion compensation techniques are useful in long-haul as
well as metro networks. A fiber of length L
f
and dispersion D
f
can be compensated by using a
spool of DCF of length L
c
and dispersion parameter D
c
such that the dispersion at the end of
the fiber is close to zero and satisfies D
f
L
f
+ D
c
L
c
= 0. Due to imperfect matching between the
dispersion slopes of CD and DCF, some wavelengths may be over-compensated and some
others may be undercompensated.
Moreover DCF modules may only be available in fixed lengths of compensating fiber.
Hence, sometimes it may be difficult to find a DCF chat exactly compensates the CD
introduced by the fiber, leading to residual CD. A typical value of dispersion compensation
tolerance in commercial receivers is around ±800 ps/nm for non-return-to-zero (NRZ) 10
Gb/s, while it is ±160 ps/nm for optical duo binary (ODB) 40 Gb/s [7].
C. Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD): Anywhere along a fiber-span, fiber could be
non-circular, contain impurities, or be subject to environmental stress such as local heating or
movement. These irregularities present obstacles to an optical pulse along its path. These
obstacles cause different polarizations of the optical signal to travel with different group
velocities resulting in pulse spread in the frequency domain, known as PMD. The differential
group delay (DGD) is proportional to the square root of fiber length L, i.e., Δτ = D
PMD
·√L,
where D
PMD
is the PMD parameter of the fiber and typically measured in ps/√km. Because of
the √L dependence, the PMD-induced pulse broadening is relatively small compared to CD.
The PMD on a fiber link is a function of PMD on each fiber-span and is given by PMD
fiber−link
=√ (∑
fiber−spans
PMD (f)
2
).
The PMD at __ the end of a light-path is PMD
light path
=√ (∑
fiber links along the route
PMD (f)
2
).
The PMD values vary from fiber to fiber in the range of 0.01-10 ps/√km [7]. PMD becomes
a major limiting factor for WDM systems designed for longer distances at higher bit-rates.
The effect of second and higher order PMD becomes prominent at high-bit rates exceeding
Introduction

[5]

40 Gb/s. PMD induced problems can be reduced by shortening the optical transmission
distance by placing OEO regenerators between two optical nodes.
However, as most long-haul DWDM systems are multi-wavelength, the transmission
link must first be de-multiplexed, then regenerated, and then multiplexed again, which is a
very expensive operation. Another alternative is to use dispersion compensation modules
(DCM) at optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs), optical cross-connects (OXCs), or
amplifier sites to compensate for accumulated PMD on an optical path. Because PMD effects
are random and time-dependent, this requires an adaptive/active PMD compensator that
responds to feedback over time. Hence, the most reliable and efficient PMD compensation
technology is the use of adaptive optics to realign and correct the pulses of dispersed optical
bits.
D. Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL): The two polarization components along the two
axes of a circular fiber suffer different rates of loss due to irregularities in the fiber, thereby
degrading signal quality in an uncontrolled and unpredictable manner and introducing
fluctuations in optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR). The combined effect of PMD and PDL
can further degrade the optical signal quality.
PDL is a measure of the peak-to-peak difference in transmission of an optical
component/system w.r.t. all possible states of polarization and is given by PDL
dB
= 10 · log
(P
Max
/P
Min
), where P
Max
and P
Min
are the maximum and minimum output power, respectively.
PDL mainly occurs in passive optical components. The most common passive optical
components that exhibit PDL include couplers, isolators, multiplexers/de-multiplexers, and
photo detectors. The polarization scanning technique (PST) and the Mueller matrix method
(MMM) are suitable methods for measuring the PDL [8]. While the PST is preferable for
determining PDL at a specific wavelength, the MMM has clear advantages when PDL must
be characterized at numerous wavelength points with equal spacing.
The worries that plagued optical fiber communication in the early days were fiber attenuation
and, sometimes, fiber dispersion; however, these issues are dealt with using a variety of
dispersion compensation techniques. However, fiber nonlinearities present a new realm of
obstacles that must be overcome. Effects of non-linear impairments become crucial as data
transmission rates, transmission lengths, number of wavelengths, and optical power levels
increase in addition to reduction in channel spacing. Network designers must be aware of
these limitations and of the steps that can be taken to minimize the detrimental effects of
these fiber non-linearities. The response of any dielectric medium to light becomes non-linear
under intense electromagnetic field, and optical fibers are no exception.
Introduction

[6]

Due to an harmonic motion of bound electrons the total polarization P induced by electric
dipoles is not linear in the electric field E, but satisfies a more general relation as
P = ε0(χ(1).E1 + χ(2).E2 + χ(3).E3 + ...),
where ε0 is the permittivity of vacuum and χ(k) is the k
th
order susceptibility. The
predominant contribution to P is from linear susceptibility χ(1). For a medium like fiber with
symmetric molecules, χ(2) vanishes. Therefore optical fibers do not exhibits second order
non-linear refractive effects. Hence, the third order susceptibility χ(3) is responsible for the
lowest order non-linear effects such as non-linear refraction, third order harmonic generation,
and four-wave mixing as discussed later. The non-linear effects in optical fiber occur either
due to change in the refractive index of the medium with optical intensity (power) or due to
inelastic-scattering phenomenon.
A general classification of non-linear effects in fiber medium [2] are the dependence of
refractive index on power is responsible for Kerr effect which produces three different kinds
of effects—self-phase modulation (SPM), cross phase modulation (XPM), and four-wave
mixing (FWM),depending on the type of input signal. At high power levels, the light waves
(optical signals) interact with the phonons of the fiber medium resulting in scattering
phenomenon. The intensity of scattered light grows exponentially if the incident power
exceeds a certain threshold value.
The inelastic scattering phenomenon can induce stimulated effects such as stimulated
Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The Brillouin generated
phonons (acoustic) are coherent and give rise to a macroscopic acoustic wave in the fiber,
whereas, in Raman scattering, the phonons (optical) are incoherent and no macroscopic wave
is generated. All nonlinear effects, except SPM and XPM, provide gains to some channel at
the expense of depleting power from other channels. SPM and XPM affect only the phase of
the optical signal and can cause spectral broadening, which leads to increased dispersion. A
comparison of various non-linear effects in fiber medium is presented in Table I [6]

The importance of non-linear effects is growing due to
 Increase in optical power levels to increase the optical reach,
 Recent developments in optical components such as EDFA and DWDM systems to
build more flexible networks
Introduction

[7]

 Increase in channel bit-rate to increase the traffic carrying capacity of wavelengths
 Decrease in channel spacing to increase the number of wavelengths and overall
network capacity.
Although the individual power in each channel may be below the one needed to produce
non-linearities, the total power summed over all channels in a multi-wavelength WDM
system can become significant. The combination of high total optical power and a large
number of channels at closely spaced wavelengths is ideal for many kinds of non-linear
effects. For all these reasons it is important to understand and be able to accurately measure
fiber non- linearities. In the following, we briefly explain the reasons behind each of these
non-linear effects and discuss some possible solutions to overcome these effects.
1.1.2 Non-Linear Impairments:

The important non-linear impairments are Self phase modulation (SPM), Cross Phase
Modulation (CPM), Four wave mixing (FWM) , Stimulated Brilloin Scatter and Stimulated
Raman Scattering . The following sections describe the all non linear impairments in detail.
A. Self-Phase Modulation (SPM): The non-linear phase modulation of an optical pulse
caused by its own intensity in an optical medium is called SPM. An ultra-short optical pulse,
when travelling in a medium, will induce a time varying refractive index of the medium, i.e.,
the higher intensity portions of an optical pulse encounter a higher refractive index of the
fiber compared with the lower intensity portions.
This results in a positive refractive index gradient (dn/dt) at the leading edge of the
pulse and a negative refractive index gradient (−dn/dt) at its trailing edge. This temporally
varying refractive index change results in a temporally varying phase change leading to
frequency chirping, i.e., the leading edge of the pulse finds frequency shift towards the higher
side whereas the trailing edge experiences shift towards the lower side.
Hence, the primary effect of SPM is to broaden the pulse in the frequency domain,
keeping the temporal shape unaltered. As the chirping effect is proportional to the transmitted
signal power, the SPM effects are more pronounced in systems with high transmitted power.
SPM is the strongest among the Kerr effects for DWDM systems workingat100GHz spacing.
The chirp also depends on the input pulse shape. The appropriate chirping of input signals
using chirped RZ (CRZ) modulation can reduce the SPM effects [11].The effects produced
by nonlinear SPM and linear dispersion are opposite in nature. By proper choice of pulse
Introduction

[8]

shape and input power, one effect will compensate for another, leading to undistorted pulse in
both time and frequency domains. Such a pulse is called a soliton pulse and is useful in high-
bandwidth optical communication systems.
B. Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM): The non-linear refractive index seen by an optical
pulse depends not only on the intensity of the pulse but also on the intensity of the other co-
propagating optical pulses, i.e., the non-linear phase modulation of an optical pulse caused by
fluctuations in intensity of other optical pulses is called XPM. The result of XPM may be
asymmetric spectral broadening and distortion of the pulse shape. XPM hinders the system
performance through the same mechanism as SPM: chirping frequency and chromatic
dispersion. XPM damages the system performance even more than SPM and influences it
severely when the number of channels is large. The XPM-induced phase shift can occur only
when two pulses overlap in time.
Due to this overlap, the intensity-dependent phase shift and consequent chirping is
enhanced, leading to enhanced pulse broadening. The effects of XPM can be reduced by
increasing the wavelength spacing between individual channels. Another way to reduce XPM
effects is by careful selection of bit-rates for adjacent channels that are not equal to the
present channels. For increased wavelength spacing, the pulses overlap for such a short time
that XPM effects are virtually negligible. XPM is more important at50 (or less) GHz spacing
compared to 100GHz spacing.
C. Four Wave Mixing (FWM): FWM originates from third order non-linear
susceptibility (χ (3)) in optical links. If three optical signals with carrier frequenciesω1,ω2
andω3, co-propagate inside a fiber simultaneously, (χ(3)) generates a fourth signal with
frequencyω4, which is related to the other frequencies by ω4 = ω1±ω2±ω3. In general for W
wavelengths launched into a fiber, the number of FWM channels produced is M=W2
(W−1)/2).
The FWM effect is independent of the bit-rate and is critically dependent on the
channel spacing and fiber dispersion. Decreasing the channel spacing increases the four-wave
mixing effect. FWM has severe effects in a WDM system, which uses dispersion-shifted
fiber. If there is some dispersion in the fiber, then the effect of FWM is reduced. This is why
non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers are normally used in WDM systems. Another way to
reduce FWM effect is to employ unequal channel spacing in such a way that the generated
signals do not interfere with the original signals.
D. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS): SBS occurs when an optical signal in fiber
interacts with the density variations such as acoustic phonons and changes its path. In SBS,
Introduction

[9]

the scattering process is stimulated by photons with a wavelength higher than the wavelength
of the incident signal.SBS is recognized as the most dominant fiber non-linear scattering
effect. SBS sets an upper limit on the amount of optical power that can be launched into an
optical-fiber [4] .
When input optical power exceeds the SBS threshold, a significant amount of the
transmitted light is redirected back to the transmitter leading to saturation of optical power in
the receiver, and introducing noise that degrades the BER performance.
The SBS threshold depends on the line-width of the optical source, with narrow line-
width sources having considerably lower SBS thresholds. The back-scattered signals can be
measured using a Fabry-Perot interferometer or pump probe or self-heterodyne techniques.
Externally modulating the transmitter provides one way to broaden the line-width of the
optical source. Hence, it is particularly important to control SBS in high-speed transmission
systems that use external modulators and continuous wave (CW) laser sources.
E. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS): In WDM systems, if two or more optical signals
at different wavelengths are injected into a fiber, the SRS effect causes optical signal power
from lower wavelength optical channels to be transferred to the higher wavelength optical
channels. This can skew the power distribution among the WDM channels— reducing the
signal-to-noise ratio of the lower wavelength channels and introducing crosstalk on the higher
wavelength channels.
Both of these effects can lower the information carrying capacity of the optical
transmission system. SRS occurs at significantly higher optical powers than SBS, with
threshold powers of the order of watts for SRS compared to milli watts for SBS. Unlike SBS,
SRS scatters in both forward and reverse directions.
The effect of SRS, i.e., Raman gain co-efficient, can be measured using relative
cross-section method or pulse-scanning technique or Raman amplification method. Several
optical filtering techniques are proposed to suppress SRS interactions in optical fiber systems
[17].
The filters, when inserted appropriately into the transmission link, can effectively
suppress the SRS power flow from the WDM channels to lower frequency noise.
Furthermore, usage of a high-pass filter can enhance the SRS threshold in an optical fiber.




Introduction

[10]

1.2.3 Classification of physical impairments


Figure 1: Classification of Physical impairments
1.3 Proposed Work
In this project, we focus on PLI Impairments, which are defined as the parameter effect in the
physical layer while establishing the connection between source nodes to destination node.
The main objectives of this paper is to when and how to select a data-path. In this project we
proposed a centralized network. Then the Data-path selection is based on client requirement.
Here we focused on the improvements in Data-path selection for WDM and DWDM
networks.
1.4 Organization of rest of report
In the next Chapter, PLI Based Quality of Service Analysis for WDM introduced. In that
chapter we discussed about introduction to WDM networks, and Calculation of PLI
parameters for WDM network, in the 3
rd
Chapter, PLI Based Quality of Service Analysis for
DWDM introduced. In that chapter we discussed about introduction to DWDM networks, and
Calculation of PLI parameters for DWDM network. In 4
th
chapter we discussed about the
result and discussion. Finally some conclusions are drawn.

Physical Layer Impairments
 Chromatic
Dispersion
 Polarization
Mode Dispersion
 Attenuation
 Filter
Concatenation
 Cross Talk
 Amplifier
Spontaneous
Emission (ASE)
 Insertion Loss
 Polarization
Dependent Loss
(PDL)
 Self Phase
Modulation (SPM)
 Cross Phase
Modulation (CPM)
 Four Wave Mixing
(FWM)
 Stimulated
Brillouin
Scattering (SBS)
 Stimulated Raman
Scattering (SRS)

Linear Impairments Non-Linear
Impairments

[11]





Chapter 2
WDM Network















WDM Network

[12]

2.1 Introduction to WDM
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is a promising technology for future all-optical
networks. In WDM several optical signals using different wavelengths share the same fiber.
The capacity of such fiber links can be huge, even terabits per second. So, essentially the
optical spectrum is used more efficiently. Routing in the network nodes is based on
wavelengths of incoming signals [18] [19]. Currently the WDM technology is used to
increase the capacity of optical links where at the end of each link the signal is converted
back to electrical domain. But the technology is progressing towards transparent all-optical
networks where the signal is routed through the network in the optical domain.






Figure 2 : The optical spectrum and 8 wavelength channels.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has standardized the use of the wave-
length channels in a WDM link in standard G.692 (see [20]). The channel spacing is proposed
to be 50 GHz or 100 GHz around the reference frequency of 193.10 THz, as depicted in Fig.
2. 193.10 THz corresponds to about 1550 nm, hence the proposal is meant for the 1540 nm -
1560 nm pass band of the optical fiber.
2.2 Components of WDM-Network
During recent years lots of effort has been put into the development of better optical
components to enable all-optical WDM-networks (AON) . The most important components
are light sources, tunable optical filters, optical switches and of course the fiber. Different
components are briefly presented in the following sections.

WDM Network

[13]

a) Light Sources
One important element of an optical system is the light source. For communication purposes a
good light source should be quickly tunable with a wide range of wavelengths. To make a
component also commercially attractive low power consumption and low price are vital
parameters [21]. The time scale of tuning depends on case, with the optical packet switching
the requirements are somewhere between microseconds and nanoseconds while with circuit
switched WDM-networks the time scale is slower. Here is a list of several candidates:
 Mechanically tuned lasers
 Acousto-optically and electro-optically tuned lasers
 Injection current tuned lasers
 Switched sources
 Array sources (using arrayed waveguide gratings (AWG) or
distributed feedback (DFB) lasers)
Mechanically tuned lasers, for example, have a tuning time of the order of milliseconds and
are thus too slow for packet switched optical networks. Generally the choice between
different light source types depends on the application and the two most important parameters
for light sources are the tuning time and the tuning range.
b) Tunable Filters
A tunable optical filter is also an important part of the optical network. Many promising
approaches have been studied including Fabry-Perot, acousto-optic, electro-optic and liquid
crystal Fabry-Perot filters. The filters have two important parameters dealing with the
performance: tuning range and tuning time. The tuning ranges are from around 10 nm up to
500 nm, while the tuning time is from nanoseconds up to 10 milliseconds.
c) Optical Switches
The optical switch, or optical cross-connect (OXC), is a device which can be dynamically
configured to connect given input ports to any of the output ports.




