by Val Pinczewski School of Petroleum Engineering University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052. AUSTRALIA

March, 2002

Prepared for


IMPORTANT NOTICE 2002 University of New South Wales. All rights are reserved. This copy of the manual and accompanying software was prepared in accordance with copyright laws for the sole use of students enrolled in a course at the University of New South Wales. It is illegal to reproduce any of this material or to use it for any other purpose.



1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BASIC CONCEPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 Accumulation of Sediments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Origin of Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrocarbon Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 7 9 9 11 14 15 15 15 17 18 19 20 23 31 35 36 37

1.2 OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 Residual Oil Resource (Target for EOR ) . . . . . . . . . . Residual Oil is Trapped or By-passed . . . . . . . . . . . . Recovery Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary Recovery Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Secondary Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tertiary Recovery — EOR Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 WHAT IS RESERVOIR ENGINEERING? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION 2.1 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 SOURCES OF DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 2.2.2 Coring And Core Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wireline Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2.2.3 2.2.4

Pressure and Production Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38 39 42 46

2.3 INTEGRATED FORMATION EVALUATION PROGRAM . . . 2.4 AQUIFER DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 VOLUMETRICS AND INITIAL HYDROCARBON VOLUME 48 3.1 STRUCTURE MAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 ISOPACH MAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 VOLUMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING ORIGINAL OIL-IN-PLACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 Reservoir Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 50 53 54 55 55 56 56 67 68 69

Average Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average Initial Water Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average Oil Formation Volume Factor . . . . . . . . . . . Determining Initial Oil-In-Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4 DETERMINATION OF OIL-IN-PLACE — MATERIAL BALANCE METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 ESTIMATING RESERVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 ESTIMATING DECLINE IN OIL PRODUCTION RATES . . . .

4 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN RESERVOIRS 70 4.1 SUBSURFACE PRESSURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 Water zone pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil zone pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas cap pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 71 72 73 74



4.3 GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 FLUID PROPERTIES 5.1 PHASE BEHAVIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Pure Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrocarbons Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . .

84 86 87 87 89 92 95 98

5.2 PVT PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Pressure Dependence of PVT Properties . . . . . . . . . .

5.3 CALCULATION OF GAS PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5.3.1 5.3.2 Single Gas Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Multi-Component Gas Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

5.4 DETERMINATION OF OIL PVT DATA FROM LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 Flash Expansion Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Differential Liberation Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Separator Flash Expansion Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Procedure for calculating PVT parameters from laboratory data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

5.5 FLUID SAMPLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 5.6 PVT TESTS FOR GAS CONDENSATE FIELDS . . . . . . . . . 119 5.7 GAS HYDRATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5.8 SURFACE TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 5.8.1 Estimating Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124


6.1 ORIGINAL OIL VOLUME BALANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 3

. . . 153 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Water Drive Gas Reservoirs .1. . 182 4 . . . . . . . . . 145 General Material Balance Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 7 RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES AND CORE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 165 7. 149 6. . . . . . . 138 Remaining Oil Volume . . . . 179 The Klinkenberg Effect . . . . . . .1 POROSITY . .3 POROSITY-PERMEABILITY RELATIONSHIPS . . . . . . . . 148 6. .1.2. . .3 USING MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS . . . 159 6. . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7.5. . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 174 7. .2 PERMEABILITY . . . . 175 Laboratory Measurement of Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Knowns and Unknowns . . . . . . . . . . .2 Effective and Total Porosity . . . .1. . . .1 Capillary Tube Model . . . . .2. . . .5 6. . . 165 7. . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . .5 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED GAS RESERVOIR . . . . . 167 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity . . . . . . .2. .1. . . .2 7. . . . . . . . 140 Rock and Connate Water Expansion . .6. . . . .1. . . . . . . 153 6. . . . . 146 6.1. . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . 182 7. .1. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 7. . .4 6. . . . .6 Gas Cap Expansion .2. . .2 PRIMARY RECOVERY MECHANISMS . . . . . . . . .4 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED OIL RESERVOIR . . .3 Measurement of Permeability . . . . 157 6. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 180 7. . . . . 135 Released Gas Volume . .2 Average Reservoir Pressure . . 142 Water Influx . . . . . .1 Typical Performance Characteristics for the Different Drive Mechanisms . . . .

. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .4 8.7. . . . . . . . 197 Radial Flow of an Incompressible Fluid . . . .3. . . .2.2. .2. . . . 212 Flow Efficiency . . . . . 215 8. 228 8. 194 8. . . . . . . .6 Radial Diffusivity Equation . 190 Use of Rock Compressibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Liquids Having Small and Constant Compressibility . . . . . . 201 Wellbore Damage .2 8. . . . . . 206 Relationship between s and the size of the altered zone . . . . .4 WELL PRODUCTIVITY . . . . . . . . . 219 Pseudo-Steady-State Radial Flow . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . .3 8. 185 7. . . . . 192 194 8 FLUID FLOW 8. . . . . . . . . 197 8. .2 Productivity Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Flow Equations in terms of Average Reservoir Pressure . . 210 Effective Wellbore Radius . .3 8. . . . . . . . .3. . . .4. . . . .6 Horizontal Linear Flow of an Incompressible Fluid . . . . . . . . . . 195 8.4 8. .1 Pressure Potential . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .4 ROCK COMPRESSIBILITY . . 189 Measurement of Formation Compressibility .2 STEADY-STATE FLOW . . . . . . . . .1 7. . 186 7.2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 DARCY’S LAW . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . .2. .1 8. . . . . . .3 Pore Volume Compressibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 5 . . . .3. . . . .2. . .1 8. . 229 8. .4. .2 Fractured medium model . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 223 Dietz Shape Factors for Vertical Wells . 229 Partial Penetration . .4. 225 Approximating Complex Geometries . . .3 UNSTEADY STATE FLOW . .3. . . 213 8.

1 8. . . .6. .5. . . 240 Pressure-squared approximation . . . . . . .5. . . 000psi and ∆p small 236 High pressure approximation — p > 3. 241 High Pressure approximation .1 8. . . . 000psi and ∆p small 237 ∆p is not small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .6. . . . . .5.6 HORIZONTAL WELLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. 261 6 . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 8. . . . . .5 GAS FLOW . . . .5. . . .4 8. . . . . 249 8. . . . . . . . . . 238 Steady and Pseudo-Steady State Radial Gas Flow . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . .5. . .5 8.2 Drainage Area . . . . .8. 251 Productivity of Horizontal Wells . . . . . . . . . 239 Non-Darcy flow . 241 Gas Well Back Pressure Equation . . . .5. .6 8.8 Low pressure approximation — p < 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . .

1 BASIC CONCEPTS Accumulation of Sediments The accumulation of sediments in a basin depends on the balance between the energy of the depositional environment (water velocity) and the sedimentation velocity of the particles. The sedimentation velocity depends on the size and density of the particles. (layering).1 1. This process leads to sorting of sediments with the accumulation of sand grains in one area and clay and silt particles in another area. Smaller particle sediments may be further moved by waves and currents to other locations where the environmental energy is insufficient to carry the particles further.1. 1. If you are familiar with this material skip this section. Sediments carried by high velocity streams may be deposited in the delta region of the river where flow velocities are much slower. 7 . This results in a sequential deposition of sand (large particles) and shale (fine particles) producing sequences of sand and shale.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION For those unfamiliar with reservoir engineering or reservoir geology the following section gives a brief summary of some basic concepts. This layering or vertical heterogeneity is the single most important characteristic determining reservoir performance and recovery. The depositional energy at a particular location varies with time.

Figure 1.1: Schematic of a typical depositional sequence 8 .

Increasing burial causes the fine-grained sediments to undergo compaction and the source rocks eventually become effectively impermeable. This process is called primary migration.000 ft for fine grained sediments containing organic matter (source rocks) to produce oil and gas.000 ft to 23. 1. 9 .1.1.1. This is called an anticlinal trap. The minimum temperature for oil and gas formation is about 150o F and the maximum is about 320o F. Anaerobic bacteria decomposes the organic matter to produce compounds of carbon. This is called secondary migration. The hydrocarbon contained in the reservoir may be oil or gas or both. enter the overlying and underlying water saturated permeable sand layers which have retained their porosity and permeability because the coarse sand grains are stronger than the fine-grained silt and clay particles and therefore better withstand the increasing compaction forces with increasing burial depth.2 Origin of Petroleum The precursors of petroleum. organic matter from dead plants and animals. Quite water is deficient in oxygen leading to the creation of anaerobic conditions and preservation of the organic matter. are deposited together with fine-grained sediments in shallow marine environments during low energy periods of basin formation. As the particles compact the generated hydrocarbon particles (oil or gas) are squeezed from the source rock. The expelled hydrocarbon particles. Since temperature increases with depth. Here are some commonly used terms to describe petroleum reservoirs. The conversion of the organic matter occurs over geological time as sediments become progressively buried and temperature and pressure increase. this results in a burial depth window of between 7. hydrogen (hydrocarbons) and oxygen. in the form of colloidal solutions (micelles) or individual drops or bubbles.3 Hydrocarbon Traps The expelled hydrocarbon is lighter than the water in the interconnected pore space of the permeable sand layers and moves upwards as a result of buoyancy. As hydrocarbon accumulates under the trap a reservoir is formed. The characteristics of hydrocarbon traps are illustrated by considering a porous permeable formation between two impermeable layers which has been folded by tectonic action into an anticline (see the attached figure). You will probably be familiar with most of these terms. The upward migration of generated hydrocarbon continues until it is halted by an impermeable barrier or trap.

Oil-water contact: lowest depth at which oil can be produced. Spill point: the lowest point of the trap that can hold hydrocarbon. Gas-oil contact: lowest depth at which gas can be produced. Oil zone: oil reservoir. Water zone or aquifer: the body of water bearing rock in hydraulic communication with the reservoir. Gas cap: gas filled zone or gas reservoir. These may be either clastic rocks (sandstones) or limestone and dolomite (carbonates). Connate water: water in the pore space occupied by hydrocarbons. Reservoir: the part of the formation which contains hydrocarbon (oil and/or gas) and connate water.2: Cross-section for an anticlinal reservoir Formation: the rocks. Bottom water: water below the oil-water contact.Figure 1. 10 . Edge water: water laterally adjacent the oil-water contact. Trap closure: the distance between the crest and the spill point.

Diapiric traps .Figure 1.formed by displacement of blocks of rock as a result of unequal tectonic forces.formed by compressional or compactional anticlines.1.4: Faulted structural trap 1. Structural traps Structural traps are formed by tectonic processes acting on sedimentary layers after deposition. 11 .3: Anticline structural trap Figure 1. Fault traps . Fold traps . They may be classified as.4 Classification of Traps Hydrocarbon traps are classified as either structural or stratigraphic.formed by intrusion of salt or mud diapirs.

Stratigraphic traps may be associated with unconformities.Figure 1. it cannot be concluded from the section alone that the central block is completely isolated from the rest of the formation.5: Salt dome structural trap Stratigraphic traps Stratigraphic traps are produced by facies (rock type) changes in the formation such as pinchouts and lenticular sand bodies surrounded by impermeable shales. This will improve your understanding of the basic concepts. The blocks may be in pressure communication through the aquifer. Unconformities generally separate formations formed under very different depositional conditions. An uncomformity forms when a site of sediments is uplifted. eroded and buried again under new layers of sediments that may form the trap. Study the attached figures in the context of the above discussion. 12 . The processes involved in the formation of stratigraphic traps are complex because they involve changes in the depositional environment. (ii) However. The oil and gas zones have different contacts. Note the following important points in the last of the figures: (i) The oil and gas zones in the central block are not in direct pressure communication with the oil and gas zones in the left and right blocks.

7: Schematic of an oil and gas reservoir with a faulted central block and different fluid contacts 13 .6: Stratigraphic trap Figure 1.Figure 1.

2 OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES Oil recovery operations are generally classified into three groups. Secondary Recovery .enhanced oil recovery processes (EOR).Figure 1. In an EOR process conventional water or gas is replaced by a more effective (more expensive) recovery agent. Primary Recovery . Tertiary Recovery .8: USA oil resource 1. gas cap expansion.production using only natural reservoir energy (natural water drive. solution gas drive and pressure depletion drive). An EOR process is any process which does a better job of recovering oil than conventional technology (primary and secondary recovery processes).water or gas injection to maintain reservoir pressure (waterflooding and immiscible gas injection to supplement natural reservoir energy). 14 .

.fracking.Unrecovered mobile oil can be recovered by conventional processes by improved access to the reservoir. 1. .Trapping on the micro or pore scale is by capillary forces.2.current EOR technology can produce about 20% —30% of the residual oil resource.perforating unperforated layers.3 Recovery Processes Unrecovered oil may be classified into two categories: Unrecovered mobile oil and immobile or residual oil.1 Residual Oil Resource (Target for EOR ) Conventional primary recovery methods are usually very inefficient and.infill drilling. . . . . . 15 .2/3 OOIP cannot be produced by conventional recovery technology. on the world average. .Trapping on the macro or field scale is caused by areal and vertical bypassing.trapping of oil occurs on all reservoir length scales.selective shut-off of water and gas producing zones.2. Reservoir access may be improved by.1. . recover approximately 1/3 of the OOIP. . Trapping on all scales is strongly influenced by heterogeneity.2. .horizontal and multilateral wells. 1.2 Residual Oil is Trapped or By-passed Oil which cannot be recovered using existing facilities or infrastructure (existing investment) is trapped (microscale) or by-passed (macroscale) .removal of formation damage caused by completion operations.

Figure 1.9: Residual is trapped or bypassed on all reservoir length scales 16 .

Immobile oil cannot be recovered by primary and secondary recovery processes such as waterflooding and immiscible gas injection. All EOR techniques attempt to recover residual oil by: (i) Improving reservoir sweep efficiency . 1.2.10: Recovery processes . (ii) Mobilizing immobile or residual oil. 17 . This oil can only be recovered by tertiary EOR processes.Figure 1.4 Primary Recovery Mechanisms An estimate of the likely primary production mechanism for a reservoir may be made on the basis of geological data even before the reservoir has been produced.

The importance of instituting a program to gather this data as early as possible in the development and production life of a reservoir cannot be over emphasized. (iii) Formation permeability can be estimated from core data and flow tests on wells.For example: (i) Thin.2. A good data gathering program is a key component of an effective reservoir management strategy. Material balance calculations require: (i) Accurate and comprehensive production history. (ii) Representative fluid samples for PVT analysis. to identify the need and timing for secondary gas or water injection. or form a secondary gas cap. Drill-stem tests on dry holes and structurally low wells (wells penetrating the aquifer) may yield important indications of aquifer permeability and continuity. Sometimes it is useful to complete dry holes as aquifer observation wells. (iii) High permeability reservoirs in contact with an extensive aquifer will benefit to some degree from natural water influx (water drive). 18 . This may supplement the effectiveness of the original gas cap. The aquifer can have a profound effect on reservoir performance. (iii) Periodic pressure surveys. Pressure data from such wells can be important in characterizing reservoir-aquifer systems. (ii) Reservoirs having high closure and high permeability may experience the beneficial effects of gravity segregation of oil and gas. Useful estimates of future production trends can be obtained from a knowledge of: (i) The size of the gas cap relative to the size of the oil reservoir. (ii) The size of the aquifer relative to the size of the oil zone. amongst other things. 1. Material balance calculations may be used to determine the relative importance of the various natural drive mechanisms for a particular reservoir.5 Secondary Recovery Predictions of future reservoir performance are required. flat reservoirs with low permeability will most likely produce by a solution-gas drive mechanism.

11: Steam flooding process 1. Decisions regarding the actual implementation of EOR processes are not made until sufficient field data is available to accurately assess primary and secondary performance. EOR processes may be classified into three major categories: 1.2. Chemical — Micellar Polymer Flooding — Polymer Flooding — Caustic or Alkaline Flooding 2.6 Tertiary Recovery — EOR Processes The same techniques used to determine the need for secondary recovery are used to assess the need for tertiary developments.Figure 1. Thermal — Steam Flooding — Fire Flooding 19 .

Miscible — Enriched Hydrocarbon Gas Flooding — CO2 Flooding — Nitrogen and Flue Gas Flooding The complexity of these processes requires the gathering of large quantities of additional laboratory fluid and core data and the use of considerably more complex analysis techniques. 1. A basic understanding of reservoir engineering concepts is necessary for the planning.12: Carbon dioxide flooding process 3.3 WHAT IS RESERVOIR ENGINEERING? Reservoir Engineering is the science of understanding the production characteristics of oil and gas fields under primary (natural pressure depletion). 20 . immiscible gas flooding) and tertiary (EOR) drive mechanisms. development and production of oil and gas fields. secondary (water flooding.Figure 1.

Figure 1. 3. reservoir geometry (shape). The reservoir engineer utilizes this data together with well production rates and measured reservoir pressures to analyze and interpret the data in order to optimize oil and gas recovery. 21 .13: Chemical flooding process Geologists and Petrophysicists provide a description of the structure of the formation or reservoir and vital physical parameters describing the reservoir internal structure and initial distribution of fluids. How much hydrocarbon (oil and/or gas) does a reservoir initially contain(initial hydrocarbon in-place)? How much of the hydrocarbon initially in-place can ultimately be recovered? How will the production rates of wells depend on the physical parameters of the reservoir. Reservoir Engineers are required to answer the following three vital questions: 1. 2. well number and development pattern and how will the rate decline with time? The first question may be answered if the shape and size of the pay zone is known and the distribution of porosity and water saturation in the zone are also known.

The answer to the second question is very complex. These are required to model the many alternative developments which result in different ultimate recoveries and profitability.This data is provided by the geologist and the petrophysicist. It requires the use of sophisticated mathematical models (usually computer based reservoir simulators). The process of producing production forecasts for the different recovery mechanisms and development plans will always be associated with some degree of uncertainty because geologic formations are highly heterogeneous and the geological description. The answer to the third question relies on detailed analysis of pressure and individual well test data. The reservoir engineer may assist by estimating the positions of gas-oil and water-oil contacts if the positions of these contacts is unknown. can never capture all the geologic variability. 22 . no matter how sophisticated.

This information is represented by various types of maps and cross-sections. permeability. both areally and vertically. This is the first step in a reservoir engineering study.Chapter 2 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION The basis for a sound understanding of reservoir performance is a good description of reservoir geology (geological model) and the distribution of fluids (oil. (i) a description of reservoir stratification (reservoir lithology). these changes result in 23 . Depositional conditions at any instant also vary from one location to another which results in lateral as well as vertical changes within the reservoir and within individual rock units. (iii) information on porosity. and water saturation throughout the reservoir. Rock and Reservoir Description Reservoir engineering studies require that the physical makeup of a reservoir be represented in a usable manner. This should include. As we will see later. and (iv) a description of the size and permeability of the adjoining aquifer. Reservoir Heterogeneity Most reservoirs are layered because of variations that existed in the depositional environment. water and gas) it contains. (ii) a description of reservoir geometry. These are usually prepared by production geologists.

Figure 2.1: Highly detailes geostatistical models for reservoir characterization 24 .

stratification also exists within the net sand layers themselves and the degree of porosity and permeability can vary greatly within each strata. Primary porosity may be modified by post depositional events. Wireline logs Electric and other types of logs can be very important tools for determining reservoir layering. fluid distribution. The logs can be calibrated by core data to make them more useful from a quantitative standpoint. small mineral particles may be deposited in the space be25 . Core analysis Core analysis data provide an additional basis for determining net sand thickness and reservoir zonation. Stratification Stratification or heterogeneity occurs on all length scales in a reservoir. However. in most cases logs are more effective when supported by core data. For example. but generally. Porosity of net sand usually is in the range from 10 to 30 %. Reservoir cross-sections based on logs can show if permeable zones are continuous throughout the reservoir or if they are lenses having limited areal extent. Methods of analyzing logs and techniques of using logs for determining net sand thickness and evaluating sand continuity are beyond the scope of this course. logs are available for all wells drilled and represent the most complete set of reservoir descriptive data. Logs also show the net sand at each well. Although reservoir stratification is usually considered only in terms of net sand layers and impermeable streaks of sand or shale. Net sand is the rock that contains recoverable hydrocarbons and possesses permeability. only a fraction of the wells are cored. Porosity and Permeability The two most important properties of net sand are porosity and permeability. Generally. Permeability is a measure of the relative ease with which fluids flow through the rock. A geologist should be consulted when analyzing logs for reservoir zonation and net sand thickness. Some limestone and dolomite reservoirs locally may have porosities as high as 60 %. The porosity in reservoir rocks usually occurs in the spaces between rock particles and this is called primary porosity or intergranular porosity. Primary porosity can also exist in fractures and vugs. and permeability. Under some conditions. the calibrated logs can be used to obtain fairly good estimates of the porosity and permeability profiles at all wells in a reservoir.variations in porosity. Core analysis data is more quantitative than logs in describing the reservoir.

2: Vertical heterogeneity or layering 26 .Figure 2.

Figure 2.3: Examples of structural and geological complexity 27 .

28 . e. the permeabilities of the net sand portion of a reservoir will vary from 10 md or less to 500 md or more. These data are used to evaluate initial volumes of oil and gas in the reservoir Evaluation of potential sources of reservoir production energy. so fluid flow profiles in the reservoir may be very uneven.4: Schematic of wireline logging operation tween sand grains to produce microporosity.g. The process of reservoir description is sometimes referred to as formation evaluation and reservoir characterization. Interpretation of the above data for accuracy and reliability. Gathering of data on the characteristics.Figure 2. The ability of a rock to allow fluid flow is proportional to permeability. Typically. extent of aquifer and size of gas cap. These digenetic changes may greatly reduce the original porosity and permeability of a rock. It involves the following steps: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Gathering of data on the physical characteristics of formation rocks. occurrences and distribution of fluids within these rocks.

Figure 2.5: Formation microscanner and resistivity logs 29 .

6: Schematic of a rotory core barrel 30 .Figure 2.

and how can the decline in production rate be arrested? 31 .) and the collection of poor quality or inaccurate data is contradictory and wasteful. sampling. 2.1 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION PROGRAM The primary objectives of a data gathering program are to answer the following questions: (i) (ii) Does the formation contain commercial quantities of oil and gas? How should the reservoir be produces to maximize economic return? or. more specifically. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) How much stock tank oil and/or free gas is initially in place? What is the likely primary recovery mechanism and will it be necessary to supplement this energy by water or gas injection? What are the oil and gas reserves (production volumes for a particular field development)? How will individual well rates decline.7: Diamond coring bits Data collection is expensive (wireline logging.Figure 2. pressure testing etc. It is therefore necessary to place considerable effort into preparing an effective data gathering program.

Figure 2.8: Schematic of a sidewall coring gun 32 .

Figure 2.9: Full diameter core 33 .

10: Length scales for laboratory core analysis Figure 2.Figure 2.11: Sampling anisotropic core 34 .

2 SOURCES OF DATA The following is a guide to the type of data which may be collected with the drilling of the first well in a reservoir: Original reservoir pressure and temperature. 2. Wireline logs. As the field is developed and produced. Fluid samples. 35 . It is important to recognize this when developing the initial data gathering program.The above questions cannot all be answered immediately after drilling of a discovery well. The overall data gathering program is thus a continuing process over the life of the field. Well productivity (permeability). Gross reservoir thickness at the well. additional data becomes available. However. the engineer can arrive at reasonable planning estimates. The above information is obtained from: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Core samples. and this is integrated with the existing data to reduce the level of uncertainty associated with the initial estimates. Reservoir porosity. provided that the data gathering program is well thought-out. Stratigraphic sequence of rock at the well. Initial fluid saturations. Characteristics of reservoir fluid. Lithology of the reservoir rock. Pressure and production testing.

Additional delineation or development wells drilled after the first discovery well should provide the following data: Reservoir thickness variations to allow mapping of the field. Areal variations in permeability, porosity and water saturation. Continuity of stratigraphic units between wells. Vertical permeability variations (vertical barriers to flow) in the reservoir. Variations of sub-sea depth of reservoir top and base for structure maps. Depth Of gas-oil and oil-water contacts. Variations in fluid compositions within the reservoir.

These factors are determined in the same manner as for the first well. The presence of multiple wells allows interference testing between wells to determine average permeabilities between wells and to test the continuity of individual sand units. Not all of the above data will be collected from each well drilled. The engineer must continually assess the data gathering process and only collect that data which materially reduces the level of uncertainty in estimating the important reservoir parameters. When areal variations in rock properties are large, it may be necessary to collect all the data from all the wells drilled and to drill additional data wells.


