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by Val Pinczewski School of Petroleum Engineering University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052. AUSTRALIA

March, 2002

Prepared for


IMPORTANT NOTICE 2002 University of New South Wales. All rights are reserved. This copy of the manual and accompanying software was prepared in accordance with copyright laws for the sole use of students enrolled in a course at the University of New South Wales. It is illegal to reproduce any of this material or to use it for any other purpose.



1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BASIC CONCEPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 Accumulation of Sediments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Origin of Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrocarbon Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 7 9 9 11 14 15 15 15 17 18 19 20 23 31 35 36 37

1.2 OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 Residual Oil Resource (Target for EOR ) . . . . . . . . . . Residual Oil is Trapped or By-passed . . . . . . . . . . . . Recovery Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary Recovery Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Secondary Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tertiary Recovery — EOR Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 WHAT IS RESERVOIR ENGINEERING? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION 2.1 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 SOURCES OF DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 2.2.2 Coring And Core Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wireline Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2.2.3 2.2.4

Pressure and Production Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38 39 42 46

2.3 INTEGRATED FORMATION EVALUATION PROGRAM . . . 2.4 AQUIFER DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 VOLUMETRICS AND INITIAL HYDROCARBON VOLUME 48 3.1 STRUCTURE MAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 ISOPACH MAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 VOLUMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING ORIGINAL OIL-IN-PLACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 Reservoir Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 50 53 54 55 55 56 56 67 68 69

Average Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average Initial Water Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average Oil Formation Volume Factor . . . . . . . . . . . Determining Initial Oil-In-Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4 DETERMINATION OF OIL-IN-PLACE — MATERIAL BALANCE METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 ESTIMATING RESERVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 ESTIMATING DECLINE IN OIL PRODUCTION RATES . . . .

4 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN RESERVOIRS 70 4.1 SUBSURFACE PRESSURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 Water zone pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil zone pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas cap pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 71 72 73 74



4.3 GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 FLUID PROPERTIES 5.1 PHASE BEHAVIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Pure Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrocarbons Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . .

84 86 87 87 89 92 95 98

5.2 PVT PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Pressure Dependence of PVT Properties . . . . . . . . . .

5.3 CALCULATION OF GAS PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5.3.1 5.3.2 Single Gas Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Multi-Component Gas Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

5.4 DETERMINATION OF OIL PVT DATA FROM LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 Flash Expansion Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Differential Liberation Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Separator Flash Expansion Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Procedure for calculating PVT parameters from laboratory data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

5.5 FLUID SAMPLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 5.6 PVT TESTS FOR GAS CONDENSATE FIELDS . . . . . . . . . 119 5.7 GAS HYDRATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5.8 SURFACE TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 5.8.1 Estimating Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124


6.1 ORIGINAL OIL VOLUME BALANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 3

. . . . . . . 148 6. 146 6. . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 POROSITY . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 182 4 . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 7. . . .4 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED OIL RESERVOIR . . . . . . .1 7. . . . .5 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED GAS RESERVOIR . . 174 7. . . . . . . . 167 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Laboratory Measurement of Permeability . . 142 Water Influx .2. . . . . . . . .5 6. . 145 General Material Balance Equation . . . . . . 180 7. . . . 138 Remaining Oil Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 USING MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS . . 153 Knowns and Unknowns . 135 Released Gas Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 153 6. . . . . . . .3 Measurement of Permeability .2 Effective and Total Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. 140 Rock and Connate Water Expansion .1. . . . . . .1 Water Drive Gas Reservoirs . 182 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 POROSITY-PERMEABILITY RELATIONSHIPS . . 149 6. . .1. . . . . . . . . . .4 6. .6 Gas Cap Expansion . . 159 6. . . . . . . . .1 Typical Performance Characteristics for the Different Drive Mechanisms . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .1. . .2 7. . .2. . . . 153 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. . . .1. . . . . . . . .1. . . . .2 Average Reservoir Pressure . . . . . . . .2 PRIMARY RECOVERY MECHANISMS .2 PERMEABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .1 6. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 168 7. . . . . 162 7 RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES AND CORE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 165 7. . . . .5. . . . . .3. . . .2 6. . . . . . . . 157 6.1 Capillary Tube Model . 179 The Klinkenberg Effect . . . . .

. . . . .1 DARCY’S LAW .1. . 213 8. . 206 Relationship between s and the size of the altered zone . . 225 Approximating Complex Geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 194 8 FLUID FLOW 8. .3 Pore Volume Compressibility .2. . . . . . . .4. 229 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 228 8.2 STEADY-STATE FLOW . 197 8. . . .7. . . . . . . . 190 Use of Rock Compressibilities . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . 216 Liquids Having Small and Constant Compressibility . . . . . . . . . . 219 Pseudo-Steady-State Radial Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 ROCK COMPRESSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Dietz Shape Factors for Vertical Wells . . . . . . .1 8. .4. . . . . 201 Wellbore Damage . . . 186 7. . . . 197 Radial Flow of an Incompressible Fluid .5 8. . .2. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 210 Effective Wellbore Radius . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 189 Measurement of Formation Compressibility . . .1 8.3 8. . . . . 194 8. . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . .3. . .6 Radial Diffusivity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Partial Penetration . . . .3. . . . . . .2 8.2 8. . . . . . 195 8. . . . . . . . . .6 Horizontal Linear Flow of an Incompressible Fluid . . . . . . . .2 Fractured medium model . . . . .4. . . 221 Flow Equations in terms of Average Reservoir Pressure . . . . . . .3 UNSTEADY STATE FLOW .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 230 5 .2. . . . . . .3. .4 8. . . . . . . . 215 8. . . .3. .2 Productivity Index . 212 Flow Efficiency . . . . . .2. . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 WELL PRODUCTIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Pressure Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 185 7. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3 8.2 7. . . . .

2 8. . . .3 8. 000psi and ∆p small 236 High pressure approximation — p > 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . 238 Steady and Pseudo-Steady State Radial Gas Flow . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .6 HORIZONTAL WELLS . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . 251 Productivity of Horizontal Wells . . . . . . . . 245 8. . . .6. . . . .5. . . . .2 Drainage Area . . . . . .5 GAS FLOW . . . . . . . .8 Low pressure approximation — p < 3. . . . . . . . . . . .6. .5 8.7 8. . . . . . . . . . 261 6 . . .1 8. 240 Pressure-squared approximation . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .6 8. .5. . . . . . . . . 241 Gas Well Back Pressure Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . 239 Non-Darcy flow . . . . . . . 241 High Pressure approximation . 249 8. .5. . . .5. . . . . . . .4 8. . 000psi and ∆p small 237 ∆p is not small . . . . .8. . 233 8. .

The sedimentation velocity depends on the size and density of the particles.1 BASIC CONCEPTS Accumulation of Sediments The accumulation of sediments in a basin depends on the balance between the energy of the depositional environment (water velocity) and the sedimentation velocity of the particles. Sediments carried by high velocity streams may be deposited in the delta region of the river where flow velocities are much slower. This results in a sequential deposition of sand (large particles) and shale (fine particles) producing sequences of sand and shale.1 1. The depositional energy at a particular location varies with time. 1. Smaller particle sediments may be further moved by waves and currents to other locations where the environmental energy is insufficient to carry the particles further. This process leads to sorting of sediments with the accumulation of sand grains in one area and clay and silt particles in another area.1. 7 . This layering or vertical heterogeneity is the single most important characteristic determining reservoir performance and recovery.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION For those unfamiliar with reservoir engineering or reservoir geology the following section gives a brief summary of some basic concepts. (layering). If you are familiar with this material skip this section.

Figure 1.1: Schematic of a typical depositional sequence 8 .

The characteristics of hydrocarbon traps are illustrated by considering a porous permeable formation between two impermeable layers which has been folded by tectonic action into an anticline (see the attached figure). As the particles compact the generated hydrocarbon particles (oil or gas) are squeezed from the source rock. Quite water is deficient in oxygen leading to the creation of anaerobic conditions and preservation of the organic matter. Increasing burial causes the fine-grained sediments to undergo compaction and the source rocks eventually become effectively impermeable. are deposited together with fine-grained sediments in shallow marine environments during low energy periods of basin formation.000 ft to 23. this results in a burial depth window of between 7. organic matter from dead plants and animals. You will probably be familiar with most of these terms.1. The upward migration of generated hydrocarbon continues until it is halted by an impermeable barrier or trap. Anaerobic bacteria decomposes the organic matter to produce compounds of carbon. As hydrocarbon accumulates under the trap a reservoir is formed.1. 1.000 ft for fine grained sediments containing organic matter (source rocks) to produce oil and gas.1. Since temperature increases with depth. This is called an anticlinal trap. enter the overlying and underlying water saturated permeable sand layers which have retained their porosity and permeability because the coarse sand grains are stronger than the fine-grained silt and clay particles and therefore better withstand the increasing compaction forces with increasing burial depth.2 Origin of Petroleum The precursors of petroleum. The minimum temperature for oil and gas formation is about 150o F and the maximum is about 320o F. This process is called primary migration.3 Hydrocarbon Traps The expelled hydrocarbon is lighter than the water in the interconnected pore space of the permeable sand layers and moves upwards as a result of buoyancy. hydrogen (hydrocarbons) and oxygen. The expelled hydrocarbon particles. The hydrocarbon contained in the reservoir may be oil or gas or both. The conversion of the organic matter occurs over geological time as sediments become progressively buried and temperature and pressure increase. Here are some commonly used terms to describe petroleum reservoirs. in the form of colloidal solutions (micelles) or individual drops or bubbles. 9 . This is called secondary migration.

2: Cross-section for an anticlinal reservoir Formation: the rocks. Bottom water: water below the oil-water contact. These may be either clastic rocks (sandstones) or limestone and dolomite (carbonates). Oil zone: oil reservoir. Edge water: water laterally adjacent the oil-water contact. Trap closure: the distance between the crest and the spill point. Reservoir: the part of the formation which contains hydrocarbon (oil and/or gas) and connate water.Figure 1. Gas cap: gas filled zone or gas reservoir. Connate water: water in the pore space occupied by hydrocarbons. Gas-oil contact: lowest depth at which gas can be produced. 10 . Spill point: the lowest point of the trap that can hold hydrocarbon. Water zone or aquifer: the body of water bearing rock in hydraulic communication with the reservoir. Oil-water contact: lowest depth at which oil can be produced.

1.formed by intrusion of salt or mud diapirs. Structural traps Structural traps are formed by tectonic processes acting on sedimentary layers after deposition.4: Faulted structural trap 1.Figure 1.formed by displacement of blocks of rock as a result of unequal tectonic forces.4 Classification of Traps Hydrocarbon traps are classified as either structural or stratigraphic.3: Anticline structural trap Figure 1. Fold traps .formed by compressional or compactional anticlines. Diapiric traps . They may be classified as. 11 . Fault traps .

(ii) However. 12 . The oil and gas zones have different contacts. eroded and buried again under new layers of sediments that may form the trap. An uncomformity forms when a site of sediments is uplifted. The blocks may be in pressure communication through the aquifer. Unconformities generally separate formations formed under very different depositional conditions. The processes involved in the formation of stratigraphic traps are complex because they involve changes in the depositional environment. Stratigraphic traps may be associated with unconformities. This will improve your understanding of the basic concepts.Figure 1. Note the following important points in the last of the figures: (i) The oil and gas zones in the central block are not in direct pressure communication with the oil and gas zones in the left and right blocks.5: Salt dome structural trap Stratigraphic traps Stratigraphic traps are produced by facies (rock type) changes in the formation such as pinchouts and lenticular sand bodies surrounded by impermeable shales. it cannot be concluded from the section alone that the central block is completely isolated from the rest of the formation. Study the attached figures in the context of the above discussion.

6: Stratigraphic trap Figure 1.Figure 1.7: Schematic of an oil and gas reservoir with a faulted central block and different fluid contacts 13 .

An EOR process is any process which does a better job of recovering oil than conventional technology (primary and secondary recovery processes).production using only natural reservoir energy (natural water drive. solution gas drive and pressure depletion drive). Secondary Recovery . Primary Recovery .water or gas injection to maintain reservoir pressure (waterflooding and immiscible gas injection to supplement natural reservoir energy).8: USA oil resource 1.2 OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES Oil recovery operations are generally classified into three groups. In an EOR process conventional water or gas is replaced by a more effective (more expensive) recovery agent. gas cap expansion. Tertiary Recovery .enhanced oil recovery processes (EOR). 14 .Figure 1.

. .perforating unperforated layers.2.infill drilling. . .Trapping on the macro or field scale is caused by areal and vertical bypassing.Trapping on the micro or pore scale is by capillary forces.1. . . recover approximately 1/3 of the OOIP. 15 . 1.removal of formation damage caused by completion operations.2. . on the world average.2 Residual Oil is Trapped or By-passed Oil which cannot be recovered using existing facilities or infrastructure (existing investment) is trapped (microscale) or by-passed (macroscale) .horizontal and multilateral wells.2. .selective shut-off of water and gas producing zones. 1.current EOR technology can produce about 20% —30% of the residual oil resource. .fracking.2/3 OOIP cannot be produced by conventional recovery technology.Unrecovered mobile oil can be recovered by conventional processes by improved access to the reservoir. Trapping on all scales is strongly influenced by heterogeneity. . Reservoir access may be improved by. .1 Residual Oil Resource (Target for EOR ) Conventional primary recovery methods are usually very inefficient and.3 Recovery Processes Unrecovered oil may be classified into two categories: Unrecovered mobile oil and immobile or residual oil.trapping of oil occurs on all reservoir length scales.

Figure 1.9: Residual is trapped or bypassed on all reservoir length scales 16 .

All EOR techniques attempt to recover residual oil by: (i) Improving reservoir sweep efficiency . 17 .4 Primary Recovery Mechanisms An estimate of the likely primary production mechanism for a reservoir may be made on the basis of geological data even before the reservoir has been produced.Figure 1.10: Recovery processes . This oil can only be recovered by tertiary EOR processes. (ii) Mobilizing immobile or residual oil. 1.Immobile oil cannot be recovered by primary and secondary recovery processes such as waterflooding and immiscible gas injection.2.

(iii) Formation permeability can be estimated from core data and flow tests on wells. Sometimes it is useful to complete dry holes as aquifer observation wells. This may supplement the effectiveness of the original gas cap. A good data gathering program is a key component of an effective reservoir management strategy. amongst other things. 1.2. (iii) High permeability reservoirs in contact with an extensive aquifer will benefit to some degree from natural water influx (water drive). The aquifer can have a profound effect on reservoir performance. to identify the need and timing for secondary gas or water injection. (ii) Representative fluid samples for PVT analysis. Useful estimates of future production trends can be obtained from a knowledge of: (i) The size of the gas cap relative to the size of the oil reservoir. Material balance calculations may be used to determine the relative importance of the various natural drive mechanisms for a particular reservoir.5 Secondary Recovery Predictions of future reservoir performance are required. (ii) Reservoirs having high closure and high permeability may experience the beneficial effects of gravity segregation of oil and gas. The importance of instituting a program to gather this data as early as possible in the development and production life of a reservoir cannot be over emphasized. (ii) The size of the aquifer relative to the size of the oil zone. Pressure data from such wells can be important in characterizing reservoir-aquifer systems. (iii) Periodic pressure surveys.For example: (i) Thin. flat reservoirs with low permeability will most likely produce by a solution-gas drive mechanism. Material balance calculations require: (i) Accurate and comprehensive production history. 18 . or form a secondary gas cap. Drill-stem tests on dry holes and structurally low wells (wells penetrating the aquifer) may yield important indications of aquifer permeability and continuity.

EOR processes may be classified into three major categories: 1.Figure 1.11: Steam flooding process 1.2.6 Tertiary Recovery — EOR Processes The same techniques used to determine the need for secondary recovery are used to assess the need for tertiary developments. Thermal — Steam Flooding — Fire Flooding 19 . Decisions regarding the actual implementation of EOR processes are not made until sufficient field data is available to accurately assess primary and secondary performance. Chemical — Micellar Polymer Flooding — Polymer Flooding — Caustic or Alkaline Flooding 2.

secondary (water flooding. 20 . 1.3 WHAT IS RESERVOIR ENGINEERING? Reservoir Engineering is the science of understanding the production characteristics of oil and gas fields under primary (natural pressure depletion). immiscible gas flooding) and tertiary (EOR) drive mechanisms. development and production of oil and gas fields.Figure 1. A basic understanding of reservoir engineering concepts is necessary for the planning.12: Carbon dioxide flooding process 3. Miscible — Enriched Hydrocarbon Gas Flooding — CO2 Flooding — Nitrogen and Flue Gas Flooding The complexity of these processes requires the gathering of large quantities of additional laboratory fluid and core data and the use of considerably more complex analysis techniques.

21 .13: Chemical flooding process Geologists and Petrophysicists provide a description of the structure of the formation or reservoir and vital physical parameters describing the reservoir internal structure and initial distribution of fluids. How much hydrocarbon (oil and/or gas) does a reservoir initially contain(initial hydrocarbon in-place)? How much of the hydrocarbon initially in-place can ultimately be recovered? How will the production rates of wells depend on the physical parameters of the reservoir. 2.Figure 1. Reservoir Engineers are required to answer the following three vital questions: 1. 3. The reservoir engineer utilizes this data together with well production rates and measured reservoir pressures to analyze and interpret the data in order to optimize oil and gas recovery. well number and development pattern and how will the rate decline with time? The first question may be answered if the shape and size of the pay zone is known and the distribution of porosity and water saturation in the zone are also known. reservoir geometry (shape).

These are required to model the many alternative developments which result in different ultimate recoveries and profitability. The answer to the third question relies on detailed analysis of pressure and individual well test data. It requires the use of sophisticated mathematical models (usually computer based reservoir simulators). The answer to the second question is very complex. no matter how sophisticated. 22 . can never capture all the geologic variability.This data is provided by the geologist and the petrophysicist. The reservoir engineer may assist by estimating the positions of gas-oil and water-oil contacts if the positions of these contacts is unknown. The process of producing production forecasts for the different recovery mechanisms and development plans will always be associated with some degree of uncertainty because geologic formations are highly heterogeneous and the geological description.

Chapter 2 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION The basis for a sound understanding of reservoir performance is a good description of reservoir geology (geological model) and the distribution of fluids (oil. water and gas) it contains. Rock and Reservoir Description Reservoir engineering studies require that the physical makeup of a reservoir be represented in a usable manner. these changes result in 23 . As we will see later. Depositional conditions at any instant also vary from one location to another which results in lateral as well as vertical changes within the reservoir and within individual rock units. and (iv) a description of the size and permeability of the adjoining aquifer. both areally and vertically. permeability. and water saturation throughout the reservoir. These are usually prepared by production geologists. (ii) a description of reservoir geometry. Reservoir Heterogeneity Most reservoirs are layered because of variations that existed in the depositional environment. (i) a description of reservoir stratification (reservoir lithology). This is the first step in a reservoir engineering study. This should include. This information is represented by various types of maps and cross-sections. (iii) information on porosity.

1: Highly detailes geostatistical models for reservoir characterization 24 .Figure 2.

Methods of analyzing logs and techniques of using logs for determining net sand thickness and evaluating sand continuity are beyond the scope of this course. but generally. Logs also show the net sand at each well. The porosity in reservoir rocks usually occurs in the spaces between rock particles and this is called primary porosity or intergranular porosity. Reservoir cross-sections based on logs can show if permeable zones are continuous throughout the reservoir or if they are lenses having limited areal extent. Although reservoir stratification is usually considered only in terms of net sand layers and impermeable streaks of sand or shale. and permeability. Core analysis Core analysis data provide an additional basis for determining net sand thickness and reservoir zonation. in most cases logs are more effective when supported by core data. Under some conditions. A geologist should be consulted when analyzing logs for reservoir zonation and net sand thickness. Porosity of net sand usually is in the range from 10 to 30 %. Generally. However. The logs can be calibrated by core data to make them more useful from a quantitative standpoint. only a fraction of the wells are cored. logs are available for all wells drilled and represent the most complete set of reservoir descriptive data. Permeability is a measure of the relative ease with which fluids flow through the rock. Primary porosity can also exist in fractures and vugs. the calibrated logs can be used to obtain fairly good estimates of the porosity and permeability profiles at all wells in a reservoir. fluid distribution. For example. Wireline logs Electric and other types of logs can be very important tools for determining reservoir layering. Core analysis data is more quantitative than logs in describing the reservoir. stratification also exists within the net sand layers themselves and the degree of porosity and permeability can vary greatly within each strata. small mineral particles may be deposited in the space be25 .variations in porosity. Primary porosity may be modified by post depositional events. Net sand is the rock that contains recoverable hydrocarbons and possesses permeability. Porosity and Permeability The two most important properties of net sand are porosity and permeability. Stratification Stratification or heterogeneity occurs on all length scales in a reservoir. Some limestone and dolomite reservoirs locally may have porosities as high as 60 %.

Figure 2.2: Vertical heterogeneity or layering 26 .

Figure 2.3: Examples of structural and geological complexity 27 .

The process of reservoir description is sometimes referred to as formation evaluation and reservoir characterization. the permeabilities of the net sand portion of a reservoir will vary from 10 md or less to 500 md or more.Figure 2. These digenetic changes may greatly reduce the original porosity and permeability of a rock. These data are used to evaluate initial volumes of oil and gas in the reservoir Evaluation of potential sources of reservoir production energy. Gathering of data on the characteristics. It involves the following steps: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Gathering of data on the physical characteristics of formation rocks.g. so fluid flow profiles in the reservoir may be very uneven. Interpretation of the above data for accuracy and reliability. The ability of a rock to allow fluid flow is proportional to permeability. extent of aquifer and size of gas cap. occurrences and distribution of fluids within these rocks. 28 . Typically. e.4: Schematic of wireline logging operation tween sand grains to produce microporosity.

5: Formation microscanner and resistivity logs 29 .Figure 2.

Figure 2.6: Schematic of a rotory core barrel 30 .

It is therefore necessary to place considerable effort into preparing an effective data gathering program. pressure testing etc.7: Diamond coring bits Data collection is expensive (wireline logging.Figure 2. sampling. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) How much stock tank oil and/or free gas is initially in place? What is the likely primary recovery mechanism and will it be necessary to supplement this energy by water or gas injection? What are the oil and gas reserves (production volumes for a particular field development)? How will individual well rates decline. and how can the decline in production rate be arrested? 31 . 2.) and the collection of poor quality or inaccurate data is contradictory and wasteful.1 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION PROGRAM The primary objectives of a data gathering program are to answer the following questions: (i) (ii) Does the formation contain commercial quantities of oil and gas? How should the reservoir be produces to maximize economic return? or. more specifically.

8: Schematic of a sidewall coring gun 32 .Figure 2.

9: Full diameter core 33 .Figure 2.

11: Sampling anisotropic core 34 .10: Length scales for laboratory core analysis Figure 2.Figure 2.

2 SOURCES OF DATA The following is a guide to the type of data which may be collected with the drilling of the first well in a reservoir: Original reservoir pressure and temperature. provided that the data gathering program is well thought-out. However. Fluid samples. It is important to recognize this when developing the initial data gathering program. 35 . additional data becomes available. The overall data gathering program is thus a continuing process over the life of the field. Characteristics of reservoir fluid. Stratigraphic sequence of rock at the well. Gross reservoir thickness at the well.The above questions cannot all be answered immediately after drilling of a discovery well. The above information is obtained from: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Core samples. As the field is developed and produced. Reservoir porosity. Pressure and production testing. Well productivity (permeability). Lithology of the reservoir rock. the engineer can arrive at reasonable planning estimates. and this is integrated with the existing data to reduce the level of uncertainty associated with the initial estimates. 2. Initial fluid saturations. Wireline logs.

Additional delineation or development wells drilled after the first discovery well should provide the following data: Reservoir thickness variations to allow mapping of the field. Areal variations in permeability, porosity and water saturation. Continuity of stratigraphic units between wells. Vertical permeability variations (vertical barriers to flow) in the reservoir. Variations of sub-sea depth of reservoir top and base for structure maps. Depth Of gas-oil and oil-water contacts. Variations in fluid compositions within the reservoir.

These factors are determined in the same manner as for the first well. The presence of multiple wells allows interference testing between wells to determine average permeabilities between wells and to test the continuity of individual sand units. Not all of the above data will be collected from each well drilled. The engineer must continually assess the data gathering process and only collect that data which materially reduces the level of uncertainty in estimating the important reservoir parameters. When areal variations in rock properties are large, it may be necessary to collect all the data from all the wells drilled and to drill additional data wells.