WDM Network

[14]

The optical switches can be classified according to how flexible they are :
 A non-blocking switch means any connection pattern can be realized by re-
connection of some or all of the current connections.
 Wide-sense non-blocking switch is a switch which can, with careful configuration,
add any new connection without interrupting previously configured connections
through the switch.
 Strict-sense non-blocking switch, on the other hand, means that a simple
configuration strategy allows adding new connections to the switch any time without
interrupting any of the current connections.
 Clearly the number of elements and device complexity grows at the same time as the
flexibility. This means a trade-off between hardware complexity and management
complexity.

d) Wavelength channels
In WDM-networks each fiber contains W wavelength channels, and thus the optical switches
should be capable to treat channels individually. The optical cross-connects used in WDM-
networks can be divided into two categories. A wavelength selective cross-connect (WSXC)
is a device capable to configure any given input λ-channel from arbitrary input port to a given
output port (using the same wavelength).
Wavelength translation (conversion) is an operation where an incoming signal using λ
1
channel is converted to another channel λ
2
at the output port. Wavelength interchange cross-
connect (WIXC), depicted in Figure 3, is a more advanced device than WSXC which can
manipulate wavelengths of the signals as well, i.e. an incoming signal can emerge from the
switch using another wavelength.
Hence, such a device can configure any λ
1
channel from any input port to any output port
using λ
2
channel, i.e. it is capable of doing wavelength translations as well. Clearly a WIXC
device is more complex than WSXC, but it also gives more flexibility in the configuration of
the network, and hence leads to more efficient use of the network resources. Note that both
WSXC and WIXC are devices where every input channel is connected to no more than one
output-channel (permutation switch).

WDM Network

[15]





Figure 3 : The basic components of the wavelength routed network. Wavelength selective
cross-connect (WSXC) routes incoming signals per wavelength basis, while wavelength
interchange cross-connect (WIXC) has also capability to perform wavelength

e) Wavelength Conversion
Wavelength conversion, as noted in the previous section, allows more efficient use of
the network resources. The reason is that without it so called wavelength-continuity
constraint has to be satisfied, i.e. the light-path reserves the same wavelength all the way
along the route. Hence, even if there are free channels available in every link of the network,
some connections may not be configured unless wavelength conversion is possible in some of
the nodes.
Again, an easy solution is to do the opto-electronic wavelength conversion where the optical
signal is first converted to the electric domain and then reproduced in the optical domain at a
different wavelength. The drawback with this approach is the limited bit rate of electronics.
Another approach is to do the conversion in the optical domain. Suggested solutions include
using the four-wave mixing and fiber nonlinearities, and cross modulation with active
semiconductor devices. An up-to-date survey on wavelength conversion can be found in [22]
f) Optical Amplifiers
The attenuation of optical signals is low in comparison with electrical signals. Still long-
distance links may need amplifiers in order to operate properly. The traditional way to solve
the problem is to convert the signal back to electrical domain for amplification and retransmit
it optically. This approach, however, requires knowledge of the used bit rate and modulation.
A new solution is to use amplifiers operating totally in the optical domain. In particular, the
erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) operating at 1540 nm region has proven to be an
excellent choice for the WDM systems. The amplifier is transparent to used coding and bit-
rate, and thus suits well to all-optical framework. Also a similar amplifier for the 1300 nm
region has been built using praseodymium instead of erbium.
WDM Network

[16]

2.3 Evolution of WDM Technology
Telecommunication field is full of standards defining different layers for the whole
infrastructure. In the past the end users were people making phone calls or using fax
machines etc. But now it has become very clear that in the future almost all the traffic will be
IP-based. The evolution will go towards IP-over-WDM networks, where several alternative
approaches have been proposed. Each additional layer brings naturally some extra overhead
to the transmission. Hence, the standard IP over ATM over SONET/SDH over WDM
mapping can be considered as an inefficient solution. The other extreme is a direct IP/MPLS
over WDM solution, so called λ-labelling, presented in [23].
2.4 Quality Of Service :
Q-Factor of a light-path is defined as the ratio of output power relative to input power. It is
normalized by dividing the value of Q-Factor with maximum value of Q-Factor possible. It is
expressed in percentage. So 100% Q-Factor means light-path has the highest Q-Factor and
the light-path corresponding to this value of Q-Factor will be the best light-path.
To maximize the Q-Factor we need to maximize the output power for constant value of input
power. We know that output power received is the attenuated version of input power due to
attenuation loss, splice loss and connector loss. So we should try to minimize the losses in the
optical fiber communication. Losses can be reduced by selecting the best components like
connectors, splices and optical fiber which are having minimum power loss values. Out of all
possible light-paths, the light-path having minimum power loss should be selected as optimal
light-path. Q-Factor has benefits like it allows simplified analysis of system performance and
reflects the quality of the system without using difficult algorithm. It gives the cost in terms
of power loss. Higher is the value of Q-Factor, better is the light-path of optical
communication. It requires less time than other performance analysis method.


[17]





Chapter 3
DWDM Network






.




DWDM Network

[18]

3.1 Introduction to DWDM
Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a fiber-optic transmission technique
that employs light wavelengths to transmit data parallel-by-bit or serial-by-character. The
emergence of DWDM is one of the most recent and important phenomena in the development
of fiber optic transmission technology. In the following discussion we briefly trace the stages
of fiber optic technology and the place of DWDM in that development [24]. We then
examine the functions and components of a DWDM system, including the enabling
technologies, and conclude with a high-level description of the operation of a DWDM
system.
3.2 Evolution of Fiber Optic Transmission
The reality of fiber optic transmission had been experimentally proven in the nineteenth
century, but the technology began to advance rapidly in the second half of the twentieth
century with the invention of the fiberscope, which found applications in industry and
medicine, such as in laparoscopic surgery. After the viability of transmitting light over fiber
had been established, the next step in the development of fiber optics was to find a light
source that would be sufficiently powerful and narrow [25]. The light-emitting diode (LED)
and the laser diode proved capable of meeting these requirements. Lasers went through
several generations in the 1960s, culminating with the semiconductor lasers that are most
widely used in fiber optics today. Light has an information-carrying capacity 10,000 times
greater than the highest radio frequencies. Additional advantages of fiber over copper include
the ability to carry signals over long distances, low error rates, immunity to electrical
interference, security, and light weight. Aware of these characteristics, researchers in the mid-
1960s proposed that optical fiber might be a suitable transmission medium. There was an
obstacle, however, and that was the loss of signal strength, or attenuation, seen in the glass
they were working with. Finally, in 1970, Corning produced the first communication-grade
fibers. With attenuation less than 20 decibels per kilometer (dB/km), this purified glass fiber
exceeded the threshold for making fiber optics a viable technology. Innovation at first
proceeded slowly, as private and government monopolies that ran the telephone companies
were cautious. AT&T first standardized transmission at DS3 speed (45 Mbps) for multimode
fibers. Soon thereafter, single-mode fibers were shown to be capable of transmission rates 10
times that of the older type, as well as spans of 32 km (20 mi). In the early 1980s, MCI,
followed by Sprint, adopted single-mode fibers for its long-distance network in the U.S.
DWDM Network

[19]

Further developments in fiber optics are closely tied to the use of the specific regions on the
optical spectrum where optical attenuation is low. These regions, called windows, lie between
areas of high absorption. The earliest systems were developed to operate around 850 nm, the
first window in silica-based optical fiber. A second window (S band), at 1310 nm, soon
proved to be superior because of its lower attenuation, followed by a third window (C band)
at 1550 nm with an even lower optical loss. Today, a fourth window (L band) near 1625 nm
is under development and early deployment.
3.3 Development of DWDM Technology
Early WDM began in the late 1980s using the two widely spaced wavelengths in the 1310 nm
and 1550 nm (or 850 nm and 1310 nm) regions, sometimes called wideband WDM. Figure 4
shows an example of this simple form of WDM. Notice that one of the fiber pair is used to
transmit and one is used to receive. This is the most efficient arrangement and the one most
found in DWDM systems.







The early 1990s saw a second generation of WDM, sometimes called narrowband WDM, in
which two to eight channels were used. These channels were now spaced at an interval of
about 400 GHz in the 1550-nm window. By the mid-1990s, dense WDM (DWDM) systems
were emerging with 16 to 40 channels and spacing from 100 to 200 GHz. By the late 1990s
DWDM systems had evolved to the point where they were capable of 64 to 160 parallel
channels, densely packed at 50 or even 25 GHz intervals. The progression of the technology
can be seen as an increase in the number of wavelengths accompanied by a decrease in the
spacing of the wavelengths. Along with increased density of wavelengths, systems also
End
System
End
System

End
System

End
System

(1310 nm + 850 nm)
(1310 nm + 850 nm)
Send
Receive
Figure 4: WDM with two channels
DWDM Network

[20]

advanced in their flexibility of configuration, through add-drop functions, and management
capabilities.
Figure 5 shows the increases in channel density resulting from DWDM technology have
had a dramatic impact on the carrying capacity of fiber. In 1995, when the first 10 Gbps
systems were demonstrated, the rate of increase in capacity went from a linear multiple of
four every four years to four every year .

Figure 5 : Growth in Fiber Capacity
3.4 DWDM System Functions
At its core, DWDM involves a small number of physical-layer functions. These are depicted
in Figure 6, which shows a DWDM schematic for four channels [26]. Each optical channel
occupies its own wavelength.

Figure 6 : DWDM schematic for four channels
DWDM Network

[21]

The system performs the following main functions:
• Generating the signal—the source, a solid-state laser, must provide stable light within a
specific, narrow bandwidth that carries the digital data, modulated as an analog signal.
• Combining the signals—Modern DWDM systems employ multiplexers to combine the
signals. There is some inherent loss associated with multiplexing and de-multiplexing.
This loss is dependent upon the number of channels but can be mitigated with optical
amplifiers, which boost all the wavelengths at once without electrical conversion.
• Transmitting the signals—the effects of crosstalk and optical signal degradation or loss
must be reckoned with in fiber optic transmission. These effects can be minimized by
controlling variables such as channel spacing’s, wavelength tolerance, and laser power
levels. Over a transmission link, the signal may need to be optically amplified.
• Separating the received signals—at the receiving end, the multiplexed signals must be
separated out. Although this task would appear to be simply the opposite of combining
the signals, it is actually more technically difficult.
• Receiving the signals—the de-multiplexed signal is received by a photo-detector
In addition to these functions, a DWDM system must also be equipped with client-side
interfaces to receive the input signal. This function is performed by transponders On the
DWDM side are interfaces to the optical fiber that links DWDM systems.
Optical networking, unlike SONET/SDH, does not rely on electrical data processing. As
such, its development is more closely tied to optics than to electronics. In its early form, as
described previously, WDM was capable of carrying signals over two widely spaced
wavelengths, and for a relatively short distance. To move beyond this initial state, WDM
needed both improvements in existing technologies and invention of new technologies.
Improvements in optical filters and narrowband lasers enabled DWDM to combine more than
two signal wavelengths on a fiber. The invention of the flat-gain optical amplifier, coupled in
line with the transmitting fiber to boost the optical signal, dramatically increased the viability
of DWDM systems by greatly extending the transmission distance. Other technologies that
have been important in the development of DWDM include improved optical fiber with
lower loss and better optical transmission characteristics, EDFAs, and devices such as fiber
Bragg gratings used in optical add/drop multiplexers.
DWDM Network

[22]

Components and Operation
DWDM is a core technology in an optical transport network. The essential components
of DWDM can be classified by their place in the system as follows:
• On the transmit side, lasers with precise, stable wavelengths
• On the link, optical fiber that exhibits low loss and transmission performance in the
relevant wavelength spectra, in addition to flat-gain optical amplifiers to boost the signal
on longer spans
• On the receive side, photo-detectors and optical de-multiplexers using thin film filters
or diffractive elements and Optical add/drop multiplexers and optical cross-connect
components.
3.5 Quality of Service :
Q-Factor of a light-path is defined as the ratio of output power relative to input power. It is
normalized by dividing the value of Q-Factor with maximum value of Q-Factor possible. It is
expressed in percentage. So 100% Q-Factor means light-path has the highest Q-Factor and
the light-path corresponding to this value of Q-Factor will be the best light-path.
To maximize the Q-Factor we need to maximize the output power for constant value of input
power. We know that output power received is the attenuated version of input power due to
attenuation loss, splice loss and connector loss. So we should try to minimize the losses in the
optical fiber communication.
Losses can be reduced by selecting the best components like connectors, splices and optical
fiber which are having minimum power loss values. Out of all possible light-paths, the light-
path having minimum power loss should be selected as optimal light-path. Q-Factor has
benefits like it allows simplified analysis of system performance and reflects the quality of
the system without using difficult algorithm.
It gives the cost in terms of power loss. Higher is the value of Q-Factor, better is the light-
path of optical communication. It requires less time than other performance analysis method.


[23]





Chapter 4
Network Model & Problem
Formulation







Network Model & Problem Formulation

[24]

4.1 Network Model

Figure 7 : Physical Topology

The model shown in Figure 7 shows the physical topology of the network, consisting of three
layers, the Service provider layer shown as the outermost layer, the Optical core layer which
is the innermost Optical network layer, and the Electronic intermediate layer or also known
as IP layer. This is an abstraction of the combined electro-optical network which allows us to
focus on that portion of the network where our innovation applies, i.e. the combined electro-
optical network.
The optical layer provides point-to-point connectivity between routers in the form of fixed
bandwidth circuits, which is termed as light-paths. The collection of light-paths therefore
defines the topology of the virtual network interconnecting electronics/IP Routers.
In IP layer the IP routers are responsible for all the non-local management functions such as
management of optical resources, configuration and capacity management, addressing,
routing, topology discovery, traffic engineering, and restoration etc.
The IP router communicates with the TCM (Traffic Control Manager) of service provider
network and provides the information about the status of the optical layer.
Network Model & Problem Formulation

[25]

Ideally the service provider layer will include elements of the access network such as the
PON (Passive Optical Network) related elements and other devices / equipment located at the
premises / home. However for this invention such details are not necessary.
We assume that the service provider has access to General Purpose Routers and also optical
components in the core optical network. Such an assumption is reasonable, given the fact that
the prices of optical switching equipment have fallen by orders of magnitude till the point
that they are being used in the premises of large corporations in order to interconnect
buildings etc.
Thus it is reasonable to assume, as we have done, that the service provider has information
about the GPRs and the optical equipment within its domain of control. The service provider
layer controls all the traffic corresponding to both IP and optical layers. All the routers shown
in the figure are controlled by the service provider (SP).
The SP maintains a traffic matrix in a Traffic Control Manager (TCM) for all the connected
general purpose routers, i.e. all the Electronic Gateway Routers (EGR), Electronic Access
Routers (EAR) and Optical Access Routers (OAR) within its domain of control. The Traffic
Control Manager (TCM) maintains the network as well as PLI constraints such as Capacity,
delay, and Q-Factor matrices for all the GPRs in the network, belonging to all the layers. In
the following sections we outline our algorithms that carry out the computations necessary
for the decisions that lead to provisioning/de-provisioning of data-paths.
Due to more number of possible paths, user can not select one path for data communication.
To archive that information we consider quality factor is a factor to choose one best path
among all possible paths.
In the following section I describe network topology and calculation of physical layer
impairments like power loss, channel capacity and quality factor for WDM network, DWDM
network and finally comparison of WDM and DWDM network parameters.