Coring And Core Analysis

Coring is the most basic formation evaluation tool. It provides the engineer with the only opportunity to physically inspect a piece of the reservoir. It provides the only means of determining, (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Reservoir wettability. Capillary pressure. Relative permeability. Residual oil saturation.


These are important in determining formation production characteristics and reservoir recovery factors. Measurements on reservoir core samples are also required for: (i) (ii) Calibration of wireline logs, essential for quantitative log interpretation. Identifying potential causes of formation damage.

It is difficult to base an entire reservoir description entirely on core analysis data. This is because even in a heavily cored reservoir, the total cored volume constitutes only a very small fraction of the entire reservoir volume. As a result, it is very difficult to assess the statistical significance of the data. At least one well in the reservoir should be cored over the entire producing interval. The data obtained provides valuable information for describing vertical variations in reservoir rock properties.


Wireline Logging

Wireline logging provides information on: (i) (ii) (iii) lithology, porosity, water saturation,

of the formation penetrated by a well. Whereas only a few wells are fully cored, it is common practice to log all wells in the field. Logs provide the basis for determining, (i) gross and net formation thickness, (ii) correlations identifying individual reservoir sand units, (iii) continuity of reservoir sand units,


There are three basic types of log: 1. 2. 3. Electric — fundamental log run in all wells drilled. Most electric logs must be run in an uncased hole containing conducting fluid. Sonic — Usually run in open hole. Radioactivity — can be run successfully under nearly all wellbore conditions.

Although logs provide valuable data for reservoir description, the main purpose of logging is to identify a suitable completion interval for the well. A logging program should be designed to designed to provide the data required for reservoir description at a minimum cost. Lithology and borehole conditions must be considered in the selection of a suitable suite of logs. This will usually require a trial-and-error process of selecting the most effective combination of logs for a particular reservoir. Prior experience is a major fracture in the design of an effective logging program.


Pressure and Production Testing

Pressure and production tests are designed to determine, (i) (ii) fluid content, formation productivity.

Production tests repeated on a yearly basis over the life of a well provide valuable information on, (i) wellbore plugging, (ii) reservoir pressure decline, (iii) invasion of the wellbore by water or gas. Pressure build-up and draw-down tests involve flowing a single well at a constant rate for a predetermined period of time and then shutting-in the well and observing the rate at which the wellbore pressure rises or falls with time. An analysis of the pressure response allows an estimate of formation productivity and permeability.


Figure 2.12: Wireline formation interval tester

Interference tests provide checks on formation permeability and continuity. These tests involve flowing a production well and measuring the resulting pressure decline at nearby wells. Drill-stem tests are usually run at the time the well is drilled to determine if the well should be completed over the interval identified by the well log. The DST tool allows us to make a temporary completion to conduct pressure build-up and draw-down tests. DST’s are useful for: (i) testing the potential production intervals, (ii) locating the positions of gas-oil and oil-water contacts, (iii) Determining average reservoir pressure.


Fluid Sampling

Reservoir oil usually contains a considerable amount of dissolved gas. When the oil is produced to the surface the gas comes out of solution and the oil volume consequently shrinks. The oil that fills a barrel at surface conditions will have occupied between 10%—50% at reservoir conditions. 39

Figure 2.13: Initial and production formation pressure data with flowmeter survey


14: Single and multi-well pressure tests Figure 2.Figure 2.15: Rate and pressure history for an interference test 41 .

It is therefore necessary to develop an integrated formation evaluation program which consists of a carefully considered mix of: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Logs .only means of determining reservoir fluid properties.these provide most of the data for reservoir characterization. fluid properties may vary significantly both areally and vertically.3 INTEGRATED FORMATION EVALUATION PROGRAM No single wireline tool or procedure is capable of providing all the data required to characterize a reservoir and its contents. A number of Key wells are selected to provide a representative coverage over the reservoir. Cores . Enough samples should be taken to adequately describe these variations.provide estimates of permeability and productivity. Recombined surface samples — oil and gas samples from the test separator recombined in the ratio of the produced gas-oil ratio. Other important properties of oil. Fluid sampling . The following steps are taken in the development of such a program: 1. These properties are very important in reservoir fluid flow calculations and must be accurately known. 2. 2. 42 . Well testing . Subsurface — wireline samplers in the wellbore at the perforations or as part of the initial open-hole formation evaluation program. A rule of thumb is that at least one well is needed for each 640 acres. The best approach is to adopt a Key Well Program. also change when solution gas is released.To determine oil-in-place it is necessary to know the number of stock tank barrels occupied by a reservoir barrel of oil. such as density and viscosity. Reservoir fluid may be sampled in two ways: 1. For heterogeneous reservoirs this is reduced to 320 acres or less. In large reservoirs having high closure.used to calibrate logs for quantitative interpretation.

Figure 2.16: Bottom hole sampling tool 43 .

3. Logs run in non-key wells are then interpreted according to the correlations developed for the key wells. The above data gathering procedures are continuously monitored with the objective of eliminating any unnecessary or ineffective procedures. A reservoir description program is needed during all phases of the producing life of a field. coring and well testing to provide complete reservoir coverage over the reservoir. 4. 2. 44 . This will include logging. Any available production data from key wells is also used to aide log interpretation.17: Surface sampling for laboratory recombination 2. Determining which logs provide the best quantitative data by comparing log interpretations with core data. 1. After field development the information is used for reservoir energy control in order to achieve high ultimate recovery. The above steps ensure a data gathering procedure which is both simple and cost effective. 5.Figure 2. A data gathering program is designed for each key well. Early in the development of the field this information is required to achieve proper well spacing and productive completions.

Figure 2.18: Key well program 45 .

The size and permeability of an aquifer will control how much water drive energy is available to the reservoir. Contacts can be detected by production tests. To effectively engineer these processes it is necessary to have an accurate reservoir description and an estimate of hydrocarbon recovery. Pressure gradients in the reservoir. The aquifer 46 . cased hole logging and 4D high-resolution interwell seismic. In addition to production wells it may be necessary to drill observation wells.19: Aquifer models .Figure 2. 2. These wells can provide data which includes: (i) (ii) (iii) Reservoir pressure.4 AQUIFER DESCRIPTION The aquifer is the total volume of porous water-bearing rock in pressure communication with a hydrocarbon reservoir. Secondary and Tertiary data and interference 3. Position and movement of contacts.

An estimate of the aquifer permeability can be determined from the results of drill-stem tests on dry holes. we are concerned only with methods of determining the size and permeability of an aquifer. the areal extent of the aquifer can be estimated. Reservoir drive mechanisms will be discussed in detail later in the course. At the present time. 47 . The aquifer can have a major effect on the production-pressure performance of a reservoir. most of the information on it must come from wells drilled outside the reservoir area. Equations for calculating permeability from flow test data will be studies in the portion of the course entitled fluid will determine if the reservoir will produce primarily by water drive or by liquid or gas expansion within the reservoir. This topic will be covered in detail in the section on water drive reservoirs. Logs and drill-stem tests on dry holes are about the only source of aquifer data. If enough dry holes are available. If an aquifer is large. Logs will show the thickness of water-bearing rock that is in communication with the reservoir.

(i) well control. The data on which the maps are drawn usually come from. The maps may show the top or the bottom of a structure or reservoir unit. Structure maps are prepared by geologists. These maps also show the positions of fluid contacts in the reservoir. Structure maps on the top and on 48 .1 STRUCTURE MAPS Structure maps show the geometric shape of a reservoir or formation. (ii) geophysical data usually in the form of time maps. and (iii) geological models of depositional and post-depositional events. 3. Contour maps are commonly used to show reservoir geometry and the distribution of important reservoir parameters. In this section we will briefly look at how maps and cross-sections are used to describe the geometry of a reservoir and calculate the hydrocarbon volume in-place. This requires data which will allow us to calculate the size and geometry of the reservoir and the fluid volumes which the reservoir contains.Chapter 3 VOLUMETRICS AND INITIAL HYDROCARBON VOLUME The first step in a reservoir study is to accurately determine the initial hydrocarbon volume. Examples of top of structure maps are attached. Gross thickness isopach maps show the total interval between the top and the base of the reservoir rock for each well.

1: Isometric schematic of the Ekofisk structure 49 .Figure 3.

2 ISOPACH MAPS Isopach maps show the distribution and thickness of reservoir properties of interest. 50 .Figure 3. Examples of common isopach maps are: Gross oil thickness isopach map: contours gross pay . the gross sand interval must be estimated from reservoir cross-sections based on logs from the well which penetrated the entire interval. The contour lines connect points of equal vertical interval. In this case.gross pay minus nonreservoir intervals such as shales.2: Top-of-structure map of a hydrocarbon reservoir the base of the reservoir can provide data for the isopach map. Net oil thickness isopach map: contours net pay . Net oil isopach maps are commonly used to calculate volumes of hydrocarbons in-place.the depth of the top of the oil column minus the top of the bottom of the oil column. The gross pay isopach map for an oil reservoir is more descriptive of the hydrocarbon reservoir geometry than the gross thickness isopach. 3. most of the wells are not drilled to the base of the reservoir so a base structure map cannot be drawn. Frequently.

51 . Iso-porosity map: contours average porosity over net-pay portions of the desired formation.3: Net sand isopach map for a hydrocarbon reservoir Other useful maps include: Net-to-gross ratio maps: fraction of the total hydrocarbon interval which contributes to recovery.Figure 3. Iso-water saturation map: contours average water saturation over net-pay portions of the desired formation.

Figure 3.5: Iso-water saturation map for a hydrocarbon reservoir 52 .4: Isoporosity map for a hydrocarbon reservoir Figure 3.

If you wish to review the topic of units go to the section Units . The original gas-in-place (OGIP) contained in a reservoir. starting with the above equation for any set of self consistent units. Fundamentals of reservoir engineering. expressed in Standard Cubic Feet (SCF). you should be able to calculate the constant 7758 in the preceeding equation. 7758Vb φ(1 − S wi ) G= B gi where.3. in any set of self consistent units: G= Vb φ(1 − S wi ) B gi 53 .e. is designated by the symbol G and is given by the equation (in field units). in any set of self consistent units: N= Vb φ(1 − S wi ) B oi In this and the following reservoir engineering courses it is assumed that you are familiar with units and unit conversions i.unit conversions on page 108 of Dake.3 VOLUMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING ORIGINAL OIL-IN-PLACE The original oil-in-place (OOIP) contained in a reservoir expressed in Stock Tank Barrels (STB) is designated by the symbol N and is given by the equation (field units): 7758Vb φ(1 − S wi ) N= B oi where.. Vb φ S wi B oi = = = = reservoir bulk volume (acre-feet) average porosity (fraction) average initial water saturation (fraction) average initial oil formation volume factor (RB/STB) or. B gi = average initial gas formation volume factor (RB/SCF) or.

These intervals will generally lie above the gas-oil contact (GOC) and below the oil-water contact (OWC).3. The gross thickness is the difference in depth between the top and the bottom of the reservoir zone. 2. Bulk reservoir Volume. Reservoir Stratification (and net-to-gross ratio).1 Reservoir Volume The following information is required to calculate net reservoir volume: 1. (i) (ii) the top of the reservoir. the bottom of the reservoir.6: Schematic of the microstructure of a sandstone showing sand grains and interconnected pore space which allows fluid flow 3. The calculation procedure involves the following steps: 1. 2.Figure 3. 54 . Construct a gross sand isopach map by removing intervals containing only gas or water. The map is based on log data and requires the construction of structure maps for. Prepare a map of gross reservoir thickness.

These tests attempt to restore the wettability of core in the laboratory to that in the actual reservoir.3.). Coring with oil-based muds. 55 . 3. coring with oil-based mud can result in core which gives a good indication of the irreducible water saturation.3. 2. This requires a knowledge of the wettability state of the reservoir and special core test data. This procedure will normally involve estimates of minimum porosity and permeability cut-offs. The restored state core is then used in the laboratory to duplicate the displacement processes by which the reservoir water saturation was initially established. In the transition zone the core will indicate low water saturation because the oil from the oil-based mud will have displaced some of the mobile water from the core during the coring operation.2 Average Porosity Average reservoir porosity is determined by mapping individual well porosity values. The calculation is usually performed numerically using digitized maps. The actual intervals to be excluded are picked from porosity logs which have been calibrated using core data. 3. Logging — induction and focused resistivity logs.3 Average Initial Water Saturation The methods used to determine reservoir water saturation include: 1. Restored state tests. These are determined from core data and from sonic and radioactivity logs calibrated with core data. Construct a net sand isopach map by eliminating all non-reservoir rock intervals (shale.3. These logs measure formation resistivity which may be related to water saturation. Provided that invasion of drilling fluids has not changed reservoir wettability. siltstone. coal seam etc. This corresponds to the water saturation in the reservoir above the transition zone. 3.

the spreadsheet program which we will be using throughout the course. Although cutting core with oil-based mud is expensive. Estimates of oil formation volume factors may be obtained from empirical correlations if the following are known: (i) Initial gas-oil ratio (solution GOR). Oil and gas formation volume factors are determined in laboratory PVT tests conducted with representative samples of reservoir oil and gas. For these conditions a top-of-structure map and average porosity and water saturation are all that is needed to calculate the initial or original oil-in-place.4 Average Oil Formation Volume Factor The average oil formation volume factor is required to convert the reservoir oil or gas filled hydrocarbon volume to the equivalent volumes at surface or stock tank conditions. This data is also used to calibrate logs. 3. we consider the very simple case of a homogeneous reservoir with unity net-to-gross ratio where the bottom of the reservoir is the horizontal surface formed by the water-oil contact (WOC). These are usually estimated from DST tests conducted on exploration wells.3. at least one well should be cored in this manner to provide data for calibration of log resistivity. Laboratory measurements on restored state core also provide capillary pressure data which can be used to calculate water saturations in the transition zone. (ii) Reservoir temperature and pressure. 56 . 3.The data gathering program should include water saturation data determined by all of the above methods. The overall objective is to collect sufficient data to develop meaningful correlations between log measured resistivity and water saturations in restored state laboratory tests.3.5 Determining Initial Oil-In-Place In order to illustrate the calculation of initial oil-in-place and introduce Mathcad .

7: Schematic of interstitual.Figure 3. irreducible or connate water in a waterwet porous medium 57 .

mcd] Calculate the initial volume of oil-in-place for the Apache Pool reservoir (top-ofstructure map attached).38 = 1.2715 (RB/STB) We use this exercise to introduce you to Mathcad.27 = 0. The first step is to determine the area inside each depth contour.Figure 3. This is usually done 58 . Data: φ S wi B oi = 0.1 . The contour areas must be determined from the map. The average porosity. The areas of the spreadsheet where these changes may need to be made are highlighted in yellow. In order to see the solution to this exercise you will need to change some of the inputs to the spreadsheets. It is assumed that you have installed Mathcad on your PC and that you have worked through the basics in the on-line tutorial. [Answer: 340 MMSTB] Solution outline 1.Calculation of OOIP from a reservoir structure map [IHIP.8: Reservoir pressure survey map used to determine average reservoir pressure Example 3. average connate water saturation and average oil formation volume factor have been determined and these values are given below.

9: Structure map for the Apache field 59 .Figure 3.

A2 . To determine the area of a depth contour I first printed an enlarged copy of the Apache structure map and overlayed this with a 1 cm by 1 cm grid. This is done in the manner outlined in the course notes and you should have no trouble following the flow of the calculation. A0 . reads the contour files and calculates the areas. When Mathcad reads a file like [C2000. You can use as many data points as you like to define a contour . and plots the contour. are multiplied by the map scale-factor squared to convert the map areas to actual field values. the smoother the contour and the more accurate the area calculation. This makes it easy to annotate or ”pretty-up” the input file so that it is understandable to the casual reader. Note that the end-points for the lower and upper contours are the same. y) points defining each curve.using specialized computer software and digitized maps. 60 . These points are entered into a file for each contour eg. When you open [Contour. The areas within each contour. Study the three figures to be sure that you understand what is being] . y) numbers . The use of Simpson’s rule for numerical integration is shown in the attached figures. I then divided each contour into an upper and lower curve as shown in the attached figure and read-off the (] you will see that I have left it doing one contour over and over. [Contour.. You will need to change the other input contour file names to see the areas and plots for each of the contours.prn] in the folder [Contours]. A1 . If you open one of these files you will see the how the points are entered for the lower and upper contours. The only limitation is that the total number of points defining the lower and upper contours must be the ignors blanks or anything which it does nor recognise as a numerical input. [C2000. This makes it a little easier to program the calculations. etc.the more points you use. also located in the [Contours] folder. For this example I have digitized each of the contours by hand and used Simpson’s rule to numerically calculate the area.prn] all it ”sees” is a matrix of (x.

the area enclosed by the upper contour. is given by. the vertical height between the contours. 3. or the contour interval.i ) B oi. N= X i ∆Vi See the attached figures which show how Simpson’s rule is used to calculate contour areas from digitized map data. ∆Ni = ∆Vi φi (1 − S wc. the area enclosed by the lower contour. ∆Vi Ai Ai+1 h = = = = bulk volume between contours i and i + 1. The bulk volume between two successive contours is given by the pyramidal formula: µ ¶ q h Ai + Ai+1 + Ai Ai+1 ∆Vi = 3 where.2. The initial volume of oil-in-place in volume element ∆Vi .i any consistent set of units (as used by Mathcad). 61 . The initial oil-in-place is the sum of the values for each volume element.

11: Computer calculation of contour areas 62 .1.10: Computer calculation of contour areas Simpson's rule to calculate the area under the upper and lower curves yi yi+ 1 yi yi+ 1 AU ∆x A= X AL ∆x yi − yi+ 1 ∆x 2 Figure 3. Contour is divided into upper and lower curves Upper curve Lower curve Figure 3.

Contour Area AU AC = AU − AL AL Figure 3.12: Computer calculation of contour areas 63 .

1. Use this equation to calculate the gas formation factor. B g = 0. volumes etc. If you choose to do this make sure that you have looked at the Units section of the on-line Mathcad tutorial before making the necessary changes.21 0.1 .00504 zT P [RB/SCF] where T . the initial reservoir temperature was 200o F.48 TSCF] 64 .89 [Answer: 6. calculated in the previous exercise to help you solve this problem by hand calculation or using your favourite spread-sheet.19 210o F 2300 psia 0.Problem 3. If you want to master Mathcad you can modify the files used in the previous example to do the calculation..the average reservoir temperature .is in o R (o R=o F +460) and P the average reservoir pressure .Calculation of OGIP from a reservoir structure map How much gas would the Apache Pool contain if the initial reservoir pressure was 1500 psia.877 ? All other data as for Exercise 3. Problem 3. If you do this be sure to be careful with units. Data: φ S wi T P z = = = = = 0.2 . The average reservoir and fluid properties are given below. [Answer: 223 BSCF] Solution hint The gas formation volume factor is given by. and the gas compressibility factor was 0.Calculation of OGIP from a reservoir structure map Estimate the initial volume of gas-in-place for the Marlin Field (top-of-structure map attached). You can use the in psia.

You will need to make the same changes to [Contour.1 to convert it to a gas in-place] made for Problem 3.I recommend this strongly .1 and in order to modify the files to solbe the present problem. The best way to handle this is to read-in individual values of h in the same way as we already read-in individual values of porosity. Modify the final graph which plots the contours to plot all nine contours.Figure 3.1 and construct the data files for contours (there are 9 of these).this problem will bring you right up the learning curve. Follow the outline for Example 3. Print a full-size (or larger) copy of the Marlin structure map. You can do this 65 . initial water saturation. Create a full copy of the folder for Example 3. areas etc. If you have been following the Mathcad route . Pay special attention to the particular manner in which these files are constructed! Modify the [Contour.13: Marlin field top-of-structure map Solution hint You are free to solve this problem any way you want including using any commercial or in-house software to which you may have access. You will probably need to revise the ’graphs’ section of the on-line manual to do] by copy-and-paste to calculate the areas for all nine contours. Note that for the Marlin contours the contour depth intervals are not all the same size.

66 .by adding a column of numbers to the input data file and making the appropriate changes in the spreadsheet. introducing a new array for h. Describing these changes is a lot more difficult than making them! If you succede in making the above changes you will have learnt all you need to know to reproduce any of the Mathcad spreadsheets in this and other courses. and modifying the equations to calculate with the array elements hi . These changes will involve reading-in the new values.

Require some production history (reservoir pressure and fluid production rates with time). Material balance calculations: 1. For Material Balance calculations to produce realistic results it is necessary to: 1. Accurately determine initial reservoir pressure. 2. The method is most precise for reservoirs where water influx is not significant. 2. This program (on an annual basis) should be continued throughout the producing life of the field. The Material Balance Equation is used to calculate the water influx. . The Material Balance Equation is then used to predict future water influx and hence future reservoir performance. For reservoirs where water influx is significant the analysis procedure is as follows: 1. The method is most accurate for gas-cap-drive reservoirs if the pressure drop is at least 100 psi. The more production history available. the greater the accuracy of the calculation. OOIP is determined using the Volumetric Method. The material balance method is the preferred method for determining the original gas-in-place (OGIP) for gas reservoirs with no significant water influx. 4.4 DETERMINATION OF OIL-IN-PLACE — MATERIAL BALANCE METHOD Material balance methods are another way of determining the initial hydrocarbon content of a reservoir. 67 2. Initiate a program for periodic reservoir pressure measurement immediately after commencement of production. The computed water influx and measured reservoir pressures are used to characterize the size and strength of the aquifer. 3. This should be measured as part of the data gathering program for the discovery well.3.

3. The best oil samples are obtained before the reservoir is produced because the pressure drop which accompanies production may result in the release of solution gas and this may preclude the possibility of obtaining a representative fluid sample. Establish the primary production mechanism. Rock property data (porosity and permeability). Accurately determine fluid PVT data. Gas sampling does not have this problem. 3. of critical importance. reservoir description and production performance data (pressure decline and fluid production rates) are the basis for the analysis. material balance calculations require equally accurate water and gas volumes. The implication of this is that the more reliable the data (production history data).5 ESTIMATING RESERVES Reserves for a particular field are estimated from an analysis of the available engineering data. Accurately measure and diligently report the production volumes for all the fluids produced. fluid property data. Collecting all production data from early in the life of a field is . Apply the analysis procedure appropriate to the drive mechanism to estimate reserves. the more accurate will be the estimate of reserves. 4. This will usually involve the use of numerical reservoir simulators. 2. This requires representative oil and gas samples at reservoir conditions. 68 . Although produced oil volumes are accurately measured as a matter of routine. The procedure for estimating reserves involves the following steps: 1.again.

Reservoir Engineering II. oil viscosity). 3. For wells subject to severe water and/or gas coning reservoir simulation offers the most reliable method for predicting well decline rates and overall reservoir performance. Decline curve analysis are studied in detail in course PTRL6007 . The productivity index for a well is the well production rate per psi of pressure draw-down. This is determined from well flow tests. Productivity index method. Decline curve analysis. Well flow tests must therefore be conducted at different rates and the productivity index must be adjusted for falling reservoir pressure. For wells not subject to severe water and/or gas coning this method provides reliable estimates of production decline rates. Decline curve extrapolation is satisfactory only for wells which are produced continuously at maximum or near maximum rates. 2. Reservoir simulation.3. The productivity index is usually a function of flow rate and reservoir pressure (oil relative permeability. 69 .6 ESTIMATING DECLINE IN OIL PRODUCTION RATES The decline in field and individual well production rates is estimated on the basis of: 1. For wells producing at limited draw-down (below their maximum rate) extrapolated decline rates are not meaningful. Reservoir engineering is studied in detail in course PTRL6004 .Reservoir Simulation.

or gas-bearing formation. Locating exploration wells searching for oil in a water. 3. Determination of gas-oil and water-oil contacts from pressure data. 5. 4. Introduction to hydrostatic pressures in reservoirs. We will consider the following specific topics: 1. Determination of oil water and gas densities and gradients from pressure data.Chapter 4 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN RESERVOIRS This section deals with the hydrostatic or initial pressure distribution in a reservoir . 70 . Calculation of pressure kicks on penetrating a hydrocarbon zone. 2.the pressure which exists prior to significant production from the reservoir.

