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PTRL6001 RESERVOIR ENGINEERING I
by Val Pinczewski School of Petroleum Engineering University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052. AUSTRALIA
March, 2002
Prepared for
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DISTANCE LEARNING PROGRAM
UNSW
IMPORTANT NOTICE 2002 University of New South Wales. All rights are reserved. This copy of the manual and accompanying software was prepared in accordance with copyright laws for the sole use of students enrolled in a course at the University of New South Wales. It is illegal to reproduce any of this material or to use it for any other purpose.
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Contents
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BASIC CONCEPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 Accumulation of Sediments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Origin of Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrocarbon Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classiﬁcation of Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 7 7 9 9 11 14 15 15 15 17 18 19 20 23 31 35 36 37
1.2 OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 Residual Oil Resource (Target for EOR ) . . . . . . . . . . Residual Oil is Trapped or Bypassed . . . . . . . . . . . . Recovery Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary Recovery Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tertiary Recovery — EOR Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 WHAT IS RESERVOIR ENGINEERING? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION 2.1 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 SOURCES OF DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 2.2.2 Coring And Core Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wireline Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.2.3 2.2.4
Pressure and Production Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38 39 42 46
2.3 INTEGRATED FORMATION EVALUATION PROGRAM . . . 2.4 AQUIFER DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 VOLUMETRICS AND INITIAL HYDROCARBON VOLUME 48 3.1 STRUCTURE MAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 ISOPACH MAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 VOLUMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING ORIGINAL OILINPLACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 Reservoir Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 50 53 54 55 55 56 56 67 68 69
Average Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average Initial Water Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average Oil Formation Volume Factor . . . . . . . . . . . Determining Initial OilInPlace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 DETERMINATION OF OILINPLACE — MATERIAL BALANCE METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 ESTIMATING RESERVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 ESTIMATING DECLINE IN OIL PRODUCTION RATES . . . .
4 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN RESERVOIRS 70 4.1 SUBSURFACE PRESSURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 Water zone pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil zone pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas cap pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 71 72 73 74
4.2 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN A RESERVOIR CONTAINING OIL, WATER AND GAS . . . . . . . . . .
2
4.3 GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 FLUID PROPERTIES 5.1 PHASE BEHAVIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Pure Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrocarbons Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classiﬁcation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . .
84 86 87 87 89 92 95 98
5.2 PVT PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Pressure Dependence of PVT Properties . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 CALCULATION OF GAS PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5.3.1 5.3.2 Single Gas Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 MultiComponent Gas Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.4 DETERMINATION OF OIL PVT DATA FROM LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 Flash Expansion Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Diﬀerential Liberation Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Separator Flash Expansion Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Procedure for calculating PVT parameters from laboratory data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
5.5 FLUID SAMPLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 5.6 PVT TESTS FOR GAS CONDENSATE FIELDS . . . . . . . . . 119 5.7 GAS HYDRATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5.8 SURFACE TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 5.8.1 Estimating Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
5.9 CORRELATIONS FOR PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 126 6 MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS 133
6.1 ORIGINAL OIL VOLUME BALANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 3
. . . 153 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Water Drive Gas Reservoirs .1. . 182 4 . . . . . . . . . 145 General Material Balance Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 7 RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES AND CORE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 165 7. 149 6. . . . . . . 138 Remaining Oil Volume . . . . 179 The Klinkenberg Eﬀect . . . . . . .1 POROSITY . .3 POROSITYPERMEABILITY RELATIONSHIPS . . . . . . . . 148 6. .1.2. . .3 USING MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS . . . 159 6. . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7.5. . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 174 7. .2 PERMEABILITY . . . . 175 Laboratory Measurement of Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Knowns and Unknowns . . . . . . . . . . .2 Eﬀective and Total Porosity . . . .1. . . .1 Capillary Tube Model . . . . .2. . . .5 6. . . 165 7. . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . .5 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED GAS RESERVOIR . . . . . 167 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity . . . . . . .2. .1. . . .2 7. . . . . . . . 140 Rock and Connate Water Expansion . .6. . . . .1. . . . . . . 153 6. . . . . 146 6.1. . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . 182 7. .1. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 7. . .4 6. . . . .6 Gas Cap Expansion .2. . .2 PRIMARY RECOVERY MECHANISMS . . . . . . . . .4 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED OIL RESERVOIR . . .3 Measurement of Permeability . . . . 157 6. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 180 7. . . . . 135 Released Gas Volume . .2 Average Reservoir Pressure . . 142 Water Inﬂux . . . . . .1 Typical Performance Characteristics for the Diﬀerent Drive Mechanisms . . . .
. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .4 8.7. . . . . . . . 197 Radial Flow of an Incompressible Fluid . . . .3. . . .2.2. .2. . . . 212 Flow Eﬃciency . . . . . 215 8. 228 8. 194 8. . . . . . . .6 Radial Diﬀusivity Equation . 190 Use of Rock Compressibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Liquids Having Small and Constant Compressibility . . . . . . 201 Wellbore Damage .2 8. . . . . . 206 Relationship between s and the size of the altered zone . . . . .4 WELL PRODUCTIVITY . . . . . . . . . 219 PseudoSteadyState Radial Flow . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . .3 8. 185 7. . . . . 192 194 8 FLUID FLOW 8. . . . . . . . . 197 8. .2 Productivity Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Flow Equations in terms of Average Reservoir Pressure . . 210 Eﬀective Wellbore Radius . .3 8. . . . . . . . .3. . . .4. . . . .6 Horizontal Linear Flow of an Incompressible Fluid . . . . . . . . . . 195 8.4 8. .1 Pressure Potential . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .4 ROCK COMPRESSIBILITY . . 189 Measurement of Formation Compressibility .2 STEADYSTATE FLOW . . . . . . . . .1 7. . 186 7.2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 DARCY’S LAW . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . .2. .1 8. . . . . . .3 Pore Volume Compressibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 5 . . . .3. . . . .2. . .1 8. . 229 8. .4. .2 Fractured medium model . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 223 Dietz Shape Factors for Vertical Wells . 229 Partial Penetration . .4. 225 Approximating Complex Geometries . . .3 UNSTEADY STATE FLOW . .3. . . 213 8.
1 8. . . .6. .5. . . 240 Pressuresquared approximation . . . . . . .5. . . 000psi and ∆p small 236 High pressure approximation — p > 3. 241 High Pressure approximation .1 8. . . . 000psi and ∆p small 237 ∆p is not small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .6. . . . . .5.6 HORIZONTAL WELLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. 261 6 . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 8. . . . . .5 GAS FLOW . . . .5. . . .4 8. . . . . 249 8. . . . . . . . . . 238 Steady and PseudoSteady State Radial Gas Flow . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . .5. . .5 8.2 Drainage Area . . . . .8. 251 Productivity of Horizontal Wells . . . . . . . . . 239 NonDarcy ﬂow . 241 Gas Well Back Pressure Equation . . . .5. .6 8.8 Low pressure approximation — p < 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . .
1 BASIC CONCEPTS Accumulation of Sediments The accumulation of sediments in a basin depends on the balance between the energy of the depositional environment (water velocity) and the sedimentation velocity of the particles. The sedimentation velocity depends on the size and density of the particles. (layering).1 1. This process leads to sorting of sediments with the accumulation of sand grains in one area and clay and silt particles in another area. Smaller particle sediments may be further moved by waves and currents to other locations where the environmental energy is insuﬃcient to carry the particles further.1. 1. If you are familiar with this material skip this section. Sediments carried by high velocity streams may be deposited in the delta region of the river where ﬂow velocities are much slower. 7 . This results in a sequential deposition of sand (large particles) and shale (ﬁne particles) producing sequences of sand and shale.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION For those unfamiliar with reservoir engineering or reservoir geology the following section gives a brief summary of some basic concepts. This layering or vertical heterogeneity is the single most important characteristic determining reservoir performance and recovery. The depositional energy at a particular location varies with time.
Figure 1.1: Schematic of a typical depositional sequence 8 .
Increasing burial causes the ﬁnegrained sediments to undergo compaction and the source rocks eventually become eﬀectively impermeable. This process is called primary migration.000 ft for ﬁne grained sediments containing organic matter (source rocks) to produce oil and gas.000 ft to 23. 1. 9 .1.1.1. This is called an anticlinal trap. The minimum temperature for oil and gas formation is about 150o F and the maximum is about 320o F. Anaerobic bacteria decomposes the organic matter to produce compounds of carbon. This is called secondary migration. The hydrocarbon contained in the reservoir may be oil or gas or both. enter the overlying and underlying water saturated permeable sand layers which have retained their porosity and permeability because the coarse sand grains are stronger than the ﬁnegrained silt and clay particles and therefore better withstand the increasing compaction forces with increasing burial depth.2 Origin of Petroleum The precursors of petroleum. organic matter from dead plants and animals. Quite water is deﬁcient in oxygen leading to the creation of anaerobic conditions and preservation of the organic matter. are deposited together with ﬁnegrained sediments in shallow marine environments during low energy periods of basin formation. As the particles compact the generated hydrocarbon particles (oil or gas) are squeezed from the source rock. The expelled hydrocarbon particles. Since temperature increases with depth. Here are some commonly used terms to describe petroleum reservoirs. The conversion of the organic matter occurs over geological time as sediments become progressively buried and temperature and pressure increase. this results in a burial depth window of between 7. hydrogen (hydrocarbons) and oxygen. in the form of colloidal solutions (micelles) or individual drops or bubbles.3 Hydrocarbon Traps The expelled hydrocarbon is lighter than the water in the interconnected pore space of the permeable sand layers and moves upwards as a result of buoyancy. As hydrocarbon accumulates under the trap a reservoir is formed. The characteristics of hydrocarbon traps are illustrated by considering a porous permeable formation between two impermeable layers which has been folded by tectonic action into an anticline (see the attached ﬁgure). You will probably be familiar with most of these terms. The upward migration of generated hydrocarbon continues until it is halted by an impermeable barrier or trap.
Oilwater contact: lowest depth at which oil can be produced. Spill point: the lowest point of the trap that can hold hydrocarbon. Gasoil contact: lowest depth at which gas can be produced. Oil zone: oil reservoir. Water zone or aquifer: the body of water bearing rock in hydraulic communication with the reservoir. Gas cap: gas ﬁlled zone or gas reservoir. These may be either clastic rocks (sandstones) or limestone and dolomite (carbonates). Connate water: water in the pore space occupied by hydrocarbons. Reservoir: the part of the formation which contains hydrocarbon (oil and/or gas) and connate water.2: Crosssection for an anticlinal reservoir Formation: the rocks. Bottom water: water below the oilwater contact.Figure 1. 10 . Edge water: water laterally adjacent the oilwater contact. Trap closure: the distance between the crest and the spill point.
Diapiric traps .Figure 1.formed by displacement of blocks of rock as a result of unequal tectonic forces.formed by compressional or compactional anticlines.1.4: Faulted structural trap 1. Structural traps Structural traps are formed by tectonic processes acting on sedimentary layers after deposition. 11 .3: Anticline structural trap Figure 1. Fault traps . Fold traps . They may be classiﬁed as.4 Classiﬁcation of Traps Hydrocarbon traps are classiﬁed as either structural or stratigraphic.formed by intrusion of salt or mud diapirs.
Stratigraphic traps may be associated with unconformities.Figure 1. it cannot be concluded from the section alone that the central block is completely isolated from the rest of the formation.5: Salt dome structural trap Stratigraphic traps Stratigraphic traps are produced by facies (rock type) changes in the formation such as pinchouts and lenticular sand bodies surrounded by impermeable shales. This will improve your understanding of the basic concepts. The blocks may be in pressure communication through the aquifer. Unconformities generally separate formations formed under very diﬀerent depositional conditions. An uncomformity forms when a site of sediments is uplifted. eroded and buried again under new layers of sediments that may form the trap. Study the attached ﬁgures in the context of the above discussion. 12 . The processes involved in the formation of stratigraphic traps are complex because they involve changes in the depositional environment. (ii) However. The oil and gas zones have diﬀerent contacts. Note the following important points in the last of the ﬁgures: (i) The oil and gas zones in the central block are not in direct pressure communication with the oil and gas zones in the left and right blocks.
7: Schematic of an oil and gas reservoir with a faulted central block and diﬀerent ﬂuid contacts 13 .6: Stratigraphic trap Figure 1.Figure 1.
2 OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES Oil recovery operations are generally classiﬁed into three groups. Secondary Recovery .enhanced oil recovery processes (EOR).Figure 1. In an EOR process conventional water or gas is replaced by a more eﬀective (more expensive) recovery agent. Primary Recovery . Tertiary Recovery .8: USA oil resource 1. gas cap expansion.production using only natural reservoir energy (natural water drive. solution gas drive and pressure depletion drive). An EOR process is any process which does a better job of recovering oil than conventional technology (primary and secondary recovery processes).water or gas injection to maintain reservoir pressure (waterﬂooding and immiscible gas injection to supplement natural reservoir energy). 14 .
.fracking.Unrecovered mobile oil can be recovered by conventional processes by improved access to the reservoir. 1. .Trapping on the micro or pore scale is by capillary forces.2.current EOR technology can produce about 20% —30% of the residual oil resource.perforating unperforated layers.3 Recovery Processes Unrecovered oil may be classiﬁed into two categories: Unrecovered mobile oil and immobile or residual oil.1 Residual Oil Resource (Target for EOR ) Conventional primary recovery methods are usually very ineﬃcient and.inﬁll drilling. . . . . . 15 .2/3 OOIP cannot be produced by conventional recovery technology. on the world average. .Trapping on the macro or ﬁeld scale is caused by areal and vertical bypassing.trapping of oil occurs on all reservoir length scales.selective shutoﬀ of water and gas producing zones.2. Reservoir access may be improved by.1. . recover approximately 1/3 of the OOIP. . Trapping on all scales is strongly inﬂuenced by heterogeneity.2. .horizontal and multilateral wells. 1.2 Residual Oil is Trapped or Bypassed Oil which cannot be recovered using existing facilities or infrastructure (existing investment) is trapped (microscale) or bypassed (macroscale) .removal of formation damage caused by completion operations.
Figure 1.9: Residual is trapped or bypassed on all reservoir length scales 16 .
Immobile oil cannot be recovered by primary and secondary recovery processes such as waterﬂooding and immiscible gas injection. All EOR techniques attempt to recover residual oil by: (i) Improving reservoir sweep eﬃciency . 1.2.10: Recovery processes . (ii) Mobilizing immobile or residual oil. 17 . This oil can only be recovered by tertiary EOR processes.Figure 1.4 Primary Recovery Mechanisms An estimate of the likely primary production mechanism for a reservoir may be made on the basis of geological data even before the reservoir has been produced.
The importance of instituting a program to gather this data as early as possible in the development and production life of a reservoir cannot be over emphasized. (iii) Formation permeability can be estimated from core data and ﬂow tests on wells.For example: (i) Thin.2. A good data gathering program is a key component of an eﬀective reservoir management strategy. Material balance calculations require: (i) Accurate and comprehensive production history. (ii) Representative ﬂuid samples for PVT analysis. to identify the need and timing for secondary gas or water injection. or form a secondary gas cap. Drillstem tests on dry holes and structurally low wells (wells penetrating the aquifer) may yield important indications of aquifer permeability and continuity. Sometimes it is useful to complete dry holes as aquifer observation wells. (iii) High permeability reservoirs in contact with an extensive aquifer will beneﬁt to some degree from natural water inﬂux (water drive). 18 . This may supplement the eﬀectiveness of the original gas cap. The aquifer can have a profound eﬀect on reservoir performance. (iii) Periodic pressure surveys. Pressure data from such wells can be important in characterizing reservoiraquifer systems. (ii) Reservoirs having high closure and high permeability may experience the beneﬁcial eﬀects of gravity segregation of oil and gas. Useful estimates of future production trends can be obtained from a knowledge of: (i) The size of the gas cap relative to the size of the oil reservoir. (ii) The size of the aquifer relative to the size of the oil zone. amongst other things. 1. Material balance calculations may be used to determine the relative importance of the various natural drive mechanisms for a particular reservoir.5 Secondary Recovery Predictions of future reservoir performance are required. ﬂat reservoirs with low permeability will most likely produce by a solutiongas drive mechanism.
11: Steam ﬂooding process 1. Decisions regarding the actual implementation of EOR processes are not made until suﬃcient ﬁeld data is available to accurately assess primary and secondary performance. EOR processes may be classiﬁed into three major categories: 1.2. Chemical — Micellar Polymer Flooding — Polymer Flooding — Caustic or Alkaline Flooding 2.6 Tertiary Recovery — EOR Processes The same techniques used to determine the need for secondary recovery are used to assess the need for tertiary developments.Figure 1. Thermal — Steam Flooding — Fire Flooding 19 .
Miscible — Enriched Hydrocarbon Gas Flooding — CO2 Flooding — Nitrogen and Flue Gas Flooding The complexity of these processes requires the gathering of large quantities of additional laboratory ﬂuid and core data and the use of considerably more complex analysis techniques. 1. A basic understanding of reservoir engineering concepts is necessary for the planning.12: Carbon dioxide ﬂooding process 3.3 WHAT IS RESERVOIR ENGINEERING? Reservoir Engineering is the science of understanding the production characteristics of oil and gas ﬁelds under primary (natural pressure depletion). 20 . immiscible gas ﬂooding) and tertiary (EOR) drive mechanisms. development and production of oil and gas ﬁelds. secondary (water ﬂooding.Figure 1.
Figure 1. 3. reservoir geometry (shape). The reservoir engineer utilizes this data together with well production rates and measured reservoir pressures to analyze and interpret the data in order to optimize oil and gas recovery. 21 .13: Chemical ﬂooding process Geologists and Petrophysicists provide a description of the structure of the formation or reservoir and vital physical parameters describing the reservoir internal structure and initial distribution of ﬂuids. How much hydrocarbon (oil and/or gas) does a reservoir initially contain(initial hydrocarbon inplace)? How much of the hydrocarbon initially inplace can ultimately be recovered? How will the production rates of wells depend on the physical parameters of the reservoir. Reservoir Engineers are required to answer the following three vital questions: 1. 2. well number and development pattern and how will the rate decline with time? The ﬁrst question may be answered if the shape and size of the pay zone is known and the distribution of porosity and water saturation in the zone are also known.
The answer to the second question is very complex. These are required to model the many alternative developments which result in diﬀerent ultimate recoveries and proﬁtability.This data is provided by the geologist and the petrophysicist. It requires the use of sophisticated mathematical models (usually computer based reservoir simulators). The process of producing production forecasts for the diﬀerent recovery mechanisms and development plans will always be associated with some degree of uncertainty because geologic formations are highly heterogeneous and the geological description. The answer to the third question relies on detailed analysis of pressure and individual well test data. The reservoir engineer may assist by estimating the positions of gasoil and wateroil contacts if the positions of these contacts is unknown. can never capture all the geologic variability. 22 . no matter how sophisticated.
This information is represented by various types of maps and crosssections. permeability. both areally and vertically. This is the ﬁrst step in a reservoir engineering study.Chapter 2 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION The basis for a sound understanding of reservoir performance is a good description of reservoir geology (geological model) and the distribution of ﬂuids (oil. (i) a description of reservoir stratiﬁcation (reservoir lithology). these changes result in 23 . Depositional conditions at any instant also vary from one location to another which results in lateral as well as vertical changes within the reservoir and within individual rock units. (iii) information on porosity. and water saturation throughout the reservoir. Rock and Reservoir Description Reservoir engineering studies require that the physical makeup of a reservoir be represented in a usable manner. This should include. As we will see later. and (iv) a description of the size and permeability of the adjoining aquifer. Reservoir Heterogeneity Most reservoirs are layered because of variations that existed in the depositional environment. water and gas) it contains. (ii) a description of reservoir geometry. These are usually prepared by production geologists.
Figure 2.1: Highly detailes geostatistical models for reservoir characterization 24 .
stratiﬁcation also exists within the net sand layers themselves and the degree of porosity and permeability can vary greatly within each strata. Primary porosity may be modiﬁed by post depositional events. Wireline logs Electric and other types of logs can be very important tools for determining reservoir layering. ﬂuid distribution. The logs can be calibrated by core data to make them more useful from a quantitative standpoint. small mineral particles may be deposited in the space be25 . Core analysis Core analysis data provide an additional basis for determining net sand thickness and reservoir zonation. Stratiﬁcation Stratiﬁcation or heterogeneity occurs on all length scales in a reservoir. However. in most cases logs are more eﬀective when supported by core data. For example. but generally. Porosity of net sand usually is in the range from 10 to 30 %. Reservoir crosssections based on logs can show if permeable zones are continuous throughout the reservoir or if they are lenses having limited areal extent. Methods of analyzing logs and techniques of using logs for determining net sand thickness and evaluating sand continuity are beyond the scope of this course. logs are available for all wells drilled and represent the most complete set of reservoir descriptive data. Logs also show the net sand at each well. Although reservoir stratiﬁcation is usually considered only in terms of net sand layers and impermeable streaks of sand or shale. Net sand is the rock that contains recoverable hydrocarbons and possesses permeability. only a fraction of the wells are cored. Porosity and Permeability The two most important properties of net sand are porosity and permeability. Generally. Permeability is a measure of the relative ease with which ﬂuids ﬂow through the rock. A geologist should be consulted when analyzing logs for reservoir zonation and net sand thickness. Some limestone and dolomite reservoirs locally may have porosities as high as 60 %. The porosity in reservoir rocks usually occurs in the spaces between rock particles and this is called primary porosity or intergranular porosity. Primary porosity can also exist in fractures and vugs. and permeability. Under some conditions. the calibrated logs can be used to obtain fairly good estimates of the porosity and permeability proﬁles at all wells in a reservoir.variations in porosity. Core analysis data is more quantitative than logs in describing the reservoir.
2: Vertical heterogeneity or layering 26 .Figure 2.
Figure 2.3: Examples of structural and geological complexity 27 .
28 . e. the permeabilities of the net sand portion of a reservoir will vary from 10 md or less to 500 md or more. These data are used to evaluate initial volumes of oil and gas in the reservoir Evaluation of potential sources of reservoir production energy. so ﬂuid ﬂow proﬁles in the reservoir may be very uneven.4: Schematic of wireline logging operation tween sand grains to produce microporosity.g. The process of reservoir description is sometimes referred to as formation evaluation and reservoir characterization. Interpretation of the above data for accuracy and reliability. Gathering of data on the characteristics.Figure 2. The ability of a rock to allow ﬂuid ﬂow is proportional to permeability. Typically. extent of aquifer and size of gas cap. These digenetic changes may greatly reduce the original porosity and permeability of a rock. It involves the following steps: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Gathering of data on the physical characteristics of formation rocks. occurrences and distribution of ﬂuids within these rocks.
Figure 2.5: Formation microscanner and resistivity logs 29 .
6: Schematic of a rotory core barrel 30 .Figure 2.
and how can the decline in production rate be arrested? 31 .) and the collection of poor quality or inaccurate data is contradictory and wasteful. sampling. 2.1 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION PROGRAM The primary objectives of a data gathering program are to answer the following questions: (i) (ii) Does the formation contain commercial quantities of oil and gas? How should the reservoir be produces to maximize economic return? or. more speciﬁcally. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) How much stock tank oil and/or free gas is initially in place? What is the likely primary recovery mechanism and will it be necessary to supplement this energy by water or gas injection? What are the oil and gas reserves (production volumes for a particular ﬁeld development)? How will individual well rates decline.7: Diamond coring bits Data collection is expensive (wireline logging.Figure 2. pressure testing etc. It is therefore necessary to place considerable eﬀort into preparing an eﬀective data gathering program.
Figure 2.8: Schematic of a sidewall coring gun 32 .
Figure 2.9: Full diameter core 33 .
10: Length scales for laboratory core analysis Figure 2.Figure 2.11: Sampling anisotropic core 34 .
2 SOURCES OF DATA The following is a guide to the type of data which may be collected with the drilling of the ﬁrst well in a reservoir: Original reservoir pressure and temperature. 2. Wireline logs. As the ﬁeld is developed and produced. Fluid samples. 35 . It is important to recognize this when developing the initial data gathering program.The above questions cannot all be answered immediately after drilling of a discovery well. The overall data gathering program is thus a continuing process over the life of the ﬁeld. Well productivity (permeability). Gross reservoir thickness at the well. additional data becomes available. However. the engineer can arrive at reasonable planning estimates. The above information is obtained from: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Core samples. and this is integrated with the existing data to reduce the level of uncertainty associated with the initial estimates. Reservoir porosity. provided that the data gathering program is well thoughtout. Stratigraphic sequence of rock at the well. Initial ﬂuid saturations. Characteristics of reservoir ﬂuid. Lithology of the reservoir rock. Pressure and production testing.
Additional delineation or development wells drilled after the ﬁrst discovery well should provide the following data: Reservoir thickness variations to allow mapping of the ﬁeld. Areal variations in permeability, porosity and water saturation. Continuity of stratigraphic units between wells. Vertical permeability variations (vertical barriers to ﬂow) in the reservoir. Variations of subsea depth of reservoir top and base for structure maps. Depth Of gasoil and oilwater contacts. Variations in ﬂuid compositions within the reservoir.
These factors are determined in the same manner as for the ﬁrst well. The presence of multiple wells allows interference testing between wells to determine average permeabilities between wells and to test the continuity of individual sand units. Not all of the above data will be collected from each well drilled. The engineer must continually assess the data gathering process and only collect that data which materially reduces the level of uncertainty in estimating the important reservoir parameters. When areal variations in rock properties are large, it may be necessary to collect all the data from all the wells drilled and to drill additional data wells.