Network Model & Problem Formulation

[26]

4.1.1 Network Topology :









Figure 8 : Network Topology Graph
For our simulation work, we have used MATLAB. The Figure 8 shows the basic
network topology with six nodes. Here we considered three pair of source and destination
nodes (1, 6), (2, 5), and (1, 3). Here all nodes considers as routers.
There will be single wavelength or multiple wavelengths possible in between two
routers. In my simulation I consider two cases one is WDM and another one is DWDM.
In case of WDM, we considered 8 wavelengths with center wavelength 1532nm and
in case of DWDM I considered 64 channels with same center wavelength.
At final we compare both WDM and DWDM values in case of power loss, channel
capacity and quality factor.
In the following section described about calculation of power loss, channel capacity
and quality factor. From the values we are going to choose best path based on Data-path
selection mechanism.
The next table shows the parameters used in calculation.



1
6
2 3
4
5
Network Model & Problem Formulation

[27]

Table 1 Parameters Used in Simulation

Parameter Values
Attenuation Constant(o ) 0.15db
Chromatic dispersion (
cd
o )
3000 ps
Wavelength of lights (λ) 1530 nm-1564 nm
Noise Figure(F) 0.4db

4.2 Problem Formulation
4.2.1 Power loss calculation

Power loss can be defined as the optical loss that is accumulated from source to destination
along fiber links and is normally made up of intrinsic fiber losses and extrinsic bending losses
[1].
Intrinsic fiber losses are due to attenuation, absorption, reflections, refractions, Rayleigh
scattering, optical component insertion losses, etc. Let Pin be the power launched at the input
of a fiber of length L; then the output power Pout is given by
P
out
= P
in
· e
−αL
(4.1)
Where α is the fiber attenuation coefficient. The loss introduced by the
insertion of optical components, such as couplers, filters, multiplexers/ de multiplexers, and
switches, into the optical communications system is called insertion loss and is usually
independent of wavelength.
The extrinsic losses are due to micro and macro bending losses. Additional losses occur
due to the combined effects of dispersion resulting from inter symbol interference (ISI),
mode-partition noise, and laser chirp as discussed later in this section.
Power loss =P
out
-P
in
(4.2)
Network Model & Problem Formulation

[28]

4.2.2 Channel capacity Calculation

Suppose a flow for client m and n with data-path from source s to destination d. For every
edge router, a free available capacity matrix has been considered, where s and d are the source
and destination edge GPRs for a DP.
If D (i, j) is the dispersion of the fiber at the operating wavelength with unit’s seconds per
nano meter per kilometer, and L (i, j) is the length of fiber link pair (i, j) in kilometers, then
the capacity matrix ( ) d s n m C , , , can be explained [7] as follows:
( ) ) , ( ,
) , (
j i L j i D
j i C
×
=
o
(4.3)
Here C(i,j) is light-path capacity .where, δ represents the pulse broadening factor should
typically be less than 10% of a bit’s time slot for which the polarization mode dispersion
(PMD) can be tolerated [27]and D (i, j) = L (i, j) = ∞, when there is no link between i
th
and
j
th
node. The capacity metrics ( ) d s n m C , , , calculation is derived from a single link to a
group of links in a Data-path (P).
p j i j i C d s n m C e ¬ = ) , ( )), , ( min( ) , , , (

(4.4)
4.2.3 Q-Factor Calculation

Assume a flow for client m and n with DP from source s to destination d has Q-Factor
requirement QFR (m, n, s, d). Then the average Q-Factor
( ) d s n m AQF , , ,
can be expressed
as follows:
( )
( )
M
d s n m QFR
d s n m AQF
i
M
m
¿
=
=
1
, , ,
, , ,
(4.5)
Where, M is the total number of clients for sources i and destination j. M
i
is the total
possible light-paths between source and destination. The optical domain involves with variety
of PLIs and their impact on the overall network performance. In order to get a possible DPs
Network Model & Problem Formulation

[29]

based on the link cost, we can consider either network layer QoS parameters such as
bandwidth and delay or PLI constraints in terms of Q-Factors. Also we can consider both the
cases. We consider the Q-Factor as the link cost corresponding to a light-path as mentioned in
[28]. The Q-Factor (QF
i
) for i
th
link is given as below:
| |
k
N
k
d
k i
s
k i
i
N
Q Q
QF
i
¿
=
=
1
, ,
log 10
(4.6)
Where, N
k
is the number of light-path at the i
th
link,
s
k i
Q
,
and
d
k i
Q
,
are the quality factor
measurements of the k
th
light-path at the source (s) and destination (d) node of the i
th
link
respectively.
If ( ) d s n m p , , , is the route between m ,n clients source(s) and destination(d) nodes containing
l number of links, the overall Q-Factor
( ) ( ) d s n m p QF
overall
, , ,
will be:
( ) ( )
¿
=
l
i
i overall
QF d s n m p QF , , ,
4.7)
Further according to [29],
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) k i k i Q
Q
noise eye
d
k i
s
k i
, ,
1
,
,
o o ×
=
(4.8)
Where, ( ) k i
eye
, o , ( ) k i
noise
, o are the Eye penalty and Noise penalty at i
th
and k
th
link.
Then equation 4.6 becomes,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
i
N
j
noise eye
i
N
k i k i
QF
i
¿
=
×
=
1
, , 1 log 10 o o
(4.9)
Due to amplifier spans, the channel lunch power can be relatively low without significant
penalties due to noise accumulation. The eye related penalty is due to the effect of linear
physical impairments such as polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and chromatic dispersion
Network Model & Problem Formulation

[30]

(CD), while the noise related penalty is due to the effect of amplifier spontaneous emission
(ASE) and crosstalk.
( )
F
p
P
k i
s
d
noise
1
, × = o
(4.10)
Where, P
d
is the outputs signal power, P
s
is the input signal power and F is the noise figure
and
L s d
e P P
o ÷
= , o is the attenuation constant and L is the length of the DP.
( ) ( ) ( ) k i k i k i
cd pmd eye
, , , o o o × =

(4.11)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) k i k i L k i D k i C k i
cd p eye
, , , , 2 . 10 ,
2 2
o o × × × × =
(4.12)
Where, ( ) k i C , is the capacity,
( ) k i D
p
,
is the PMD parameter and ( ) k i L , is the transmission
length.
4.3 Data-path Selection Mechanism
Depending on bandwidth and PLI model explained in previous section, we have considered
three different scenarios for data-path selection mechanism as follows.
4.3.1 Data-path selection based on power loss

Figure 9 : Flowchart for Data-path Selection based on Power Loss

Find All the possible data-path of a given
network topology with individual Power
Loss Calculation and assign them a path
reference number, say 1 to R, where R is
the total number of computed data-path.
Find the path P
j
(m, n, s, d), which is having
the minimal Power loss and j Є R.
Sort the Data-path in incremental order of
Power Loss.
P
j
(m, n, s, d) is the best data-path
Network Model & Problem Formulation

[31]

For this case we analyze the power loss for all possible paths existing in between source and
destination. The data-path among the all possible paths, which is having the minimal power
loss, will be selected as the best data-path.

4.3.2 Data-path selection based on Channel capacity

The capacity matrix will be analyzed using equation 1, for all possible data-paths, among all
which has the highest channel capacity that can be chosen as the best path.

Figure 10 : Flowchart for Data-path Selection based on Channel Capacity

4.3.3 Data-path selection based on Q-Factor

This method is the combination of both the above scenarios. For this case we analyze Q-
Factor for all possible data-paths with a path reference number.
Again all the data-paths are sorted in an incremental order with a new path reference
number, then based on the client Q- Factor requirement one of the data-path will be selected
as the best one. We expressed the above mathematically as follows.

Find All the possible data-path of a given
network topology with individual Channel
Capacity Calculation and assign them a path
reference number, say 1 to R, where R is the
total number of computed data-path.
Find the path P
j
(m, n, s, d), which is having
the highest Channel Capacity and j Є R.
Sort the Data-path in incremental order of
Channel Capacity.
P
j
(m, n, s, d) is the best data-path
Network Model & Problem Formulation

[32]

( ) ( ) ( ) d s n m p QF d s n m AQF
j overall
, , , , , , s
(4.13)
Where, j is the new data-path reference number and j = 1, 2, …, J . The new path reference
number will be based on the incremental order of the data-path overall Q-Factor.

Figure 11 : Flowchart for Data-path Selection based on Q-Factor

[33]







Chapter 5
Simulation Results











Simulation Results

[34]

5.1 Simulation of PLI Based WDM network
5.1.1 Power loss calculation

For all calculation we considered the network shown in Figure 8, for that we consider three
source and destination pairs ((1, 6), (2, 5), and (1, 3)).
Table 2 Power loss calculation


In Figure 12, it shows the power loss for all the possible paths for a given source-destination
pair, which are referred as path reference number. We have taken three different source-
destination pairs such as (1, 6), (2, 5), and (1, 3). The path reference number starts from 1, 2,
SN DN Path PL(db) Ref. No BP
1 6 1-2-3-6 96.31 1 3
1-4-3-6 94.22 2
1-4-6 92.19 3
1-5-6 97.64 4
2 5 2-3-6-5 98.71 1 2
2-1-5 93.28 2
2-1-4-6-5 99.4 3
2-3-4-6-5 99.5 4
1 3 1-2-3 89.47 1 2
1-4-3 83.47 2
1-5-6-3 99.17 3
1-4-6-3 97.26 4
SN: Source Node, DN: Destination Node, PL: Power Loss, BP: Best path

Simulation Results

[35]

3, and 4 etc has been assigned to all possible paths. From the plot, it has shown that, the
minimum power loss path’s are (1-4-6), (2-1-5), and (1-4-3) for (1, 6), (2, 5), and (1, 3)
source-destination pair respectively.

Figure 12 : Power loss calculations
5.1.2 Channel capacity calculation

For channel capacity calculation we used the network topology with three source and
destination pairs shown in Figure 8.
We calculated by using equation 4.3 .Here dispersion values are taken from relation
between dispersion with distance. The relation between dispersion and distance state that
dispersion is proportional with distance. Here pulse broadening factors we taken as 0.187 for
single mode fiber. In case of WDM we consider single mode fiber for transmission medium.
Here channel capacity is calculated for all possible paths existing between source and
destination pairs. Among all paths the best path is chosen by following Data-path selection
schemes described above. The following table shows the calculation of channel capacity for
all possible paths existing between source and destination pairs as described above.

Simulation Results

[36]

Table 3 Capacity Calculation
SN DN Path Capacity
(/ps*10
-3
)
Ref.
No
BP
1 6 1-2-3-6 0.39 1 2
1-4-3-6 0.52 2
1-4-6 0.41 3
1-5-6 0.3 4
2 5 2-3-6-5 0.25 1 2
2-1-5 0.6 2
2-1-4-6-5 0.2 3
2-3-4-6-5 0.22 4
1 3 1-2-3 0.9 1 2



1-4-3 3.3 2
1-5-6-3 0.21 3
1-4-6-3 0.32 4


In Figure 13, it shows the channel capacities for all the possible data-paths for the same
source-destination pair as mentioned above. The plot says, the corresponding best possible
paths are (1-4-3-6), (2-1-5), and (1-4-3) respectively for the given source-destination pair.
All the above calculations like power loss and channel capacity are calculated for single
mode fiber WDM network. By following Data-path selection mechanism best path will be
chosen based on power loss and channel capacity. In case of power loss we will choose best
path which has less power loss and in case of channel capacity we will choose best path
SN: Source Node, DN: Destination Node, BP: Best path

Simulation Results

[37]

which has high channel capacity. If channel capacity is very high, then bandwidth also will
be high. If maximum bandwidth is available then large number of data will be transmitted.

Figure 13 : Channel Capacity
5.1.3 Q-Factor Calculation:

For Q-Factor calculation we used the network topology with three source and
destination pairs shown in figure 8.
We calculated by using equation 4.4 to 4.10. .Here dispersion values are taken
from relation between dispersion with distance. The relation between dispersion and
distance state that dispersion is proportional with distance. Here pulse broadening
factor I taken as 0.187 for single mode fiber. In case of WDM we consider single
mode fiber for transmission medium.
Here Q-Factor is calculated for all possible paths existing between source and
destination pairs. Among all paths the best path is chosen by following Data-path
selection schemes described above. The following table shows the calculation of Q-
Factor for all possible paths existing between source and destination pairs as described
above.
Simulation Results

[38]

Table 4 Q-Factor calculations















For Q-Factor based Data-path selection has two types one is based on all possible paths Q-
Factors and other one is based on client requirement. First case stated above. The figure 4.8
shows the Q-Factor based Data-path selection. In that case we consider all possible paths Q-
Factor calculation and then choose maximum Q-Factor as best path. In case of client required
Q-Factor we consider a default value as client requirement and compare it with all possible
paths Q-Factors. By checking all possible path Q-Factors will choose nearest Q-Factor as best
Data-path for communication.
SN DN PP Path Ref. No QF
overall
BP
1 6 1-2-3-6 1 10.47 4
1-4-3-6 2 7.88
1-4-6 3 6.09
1-5-6 4 12.98
2 5 2-3-6-5 1 16.23 3
2-1-5 2 6.99
2-1-4-6-5 3 20.18
2-3-4-6-5 4 12.98
1 3 1-2-3 1 4.25 3
1-4-3 2 1.32
1-5-6-3 3 18.61
1-4-6-3 4 12.15
PP: Possible Path; BP: Best Path; SN: Source Node; DN: Destination Node
Simulation Results

[39]


Figure 14 : Q-Factor calculation
Figure 14 shows the plot of Q-Factor with respect to path reference number for all possible
paths and source and destination pairs. Corresponding to the highest Q-Factor values, the best
path for (1, 6), (2, 5), and (1, 3) are (1-5-6), (2-1-4-6-5), and (1-5-6-3) respectively.
We had taken the average Q-Factor of 11 as the client requirement for all the source-
destination pair and the corresponding best path (BP) is shown in the table. According to the
table 4.5, Fig. 15 shows the plot of Q-Factor vs. the BPPRN i.e., the assigned new path
reference number.
Here new path reference number taken by arranging the all Q-Factors in increment order for
all possible Data-paths between source and destination nodes. From this plot, the best data-
path can be selected for a source-destination pair of a client based on their required Q-Factor
i.e., average Q-Factor.
For example, if a client has average Q-Factor requirement (AQF) of 11 for the source
destination pair (1, 6), then in accordance with the proposed algorithm, QF
overall
>= AQF, i.e.,
12.5 >= 11, which is approaching the new path reference number 4, which will be the best
path.
Simulation Results

[40]

Table 5 Q-Factor with client requirement

















Here the above table shows the Q-Factor values for all individual Data-paths existing in
between source and destination pairs. Here we consider 11 as the client required Q-Factor.
We can calculate Q-Factor for cent percent also.
For that case we consider maximum Q-Factor as cent percent remaining cases are taken the
ratio for cent percent. For example in case of 1 to 3 source and destination pair maximum Q-
Factor is 18.61 so we called that path has 100% Q-Factor. Remaining results are normalized.
SN DN PP Path Ref.
No
QF
overall
BPP
RN
AQF BP
1 6 1-2-3-6 1 10.47 3 11 4
1-4-3-6 2 7.88 2
1-4-6 3 6.09 1
1-5-6 4 12.98 4
2 5 2-3-6-5 1 16.23 3 11 2
2-1-5 2 6.99 1
2-1-4-6-5 3 20.18 4
2-3-4-6-5 4 12.98 2
1 3 1-2-3 1 4.25 2 11 3
1-4-3 2 1.32 1
1-5-6-3 3 18.61 4
1-4-6-3 4 12.15 3
BPPRN: Best possible path reference number according to highest overall Q-Factor
(QF
overall
) ; AQF: Average Q-Factor required from Clients);
Simulation Results

[41]










Figure 15 : Q-Factor calculation with respect to client requirement
Figure 15, shows the Q-Factor for best possible data-path reference number to Q-
Factor. From this plot, based on Q-Factor value and clients Q-profile requirement, the best
possible data-path can be selected. For example, the below table shows the various values for
two source destination pairs 1,6 whose Q-Factor requirement is 11 , then in accordance with
our algorithm,
AQF (m, n, s, d) ≤ QF
overall
(P
j
(m, n, s, d)), i.e., a client has average Q-Factor requirement
(AQF) of 11 for the source destination pair (1, 6), then in accordance with the proposed
algorithm, QF
overall
>= AQF, i.e., 12.5 >= 11, which is approaching the new path reference
number 4, which will be the best path. So the above figure shows path 4 is the best path for
(1,6) source and destination pairs.
5.2 Simulation of PLI Based DWDM network
Here in case of DWDM we consider multiple wavelengths in multi mode fiber for DWDM
transmission. The power loss is same as WDM because it does not depends on wavelengths.
It depends on distance only.
5.2.1 Power loss calculation:
For all calculation we considered the network shown in Figure 8, for that we consider three
source and destination pairs ((1, 6), (2, 5), and (1, 3)).
Simulation Results

[42]

Table 6 : Power loss calculation for DWDM

In Figure 4.6, it shows the power loss for all the possible paths for a given source-destination
pair, which are referred as path reference number. We have taken three different source-
destination pairs such as (1, 6), (2, 5), and (1, 3).
The path reference number starts from 1, 2, 3, and 4 etc has been assigned to all possible
paths. From the plot, it has shown that, the minimum power loss path’s are (1-4-6), (2-1-5),
and (1-4-3) for (1, 6), (2, 5), and (1, 3) source-destination pair respectively.
SN DN Path PL(db) Ref. No BP
1 6 1-2-3-6 96.31 1 3
1-4-3-6 94.22 2
1-4-6 92.19 3
1-5-6 97.64 4
2 5 2-3-6-5 98.71 1 2
2-1-5 93.28 2
2-1-4-6-5 99.4 3
2-3-4-6-5 99.5 4
1 3 1-2-3 89.47 1 2
1-4-3 83.47 2
1-5-6-3 99.17 3
1-4-6-3 97.26 4
Simulation Results

[43]


Figure 16 : Power loss calculations for DWDM
5.2.2 Channel capacity calculation

For channel capacity calculation we used the network topology with three source and
destination pairs shown in figure 8.
We calculated by using equation 4.3 .Here dispersion values are taken from
relation between dispersion with distance. The relation between dispersion and
distance state that dispersion is proportional with distance. Here pulse broadening
factors we taken as 0.187 for single mode fiber. In case of DWDM we consider multi
mode fiber for transmission medium.
Here channel capacity is calculated for all possible paths existing between
source and destination pairs. Among all paths the best path is chosen by following
Data-path selection schemes described above.
The following table shows the calculation of channel capacity for all possible paths
existing between source and destination pairs as described above.