Coring And Core Analysis

Coring is the most basic formation evaluation tool. It provides the engineer with the only opportunity to physically inspect a piece of the reservoir. It provides the only means of determining, (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Reservoir wettability. Capillary pressure. Relative permeability. Residual oil saturation.


These are important in determining formation production characteristics and reservoir recovery factors. Measurements on reservoir core samples are also required for: (i) (ii) Calibration of wireline logs, essential for quantitative log interpretation. Identifying potential causes of formation damage.

It is difficult to base an entire reservoir description entirely on core analysis data. This is because even in a heavily cored reservoir, the total cored volume constitutes only a very small fraction of the entire reservoir volume. As a result, it is very difficult to assess the statistical significance of the data. At least one well in the reservoir should be cored over the entire producing interval. The data obtained provides valuable information for describing vertical variations in reservoir rock properties.


Wireline Logging

Wireline logging provides information on: (i) (ii) (iii) lithology, porosity, water saturation,

of the formation penetrated by a well. Whereas only a few wells are fully cored, it is common practice to log all wells in the field. Logs provide the basis for determining, (i) gross and net formation thickness, (ii) correlations identifying individual reservoir sand units, (iii) continuity of reservoir sand units,


There are three basic types of log: 1. 2. 3. Electric — fundamental log run in all wells drilled. Most electric logs must be run in an uncased hole containing conducting fluid. Sonic — Usually run in open hole. Radioactivity — can be run successfully under nearly all wellbore conditions.

Although logs provide valuable data for reservoir description, the main purpose of logging is to identify a suitable completion interval for the well. A logging program should be designed to designed to provide the data required for reservoir description at a minimum cost. Lithology and borehole conditions must be considered in the selection of a suitable suite of logs. This will usually require a trial-and-error process of selecting the most effective combination of logs for a particular reservoir. Prior experience is a major fracture in the design of an effective logging program.


Pressure and Production Testing

Pressure and production tests are designed to determine, (i) (ii) fluid content, formation productivity.

Production tests repeated on a yearly basis over the life of a well provide valuable information on, (i) wellbore plugging, (ii) reservoir pressure decline, (iii) invasion of the wellbore by water or gas. Pressure build-up and draw-down tests involve flowing a single well at a constant rate for a predetermined period of time and then shutting-in the well and observing the rate at which the wellbore pressure rises or falls with time. An analysis of the pressure response allows an estimate of formation productivity and permeability.


Figure 2.12: Wireline formation interval tester

Interference tests provide checks on formation permeability and continuity. These tests involve flowing a production well and measuring the resulting pressure decline at nearby wells. Drill-stem tests are usually run at the time the well is drilled to determine if the well should be completed over the interval identified by the well log. The DST tool allows us to make a temporary completion to conduct pressure build-up and draw-down tests. DST’s are useful for: (i) testing the potential production intervals, (ii) locating the positions of gas-oil and oil-water contacts, (iii) Determining average reservoir pressure.


Fluid Sampling

Reservoir oil usually contains a considerable amount of dissolved gas. When the oil is produced to the surface the gas comes out of solution and the oil volume consequently shrinks. The oil that fills a barrel at surface conditions will have occupied between 10%—50% at reservoir conditions. 39

Figure 2.13: Initial and production formation pressure data with flowmeter survey


15: Rate and pressure history for an interference test 41 .14: Single and multi-well pressure tests Figure 2.Figure 2.

A rule of thumb is that at least one well is needed for each 640 acres. For heterogeneous reservoirs this is reduced to 320 acres or less. Reservoir fluid may be sampled in two ways: 1.provide estimates of permeability and productivity. fluid properties may vary significantly both areally and vertically. also change when solution gas is released.used to calibrate logs for quantitative interpretation. Recombined surface samples — oil and gas samples from the test separator recombined in the ratio of the produced gas-oil ratio.3 INTEGRATED FORMATION EVALUATION PROGRAM No single wireline tool or procedure is capable of providing all the data required to characterize a reservoir and its contents. Enough samples should be taken to adequately describe these variations. The best approach is to adopt a Key Well Program. Fluid sampling . The following steps are taken in the development of such a program: 1. 2. In large reservoirs having high closure. Cores .only means of determining reservoir fluid properties. 42 .To determine oil-in-place it is necessary to know the number of stock tank barrels occupied by a reservoir barrel of oil. Subsurface — wireline samplers in the wellbore at the perforations or as part of the initial open-hole formation evaluation program. It is therefore necessary to develop an integrated formation evaluation program which consists of a carefully considered mix of: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Logs . A number of Key wells are selected to provide a representative coverage over the reservoir. such as density and viscosity. Well testing . 2. These properties are very important in reservoir fluid flow calculations and must be accurately known. Other important properties of oil.these provide most of the data for reservoir characterization.

16: Bottom hole sampling tool 43 .Figure 2.

4. This will include logging. 3. 2. 1. 5. Early in the development of the field this information is required to achieve proper well spacing and productive completions. The above steps ensure a data gathering procedure which is both simple and cost effective. coring and well testing to provide complete reservoir coverage over the reservoir.Figure 2. A reservoir description program is needed during all phases of the producing life of a field. 44 . The above data gathering procedures are continuously monitored with the objective of eliminating any unnecessary or ineffective procedures. After field development the information is used for reservoir energy control in order to achieve high ultimate recovery. A data gathering program is designed for each key well. Logs run in non-key wells are then interpreted according to the correlations developed for the key wells. Any available production data from key wells is also used to aide log interpretation.17: Surface sampling for laboratory recombination 2. Determining which logs provide the best quantitative data by comparing log interpretations with core data.

18: Key well program 45 .Figure 2.

Secondary and Tertiary recovery. The size and permeability of an aquifer will control how much water drive energy is available to the reservoir.Figure 2. 2. The aquifer 46 .limited data and interference 3.4 AQUIFER DESCRIPTION The aquifer is the total volume of porous water-bearing rock in pressure communication with a hydrocarbon reservoir. In addition to production wells it may be necessary to drill observation wells. These wells can provide data which includes: (i) (ii) (iii) Reservoir pressure.19: Aquifer models . Contacts can be detected by production tests. Position and movement of contacts. Pressure gradients in the reservoir. cased hole logging and 4D high-resolution interwell seismic. To effectively engineer these processes it is necessary to have an accurate reservoir description and an estimate of hydrocarbon recovery.

An estimate of the aquifer permeability can be determined from the results of drill-stem tests on dry holes. This topic will be covered in detail in the section on water drive reservoirs. The aquifer can have a major effect on the production-pressure performance of a will determine if the reservoir will produce primarily by water drive or by liquid or gas expansion within the reservoir. 47 . At the present time. If an aquifer is large. the areal extent of the aquifer can be estimated. Reservoir drive mechanisms will be discussed in detail later in the course. we are concerned only with methods of determining the size and permeability of an aquifer. Equations for calculating permeability from flow test data will be studies in the portion of the course entitled fluid flow. If enough dry holes are available. most of the information on it must come from wells drilled outside the reservoir area. Logs will show the thickness of water-bearing rock that is in communication with the reservoir. Logs and drill-stem tests on dry holes are about the only source of aquifer data.

The maps may show the top or the bottom of a structure or reservoir unit. 3. (i) well control. Contour maps are commonly used to show reservoir geometry and the distribution of important reservoir parameters.1 STRUCTURE MAPS Structure maps show the geometric shape of a reservoir or formation. Structure maps are prepared by geologists. Examples of top of structure maps are attached. The data on which the maps are drawn usually come from. and (iii) geological models of depositional and post-depositional events. This requires data which will allow us to calculate the size and geometry of the reservoir and the fluid volumes which the reservoir contains. In this section we will briefly look at how maps and cross-sections are used to describe the geometry of a reservoir and calculate the hydrocarbon volume in-place. (ii) geophysical data usually in the form of time maps. These maps also show the positions of fluid contacts in the reservoir.Chapter 3 VOLUMETRICS AND INITIAL HYDROCARBON VOLUME The first step in a reservoir study is to accurately determine the initial hydrocarbon volume. Structure maps on the top and on 48 . Gross thickness isopach maps show the total interval between the top and the base of the reservoir rock for each well.

1: Isometric schematic of the Ekofisk structure 49 .Figure 3.

the depth of the top of the oil column minus the top of the bottom of the oil column. The gross pay isopach map for an oil reservoir is more descriptive of the hydrocarbon reservoir geometry than the gross thickness isopach.2: Top-of-structure map of a hydrocarbon reservoir the base of the reservoir can provide data for the isopach map. the gross sand interval must be estimated from reservoir cross-sections based on logs from the well which penetrated the entire interval. 50 . Net oil isopach maps are commonly used to calculate volumes of hydrocarbons in-place. Net oil thickness isopach map: contours net pay . In this case.2 ISOPACH MAPS Isopach maps show the distribution and thickness of reservoir properties of interest. 3.Figure 3. most of the wells are not drilled to the base of the reservoir so a base structure map cannot be drawn. Frequently. Examples of common isopach maps are: Gross oil thickness isopach map: contours gross pay . The contour lines connect points of equal vertical interval.gross pay minus nonreservoir intervals such as shales.

51 .3: Net sand isopach map for a hydrocarbon reservoir Other useful maps include: Net-to-gross ratio maps: fraction of the total hydrocarbon interval which contributes to recovery. Iso-porosity map: contours average porosity over net-pay portions of the desired formation.Figure 3. Iso-water saturation map: contours average water saturation over net-pay portions of the desired formation.

Figure 3.5: Iso-water saturation map for a hydrocarbon reservoir 52 .4: Isoporosity map for a hydrocarbon reservoir Figure 3.

in any set of self consistent units: G= Vb φ(1 − S wi ) B gi 53 . expressed in Standard Cubic Feet (SCF). you should be able to calculate the constant 7758 in the preceeding equation.unit conversions on page 108 of Dake. B gi = average initial gas formation volume factor (RB/SCF) or.e. The original gas-in-place (OGIP) contained in a reservoir. Vb φ S wi B oi = = = = reservoir bulk volume (acre-feet) average porosity (fraction) average initial water saturation (fraction) average initial oil formation volume factor (RB/STB) or. in any set of self consistent units: N= Vb φ(1 − S wi ) B oi In this and the following reservoir engineering courses it is assumed that you are familiar with units and unit conversions i.3. starting with the above equation for any set of self consistent units. 7758Vb φ(1 − S wi ) G= B gi where.3 VOLUMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING ORIGINAL OIL-IN-PLACE The original oil-in-place (OOIP) contained in a reservoir expressed in Stock Tank Barrels (STB) is designated by the symbol N and is given by the equation (field units): 7758Vb φ(1 − S wi ) N= B oi where.. If you wish to review the topic of units go to the section Units . is designated by the symbol G and is given by the equation (in field units). Fundamentals of reservoir engineering.

3.1 Reservoir Volume The following information is required to calculate net reservoir volume: 1. Reservoir Stratification (and net-to-gross ratio). Bulk reservoir Volume. the bottom of the reservoir. The gross thickness is the difference in depth between the top and the bottom of the reservoir zone. 2. Construct a gross sand isopach map by removing intervals containing only gas or water. 54 . The calculation procedure involves the following steps: 1.6: Schematic of the microstructure of a sandstone showing sand grains and interconnected pore space which allows fluid flow 3. 2. These intervals will generally lie above the gas-oil contact (GOC) and below the oil-water contact (OWC).Figure 3. The map is based on log data and requires the construction of structure maps for. Prepare a map of gross reservoir thickness. (i) (ii) the top of the reservoir.

3. The restored state core is then used in the laboratory to duplicate the displacement processes by which the reservoir water saturation was initially established.3. siltstone. 3. Provided that invasion of drilling fluids has not changed reservoir wettability. coal seam etc. Logging — induction and focused resistivity logs. These logs measure formation resistivity which may be related to water saturation. coring with oil-based mud can result in core which gives a good indication of the irreducible water saturation.2 Average Porosity Average reservoir porosity is determined by mapping individual well porosity values. Restored state tests. These tests attempt to restore the wettability of core in the laboratory to that in the actual reservoir. 3. Coring with oil-based muds. The actual intervals to be excluded are picked from porosity logs which have been calibrated using core data. 2. This requires a knowledge of the wettability state of the reservoir and special core test data. The calculation is usually performed numerically using digitized maps. Construct a net sand isopach map by eliminating all non-reservoir rock intervals (shale.3. This procedure will normally involve estimates of minimum porosity and permeability cut-offs. This corresponds to the water saturation in the reservoir above the transition zone. 55 .). These are determined from core data and from sonic and radioactivity logs calibrated with core data.3 Average Initial Water Saturation The methods used to determine reservoir water saturation include: 1. In the transition zone the core will indicate low water saturation because the oil from the oil-based mud will have displaced some of the mobile water from the core during the coring operation. 3.

The overall objective is to collect sufficient data to develop meaningful correlations between log measured resistivity and water saturations in restored state laboratory tests. at least one well should be cored in this manner to provide data for calibration of log resistivity.The data gathering program should include water saturation data determined by all of the above methods. This data is also used to calibrate logs. 3.4 Average Oil Formation Volume Factor The average oil formation volume factor is required to convert the reservoir oil or gas filled hydrocarbon volume to the equivalent volumes at surface or stock tank conditions. Although cutting core with oil-based mud is expensive. (ii) Reservoir temperature and pressure. For these conditions a top-of-structure map and average porosity and water saturation are all that is needed to calculate the initial or original oil-in-place. Laboratory measurements on restored state core also provide capillary pressure data which can be used to calculate water saturations in the transition zone. 3. we consider the very simple case of a homogeneous reservoir with unity net-to-gross ratio where the bottom of the reservoir is the horizontal surface formed by the water-oil contact (WOC). 56 .3.the spreadsheet program which we will be using throughout the course. These are usually estimated from DST tests conducted on exploration wells. Oil and gas formation volume factors are determined in laboratory PVT tests conducted with representative samples of reservoir oil and gas.5 Determining Initial Oil-In-Place In order to illustrate the calculation of initial oil-in-place and introduce Mathcad .3. Estimates of oil formation volume factors may be obtained from empirical correlations if the following are known: (i) Initial gas-oil ratio (solution GOR).

irreducible or connate water in a waterwet porous medium 57 .Figure 3.7: Schematic of interstitual.

This is usually done 58 .mcd] Calculate the initial volume of oil-in-place for the Apache Pool reservoir (top-ofstructure map attached). The contour areas must be determined from the map. The first step is to determine the area inside each depth contour. The areas of the spreadsheet where these changes may need to be made are highlighted in yellow.Figure 3.2715 (RB/STB) We use this exercise to introduce you to Mathcad.27 = 0. Data: φ S wi B oi = 0.Calculation of OOIP from a reservoir structure map [IHIP.1 . In order to see the solution to this exercise you will need to change some of the inputs to the spreadsheets. It is assumed that you have installed Mathcad on your PC and that you have worked through the basics in the on-line tutorial. average connate water saturation and average oil formation volume factor have been determined and these values are given below. The average porosity. [Answer: 340 MMSTB] Solution outline 1.8: Reservoir pressure survey map used to determine average reservoir pressure Example 3.38 = 1.

Figure 3.9: Structure map for the Apache field 59 .

A1 . For this example I have digitized each of the contours by hand and used Simpson’s rule to numerically calculate the area. also located in the [Contours] folder. y) numbers . You will need to change the other input contour file names to see the areas and plots for each of the ignors blanks or anything which it does nor recognise as a numerical input. This makes it a little easier to program the calculations. y) points defining each curve. [Contour. A2 . You can use as many data points as you like to define a contour . To determine the area of a depth contour I first printed an enlarged copy of the Apache structure map and overlayed this with a 1 cm by 1 cm grid. 60 ..prn] in the folder [Contours]. If you open one of these files you will see the how the points are entered for the lower and upper contours.using specialized computer software and digitized maps. reads the contour files and calculates the areas. are multiplied by the map scale-factor squared to convert the map areas to actual field values. A0 . This makes it easy to annotate or ”pretty-up” the input file so that it is understandable to the casual reader. Note that the end-points for the lower and upper contours are the same.the more points you use. I then divided each contour into an upper and lower curve as shown in the attached figure and read-off the (x. the smoother the contour and the more accurate the area calculation. Study the three figures to be sure that you understand what is being done. The only limitation is that the total number of points defining the lower and upper contours must be the same. This is done in the manner outlined in the course notes and you should have no trouble following the flow of the] . etc. and plots the contour. The areas within each contour. When you open [Contour.prn] all it ”sees” is a matrix of (x. When Mathcad reads a file like [C2000. The use of Simpson’s rule for numerical integration is shown in the attached figures. These points are entered into a file for each contour eg. [] you will see that I have left it doing one contour over and over.

The initial oil-in-place is the sum of the values for each volume element. or the contour interval. The initial volume of oil-in-place in volume element ∆Vi . N= X i ∆Vi See the attached figures which show how Simpson’s rule is used to calculate contour areas from digitized map data. ∆Ni = ∆Vi φi (1 − S wc. the area enclosed by the lower any consistent set of units (as used by Mathcad). 61 .i 4.i ) B oi. the vertical height between the contours. The bulk volume between two successive contours is given by the pyramidal formula: µ ¶ q h Ai + Ai+1 + Ai Ai+1 ∆Vi = 3 where. is given by. ∆Vi Ai Ai+1 h = = = = bulk volume between contours i and i + 1. 3.2. the area enclosed by the upper contour.

Contour is divided into upper and lower curves Upper curve Lower curve Figure 3.1.11: Computer calculation of contour areas 62 .10: Computer calculation of contour areas Simpson's rule to calculate the area under the upper and lower curves yi yi+ 1 yi yi+ 1 AU ∆x A= X AL ∆x yi − yi+ 1 ∆x 2 Figure 3.

Contour Area AU AC = AU − AL AL Figure 3.12: Computer calculation of contour areas 63 .

Use this equation to calculate the gas formation factor. Problem in o R (o R=o F +460) and P the average reservoir pressure . [Answer: 223 BSCF] Solution hint The gas formation volume factor is given by. The average reservoir and fluid properties are given below.877 ? All other data as for Exercise 3.19 210o F 2300 psia 0. Data: φ S wi T P z = = = = = 0. volumes etc. the initial reservoir temperature was 200o F.2 . If you want to master Mathcad you can modify the files used in the previous example to do the in psia.00504 zT P [RB/SCF] where T .48 TSCF] 64 .21 0. If you choose to do this make sure that you have looked at the Units section of the on-line Mathcad tutorial before making the necessary changes. calculated in the previous exercise to help you solve this problem by hand calculation or using your favourite spread-sheet.89 [Answer: 6. If you do this be sure to be careful with units. B g = 0.Calculation of OGIP from a reservoir structure map How much gas would the Apache Pool contain if the initial reservoir pressure was 1500 psia.Calculation of OGIP from a reservoir structure map Estimate the initial volume of gas-in-place for the Marlin Field (top-of-structure map attached). You can use the areas.1 . and the gas compressibility factor was 0.1.the average reservoir temperature .Problem 3.

Note that for the Marlin contours the contour depth intervals are not all the same] made for Problem 3. initial water saturation. Pay special attention to the particular manner in which these files are constructed! Modify the [Contour.1 to convert it to a gas in-place calculation. areas etc. You will need to make the same changes to [Contour. Create a full copy of the folder for Example 3. If you have been following the Mathcad route .1 and construct the data files for contours (there are 9 of these).13: Marlin field top-of-structure map Solution hint You are free to solve this problem any way you want including using any commercial or in-house software to which you may have access. Print a full-size (or larger) copy of the Marlin structure map.1 and in order to modify the files to solbe the present problem. You will probably need to revise the ’graphs’ section of the on-line manual to do] by copy-and-paste to calculate the areas for all nine contours.this problem will bring you right up the learning curve. The best way to handle this is to read-in individual values of h in the same way as we already read-in individual values of porosity. Follow the outline for Example 3.I recommend this strongly . You can do this 65 .Figure 3. Modify the final graph which plots the contours to plot all nine contours.

Describing these changes is a lot more difficult than making them! If you succede in making the above changes you will have learnt all you need to know to reproduce any of the Mathcad spreadsheets in this and other adding a column of numbers to the input data file and making the appropriate changes in the spreadsheet. introducing a new array for h. and modifying the equations to calculate with the array elements hi . 66 . These changes will involve reading-in the new values.

The more production history available. 2. 3. This program (on an annual basis) should be continued throughout the producing life of the field. . Material balance calculations: 1. OOIP is determined using the Volumetric Method. The computed water influx and measured reservoir pressures are used to characterize the size and strength of the aquifer. 4. Accurately determine initial reservoir pressure. 67 2. The material balance method is the preferred method for determining the original gas-in-place (OGIP) for gas reservoirs with no significant water influx. For reservoirs where water influx is significant the analysis procedure is as follows: 1.4 DETERMINATION OF OIL-IN-PLACE — MATERIAL BALANCE METHOD Material balance methods are another way of determining the initial hydrocarbon content of a reservoir. The method is most accurate for gas-cap-drive reservoirs if the pressure drop is at least 100 psi.3. The method is most precise for reservoirs where water influx is not significant. The Material Balance Equation is then used to predict future water influx and hence future reservoir performance. Initiate a program for periodic reservoir pressure measurement immediately after commencement of production. 2. The Material Balance Equation is used to calculate the water influx. the greater the accuracy of the calculation. Require some production history (reservoir pressure and fluid production rates with time). For Material Balance calculations to produce realistic results it is necessary to: 1. This should be measured as part of the data gathering program for the discovery well.

The best oil samples are obtained before the reservoir is produced because the pressure drop which accompanies production may result in the release of solution gas and this may preclude the possibility of obtaining a representative fluid sample. material balance calculations require equally accurate water and gas volumes. Establish the primary production mechanism. This will usually involve the use of numerical reservoir simulators. Although produced oil volumes are accurately measured as a matter of routine. Gas sampling does not have this problem. of critical importance. Rock property data (porosity and permeability).again. The implication of this is that the more reliable the data (production history data). Accurately determine fluid PVT data. Apply the analysis procedure appropriate to the drive mechanism to estimate reserves. fluid property data.5 ESTIMATING RESERVES Reserves for a particular field are estimated from an analysis of the available engineering data. 68 . 4. reservoir description and production performance data (pressure decline and fluid production rates) are the basis for the analysis. Accurately measure and diligently report the production volumes for all the fluids produced.3. This requires representative oil and gas samples at reservoir conditions. 2. the more accurate will be the estimate of reserves. 3. Collecting all production data from early in the life of a field is . The procedure for estimating reserves involves the following steps: 1.

6 ESTIMATING DECLINE IN OIL PRODUCTION RATES The decline in field and individual well production rates is estimated on the basis of: 1. The productivity index is usually a function of flow rate and reservoir pressure (oil relative permeability. The productivity index for a well is the well production rate per psi of pressure draw-down. 3.3. oil viscosity). Productivity index method. For wells subject to severe water and/or gas coning reservoir simulation offers the most reliable method for predicting well decline rates and overall reservoir performance.Reservoir Engineering II. Well flow tests must therefore be conducted at different rates and the productivity index must be adjusted for falling reservoir pressure. For wells producing at limited draw-down (below their maximum rate) extrapolated decline rates are not meaningful. Decline curve analysis are studied in detail in course PTRL6007 . Reservoir engineering is studied in detail in course PTRL6004 . This is determined from well flow tests.Reservoir Simulation. For wells not subject to severe water and/or gas coning this method provides reliable estimates of production decline rates. Decline curve analysis. 69 . 2. Reservoir simulation. Decline curve extrapolation is satisfactory only for wells which are produced continuously at maximum or near maximum rates.

Determination of gas-oil and water-oil contacts from pressure data. Introduction to hydrostatic pressures in reservoirs. Locating exploration wells searching for oil in a water. 2.or gas-bearing formation. 3. 5.the pressure which exists prior to significant production from the reservoir. 4. 70 . Determination of oil water and gas densities and gradients from pressure data. Calculation of pressure kicks on penetrating a hydrocarbon zone.Chapter 4 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN RESERVOIRS This section deals with the hydrostatic or initial pressure distribution in a reservoir . We will consider the following specific topics: 1.