069 3.Symbols and Units g D p ρ Dowc Dgoc Dgwc gravity constant depth to subsurface pressure density depth of initial oil-water contact depth of initial gas-oil contact depth of initial gas-water contact = = = = m/s2 m N/m2 kg/m3 m m m g 1 Pascal (Pa) 1 bar 1 Atmosphere Conversion factors lb/ft3 psi psi ft 9. The difference in hydrostatic pressure between any two depth points in a formation containing water is. Since the pore spaces which comprise the effective porosity of the reservoir are all interconnected.02 6.1. pressure varies only with depth. and the reservoir and associated aquifer are initially in static equilibrium.1 SUBSURFACE PRESSURES Water zone pressures In normally pressured sedimentary basins water contained in the pore space of a reservoir (connate water) is in pressure communication with the atmosphere through the oceans or outcrops.9 0.81 m/s2 1 N/m2 105 N/m2 1.28 = = = = kg/m3 kPa bar m All of the above units may be embedded into working Mathcad files and can be used interchangeably or you can even mix units if you want.695 psia × × × × 16.1 4. Normally we would not elect to mix units! 4.01325 bar or 14. p2 − p1 = ρw g(D2 − D1 ) 71 .

is ∆pi = γi ∆D where ∆D is the difference in depth. Since water is only slightly compressible. pwD = p0 + ρw gD The term ρw g(D2 − D1 ) is the hydrostatic pressure difference which has units of pressure.2 Oil zone pressures The initial pressure. poD . If we divide this pressure difference by (D2 − D1 ). at depth D in the oil zone may be expressed in terms of the oil pressure at the initial OWC (a commonly used datum point for reservoir engineering calculations) as. pwD − p0 = ρw gD or. In general we define a phase pressure gradient as γi = ρi g where the subscript i may be o-oil. w-water or g-gas. we can write that the pressure difference between any two depths. which is equal to ρw g and has units of pressure per unit depth. we obtain the water gradient. γw . For the water zone the pressure difference is ∆pw = γw ∆D The gradient for fresh water is 0. p2 − p1 = ρw g(D2 − D1 ) where it is understood that ρw is the average pressure over the interval of interest. If we take p0 to be the pressure at the surface (atmospheric) where D1 = 0.1. 4.433 psi/ft. the equation may be written as. it is customary to neglect the overbar symbol and simply write. poD − poDOW C = ρo g(D − DOW C ) 72 . ∆pi . ρw varies with depth (pressure) and salinity. ρw is the average density of water over the interval (D2 − D1 ) and g is the gravitational acceleration. Using the definition of the fluid gradient.where.

poD = poDOW C − γo (DOW C − D) where ρo is the average density of oil at reservoir conditions.3 Gas cap pressures The initial pressure. at depth D in the gas cap may be expressed in terms of the gas pressure at the initial GOC as. pgD = pgDGOC − γg (DGOC − D) where ρg is the average density of gas at reservoir conditions.Figure 4. pgD − pgDGOC = ρg g(D − DGOC ) or. pgD . pgD = pgDGOC − ρg g(DGOC − D) or.1. 73 . 4.1: Hydrostatic pressure distribution in a reservoir which may be rearranged to give. poD = poDOW C − ρo g(DOW C − D) or.

This can be used estimate the positions of the contacts from measured pressuredepth data. Note that the contacts correspond to the intersections of the fluid gradient lines.4. WATER AND GAS In the absence of capillary pressure. The resulting hydrostatic pressure distribution in the reservoir is shown in the attached figure. 74 . the WOC and GOC are sharp and the fluid pressures at the contacts are equal.2 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN A RESERVOIR CONTAINING OIL.

Figure 4.2: Hydrostatic pressure distribution in a reservoir assuming negligible capillary pressure 75 .

Example 4.1 []







Five widely separated exploration wells were drilled in a large sedimentary basin. While penetrating the aquifer, the following pressure measurements were made in each of the wells: Well A B C Rotary table elevation (ft above MSL) 2133 1312 2707 Measured depth (ft) 9744 13993 8235 Gauge Pressure (psia) 4340 5656 2480 Determine if all the wells belong to the same pressure system. In answering this question you can use the Mathcad spreadsheet [] which reads the above data and calculates the required fluid gradients. [Answer: Well-A is clearly in an overpressured separate hydraulic system] D 3937 17388 6005 E 197 9383 4090

Solution hints The relationship between true vertical depth sub-sea DT V D , measured depth DM D , and depth above mean sea level DM SL is given by DT V D = DM D − DM SL The average water gradient (sea-level to depth of measurement), γw , is given by γw = ∆p DT V D


Example 4.2 - Calculation of fluid contacts and fluid gradients from pressure data [] The following formation tester pressure measurements were made in an exploration well. Estimate: (i) the depths of the contacts (ii) the density and the nature of the fluids present in the formation Depth Pressure (ft) (psia) 8120 2912 8202 2920 8284 2927 8366 2950 8448 2978 8530 3005 8612 3038 8694 3075 8776 3114

Solution hints Plot the data on a depth-pressure plot. Identify lines of constant slope, these show zones of different fluid saturation. Determine the gradients of depth-pressure lines and from these calculate the fluid densities. The densities identify the fluids. [] is a general spreadsheet which I have found very useful in analysing a wide range of formation pressure-depth data. If you have access to commercial or in-house software which does similar things, feel free to use it. [Answer: DGOC = 8302 ft ss., DOW C = 8573 ft ss., ρg = 13.2 lb/cubic ft., ρo = 48.3 lb/cubic ft., ρw = 66.8 lb/cubic ft. ]


Figure 4.3: Hydrostatic pressure-depth data plot


Problem 4.1 - Optimal Location of an Exploration Well [] Exploration well EX-1 intersected a hydrocarbon bearing sand with a vertical thickness of 200 ft between 6560 and 6760 ft-subsea. A wireline formation tester recovered some gas and mud and recorded a pressure of 3850 psia at 6660 ft-ss. A second exploration well EX-2 encountered the same sand between 7780 ft-ss and 7980 ft-ss but found it to be only water-bearing. Mechanical problems with the downhole gauge prevented a pressure measurement from being taken. The two wells are 12,000 ft apart. On the basis of previous experience and sampling of reservoir fluids we have determined that the regional water gradient is 0.524 psi/ft. The formation is normally pressured. The pressure gradient for the gas phase at reservoir conditions is calculated to be 0.084 psi/ft. The oil gradient, at reservoir conditions, is estimated to be 0.296 psi/ft. Questions (i) (ii) (iii) Is the above data consistent with the assumption that the formation could be oil-bearing between 6660 and 7880 ft-ss ? Where would you locate an additional exploration well which would definitely find oil if any oil is indeed present? What is the maximum possible thickness of the oil zone?

[Answers: (i) yes, (ii) new well should intersect the sand at a depth of 7445 ft ss., (iii) 910 ft.]

Solution hints Each of the wells gives us a fluid and a corresponding fluid pressure. Where a mechanical problem prevented the measurement of a water phase pressure, we can estimate the pressure by assuming that the formation is normally pressured (i.e., water gradient times depth). The first well gives us the depth of lowest known gas. The second well gives the depth of highest known water. If an oil zone exists, it must be between these depths. Knowing the gas and water gradients, and a fluid pressure and corresponding depth in the gas and water zones, we can draw the gas and water gradient lines 79

Figure 4.4: Maximum thickness of an oil zone between gas and water contacts

on a pressure-depth plot. If there is no oil present (only gas and water), the depth of the GWC can be found from the intersection of the gas and water gradient lines. If a drop of oil is present it must gravitate to this depth splitting the GWC into a WOC and a GOC. The third well must intersect this depth to prove if any oil is present in the reservoir. The maximum possible thickness of the oil zone occurs when either the lowest known gas or the highest known water corresponds to an oil contact. How do we select which of the two is a possible contact? Simple, draw the oil gradient line through each of the points and select the one which produces a set of contacts (OWC and GOC) which are consistent with lowest known gas and highest known water. If you understand the principles involved and the steps required to solve the problem you should have little problem in entering the correct data into [] and manipulating the graph by setting appropriate contact and oil gradient lines to produce the correct answer. 80

The formation is known to be normally pressured with the following phase gradients. water gradient 0.45 psi/ft oil gradient 0.08 psi/ft What would the pressure kick be if the entire hydrocarbon zone contained gas? [Answer: 104 psi] Solution hints When drilling through the cap rock which forms the reservoir seal. You do not really need a spreadsheet to solve this] Calculate the pressure kick to be expected when a well first penetrates a reservoir at 5000 ft subsea if the reservoir is known to have an OWC at 5500 ft and an GOC at 5200 ft. Enter the correct numbers and you will get the solution. This difference gives rise to a pressure kick. the drill bit experiences a water hydrostatic pressure gradient because the seal is saturated with water and in a normally pressured system this water is in hydraulic communication with the aquifer. Just before the bit penetrates the reservoir the bit pressure is the of the water gradient and depth.35 psi/ft gas gradient 0.Calculation of a Pressure Kick when Penetrating a Hydrocarbon Zone [] as an example of how a simple calculation can be layed out in Mathcad. Since a hydrocarbon column is lighter than a water column of equivalent height.2 . the reservoir pressure at the top of the reservoir is higher than the pressure at the base of the seal. 81 . On penetrating the hydrocarbon column the reservoir pressure is equal to the pressure at the contact minus the gravity head of hydrocarbon column from the contact to the top of the reservoir. If you know what you are doing you can solve the problem faster with a hand calculator! I have prepared the spreadsheet [PKICK.Problem 4.

Six RFT pressures were measured over this interval. The operator had the foresight to measure water pressures over a 160 foot interval to determine the water pressure regime in this new area. Two wells were drilled in a remote region.sealing or non-sealing faults.Interpretation of Repeat Formation Tester (RFT) data The RFT allows an unlimited number of spot pressure measurements to be made in a single trip in an open hole. This allows the engineer to determine pressuredepth profiles across reservoir sections of interest. was drilled up-structure several kilometers from Well-A and discovered a 50 foot oil column with good porosity and permeability.3 .5: Calculation of a pressure kick Problem 4. The second Well-B. 82 .Figure 4. Comparing pressure-depth profiles in different wells can provide valuable information on field fluid contacts and the degree of areal and vertical communication . Well-A was drilled down-dip of the structure and encountered only the aquifer.

Well-A Depth (ft. 83 .ss) Pressure (psia) 5771 2602 5778 2604 5790 2608 5800 2610 5806 2612 5816 2615 Pressure (psia) 2662 2669 2677 2725 2731 What conclusions can you draw from this data with regard to the fluids.The pressures recorded for the two wells are summarized below. the reservoir and the aquifer? [Answer: you tell me] Solution hints Try using Note that in order to meaningfully compare the pressures in the wells it is necessary to convert measured depths to a common datum (depth sub-sea) and to express pressures in absolute units (psia).ss) 6075 6091 6108 6220 6232 Well-B Depth (ft.

6: Lithostatic gradient 4. We can use this to estimate subsurface formation (reservoir) temperatures. Tf . GT .3 GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT The geothermal gradient. Tf = Ts + GT Df where Ts is the surface temperature and Df is the formation depth. 84 . as.Figure 4. On the average it is about 1o F/100 ft. varies considerably from location to location.

Figure 4.7: Geothermal gradient 85 .

The fluid properties of interest in the analysis of reservoirs include: Amount of gas in solution. Before considering the specific PVT parameters of interest to reservoir engineering it is necessary to review some general but basic concepts in hydrocarbon phase behavior. compressibility and viscosity of all the fluids present. When sufficient production has taken place for the pressure to fall below the oil bubble point pressure. Oil shrinkage. These properties are determined in special laboratory tests which require representative reservoir fluid samples. gas initially dissolved in the oil is released from solution. The volume of solution gas released and the associated changes in oil properties have a significant influence on the production characteristics of the reservoir. The attached figure shows a schematic of solution gas release in an oil reservoir. Density. The properties are called PVT (pressurevolume-temperature) properties of the reservoir fluids.Chapter 5 FLUID PROPERTIES Production from a reservoir is usually accompanied by a decline in reservoir pressure. 86 .

1 PHASE BEHAVIOR All substances can exist as gases. may be compressed indefinitely without passing through a phase transition.1 Pure Hydrocarbons For a pure hydrocarbon such as ethane. Temperature. which terminates in a critical point (C).Figure 5. liquids or solids. butane. Composition 5. The state of a pure substance can be represented on a P-T phase diagram. Over the pressure and temperature range shown in the attached figure. a liquid or a solid (or a mixture of liquid and gas or a mixture of all three) depends on: Pressure. To the right of the critical point lies a single phase super critical region. divides the P-T space into liquid and gas regions. 87 . The P-T phase diagram can be constructed by experimentally observing the behavior of the pure substance in a windowed high pressure test cell as shown in the attached figure. A gas at a temperature above it’s critical temperature. Whether a particular substance exists as a gas. methane etc. the vapor pressure curve.1: Oil reservoir above and below the bubble point 5. temperature and pressure fully define the state of the hydrocarbon.1.. propane.

Figure 5.3: Surface production system for an oil reservoir 88 .2: Surface production system for a gas reservoir Figure 5.

Also plotted are the pure component vapor pressure curves. - - - 5. The behavior of more complex mixtures is similar. For purposes of illustration we consider a two component mixture. Point F represents a liquid state at high pressure. liquid for points above the vapor pressure curve. When the pressure falls below the vapour pressure to point A. The attached figure shows the P -T phase diagram for a 50:50 mixture of propane and heptane. The P-T phase diagram shows that: For a liquid state at high pressure. increasing the pressure at constant temperature can result in a phase change from vapor to liquid when the pressure increases to the vapor pressure.1. increasing temperature at constant pressure (states A to B) does not result in a phase change. For a gas state at temperatures below the critical temperature. For pure substances at temperatures above the critical temperature changing pressure (states E to D) at constant temperature does not result in a phase change. mixture of liquid and vapor for points on the vapor pressure curve. state A.2 Hydrocarbons Mixtures The behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures is more complex than that of a pure fluid.To the left of the critical point the fluid is. For a gas state at high temperature. The major differences between the P -T phase diagrams for a single component and a two-component mixture are: 89 . If the pressure is reduced to the fluid vapour pressure (the intersection of the line AF and the vapour pressure curve) both liquid and vapour phases can coexist. vapor for points below the vapor pressure curve. reducing the pressure at constant temperature can result in a phase change from liquid to vapor when the pressure falls to the vapor pressure. the fluid is in a single vapour state.

4: Pressure-temperature diagram for ethane 90 .Figure 5.

For the mixture there now exists a two-phase region or a range of pressures over which two phases can coexist at constant temperature.Figure 5. 4.5: Pressure-temperature diagram for ethane-heptane mixtures 1. 3. The critical point is the temperature and pressure at which the properties of the liquid and vapor phases are identical. liquid and gas phases mixtures may exist at conditions above the critical point. 5. 91 . 2. We note that for mixtures. P − T phase diagrams are used to classify reservoir types. The size and shape of the two-phase region and the location of the critical point vary with mixture composition. The bubble point pressure is the pressure at which the first bubble of gas appears as the pressure of a liquid is reduced at constant temperature. The dew point pressure is the pressure at which the first drop of liquid appears as the pressure of a gas is increased at constant temperature. The two-phase region is bound by a bubble point line and a dew point line which meet at the mixture critical point. Within the two-phase region are lines of constant liquid (or gas) content.

With production the reservoir pressure will fall at constant temperature T along the line A’ABC. As the pressure continues to fall in the two-phase region. The reservoir is said to be undersaturated because the initial reservoir pressure is higher than the bubble point pressure which is at point A. the percentage liquid volume decreases. As the pressure continues to fall below the bubble point pressure along the line ABC.3 Classification of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs Oil Reservoir The phase diagram for a typical oil reservoir having a temperature T is shown in the attached figure.Figure 5.1. The initial condition of the reservoir (temperature and pressure) is at point A’.6: Pressure-temperature diagram for a multi-component mixture 5. 92 . free gas appears in the reservoir as a result of solution gas release.

This behavior is termed retrograde. the reservoir temperature.Figure 5. lies to the right of the critical point. For a retrograde condensate gas reservoir T .7: Pressure-temperature diagram for a reservoir oil For an oil reservoir T . lies to the left of the critical point. When pressure falls this reservoir enters the two-phase region through a dew point producing a condensate phase in the reservoir. Retrograde Condensate Gas Reservoir The phase diagram for a typical retrograde condensate gas reservoir having a temperature T is shown in the attached figure. 93 . the reservoir temperature.

9: Pressure-temperature diagram for a gas reservoir 94 .8: Pressure-temperature diagram for a gas condensate reservoir Figure 5.Figure 5.

The reservoirs may be further classified as wet gas if the separator condition falls in the two-phase region. When pressure falls these reservoirs do not enter the two-phase region.Gas Reservoir The phase diagram for a typical gas reservoir having a temperature T is shown in the attached figures. The pressure at which the first bubble of gas evolves from solution. and dry gas if the separator condition is single-phase. 5. For a gas reservoir T lies to the right of the two-phase region. The reservoir volume in barrels (RB) that is occupied by one standard cubic foot (SCF) of gas. Parameter Oil Formation Volume Factor Symbol Definition Bo The reservoir volume in barrels (RB) that is occupied by one stock tank barrel (STB) of oil and its dissolved gas. The fractional reduction in oil volume that results from a pressure increase of one psi.2 PVT PROPERTIES The following definitions refer to the PVT properties used in reservoir engineering to characterize oil and gas reservoirs. Gas Formation Volume Factor Bg Solution Gas-Oil Ratio Oil Compressibility Rs co Water Compressibility cw Bubble Point Pressure pb 95 . The volume of gas in SCF dissolved in one STB of oil at a specific reservoir pressure. The fractional reduction in water volume that results from a pressure increase of one psi.

This pressure is below the bubble point pressure Pb . we produce R SCF of gas at the surface. Calculation of underground withdrawal rates from surface measurements Oil and gas production rates. are measured at the surface at a time when the reservoir pressure is P . the volume of free gas produced from the reservoir is (R − RS ) (SCF/STB) 96 . What are the corresponding underground withdrawal rates in (RB/D)? The producing gas-oil ratio is R = Qg /Qo (SCF/ST B) This means that for every STB of oil which is produced at this pressure.10: Production of an oil reservoir above and below the bubble point The above properties are used to relate surface volumes (mass) to reservoir volumes.Figure 5. Since every STB of oil produced to the surface produces Rs SCF of solution gas. Qo (STB/D)and Qg (SCF/D).

If we produce Qo STB of oil. what are the underground withdrawal rates? If the density of stock-tank oil is 52. If the reservoir pressure at this time is 2400 psia.67 (density of air at standard conditions is 0.00119 RB/SCF .1 .mcd] The oil production rate is 2500 STB/D and the gas production rate is 2.11: Use of PVT properties to relate surface measured production rates to reservoir withdrawal volumes Each STB of oil produced to the surface requires the withdrawal of Bo RB of oil and is accompanied by (R − Rs )Bg RB of free gas.Figure 5.8 lb/ft3 and the gas gravity is 0. the total underground withdrawal is Qo (Bo + (R − Rs )Bg ) Example 5. Bo =1.125 MMSCF/D.0763 lb/ft3 ) calculate the oil density and gas density at reservoir conditions when the reservoir pressure is 2400 psia.Relating surface rates to subsurface withdrawals [SUBSURV. The PVT data at 2400 psia are.1822 RB/STB Rs =352 SCF/STB 97 Bg =0.

ρo =47. At pressures above Pb the gas in solution remains constant at Rsi . Oil Formation Volume Factor Bo is generally greater than 1. Solution GOR The volume of dissolved gas decreases from Rsi .4 lb/cubic ft.1 Pressure Dependence of PVT Properties Typical relationships between PVT properties and pressure are shown schematically in the attached figure. Enter the correct numbers into the spreadsheet [SUBSURV. to zero at atmospheric pressure.0 at 0 psig because reservoir temperature is greater than the standard reference temperature of 60o F (oil expands with increasing temperature at constant pressure).65 lb/cubic ft.[Answer: qo = 2956 RB/day. the initial solution GOR at the bubble point (Pb ). 98 . Use the PVT properties and the surface densities to calculate the corresponding fluid masses at reservoir] and see the solution. respectively.2. Bo increases with pressure to Pb as a result of the increasing solubility of gas (the mass of the oil phase increases). qg = 1482 RB/day. ρg =7. This gives Bo and Bg as the reservoir volumes of oil and gas..] Solution hint To calculate reservoir fluid densities use 1 STB oil and 1 SCF gas as a basis. 5. Study the spreadsheet carefully in order to fully understand the calculation of densities at reservoir conditions.

12: Dependence of oil PVT properties on reservoir pressure 99 .Figure 5.

Bo decreases due to compression as pressure increases. psia volume.02 × 10−3 The compressibility factor. zR .615 5. for natural gas may be estimated from the attached figure where the compressibility factor is plotted as a function of pseudo-reduced temperature (Tpr ) and pseudo-reduced pressure (Ppr ). lb mole gas constant. Bg = 14.65V1 = z1 nR(60 + 460) PR VR = zR nR(TR ) Dividing the above equations we obtain.65 VR zR TR = 5. o R (o R =o F + 460) Taking one mole of gas at standard conditions (14. P V z n R T = = = = = = pressure.65 zR TR = V1 520 z1 PR Since Bg has the units RB/SCF (1 bbl = 5.615 ft3 ) and z1 = 1.For pressures greater than Pb . ft3 gas deviation factor. At reservoir conditions the volumetric behavior of gases is governed by the real gas law.65 psia and 60 o F) and compressing it to reservoir conditions (PR psia and TR o R) gives. dimensionless number of moles. P V = znRT where. 10. Tpr = T Tpc 100 . 14. VR 14. Gas Formation Volume Factor Bg decreases with increasing pressure as a result of the compressibility of the gas.0.73 psia ft3 /o R lb mole temperature.615 × 520 1 PR zR T R PR Bg = 5.

and the molecular weight of the gas M . PV = or. P V = nRT The number of moles n. γg = ρg Mg = ρair 29 m P Mair = V RT m P Mg = V RT m RT M The molecular weight of the gas is determined from a laboratory analysis of a gas sample. Gas gravity Gas gravity is the ratio of the density of a gas to the density of air at standard conditions. may be expressed in terms of the mass of gas m. At standard conditions gases obey the ideal gas law and gas density may be expressed as. ρair = The gas gravity. the density of air is. The pseudo-critical properties of a gas are a function of gas gravity and may be estimated from the attached figure.Ppr = P Ppc where Tpc and Ppc are the gas pseudo-critical temperature and pseudo-critical pressure respectively. ρg = Similarly. m n= M Combining the equations gives. 101 . γg is thus simply.

Figure 5.13: Pseudo-critical properties for natural gas and gas condensates 102 .

Tr . the compressibility factor.5. and reduced pressure.3. o R critical temperature of the gas.1 CALCULATION OF GAS PROPERTIES Single Gas Component For a single gas component.3 5. zT P 103 . Once Tr and Pr are known. the reduced temperature. T Tc P Pc = = = = temperature of interest. psia Tc and Pc are constants for a single gas component and may be obtained from standard tables of the properties of pure gas components. are defined as follows: T Tr = Tc P Pr = Pc where. z. may be read from compressibility charts and Bg in units of RB/SCF is calculated from: Bg = 5. psia critical pressure of the gas. Pr .02 × 10−3 where T is in o R and P is in psia. o R pressure of interest.

02 44.2 18.08 28.02 34.01 28.04 30.2 114.CRITICAL PROPERTIES OF GASES Component Molecular Weight 16.90 Tc R Pc psia 673 712 617 551 485 435 397 362 o Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane Water Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Hydrogen sulphide Air 344 550 666 766 847 914 972 1025 1365 3206 548 1073 227 492 673 1306 239 547 104 .09 58.17 100.12 72.07 44.15 86.

psia The pseudo reduced temperature.5. γg = Mg 29 105 . Mg Mg = n X 1 zT P yi Mi where Mi is the molecular weight of component i. the chart may be used to estimate the gas pseudo critical properties. yi Tpc Ppc n X 1 n X 1 yi Tci yi Pci = mole fraction of component i in the mixture = pseudo critical temperature of the gas. Tpc . z. and pseudo critical pressure. Note: the gas gravity may be calculated from gas composition. Gas gravity known If the gas gravity is known. are defined as follows: T Tpr = Tpc P Ppr = Ppc Once Tpr and Ppr are known.02 × 10−3 where T is in o R and P is in psia. Ppr . may be read from compressibility charts and Bg calculated from: Bg = 5. and pseudo reduced pressure. Tpr . Gas molecular weight. Ppc : Tpc = Ppc = where. the compressibility factor.2 Multi-Component Gas Mixtures A multi-component gas mixture may be treated as a single pseudo-component gas by defining appropriate pseudo critical temperature.3. o R = pseudo critical pressure of the gas.