Simulation Results

[44]

Table 7 : Channel capacity calculation for DWDM
SN DN Path Capacity
(/ps*10
-3
)
Ref.
No
BP
1 6 1-2-3-6 29.1263 1 1
1-4-3-6 28.6069 2
1-4-6 15.57 3
1-5-6 5.876 4
2 5 2-3-6-5 18.58 1 3
2-1-5 16.42 2
2-1-4-6-5 32.0122 3
2-3-4-6-5 30.4879 4
1 3 1-2-3 20.8804 1 4



1-4-3 20.369 2
1-5-6-3 14.1219 3
1-4-6-3 23.82 4

In Figure 17, it shows the channel capacities for all the possible data-paths for the same
source-destination pair as mentioned above. The plot says, the corresponding best possible
paths are (1-4-3-6), (2-1-5), and (1-4-3) respectively for the given source-destination pair.
All the above calculations like power loss and channel capacity are calculated for multi
mode fiber DWDM network. By following Data-path selection mechanism best path will be
chosen based on power loss and channel capacity.
In case of power loss we will choose best path which has less power loss and in case of
channel capacity we will choose best path which has high channel capacity.
Simulation Results

[45]

If channel capacity is very high, then bandwidth will be high. If maximum bandwidth is
available then large number of data will be transmitted.

Figure 17 : Channel Capacity for DWDM
5.2.3 Q-Factor Calculation:

For Q-Factor calculation we used the network topology with three source and
destination pairs shown in figure 8. We calculated by using equation 4.4 to 4.10. .Here
dispersion values are taken from relation between dispersion with distance.
The relation between dispersion and distance state that dispersion is
proportional with distance. Here pulse broadening factor w taken as 0.187 for single
mode fiber. In case of DWDM we consider multi mode fiber for transmission
medium.
Here Q-Factor is calculated for all possible paths existing between source and
destination pairs. Among all paths the best path is chosen by following Data-path
selection schemes described above. The following table shows the calculation of Q-
Simulation Results

[46]

Factor for all possible paths existing between source and destination pairs as described
above.
Table 8 : Q-Factor calculation for DWDM


For Q-Factor based Data-path selection has two types one is based on all possible paths Q-
Factors and other one is based on client requirement. First case stated above. The figure 18
shows the Q-Factor based Data-path selection. In that case we consider all possible paths Q-
Factor calculation and then choose maximum Q-Factor as best path.
In case of client required Q-Factor we consider a default value as client requirement and
compare it with all possible paths Q-Factors. By checking all possible path Q-Factors will
choose nearest Q-Factor as best Data-path for communication.
SN DN PP Path Ref. No QF
overall
BP
1 6 1-2-3-6 1 87.07 1
1-4-3-6 2 85.99
1-4-6 3 86.05
1-5-6 4 72.56
2 5 2-3-6-5 1 79.8 4
2-1-5 2 81.59
2-1-4-6-5 3 82.72
2-3-4-6-5 4 86.86
1 3 1-2-3 1 82.64 4
1-4-3 2 74.98
1-5-6-3 3 76.28
1-4-6-3 4 83.7
PP: Possible Path; BP: Best path; SN: Source Node; DN: Destination Node
Simulation Results

[47]


Figure 18 : Q-Factor calculation
Figure 18 shows the plot of Q-Factor with respect to path reference number for all possible
paths and source and destination pairs. Corresponding to the highest Q-Factor values, the best
path for (1, 6), (2, 5), and (1, 3) are (1-2-3-6), (2-3-4-6-5), and (1-4-6-3) respectively.
We had taken the average Q-Factor of 11 as the client requirement for all the source-
destination pair and the corresponding best path (BP) is shown in the table. According to the
table 9, Fig. 19 shows the plot of Q-Factor vs. the BPPRN i.e., the assigned new path
reference number.
Here new path reference number taken by arranging the all Q-Factors in increment order for
all possible Data-paths between source and destination nodes and assigned new path
reference numbers to each Data-path.
After getting new path reference numbers plotted the graph between Q-Factor and new path
ref number. From this plot, the best data-path can be selected for a source-destination pair of
a client based on their required Q-Factor i.e., average Q-Factor.
For example, if a client has average Q-Factor requirement (AQF) of 82 for the source
destination pair (1, 6), then in accordance with the proposed algorithm, QF
overall
>= AQF, i.e.,
85.99 >= 82, which is approaching the new path reference number 2, which will be the best
path.
Simulation Results

[48]

Table 9 Q-Factor with client requirement

Here the above table shows the Q-Factor values for all individual Data-paths existing in
between source and destination pairs. Here we consider 82 as the client required Q-Factor.
We can calculate Q-Factor for cent percent also.
For that case we consider maximum Q-Factor as cent percent remaining cases are taken the
ratio for cent percent. For example in case of 1 to 3 source destination pair maximum Q-
Factor is 83.7 so we called that path has 100% Q-Factor. Remaining are taken with the ratio
with respect to 83.7 Q-Factor.
SN DN PP Path Ref.
No
QF
overall
BPP
RN
AQF BP
1 6 1-2-3-6 1 87.07 4 82 2
1-4-3-6 2 85.99 2
1-4-6 3 86.05 3
1-5-6 4 72.56 1
2 5 2-3-6-5 1 79.8 1 82 3
2-1-5 2 81.59 2
2-1-4-6-5 3 82.72 3
2-3-4-6-5 4 86.86 4
1 3 1-2-3 1 82.64 3 82 3
1-4-3 2 74.98 1
1-5-6-3 3 76.28 2
1-4-6-3 4 83.7 4
Simulation Results

[49]


Figure 19 : Q-Factor calculation with respect to client requirement for DWDM
Figure 19, shows the Q-Factor for best possible data-path reference number to Q-
Factor. AQF (m, n, s, d) ≤ QF
overall
(P
j
(m, n, s, d)), i.e., a client has average Q-Factor
requirement (AQF) of 82 for the source destination pair (1, 3), then in accordance with the
proposed algorithm, QF
overall
>= AQF, i.e., 82.64 >= 82, which is approaching the new path
reference number 1, which will be the best path.
5.3 Comparison of PLI based WDM/DWDM Network.
5.3.1 Power loss

Due to the individuality of wavelength power loss wont varied.
5.3.2 Channel capacity

Channel capacity is rapidly change for DWDM with multi mode fiber compare with single
mode WDM network. Due to the use of multiple wavelengths the capacity of the path will
increase because the dispersion values depend on wavelengths of the channel.


Simulation Results

[50]

Table 10 comparison of Channel capacity for single wavelength and multi wavelength
SN DN Path Capacity
For single λ
Capacity
For multiple λ
1 6 1-2-3-6 0.39 29.1263
1-4-3-6 0.52 28.6069
1-4-6 0.41 15.57
1-5-6 0.3 5.876
2 5 2-3-6-5 0.25 18.58
2-1-5 0.6 16.42
2-1-4-6-5 0.2 32.0122
2-3-4-6-5 0.22 30.4879
1 3 1-2-3 0.9 20.8804
1-4-3 3.3 20.369
1-5-6-3 0.21 14.1219
1-4-6-3 0.32 23.82


The following figure shows graphical representation of comparison for source node 2 to
destination node 5 pair.
Simulation Results

[51]


Figure 20: Comparison of Channel capacity for single and multiple wavelengths

5.3.3 Quality Factor

Quality factor also changed for single wavelength and multiple wavelengths due to the
increase of channel capacity because quality factor is related to channel capacity.
Table 11 comparison of Q-Factor for single λ and multiple λ

SN DN Path Q-F actor for
Multiple λ
Q-F actor for Single
wavelength
1 6 1-2-3-6 87.07 22.95
1-4-3-6 85.99 24.9
1-4-6 86.05 26.2
1-5-6 72.56 20.99

Here for Q-Factor case we consider only one source and destination pair if we compare
remaining pairs also we will get same type of results.
Simulation Results

[52]

So in this case we consider only (1,6) source and destination pair. The following figure
shows the graphical representation.

Figure 21: Comparison of Q-Factor










[53]






Chapter 6
Conclusion &
Scope of Future work









Conclusion & Scope of Future Work

[54]

6.1 Conclusion

In our simulation, we have considered three scenarios based on power loss, channel
capacity and Q-Factor for a given source-destination pair. Our proposed algorithm helps to
analyze those constraints and determines the best possible data-path in between source-
destination pair. The result shows the variations of power losses, channel capacity and quality
factor for all possible data-paths for the clients. Among those three scenarios, we more focus
on data-path selection based on Q-Factor, which is very effective due to the combination of
other two scenarios data-path selection based on power loss and channel capacity. The Q-
Factor is calculated in percentage, which is to be notified to the client through the traffic
control manager. The Q-Factor requirement from the client again will be in the range of 1 to
100 %. Finally the best data-path has been selected based on Q-Factor requirements of the
client in percentage. The reason, we provide the Q-Factor of all possible paths is to have an
option for any client to choose the best suitable path based on their requirements only. It
helps to utilize the resources among the clients in an efficient way.


6.2 Scope of Future work
Our proposed work is an centralized algorithm so we can give an user interface
through .net or java to the user to choose best path with respect to their requirements.





[55]










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PHYSICAL LAYER IMPAIRMENTS BASED OPTICAL ROUTING

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

Master of Technology In Telematics and Signal Processing
by

Kalyan Chakravarthi P Roll No: 209EC1113 Under the guidance of Prof. Santos Kumar Das

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela 2011

National Institute Of Technology Rourkela

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled, ―PHYSICAL LAYER IMPAIRMENTS BASED OPTICAL ROUTING‖ submitted by KALYAN

CHAKRAVARTHI P (209EC1113) in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Technology degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering with specialization in ―Telematics and Signal Processing‖ at National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University) and is an authentic work by her under my supervision and guidance. To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other university/institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

Date:

Prof. Santos Kumar Das Dept. of E.C.E National Institute of Technology Rourkela-769008 Email: dassk@nitrkl.ac.in

. NIT. Behera . Santos Kumar Das for his guidance. Rourkela. Prof. I would like to thank all faculty members and staff of the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering. sacrifice. Sahoo and Prof. Samit Ari. I want to express my respects to Prof. Prof. and support. I am especially indebted to my parents for their love. P.I. Meher . Rourkela for their generous help in various ways for the completion of this thesis. Kalyan Chakravarthi P Roll No: 209ec1113 Dept of ECE. S. C. and work. S.Prof. They are my first teachers after I came to this world and have set great examples for me about how to live. K. Rourkela [i] . D. Prof. T K Dan . K. G S Rath. Prof. study. Mahapatra. S. Prof.T. Acharya for teaching me and also helping me how to learn.Prof. K. N V L N Murty . A.K. advice and constant support throughout my thesis work. which prompted us to think beyond the obvious. Next. I would like to thank all my friends and especially my classmates for all the thoughtful and mind stimulating discussions we had. They have been great sources of inspiration to me and I thank them from the bottom of my heart. N. Prof. K. Pati . I’ve enjoyed their companionship so much during my stay at NIT. I would like to thank him for being my advisor here at National Institute of Technology. Patra .ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to express my gratitude to my thesis guide Prof. Rourkela. U.Prof. Poonam Singh . Prof.

cross talk. channel capacity and Quality factor of all possible paths. In this project we worked about both linear and non linear physical layer impairments and calculated parameters like power loss . accumulates along the optical path. From that we proposed centralized PLI based routing algorithm is proposed for the selection of data-paths.ABSTRACT In optical networks. factors (Q-Factor). The overall effect of PLIs determines the feasibility of the light-paths. chromatic dispersion . It is important to understand the process that provide PLI information to the central manager and use this information efficiently to compute feasible routes and wavelengths. [ii] . Based on the PLI impairments like fiber attenuation. which reflects the Quality of service. amplifier spontaneous noise and polarization mode dispersion. physical layer impairments (PLIs) incurred by nonideal optical transmission media.

................................................................ 2 Non-Linear Impairments ......................................3 2............................................................................................. 20 Quality of Service ..............2.................................................2 3....................................... 16 Quality Of Service ................................................................................................................. 19 DWDM System Functions ......................................................................................... i ABSTRACT .....1 1...................................................................................................... 11 2........................ 10 Chapter 2 : WDM Network ............................................................2............... 2 Linear impairments .............................................................. 12 Evolution of WDM Technology .................................. 17 3....4 Introduction to WDM ...............................................4 Proposed Work .......................................................................2 2................................................................................ 10 Organization of rest of report ............................................................................................. 10 1..5 Introduction to DWDM .........................................................1 3.. ii LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Classification of physical impairments .............................................................................................................................................................................................................1 2........................................................................................ viii Chapter 1 : Introduction ...........................1 Introduction ...... vi LIST OF TABLES .........................3 1..................................................................................................................2 Physical layer impairments .................................... 18 Development of DWDM Technology................................. vii ACRONYMS ...................3 1................................. 22 [iii] ...1 1.3 3..1......................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents ACKNOWLEDGMENT ................................................... 12 Components of WDM-Network ................................................................................2 1.... 18 Evolution of Fiber Optic Transmission ............................................................................................................................4 3............................... 2 1................ 16 Chapter 3 :DWDM Network .................................................

..................................................1 5...........................................3 5.......3 Comparison of PLI based WDM/DWDM Network.........2.. 41 Power loss calculation ........................................................2......... 31 Data-path selection based on Q-Factor.......................... 37 5................................................................................................................................................................................3................................. 30 4....................................... 27 Channel capacity Calculation...........................2 Problem Formulation ............................................................................3 4...................................................................................1 4.....................................1............................................................. 28 Q-Factor Calculation ............3...........................................2...................... 41 Channel capacity calculation ........................................2 Channel capacity ...................................................................................................................2 Simulation of PLI Based DWDM network...... 34 Power loss calculation ............3............... 26 4..............................3 Quality Factor .................................. 23 4........ 45 5......1 4.........................2........................1 Data-path selection based on power loss .................3 Data-path Selection Mechanism ............................................................ 30 4............................................................3 Data-path selection based on Channel capacity .......................... 35 Q-Factor Calculation ....2 4.1............2............................................................... 33 5......................... 51 [iv] ...............................3 5...................................................3...................................... 43 Q-Factor Calculation ..............1 Power loss ........2 5............................................................ 31 Chapter 5 : Simulation Results ............... 24 Network Topology ...........................1 Simulation of PLI Based WDM network..Chapter 4 : Network Model & Problem Formulation .....................................................................1 Network Model ...................................... 49 5...................................3...........1.................................. 27 Power loss calculation ............1 5........................ 49 5................ 34 Channel capacity calculation ............ 49 5................................................ 28 4...3................2 4................................2 5.........1..................................................................................2..................................................