9 0. and the reservoir and associated aquifer are initially in static equilibrium.28 = = = = kg/m3 kPa bar m All of the above units may be embedded into working Mathcad files and can be used interchangeably or you can even mix units if you want.1 SUBSURFACE PRESSURES Water zone pressures In normally pressured sedimentary basins water contained in the pore space of a reservoir (connate water) is in pressure communication with the atmosphere through the oceans or outcrops.1 4. Normally we would not elect to mix units! 4. p2 − p1 = ρw g(D2 − D1 ) 71 .695 psia × × × × 16.02 6.069 3. The difference in hydrostatic pressure between any two depth points in a formation containing water is.1. Since the pore spaces which comprise the effective porosity of the reservoir are all interconnected.01325 bar or 14.81 m/s2 1 N/m2 105 N/m2 1. pressure varies only with depth.Symbols and Units g D p ρ Dowc Dgoc Dgwc gravity constant depth to subsurface pressure density depth of initial oil-water contact depth of initial gas-oil contact depth of initial gas-water contact = = = = m/s2 m N/m2 kg/m3 m m m g 1 Pascal (Pa) 1 bar 1 Atmosphere Conversion factors lb/ft3 psi psi ft 9.

we obtain the water gradient. In general we define a phase pressure gradient as γi = ρi g where the subscript i may be o-oil.433 psi/ft. For the water zone the pressure difference is ∆pw = γw ∆D The gradient for fresh water is 0. 4. Using the definition of the fluid gradient. ∆pi . If we divide this pressure difference by (D2 − D1 ). pwD = p0 + ρw gD The term ρw g(D2 − D1 ) is the hydrostatic pressure difference which has units of pressure.1. If we take p0 to be the pressure at the surface (atmospheric) where D1 = 0. w-water or g-gas. γw . Since water is only slightly compressible. p2 − p1 = ρw g(D2 − D1 ) where it is understood that ρw is the average pressure over the interval of interest. the equation may be written as. poD . ρw varies with depth (pressure) and salinity. at depth D in the oil zone may be expressed in terms of the oil pressure at the initial OWC (a commonly used datum point for reservoir engineering calculations) as. poD − poDOW C = ρo g(D − DOW C ) 72 . it is customary to neglect the overbar symbol and simply write.2 Oil zone pressures The initial pressure. ρw is the average density of water over the interval (D2 − D1 ) and g is the gravitational acceleration. pwD − p0 = ρw gD or. we can write that the pressure difference between any two depths. which is equal to ρw g and has units of pressure per unit depth. is ∆pi = γi ∆D where ∆D is the difference in depth.where.

at depth D in the gas cap may be expressed in terms of the gas pressure at the initial GOC as. 4.3 Gas cap pressures The initial pressure. 73 . poD = poDOW C − ρo g(DOW C − D) or.1: Hydrostatic pressure distribution in a reservoir which may be rearranged to give. pgD .1. pgD = pgDGOC − ρg g(DGOC − D) or.Figure 4. pgD − pgDGOC = ρg g(D − DGOC ) or. poD = poDOW C − γo (DOW C − D) where ρo is the average density of oil at reservoir conditions. pgD = pgDGOC − γg (DGOC − D) where ρg is the average density of gas at reservoir conditions.

74 . the WOC and GOC are sharp and the fluid pressures at the contacts are equal. The resulting hydrostatic pressure distribution in the reservoir is shown in the attached figure.4.2 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN A RESERVOIR CONTAINING OIL. Note that the contacts correspond to the intersections of the fluid gradient lines. WATER AND GAS In the absence of capillary pressure. This can be used estimate the positions of the contacts from measured pressuredepth data.

2: Hydrostatic pressure distribution in a reservoir assuming negligible capillary pressure 75 .Figure 4.

Example 4.1 []







Five widely separated exploration wells were drilled in a large sedimentary basin. While penetrating the aquifer, the following pressure measurements were made in each of the wells: Well A B C Rotary table elevation (ft above MSL) 2133 1312 2707 Measured depth (ft) 9744 13993 8235 Gauge Pressure (psia) 4340 5656 2480 Determine if all the wells belong to the same pressure system. In answering this question you can use the Mathcad spreadsheet [] which reads the above data and calculates the required fluid gradients. [Answer: Well-A is clearly in an overpressured separate hydraulic system] D 3937 17388 6005 E 197 9383 4090

Solution hints The relationship between true vertical depth sub-sea DT V D , measured depth DM D , and depth above mean sea level DM SL is given by DT V D = DM D − DM SL The average water gradient (sea-level to depth of measurement), γw , is given by γw = ∆p DT V D


Example 4.2 - Calculation of fluid contacts and fluid gradients from pressure data [] The following formation tester pressure measurements were made in an exploration well. Estimate: (i) the depths of the contacts (ii) the density and the nature of the fluids present in the formation Depth Pressure (ft) (psia) 8120 2912 8202 2920 8284 2927 8366 2950 8448 2978 8530 3005 8612 3038 8694 3075 8776 3114

Solution hints Plot the data on a depth-pressure plot. Identify lines of constant slope, these show zones of different fluid saturation. Determine the gradients of depth-pressure lines and from these calculate the fluid densities. The densities identify the fluids. [] is a general spreadsheet which I have found very useful in analysing a wide range of formation pressure-depth data. If you have access to commercial or in-house software which does similar things, feel free to use it. [Answer: DGOC = 8302 ft ss., DOW C = 8573 ft ss., ρg = 13.2 lb/cubic ft., ρo = 48.3 lb/cubic ft., ρw = 66.8 lb/cubic ft. ]


Figure 4.3: Hydrostatic pressure-depth data plot


Problem 4.1 - Optimal Location of an Exploration Well [] Exploration well EX-1 intersected a hydrocarbon bearing sand with a vertical thickness of 200 ft between 6560 and 6760 ft-subsea. A wireline formation tester recovered some gas and mud and recorded a pressure of 3850 psia at 6660 ft-ss. A second exploration well EX-2 encountered the same sand between 7780 ft-ss and 7980 ft-ss but found it to be only water-bearing. Mechanical problems with the downhole gauge prevented a pressure measurement from being taken. The two wells are 12,000 ft apart. On the basis of previous experience and sampling of reservoir fluids we have determined that the regional water gradient is 0.524 psi/ft. The formation is normally pressured. The pressure gradient for the gas phase at reservoir conditions is calculated to be 0.084 psi/ft. The oil gradient, at reservoir conditions, is estimated to be 0.296 psi/ft. Questions (i) (ii) (iii) Is the above data consistent with the assumption that the formation could be oil-bearing between 6660 and 7880 ft-ss ? Where would you locate an additional exploration well which would definitely find oil if any oil is indeed present? What is the maximum possible thickness of the oil zone?

[Answers: (i) yes, (ii) new well should intersect the sand at a depth of 7445 ft ss., (iii) 910 ft.]

Solution hints Each of the wells gives us a fluid and a corresponding fluid pressure. Where a mechanical problem prevented the measurement of a water phase pressure, we can estimate the pressure by assuming that the formation is normally pressured (i.e., water gradient times depth). The first well gives us the depth of lowest known gas. The second well gives the depth of highest known water. If an oil zone exists, it must be between these depths. Knowing the gas and water gradients, and a fluid pressure and corresponding depth in the gas and water zones, we can draw the gas and water gradient lines 79

Figure 4.4: Maximum thickness of an oil zone between gas and water contacts

on a pressure-depth plot. If there is no oil present (only gas and water), the depth of the GWC can be found from the intersection of the gas and water gradient lines. If a drop of oil is present it must gravitate to this depth splitting the GWC into a WOC and a GOC. The third well must intersect this depth to prove if any oil is present in the reservoir. The maximum possible thickness of the oil zone occurs when either the lowest known gas or the highest known water corresponds to an oil contact. How do we select which of the two is a possible contact? Simple, draw the oil gradient line through each of the points and select the one which produces a set of contacts (OWC and GOC) which are consistent with lowest known gas and highest known water. If you understand the principles involved and the steps required to solve the problem you should have little problem in entering the correct data into [] and manipulating the graph by setting appropriate contact and oil gradient lines to produce the correct answer. 80

If you know what you are doing you can solve the problem faster with a hand calculator! I have prepared the spreadsheet [PKICK.35 psi/ft gas gradient 0. water gradient 0. This difference gives rise to a pressure kick. the reservoir pressure at the top of the reservoir is higher than the pressure at the base of the] as an example of how a simple calculation can be layed out in Mathcad. 81 . On penetrating the hydrocarbon column the reservoir pressure is equal to the pressure at the contact minus the gravity head of hydrocarbon column from the contact to the top of the reservoir. the drill bit experiences a water hydrostatic pressure gradient because the seal is saturated with water and in a normally pressured system this water is in hydraulic communication with the aquifer.08 psi/ft What would the pressure kick be if the entire hydrocarbon zone contained gas? [Answer: 104 psi] Solution hints When drilling through the cap rock which forms the reservoir seal. You do not really need a spreadsheet to solve this problem.2 .Problem 4.Calculation of a Pressure Kick when Penetrating a Hydrocarbon Zone [PKICK. Since a hydrocarbon column is lighter than a water column of equivalent] Calculate the pressure kick to be expected when a well first penetrates a reservoir at 5000 ft subsea if the reservoir is known to have an OWC at 5500 ft and an GOC at 5200 ft. Just before the bit penetrates the reservoir the bit pressure is the of the water gradient and depth. The formation is known to be normally pressured with the following phase gradients.45 psi/ft oil gradient 0. Enter the correct numbers and you will get the solution.

Well-A was drilled down-dip of the structure and encountered only the aquifer. Six RFT pressures were measured over this interval.Interpretation of Repeat Formation Tester (RFT) data The RFT allows an unlimited number of spot pressure measurements to be made in a single trip in an open hole.Figure 4. This allows the engineer to determine pressuredepth profiles across reservoir sections of interest. 82 .5: Calculation of a pressure kick Problem 4. Comparing pressure-depth profiles in different wells can provide valuable information on field fluid contacts and the degree of areal and vertical communication . The operator had the foresight to measure water pressures over a 160 foot interval to determine the water pressure regime in this new area. The second Well-B.3 .sealing or non-sealing faults. Two wells were drilled in a remote region. was drilled up-structure several kilometers from Well-A and discovered a 50 foot oil column with good porosity and permeability.

ss) 6075 6091 6108 6220 6232 Well-B Depth (ft.The pressures recorded for the two wells are summarized Pressure (psia) 5771 2602 5778 2604 5790 2608 5800 2610 5806 2612 5816 2615 Pressure (psia) 2662 2669 2677 2725 2731 What conclusions can you draw from this data with regard to the fluids. Well-A Depth (ft. 83 . Note that in order to meaningfully compare the pressures in the wells it is necessary to convert measured depths to a common datum (depth sub-sea) and to express pressures in absolute units (psia). the reservoir and the aquifer? [Answer: you tell me] Solution hints Try using

3 GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT The geothermal gradient.Figure 4. On the average it is about 1o F/100 ft. GT . varies considerably from location to location. 84 . Tf = Ts + GT Df where Ts is the surface temperature and Df is the formation depth. We can use this to estimate subsurface formation (reservoir) temperatures. Tf .6: Lithostatic gradient 4. as.

7: Geothermal gradient 85 .Figure 4.

gas initially dissolved in the oil is released from solution. The properties are called PVT (pressurevolume-temperature) properties of the reservoir fluids. Density. Before considering the specific PVT parameters of interest to reservoir engineering it is necessary to review some general but basic concepts in hydrocarbon phase behavior. The volume of solution gas released and the associated changes in oil properties have a significant influence on the production characteristics of the reservoir.Chapter 5 FLUID PROPERTIES Production from a reservoir is usually accompanied by a decline in reservoir pressure. When sufficient production has taken place for the pressure to fall below the oil bubble point pressure. These properties are determined in special laboratory tests which require representative reservoir fluid samples. Oil shrinkage. 86 . compressibility and viscosity of all the fluids present. The fluid properties of interest in the analysis of reservoirs include: Amount of gas in solution. The attached figure shows a schematic of solution gas release in an oil reservoir.

The P-T phase diagram can be constructed by experimentally observing the behavior of the pure substance in a windowed high pressure test cell as shown in the attached figure. which terminates in a critical point (C). may be compressed indefinitely without passing through a phase transition.. the vapor pressure curve.1.1: Oil reservoir above and below the bubble point 5. a liquid or a solid (or a mixture of liquid and gas or a mixture of all three) depends on: Pressure.Figure 5. A gas at a temperature above it’s critical temperature. propane. Over the pressure and temperature range shown in the attached figure. Composition 5.1 PHASE BEHAVIOR All substances can exist as gases. Temperature. divides the P-T space into liquid and gas regions. methane etc. The state of a pure substance can be represented on a P-T phase diagram. To the right of the critical point lies a single phase super critical region. temperature and pressure fully define the state of the hydrocarbon. liquids or solids.1 Pure Hydrocarbons For a pure hydrocarbon such as ethane. Whether a particular substance exists as a gas. butane. 87 .

3: Surface production system for an oil reservoir 88 .Figure 5.2: Surface production system for a gas reservoir Figure 5.

liquid for points above the vapor pressure curve. mixture of liquid and vapor for points on the vapor pressure curve. - - - 5. increasing temperature at constant pressure (states A to B) does not result in a phase change. Point F represents a liquid state at high pressure. When the pressure falls below the vapour pressure to point A. The attached figure shows the P -T phase diagram for a 50:50 mixture of propane and heptane. increasing the pressure at constant temperature can result in a phase change from vapor to liquid when the pressure increases to the vapor pressure. If the pressure is reduced to the fluid vapour pressure (the intersection of the line AF and the vapour pressure curve) both liquid and vapour phases can coexist. state A. For pure substances at temperatures above the critical temperature changing pressure (states E to D) at constant temperature does not result in a phase change.1. The P-T phase diagram shows that: For a liquid state at high pressure. Also plotted are the pure component vapor pressure curves.2 Hydrocarbons Mixtures The behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures is more complex than that of a pure fluid.To the left of the critical point the fluid is. reducing the pressure at constant temperature can result in a phase change from liquid to vapor when the pressure falls to the vapor pressure. For a gas state at high temperature. The behavior of more complex mixtures is similar. The major differences between the P -T phase diagrams for a single component and a two-component mixture are: 89 . For purposes of illustration we consider a two component mixture. For a gas state at temperatures below the critical temperature. vapor for points below the vapor pressure curve. the fluid is in a single vapour state.

Figure 5.4: Pressure-temperature diagram for ethane 90 .

The size and shape of the two-phase region and the location of the critical point vary with mixture composition. The two-phase region is bound by a bubble point line and a dew point line which meet at the mixture critical point. 91 . liquid and gas phases mixtures may exist at conditions above the critical point. 4. 5. For the mixture there now exists a two-phase region or a range of pressures over which two phases can coexist at constant temperature. The bubble point pressure is the pressure at which the first bubble of gas appears as the pressure of a liquid is reduced at constant temperature. P − T phase diagrams are used to classify reservoir types. The critical point is the temperature and pressure at which the properties of the liquid and vapor phases are identical. We note that for mixtures. Within the two-phase region are lines of constant liquid (or gas) content.5: Pressure-temperature diagram for ethane-heptane mixtures 1. 2.Figure 5. The dew point pressure is the pressure at which the first drop of liquid appears as the pressure of a gas is increased at constant temperature. 3.

1. As the pressure continues to fall below the bubble point pressure along the line ABC. With production the reservoir pressure will fall at constant temperature T along the line A’ABC.6: Pressure-temperature diagram for a multi-component mixture 5. free gas appears in the reservoir as a result of solution gas release.3 Classification of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs Oil Reservoir The phase diagram for a typical oil reservoir having a temperature T is shown in the attached figure. 92 . As the pressure continues to fall in the two-phase region. the percentage liquid volume decreases. The reservoir is said to be undersaturated because the initial reservoir pressure is higher than the bubble point pressure which is at point A. The initial condition of the reservoir (temperature and pressure) is at point A’.Figure 5.

the reservoir temperature.7: Pressure-temperature diagram for a reservoir oil For an oil reservoir T . Retrograde Condensate Gas Reservoir The phase diagram for a typical retrograde condensate gas reservoir having a temperature T is shown in the attached figure. This behavior is termed retrograde. lies to the left of the critical point. the reservoir temperature. 93 . When pressure falls this reservoir enters the two-phase region through a dew point producing a condensate phase in the reservoir.Figure 5. lies to the right of the critical point. For a retrograde condensate gas reservoir T .

Figure 5.9: Pressure-temperature diagram for a gas reservoir 94 .8: Pressure-temperature diagram for a gas condensate reservoir Figure 5.

The reservoirs may be further classified as wet gas if the separator condition falls in the two-phase region. Parameter Oil Formation Volume Factor Symbol Definition Bo The reservoir volume in barrels (RB) that is occupied by one stock tank barrel (STB) of oil and its dissolved gas. 5. The volume of gas in SCF dissolved in one STB of oil at a specific reservoir pressure. The reservoir volume in barrels (RB) that is occupied by one standard cubic foot (SCF) of gas.Gas Reservoir The phase diagram for a typical gas reservoir having a temperature T is shown in the attached figures. When pressure falls these reservoirs do not enter the two-phase region. The fractional reduction in water volume that results from a pressure increase of one psi. The pressure at which the first bubble of gas evolves from solution. Gas Formation Volume Factor Bg Solution Gas-Oil Ratio Oil Compressibility Rs co Water Compressibility cw Bubble Point Pressure pb 95 . and dry gas if the separator condition is single-phase. For a gas reservoir T lies to the right of the two-phase region. The fractional reduction in oil volume that results from a pressure increase of one psi.2 PVT PROPERTIES The following definitions refer to the PVT properties used in reservoir engineering to characterize oil and gas reservoirs.

10: Production of an oil reservoir above and below the bubble point The above properties are used to relate surface volumes (mass) to reservoir volumes.Figure 5. What are the corresponding underground withdrawal rates in (RB/D)? The producing gas-oil ratio is R = Qg /Qo (SCF/ST B) This means that for every STB of oil which is produced at this pressure. the volume of free gas produced from the reservoir is (R − RS ) (SCF/STB) 96 . Calculation of underground withdrawal rates from surface measurements Oil and gas production rates. Since every STB of oil produced to the surface produces Rs SCF of solution gas. we produce R SCF of gas at the surface. are measured at the surface at a time when the reservoir pressure is P . Qo (STB/D)and Qg (SCF/D). This pressure is below the bubble point pressure Pb .

Bo =1.8 lb/ft3 and the gas gravity is 0.Relating surface rates to subsurface withdrawals [] The oil production rate is 2500 STB/D and the gas production rate is 2.67 (density of air at standard conditions is 0. the total underground withdrawal is Qo (Bo + (R − Rs )Bg ) Example 5. If the reservoir pressure at this time is 2400 psia.1822 RB/STB Rs =352 SCF/STB 97 Bg =0.1 . what are the underground withdrawal rates? If the density of stock-tank oil is 52.Figure 5. The PVT data at 2400 psia are. If we produce Qo STB of oil.11: Use of PVT properties to relate surface measured production rates to reservoir withdrawal volumes Each STB of oil produced to the surface requires the withdrawal of Bo RB of oil and is accompanied by (R − Rs )Bg RB of free gas.00119 RB/SCF .0763 lb/ft3 ) calculate the oil density and gas density at reservoir conditions when the reservoir pressure is 2400 psia.125 MMSCF/D.

5.65 lb/cubic ft.1 Pressure Dependence of PVT Properties Typical relationships between PVT properties and pressure are shown schematically in the attached figure.] Solution hint To calculate reservoir fluid densities use 1 STB oil and 1 SCF gas as a basis. Solution GOR The volume of dissolved gas decreases from Rsi . At pressures above Pb the gas in solution remains constant at Rsi . qg = 1482 RB/day.4 lb/cubic ft. ρo =47. Use the PVT properties and the surface densities to calculate the corresponding fluid masses at reservoir conditions.[Answer: qo = 2956 RB/day..2. Oil Formation Volume Factor Bo is generally greater than 1. Study the spreadsheet carefully in order to fully understand the calculation of densities at reservoir conditions. the initial solution GOR at the bubble point (Pb ). to zero at atmospheric pressure. Bo increases with pressure to Pb as a result of the increasing solubility of gas (the mass of the oil phase increases).0 at 0 psig because reservoir temperature is greater than the standard reference temperature of 60o F (oil expands with increasing temperature at constant pressure). This gives Bo and Bg as the reservoir volumes of oil and gas. 98 .mcd] and see the solution. ρg =7. Enter the correct numbers into the spreadsheet [SUBSURV. respectively.

12: Dependence of oil PVT properties on reservoir pressure 99 .Figure 5.

At reservoir conditions the volumetric behavior of gases is governed by the real gas law. lb mole gas constant. o R (o R =o F + 460) Taking one mole of gas at standard conditions (14. 10. ft3 gas deviation factor. psia volume.65 VR zR TR = 5. Bg = 14.73 psia ft3 /o R lb mole temperature. for natural gas may be estimated from the attached figure where the compressibility factor is plotted as a function of pseudo-reduced temperature (Tpr ) and pseudo-reduced pressure (Ppr ).65 zR TR = V1 520 z1 PR Since Bg has the units RB/SCF (1 bbl = 5.65V1 = z1 nR(60 + 460) PR VR = zR nR(TR ) Dividing the above equations we obtain. dimensionless number of moles.65 psia and 60 o F) and compressing it to reservoir conditions (PR psia and TR o R) gives. Gas Formation Volume Factor Bg decreases with increasing pressure as a result of the compressibility of the gas. Tpr = T Tpc 100 . 14. zR .For pressures greater than Pb .02 × 10−3 The compressibility factor.615 × 520 1 PR zR T R PR Bg = 5. VR 14.0. P V z n R T = = = = = = pressure. P V = znRT where. Bo decreases due to compression as pressure increases.615 5.615 ft3 ) and z1 = 1.

P V = nRT The number of moles n. The pseudo-critical properties of a gas are a function of gas gravity and may be estimated from the attached figure. γg is thus simply.Ppr = P Ppc where Tpc and Ppc are the gas pseudo-critical temperature and pseudo-critical pressure respectively. At standard conditions gases obey the ideal gas law and gas density may be expressed as. the density of air is. ρg = Similarly. and the molecular weight of the gas M . ρair = The gas gravity. m n= M Combining the equations gives. Gas gravity Gas gravity is the ratio of the density of a gas to the density of air at standard conditions. PV = or. may be expressed in terms of the mass of gas m. 101 . γg = ρg Mg = ρair 29 m P Mair = V RT m P Mg = V RT m RT M The molecular weight of the gas is determined from a laboratory analysis of a gas sample.

Figure 5.13: Pseudo-critical properties for natural gas and gas condensates 102 .

o R pressure of interest. the reduced temperature.3. zT P 103 . Tr . and reduced pressure.5. the compressibility factor.02 × 10−3 where T is in o R and P is in psia. may be read from compressibility charts and Bg in units of RB/SCF is calculated from: Bg = 5. psia critical pressure of the gas. z.1 CALCULATION OF GAS PROPERTIES Single Gas Component For a single gas component. Once Tr and Pr are known. T Tc P Pc = = = = temperature of interest.3 5. psia Tc and Pc are constants for a single gas component and may be obtained from standard tables of the properties of pure gas components. o R critical temperature of the gas. Pr . are defined as follows: T Tr = Tc P Pr = Pc where.

09 58.02 34.02 44.08 28.01 28.12 72.90 Tc R Pc psia 673 712 617 551 485 435 397 362 o Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane Water Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Hydrogen sulphide Air 344 550 666 766 847 914 972 1025 1365 3206 548 1073 227 492 673 1306 239 547 104 .2 18.2 114.CRITICAL PROPERTIES OF GASES Component Molecular Weight 16.07 44.17 100.15 86.04 30.

02 × 10−3 where T is in o R and P is in psia. Tpc . Gas gravity known If the gas gravity is known. Note: the gas gravity may be calculated from gas composition. the compressibility factor.3. Ppr . psia The pseudo reduced temperature.5. z. the chart may be used to estimate the gas pseudo critical properties. and pseudo critical pressure. o R = pseudo critical pressure of the gas. Ppc : Tpc = Ppc = where. Tpr . Gas molecular weight. may be read from compressibility charts and Bg calculated from: Bg = 5.2 Multi-Component Gas Mixtures A multi-component gas mixture may be treated as a single pseudo-component gas by defining appropriate pseudo critical temperature. and pseudo reduced pressure. are defined as follows: T Tpr = Tpc P Ppr = Ppc Once Tpr and Ppr are known. γg = Mg 29 105 . yi Tpc Ppc n X 1 n X 1 yi Tci yi Pci = mole fraction of component i in the mixture = pseudo critical temperature of the gas. Mg Mg = n X 1 zT P yi Mi where Mi is the molecular weight of component i.

