by Val Pinczewski School of Petroleum Engineering University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052. AUSTRALIA
March, 2002
Prepared for
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DISTANCE LEARNING PROGRAM
UNSW
IMPORTANT NOTICE 2002 University of New South Wales. All rights are reserved. This copy of the manual and accompanying software was prepared in accordance with copyright laws for the sole use of students enrolled in a course at the University of New South Wales. It is illegal to reproduce any of this material or to use it for any other purpose.
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Contents
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BASIC CONCEPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 Accumulation of Sediments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Origin of Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrocarbon Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classiﬁcation of Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 7 7 9 9 11 14 15 15 15 17 18 19 20 23 31 35 36 37
1.2 OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 Residual Oil Resource (Target for EOR ) . . . . . . . . . . Residual Oil is Trapped or Bypassed . . . . . . . . . . . . Recovery Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary Recovery Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tertiary Recovery — EOR Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 WHAT IS RESERVOIR ENGINEERING? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION 2.1 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 SOURCES OF DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 2.2.2 Coring And Core Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wireline Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.2.3 2.2.4
Pressure and Production Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38 39 42 46
2.3 INTEGRATED FORMATION EVALUATION PROGRAM . . . 2.4 AQUIFER DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 VOLUMETRICS AND INITIAL HYDROCARBON VOLUME 48 3.1 STRUCTURE MAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 ISOPACH MAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 VOLUMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING ORIGINAL OILINPLACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 Reservoir Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 50 53 54 55 55 56 56 67 68 69
Average Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average Initial Water Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average Oil Formation Volume Factor . . . . . . . . . . . Determining Initial OilInPlace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 DETERMINATION OF OILINPLACE — MATERIAL BALANCE METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 ESTIMATING RESERVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 ESTIMATING DECLINE IN OIL PRODUCTION RATES . . . .
4 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN RESERVOIRS 70 4.1 SUBSURFACE PRESSURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 Water zone pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil zone pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas cap pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 71 72 73 74
4.2 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN A RESERVOIR CONTAINING OIL, WATER AND GAS . . . . . . . . . .
2
4.3 GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 FLUID PROPERTIES 5.1 PHASE BEHAVIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Pure Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrocarbons Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classiﬁcation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . .
84 86 87 87 89 92 95 98
5.2 PVT PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Pressure Dependence of PVT Properties . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 CALCULATION OF GAS PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5.3.1 5.3.2 Single Gas Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 MultiComponent Gas Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.4 DETERMINATION OF OIL PVT DATA FROM LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 Flash Expansion Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Diﬀerential Liberation Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Separator Flash Expansion Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Procedure for calculating PVT parameters from laboratory data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
5.5 FLUID SAMPLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 5.6 PVT TESTS FOR GAS CONDENSATE FIELDS . . . . . . . . . 119 5.7 GAS HYDRATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5.8 SURFACE TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 5.8.1 Estimating Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
5.9 CORRELATIONS FOR PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS 126 6 MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS 133
6.1 ORIGINAL OIL VOLUME BALANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 3
. . . . . . . 148 6. 146 6. . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 POROSITY . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 182 4 . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 7. . . .4 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED OIL RESERVOIR . . . . . . .1 7. . . . .5 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED GAS RESERVOIR . . 174 7. . . . . . . . 167 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Laboratory Measurement of Permeability . . 142 Water Inﬂux .2. . . . . . . . .5 6. . 145 General Material Balance Equation . . . . . . 180 7. . . . 138 Remaining Oil Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 USING MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS . . 153 Knowns and Unknowns . 135 Released Gas Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 153 6. . . . . . . .3 Measurement of Permeability .2 Eﬀective and Total Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. 140 Rock and Connate Water Expansion .1. . . . . . .1 Water Drive Gas Reservoirs . 182 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 POROSITYPERMEABILITY RELATIONSHIPS . . 149 6. . .1. . . . . . . . . . .4 6. .6 Gas Cap Expansion . . 159 6. . . . . . . . .1 Typical Performance Characteristics for the Diﬀerent Drive Mechanisms . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .1. . .2 7. . .2. . . . 153 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. . . .1. . . . . . . . .1. . . . .2 Average Reservoir Pressure . . . . . . . .2 PRIMARY RECOVERY MECHANISMS .2 PERMEABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .1 6. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 168 7. . . . . 162 7 RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES AND CORE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 165 7. . . . .5. . . . . .3. . . .2 6. . . . . . . . 157 6.1 Capillary Tube Model . 179 The Klinkenberg Eﬀect . . . . .