8 82.87)(225 + 460) = 5.5 33.05 1.15 0.80 0. Tpr = T 460 + 225 = = 1.2×10−3 RB/SCF P 2500 106 .15 0.70 Ppc 676 Ppr = 3.3 390.80 0.00 -117 90 206 343 550 666 673 708 617 R =o F + 460 1.6 yPc 539 106 31 676 0. From the generalized compressibility chart.05 Solution Component Mole Fraction Tc (o R) Tc (o F ) Pc (psia) Methane Ethane Propane TOTAL o yTc 274.Example Calculation — Bg Calculate the gas formation volume and gas density at reservoir conditions of 225o F and 2500 psia.02×10−3 zT (0.75 Tpc 391 P 2500 = = 3. Bg = 5.02×10−3 = 1. read z = 0.87 4. The gas composition is: Component Mole Fraction Methane Ethane Propane 0. Tpc = 391o R Ppc = 676psia 2.

15 0.00 16 30 44 yi Mi = 19.20 19.83 4.675 29 29 3 X 1 yi Mi (o F ) 12.Mg .64 lb/f t3 zRT 0.54 107 .Example Calculation . γg = 3.54 0.87 × 10.05 Solution Component Mole Fraction Mi Methane Ethane Propane TOTAL 1.80 0. gas gravity and the gas density at reservoir conditions of 225o F and 2500 psia.54 = = 7. Mg = 2.05 1.80 0.54 = = 0.73 × (460 + 225) Mg 19. γg and ρg Calculate the gas molecular weight.15 0. The gas composition is: Component Mole Fraction Methane Ethane Propane 0.51 2. ρg = P Mg 2500 × 19.

Calculation of Gas Properties Calculate γg . Bg and ρg at reservoir conditions of 150o F and 1500 psia.70 0.12 0.266 Ppc 662 Ppr = 3.12 0. Tpr = T 460 + 150 = = 1.1 66. The gas composition is: Component Mole Fraction Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane 0.10 0.0 661. Tpc = 434o R Ppc = 662psia 2. read z = 0.08 Solution Component Mole Fraction Tc (o R) Tc (o F ) Pc (psia) Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane TOTAL o yTc yPc 0.75 108 .08 1.0 85.406 Tpc 434 P 1500 = = 2.6 61.7 61.00 -117 90 206 306 343 550 666 766 673 708 617 551 240.1 434.3 44.10 0. From the generalized compressibility chart.70 0.1 471.8 R =o F + 460 1.0 66.

12 0.4 4.2 3.8 = = 7.08 1.53×10−3 RB/SCF P 1500 yi Mi (o F ) 11.75 × 10.02×10−3 = 1. ρg = 3 X 1 0.8 = = 0.70 0. Bg = 5.29 lb/f t3 zRT 0.00 16 30 44 58 yi Mi = 23. γg = 7.75)(150 + 460) = 5.6 23.6 4.82 29 29 P Mg 1500 × 23.73 × (460 + 150) 109 .8 Mg 23.8 Component Mole Fraction Mi Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane TOTAL 5. Mg = 6.02×10−3 zT (0.4.10 0.

110 .14: Schematic of a laboratory PVT test cell 5. Differential liberation test. Separator flash expansion test. The attached figure shows the essential features of the PVT test apparatus. 2. 3. Three specific tests are performed to characterize an oil and it’s associated gas: 1. The laboratory tests are conducted in high pressure windowed cells.4 DETERMINATION OF OIL PVT DATA FROM LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS Laboratory tests to measure PVT parameters are carried using samples of reservoir oil at a constant reservoir temperature. This is achieved by removing accurately measured volumes of mercury from the cell using a calibrated high precision piston pump.Figure 5. The pressure in the cell is lowered by increasing the cell volume. Flash expansion test . These cells allow accurate visual measurement of oil and gas volumes in the cell at different pressures.

15: Windowed PVT test cell 111 .Figure 5.

16: PVT laboratory at UNSW 112 .Figure 5.

Pressure (psia) 5000 4500 4000 3500 3330 3290 3000 2700 2400 2100 Relative Total Volume vt = v/vb (RB/RBb ) 0.2 Differential Liberation Test This test is designed to approximate the conditions in a reservoir where gas is released from solution as the pressure falls and the released gas moves away from the oil as a result of gravity segregation.9975 1. All cell volumes are reported relative to the volume in the cell at the bubble point pressure.1060 1.9925 0.9850 0.0000 1. pb . by noting that the total compressibility of the cell increases dramatically when gas is released from solution. The following table shows a set of typical laboratory data for this test. pi . in the cell is measured at each step.4. vt . 113 .4.1680 pi pb This data is used to determine the bubble point pressure.9810 0. The total hydrocarbon volume.0025 1. The pressure in the cell is reduced in small steps by removing mercury from the cell.1 Flash Expansion Test A reservoir oil sample is introduced into the cell and mercury is injected to raise the cell pressure above the initial reservoir pressure. experiment starts with the cell at the bubble point pressure. The cell pressure is lowered in small steps by removing a small volume of mercury at each step. 5. pb .027 1.0603 1.5.

Figure 5.17: Schematic representation of flash and differential liberation tests 114 .

9731 6.9152 0.8884 0.5895 6.9925 0. the laboratory also reports the Cumulative Relative Gas Volumes collected at atmospheric pressure and reservoir temperature and at STC: Cumulative Relative Gas Volume at 14.9557 Cumulative Relative Gas Volume at 14.9769 0.0000 0.5221 6. Vg . Typical data produced from a differential liberation test is shown in the table below: Pressure (psia) 4000 3500 3330 3000 2700 2400 2100 1800 1500 1200 900 600 300 14.9975 1.8459 0. The above procedure is repeated for small steps down to atmospheric pressure.1220 0.7 psia and 200o F=74.1818 0. vo .9298 0. The displaced gas volume is measured at standard conditions and the volume.9449 0.8744 0.9609 0.At each step the cell oil volume. The gas in the cell is then slowly displaced from the cell with mercury at constant pressure.2369 6.2297 In addition to the above data.8296 0. vg .3728 200o F 60o F 8.5859 6.9557 115 . at p and T . and gas volume.7 Relative Gas Vol.7 14.7794 pb 0. Relative Oil Vol. vg at sc.9457 6.4114 6.0460 0. Vg at p and T . is noted. are measured.2333 6.0923 0.9457 6.7 psia and 60o F=74.0535 0. Relative Gas Vol. vo 0.0417 0.8603 0.0687 0.9022 0.0466 0.0597 0.

Separator Stock Tank Shrinkage GOR Pressure Pressure Factor Rsif (psia) (psia) cbf (STB/RBb )) (SCF/STB) 200 150 100 50 14.18: Laboratory test separator 5. The cell contents are then flashed through the separator system to standard conditions.7 14.7993 0.7983 0. The data from such tests is used to determine the oil shrinkage factor. cbf .7932 0. The resulting volumes of produced oil and gas are measured.7 0. and the initial solution GOR.7 14. Rsif .Figure 5. The PVT cell is brought to the bubble point pressure and connected to the separator system which may be a single separator or a series of staged separators with staged pressures and temperatures to simulate the actual production system.7834 512 510 515 526 116 .3 Separator Flash Expansion Test This test is designed to approximate the surface production system.7 14.4.

F . 1 vg Bg = 5. Vg Use the differential flash data and the oil shrinkage factor. cbf and the cumulative gas liberated. p vs vt . Cumulative Gas Liberated at pressure p ∙ ¸ ∙ = Total Gas in . Use the differential flash data to compute Bg . " # ∙ ¸ vo RB RB/RBb Bo = = STB cbf STB/RBb Use the differential flash data. F .4 Procedure for calculating PVT parameters from laboratory data The above data can be used to compute the PVT properties for the tested oil and gas.4. 5.(4. to compute Rs . liberated from the cell at every pressure step.615 Vg Use the differential flash data to compute the cumulative relative gas volume. pb X p 3. to compute Bo . Eqns. the oil shrinkage factor.5.615 × = (Rsif − Rs ) RBb STB cbf STB STB The following example illustrates the application of the above procedure. to determine the bubble point pressure. cbf .Gas in solution solution at pressure p ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ STB SCF SCF 1 RBb F × 5. Fp = 4.4—4.6) may be manipulated to yield. 117 . 2. The procedure involves the following steps: 1. Plot the flash expansion data.

Gas formation volume factor 6. differential liberation and separator flash expansion data discussed in the previous sections. Oil compressibility above the bubble point 3.Example 5. Gas compressibility Determine the above properties for the optimum surface operating condition. [Answer: Open PVT. Bubble point pressure 2. Oil formation volume factor 4. Solution gas-oil ratio 5.2 .mcd] 118 .mcd] Using the Flash expansion. determine the following as a function pressure at reservoir temperature: 1.Calculation of PVT properties from laboratory PVT data [PVT.

Irrespective of the sampling method used. When gas is first released in a reservoir. During the period that the gas saturation is below the critical value. 5. If the sample is to be representative. On the other hand.6 PVT TESTS FOR GAS CONDENSATE FIELDS Gas condensate exist as a single gaseous phase at initial reservoir conditions. When reservoir pressure falls below the dew-point. oil flowing into the wellbore will be deficient in gas. the very high mobility (low viscosity) of the gas will result in a disproportion ally high volume of gas entering the wellbore. If the reservoir is saturated (initial reservoir pressure is equal to the bubble point pressure). the gas remains immobile until the gas saturation increases to a value called the critical gas saturation.liquid dropout curve. Gas condensate tests are designed to measure this volume of liquid as a function of pressure . The reservoir is usually sampled in one of two ways. the pressure in the vicinity of the wellbore will be below the bubble point pressure and gas will come out of solution as the oil flows to the wellbore. the oil flowing into the wellbore is reservoir oil and the sample is representative. a liquid phase is produced in the reservoir. 1. If the reservoir is undersaturated (reservoir pressure is above the bubble point pressure) and the well production rate is sufficiently low for the pressure in the vicinity of the wellbore to be everywhere above the bubble point pressure. when sufficient gas has been released for gas to become mobile. These cells are designed to allow light to pass through the liquid and 119 .5 FLUID SAMPLING Fluid samples for PVT analysis are collected early in the life of a reservoir. the problems of obtaining a truly representative sample of reservoir oil are the same. Under these conditions the oil sample may not be representative.5. the oil flowing into the wellbore must have the same solution GOR as the reservoir oil away from the well. surface sampling. sub-surface sampling 2. The liquid volume is usually very small compared to the total volume of the system and in order to measure it accurately it is necessary to use special condensate PVT cells.

The most common type of test used to characterize a gas condensate is the constant mass depletion test. The constant volume depletion test simulates this behavior. Typical liquid dropout curves for constant mass and constant volume depletion tests are shown in the attached figure. Some condensate cells are made out of a solid block of sapphire to allow un obstructed viewing of the liquid phase. The liquid will move to the bottom of the reservoir under the action of gravity and a constant volume depletion test is more appropriate.Figure 5.19: Constant mass expansion test for a gas condensate are fitted with front and back windows for this purpose. 120 . the more liquid is produced and the greater the difference between the liquid dropout curves. it is immobile and remains in contact with the gas from which it was produced. The richer the gas condensate. In the case of very rich condensates where the volume of liquid produced is relatively large. the liquid phase in the reservoir may become mobile. Since the liquid volume produced in the reservoir is small.

ethanol. The temperature for hydrate formation is reduced by the addition of inhibitors such as methanol. ethylene glycol diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol.7 GAS HYDRATES Gas hydrates are solid. 121 . semi-stable compounds which sometimes plug natural gas flowlines. Hydrates consist of geometric lattices of water molecules containing cavities filled with gas . The attached sheet provides a guide to temperature reduction which may be expected from the use of the different additives. More accurate predictions require the use of special equations of state designed specifically for this purpose.20: Constant volume expansion test for a gas condensate 5. A typical phase diagram for a hydrate forming gas-water system is shown in the attached figure. and pipelines. Gas hydrates form when hydrocarbon gases come into contact with water at temperatures below 35o C. processing and measuring equipment.Figure 5.a solid foam.

processing equipment and pipelines Geometric lattices of water molecules containing cavities filled with gas Formed when hydrocarbon gases are in contact with water at temperatures below 35C Temperature for hydrate formation is reduced by the addition of inhibitors such as Methanol.Figure 5. Ethanol. semi-stable compounds which sometimes plug natural gas flowlines. Ethylene Glycol.21: Liquid drop-out curves for a gas condensate Gas Hydrates Solid.22: A simple summary of gas hydrates 122 . Diethylene Glycol and Triethylene Glycol Figure 5.

H-hydrate.23: Gas hydrate co-existence curves. L2liquid hydrocarbon. I-ice Figure 5. L1-water.Figure 5.24: Comparison between measured and calculated hydrate curves for a gas with MEOH inhibitor 123 . G-gas.

Figure 5.8 SURFACE TENSION Surface tension between two fluids is an important parameter in reservoir analysis because it determines the manner in which fluids move through reservoir rock. temperature and composition of the phases. The surface tension of hydrocarbon mixtures may be 124 . Surface tension may exist between water and oil phases. water and gas phases and between gas and oil phases. A typical test setup is shown in the attached figure. The surface tension is given by. Surface tension may be measured at reservoir conditions using the pendant drop method. Ds H = = = = density difference for the two fluids gravitational acceleration drop diameters as shown in the attached figure tabulated function of Ds /De ∆ρgDe H 5. ∆ρ g De .1 Estimating Surface Tension The surface tension between two fluids is a function of pressure.8.25: Effect of different inhibitors on hydrate formation 5. σ= where.

26: Pendant drop tensiometer 125 .Figure 5.

For mixtures the surface tension is given by. ρL − ρV σ 1/4 = Pch M where. dynes/cm phase molecular weights X Pchi xi µ ρL ρV − yi ML MV ¶ 5.estimated using the parachor method. 126 . Computer based correlations Many of the available graphical correlations of fluid properties have been computerized which makes their use particularly easy. ρV σ M = = = = parachor phase densities. A correlation for the parachor with molecular weight is given in the attached figure. Pch ρL . ρV σ ML . Examples of these correlations are given in attached figures. gm/cm3 surface tension. dynes/cm molecular weight Parachors account for intermolecular forces and are predicted from the structures of molecules. MV = = = = = parachor for component i in the mixture mole fraction of component i in the liquid and vapor phases phase densities. For a pure liquid in equilibrium with it’s vapor. Pchi xi .9 CORRELATIONS FOR PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS Several useful correlations exist for estimating reservoir fluid properties in the absence of laboratory An example of such a program is given in the file PropEst. yi ρL . gm/cm3 mixture surface tension. σ 1/4 = where.

enter the appropriate input values and see] 127 .Figure 5. water and gas? TR PR PS TS AP I GOR γg C N aCl = = = = = = = = = 200 3330 115 60 30 510 0.75 100 6 F psia psi o F o API SCF/STB (air= 1) (water salinity in units of kg/m3 ) (water salinity in units of 10. What are the reservoir properties of the oil.000 ppm) o [Answer: open the spread-sheet.27: Surface tensions for hydrocarbons at atmospheric pressure Example] The following estimates are made of reservoir and produced fluid properties from a DST on an exploration well.3 .Estimation of reservoir fluid properties [PropEst.

Figure 5.28: Parachors for hydrocarbons 128 .

30: Viscosity of saturated crude oil 129 .Figure 5.29: Standing correlation for reservoir oils Figure 5.

Figure 5.31: Viscosity of reservoir brine 130 .

32: Viscosity of hydrocarbon gases at atmospheric pressure Figure 5.Figure 5.33: Ratio of viscosity at reservoir pressure to viscosity at atmospheric pressure for hydrocarbon gases 131 .

1 . Bg . Rs = 299.5 cm3 of liquid in the cell and resulted in the collection of 0.2797 RB/STB. Bg = 0.Problem 5.3599 RB/STB.0 cm3 of reservoir liquid at its bubble point of 2000 psia at 140o F. [Answer: Bob = 1. Rsi = 399.8 cm3 of mercury was withdrawn from the cell and the pressure fell to 1600 psia.Calculation of PVT properties from laboratory PVT data A laboratory PVT cell contained 280. Bo = 1. Determine the following: 1.9 cm3 of liquid remained in the cell. This left 263. Bo .mcd spread-sheet you have a good understanding of PVT properties.2 SCF/STB. 132 . Mercury was then reinjected at constant temperature and pressure to displace the gas from the cell.001721 RB/SCF.6 SCF/STB.7 psia and the temperature to 60o F. Rs and z at 1600 psia.129 SCF of gas. 2. Bob and Rsi . A volume of 18.388 SCF of gas were removed from the cell and 205. reducing the pressure to 14. The process was repeated. Then 0.] solution hints If you can do this without using the PVT.

the space originally occupied by the produced oil volume must now be occupied by something else. — expansion of reservoir rock grains . There is therefore a relationship between the rate of production and the rate of decline of reservoir pressure.reduction of pore volume. The material balance equation is the basic reservoir engineering analysis tool used to examine past reservoir performance and to predict future performance. 133 .Chapter 6 MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS When a volume of oil is produced from a reservoir. Unless fluid is injected. — expansion of fluids in the reservoir. the production of oil must result in a decline in reservoir pressure. Material balance equations express this dependence in mathematical form. You may wish to make colour prints of these figures. The diagrams in this section are best viewed on the electronic version of the course notes. — influx of fluid from an adjoining aquifer or gas cap. The decline in reservoir pressure can cause.

1. volume occupied by expansion of connate water. Some of the released solution gas will always be evenly distributed throughout the reservoir.1: Schematic of a combination reservoir 6. It should be understood that the attached diagram is for illustrative purposes and is not intended to imply that the materials in the reservoir are segregated in the manner shown. 134 . 3. volume occupied by expansion of rock grains . The volume originally occupied by produced oil may now be occupied by. as are the expansions of rock and connate water.1 ORIGINAL OIL VOLUME BALANCE Most material balance equations are written in terms of the original volume occupied by the oil. influx of water from an adjoining aquifer (if the aquifer is strong enough). volume of oil remaining in the reservoir. volume of gas released by oil (if reservoir pressure falls below the bubble point). expansion of an adjoining gas cap (if one is present). 6. however. 5. Under some conditions.GAS CAP OIL ZONE AQUIFER Figure 6.pore space compressibility. 4. gas released from solution will segregate to the top of the structure. 2.

1. [SCF] gas formation volume factor at current pressure. G Gpc Bg Bgi = = = = | [RB] {z } (G − Gpc )Bg | {z gas volume at lower pressure } − GBgi initial gas volume | {z } original gas cap gas volume. the gas cap may actually shrink rather than expand.Figure 6.Gas cap shrinkage should never be allowed because it always results in a loss of oil recovery.2: Material balance on the pore space occupied by the original oil volume 6. ∆VGCE = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi 135 . [SCF] cumulative gas production from the gas cap. [RB/SCF] Note that if Gpc is large. Gas cap expansion = where. and the reservoir pressure drops.1 Gas Cap Expansion If a gas cap is present. [RB/SCF] gas formation volume factor at original reservoir pressure. the gas cap will expand to replace some of the volume initially occupied by the produced oil. The above equation may be written as.

3 × 109 − 0) 0. This would result in a loss of about 1MMRB of oil.3: Gas cap expansion volume Example] Calculate the change in the size of the gas cap after 20% of the gas cap gas has been produced while the reservoir pressure had dropped from 1225 psig to 1100 psig. Data: G = 21.002370 [SCF] [RB/SCF] [RB/SCF] Solution 1.3 ×109 Bgc at 1225 psig = 0.Calculation of gas cap expansion [MBE.1 . This would allow about 5 MMRB oil to migrate into the gas cap.8 times the original gas cap volume i. 136 .Figure 6.88 × 106 RB ∆VGCE = (0. We would not allow this to actually happen in the actual reservoir.002125 i.. ∆VGCE = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi ∆VGCE = −4.8Gi 2..e.3 × 109 × 0.e. a zone originally free of oil. The gas cap originally contained 21. At 1100 psig the gas cap containing 0.002370 − 21.002125 Bgc at 1100 psig = 0.8 × 21. the gas cap has actually shrunk.3 × 109 SCF. G = 0.

e.3 ×109 Bgc at 1225 psig = 0.Calculation of gas cap expansion [] Calculate the change in gas cap size for the reservoir of Example-1 if the reservoir pressure had dropped from 1225 psig to 900 psig at the time that 20% of the gas was produced. the gas cap has expanded into the oil zone and no oil is lost to the gas zone. ∆VGCE = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi ∆VGCE = (0.3 × 109 × 0.3 × 109 − 0) 0.002905 [SCF] [RB/SCF] [RB/SCF] Solution 1.Example 6.e.002905 − 21.2Gi 2..24 × 106 RB i. Data: G = 21. Gp = 0.8 × 21.2 . 137 ..002125 Bgc at 900 psig = 0. At 900 psig the gas cap cumulative production is i.002125 ∆VGCE = 4.

Figure 6.4: Released solution gas volume


Released Gas Volume

If the reservoir pressure falls below the bubble point pressure gas will be released from solution. At any time during the production of a reservoir, the gas originally in solution can be placed into three categories; 1. 2. 3. gas remaining in solution gas released from solution and produced from the reservoir gas released from solution but remaining in the reservoir.

On this basis we write, Released gas volume = where, N Np Rsi Rs Bg = = = = =



N Rsi Bg
| {z

gas originally in solution


− (N − Np )Rs Bg −
gas still in solution



Gps Bg

produced solution gas

| {z }

original oil volume, [STB] cumulative oil produced, [STB] original solution gas-oil ratio, [SCF/STB] solution gas-oil ratio at current pressure, [SCF/STB] gas formation volume factor at current pressure, [RB/SCF]

The above equation is usually written as, ∆VRSG = {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg 138

Example 6.3 - Calculation of released solution gas volume [] Cumulative oil production for our example reservoir was 14.73 ×106 STB at the time when reservoir pressure was 900 psig. At the same time cumulative production of solution gas was 4.05 ×109 SCF. Calculate the reservoir volume occupied by released gas. Data: N Rsi at 1225 psig Rs at 900 psig Bg at 900 psig = = = = 90.46 ×106 230 169 0.002905 [STB] [SCF/STB] [SCF/STB] [RB/SCF]

Solution ∆VRSG = {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg ∆VRSG = {(90.46 × 230 − (90.46 − 14.73) × 169 − 4050) × 106 } 0.002905 ∆VRSG = 11.5 × 106 RB


Figure 6.5: Remaining oil volume


Remaining Oil Volume

The oil volume remaining in the reservoir is simply, Reservoir{z volume = (N − Np )Bo oil | }

oil still in reservoir




where, N Np Bo = original oil volume, [STB] = cumulative oil produced, [STB] = oil formation volume factor at current pressure, [RB/STB]

The above equation is written as, ∆VROV = (N − Np )Bo


Example 6.4 - Calculation of remaining oil volume [] What is the remaining reservoir oil volume for the previous example at 900 psig. Data: Bo at 900 psig = 1.104 [RB/STB]

Solution ∆VROV = (N − Np )Bo ∆VROV = (90.46 × 106 − 14.73 × 106 ) 1.104 ∆VROV = 83.63 × 106 RB


Figure 6.6: Rock and connate water expansion volume


Rock and Connate Water Expansion

The expansion of rock and connate water are combined into one term and expressed as the formation compressibility cf . cf is defined as the fractional change in pore volume per psi change in reservoir pressure. The pore volume can be expressed in terms of the original oil volume, as is required for material balance calculations. original oil volume = N Boi = Vp Soi = Vp (1 − Swi ) where, N Boi Vp Soi Swi or, Vp = = = = = = original oil volume, [STB] oil formation volume factor at initial pressure, [RB/STB] reservoir pore volume, [RB] initial oil saturation initial or connate water saturation

N Boi 1 − Swi


1 ∆V c= V ∆P from which we have ∆V = cV ∆P | Rock expansion = formation compressibility × pore volume × pressure change [RB] {z } Rock expansion = cf | [RB] where. the rock and water expansion term is so small that it may safely be neglected. we have for rock and water expansion. [vol/vol/psi] = initial water saturation µ ¶ µ N Boi 1 − Swi ¶ The connate water expansion is. [psig] = current reservoir pressure.The total amount of rock expansion is calculated by utilizing the definition of compressibility. The rock and connate water term is usually only important for oil reservoirs when the oil pressure remains above the bubble point. | Water expansion = water compressibility × water volume × pressure change [RB] {z } The initial connate water volume is given by. cw Swi = water compressibility. 143 . original connate water volume = Swi Vp = Swi where. | Water expansion = cw Swi [RB] {z } N Boi (pi − p) 1 − Swi Combining the above equations. [vol/vol/psi] = initial reservoir pressure. cf p1 p {z } µ N Boi (pi − p) 1 − Swi ¶ = formation compressibility. [psig] The total amount of connate water expansion is given by. ∆VRW E N Boi = (cf + cw Swi ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi µ ¶ For reservoirs where a gas phase is present.