5 33. The gas composition is: Component Mole Fraction Methane Ethane Propane 0. read z = 0.05 1.8 82.05 Solution Component Mole Fraction Tc (o R) Tc (o F ) Pc (psia) Methane Ethane Propane TOTAL o yTc 274.87)(225 + 460) = 5.00 -117 90 206 343 550 666 673 708 617 R =o F + 460 1.15 0.02×10−3 zT (0.80 0. Tpr = T 460 + 225 = = 1.80 0. Tpc = 391o R Ppc = 676psia 2. Bg = 5.75 Tpc 391 P 2500 = = 3.Example Calculation — Bg Calculate the gas formation volume and gas density at reservoir conditions of 225o F and 2500 psia. From the generalized compressibility chart.15 0.70 Ppc 676 Ppr = 3.2×10−3 RB/SCF P 2500 106 .02×10−3 = 1.87 4.3 390.6 yPc 539 106 31 676 0.

87 × 10. ρg = P Mg 2500 × 19.83 4.675 29 29 3 X 1 yi Mi (o F ) 12.20 19.Mg .54 = = 0.80 0.15 0.73 × (460 + 225) Mg 19. The gas composition is: Component Mole Fraction Methane Ethane Propane 0.05 Solution Component Mole Fraction Mi Methane Ethane Propane TOTAL 1.15 0.80 0.54 107 . γg = 3. gas gravity and the gas density at reservoir conditions of 225o F and 2500 psia.00 16 30 44 yi Mi = 19.05 1.51 2.54 = = 7.Example Calculation .64 lb/f t3 zRT 0. Mg = 2. γg and ρg Calculate the gas molecular weight.54 0.

10 0.0 66.12 0.266 Ppc 662 Ppr = 3. From the generalized compressibility chart.08 1.08 Solution Component Mole Fraction Tc (o R) Tc (o F ) Pc (psia) Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane TOTAL o yTc yPc 0. Tpc = 434o R Ppc = 662psia 2. Tpr = T 460 + 150 = = 1. read z = 0.Calculation of Gas Properties Calculate γg .8 R =o F + 460 1. Bg and ρg at reservoir conditions of 150o F and 1500 psia.70 0.7 61.3 44.00 -117 90 206 306 343 550 666 766 673 708 617 551 240.406 Tpc 434 P 1500 = = 2.12 0.10 0.6 61.0 85.70 0. The gas composition is: Component Mole Fraction Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane 0.0 661.1 434.1 471.75 108 .1 66.

12 0. Mg = 6.6 23.70 0.8 Component Mole Fraction Mi Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane TOTAL 5.8 Mg 23.10 0.08 1.4.29 lb/f t3 zRT 0.2 3.00 16 30 44 58 yi Mi = 23. ρg = 3 X 1 0.4 4. γg = 7.73 × (460 + 150) 109 .8 = = 7. Bg = 5.82 29 29 P Mg 1500 × 23.02×10−3 = 1.75)(150 + 460) = 5.6 4.02×10−3 zT (0.53×10−3 RB/SCF P 1500 yi Mi (o F ) 11.8 = = 0.75 × 10.

4 DETERMINATION OF OIL PVT DATA FROM LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS Laboratory tests to measure PVT parameters are carried using samples of reservoir oil at a constant reservoir temperature. 110 . 2. Separator flash expansion test. This is achieved by removing accurately measured volumes of mercury from the cell using a calibrated high precision piston pump. The pressure in the cell is lowered by increasing the cell volume. These cells allow accurate visual measurement of oil and gas volumes in the cell at different pressures. 3. Three specific tests are performed to characterize an oil and it’s associated gas: 1. The attached figure shows the essential features of the PVT test apparatus. Differential liberation test.Figure 5.14: Schematic of a laboratory PVT test cell 5. Flash expansion test . The laboratory tests are conducted in high pressure windowed cells.

15: Windowed PVT test cell 111 .Figure 5.

Figure 5.16: PVT laboratory at UNSW 112 .

The following table shows a set of typical laboratory data for this test.027 1. 5. pb .9975 1.4.9850 0. in the cell is measured at each step.9810 0. pb .2 Differential Liberation Test This test is designed to approximate the conditions in a reservoir where gas is released from solution as the pressure falls and the released gas moves away from the oil as a result of gravity segregation.1060 1.9925 0. vt . by noting that the total compressibility of the cell increases dramatically when gas is released from solution.1680 pi pb This data is used to determine the bubble point pressure. The cell pressure is lowered in small steps by removing a small volume of mercury at each step. All cell volumes are reported relative to the volume in the cell at the bubble point pressure. The total hydrocarbon volume. experiment starts with the cell at the bubble point pressure.0025 1. The pressure in the cell is reduced in small steps by removing mercury from the cell.5.0603 1. pi .0000 1. 113 .1 Flash Expansion Test A reservoir oil sample is introduced into the cell and mercury is injected to raise the cell pressure above the initial reservoir pressure.4. Pressure (psia) 5000 4500 4000 3500 3330 3290 3000 2700 2400 2100 Relative Total Volume vt = v/vb (RB/RBb ) 0.

Figure 5.17: Schematic representation of flash and differential liberation tests 114 .

0597 0.2369 6.0417 0.7794 pb 0.At each step the cell oil volume.7 psia and 200o F=74.2333 6.5859 6. The above procedure is repeated for small steps down to atmospheric pressure. the laboratory also reports the Cumulative Relative Gas Volumes collected at atmospheric pressure and reservoir temperature and at STC: Cumulative Relative Gas Volume at 14. Vg at p and T .0000 0.4114 6.8603 0.0535 0. vg .0460 0. are measured.7 Relative Gas Vol.9557 115 .1220 0.2297 In addition to the above data.9022 0.9449 0.1818 0.3728 200o F 60o F 8.0923 0. at p and T . Typical data produced from a differential liberation test is shown in the table below: Pressure (psia) 4000 3500 3330 3000 2700 2400 2100 1800 1500 1200 900 600 300 14.9152 0.8296 0.9769 0. Relative Gas Vol.8459 0.5895 6.8744 0. vo .8884 0.9457 6.9557 Cumulative Relative Gas Volume at 14.9975 1. vo 0. The gas in the cell is then slowly displaced from the cell with mercury at constant pressure.0687 0.9457 6.5221 6.7 psia and 60o F=74.0466 0. Vg . The displaced gas volume is measured at standard conditions and the volume.9925 0.7 14. Relative Oil Vol.9731 6. vg at sc.9298 0. and gas volume.9609 0. is noted.

Separator Stock Tank Shrinkage GOR Pressure Pressure Factor Rsif (psia) (psia) cbf (STB/RBb )) (SCF/STB) 200 150 100 50 14. The data from such tests is used to determine the oil shrinkage factor.7 0. Rsif . The cell contents are then flashed through the separator system to standard conditions. and the initial solution GOR.4. The PVT cell is brought to the bubble point pressure and connected to the separator system which may be a single separator or a series of staged separators with staged pressures and temperatures to simulate the actual production system. The resulting volumes of produced oil and gas are measured.18: Laboratory test separator 5.7834 512 510 515 526 116 . cbf .7932 0.Figure 5.7983 0.7 14.7993 0.7 14.7 14.3 Separator Flash Expansion Test This test is designed to approximate the surface production system.

117 . F . The procedure involves the following steps: 1. Vg Use the differential flash data and the oil shrinkage factor. Plot the flash expansion data. cbf and the cumulative gas liberated.6) may be manipulated to yield. Fp = 4.Gas in solution solution at pressure p ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ STB SCF SCF 1 RBb F × 5. 2.4 Procedure for calculating PVT parameters from laboratory data The above data can be used to compute the PVT properties for the tested oil and gas. 1 vg Bg = 5. F . the oil shrinkage factor. 5.615 × = (Rsif − Rs ) RBb STB cbf STB STB The following example illustrates the application of the above procedure.4—4. liberated from the cell at every pressure step. p vs vt . to compute Bo .5. Use the differential flash data to compute Bg . cbf . pb X p 3. " # ∙ ¸ vo RB RB/RBb Bo = = STB cbf STB/RBb Use the differential flash data. to determine the bubble point pressure. Cumulative Gas Liberated at pressure p ∙ ¸ ∙ = Total Gas in . to compute Rs .615 Vg Use the differential flash data to compute the cumulative relative gas volume.4. Eqns.(4.

mcd] Using the Flash expansion.2 . Bubble point pressure 2. Solution gas-oil ratio] 118 . [Answer: Open PVT. Gas formation volume factor 6. Oil formation volume factor 4. Gas compressibility Determine the above properties for the optimum surface operating condition.Example 5. determine the following as a function pressure at reservoir temperature: 1. differential liberation and separator flash expansion data discussed in the previous sections.Calculation of PVT properties from laboratory PVT data [PVT. Oil compressibility above the bubble point 3.

The liquid volume is usually very small compared to the total volume of the system and in order to measure it accurately it is necessary to use special condensate PVT cells. If the reservoir is saturated (initial reservoir pressure is equal to the bubble point pressure).6 PVT TESTS FOR GAS CONDENSATE FIELDS Gas condensate exist as a single gaseous phase at initial reservoir conditions. Irrespective of the sampling method used. the oil flowing into the wellbore must have the same solution GOR as the reservoir oil away from the well. 5. the very high mobility (low viscosity) of the gas will result in a disproportion ally high volume of gas entering the wellbore. oil flowing into the wellbore will be deficient in gas. the problems of obtaining a truly representative sample of reservoir oil are the same.5 FLUID SAMPLING Fluid samples for PVT analysis are collected early in the life of a reservoir. the oil flowing into the wellbore is reservoir oil and the sample is representative. a liquid phase is produced in the reservoir. During the period that the gas saturation is below the critical value. When gas is first released in a reservoir. When reservoir pressure falls below the dew-point. The reservoir is usually sampled in one of two ways. surface sampling. the pressure in the vicinity of the wellbore will be below the bubble point pressure and gas will come out of solution as the oil flows to the wellbore. Gas condensate tests are designed to measure this volume of liquid as a function of pressure . sub-surface sampling 2. On the other hand. These cells are designed to allow light to pass through the liquid and 119 . Under these conditions the oil sample may not be representative. 1. If the reservoir is undersaturated (reservoir pressure is above the bubble point pressure) and the well production rate is sufficiently low for the pressure in the vicinity of the wellbore to be everywhere above the bubble point pressure. the gas remains immobile until the gas saturation increases to a value called the critical gas saturation.liquid dropout curve. when sufficient gas has been released for gas to become mobile.5. If the sample is to be representative.

19: Constant mass expansion test for a gas condensate are fitted with front and back windows for this purpose. The richer the gas condensate. Typical liquid dropout curves for constant mass and constant volume depletion tests are shown in the attached figure. The liquid will move to the bottom of the reservoir under the action of gravity and a constant volume depletion test is more appropriate. In the case of very rich condensates where the volume of liquid produced is relatively large. The most common type of test used to characterize a gas condensate is the constant mass depletion test.Figure 5. the liquid phase in the reservoir may become mobile. Some condensate cells are made out of a solid block of sapphire to allow un obstructed viewing of the liquid phase. the more liquid is produced and the greater the difference between the liquid dropout curves. The constant volume depletion test simulates this behavior. 120 . Since the liquid volume produced in the reservoir is small. it is immobile and remains in contact with the gas from which it was produced.

processing and measuring equipment. and pipelines.20: Constant volume expansion test for a gas condensate 5.7 GAS HYDRATES Gas hydrates are solid. ethanol. ethylene glycol diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol. A typical phase diagram for a hydrate forming gas-water system is shown in the attached figure. semi-stable compounds which sometimes plug natural gas flowlines.a solid foam. Hydrates consist of geometric lattices of water molecules containing cavities filled with gas . The attached sheet provides a guide to temperature reduction which may be expected from the use of the different additives. 121 .Figure 5. Gas hydrates form when hydrocarbon gases come into contact with water at temperatures below 35o C. More accurate predictions require the use of special equations of state designed specifically for this purpose. The temperature for hydrate formation is reduced by the addition of inhibitors such as methanol.

Diethylene Glycol and Triethylene Glycol Figure 5. Ethylene Glycol. processing equipment and pipelines Geometric lattices of water molecules containing cavities filled with gas Formed when hydrocarbon gases are in contact with water at temperatures below 35C Temperature for hydrate formation is reduced by the addition of inhibitors such as Methanol.Figure 5. Ethanol.21: Liquid drop-out curves for a gas condensate Gas Hydrates Solid. semi-stable compounds which sometimes plug natural gas flowlines.22: A simple summary of gas hydrates 122 .

23: Gas hydrate co-existence curves. I-ice Figure 5. H-hydrate. G-gas. L1-water.Figure 5.24: Comparison between measured and calculated hydrate curves for a gas with MEOH inhibitor 123 . L2liquid hydrocarbon.

The surface tension of hydrocarbon mixtures may be 124 . water and gas phases and between gas and oil phases. Ds H = = = = density difference for the two fluids gravitational acceleration drop diameters as shown in the attached figure tabulated function of Ds /De ∆ρgDe H 5.8. A typical test setup is shown in the attached figure.1 Estimating Surface Tension The surface tension between two fluids is a function of pressure.8 SURFACE TENSION Surface tension between two fluids is an important parameter in reservoir analysis because it determines the manner in which fluids move through reservoir rock. σ= where.25: Effect of different inhibitors on hydrate formation 5. Surface tension may be measured at reservoir conditions using the pendant drop method.Figure 5. ∆ρ g De . Surface tension may exist between water and oil phases. The surface tension is given by. temperature and composition of the phases.

26: Pendant drop tensiometer 125 .Figure 5.

9 CORRELATIONS FOR PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS Several useful correlations exist for estimating reservoir fluid properties in the absence of laboratory data. gm/cm3 surface tension. ρL − ρV σ 1/4 = Pch M where. Examples of these correlations are given in attached figures. dynes/cm molecular weight Parachors account for intermolecular forces and are predicted from the structures of molecules. A correlation for the parachor with molecular weight is given in the attached figure.estimated using the parachor method. For mixtures the surface tension is given by. Pchi xi . For a pure liquid in equilibrium with it’s vapor. yi ρL . ρV σ M = = = = parachor phase densities. An example of such a program is given in the file Pch ρL . Computer based correlations Many of the available graphical correlations of fluid properties have been computerized which makes their use particularly easy. σ 1/4 = where. gm/cm3 mixture surface tension. ρV σ ML . 126 . dynes/cm phase molecular weights X Pchi xi µ ρL ρV − yi ML MV ¶ 5. MV = = = = = parachor for component i in the mixture mole fraction of component i in the liquid and vapor phases phase densities.

3 . water and gas? TR PR PS TS AP I GOR γg C N aCl = = = = = = = = = 200 3330 115 60 30 510 0.000 ppm) o [Answer: open the spread-sheet.Figure 5.27: Surface tensions for hydrocarbons at atmospheric pressure Example 5. enter the appropriate input values and see] 127 .Estimation of reservoir fluid properties [PropEst. What are the reservoir properties of the oil.75 100 6 F psia psi o F o API SCF/STB (air= 1) (water salinity in units of kg/m3 ) (water salinity in units of] The following estimates are made of reservoir and produced fluid properties from a DST on an exploration well.

28: Parachors for hydrocarbons 128 .Figure 5.

30: Viscosity of saturated crude oil 129 .29: Standing correlation for reservoir oils Figure 5.Figure 5.

Figure 5.31: Viscosity of reservoir brine 130 .

32: Viscosity of hydrocarbon gases at atmospheric pressure Figure 5.Figure 5.33: Ratio of viscosity at reservoir pressure to viscosity at atmospheric pressure for hydrocarbon gases 131 .

Mercury was then reinjected at constant temperature and pressure to displace the gas from the cell. 132 . Bo .001721 RB/SCF. The process was repeated. This left 263. Bg = 0. Bo = 1. reducing the pressure to 14.5 cm3 of liquid in the cell and resulted in the collection of 0. Determine the following: 1. [Answer: Bob = 1. Rs = 299.8 cm3 of mercury was withdrawn from the cell and the pressure fell to 1600 psia.] solution hints If you can do this without using the PVT. Then 0. A volume of 18.2 SCF/STB. spread-sheet you have a good understanding of PVT properties. Rs and z at 1600 psia.Calculation of PVT properties from laboratory PVT data A laboratory PVT cell contained 280.129 SCF of gas.388 SCF of gas were removed from the cell and 205. Bob and Rsi . Rsi = 399.9 cm3 of liquid remained in the cell.2797 RB/STB.6 SCF/STB.Problem 5.1 .7 psia and the temperature to 60o F. Bg .0 cm3 of reservoir liquid at its bubble point of 2000 psia at 140o F.3599 RB/STB.

Unless fluid is injected.reduction of pore volume. — influx of fluid from an adjoining aquifer or gas cap.Chapter 6 MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS When a volume of oil is produced from a reservoir. the space originally occupied by the produced oil volume must now be occupied by something else. — expansion of fluids in the reservoir. You may wish to make colour prints of these figures. Material balance equations express this dependence in mathematical form. The decline in reservoir pressure can cause. — expansion of reservoir rock grains . 133 . The diagrams in this section are best viewed on the electronic version of the course notes. the production of oil must result in a decline in reservoir pressure. The material balance equation is the basic reservoir engineering analysis tool used to examine past reservoir performance and to predict future performance. There is therefore a relationship between the rate of production and the rate of decline of reservoir pressure.

4. however.GAS CAP OIL ZONE AQUIFER Figure 6. volume of oil remaining in the reservoir. as are the expansions of rock and connate water. volume occupied by expansion of rock grains .1 ORIGINAL OIL VOLUME BALANCE Most material balance equations are written in terms of the original volume occupied by the oil. 1. volume of gas released by oil (if reservoir pressure falls below the bubble point). influx of water from an adjoining aquifer (if the aquifer is strong enough). volume occupied by expansion of connate water. expansion of an adjoining gas cap (if one is present). It should be understood that the attached diagram is for illustrative purposes and is not intended to imply that the materials in the reservoir are segregated in the manner shown. 6. 2. gas released from solution will segregate to the top of the structure. Under some conditions. 5. Some of the released solution gas will always be evenly distributed throughout the reservoir. The volume originally occupied by produced oil may now be occupied by. 3. 134 .1: Schematic of a combination reservoir 6.pore space compressibility.

2: Material balance on the pore space occupied by the original oil volume 6.1. Gas cap expansion = where.1 Gas Cap Expansion If a gas cap is present. ∆VGCE = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi 135 . [RB/SCF] Note that if Gpc is large. [SCF] gas formation volume factor at current pressure.Gas cap shrinkage should never be allowed because it always results in a loss of oil recovery.Figure 6. the gas cap may actually shrink rather than expand. [SCF] cumulative gas production from the gas cap. [RB/SCF] gas formation volume factor at original reservoir pressure. The above equation may be written as. and the reservoir pressure drops. G Gpc Bg Bgi = = = = | [RB] {z } (G − Gpc )Bg | {z gas volume at lower pressure } − GBgi initial gas volume | {z } original gas cap gas volume. the gas cap will expand to replace some of the volume initially occupied by the produced oil.

The gas cap originally contained 21.e.3 × 109 SCF.1 . the gas cap has actually shrunk..002125 Bgc at 1100 psig = 0..8Gi 2. We would not allow this to actually happen in the actual reservoir. G = 0. This would result in a loss of about 1MMRB of oil. Data: G = 21. At 1100 psig the gas cap containing 0.88 × 106 RB ∆VGCE = (0. 136 .3 ×109 Bgc at 1225 psig = 0.3 × 109 − 0) 0.Calculation of gas cap expansion [MBE.3 × 109 × 0.002370 [SCF] [RB/SCF] [RB/SCF] Solution 1. a zone originally free of oil.002370 − 21. ∆VGCE = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi ∆VGCE = −4.Figure 6.3: Gas cap expansion volume Example 6.002125 i. This would allow about 5 MMRB oil to migrate into the gas cap.8 times the original gas cap volume i.8 ×] Calculate the change in the size of the gas cap after 20% of the gas cap gas has been produced while the reservoir pressure had dropped from 1225 psig to 1100 psig.e.

3 × 109 × 0.. At 900 psig the gas cap cumulative production is i.e.2 .Example 6.8 × 21. ∆VGCE = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi ∆VGCE = (0.Calculation of gas cap expansion [MBE.3 ×109 Bgc at 1225 psig = 0.002905 − 21.002905 [SCF] [RB/SCF] [RB/SCF] Solution 1. 137 .002125 Bgc at 900 psig = 0. the gas cap has expanded into the oil zone and no oil is lost to the gas zone.002125 ∆VGCE = 4.e..24 × 106 RB i.2Gi 2. Gp = 0. Data: G =] Calculate the change in gas cap size for the reservoir of Example-1 if the reservoir pressure had dropped from 1225 psig to 900 psig at the time that 20% of the gas was produced.3 × 109 − 0) 0.

Figure 6.4: Released solution gas volume


Released Gas Volume

If the reservoir pressure falls below the bubble point pressure gas will be released from solution. At any time during the production of a reservoir, the gas originally in solution can be placed into three categories; 1. 2. 3. gas remaining in solution gas released from solution and produced from the reservoir gas released from solution but remaining in the reservoir.

On this basis we write, Released gas volume = where, N Np Rsi Rs Bg = = = = =



N Rsi Bg
| {z

gas originally in solution


− (N − Np )Rs Bg −
gas still in solution



Gps Bg

produced solution gas

| {z }

original oil volume, [STB] cumulative oil produced, [STB] original solution gas-oil ratio, [SCF/STB] solution gas-oil ratio at current pressure, [SCF/STB] gas formation volume factor at current pressure, [RB/SCF]

The above equation is usually written as, ∆VRSG = {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg 138

Example 6.3 - Calculation of released solution gas volume [] Cumulative oil production for our example reservoir was 14.73 ×106 STB at the time when reservoir pressure was 900 psig. At the same time cumulative production of solution gas was 4.05 ×109 SCF. Calculate the reservoir volume occupied by released gas. Data: N Rsi at 1225 psig Rs at 900 psig Bg at 900 psig = = = = 90.46 ×106 230 169 0.002905 [STB] [SCF/STB] [SCF/STB] [RB/SCF]

Solution ∆VRSG = {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg ∆VRSG = {(90.46 × 230 − (90.46 − 14.73) × 169 − 4050) × 106 } 0.002905 ∆VRSG = 11.5 × 106 RB


Figure 6.5: Remaining oil volume


Remaining Oil Volume

The oil volume remaining in the reservoir is simply, Reservoir{z volume = (N − Np )Bo oil | }

oil still in reservoir




where, N Np Bo = original oil volume, [STB] = cumulative oil produced, [STB] = oil formation volume factor at current pressure, [RB/STB]

The above equation is written as, ∆VROV = (N − Np )Bo


Example 6.4 - Calculation of remaining oil volume [] What is the remaining reservoir oil volume for the previous example at 900 psig. Data: Bo at 900 psig = 1.104 [RB/STB]

Solution ∆VROV = (N − Np )Bo ∆VROV = (90.46 × 106 − 14.73 × 106 ) 1.104 ∆VROV = 83.63 × 106 RB


Figure 6.6: Rock and connate water expansion volume


Rock and Connate Water Expansion

The expansion of rock and connate water are combined into one term and expressed as the formation compressibility cf . cf is defined as the fractional change in pore volume per psi change in reservoir pressure. The pore volume can be expressed in terms of the original oil volume, as is required for material balance calculations. original oil volume = N Boi = Vp Soi = Vp (1 − Swi ) where, N Boi Vp Soi Swi or, Vp = = = = = = original oil volume, [STB] oil formation volume factor at initial pressure, [RB/STB] reservoir pore volume, [RB] initial oil saturation initial or connate water saturation

N Boi 1 − Swi


original connate water volume = Swi Vp = Swi where. The rock and connate water term is usually only important for oil reservoirs when the oil pressure remains above the bubble point. [vol/vol/psi] = initial water saturation µ ¶ µ N Boi 1 − Swi ¶ The connate water expansion is. [psig] = current reservoir pressure. cf p1 p {z } µ N Boi (pi − p) 1 − Swi ¶ = formation compressibility. [vol/vol/psi] = initial reservoir pressure.The total amount of rock expansion is calculated by utilizing the definition of compressibility. 1 ∆V c= V ∆P from which we have ∆V = cV ∆P | Rock expansion = formation compressibility × pore volume × pressure change [RB] {z } Rock expansion = cf | [RB] where. [psig] The total amount of connate water expansion is given by. | Water expansion = cw Swi [RB] {z } N Boi (pi − p) 1 − Swi Combining the above equations. the rock and water expansion term is so small that it may safely be neglected. ∆VRW E N Boi = (cf + cw Swi ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi µ ¶ For reservoirs where a gas phase is present. | Water expansion = water compressibility × water volume × pressure change [RB] {z } The initial connate water volume is given by. 143 . cw Swi = water compressibility. we have for rock and water expansion.

mcd] What is the rock and water expansion volume for the previous example when the pressure falls from 1225 psig to 900 psig.0×10−6 [psi−1 ] [psi−1 ] Solution ∆VRW E N Boi = (cf + cw Swi ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi ³ ´ µ ¶ ∆VRW E = (cf + cw Swi ) (Vp ) (pi − p) ∆VRW E = (3.0×10−6 = 3.5 .0(0.0 + 3.84(106 ) (1225 − 900) ∆VRW E = 0. Data: Swi cf cw = 0.Example 6.15 × 106 RB We see that rock and water expansion amounts to about 1% of the released gas volume. 144 .205)) 10−6 127.Calculation of rock and connate water expansion volume MBE. This is usually the case in practice and rock and connate water expansion can be neglected for calculations below the bubble point.205 = 3.