2.2.1
Coring And Core Analysis
Coring is the most basic formation evaluation tool. It provides the engineer with the only opportunity to physically inspect a piece of the reservoir. It provides the only means of determining, (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Reservoir wettability. Capillary pressure. Relative permeability. Residual oil saturation.
36
These are important in determining formation production characteristics and reservoir recovery factors. Measurements on reservoir core samples are also required for: (i) (ii) Calibration of wireline logs, essential for quantitative log interpretation. Identifying potential causes of formation damage.
It is diﬃcult to base an entire reservoir description entirely on core analysis data. This is because even in a heavily cored reservoir, the total cored volume constitutes only a very small fraction of the entire reservoir volume. As a result, it is very diﬃcult to assess the statistical signiﬁcance of the data. At least one well in the reservoir should be cored over the entire producing interval. The data obtained provides valuable information for describing vertical variations in reservoir rock properties.
2.2.2
Wireline Logging
Wireline logging provides information on: (i) (ii) (iii) lithology, porosity, water saturation,
of the formation penetrated by a well. Whereas only a few wells are fully cored, it is common practice to log all wells in the ﬁeld. Logs provide the basis for determining, (i) gross and net formation thickness, (ii) correlations identifying individual reservoir sand units, (iii) continuity of reservoir sand units,
37
There are three basic types of log: 1. 2. 3. Electric — fundamental log run in all wells drilled. Most electric logs must be run in an uncased hole containing conducting ﬂuid. Sonic — Usually run in open hole. Radioactivity — can be run successfully under nearly all wellbore conditions.
Although logs provide valuable data for reservoir description, the main purpose of logging is to identify a suitable completion interval for the well. A logging program should be designed to designed to provide the data required for reservoir description at a minimum cost. Lithology and borehole conditions must be considered in the selection of a suitable suite of logs. This will usually require a trialanderror process of selecting the most eﬀective combination of logs for a particular reservoir. Prior experience is a major fracture in the design of an eﬀective logging program.
2.2.3
Pressure and Production Testing
Pressure and production tests are designed to determine, (i) (ii) ﬂuid content, formation productivity.
Production tests repeated on a yearly basis over the life of a well provide valuable information on, (i) wellbore plugging, (ii) reservoir pressure decline, (iii) invasion of the wellbore by water or gas. Pressure buildup and drawdown tests involve ﬂowing a single well at a constant rate for a predetermined period of time and then shuttingin the well and observing the rate at which the wellbore pressure rises or falls with time. An analysis of the pressure response allows an estimate of formation productivity and permeability.
38
Figure 2.12: Wireline formation interval tester
Interference tests provide checks on formation permeability and continuity. These tests involve ﬂowing a production well and measuring the resulting pressure decline at nearby wells. Drillstem tests are usually run at the time the well is drilled to determine if the well should be completed over the interval identiﬁed by the well log. The DST tool allows us to make a temporary completion to conduct pressure buildup and drawdown tests. DST’s are useful for: (i) testing the potential production intervals, (ii) locating the positions of gasoil and oilwater contacts, (iii) Determining average reservoir pressure.
2.2.4
Fluid Sampling
Reservoir oil usually contains a considerable amount of dissolved gas. When the oil is produced to the surface the gas comes out of solution and the oil volume consequently shrinks. The oil that ﬁlls a barrel at surface conditions will have occupied between 10%—50% at reservoir conditions. 39
Figure 2.13: Initial and production formation pressure data with ﬂowmeter survey
40
14: Single and multiwell pressure tests Figure 2.Figure 2.15: Rate and pressure history for an interference test 41 .
It is therefore necessary to develop an integrated formation evaluation program which consists of a carefully considered mix of: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Logs .only means of determining reservoir ﬂuid properties.these provide most of the data for reservoir characterization. ﬂuid properties may vary signiﬁcantly both areally and vertically.3 INTEGRATED FORMATION EVALUATION PROGRAM No single wireline tool or procedure is capable of providing all the data required to characterize a reservoir and its contents. A number of Key wells are selected to provide a representative coverage over the reservoir. Cores . Enough samples should be taken to adequately describe these variations.provide estimates of permeability and productivity. Recombined surface samples — oil and gas samples from the test separator recombined in the ratio of the produced gasoil ratio. Other important properties of oil. Fluid sampling . The following steps are taken in the development of such a program: 1. These properties are very important in reservoir ﬂuid ﬂow calculations and must be accurately known. 2. 2. 42 . Well testing . Subsurface — wireline samplers in the wellbore at the perforations or as part of the initial openhole formation evaluation program. A rule of thumb is that at least one well is needed for each 640 acres. The best approach is to adopt a Key Well Program. also change when solution gas is released.To determine oilinplace it is necessary to know the number of stock tank barrels occupied by a reservoir barrel of oil. such as density and viscosity. Reservoir ﬂuid may be sampled in two ways: 1. For heterogeneous reservoirs this is reduced to 320 acres or less. In large reservoirs having high closure.used to calibrate logs for quantitative interpretation.
Figure 2.16: Bottom hole sampling tool 43 .
3. Logs run in nonkey wells are then interpreted according to the correlations developed for the key wells. The above data gathering procedures are continuously monitored with the objective of eliminating any unnecessary or ineﬀective procedures. A reservoir description program is needed during all phases of the producing life of a ﬁeld. coring and well testing to provide complete reservoir coverage over the reservoir. 4. 2. 44 . This will include logging. Any available production data from key wells is also used to aide log interpretation.17: Surface sampling for laboratory recombination 2. Determining which logs provide the best quantitative data by comparing log interpretations with core data. 1. After ﬁeld development the information is used for reservoir energy control in order to achieve high ultimate recovery. The above steps ensure a data gathering procedure which is both simple and cost eﬀective. 5.Figure 2. A data gathering program is designed for each key well. Early in the development of the ﬁeld this information is required to achieve proper well spacing and productive completions.
Figure 2.18: Key well program 45 .
The size and permeability of an aquifer will control how much water drive energy is available to the reservoir. Contacts can be detected by production tests. To eﬀectively engineer these processes it is necessary to have an accurate reservoir description and an estimate of hydrocarbon recovery. Pressure gradients in the reservoir. The aquifer 46 . cased hole logging and 4D highresolution interwell seismic. In addition to production wells it may be necessary to drill observation wells.19: Aquifer models .Figure 2. 2. These wells can provide data which includes: (i) (ii) (iii) Reservoir pressure.4 AQUIFER DESCRIPTION The aquifer is the total volume of porous waterbearing rock in pressure communication with a hydrocarbon reservoir. Secondary and Tertiary recovery.limited data and interference 3. Position and movement of contacts.
An estimate of the aquifer permeability can be determined from the results of drillstem tests on dry holes. we are concerned only with methods of determining the size and permeability of an aquifer. the areal extent of the aquifer can be estimated. Reservoir drive mechanisms will be discussed in detail later in the course. At the present time. 47 . The aquifer can have a major eﬀect on the productionpressure performance of a reservoir. most of the information on it must come from wells drilled outside the reservoir area. Equations for calculating permeability from ﬂow test data will be studies in the portion of the course entitled ﬂuid ﬂow.energy will determine if the reservoir will produce primarily by water drive or by liquid or gas expansion within the reservoir. This topic will be covered in detail in the section on water drive reservoirs. Logs and drillstem tests on dry holes are about the only source of aquifer data. If enough dry holes are available. If an aquifer is large. Logs will show the thickness of waterbearing rock that is in communication with the reservoir.
(i) well control. The data on which the maps are drawn usually come from. The maps may show the top or the bottom of a structure or reservoir unit. Structure maps are prepared by geologists. These maps also show the positions of ﬂuid contacts in the reservoir. Structure maps on the top and on 48 .1 STRUCTURE MAPS Structure maps show the geometric shape of a reservoir or formation. (ii) geophysical data usually in the form of time maps. and (iii) geological models of depositional and postdepositional events. 3. Contour maps are commonly used to show reservoir geometry and the distribution of important reservoir parameters. In this section we will brieﬂy look at how maps and crosssections are used to describe the geometry of a reservoir and calculate the hydrocarbon volume inplace. This requires data which will allow us to calculate the size and geometry of the reservoir and the ﬂuid volumes which the reservoir contains.Chapter 3 VOLUMETRICS AND INITIAL HYDROCARBON VOLUME The ﬁrst step in a reservoir study is to accurately determine the initial hydrocarbon volume. Examples of top of structure maps are attached. Gross thickness isopach maps show the total interval between the top and the base of the reservoir rock for each well.
1: Isometric schematic of the Ekoﬁsk structure 49 .Figure 3.
2 ISOPACH MAPS Isopach maps show the distribution and thickness of reservoir properties of interest. 50 .Figure 3. Examples of common isopach maps are: Gross oil thickness isopach map: contours gross pay . the gross sand interval must be estimated from reservoir crosssections based on logs from the well which penetrated the entire interval. The contour lines connect points of equal vertical interval. In this case.gross pay minus nonreservoir intervals such as shales.2: Topofstructure map of a hydrocarbon reservoir the base of the reservoir can provide data for the isopach map. Net oil thickness isopach map: contours net pay . Net oil isopach maps are commonly used to calculate volumes of hydrocarbons inplace.the depth of the top of the oil column minus the top of the bottom of the oil column. The gross pay isopach map for an oil reservoir is more descriptive of the hydrocarbon reservoir geometry than the gross thickness isopach. 3. most of the wells are not drilled to the base of the reservoir so a base structure map cannot be drawn. Frequently.
51 . Isoporosity map: contours average porosity over netpay portions of the desired formation.3: Net sand isopach map for a hydrocarbon reservoir Other useful maps include: Nettogross ratio maps: fraction of the total hydrocarbon interval which contributes to recovery.Figure 3. Isowater saturation map: contours average water saturation over netpay portions of the desired formation.
Figure 3.5: Isowater saturation map for a hydrocarbon reservoir 52 .4: Isoporosity map for a hydrocarbon reservoir Figure 3.
If you wish to review the topic of units go to the section Units . The original gasinplace (OGIP) contained in a reservoir. starting with the above equation for any set of self consistent units. Fundamentals of reservoir engineering. expressed in Standard Cubic Feet (SCF). you should be able to calculate the constant 7758 in the preceeding equation. 7758Vb φ(1 − S wi ) G= B gi where.3. in any set of self consistent units: G= Vb φ(1 − S wi ) B gi 53 .e. is designated by the symbol G and is given by the equation (in ﬁeld units). in any set of self consistent units: N= Vb φ(1 − S wi ) B oi In this and the following reservoir engineering courses it is assumed that you are familiar with units and unit conversions i.unit conversions on page 108 of Dake.3 VOLUMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING ORIGINAL OILINPLACE The original oilinplace (OOIP) contained in a reservoir expressed in Stock Tank Barrels (STB) is designated by the symbol N and is given by the equation (ﬁeld units): 7758Vb φ(1 − S wi ) N= B oi where.. Vb φ S wi B oi = = = = reservoir bulk volume (acrefeet) average porosity (fraction) average initial water saturation (fraction) average initial oil formation volume factor (RB/STB) or. B gi = average initial gas formation volume factor (RB/SCF) or.
These intervals will generally lie above the gasoil contact (GOC) and below the oilwater contact (OWC).3. The gross thickness is the diﬀerence in depth between the top and the bottom of the reservoir zone. 2. Bulk reservoir Volume. Reservoir Stratiﬁcation (and nettogross ratio).1 Reservoir Volume The following information is required to calculate net reservoir volume: 1. (i) (ii) the top of the reservoir. the bottom of the reservoir.6: Schematic of the microstructure of a sandstone showing sand grains and interconnected pore space which allows ﬂuid ﬂow 3. The calculation procedure involves the following steps: 1. 2.Figure 3. 54 . Construct a gross sand isopach map by removing intervals containing only gas or water. The map is based on log data and requires the construction of structure maps for. Prepare a map of gross reservoir thickness.
These tests attempt to restore the wettability of core in the laboratory to that in the actual reservoir.3.). Coring with oilbased muds. 55 . 3. coring with oilbased mud can result in core which gives a good indication of the irreducible water saturation.3. 2. This requires a knowledge of the wettability state of the reservoir and special core test data. This procedure will normally involve estimates of minimum porosity and permeability cutoﬀs. The restored state core is then used in the laboratory to duplicate the displacement processes by which the reservoir water saturation was initially established. In the transition zone the core will indicate low water saturation because the oil from the oilbased mud will have displaced some of the mobile water from the core during the coring operation.2 Average Porosity Average reservoir porosity is determined by mapping individual well porosity values. The calculation is usually performed numerically using digitized maps. The actual intervals to be excluded are picked from porosity logs which have been calibrated using core data. 3. Logging — induction and focused resistivity logs.3 Average Initial Water Saturation The methods used to determine reservoir water saturation include: 1. Restored state tests. These are determined from core data and from sonic and radioactivity logs calibrated with core data. Construct a net sand isopach map by eliminating all nonreservoir rock intervals (shale.3. These logs measure formation resistivity which may be related to water saturation. Provided that invasion of drilling ﬂuids has not changed reservoir wettability. siltstone. coal seam etc. This corresponds to the water saturation in the reservoir above the transition zone. 3.
the spreadsheet program which we will be using throughout the course. Although cutting core with oilbased mud is expensive. Estimates of oil formation volume factors may be obtained from empirical correlations if the following are known: (i) Initial gasoil ratio (solution GOR). Oil and gas formation volume factors are determined in laboratory PVT tests conducted with representative samples of reservoir oil and gas. For these conditions a topofstructure map and average porosity and water saturation are all that is needed to calculate the initial or original oilinplace.4 Average Oil Formation Volume Factor The average oil formation volume factor is required to convert the reservoir oil or gas ﬁlled hydrocarbon volume to the equivalent volumes at surface or stock tank conditions. This data is also used to calibrate logs. 3. we consider the very simple case of a homogeneous reservoir with unity nettogross ratio where the bottom of the reservoir is the horizontal surface formed by the wateroil contact (WOC). These are usually estimated from DST tests conducted on exploration wells.3. at least one well should be cored in this manner to provide data for calibration of log resistivity. Laboratory measurements on restored state core also provide capillary pressure data which can be used to calculate water saturations in the transition zone. (ii) Reservoir temperature and pressure. 56 . 3.The data gathering program should include water saturation data determined by all of the above methods. The overall objective is to collect suﬃcient data to develop meaningful correlations between log measured resistivity and water saturations in restored state laboratory tests.3.5 Determining Initial OilInPlace In order to illustrate the calculation of initial oilinplace and introduce Mathcad .
7: Schematic of interstitual.Figure 3. irreducible or connate water in a waterwet porous medium 57 .
mcd] Calculate the initial volume of oilinplace for the Apache Pool reservoir (topofstructure map attached).38 = 1.2715 (RB/STB) We use this exercise to introduce you to Mathcad.27 = 0. The ﬁrst step is to determine the area inside each depth contour.Figure 3. This is usually done 58 . Data: φ S wi B oi = 0.1 . The contour areas must be determined from the map. The average porosity. The areas of the spreadsheet where these changes may need to be made are highlighted in yellow. In order to see the solution to this exercise you will need to change some of the inputs to the spreadsheets. It is assumed that you have installed Mathcad on your PC and that you have worked through the basics in the online tutorial. [Answer: 340 MMSTB] Solution outline 1.Calculation of OOIP from a reservoir structure map [IHIP.8: Reservoir pressure survey map used to determine average reservoir pressure Example 3. average connate water saturation and average oil formation volume factor have been determined and these values are given below.
9: Structure map for the Apache ﬁeld 59 .Figure 3.
A2 . To determine the area of a depth contour I ﬁrst printed an enlarged copy of the Apache structure map and overlayed this with a 1 cm by 1 cm grid. This is done in the manner outlined in the course notes and you should have no trouble following the ﬂow of the calculation. A0 . reads the contour ﬁles and calculates the areas. When Mathcad reads a ﬁle like [C2000. You can use as many data points as you like to deﬁne a contour . and plots the contour. are multiplied by the map scalefactor squared to convert the map areas to actual ﬁeld values. the smoother the contour and the more accurate the area calculation. This makes it easy to annotate or ”prettyup” the input ﬁle so that it is understandable to the casual reader. Note that the endpoints for the lower and upper contours are the same. y) points deﬁning each curve.using specialized computer software and digitized maps. 60 . These points are entered into a ﬁle for each contour eg. When you open [Contour. The areas within each contour. Study the three ﬁgures to be sure that you understand what is being done.mcd] . y) numbers . The use of Simpson’s rule for numerical integration is shown in the attached ﬁgures. I then divided each contour into an upper and lower curve as shown in the attached ﬁgure and readoﬀ the (x.mcd] you will see that I have left it doing one contour over and over. [Contour.. You will need to change the other input contour ﬁle names to see the areas and plots for each of the contours.prn] in the folder [Contours]. A1 . If you open one of these ﬁles you will see the how the points are entered for the lower and upper contours. The only limitation is that the total number of points deﬁning the lower and upper contours must be the same.it ignors blanks or anything which it does nor recognise as a numerical input. [C2000. This makes it a little easier to program the calculations. etc.the more points you use. also located in the [Contours] folder. For this example I have digitized each of the contours by hand and used Simpson’s rule to numerically calculate the area.prn] all it ”sees” is a matrix of (x.
the area enclosed by the upper contour. is given by. the vertical height between the contours. 3. or the contour interval.i ) B oi. N= X i ∆Vi See the attached ﬁgures which show how Simpson’s rule is used to calculate contour areas from digitized map data. ∆Ni = ∆Vi φi (1 − S wc. the area enclosed by the lower contour. ∆Vi Ai Ai+1 h = = = = bulk volume between contours i and i + 1. The bulk volume between two successive contours is given by the pyramidal formula: µ ¶ q h Ai + Ai+1 + Ai Ai+1 ∆Vi = 3 where.2. The initial volume of oilinplace in volume element ∆Vi .i 4.in any consistent set of units (as used by Mathcad). 61 . The initial oilinplace is the sum of the values for each volume element.
11: Computer calculation of contour areas 62 .1.10: Computer calculation of contour areas Simpson's rule to calculate the area under the upper and lower curves yi yi+ 1 yi yi+ 1 AU ∆x A= X AL ∆x yi − yi+ 1 ∆x 2 Figure 3. Contour is divided into upper and lower curves Upper curve Lower curve Figure 3.
Contour Area AU AC = AU − AL AL Figure 3.12: Computer calculation of contour areas 63 .
1. Use this equation to calculate the gas formation factor. B g = 0. volumes etc. If you choose to do this make sure that you have looked at the Units section of the online Mathcad tutorial before making the necessary changes.21 0.1 .00504 zT P [RB/SCF] where T . the initial reservoir temperature was 200o F.48 TSCF] 64 .89 [Answer: 6. calculated in the previous exercise to help you solve this problem by hand calculation or using your favourite spreadsheet.19 210o F 2300 psia 0.Problem 3. If you want to master Mathcad you can modify the ﬁles used in the previous example to do the calculation..the average reservoir temperature .is in o R (o R=o F +460) and P the average reservoir pressure .Calculation of OGIP from a reservoir structure map How much gas would the Apache Pool contain if the initial reservoir pressure was 1500 psia.877 ? All other data as for Exercise 3. Problem 3. If you do this be sure to be careful with units. Data: φ S wi T P z = = = = = 0.2 . The average reservoir and ﬂuid properties are given below. [Answer: 223 BSCF] Solution hint The gas formation volume factor is given by. and the gas compressibility factor was 0.Calculation of OGIP from a reservoir structure map Estimate the initial volume of gasinplace for the Marlin Field (topofstructure map attached). You can use the areas.is in psia.
You will need to make the same changes to [Contour.1 to convert it to a gas inplace calculation.mcd] made for Problem 3.I recommend this strongly .1 and in order to modify the ﬁles to solbe the present problem. The best way to handle this is to readin individual values of h in the same way as we already readin individual values of porosity. Modify the ﬁnal graph which plots the contours to plot all nine contours.Figure 3.1 and construct the data ﬁles for contours (there are 9 of these).this problem will bring you right up the learning curve. Follow the outline for Example 3. Print a fullsize (or larger) copy of the Marlin structure map. You can do this 65 . initial water saturation. Create a full copy of the folder for Example 3. areas etc. If you have been following the Mathcad route . Pay special attention to the particular manner in which these ﬁles are constructed! Modify the [Contour.13: Marlin ﬁeld topofstructure map Solution hint You are free to solve this problem any way you want including using any commercial or inhouse software to which you may have access. You will probably need to revise the ’graphs’ section of the online manual to do this.mcd] by copyandpaste to calculate the areas for all nine contours. Note that for the Marlin contours the contour depth intervals are not all the same size.
66 .by adding a column of numbers to the input data ﬁle and making the appropriate changes in the spreadsheet. introducing a new array for h. Describing these changes is a lot more diﬃcult than making them! If you succede in making the above changes you will have learnt all you need to know to reproduce any of the Mathcad spreadsheets in this and other courses. and modifying the equations to calculate with the array elements hi . These changes will involve readingin the new values.
Require some production history (reservoir pressure and ﬂuid production rates with time). Material balance calculations: 1. For Material Balance calculations to produce realistic results it is necessary to: 1. Accurately determine initial reservoir pressure. 2. The method is most precise for reservoirs where water inﬂux is not signiﬁcant. 2. This program (on an annual basis) should be continued throughout the producing life of the ﬁeld. The Material Balance Equation is used to calculate the water inﬂux. . The Material Balance Equation is then used to predict future water inﬂux and hence future reservoir performance. For reservoirs where water inﬂux is signiﬁcant the analysis procedure is as follows: 1. The method is most accurate for gascapdrive reservoirs if the pressure drop is at least 100 psi. The more production history available. the greater the accuracy of the calculation. OOIP is determined using the Volumetric Method. The material balance method is the preferred method for determining the original gasinplace (OGIP) for gas reservoirs with no signiﬁcant water inﬂux. 4.4 DETERMINATION OF OILINPLACE — MATERIAL BALANCE METHOD Material balance methods are another way of determining the initial hydrocarbon content of a reservoir. 67 2. Initiate a program for periodic reservoir pressure measurement immediately after commencement of production. The computed water inﬂux and measured reservoir pressures are used to characterize the size and strength of the aquifer. 3. This should be measured as part of the data gathering program for the discovery well.3.
3. The best oil samples are obtained before the reservoir is produced because the pressure drop which accompanies production may result in the release of solution gas and this may preclude the possibility of obtaining a representative ﬂuid sample. Establish the primary production mechanism. Rock property data (porosity and permeability). Accurately determine ﬂuid PVT data. Gas sampling does not have this problem. 3. of critical importance. reservoir description and production performance data (pressure decline and ﬂuid production rates) are the basis for the analysis. material balance calculations require equally accurate water and gas volumes. The implication of this is that the more reliable the data (production history data).5 ESTIMATING RESERVES Reserves for a particular ﬁeld are estimated from an analysis of the available engineering data. Accurately measure and diligently report the production volumes for all the ﬂuids produced. ﬂuid property data. Collecting all production data from early in the life of a ﬁeld is . Apply the analysis procedure appropriate to the drive mechanism to estimate reserves. the more accurate will be the estimate of reserves. 4. This will usually involve the use of numerical reservoir simulators. 2. This requires representative oil and gas samples at reservoir conditions. 68 . Although produced oil volumes are accurately measured as a matter of routine. The procedure for estimating reserves involves the following steps: 1.again.
Reservoir Engineering II. oil viscosity). 3. For wells subject to severe water and/or gas coning reservoir simulation oﬀers the most reliable method for predicting well decline rates and overall reservoir performance. Decline curve analysis are studied in detail in course PTRL6007 . The productivity index for a well is the well production rate per psi of pressure drawdown. This is determined from well ﬂow tests. Productivity index method. Decline curve analysis. Well ﬂow tests must therefore be conducted at diﬀerent rates and the productivity index must be adjusted for falling reservoir pressure. For wells not subject to severe water and/or gas coning this method provides reliable estimates of production decline rates. Decline curve extrapolation is satisfactory only for wells which are produced continuously at maximum or near maximum rates. 2. Reservoir simulation.3. The productivity index is usually a function of ﬂow rate and reservoir pressure (oil relative permeability. 69 .6 ESTIMATING DECLINE IN OIL PRODUCTION RATES The decline in ﬁeld and individual well production rates is estimated on the basis of: 1. For wells producing at limited drawdown (below their maximum rate) extrapolated decline rates are not meaningful. Reservoir engineering is studied in detail in course PTRL6004 .Reservoir Simulation.
or gasbearing formation. Locating exploration wells searching for oil in a water. 3. Determination of gasoil and wateroil contacts from pressure data. 5. 4. Introduction to hydrostatic pressures in reservoirs. We will consider the following speciﬁc topics: 1. Determination of oil water and gas densities and gradients from pressure data.Chapter 4 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN RESERVOIRS This section deals with the hydrostatic or initial pressure distribution in a reservoir . 70 . Calculation of pressure kicks on penetrating a hydrocarbon zone. 2.the pressure which exists prior to signiﬁcant production from the reservoir.