................................................................................................ 54 6....................................... 56 [v] ..................................................................................................................................................Chapter 6 : Conclusion & Scope of Future work.......................... 53 6......1 Conclusion ............2 Scope of Future work .......................................................................... 54 Bibliography ....................................

....... Wavelength selective cross-connect (WSXC) routes incoming signals per wavelength basis....................................... 49 Figure 20: comparisan of Channel capacity for single and multiple wavelengths ........................ while wavelength interchange cross-connect (WIXC) has also capability to perform wavelength ................ 39 Figure 15 : Q-Factor calculation with respect to client requirement ............................................................. 30 Figure 10 : Flowchart for Data-path Selection based on Channel Capacity ................................................. 51 Figure 21: Comparison of Q-Factor .................................. ..................................... 47 Figure 19 :Q-Factor calculation with respect to client requirement for DWDM .............................. 15 Figure 4: WDM with two channels ..... 20 Figure 7 : Physical Topology................................ 19 Figure 5 : Growth in Fiber Capacity ................................................................. 20 Figure 6 : DWDM schematic for four channels ................................................................................................................... 26 Figure 9 : Flowchart for Data-path Selection based on Power Loss................... 41 Figure 16 : Power loss calculations for DWDM...........................................................................................................................................................................LIST OF FIGURES Figure No Page No Figure 1: Classification of Physical impairments ........... 32 Figure 12 : Power loss calculations............................ 10 Figure 2 : The optical spectrum and 8 wavelength channels....................................................... 24 Figure 8 : Network Topology Graph ..................................................................................... 52 [vi] ..................................... 35 Figure 13 : Channel Capacity ....................... 12 Figure 3 : The basic components of the wavelength routed network............................. 43 Figure 17 : Channel Capacity for DWDM ......................................................................................... 45 Figure 18 : Q-Factor calculation ............................................................................................................................................. 31 Figure 11 : Flowchart for Data-path Selection based on Q-Factor ................................ 37 Figure 14 : Q-Factor calculation .................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................... ................................................ 44 Table 8 : Q-Factor calculation for DWDM ............................. Page No........................................................ 38 Table 5 Q-Factor with client requirement .................................................. 46 Table 9 Q-Factor with client requirement.......... 51 [vii] .... 40 Table 6 : Power loss calculation for DWDM .................................. 48 Table 10 comparison of Channel capacity for single wavelength and multi wavelength ... 36 Table 4 Q-Factor calculations ...............LIST OF TABLES Table No.................................................................................................................................. 42 Table 7 : Channel capacity calcuation for dwdm ............................................. Table 1 Parameters Used in Simulation ................................................................................................................................................................................. 34 Table 3 Capacity Calculation.................................................................................................... 27 Table 2 Power loss calculation ................ 49 Table 11 comparison of Q-Factor for single λ and multiple λ ..........

Quality Factor DP-Data-path SN-Source Node DN-Destination Node PP-Possible paths ASE – Amplifier Spontaneous Emission CD-Chromatic Dispersion OSNR.ACRONYMS PLI – Physical Layer Impairments WDM – Wavelength Division Multiplexing DWDM-Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Q-Factor.Optical Signal to Noise Ratio PL: Power Loss BP: Best path AQF: Average Q-Factor required from Clients) BPPRN: Best possible path reference number according to highest overall Q-Factor [viii] .

Chapter 1 Introduction [1] .

1 Linear impairments The important linear impairments are: fiber attenuation. it is necessary to search for a data-path in WDM network. 1. Linear impairments are independent of the signal power and affect each of the wavelengths (optical channels) individually. which are essential for any optical network.. whereas nonlinear impairments affect not only each optical channel individually but they also cause disturbance and interference between them [10]. The optical information on data-paths are generally affected or degraded by various constraints such as physical layer impairments [1] . amplifier spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. This also can be used for light-path routing. which depends on various parameters in network as well as in physical layer. i.2 Physical layer impairments PLIs are broadly classified in to two categories: linear and non-linear impairments [3] [4] [5] [6].2. Data-path selection of the WDM network depends on the physical as well as IP layer information.e. The terms linear and non-linear in fiber optics mean intensity-independent and intensitydependent. respectively. There are few PLI based routing algorithms considered in [7] [8]. crosstalk (XT) (both inter. The degradation of data-path may happen due to Physical layer impairments (PLI). The basic requirement of clients is QoS (Quality of Service). The linear impairments are static in nature and non-linear impairments are dynamic in nature [9]. and filter concatenation (FC). In order to satisfy such Requirements. component insertion loss.1 Introduction Day to day growth in telecommunication network requires functionalities like dynamic datapath selection with guaranteed Quality of service (QoS) [1] [2].and intra-channel). WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) technology is growing day-by-day in accordance with the requirement of clients.Introduction 1. polarization mode dispersion (PMD). The non-linear impairments strongly depend on the current allocation of route and wavelength. on the current status of allocated light paths. chromatic dispersion (CD) (or group velocity dispersion (GVD)). The advantages of Q-Factor [9] include rate transparency and in service performance monitoring in addition to fast and compete performance analysis. polarization dependent losses (PDL). 1. Q-Factor can be widely used as a system performance indicator for optical communication systems since it is directly related to system-bit error rate [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] . Optical amplification in [2] .

filters. Intrinsic fiber losses are due to attenuation. however it become an issue at 40 Gbps or higher rates [11]. into the optical communications system is called insertion loss and is usually independent of wavelength. Filter concatenation is the last physical impairment that we consider and define in this category. then the output power Pout is given by Pout = Pin · e−αL. de-multiplexers. Rayleigh scattering. temperature variations and aging. Imperfect optical components (e. Let Pin be the power launched at the input of a fiber of length L. absorption. It can cause optical power variation. waveform distortion and signal-to-noise ratio fading. The amplifier noise is quantified by noise figure (NF) value. the effective pass band of the filters becomes narrower [16]. filters. [3] . which is the ratio of the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) before the amplification to the same ratio after the amplification and is expressed in dB [10]. reflections. optical component insertion losses. As more and more filtering components are concatenated along the light-path. The loss introduced by the insertion of optical components. [12] [13] [14] In general. etc. The extrinsic losses are due to micro and macro bending losses. refractions. and switches. Additional losses occur due to the combined effects of dispersion resulting from inter symbol interference (ISI). multiplexers/ de multiplexers. in combination with PMD there is also polarization dependent loss (PDL). which affects the receiver performance by: (1) reducing the pulse energy within the bit slot and (2) spreading the pulse energy beyond the allocated bit slot leading to inter-symbol interference (ISI). mode-partition noise. and/or at transmission line design time [10] PMD is not an issue for most type of fibers at 10 Gbps. such as couplers.g.Introduction the form of EDFAs always degrades the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR). A. and laser chirp as discussed later in this section. where α is the fiber attenuation coefficient. This concatenation also makes the transmission system susceptible to filter pass band misalignment due to device imperfections. Chromatic dispersion causes pulse broadening. and switched) inevitably introduce some signal leakage either as inter-channel (also incoherent or out-of-band) or intra-channel [15] (or intra-band) crosstalk in WDM transmission systems. Power Losses: Power loss can be defined as the optical loss that is accumulated from source to destination along fiber links and is normally made up of intrinsic fiber losses and extrinsic bending losses [1] . CD can be adequately (but not optimally) compensated for on a per link.

contain impurities. leading to residual CD. PMD becomes a major limiting factor for WDM systems designed for longer distances at higher bit-rates. Due to imperfect matching between the dispersion slopes of CD and DCF. The PMD on a fiber link is a function of PMD on each fiber-span and is given by PMD fiber−link =√ (∑fiber−spans PMD (f) 2). fiber could be non-circular. Δτ = DPMD ·√L. Chromatic Dispersion (CD): The degradation of an optical signal caused by the various spectral components traveling at their own different velocities is called dispersion. CD causes an optical pulse to broaden such that it spreads into the time slots of the other pulses.Introduction B. Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD): Anywhere along a fiber-span. and the use of dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) modules. Hence. Because of the √L dependence. light path The PMD at __ the end of a light-path is PMD =√ (∑fiber links along the route PMD (f) 2). some wavelengths may be over-compensated and some others may be undercompensated.. The PMD values vary from fiber to fiber in the range of 0. Dispersion compensation techniques are useful in long-haul as well as metro networks. known as PMD. These obstacles cause different polarizations of the optical signal to travel with different group velocities resulting in pulse spread in the frequency domain.e. C.5 Gb/s. where DPMD is the PMD parameter of the fiber and typically measured in ps/√km. The differential group delay (DGD) is proportional to the square root of fiber length L. where the dispersion on a fiber-link is the sum of dispersions on the fiber-spans that compose the link. modulation format. type of fiber. sometimes it may be difficult to find a DCF chat exactly compensates the CD introduced by the fiber. The total dispersion at the end of a light-path is the sum of dispersions on each fiberlink of the considered light-path. A typical value of dispersion compensation tolerance in commercial receivers is around ±800 ps/nm for non-return-to-zero (NRZ) 10 Gb/s. Most commonly deployed compensation techniques are based on DCF. the PMD-induced pulse broadening is relatively small compared to CD. Moreover DCF modules may only be available in fixed lengths of compensating fiber. CD depends on bit-rate. i. It is considered as the most serious linear impairment for systems operating at bitrates higher than 2. or be subject to environmental stress such as local heating or movement.01-10 ps/√km [7]. A fiber of length Lf and dispersion Df can be compensated by using a spool of DCF of length Lc and dispersion parameter Dc such that the dispersion at the end of the fiber is close to zero and satisfies DfLf + DcLc = 0. while it is ±160 ps/nm for optical duo binary (ODB) 40 Gb/s [7]. The effect of second and higher order PMD becomes prominent at high-bit rates exceeding [4] . These irregularities present obstacles to an optical pulse along its path.

multiplexers/de-multiplexers. The combined effect of PMD and PDL can further degrade the optical signal quality. fiber dispersion. the MMM has clear advantages when PDL must be characterized at numerous wavelength points with equal spacing. transmission lengths. as most long-haul DWDM systems are multi-wavelength. Network designers must be aware of these limitations and of the steps that can be taken to minimize the detrimental effects of these fiber non-linearities. thereby degrading signal quality in an uncontrolled and unpredictable manner and introducing fluctuations in optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR). all possible states of polarization and is given by PDLdB = 10 · log (PMax/PMin).r. The worries that plagued optical fiber communication in the early days were fiber attenuation and. D. optical cross-connects (OXCs). then regenerated. However.t. number of wavelengths. or amplifier sites to compensate for accumulated PMD on an optical path. and photo detectors. sometimes. The most common passive optical components that exhibit PDL include couplers. Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL): The two polarization components along the two axes of a circular fiber suffer different rates of loss due to irregularities in the fiber. and optical power levels increase in addition to reduction in channel spacing. fiber nonlinearities present a new realm of obstacles that must be overcome. respectively. The polarization scanning technique (PST) and the Mueller matrix method (MMM) are suitable methods for measuring the PDL [8]. Because PMD effects are random and time-dependent.Introduction 40 Gb/s. PDL is a measure of the peak-to-peak difference in transmission of an optical component/system w. which is a very expensive operation. the most reliable and efficient PMD compensation technology is the use of adaptive optics to realign and correct the pulses of dispersed optical bits. however. Hence. these issues are dealt with using a variety of dispersion compensation techniques. PDL mainly occurs in passive optical components. the transmission link must first be de-multiplexed. isolators. However. While the PST is preferable for determining PDL at a specific wavelength. where PMax and PMin are the maximum and minimum output power. and optical fibers are no exception. this requires an adaptive/active PMD compensator that responds to feedback over time. Effects of non-linear impairments become crucial as data transmission rates. [5] . Another alternative is to use dispersion compensation modules (DCM) at optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs). The response of any dielectric medium to light becomes non-linear under intense electromagnetic field. PMD induced problems can be reduced by shortening the optical transmission distance by placing OEO regenerators between two optical nodes. and then multiplexed again.

the phonons (optical) are incoherent and no macroscopic wave is generated.E3 + . All nonlinear effects..  Recent developments in optical components such as EDFA and DWDM systems to build more flexible networks [6] . The inelastic scattering phenomenon can induce stimulated effects such as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). which leads to increased dispersion. Therefore optical fibers do not exhibits second order non-linear refractive effects. The non-linear effects in optical fiber occur either due to change in the refractive index of the medium with optical intensity (power) or due to inelastic-scattering phenomenon. cross phase modulation (XPM).E2 + χ(3). but satisfies a more general relation as P = ε0(χ(1). provide gains to some channel at the expense of depleting power from other channels.. A comparison of various non-linear effects in fiber medium is presented in Table I [6] The importance of non-linear effects is growing due to  Increase in optical power levels to increase the optical reach. The intensity of scattered light grows exponentially if the incident power exceeds a certain threshold value. third order harmonic generation. in Raman scattering. whereas. For a medium like fiber with symmetric molecules. and four-wave mixing (FWM).Introduction Due to an harmonic motion of bound electrons the total polarization P induced by electric dipoles is not linear in the electric field E. except SPM and XPM. SPM and XPM affect only the phase of the optical signal and can cause spectral broadening. The Brillouin generated phonons (acoustic) are coherent and give rise to a macroscopic acoustic wave in the fiber.). the light waves (optical signals) interact with the phonons of the fiber medium resulting in scattering phenomenon. and four-wave mixing as discussed later. At high power levels. where ε0 is the permittivity of vacuum and χ(k) is the k th order susceptibility. χ(2) vanishes. the third order susceptibility χ(3) is responsible for the lowest order non-linear effects such as non-linear refraction.depending on the type of input signal.E1 + χ(2). The predominant contribution to P is from linear susceptibility χ(1). Hence. A general classification of non-linear effects in fiber medium [2] are the dependence of refractive index on power is responsible for Kerr effect which produces three different kinds of effects—self-phase modulation (SPM).

i.. SPM is the strongest among the Kerr effects for DWDM systems workingat100GHz spacing. The following sections describe the all non linear impairments in detail. Stimulated Brilloin Scatter and Stimulated Raman Scattering . Hence. will induce a time varying refractive index of the medium.. Self-Phase Modulation (SPM): The non-linear phase modulation of an optical pulse caused by its own intensity in an optical medium is called SPM. the SPM effects are more pronounced in systems with high transmitted power. the higher intensity portions of an optical pulse encounter a higher refractive index of the fiber compared with the lower intensity portions. An ultra-short optical pulse. As the chirping effect is proportional to the transmitted signal power. i. For all these reasons it is important to understand and be able to accurately measure fiber non. This results in a positive refractive index gradient (dn/dt) at the leading edge of the pulse and a negative refractive index gradient (−dn/dt) at its trailing edge. we briefly explain the reasons behind each of these non-linear effects and discuss some possible solutions to overcome these effects. Four wave mixing (FWM) . the total power summed over all channels in a multi-wavelength WDM system can become significant. The combination of high total optical power and a large number of channels at closely spaced wavelengths is ideal for many kinds of non-linear effects. Cross Phase Modulation (CPM). Although the individual power in each channel may be below the one needed to produce non-linearities. the leading edge of the pulse finds frequency shift towards the higher side whereas the trailing edge experiences shift towards the lower side.2 Non-Linear Impairments: The important non-linear impairments are Self phase modulation (SPM).e. A. This temporally varying refractive index change results in a temporally varying phase change leading to frequency chirping. By proper choice of pulse [7] . keeping the temporal shape unaltered. The chirp also depends on the input pulse shape.The effects produced by nonlinear SPM and linear dispersion are opposite in nature.linearities. 1. when travelling in a medium.e. In the following. the primary effect of SPM is to broaden the pulse in the frequency domain.1. The appropriate chirping of input signals using chirped RZ (CRZ) modulation can reduce the SPM effects [11].Introduction  Increase in channel bit-rate to increase the traffic carrying capacity of wavelengths  Decrease in channel spacing to increase the number of wavelengths and overall network capacity.