Data: Swi cf cw = 0.0×10−6 = 3.Example 6.84(106 ) (1225 − 900) ∆VRW E =] What is the rock and water expansion volume for the previous example when the pressure falls from 1225 psig to 900 psig.5 .205 = 3.15 × 106 RB We see that rock and water expansion amounts to about 1% of the released gas volume.0×10−6 [psi−1 ] [psi−1 ] Solution ∆VRW E N Boi = (cf + cw Swi ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi ³ ´ µ ¶ ∆VRW E = (cf + cw Swi ) (Vp ) (pi − p) ∆VRW E = (3.0 + 3.Calculation of rock and connate water expansion volume MBE. This is usually the case in practice and rock and connate water expansion can be neglected for calculations below the bubble point.205)) 10−6 127.0(0. 144 .

∆VN W I = We − Wp Bw 145 . [RB/STB] The above equation may be written as. we can determine the net water influx into the reservoir — total water entering the reservoir less water produced — by difference.7: Water influx volume 6. Net water influx = | {z } [RB] cumulative water influx where. This is because the calculation of water influx requires information characterizing the size and strength of the aquifer and this information is not generally known with any certainty during the early production life of a reservoir. since we can calculate all the other terms in the material balance equation.5 Water Influx Unlike the above items in the material balance equation. We Wp Bw e |{z} W − Wp Bw cumulative produced water | {z } = cumulative water influx.Figure 6. [RB] = cumulative water produced. [STB] = water formation volume factor at current pressure. the volume of water influx cannot be calculated directly. However.1.

. N Boi = G(Bg − Bgi ) + {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg − Gp Bg + µ ¶ N Boi (N − Np )Bo + (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) + 1 − Swi We − Wp Bw (6. gas and water production. Original oil volume = Gas cap expansion + Released gas volume + Oil volume + Rock and water expansion + Net water influx ∆VOOIP = ∆VGCE + ∆VRGV + ∆VROV + ∆VRW E + ∆VN W I N Boi = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi + {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg + µ ¶ N Boi (N − Np )Bo + (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) + 1 − Swi (6.2) One of the most important uses of the material balance equation is to calculate water influx into a reservoir.6. (Gpc + Gps )Bg = Gp Bg The material balance equation may be re-written as. reservoir pressure and cumulative oil. This only requires that we know the volume of initial fluids in-place.1) We − Wp Bw Note that the two gas production terms are additive and equal to the total gas production at the surface ie. Cumulative water influx is. we can write.6 General Material Balance Equation Having analyzed all the individual terms in the material balance equation. We N Boi = N Boi − (N − Np )Bo − (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi −GBg + GBgi + Gp Bg − {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg +Wp Bw µ ¶ (6.1.3) 146 .

6 .0) × 106 = 2.0 [STB] [RB/STB] Solution The following items were calculated in the previous examples.63 − 4.4) We = (101.62×106 = 1.24 −] Using the results of the Examples 2. find the water influx when the pressure falls from 1225 psig to 900 psig.000 STB.3.4 and 5. Ex. 2 3 4 5 Item Calculated Gas Cap Exp.62 × 1. (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg (N − Np )Bo ³ ´ NB (cf + Swi cw ) 1−Soi (pi − p) wi ×106 RB 4.63 0.24 11. Data: Wp Bw = 0.Example 6.15 + 0. µ ¶ We N Boi = N Boi − (N − Np )Bo − (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi −GBg + GBgi + Gp Bg − {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg +Wp Bw (6. Released Gas Remaining Oil Rock & Water Exp.64 − 83.15 Re-arranging the material balance equation to calculate We .50 − 0.74 × 106 RB 147 . Cumulative water production at this time is 620.50 83.Calculation of water influx from material balance [MBE.

A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is.6.2 PRIMARY RECOVERY MECHANISMS Each of the terms of the material balance equation represents a drive mechanism which contributes to the total energy required to produce oil from the reservoir. 148 .5) The above equation may be written as. A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is. A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is. is called a water drive reservoir. is called a solution gas drive reservoir. is called a gas cap drive reservoir. Iw . Isg . Igc Isg Ipd Iw = = = = gas cap drive index solution gas drive index pressure depletion drive index water drive index The above indices represent the effectiveness of each drive mechanism for a particular reservoir. If we divide the overall material balance equation by N Boi we obtain. Igc . 1 = (G − Gp )Bg − GBgi {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg + + N{z oi B N{z oi B | } | } Igc We − Wp Bw N{z oi } B | Iw | 1 (N − Np )Bo + (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) + N Boi 1 − Swi Ipd {z µ Isg ¶ } (6. 1 = Igc + Isg + Ipd + Iw where.

149 2. is called a combination drive reservoir. Ipd . Ultimate recovery is strongly influenced by the type of drive mechanism. 6. is called a depletion drive reservoir. Solution gas drive — pressure drops slowly at first. pressure falls rapidly. The trends which are observed when one of the mechanisms dominates are summarized in the following figures. A reservoir for which more than one drive mechanism is important.8: Reservoir drive index as a function of time A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is. Pressure depletion drive (fluid and rock expansion) results in a rapid straight line pressure response and may be expected to recover less than 5% of the original oil-in-place. 1. .2.Figure 6. Ultimate recoveries are in the range 15-30 %.1 Typical Performance Characteristics for the Different Drive Mechanisms The dominant drive mechanism for a particular reservoir can often be deduced from the rate of pressure decline and the trend of the producing gas-oil ratio. As the producing GOR increases.

10: Producing GOR as a function of cumulative oil production 150 .9: Reservoir pressure as a function of cumulative oil production Figure 6.Figure 6.

Water drive — pressure declines rapidly at first. but the decline rate decreases as water influx from the aquifer increases. The producing GOR remains approximately constant and ultimate recoveries are 50% or more.11: Producing characteristics of gas cap drive reservoirs 3.Figure 6. 151 .

12: Producing characteristics of solution gas drive reservoirs Figure 6.Figure 6.13: Producing characteristics of water drive reservoirs 152 .

water and gas production) when the material balance equation is to be applied.6. In order to use the material balance equation it is necessary to determine average reservoir pressure for the time (cumulative oil.3. The mapped pressures may be averaged to give the average reservoir pressure as.3. knowns unknowns Np N Gp G Wp We Swc p (Bo .1 The material balance equation describes the whole reservoir in terms of average reservoir pressure.2 Knowns and Unknowns When solving the material balance equation the parameters may be classified into the following groups of knowns and unknowns. Bg .3 USING MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS Average Reservoir Pressure 6. initial volumes of oil. water and gas production volumes. Direct measurement of average reservoir pressure would require that all the wells are shut-in and that the bottom-hole pressure is measured at a time after shut-in which is sufficiently long for all the pressure gradients in the reservoir to equalize. This may take months to years (depending on reservoir permeability) and result in considerable loss in revenue because of lost production. gas and water in-place and cumulative oil. Rs ) cw cf Bw 153 . 6. Pressure data obtained from a pressure buildup test can be used to estimate the average pressure in the volume or area drained by the tested well. These tests require short test times (hours to days) and allow reservoir pressure to be mapped over the field. The direct measurement approach is therefore impractical.6) Vp j where pj and Vp j are the drainage area pressure and pore volume drained by well j. P pj Vp j p= P (6.

whether there has been any water influx or not. Rs ) may be considered to be known if the average reservoir pressure is known and representative fluid samples have obtained and analysed. Knowns Np .volumetric estimates of the original oil and gas-cap volumes in-place are always known from the field appraisal stage. In some cases it may be large and variable. This reduces the number of unknowns to five but we have only one equation.this is probably the greatest unknown in reservoir development . Before considering specific examples of the application of the material balance equation. or may be estimated. Bg .cumulative gas and water production be unknown for older oil and gas fields because they had little or no value at the time of production. p .The PVT properties (Bo . Bw . This will usually be smaller than the volumetric estimate due to compartmentilization of the reservoir by faults or low permeability zones. This is because volumetric estimates include all the mapped hydrocarbon volume. Gp . whereas material balance calculation provides the effective volume or the volume which contributes to actual production. problems with the interpretation of pressure buildup test data may introduce serious errors and there may be considerable uncertainty in estimates of average reservoir pressure. Wp . We . When it is large.this is usually known because oil is the primary production target which is sold to generate revenue. Unknowns N.although we usually consider reservoir pressure to be known. Swc . compaction may form a major part of the reservoir drive energy and usually leads 154 . cw . One of the most important uses of material balance calculations is to estimate water usually considered to be accurately known from petrophysical evaluation. from laboratory tests on formation brine.pore volume or formation compressibility is usually considered to be small and constant. G . When these are unknown it is not possible to perform material balance calculations for the reservoir. These are disregarded as soon as production-pressure data becomes available and an attempt is made to estimate in-place volumes from material balance calculations.these are known. lets consider some of the parameters in the material balance equation. cf . This is the central problem with the use of the material balance equation.

00000 0.07041 0. You will be performing this history match in the reservoir engineering course which follows from the present course.85487 0.17304 0.99562 1.63405 1.31690 155 .64397 1.91465 1.99562 0.00000 0.00000 0.99562 0.00121 0.00000 0.17304 0.16959 considerable subsidence at the surface. The reservoir for this exercise is a small offshore oil field which has been on-stream for only 700 days.17821 0.91465 1. After the aquifer has been characterized.21229 Wp (MMSTB) 0.91465 2.1 Calculating water influx from material balance for history matching aquifer performance The first step in characterizing or history matching an aquifer is to calculate water influx from available production and pressure data.99562 0. PRODUCTION HISTORY Time P Np Gp (day) (psia) (MMSTB) (BSCF) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 4217 3915 3725 3570 3450 3390 3365 3600 3740 3850 3900 3920 3720 3650 3640 0.17304 0. the resultant aquifer model is attached to a numerical reservoir simulation model which is used to predict future reservoir performance.91465 1.17304 0.06898 1. Problem 6.99562 0. There was a strong and clear aquifer response to the shut-in (use Mathcad to plot the field pressure as a function of time to see the response).91465 1.09929 1.34270 0.02636 0.99562 0.55587 0.12218 0.36788 1.91465 1.33133 0.32970 0.25094 0.71130 0. The field production history is given in the table below.17304 0. The field was shut-in for a 250 day period for upgrading of the gathering system and production facilities.17304 0. This may be of little consequence on land in remote areas but may cause serious problems for operations offshore.11402 2.24921 2.20368 0.

0 1.2469 1. Reservoir system properties were estimated to be: cf = 5×10−6 psi−1 cw = 3×10−6 psi−1 Swc = 0. [Answer: We at 700 days is 2.The initial oil in-place is estimated (volumetrically) to be 33.2413 1. Each calculation is identical to the calculations performed in Examples 6-1 to 6-6.0 1. You can simply use [MBE.0 1.0 1. PVT DATA P Bo Rs Bg Bw (psia) (RB/STB) (SCF/STB) (RB/SCF) (RB/STB) 3365 3465 3565 3665 3765 3865 3965 4065 4165 4265 1. Determine the cumulative water influx for each of the 50 day time periods in the production history table.2497 1.2385 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 1.0 1.0 Reservoir temperature is 210o F and the gas gravity is 0. Alternatively. Solution hint You need to calculate a cumulative water influx volume for each 50 day period (a total of 14 calculations).2511 1.0 1.0 1.0] to do the calculation for each period.2455 1. you could modify [MBE.2483 1.2441] to readin the production data and do the 14 calculations in one pass or prepare your owm spreadsheet using whatever software you are most comfortable with.2399 1.69.248 PVT data for the reservoir oil is given in the following table.778 MMRB] 156 .0 1.2 MMSTB.2427 1.

Prediction of future reservoir pressure After the original oil in-place has been established. and reliable production-pressure data is available.6. the material balance equation may be used to predict future reservoir pressure if future cumulative production can be estimated. the material balance derived value of N may be more reliable than the volumetrically determined volume. This provides a very valuable check on the volumetrically determined value. The main difficulty with this procedure is estimating the volumes of gas and water which will accompany the specified oil production volume.7) If the original gas cap volume may be estimated from a volumetric calculation. N Boi 0 = N Boi − (N − Np )Bo − (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi −GBg + GBgi + Gp Bg − {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg µ ¶ (6. the only unknown is the original oil in-place. N . If all the produced oil and water is reinjected.4 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED OIL RESERVOIR When water influx from the aquifer is small or negligible (small ineffective aquifer. this difficulty is eliminated. 157 . the formation compressibility is known. weak to moderate aquifers during early stages of production when the aquifer response is small) there is negligible water production and the material balance equation reduces to. As discussed previously.

The value of N which makes the drive indices sum to one is the correct oil-in-place.2 . (N ). The volumetric estimates of the original oil-in-place.Problem 6. is 105 MMSTB and the initial gas cap volume is can do this if you like.0×10−6 [psi−1 ] [psi−1 ] [Answer: 113 MMSTB] Solution hints The material balance equation is explicit in N .206 BSCF. so we could rearrange it and solve directly for N . If you use [OIPMBE.0×10−6 = 3.21 = 3. guess a value of N which makes both sides of the material balance equation equal. Geological evidence suggests that aquifer quality is poor and that water influx into the reservoir is likely to be negligible.503 MMSTB and cumulative gas production is 14. Cumulative oil production at this time is] to allow me to enter a value of N and see the sum of the drive indices with the drive index for water set to zero (closed reservoir condition). Does the material balance calculation confirm this estimate? Data: Swi cf cw = 0. An alternative way is to solve the material balance equation by trial and error ie.14 BSCF. 158] The discovery pressure of a reservoir containing a gas cap was 3330] you will see the I have simply rearranged [MBE. The reservoir was produced until the reservoir fell to 2700 psia.Calculation of original oil in-place using material balance equation [OIPMBE.



The material balance equation for a closed gas reservoir is so simple that it may be solved graphically. The graphical solution method is commonly referred to as the P/z-plot. The plot can be used to estimate the original gas in-place and to predict future reservoir pressure given a production forecast. The general material balance equation for a closed gas reservoir reduces to; GBgi = (G − Gpc )Bg Since Bg is given by, Bg = 5.02 × 10−3 zT P

we can write for the above material balance equation (where reservoir temperature is assumed to remain constant), G 5.02 × 10−3 which may be rearranged to, G or, P G z or,
µ µ

zi T Pi

= (G − Gp ) 5.02 × 10−3


zT P

zi z = (G − Gp ) Pi P
¶ µ

P = (G − Gp ) z


¶ ¶


P P = z z

1 P − Gp G z i



The above equation results in a straight line relationship between (P/z) and Gp . The straight line on a (P/z)—Gp plot passes through (P/z)i at Gp = 0 and through G at (P/z) = 0. The straight-line relationship is very useful in estimating the initial volume of gas-in-place (G) from limited production history.


Figure 6.14: p/z plot for a closed gas reservoir

Example 6.7 - Calculation of initial gas in-place for a closed gas reservoir [] Estimate the initial gas content, G, for a closed gas reservoir having the following production history. Pressure Cumulative Gas Gas Deviation (psig) Production (MMSCF) Factor (z) 3500 3350 3200 3050 2750 0 46.7 125.0 203.5 380.0 0.84 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.78



1. Calculate P/z for each pressure point and plot against cumulative production, Gp . Pressure Cumulative Gas Gas Deviation (psig) Production (MMSCF) Factor (z) 3500 3350 3200 3050 2750 0 46.7 125.0 203.5 380.0 0.84 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.78 P/z (psig) 4166.7 4085.3 3950.6 3812.5 3525.6

2. Draw the best-fit straight line through the data and extrapolate to P/z = 0. The intercept at P/z = 0 is the initial gas in place, G. To see this plot open []. G = 2400 MMSCF.


Figure 6.15: Material balance for a gas reservoir


Water Drive Gas Reservoirs

When a gas reservoir is in contact with a significant aquifer, water influx will occur as the reservoir pressure declines with production. The material balance for such a reservoir may be written as, GBgi = (G − Gp )Bg + We − Wp Bw This equation can be solved for water influx, We = GBgi − (G − Gp )Bg + Wp Bw If G can be evaluated volumetrically and if the field production data is known (Gp and Wp ) at corresponding reservoir pressures, the material balance equation can be used to calculate the cumulative water influx at these times.


Figure 6.16: p/z plot for a gas reservoir experiencing water influx

Example 6.8 - Production history of a water drive gas reservoir [] The following pressure production data were recorded for a gas reservoir. Can we estimate G from this data? Pressure Cumulative Gas Gas Deviation (psig) Production (MMSCF) Factor (z) 3500 3350 3200 3050 2950 0 52 155 425 880 0.84 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.79

[Answer: yes, G= 2.67 TSCF]

Solution hint Even if the aquifer is active, it takes time for the aquifer to respond to the decrease in reservoir pressure. This means that early in the life of the reservoir will behaive like a closed system. The early data should therefore plot as a straight line on a 163

0. 164 . Extrapolating this plot to zero pressure will therefore give a realistic estimate of the original gas-in-place.192. 0. [Answer: 0.016. 0.Calculation of water influx for a gas reservoir [GWMTB. Problem 6.3 .mcd] For the water drive gas reservoir of the previous example calculate the cumulative water influx corresponding to the times at which cumulative gas production is] from the previous example and added a calculation for Bg from z and the material balance equation for a water drive gas reservoir.P/] to allow you to select the points through which to fit the straight line.569 MMRB] Solution hint Do this any way you like. Cumulative water production is zero for the period and the reservoir temperature is TR = 275 o F. I have setup the spreadsheet [GIP. 0. I used [GIP.

Chapter 7 RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES AND CORE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Reservoir engineering calculations require a knowledge of certain basic rock properties. Permeability. — Wettability. Porosity.porosity.1 POROSITY Definition The total fraction of the bulk volume which is void space Parameter Symbol Porosity φ 165 . The saturation dependent properties will be considered in the next chapter. These include: 1. Rock compressibility. permeability and compressibility. In this section we look at the basic properties . Saturation dependent properties. 2. — Relative permeability. 4. 7. 3. — Capillary pressure.

1: Effect of grain size distribution on porosity Porosity is important in determining the volume of oil and/or gas which will be contained in a reservoir — for reservoirs of interest. Effective porosity and permeability may be greatly reduced by deposition of fine particulate minerals in the pore space. Cementation. φ is in the range 0.05 — 0. — porosity is a strong function of grain size distribution but only a weak function of grain size itself. The attached figures show the effect dispersed fines (particulate kaolinite.40. — for sandstones sedimentological processes are important. Porosity for both sandstones and limestones can be greatly modified by postdepositional events or digenesis. The original porosity of a formation is usually refereed to as primary porosity. Porosity modified by post-depositional processes is referred to as secondary porosity. For limestones porosity is determined by changes after deposition . and fracturing are events which can modify the original porosity of rocks.5% poorly sorted sandstone 1% Figure 7. porelining chlorite and pore-bridging illite) affect primary porosity.dissolution and fracturing.well sorted sandstone 21. 166 . chemical action.

φt . is given by. Total porosity is the sum of effective and disconnected porosity.Figure 7. is given by.1. φ.1 Effective and Total Porosity Porosity is divided into two categories.2: Schematic of a clean well-sorted sandstone 7. — effective porosity — interconnected pore space. — disconnected porosity — this porosity is inaccessible to flow and is of no interest because it is not accessible to flow of fluids and therefore does not contribute to hydrocarbon production. φ= effective or connected pore volume bulk volume 167 . The total porosity. φt = total pore volume bulk volume − grain volume = bulk volume bulk volume Effective porosity.

2 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity The most common method employed to measure porosity is based on Boyle’s law. The equipment used is called a Boyle’s law porosimeter and is shown schematically in the attached figure. This is referred to as Condition I. 168 . This pressure is recorded and valve A is closed. (p2 + pa ). pa . The apparatus and measurement procedure consists: 1. are connected and at atmospheric pressure. The clean and dry core sample is placed in the second cell. Two cells of accurately known volume. The equilibrium absolute pressure.lining chlorite Pore. This is called Condition II. 3.1. is recorded. 7.Discrete. They therefore all measure effective porosity. 2. clays and fines and their effect on porosity Conventional laboratory experiments used to determine porosity are all based on introducing fluids into the pore space.3: Common types of dispersed shales.particle kaolinite Pore. V1 and V2 .bridging illite Figure 7. Valve B is closes and cell 1 is pressured with gas G through valve A to an absolute pressure (p1 + pa ). Valve B is opened and the two cells are allowed to equilibrate.

moles of gas in cells 1 and 2 = moles of gas in cells 1 and 2 at Condition I at Condition II Assume an isothermal expansion process. The grain volume of the sample is Vs .4: SEM micrograph of pore-filling authigenic kaolinite (x1000) A mole balance at Condition I and Condition II gives. p T V n R = = = = = absolute pressure absolute temperature volume moles of gas universal gas constant 169 . The ideal gas law is written as. and pressures sufficiently low so that the ideal gas law applies. pV n= RT where.Figure 7.

These fibers may break-off at high flow rates and block pores 170 .Figure 7.6: SEM micrograph of delicate fibers of illite bridging pores (x1000).5: SEM micrograph of chlorite (feldspar) lined pore (x1000) Figure 7.

Vs = V1 + V2 − p1 V1 p2 Note that the pressures p1 and p2 are gauge pressures as read in the actual experiment. (p1 + pa )V1 pa (V2 − Vs ) (p2 + pa )V1 (p2 + pa )(V2 − Vs ) + = + RT RT RT RT Solving for the grain volume. for the above word equation. Vb . gives.Figure 7. Porosity is calculated from the equation. Vs . φ= Vb − Vs Vb where the bulk volume of the sample.7: SEM micrograph of pore filling kaolinite plates (x1000). Using the ideal gas law we write. is either determined from measurements of the sample dimensions (core plugs) or by measuring the displaced liquid volume when the sample is immersed in a non-wetting liquid such as mercury. 171 .

9: Boyle’s law porisometer 172 .Figure 7.8: Solution and fracture porosity in limestones Figure 7.

03 psig 41.Figure 7. [Answer: 0.Determination of the porosity of a core plug using helium porosimetry [HEPOR.10: Schematic of Boyle’s law porisometer test procedure Example 7.5 cm = 4 cm and the following measured porosimeter pressures and parameters.79 psig Calculate the porosity of the plug.23] 173 .mcd] Given the diameter and length of a cylindrical core plug.1 . V1 V2 p1 p2 = = = = 25 cm3 50 cm3 100. D L = 2.

11: Datcy’s law and permeability 7. — permeability is a weak function of grain size distribution but a strong function of pore size (throat size).2 PERMEABILITY Symbol Definition k A measure of the ease with which fluid flows through a porous rock Parameter Permeability Permeability is important in determining the rate at which oil and gas will flow to the wellbore Permeability will usually vary over several orders of magnitude in the same reservoir.000 md. — reservoir rocks typically have permeabilities in the range 1 — 10.q= kA ∆P µ L ∆P A q q L Figure 7. 174 . The variation in permeability (heterogeneity) has a great effect on oil recovery for both conventional and EOR processes.

2. k= qµ∆L A∆p 175 . µ ¶ ∆p 1 q∝A ∆L µ The constant of proportionality is called permeability and is an intrinsic property of the rock. Darcy’s law defines permeability as.1 Measurement of Permeability The attached figure shows a schematic of the experimental apparatus used to measure the permeability of cylindrical core samples or plugs.12: Schematic of permeameter 7.Figure 7. The steady-state flow rate (q) of a fluid which completely saturates the core is directly proportional to the x-sectional area (A) over which the flow occurs. kA∆p q= µ∆L This equation is known as Darcy’s law and is the basic equation for calculating fluid flow rates in reservoir engineering. the imposed pressure gradient over the core (∆p/L) and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the fluid.

the computed permeability has the units of darcys. 1 cm3 /sec viscosity. ft2 volumetric flow rate. 1 atmosphere flow length. psi flow length. A rock sample has a permeability of one darcy when. ∆p ∆L A q µ k = = = = = = pressure difference. 1 cm x-sectional area. 1darcy = 1000 millidarcy = 1000 md Field Units In oil field units the linear form of Darcy’s Law for the flow of an incompressible fluid is written as.When the variables in the above equation are expressed in Darcy units. cp permeability. ∆p ∆L A q µ k = = = = = = pressure difference. kA∆p q = 0. bbl/day (RB/D) viscosity.001127 µ∆L where. md 176 . res. ft x-sectional area. 1 darcy The darcy unit is too large for most reservoir rocks and it is common practice to express permeability in terms of millidarcys. 1 cm2 volumetric flow rate. 1 cp permeability.