069 3.Symbols and Units g D p ρ Dowc Dgoc Dgwc gravity constant depth to subsurface pressure density depth of initial oilwater contact depth of initial gasoil contact depth of initial gaswater contact = = = = m/s2 m N/m2 kg/m3 m m m g 1 Pascal (Pa) 1 bar 1 Atmosphere Conversion factors lb/ft3 psi psi ft 9. The diﬀerence in hydrostatic pressure between any two depth points in a formation containing water is. Since the pore spaces which comprise the eﬀective porosity of the reservoir are all interconnected.02 6.1. pressure varies only with depth. and the reservoir and associated aquifer are initially in static equilibrium.1 SUBSURFACE PRESSURES Water zone pressures In normally pressured sedimentary basins water contained in the pore space of a reservoir (connate water) is in pressure communication with the atmosphere through the oceans or outcrops.9 0.81 m/s2 1 N/m2 105 N/m2 1.28 = = = = kg/m3 kPa bar m All of the above units may be embedded into working Mathcad ﬁles and can be used interchangeably or you can even mix units if you want.695 psia × × × × 16.1 4. Normally we would not elect to mix units! 4.01325 bar or 14. p2 − p1 = ρw g(D2 − D1 ) 71 .
is ∆pi = γi ∆D where ∆D is the diﬀerence in depth. Since water is only slightly compressible. pwD = p0 + ρw gD The term ρw g(D2 − D1 ) is the hydrostatic pressure diﬀerence which has units of pressure.2 Oil zone pressures The initial pressure. poD . If we divide this pressure diﬀerence by (D2 − D1 ). at depth D in the oil zone may be expressed in terms of the oil pressure at the initial OWC (a commonly used datum point for reservoir engineering calculations) as. pwD − p0 = ρw gD or. In general we deﬁne a phase pressure gradient as γi = ρi g where the subscript i may be ooil. wwater or ggas. we can write that the pressure diﬀerence between any two depths. which is equal to ρw g and has units of pressure per unit depth. we obtain the water gradient. γw . For the water zone the pressure diﬀerence is ∆pw = γw ∆D The gradient for fresh water is 0. p2 − p1 = ρw g(D2 − D1 ) where it is understood that ρw is the average pressure over the interval of interest. If we take p0 to be the pressure at the surface (atmospheric) where D1 = 0.1. 4.433 psi/ft. the equation may be written as. it is customary to neglect the overbar symbol and simply write. poD − poDOW C = ρo g(D − DOW C ) 72 . ∆pi . ρw varies with depth (pressure) and salinity. ρw is the average density of water over the interval (D2 − D1 ) and g is the gravitational acceleration. Using the deﬁnition of the ﬂuid gradient.where.
poD = poDOW C − γo (DOW C − D) where ρo is the average density of oil at reservoir conditions.3 Gas cap pressures The initial pressure. at depth D in the gas cap may be expressed in terms of the gas pressure at the initial GOC as. pgD = pgDGOC − γg (DGOC − D) where ρg is the average density of gas at reservoir conditions.Figure 4. pgD − pgDGOC = ρg g(D − DGOC ) or. pgD . pgD = pgDGOC − ρg g(DGOC − D) or.1. 73 . 4.1: Hydrostatic pressure distribution in a reservoir which may be rearranged to give. poD = poDOW C − ρo g(DOW C − D) or.
This can be used estimate the positions of the contacts from measured pressuredepth data. Note that the contacts correspond to the intersections of the ﬂuid gradient lines.4. WATER AND GAS In the absence of capillary pressure. The resulting hydrostatic pressure distribution in the reservoir is shown in the attached ﬁgure. 74 . the WOC and GOC are sharp and the ﬂuid pressures at the contacts are equal.2 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN A RESERVOIR CONTAINING OIL.
Figure 4.2: Hydrostatic pressure distribution in a reservoir assuming negligible capillary pressure 75 .
Example 4.1 [REGPRES.mcd]

Calculation
of
regional
hydrostatic
pressures
Five widely separated exploration wells were drilled in a large sedimentary basin. While penetrating the aquifer, the following pressure measurements were made in each of the wells: Well A B C Rotary table elevation (ft above MSL) 2133 1312 2707 Measured depth (ft) 9744 13993 8235 Gauge Pressure (psia) 4340 5656 2480 Determine if all the wells belong to the same pressure system. In answering this question you can use the Mathcad spreadsheet [REGPRES.mcd] which reads the above data and calculates the required ﬂuid gradients. [Answer: WellA is clearly in an overpressured separate hydraulic system] D 3937 17388 6005 E 197 9383 4090
Solution hints The relationship between true vertical depth subsea DT V D , measured depth DM D , and depth above mean sea level DM SL is given by DT V D = DM D − DM SL The average water gradient (sealevel to depth of measurement), γw , is given by γw = ∆p DT V D
76
Example 4.2  Calculation of ﬂuid contacts and ﬂuid gradients from pressure data [CONTACTS.mcd] The following formation tester pressure measurements were made in an exploration well. Estimate: (i) the depths of the contacts (ii) the density and the nature of the ﬂuids present in the formation Depth Pressure (ft) (psia) 8120 2912 8202 2920 8284 2927 8366 2950 8448 2978 8530 3005 8612 3038 8694 3075 8776 3114
Solution hints Plot the data on a depthpressure plot. Identify lines of constant slope, these show zones of diﬀerent ﬂuid saturation. Determine the gradients of depthpressure lines and from these calculate the ﬂuid densities. The densities identify the ﬂuids. [CONTACTS.mcd] is a general spreadsheet which I have found very useful in analysing a wide range of formation pressuredepth data. If you have access to commercial or inhouse software which does similar things, feel free to use it. [Answer: DGOC = 8302 ft ss., DOW C = 8573 ft ss., ρg = 13.2 lb/cubic ft., ρo = 48.3 lb/cubic ft., ρw = 66.8 lb/cubic ft. ]
77
Figure 4.3: Hydrostatic pressuredepth data plot
78
Problem 4.1  Optimal Location of an Exploration Well [EXPLOR.mcd] Exploration well EX1 intersected a hydrocarbon bearing sand with a vertical thickness of 200 ft between 6560 and 6760 ftsubsea. A wireline formation tester recovered some gas and mud and recorded a pressure of 3850 psia at 6660 ftss. A second exploration well EX2 encountered the same sand between 7780 ftss and 7980 ftss but found it to be only waterbearing. Mechanical problems with the downhole gauge prevented a pressure measurement from being taken. The two wells are 12,000 ft apart. On the basis of previous experience and sampling of reservoir ﬂuids we have determined that the regional water gradient is 0.524 psi/ft. The formation is normally pressured. The pressure gradient for the gas phase at reservoir conditions is calculated to be 0.084 psi/ft. The oil gradient, at reservoir conditions, is estimated to be 0.296 psi/ft. Questions (i) (ii) (iii) Is the above data consistent with the assumption that the formation could be oilbearing between 6660 and 7880 ftss ? Where would you locate an additional exploration well which would deﬁnitely ﬁnd oil if any oil is indeed present? What is the maximum possible thickness of the oil zone?
[Answers: (i) yes, (ii) new well should intersect the sand at a depth of 7445 ft ss., (iii) 910 ft.]
Solution hints Each of the wells gives us a ﬂuid and a corresponding ﬂuid pressure. Where a mechanical problem prevented the measurement of a water phase pressure, we can estimate the pressure by assuming that the formation is normally pressured (i.e., water gradient times depth). The ﬁrst well gives us the depth of lowest known gas. The second well gives the depth of highest known water. If an oil zone exists, it must be between these depths. Knowing the gas and water gradients, and a ﬂuid pressure and corresponding depth in the gas and water zones, we can draw the gas and water gradient lines 79
Figure 4.4: Maximum thickness of an oil zone between gas and water contacts
on a pressuredepth plot. If there is no oil present (only gas and water), the depth of the GWC can be found from the intersection of the gas and water gradient lines. If a drop of oil is present it must gravitate to this depth splitting the GWC into a WOC and a GOC. The third well must intersect this depth to prove if any oil is present in the reservoir. The maximum possible thickness of the oil zone occurs when either the lowest known gas or the highest known water corresponds to an oil contact. How do we select which of the two is a possible contact? Simple, draw the oil gradient line through each of the points and select the one which produces a set of contacts (OWC and GOC) which are consistent with lowest known gas and highest known water. If you understand the principles involved and the steps required to solve the problem you should have little problem in entering the correct data into [EXPLOR.mcd] and manipulating the graph by setting appropriate contact and oil gradient lines to produce the correct answer. 80
The formation is known to be normally pressured with the following phase gradients. water gradient 0.45 psi/ft oil gradient 0.08 psi/ft What would the pressure kick be if the entire hydrocarbon zone contained gas? [Answer: 104 psi] Solution hints When drilling through the cap rock which forms the reservoir seal. You do not really need a spreadsheet to solve this problem.mcd] Calculate the pressure kick to be expected when a well ﬁrst penetrates a reservoir at 5000 ft subsea if the reservoir is known to have an OWC at 5500 ft and an GOC at 5200 ft. Enter the correct numbers and you will get the solution. This diﬀerence gives rise to a pressure kick. the drill bit experiences a water hydrostatic pressure gradient because the seal is saturated with water and in a normally pressured system this water is in hydraulic communication with the aquifer. Just before the bit penetrates the reservoir the bit pressure is the of the water gradient and depth.35 psi/ft gas gradient 0.Calculation of a Pressure Kick when Penetrating a Hydrocarbon Zone [PKICK.mcd] as an example of how a simple calculation can be layed out in Mathcad. Since a hydrocarbon column is lighter than a water column of equivalent height.2 . the reservoir pressure at the top of the reservoir is higher than the pressure at the base of the seal. 81 . On penetrating the hydrocarbon column the reservoir pressure is equal to the pressure at the contact minus the gravity head of hydrocarbon column from the contact to the top of the reservoir. If you know what you are doing you can solve the problem faster with a hand calculator! I have prepared the spreadsheet [PKICK.Problem 4.
Six RFT pressures were measured over this interval. The operator had the foresight to measure water pressures over a 160 foot interval to determine the water pressure regime in this new area. Two wells were drilled in a remote region.sealing or nonsealing faults.Interpretation of Repeat Formation Tester (RFT) data The RFT allows an unlimited number of spot pressure measurements to be made in a single trip in an open hole. This allows the engineer to determine pressuredepth proﬁles across reservoir sections of interest. was drilled upstructure several kilometers from WellA and discovered a 50 foot oil column with good porosity and permeability.3 .5: Calculation of a pressure kick Problem 4. The second WellB. 82 .Figure 4. Comparing pressuredepth proﬁles in diﬀerent wells can provide valuable information on ﬁeld ﬂuid contacts and the degree of areal and vertical communication . WellA was drilled downdip of the structure and encountered only the aquifer.
WellA Depth (ft. 83 .ss) Pressure (psia) 5771 2602 5778 2604 5790 2608 5800 2610 5806 2612 5816 2615 Pressure (psia) 2662 2669 2677 2725 2731 What conclusions can you draw from this data with regard to the ﬂuids.The pressures recorded for the two wells are summarized below. the reservoir and the aquifer? [Answer: you tell me] Solution hints Try using CONTACTS.mcd. Note that in order to meaningfully compare the pressures in the wells it is necessary to convert measured depths to a common datum (depth subsea) and to express pressures in absolute units (psia).ss) 6075 6091 6108 6220 6232 WellB Depth (ft.
6: Lithostatic gradient 4. We can use this to estimate subsurface formation (reservoir) temperatures. Tf . GT .3 GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT The geothermal gradient. Tf = Ts + GT Df where Ts is the surface temperature and Df is the formation depth. 84 . as.Figure 4. On the average it is about 1o F/100 ft. varies considerably from location to location.
Figure 4.7: Geothermal gradient 85 .
The ﬂuid properties of interest in the analysis of reservoirs include: Amount of gas in solution. Before considering the speciﬁc PVT parameters of interest to reservoir engineering it is necessary to review some general but basic concepts in hydrocarbon phase behavior. compressibility and viscosity of all the ﬂuids present. When suﬃcient production has taken place for the pressure to fall below the oil bubble point pressure. Oil shrinkage. These properties are determined in special laboratory tests which require representative reservoir ﬂuid samples. gas initially dissolved in the oil is released from solution. The volume of solution gas released and the associated changes in oil properties have a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on the production characteristics of the reservoir. The attached ﬁgure shows a schematic of solution gas release in an oil reservoir. Density. The properties are called PVT (pressurevolumetemperature) properties of the reservoir ﬂuids.Chapter 5 FLUID PROPERTIES Production from a reservoir is usually accompanied by a decline in reservoir pressure. 86 .
1 PHASE BEHAVIOR All substances can exist as gases. may be compressed indeﬁnitely without passing through a phase transition.1 Pure Hydrocarbons For a pure hydrocarbon such as ethane. Temperature. which terminates in a critical point (C).Figure 5. liquids or solids. butane. Composition 5. The state of a pure substance can be represented on a PT phase diagram. Over the pressure and temperature range shown in the attached ﬁgure. a liquid or a solid (or a mixture of liquid and gas or a mixture of all three) depends on: Pressure. To the right of the critical point lies a single phase super critical region. divides the PT space into liquid and gas regions. 87 . The PT phase diagram can be constructed by experimentally observing the behavior of the pure substance in a windowed high pressure test cell as shown in the attached ﬁgure. A gas at a temperature above it’s critical temperature. Whether a particular substance exists as a gas. methane etc. the vapor pressure curve.1: Oil reservoir above and below the bubble point 5. temperature and pressure fully deﬁne the state of the hydrocarbon.1.. propane.
Figure 5.3: Surface production system for an oil reservoir 88 .2: Surface production system for a gas reservoir Figure 5.
Also plotted are the pure component vapor pressure curves.    5. The behavior of more complex mixtures is similar. For purposes of illustration we consider a two component mixture. Point F represents a liquid state at high pressure. liquid for points above the vapor pressure curve. When the pressure falls below the vapour pressure to point A. The attached ﬁgure shows the P T phase diagram for a 50:50 mixture of propane and heptane. The PT phase diagram shows that: For a liquid state at high pressure. increasing the pressure at constant temperature can result in a phase change from vapor to liquid when the pressure increases to the vapor pressure.1. increasing temperature at constant pressure (states A to B) does not result in a phase change. For a gas state at temperatures below the critical temperature. For pure substances at temperatures above the critical temperature changing pressure (states E to D) at constant temperature does not result in a phase change. mixture of liquid and vapor for points on the vapor pressure curve. state A.2 Hydrocarbons Mixtures The behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures is more complex than that of a pure ﬂuid.To the left of the critical point the ﬂuid is. For a gas state at high temperature. The major diﬀerences between the P T phase diagrams for a single component and a twocomponent mixture are: 89 . If the pressure is reduced to the ﬂuid vapour pressure (the intersection of the line AF and the vapour pressure curve) both liquid and vapour phases can coexist. vapor for points below the vapor pressure curve. reducing the pressure at constant temperature can result in a phase change from liquid to vapor when the pressure falls to the vapor pressure. the ﬂuid is in a single vapour state.
4: Pressuretemperature diagram for ethane 90 .Figure 5.
For the mixture there now exists a twophase region or a range of pressures over which two phases can coexist at constant temperature.Figure 5. 4.5: Pressuretemperature diagram for ethaneheptane mixtures 1. 3. The critical point is the temperature and pressure at which the properties of the liquid and vapor phases are identical. liquid and gas phases mixtures may exist at conditions above the critical point. 5. 91 . 2. We note that for mixtures. P − T phase diagrams are used to classify reservoir types. The size and shape of the twophase region and the location of the critical point vary with mixture composition. The bubble point pressure is the pressure at which the ﬁrst bubble of gas appears as the pressure of a liquid is reduced at constant temperature. The dew point pressure is the pressure at which the ﬁrst drop of liquid appears as the pressure of a gas is increased at constant temperature. The twophase region is bound by a bubble point line and a dew point line which meet at the mixture critical point. Within the twophase region are lines of constant liquid (or gas) content.
With production the reservoir pressure will fall at constant temperature T along the line A’ABC. As the pressure continues to fall in the twophase region. The reservoir is said to be undersaturated because the initial reservoir pressure is higher than the bubble point pressure which is at point A. the percentage liquid volume decreases. As the pressure continues to fall below the bubble point pressure along the line ABC.3 Classiﬁcation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs Oil Reservoir The phase diagram for a typical oil reservoir having a temperature T is shown in the attached ﬁgure.Figure 5.1. The initial condition of the reservoir (temperature and pressure) is at point A’.6: Pressuretemperature diagram for a multicomponent mixture 5. 92 . free gas appears in the reservoir as a result of solution gas release.
This behavior is termed retrograde. the reservoir temperature.Figure 5. lies to the right of the critical point. For a retrograde condensate gas reservoir T .7: Pressuretemperature diagram for a reservoir oil For an oil reservoir T . lies to the left of the critical point. When pressure falls this reservoir enters the twophase region through a dew point producing a condensate phase in the reservoir. Retrograde Condensate Gas Reservoir The phase diagram for a typical retrograde condensate gas reservoir having a temperature T is shown in the attached ﬁgure. 93 . the reservoir temperature.
9: Pressuretemperature diagram for a gas reservoir 94 .8: Pressuretemperature diagram for a gas condensate reservoir Figure 5.Figure 5.
The reservoirs may be further classiﬁed as wet gas if the separator condition falls in the twophase region. When pressure falls these reservoirs do not enter the twophase region.Gas Reservoir The phase diagram for a typical gas reservoir having a temperature T is shown in the attached ﬁgures. The pressure at which the ﬁrst bubble of gas evolves from solution. and dry gas if the separator condition is singlephase. 5. For a gas reservoir T lies to the right of the twophase region. The reservoir volume in barrels (RB) that is occupied by one standard cubic foot (SCF) of gas. Parameter Oil Formation Volume Factor Symbol Deﬁnition Bo The reservoir volume in barrels (RB) that is occupied by one stock tank barrel (STB) of oil and its dissolved gas. The fractional reduction in oil volume that results from a pressure increase of one psi.2 PVT PROPERTIES The following deﬁnitions refer to the PVT properties used in reservoir engineering to characterize oil and gas reservoirs. Gas Formation Volume Factor Bg Solution GasOil Ratio Oil Compressibility Rs co Water Compressibility cw Bubble Point Pressure pb 95 . The volume of gas in SCF dissolved in one STB of oil at a speciﬁc reservoir pressure. The fractional reduction in water volume that results from a pressure increase of one psi.
This pressure is below the bubble point pressure Pb . we produce R SCF of gas at the surface. Calculation of underground withdrawal rates from surface measurements Oil and gas production rates. are measured at the surface at a time when the reservoir pressure is P . the volume of free gas produced from the reservoir is (R − RS ) (SCF/STB) 96 . What are the corresponding underground withdrawal rates in (RB/D)? The producing gasoil ratio is R = Qg /Qo (SCF/ST B) This means that for every STB of oil which is produced at this pressure.10: Production of an oil reservoir above and below the bubble point The above properties are used to relate surface volumes (mass) to reservoir volumes.Figure 5. Since every STB of oil produced to the surface produces Rs SCF of solution gas. Qo (STB/D)and Qg (SCF/D).
If we produce Qo STB of oil. what are the underground withdrawal rates? If the density of stocktank oil is 52. If the reservoir pressure at this time is 2400 psia.67 (density of air at standard conditions is 0.00119 RB/SCF .1 .mcd] The oil production rate is 2500 STB/D and the gas production rate is 2.11: Use of PVT properties to relate surface measured production rates to reservoir withdrawal volumes Each STB of oil produced to the surface requires the withdrawal of Bo RB of oil and is accompanied by (R − Rs )Bg RB of free gas.Figure 5.8 lb/ft3 and the gas gravity is 0. the total underground withdrawal is Qo (Bo + (R − Rs )Bg ) Example 5. Bo =1.125 MMSCF/D.0763 lb/ft3 ) calculate the oil density and gas density at reservoir conditions when the reservoir pressure is 2400 psia.Relating surface rates to subsurface withdrawals [SUBSURV. The PVT data at 2400 psia are.1822 RB/STB Rs =352 SCF/STB 97 Bg =0.
ρo =47. At pressures above Pb the gas in solution remains constant at Rsi . Oil Formation Volume Factor Bo is generally greater than 1. Solution GOR The volume of dissolved gas decreases from Rsi .4 lb/cubic ft.1 Pressure Dependence of PVT Properties Typical relationships between PVT properties and pressure are shown schematically in the attached ﬁgure. Enter the correct numbers into the spreadsheet [SUBSURV. to zero at atmospheric pressure.0 at 0 psig because reservoir temperature is greater than the standard reference temperature of 60o F (oil expands with increasing temperature at constant pressure).65 lb/cubic ft.[Answer: qo = 2956 RB/day. the initial solution GOR at the bubble point (Pb ). 98 . Use the PVT properties and the surface densities to calculate the corresponding ﬂuid masses at reservoir conditions.mcd] and see the solution. respectively.2. Bo increases with pressure to Pb as a result of the increasing solubility of gas (the mass of the oil phase increases). qg = 1482 RB/day. ρg =7. This gives Bo and Bg as the reservoir volumes of oil and gas..] Solution hint To calculate reservoir ﬂuid densities use 1 STB oil and 1 SCF gas as a basis. 5. Study the spreadsheet carefully in order to fully understand the calculation of densities at reservoir conditions.
12: Dependence of oil PVT properties on reservoir pressure 99 .Figure 5.
Bo decreases due to compression as pressure increases. psia volume.02 × 10−3 The compressibility factor. zR .615 5. for natural gas may be estimated from the attached ﬁgure where the compressibility factor is plotted as a function of pseudoreduced temperature (Tpr ) and pseudoreduced pressure (Ppr ). lb mole gas constant. Bg = 14.65V1 = z1 nR(60 + 460) PR VR = zR nR(TR ) Dividing the above equations we obtain.65 VR zR TR = 5. o R (o R =o F + 460) Taking one mole of gas at standard conditions (14. P V z n R T = = = = = = pressure.65 zR TR = V1 520 z1 PR Since Bg has the units RB/SCF (1 bbl = 5.615 ft3 ) and z1 = 1.For pressures greater than Pb . ft3 gas deviation factor. At reservoir conditions the volumetric behavior of gases is governed by the real gas law.65 psia and 60 o F) and compressing it to reservoir conditions (PR psia and TR o R) gives. dimensionless number of moles. P V = znRT where. 10. Tpr = T Tpc 100 . 14. VR 14. Gas Formation Volume Factor Bg decreases with increasing pressure as a result of the compressibility of the gas.0.73 psia ft3 /o R lb mole temperature.615 × 520 1 PR zR T R PR Bg = 5.
and the molecular weight of the gas M . PV = or. P V = nRT The number of moles n. γg = ρg Mg = ρair 29 m P Mair = V RT m P Mg = V RT m RT M The molecular weight of the gas is determined from a laboratory analysis of a gas sample. Gas gravity Gas gravity is the ratio of the density of a gas to the density of air at standard conditions. may be expressed in terms of the mass of gas m. At standard conditions gases obey the ideal gas law and gas density may be expressed as. ρair = The gas gravity. the density of air is. The pseudocritical properties of a gas are a function of gas gravity and may be estimated from the attached ﬁgure.Ppr = P Ppc where Tpc and Ppc are the gas pseudocritical temperature and pseudocritical pressure respectively. ρg = Similarly. m n= M Combining the equations gives. 101 . γg is thus simply.
Figure 5.13: Pseudocritical properties for natural gas and gas condensates 102 .
Tr . the compressibility factor.5. and reduced pressure.3. o R critical temperature of the gas.1 CALCULATION OF GAS PROPERTIES Single Gas Component For a single gas component.3 5. zT P 103 . Once Tr and Pr are known. the reduced temperature. T Tc P Pc = = = = temperature of interest. psia Tc and Pc are constants for a single gas component and may be obtained from standard tables of the properties of pure gas components. are deﬁned as follows: T Tr = Tc P Pr = Pc where. z. may be read from compressibility charts and Bg in units of RB/SCF is calculated from: Bg = 5. psia critical pressure of the gas. Pr .02 × 10−3 where T is in o R and P is in psia. o R pressure of interest.
02 44.2 18.08 28.02 34.01 28.04 30.2 114.CRITICAL PROPERTIES OF GASES Component Molecular Weight 16.90 Tc R Pc psia 673 712 617 551 485 435 397 362 o Methane Ethane Propane nButane nPentane nHexane nHeptane nOctane Water Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Hydrogen sulphide Air 344 550 666 766 847 914 972 1025 1365 3206 548 1073 227 492 673 1306 239 547 104 .09 58.17 100.12 72.07 44.15 86.
psia The pseudo reduced temperature.5. γg = Mg 29 105 . Mg Mg = n X 1 zT P yi Mi where Mi is the molecular weight of component i. the chart may be used to estimate the gas pseudo critical properties. yi Tpc Ppc n X 1 n X 1 yi Tci yi Pci = mole fraction of component i in the mixture = pseudo critical temperature of the gas. Tpc . z. and pseudo critical pressure. Note: the gas gravity may be calculated from gas composition. Gas gravity known If the gas gravity is known. are deﬁned as follows: T Tpr = Tpc P Ppr = Ppc Once Tpr and Ppr are known.02 × 10−3 where T is in o R and P is in psia. Ppr . may be read from compressibility charts and Bg calculated from: Bg = 5. and pseudo reduced pressure. Tpr . Gas molecular weight. Ppc : Tpc = Ppc = where. the compressibility factor.2 MultiComponent Gas Mixtures A multicomponent gas mixture may be treated as a single pseudocomponent gas by deﬁning appropriate pseudo critical temperature.3. o R = pseudo critical pressure of the gas.