. . . . .1 DARCY’S LAW .1. . 213 8. . 206 Relationship between s and the size of the altered zone . . 225 Approximating Complex Geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 194 8 FLUID FLOW 8. .3 Pore Volume Compressibility .2. . . . . . . .4. 229 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 228 8.2 STEADYSTATE FLOW . 197 8. . . .7. . . . . . . . 190 Use of Rock Compressibilities . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . 216 Liquids Having Small and Constant Compressibility . . . . . . . . . . 219 PseudoSteadyState Radial Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 ROCK COMPRESSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Dietz Shape Factors for Vertical Wells . . . . . . .1 8. .4. . . . . 201 Wellbore Damage . . . 186 7. . . . 197 Radial Flow of an Incompressible Fluid .5 8. . .2. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 210 Eﬀective Wellbore Radius . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 189 Measurement of Formation Compressibility . . .1 8.3 8. . . . . 194 8. . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . .3. . .6 Radial Diﬀusivity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Partial Penetration . . . .3. . . . . . .2 8.2 8. . . . . . 195 8. . . . . . . . . .6 Horizontal Linear Flow of an Incompressible Fluid . . . . . . . .2 Fractured medium model . . . . .4. . . 221 Flow Equations in terms of Average Reservoir Pressure . . . . . . .3 UNSTEADY STATE FLOW .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 230 5 .2. . . . . . .3. .4 8. . . . . . . . 215 8. . . .3. .2 Productivity Index . 212 Flow Eﬃciency . . . . . .2. . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 WELL PRODUCTIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Pressure Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 185 7. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3 8.2 7. . . . .
2 8. . . .3 8. 000psi and ∆p small 236 High pressure approximation — p > 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . 238 Steady and PseudoSteady State Radial Gas Flow . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .6 HORIZONTAL WELLS . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . 251 Productivity of Horizontal Wells . . . . . . . . 245 8. . . .6. . . . .5. . . . .2 Drainage Area . . . . . .5 GAS FLOW . . . . . . . .8 Low pressure approximation — p < 3. . . . . . . . . . . .6. .5 8.7 8. . . . . . . . . . 261 6 . . .1 8. 240 Pressuresquared approximation . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .6 8. .5. . . . . . . . . 241 Gas Well Back Pressure Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . 239 NonDarcy ﬂow . . . . . . . 241 High Pressure approximation . 249 8. .5. . . .5. . . . . . . .4 8. . 000psi and ∆p small 237 ∆p is not small . . . . .8. . 233 8. .
The sedimentation velocity depends on the size and density of the particles.1 BASIC CONCEPTS Accumulation of Sediments The accumulation of sediments in a basin depends on the balance between the energy of the depositional environment (water velocity) and the sedimentation velocity of the particles. Sediments carried by high velocity streams may be deposited in the delta region of the river where ﬂow velocities are much slower. This results in a sequential deposition of sand (large particles) and shale (ﬁne particles) producing sequences of sand and shale.1 1. The depositional energy at a particular location varies with time. 1. Smaller particle sediments may be further moved by waves and currents to other locations where the environmental energy is insuﬃcient to carry the particles further. This process leads to sorting of sediments with the accumulation of sand grains in one area and clay and silt particles in another area.1. 7 . This layering or vertical heterogeneity is the single most important characteristic determining reservoir performance and recovery.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION For those unfamiliar with reservoir engineering or reservoir geology the following section gives a brief summary of some basic concepts. (layering). If you are familiar with this material skip this section.
Figure 1.1: Schematic of a typical depositional sequence 8 .