5 Water Influx Unlike the above items in the material balance equation. we can determine the net water influx into the reservoir — total water entering the reservoir less water produced — by difference. We Wp Bw e |{z} W − Wp Bw cumulative produced water | {z } = cumulative water influx. [STB] = water formation volume factor at current pressure. However.1.Figure 6. This is because the calculation of water influx requires information characterizing the size and strength of the aquifer and this information is not generally known with any certainty during the early production life of a reservoir. since we can calculate all the other terms in the material balance equation. the volume of water influx cannot be calculated directly. [RB/STB] The above equation may be written as.7: Water influx volume 6. Net water influx = | {z } [RB] cumulative water influx where. ∆VN W I = We − Wp Bw 145 . [RB] = cumulative water produced.

. gas and water production. reservoir pressure and cumulative oil. N Boi = G(Bg − Bgi ) + {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg − Gp Bg + µ ¶ N Boi (N − Np )Bo + (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) + 1 − Swi We − Wp Bw (6.6 General Material Balance Equation Having analyzed all the individual terms in the material balance equation.6. Cumulative water influx is. we can write.3) 146 .1) We − Wp Bw Note that the two gas production terms are additive and equal to the total gas production at the surface ie.1. This only requires that we know the volume of initial fluids in-place.2) One of the most important uses of the material balance equation is to calculate water influx into a reservoir. (Gpc + Gps )Bg = Gp Bg The material balance equation may be re-written as. We N Boi = N Boi − (N − Np )Bo − (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi −GBg + GBgi + Gp Bg − {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg +Wp Bw µ ¶ (6. Original oil volume = Gas cap expansion + Released gas volume + Oil volume + Rock and water expansion + Net water influx ∆VOOIP = ∆VGCE + ∆VRGV + ∆VROV + ∆VRW E + ∆VN W I N Boi = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi + {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg + µ ¶ N Boi (N − Np )Bo + (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) + 1 − Swi (6.

Released Gas Remaining Oil Rock & Water Exp.4 and 5.4) We = (101. 2 3 4 5 Item Calculated Gas Cap] Using the results of the Examples 2.24 11.6 . find the water influx when the pressure falls from 1225 psig to 900 psig.15 + 0.63 − 4.62 × 1. Cumulative water production at this time is 620. µ ¶ We N Boi = N Boi − (N − Np )Bo − (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi −GBg + GBgi + Gp Bg − {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg +Wp Bw (6.24 − 11. Data: Wp Bw = 0.50 83.64 − 83.74 × 106 RB 147 .15 Re-arranging the material balance equation to calculate We .50 − 0. Ex.3.Calculation of water influx from material balance [MBE. (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg (N − Np )Bo ³ ´ NB (cf + Swi cw ) 1−Soi (pi − p) wi ×106 RB 4.62×106 = 1.000 STB.0) × 106 = 2.63 0.Example 6.0 [STB] [RB/STB] Solution The following items were calculated in the previous examples.

A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is. is called a gas cap drive reservoir. 1 = Igc + Isg + Ipd + Iw where. If we divide the overall material balance equation by N Boi we obtain. Isg . A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is.5) The above equation may be written as. Iw . is called a water drive reservoir. A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is. 1 = (G − Gp )Bg − GBgi {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg + + N{z oi B N{z oi B | } | } Igc We − Wp Bw N{z oi } B | Iw | 1 (N − Np )Bo + (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) + N Boi 1 − Swi Ipd {z µ Isg ¶ } (6. Igc Isg Ipd Iw = = = = gas cap drive index solution gas drive index pressure depletion drive index water drive index The above indices represent the effectiveness of each drive mechanism for a particular reservoir.6. Igc . 148 . is called a solution gas drive reservoir.2 PRIMARY RECOVERY MECHANISMS Each of the terms of the material balance equation represents a drive mechanism which contributes to the total energy required to produce oil from the reservoir.

Pressure depletion drive (fluid and rock expansion) results in a rapid straight line pressure response and may be expected to recover less than 5% of the original oil-in-place. 6. A reservoir for which more than one drive mechanism is important. 1. pressure falls rapidly. 149 2.Figure 6. Ultimate recovery is strongly influenced by the type of drive mechanism. is called a depletion drive reservoir. . Ipd .2. The trends which are observed when one of the mechanisms dominates are summarized in the following figures. Solution gas drive — pressure drops slowly at first. Ultimate recoveries are in the range 15-30 %. is called a combination drive reservoir. As the producing GOR increases.1 Typical Performance Characteristics for the Different Drive Mechanisms The dominant drive mechanism for a particular reservoir can often be deduced from the rate of pressure decline and the trend of the producing gas-oil ratio.8: Reservoir drive index as a function of time A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is.

Figure 6.10: Producing GOR as a function of cumulative oil production 150 .9: Reservoir pressure as a function of cumulative oil production Figure 6.

but the decline rate decreases as water influx from the aquifer increases.Figure 6. 151 . Water drive — pressure declines rapidly at first. The producing GOR remains approximately constant and ultimate recoveries are 50% or more.11: Producing characteristics of gas cap drive reservoirs 3.

Figure 6.12: Producing characteristics of solution gas drive reservoirs Figure 6.13: Producing characteristics of water drive reservoirs 152 .

6.3. Rs ) cw cf Bw 153 .3 USING MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS Average Reservoir Pressure 6.6) Vp j where pj and Vp j are the drainage area pressure and pore volume drained by well j.2 Knowns and Unknowns When solving the material balance equation the parameters may be classified into the following groups of knowns and unknowns. These tests require short test times (hours to days) and allow reservoir pressure to be mapped over the field.6. Pressure data obtained from a pressure buildup test can be used to estimate the average pressure in the volume or area drained by the tested well. knowns unknowns Np N Gp G Wp We Swc p (Bo . The mapped pressures may be averaged to give the average reservoir pressure as. initial volumes of oil.1 The material balance equation describes the whole reservoir in terms of average reservoir pressure. water and gas production) when the material balance equation is to be applied. gas and water in-place and cumulative oil.3. In order to use the material balance equation it is necessary to determine average reservoir pressure for the time (cumulative oil. Bg . This may take months to years (depending on reservoir permeability) and result in considerable loss in revenue because of lost production. water and gas production volumes. Direct measurement of average reservoir pressure would require that all the wells are shut-in and that the bottom-hole pressure is measured at a time after shut-in which is sufficiently long for all the pressure gradients in the reservoir to equalize. P pj Vp j p= P (6. The direct measurement approach is therefore impractical.

from laboratory tests on formation brine. p .this is usually known because oil is the primary production target which is sold to generate revenue. Bw . This is the central problem with the use of the material balance equation. lets consider some of the parameters in the material balance equation. problems with the interpretation of pressure buildup test data may introduce serious errors and there may be considerable uncertainty in estimates of average reservoir pressure. When these are unknown it is not possible to perform material balance calculations for the reservoir. Knowns Np .pore volume or formation compressibility is usually considered to be small and constant.these are known. Unknowns N.this is probably the greatest unknown in reservoir development . One of the most important uses of material balance calculations is to estimate water influx. cw . compaction may form a major part of the reservoir drive energy and usually leads 154 . whereas material balance calculation provides the effective volume or the volume which contributes to actual production. In some cases it may be large and variable. Wp . or may be estimated. This reduces the number of unknowns to five but we have only one equation.whether there has been any water influx or not. Bg . cf . This will usually be smaller than the volumetric estimate due to compartmentilization of the reservoir by faults or low permeability zones. Swc .The PVT properties (Bo .cumulative gas and water production be unknown for older oil and gas fields because they had little or no value at the time of production. G . When it is large.although we usually consider reservoir pressure to be usually considered to be accurately known from petrophysical evaluation. This is because volumetric estimates include all the mapped hydrocarbon volume. We .volumetric estimates of the original oil and gas-cap volumes in-place are always known from the field appraisal stage. These are disregarded as soon as production-pressure data becomes available and an attempt is made to estimate in-place volumes from material balance calculations. Gp . Before considering specific examples of the application of the material balance equation. Rs ) may be considered to be known if the average reservoir pressure is known and representative fluid samples have obtained and analysed.

91465 1.00121 0.91465 1.34270 0.21229 Wp (MMSTB) 0.06898 considerable subsidence at the surface.1 Calculating water influx from material balance for history matching aquifer performance The first step in characterizing or history matching an aquifer is to calculate water influx from available production and pressure data.00000 0.17821 0.00000 0. You will be performing this history match in the reservoir engineering course which follows from the present course.17304 0.64397 1.17304 0.09929 1.91465 2.91465 1.99562 1.16959 1.91465 1. There was a strong and clear aquifer response to the shut-in (use Mathcad to plot the field pressure as a function of time to see the response).00000 0.91465 1.25094 0.63405 1. The reservoir for this exercise is a small offshore oil field which has been on-stream for only 700 days.32970 0.07041 0.17304 0. This may be of little consequence on land in remote areas but may cause serious problems for operations offshore.17304 0.99562 0.36788 1.33133 0.12218 0. After the aquifer has been characterized.24921 2.02636 0.99562 0. PRODUCTION HISTORY Time P Np Gp (day) (psia) (MMSTB) (BSCF) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 4217 3915 3725 3570 3450 3390 3365 3600 3740 3850 3900 3920 3720 3650 3640 0. the resultant aquifer model is attached to a numerical reservoir simulation model which is used to predict future reservoir performance. The field was shut-in for a 250 day period for upgrading of the gathering system and production facilities.17304 0.99562 0.99562 0.55587 0.85487 0.71130 0.11402 2.99562 0.20368 0.31690 155 . Problem 6.17304 0.00000 0. The field production history is given in the table below.

0 1.0 1. Alternatively.2385 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 1.0 1.0 1. Determine the cumulative water influx for each of the 50 day time periods in the production history table.2413] to do the calculation for each period. PVT DATA P Bo Rs Bg Bw (psia) (RB/STB) (SCF/STB) (RB/SCF) (RB/STB) 3365 3465 3565 3665 3765 3865 3965 4065 4165 4265 1.0 1.2511 1. You can simply use [MBE. Each calculation is identical to the calculations performed in Examples 6-1 to 6-6.2455 1.2469 1. Reservoir system properties were estimated to be: cf = 5×10−6 psi−1 cw = 3×10−6 psi−1 Swc = 0.0 1.0 Reservoir temperature is 210o F and the gas gravity is 0. you could modify [MBE.0 1.0 1.2 MMSTB.The initial oil in-place is estimated (volumetrically) to be 33.2399 1.2427 1.2441 1.0 1.69.778 MMRB] 156 .mcd] to readin the production data and do the 14 calculations in one pass or prepare your owm spreadsheet using whatever software you are most comfortable with.2497 1.2483 1.248 PVT data for the reservoir oil is given in the following table. Solution hint You need to calculate a cumulative water influx volume for each 50 day period (a total of 14 calculations). [Answer: We at 700 days is 2.

N Boi 0 = N Boi − (N − Np )Bo − (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi −GBg + GBgi + Gp Bg − {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg µ ¶ (6. Prediction of future reservoir pressure After the original oil in-place has been established. this difficulty is eliminated.6. This provides a very valuable check on the volumetrically determined value. N .7) If the original gas cap volume may be estimated from a volumetric calculation. and reliable production-pressure data is available. the material balance equation may be used to predict future reservoir pressure if future cumulative production can be estimated. the formation compressibility is known. weak to moderate aquifers during early stages of production when the aquifer response is small) there is negligible water production and the material balance equation reduces to. 157 . The main difficulty with this procedure is estimating the volumes of gas and water which will accompany the specified oil production volume. As discussed previously.4 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED OIL RESERVOIR When water influx from the aquifer is small or negligible (small ineffective aquifer. If all the produced oil and water is reinjected. the only unknown is the original oil in-place. the material balance derived value of N may be more reliable than the volumetrically determined volume.

14] The discovery pressure of a reservoir containing a gas cap was 3330 psia.206 can do this if you like. The value of N which makes the drive indices sum to one is the correct oil-in-place. so we could rearrange it and solve directly for N . The reservoir was produced until the reservoir fell to 2700 psia.0×10−6 = 3.503 MMSTB and cumulative gas production is 14.Problem] you will see the I have simply rearranged [MBE. The volumetric estimates of the original oil-in-place.21 = 3..2 . Does the material balance calculation confirm this estimate? Data: Swi cf cw = 0. (N ). is 105 MMSTB and the initial gas cap volume is 81.Calculation of original oil in-place using material balance equation [OIPMBE. Cumulative oil production at this time is 11. guess a value of N which makes both sides of the material balance equation equal.0×10−6 [psi−1 ] [psi−1 ] [Answer: 113 MMSTB] Solution hints The material balance equation is explicit in N . An alternative way is to solve the material balance equation by trial and error] to allow me to enter a value of N and see the sum of the drive indices with the drive index for water set to zero (closed reservoir condition). Geological evidence suggests that aquifer quality is poor and that water influx into the reservoir is likely to be negligible. If you use [OIPMBE. 158 .



The material balance equation for a closed gas reservoir is so simple that it may be solved graphically. The graphical solution method is commonly referred to as the P/z-plot. The plot can be used to estimate the original gas in-place and to predict future reservoir pressure given a production forecast. The general material balance equation for a closed gas reservoir reduces to; GBgi = (G − Gpc )Bg Since Bg is given by, Bg = 5.02 × 10−3 zT P

we can write for the above material balance equation (where reservoir temperature is assumed to remain constant), G 5.02 × 10−3 which may be rearranged to, G or, P G z or,
µ µ

zi T Pi

= (G − Gp ) 5.02 × 10−3


zT P

zi z = (G − Gp ) Pi P
¶ µ

P = (G − Gp ) z


¶ ¶


P P = z z

1 P − Gp G z i



The above equation results in a straight line relationship between (P/z) and Gp . The straight line on a (P/z)—Gp plot passes through (P/z)i at Gp = 0 and through G at (P/z) = 0. The straight-line relationship is very useful in estimating the initial volume of gas-in-place (G) from limited production history.


Figure 6.14: p/z plot for a closed gas reservoir

Example 6.7 - Calculation of initial gas in-place for a closed gas reservoir [] Estimate the initial gas content, G, for a closed gas reservoir having the following production history. Pressure Cumulative Gas Gas Deviation (psig) Production (MMSCF) Factor (z) 3500 3350 3200 3050 2750 0 46.7 125.0 203.5 380.0 0.84 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.78



1. Calculate P/z for each pressure point and plot against cumulative production, Gp . Pressure Cumulative Gas Gas Deviation (psig) Production (MMSCF) Factor (z) 3500 3350 3200 3050 2750 0 46.7 125.0 203.5 380.0 0.84 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.78 P/z (psig) 4166.7 4085.3 3950.6 3812.5 3525.6

2. Draw the best-fit straight line through the data and extrapolate to P/z = 0. The intercept at P/z = 0 is the initial gas in place, G. To see this plot open []. G = 2400 MMSCF.


Figure 6.15: Material balance for a gas reservoir


Water Drive Gas Reservoirs

When a gas reservoir is in contact with a significant aquifer, water influx will occur as the reservoir pressure declines with production. The material balance for such a reservoir may be written as, GBgi = (G − Gp )Bg + We − Wp Bw This equation can be solved for water influx, We = GBgi − (G − Gp )Bg + Wp Bw If G can be evaluated volumetrically and if the field production data is known (Gp and Wp ) at corresponding reservoir pressures, the material balance equation can be used to calculate the cumulative water influx at these times.


Figure 6.16: p/z plot for a gas reservoir experiencing water influx

Example 6.8 - Production history of a water drive gas reservoir [] The following pressure production data were recorded for a gas reservoir. Can we estimate G from this data? Pressure Cumulative Gas Gas Deviation (psig) Production (MMSCF) Factor (z) 3500 3350 3200 3050 2950 0 52 155 425 880 0.84 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.79

[Answer: yes, G= 2.67 TSCF]

Solution hint Even if the aquifer is active, it takes time for the aquifer to respond to the decrease in reservoir pressure. This means that early in the life of the reservoir will behaive like a closed system. The early data should therefore plot as a straight line on a 163

I used [] to allow you to select the points through which to fit the straight line. 0.569 MMRB] Solution hint Do this any way you like. Extrapolating this plot to zero pressure will therefore give a realistic estimate of the original] For the water drive gas reservoir of the previous example calculate the cumulative water influx corresponding to the times at which cumulative gas production is given. Problem] from the previous example and added a calculation for Bg from z and the material balance equation for a water drive gas reservoir. 164 . Cumulative water production is zero for the period and the reservoir temperature is TR = 275 o F.016. 0. 0. [Answer: 0.Calculation of water influx for a gas reservoir [GWMTB. 0. I have setup the spreadsheet [GIP.P/z-plot.3 .192.

Permeability. Saturation dependent properties.1 POROSITY Definition The total fraction of the bulk volume which is void space Parameter Symbol Porosity φ 165 . In this section we look at the basic properties . Porosity. 2.porosity. The saturation dependent properties will be considered in the next chapter. permeability and compressibility. Rock compressibility.Chapter 7 RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES AND CORE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Reservoir engineering calculations require a knowledge of certain basic rock properties. 7. — Relative permeability. — Wettability. 3. 4. These include: 1. — Capillary pressure.

φ is in the range 0. Porosity modified by post-depositional processes is referred to as secondary porosity.05 — 0.1: Effect of grain size distribution on porosity Porosity is important in determining the volume of oil and/or gas which will be contained in a reservoir — for reservoirs of interest. The original porosity of a formation is usually refereed to as primary porosity. porelining chlorite and pore-bridging illite) affect primary porosity.5% poorly sorted sandstone 1% Figure 7. 166 . For limestones porosity is determined by changes after deposition . — for sandstones sedimentological processes are important. Effective porosity and permeability may be greatly reduced by deposition of fine particulate minerals in the pore space.40. Cementation.well sorted sandstone 21. Porosity for both sandstones and limestones can be greatly modified by postdepositional events or digenesis. The attached figures show the effect dispersed fines (particulate kaolinite.dissolution and fracturing. chemical action. and fracturing are events which can modify the original porosity of rocks. — porosity is a strong function of grain size distribution but only a weak function of grain size itself.

is given by.2: Schematic of a clean well-sorted sandstone 7. The total porosity.Figure 7. — disconnected porosity — this porosity is inaccessible to flow and is of no interest because it is not accessible to flow of fluids and therefore does not contribute to hydrocarbon production.1. φt .1 Effective and Total Porosity Porosity is divided into two categories. is given by. φ. φt = total pore volume bulk volume − grain volume = bulk volume bulk volume Effective porosity. — effective porosity — interconnected pore space. φ= effective or connected pore volume bulk volume 167 . Total porosity is the sum of effective and disconnected porosity.

1. The equipment used is called a Boyle’s law porosimeter and is shown schematically in the attached figure.bridging illite Figure 7.particle kaolinite Pore. This pressure is recorded and valve A is closed. 7. 2. (p2 + pa ). They therefore all measure effective porosity. 168 . The apparatus and measurement procedure consists: 1. This is referred to as Condition I. The equilibrium absolute pressure. The clean and dry core sample is placed in the second cell. 3. Two cells of accurately known volume.Discrete. Valve B is closes and cell 1 is pressured with gas G through valve A to an absolute pressure (p1 + pa ).3: Common types of dispersed shales.2 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity The most common method employed to measure porosity is based on Boyle’s law. are connected and at atmospheric pressure. pa . This is called Condition II. is recorded. Valve B is opened and the two cells are allowed to equilibrate. V1 and V2 . clays and fines and their effect on porosity Conventional laboratory experiments used to determine porosity are all based on introducing fluids into the pore space.lining chlorite Pore.

The ideal gas law is written as. moles of gas in cells 1 and 2 = moles of gas in cells 1 and 2 at Condition I at Condition II Assume an isothermal expansion process. pV n= RT where. p T V n R = = = = = absolute pressure absolute temperature volume moles of gas universal gas constant 169 .Figure 7.4: SEM micrograph of pore-filling authigenic kaolinite (x1000) A mole balance at Condition I and Condition II gives. The grain volume of the sample is Vs . and pressures sufficiently low so that the ideal gas law applies.

6: SEM micrograph of delicate fibers of illite bridging pores (x1000).5: SEM micrograph of chlorite (feldspar) lined pore (x1000) Figure 7. These fibers may break-off at high flow rates and block pores 170 .Figure 7.

is either determined from measurements of the sample dimensions (core plugs) or by measuring the displaced liquid volume when the sample is immersed in a non-wetting liquid such as mercury. (p1 + pa )V1 pa (V2 − Vs ) (p2 + pa )V1 (p2 + pa )(V2 − Vs ) + = + RT RT RT RT Solving for the grain volume. Using the ideal gas law we write. 171 . φ= Vb − Vs Vb where the bulk volume of the sample. Vs = V1 + V2 − p1 V1 p2 Note that the pressures p1 and p2 are gauge pressures as read in the actual experiment. gives.7: SEM micrograph of pore filling kaolinite plates (x1000). for the above word equation. Vb . Porosity is calculated from the equation.Figure 7. Vs .

8: Solution and fracture porosity in limestones Figure 7.Figure 7.9: Boyle’s law porisometer 172 .

23] 173 .10: Schematic of Boyle’s law porisometer test procedure Example 7.Determination of the porosity of a core plug using helium porosimetry [HEPOR.Figure 7.1 .5 cm = 4 cm and the following measured porosimeter pressures and parameters.79 psig Calculate the porosity of the plug.03 psig 41. D L = 2. V1 V2 p1 p2 = = = = 25 cm3 50 cm3 100. [Answer:] Given the diameter and length of a cylindrical core plug.

2 PERMEABILITY Symbol Definition k A measure of the ease with which fluid flows through a porous rock Parameter Permeability Permeability is important in determining the rate at which oil and gas will flow to the wellbore Permeability will usually vary over several orders of magnitude in the same reservoir. — reservoir rocks typically have permeabilities in the range 1 — 10. The variation in permeability (heterogeneity) has a great effect on oil recovery for both conventional and EOR processes. 174 .q= kA ∆P µ L ∆P A q q L Figure 7.000 md.11: Datcy’s law and permeability 7. — permeability is a weak function of grain size distribution but a strong function of pore size (throat size).

1 Measurement of Permeability The attached figure shows a schematic of the experimental apparatus used to measure the permeability of cylindrical core samples or plugs.Figure 7. k= qµ∆L A∆p 175 . The steady-state flow rate (q) of a fluid which completely saturates the core is directly proportional to the x-sectional area (A) over which the flow occurs. the imposed pressure gradient over the core (∆p/L) and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the fluid. µ ¶ ∆p 1 q∝A ∆L µ The constant of proportionality is called permeability and is an intrinsic property of the rock.12: Schematic of permeameter 7. kA∆p q= µ∆L This equation is known as Darcy’s law and is the basic equation for calculating fluid flow rates in reservoir engineering. Darcy’s law defines permeability as.2.

1 cm3 /sec viscosity. ft2 volumetric flow rate. 1 atmosphere flow length. psi flow length. the computed permeability has the units of darcys. A rock sample has a permeability of one darcy when. res. ∆p ∆L A q µ k = = = = = = pressure difference. cp permeability. 1 cp permeability. 1 cm x-sectional area. 1 darcy The darcy unit is too large for most reservoir rocks and it is common practice to express permeability in terms of millidarcys. md 176 . 1 cm2 volumetric flow rate. kA∆p q = 0. ft x-sectional area. 1darcy = 1000 millidarcy = 1000 md Field Units In oil field units the linear form of Darcy’s Law for the flow of an incompressible fluid is written as.When the variables in the above equation are expressed in Darcy units. ∆p ∆L A q µ k = = = = = = pressure difference. bbl/day (RB/D) viscosity.001127 µ∆L where.