8 82.87)(225 + 460) = 5.5 33.05 1.15 0.80 0. Tpr = T 460 + 225 = = 1.2×10−3 RB/SCF P 2500 106 .15 0.70 Ppc 676 Ppr = 3.3 390.80 0.00 117 90 206 343 550 666 673 708 617 R =o F + 460 1.6 yPc 539 106 31 676 0. From the generalized compressibility chart.05 Solution Component Mole Fraction Tc (o R) Tc (o F ) Pc (psia) Methane Ethane Propane TOTAL o yTc 274.Example Calculation — Bg Calculate the gas formation volume and gas density at reservoir conditions of 225o F and 2500 psia.02×10−3 zT (0.75 Tpc 391 P 2500 = = 3. Bg = 5.02×10−3 = 1. read z = 0.87 4. The gas composition is: Component Mole Fraction Methane Ethane Propane 0. Tpc = 391o R Ppc = 676psia 2.
15 0.00 16 30 44 yi Mi = 19.20 19.83 4.675 29 29 3 X 1 yi Mi (o F ) 12.Mg .64 lb/f t3 zRT 0.54 107 .Example Calculation . γg = 3.54 0.87 × 10.05 Solution Component Mole Fraction Mi Methane Ethane Propane TOTAL 1.80 0. gas gravity and the gas density at reservoir conditions of 225o F and 2500 psia.54 = = 7. Mg = 2.05 1.80 0.54 = = 0.73 × (460 + 225) Mg 19. γg and ρg Calculate the gas molecular weight.15 0. The gas composition is: Component Mole Fraction Methane Ethane Propane 0.51 2. ρg = P Mg 2500 × 19.
Calculation of Gas Properties Calculate γg . Bg and ρg at reservoir conditions of 150o F and 1500 psia.70 0.12 0.266 Ppc 662 Ppr = 3.12 0. Tpr = T 460 + 150 = = 1.1 66. The gas composition is: Component Mole Fraction Methane Ethane Propane nButane 0.10 0.0 661. Tpc = 434o R Ppc = 662psia 2. read z = 0.08 Solution Component Mole Fraction Tc (o R) Tc (o F ) Pc (psia) Methane Ethane Propane nButane TOTAL o yTc yPc 0.75 108 .08 1.0 85.406 Tpc 434 P 1500 = = 2.6 61.7 61.00 117 90 206 306 343 550 666 766 673 708 617 551 240.1 434.3 44.10 0. From the generalized compressibility chart.70 0.1 471.8 R =o F + 460 1.0 66.
12 0.4 4.2 3.8 = = 7.08 1.53×10−3 RB/SCF P 1500 yi Mi (o F ) 11.75 × 10.02×10−3 = 1. ρg = 3 X 1 0.8 = = 0.70 0. Bg = 5.29 lb/f t3 zRT 0.00 16 30 44 58 yi Mi = 23. γg = 7.75)(150 + 460) = 5.6 23.6 4.82 29 29 P Mg 1500 × 23.73 × (460 + 150) 109 .8 Mg 23.8 Component Mole Fraction Mi Methane Ethane Propane nButane TOTAL 5. Mg = 6.02×10−3 zT (0.4.10 0.
110 .14: Schematic of a laboratory PVT test cell 5. Diﬀerential liberation test. Separator ﬂash expansion test. The attached ﬁgure shows the essential features of the PVT test apparatus. 2. 3. Three speciﬁc tests are performed to characterize an oil and it’s associated gas: 1. The laboratory tests are conducted in high pressure windowed cells.4 DETERMINATION OF OIL PVT DATA FROM LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS Laboratory tests to measure PVT parameters are carried using samples of reservoir oil at a constant reservoir temperature. This is achieved by removing accurately measured volumes of mercury from the cell using a calibrated high precision piston pump.Figure 5. The pressure in the cell is lowered by increasing the cell volume. Flash expansion test . These cells allow accurate visual measurement of oil and gas volumes in the cell at diﬀerent pressures.
15: Windowed PVT test cell 111 .Figure 5.
16: PVT laboratory at UNSW 112 .Figure 5.
Pressure (psia) 5000 4500 4000 3500 3330 3290 3000 2700 2400 2100 Relative Total Volume vt = v/vb (RB/RBb ) 0.2 Diﬀerential Liberation Test This test is designed to approximate the conditions in a reservoir where gas is released from solution as the pressure falls and the released gas moves away from the oil as a result of gravity segregation.9975 1. All cell volumes are reported relative to the volume in the cell at the bubble point pressure.1060 1.9925 0.9850 0.0000 1. pb . by noting that the total compressibility of the cell increases dramatically when gas is released from solution. The following table shows a set of typical laboratory data for this test. pi . in the cell is measured at each step.4. vt . 113 .4.1680 pi pb This data is used to determine the bubble point pressure.9810 0. The total hydrocarbon volume.0025 1. The pressure in the cell is reduced in small steps by removing mercury from the cell.1 Flash Expansion Test A reservoir oil sample is introduced into the cell and mercury is injected to raise the cell pressure above the initial reservoir pressure. experiment starts with the cell at the bubble point pressure. The cell pressure is lowered in small steps by removing a small volume of mercury at each step. 5. pb .027 1.0603 1.5.
Figure 5.17: Schematic representation of ﬂash and diﬀerential liberation tests 114 .
9731 6.9152 0.8884 0.5895 6.9925 0. the laboratory also reports the Cumulative Relative Gas Volumes collected at atmospheric pressure and reservoir temperature and at STC: Cumulative Relative Gas Volume at 14.9557 Cumulative Relative Gas Volume at 14.9769 0.0000 0.5221 6. Vg . Typical data produced from a diﬀerential liberation test is shown in the table below: Pressure (psia) 4000 3500 3330 3000 2700 2400 2100 1800 1500 1200 900 600 300 14.9975 1.8459 0. The above procedure is repeated for small steps down to atmospheric pressure.1220 0.7 psia and 200o F=74.1818 0. vo .9298 0. The displaced gas volume is measured at standard conditions and the volume.9449 0.8744 0.9609 0.At each step the cell oil volume. The gas in the cell is then slowly displaced from the cell with mercury at constant pressure.2369 6.2297 In addition to the above data.8296 0. vg .3728 200o F 60o F 8.5859 6.9557 115 . at p and T . and gas volume.7 Relative Gas Vol.7 14.7794 pb 0. Relative Oil Vol. vg at sc.9457 6.4114 6.0460 0. Vg at p and T . is noted. are measured.2333 6.0923 0.9457 6.7 psia and 60o F=74.0535 0. Relative Gas Vol. vo 0.0417 0.8603 0.0687 0.9022 0.0466 0.0597 0.
Separator Stock Tank Shrinkage GOR Pressure Pressure Factor Rsif (psia) (psia) cbf (STB/RBb )) (SCF/STB) 200 150 100 50 14.18: Laboratory test separator 5. The cell contents are then ﬂashed through the separator system to standard conditions.7 14.7993 0.7983 0. The data from such tests is used to determine the oil shrinkage factor. cbf .7932 0. The resulting volumes of produced oil and gas are measured.7 0. and the initial solution GOR.7 14. Rsif .Figure 5. The PVT cell is brought to the bubble point pressure and connected to the separator system which may be a single separator or a series of staged separators with staged pressures and temperatures to simulate the actual production system.7834 512 510 515 526 116 .3 Separator Flash Expansion Test This test is designed to approximate the surface production system.7 14.4.
F . 1 vg Bg = 5. Vg Use the diﬀerential ﬂash data and the oil shrinkage factor. cbf and the cumulative gas liberated. p vs vt . Cumulative Gas Liberated at pressure p ∙ ¸ ∙ = Total Gas in . Use the diﬀerential ﬂash data to compute Bg . " # ∙ ¸ vo RB RB/RBb Bo = = STB cbf STB/RBb Use the diﬀerential ﬂash data. F .4 Procedure for calculating PVT parameters from laboratory data The above data can be used to compute the PVT properties for the tested oil and gas.4. 5.(4. to compute Rs . liberated from the cell at every pressure step.615 Vg Use the diﬀerential ﬂash data to compute the cumulative relative gas volume. pb X p 3. to compute Bo . Eqns. the oil shrinkage factor.5.615 × = (Rsif − Rs ) RBb STB cbf STB STB The following example illustrates the application of the above procedure. to determine the bubble point pressure. cbf .Gas in solution solution at pressure p ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ STB SCF SCF 1 RBb F × 5. Fp = 4.4—4.6) may be manipulated to yield. 117 . 2. The procedure involves the following steps: 1. Plot the ﬂash expansion data.
Gas formation volume factor 6. diﬀerential liberation and separator ﬂash expansion data discussed in the previous sections. Oil compressibility above the bubble point 3.Example 5. Gas compressibility Determine the above properties for the optimum surface operating condition. [Answer: Open PVT. Bubble point pressure 2. Oil formation volume factor 4. Solution gasoil ratio 5.2 .mcd] 118 .mcd] Using the Flash expansion. determine the following as a function pressure at reservoir temperature: 1.Calculation of PVT properties from laboratory PVT data [PVT.
Irrespective of the sampling method used. When gas is ﬁrst released in a reservoir. During the period that the gas saturation is below the critical value. 5. If the sample is to be representative. On the other hand.6 PVT TESTS FOR GAS CONDENSATE FIELDS Gas condensate exist as a single gaseous phase at initial reservoir conditions. When reservoir pressure falls below the dewpoint. oil ﬂowing into the wellbore will be deﬁcient in gas. the very high mobility (low viscosity) of the gas will result in a disproportion ally high volume of gas entering the wellbore. If the reservoir is saturated (initial reservoir pressure is equal to the bubble point pressure). the gas remains immobile until the gas saturation increases to a value called the critical gas saturation.liquid dropout curve. Gas condensate tests are designed to measure this volume of liquid as a function of pressure . The reservoir is usually sampled in one of two ways. the pressure in the vicinity of the wellbore will be below the bubble point pressure and gas will come out of solution as the oil ﬂows to the wellbore. the oil ﬂowing into the wellbore is reservoir oil and the sample is representative. a liquid phase is produced in the reservoir. 1. If the reservoir is undersaturated (reservoir pressure is above the bubble point pressure) and the well production rate is suﬃciently low for the pressure in the vicinity of the wellbore to be everywhere above the bubble point pressure. when suﬃcient gas has been released for gas to become mobile. These cells are designed to allow light to pass through the liquid and 119 .5 FLUID SAMPLING Fluid samples for PVT analysis are collected early in the life of a reservoir. the problems of obtaining a truly representative sample of reservoir oil are the same. Under these conditions the oil sample may not be representative.5. the oil ﬂowing into the wellbore must have the same solution GOR as the reservoir oil away from the well. surface sampling. subsurface sampling 2. The liquid volume is usually very small compared to the total volume of the system and in order to measure it accurately it is necessary to use special condensate PVT cells.
The most common type of test used to characterize a gas condensate is the constant mass depletion test. The constant volume depletion test simulates this behavior. Typical liquid dropout curves for constant mass and constant volume depletion tests are shown in the attached ﬁgure. Some condensate cells are made out of a solid block of sapphire to allow un obstructed viewing of the liquid phase. The liquid will move to the bottom of the reservoir under the action of gravity and a constant volume depletion test is more appropriate.Figure 5.19: Constant mass expansion test for a gas condensate are ﬁtted with front and back windows for this purpose. 120 . the more liquid is produced and the greater the diﬀerence between the liquid dropout curves. it is immobile and remains in contact with the gas from which it was produced. The richer the gas condensate. In the case of very rich condensates where the volume of liquid produced is relatively large. the liquid phase in the reservoir may become mobile. Since the liquid volume produced in the reservoir is small.
ethanol. The temperature for hydrate formation is reduced by the addition of inhibitors such as methanol. ethylene glycol diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol.7 GAS HYDRATES Gas hydrates are solid. 121 . semistable compounds which sometimes plug natural gas ﬂowlines. Hydrates consist of geometric lattices of water molecules containing cavities ﬁlled with gas . The attached sheet provides a guide to temperature reduction which may be expected from the use of the diﬀerent additives. More accurate predictions require the use of special equations of state designed speciﬁcally for this purpose.20: Constant volume expansion test for a gas condensate 5. A typical phase diagram for a hydrate forming gaswater system is shown in the attached ﬁgure. and pipelines. Gas hydrates form when hydrocarbon gases come into contact with water at temperatures below 35o C. processing and measuring equipment.Figure 5.a solid foam.
processing equipment and pipelines Geometric lattices of water molecules containing cavities filled with gas Formed when hydrocarbon gases are in contact with water at temperatures below 35C Temperature for hydrate formation is reduced by the addition of inhibitors such as Methanol.Figure 5. Ethanol. semistable compounds which sometimes plug natural gas flowlines. Ethylene Glycol.21: Liquid dropout curves for a gas condensate Gas Hydrates Solid.22: A simple summary of gas hydrates 122 . Diethylene Glycol and Triethylene Glycol Figure 5.
Hhydrate.23: Gas hydrate coexistence curves. L2liquid hydrocarbon. Iice Figure 5. L1water.Figure 5.24: Comparison between measured and calculated hydrate curves for a gas with MEOH inhibitor 123 . Ggas.
Figure 5.8 SURFACE TENSION Surface tension between two ﬂuids is an important parameter in reservoir analysis because it determines the manner in which ﬂuids move through reservoir rock. temperature and composition of the phases. The surface tension of hydrocarbon mixtures may be 124 . Surface tension may exist between water and oil phases. water and gas phases and between gas and oil phases. A typical test setup is shown in the attached ﬁgure. The surface tension is given by. Surface tension may be measured at reservoir conditions using the pendant drop method. Ds H = = = = density diﬀerence for the two ﬂuids gravitational acceleration drop diameters as shown in the attached ﬁgure tabulated function of Ds /De ∆ρgDe H 5. ∆ρ g De .1 Estimating Surface Tension The surface tension between two ﬂuids is a function of pressure.8.25: Eﬀect of diﬀerent inhibitors on hydrate formation 5. σ= where.
26: Pendant drop tensiometer 125 .Figure 5.
For mixtures the surface tension is given by. ρL − ρV σ 1/4 = Pch M where. dynes/cm phase molecular weights X Pchi xi µ ρL ρV − yi ML MV ¶ 5.estimated using the parachor method. 126 . Computer based correlations Many of the available graphical correlations of ﬂuid properties have been computerized which makes their use particularly easy. ρV σ M = = = = parachor phase densities. A correlation for the parachor with molecular weight is given in the attached ﬁgure. Pch ρL . ρV σ ML . Examples of these correlations are given in attached ﬁgures. gm/cm3 surface tension. dynes/cm molecular weight Parachors account for intermolecular forces and are predicted from the structures of molecules. MV = = = = = parachor for component i in the mixture mole fraction of component i in the liquid and vapor phases phase densities. For a pure liquid in equilibrium with it’s vapor. Pchi xi .9 CORRELATIONS FOR PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS Several useful correlations exist for estimating reservoir ﬂuid properties in the absence of laboratory data.mcd. An example of such a program is given in the ﬁle PropEst. yi ρL . gm/cm3 mixture surface tension. σ 1/4 = where.
enter the appropriate input values and see] 127 .Figure 5. water and gas? TR PR PS TS AP I GOR γg C N aCl = = = = = = = = = 200 3330 115 60 30 510 0.75 100 6 F psia psi o F o API SCF/STB (air= 1) (water salinity in units of kg/m3 ) (water salinity in units of 10. What are the reservoir properties of the oil.000 ppm) o [Answer: open the spreadsheet.27: Surface tensions for hydrocarbons at atmospheric pressure Example 5.mcd] The following estimates are made of reservoir and produced ﬂuid properties from a DST on an exploration well.3 .Estimation of reservoir ﬂuid properties [PropEst.
Figure 5.28: Parachors for hydrocarbons 128 .
30: Viscosity of saturated crude oil 129 .Figure 5.29: Standing correlation for reservoir oils Figure 5.
Figure 5.31: Viscosity of reservoir brine 130 .
32: Viscosity of hydrocarbon gases at atmospheric pressure Figure 5.Figure 5.33: Ratio of viscosity at reservoir pressure to viscosity at atmospheric pressure for hydrocarbon gases 131 .
1 . Bg . Rs = 299.5 cm3 of liquid in the cell and resulted in the collection of 0.2797 RB/STB. Bg = 0.Problem 5.3599 RB/STB.0 cm3 of reservoir liquid at its bubble point of 2000 psia at 140o F. [Answer: Bob = 1. Rsi = 399.8 cm3 of mercury was withdrawn from the cell and the pressure fell to 1600 psia.Calculation of PVT properties from laboratory PVT data A laboratory PVT cell contained 280. Bo = 1. Determine the following: 1.9 cm3 of liquid remained in the cell. This left 263. Bo .mcd spreadsheet you have a good understanding of PVT properties.2 SCF/STB. 132 . Mercury was then reinjected at constant temperature and pressure to displace the gas from the cell.001721 RB/SCF.6 SCF/STB.7 psia and the temperature to 60o F. Rs and z at 1600 psia.129 SCF of gas. 2. Bob and Rsi . A volume of 18.388 SCF of gas were removed from the cell and 205. reducing the pressure to 14. The process was repeated. Then 0.] solution hints If you can do this without using the PVT.
the space originally occupied by the produced oil volume must now be occupied by something else. — expansion of reservoir rock grains . There is therefore a relationship between the rate of production and the rate of decline of reservoir pressure.reduction of pore volume. The material balance equation is the basic reservoir engineering analysis tool used to examine past reservoir performance and to predict future performance. 133 .Chapter 6 MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS When a volume of oil is produced from a reservoir. Unless ﬂuid is injected. — expansion of ﬂuids in the reservoir. the production of oil must result in a decline in reservoir pressure. Material balance equations express this dependence in mathematical form. You may wish to make colour prints of these ﬁgures. The diagrams in this section are best viewed on the electronic version of the course notes. — inﬂux of ﬂuid from an adjoining aquifer or gas cap. The decline in reservoir pressure can cause.
1. volume occupied by expansion of connate water. Some of the released solution gas will always be evenly distributed throughout the reservoir.1: Schematic of a combination reservoir 6. It should be understood that the attached diagram is for illustrative purposes and is not intended to imply that the materials in the reservoir are segregated in the manner shown. 134 . 3. volume occupied by expansion of rock grains . The volume originally occupied by produced oil may now be occupied by. as are the expansions of rock and connate water.1 ORIGINAL OIL VOLUME BALANCE Most material balance equations are written in terms of the original volume occupied by the oil. inﬂux of water from an adjoining aquifer (if the aquifer is strong enough). volume of oil remaining in the reservoir. volume of gas released by oil (if reservoir pressure falls below the bubble point). expansion of an adjoining gas cap (if one is present). 6. however. 5. Under some conditions.GAS CAP OIL ZONE AQUIFER Figure 6.pore space compressibility. 4. gas released from solution will segregate to the top of the structure. 2.
1. [SCF] gas formation volume factor at current pressure. G Gpc Bg Bgi = = = =  [RB] {z } (G − Gpc )Bg  {z gas volume at lower pressure } − GBgi initial gas volume  {z } original gas cap gas volume. the gas cap may actually shrink rather than expand.Figure 6.Gas cap shrinkage should never be allowed because it always results in a loss of oil recovery.2: Material balance on the pore space occupied by the original oil volume 6. ∆VGCE = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi 135 . [SCF] cumulative gas production from the gas cap. [RB/SCF] Note that if Gpc is large. Gas cap expansion = where. and the reservoir pressure drops.1 Gas Cap Expansion If a gas cap is present. [RB/SCF] gas formation volume factor at original reservoir pressure. the gas cap will expand to replace some of the volume initially occupied by the produced oil. The above equation may be written as.
3 × 109 − 0) 0. This would result in a loss of about 1MMRB of oil.3: Gas cap expansion volume Example 6.mcd] Calculate the change in the size of the gas cap after 20% of the gas cap gas has been produced while the reservoir pressure had dropped from 1225 psig to 1100 psig. Data: G = 21.002370 [SCF] [RB/SCF] [RB/SCF] Solution 1.3 ×109 Bgc at 1225 psig = 0.Calculation of gas cap expansion [MBE.1 . This would allow about 5 MMRB oil to migrate into the gas cap.8 times the original gas cap volume i. 136 .Figure 6.88 × 106 RB ∆VGCE = (0. We would not allow this to actually happen in the actual reservoir.002125 i.. ∆VGCE = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi ∆VGCE = −4.8Gi 2..e.3 × 109 × 0.e. a zone originally free of oil. The gas cap originally contained 21. At 1100 psig the gas cap containing 0.002370 − 21.002125 Bgc at 1100 psig = 0.8 × 21. the gas cap has actually shrunk.3 × 109 SCF. G = 0.
e.3 ×109 Bgc at 1225 psig = 0.Calculation of gas cap expansion [MBE.mcd] Calculate the change in gas cap size for the reservoir of Example1 if the reservoir pressure had dropped from 1225 psig to 900 psig at the time that 20% of the gas was produced. the gas cap has expanded into the oil zone and no oil is lost to the gas zone. ∆VGCE = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi ∆VGCE = (0.3 × 109 × 0.3 × 109 − 0) 0.002905 [SCF] [RB/SCF] [RB/SCF] Solution 1.Example 6.e.002905 − 21.2Gi 2..24 × 106 RB i. Data: G = 21. Gp = 0.8 × 21.2 . 137 ..002125 Bgc at 900 psig = 0. At 900 psig the gas cap cumulative production is i.002125 ∆VGCE = 4.
Figure 6.4: Released solution gas volume
6.1.2
Released Gas Volume
If the reservoir pressure falls below the bubble point pressure gas will be released from solution. At any time during the production of a reservoir, the gas originally in solution can be placed into three categories; 1. 2. 3. gas remaining in solution gas released from solution and produced from the reservoir gas released from solution but remaining in the reservoir.
On this basis we write, Released gas volume = where, N Np Rsi Rs Bg = = = = =

[RB]
{z
}
N Rsi Bg
 {z
gas originally in solution
}
− (N − Np )Rs Bg −

gas still in solution
{z
}
Gps Bg
produced solution gas
 {z }
original oil volume, [STB] cumulative oil produced, [STB] original solution gasoil ratio, [SCF/STB] solution gasoil ratio at current pressure, [SCF/STB] gas formation volume factor at current pressure, [RB/SCF]
The above equation is usually written as, ∆VRSG = {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg 138
Example 6.3  Calculation of released solution gas volume [MBE.mcd] Cumulative oil production for our example reservoir was 14.73 ×106 STB at the time when reservoir pressure was 900 psig. At the same time cumulative production of solution gas was 4.05 ×109 SCF. Calculate the reservoir volume occupied by released gas. Data: N Rsi at 1225 psig Rs at 900 psig Bg at 900 psig = = = = 90.46 ×106 230 169 0.002905 [STB] [SCF/STB] [SCF/STB] [RB/SCF]
Solution ∆VRSG = {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg ∆VRSG = {(90.46 × 230 − (90.46 − 14.73) × 169 − 4050) × 106 } 0.002905 ∆VRSG = 11.5 × 106 RB
139
Figure 6.5: Remaining oil volume
6.1.3
Remaining Oil Volume
The oil volume remaining in the reservoir is simply, Reservoir{z volume = (N − Np )Bo oil  }
[RB]
oil still in reservoir

{z
}
where, N Np Bo = original oil volume, [STB] = cumulative oil produced, [STB] = oil formation volume factor at current pressure, [RB/STB]
The above equation is written as, ∆VROV = (N − Np )Bo
140
Example 6.4  Calculation of remaining oil volume [MBE.mcd] What is the remaining reservoir oil volume for the previous example at 900 psig. Data: Bo at 900 psig = 1.104 [RB/STB]
Solution ∆VROV = (N − Np )Bo ∆VROV = (90.46 × 106 − 14.73 × 106 ) 1.104 ∆VROV = 83.63 × 106 RB
141
Figure 6.6: Rock and connate water expansion volume
6.1.4
Rock and Connate Water Expansion
The expansion of rock and connate water are combined into one term and expressed as the formation compressibility cf . cf is deﬁned as the fractional change in pore volume per psi change in reservoir pressure. The pore volume can be expressed in terms of the original oil volume, as is required for material balance calculations. original oil volume = N Boi = Vp Soi = Vp (1 − Swi ) where, N Boi Vp Soi Swi or, Vp = = = = = = original oil volume, [STB] oil formation volume factor at initial pressure, [RB/STB] reservoir pore volume, [RB] initial oil saturation initial or connate water saturation
µ
N Boi 1 − Swi
¶
142
1 ∆V c= V ∆P from which we have ∆V = cV ∆P  Rock expansion = formation compressibility × pore volume × pressure change [RB] {z } Rock expansion = cf  [RB] where. the rock and water expansion term is so small that it may safely be neglected. we have for rock and water expansion. [vol/vol/psi] = initial water saturation µ ¶ µ N Boi 1 − Swi ¶ The connate water expansion is. [psig] = current reservoir pressure.The total amount of rock expansion is calculated by utilizing the deﬁnition of compressibility. The rock and connate water term is usually only important for oil reservoirs when the oil pressure remains above the bubble point.  Water expansion = water compressibility × water volume × pressure change [RB] {z } The initial connate water volume is given by. cw Swi = water compressibility. 143 . original connate water volume = Swi Vp = Swi where.  Water expansion = cw Swi [RB] {z } N Boi (pi − p) 1 − Swi Combining the above equations. [vol/vol/psi] = initial reservoir pressure. cf p1 p {z } µ N Boi (pi − p) 1 − Swi ¶ = formation compressibility. [psig] The total amount of connate water expansion is given by. ∆VRW E N Boi = (cf + cw Swi ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi µ ¶ For reservoirs where a gas phase is present.