the pulses overlap for such a short time that XPM effects are virtually negligible. In SBS. For increased wavelength spacing. In general for W wavelengths launched into a fiber. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS): SBS occurs when an optical signal in fiber interacts with the density variations such as acoustic phonons and changes its path..Introduction shape and input power. the number of FWM channels produced is M=W2 (W−1)/2). [8] . Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM): The non-linear refractive index seen by an optical pulse depends not only on the intensity of the pulse but also on the intensity of the other copropagating optical pulses. Another way to reduce FWM effect is to employ unequal channel spacing in such a way that the generated signals do not interfere with the original signals. The XPM-induced phase shift can occur only when two pulses overlap in time. Decreasing the channel spacing increases the four-wave mixing effect. which uses dispersion-shifted fiber. (χ(3)) generates a fourth signal with frequencyω4. C. XPM damages the system performance even more than SPM and influences it severely when the number of channels is large. FWM has severe effects in a WDM system. the intensity-dependent phase shift and consequent chirping is enhanced.e. B. Due to this overlap. leading to enhanced pulse broadening. one effect will compensate for another. co-propagate inside a fiber simultaneously. XPM is more important at50 (or less) GHz spacing compared to 100GHz spacing. This is why non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers are normally used in WDM systems. Such a pulse is called a soliton pulse and is useful in highbandwidth optical communication systems. Another way to reduce XPM effects is by careful selection of bit-rates for adjacent channels that are not equal to the present channels. the non-linear phase modulation of an optical pulse caused by fluctuations in intensity of other optical pulses is called XPM. XPM hinders the system performance through the same mechanism as SPM: chirping frequency and chromatic dispersion. The FWM effect is independent of the bit-rate and is critically dependent on the channel spacing and fiber dispersion. Four Wave Mixing (FWM): FWM originates from third order non-linear susceptibility (χ (3)) in optical links. D.ω2 andω3. If there is some dispersion in the fiber. then the effect of FWM is reduced. The result of XPM may be asymmetric spectral broadening and distortion of the pulse shape. which is related to the other frequencies by ω4 = ω1±ω2±ω3. i. If three optical signals with carrier frequenciesω1. The effects of XPM can be reduced by increasing the wavelength spacing between individual channels. leading to undistorted pulse in both time and frequency domains.

[9] . Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS): In WDM systems. This can skew the power distribution among the WDM channels— reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of the lower wavelength channels and introducing crosstalk on the higher wavelength channels. The back-scattered signals can be measured using a Fabry-Perot interferometer or pump probe or self-heterodyne techniques. Hence.Introduction the scattering process is stimulated by photons with a wavelength higher than the wavelength of the incident signal.. The filters. The effect of SRS. usage of a high-pass filter can enhance the SRS threshold in an optical fiber. a significant amount of the transmitted light is redirected back to the transmitter leading to saturation of optical power in the receiver. when inserted appropriately into the transmission link. E. can effectively suppress the SRS power flow from the WDM channels to lower frequency noise. Unlike SBS. Both of these effects can lower the information carrying capacity of the optical transmission system.SBS is recognized as the most dominant fiber non-linear scattering effect. The SBS threshold depends on the line-width of the optical source. can be measured using relative cross-section method or pulse-scanning technique or Raman amplification method. and introducing noise that degrades the BER performance. with threshold powers of the order of watts for SRS compared to milli watts for SBS. SBS sets an upper limit on the amount of optical power that can be launched into an optical-fiber [4] . Furthermore. Several optical filtering techniques are proposed to suppress SRS interactions in optical fiber systems [17]. Externally modulating the transmitter provides one way to broaden the line-width of the optical source. Raman gain co-efficient. if two or more optical signals at different wavelengths are injected into a fiber. SRS scatters in both forward and reverse directions. SRS occurs at significantly higher optical powers than SBS. with narrow linewidth sources having considerably lower SBS thresholds.e. i. the SRS effect causes optical signal power from lower wavelength optical channels to be transferred to the higher wavelength optical channels. it is particularly important to control SBS in high-speed transmission systems that use external modulators and continuous wave (CW) laser sources. When input optical power exceeds the SBS threshold.

PLI Based Quality of Service Analysis for WDM introduced. The main objectives of this paper is to when and how to select a data-path. In 4 th chapter we discussed about the result and discussion. PLI Based Quality of Service Analysis for DWDM introduced.3 Proposed Work In this project. we focus on PLI Impairments. and Calculation of PLI parameters for DWDM network. and Calculation of PLI parameters for WDM network. Here we focused on the improvements in Data-path selection for WDM and DWDM networks. Finally some conclusions are drawn. which are defined as the parameter effect in the physical layer while establishing the connection between source nodes to destination node. in the 3rd Chapter. In that chapter we discussed about introduction to DWDM networks.2. In that chapter we discussed about introduction to WDM networks.Introduction 1. [10] . 1. Then the Data-path selection is based on client requirement.4 Organization of rest of report In the next Chapter. In this project we proposed a centralized network.3 Classification of physical impairments Physical Layer Impairments Linear Impairments       Chromatic Dispersion Polarization Mode Dispersion Attenuation Filter Concatenation Cross Talk Amplifier Spontaneous Emission (ASE) Insertion Loss Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) Non-Linear Impairments  Self Phase Modulation (SPM)  Cross Phase Modulation (CPM)  Four Wave Mixing (FWM)  Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS)  Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS)   Figure 1: Classification of Physical impairments 1.

Chapter 2 WDM Network [11] .

In WDM several optical signals using different wavelengths share the same fiber. Figure 2 : The optical spectrum and 8 wavelength channels. 2. The capacity of such fiber links can be huge.10 THz.1 Introduction to WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is a promising technology for future all-optical networks. essentially the optical spectrum is used more efficiently. optical switches and of course the fiber. Routing in the network nodes is based on wavelengths of incoming signals [18] [19]. The most important components are light sources. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has standardized the use of the wavelength channels in a WDM link in standard G. So.10 THz corresponds to about 1550 nm. tunable optical filters. [12] . 193. But the technology is progressing towards transparent all-optical networks where the signal is routed through the network in the optical domain. Currently the WDM technology is used to increase the capacity of optical links where at the end of each link the signal is converted back to electrical domain. even terabits per second. The channel spacing is proposed to be 50 GHz or 100 GHz around the reference frequency of 193.692 (see [20]). hence the proposal is meant for the 1540 nm 1560 nm pass band of the optical fiber. Different components are briefly presented in the following sections.WDM Network 2. as depicted in Fig. 2.2 Components of WDM-Network During recent years lots of effort has been put into the development of better optical components to enable all-optical WDM-networks (AON) .

or optical cross-connect (OXC). while the tuning time is from nanoseconds up to 10 milliseconds.WDM Network a) Light Sources One important element of an optical system is the light source. with the optical packet switching the requirements are somewhere between microseconds and nanoseconds while with circuit switched WDM-networks the time scale is slower. The time scale of tuning depends on case. Here is a list of several candidates:      Mechanically tuned lasers Acousto-optically and electro-optically tuned lasers Injection current tuned lasers Switched sources Array sources (using arrayed waveguide gratings (AWG) or distributed feedback (DFB) lasers) Mechanically tuned lasers. Generally the choice between different light source types depends on the application and the two most important parameters for light sources are the tuning time and the tuning range. [13] . for example. To make a component also commercially attractive low power consumption and low price are vital parameters [21]. is a device which can be configured to connect given input ports to any of the output ports. electro-optic and liquid crystal Fabry-Perot filters. The tuning ranges are from around 10 nm up to 500 nm. have a tuning time of the order of milliseconds and are thus too slow for packet switched optical networks. c) Optical Switches dynamically The optical switch. For communication purposes a good light source should be quickly tunable with a wide range of wavelengths. acousto-optic. Many promising approaches have been studied including Fabry-Perot. b) Tunable Filters A tunable optical filter is also an important part of the optical network. The filters have two important parameters dealing with the performance: tuning range and tuning time.

i. on the other hand.  Wide-sense non-blocking switch is a switch which can.WDM Network The optical switches can be classified according to how flexible they are :  A non-blocking switch means any connection pattern can be realized by reconnection of some or all of the current connections. This means a trade-off between hardware complexity and management complexity. A wavelength selective cross-connect (WSXC) is a device capable to configure any given input λ-channel from arbitrary input port to a given output port (using the same wavelength). d) Wavelength channels In WDM-networks each fiber contains W wavelength channels.e. such a device can configure any λ1 channel from any input port to any output port using λ2 channel. Hence. i.  Clearly the number of elements and device complexity grows at the same time as the flexibility.e. and hence leads to more efficient use of the network resources. add any new connection without interrupting previously configured connections through the switch. it is capable of doing wavelength translations as well. with careful configuration. an incoming signal can emerge from the switch using another wavelength. The optical cross-connects used in WDMnetworks can be divided into two categories. Clearly a WIXC device is more complex than WSXC. [14] .  Strict-sense non-blocking switch. is a more advanced device than WSXC which can manipulate wavelengths of the signals as well. and thus the optical switches should be capable to treat channels individually. Wavelength interchange crossconnect (WIXC). but it also gives more flexibility in the configuration of the network. means that a simple configuration strategy allows adding new connections to the switch any time without interrupting any of the current connections. Note that both WSXC and WIXC are devices where every input channel is connected to no more than one output-channel (permutation switch). Wavelength translation (conversion) is an operation where an incoming signal using λ1 channel is converted to another channel λ2 at the output port. depicted in Figure 3.

an easy solution is to do the opto-electronic wavelength conversion where the optical signal is first converted to the electric domain and then reproduced in the optical domain at a different wavelength. and cross modulation with active semiconductor devices. the light-path reserves the same wavelength all the way along the route. A new solution is to use amplifiers operating totally in the optical domain. This approach. some connections may not be configured unless wavelength conversion is possible in some of the nodes. requires knowledge of the used bit rate and modulation. Another approach is to do the conversion in the optical domain. even if there are free channels available in every link of the network. the erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) operating at 1540 nm region has proven to be an excellent choice for the WDM systems.e.WDM Network Figure 3 : The basic components of the wavelength routed network. however. In particular. Again. Wavelength selective cross-connect (WSXC) routes incoming signals per wavelength basis. An up-to-date survey on wavelength conversion can be found in [22] f) Optical Amplifiers The attenuation of optical signals is low in comparison with electrical signals. The drawback with this approach is the limited bit rate of electronics. as noted in the previous section. Also a similar amplifier for the 1300 nm region has been built using praseodymium instead of erbium. and thus suits well to all-optical framework. Still longdistance links may need amplifiers in order to operate properly. while wavelength interchange cross-connect (WIXC) has also capability to perform wavelength e) Wavelength Conversion Wavelength conversion. The reason is that without it so called wavelength-continuity constraint has to be satisfied. allows more efficient use of the network resources. [15] . The traditional way to solve the problem is to convert the signal back to electrical domain for amplification and retransmit it optically. The amplifier is transparent to used coding and bitrate. Suggested solutions include using the four-wave mixing and fiber nonlinearities. i. Hence.

WDM Network 2. so called λ-labelling. the standard IP over ATM over SONET/SDH over WDM mapping can be considered as an inefficient solution. It gives the cost in terms of power loss. Losses can be reduced by selecting the best components like connectors.4 Quality Of Service : Q-Factor of a light-path is defined as the ratio of output power relative to input power. Higher is the value of Q-Factor. better is the light-path of optical communication. Q-Factor has benefits like it allows simplified analysis of system performance and reflects the quality of the system without using difficult algorithm. The evolution will go towards IP-over-WDM networks. But now it has become very clear that in the future almost all the traffic will be IP-based. Hence. The other extreme is a direct IP/MPLS over WDM solution. To maximize the Q-Factor we need to maximize the output power for constant value of input power. Each additional layer brings naturally some extra overhead to the transmission. Out of all possible light-paths. splices and optical fiber which are having minimum power loss values. [16] . It is expressed in percentage. So we should try to minimize the losses in the optical fiber communication. In the past the end users were people making phone calls or using fax machines etc. We know that output power received is the attenuated version of input power due to attenuation loss. 2. the light-path having minimum power loss should be selected as optimal light-path. where several alternative approaches have been proposed. So 100% Q-Factor means light-path has the highest Q-Factor and the light-path corresponding to this value of Q-Factor will be the best light-path. presented in [23]. It is normalized by dividing the value of Q-Factor with maximum value of Q-Factor possible.3 Evolution of WDM Technology Telecommunication field is full of standards defining different layers for the whole infrastructure. It requires less time than other performance analysis method. splice loss and connector loss.

[17] .Chapter 3 DWDM Network .

Light has an information-carrying capacity 10. The light-emitting diode (LED) and the laser diode proved capable of meeting these requirements. [18] . in 1970. single-mode fibers were shown to be capable of transmission rates 10 times that of the older type. as private and government monopolies that ran the telephone companies were cautious. Lasers went through several generations in the 1960s. We then examine the functions and components of a DWDM system. In the early 1980s. MCI. Innovation at first proceeded slowly.2 Evolution of Fiber Optic Transmission The reality of fiber optic transmission had been experimentally proven in the nineteenth century. Additional advantages of fiber over copper include the ability to carry signals over long distances. culminating with the semiconductor lasers that are most widely used in fiber optics today. followed by Sprint.S. and light weight. Aware of these characteristics. this purified glass fiber exceeded the threshold for making fiber optics a viable technology. low error rates. as well as spans of 32 km (20 mi). including the enabling technologies. and that was the loss of signal strength. Corning produced the first communication-grade fibers. but the technology began to advance rapidly in the second half of the twentieth century with the invention of the fiberscope.000 times greater than the highest radio frequencies. The emergence of DWDM is one of the most recent and important phenomena in the development of fiber optic transmission technology. and conclude with a high-level description of the operation of a DWDM system. In the following discussion we briefly trace the stages of fiber optic technology and the place of DWDM in that development [24].DWDM Network 3. With attenuation less than 20 decibels per kilometer (dB/km). however. researchers in the mid1960s proposed that optical fiber might be a suitable transmission medium. 3.1 Introduction to DWDM Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a fiber-optic transmission technique that employs light wavelengths to transmit data parallel-by-bit or serial-by-character. Finally. or attenuation. AT&T first standardized transmission at DS3 speed (45 Mbps) for multimode fibers. which found applications in industry and medicine. After the viability of transmitting light over fiber had been established. seen in the glass they were working with. adopted single-mode fibers for its long-distance network in the U. Soon thereafter. There was an obstacle. immunity to electrical interference. security. the next step in the development of fiber optics was to find a light source that would be sufficiently powerful and narrow [25]. such as in laparoscopic surgery.

sometimes called narrowband WDM. By the mid-1990s. densely packed at 50 or even 25 GHz intervals.DWDM Network Further developments in fiber optics are closely tied to the use of the specific regions on the optical spectrum where optical attenuation is low. sometimes called wideband WDM. Notice that one of the fiber pair is used to transmit and one is used to receive. a fourth window (L band) near 1625 nm is under development and early deployment. soon proved to be superior because of its lower attenuation. A second window (S band). at 1310 nm. Figure 4 shows an example of this simple form of WDM. lie between areas of high absorption. in which two to eight channels were used. (1310 nm + 850 nm) End System Send End System End System Receive (1310 nm + 850 nm) End System Figure 4: WDM with two channels The early 1990s saw a second generation of WDM. This is the most efficient arrangement and the one most found in DWDM systems. Along with increased density of wavelengths. the first window in silica-based optical fiber. By the late 1990s DWDM systems had evolved to the point where they were capable of 64 to 160 parallel channels. dense WDM (DWDM) systems were emerging with 16 to 40 channels and spacing from 100 to 200 GHz. Today.3 Development of DWDM Technology Early WDM began in the late 1980s using the two widely spaced wavelengths in the 1310 nm and 1550 nm (or 850 nm and 1310 nm) regions. The progression of the technology can be seen as an increase in the number of wavelengths accompanied by a decrease in the spacing of the wavelengths. followed by a third window (C band) at 1550 nm with an even lower optical loss. called windows. 3. systems also [19] . The earliest systems were developed to operate around 850 nm. These regions. These channels were now spaced at an interval of about 400 GHz in the 1550-nm window.