The characteristics of hydrocarbon traps are illustrated by considering a porous permeable formation between two impermeable layers which has been folded by tectonic action into an anticline (see the attached ﬁgure). As the particles compact the generated hydrocarbon particles (oil or gas) are squeezed from the source rock. Quite water is deﬁcient in oxygen leading to the creation of anaerobic conditions and preservation of the organic matter. Increasing burial causes the ﬁnegrained sediments to undergo compaction and the source rocks eventually become eﬀectively impermeable. are deposited together with ﬁnegrained sediments in shallow marine environments during low energy periods of basin formation.000 ft to 23. this results in a burial depth window of between 7. organic matter from dead plants and animals. You will probably be familiar with most of these terms.1. The upward migration of generated hydrocarbon continues until it is halted by an impermeable barrier or trap. Anaerobic bacteria decomposes the organic matter to produce compounds of carbon. As hydrocarbon accumulates under the trap a reservoir is formed.1. 1.000 ft for ﬁne grained sediments containing organic matter (source rocks) to produce oil and gas.1. Since temperature increases with depth. This is called an anticlinal trap. enter the overlying and underlying water saturated permeable sand layers which have retained their porosity and permeability because the coarse sand grains are stronger than the ﬁnegrained silt and clay particles and therefore better withstand the increasing compaction forces with increasing burial depth.2 Origin of Petroleum The precursors of petroleum. The minimum temperature for oil and gas formation is about 150o F and the maximum is about 320o F. This process is called primary migration.3 Hydrocarbon Traps The expelled hydrocarbon is lighter than the water in the interconnected pore space of the permeable sand layers and moves upwards as a result of buoyancy. hydrogen (hydrocarbons) and oxygen. The expelled hydrocarbon particles. The hydrocarbon contained in the reservoir may be oil or gas or both. The conversion of the organic matter occurs over geological time as sediments become progressively buried and temperature and pressure increase. Here are some commonly used terms to describe petroleum reservoirs. in the form of colloidal solutions (micelles) or individual drops or bubbles. 9 . This is called secondary migration.
2: Crosssection for an anticlinal reservoir Formation: the rocks. Bottom water: water below the oilwater contact. These may be either clastic rocks (sandstones) or limestone and dolomite (carbonates). Oil zone: oil reservoir. Edge water: water laterally adjacent the oilwater contact. Trap closure: the distance between the crest and the spill point. Reservoir: the part of the formation which contains hydrocarbon (oil and/or gas) and connate water.Figure 1. Gas cap: gas ﬁlled zone or gas reservoir. Connate water: water in the pore space occupied by hydrocarbons. Gasoil contact: lowest depth at which gas can be produced. 10 . Spill point: the lowest point of the trap that can hold hydrocarbon. Water zone or aquifer: the body of water bearing rock in hydraulic communication with the reservoir. Oilwater contact: lowest depth at which oil can be produced.
1.formed by intrusion of salt or mud diapirs. Structural traps Structural traps are formed by tectonic processes acting on sedimentary layers after deposition.4: Faulted structural trap 1.Figure 1.formed by displacement of blocks of rock as a result of unequal tectonic forces.4 Classiﬁcation of Traps Hydrocarbon traps are classiﬁed as either structural or stratigraphic.3: Anticline structural trap Figure 1. Fold traps .formed by compressional or compactional anticlines. Diapiric traps . They may be classiﬁed as. 11 . Fault traps .
(ii) However. 12 . The oil and gas zones have diﬀerent contacts. eroded and buried again under new layers of sediments that may form the trap. An uncomformity forms when a site of sediments is uplifted. The blocks may be in pressure communication through the aquifer. Unconformities generally separate formations formed under very diﬀerent depositional conditions. The processes involved in the formation of stratigraphic traps are complex because they involve changes in the depositional environment. Stratigraphic traps may be associated with unconformities. This will improve your understanding of the basic concepts.Figure 1. Note the following important points in the last of the ﬁgures: (i) The oil and gas zones in the central block are not in direct pressure communication with the oil and gas zones in the left and right blocks.5: Salt dome structural trap Stratigraphic traps Stratigraphic traps are produced by facies (rock type) changes in the formation such as pinchouts and lenticular sand bodies surrounded by impermeable shales. it cannot be concluded from the section alone that the central block is completely isolated from the rest of the formation. Study the attached ﬁgures in the context of the above discussion.