Data: Swi cf cw = 0.0×10−6 = 3.Example 6.84(106 ) (1225 − 900) ∆VRW E = 0.mcd] What is the rock and water expansion volume for the previous example when the pressure falls from 1225 psig to 900 psig.5 .205 = 3.15 × 106 RB We see that rock and water expansion amounts to about 1% of the released gas volume.0×10−6 [psi−1 ] [psi−1 ] Solution ∆VRW E N Boi = (cf + cw Swi ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi ³ ´ µ ¶ ∆VRW E = (cf + cw Swi ) (Vp ) (pi − p) ∆VRW E = (3.0 + 3.Calculation of rock and connate water expansion volume MBE. This is usually the case in practice and rock and connate water expansion can be neglected for calculations below the bubble point.205)) 10−6 127.0(0. 144 .
∆VN W I = We − Wp Bw 145 . [RB/STB] The above equation may be written as. we can determine the net water inﬂux into the reservoir — total water entering the reservoir less water produced — by diﬀerence.7: Water inﬂux volume 6. Net water inﬂux =  {z } [RB] cumulative water inﬂux where. This is because the calculation of water inﬂux requires information characterizing the size and strength of the aquifer and this information is not generally known with any certainty during the early production life of a reservoir. since we can calculate all the other terms in the material balance equation.5 Water Inﬂux Unlike the above items in the material balance equation. We Wp Bw e {z} W − Wp Bw cumulative produced water  {z } = cumulative water inﬂux.Figure 6. [RB] = cumulative water produced. [STB] = water formation volume factor at current pressure. the volume of water inﬂux cannot be calculated directly. However.1.
. N Boi = G(Bg − Bgi ) + {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg − Gp Bg + µ ¶ N Boi (N − Np )Bo + (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) + 1 − Swi We − Wp Bw (6. gas and water production. Original oil volume = Gas cap expansion + Released gas volume + Oil volume + Rock and water expansion + Net water inﬂux ∆VOOIP = ∆VGCE + ∆VRGV + ∆VROV + ∆VRW E + ∆VN W I N Boi = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi + {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg + µ ¶ N Boi (N − Np )Bo + (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) + 1 − Swi (6.2) One of the most important uses of the material balance equation is to calculate water inﬂux into a reservoir.6. (Gpc + Gps )Bg = Gp Bg The material balance equation may be rewritten as. reservoir pressure and cumulative oil. This only requires that we know the volume of initial ﬂuids inplace.1) We − Wp Bw Note that the two gas production terms are additive and equal to the total gas production at the surface ie. Cumulative water inﬂux is. we can write.6 General Material Balance Equation Having analyzed all the individual terms in the material balance equation. We N Boi = N Boi − (N − Np )Bo − (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi −GBg + GBgi + Gp Bg − {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg +Wp Bw µ ¶ (6.1.3) 146 .
6 .0) × 106 = 2.0 [STB] [RB/STB] Solution The following items were calculated in the previous examples.63 − 4.4) We = (101.62×106 = 1.24 − 11.mcd] Using the results of the Examples 2. ﬁnd the water inﬂux when the pressure falls from 1225 psig to 900 psig.000 STB.3.4 and 5. Ex. 2 3 4 5 Item Calculated Gas Cap Exp.62 × 1. (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg (N − Np )Bo ³ ´ NB (cf + Swi cw ) 1−Soi (pi − p) wi ×106 RB 4.63 0.24 11. Data: Wp Bw = 0.Example 6.15 + 0. µ ¶ We N Boi = N Boi − (N − Np )Bo − (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi −GBg + GBgi + Gp Bg − {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg +Wp Bw (6. Released Gas Remaining Oil Rock & Water Exp.64 − 83.15 Rearranging the material balance equation to calculate We .50 − 0.74 × 106 RB 147 . Cumulative water production at this time is 620.50 83.Calculation of water inﬂux from material balance [MBE.
A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is.6.2 PRIMARY RECOVERY MECHANISMS Each of the terms of the material balance equation represents a drive mechanism which contributes to the total energy required to produce oil from the reservoir. 148 .5) The above equation may be written as. A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is. A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is. is called a water drive reservoir. is called a solution gas drive reservoir. is called a gas cap drive reservoir. Iw . Isg . Igc Isg Ipd Iw = = = = gas cap drive index solution gas drive index pressure depletion drive index water drive index The above indices represent the eﬀectiveness of each drive mechanism for a particular reservoir. If we divide the overall material balance equation by N Boi we obtain. Igc . 1 = (G − Gp )Bg − GBgi {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg + + N{z oi B N{z oi B  }  } Igc We − Wp Bw N{z oi } B  Iw  1 (N − Np )Bo + (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) + N Boi 1 − Swi Ipd {z µ Isg ¶ } (6. 1 = Igc + Isg + Ipd + Iw where.
149 2. is called a combination drive reservoir. Ipd . Ultimate recovery is strongly inﬂuenced by the type of drive mechanism. 6. is called a depletion drive reservoir. Solution gas drive — pressure drops slowly at ﬁrst. pressure falls rapidly. The trends which are observed when one of the mechanisms dominates are summarized in the following ﬁgures. A reservoir for which more than one drive mechanism is important.8: Reservoir drive index as a function of time A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is. Pressure depletion drive (ﬂuid and rock expansion) results in a rapid straight line pressure response and may be expected to recover less than 5% of the original oilinplace. 1. .2.Figure 6. Ultimate recoveries are in the range 1530 %.1 Typical Performance Characteristics for the Diﬀerent Drive Mechanisms The dominant drive mechanism for a particular reservoir can often be deduced from the rate of pressure decline and the trend of the producing gasoil ratio. As the producing GOR increases.
10: Producing GOR as a function of cumulative oil production 150 .9: Reservoir pressure as a function of cumulative oil production Figure 6.Figure 6.
Water drive — pressure declines rapidly at ﬁrst. but the decline rate decreases as water inﬂux from the aquifer increases. The producing GOR remains approximately constant and ultimate recoveries are 50% or more.11: Producing characteristics of gas cap drive reservoirs 3.Figure 6. 151 .
12: Producing characteristics of solution gas drive reservoirs Figure 6.Figure 6.13: Producing characteristics of water drive reservoirs 152 .
water and gas production) when the material balance equation is to be applied.6. In order to use the material balance equation it is necessary to determine average reservoir pressure for the time (cumulative oil.3. The mapped pressures may be averaged to give the average reservoir pressure as.3. knowns unknowns Np N Gp G Wp We Swc p (Bo .1 The material balance equation describes the whole reservoir in terms of average reservoir pressure.2 Knowns and Unknowns When solving the material balance equation the parameters may be classiﬁed into the following groups of knowns and unknowns. Bg .3 USING MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS Average Reservoir Pressure 6. initial volumes of oil. water and gas production volumes. Direct measurement of average reservoir pressure would require that all the wells are shutin and that the bottomhole pressure is measured at a time after shutin which is suﬃciently long for all the pressure gradients in the reservoir to equalize. This may take months to years (depending on reservoir permeability) and result in considerable loss in revenue because of lost production. gas and water inplace and cumulative oil. Rs ) cw cf Bw 153 . 6. Pressure data obtained from a pressure buildup test can be used to estimate the average pressure in the volume or area drained by the tested well. These tests require short test times (hours to days) and allow reservoir pressure to be mapped over the ﬁeld. The direct measurement approach is therefore impractical.6) Vp j where pj and Vp j are the drainage area pressure and pore volume drained by well j. P pj Vp j p= P (6.
whether there has been any water inﬂux or not. Rs ) may be considered to be known if the average reservoir pressure is known and representative ﬂuid samples have obtained and analysed. Knowns Np .volumetric estimates of the original oil and gascap volumes inplace are always known from the ﬁeld appraisal stage. In some cases it may be large and variable. This reduces the number of unknowns to ﬁve but we have only one equation.this is probably the greatest unknown in reservoir development . Before considering speciﬁc examples of the application of the material balance equation. or may be estimated. Bg .cumulative gas and water production be unknown for older oil and gas ﬁelds because they had little or no value at the time of production. p .The PVT properties (Bo . Bw . This will usually be smaller than the volumetric estimate due to compartmentilization of the reservoir by faults or low permeability zones. This is because volumetric estimates include all the mapped hydrocarbon volume. Gp . whereas material balance calculation provides the eﬀective volume or the volume which contributes to actual production. problems with the interpretation of pressure buildup test data may introduce serious errors and there may be considerable uncertainty in estimates of average reservoir pressure. Wp . We . When it is large.this is usually known because oil is the primary production target which is sold to generate revenue. Unknowns N.although we usually consider reservoir pressure to be known. Swc . compaction may form a major part of the reservoir drive energy and usually leads 154 . cw . One of the most important uses of material balance calculations is to estimate water inﬂux.is usually considered to be accurately known from petrophysical evaluation. from laboratory tests on formation brine.pore volume or formation compressibility is usually considered to be small and constant. G . When these are unknown it is not possible to perform material balance calculations for the reservoir. These are disregarded as soon as productionpressure data becomes available and an attempt is made to estimate inplace volumes from material balance calculations.these are known. lets consider some of the parameters in the material balance equation. cf . This is the central problem with the use of the material balance equation.
00000 0.07041 0. You will be performing this history match in the reservoir engineering course which follows from the present course.85487 0.17304 0.99562 1.63405 1.31690 155 .64397 1.91465 1.99562 0.00000 0.00000 0.99562 0.00121 0.00000 0.17304 0.16959 1.to considerable subsidence at the surface. The reservoir for this exercise is a small oﬀshore oil ﬁeld which has been onstream for only 700 days.17821 0.91465 1. After the aquifer has been characterized.21229 Wp (MMSTB) 0.91465 2.1 Calculating water inﬂux from material balance for history matching aquifer performance The ﬁrst step in characterizing or history matching an aquifer is to calculate water inﬂux from available production and pressure data.99562 0. PRODUCTION HISTORY Time P Np Gp (day) (psia) (MMSTB) (BSCF) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 4217 3915 3725 3570 3450 3390 3365 3600 3740 3850 3900 3920 3720 3650 3640 0.17304 0. the resultant aquifer model is attached to a numerical reservoir simulation model which is used to predict future reservoir performance.91465 1.17304 0.06898 1. Problem 6.99562 0. There was a strong and clear aquifer response to the shutin (use Mathcad to plot the ﬁeld pressure as a function of time to see the response).91465 1.09929 1.34270 0.02636 0.99562 0.55587 0.12218 0.36788 1.91465 1.33133 0.32970 0.25094 0.71130 0. The ﬁeld production history is given in the table below.17304 0. The ﬁeld was shutin for a 250 day period for upgrading of the gathering system and production facilities.17304 0. This may be of little consequence on land in remote areas but may cause serious problems for operations oﬀshore.11402 2.24921 2.20368 0.
0 1.2469 1. Reservoir system properties were estimated to be: cf = 5×10−6 psi−1 cw = 3×10−6 psi−1 Swc = 0. [Answer: We at 700 days is 2.The initial oil inplace is estimated (volumetrically) to be 33.2413 1. Each calculation is identical to the calculations performed in Examples 61 to 66.0 1. You can simply use [MBE.0 1.0 1. PVT DATA P Bo Rs Bg Bw (psia) (RB/STB) (SCF/STB) (RB/SCF) (RB/STB) 3365 3465 3565 3665 3765 3865 3965 4065 4165 4265 1. Determine the cumulative water inﬂux for each of the 50 day time periods in the production history table.2497 1.2385 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 1.0 1.0 Reservoir temperature is 210o F and the gas gravity is 0. Alternatively. Solution hint You need to calculate a cumulative water inﬂux volume for each 50 day period (a total of 14 calculations).2511 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.mcd] to do the calculation for each period.2455 1. you could modify [MBE.2483 1.2441 1.mcd] to readin the production data and do the 14 calculations in one pass or prepare your owm spreadsheet using whatever software you are most comfortable with.2399 1.69.248 PVT data for the reservoir oil is given in the following table.778 MMRB] 156 .0 1.2 MMSTB.2427 1.
Prediction of future reservoir pressure After the original oil inplace has been established. and reliable productionpressure data is available.6. the material balance equation may be used to predict future reservoir pressure if future cumulative production can be estimated. the material balance derived value of N may be more reliable than the volumetrically determined volume. This provides a very valuable check on the volumetrically determined value. The main diﬃculty with this procedure is estimating the volumes of gas and water which will accompany the speciﬁed oil production volume.7) If the original gas cap volume may be estimated from a volumetric calculation. N Boi 0 = N Boi − (N − Np )Bo − (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi −GBg + GBgi + Gp Bg − {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg µ ¶ (6. the only unknown is the original oil inplace. N . If all the produced oil and water is reinjected.4 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED OIL RESERVOIR When water inﬂux from the aquifer is small or negligible (small ineﬀective aquifer. this diﬃculty is eliminated. 157 . the formation compressibility is known. weak to moderate aquifers during early stages of production when the aquifer response is small) there is negligible water production and the material balance equation reduces to. As discussed previously.
The value of N which makes the drive indices sum to one is the correct oilinplace.2 . (N ). The volumetric estimates of the original oilinplace.Problem 6. is 105 MMSTB and the initial gas cap volume is 81.you can do this if you like.0×10−6 [psi−1 ] [psi−1 ] [Answer: 113 MMSTB] Solution hints The material balance equation is explicit in N .206 BSCF. so we could rearrange it and solve directly for N . If you use [OIPMBE.0×10−6 = 3.21 = 3. guess a value of N which makes both sides of the material balance equation equal. Geological evidence suggests that aquifer quality is poor and that water inﬂux into the reservoir is likely to be negligible.503 MMSTB and cumulative gas production is 14. Cumulative oil production at this time is 11.mcd] to allow me to enter a value of N and see the sum of the drive indices with the drive index for water set to zero (closed reservoir condition). Does the material balance calculation conﬁrm this estimate? Data: Swi cf cw = 0. An alternative way is to solve the material balance equation by trial and error ie.14 BSCF. 158 ..mcd] The discovery pressure of a reservoir containing a gas cap was 3330 psia.mcd] you will see the I have simply rearranged [MBE. The reservoir was produced until the reservoir fell to 2700 psia.Calculation of original oil inplace using material balance equation [OIPMBE.
6.5
MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED GAS RESERVOIR
The material balance equation for a closed gas reservoir is so simple that it may be solved graphically. The graphical solution method is commonly referred to as the P/zplot. The plot can be used to estimate the original gas inplace and to predict future reservoir pressure given a production forecast. The general material balance equation for a closed gas reservoir reduces to; GBgi = (G − Gpc )Bg Since Bg is given by, Bg = 5.02 × 10−3 zT P
we can write for the above material balance equation (where reservoir temperature is assumed to remain constant), G 5.02 × 10−3 which may be rearranged to, G or, P G z or,
µ µ
zi T Pi
¶
= (G − Gp ) 5.02 × 10−3
µ
zT P
¶
zi z = (G − Gp ) Pi P
¶ µ
P = (G − Gp ) z
¶
µ
¶ ¶
i
P P = z z
1 P − Gp G z i
µ
i
The above equation results in a straight line relationship between (P/z) and Gp . The straight line on a (P/z)—Gp plot passes through (P/z)i at Gp = 0 and through G at (P/z) = 0. The straightline relationship is very useful in estimating the initial volume of gasinplace (G) from limited production history.
159
Figure 6.14: p/z plot for a closed gas reservoir
Example 6.7  Calculation of initial gas inplace for a closed gas reservoir [GIP.mcd] Estimate the initial gas content, G, for a closed gas reservoir having the following production history. Pressure Cumulative Gas Gas Deviation (psig) Production (MMSCF) Factor (z) 3500 3350 3200 3050 2750 0 46.7 125.0 203.5 380.0 0.84 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.78
160
Solution
1. Calculate P/z for each pressure point and plot against cumulative production, Gp . Pressure Cumulative Gas Gas Deviation (psig) Production (MMSCF) Factor (z) 3500 3350 3200 3050 2750 0 46.7 125.0 203.5 380.0 0.84 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.78 P/z (psig) 4166.7 4085.3 3950.6 3812.5 3525.6
2. Draw the bestﬁt straight line through the data and extrapolate to P/z = 0. The intercept at P/z = 0 is the initial gas in place, G. To see this plot open [GIP.mcd]. G = 2400 MMSCF.
161
Figure 6.15: Material balance for a gas reservoir
6.5.1
Water Drive Gas Reservoirs
When a gas reservoir is in contact with a signiﬁcant aquifer, water inﬂux will occur as the reservoir pressure declines with production. The material balance for such a reservoir may be written as, GBgi = (G − Gp )Bg + We − Wp Bw This equation can be solved for water inﬂux, We = GBgi − (G − Gp )Bg + Wp Bw If G can be evaluated volumetrically and if the ﬁeld production data is known (Gp and Wp ) at corresponding reservoir pressures, the material balance equation can be used to calculate the cumulative water inﬂux at these times.
162
Figure 6.16: p/z plot for a gas reservoir experiencing water inﬂux
Example 6.8  Production history of a water drive gas reservoir [GIP.mcd] The following pressure production data were recorded for a gas reservoir. Can we estimate G from this data? Pressure Cumulative Gas Gas Deviation (psig) Production (MMSCF) Factor (z) 3500 3350 3200 3050 2950 0 52 155 425 880 0.84 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.79
[Answer: yes, G= 2.67 TSCF]
Solution hint Even if the aquifer is active, it takes time for the aquifer to respond to the decrease in reservoir pressure. This means that early in the life of the reservoir will behaive like a closed system. The early data should therefore plot as a straight line on a 163
0. 164 . Extrapolating this plot to zero pressure will therefore give a realistic estimate of the original gasinplace.192. 0. [Answer: 0.016. 0.Calculation of water inﬂux for a gas reservoir [GWMTB. Problem 6.3 .mcd] For the water drive gas reservoir of the previous example calculate the cumulative water inﬂux corresponding to the times at which cumulative gas production is given.mcd] from the previous example and added a calculation for Bg from z and the material balance equation for a water drive gas reservoir.P/zplot.mcd] to allow you to select the points through which to ﬁt the straight line.569 MMRB] Solution hint Do this any way you like. Cumulative water production is zero for the period and the reservoir temperature is TR = 275 o F. I have setup the spreadsheet [GIP. 0. I used [GIP.
Chapter 7 RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES AND CORE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Reservoir engineering calculations require a knowledge of certain basic rock properties. Permeability. — Wettability. Porosity.porosity.1 POROSITY Deﬁnition The total fraction of the bulk volume which is void space Parameter Symbol Porosity φ 165 . The saturation dependent properties will be considered in the next chapter. These include: 1. Rock compressibility. permeability and compressibility. In this section we look at the basic properties . Saturation dependent properties. 2. — Relative permeability. 4. 7. 3. — Capillary pressure.
1: Eﬀect of grain size distribution on porosity Porosity is important in determining the volume of oil and/or gas which will be contained in a reservoir — for reservoirs of interest. Eﬀective porosity and permeability may be greatly reduced by deposition of ﬁne particulate minerals in the pore space. Cementation. φ is in the range 0.05 — 0. — porosity is a strong function of grain size distribution but only a weak function of grain size itself. The attached ﬁgures show the eﬀect dispersed ﬁnes (particulate kaolinite.40. — for sandstones sedimentological processes are important. Porosity for both sandstones and limestones can be greatly modiﬁed by postdepositional events or digenesis. The original porosity of a formation is usually refereed to as primary porosity. Porosity modiﬁed by postdepositional processes is referred to as secondary porosity. For limestones porosity is determined by changes after deposition . and fracturing are events which can modify the original porosity of rocks.5% poorly sorted sandstone 1% Figure 7. porelining chlorite and porebridging illite) aﬀect primary porosity.dissolution and fracturing.well sorted sandstone 21. 166 . chemical action.
φt . is given by. Total porosity is the sum of eﬀective and disconnected porosity.Figure 7. is given by.1. φ.1 Eﬀective and Total Porosity Porosity is divided into two categories.2: Schematic of a clean wellsorted sandstone 7. — eﬀective porosity — interconnected pore space. — disconnected porosity — this porosity is inaccessible to ﬂow and is of no interest because it is not accessible to ﬂow of ﬂuids and therefore does not contribute to hydrocarbon production. φ= eﬀective or connected pore volume bulk volume 167 . The total porosity. φt = total pore volume bulk volume − grain volume = bulk volume bulk volume Eﬀective porosity.
2 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity The most common method employed to measure porosity is based on Boyle’s law. The equipment used is called a Boyle’s law porosimeter and is shown schematically in the attached ﬁgure. This is referred to as Condition I. 168 . This pressure is recorded and valve A is closed. (p2 + pa ). pa . The apparatus and measurement procedure consists: 1. are connected and at atmospheric pressure. The clean and dry core sample is placed in the second cell. Two cells of accurately known volume. The equilibrium absolute pressure.lining chlorite Pore. This is called Condition II. 3.1. is recorded. 7.Discrete. They therefore all measure eﬀective porosity. 2. clays and ﬁnes and their eﬀect on porosity Conventional laboratory experiments used to determine porosity are all based on introducing ﬂuids into the pore space.3: Common types of dispersed shales.particle kaolinite Pore. V1 and V2 .bridging illite Figure 7. Valve B is closes and cell 1 is pressured with gas G through valve A to an absolute pressure (p1 + pa ). Valve B is opened and the two cells are allowed to equilibrate.
moles of gas in cells 1 and 2 = moles of gas in cells 1 and 2 at Condition I at Condition II Assume an isothermal expansion process. The grain volume of the sample is Vs .4: SEM micrograph of poreﬁlling authigenic kaolinite (x1000) A mole balance at Condition I and Condition II gives. p T V n R = = = = = absolute pressure absolute temperature volume moles of gas universal gas constant 169 . The ideal gas law is written as. and pressures suﬃciently low so that the ideal gas law applies. pV n= RT where.Figure 7.
These ﬁbers may breakoﬀ at high ﬂow rates and block pores 170 .Figure 7.6: SEM micrograph of delicate ﬁbers of illite bridging pores (x1000).5: SEM micrograph of chlorite (feldspar) lined pore (x1000) Figure 7.
Vs = V1 + V2 − p1 V1 p2 Note that the pressures p1 and p2 are gauge pressures as read in the actual experiment. (p1 + pa )V1 pa (V2 − Vs ) (p2 + pa )V1 (p2 + pa )(V2 − Vs ) + = + RT RT RT RT Solving for the grain volume. for the above word equation. Vb . gives.Figure 7. Porosity is calculated from the equation. Vs . φ= Vb − Vs Vb where the bulk volume of the sample.7: SEM micrograph of pore ﬁlling kaolinite plates (x1000). Using the ideal gas law we write. is either determined from measurements of the sample dimensions (core plugs) or by measuring the displaced liquid volume when the sample is immersed in a nonwetting liquid such as mercury. 171 .
9: Boyle’s law porisometer 172 .Figure 7.8: Solution and fracture porosity in limestones Figure 7.
03 psig 41.Figure 7. [Answer: 0.Determination of the porosity of a core plug using helium porosimetry [HEPOR.10: Schematic of Boyle’s law porisometer test procedure Example 7.5 cm = 4 cm and the following measured porosimeter pressures and parameters.79 psig Calculate the porosity of the plug.23] 173 .mcd] Given the diameter and length of a cylindrical core plug.1 . V1 V2 p1 p2 = = = = 25 cm3 50 cm3 100. D L = 2.
11: Datcy’s law and permeability 7. — permeability is a weak function of grain size distribution but a strong function of pore size (throat size).2 PERMEABILITY Symbol Deﬁnition k A measure of the ease with which ﬂuid ﬂows through a porous rock Parameter Permeability Permeability is important in determining the rate at which oil and gas will ﬂow to the wellbore Permeability will usually vary over several orders of magnitude in the same reservoir.000 md. — reservoir rocks typically have permeabilities in the range 1 — 10.q= kA ∆P µ L ∆P A q q L Figure 7. 174 . The variation in permeability (heterogeneity) has a great eﬀect on oil recovery for both conventional and EOR processes.
2. k= qµ∆L A∆p 175 . µ ¶ ∆p 1 q∝A ∆L µ The constant of proportionality is called permeability and is an intrinsic property of the rock. Darcy’s law deﬁnes permeability as.1 Measurement of Permeability The attached ﬁgure shows a schematic of the experimental apparatus used to measure the permeability of cylindrical core samples or plugs.12: Schematic of permeameter 7.Figure 7. The steadystate ﬂow rate (q) of a ﬂuid which completely saturates the core is directly proportional to the xsectional area (A) over which the ﬂow occurs. kA∆p q= µ∆L This equation is known as Darcy’s law and is the basic equation for calculating ﬂuid ﬂow rates in reservoir engineering. the imposed pressure gradient over the core (∆p/L) and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the ﬂuid.
the computed permeability has the units of darcys. 1 cm3 /sec viscosity. ft2 volumetric ﬂow rate. 1 atmosphere ﬂow length. psi ﬂow length. A rock sample has a permeability of one darcy when. ∆p ∆L A q µ k = = = = = = pressure diﬀerence. 1 cm xsectional area. 1darcy = 1000 millidarcy = 1000 md Field Units In oil ﬁeld units the linear form of Darcy’s Law for the ﬂow of an incompressible ﬂuid is written as.When the variables in the above equation are expressed in Darcy units. cp permeability. ∆p ∆L A q µ k = = = = = = pressure diﬀerence. kA∆p q = 0. bbl/day (RB/D) viscosity.001127 µ∆L where. md 176 . res. ft xsectional area. 1 darcy The darcy unit is too large for most reservoir rocks and it is common practice to express permeability in terms of millidarcys. 1 cm2 volumetric ﬂow rate. 1 cp permeability.