Figure 5 shows the increases in channel density resulting from DWDM technology have had a dramatic impact on the carrying capacity of fiber.DWDM Network advanced in their flexibility of configuration. DWDM involves a small number of physical-layer functions. Figure 5 : Growth in Fiber Capacity 3.4 DWDM System Functions At its core. when the first 10 Gbps systems were demonstrated. Figure 6 : DWDM schematic for four channels [20] . through add-drop functions. which shows a DWDM schematic for four channels [26]. Each optical channel occupies its own wavelength. These are depicted in Figure 6. and management capabilities. the rate of increase in capacity went from a linear multiple of four every four years to four every year . In 1995.

a solid-state laser. modulated as an analog signal. which boost all the wavelengths at once without electrical conversion. and laser power levels. dramatically increased the viability of DWDM systems by greatly extending the transmission distance. This loss is dependent upon the number of channels but can be mitigated with optical amplifiers. EDFAs.DWDM Network The system performs the following main functions: • Generating the signal—the source. must provide stable light within a specific. narrow bandwidth that carries the digital data. Although this task would appear to be simply the opposite of combining the signals. and devices such as fiber Bragg gratings used in optical add/drop multiplexers. coupled in line with the transmitting fiber to boost the optical signal. • Combining the signals—Modern DWDM systems employ multiplexers to combine the signals. In its early form. • Receiving the signals—the de-multiplexed signal is received by a photo-detector In addition to these functions. As such. the signal may need to be optically amplified. unlike SONET/SDH. Other technologies that have been important in the development of DWDM include improved optical fiber with lower loss and better optical transmission characteristics. • Separating the received signals—at the receiving end. as described previously. Over a transmission link. the multiplexed signals must be separated out. To move beyond this initial state. Optical networking. These effects can be minimized by controlling variables such as channel spacing’s. and for a relatively short distance. it is actually more technically difficult. Improvements in optical filters and narrowband lasers enabled DWDM to combine more than two signal wavelengths on a fiber. a DWDM system must also be equipped with client-side interfaces to receive the input signal. There is some inherent loss associated with multiplexing and de-multiplexing. This function is performed by transponders On the DWDM side are interfaces to the optical fiber that links DWDM systems. The invention of the flat-gain optical amplifier. • Transmitting the signals—the effects of crosstalk and optical signal degradation or loss must be reckoned with in fiber optic transmission. WDM was capable of carrying signals over two widely spaced wavelengths. [21] . its development is more closely tied to optics than to electronics. WDM needed both improvements in existing technologies and invention of new technologies. does not rely on electrical data processing. wavelength tolerance.

It gives the cost in terms of power loss. optical fiber that exhibits low loss and transmission performance in the relevant wavelength spectra. splices and optical fiber which are having minimum power loss values. photo-detectors and optical de-multiplexers using thin film filters or diffractive elements and Optical add/drop multiplexers and optical cross-connect components. So we should try to minimize the losses in the optical fiber communication. To maximize the Q-Factor we need to maximize the output power for constant value of input power. stable wavelengths • On the link. So 100% Q-Factor means light-path has the highest Q-Factor and the light-path corresponding to this value of Q-Factor will be the best light-path. Losses can be reduced by selecting the best components like connectors. It requires less time than other performance analysis method.5 Quality of Service : Q-Factor of a light-path is defined as the ratio of output power relative to input power.DWDM Network Components and Operation DWDM is a core technology in an optical transport network. the lightpath having minimum power loss should be selected as optimal light-path. Higher is the value of Q-Factor. Q-Factor has benefits like it allows simplified analysis of system performance and reflects the quality of the system without using difficult algorithm. We know that output power received is the attenuated version of input power due to attenuation loss. It is normalized by dividing the value of Q-Factor with maximum value of Q-Factor possible. lasers with precise. [22] . Out of all possible light-paths. The essential components of DWDM can be classified by their place in the system as follows: • On the transmit side. It is expressed in percentage. 3. better is the lightpath of optical communication. in addition to flat-gain optical amplifiers to boost the signal on longer spans • On the receive side. splice loss and connector loss.

Chapter 4 Network Model & Problem Formulation [23] .

the Optical core layer which is the innermost Optical network layer. The collection of light-paths therefore defines the topology of the virtual network interconnecting electronics/IP Routers.1 Network Model Figure 7 : Physical Topology The model shown in Figure 7 shows the physical topology of the network.Network Model & Problem Formulation 4. consisting of three layers. topology discovery. configuration and capacity management.e. [24] . This is an abstraction of the combined electro-optical network which allows us to focus on that portion of the network where our innovation applies. the Service provider layer shown as the outermost layer. the combined electrooptical network. The optical layer provides point-to-point connectivity between routers in the form of fixed bandwidth circuits. traffic engineering. The IP router communicates with the TCM (Traffic Control Manager) of service provider network and provides the information about the status of the optical layer. which is termed as light-paths. addressing. routing. i. and restoration etc. In IP layer the IP routers are responsible for all the non-local management functions such as management of optical resources. and the Electronic intermediate layer or also known as IP layer.

However for this invention such details are not necessary. Thus it is reasonable to assume. Such an assumption is reasonable. In the following section I describe network topology and calculation of physical layer impairments like power loss. [25] . given the fact that the prices of optical switching equipment have fallen by orders of magnitude till the point that they are being used in the premises of large corporations in order to interconnect buildings etc. i. all the Electronic Gateway Routers (EGR). All the routers shown in the figure are controlled by the service provider (SP). belonging to all the layers. The Traffic Control Manager (TCM) maintains the network as well as PLI constraints such as Capacity. that the service provider has information about the GPRs and the optical equipment within its domain of control. delay. We assume that the service provider has access to General Purpose Routers and also optical components in the core optical network. The SP maintains a traffic matrix in a Traffic Control Manager (TCM) for all the connected general purpose routers. user can not select one path for data communication. and Q-Factor matrices for all the GPRs in the network. as we have done. Electronic Access Routers (EAR) and Optical Access Routers (OAR) within its domain of control. DWDM network and finally comparison of WDM and DWDM network parameters.e. Due to more number of possible paths.Network Model & Problem Formulation Ideally the service provider layer will include elements of the access network such as the PON (Passive Optical Network) related elements and other devices / equipment located at the premises / home. To archive that information we consider quality factor is a factor to choose one best path among all possible paths. In the following sections we outline our algorithms that carry out the computations necessary for the decisions that lead to provisioning/de-provisioning of data-paths. channel capacity and quality factor for WDM network. The service provider layer controls all the traffic corresponding to both IP and optical layers.

Network Model & Problem Formulation 4. 5). In case of WDM. 6). we considered 8 wavelengths with center wavelength 1532nm and in case of DWDM I considered 64 channels with same center wavelength. and (1. Here we considered three pair of source and destination nodes (1.1. (2. channel capacity and quality factor. channel capacity and quality factor.1 Network Topology : 2 3 1 4 6 5 Figure 8 : Network Topology Graph For our simulation work. In my simulation I consider two cases one is WDM and another one is DWDM. The next table shows the parameters used in calculation. [26] . The Figure 8 shows the basic network topology with six nodes. Here all nodes considers as routers. There will be single wavelength or multiple wavelengths possible in between two routers. In the following section described about calculation of power loss. From the values we are going to choose best path based on Data-path selection mechanism. At final we compare both WDM and DWDM values in case of power loss. 3). we have used MATLAB.

2.4db 4. mode-partition noise. The loss introduced by the insertion of optical components. Let Pin be the power launched at the input of a fiber of length L. then the output power Pout is given by Pout = Pin · e−αL (4.1 Power loss calculation Power loss can be defined as the optical loss that is accumulated from source to destination along fiber links and is normally made up of intrinsic fiber losses and extrinsic bending losses [1]. Power loss =Pout -Pin (4. The extrinsic losses are due to micro and macro bending losses. filters. Additional losses occur due to the combined effects of dispersion resulting from inter symbol interference (ISI). and switches.2 Problem Formulation 4. Intrinsic fiber losses are due to attenuation. etc. absorption.15db 3000 ps 1530 nm-1564 nm 0.2) [27] . reflections. optical component insertion losses. such as couplers. into the optical communications system is called insertion loss and is usually independent of wavelength.1) Where α is the fiber attenuation coefficient. multiplexers/ de multiplexers. Rayleigh scattering.Network Model & Problem Formulation Table 1 Parameters Used in Simulation Parameter Attenuation Constant(  ) Chromatic dispersion (  cd ) Wavelength of lights (λ) Noise Figure(F) Values 0. and laser chirp as discussed later in this section. refractions.

M is the total number of clients for sources i and destination j.3 Q-Factor Calculation Assume a flow for client m and n with DP from source s to destination d has Q-Factor requirement QFR (m. n. n. s. For every edge router.3) Here C(i. n. j )  (4.4) 4. when there is no link between ith and jth node. a free available capacity matrix has been considered. j) is the dispersion of the fiber at the operating wavelength with unit’s seconds per nano meter per kilometer.Network Model & Problem Formulation 4. s.where. n.j) is light-path capacity . d   Mi m1 QFRm. and L (i.5) Where. j )  Di. s. d  can be expressed  AQFm. d). j) = ∞. j )  p (4. The optical domain involves with variety of PLIs and their impact on the overall network performance. s. If D (i. j )). then the capacity matrix C m. s. j) is the length of fiber link pair (i. d )  min(C (i. n. Mi is the total possible light-paths between source and destination. where s and d are the source and destination edge GPRs for a DP. n.(i. j) = L (i. s. n. d  M (4. d  can be explained [7] as follows: C (i. In order to get a possible DPs [28] . Then the average Q-Factor as follows: AQF m.2 Channel capacity Calculation Suppose a flow for client m and n with data-path from source s to destination d. s. j) in kilometers.2. δ represents the pulse broadening factor should typically be less than 10% of a bit’s time slot for which the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) can be tolerated [27]and D (i. The capacity metrics C m. C (m. d  calculation is derived from a single link to a group of links in a Data-path (P). j   L(i.2.

Network Model & Problem Formulation based on the link cost.6) Where.k Qidk . we can consider either network layer QoS parameters such as bandwidth and delay or PLI constraints in terms of Q-Factors.8) Where. The Q-Factor (QFi) for ith link is given as below: QFi   10 log Qis.9) Due to amplifier spans. k   noise i.n clients source(s) and destination(d) nodes containing l number of links. the channel lunch power can be relatively low without significant penalties due to noise accumulation. k 1 Nk Ni   (4. d  will be: QFoverall  pm. QFi   Ni j 1 10 log 1  eye i. k  .k and Qidk are the quality factor . d    QFi i 4. s. k  Ni   (4.k  1  eye i. k  (4. Then equation 4.  eyei. Also we can consider both the cases. n. s. We consider the Q-Factor as the link cost corresponding to a light-path as mentioned in [28].  noise i.k Qid. The eye related penalty is due to the effect of linear physical impairments such as polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and chromatic dispersion [29] . d  is the route between m . k   noise i.6 becomes. If pm. n. the overall Q-Factor l QFoverall  pm.7) Further according to [29]. Qis. Nk is the number of light-path at the ith link. k  are the Eye penalty and Noise penalty at ith and kth link. n. measurements of the kth light-path at the source (s) and destination (d) node of the ith link respectively. s. Qis.

k   Li. (4. D p i.2  C 2 i.3 Data-path Selection Mechanism Depending on bandwidth and PLI model explained in previous section.10) Where. 4. n.3. k   s  p F and P d  P s e L . k    pmd i. we have considered three different scenarios for data-path selection mechanism as follows. k    cd i. C i.  is the attenuation constant and L is the length of the DP. k   D p i. 4. while the noise related penalty is due to the effect of amplifier spontaneous emission (ASE) and crosstalk. k  is the capacity.11) (4.Network Model & Problem Formulation (CD). Ps is the input signal power and F is the noise figure  eye i. Pj(m. Pd 1  noise i. say 1 to R. Pd is the outputs signal power. s. s. k  2  eye i. k  is the transmission length. k  (4.1 Data-path selection based on power loss Find All the possible data-path of a given network topology with individual Power Loss Calculation and assign them a path reference number. Sort the Data-path in incremental order of Power Loss. Find the path Pj(m. n. k    cd i. k   10.12) Where. d). which is having the minimal Power loss and j Є R. k  is the PMD parameter and Li. d) is the best data-path Figure 9 : Flowchart for Data-path Selection based on Power Loss [30] . where R is the total number of computed data-path.

We expressed the above mathematically as follows.3. Again all the data-paths are sorted in an incremental order with a new path reference number. Sort the Data-path in incremental order of Channel Capacity. Find All the possible data-path of a given network topology with individual Channel Capacity Calculation and assign them a path reference number. for all possible data-paths.3 Data-path selection based on Q-Factor This method is the combination of both the above scenarios. which is having the minimal power loss. s. Pj(m.Factor requirement one of the data-path will be selected as the best one. d).2 Data-path selection based on Channel capacity The capacity matrix will be analyzed using equation 1. d) is the best data-path Figure 10 : Flowchart for Data-path Selection based on Channel Capacity 4. among all which has the highest channel capacity that can be chosen as the best path. n. say 1 to R.3. then based on the client Q. Find the path Pj(m. [31] . will be selected as the best data-path.Network Model & Problem Formulation For this case we analyze the power loss for all possible paths existing in between source and destination. For this case we analyze QFactor for all possible data-paths with a path reference number. where R is the total number of computed data-path. which is having the highest Channel Capacity and j Є R. s. The data-path among the all possible paths. 4. n.

s. n.13) Where. n.Network Model & Problem Formulation AQF m. d   QFoverall  p j m. s. d  (4. J . 2. …. Figure 11 : Flowchart for Data-path Selection based on Q-Factor [32] . j is the new data-path reference number and j = 1. The new path reference number will be based on the incremental order of the data-path overall Q-Factor.

Chapter 5 Simulation Results [33] .

5).1. 6). No 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 2 BP 3 SN: Source Node.19 97. 2. it shows the power loss for all the possible paths for a given source-destination pair.22 92. DN: Destination Node.Simulation Results 5.26 Ref. The path reference number starts from 1.28 99. which are referred as path reference number. and (1.1 Power loss calculation For all calculation we considered the network shown in Figure 8. [34] . (2. Table 2 Power loss calculation SN 1 DN 6 Path 1-2-3-6 1-4-3-6 1-4-6 1-5-6 2 5 2-3-6-5 2-1-5 2-1-4-6-5 2-3-4-6-5 1 3 1-2-3 1-4-3 1-5-6-3 1-4-6-3 PL(db) 96.47 83. PL: Power Loss.4 99. (2. and (1. We have taken three different sourcedestination pairs such as (1. for that we consider three source and destination pairs ((1.47 99. 3).1 Simulation of PLI Based WDM network 5.64 98. 5). 6).31 94. BP: Best path In Figure 12.71 93. 3)).5 89.17 97.

The following table shows the calculation of channel capacity for all possible paths existing between source and destination pairs as described above .187 for single mode fiber. Figure 12 : Power loss calculations 5. 5). 6). 3) source-destination pair respectively.2 Channel capacity calculation For channel capacity calculation we used the network topology with three source and destination pairs shown in Figure 8.3 . Here channel capacity is calculated for all possible paths existing between source and destination pairs. The relation between dispersion and distance state that dispersion is proportional with distance. We calculated by using equation 4.Simulation Results 3. and (1. [35] . (2-1-5). (2. and 4 etc has been assigned to all possible paths. the minimum power loss path’s are (1-4-6).Here dispersion values are taken from relation between dispersion with distance.1. Among all paths the best path is chosen by following Data-path selection schemes described above. In case of WDM we consider single mode fiber for transmission medium. From the plot. it has shown that. Here pulse broadening factors we taken as 0. and (1-4-3) for (1.