6: Stratigraphic trap Figure 1.Figure 1.7: Schematic of an oil and gas reservoir with a faulted central block and diﬀerent ﬂuid contacts 13 .
An EOR process is any process which does a better job of recovering oil than conventional technology (primary and secondary recovery processes).production using only natural reservoir energy (natural water drive. solution gas drive and pressure depletion drive). Secondary Recovery . Primary Recovery .water or gas injection to maintain reservoir pressure (waterﬂooding and immiscible gas injection to supplement natural reservoir energy).8: USA oil resource 1.2 OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES Oil recovery operations are generally classiﬁed into three groups. In an EOR process conventional water or gas is replaced by a more eﬀective (more expensive) recovery agent. gas cap expansion. Tertiary Recovery .enhanced oil recovery processes (EOR). 14 .Figure 1.
. .perforating unperforated layers.2.inﬁll drilling. . .Trapping on the macro or ﬁeld scale is caused by areal and vertical bypassing.Trapping on the micro or pore scale is by capillary forces.1. . . recover approximately 1/3 of the OOIP. 15 . 1.removal of formation damage caused by completion operations.2. . on the world average.2 Residual Oil is Trapped or Bypassed Oil which cannot be recovered using existing facilities or infrastructure (existing investment) is trapped (microscale) or bypassed (macroscale) .horizontal and multilateral wells.2. .selective shutoﬀ of water and gas producing zones. 1.current EOR technology can produce about 20% —30% of the residual oil resource. .fracking.2/3 OOIP cannot be produced by conventional recovery technology.Unrecovered mobile oil can be recovered by conventional processes by improved access to the reservoir. Trapping on all scales is strongly inﬂuenced by heterogeneity. . Reservoir access may be improved by. .1 Residual Oil Resource (Target for EOR ) Conventional primary recovery methods are usually very ineﬃcient and.3 Recovery Processes Unrecovered oil may be classiﬁed into two categories: Unrecovered mobile oil and immobile or residual oil.trapping of oil occurs on all reservoir length scales.
Figure 1.9: Residual is trapped or bypassed on all reservoir length scales 16 .
All EOR techniques attempt to recover residual oil by: (i) Improving reservoir sweep eﬃciency . 17 .4 Primary Recovery Mechanisms An estimate of the likely primary production mechanism for a reservoir may be made on the basis of geological data even before the reservoir has been produced.Figure 1.10: Recovery processes . This oil can only be recovered by tertiary EOR processes. (ii) Mobilizing immobile or residual oil. 1.Immobile oil cannot be recovered by primary and secondary recovery processes such as waterﬂooding and immiscible gas injection.2.
(iii) Formation permeability can be estimated from core data and ﬂow tests on wells. Sometimes it is useful to complete dry holes as aquifer observation wells. This may supplement the eﬀectiveness of the original gas cap. A good data gathering program is a key component of an eﬀective reservoir management strategy. amongst other things. 1.2. (iii) High permeability reservoirs in contact with an extensive aquifer will beneﬁt to some degree from natural water inﬂux (water drive). The aquifer can have a profound eﬀect on reservoir performance. to identify the need and timing for secondary gas or water injection. (ii) Representative ﬂuid samples for PVT analysis. Useful estimates of future production trends can be obtained from a knowledge of: (i) The size of the gas cap relative to the size of the oil reservoir. Material balance calculations may be used to determine the relative importance of the various natural drive mechanisms for a particular reservoir.5 Secondary Recovery Predictions of future reservoir performance are required. (ii) Reservoirs having high closure and high permeability may experience the beneﬁcial eﬀects of gravity segregation of oil and gas. The importance of instituting a program to gather this data as early as possible in the development and production life of a reservoir cannot be over emphasized. (ii) The size of the aquifer relative to the size of the oil zone. Pressure data from such wells can be important in characterizing reservoiraquifer systems. (iii) Periodic pressure surveys.For example: (i) Thin. ﬂat reservoirs with low permeability will most likely produce by a solutiongas drive mechanism. Material balance calculations require: (i) Accurate and comprehensive production history. 18 . or form a secondary gas cap. Drillstem tests on dry holes and structurally low wells (wells penetrating the aquifer) may yield important indications of aquifer permeability and continuity.