Since a liquid is used to measure it. the permeability is called the liquid permeability.275 cm3 /sec [Answer: 201 md] Solution hint Use k= qµ∆L A∆p to calculate the permeability. Check the laboratory calculation which suggests that the permeability of the plug is 200 md. 177 .82 cp 1 atm 2 atm 0.Example 7.2 .Laboratory determination of the liquid permeability of a core plug [LPERM.52 cm 2 cm 1.mcd] The laboratory has conducted a steadystate liquid permeability test on a core plug from a reservoir of interest to you. The laboratory measured data is given below: plug diameter plug length test oil viscosity outlet pressure inlet pressure ﬂow rate = = = = = = 2.
Study [LINQ.mcd] to see how Mathcad handles the unit conversions.3 . The constant 0. What is the well rate when the pressure diﬀerence between injectors and producers is 500 psi? [Answer: 425 RB/day] Solution hint Use q = 0. Production well spacing is 1000 feet and the sand thickness is 30 feet.mcd] The core plug in the previous example was taken from a reservoir undergoing a horizontal line drive over a ﬂow length of 10. 178 . The reservoir oil has a viscosity of 0.Example 7.8 cp.000 feet.001127 arises from unit conversions.001127 kA∆p µ∆L to calculate the rate in RB/day if you are not using Mathcad which handles mixed systems of units automatically.Calculation of ﬁeld ﬂow rates [LINQ.
The average gas pressure (¯) in the core is given by. in terms of q the measured volumetric ﬂow rate at atmospheric conditions (qa ). This may appear to be a problem. ¯ qa pa kA(p1 − p2 ) = (p1 + p2 )/2 µ∆L which on rearrangement gives. Assuming that the gas is ideal . which are valid only for incompressible ﬂuids. q= ¯ Substituting for q gives. kA(p1 2 − p2 2 ) qa = 2pa µ∆L or 2qa pa µ∆L k= A(p1 2 − p2 2 ) We use this equation to calculate the gas permeability of the test plug. must be modiﬁed. the previous equations. particularly if we expect the permeability to be constant! 179 kA(p1 − p2 ) µ∆L . qa pa = q (p1 + p2 )/2 ¯ qa pa q= ¯ (p1 + p2 )/2 where pa is atmospheric pressure. the product qp (equivalent to V p for a static system) is constant. Darcy’s law may be written as. p p= ¯ (p1 + p2 ) 2 where. respectively. p1 and p2 are the inlet and outlet pressures. Since gas is compressible. When his done at a number of diﬀerent average pressures we ﬁnd that the calculated permeability is not constant but that it decreases with increasing pressure. Liquids may adsorb onto the rock surface and potentially change wettability which could adversely aﬀect later experiments. We can therefore express the volumetric ﬂow rate at the average pressure (¯).a reasonable assumption if the pressures are low. Gas does not have this problem.2 Laboratory Measurement of Permeability It is usually more convenient to measure permeability in the laboratory using a gas as the working ﬂuid. The experiment consists of ﬂowing a gas through the core plug.2.7.
7. kliquid = intercept b= slope kliquid Ã b 1+ p ¯ ! The Klinkenberg correction may be quite signiﬁcant for gas ﬂow in: low permeability rocks and quite high pressures. The extrapp olated permeability is equivalent to the liquid permeability. The measured permeability is therefore lower than that for gases at low pressure. the mean free path of gas molecules is similar to the dimensions of the pore space. 3. p.e. to 1/¯ = 0. kgas = kliquid where b is the Klinkenberg factor.2. laboratory data because pressures are low. 2. 180 . molecules are always present at the pore walls and the velocity of the ﬂuid at the pore walls is zero (noslip condition). Measure several gas permeabilities (kgas ) at diﬀerent mean ﬂowing pressures. At very low pressures. kliquid and b are determined from the slope and intercept of the plot. The variation of gas permeability with pressure is given by the equation. Under these conditions the solid pore walls do not signiﬁcantly retard gas ﬂow close to the pore walls because molecules spend little time at the walls (freeslip condition). To correct gas measured permeabilities for the Klinkenberg eﬀect: 1.3 The Klinkenberg Eﬀect The apparent decrease in measured gas permeability which occurs with increasing average ﬂowing pressure is known as the Klinkenberg eﬀect. p Extrapolate the linear plot to inﬁnite pressure i. For liquids and gases at very high pressure. ¯ Plot kgas vs 1/¯.
mcd] .5 md] Solution hint 1. p Extrapolate the linear plot to inﬁnite pressure i.348 1 1. (p1 + p2 ) 2 Calculate kgas for each test using Darcy’s law. Calculate the mean ﬂowing pressure.275 cm3 /sec Run Inlet Pressure Outlet Pressure Discharge Rate p1 (atm) p2 (atm) qa (cm3 /sec) 1 1. Plot kgas vs 1/¯.979 1.Laboratory determination of the liquid permeability of a core plug using gas [KLINK.mcd] A clean core plug was mounted in a gas permeameter to measure permeability. The core was discharged to atmospheric pressure.168 3 1. p. p Open [KLINK.e.979 atm = 0. The intercept p at 1/¯ = 0 is the equivalent liquid permeability.979 9. check the input data and read the answer.953 cm = 3 cm = 0. The test data is given below.1 . for each test.815 0. A series of tests was made with increasing inlet gas pressure. Calculate the permeability of the plug. 181 .979 0. ¯ p= ¯ 2.481 0.486 0.146 0.Problem 7. 4.169 4 3. to 1/¯ = 0. k= 2qa pa µ∆L A(p1 2 − p2 2 ) 3.737 [Answer: 27.979 2. The laboratory data is plug diameter plug length atmospheric pressure gas viscosity inlet pressure ﬂow rate as follows: = 1.0182 cp = 2 atm = 0.
182 .3. The pore space is made up of a total of n uniform capillaries of radius R and length L.1 In this section we examine the relationship between porosity and permeability using simple models to represent the porous medium. The matrix consists of a solid block having dimensions L × L × L. Although simple. qc .13: Simple capillary tube model for a porous medium 7. is described by the Poiseuille equation πR4 ∆P qc = 8µ L where µ is the viscosity of the ﬂuid and ∆P is the imposed pressure gradient. This model is illustrated in the attached diagram. The simplest possible model for a porous medium is to consider a bundle of equal sized capillary tubes.kA ∆P πR4 ∆P q = nq c = n = 8µ L µ L πR4 ∆P qc = 8µ L Figure 7.3 POROSITYPERMEABILITY TIONSHIPS Capillary Tube Model RELA 7. the bundle of capillaries is a good model for porous medium made up of packed particles such as a sandstones. Laminar (creeping) ﬂow in a single capillary.
Rearranging gives. Equating the two equations for. φ= L2 = n πR2 φ Substituting for L2 in the equation for k gives. q. is simply the sum of the ﬂows in each capillary. k= R2 φ 8 It has been experimentally veriﬁed that permeability is well correlated to the square of particle diameter for porous media consisting of spherical particles. q= kA ∆P µ L where A is the xsectional area of the porous medium perpendicular to the direction of ﬂow. k=n πR4 8L2 The porosity of the simple porous medium is. 183 . The unit of permeability is clearly length2 . q = nqc = n πR4 ∆P 8µ L According to Darcy’s law. q. the ﬂow q is given by. gives kA ∆P πR4 ∆P =n µ L 8µ L Eliminating the common parameters and rearranging to solve for permeability.The total steadystate ﬂow rate. φ= pore volume bulk volume πR2 L L3 πR2 φ= 2 L We use this equation to express L in terms of φ and R.
This is very important in reservoir characterization. 184 . as pore surf ace area ΣV g = grain volume ΣV g = ΣV p pore volume grain volume φ 1−φ 1−φ φ ΣV g = ΣV p or ΣV p = ΣV g Substituting into the equation for k. ΣV p . ΣV g . Porositypermeability transforms are important because they can be used to convert log measured porosities to permeabilities. gives k= 1 φ3 2ΣV g (1 − φ)2 This is similar to the empirical Kozeny relation for unconsolidated porous media and forms the basis for powerlaw correlations or transforms between porosity and permeability for actual reservoir rocks. k= φ 2Σ2 p V Deﬁning the speciﬁc surface area per unit grain volume of the porous medium.Deﬁning the speciﬁc surface area per unit pore volume of the porous medium. as pore surf ace area ΣV p = pore volume n2πRL ΣV p = nπR2 L 2 ΣV p = R or 2 R= ΣV p Substituting for R in the equation for k yields. Actual relationships follow a power law because in real porous media ΣV g depends on φ and k in a complex way.
2 Fractured medium model Consider a block of length L. v= h2 ∆P 12µ L The volumetric ﬂow rate through the fracture (q = vAf = vhW ) is.3. k= h2 h3 ³ ´ = 12H 12 H h hW L h = HW L H 185 We can deﬁne a fracture porosity as φf = .14: Simple model for a fractured porous medium 7. The average velocity for laminar (viscous) ﬂow in the fracture is given by. q= From Darcy’s law we have q= kA ∆P kHW ∆P = µ L µ L h3 W ∆P 12µ L Equating the two equations for q gives. height H and width W containing a fracture of height h as shown in the attached ﬁgure.∆P H q h W L q= kA ∆P kHW ∆P = µ L µ L k= 1 1 2h h = h 2φ f 12 H 12 h3 W ∆P q= 12µ L Figure 7.
P . it is diﬀerent in diﬀerent directions. 7. cb .e. cr = 1 dVr Vr d(σ − P ) where. pore and bulk volumes decrease with increasing stress. Vr is the grain or matrix volume. 2. The fractional change in grain volume per unit change in rock stress is called the rock or matrix compressibility. causes a strain or deformation of the rock. The fractional change in total or bulk volume per unit change in rock stress is called the bulk volume compressibility. cp . This stress is isotropic i. σ. σ−P . the same in all directions. cp = − 1 dVp Vp d(σ − P ) 186 .This gives k= 1 2 h φf 12 Actual fractured media conﬁrm that fracture permeability is a strong function of fracture height. The fractional change in pore volume per unit change in rock stress is called the pore volume or formation compressibility.e. The resultant stress. External stress — exerted by the pressure of the overburden. exerted by the ﬂuids in the pore space.4 ROCK COMPRESSIBILITY Reservoir rocks (porous rocks) are subject to two stresses: 1. The overall result is that grain. cr . This stress increases with burial depth and is anisotropic i. Internal stress — reservoir or pore pressure. cb = 1 dVr Vb d(σ − P ) Bulk volume compressibility may be important in determining levels of ground subsidence.
15: Relationships between porosity.Figure 7. permeability and rock microstructure 187 .
Figure 7.16: Measured porositypermeability relationships for diﬀerent rock types Figure 7.17: Measured porositypermeability relationships for diﬀerent limestones 188 .
1 Pore Volume Compressibility Experimental measurements for sandstones and shales. 7.18: Measured permeabilityspeciﬁc area relationships for diﬀerent sandstones The matrix. dVb ≈ dVp and since Vp = φVb .Figure 7. The above relationships are useful in interpreting laboratory measurements.4. we have that cp = with cp = cf = − cb φ 1 dVp Vp dP where cf is the formation compressibility and is commonly used interchangeably with pore volume compressibility. This means that. show that cr << cb . For reservoir engineering calculations the primary interest is in the change in pore volume as reservoir or pore volume pressure changes. in which the external rock stress (σ) is constant. 189 . bulk and pore volume compressibilities are measured in special laboratory experiments which will be described in the next section.
190 .4. A small bore capillary tube is used to measure the changes in pore volume by measuring the volume of ﬂuid expelled from the pore space. 7. Geersma (1966) showed that for these conditions.19: Hydrostatic load cell for measuring pore volume compressibility For actual reservoir conditions only the vertical component of external stress is constant with the stress components in the horizontal plane characterized by boundary conditions that there is no bulk deformation in these directions. The apparatus allows both the internal or ﬂuid pressure in the core and the external or overburden pressure to be varied independently.Figure 7. 1 cf ≈ cp 2 this shows that the eﬀective pore volume compressibility for reservoir rocks is only onehalf of the value measured in laboratory tests.2 Measurement of Formation Compressibility The apparatus shown schematically in the attached ﬁgure is used to measure rock compressibility (pore volume compressibility).
191 . The volume of liquid squeezed out into the capillary tube is directly related to the change in bulk volume of the sample. The internal pressure is reduced in steps and the liquid produced at each pressure is noted.Figure 7. Pore volume compressibility — The external pressure is maintained constant. Typical results for various reservoir rock types are shown in attached ﬁgure. The diﬀerence between the measured and calculated liquid volumes is the change in pore space volume. 2.20: Porosity and permeability as a function of stress Two types of measurements may be made: 1. The volume of liquid which would have been produced had the pore space volume remained constant is readily calculated from a knowledge of the liquid compressibility. Rock compaction — the external pressure on the sample sheath is increased with the internal pressure held at atmospheric.
Sw So Sg = 0.7.3 Use of Rock Compressibilities When oil. So = Sg = 0 and Sw = 1. water and gas phase compressibilities oil.2 = 0. ct cf co . (φ). cg So . in a unit bulk volume. cw . we have. water and gas all occupy the pore space. the volume of liquid which is expelled from the rock per unit drop in pressure may be written as. Sw . ct = So co + Sw cw + Sg cg + cf where. Estimates of total compressibility are important in well pressure test analysis.1 ct = So co + Sw cw + Sg cg + cf ct = 64 × 10−6 psi−1 = = = = 3 × 10−6 psi−1 3 × 10−6 psi−1 15 × 10−6 psi−1 500 × 10−6 psi−1 @ 2000 psia 192 .4. ct = cw + cf Typical Values Typical values of the individual compressibilities at reservoir conditions are: cf cw co cg for. Sg = = = = total compressibility formation or pore space compressibility oil. When there is no oil or free gas present (aquifer zone). water and gas phase saturations The total compressibility is used to evaluate the diﬀusivity factor for unsteadystate ﬂow calculations.7 = 0.
Figure 7.21: Porosity variation with depth in a sedimentary basin Figure 7.22: Anisotropic stress and directional permeability 193 .
A common exception is ﬂow close to a wellbore where. a French engineer. k. Darcy (1856). is an intrinsic property of the porous medium. crosssectional area open to ﬂow. distance between inlet and outlet. 194 . velocities may be high enough for turbulent or nonlinear ﬂow. q k ∆p =− A µ ∆L where.1 DARCY’S LAW All the equations used to describe the ﬂow of ﬂuids in reservoirs are based on Darcy’s law. permeability. outlet pressure . q A k µ ∆p ∆L = = = = = = ﬂow rate.inlet pressure. as a result of the converging nature of the ﬂow. investigated the ﬂow of water through sand ﬁlters for water puriﬁcation. The linear dependence of ﬂow rate on the pressure gradient implies laminar or viscous ﬂow in the porespaces of the porous medium. This is generally true for most reservoir conditions where actual ﬂow velocities are low.Chapter 8 FLUID FLOW 8. ﬂuid viscosity. cc/sec cm2 darcy cp atmospheres cm The permeability. He observed the following relationship between superﬁcial velocity and the properties of the sand bed and ﬂuid. In the above equation the porous medium is saturated with a single ﬂuid.
In reservoir analysis we are often interested in vertical or inclined ﬂow where the ﬂow occurs in the presence of a hydrostatic gradient. q k dp =− A µ dx where dp/dx is the pressure gradient in the direction of ﬂow The negative sign in the above equations indicates that pressure decreases in the direction of ﬂow. The sign convention is therefore that distance is measured positive in the direction of ﬂow.1: Darcy’s law and linear ﬂow The above equation is general and may be written in diﬀerential form as. 195 .1 Pressure Potential The above form of Darcy’s law applies to horizontal ﬂow where there are no gravity eﬀects. Φ= Z p pr dp − gdz ρ where z is the vertical coordinate measured positive downward and g is the gravitational acceleration. pr is an arbitrary reference pressure.1. In such cases it is convenient to deﬁne a pressure potential as.Figure 8. usually taken as pr = 0. 8. This is the basic equation used to analyze single phase ﬂow in reservoir engineering.
q k =− A µ Ã dp − ρg sin α dx 196 ! .Figure 8. potential has the units of pressure. Darcy’s law may be written as. z = x sin α and the pressure potential is.2: Pressure potential and inclined linear ﬂow For a reservoir dipping upward in the direction of ﬂow with dip angle α. q k dΨ =− A µ dx or. Φ= Z p pr dp − gdx sin α ρ If the reservoir ﬂuid is considered to be incompressible the potential may be written as p Φ = − gx sin α ρ An alternate deﬁnition of ﬂuid potential is Ψ = ρΦ = p − ρgz With this deﬁnition.
197 . and is saturated with an incompressible (ρ is constant) ﬂuid having constant viscosity. If you are not using Mathcad be careful with units.1 .3.1 STEADYSTATE FLOW Horizontal Linear Flow of an Incompressible Fluid The linear ﬂow system is depicted in the attached ﬁgure.2 8. The medium has uniform permeability.Fluid potential and Darcy’s law In order to test your understanding of Darcy’s law and ﬂuid potential solve the problem shown in Figure 8.2.Figure 8. q=− kA ∆p µ L This equation is commonly used to evaluate ﬂow tests in reservoir core samples and calculate rates in line drives. 8. Darcy’s law is written as.3: Linear vertical ﬂow problem Problem 8. µ. k.
198 . ki . P1 . the pressure drop across each layer is the same and the ﬂow rate for each layer is. hi .4: Linear ﬂow in parallel Horizontal ﬂow in parallel Consider the case where the ﬂow system consists of a n layers having diﬀerent thicknesses. Equating the two expressions for q gives. q=− ¯ k(hw) (P2 − P1 ) µ L ¯ where k is the average system permeability and h is the total thickness. For a common inlet face pressure. i=1 ki hi ¯ k = Pn i=1 hi Pn This equation is used to determine the average horizontal permeability of a layered system. and permeabilities.Figure 8. P2 . and outlet face pressure. qi = − The total ﬂow rate is q= or q=− ki (hi w) (P2 − P1 ) µ L n X i=1 qi n w(P2 − P1 ) X ki hi µL i=1 Darcy’s law for the total ﬂow may also be written as.
q = qi where.Figure 8. q=− ki (hw) ∆Pi µ Li 199 .1 . Layer Thickness Horizontal Permeability (ft) (md) 1 20 100 2 15 200 3 10 300 4 5 400 [Answer: 200 md] Horizontal ﬂow in series Consider the arrangement where the diﬀerent permeabilities are arranged in series.mcd] Determine the average permeability of four parallel beds having the following thicknesses and permeabilities.Average permeability for beds in parallel [PARK. For this arrangement the ﬂow through each layer is the same.5: Linear ﬂow in series Example 8.
∆Pi = qµ Li hw ki and the total pressure drop is the sum of the pressure drops in each layer.mcd] Determine the average permeability of four beds in series having the following lengths and permeabilities. Layer Length Permeability (ft) (md) 1 250 25 2 250 50 3 500 100 4 1000 200 [Answer: 80 md] 200 . Example 8. is the total length for ﬂow.where ∆Pi is the pressure drop across slab i. Li ¯ k = Pn i=1 i=1 Li /ki This equation is used to calculate the eﬀective vertical permeability for a layered reservoir system. L = P qµ L ¯ hw k Li . (P1 − P2 ) = n X i=1 ∆Pi = n qµ X Li hw i=1 ki Darcy’s law for the series arrangement may be written as.Average permeability for beds in series [SERK.2 . This may be rewritten as. (P1 − P2 ) = where. Pn Equating the above equations gives.
rw re h = wellbore radius = well drainage radius = formation thickness Flow enters the system across the outer perimeter at radius re .2 Radial Flow of an Incompressible Fluid The radial ﬂow system is depicted in the attached ﬁgure. Substituting into Darcy’s law gives. is constant and the ﬂow area. and leaves at the wellbore of radius rw .6: Radial ﬂow model 8. is 2πrh. The volumetric ﬂow rate. q k dp = 2πrh µ dr Note that for radial ﬂow pressure decreases with decreasing r.Figure 8. This is the basic model for ﬂow into a well and is used in reservoir engineering to evaluate well performance.2. The following nomenclature employed. A. 201 . q.
q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µ ln rw This equation is widely used in reservoir engineering to calculate production and injection rates for individual wells. q = 0. feet kh(pe − pw ) re µ ln rw 202 . feet ﬂuid viscosity. md average reservoir thickness. cp pressure at external radius. feet wellbore radius. RB/D permeability of well drainage area. q k h µ pe pw re rw = = = = = = = = well rate. psi wellbore pressure .00708 where.Separating variables and integrating gives: q Z re rw dr 2πkh Z pe = dp r µ pw 2πkh(pe − pw ) µ q(ln rw − ln re ) = Solving for q. psi external drainage radius. The equation may be written in ﬁeld units as.
The following data apply: k h µ rw re [Answer: 1114 RB/day] Solution hint Study [RADSSF. md feet cp feet feet 203 . Since we have only studied steadystate ﬂow to this point.Steadystate radial ﬂow [RADSSF. = = = = = 230 10 3.5 0.7: Pressure distribution in steadystate radial ﬂow Example 8.mcd] Calculate the maximum possible pumping rate for an oil well in a reservoir where the pressure is being maintained at 2000 psia at the drainage radius.mcd] carefully .you will be using it a lot.3 . take the answer for this equation and ignore the other equations and results. 2000. It solves a great variety of radial ﬂow problems and does many vertical well performance calculations.Figure 8.5. The theoretical minimum ﬂowing bottom hole pressure for a pumped well is one atmosphere.
8: Radial ﬂow in series Radial ﬂow in parallel This arrangement results in the same expression for eﬀective or average permeability as that for linear ﬂow. M X log(ri )/(ri−1 ) 1 1 = ¯ log(re /rw ) i=1 ki k 204 . Radial ﬂow in series Using the same reasoning as for linear ﬂow in series yields the result.Figure 8.
9: Radial ﬂow in parallel 205 .Figure 8.
This creates a lower permeability zone or a damaged zone close to the wellbore. As a result of overpressure some of the drilling mud ﬂows into the formation and the particles suspended in the mud partially plug the pore spaces through which ﬂuid ﬂows. Radial Layer Radius (ft) r1 250 r2 250 500 r3 r4 1000 [Answer: 30.4 .4 md] Permeability (md) 25 50 100 200 8.Example 8. where ra is the radius of the damaged zone.3 Wellbore Damage Wells are always drilled with overpressure (mud pressure greater than formation pressure) to prevent inﬂow of reservoir ﬂuids which could lighten the mud column and lead to a blowout. Wellbore damage is depicted in the attached ﬁgure. The damaged zone results in an additional pressure ∆pskin at the wellbore.Average permeability for radial beds in series [RADSERK.mcd] Determine the average permeability of four radial layers in series having the following radial distances to bed boundaries and bed permeabilities. This pressure drop simply adds to that for the case of no damage. The wellbore radius is 0.2. For steadystate radial ﬂow.5 ft and the well drainage radius is 2000 ft. the pressure drop for an undamaged well is given by. q= or pe − pw = 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µ ln rw qµ re ln 2πkh rw 206 µ ¶ .
In practice. negative (a stimulated well) or zero (undamaged well). then the total pressure drop for a damaged well may be written as. s is determined from the interpretation of transient pressure well tests (pressure buildups and drawdown).Figure 8. is the reservoir or sandface rate. for a damaged well we have a modiﬁed radial ﬂow equation. ∆pskin = pe − pw = or q= qµ re ln +s 2πkh rw µ ¶ µ ¶ 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µ ln rw + s where s is the skinfactor for the well. qµ (s) 2πkh Than. qµ re pe − pw = ln + ∆pskin 2πkh rw If we write. q. In the above equations the rate. the skinfactor may be positive (a damaged well). In general.10: Radial ﬂow model with an altered or damaged zone If the additional pressure drop due to the damaged zone is ∆pskin . In application of the radial ﬂow equation to wells we usually specify the rate at surface 207 .
When this is done we write the radial ﬂow equation as. q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µB ln rw + s where B is the formation volume factor which relates surface rates to reservoir rates. It is understood that when an equation contains B the rate. the rate is understood to be in reservoir volumes. is in surface volumes.conditions. In the absence of B. 208 . q.
Figure 8.11: Skin pressure drop 209 .