Since a liquid is used to measure it. the permeability is called the liquid permeability.275 cm3 /sec [Answer: 201 md] Solution hint Use k= qµ∆L A∆p to calculate the permeability. Check the laboratory calculation which suggests that the permeability of the plug is 200 md. 177 .82 cp 1 atm 2 atm 0.Example 7.2 .Laboratory determination of the liquid permeability of a core plug [LPERM.52 cm 2 cm] The laboratory has conducted a steady-state liquid permeability test on a core plug from a reservoir of interest to you. The laboratory measured data is given below: plug diameter plug length test oil viscosity outlet pressure inlet pressure flow rate = = = = = = 2.

Study [] to see how Mathcad handles the unit conversions.3 . The constant 0. What is the well rate when the pressure difference between injectors and producers is 500 psi? [Answer: 425 RB/day] Solution hint Use q = 0. Production well spacing is 1000 feet and the sand thickness is 30] The core plug in the previous example was taken from a reservoir undergoing a horizontal line drive over a flow length of 10. 178 . The reservoir oil has a viscosity of 0.Example 7.8 cp.000 feet.001127 arises from unit conversions.001127 kA∆p µ∆L to calculate the rate in RB/day if you are not using Mathcad which handles mixed systems of units automatically.Calculation of field flow rates [LINQ.

The average gas pressure (¯) in the core is given by. in terms of q the measured volumetric flow rate at atmospheric conditions (qa ). This may appear to be a problem. ¯ qa pa kA(p1 − p2 ) = (p1 + p2 )/2 µ∆L which on re-arrangement gives. Assuming that the gas is ideal . which are valid only for incompressible fluids. q= ¯ Substituting for q gives. kA(p1 2 − p2 2 ) qa = 2pa µ∆L or 2qa pa µ∆L k= A(p1 2 − p2 2 ) We use this equation to calculate the gas permeability of the test plug. must be modified. the previous equations. particularly if we expect the permeability to be constant! 179 kA(p1 − p2 ) µ∆L . qa pa = q (p1 + p2 )/2 ¯ qa pa q= ¯ (p1 + p2 )/2 where pa is atmospheric pressure. the product qp (equivalent to V p for a static system) is constant. Darcy’s law may be written as. p p= ¯ (p1 + p2 ) 2 where. respectively. p1 and p2 are the inlet and outlet pressures. Since gas is compressible. When his done at a number of different average pressures we find that the calculated permeability is not constant but that it decreases with increasing pressure. Liquids may adsorb onto the rock surface and potentially change wettability which could adversely affect later experiments. We can therefore express the volumetric flow rate at the average pressure (¯).a reasonable assumption if the pressures are low. Gas does not have this problem.2 Laboratory Measurement of Permeability It is usually more convenient to measure permeability in the laboratory using a gas as the working fluid. The experiment consists of flowing a gas through the core plug.2.7.

7. kliquid = intercept b= slope kliquid à b 1+ p ¯ ! The Klinkenberg correction may be quite significant for gas flow in: low permeability rocks and quite high pressures. The extrapp olated permeability is equivalent to the liquid permeability. The measured permeability is therefore lower than that for gases at low pressure. the mean free path of gas molecules is similar to the dimensions of the pore space. 3. p.e. to 1/¯ = 0. kgas = kliquid where b is the Klinkenberg factor.2. laboratory data because pressures are low. 2. 180 . molecules are always present at the pore walls and the velocity of the fluid at the pore walls is zero (no-slip condition). Measure several gas permeabilities (kgas ) at different mean flowing pressures. At very low pressures. kliquid and b are determined from the slope and intercept of the plot. The variation of gas permeability with pressure is given by the equation. Under these conditions the solid pore walls do not significantly retard gas flow close to the pore walls because molecules spend little time at the walls (free-slip condition). To correct gas measured permeabilities for the Klinkenberg effect: 1.3 The Klinkenberg Effect The apparent decrease in measured gas permeability which occurs with increasing average flowing pressure is known as the Klinkenberg effect. p Extrapolate the linear plot to infinite pressure i. For liquids and gases at very high pressure. ¯ Plot kgas vs 1/¯.

mcd] .5 md] Solution hint 1. p Extrapolate the linear plot to infinite pressure i.348 1 1. (p1 + p2 ) 2 Calculate kgas for each test using Darcy’s law. Calculate the mean flowing pressure.275 cm3 /sec Run Inlet Pressure Outlet Pressure Discharge Rate p1 (atm) p2 (atm) qa (cm3 /sec) 1 1. Plot kgas vs 1/¯.979 1.Laboratory determination of the liquid permeability of a core plug using gas [] A clean core plug was mounted in a gas permeameter to measure permeability. The core was discharged to atmospheric pressure.168 3 1. p. p Open [KLINK.e.979 atm = 0. The intercept p at 1/¯ = 0 is the equivalent liquid permeability.979 9. check the input data and read the answer.953 cm = 3 cm = 0. The test data is given below.1 . for each test.815 0. A series of tests was made with increasing inlet gas pressure. Calculate the permeability of the plug. 181 .979 0. ¯ p= ¯ 2.481 0.486 0.146 0.Problem 7. 4.169 4 3. to 1/¯ = 0. k= 2qa pa µ∆L A(p1 2 − p2 2 ) 3.737 [Answer: 27.979 2. The laboratory data is plug diameter plug length atmospheric pressure gas viscosity inlet pressure flow rate as follows: = 1.0182 cp = 2 atm = 0.

182 .3. The pore space is made up of a total of n uniform capillaries of radius R and length L.1 In this section we examine the relationship between porosity and permeability using simple models to represent the porous medium. The matrix consists of a solid block having dimensions L × L × L. Although simple. qc .13: Simple capillary tube model for a porous medium 7. is described by the Poiseuille equation πR4 ∆P qc = 8µ L where µ is the viscosity of the fluid and ∆P is the imposed pressure gradient. This model is illustrated in the attached diagram. The simplest possible model for a porous medium is to consider a bundle of equal sized capillary tubes.kA ∆P πR4 ∆P q = nq c = n = 8µ L µ L πR4 ∆P qc = 8µ L Figure 7.3 POROSITY-PERMEABILITY TIONSHIPS Capillary Tube Model RELA- 7. the bundle of capillaries is a good model for porous medium made up of packed particles such as a sandstones. Laminar (creeping) flow in a single capillary.

Rearranging gives. Equating the two equations for. φ= L2 = n πR2 φ Substituting for L2 in the equation for k gives. q. is simply the sum of the flows in each capillary. k= R2 φ 8 It has been experimentally verified that permeability is well correlated to the square of particle diameter for porous media consisting of spherical particles. q= kA ∆P µ L where A is the x-sectional area of the porous medium perpendicular to the direction of flow. k=n πR4 8L2 The porosity of the simple porous medium is. 183 . The unit of permeability is clearly length2 . q = nqc = n πR4 ∆P 8µ L According to Darcy’s law. q. the flow q is given by. gives kA ∆P πR4 ∆P =n µ L 8µ L Eliminating the common parameters and rearranging to solve for permeability.The total steady-state flow rate. φ= pore volume bulk volume πR2 L L3 πR2 φ= 2 L We use this equation to express L in terms of φ and R.

This is very important in reservoir characterization. 184 . as pore surf ace area ΣV g = grain volume ΣV g = ΣV p pore volume grain volume φ 1−φ 1−φ φ ΣV g = ΣV p or ΣV p = ΣV g Substituting into the equation for k. ΣV p . ΣV g . Porosity-permeability transforms are important because they can be used to convert log measured porosities to permeabilities. gives k= 1 φ3 2ΣV g (1 − φ)2 This is similar to the empirical Kozeny relation for unconsolidated porous media and forms the basis for power-law correlations or transforms between porosity and permeability for actual reservoir rocks. k= φ 2Σ2 p V Defining the specific surface area per unit grain volume of the porous medium.Defining the specific surface area per unit pore volume of the porous medium. as pore surf ace area ΣV p = pore volume n2πRL ΣV p = nπR2 L 2 ΣV p = R or 2 R= ΣV p Substituting for R in the equation for k yields. Actual relationships follow a power law because in real porous media ΣV g depends on φ and k in a complex way.

2 Fractured medium model Consider a block of length L. v= h2 ∆P 12µ L The volumetric flow rate through the fracture (q = vAf = vhW ) is.3. k= h2 h3 ³ ´ = 12H 12 H h hW L h = HW L H 185 We can define a fracture porosity as φf = .14: Simple model for a fractured porous medium 7. The average velocity for laminar (viscous) flow in the fracture is given by. q= From Darcy’s law we have q= kA ∆P kHW ∆P = µ L µ L h3 W ∆P 12µ L Equating the two equations for q gives. height H and width W containing a fracture of height h as shown in the attached figure.∆P H q h W L q= kA ∆P kHW ∆P = µ L µ L k= 1 1 2h h = h 2φ f 12 H 12 h3 W ∆P q= 12µ L Figure 7.

P . it is different in different directions. 7. cb .e. cr = 1 dVr Vr d(σ − P ) where. pore and bulk volumes decrease with increasing stress. Vr is the grain or matrix volume. 2. The fractional change in grain volume per unit change in rock stress is called the rock or matrix compressibility. causes a strain or deformation of the rock. The fractional change in total or bulk volume per unit change in rock stress is called the bulk volume compressibility. cp . This stress is isotropic i. σ. σ−P . the same in all directions. cp = − 1 dVp Vp d(σ − P ) 186 .This gives k= 1 2 h φf 12 Actual fractured media confirm that fracture permeability is a strong function of fracture height. The fractional change in pore volume per unit change in rock stress is called the pore volume or formation compressibility.e. The resultant stress. External stress — exerted by the pressure of the overburden. exerted by the fluids in the pore space.4 ROCK COMPRESSIBILITY Reservoir rocks (porous rocks) are subject to two stresses: 1. The overall result is that grain. cr . This stress increases with burial depth and is anisotropic i. Internal stress — reservoir or pore pressure. cb = 1 dVr Vb d(σ − P ) Bulk volume compressibility may be important in determining levels of ground subsidence.

15: Relationships between porosity.Figure 7. permeability and rock microstructure 187 .

Figure 7.16: Measured porosity-permeability relationships for different rock types Figure 7.17: Measured porosity-permeability relationships for different limestones 188 .

1 Pore Volume Compressibility Experimental measurements for sandstones and shales. 7.18: Measured permeability-specific area relationships for different sandstones The matrix. dVb ≈ dVp and since Vp = φVb .Figure 7. The above relationships are useful in interpreting laboratory measurements.4. we have that cp = with cp = cf = − cb φ 1 dVp Vp dP where cf is the formation compressibility and is commonly used interchangeably with pore volume compressibility. This means that. show that cr << cb . For reservoir engineering calculations the primary interest is in the change in pore volume as reservoir or pore volume pressure changes. in which the external rock stress (σ) is constant. 189 . bulk and pore volume compressibilities are measured in special laboratory experiments which will be described in the next section.

190 .4. A small bore capillary tube is used to measure the changes in pore volume by measuring the volume of fluid expelled from the pore space. 7. Geersma (1966) showed that for these conditions.19: Hydrostatic load cell for measuring pore volume compressibility For actual reservoir conditions only the vertical component of external stress is constant with the stress components in the horizontal plane characterized by boundary conditions that there is no bulk deformation in these directions. The apparatus allows both the internal or fluid pressure in the core and the external or overburden pressure to be varied independently.Figure 7. 1 cf ≈ cp 2 this shows that the effective pore volume compressibility for reservoir rocks is only one-half of the value measured in laboratory tests.2 Measurement of Formation Compressibility The apparatus shown schematically in the attached figure is used to measure rock compressibility (pore volume compressibility).

191 . The volume of liquid squeezed out into the capillary tube is directly related to the change in bulk volume of the sample. The internal pressure is reduced in steps and the liquid produced at each pressure is noted.Figure 7. Pore volume compressibility — The external pressure is maintained constant. Typical results for various reservoir rock types are shown in attached figure. The difference between the measured and calculated liquid volumes is the change in pore space volume. 2.20: Porosity and permeability as a function of stress Two types of measurements may be made: 1. The volume of liquid which would have been produced had the pore space volume remained constant is readily calculated from a knowledge of the liquid compressibility. Rock compaction — the external pressure on the sample sheath is increased with the internal pressure held at atmospheric.

Sw So Sg = 0.7.3 Use of Rock Compressibilities When oil. So = Sg = 0 and Sw = 1. water and gas phase compressibilities oil.2 = 0. ct cf co . (φ). cg So . in a unit bulk volume. cw . we have. water and gas all occupy the pore space. the volume of liquid which is expelled from the rock per unit drop in pressure may be written as. Sw . ct = So co + Sw cw + Sg cg + cf where. Estimates of total compressibility are important in well pressure test analysis.1 ct = So co + Sw cw + Sg cg + cf ct = 64 × 10−6 psi−1 = = = = 3 × 10−6 psi−1 3 × 10−6 psi−1 15 × 10−6 psi−1 500 × 10−6 psi−1 @ 2000 psia 192 .4. ct = cw + cf Typical Values Typical values of the individual compressibilities at reservoir conditions are: cf cw co cg for. Sg = = = = total compressibility formation or pore space compressibility oil. When there is no oil or free gas present (aquifer zone). water and gas phase saturations The total compressibility is used to evaluate the diffusivity factor for unsteadystate flow calculations.7 = 0.

Figure 7.21: Porosity variation with depth in a sedimentary basin Figure 7.22: Anisotropic stress and directional permeability 193 .

A common exception is flow close to a wellbore where. a French engineer. k. Darcy (1856). is an intrinsic property of the porous medium. cross-sectional area open to flow. distance between inlet and outlet. 194 . velocities may be high enough for turbulent or non-linear flow. q k ∆p =− A µ ∆L where.1 DARCY’S LAW All the equations used to describe the flow of fluids in reservoirs are based on Darcy’s law. permeability. outlet pressure . q A k µ ∆p ∆L = = = = = = flow rate.inlet pressure. as a result of the converging nature of the flow. investigated the flow of water through sand filters for water purification. The linear dependence of flow rate on the pressure gradient implies laminar or viscous flow in the pore-spaces of the porous medium. This is generally true for most reservoir conditions where actual flow velocities are low.Chapter 8 FLUID FLOW 8. fluid viscosity. cc/sec cm2 darcy cp atmospheres cm The permeability. He observed the following relationship between superficial velocity and the properties of the sand bed and fluid. In the above equation the porous medium is saturated with a single fluid.

In reservoir analysis we are often interested in vertical or inclined flow where the flow occurs in the presence of a hydrostatic gradient. q k dp =− A µ dx where dp/dx is the pressure gradient in the direction of flow The negative sign in the above equations indicates that pressure decreases in the direction of flow. The sign convention is therefore that distance is measured positive in the direction of flow.1: Darcy’s law and linear flow The above equation is general and may be written in differential form as. 195 .1 Pressure Potential The above form of Darcy’s law applies to horizontal flow where there are no gravity effects. Φ= Z p pr dp − gdz ρ where z is the vertical coordinate measured positive downward and g is the gravitational acceleration. pr is an arbitrary reference pressure.1. In such cases it is convenient to define a pressure potential as.Figure 8. usually taken as pr = 0. 8. This is the basic equation used to analyze single phase flow in reservoir engineering.

q k =− A µ Ã dp − ρg sin α dx 196 ! .Figure 8. potential has the units of pressure. Darcy’s law may be written as. z = x sin α and the pressure potential is.2: Pressure potential and inclined linear flow For a reservoir dipping upward in the direction of flow with dip angle α. q k dΨ =− A µ dx or. Φ= Z p pr dp − gdx sin α ρ If the reservoir fluid is considered to be incompressible the potential may be written as p Φ = − gx sin α ρ An alternate definition of fluid potential is Ψ = ρΦ = p − ρgz With this definition.

197 . and is saturated with an incompressible (ρ is constant) fluid having constant viscosity. If you are not using Mathcad be careful with units.1 .3.1 STEADY-STATE FLOW Horizontal Linear Flow of an Incompressible Fluid The linear flow system is depicted in the attached figure.2 8. The medium has uniform permeability.Fluid potential and Darcy’s law In order to test your understanding of Darcy’s law and fluid potential solve the problem shown in Figure 8.2.Figure 8. q=− kA ∆p µ L This equation is commonly used to evaluate flow tests in reservoir core samples and calculate rates in line drives. 8. Darcy’s law is written as.3: Linear vertical flow problem Problem 8. µ. k.

198 . ki . P1 . the pressure drop across each layer is the same and the flow rate for each layer is. hi .4: Linear flow in parallel Horizontal flow in parallel Consider the case where the flow system consists of a n layers having different thicknesses. Equating the two expressions for q gives. q=− ¯ k(hw) (P2 − P1 ) µ L ¯ where k is the average system permeability and h is the total thickness. For a common inlet face pressure. i=1 ki hi ¯ k = Pn i=1 hi Pn This equation is used to determine the average horizontal permeability of a layered system. and permeabilities.Figure 8. P2 . and outlet face pressure. qi = − The total flow rate is q= or q=− ki (hi w) (P2 − P1 ) µ L n X i=1 qi n w(P2 − P1 ) X ki hi µL i=1 Darcy’s law for the total flow may also be written as.

q = qi where.Figure 8. q=− ki (hw) ∆Pi µ Li 199 .1 . Layer Thickness Horizontal Permeability (ft) (md) 1 20 100 2 15 200 3 10 300 4 5 400 [Answer: 200 md] Horizontal flow in series Consider the arrangement where the different permeabilities are arranged in] Determine the average permeability of four parallel beds having the following thicknesses and permeabilities.Average permeability for beds in parallel [PARK. For this arrangement the flow through each layer is the same.5: Linear flow in series Example 8.

∆Pi = qµ Li hw ki and the total pressure drop is the sum of the pressure drops in each] Determine the average permeability of four beds in series having the following lengths and permeabilities. Layer Length Permeability (ft) (md) 1 250 25 2 250 50 3 500 100 4 1000 200 [Answer: 80 md] 200 . Example 8. is the total length for flow.where ∆Pi is the pressure drop across slab i. Li ¯ k = Pn i=1 i=1 Li /ki This equation is used to calculate the effective vertical permeability for a layered reservoir system. L = P qµ L ¯ hw k Li . (P1 − P2 ) = n X i=1 ∆Pi = n qµ X Li hw i=1 ki Darcy’s law for the series arrangement may be written as.Average permeability for beds in series [SERK.2 . This may be rewritten as. (P1 − P2 ) = where. Pn Equating the above equations gives.

rw re h = wellbore radius = well drainage radius = formation thickness Flow enters the system across the outer perimeter at radius re .2 Radial Flow of an Incompressible Fluid The radial flow system is depicted in the attached figure. Substituting into Darcy’s law gives. is constant and the flow area. and leaves at the wellbore of radius rw .6: Radial flow model 8. is 2πrh. The volumetric flow rate. q k dp = 2πrh µ dr Note that for radial flow pressure decreases with decreasing r.Figure 8. This is the basic model for flow into a well and is used in reservoir engineering to evaluate well performance.2. The following nomenclature employed. A. 201 . q.

q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µ ln rw This equation is widely used in reservoir engineering to calculate production and injection rates for individual wells. q = 0. feet kh(pe − pw ) re µ ln rw 202 . feet fluid viscosity. md average reservoir thickness. cp pressure at external radius. feet wellbore radius. RB/D permeability of well drainage area. q k h µ pe pw re rw = = = = = = = = well rate. psi wellbore pressure .00708 where.Separating variables and integrating gives: q Z re rw dr 2πkh Z pe = dp r µ pw 2πkh(pe − pw ) µ q(ln rw − ln re ) = Solving for q. psi external drainage radius. The equation may be written in field units as.

The following data apply: k h µ rw re [Answer: 1114 RB/day] Solution hint Study [RADSSF. md feet cp feet feet 203 . Since we have only studied steady-state flow to this point.Steady-state radial flow [RADSSF. = = = = = 230 10 3.5 0.7: Pressure distribution in steady-state radial flow Example] Calculate the maximum possible pumping rate for an oil well in a reservoir where the pressure is being maintained at 2000 psia at the drainage] carefully .you will be using it a lot.3 . take the answer for this equation and ignore the other equations and results. 2000. It solves a great variety of radial flow problems and does many vertical well performance calculations.Figure 8.5. The theoretical minimum flowing bottom hole pressure for a pumped well is one atmosphere.

8: Radial flow in series Radial flow in parallel This arrangement results in the same expression for effective or average permeability as that for linear flow. M X log(ri )/(ri−1 ) 1 1 = ¯ log(re /rw ) i=1 ki k 204 . Radial flow in series Using the same reasoning as for linear flow in series yields the result.Figure 8.

9: Radial flow in parallel 205 .Figure 8.

This creates a lower permeability zone or a damaged zone close to the wellbore. As a result of overpressure some of the drilling mud flows into the formation and the particles suspended in the mud partially plug the pore spaces through which fluid flows. Radial Layer Radius (ft) r1 250 r2 250 500 r3 r4 1000 [Answer: 30.4 .4 md] Permeability (md) 25 50 100 200 8.Example 8. where ra is the radius of the damaged zone.3 Wellbore Damage Wells are always drilled with overpressure (mud pressure greater than formation pressure) to prevent inflow of reservoir fluids which could lighten the mud column and lead to a blowout. Wellbore damage is depicted in the attached figure. The damaged zone results in an additional pressure ∆pskin at the wellbore.Average permeability for radial beds in series [] Determine the average permeability of four radial layers in series having the following radial distances to bed boundaries and bed permeabilities. This pressure drop simply adds to that for the case of no damage. The wellbore radius is 0.2. For steady-state radial flow.5 ft and the well drainage radius is 2000 ft. the pressure drop for an undamaged well is given by. q= or pe − pw = 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µ ln rw qµ re ln 2πkh rw 206 µ ¶ .

In practice. negative (a stimulated well) or zero (undamaged well). then the total pressure drop for a damaged well may be written as. s is determined from the interpretation of transient pressure well tests (pressure build-ups and drawdown).Figure 8. is the reservoir or sandface rate. for a damaged well we have a modified radial flow equation. ∆pskin = pe − pw = or q= qµ re ln +s 2πkh rw µ ¶ µ ¶ 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µ ln rw + s where s is the skin-factor for the well. qµ (s) 2πkh Than. qµ re pe − pw = ln + ∆pskin 2πkh rw If we write. q. In the above equations the rate. the skin-factor may be positive (a damaged well). In general.10: Radial flow model with an altered or damaged zone If the additional pressure drop due to the damaged zone is ∆pskin . In application of the radial flow equation to wells we usually specify the rate at surface 207 .

When this is done we write the radial flow equation as. q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µB ln rw + s where B is the formation volume factor which relates surface rates to reservoir rates. It is understood that when an equation contains B the rate. the rate is understood to be in reservoir volumes. is in surface volumes.conditions. In the absence of B. 208 . q.

Figure 8.11: Skin pressure drop 209 .