Since a liquid is used to measure it.82 cp 1 atm 2 atm 0.Laboratory determination of the liquid permeability of a core plug [LPERM. the permeability is called the liquid permeability. Check the laboratory calculation which suggests that the permeability of the plug is 200 md.52 cm 2 cm 1.275 cm3 /sec [Answer: 201 md] Solution hint Use k= qµ∆L A∆p to calculate the permeability.Example 7. The laboratory measured data is given below: plug diameter plug length test oil viscosity outlet pressure inlet pressure flow rate = = = = = = 2. 177 .mcd] The laboratory has conducted a steady-state liquid permeability test on a core plug from a reservoir of interest to you.2 .

The reservoir oil has a viscosity of] to see how Mathcad handles the unit conversions.3 .001127 arises from unit conversions. Study [] The core plug in the previous example was taken from a reservoir undergoing a horizontal line drive over a flow length of 10.Calculation of field flow rates [LINQ.Example 7.8 cp. The constant 0.001127 kA∆p µ∆L to calculate the rate in RB/day if you are not using Mathcad which handles mixed systems of units automatically. Production well spacing is 1000 feet and the sand thickness is 30 feet. 178 .000 feet. What is the well rate when the pressure difference between injectors and producers is 500 psi? [Answer: 425 RB/day] Solution hint Use q = 0.

7. Assuming that the gas is ideal . respectively. kA(p1 2 − p2 2 ) qa = 2pa µ∆L or 2qa pa µ∆L k= A(p1 2 − p2 2 ) We use this equation to calculate the gas permeability of the test plug. The experiment consists of flowing a gas through the core plug. particularly if we expect the permeability to be constant! 179 kA(p1 − p2 ) µ∆L .2. This may appear to be a problem. q= ¯ Substituting for q gives. Gas does not have this problem. Darcy’s law may be written as. The average gas pressure (¯) in the core is given by.a reasonable assumption if the pressures are low. p p= ¯ (p1 + p2 ) 2 where. the previous equations. Liquids may adsorb onto the rock surface and potentially change wettability which could adversely affect later experiments. the product qp (equivalent to V p for a static system) is constant. must be modified. When his done at a number of different average pressures we find that the calculated permeability is not constant but that it decreases with increasing pressure. in terms of q the measured volumetric flow rate at atmospheric conditions (qa ).2 Laboratory Measurement of Permeability It is usually more convenient to measure permeability in the laboratory using a gas as the working fluid. p1 and p2 are the inlet and outlet pressures. Since gas is compressible. qa pa = q (p1 + p2 )/2 ¯ qa pa q= ¯ (p1 + p2 )/2 where pa is atmospheric pressure. which are valid only for incompressible fluids. We can therefore express the volumetric flow rate at the average pressure (¯). ¯ qa pa kA(p1 − p2 ) = (p1 + p2 )/2 µ∆L which on re-arrangement gives.

At very low pressures. 3. The variation of gas permeability with pressure is given by the equation. Measure several gas permeabilities (kgas ) at different mean flowing pressures.7. to 1/¯ = 0. ¯ Plot kgas vs 1/¯. the mean free path of gas molecules is similar to the dimensions of the pore space. laboratory data because pressures are low.3 The Klinkenberg Effect The apparent decrease in measured gas permeability which occurs with increasing average flowing pressure is known as the Klinkenberg effect. kliquid and b are determined from the slope and intercept of the plot. The extrapp olated permeability is equivalent to the liquid permeability.e. molecules are always present at the pore walls and the velocity of the fluid at the pore walls is zero (no-slip condition). Under these conditions the solid pore walls do not significantly retard gas flow close to the pore walls because molecules spend little time at the walls (free-slip condition). To correct gas measured permeabilities for the Klinkenberg effect: 1. kliquid = intercept b= slope kliquid à b 1+ p ¯ ! The Klinkenberg correction may be quite significant for gas flow in: low permeability rocks and quite high pressures. p. p Extrapolate the linear plot to infinite pressure i. kgas = kliquid where b is the Klinkenberg factor. The measured permeability is therefore lower than that for gases at low pressure. For liquids and gases at very high pressure. 2.2. 180 .

k= 2qa pa µ∆L A(p1 2 − p2 2 ) 3.979 0. Calculate the permeability of the plug.0182 cp = 2 atm = 0.169 4 3.146 0. Plot kgas vs 1/¯. p Open [KLINK. for each test. A series of tests was made with increasing inlet gas pressure.737 [Answer: 27.348 1 1.1 .979 atm = 0. 181 . check the input data and read the answer.Laboratory determination of the liquid permeability of a core plug using gas [KLINK.979 2. The intercept p at 1/¯ = 0 is the equivalent liquid permeability. The test data is given below.275 cm3 /sec Run Inlet Pressure Outlet Pressure Discharge Rate p1 (atm) p2 (atm) qa (cm3 /sec) 1 1.Problem] A clean core plug was mounted in a gas permeameter to measure permeability. p. p Extrapolate the linear plot to infinite pressure i. Calculate the mean flowing pressure. ¯ p= ¯ 2. The laboratory data is plug diameter plug length atmospheric pressure gas viscosity inlet pressure flow rate as follows: =] .979 9. to 1/¯ = 0.486 0.815 0.979 1.e.168 3 1. The core was discharged to atmospheric pressure.481 0.953 cm = 3 cm = 0. (p1 + p2 ) 2 Calculate kgas for each test using Darcy’s law.5 md] Solution hint 1. 4.

Although simple.13: Simple capillary tube model for a porous medium 7. 182 . The pore space is made up of a total of n uniform capillaries of radius R and length L. qc . Laminar (creeping) flow in a single capillary. is described by the Poiseuille equation πR4 ∆P qc = 8µ L where µ is the viscosity of the fluid and ∆P is the imposed pressure gradient.3.3 POROSITY-PERMEABILITY TIONSHIPS Capillary Tube Model RELA- 7. the bundle of capillaries is a good model for porous medium made up of packed particles such as a sandstones.1 In this section we examine the relationship between porosity and permeability using simple models to represent the porous medium. The simplest possible model for a porous medium is to consider a bundle of equal sized capillary tubes. The matrix consists of a solid block having dimensions L × L × L.kA ∆P πR4 ∆P q = nq c = n = 8µ L µ L πR4 ∆P qc = 8µ L Figure 7. This model is illustrated in the attached diagram.

q. φ= L2 = n πR2 φ Substituting for L2 in the equation for k gives. k=n πR4 8L2 The porosity of the simple porous medium is. gives kA ∆P πR4 ∆P =n µ L 8µ L Eliminating the common parameters and rearranging to solve for permeability. q= kA ∆P µ L where A is the x-sectional area of the porous medium perpendicular to the direction of flow. 183 . Equating the two equations for.The total steady-state flow rate. The unit of permeability is clearly length2 . q. φ= pore volume bulk volume πR2 L L3 πR2 φ= 2 L We use this equation to express L in terms of φ and R. q = nqc = n πR4 ∆P 8µ L According to Darcy’s law. Rearranging gives. k= R2 φ 8 It has been experimentally verified that permeability is well correlated to the square of particle diameter for porous media consisting of spherical particles. the flow q is given by. is simply the sum of the flows in each capillary.

ΣV p . This is very important in reservoir characterization. k= φ 2Σ2 p V Defining the specific surface area per unit grain volume of the porous medium. gives k= 1 φ3 2ΣV g (1 − φ)2 This is similar to the empirical Kozeny relation for unconsolidated porous media and forms the basis for power-law correlations or transforms between porosity and permeability for actual reservoir rocks. as pore surf ace area ΣV p = pore volume n2πRL ΣV p = nπR2 L 2 ΣV p = R or 2 R= ΣV p Substituting for R in the equation for k yields. 184 .Defining the specific surface area per unit pore volume of the porous medium. ΣV g . Actual relationships follow a power law because in real porous media ΣV g depends on φ and k in a complex way. Porosity-permeability transforms are important because they can be used to convert log measured porosities to permeabilities. as pore surf ace area ΣV g = grain volume ΣV g = ΣV p pore volume grain volume φ 1−φ 1−φ φ ΣV g = ΣV p or ΣV p = ΣV g Substituting into the equation for k.

q= From Darcy’s law we have q= kA ∆P kHW ∆P = µ L µ L h3 W ∆P 12µ L Equating the two equations for q gives. height H and width W containing a fracture of height h as shown in the attached figure.14: Simple model for a fractured porous medium 7.3. k= h2 h3 ³ ´ = 12H 12 H h hW L h = HW L H 185 We can define a fracture porosity as φf = .∆P H q h W L q= kA ∆P kHW ∆P = µ L µ L k= 1 1 2h h = h 2φ f 12 H 12 h3 W ∆P q= 12µ L Figure 7. The average velocity for laminar (viscous) flow in the fracture is given by.2 Fractured medium model Consider a block of length L. v= h2 ∆P 12µ L The volumetric flow rate through the fracture (q = vAf = vhW ) is.

pore and bulk volumes decrease with increasing stress. The resultant stress. σ−P . cr = 1 dVr Vr d(σ − P ) where. exerted by the fluids in the pore space. The fractional change in total or bulk volume per unit change in rock stress is called the bulk volume compressibility. P . σ. cp = − 1 dVp Vp d(σ − P ) 186 . The fractional change in grain volume per unit change in rock stress is called the rock or matrix compressibility. cr .e. The overall result is that grain. Internal stress — reservoir or pore pressure. it is different in different directions. cb = 1 dVr Vb d(σ − P ) Bulk volume compressibility may be important in determining levels of ground subsidence. External stress — exerted by the pressure of the overburden.e. This stress is isotropic i. cp . This stress increases with burial depth and is anisotropic i. 7. Vr is the grain or matrix volume. cb . The fractional change in pore volume per unit change in rock stress is called the pore volume or formation compressibility. the same in all directions. 2.This gives k= 1 2 h φf 12 Actual fractured media confirm that fracture permeability is a strong function of fracture height. causes a strain or deformation of the rock.4 ROCK COMPRESSIBILITY Reservoir rocks (porous rocks) are subject to two stresses: 1.

permeability and rock microstructure 187 .Figure 7.15: Relationships between porosity.

17: Measured porosity-permeability relationships for different limestones 188 .16: Measured porosity-permeability relationships for different rock types Figure 7.Figure 7.

dVb ≈ dVp and since Vp = φVb . show that cr << cb . This means that. in which the external rock stress (σ) is constant. 189 . For reservoir engineering calculations the primary interest is in the change in pore volume as reservoir or pore volume pressure changes.Figure 7. The above relationships are useful in interpreting laboratory measurements. bulk and pore volume compressibilities are measured in special laboratory experiments which will be described in the next section.4.1 Pore Volume Compressibility Experimental measurements for sandstones and shales.18: Measured permeability-specific area relationships for different sandstones The matrix. 7. we have that cp = with cp = cf = − cb φ 1 dVp Vp dP where cf is the formation compressibility and is commonly used interchangeably with pore volume compressibility.

7.Figure 7. A small bore capillary tube is used to measure the changes in pore volume by measuring the volume of fluid expelled from the pore space. Geersma (1966) showed that for these conditions. 190 . 1 cf ≈ cp 2 this shows that the effective pore volume compressibility for reservoir rocks is only one-half of the value measured in laboratory tests.4.2 Measurement of Formation Compressibility The apparatus shown schematically in the attached figure is used to measure rock compressibility (pore volume compressibility). The apparatus allows both the internal or fluid pressure in the core and the external or overburden pressure to be varied independently.19: Hydrostatic load cell for measuring pore volume compressibility For actual reservoir conditions only the vertical component of external stress is constant with the stress components in the horizontal plane characterized by boundary conditions that there is no bulk deformation in these directions.

191 . Typical results for various reservoir rock types are shown in attached figure.20: Porosity and permeability as a function of stress Two types of measurements may be made: 1. Rock compaction — the external pressure on the sample sheath is increased with the internal pressure held at atmospheric. The internal pressure is reduced in steps and the liquid produced at each pressure is noted. The difference between the measured and calculated liquid volumes is the change in pore space volume.Figure 7. 2. The volume of liquid squeezed out into the capillary tube is directly related to the change in bulk volume of the sample. The volume of liquid which would have been produced had the pore space volume remained constant is readily calculated from a knowledge of the liquid compressibility. Pore volume compressibility — The external pressure is maintained constant.

7. So = Sg = 0 and Sw = 1. water and gas phase saturations The total compressibility is used to evaluate the diffusivity factor for unsteadystate flow calculations. ct = cw + cf Typical Values Typical values of the individual compressibilities at reservoir conditions are: cf cw co cg for. Estimates of total compressibility are important in well pressure test analysis. we have.2 = 0. ct cf co . When there is no oil or free gas present (aquifer zone).1 ct = So co + Sw cw + Sg cg + cf ct = 64 × 10−6 psi−1 = = = = 3 × 10−6 psi−1 3 × 10−6 psi−1 15 × 10−6 psi−1 500 × 10−6 psi−1 @ 2000 psia 192 .3 Use of Rock Compressibilities When oil. Sw So Sg = 0. (φ). water and gas all occupy the pore space. cw . Sw .4. in a unit bulk volume. Sg = = = = total compressibility formation or pore space compressibility oil. the volume of liquid which is expelled from the rock per unit drop in pressure may be written as. cg So . ct = So co + Sw cw + Sg cg + cf where.7 = 0. water and gas phase compressibilities oil.

Figure 7.21: Porosity variation with depth in a sedimentary basin Figure 7.22: Anisotropic stress and directional permeability 193 .

as a result of the converging nature of the flow. A common exception is flow close to a wellbore where. q k ∆p =− A µ ∆L where. q A k µ ∆p ∆L = = = = = = flow rate. is an intrinsic property of the porous medium. This is generally true for most reservoir conditions where actual flow velocities are low. In the above equation the porous medium is saturated with a single fluid. cross-sectional area open to flow.Chapter 8 FLUID FLOW 8.1 DARCY’S LAW All the equations used to describe the flow of fluids in reservoirs are based on Darcy’s law. k. fluid viscosity. Darcy (1856). cc/sec cm2 darcy cp atmospheres cm The permeability. a French engineer.inlet pressure. He observed the following relationship between superficial velocity and the properties of the sand bed and fluid. investigated the flow of water through sand filters for water purification. velocities may be high enough for turbulent or non-linear flow. 194 . outlet pressure . distance between inlet and outlet. permeability. The linear dependence of flow rate on the pressure gradient implies laminar or viscous flow in the pore-spaces of the porous medium.

In such cases it is convenient to define a pressure potential as.1 Pressure Potential The above form of Darcy’s law applies to horizontal flow where there are no gravity effects. usually taken as pr = 0. Φ= Z p pr dp − gdz ρ where z is the vertical coordinate measured positive downward and g is the gravitational acceleration. The sign convention is therefore that distance is measured positive in the direction of flow. 8. In reservoir analysis we are often interested in vertical or inclined flow where the flow occurs in the presence of a hydrostatic gradient.1: Darcy’s law and linear flow The above equation is general and may be written in differential form as.1. q k dp =− A µ dx where dp/dx is the pressure gradient in the direction of flow The negative sign in the above equations indicates that pressure decreases in the direction of flow. pr is an arbitrary reference pressure. 195 .Figure 8. This is the basic equation used to analyze single phase flow in reservoir engineering.

q k =− A µ Ã dp − ρg sin α dx 196 ! . z = x sin α and the pressure potential is. Darcy’s law may be written as. Φ= Z p pr dp − gdx sin α ρ If the reservoir fluid is considered to be incompressible the potential may be written as p Φ = − gx sin α ρ An alternate definition of fluid potential is Ψ = ρΦ = p − ρgz With this definition. q k dΨ =− A µ dx or. potential has the units of pressure.Figure 8.2: Pressure potential and inclined linear flow For a reservoir dipping upward in the direction of flow with dip angle α.

2.Figure 8. q=− kA ∆p µ L This equation is commonly used to evaluate flow tests in reservoir core samples and calculate rates in line drives. 197 .1 STEADY-STATE FLOW Horizontal Linear Flow of an Incompressible Fluid The linear flow system is depicted in the attached figure. The medium has uniform permeability. 8.3.1 . µ. Darcy’s law is written as. If you are not using Mathcad be careful with units. and is saturated with an incompressible (ρ is constant) fluid having constant viscosity.2 8. k.3: Linear vertical flow problem Problem 8.Fluid potential and Darcy’s law In order to test your understanding of Darcy’s law and fluid potential solve the problem shown in Figure 8.

P2 .4: Linear flow in parallel Horizontal flow in parallel Consider the case where the flow system consists of a n layers having different thicknesses. Equating the two expressions for q gives. qi = − The total flow rate is q= or q=− ki (hi w) (P2 − P1 ) µ L n X i=1 qi n w(P2 − P1 ) X ki hi µL i=1 Darcy’s law for the total flow may also be written as. For a common inlet face pressure. the pressure drop across each layer is the same and the flow rate for each layer is. i=1 ki hi ¯ k = Pn i=1 hi Pn This equation is used to determine the average horizontal permeability of a layered system. hi . and outlet face pressure.Figure 8. ki . P1 . 198 . q=− ¯ k(hw) (P2 − P1 ) µ L ¯ where k is the average system permeability and h is the total thickness. and permeabilities.

5: Linear flow in series Example 8. q = qi where. For this arrangement the flow through each layer is the same.1 .mcd] Determine the average permeability of four parallel beds having the following thicknesses and permeabilities.Average permeability for beds in parallel [PARK. q=− ki (hw) ∆Pi µ Li 199 .Figure 8. Layer Thickness Horizontal Permeability (ft) (md) 1 20 100 2 15 200 3 10 300 4 5 400 [Answer: 200 md] Horizontal flow in series Consider the arrangement where the different permeabilities are arranged in series.

(P1 − P2 ) = where. ∆Pi = qµ Li hw ki and the total pressure drop is the sum of the pressure drops in each layer. L = P qµ L ¯ hw k Li . (P1 − P2 ) = n X i=1 ∆Pi = n qµ X Li hw i=1 ki Darcy’s law for the series arrangement may be written as. Layer Length Permeability (ft) (md) 1 250 25 2 250 50 3 500 100 4 1000 200 [Answer: 80 md] 200 . Li ¯ k = Pn i=1 i=1 Li /ki This equation is used to calculate the effective vertical permeability for a layered reservoir system.2 . Example 8.where ∆Pi is the pressure drop across slab i.Average permeability for beds in series [] Determine the average permeability of four beds in series having the following lengths and permeabilities. is the total length for flow. This may be rewritten as. Pn Equating the above equations gives.

This is the basic model for flow into a well and is used in reservoir engineering to evaluate well performance.2. Substituting into Darcy’s law gives. The following nomenclature employed. A. is constant and the flow area. rw re h = wellbore radius = well drainage radius = formation thickness Flow enters the system across the outer perimeter at radius re . and leaves at the wellbore of radius rw .2 Radial Flow of an Incompressible Fluid The radial flow system is depicted in the attached figure. is 2πrh. q k dp = 2πrh µ dr Note that for radial flow pressure decreases with decreasing r. q. 201 .Figure 8. The volumetric flow rate.6: Radial flow model 8.

RB/D permeability of well drainage area. psi external drainage radius. psi wellbore pressure . feet fluid viscosity. q = 0. q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µ ln rw This equation is widely used in reservoir engineering to calculate production and injection rates for individual wells. feet wellbore radius.Separating variables and integrating gives: q Z re rw dr 2πkh Z pe = dp r µ pw 2πkh(pe − pw ) µ q(ln rw − ln re ) = Solving for q. cp pressure at external radius. feet kh(pe − pw ) re µ ln rw 202 . md average reservoir thickness. The equation may be written in field units as. q k h µ pe pw re rw = = = = = = = = well rate.00708 where.

mcd] Calculate the maximum possible pumping rate for an oil well in a reservoir where the pressure is being maintained at 2000 psia at the drainage radius. The theoretical minimum flowing bottom hole pressure for a pumped well is one atmosphere.Figure 8. md feet cp feet feet 203 . Since we have only studied steady-state flow to this point. = = = = = 230 10 will be using it a lot.5 0.Steady-state radial flow [RADSSF.7: Pressure distribution in steady-state radial flow Example 8. It solves a great variety of radial flow problems and does many vertical well performance calculations.5. The following data apply: k h µ rw re [Answer: 1114 RB/day] Solution hint Study [RADSSF. 2000. take the answer for this equation and ignore the other equations and results.3 .mcd] carefully .

8: Radial flow in series Radial flow in parallel This arrangement results in the same expression for effective or average permeability as that for linear flow. Radial flow in series Using the same reasoning as for linear flow in series yields the result.Figure 8. M X log(ri )/(ri−1 ) 1 1 = ¯ log(re /rw ) i=1 ki k 204 .

Figure 8.9: Radial flow in parallel 205 .

This pressure drop simply adds to that for the case of no damage.3 Wellbore Damage Wells are always drilled with overpressure (mud pressure greater than formation pressure) to prevent inflow of reservoir fluids which could lighten the mud column and lead to a blowout. Radial Layer Radius (ft) r1 250 r2 250 500 r3 r4 1000 [Answer: 30. q= or pe − pw = 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µ ln rw qµ re ln 2πkh rw 206 µ ¶ .4 . where ra is the radius of the damaged zone.Example 8. As a result of overpressure some of the drilling mud flows into the formation and the particles suspended in the mud partially plug the pore spaces through which fluid flows.4 md] Permeability (md) 25 50 100 200 8. This creates a lower permeability zone or a damaged zone close to the wellbore.Average permeability for radial beds in series [RADSERK.2. The wellbore radius is] Determine the average permeability of four radial layers in series having the following radial distances to bed boundaries and bed permeabilities. The damaged zone results in an additional pressure ∆pskin at the wellbore. For steady-state radial flow. the pressure drop for an undamaged well is given by. Wellbore damage is depicted in the attached figure.5 ft and the well drainage radius is 2000 ft.

for a damaged well we have a modified radial flow equation. the skin-factor may be positive (a damaged well). negative (a stimulated well) or zero (undamaged well). In general. In practice.Figure 8. then the total pressure drop for a damaged well may be written as. q. qµ re pe − pw = ln + ∆pskin 2πkh rw If we write.10: Radial flow model with an altered or damaged zone If the additional pressure drop due to the damaged zone is ∆pskin . ∆pskin = pe − pw = or q= qµ re ln +s 2πkh rw µ ¶ µ ¶ 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µ ln rw + s where s is the skin-factor for the well. In application of the radial flow equation to wells we usually specify the rate at surface 207 . s is determined from the interpretation of transient pressure well tests (pressure build-ups and drawdown). is the reservoir or sandface rate. qµ (s) 2πkh Than. In the above equations the rate.

When this is done we write the radial flow equation as. It is understood that when an equation contains B the rate. is in surface volumes. the rate is understood to be in reservoir volumes.conditions. q. In the absence of B. q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µB ln rw + s where B is the formation volume factor which relates surface rates to reservoir rates. 208 .

11: Skin pressure drop 209 .Figure 8.

md feet cp feet feet (ii) What would the well rate be if the wellbore is cleaned with an acid. has an upper limit on the magnitude of the actual value which the skin factor can take. A well test has shown the well to be highly damaged with a skin factor of +7.5. This may be demonstrated by considering the steady-state radial flow equation. (iii) 1745 RB/day] 8.Steady-state radial flow with skin [RADSSF. ln(re /rw ).Example 8.5 .4 Relationship between s and the size of the altered zone The skin factor for a stimulated well .mcd] (i) Calculate the maximum possible pumping rate for an oil well in a reservoir where the pressure is being maintained at 2000 psia at the drainage radius. A successful acid job may be expected to reduce the skin factor to approximately zero. (iii) What would the rate be for a stimulated well after a frac job which is expected to achieve a skin factor of -3. the equation produces answers which are physically impossible.5 0.2. The following data apply: k h µ rw re = = = = = 230 10 3. [Answer: (i) 604 RB/day. This problem is removed by the introduction of the thick skin model. (ii) 1114 RB/day. q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ µB ln re + s rw If −s is equal to.where the skin factor is negative. 210 . or greater than. 2000.