210 . ln(re /rw ).4 Relationship between s and the size of the altered zone The skin factor for a stimulated well .where the skin factor is negative.Steadystate radial ﬂow with skin [RADSSF. This problem is removed by the introduction of the thick skin model. md feet cp feet feet (ii) What would the well rate be if the wellbore is cleaned with an acid. [Answer: (i) 604 RB/day.5 0. (ii) 1114 RB/day. the equation produces answers which are physically impossible. The following data apply: k h µ rw re = = = = = 230 10 3.Example 8. q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ µB ln re + s rw If −s is equal to. A successful acid job may be expected to reduce the skin factor to approximately zero. (iii) What would the rate be for a stimulated well after a frac job which is expected to achieve a skin factor of 3. has an upper limit on the magnitude of the actual value which the skin factor can take. A well test has shown the well to be highly damaged with a skin factor of +7. This may be demonstrated by considering the steadystate radial ﬂow equation.5 .mcd] (i) Calculate the maximum possible pumping rate for an oil well in a reservoir where the pressure is being maintained at 2000 psia at the drainage radius. or greater than.5. (iii) 1745 RB/day] 8.2. 2000.
qBµ re pe − pa = ln 2πkh ra where re is the drainage radius and pe is the pressure at re .Figure 8.12: Realatinship between skinfactor and the size of the altered zone If the altered zone extends from rw to ra and the altered permeability is ka . and if the bulk formation permeability (from ra to re ) is k. µ ¶ qBµ ra ln pa − pw = 2πkh rw where ra is the radius of the altered zone and pa is the pressure at ra . Also. Adding the two equations gives the pressure across the formation (pe − pw ) pe − pw = qBµ 1 re 1 ra ln + ln 2πh k ra ka rw ½ µ ¶ µ ¶¾ µ ¶ The thin skin model expresses the above pressure drop as. pe − pw = qBµ re ln +s 2πkh rw 211 ½ µ ¶ ¾ . we can use the steadystate radial ﬂow equation to calculate the pressure drops across the altered zone and the formation.
qBµ 1 1 re pe − pw = ln + s 2πh k rw k Equating the two expressions for (pe − pw ) gives. ½ µ ¶ µ ¶¾ # ½ µ ½ µ ¶ ¾ ¾ 1 re 1 ra + ln ln k ra ka rw " = 1 re 1 + s ln k rw k ¶ ¶ This may be simpliﬁed to give. This may be rewritten as.2. ka . re ln 0 rw which can be written as = ln ! µ re +s rw ¶ r0 ln w rw = −s 212 . Ã ! Ã 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ Bµ ln r0e rw Equating both expressions for q gives. ra . we have for a well with skin. q= where 0 rw is the eﬀective wellbore radius. The skin factor for a stimulated well depends both on the permeability of the altered zone. k/ka → 0 and the equation gives ra s = − ln rw µ ¶ µ which is the upper physical limit on the value of s for a stimulated well. k ra s= − 1 ln ka rw If ka → ∞. 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ q= Bµ ln re + s rw We can also write this as. Again. 8. using the steadystate radial ﬂow equation. and the size of the altered zone.5 Eﬀective Wellbore Radius Another common way of expressing the skin factor is in terms of an eﬀective wellbore radius.where k is the permeability of the bulk formation and s is the skin factor.
The eﬀective wellbore radius for a long horizontal well in a thin reservoir approaches that of a fractured well with a fracture halflength equal to onequarter the length of the horizontal well. 0 rw = xf where xf is the fracture halflength.This may be simpliﬁed to. For example. the eﬀective wellbore radius for a vertical well with an inﬁnite conductivity fracture is. 213 .6 Flow Eﬃciency Once a numerical value for the skin factor has been determined it can be used to determine the well ﬂow eﬃciency F E. the well has 100% eﬃciency. 0 rw = rw e−s The eﬀective wellbore radius concept is often used to characterize fractured and horizontal wells.2. 0 rw = L 4 where L is the length of the horizontal well. This is deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure drop at the damaged wellbore to that for an undamaged well. 8. FE = pi − pwf − ∆ps qactual = pi − pwf qundamaged When ∆ps = 0.
what would the above parameters be for the stimulated well? [Answer: 94 psi. [Answer: 255 md.] 214 .72] 3. re = 2000 ft. [Answer: 0. [Answer: 0. The eﬀective wellbore radius. 1. 10 ft. rw = 0. µ = 0. The following information and ﬂuid properties apply: k = 30 md h = 40 ft. The last ﬂowing pressure was pwf =2650 psi.025 ft.] If the fracture is estimated to aﬀect a zone extending 15 ft. [Answer: 42 psi] 2. 1.5 ft.4 cp B = 1. The pressure drop due to skineﬀect.Skinfactor [SKIN.12 RB/STB. pi = 2800 psi Calculate. into the formation estimate the permeability of the aﬀected zone.63.mcd] A pressure test conducted on a production well indicated a skinfactor of s = +3.Problem 8. If fracturing results in a skinfactor of s = −3. The ﬂow eﬃciency for the well.2 .] The well is a candidate for stimulation by fracturing.
215 . Pressure is a function of both space and time i.. p = p(r.Figure 8.3 UNSTEADY STATE FLOW The basic equation which describes single phase unsteadystate ﬂow in a radial system is the radial diﬀusivity equation. The dependent variable is pressure (p). ρ) are functions of pressure. The partial diﬀerential equation is nonlinear because the coeﬃcients (particularly the density. 1 ∂ r ∂r Ã kρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φcρ ∂p ∂t where c is the total system compressibility.e. The independent variables are time (t) and spatial position (r). t). t is time and ρ is the ﬂuid density.13: Transient radial ﬂow 8.
Ã ∂ρ ∂t ∂(ρ) ∂t qρ r+dr − qρ r dr ! = 2πrhφ 216 .1 Radial Diﬀusivity Equation The radial system is similar to that described for steadystate ﬂow. mass rate in −mass rate out = rate of accumulation of mass ∂ qρ r+dr −qρ r = (2πrhφρdr) ∂t This may be expressed as. qρ r+dr − qρ r = 2πrhφdr The above may be simpliﬁed. .14: Pressure distribution in transient radial ﬂow 8. Consider the ﬂow through a volume element of thickness dr. it is completed over the entire vertical section so that the ﬂow is strictly radial.Figure 8.the reservoir is homogeneous and isotropic (k is constant).3.. We make the following assumptions: .the well is fully penetrating ie.
217 . Darcy’s law for a radial system may be written as.15: Diﬀerential material balance for the radial diﬀusivity equation ∂(qρ) ∂ρ = 2πrhφ ∂r ∂t this is called the continuity equation. q= 2πkhr ∂p µ ∂r Substituting into the continuity equation gives.Figure 8. ∂ ∂r or Ã 2πkhr ∂p ρ µ ∂r Ã ! = 2πrhφ ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ ∂t 1 ∂ r ∂r kρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! =φ This is the general form of the radial diﬀusivity equation.
The term ∂ρ/∂t may be expressed in terms of pressure by introducing an equationofstate for the ﬂuid. 218 . gives cρ ∂ρ ∂p = ∂t ∂t 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p Substituting into the previous equation gives 1 ∂ r ∂r Ã kρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φcρ ∂p ∂t This is the general form of the radial diﬀusivity equation for the ﬂow of a single phase in a porous medium. cρ∂p = ∂pρ dividing both sides of the equation by ∂t. and mass m is constant. c= This may be written as. which is one of the coeﬃcients is a function of pressure p. The equation is nonlinear because density. Deﬁning the isothermal compressibility of the ﬂuid as c=− 1 ∂V V ∂p Since ρ = m/V . ρ.
3. c= or. in terms of ﬂuid density. 1 r Ã Ã ∂(ρr) ∂p ∂ 2p + ρr 2 ∂r ∂r ∂r ! = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t ! 1 ∂(ρ) ∂p ∂(r) ∂p ∂2p r +ρ + ρr 2 r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r 1 ∂ρ ∂p ∂p ∂2p r + ρ + ρr 2 r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r Ã ! = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t An alternate deﬁnition for compressibility. the diﬀusivity equation becomes 1 ∂ ∂p ρr r ∂r ∂r Ã ! = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t Using the chain rule for diﬀerentiation. gives 1 ∂p rc r ∂r This is simpliﬁed to ∂p c ∂r Ã !2 Ã !2 Ã ! 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t ∂p ∂2p φcµ ∂p + + r 2 = ∂r ∂r k ∂t + 1 ∂p ∂ 2 p φµc ∂p + 2 = r ∂r ∂r k ∂t 219 . φ.2 Liquids Having Small and Constant Compressibility Reservoir oil and water are relatively incompressible and the assumption of constant and small compressibility is a good model for these ﬂuids. dividing throughout by ρ.8. µ and c are constant. we expand the LHS of the equation. ∂ρ = cρ∂p Substituting in the diﬀerential equation 1 ∂p ∂p ∂p ∂2p rcρ + ρ + ρr 2 r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r Finally. Since we have assumed that k.
∂p/∂r is small and since c << 1. It forms the basis for many important reservoir analysis techniques which include transient pressure well test analysis and aquifer modeling. Total system compressibility In actual applications of the above equation to single phase oil ﬂow where the formation contains connate water and the formation is itself compressible. cw and cf are the oil. c.20 3000 psi 220 . Typical values may be co cw cf Sw p This results in c = 14. respectively. the compressibility. is the total compressibility of the system. Ã ! 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r = 1 ∂p η ∂t where η = k/φµc is the hydraulic diﬀusivity. This is determined using the following equation c = co So + cw Sw + cf where co . The equation is also written as. So and Sw are the oil and water saturations. water and pore volume or formation compressibilities.6 × 10−6 psi−1 = = = = = 10 × 10−6 psi−1 3 × 10−6 psi−1 6 × 10−6 psi−1 0. the leading term on the LHS of the above equation may be neglected and the diﬀusivity equation becomes φcµ ∂p 1 ∂p ∂ 2 p + 2 = r ∂r ∂r k ∂t which may be written as Ã ! 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r = φµc ∂p k ∂t This is the ﬁnal form of the diﬀusivity equation for a slightly compressible ﬂuid. The equation is linear and therefore amenable to analytical solution.
For a reservoir producing at a constant production rate. but the average drainage area pressure declines with production. ∂p = constant ∂t The value for the constant is obtained from the material balance equation written above. Diﬀerentiating this equation we obtain. (i) no ﬂow across the external boundary. cVp (pi − p) = qt ¯ where pi is the initial pressure and. t is time. Vp = πre hφ. The pseudosteady state solution is important because it describes the situation of a reservoir producing by natural pressure depletion where the production for the well originates from within the well’s own drainage area. No ﬂow occurs across the drainage radius. The boundary conditions are. Pseudosteadystate ﬂow is a special form of stabilized unsteadystate ﬂow in which the shape of the pressure proﬁle from the wellbore to the drainage radius is independent of time. can be calculated from a simple material balance ¯ (total compressibility of the poreﬂuid system).3 PseudoSteadyState Radial Flow The simplest solution to the radial diﬀusivity equation (other than the steadystate solution) is for pseudosteadystate ﬂow. c is the compressibility and Vp is the pore volume. r ∂p = 0 at r = re ∂r (ii) pseudosteadystate ﬂow condition. by natural pressure depletion. the average pressure. p.8. cVp (−d¯) = qdt p or d¯ dp p q = =− dt dt cVp 2 For the radial model.3. thus ∂p q =− 2 ∂t cπre hφ 221 . q.
and simplifying gives ∂p qµ = ∂r 2πkh Separating variables. C1 . ∂p qµr2 r =− + C1 2 ∂r 2πre kh The constant of integration.. is easily evaluated from the ﬁrst BC i. gives 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r which simpliﬁes to Ã Ã ! Ã ! = φµc ∂p k ∂t =− ! φµc q 2 k cπre hφ qµ 2 πre kh 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r This equation may be written as ∂p ∂ r ∂r Ã ! =− =− qµ r∂r 2 πre kh Integrating the above equation gives.e. Z pr pw Ã 1 r − 2 r re ! ! Ã 1 r − 2 ∂r r re Ã qµ Z r ∂p = 2πkh rw " 1 r − 2 ∂r r re #r ! [p]pr pw or qµ r2 = ln r − 2 2πkh 2re Ã rw qµ r r2 r2 pr − pw = ln − 2 + w2 2πkh rw 2re 2re 222 ! .The radial diﬀusivity equation is 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r substituting for ∂p/∂t. r∂p/∂r = 0 at r = re qµ C1 = 2πkh Substituting for C1 . qµ ∂p = 2πkh Integrating.
8.2 2 The term rw /re is clearly negligible and the equation is written as. cannot. The particular case of practical interest is when r = re qµ re 1 pe − pw = ln − 2πkh rw 2 or q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) µB ln(re /rw ) − µ ¶ 1 2 With the inclusion of the skinfactor the equation is q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) µB ln(re /rw ) − 1 + s 2 This equation is useful for determining well production rates. Well tests provide a measure of the average drainage area pressure and it is therefore more convenient to express the pressure drawdown in terms of the average reservoir. pe . The rates predicted by the steadystate and the pseudo steadystate equations are usually very similar (within 10%).3. 2πkh (pe − pw ) q= µB ln(re /rw ) + s The term ln(re /rw ) has a value typically between 6 and 7.4 Flow Equations in terms of Average Reservoir Pressure A problem with using the above radial ﬂow equations is that although pw and q can be measured directly. p. ¯ The average reservoir pressure is given by r p = R we ¯ r R re pdVp rw dVp 223 . It is interesting to compare this equation to the previously derived steadystate equation. the pressure at the outer drainage radius. qµ r r2 pr − pw = ln − 2 2πkh rw 2re Ã ! The above equation is a general expression for pressure as a function of radius.
Ã ! 2 Z re 2 Z re qµ r r2 p= 2 ¯ pw rdr + 2 ln − 2 rdr re rw re rw 2πkh rw 2re Ã ! Ã ! 2 2 2 re rw − p = 2 pw ¯ re 2 2 2 2 Again. or qµ r r2 p = pw + ln − 2 2πkh rw 2re Ã ! Therefore. so r p = R we ¯ r R re p2πrhφdr rw 2πrhφdr R re or 2 2 2 Since re − rw ≈ re Z re 2 p= 2 ¯ prdr 2 re − rw rw r p = R we ¯ r prdr rw rdr 2 Z re p= 2 ¯ prdr re rw qµ r r2 ln − 2 pr − pw = 2πkh rw 2re Ã ! For pseudosteadystate ﬂow. rw << re . so 2 qµ Z re r r2 + 2 r ln − 2 dr re 2πkh rw rw 2re Ã ! 2 qµ Z re r r2 p = pw + 2 ¯ r ln − 2 dr re 2πkh rw rw 2re The ﬁrst term in the integrand must be evaluated by parts. dVp = 2πrhφdr.Now. Z re rw r r r2 r ln dr = ln rw 2 rw " µ ¶ " #re rw − Z re rw 1 r2 dr r 2 Z re rw r r r2 r ln dr = ln rw 2 rw µ ¶ #re rw r2 − 4 " #re rw 224 .
8. Z re rw r3 r4 dr = 2 2 2re 8re Ã = rw 2 re 8 The equation for average pressure becomes.3. q= 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p µB ln(re /rw ) − 3 + s 4 may be generalized for wells located anywhere in an arbitrary drainage area q= 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p q µB ln( 2. Z re rw r r2 re r2 r ln dr = e ln − e rw 2 rw 4 " #re µ ¶ Integration of the second term gives. neglecting small terms. 2 re r2 r2 re − e − e ln 2 rw 4 8 ! qµ re 1 1 p = pw + ¯ ln − − 2πkh rw 2 4 µ ¶ qµ re 3 p − pw = ¯ ln − 2πkh rw 4 µ ¶ Which is the required inﬂow equation.2458A/(CA r2 ) + s w 225 . 2 qµ p = pw + 2 ¯ re 2πkh Simplifying.Again. In the presence of formation damage or stimulation (positive or negative skin) the equation becomes qµ re 3 p − pw = ¯ ln − +s 2πkh rw 4 or q= 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p µB ln(re /rw ) − 3 + s 4 µ ¶ The equation is similar to the previously derived equations of pseudosteadystate and steadystate ﬂow and predicts similar well rates.5 Dietz Shape Factors for Vertical Wells The pseudo steadystate equation for a well centered in a circular drainage area.
the drainage area.at the center of a rectangular (5:1). sCA = ln( 2. [Answer: 652 STB/day] (ii) .5 1230 0 1.75 q Problem 8.75 + sCA + s where sCA is a shape related skinfactor and is given by.1 md feet cp feet psia RB/STB What would the rate be using the steadystate solution? [Answer: 721 STB/day] What would the rate be if the well was located.2458π/CA ) + 0.Pseudosteadystate radial ﬂow and drainage area shape factors [RADSSF.2 0.3 . A. If re is the eﬀective drainage radius.at the center of a square drainage area.2458π/CA ) + 0.? (i) . drainage area [Answer: 562 STB/day] (iii) .75 + s This equation may be written as 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p q= µB ln(re /rw ) − 0. Values for the shape factor are given in various handbooks and texts. [Answer: 480 STB/day] 226 . may be expressed as A = πre 2 the pseudo steadystate solution may be written as 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p h q i q= µB ln(re /rw ) − 0.mcd] Calculate the production rate of an oil well in a 160 acre drainage area when the average pressure is 1850 psia.75 + ln( 2. The following data apply: k h µ rw pw s Bo = = = = = = = 180 16 2.at the apex of a triangular drainage area.where CA is the Dietz shape factor which depends on the geometry of the drainage area.
111 2.39 21.1 4.9 2.1 60o 3.Shape of drainage area CA CA 1 2 31.6 10.6 0.098 12.38 1 0.86 30.6 1 4 2.9 In water drive reservoirs 19.13 22.57 In reservoirs of unknown production character 25 Figure 8.607 5.36 2 0.07 31.8 4.6 0.115 27.9 1/3 1 2 1 2 1 4 1 5 1 3.16: Dietz shape factors for vertical wells 227 .232 0.72 27.
3. the well rate is given by.17: Approximating complex geometries 8. 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ q=f µB ln re rw where.6 Approximating Complex Geometries In cases where the ﬂow geometry is more complex than those considered by the Dietz shape factors.Figure 8. f= θ 360o The above equation is based on the fact that every streamline in a radial ﬂow system can represent a noﬂow boundary. 228 . An example of this is shown in the attached ﬁgure for a well completed close to the intersection of two linear sealing faults. it is usually possible to approximate the system using simple idealizations. If the angle between the faults is θ and the ﬂow is assumed to be steadystate.
1 WELL PRODUCTIVITY Productivity Index The productivity index.4 8.8.stimulate or fracture to reduce skin. .4. ∆p. of a well is deﬁned as the production rate. The productivity index for a well is not constant and may vary considerably over the life of the well. ¯ 2πkh(P − Pw ) q= re µB(ln( rw ) − 3 + s) 4 So. s will also change with time. . J= q ∆p The productivity index is a simple measure of the productivity of a production well. J= q 2πkkro h = re (∆p) µBo (ln( rw ) − 3 + s) 4 The above equation may be grouped into those parameters which remain constant with time and those which change with time. Moreover. Increasing Well PI The above equation shows the options available to increase well productivity are: . in psi.increase reservoir pressure to increase kro and reduce µo 229 . J= Ã 2πkh re (ln( rw ) − 3 + s) 4 !Ã kro µBo ! The terms kro /µBo vary with time because reservoir pressure ( which aﬀect µ and Bo ) and saturation ( which aﬀects kro ) change with time. J. h. To see why this is so.increase length of completion interval. if the well is stimulated or if it gradually cleansup with production. q. S. in STB/D divided by the pressure drawdown. consider the pseudosteadystate radial ﬂow equation.
This results in an additional pressure drop close to the wellbore which can be treated as a pseudoskin due to partial penetration. Many oil and gas wells are completed over only part of the producing sand interval.4.18: Partial penetration 8. These wells are referred to as partially penetrating wells. the ﬂow in the vicinity of a partially penetrating well must deviate from pure radial ﬂow as streamlines converge towards the well.2 Partial Penetration The well models discussed above considered a well completed over the entire section of the reservoir. When comparing a partially penetrating well to a fully penetrating well.Figure 8. 230 .
sp = where. this ratio is approximately hp /h.5 # hpD = h hD = rw A= B= hp h s kh kv h h1 + 0. For this correlation the pseudoskin factor. As a rule of thumb. Ã 1 πhD − 1 ln hpD 2 ! Ã ! 1 hpD + ln hpD 2 + hpD " µ A−1 B−1 ¶0.75hp Initially a partially penetrating well behaves as if it is producing from a formation of thickness hp . The correlation by Papatzacos (1988) is typical. If the productivity index (J = q/∆p) for a fully penetrating well is. Jpp = 2πkh h 1 µB ln re /rw − 0. sp . J= 2πkh h 1 µB ln re /rw − 0. All are based on potential ﬂow solutions or numerical simulations for the twodimensional cylindrical diﬀusivity equation in twodimensions.75 and that for a partially penetrating well is. sp .75 + sp than the ratio J/Jpp is readily calculated. After some time a transition occurs to ﬂow from the entire formation and the establishment of the pseudoskin factor. is given by (see attached ﬁgure for deﬁnition of variables).25hp h h1 + 0.A number of correlations have been published which account for the eﬀect of partial penetration on well performance. 231 .
4 STB/daypsi. 0. µ= 1 cp B = 1.5 STB/daypsi. (vi) over the middle 50 ft of pay. 0. (v) over the top 5 ft of pay. Other reservoir properties are. (i) over the entire 100 ft of pay. (iv) over the top 25 ft of pay.4 .8.5 ft.4 STB/daypsi. (iii) 4. (iv) 2. 1. 0.8 STB/daypsi.32.69 STB/daypsi. Calculate the productivity index for the well and the ratio of productivities for the well and for a fully penetrating well.57.Problem 8. (iii) over the top 50 ft of pay.57] 232 .mcd] A ﬁeld is developed on a 40 acre spacing.0 (ii) 6.2 STB/daypsi.25 RB/STB [Answer: (i) 7. 0. 100 md kh = kv = 5 md rw = 0. 0. (ii) over the top 75 ft of pay. The formation thickness is 100 ft. (vi)4.09. (v) 0.Partially penetrating well [PARPEN.
T is the temperature (assumed to be constant). is constant.8. The result is. we have previously written the radial diﬀusivity equation as. v is the volume of the gas. n is the number of moles of gas and R is the universal gas law constant. k. 233 . pv = znRT where z is the compressibility factor. ∂ ∂ρ (ρq) = 2πrhφ ∂r ∂t We then substituted Darcy’s law for the volumetric ﬂow rate. q= to eliminate q. Equation of state for a compressible ﬂuid The pressurevolumetemperature (PVT) behavior of a gas is given by the real gas law. 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r Ã ! = φµc ∂p k ∂t Gases are highly compressible and we cannot expect that the above diﬀusivity equation will apply for gases. 1 ∂ r ∂r ρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φ ∂ρ k ∂t This is the basic material balance for a radial volume element of the reservoir and it applies to all ﬂows. q. For the case of a slightly compressible ﬂuid with constant viscosity. k ∂p 1 ∂ ρ r r ∂r µ ∂r Ã Ã ! 2πkhr ∂p µ ∂r =φ ∂ρ ∂t Assuming that permeability.5 GAS FLOW In treating the ﬂow of a slightly compressible ﬂuid we began by writing the continuity equation for a radial element. we write.
n= c= which gives c= z ∂(p/z) p ∂p ) ) Since 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p In performing the integration we note that z = z(p).. m M p ρ= = v RT z We may use this expression together with the deﬁnition of compressibility to write an expression for the compressibility of a real gas. c= 1 1 ∂z − p z ∂p ( ( ∂ (pz −1 ) ∂p 1 p ∂z − 2 z z ∂p i.m M where m is the mass of the gas and M is the gas molecular weight. 1 ∂ r ∂r Ã ρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φ ∂ρ k ∂t For a gas. z c= p z c= p Finally. A further complication for gases is that viscosity is also a function of pressure (µ = µ(p)) Diﬀusivity equation for a compressible ﬂuid As previously. the compressibility of a gas is a highly nonlinear function of pressure.e. we begin our analysis for a gas by writing the continuity equation. Since ρ= M p RT z 234 . µ = µ(p) and we cannot assume a constant viscosity. the real gas law may be written as.
Ã ! 1 ∂ p ∂ψ dp φcp ∂ψ dp r = r ∂r µz ∂r dψ kz ∂t dψ Now.we have 1 ∂ r ∂r Ã M p 1 ∂p r RT z µ ∂r ! φ ∂p = k ∂t Ã ∂ρ ∂p ! Now. 1 ∂ r ∂r p ∂p r µz ∂r = φcp ∂p kz ∂t This is a highly nonlinear equation because the coeﬃcients on both sides of the equations are highly nonlinear functions of pressure. from our deﬁnition of compressibility. ψ(p). ∂p µz = ∂ψ 2p Ã ! 235 . This transformation gives p dψ = 2 dp µz Rewriting the nonlinear diﬀusivity equation in therm of pseudopressure we have. In order to solve the equation it is necessary to ﬁrst linearize it. Pseudopressure Introduce a new variable called the pseudo pressure. deﬁned as ψ(p) = 2 Z p a p dp µz where a is an arbitrarily low reference pressure. ∂ρ = cρ ∂p ∂ρ M p =c ∂p RT z which gives 1 ∂ r ∂r Ã M p 1 ∂p r RT z µ ∂r Ã ! ! = φ ∂p M p c k ∂t RT z dividing both sides by the constants we ﬁnally obtain.