25 0.9 3. By following Data-path selection mechanism best path will be chosen based on power loss and channel capacity. and (1-4-3) respectively for the given source-destination pair.6 0.21 0. BP: Best path In Figure 13.2 0.32 Ref.Simulation Results Table 3 Capacity Calculation SN DN Path Capacity (/ps*10-3) 1 6 1-2-3-6 1-4-3-6 1-4-6 1-5-6 2 5 2-3-6-5 2-1-5 2-1-4-6-5 2-3-4-6-5 1 3 1-2-3 1-4-3 1-5-6-3 1-4-6-3 0. DN: Destination Node.3 0.41 0. (2-1-5).52 0.22 0. All the above calculations like power loss and channel capacity are calculated for single mode fiber WDM network. The plot says. In case of power loss we will choose best path which has less power loss and in case of channel capacity we will choose best path [36] . it shows the channel capacities for all the possible data-paths for the same source-destination pair as mentioned above.3 0. No 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 2 2 BP SN: Source Node.39 0. the corresponding best possible paths are (1-4-3-6).

Here Q-Factor is calculated for all possible paths existing between source and destination pairs.10.1.4 to 4.187 for single mode fiber. If channel capacity is very high.3 Q-Factor Calculation: For Q-Factor calculation we used the network topology with three source and destination pairs shown in figure 8. In case of WDM we consider single mode fiber for transmission medium. [37] . . The relation between dispersion and distance state that dispersion is proportional with distance. Figure 13 : Channel Capacity 5. Among all paths the best path is chosen by following Data-path selection schemes described above.Simulation Results which has high channel capacity. Here pulse broadening factor I taken as 0. We calculated by using equation 4. then bandwidth also will be high.Here dispersion values are taken from relation between dispersion with distance. If maximum bandwidth is available then large number of data will be transmitted. The following table shows the calculation of QFactor for all possible paths existing between source and destination pairs as described above.

BP: Best Path. By checking all possible path Q-Factors will choose nearest Q-Factor as best Data-path for communication. SN: Source Node.Simulation Results Table 4 Q-Factor calculations SN 1 DN 6 PP 1-2-3-6 1-4-3-6 1-4-6 1-5-6 2 5 2-3-6-5 2-1-5 2-1-4-6-5 2-3-4-6-5 1 3 1-2-3 1-4-3 1-5-6-3 1-4-6-3 Path Ref.8 shows the Q-Factor based Data-path selection.32 18. First case stated above.47 7.98 4.25 1.98 16. The figure 4. DN: Destination Node For Q-Factor based Data-path selection has two types one is based on all possible paths QFactors and other one is based on client requirement. No 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 QFoverall 10. [38] .88 6.61 12. In that case we consider all possible paths QFactor calculation and then choose maximum Q-Factor as best path.09 12. In case of client required Q-Factor we consider a default value as client requirement and compare it with all possible paths Q-Factors.99 20.23 6.15 3 3 BP 4 PP: Possible Path.18 12.

(2-1-4-6-5).e. the BPPRN i. if a client has average Q-Factor requirement (AQF) of 11 for the source destination pair (1. and (1. For example. According to the table 4.Simulation Results Figure 14 : Q-Factor calculation Figure 14 shows the plot of Q-Factor with respect to path reference number for all possible paths and source and destination pairs. 15 shows the plot of Q-Factor vs. Here new path reference number taken by arranging the all Q-Factors in increment order for all possible Data-paths between source and destination nodes. which will be the best path. (2. average Q-Factor. 5).. QFoverall >= AQF. [39] . From this plot.e. 6).5 >= 11. i. and (1-5-6-3) respectively.. the best datapath can be selected for a source-destination pair of a client based on their required Q-Factor i.e. then in accordance with the proposed algorithm. which is approaching the new path reference number 4. 6). the assigned new path reference number. Fig. We had taken the average Q-Factor of 11 as the client requirement for all the sourcedestination pair and the corresponding best path (BP) is shown in the table. 3) are (1-5-6). the best path for (1. Corresponding to the highest Q-Factor values. 12.5..

[40] . Here we consider 11 as the client required Q-Factor.98 16.Simulation Results Table 5 Q-Factor with client requirement SN DN PP Path Ref.32 18. AQF: Average Q-Factor required from Clients).15 3 2 1 4 3 1 4 2 2 1 4 3 11 3 11 2 11 4 AQF BP 1 6 1-2-3-6 1-4-3-6 1-4-6 1-5-6 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 5 2-3-6-5 2-1-5 2-1-4-6-5 2-3-4-6-5 1 3 1-2-3 1-4-3 1-5-6-3 1-4-6-3 BPPRN: Best possible path reference number according to highest overall Q-Factor (QFoverall ) .47 7. For example in case of 1 to 3 source and destination pair maximum QFactor is 18.61 so we called that path has 100% Q-Factor.09 12. For that case we consider maximum Q-Factor as cent percent remaining cases are taken the ratio for cent percent.18 12. No QFoverall BPP RN 10. Here the above table shows the Q-Factor values for all individual Data-paths existing in between source and destination pairs.98 4. We can calculate Q-Factor for cent percent also.25 1.23 6. Remaining results are normalized.61 12.88 6.99 20.

6). and (1. (2.1 Power loss calculation: For all calculation we considered the network shown in Figure 8. the below table shows the various values for two source destination pairs 1.e. n. 6). d) ≤ QFoverall (Pj(m. n.Simulation Results Figure 15 : Q-Factor calculation with respect to client requirement Figure 15.2 Simulation of PLI Based DWDM network Here in case of DWDM we consider multiple wavelengths in multi mode fiber for DWDM transmission. QFoverall >= AQF.6 whose Q-Factor requirement is 11 .5 >= 11. d)). 12. i. 5. s.6) source and destination pairs. AQF (m. The power loss is same as WDM because it does not depends on wavelengths. It depends on distance only. 5). s.. then in accordance with the proposed algorithm. i. the best possible data-path can be selected. [41] . a client has average Q-Factor requirement (AQF) of 11 for the source destination pair (1. based on Q-Factor value and clients Q-profile requirement.e. for that we consider three source and destination pairs ((1.2. then in accordance with our algorithm. shows the Q-Factor for best possible data-path reference number to QFactor. 3)). From this plot. For example.. 5. which is approaching the new path reference number 4. So the above figure shows path 4 is the best path for (1. which will be the best path.

and (1.47 99.Simulation Results Table 6 : Power loss calculation for DWDM SN 1 DN 6 Path 1-2-3-6 1-4-3-6 1-4-6 1-5-6 2 5 2-3-6-5 2-1-5 2-1-4-6-5 2-3-4-6-5 1 3 1-2-3 1-4-3 1-5-6-3 1-4-6-3 PL(db) 96. 6). it shows the power loss for all the possible paths for a given source-destination pair.26 Ref.17 97. 5). the minimum power loss path’s are (1-4-6).31 94. From the plot. 3).28 99. No 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 2 BP 3 In Figure 4. 6).71 93.4 99.5 89. (2.6. 2. The path reference number starts from 1. 3) source-destination pair respectively. 3. We have taken three different sourcedestination pairs such as (1. [42] .19 97. (2. it has shown that.47 83.22 92. and (1. (2-1-5).64 98. and 4 etc has been assigned to all possible paths. and (1-4-3) for (1. which are referred as path reference number. 5).

2 Channel capacity calculation For channel capacity calculation we used the network topology with three source and destination pairs shown in figure 8.2.Simulation Results Figure 16 : Power loss calculations for DWDM 5. The following table shows the calculation of channel capacity for all possible paths existing between source and destination pairs as described above. Here channel capacity is calculated for all possible paths existing between source and destination pairs.3 . Among all paths the best path is chosen by following Data-path selection schemes described above.187 for single mode fiber. In case of DWDM we consider multi mode fiber for transmission medium.Here dispersion values are taken from relation between dispersion with distance. We calculated by using equation 4. [43] . Here pulse broadening factors we taken as 0. The relation between dispersion and distance state that dispersion is proportional with distance.

57 5.369 14. and (1-4-3) respectively for the given source-destination pair.8804 20.876 18. No 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 4 3 1 BP In Figure 17. [44] .82 Ref. (2-1-5).4879 20. The plot says. All the above calculations like power loss and channel capacity are calculated for multi mode fiber DWDM network. the corresponding best possible paths are (1-4-3-6).1219 23. In case of power loss we will choose best path which has less power loss and in case of channel capacity we will choose best path which has high channel capacity.42 32.6069 15. By following Data-path selection mechanism best path will be chosen based on power loss and channel capacity. it shows the channel capacities for all the possible data-paths for the same source-destination pair as mentioned above.0122 30.58 16.1263 28.Simulation Results Table 7 : Channel capacity calculation for DWDM SN DN Path Capacity (/ps*10-3) 1 6 1-2-3-6 1-4-3-6 1-4-6 1-5-6 2 5 2-3-6-5 2-1-5 2-1-4-6-5 2-3-4-6-5 1 3 1-2-3 1-4-3 1-5-6-3 1-4-6-3 29.

If maximum bandwidth is available then large number of data will be transmitted.Here dispersion values are taken from relation between dispersion with distance.3 Q-Factor Calculation: For Q-Factor calculation we used the network topology with three source and destination pairs shown in figure 8. The following table shows the calculation of Q- [45] . then bandwidth will be high. Here pulse broadening factor w taken as 0. . The relation between dispersion and distance state that dispersion is proportional with distance. We calculated by using equation 4.10. Here Q-Factor is calculated for all possible paths existing between source and destination pairs.Simulation Results If channel capacity is very high. In case of DWDM we consider multi mode fiber for transmission medium.4 to 4. Figure 17 : Channel Capacity for DWDM 5.187 for single mode fiber. Among all paths the best path is chosen by following Data-path selection schemes described above.2.

86 82.28 83.98 76.05 72. In case of client required Q-Factor we consider a default value as client requirement and compare it with all possible paths Q-Factors.59 82. DN: Destination Node For Q-Factor based Data-path selection has two types one is based on all possible paths QFactors and other one is based on client requirement. By checking all possible path Q-Factors will choose nearest Q-Factor as best Data-path for communication. First case stated above. Table 8 : Q-Factor calculation for DWDM SN 1 DN 6 PP 1-2-3-6 1-4-3-6 1-4-6 1-5-6 2 5 2-3-6-5 2-1-5 2-1-4-6-5 2-3-4-6-5 1 3 1-2-3 1-4-3 1-5-6-3 1-4-6-3 Path Ref. In that case we consider all possible paths QFactor calculation and then choose maximum Q-Factor as best path. [46] .07 85. SN: Source Node.72 86.56 79.7 4 4 BP 1 PP: Possible Path.99 86. BP: Best path. The figure 18 shows the Q-Factor based Data-path selection.8 81.Simulation Results Factor for all possible paths existing between source and destination pairs as described above. No 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 QFoverall 87.64 74.

Simulation Results

Figure 18 : Q-Factor calculation Figure 18 shows the plot of Q-Factor with respect to path reference number for all possible paths and source and destination pairs. Corresponding to the highest Q-Factor values, the best path for (1, 6), (2, 5), and (1, 3) are (1-2-3-6), (2-3-4-6-5), and (1-4-6-3) respectively. We had taken the average Q-Factor of 11 as the client requirement for all the sourcedestination pair and the corresponding best path (BP) is shown in the table. According to the table 9, Fig. 19 shows the plot of Q-Factor vs. the BPPRN i.e., the assigned new path

reference number. Here new path reference number taken by arranging the all Q-Factors in increment order for all possible Data-paths between source and destination nodes and assigned new path reference numbers to each Data-path. After getting new path reference numbers plotted the graph between Q-Factor and new path ref number. From this plot, the best data-path can be selected for a source-destination pair of a client based on their required Q-Factor i.e., average Q-Factor. For example, if a client has average Q-Factor requirement (AQF) of 82 for the source destination pair (1, 6), then in accordance with the proposed algorithm, QFoverall >= AQF, i.e., 85.99 >= 82, which is approaching the new path reference number 2, which will be the best path.
[47]

Simulation Results Table 9 Q-Factor with client requirement SN DN PP Path Ref. No QFoverall BPP RN 87.07 85.99 86.05 72.56 79.8 81.59 82.72 86.86 82.64 74.98 76.28 83.7 4 2 3 1 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 4 82 3 82 3 82 2 AQF BP

1

6

1-2-3-6 1-4-3-6 1-4-6 1-5-6

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

2

5

2-3-6-5 2-1-5 2-1-4-6-5 2-3-4-6-5

1

3

1-2-3 1-4-3 1-5-6-3 1-4-6-3

Here the above table shows the Q-Factor values for all individual Data-paths existing in between source and destination pairs. Here we consider 82 as the client required Q-Factor. We can calculate Q-Factor for cent percent also. For that case we consider maximum Q-Factor as cent percent remaining cases are taken the ratio for cent percent. For example in case of 1 to 3 source destination pair maximum QFactor is 83.7 so we called that path has 100% Q-Factor. Remaining are taken with the ratio with respect to 83.7 Q-Factor.

[48]

Simulation Results

Figure 19 : Q-Factor calculation with respect to client requirement for DWDM Figure 19, shows the Q-Factor for best possible data-path reference number to QFactor. AQF (m, n, s, d) ≤ QFoverall (Pj(m, n, s, d)), i.e., a client has average Q-Factor requirement (AQF) of 82 for the source destination pair (1, 3), then in accordance with the proposed algorithm, QFoverall >= AQF, i.e., 82.64 >= 82, which is approaching the new path reference number 1, which will be the best path.

5.3 Comparison of PLI based WDM/DWDM Network.
5.3.1 Power loss

Due to the individuality of wavelength power loss wont varied. 5.3.2 Channel capacity

Channel capacity is rapidly change for DWDM with multi mode fiber compare with single mode WDM network. Due to the use of multiple wavelengths the capacity of the path will increase because the dispersion values depend on wavelengths of the channel.

[49]

369 14.9 3.25 0.82 The following figure shows graphical representation of comparison for source node 2 to destination node 5 pair.57 5.8804 20.1263 28.32 Capacity For multiple λ 29.39 0.58 16.22 0.6069 15.42 32.6 0.1219 23.0122 30.3 0.41 0.4879 20.876 18. [50] .21 0.52 0.3 0.2 0.Simulation Results Table 10 comparison of Channel capacity for single wavelength and multi wavelength SN DN Path Capacity For single λ 1 6 1-2-3-6 1-4-3-6 1-4-6 1-5-6 2 5 2-3-6-5 2-1-5 2-1-4-6-5 2-3-4-6-5 1 3 1-2-3 1-4-3 1-5-6-3 1-4-6-3 0.

56 Here for Q-Factor case we consider only one source and destination pair if we compare remaining pairs also we will get same type of results.99 1 6 1-2-3-6 1-4-3-6 1-4-6 1-5-6 87.99 86.3 Quality Factor Quality factor also changed for single wavelength and multiple wavelengths due to the increase of channel capacity because quality factor is related to channel capacity. [51] .3.05 72.2 20. Table 11 comparison of Q-Factor for single λ and multiple λ SN DN Path Q-F actor for Multiple λ Q-F actor for Single wavelength 22.95 24.9 26.Simulation Results Figure 20: Comparison of Channel capacity for single and multiple wavelengths 5.07 85.

6) source and destination pair.Simulation Results So in this case we consider only (1. The following figure shows the graphical representation. Figure 21: Comparison of Q-Factor [52] .

Chapter 6 Conclusion & Scope of Future work [53] .

we have considered three scenarios based on power loss. which is to be notified to the client through the traffic control manager. we provide the Q-Factor of all possible paths is to have an option for any client to choose the best suitable path based on their requirements only. The reason. The result shows the variations of power losses.1 Conclusion In our simulation. which is very effective due to the combination of other two scenarios data-path selection based on power loss and channel capacity. It helps to utilize the resources among the clients in an efficient way.2 Scope of Future work Our proposed work is an centralized algorithm so we can give an user interface through . [54] . Our proposed algorithm helps to analyze those constraints and determines the best possible data-path in between sourcedestination pair. channel capacity and Q-Factor for a given source-destination pair. Among those three scenarios. The QFactor is calculated in percentage. Finally the best data-path has been selected based on Q-Factor requirements of the client in percentage.net or java to the user to choose best path with respect to their requirements. channel capacity and quality factor for all possible data-paths for the clients. The Q-Factor requirement from the client again will be in the range of 1 to 100 %. 6. we more focus on data-path selection based on Q-Factor.Conclusion & Scope of Future Work 6.

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