210 . ln(re /rw ).4 Relationship between s and the size of the altered zone The skin factor for a stimulated well .where the skin factor is negative.Steady-state radial flow with skin [RADSSF. This problem is removed by the introduction of the thick skin model. md feet cp feet feet (ii) What would the well rate be if the wellbore is cleaned with an acid. [Answer: (i) 604 RB/day.5 0. (ii) 1114 RB/day. the equation produces answers which are physically impossible. The following data apply: k h µ rw re = = = = = 230 10 3.Example 8. q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ µB ln re + s rw If −s is equal to. A successful acid job may be expected to reduce the skin factor to approximately zero. (iii) What would the rate be for a stimulated well after a frac job which is expected to achieve a skin factor of -3. has an upper limit on the magnitude of the actual value which the skin factor can take. A well test has shown the well to be highly damaged with a skin factor of +7. This may be demonstrated by considering the steady-state radial flow equation.5 .mcd] (i) Calculate the maximum possible pumping rate for an oil well in a reservoir where the pressure is being maintained at 2000 psia at the drainage radius. or greater than.5. (iii) 1745 RB/day] 8.2. 2000.

qBµ re pe − pa = ln 2πkh ra where re is the drainage radius and pe is the pressure at re .Figure 8.12: Realatinship between skin-factor and the size of the altered zone If the altered zone extends from rw to ra and the altered permeability is ka . and if the bulk formation permeability (from ra to re ) is k. µ ¶ qBµ ra ln pa − pw = 2πkh rw where ra is the radius of the altered zone and pa is the pressure at ra . Also. Adding the two equations gives the pressure across the formation (pe − pw ) pe − pw = qBµ 1 re 1 ra ln + ln 2πh k ra ka rw ½ µ ¶ µ ¶¾ µ ¶ The thin skin model expresses the above pressure drop as. pe − pw = qBµ re ln +s 2πkh rw 211 ½ µ ¶ ¾ . we can use the steady-state radial flow equation to calculate the pressure drops across the altered zone and the formation.

qBµ 1 1 re pe − pw = ln + s 2πh k rw k Equating the two expressions for (pe − pw ) gives. ½ µ ¶ µ ¶¾ # ½ µ ½ µ ¶ ¾ ¾ 1 re 1 ra + ln ln k ra ka rw " = 1 re 1 + s ln k rw k ¶ ¶ This may be simplified to give. This may be re-written as.2. ka . re ln 0 rw which can be written as = ln ! µ re +s rw ¶ r0 ln w rw = −s 212 . à ! à 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ Bµ ln r0e rw Equating both expressions for q gives. ra . we have for a well with skin. q= where 0 rw is the effective wellbore radius. The skin factor for a stimulated well depends both on the permeability of the altered zone. k/ka → 0 and the equation gives ra s = − ln rw µ ¶ µ which is the upper physical limit on the value of s for a stimulated well. k ra s= − 1 ln ka rw If ka → ∞. 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ q= Bµ ln re + s rw We can also write this as. Again. 8. using the steady-state radial flow equation. and the size of the altered zone.5 Effective Wellbore Radius Another common way of expressing the skin factor is in terms of an effective wellbore radius.where k is the permeability of the bulk formation and s is the skin factor.

The effective wellbore radius for a long horizontal well in a thin reservoir approaches that of a fractured well with a fracture half-length equal to one-quarter the length of the horizontal well. 0 rw = xf where xf is the fracture half-length.This may be simplified to. For example. the effective wellbore radius for a vertical well with an infinite conductivity fracture is. 213 .6 Flow Efficiency Once a numerical value for the skin factor has been determined it can be used to determine the well flow efficiency F E. the well has 100% efficiency. 0 rw = rw e−s The effective wellbore radius concept is often used to characterize fractured and horizontal wells.2. 0 rw = L 4 where L is the length of the horizontal well. This is defined as the ratio of the pressure drop at the damaged wellbore to that for an undamaged well. 8. FE = pi − pwf − ∆ps qactual = pi − pwf qundamaged When ∆ps = 0.

what would the above parameters be for the stimulated well? [Answer: -94 psi. [Answer: 255 md.] 214 .72] 3. re = 2000 ft. [Answer: 0. [Answer: 0. The effective wellbore radius. 1. 10 ft. rw = 0. µ = 0. The following information and fluid properties apply: k = 30 md h = 40 ft. The last flowing pressure was pwf =2650 psi.025 ft.] If the fracture is estimated to affect a zone extending 15 ft. [Answer: 42 psi] 2. 1.5 ft.4 cp B = 1. The pressure drop due to skin-effect.Skin-factor [SKIN.12 RB/STB. pi = 2800 psi Calculate. into the formation estimate the permeability of the affected] A pressure test conducted on a production well indicated a skin-factor of s = +3.Problem 8. If fracturing results in a skin-factor of s = −3. The flow efficiency for the well.2 .] The well is a candidate for stimulation by fracturing.

215 . Pressure is a function of both space and time i.. p = p(r.Figure 8.3 UNSTEADY STATE FLOW The basic equation which describes single phase unsteady-state flow in a radial system is the radial diffusivity equation. The dependent variable is pressure (p). ρ) are functions of pressure. The partial differential equation is non-linear because the coefficients (particularly the density. 1 ∂ r ∂r à kρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φcρ ∂p ∂t where c is the total system compressibility.e. The independent variables are time (t) and spatial position (r). t). t is time and ρ is the fluid density.13: Transient radial flow 8.

à ∂ρ ∂t ∂(ρ) ∂t qρ |r+dr − qρ |r dr ! = 2πrhφ 216 .1 Radial Diffusivity Equation The radial system is similar to that described for steady-state flow. mass rate in −mass rate out = rate of accumulation of mass ∂ qρ |r+dr −qρ |r = (2πrhφρdr) ∂t This may be expressed as. qρ |r+dr − qρ |r = 2πrhφdr The above may be simplified. .14: Pressure distribution in transient radial flow 8. Consider the flow through a volume element of thickness dr. it is completed over the entire vertical section so that the flow is strictly radial.Figure 8.the reservoir is homogeneous and isotropic (k is constant).3.. We make the following assumptions: .the well is fully penetrating ie.

217 . Darcy’s law for a radial system may be written as.15: Differential material balance for the radial diffusivity equation ∂(qρ) ∂ρ = 2πrhφ ∂r ∂t this is called the continuity equation. q= 2πkhr ∂p µ ∂r Substituting into the continuity equation gives.Figure 8. ∂ ∂r or à 2πkhr ∂p ρ µ ∂r à ! = 2πrhφ ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ ∂t 1 ∂ r ∂r kρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! =φ This is the general form of the radial diffusivity equation.

The term ∂ρ/∂t may be expressed in terms of pressure by introducing an equationof-state for the fluid. 218 . gives cρ ∂ρ ∂p = ∂t ∂t 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p Substituting into the previous equation gives 1 ∂ r ∂r à kρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φcρ ∂p ∂t This is the general form of the radial diffusivity equation for the flow of a single phase in a porous medium. cρ∂p = ∂pρ dividing both sides of the equation by ∂t. and mass m is constant. c= This may be written as. which is one of the coefficients is a function of pressure p. The equation is non-linear because density. Defining the isothermal compressibility of the fluid as c=− 1 ∂V V ∂p Since ρ = m/V . ρ.

3. c= or. in terms of fluid density. 1 r à à ∂(ρr) ∂p ∂ 2p + ρr 2 ∂r ∂r ∂r ! = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t ! 1 ∂(ρ) ∂p ∂(r) ∂p ∂2p r +ρ + ρr 2 r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r 1 ∂ρ ∂p ∂p ∂2p r + ρ + ρr 2 r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r à ! = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t An alternate definition for compressibility. the diffusivity equation becomes 1 ∂ ∂p ρr r ∂r ∂r à ! = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t Using the chain rule for differentiation. gives 1 ∂p rc r ∂r This is simplified to ∂p c ∂r à !2  à !2 à ! 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t ∂p ∂2p φcµ ∂p + + r 2 = ∂r ∂r k ∂t  + 1 ∂p ∂ 2 p φµc ∂p + 2 = r ∂r ∂r k ∂t 219 . φ.2 Liquids Having Small and Constant Compressibility Reservoir oil and water are relatively incompressible and the assumption of constant and small compressibility is a good model for these fluids. dividing throughout by ρ.8. µ and c are constant. we expand the LHS of the equation. ∂ρ = cρ∂p Substituting in the differential equation 1 ∂p ∂p ∂p ∂2p rcρ + ρ + ρr 2 r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r Finally. Since we have assumed that k.

∂p/∂r is small and since c << 1. It forms the basis for many important reservoir analysis techniques which include transient pressure well test analysis and aquifer modeling. Total system compressibility In actual applications of the above equation to single phase oil flow where the formation contains connate water and the formation is itself compressible. cw and cf are the oil. c.20 3000 psi 220 . Typical values may be co cw cf Sw p This results in c = 14. respectively. the compressibility. is the total compressibility of the system. à ! 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r = 1 ∂p η ∂t where η = k/φµc is the hydraulic diffusivity. This is determined using the following equation c = co So + cw Sw + cf where co . The equation is also written as. So and Sw are the oil and water saturations. water and pore volume or formation compressibilities.6 × 10−6 psi−1 = = = = = 10 × 10−6 psi−1 3 × 10−6 psi−1 6 × 10−6 psi−1 0. the leading term on the LHS of the above equation may be neglected and the diffusivity equation becomes φcµ ∂p 1 ∂p ∂ 2 p + 2 = r ∂r ∂r k ∂t which may be written as à ! 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r = φµc ∂p k ∂t This is the final form of the diffusivity equation for a slightly compressible fluid. The equation is linear and therefore amenable to analytical solution.

For a reservoir producing at a constant production rate. but the average drainage area pressure declines with production. ∂p = constant ∂t The value for the constant is obtained from the material balance equation written above. Differentiating this equation we obtain. (i) no flow across the external boundary. cVp (pi − p) = qt ¯ where pi is the initial pressure and. t is time. Vp = πre hφ. The pseudo-steady state solution is important because it describes the situation of a reservoir producing by natural pressure depletion where the production for the well originates from within the well’s own drainage area. No flow occurs across the drainage radius. The boundary conditions are. Pseudo-steady-state flow is a special form of stabilized unsteady-state flow in which the shape of the pressure profile from the wellbore to the drainage radius is independent of time. can be calculated from a simple material balance ¯ (total compressibility of the pore-fluid system).3 Pseudo-Steady-State Radial Flow The simplest solution to the radial diffusivity equation (other than the steadystate solution) is for pseudo-steady-state flow. c is the compressibility and Vp is the pore volume. r ∂p = 0 at r = re ∂r (ii) pseudo-steady-state flow condition. by natural pressure depletion. the average pressure. p.8. cVp (−d¯) = qdt p or d¯ dp p q = =− dt dt cVp 2 For the radial model.3. thus ∂p q =− 2 ∂t cπre hφ 221 . q.

and simplifying gives ∂p qµ = ∂r 2πkh Separating variables. C1 . ∂p qµr2 r =− + C1 2 ∂r 2πre kh The constant of integration.. is easily evaluated from the first BC i. gives 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r which simplifies to à à ! à ! = φµc ∂p k ∂t =− ! φµc q 2 k cπre hφ qµ 2 πre kh 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r This equation may be written as ∂p ∂ r ∂r à ! =− =− qµ r∂r 2 πre kh Integrating the above equation gives.e. Z pr pw à 1 r − 2 r re ! ! à 1 r − 2 ∂r r re à qµ Z r ∂p = 2πkh rw " 1 r − 2 ∂r r re #r ! [p]pr pw or qµ r2 = ln r − 2 2πkh 2re à rw qµ r r2 r2 pr − pw = ln − 2 + w2 2πkh rw 2re 2re 222 ! .The radial diffusivity equation is 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r substituting for ∂p/∂t. r∂p/∂r = 0 at r = re qµ C1 = 2πkh Substituting for C1 . qµ ∂p = 2πkh Integrating.

8.2 2 The term rw /re is clearly negligible and the equation is written as. cannot. The particular case of practical interest is when r = re qµ re 1 pe − pw = ln − 2πkh rw 2 or q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) µB ln(re /rw ) − µ ¶ 1 2 With the inclusion of the skin-factor the equation is q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) µB ln(re /rw ) − 1 + s 2 This equation is useful for determining well production rates. Well tests provide a measure of the average drainage area pressure and it is therefore more convenient to express the pressure drawdown in terms of the average reservoir. pe . The rates predicted by the steady-state and the pseudo steady-state equations are usually very similar (within 10%).3. 2πkh (pe − pw ) q= µB ln(re /rw ) + s The term ln(re /rw ) has a value typically between 6 and 7.4 Flow Equations in terms of Average Reservoir Pressure A problem with using the above radial flow equations is that although pw and q can be measured directly. p. ¯ The average reservoir pressure is given by r p = R we ¯ r R re pdVp rw dVp 223 . It is interesting to compare this equation to the previously derived steady-state equation. the pressure at the outer drainage radius. qµ r r2 pr − pw = ln − 2 2πkh rw 2re à ! The above equation is a general expression for pressure as a function of radius.

à ! 2 Z re 2 Z re qµ r r2 p= 2 ¯ pw rdr + 2 ln − 2 rdr re rw re rw 2πkh rw 2re à ! à ! 2 2 2 re rw − p = 2 pw ¯ re 2 2 2 2 Again. or qµ r r2 p = pw + ln − 2 2πkh rw 2re à ! Therefore. so r p = R we ¯ r R re p2πrhφdr rw 2πrhφdr R re or 2 2 2 Since re − rw ≈ re Z re 2 p= 2 ¯ prdr 2 re − rw rw r p = R we ¯ r prdr rw rdr 2 Z re p= 2 ¯ prdr re rw qµ r r2 ln − 2 pr − pw = 2πkh rw 2re à ! For pseudo-steady-state flow. rw << re . so 2 qµ Z re r r2 + 2 r ln − 2 dr re 2πkh rw rw 2re à ! 2 qµ Z re r r2 p = pw + 2 ¯ r ln − 2 dr re 2πkh rw rw 2re The first term in the integrand must be evaluated by parts. dVp = 2πrhφdr.Now. Z re rw r r r2 r ln dr = ln rw 2 rw " µ ¶ " #re rw − Z re rw 1 r2 dr r 2 Z re rw r r r2 r ln dr = ln rw 2 rw µ ¶ #re rw r2 − 4 " #re rw 224 .

8. Z re rw r3 r4 dr = 2 2 2re 8re à = rw 2 re 8 The equation for average pressure becomes.3. q= 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p µB ln(re /rw ) − 3 + s 4 may be generalized for wells located anywhere in an arbitrary drainage area q= 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p q µB ln( 2. Z re rw r r2 re r2 r ln dr = e ln − e rw 2 rw 4 " #re µ ¶ Integration of the second term gives. neglecting small terms. 2 re r2 r2 re − e − e ln 2 rw 4 8 ! qµ re 1 1 p = pw + ¯ ln − − 2πkh rw 2 4 µ ¶ qµ re 3 p − pw = ¯ ln − 2πkh rw 4 µ ¶ Which is the required inflow equation.2458A/(CA r2 ) + s w 225 . 2 qµ p = pw + 2 ¯ re 2πkh Simplifying.Again. In the presence of formation damage or stimulation (positive or negative skin) the equation becomes qµ re 3 p − pw = ¯ ln − +s 2πkh rw 4 or q= 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p µB ln(re /rw ) − 3 + s 4 µ ¶ The equation is similar to the previously derived equations of pseudo-steady-state and steady-state flow and predicts similar well rates.5 Dietz Shape Factors for Vertical Wells The pseudo steady-state equation for a well centered in a circular drainage area.

the drainage the center of a rectangular (5:1). sCA = ln( 2. [Answer: 652 STB/day] (ii) .5 1230 0 1.75 q Problem 8.75 + sCA + s where sCA is a shape related skin-factor and is given by.1 md feet cp feet psia RB/STB What would the rate be using the steady-state solution? [Answer: 721 STB/day] What would the rate be if the well was located.2458π/CA ) + 0.Pseudo-steady-state radial flow and drainage area shape factors [RADSSF.2 0.3 . A. If re is the effective drainage the center of a square drainage area.2458π/CA ) + 0.? (i) . drainage area [Answer: 562 STB/day] (iii) .75 + s This equation may be written as 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p q= µB ln(re /rw ) − 0. Values for the shape factor are given in various handbooks and texts. [Answer: 480 STB/day] 226 . may be expressed as A = πre 2 the pseudo steady-state solution may be written as 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p h q i q= µB ln(re /rw ) −] Calculate the production rate of an oil well in a 160 acre drainage area when the average pressure is 1850 psia.75 + ln( 2. The following data apply: k h µ rw pw s Bo = = = = = = = 180 16 the apex of a triangular drainage area.where CA is the Dietz shape factor which depends on the geometry of the drainage area.

111 2.39 21.1 4.9 2.1 60o 3.Shape of drainage area CA CA 1 2 31.6 10.6 0.098 12.38 1 0.86 30.6 1 4 2.9 In water drive reservoirs 19.13 22.57 In reservoirs of unknown production character 25 Figure 8.607 5.36 2 0.07 31.8 4.6 0.115 27.9 1/3 1 2 1 2 1 4 1 5 1 3.16: Dietz shape factors for vertical wells 227 .232 0.72 27.

3. the well rate is given by.17: Approximating complex geometries 8. 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ q=f µB ln re rw where.6 Approximating Complex Geometries In cases where the flow geometry is more complex than those considered by the Dietz shape factors.Figure 8. f= θ 360o The above equation is based on the fact that every streamline in a radial flow system can represent a no-flow boundary. 228 . An example of this is shown in the attached figure for a well completed close to the intersection of two linear sealing faults. it is usually possible to approximate the system using simple idealizations. If the angle between the faults is θ and the flow is assumed to be steady-state.

1 WELL PRODUCTIVITY Productivity Index The productivity index.4 8.8.stimulate or fracture to reduce skin. .4. ∆p. of a well is defined as the production rate. The productivity index for a well is not constant and may vary considerably over the life of the well. ¯ 2πkh(P − Pw ) q= re µB(ln( rw ) − 3 + s) 4 So. s will also change with time. . J= q ∆p The productivity index is a simple measure of the productivity of a production well. J= q 2πkkro h = re (∆p) µBo (ln( rw ) − 3 + s) 4 The above equation may be grouped into those parameters which remain constant with time and those which change with time. Moreover. Increasing Well PI The above equation shows the options available to increase well productivity are: . in psi.increase reservoir pressure to increase kro and reduce µo 229 . J= Ã 2πkh re (ln( rw ) − 3 + s) 4 !Ã kro µBo ! The terms kro /µBo vary with time because reservoir pressure ( which affect µ and Bo ) and saturation ( which affects kro ) change with time. J. h. To see why this is so.increase length of completion interval. if the well is stimulated or if it gradually cleans-up with production. q. S. in STB/D divided by the pressure drawdown. consider the pseudo-steady-state radial flow equation.

This results in an additional pressure drop close to the wellbore which can be treated as a pseudo-skin due to partial penetration. Many oil and gas wells are completed over only part of the producing sand interval.4.18: Partial penetration 8. These wells are referred to as partially penetrating wells. the flow in the vicinity of a partially penetrating well must deviate from pure radial flow as streamlines converge towards the well.2 Partial Penetration The well models discussed above considered a well completed over the entire section of the reservoir. When comparing a partially penetrating well to a fully penetrating well.Figure 8. 230 .

sp = where. this ratio is approximately hp /h.5 # hpD = h hD = rw A= B= hp h s kh kv h h1 + 0. For this correlation the pseudo-skin factor. As a rule of thumb. Ã 1 πhD − 1 ln hpD 2 ! Ã ! 1 hpD + ln hpD 2 + hpD " µ A−1 B−1 ¶0.75hp Initially a partially penetrating well behaves as if it is producing from a formation of thickness hp . The correlation by Papatzacos (1988) is typical. If the productivity index (J = q/∆p) for a fully penetrating well is. Jpp = 2πkh h 1 µB ln re /rw − 0. sp . J= 2πkh h 1 µB ln re /rw − 0. All are based on potential flow solutions or numerical simulations for the two-dimensional cylindrical diffusivity equation in two-dimensions.75 and that for a partially penetrating well is. sp .75 + sp than the ratio J/Jpp is readily calculated. After some time a transition occurs to flow from the entire formation and the establishment of the pseudo-skin factor. is given by (see attached figure for definition of variables).25hp h h1 + 0.A number of correlations have been published which account for the effect of partial penetration on well performance. 231 .

4 STB/day-psi. 0. µ= 1 cp B = 1.5 STB/day-psi. (vi) over the middle 50 ft of pay. 0. (v) over the top 5 ft of pay. Other reservoir properties are. (i) over the entire 100 ft of pay. (iv) over the top 25 ft of pay.4 .8.5 ft.4 STB/day-psi. (iii) 4. (iv) 2. 1. 0.8 STB/day-psi.32.69 STB/day-psi. Calculate the productivity index for the well and the ratio of productivities for the well and for a fully penetrating well.57.Problem 8. (iii) over the top 50 ft of pay.57] 232 .mcd] A field is developed on a 40 acre spacing.0 (ii) 6.2 STB/day-psi.25 RB/STB [Answer: (i) 7. 0. 100 md kh = kv = 5 md rw = 0. 0. (ii) over the top 75 ft of pay. The formation thickness is 100 ft. (vi)4.09. (v) 0.Partially penetrating well [PARPEN.

T is the temperature (assumed to be constant). is constant.8. The result is. we have previously written the radial diffusivity equation as. v is the volume of the gas. n is the number of moles of gas and R is the universal gas law constant. k. 233 . pv = znRT where z is the compressibility factor. ∂ ∂ρ (ρq) = 2πrhφ ∂r ∂t We then substituted Darcy’s law for the volumetric flow rate. q= to eliminate q. Equation of state for a compressible fluid The pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior of a gas is given by the real gas law. 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r à ! = φµc ∂p k ∂t Gases are highly compressible and we cannot expect that the above diffusivity equation will apply for gases. 1 ∂ r ∂r ρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φ ∂ρ k ∂t This is the basic material balance for a radial volume element of the reservoir and it applies to all flows. q. For the case of a slightly compressible fluid with constant viscosity. k ∂p 1 ∂ ρ r r ∂r µ ∂r à à ! 2πkhr ∂p µ ∂r =φ ∂ρ ∂t Assuming that permeability.5 GAS FLOW In treating the flow of a slightly compressible fluid we began by writing the continuity equation for a radial element. we write.

n= c= which gives c= z ∂(p/z) p ∂p ) ) Since 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p In performing the integration we note that z = z(p).. m M p ρ= = v RT z We may use this expression together with the definition of compressibility to write an expression for the compressibility of a real gas. c= 1 1 ∂z − p z ∂p ( ( ∂ (pz −1 ) ∂p 1 p ∂z − 2 z z ∂p i.m M where m is the mass of the gas and M is the gas molecular weight. 1 ∂ r ∂r à ρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φ ∂ρ k ∂t For a gas. z c= p z c= p Finally. A further complication for gases is that viscosity is also a function of pressure (µ = µ(p)) Diffusivity equation for a compressible fluid As previously. the compressibility of a gas is a highly non-linear function of pressure.e. we begin our analysis for a gas by writing the continuity equation. Since ρ= M p RT z 234 . µ = µ(p) and we cannot assume a constant viscosity. the real gas law may be written as.

à ! 1 ∂ p ∂ψ dp φcp ∂ψ dp r = r ∂r µz ∂r dψ kz ∂t dψ Now.we have 1 ∂ r ∂r à M p 1 ∂p r RT z µ ∂r ! φ ∂p = k ∂t à ∂ρ ∂p ! Now. 1 ∂ r ∂r p ∂p r µz ∂r = φcp ∂p kz ∂t This is a highly non-linear equation because the coefficients on both sides of the equations are highly non-linear functions of pressure. from our definition of compressibility. ψ(p). ∂p µz = ∂ψ 2p à ! 235 . This transformation gives p dψ = 2 dp µz Re-writing the non-linear diffusivity equation in therm of pseudo-pressure we have. In order to solve the equation it is necessary to first linearize it. Pseudo-pressure Introduce a new variable called the pseudo pressure. defined as ψ(p) = 2 Z p a p dp µz where a is an arbitrarily low reference pressure. ∂ρ = cρ ∂p ∂ρ M p =c ∂p RT z which gives 1 ∂ r ∂r à M p 1 ∂p r RT z µ ∂r à ! ! = φ ∂p M p c k ∂t RT z dividing both sides by the constants we finally obtain.