EOR processes may be classiﬁed into three major categories: 1.Figure 1.11: Steam ﬂooding process 1.2.6 Tertiary Recovery — EOR Processes The same techniques used to determine the need for secondary recovery are used to assess the need for tertiary developments. Thermal — Steam Flooding — Fire Flooding 19 . Decisions regarding the actual implementation of EOR processes are not made until suﬃcient ﬁeld data is available to accurately assess primary and secondary performance. Chemical — Micellar Polymer Flooding — Polymer Flooding — Caustic or Alkaline Flooding 2.
secondary (water ﬂooding. 20 . 1.3 WHAT IS RESERVOIR ENGINEERING? Reservoir Engineering is the science of understanding the production characteristics of oil and gas ﬁelds under primary (natural pressure depletion). immiscible gas ﬂooding) and tertiary (EOR) drive mechanisms. development and production of oil and gas ﬁelds.Figure 1. A basic understanding of reservoir engineering concepts is necessary for the planning.12: Carbon dioxide ﬂooding process 3. Miscible — Enriched Hydrocarbon Gas Flooding — CO2 Flooding — Nitrogen and Flue Gas Flooding The complexity of these processes requires the gathering of large quantities of additional laboratory ﬂuid and core data and the use of considerably more complex analysis techniques.
21 .13: Chemical ﬂooding process Geologists and Petrophysicists provide a description of the structure of the formation or reservoir and vital physical parameters describing the reservoir internal structure and initial distribution of ﬂuids. How much hydrocarbon (oil and/or gas) does a reservoir initially contain(initial hydrocarbon inplace)? How much of the hydrocarbon initially inplace can ultimately be recovered? How will the production rates of wells depend on the physical parameters of the reservoir. 2.Figure 1. Reservoir Engineers are required to answer the following three vital questions: 1. 3. The reservoir engineer utilizes this data together with well production rates and measured reservoir pressures to analyze and interpret the data in order to optimize oil and gas recovery. well number and development pattern and how will the rate decline with time? The ﬁrst question may be answered if the shape and size of the pay zone is known and the distribution of porosity and water saturation in the zone are also known. reservoir geometry (shape).
These are required to model the many alternative developments which result in diﬀerent ultimate recoveries and proﬁtability. The answer to the third question relies on detailed analysis of pressure and individual well test data. It requires the use of sophisticated mathematical models (usually computer based reservoir simulators). The answer to the second question is very complex. no matter how sophisticated. 22 . can never capture all the geologic variability.This data is provided by the geologist and the petrophysicist. The reservoir engineer may assist by estimating the positions of gasoil and wateroil contacts if the positions of these contacts is unknown. The process of producing production forecasts for the diﬀerent recovery mechanisms and development plans will always be associated with some degree of uncertainty because geologic formations are highly heterogeneous and the geological description.
Chapter 2 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION The basis for a sound understanding of reservoir performance is a good description of reservoir geology (geological model) and the distribution of ﬂuids (oil. water and gas) it contains. Rock and Reservoir Description Reservoir engineering studies require that the physical makeup of a reservoir be represented in a usable manner. these changes result in 23 . As we will see later. Depositional conditions at any instant also vary from one location to another which results in lateral as well as vertical changes within the reservoir and within individual rock units. and (iv) a description of the size and permeability of the adjoining aquifer. both areally and vertically. permeability. and water saturation throughout the reservoir. These are usually prepared by production geologists. (ii) a description of reservoir geometry. Reservoir Heterogeneity Most reservoirs are layered because of variations that existed in the depositional environment. (i) a description of reservoir stratiﬁcation (reservoir lithology). This is the ﬁrst step in a reservoir engineering study. This should include. This information is represented by various types of maps and crosssections. (iii) information on porosity.
1: Highly detailes geostatistical models for reservoir characterization 24 .Figure 2.