12: Realatinship between skin-factor and the size of the altered zone If the altered zone extends from rw to ra and the altered permeability is ka . qBµ re pe − pa = ln 2πkh ra where re is the drainage radius and pe is the pressure at re . Also. and if the bulk formation permeability (from ra to re ) is k. µ ¶ qBµ ra ln pa − pw = 2πkh rw where ra is the radius of the altered zone and pa is the pressure at ra . pe − pw = qBµ re ln +s 2πkh rw 211 ½ µ ¶ ¾ . Adding the two equations gives the pressure across the formation (pe − pw ) pe − pw = qBµ 1 re 1 ra ln + ln 2πh k ra ka rw ½ µ ¶ µ ¶¾ µ ¶ The thin skin model expresses the above pressure drop as.Figure 8. we can use the steady-state radial flow equation to calculate the pressure drops across the altered zone and the formation.

ka . q= where 0 rw is the effective wellbore radius. we have for a well with skin. k/ka → 0 and the equation gives ra s = − ln rw µ ¶ µ which is the upper physical limit on the value of s for a stimulated well. Again. using the steady-state radial flow equation. ½ µ ¶ µ ¶¾ # ½ µ ½ µ ¶ ¾ ¾ 1 re 1 ra + ln ln k ra ka rw " = 1 re 1 + s ln k rw k ¶ ¶ This may be simplified to give. The skin factor for a stimulated well depends both on the permeability of the altered zone. 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ q= Bµ ln re + s rw We can also write this as. à ! à 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ Bµ ln r0e rw Equating both expressions for q gives. qBµ 1 1 re pe − pw = ln + s 2πh k rw k Equating the two expressions for (pe − pw ) gives. 8. k ra s= − 1 ln ka rw If ka → ∞.5 Effective Wellbore Radius Another common way of expressing the skin factor is in terms of an effective wellbore radius. This may be re-written as. and the size of the altered zone. ra .where k is the permeability of the bulk formation and s is the skin factor. re ln 0 rw which can be written as = ln ! µ re +s rw ¶ r0 ln w rw = −s 212 .2.

213 . 0 rw = rw e−s The effective wellbore radius concept is often used to characterize fractured and horizontal wells. 0 rw = xf where xf is the fracture half-length. 0 rw = L 4 where L is the length of the horizontal well.2. 8. the well has 100% efficiency. FE = pi − pwf − ∆ps qactual = pi − pwf qundamaged When ∆ps = 0. For example.This may be simplified to. The effective wellbore radius for a long horizontal well in a thin reservoir approaches that of a fractured well with a fracture half-length equal to one-quarter the length of the horizontal well.6 Flow Efficiency Once a numerical value for the skin factor has been determined it can be used to determine the well flow efficiency F E. This is defined as the ratio of the pressure drop at the damaged wellbore to that for an undamaged well. the effective wellbore radius for a vertical well with an infinite conductivity fracture is.

The last flowing pressure was pwf =2650 psi. re = 2000] A pressure test conducted on a production well indicated a skin-factor of s = +3.5 ft. The pressure drop due to skin-effect. 10 ft. [Answer: 255 md. µ = 0. The following information and fluid properties apply: k = 30 md h = 40 ft. The flow efficiency for the well. [Answer: 0.72] 3.12 RB/STB.4 cp B = 1.025 ft.Problem 8.Skin-factor [SKIN.] If the fracture is estimated to affect a zone extending 15 ft. into the formation estimate the permeability of the affected zone.63.] The well is a candidate for stimulation by fracturing. The effective wellbore radius.2 . rw = 0. pi = 2800 psi Calculate. 1.] 214 . [Answer: 42 psi] 2. [Answer: 0. If fracturing results in a skin-factor of s = −3. 1. what would the above parameters be for the stimulated well? [Answer: -94 psi.

13: Transient radial flow 8. The partial differential equation is non-linear because the coefficients (particularly the density. p = p(r. 1 ∂ r ∂r à kρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φcρ ∂p ∂t where c is the total system compressibility. t is time and ρ is the fluid density. ρ) are functions of pressure. t). The dependent variable is pressure (p).e.Figure 8.3 UNSTEADY STATE FLOW The basic equation which describes single phase unsteady-state flow in a radial system is the radial diffusivity equation. The independent variables are time (t) and spatial position (r). 215 .. Pressure is a function of both space and time i.

.Figure 8. Ã ∂ρ ∂t ∂(ρ) ∂t qρ |r+dr − qρ |r dr ! = 2πrhφ 216 .1 Radial Diffusivity Equation The radial system is similar to that described for steady-state flow. We make the following assumptions: .14: Pressure distribution in transient radial flow 8.3. Consider the flow through a volume element of thickness dr.the well is fully penetrating ie.the reservoir is homogeneous and isotropic (k is constant). it is completed over the entire vertical section so that the flow is strictly radial. mass rate in −mass rate out = rate of accumulation of mass ∂ qρ |r+dr −qρ |r = (2πrhφρdr) ∂t This may be expressed as. qρ |r+dr − qρ |r = 2πrhφdr The above may be simplified..

∂ ∂r or à 2πkhr ∂p ρ µ ∂r à ! = 2πrhφ ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ ∂t 1 ∂ r ∂r kρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! =φ This is the general form of the radial diffusivity equation. 217 .Figure 8. Darcy’s law for a radial system may be written as. q= 2πkhr ∂p µ ∂r Substituting into the continuity equation gives.15: Differential material balance for the radial diffusivity equation ∂(qρ) ∂ρ = 2πrhφ ∂r ∂t this is called the continuity equation.

Defining the isothermal compressibility of the fluid as c=− 1 ∂V V ∂p Since ρ = m/V . 218 . c= This may be written as. which is one of the coefficients is a function of pressure p. ρ. cρ∂p = ∂pρ dividing both sides of the equation by ∂t. gives cρ ∂ρ ∂p = ∂t ∂t 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p Substituting into the previous equation gives 1 ∂ r ∂r à kρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φcρ ∂p ∂t This is the general form of the radial diffusivity equation for the flow of a single phase in a porous medium. The equation is non-linear because density. and mass m is constant.The term ∂ρ/∂t may be expressed in terms of pressure by introducing an equationof-state for the fluid.

dividing throughout by ρ. ∂ρ = cρ∂p Substituting in the differential equation 1 ∂p ∂p ∂p ∂2p rcρ + ρ + ρr 2 r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r Finally. 1 r à à ∂(ρr) ∂p ∂ 2p + ρr 2 ∂r ∂r ∂r ! = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t ! 1 ∂(ρ) ∂p ∂(r) ∂p ∂2p r +ρ + ρr 2 r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r 1 ∂ρ ∂p ∂p ∂2p r + ρ + ρr 2 r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r à ! = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t An alternate definition for compressibility. the diffusivity equation becomes 1 ∂ ∂p ρr r ∂r ∂r à ! = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t Using the chain rule for differentiation.2 Liquids Having Small and Constant Compressibility Reservoir oil and water are relatively incompressible and the assumption of constant and small compressibility is a good model for these fluids. c= or.3.8. µ and c are constant. in terms of fluid density. we expand the LHS of the equation. gives 1 ∂p rc r ∂r This is simplified to ∂p c ∂r à !2  à !2 à ! 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t ∂p ∂2p φcµ ∂p + + r 2 = ∂r ∂r k ∂t  + 1 ∂p ∂ 2 p φµc ∂p + 2 = r ∂r ∂r k ∂t 219 . φ. Since we have assumed that k.

The equation is linear and therefore amenable to analytical solution. à ! 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r = 1 ∂p η ∂t where η = k/φµc is the hydraulic diffusivity.6 × 10−6 psi−1 = = = = = 10 × 10−6 psi−1 3 × 10−6 psi−1 6 × 10−6 psi−1 0.20 3000 psi 220 . It forms the basis for many important reservoir analysis techniques which include transient pressure well test analysis and aquifer modeling. the leading term on the LHS of the above equation may be neglected and the diffusivity equation becomes φcµ ∂p 1 ∂p ∂ 2 p + 2 = r ∂r ∂r k ∂t which may be written as à ! 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r = φµc ∂p k ∂t This is the final form of the diffusivity equation for a slightly compressible fluid. is the total compressibility of the system. the compressibility. Total system compressibility In actual applications of the above equation to single phase oil flow where the formation contains connate water and the formation is itself compressible. water and pore volume or formation compressibilities. cw and cf are the oil. This is determined using the following equation c = co So + cw Sw + cf where co . c. Typical values may be co cw cf Sw p This results in c = 14. respectively.∂p/∂r is small and since c << 1. The equation is also written as. So and Sw are the oil and water saturations.

The pseudo-steady state solution is important because it describes the situation of a reservoir producing by natural pressure depletion where the production for the well originates from within the well’s own drainage area. (i) no flow across the external boundary. thus ∂p q =− 2 ∂t cπre hφ 221 . c is the compressibility and Vp is the pore volume. Differentiating this equation we obtain. can be calculated from a simple material balance ¯ (total compressibility of the pore-fluid system). cVp (pi − p) = qt ¯ where pi is the initial pressure and. q. the average pressure. Pseudo-steady-state flow is a special form of stabilized unsteady-state flow in which the shape of the pressure profile from the wellbore to the drainage radius is independent of time. ∂p = constant ∂t The value for the constant is obtained from the material balance equation written above. Vp = πre hφ. but the average drainage area pressure declines with production.3 Pseudo-Steady-State Radial Flow The simplest solution to the radial diffusivity equation (other than the steadystate solution) is for pseudo-steady-state flow. p. For a reservoir producing at a constant production rate. No flow occurs across the drainage radius. by natural pressure depletion. t is time.3. r ∂p = 0 at r = re ∂r (ii) pseudo-steady-state flow condition. The boundary conditions are.8. cVp (−d¯) = qdt p or d¯ dp p q = =− dt dt cVp 2 For the radial model.

The radial diffusivity equation is 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r substituting for ∂p/∂t.. r∂p/∂r = 0 at r = re qµ C1 = 2πkh Substituting for C1 .e. ∂p qµr2 r =− + C1 2 ∂r 2πre kh The constant of integration. gives 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r which simplifies to à à ! à ! = φµc ∂p k ∂t =− ! φµc q 2 k cπre hφ qµ 2 πre kh 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r This equation may be written as ∂p ∂ r ∂r à ! =− =− qµ r∂r 2 πre kh Integrating the above equation gives. Z pr pw à 1 r − 2 r re ! ! à 1 r − 2 ∂r r re à qµ Z r ∂p = 2πkh rw " 1 r − 2 ∂r r re #r ! [p]pr pw or qµ r2 = ln r − 2 2πkh 2re à rw qµ r r2 r2 pr − pw = ln − 2 + w2 2πkh rw 2re 2re 222 ! . and simplifying gives ∂p qµ = ∂r 2πkh Separating variables. is easily evaluated from the first BC i. C1 . qµ ∂p = 2πkh Integrating.

the pressure at the outer drainage radius. p.2 2 The term rw /re is clearly negligible and the equation is written as. The particular case of practical interest is when r = re qµ re 1 pe − pw = ln − 2πkh rw 2 or q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) µB ln(re /rw ) − µ ¶ 1 2 With the inclusion of the skin-factor the equation is q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) µB ln(re /rw ) − 1 + s 2 This equation is useful for determining well production rates.3. Well tests provide a measure of the average drainage area pressure and it is therefore more convenient to express the pressure drawdown in terms of the average reservoir. The rates predicted by the steady-state and the pseudo steady-state equations are usually very similar (within 10%). ¯ The average reservoir pressure is given by r p = R we ¯ r R re pdVp rw dVp 223 . 2πkh (pe − pw ) q= µB ln(re /rw ) + s The term ln(re /rw ) has a value typically between 6 and 7. 8. pe .4 Flow Equations in terms of Average Reservoir Pressure A problem with using the above radial flow equations is that although pw and q can be measured directly. qµ r r2 pr − pw = ln − 2 2πkh rw 2re à ! The above equation is a general expression for pressure as a function of radius. cannot. It is interesting to compare this equation to the previously derived steady-state equation.

Now. à ! 2 Z re 2 Z re qµ r r2 p= 2 ¯ pw rdr + 2 ln − 2 rdr re rw re rw 2πkh rw 2re à ! à ! 2 2 2 re rw − p = 2 pw ¯ re 2 2 2 2 Again. so r p = R we ¯ r R re p2πrhφdr rw 2πrhφdr R re or 2 2 2 Since re − rw ≈ re Z re 2 p= 2 ¯ prdr 2 re − rw rw r p = R we ¯ r prdr rw rdr 2 Z re p= 2 ¯ prdr re rw qµ r r2 ln − 2 pr − pw = 2πkh rw 2re à ! For pseudo-steady-state flow. rw << re . so 2 qµ Z re r r2 + 2 r ln − 2 dr re 2πkh rw rw 2re à ! 2 qµ Z re r r2 p = pw + 2 ¯ r ln − 2 dr re 2πkh rw rw 2re The first term in the integrand must be evaluated by parts. Z re rw r r r2 r ln dr = ln rw 2 rw " µ ¶ " #re rw − Z re rw 1 r2 dr r 2 Z re rw r r r2 r ln dr = ln rw 2 rw µ ¶ #re rw r2 − 4 " #re rw 224 . or qµ r r2 p = pw + ln − 2 2πkh rw 2re à ! Therefore. dVp = 2πrhφdr.

In the presence of formation damage or stimulation (positive or negative skin) the equation becomes qµ re 3 p − pw = ¯ ln − +s 2πkh rw 4 or q= 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p µB ln(re /rw ) − 3 + s 4 µ ¶ The equation is similar to the previously derived equations of pseudo-steady-state and steady-state flow and predicts similar well rates.5 Dietz Shape Factors for Vertical Wells The pseudo steady-state equation for a well centered in a circular drainage area. 8.Again. neglecting small terms. 2 re r2 r2 re − e − e ln 2 rw 4 8 ! qµ re 1 1 p = pw + ¯ ln − − 2πkh rw 2 4 µ ¶ qµ re 3 p − pw = ¯ ln − 2πkh rw 4 µ ¶ Which is the required inflow equation.3. q= 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p µB ln(re /rw ) − 3 + s 4 may be generalized for wells located anywhere in an arbitrary drainage area q= 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p q µB ln( 2. Z re rw r3 r4 dr = 2 2 2re 8re à = rw 2 re 8 The equation for average pressure becomes. Z re rw r r2 re r2 r ln dr = e ln − e rw 2 rw 4 " #re µ ¶ Integration of the second term gives.2458A/(CA r2 ) + s w 225 . 2 qµ p = pw + 2 ¯ re 2πkh Simplifying.

75 + ln( 2. the drainage area. [Answer: 480 STB/day] 226 . If re is the effective drainage the center of a square drainage area.75 q Problem 8.2458π/CA ) + 0.1 md feet cp feet psia RB/STB What would the rate be using the steady-state solution? [Answer: 721 STB/day] What would the rate be if the well was located. [Answer: 652 STB/day] (ii) .where CA is the Dietz shape factor which depends on the geometry of the drainage area.3 .75 + sCA + s where sCA is a shape related skin-factor and is given by. Values for the shape factor are given in various handbooks and texts. sCA = ln( 2.2 0.? (i) .2458π/CA ) + 0.Pseudo-steady-state radial flow and drainage area shape factors [RADSSF. The following data apply: k h µ rw pw s Bo = = = = = = = 180 16 2.75 + s This equation may be written as 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p q= µB ln(re /rw ) − the center of a rectangular (5:1). drainage area [Answer: 562 STB/day] (iii) .at the apex of a triangular drainage area. may be expressed as A = πre 2 the pseudo steady-state solution may be written as 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p h q i q= µB ln(re /rw ) − 0.] Calculate the production rate of an oil well in a 160 acre drainage area when the average pressure is 1850 psia.5 1230 0 1.

8 4.13 22.111 2.36 2 0.38 1 0.9 1/3 1 2 1 2 1 4 1 5 1 3.6 0.16: Dietz shape factors for vertical wells 227 .72 27.6 0.9 2.6 10.9 In water drive reservoirs 19.607 5.1 4.86 30.6 1 4 2.232 0.115 27.39 21.07 31.098 12.Shape of drainage area CA CA 1 2 31.1 60o 3.57 In reservoirs of unknown production character 25 Figure 8.

it is usually possible to approximate the system using simple idealizations.17: Approximating complex geometries 8. 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ q=f µB ln re rw where. the well rate is given by.6 Approximating Complex Geometries In cases where the flow geometry is more complex than those considered by the Dietz shape factors.3. If the angle between the faults is θ and the flow is assumed to be steady-state. An example of this is shown in the attached figure for a well completed close to the intersection of two linear sealing faults. 228 . f= θ 360o The above equation is based on the fact that every streamline in a radial flow system can represent a no-flow boundary.Figure 8.

To see why this is so. The productivity index for a well is not constant and may vary considerably over the life of the well. h.increase length of completion interval.4 8.stimulate or fracture to reduce skin. q. in psi. . s will also change with time. Increasing Well PI The above equation shows the options available to increase well productivity are: .increase reservoir pressure to increase kro and reduce µo 229 . ∆p.1 WELL PRODUCTIVITY Productivity Index The productivity index. J. consider the pseudo-steady-state radial flow equation.8. Moreover. S. in STB/D divided by the pressure drawdown.4. . ¯ 2πkh(P − Pw ) q= re µB(ln( rw ) − 3 + s) 4 So. J= q ∆p The productivity index is a simple measure of the productivity of a production well. J= q 2πkkro h = re (∆p) µBo (ln( rw ) − 3 + s) 4 The above equation may be grouped into those parameters which remain constant with time and those which change with time. if the well is stimulated or if it gradually cleans-up with production. J= Ã 2πkh re (ln( rw ) − 3 + s) 4 !Ã kro µBo ! The terms kro /µBo vary with time because reservoir pressure ( which affect µ and Bo ) and saturation ( which affects kro ) change with time. of a well is defined as the production rate.

the flow in the vicinity of a partially penetrating well must deviate from pure radial flow as streamlines converge towards the well. 230 .2 Partial Penetration The well models discussed above considered a well completed over the entire section of the reservoir. These wells are referred to as partially penetrating wells.4. This results in an additional pressure drop close to the wellbore which can be treated as a pseudo-skin due to partial penetration.18: Partial penetration 8.Figure 8. Many oil and gas wells are completed over only part of the producing sand interval. When comparing a partially penetrating well to a fully penetrating well.

75 + sp than the ratio J/Jpp is readily calculated.A number of correlations have been published which account for the effect of partial penetration on well performance.25hp h h1 + 0. 231 . sp . Ã 1 πhD − 1 ln hpD 2 ! Ã ! 1 hpD + ln hpD 2 + hpD " µ A−1 B−1 ¶0.75hp Initially a partially penetrating well behaves as if it is producing from a formation of thickness hp . sp . For this correlation the pseudo-skin factor. this ratio is approximately hp /h. is given by (see attached figure for definition of variables). sp = where.5 # hpD = h hD = rw A= B= hp h s kh kv h h1 + 0.75 and that for a partially penetrating well is. Jpp = 2πkh h 1 µB ln re /rw − 0. J= 2πkh h 1 µB ln re /rw − 0. If the productivity index (J = q/∆p) for a fully penetrating well is. As a rule of thumb. All are based on potential flow solutions or numerical simulations for the two-dimensional cylindrical diffusivity equation in two-dimensions. The correlation by Papatzacos (1988) is typical. After some time a transition occurs to flow from the entire formation and the establishment of the pseudo-skin factor.

69 STB/day-psi. Calculate the productivity index for the well and the ratio of productivities for the well and for a fully penetrating well. (iv) over the top 25 ft of pay. 0. 1. (iv) 2. (iii) 4. 0.Partially penetrating well [PARPEN. The formation thickness is 100 ft. (vi) over the middle 50 ft of pay. (iii) over the top 50 ft of] A field is developed on a 40 acre spacing.57] 232 . 100 md kh = kv = 5 md rw = 0.4 STB/day-psi.32.8. 0.8 STB/day-psi.Problem 8. (ii) over the top 75 ft of pay.4 STB/day-psi. 0.0 (ii) 6.5 STB/day-psi. Other reservoir properties are.4 .25 RB/STB [Answer: (i) 7. (vi)4. (i) over the entire 100 ft of pay. µ= 1 cp B = 1. (v) 0. (v) over the top 5 ft of pay. 0.57.5 ft.2 STB/day-psi.

we write. q. 233 . The result is. we have previously written the radial diffusivity equation as. ∂ ∂ρ (ρq) = 2πrhφ ∂r ∂t We then substituted Darcy’s law for the volumetric flow rate. T is the temperature (assumed to be constant). n is the number of moles of gas and R is the universal gas law constant. k. For the case of a slightly compressible fluid with constant viscosity.5 GAS FLOW In treating the flow of a slightly compressible fluid we began by writing the continuity equation for a radial element. v is the volume of the gas. k ∂p 1 ∂ ρ r r ∂r µ ∂r à à ! 2πkhr ∂p µ ∂r =φ ∂ρ ∂t Assuming that permeability. 1 ∂ r ∂r ρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φ ∂ρ k ∂t This is the basic material balance for a radial volume element of the reservoir and it applies to all flows. is constant. Equation of state for a compressible fluid The pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior of a gas is given by the real gas law.8. pv = znRT where z is the compressibility factor. q= to eliminate q. 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r à ! = φµc ∂p k ∂t Gases are highly compressible and we cannot expect that the above diffusivity equation will apply for gases.

µ = µ(p) and we cannot assume a constant viscosity. c= 1 1 ∂z − p z ∂p ( ( ∂ (pz −1 ) ∂p 1 p ∂z − 2 z z ∂p i. n= c= which gives c= z ∂(p/z) p ∂p ) ) Since 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p In performing the integration we note that z = z(p). the real gas law may be written as. 1 ∂ r ∂r à ρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φ ∂ρ k ∂t For a gas. we begin our analysis for a gas by writing the continuity equation. m M p ρ= = v RT z We may use this expression together with the definition of compressibility to write an expression for the compressibility of a real gas. z c= p z c= p Finally. A further complication for gases is that viscosity is also a function of pressure (µ = µ(p)) Diffusivity equation for a compressible fluid As previously. Since ρ= M p RT z 234 . the compressibility of a gas is a highly non-linear function of pressure.e.m M where m is the mass of the gas and M is the gas molecular weight..

∂ρ = cρ ∂p ∂ρ M p =c ∂p RT z which gives 1 ∂ r ∂r à M p 1 ∂p r RT z µ ∂r à ! ! = φ ∂p M p c k ∂t RT z dividing both sides by the constants we finally obtain. ∂p µz = ∂ψ 2p à ! 235 . defined as ψ(p) = 2 Z p a p dp µz where a is an arbitrarily low reference pressure. à ! 1 ∂ p ∂ψ dp φcp ∂ψ dp r = r ∂r µz ∂r dψ kz ∂t dψ Now. In order to solve the equation it is necessary to first linearize it. Pseudo-pressure Introduce a new variable called the pseudo pressure. from our definition of compressibility. This transformation gives p dψ = 2 dp µz Re-writing the non-linear diffusivity equation in therm of pseudo-pressure we have. 1 ∂ r ∂r p ∂p r µz ∂r = φcp ∂p kz ∂t This is a highly non-linear equation because the coefficients on both sides of the equations are highly non-linear functions of pressure.we have 1 ∂ r ∂r à M p 1 ∂p r RT z µ ∂r ! φ ∂p = k ∂t à ∂ρ ∂p ! Now. ψ(p).

∂ψ 1 = ∂(p2 ) µz ¯¯ 236 .5.therefore. 000psi and ∆p small For low pressure and small pressure drop. Since ∆p is small (p approximately constant) we may use average properties for the coefficient terms. resulting in a linear diffusivity equation in terms ¯ ¯ of the pseudo pressure. 1 ∂ r ∂r à p ∂ψ µz r µz ∂r 2p à ! ! = φcp ∂ψ µz kz ∂t 2p Simplifying this expression gives ∂ψ 1 ∂ r r ∂r ∂r = φµc ∂ψ k ∂t This has eliminated the non-linearity on the LHS and made the equation look like the diffusivity equation for a slightly compressible liquid except that the coefficient on the RHS is still non-linear (c is a function of pressure). ψ(p) = 2 Z p a p ∂p µz with the reference pressure to zero. c and µ.1 Low pressure approximation — p < 3. is now written as. ψ(p) = 2 Zp p∂p µz 0 ¯¯ 2 p2 µz 2 ¯¯ ψ(p) = p2 µz ¯¯ The pseudo pressure is easily evaluated on a spreadsheet or in a computer code. 8. à ! 1 ∂ ∂ψ φ¯c ∂ψ µ¯ r = r ∂r ∂r k ∂t ψ(p) = If we are doing the analysis by hand and wish to eliminate the need to evaluate pseudo-pressures we may simply write the equation in terms of p2 . µz ≈ constant = µz ¯¯ The definition of pseudo pressure.