ψ(p) = 2 Zp p∂p µz 0 ¯¯ 2 p2 µz 2 ¯¯ ψ(p) = p2 µz ¯¯ The pseudo pressure is easily evaluated on a spreadsheet or in a computer code.1 Low pressure approximation — p < 3. 000psi and ∆p small For low pressure and small pressure drop. Since ∆p is small (p approximately constant) we may use average properties for the coefficient terms. ∂ψ 1 = ∂(p2 ) µz ¯¯ 236 . is now written as. 8. ψ(p) = 2 Z p a p ∂p µz with the reference pressure to zero. µz ≈ constant = µz ¯¯ The definition of pseudo pressure. à ! 1 ∂ ∂ψ φ¯c ∂ψ µ¯ r = r ∂r ∂r k ∂t ψ(p) = If we are doing the analysis by hand and wish to eliminate the need to evaluate pseudo-pressures we may simply write the equation in terms of p2 .therefore.5. 1 ∂ r ∂r à p ∂ψ µz r µz ∂r 2p à ! ! = φcp ∂ψ µz kz ∂t 2p Simplifying this expression gives ∂ψ 1 ∂ r r ∂r ∂r = φµc ∂ψ k ∂t This has eliminated the non-linearity on the LHS and made the equation look like the diffusivity equation for a slightly compressible liquid except that the coefficient on the RHS is still non-linear (c is a function of pressure). c and µ. resulting in a linear diffusivity equation in terms ¯ ¯ of the pseudo pressure.

p p ¯ ≈ constant = µz µz ¯¯ From the definition of pseudo pressure we have. and as for the case of low pressure we can show that the diffusivity in terms of ψ is linearized to 1 ∂ ∂(p) r r ∂r ∂r à ! = φ¯c ∂(p) µ¯ k ∂t which is identical to the case of a slightly compressible fluid.and 1 ∂ ∂(p2 ) ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r ∂(p2 ) 1 ∂ ∂(p2 ) r r ∂r ∂r à à ! ! φ¯c ∂(p2 ) ∂ψ µ¯ = k ∂t ∂(p2 ) = φ¯c ∂(p2 ) µ¯ k ∂t which gives The result is identical to that which would be obtained by defining ψ = p2 This is commonly referred to as the pressure squared method of analysis.2 High pressure approximation — p > 3. 000psi and ∆p small At high pressures and small pressure drops. ψ(p) = 2 which can be written as or Z p a p ∂p µz p Zp ¯ ∂p ψ(p) = µz a ¯¯ ψ(p) = p ¯ p µz ¯¯ Again the pseudo-pressure is easily evaluated.5. 237 . 8.

this equation has exact ally the same form as the diffusivity equation for a slightly compressible fluid. The product may be defined at any pressure. τ= or à à ! = φµc ∂ψ k ∂t ! = φ ∂ψ k {∂t/µc} dt µc Z t 0 dt µc Pseudo-time is easily evaluated since pressure. the pressure being arbitrary. τn . dτ = The diffusivity equation may now be written as. 238 . The diffusivity equation in terms of pseudo-pressure and pseudo-time is. 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r à ! = φ(µc)i ∂ψ k ∂τn Again. is known. as a function of time. In terms of ψ the non-linear diffusivity equation is 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r We may write this as 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r Defining a pseudo-time as. The situation is readily remedied by the introduction of a normalized pseudotime.3 ∆p is not small When ∆p is not small.5. defined as Z t dt τn = (µc)i 0 µc (µc)i is the viscosity-compressibility product evaluated at the initial test pressure. but convention is to take the value at the initial test pressure.8. ∂ψ 1 ∂ r r ∂r ∂r à ! = φ ∂ψ k ∂τ A problem with the pseudo-time it does not have units of time and this is undesirable in actual practice where the engineer likes to relate time to distance via the depth of investigation concept. c and µ vary considerably and we cannot use average values for these parameters over the flow conditions.

5.8. we write Darcy’s law for radial flow. To evaluate the value of the constant of integration. C1 . 2πkh ∂p q= r µ ∂r where q is the rate at reservoir conditions.4 Steady and Pseudo-Steady State Radial Gas Flow à ! The radial diffusivity equation for gas is 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r à = φµc ∂ψ k ∂t For steady-state flow. The rate at surface conditions is given by 2πkh ∂p r qsc = µBg ∂r where Bg is the gas formation volume factor which is given by psc Bg = Tsc Substituting for Bg gives qsc = à ! µ ¶ zT p 2πTsc psc ! kh p ∂p r µ zT ∂r The equation is written in terms of pseudo-pressure as qsc = à 2πTsc psc kh p ∂ψ dp r µ zT ∂r dψ From the definition of pseudo-pressure dp µz = dψ 2p 239 . ∂ψ/∂t = 0. and we can write ∂ψ 1 ∂ r r ∂r ∂r or. ∂ ∂ψ r ∂r ∂r Integrating gives r ∂ψ = C1 ∂r à ! =0 ! =0 This is the solution for steady-state radial flow of a gas.

∂r = r Integrating. An example of such a calculation is given in Exercise-8. This introduces an additional pressure 240 . we can write qsc = à πTsc psc ! ¯ kh (ψe − ψw ) h ³ ´ i T ln re − 0. µ = à πTsc psc ! ! kh (ψe − ψw ) qsc T qsc = à πTsc psc kh (ψe − ψw ) ³ ´ T ln re rw As before.75 + s rw The above equation is valid for all conditions and may be used to estimate the stabilized rate for gas wells under Darcy flow conditions. for pseudo-steady state flow in terms of average pseudo-pressure and in the presence of skin. Pseudo-pressures are easily calculated by numerically integrating P . µ and z data for the gas. Z rw re à à πTsc psc ! kh ∂ψ qsc T kh Z ψw ∂ψ qsc T ψe ∂r = r ¶ πTsc psc ! gives re ln rw or. Separating variables. r à πTsc psc µ ! kh ∂ψ r T ∂r ¶ ∂ψ psc = ∂r πTsc qsc T kh This is the required constant of integration C1 . 8.5.Substituting for dp/dψ gives qsc = or.11. It requires evaluation of pseudo-pressures.5 Non-Darcy flow In high rate gas wells flow velocities close to the wellbore may sufficiently high for turbulent or non-Darcy flow to occur.

drop which depends on the gas rate.75 + s + D|qsc | rw 8. D and s are determined from multirate well pressure test data.5. defined as Z p p ψ=2 dp 0 µz may be written as 2 Zp p2 ψ= pdp = µz 0 ¯¯ µz ¯¯ where µ and z are evaluated at average flowing conditions.75 + s + D|qsc | ¯¯ rw 8. s0 . defined as Z p p ψ=2 dp 0 µz 241 .5. ¯ ¯ Substituting for ψ in the rate equation gives qsc = à ! πTsc psc kh (pe 2 − pw 2 ) h ³ ´ i µz T ln re − 0. can now be written as qsc = or.7 High Pressure approximation For pressures above about 3000 psia the product p/µz is approximately constant and pseudo-pressure.75 + s0 rw πTsc psc ¯ kh (ψe − ψw ) h ³ ´ i T ln re − 0. qsc = à à πTsc psc ! ! ¯ kh (ψe − ψw ) h ³ ´ i T ln re − 0. The absolute value of rate indicates that there is a positive non-Darcy flow loss for both production and injection operations. The non-Darcy flow pressure drop may be included by defining an effective skin factor. as s0 = s + D|qsc | where D is the non-Darcy flow constant and s is the Darcy flow skin factor.6 Pressure-squared approximation For pressures below about 3000 psia the product µz is approximately constant and pseudo-pressure. Pseudo-steady state flow in terms of average pseudo-pressure and in the presence of skin and non-Darcy flow effects.

z and p are evaluated at average flowing conditions.may be written as 2¯ p 2¯ Z p p dp = ψ= p µz 0 ¯¯ µz ¯¯ where µ. 242 .75 + s + D|qsc | rw The average gas formation factor may be written as ¯ Bg = à Tsc psc ! zT ¯¯ p ¯ The gas rate equation becomes qsc = 2πkh (pe − pw ) h ³ ´ i ¯g ln re − 0. this equation is identical to the equation previously derived for the flow of a slightly compressible fluid. ¯ ¯ ¯ Substituting for ψ in the rate equation gives qsc = à ! 2πTsc psc (pe − pw ) kh¯ p h ³ ´ i re µz T ln ¯¯ − 0.75 + s + D|q | µB ¯ sc rw With the non-Darcy flow term set to zero (D = 0).

The following reservoir and fluid properties are known: k= h= rw = re = µ= z= T = s= D= 5 md 35 ft.Calculation of gas well rate [GASFLOW.3 0.Problem] Estimate the production rate of a gas well when the average reservoir pressure is 2723 psia and the flowing wellbore pressure is maintained at 2655 psia.018 cp 0.015 (MMSCF/day)−1 What is the effect of non-Darcy (turbulent) flow on well performance? [Answer: 344 MSCF/day] 243 .5 . 0.87 200o F -0.5 ft. 0. 2640 ft.

01630 0.01911 0.01387 0.9582 0.8931 0.8745 0.01485 0.01451 0.01238 0.8705 0. Use pseudo-pressure and the pressure-squared method to calculate the gas rate.8738 0.01554 0.Problem 8.01428 0.9453 0.8830 [Answer: 346 MSCF/day.01274 0.Gas well rate using pseudo-pressures [PSUDOP.6 .5 ft.8708 0.9856 0.8683 0.8780 0.01360 0.015 (MMSCF/day)−1 GAS PROPERTIES p (psia) 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 2850 3000 3150 µ (cp) 0.9112 0.01303 0. 2640 ft.01862 0.01520 0.8684 0. The following reservoir and fluid properties are known: k= h= rw = re = T = s= D= 5 md 35 ft. Reservoir temperature is 200o F and the gas gravity is 0.9016 0.01329 0.8671 0. 200o F -0.8795 0. 342 MSCF/day] 244 .01676 0.8671 0.3 0.01961 z 0.01589 0. 0.7.9218] Estimate the production rate of a gas well when the average reservoir pressure is 2723 psia and the flowing wellbore pressure is maintained at 2655 psia.01721 0.01254 0.01813 0.9717 0.01767 0.9332 0.8857 0.

5 (non-Darcy or turbulent flow) and 1 (Darcy or laminar flow) and C is the well performance coefficient. Flow after flow tests The constants C and n are determined from flow after flow or conventional backpressure tests. After a number of rate changes (usually four). The rate is then changed (increased) and the process repeated.5.8 Gas Well Back Pressure Equation This is an empirical equation which relates flow rate and pressure for gas wells. The equation is frequently used to determine well deliverability. qsc = C(¯2 − p2 )n pR w where pR is the average reservoir pressure. p 245 . The equation is written as.19: Pseudo-pressure as a function of pressure 8.Figure 8. n is an exponent which has a value between 0. pw is the flowing wellbore pressure. This is the average reservoir pressure (¯R ). the well is shutin until the shutin wellbore has stabilized. The well is flowed at a constant rate (qsc ) until the flowing wellbore pressure (pw ) has stabilized.

21: Four point flow-after-flow well deliverability test 246 .20: Gas well deliverability plot Figure 8.Figure 8.

mcd] The following flow rate and wellbore pressure data was obtained from a four point flow-after-flow test on a gas well: Flow period qsc (MMSCF/day) pw (psia) 1 2190 3387 2 2570 3268 3 3160 3092 4 3400 3015 shutin 0 3884 247 . Example 8. The test and interpretation procedure is illustrated in the attached figures.Flow after flow conventional back-pressure test [FAFGAS.6 .Figure 8.22: Interpretation of four point flow-after-flow well deliverability test A plot of log(¯2 − p2 ) against log qsc gives a straight line of slope equal to 1/n pR w and intercept −(1/n) log C.

Determine the exponent n and the performance coefficient C.874. [Answer: (i) 60. (iii) Make a well deliverability plot for the well.69 C =] A four point flow-after-flow test produced the following back pressure equation constants. Calculate the Absolute Open Flow (AOF) for the well (the AOF is a commonly used figure-ofmerit for a gas well and corresponds to the well rate at a flowing well pressure of one atmosphere). n = 0.035 × 10−6 MMSCF/day − psia2n . (ii) 35. AOF=7.Well deliverability using back pressure equation [DELGAS. (ii) What would the well flow rate be if the flowing wellbore pressure was maintained at 300 psia.6 MMSCF/day] Problem 8. (i) Determine the absolute open flow rate (AOF) for the well. C = 4.4 MMSCF/day] 248 .7 .4 MMSCF/day. [Answer: n = 0.01508 MSCF/day-psia2n The average reservoir pressure is 408 psia.

horizontal wells can connect regions of high permeability rock which are separated by regions of low permeability.23: Horizontal well in a compartmentalized reservoir 8. braided stream systems and fractured reservoirs).6 HORIZONTAL WELLS Horizontal wells are now routinely used in primary. In reservoirs which display complex and difficult to predict heterogeneity (carbonates. Reservoir flow problems . The major advantages over conventional vertical wells are in overcoming: Reservoir heterogeneity .Horizontal wells contact a larger area of the reservoir than vertical wells. channel point bar sands.Figure 8. secondary and tertiary recovery operations.The greater length of horizontal wells may result in smaller pressure gradients (increased productivity) when compared to vertical wells flowing at the same rate. 249 . This can be important in allowing production of heavier crudes at economical rates and reducing or completely elimination the detrimental effects of water and gas coning.

Inexpensive but limited to competent formations. . and prepacked liners. 250 .Three types commonly used. perforated. Difficult to control rate along length of well and difficult to stimulate. Liners are used to prevent hole collapse and to control sand production. Recovery is also increased because the cone for a similar situation exists in a sand subject to gas coning with the horizontal well being placed at the base of the sand. Open hole .In sands where water coning is a problem horizontal wells can be placed near the top of the sand increasing the vertical distance between the perforations and the water-oil contact and therefore increasing recovery when compared with a vertical well in the same sand.Figure 8. Rarely used except for formations such as Austin Chalk.In low permeability reservoirs it is possible to place multiple transverse fractures along the length of the well and greatly increase productivity over that possible with a vertical well. slotted.24: Comparison between effective reservoir contact areas for horizontal and vertical wells . Slotted liner . Completion options The attached figure shows a number of different techniques used to complete horizontal wells.

Under similar operating conditions. 8.25: Horizontal wells with multiple transverse fractures play a vital role in the production of tight gas reservoirs Liners with partial isolation allow the horizontal section to be divided into several isolated sections. This allows production control along the well length and selective stimulation or multiple fracking. Cemented and perforated liners provide the best completions provided that care is taken to ensure a good cement job. The area drained by a single well in the pattern is the drainage area for the well. A horizontal well will usually drain a larger area than a vertical well.kx = ky A horizontal well can be viewed as a number of vertical wells drilled on a line and completed in a limited pay thickness. A vertical well drains a cylindrical volume and a horizontal well drains an ellipsoid (three-dimensional ellipse).Figure 8.1 Drainage Area Wells are drilled on a pattern to provide adequate drainage of the reservoir. 251 .6. Areally isotropic reservoir .

26: Completion techeniques for horizontal wells 252 .Figure 8.

a 1000 ft horizontal well will drain twice the area of a vertical well and a 2000 ft horizontal well will drain three times the area of a vertical well. the drainage area of a horizontal well may be estimated from that for a vertical well as shown in the attached figure. the drainage radius is rev = q Av /π The drainage area for a vertical well may also be approximated as a square of dimensions 2xe by 2ye where xe = ye Av = 4xe or xe = ye = Av 4 A horizontal well can be viewed as a number of vertical wells drilled on a line and completed in a limited pay thickness.Figure 8. 253 . Under similar operating conditions. If the drainage area for a vertical well is Av . The effective drainage radius of a horizontal well is q reh = Ah /π s As a rule of thumb.27: Comparison of horizontal and vertical well costs for Prudhoe Bay in Alaska the drainage area of a horizontal well may be estimated from that for a vertical well as shown in the attached figure. Ah = 2ye L + Av where L is the length of the horizontal section.

Figure 8.28: Drainage areas for horizontal and vertical wells 254 .

29: Drainage areas for horizontal wells 255 .Figure 8.

since kx and ky are constant kx ∂2p ∂2p + ky 2 = 0 ∂x2 ∂y For an isotropic reservoir. we can write the following conservation equation à ! à ! ∂ ∂p ∂ ∂p kx + ky =0 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y or. ky constant). 256 . where k−h is the horizontal permeability.Areally anisotropic reservoir . Assuming steady-state flow in two dimensions. kx = ky = kh . we can write " # ∂2p ∂2p kh + =0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 For an anisotropic reservoir we multiply and divide the conservation equation q throughout by kx ky q v  s u u kx ∂ 2 p ky ∂ 2 p  kx ky t + =0 2 2 ky ∂x kx ∂y # or q kx ky " ∂ 2 p ky ∂ 2 p + =0 ∂x2 kx ∂y 2 # This equation may be written as q kx ky " ∂2p ∂ 2p + =0 ∂x2 ∂Y 2 s where y=Y ky kx # Comparing this equation with that for the isotropic system.kx < ky Consider an anisotropic (kx < ky ) homogeneous (kx . kh " ∂2p ∂2p + =0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 shows that in an anisotropic reservoir a vertical q drains a rectangle which has well a length along the high permeability direction ky /kx the length along the low permeability direction with an effective permeability q kx ky .

Figure 8.30: Drainage areas for horizontal wells in fractured or anisotropic reservoirs 257 .

the drainage area for the well is Ah = 2ye L + Av The number of horizontal wells required for adequate reservoir drainage is considerably smaller than that for a conventional vertical well development.31: Drainage areas for vertical and horizontal wells in anisotropic reservoirs If ky > kx . ye = s ky xe kx and the drainage area for a vertical well is Ah = 4ye xe and the effective horizontal permeability is. 258 . If a horizontal well is drilled in the direction of low permeability. kh = q kx ky The above analysis shows that it is difficult to drain a reservoir in the low permeability direction using vertical wells.Figure 8.

mcd] A vertical well is known to drain approximately 40 acres in a naturally fractured reservoir. The permeability in the direction perpendicular to the fractures is only kx =0.5 md. 145] A 600 acre lease is to be developed with 10 vertical wells. The permeability along the direction of the fractures is ky =4.] 259 . Estimate the number of horizontal wells required to drain the lease effectively assuming that the reservoir is isotropic. What are the drainage areas for a 2000 ft horizontal well drilled along the direction of the fractures and one drilled in a direction perpendicular to the fractures.Drainage for a horizontal well in an anisotropic reservoir [HORWELL.5md. An alternative is to drill 500 ft. 1000 ft. [Answer: 75 acres. 7 1000ft wells.8 .7 .Example 8. [Answer: 8 500ft wells. or 2000 ft long horizontal wells. 5 2000ft wells] Problem 8.Drainage area for horizontal wells in an isotropic reservoir [HORWELL.

d-late time linear flow 260 .32: Complexity of flow regimes for horizontal wells. c-late time radial flow.Figure 8. a-early time radial flow. b-early time linear flow.

The solution obtained was shown to be in excellent agreement with laboratory simulations using electrical networks.2 Productivity of Horizontal Wells The steady-state rate for a vertical is given by qv = 2πkh h ∆p µB ln(rev /rw ) The productivity index.33: Approximating three-dimensional steady-state flow in horizontal wells with two two-dimensional solutions 8. For a horizontal well completed in the middle of sand of thickness. qv .Figure 8. Jv . h. The differences are generally small.6. Joshi (JPT June 1988)divided the three-dimensional steady-state flow problem into separate two-dimensional vertical and horizontal problems and summed the solutions. is defined as the rate. with constant pressure boundary conditions at the drainage area boundary.kv = kh Numerous equations have been developed for steady-state flow of horizontal wells. The differences between the various equations result from the differences in solution techniques employed and the details of the assumptions made in developing the solution. Jh = qh = ∆p ∙ a+ ln √ 2πkh h/(µB) ¸ a2 −(L/2)2 L/2 + ³ ´ h L ln ³ h 2rw ´ 261 . 2πkh h/(µB) Jv = ln(rev /rw ) Homogeneous isotropic reservoirs . divided by the pressure difference. ∆p.

h.9reh . L a = 0.34: Productivity ratio Jh /Jv for horizontal wells in isotropic reservoirs where a is half the major axis of the drainage area ellipse defined as. Another equation for horizontal wells was developed by Borisov(Nedra. the effectiveness of the horizontal well. In the limit L >> h. Moscow 1964 .5 + 2  s 2reh 0. Horizontal wells are most effective in thin reservoirs. the second term in the denominator of the equation is negligible and the result can be rewritten as Jh = 2πkh h/(µB) ln (reh /[L/4]) 262 .25 + L s µ ¶4 0.translated into English in 1984) Jh = 2πkh h/(µB) ln (4reh /L) + (h/L) ln (h/2πrw ) This equation gives results very similar to those using the Joshi equation. increases.Figure 8. Ah π The above equation shows that as reservoir thickness. decreases.5  reh = for L > h and (L/2) < 0. Jh .

Jh = ln where β= ∙ a+ √ 2πkh h/(µB) ¸ a2 −(L/2)2 L/2 + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh 2rw ´ s kh kv 263 . s kh H=h kv When kv < kh . To obtain the productivity of a horizontal well in an isotropic reservoir we simply substitute the effective thickness of the reservoir for h in the equation for an isotropic reservoir.kv 6= kh When the horizontal permeability is different from the vertical permeability. H. the flow field is equivalent to that for √ an average permeability of kh kv with the z-axis modified. the effect is to increase the effective thickness of the reservoir. We will later show that the above equation is identical to that for a vertical well with an infinite-conductivity vertical fracture of length L. Isotropic reservoirs . Z=z s kh kv The influence of anisotropy is therefore to change the effective reservoir thickness. This reduces the effectiveness of a horizontal well relative to a vertical well. The result is. a horizontal well is equivalent to a vertical well with 0 an effective wellbore radius rw = L/4 (a highly stimulated vertical well).Comparing this equation with the corresponding equation for a vertical well shows that in the limit L >> h. in a manner similar to that previously shown.

264 . eccentricity has little effect and the well can be located anywhere in the vertical plane without significant loss in productivity.35: Productivity ratio Jh /Jv for horizontal wells in anisotropic reservoirs Horizontal well eccentricity The above equations are for the case where the horizontal well is centered with respect to the sand in which the well is completed. as δ= h/2 − zw h/2 δ = 0 for a centered well. there is no bottom water or top gas. Joshi gives the following equation for this case. We define well eccentricity.8reh .. For long horizontal wells. (L >> h). δ.Figure 8. Jh = ln ∙ a+ √ 2πkh h/(µB) ¸ a2 −(L/2)2 L/2 + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh [1 2rw + δ2 ] ´ which is valid for L > βh. δ = 1 for a well at the base or top of the sand. δ < h/2 and L < 1. This is strictly true only for bound reservoirs where the top and bottom boundaries are closed ie. A schematic of an off-centered horizontal well is shown in the attached figure.

Figure 8.36: Horizontal well accentricity Figure 8.37: Effect of eccentricity on the productivity of a horizontal well 265 .

01.10 .9 STB/day-psi (ii) 12. kh =50 md µ =0.1.3.Horizontal well productivities II [HORWELL.? (i) 200 ft. horizontal well is drilled in a reservoir on a 160 acre spacing.35 RB/STB What is the improvement in productivity which may be expected over that for a vertical well if the sand thickness is.1. Other data reservoir and fluid parameters are. Other reservoir and fluid parameters are. [Answer: Joshi equation (i) 7.0. 0.33 ft B =1.Problem 8.33 ft B =1.2.] A 1000 ft. The horizontal permeability averages 200 md and the vertical permeability averages 20 md. horizontal well is drilled through the centre of a 50 ft sand on a 160 acre spacing. 10 ft and 20 ft from the base of the sand.1] 266 .2 cp rw =0. 13. µ =0.5 and 1.35 RB/STB (i) Compare the horizontal well productivities for kv /kh of 0. (ii) 4.9 .7. 16.5. [Joshi equation (i)] A 1000 ft. 16. (ii) For kv /kh =0. 13.Horizontal well productivities I [HORWELL.1 compare the horizontal well productivities if the well is located at distances of 1 ft. 0.4 cp rw =0.2 STB/day-psi ] Problem 8. (ii) 20 ft.

The above equation and the previously discussed equation developed by Joshi produce similar estimates for horizontal well productivity. 1990) developed the following equation for the productivity index. The ratio of productivities for a damaged and undamaged horizontal well is therefore. formation damage can have a severe effect on horizontal well productivity. Renard and Dupuy wrote.d = cosh−1 ³ 2a L ´ 2πkh h/(µB) + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh (1+β)πrw ´ + sh where sh is the horizontal well skin factor which must be determined from well tests. Jh. For a damaged well. Jh = ³ 2πkh h/(µB) 2a L cosh −1 ´ + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh (1+β)πrw ´ where a is half the major axis of the drainage area ellipse as previously defined.Effect of Formation Damage on Horizontal Well Productivity As in the case of vertical wells. ³ ´ ³ ´ ³ ´ βh cosh−1 2a + βh ln (1+β)πrw Jhd L L ³ ´ ³ ´ ³ ´ = βh βh −1 2a Jh cosh + L ln (1+β)πrw + sh L or Jhd B = Jh B + sh where B = cosh −1 µ 2a βh βh + ln L L (1 + β)πrw ¶ Ã ! Ã ! 267 . Renard and Dupuy (SPE19414. Consider the case of a horizontal well completed at the center of a homogeneous anisotropic sand.

38: Comparison between formation damage for horizonral and vertical wells 268 .Figure 8.

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