Methods of analyzing logs and techniques of using logs for determining net sand thickness and evaluating sand continuity are beyond the scope of this course. but generally. Logs also show the net sand at each well. The porosity in reservoir rocks usually occurs in the spaces between rock particles and this is called primary porosity or intergranular porosity. Reservoir crosssections based on logs can show if permeable zones are continuous throughout the reservoir or if they are lenses having limited areal extent. Although reservoir stratiﬁcation is usually considered only in terms of net sand layers and impermeable streaks of sand or shale. and permeability. Core analysis Core analysis data provide an additional basis for determining net sand thickness and reservoir zonation. in most cases logs are more eﬀective when supported by core data. Under some conditions. A geologist should be consulted when analyzing logs for reservoir zonation and net sand thickness. Porosity of net sand usually is in the range from 10 to 30 %. Generally. However. The logs can be calibrated by core data to make them more useful from a quantitative standpoint. only a fraction of the wells are cored. logs are available for all wells drilled and represent the most complete set of reservoir descriptive data. Permeability is a measure of the relative ease with which ﬂuids ﬂow through the rock. Primary porosity can also exist in fractures and vugs. the calibrated logs can be used to obtain fairly good estimates of the porosity and permeability proﬁles at all wells in a reservoir. ﬂuid distribution. For example. Wireline logs Electric and other types of logs can be very important tools for determining reservoir layering. Core analysis data is more quantitative than logs in describing the reservoir. stratiﬁcation also exists within the net sand layers themselves and the degree of porosity and permeability can vary greatly within each strata. small mineral particles may be deposited in the space be25 .variations in porosity. Primary porosity may be modiﬁed by post depositional events. Net sand is the rock that contains recoverable hydrocarbons and possesses permeability. Porosity and Permeability The two most important properties of net sand are porosity and permeability. Stratiﬁcation Stratiﬁcation or heterogeneity occurs on all length scales in a reservoir. Some limestone and dolomite reservoirs locally may have porosities as high as 60 %.
Figure 2.2: Vertical heterogeneity or layering 26 .
Figure 2.3: Examples of structural and geological complexity 27 .
The process of reservoir description is sometimes referred to as formation evaluation and reservoir characterization. the permeabilities of the net sand portion of a reservoir will vary from 10 md or less to 500 md or more.Figure 2. These digenetic changes may greatly reduce the original porosity and permeability of a rock. These data are used to evaluate initial volumes of oil and gas in the reservoir Evaluation of potential sources of reservoir production energy. Gathering of data on the characteristics. It involves the following steps: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Gathering of data on the physical characteristics of formation rocks.g. so ﬂuid ﬂow proﬁles in the reservoir may be very uneven. Interpretation of the above data for accuracy and reliability. The ability of a rock to allow ﬂuid ﬂow is proportional to permeability. extent of aquifer and size of gas cap. occurrences and distribution of ﬂuids within these rocks. 28 . Typically. e.4: Schematic of wireline logging operation tween sand grains to produce microporosity.
5: Formation microscanner and resistivity logs 29 .Figure 2.
Figure 2.6: Schematic of a rotory core barrel 30 .
It is therefore necessary to place considerable eﬀort into preparing an eﬀective data gathering program. pressure testing etc.7: Diamond coring bits Data collection is expensive (wireline logging.Figure 2. sampling. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) How much stock tank oil and/or free gas is initially in place? What is the likely primary recovery mechanism and will it be necessary to supplement this energy by water or gas injection? What are the oil and gas reserves (production volumes for a particular ﬁeld development)? How will individual well rates decline. and how can the decline in production rate be arrested? 31 . 2.) and the collection of poor quality or inaccurate data is contradictory and wasteful.1 RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION PROGRAM The primary objectives of a data gathering program are to answer the following questions: (i) (ii) Does the formation contain commercial quantities of oil and gas? How should the reservoir be produces to maximize economic return? or. more speciﬁcally.
8: Schematic of a sidewall coring gun 32 .Figure 2.
9: Full diameter core 33 .Figure 2.
11: Sampling anisotropic core 34 .10: Length scales for laboratory core analysis Figure 2.Figure 2.