237 . 8.2 High pressure approximation — p > 3. and as for the case of low pressure we can show that the diffusivity in terms of ψ is linearized to 1 ∂ ∂(p) r r ∂r ∂r à ! = φ¯c ∂(p) µ¯ k ∂t which is identical to the case of a slightly compressible fluid. 000psi and ∆p small At high pressures and small pressure drops.and 1 ∂ ∂(p2 ) ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r ∂(p2 ) 1 ∂ ∂(p2 ) r r ∂r ∂r à à ! ! φ¯c ∂(p2 ) ∂ψ µ¯ = k ∂t ∂(p2 ) = φ¯c ∂(p2 ) µ¯ k ∂t which gives The result is identical to that which would be obtained by defining ψ = p2 This is commonly referred to as the pressure squared method of analysis.5. ψ(p) = 2 which can be written as or Z p a p ∂p µz p Zp ¯ ∂p ψ(p) = µz a ¯¯ ψ(p) = p ¯ p µz ¯¯ Again the pseudo-pressure is easily evaluated. p p ¯ ≈ constant = µz µz ¯¯ From the definition of pseudo pressure we have.

In terms of ψ the non-linear diffusivity equation is 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r We may write this as 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r Defining a pseudo-time as. 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r à ! = φ(µc)i ∂ψ k ∂τn Again. this equation has exact ally the same form as the diffusivity equation for a slightly compressible fluid. The situation is readily remedied by the introduction of a normalized pseudotime. τn . as a function of time. defined as Z t dt τn = (µc)i 0 µc (µc)i is the viscosity-compressibility product evaluated at the initial test pressure. dτ = The diffusivity equation may now be written as. τ= or à à ! = φµc ∂ψ k ∂t ! = φ ∂ψ k {∂t/µc} dt µc Z t 0 dt µc Pseudo-time is easily evaluated since pressure.8. but convention is to take the value at the initial test pressure. the pressure being arbitrary.5. c and µ vary considerably and we cannot use average values for these parameters over the flow conditions. The product may be defined at any pressure. 238 . The diffusivity equation in terms of pseudo-pressure and pseudo-time is.3 ∆p is not small When ∆p is not small. ∂ψ 1 ∂ r r ∂r ∂r à ! = φ ∂ψ k ∂τ A problem with the pseudo-time it does not have units of time and this is undesirable in actual practice where the engineer likes to relate time to distance via the depth of investigation concept. is known.

To evaluate the value of the constant of integration. we write Darcy’s law for radial flow.8. The rate at surface conditions is given by 2πkh ∂p r qsc = µBg ∂r where Bg is the gas formation volume factor which is given by psc Bg = Tsc Substituting for Bg gives qsc = à ! µ ¶ zT p 2πTsc psc ! kh p ∂p r µ zT ∂r The equation is written in terms of pseudo-pressure as qsc = à 2πTsc psc kh p ∂ψ dp r µ zT ∂r dψ From the definition of pseudo-pressure dp µz = dψ 2p 239 . and we can write ∂ψ 1 ∂ r r ∂r ∂r or.5. C1 . ∂ψ/∂t = 0. ∂ ∂ψ r ∂r ∂r Integrating gives r ∂ψ = C1 ∂r à ! =0 ! =0 This is the solution for steady-state radial flow of a gas. 2πkh ∂p q= r µ ∂r where q is the rate at reservoir conditions.4 Steady and Pseudo-Steady State Radial Gas Flow à ! The radial diffusivity equation for gas is 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r à = φµc ∂ψ k ∂t For steady-state flow.

r à πTsc psc µ ! kh ∂ψ r T ∂r ¶ ∂ψ psc = ∂r πTsc qsc T kh This is the required constant of integration C1 . µ = à πTsc psc ! ! kh (ψe − ψw ) qsc T qsc = à πTsc psc kh (ψe − ψw ) ³ ´ T ln re rw As before.75 + s rw The above equation is valid for all conditions and may be used to estimate the stabilized rate for gas wells under Darcy flow conditions. Z rw re à à πTsc psc ! kh ∂ψ qsc T kh Z ψw ∂ψ qsc T ψe ∂r = r ¶ πTsc psc ! gives re ln rw or. It requires evaluation of pseudo-pressures. Pseudo-pressures are easily calculated by numerically integrating P . An example of such a calculation is given in Exercise-8. µ and z data for the gas. for pseudo-steady state flow in terms of average pseudo-pressure and in the presence of skin.5.11. we can write qsc = à πTsc psc ! ¯ kh (ψe − ψw ) h ³ ´ i T ln re − 0. Separating variables.5 Non-Darcy flow In high rate gas wells flow velocities close to the wellbore may sufficiently high for turbulent or non-Darcy flow to occur. This introduces an additional pressure 240 . ∂r = r Integrating. 8.Substituting for dp/dψ gives qsc = or.

defined as Z p p ψ=2 dp 0 µz may be written as 2 Zp p2 ψ= pdp = µz 0 ¯¯ µz ¯¯ where µ and z are evaluated at average flowing conditions.drop which depends on the gas rate.75 + s + D|qsc | ¯¯ rw 8.75 + s0 rw πTsc psc ¯ kh (ψe − ψw ) h ³ ´ i T ln re − 0. The non-Darcy flow pressure drop may be included by defining an effective skin factor.6 Pressure-squared approximation For pressures below about 3000 psia the product µz is approximately constant and pseudo-pressure. can now be written as qsc = or. Pseudo-steady state flow in terms of average pseudo-pressure and in the presence of skin and non-Darcy flow effects. as s0 = s + D|qsc | where D is the non-Darcy flow constant and s is the Darcy flow skin factor.5. s0 .5. ¯ ¯ Substituting for ψ in the rate equation gives qsc = à ! πTsc psc kh (pe 2 − pw 2 ) h ³ ´ i µz T ln re − 0. qsc = à à πTsc psc ! ! ¯ kh (ψe − ψw ) h ³ ´ i T ln re − 0.7 High Pressure approximation For pressures above about 3000 psia the product p/µz is approximately constant and pseudo-pressure. The absolute value of rate indicates that there is a positive non-Darcy flow loss for both production and injection operations. D and s are determined from multirate well pressure test data. defined as Z p p ψ=2 dp 0 µz 241 .75 + s + D|qsc | rw 8.

may be written as 2¯ p 2¯ Z p p dp = ψ= p µz 0 ¯¯ µz ¯¯ where µ. z and p are evaluated at average flowing conditions. 242 . ¯ ¯ ¯ Substituting for ψ in the rate equation gives qsc = à ! 2πTsc psc (pe − pw ) kh¯ p h ³ ´ i re µz T ln ¯¯ − 0. this equation is identical to the equation previously derived for the flow of a slightly compressible fluid.75 + s + D|qsc | rw The average gas formation factor may be written as ¯ Bg = à Tsc psc ! zT ¯¯ p ¯ The gas rate equation becomes qsc = 2πkh (pe − pw ) h ³ ´ i ¯g ln re − 0.75 + s + D|q | µB ¯ sc rw With the non-Darcy flow term set to zero (D = 0).

015 (MMSCF/day)−1 What is the effect of non-Darcy (turbulent) flow on well performance? [Answer: 344 MSCF/day] 243 .018 cp 0. 0.Problem 8.3 0.Calculation of gas well rate [GASFLOW. 0.5 ft.87 200o F -0. The following reservoir and fluid properties are known: k= h= rw = re = µ= z= T = s= D= 5 md 35] Estimate the production rate of a gas well when the average reservoir pressure is 2723 psia and the flowing wellbore pressure is maintained at 2655 psia.5 . 2640 ft.

8795 0.01862 0.9112 0.Gas well rate using pseudo-pressures [PSUDOP.01813 0.8745 0.01767 0.01485 0.01329 0. 342 MSCF/day] 244 .01238 0.01428 0.01630 0. Reservoir temperature is 200o F and the gas gravity is 0.8705 0.01520] Estimate the production rate of a gas well when the average reservoir pressure is 2723 psia and the flowing wellbore pressure is maintained at 2655 psia. The following reservoir and fluid properties are known: k= h= rw = re = T = s= D= 5 md 35 ft.8671 0.8830 [Answer: 346 MSCF/day.01961 z 0.015 (MMSCF/day)−1 GAS PROPERTIES p (psia) 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 2850 3000 3150 µ (cp) 0. 2640 ft.9856 0.5 ft.Problem 8.9582 0.9332 0.01451 0.8931 0.01254 0.8780 0.9717 0.8857 0.9218 0.01387 0.9016 0.8684 0.01303 0.01554 0.9453 0.01274 0.3 0.7.01676 0.01911 0. 0.6 . Use pseudo-pressure and the pressure-squared method to calculate the gas rate.01589 0. 200o F -0.8738 0.01721 0.8683 0.8671 0.8708 0.01360 0.

After a number of rate changes (usually four). n is an exponent which has a value between 0. The well is flowed at a constant rate (qsc ) until the flowing wellbore pressure (pw ) has stabilized. p 245 .19: Pseudo-pressure as a function of pressure 8. The equation is written as. the well is shutin until the shutin wellbore has stabilized. Flow after flow tests The constants C and n are determined from flow after flow or conventional backpressure tests. pw is the flowing wellbore pressure.Figure 8.5 (non-Darcy or turbulent flow) and 1 (Darcy or laminar flow) and C is the well performance coefficient.5. This is the average reservoir pressure (¯R ). The equation is frequently used to determine well deliverability. The rate is then changed (increased) and the process repeated. qsc = C(¯2 − p2 )n pR w where pR is the average reservoir pressure.8 Gas Well Back Pressure Equation This is an empirical equation which relates flow rate and pressure for gas wells.

Figure 8.20: Gas well deliverability plot Figure 8.21: Four point flow-after-flow well deliverability test 246 .

6 . Example 8. The test and interpretation procedure is illustrated in the attached figures.Figure 8.22: Interpretation of four point flow-after-flow well deliverability test A plot of log(¯2 − p2 ) against log qsc gives a straight line of slope equal to 1/n pR w and intercept −(1/n) log C.Flow after flow conventional back-pressure test [] The following flow rate and wellbore pressure data was obtained from a four point flow-after-flow test on a gas well: Flow period qsc (MMSCF/day) pw (psia) 1 2190 3387 2 2570 3268 3 3160 3092 4 3400 3015 shutin 0 3884 247 .

(iii) Make a well deliverability plot for the well. n = 0.4 MMSCF/day.69 C =] A four point flow-after-flow test produced the following back pressure equation constants.4 MMSCF/day] 248 . (ii) 35. (ii) What would the well flow rate be if the flowing wellbore pressure was maintained at 300 psia. C = 4.7 . Calculate the Absolute Open Flow (AOF) for the well (the AOF is a commonly used figure-ofmerit for a gas well and corresponds to the well rate at a flowing well pressure of one atmosphere).035 × 10−6 MMSCF/day − psia2n .874. [Answer: n = 0. AOF=7.6 MMSCF/day] Problem 8. (i) Determine the absolute open flow rate (AOF) for the well. [Answer: (i) 60.Determine the exponent n and the performance coefficient C.01508 MSCF/day-psia2n The average reservoir pressure is 408 psia.Well deliverability using back pressure equation [DELGAS.

horizontal wells can connect regions of high permeability rock which are separated by regions of low permeability. This can be important in allowing production of heavier crudes at economical rates and reducing or completely elimination the detrimental effects of water and gas coning. In reservoirs which display complex and difficult to predict heterogeneity (carbonates.The greater length of horizontal wells may result in smaller pressure gradients (increased productivity) when compared to vertical wells flowing at the same rate.6 HORIZONTAL WELLS Horizontal wells are now routinely used in primary. 249 . The major advantages over conventional vertical wells are in overcoming: Reservoir heterogeneity .Figure 8. secondary and tertiary recovery operations. channel point bar sands.Horizontal wells contact a larger area of the reservoir than vertical wells. Reservoir flow problems .23: Horizontal well in a compartmentalized reservoir 8. braided stream systems and fractured reservoirs).

Slotted liner .In low permeability reservoirs it is possible to place multiple transverse fractures along the length of the well and greatly increase productivity over that possible with a vertical well. . perforated. Completion options The attached figure shows a number of different techniques used to complete horizontal wells. Recovery is also increased because the cone for a similar situation exists in a sand subject to gas coning with the horizontal well being placed at the base of the sand.In sands where water coning is a problem horizontal wells can be placed near the top of the sand increasing the vertical distance between the perforations and the water-oil contact and therefore increasing recovery when compared with a vertical well in the same sand.Inexpensive but limited to competent formations. Open hole . Rarely used except for formations such as Austin Chalk. slotted.24: Comparison between effective reservoir contact areas for horizontal and vertical wells . Liners are used to prevent hole collapse and to control sand production. and prepacked liners.Figure 8. Difficult to control rate along length of well and difficult to stimulate. 250 .Three types commonly used.

25: Horizontal wells with multiple transverse fractures play a vital role in the production of tight gas reservoirs Liners with partial isolation allow the horizontal section to be divided into several isolated sections.Figure 8. Areally isotropic reservoir . This allows production control along the well length and selective stimulation or multiple fracking. A vertical well drains a cylindrical volume and a horizontal well drains an ellipsoid (three-dimensional ellipse). 251 . A horizontal well will usually drain a larger area than a vertical well. Under similar operating conditions.6.1 Drainage Area Wells are drilled on a pattern to provide adequate drainage of the reservoir. 8. The area drained by a single well in the pattern is the drainage area for the well. Cemented and perforated liners provide the best completions provided that care is taken to ensure a good cement job.kx = ky A horizontal well can be viewed as a number of vertical wells drilled on a line and completed in a limited pay thickness.

Figure 8.26: Completion techeniques for horizontal wells 252 .

Figure 8. the drainage area of a horizontal well may be estimated from that for a vertical well as shown in the attached figure. a 1000 ft horizontal well will drain twice the area of a vertical well and a 2000 ft horizontal well will drain three times the area of a vertical well. The effective drainage radius of a horizontal well is q reh = Ah /π s As a rule of thumb.27: Comparison of horizontal and vertical well costs for Prudhoe Bay in Alaska the drainage area of a horizontal well may be estimated from that for a vertical well as shown in the attached figure. If the drainage area for a vertical well is Av . Under similar operating conditions. the drainage radius is rev = q Av /π The drainage area for a vertical well may also be approximated as a square of dimensions 2xe by 2ye where xe = ye Av = 4xe or xe = ye = Av 4 A horizontal well can be viewed as a number of vertical wells drilled on a line and completed in a limited pay thickness. Ah = 2ye L + Av where L is the length of the horizontal section. 253 .

Figure 8.28: Drainage areas for horizontal and vertical wells 254 .

Figure 8.29: Drainage areas for horizontal wells 255 .

we can write " # ∂2p ∂2p kh + =0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 For an anisotropic reservoir we multiply and divide the conservation equation q throughout by kx ky q v  s u u kx ∂ 2 p ky ∂ 2 p  kx ky t + =0 2 2 ky ∂x kx ∂y # or q kx ky " ∂ 2 p ky ∂ 2 p + =0 ∂x2 kx ∂y 2 # This equation may be written as q kx ky " ∂2p ∂ 2p + =0 ∂x2 ∂Y 2 s where y=Y ky kx # Comparing this equation with that for the isotropic system.Areally anisotropic reservoir . we can write the following conservation equation à ! à ! ∂ ∂p ∂ ∂p kx + ky =0 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y or. kh " ∂2p ∂2p + =0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 shows that in an anisotropic reservoir a vertical q drains a rectangle which has well a length along the high permeability direction ky /kx the length along the low permeability direction with an effective permeability q kx ky . 256 .kx < ky Consider an anisotropic (kx < ky ) homogeneous (kx . kx = ky = kh . ky constant). Assuming steady-state flow in two dimensions. where k−h is the horizontal permeability. since kx and ky are constant kx ∂2p ∂2p + ky 2 = 0 ∂x2 ∂y For an isotropic reservoir.

30: Drainage areas for horizontal wells in fractured or anisotropic reservoirs 257 .Figure 8.

ye = s ky xe kx and the drainage area for a vertical well is Ah = 4ye xe and the effective horizontal permeability is. kh = q kx ky The above analysis shows that it is difficult to drain a reservoir in the low permeability direction using vertical wells. 258 .31: Drainage areas for vertical and horizontal wells in anisotropic reservoirs If ky > kx . the drainage area for the well is Ah = 2ye L + Av The number of horizontal wells required for adequate reservoir drainage is considerably smaller than that for a conventional vertical well development.Figure 8. If a horizontal well is drilled in the direction of low permeability.

5 md.] 259 .Example 8. [Answer: 75 acres.5md. 5 2000ft wells] Problem] A vertical well is known to drain approximately 40 acres in a naturally fractured] A 600 acre lease is to be developed with 10 vertical wells.Drainage area for horizontal wells in an isotropic reservoir [HORWELL. An alternative is to drill 500 ft. Estimate the number of horizontal wells required to drain the lease effectively assuming that the reservoir is isotropic.8 .Drainage for a horizontal well in an anisotropic reservoir [HORWELL. [Answer: 8 500ft wells. 7 1000ft wells. 145 acres. The permeability in the direction perpendicular to the fractures is only kx =0. What are the drainage areas for a 2000 ft horizontal well drilled along the direction of the fractures and one drilled in a direction perpendicular to the fractures. 1000 ft. The permeability along the direction of the fractures is ky =4. or 2000 ft long horizontal wells.7 .

d-late time linear flow 260 . c-late time radial flow.32: Complexity of flow regimes for horizontal wells. b-early time linear flow. a-early time radial flow.Figure 8.

6. Joshi (JPT June 1988)divided the three-dimensional steady-state flow problem into separate two-dimensional vertical and horizontal problems and summed the solutions.Figure 8. 2πkh h/(µB) Jv = ln(rev /rw ) Homogeneous isotropic reservoirs . The differences between the various equations result from the differences in solution techniques employed and the details of the assumptions made in developing the solution.2 Productivity of Horizontal Wells The steady-state rate for a vertical is given by qv = 2πkh h ∆p µB ln(rev /rw ) The productivity index. h. For a horizontal well completed in the middle of sand of thickness. Jh = qh = ∆p ∙ a+ ln √ 2πkh h/(µB) ¸ a2 −(L/2)2 L/2 + ³ ´ h L ln ³ h 2rw ´ 261 . The differences are generally small. ∆p. The solution obtained was shown to be in excellent agreement with laboratory simulations using electrical networks.33: Approximating three-dimensional steady-state flow in horizontal wells with two two-dimensional solutions 8. is defined as the rate. qv . divided by the pressure difference. with constant pressure boundary conditions at the drainage area boundary. Jv .kv = kh Numerous equations have been developed for steady-state flow of horizontal wells.

h. L a = 0. increases.9reh . Ah π The above equation shows that as reservoir thickness. Jh .5  reh = for L > h and (L/2) < 0.Figure 8. In the limit L >> h.translated into English in 1984) Jh = 2πkh h/(µB) ln (4reh /L) + (h/L) ln (h/2πrw ) This equation gives results very similar to those using the Joshi equation.5 + 2  s 2reh 0. the second term in the denominator of the equation is negligible and the result can be rewritten as Jh = 2πkh h/(µB) ln (reh /[L/4]) 262 . Moscow 1964 . decreases. the effectiveness of the horizontal well.34: Productivity ratio Jh /Jv for horizontal wells in isotropic reservoirs where a is half the major axis of the drainage area ellipse defined as.25 + L s µ ¶4 0. Horizontal wells are most effective in thin reservoirs. Another equation for horizontal wells was developed by Borisov(Nedra.

Jh = ln where β= ∙ a+ √ 2πkh h/(µB) ¸ a2 −(L/2)2 L/2 + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh 2rw ´ s kh kv 263 . We will later show that the above equation is identical to that for a vertical well with an infinite-conductivity vertical fracture of length L. in a manner similar to that previously shown.Comparing this equation with the corresponding equation for a vertical well shows that in the limit L >> h. a horizontal well is equivalent to a vertical well with 0 an effective wellbore radius rw = L/4 (a highly stimulated vertical well).kv 6= kh When the horizontal permeability is different from the vertical permeability. the effect is to increase the effective thickness of the reservoir. The result is. This reduces the effectiveness of a horizontal well relative to a vertical well. s kh H=h kv When kv < kh . Z=z s kh kv The influence of anisotropy is therefore to change the effective reservoir thickness. H. Isotropic reservoirs . To obtain the productivity of a horizontal well in an isotropic reservoir we simply substitute the effective thickness of the reservoir for h in the equation for an isotropic reservoir. the flow field is equivalent to that for √ an average permeability of kh kv with the z-axis modified.

δ.8reh . For long horizontal wells. there is no bottom water or top gas.Figure 8. 264 . (L >> h). A schematic of an off-centered horizontal well is shown in the attached figure. This is strictly true only for bound reservoirs where the top and bottom boundaries are closed ie.. δ < h/2 and L < 1. eccentricity has little effect and the well can be located anywhere in the vertical plane without significant loss in productivity. Jh = ln ∙ a+ √ 2πkh h/(µB) ¸ a2 −(L/2)2 L/2 + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh [1 2rw + δ2 ] ´ which is valid for L > βh. We define well eccentricity. δ = 1 for a well at the base or top of the sand.35: Productivity ratio Jh /Jv for horizontal wells in anisotropic reservoirs Horizontal well eccentricity The above equations are for the case where the horizontal well is centered with respect to the sand in which the well is completed. as δ= h/2 − zw h/2 δ = 0 for a centered well. Joshi gives the following equation for this case.

36: Horizontal well accentricity Figure 8.37: Effect of eccentricity on the productivity of a horizontal well 265 .Figure 8.

2 cp rw] A 1000 ft.0. [Answer: Joshi equation (i) 7.? (i) 200 ft. 13. 13.Horizontal well productivities II [HORWELL.9 STB/day-psi (ii) 12. [Joshi equation (i) 1.Horizontal well productivities I [HORWELL.1] 266 . cp rw =0. 16. Other reservoir and fluid parameters] A 1000 ft. (ii) 4. 0. kh =50 md µ =0.3. (ii) For kv /kh =0. horizontal well is drilled through the centre of a 50 ft sand on a 160 acre spacing. The horizontal permeability averages 200 md and the vertical permeability averages 20 md.33 ft B =1.9 .35 RB/STB (i) Compare the horizontal well productivities for kv /kh of 0.7.35 RB/STB What is the improvement in productivity which may be expected over that for a vertical well if the sand thickness is.10 .2 STB/day-psi ] Problem 8. µ =0.33 ft B =1. Other data reservoir and fluid parameters are.5 and 1.1. 13. (ii) 20 ft. 10 ft and 20 ft from the base of the sand.01.Problem 8. 0.1 compare the horizontal well productivities if the well is located at distances of 1 ft. horizontal well is drilled in a reservoir on a 160 acre spacing.

The ratio of productivities for a damaged and undamaged horizontal well is therefore. Jh = ³ 2πkh h/(µB) 2a L cosh −1 ´ + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh (1+β)πrw ´ where a is half the major axis of the drainage area ellipse as previously defined. formation damage can have a severe effect on horizontal well productivity.d = cosh−1 ³ 2a L ´ 2πkh h/(µB) + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh (1+β)πrw ´ + sh where sh is the horizontal well skin factor which must be determined from well tests. Renard and Dupuy wrote. For a damaged well. ³ ´ ³ ´ ³ ´ βh cosh−1 2a + βh ln (1+β)πrw Jhd L L ³ ´ ³ ´ ³ ´ = βh βh −1 2a Jh cosh + L ln (1+β)πrw + sh L or Jhd B = Jh B + sh where B = cosh −1 µ 2a βh βh + ln L L (1 + β)πrw ¶ Ã ! Ã ! 267 . Consider the case of a horizontal well completed at the center of a homogeneous anisotropic sand. Jh.Effect of Formation Damage on Horizontal Well Productivity As in the case of vertical wells. The above equation and the previously discussed equation developed by Joshi produce similar estimates for horizontal well productivity. 1990) developed the following equation for the productivity index. Renard and Dupuy (SPE19414.

38: Comparison between formation damage for horizonral and vertical wells 268 .Figure 8.