ψ(p) = 2 Zp p∂p µz 0 ¯¯ 2 p2 µz 2 ¯¯ ψ(p) = p2 µz ¯¯ The pseudo pressure is easily evaluated on a spreadsheet or in a computer code.1 Low pressure approximation — p < 3. 000psi and ∆p small For low pressure and small pressure drop. Since ∆p is small (p approximately constant) we may use average properties for the coeﬃcient terms. ∂ψ 1 = ∂(p2 ) µz ¯¯ 236 . is now written as. 8. ψ(p) = 2 Z p a p ∂p µz with the reference pressure to zero. µz ≈ constant = µz ¯¯ The deﬁnition of pseudo pressure. Ã ! 1 ∂ ∂ψ φ¯c ∂ψ µ¯ r = r ∂r ∂r k ∂t ψ(p) = If we are doing the analysis by hand and wish to eliminate the need to evaluate pseudopressures we may simply write the equation in terms of p2 .therefore.5. 1 ∂ r ∂r Ã p ∂ψ µz r µz ∂r 2p Ã ! ! = φcp ∂ψ µz kz ∂t 2p Simplifying this expression gives ∂ψ 1 ∂ r r ∂r ∂r = φµc ∂ψ k ∂t This has eliminated the nonlinearity on the LHS and made the equation look like the diﬀusivity equation for a slightly compressible liquid except that the coeﬃcient on the RHS is still nonlinear (c is a function of pressure). c and µ. resulting in a linear diﬀusivity equation in terms ¯ ¯ of the pseudo pressure.
p p ¯ ≈ constant = µz µz ¯¯ From the deﬁnition of pseudo pressure we have. and as for the case of low pressure we can show that the diﬀusivity in terms of ψ is linearized to 1 ∂ ∂(p) r r ∂r ∂r Ã ! = φ¯c ∂(p) µ¯ k ∂t which is identical to the case of a slightly compressible ﬂuid.and 1 ∂ ∂(p2 ) ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r ∂(p2 ) 1 ∂ ∂(p2 ) r r ∂r ∂r Ã Ã ! ! φ¯c ∂(p2 ) ∂ψ µ¯ = k ∂t ∂(p2 ) = φ¯c ∂(p2 ) µ¯ k ∂t which gives The result is identical to that which would be obtained by deﬁning ψ = p2 This is commonly referred to as the pressure squared method of analysis.2 High pressure approximation — p > 3. 000psi and ∆p small At high pressures and small pressure drops. ψ(p) = 2 which can be written as or Z p a p ∂p µz p Zp ¯ ∂p ψ(p) = µz a ¯¯ ψ(p) = p ¯ p µz ¯¯ Again the pseudopressure is easily evaluated.5. 237 . 8.
this equation has exact ally the same form as the diﬀusivity equation for a slightly compressible ﬂuid. The product may be deﬁned at any pressure. τ= or Ã Ã ! = φµc ∂ψ k ∂t ! = φ ∂ψ k {∂t/µc} dt µc Z t 0 dt µc Pseudotime is easily evaluated since pressure. the pressure being arbitrary. τn . dτ = The diﬀusivity equation may now be written as. 238 . The diﬀusivity equation in terms of pseudopressure and pseudotime is. 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r Ã ! = φ(µc)i ∂ψ k ∂τn Again. is known. as a function of time. In terms of ψ the nonlinear diﬀusivity equation is 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r We may write this as 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r Deﬁning a pseudotime as. The situation is readily remedied by the introduction of a normalized pseudotime.3 ∆p is not small When ∆p is not small.5. deﬁned as Z t dt τn = (µc)i 0 µc (µc)i is the viscositycompressibility product evaluated at the initial test pressure. but convention is to take the value at the initial test pressure.8. ∂ψ 1 ∂ r r ∂r ∂r Ã ! = φ ∂ψ k ∂τ A problem with the pseudotime it does not have units of time and this is undesirable in actual practice where the engineer likes to relate time to distance via the depth of investigation concept. c and µ vary considerably and we cannot use average values for these parameters over the ﬂow conditions.
5.8. we write Darcy’s law for radial ﬂow. To evaluate the value of the constant of integration. C1 . 2πkh ∂p q= r µ ∂r where q is the rate at reservoir conditions.4 Steady and PseudoSteady State Radial Gas Flow Ã ! The radial diﬀusivity equation for gas is 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r Ã = φµc ∂ψ k ∂t For steadystate ﬂow. The rate at surface conditions is given by 2πkh ∂p r qsc = µBg ∂r where Bg is the gas formation volume factor which is given by psc Bg = Tsc Substituting for Bg gives qsc = Ã ! µ ¶ zT p 2πTsc psc ! kh p ∂p r µ zT ∂r The equation is written in terms of pseudopressure as qsc = Ã 2πTsc psc kh p ∂ψ dp r µ zT ∂r dψ From the deﬁnition of pseudopressure dp µz = dψ 2p 239 . ∂ψ/∂t = 0. and we can write ∂ψ 1 ∂ r r ∂r ∂r or. ∂ ∂ψ r ∂r ∂r Integrating gives r ∂ψ = C1 ∂r Ã ! =0 ! =0 This is the solution for steadystate radial ﬂow of a gas.
∂r = r Integrating. An example of such a calculation is given in Exercise8. This introduces an additional pressure 240 . we can write qsc = Ã πTsc psc ! ¯ kh (ψe − ψw ) h ³ ´ i T ln re − 0. µ = Ã πTsc psc ! ! kh (ψe − ψw ) qsc T qsc = Ã πTsc psc kh (ψe − ψw ) ³ ´ T ln re rw As before.75 + s rw The above equation is valid for all conditions and may be used to estimate the stabilized rate for gas wells under Darcy ﬂow conditions. for pseudosteady state ﬂow in terms of average pseudopressure and in the presence of skin. Pseudopressures are easily calculated by numerically integrating P . µ and z data for the gas. Z rw re Ã Ã πTsc psc ! kh ∂ψ qsc T kh Z ψw ∂ψ qsc T ψe ∂r = r ¶ πTsc psc ! gives re ln rw or. Separating variables. r Ã πTsc psc µ ! kh ∂ψ r T ∂r ¶ ∂ψ psc = ∂r πTsc qsc T kh This is the required constant of integration C1 . 8.5.Substituting for dp/dψ gives qsc = or.11. It requires evaluation of pseudopressures.5 NonDarcy ﬂow In high rate gas wells ﬂow velocities close to the wellbore may suﬃciently high for turbulent or nonDarcy ﬂow to occur.
drop which depends on the gas rate.75 + s + Dqsc  rw 8. D and s are determined from multirate well pressure test data.5. deﬁned as Z p p ψ=2 dp 0 µz may be written as 2 Zp p2 ψ= pdp = µz 0 ¯¯ µz ¯¯ where µ and z are evaluated at average ﬂowing conditions.75 + s + Dqsc  ¯¯ rw 8. s0 . deﬁned as Z p p ψ=2 dp 0 µz 241 .5. ¯ ¯ Substituting for ψ in the rate equation gives qsc = Ã ! πTsc psc kh (pe 2 − pw 2 ) h ³ ´ i µz T ln re − 0. can now be written as qsc = or.7 High Pressure approximation For pressures above about 3000 psia the product p/µz is approximately constant and pseudopressure.75 + s0 rw πTsc psc ¯ kh (ψe − ψw ) h ³ ´ i T ln re − 0. qsc = Ã Ã πTsc psc ! ! ¯ kh (ψe − ψw ) h ³ ´ i T ln re − 0. The absolute value of rate indicates that there is a positive nonDarcy ﬂow loss for both production and injection operations. The nonDarcy ﬂow pressure drop may be included by deﬁning an eﬀective skin factor. as s0 = s + Dqsc  where D is the nonDarcy ﬂow constant and s is the Darcy ﬂow skin factor.6 Pressuresquared approximation For pressures below about 3000 psia the product µz is approximately constant and pseudopressure. Pseudosteady state ﬂow in terms of average pseudopressure and in the presence of skin and nonDarcy ﬂow eﬀects.
z and p are evaluated at average ﬂowing conditions.may be written as 2¯ p 2¯ Z p p dp = ψ= p µz 0 ¯¯ µz ¯¯ where µ. 242 .75 + s + Dqsc  rw The average gas formation factor may be written as ¯ Bg = Ã Tsc psc ! zT ¯¯ p ¯ The gas rate equation becomes qsc = 2πkh (pe − pw ) h ³ ´ i ¯g ln re − 0. this equation is identical to the equation previously derived for the ﬂow of a slightly compressible ﬂuid. ¯ ¯ ¯ Substituting for ψ in the rate equation gives qsc = Ã ! 2πTsc psc (pe − pw ) kh¯ p h ³ ´ i re µz T ln ¯¯ − 0.75 + s + Dq  µB ¯ sc rw With the nonDarcy ﬂow term set to zero (D = 0).
The following reservoir and ﬂuid properties are known: k= h= rw = re = µ= z= T = s= D= 5 md 35 ft.Calculation of gas well rate [GASFLOW.3 0.Problem 8.mcd] Estimate the production rate of a gas well when the average reservoir pressure is 2723 psia and the ﬂowing wellbore pressure is maintained at 2655 psia.018 cp 0.015 (MMSCF/day)−1 What is the eﬀect of nonDarcy (turbulent) ﬂow on well performance? [Answer: 344 MSCF/day] 243 .5 . 0.87 200o F 0.5 ft. 0. 2640 ft.
01630 0.01911 0.01387 0.9582 0.8931 0.8745 0.01485 0.01451 0.01238 0.8705 0. Use pseudopressure and the pressuresquared method to calculate the gas rate.8738 0.01554 0.Problem 8.01428 0.9453 0.8830 [Answer: 346 MSCF/day.01274 0.Gas well rate using pseudopressures [PSUDOP.6 .5 ft.8708 0.9856 0.8683 0.8780 0.01360 0.015 (MMSCF/day)−1 GAS PROPERTIES p (psia) 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 2850 3000 3150 µ (cp) 0.9112 0.01303 0. 2640 ft.01862 0.01520 0.8684 0. The following reservoir and ﬂuid properties are known: k= h= rw = re = T = s= D= 5 md 35 ft. Reservoir temperature is 200o F and the gas gravity is 0.9016 0.01329 0.8671 0. 200o F 0.8795 0. 342 MSCF/day] 244 .01676 0.8671 0.3 0.01961 z 0.01589 0. 0.7.9218 0.mcd] Estimate the production rate of a gas well when the average reservoir pressure is 2723 psia and the ﬂowing wellbore pressure is maintained at 2655 psia.01721 0.01254 0.01813 0.9717 0.01767 0.9332 0.8857 0.
5 (nonDarcy or turbulent ﬂow) and 1 (Darcy or laminar ﬂow) and C is the well performance coeﬃcient. Flow after ﬂow tests The constants C and n are determined from ﬂow after ﬂow or conventional backpressure tests. After a number of rate changes (usually four). The rate is then changed (increased) and the process repeated.5.8 Gas Well Back Pressure Equation This is an empirical equation which relates ﬂow rate and pressure for gas wells. The equation is frequently used to determine well deliverability. qsc = C(¯2 − p2 )n pR w where pR is the average reservoir pressure. p 245 . The equation is written as.19: Pseudopressure as a function of pressure 8.Figure 8. n is an exponent which has a value between 0. pw is the ﬂowing wellbore pressure. This is the average reservoir pressure (¯R ). the well is shutin until the shutin wellbore has stabilized. The well is ﬂowed at a constant rate (qsc ) until the ﬂowing wellbore pressure (pw ) has stabilized.
21: Four point ﬂowafterﬂow well deliverability test 246 .20: Gas well deliverability plot Figure 8.Figure 8.
mcd] The following ﬂow rate and wellbore pressure data was obtained from a four point ﬂowafterﬂow test on a gas well: Flow period qsc (MMSCF/day) pw (psia) 1 2190 3387 2 2570 3268 3 3160 3092 4 3400 3015 shutin 0 3884 247 . Example 8. The test and interpretation procedure is illustrated in the attached ﬁgures.Flow after ﬂow conventional backpressure test [FAFGAS.6 .Figure 8.22: Interpretation of four point ﬂowafterﬂow well deliverability test A plot of log(¯2 − p2 ) against log qsc gives a straight line of slope equal to 1/n pR w and intercept −(1/n) log C.
Determine the exponent n and the performance coeﬃcient C.874. [Answer: (i) 60. (iii) Make a well deliverability plot for the well.69 C = 0.mcd] A four point ﬂowafterﬂow test produced the following back pressure equation constants. Calculate the Absolute Open Flow (AOF) for the well (the AOF is a commonly used ﬁgureofmerit for a gas well and corresponds to the well rate at a ﬂowing well pressure of one atmosphere). n = 0.035 × 10−6 MMSCF/day − psia2n . (ii) 35. AOF=7.Well deliverability using back pressure equation [DELGAS. (ii) What would the well ﬂow rate be if the ﬂowing wellbore pressure was maintained at 300 psia.6 MMSCF/day] Problem 8. (i) Determine the absolute open ﬂow rate (AOF) for the well. C = 4.4 MMSCF/day] 248 .7 .4 MMSCF/day. [Answer: n = 0.01508 MSCF/daypsia2n The average reservoir pressure is 408 psia.
horizontal wells can connect regions of high permeability rock which are separated by regions of low permeability.23: Horizontal well in a compartmentalized reservoir 8. braided stream systems and fractured reservoirs).6 HORIZONTAL WELLS Horizontal wells are now routinely used in primary. In reservoirs which display complex and diﬃcult to predict heterogeneity (carbonates. Reservoir ﬂow problems . The major advantages over conventional vertical wells are in overcoming: Reservoir heterogeneity .Horizontal wells contact a larger area of the reservoir than vertical wells. channel point bar sands.Figure 8. secondary and tertiary recovery operations.The greater length of horizontal wells may result in smaller pressure gradients (increased productivity) when compared to vertical wells ﬂowing at the same rate. 249 . This can be important in allowing production of heavier crudes at economical rates and reducing or completely elimination the detrimental eﬀects of water and gas coning.
Inexpensive but limited to competent formations. . and prepacked liners. 250 .Three types commonly used. perforated. Diﬃcult to control rate along length of well and diﬃcult to stimulate. Liners are used to prevent hole collapse and to control sand production. Recovery is also increased because the cone for a similar situation exists in a sand subject to gas coning with the horizontal well being placed at the base of the sand. Open hole .In sands where water coning is a problem horizontal wells can be placed near the top of the sand increasing the vertical distance between the perforations and the wateroil contact and therefore increasing recovery when compared with a vertical well in the same sand.Figure 8. Rarely used except for formations such as Austin Chalk.In low permeability reservoirs it is possible to place multiple transverse fractures along the length of the well and greatly increase productivity over that possible with a vertical well. slotted.24: Comparison between eﬀective reservoir contact areas for horizontal and vertical wells . Slotted liner . Completion options The attached ﬁgure shows a number of diﬀerent techniques used to complete horizontal wells.
Under similar operating conditions. 8.25: Horizontal wells with multiple transverse fractures play a vital role in the production of tight gas reservoirs Liners with partial isolation allow the horizontal section to be divided into several isolated sections. This allows production control along the well length and selective stimulation or multiple fracking. Cemented and perforated liners provide the best completions provided that care is taken to ensure a good cement job. The area drained by a single well in the pattern is the drainage area for the well. A horizontal well will usually drain a larger area than a vertical well.kx = ky A horizontal well can be viewed as a number of vertical wells drilled on a line and completed in a limited pay thickness. A vertical well drains a cylindrical volume and a horizontal well drains an ellipsoid (threedimensional ellipse).Figure 8.1 Drainage Area Wells are drilled on a pattern to provide adequate drainage of the reservoir. 251 .6. Areally isotropic reservoir .
26: Completion techeniques for horizontal wells 252 .Figure 8.
a 1000 ft horizontal well will drain twice the area of a vertical well and a 2000 ft horizontal well will drain three times the area of a vertical well. the drainage area of a horizontal well may be estimated from that for a vertical well as shown in the attached ﬁgure. the drainage radius is rev = q Av /π The drainage area for a vertical well may also be approximated as a square of dimensions 2xe by 2ye where xe = ye Av = 4xe or xe = ye = Av 4 A horizontal well can be viewed as a number of vertical wells drilled on a line and completed in a limited pay thickness.Figure 8. 253 . Under similar operating conditions. If the drainage area for a vertical well is Av . The eﬀective drainage radius of a horizontal well is q reh = Ah /π s As a rule of thumb.27: Comparison of horizontal and vertical well costs for Prudhoe Bay in Alaska the drainage area of a horizontal well may be estimated from that for a vertical well as shown in the attached ﬁgure. Ah = 2ye L + Av where L is the length of the horizontal section.
Figure 8.28: Drainage areas for horizontal and vertical wells 254 .
29: Drainage areas for horizontal wells 255 .Figure 8.
since kx and ky are constant kx ∂2p ∂2p + ky 2 = 0 ∂x2 ∂y For an isotropic reservoir. we can write the following conservation equation Ã ! Ã ! ∂ ∂p ∂ ∂p kx + ky =0 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y or. ky constant). 256 . where k−h is the horizontal permeability.Areally anisotropic reservoir . Assuming steadystate ﬂow in two dimensions. kx = ky = kh . we can write " # ∂2p ∂2p kh + =0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 For an anisotropic reservoir we multiply and divide the conservation equation q throughout by kx ky q v s u u kx ∂ 2 p ky ∂ 2 p kx ky t + =0 2 2 ky ∂x kx ∂y # or q kx ky " ∂ 2 p ky ∂ 2 p + =0 ∂x2 kx ∂y 2 # This equation may be written as q kx ky " ∂2p ∂ 2p + =0 ∂x2 ∂Y 2 s where y=Y ky kx # Comparing this equation with that for the isotropic system.kx < ky Consider an anisotropic (kx < ky ) homogeneous (kx . kh " ∂2p ∂2p + =0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 shows that in an anisotropic reservoir a vertical q drains a rectangle which has well a length along the high permeability direction ky /kx the length along the low permeability direction with an eﬀective permeability q kx ky .
Figure 8.30: Drainage areas for horizontal wells in fractured or anisotropic reservoirs 257 .
the drainage area for the well is Ah = 2ye L + Av The number of horizontal wells required for adequate reservoir drainage is considerably smaller than that for a conventional vertical well development.31: Drainage areas for vertical and horizontal wells in anisotropic reservoirs If ky > kx . ye = s ky xe kx and the drainage area for a vertical well is Ah = 4ye xe and the eﬀective horizontal permeability is. 258 . If a horizontal well is drilled in the direction of low permeability. kh = q kx ky The above analysis shows that it is diﬃcult to drain a reservoir in the low permeability direction using vertical wells.Figure 8.
mcd] A vertical well is known to drain approximately 40 acres in a naturally fractured reservoir. The permeability in the direction perpendicular to the fractures is only kx =0.5 md. 145 acres.mcd] A 600 acre lease is to be developed with 10 vertical wells. The permeability along the direction of the fractures is ky =4.] 259 . Estimate the number of horizontal wells required to drain the lease eﬀectively assuming that the reservoir is isotropic. What are the drainage areas for a 2000 ft horizontal well drilled along the direction of the fractures and one drilled in a direction perpendicular to the fractures.Drainage for a horizontal well in an anisotropic reservoir [HORWELL.5md. An alternative is to drill 500 ft. 1000 ft. [Answer: 75 acres. 7 1000ft wells.8 .7 .Example 8. [Answer: 8 500ft wells. or 2000 ft long horizontal wells. 5 2000ft wells] Problem 8.Drainage area for horizontal wells in an isotropic reservoir [HORWELL.
dlate time linear ﬂow 260 .32: Complexity of ﬂow regimes for horizontal wells. clate time radial ﬂow.Figure 8. aearly time radial ﬂow. bearly time linear ﬂow.
The solution obtained was shown to be in excellent agreement with laboratory simulations using electrical networks.2 Productivity of Horizontal Wells The steadystate rate for a vertical is given by qv = 2πkh h ∆p µB ln(rev /rw ) The productivity index.33: Approximating threedimensional steadystate ﬂow in horizontal wells with two twodimensional solutions 8. For a horizontal well completed in the middle of sand of thickness. qv .Figure 8. Jv . h. The diﬀerences are generally small.6. Joshi (JPT June 1988)divided the threedimensional steadystate ﬂow problem into separate twodimensional vertical and horizontal problems and summed the solutions. is deﬁned as the rate. with constant pressure boundary conditions at the drainage area boundary.kv = kh Numerous equations have been developed for steadystate ﬂow of horizontal wells. The diﬀerences between the various equations result from the diﬀerences in solution techniques employed and the details of the assumptions made in developing the solution. Jh = qh = ∆p ∙ a+ ln √ 2πkh h/(µB) ¸ a2 −(L/2)2 L/2 + ³ ´ h L ln ³ h 2rw ´ 261 . 2πkh h/(µB) Jv = ln(rev /rw ) Homogeneous isotropic reservoirs . divided by the pressure diﬀerence. ∆p.
h.9reh . L a = 0.34: Productivity ratio Jh /Jv for horizontal wells in isotropic reservoirs where a is half the major axis of the drainage area ellipse deﬁned as. Another equation for horizontal wells was developed by Borisov(Nedra. the eﬀectiveness of the horizontal well. In the limit L >> h. Moscow 1964 .5 + 2 s 2reh 0. Horizontal wells are most eﬀective in thin reservoirs. the second term in the denominator of the equation is negligible and the result can be rewritten as Jh = 2πkh h/(µB) ln (reh /[L/4]) 262 .25 + L s µ ¶4 0.translated into English in 1984) Jh = 2πkh h/(µB) ln (4reh /L) + (h/L) ln (h/2πrw ) This equation gives results very similar to those using the Joshi equation. increases.Figure 8. Ah π The above equation shows that as reservoir thickness. decreases.5 reh = for L > h and (L/2) < 0. Jh .
Jh = ln where β= ∙ a+ √ 2πkh h/(µB) ¸ a2 −(L/2)2 L/2 + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh 2rw ´ s kh kv 263 . s kh H=h kv When kv < kh . To obtain the productivity of a horizontal well in an isotropic reservoir we simply substitute the eﬀective thickness of the reservoir for h in the equation for an isotropic reservoir.kv 6= kh When the horizontal permeability is diﬀerent from the vertical permeability. H. the ﬂow ﬁeld is equivalent to that for √ an average permeability of kh kv with the zaxis modiﬁed. the eﬀect is to increase the eﬀective thickness of the reservoir. We will later show that the above equation is identical to that for a vertical well with an inﬁniteconductivity vertical fracture of length L. Isotropic reservoirs . Z=z s kh kv The inﬂuence of anisotropy is therefore to change the eﬀective reservoir thickness. This reduces the eﬀectiveness of a horizontal well relative to a vertical well. The result is. a horizontal well is equivalent to a vertical well with 0 an eﬀective wellbore radius rw = L/4 (a highly stimulated vertical well).Comparing this equation with the corresponding equation for a vertical well shows that in the limit L >> h. in a manner similar to that previously shown.
264 . eccentricity has little eﬀect and the well can be located anywhere in the vertical plane without signiﬁcant loss in productivity.35: Productivity ratio Jh /Jv for horizontal wells in anisotropic reservoirs Horizontal well eccentricity The above equations are for the case where the horizontal well is centered with respect to the sand in which the well is completed. as δ= h/2 − zw h/2 δ = 0 for a centered well. there is no bottom water or top gas. Joshi gives the following equation for this case. We deﬁne well eccentricity.8reh .. For long horizontal wells. (L >> h). δ.Figure 8. Jh = ln ∙ a+ √ 2πkh h/(µB) ¸ a2 −(L/2)2 L/2 + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh [1 2rw + δ2 ] ´ which is valid for L > βh. δ = 1 for a well at the base or top of the sand. δ < h/2 and L < 1. This is strictly true only for bound reservoirs where the top and bottom boundaries are closed ie. A schematic of an oﬀcentered horizontal well is shown in the attached ﬁgure.
Figure 8.36: Horizontal well accentricity Figure 8.37: Eﬀect of eccentricity on the productivity of a horizontal well 265 .
01.10 .9 STB/daypsi (ii) 12. kh =50 md µ =0.1.3.Horizontal well productivities II [HORWELL.? (i) 200 ft. horizontal well is drilled in a reservoir on a 160 acre spacing.35 RB/STB What is the improvement in productivity which may be expected over that for a vertical well if the sand thickness is.1. Other data reservoir and ﬂuid parameters are. Other reservoir and ﬂuid parameters are. [Answer: Joshi equation (i) 7.0. 0.33 ft B =1.Problem 8.33 ft B =1.2. 13.mcd] A 1000 ft. The horizontal permeability averages 200 md and the vertical permeability averages 20 md. horizontal well is drilled through the centre of a 50 ft sand on a 160 acre spacing. 10 ft and 20 ft from the base of the sand.1] 266 .2 cp rw =0. 13. µ =0.5 and 1.35 RB/STB (i) Compare the horizontal well productivities for kv /kh of 0. (ii) 4.9 .7. 16.5. [Joshi equation (i) 1.mcd] A 1000 ft. 16. (ii) For kv /kh =0. 13.Horizontal well productivities I [HORWELL.1 compare the horizontal well productivities if the well is located at distances of 1 ft. 0.4 cp rw =0.2 STB/daypsi ] Problem 8. (ii) 20 ft.
The above equation and the previously discussed equation developed by Joshi produce similar estimates for horizontal well productivity. 1990) developed the following equation for the productivity index. The ratio of productivities for a damaged and undamaged horizontal well is therefore. formation damage can have a severe eﬀect on horizontal well productivity. Renard and Dupuy wrote.d = cosh−1 ³ 2a L ´ 2πkh h/(µB) + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh (1+β)πrw ´ + sh where sh is the horizontal well skin factor which must be determined from well tests. Jh. For a damaged well. Jh = ³ 2πkh h/(µB) 2a L cosh −1 ´ + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh (1+β)πrw ´ where a is half the major axis of the drainage area ellipse as previously deﬁned.Eﬀect of Formation Damage on Horizontal Well Productivity As in the case of vertical wells. ³ ´ ³ ´ ³ ´ βh cosh−1 2a + βh ln (1+β)πrw Jhd L L ³ ´ ³ ´ ³ ´ = βh βh −1 2a Jh cosh + L ln (1+β)πrw + sh L or Jhd B = Jh B + sh where B = cosh −1 µ 2a βh βh + ln L L (1 + β)πrw ¶ Ã ! Ã ! 267 . Renard and Dupuy (SPE19414. Consider the case of a horizontal well completed at the center of a homogeneous anisotropic sand.
38: Comparison between formation damage for horizonral and vertical wells 268 .Figure 8.