2 SOURCES OF DATA The following is a guide to the type of data which may be collected with the drilling of the ﬁrst well in a reservoir: Original reservoir pressure and temperature. provided that the data gathering program is well thoughtout. However. Fluid samples. It is important to recognize this when developing the initial data gathering program. 35 . additional data becomes available. The overall data gathering program is thus a continuing process over the life of the ﬁeld. Characteristics of reservoir ﬂuid. Stratigraphic sequence of rock at the well. Gross reservoir thickness at the well.The above questions cannot all be answered immediately after drilling of a discovery well. The above information is obtained from: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Core samples. As the ﬁeld is developed and produced. Reservoir porosity. Pressure and production testing. Well productivity (permeability). Lithology of the reservoir rock. the engineer can arrive at reasonable planning estimates. and this is integrated with the existing data to reduce the level of uncertainty associated with the initial estimates. 2. Initial ﬂuid saturations. Wireline logs.
Additional delineation or development wells drilled after the ﬁrst discovery well should provide the following data: Reservoir thickness variations to allow mapping of the ﬁeld. Areal variations in permeability, porosity and water saturation. Continuity of stratigraphic units between wells. Vertical permeability variations (vertical barriers to ﬂow) in the reservoir. Variations of subsea depth of reservoir top and base for structure maps. Depth Of gasoil and oilwater contacts. Variations in ﬂuid compositions within the reservoir.
These factors are determined in the same manner as for the ﬁrst well. The presence of multiple wells allows interference testing between wells to determine average permeabilities between wells and to test the continuity of individual sand units. Not all of the above data will be collected from each well drilled. The engineer must continually assess the data gathering process and only collect that data which materially reduces the level of uncertainty in estimating the important reservoir parameters. When areal variations in rock properties are large, it may be necessary to collect all the data from all the wells drilled and to drill additional data wells.
2.2.1
Coring And Core Analysis
Coring is the most basic formation evaluation tool. It provides the engineer with the only opportunity to physically inspect a piece of the reservoir. It provides the only means of determining, (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Reservoir wettability. Capillary pressure. Relative permeability. Residual oil saturation.
36
These are important in determining formation production characteristics and reservoir recovery factors. Measurements on reservoir core samples are also required for: (i) (ii) Calibration of wireline logs, essential for quantitative log interpretation. Identifying potential causes of formation damage.
It is diﬃcult to base an entire reservoir description entirely on core analysis data. This is because even in a heavily cored reservoir, the total cored volume constitutes only a very small fraction of the entire reservoir volume. As a result, it is very diﬃcult to assess the statistical signiﬁcance of the data. At least one well in the reservoir should be cored over the entire producing interval. The data obtained provides valuable information for describing vertical variations in reservoir rock properties.
2.2.2
Wireline Logging
Wireline logging provides information on: (i) (ii) (iii) lithology, porosity, water saturation,
of the formation penetrated by a well. Whereas only a few wells are fully cored, it is common practice to log all wells in the ﬁeld. Logs provide the basis for determining, (i) gross and net formation thickness, (ii) correlations identifying individual reservoir sand units, (iii) continuity of reservoir sand units,
37
There are three basic types of log: 1. 2. 3. Electric — fundamental log run in all wells drilled. Most electric logs must be run in an uncased hole containing conducting ﬂuid. Sonic — Usually run in open hole. Radioactivity — can be run successfully under nearly all wellbore conditions.
Although logs provide valuable data for reservoir description, the main purpose of logging is to identify a suitable completion interval for the well. A logging program should be designed to designed to provide the data required for reservoir description at a minimum cost. Lithology and borehole conditions must be considered in the selection of a suitable suite of logs. This will usually require a trialanderror process of selecting the most eﬀective combination of logs for a particular reservoir. Prior experience is a major fracture in the design of an eﬀective logging program.
2.2.3
Pressure and Production Testing
Pressure and production tests are designed to determine, (i) (ii) ﬂuid content, formation productivity.
Production tests repeated on a yearly basis over the life of a well provide valuable information on, (i) wellbore plugging, (ii) reservoir pressure decline, (iii) invasion of the wellbore by water or gas. Pressure buildup and drawdown tests involve ﬂowing a single well at a constant rate for a predetermined period of time and then shuttingin the well and observing the rate at which the wellbore pressure rises or falls with time. An analysis of the pressure response allows an estimate of formation productivity and permeability.
38
Figure 2.12: Wireline formation interval tester
Interference tests provide checks on formation permeability and continuity. These tests involve ﬂowing a production well and measuring the resulting pressure decline at nearby wells. Drillstem tests are usually run at the time the well is drilled to determine if the well should be completed over the interval identiﬁed by the well log. The DST tool allows us to make a temporary completion to conduct pressure buildup and drawdown tests. DST’s are useful for: (i) testing the potential production intervals, (ii) locating the positions of gasoil and oilwater contacts, (iii) Determining average reservoir pressure.
2.2.4
Fluid Sampling
Reservoir oil usually contains a considerable amount of dissolved gas. When the oil is produced to the surface the gas comes out of solution and the oil volume consequently shrinks. The oil that ﬁlls a barrel at surface conditions will have occupied between 10%—50% at reservoir conditions. 39
Figure 2.13: Initial and production formation pressure data with ﬂowmeter survey
40
15: Rate and pressure history for an interference test 41 .14: Single and multiwell pressure tests Figure 2.Figure 2.
A rule of thumb is that at least one well is needed for each 640 acres. For heterogeneous reservoirs this is reduced to 320 acres or less. Reservoir ﬂuid may be sampled in two ways: 1.provide estimates of permeability and productivity. ﬂuid properties may vary signiﬁcantly both areally and vertically. also change when solution gas is released.used to calibrate logs for quantitative interpretation. Recombined surface samples — oil and gas samples from the test separator recombined in the ratio of the produced gasoil ratio.3 INTEGRATED FORMATION EVALUATION PROGRAM No single wireline tool or procedure is capable of providing all the data required to characterize a reservoir and its contents. Enough samples should be taken to adequately describe these variations. The best approach is to adopt a Key Well Program. Fluid sampling . The following steps are taken in the development of such a program: 1. 2. In large reservoirs having high closure. Cores .only means of determining reservoir ﬂuid properties. 42 .To determine oilinplace it is necessary to know the number of stock tank barrels occupied by a reservoir barrel of oil. Subsurface — wireline samplers in the wellbore at the perforations or as part of the initial openhole formation evaluation program. It is therefore necessary to develop an integrated formation evaluation program which consists of a carefully considered mix of: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Logs . A number of Key wells are selected to provide a representative coverage over the reservoir. such as density and viscosity. Well testing . 2. These properties are very important in reservoir ﬂuid ﬂow calculations and must be accurately known. Other important properties of oil.these provide most of the data for reservoir characterization.
16: Bottom hole sampling tool 43 .Figure 2.
4. This will include logging. 3. 2. 1. 5. Early in the development of the ﬁeld this information is required to achieve proper well spacing and productive completions. The above steps ensure a data gathering procedure which is both simple and cost eﬀective. coring and well testing to provide complete reservoir coverage over the reservoir.Figure 2. A reservoir description program is needed during all phases of the producing life of a ﬁeld. 44 . The above data gathering procedures are continuously monitored with the objective of eliminating any unnecessary or ineﬀective procedures. After ﬁeld development the information is used for reservoir energy control in order to achieve high ultimate recovery. A data gathering program is designed for each key well. Logs run in nonkey wells are then interpreted according to the correlations developed for the key wells. Any available production data from key wells is also used to aide log interpretation.17: Surface sampling for laboratory recombination 2. Determining which logs provide the best quantitative data by comparing log interpretations with core data.
18: Key well program 45 .Figure 2.
Secondary and Tertiary recovery. The size and permeability of an aquifer will control how much water drive energy is available to the reservoir.Figure 2. 2. The aquifer 46 .limited data and interference 3.4 AQUIFER DESCRIPTION The aquifer is the total volume of porous waterbearing rock in pressure communication with a hydrocarbon reservoir. In addition to production wells it may be necessary to drill observation wells. These wells can provide data which includes: (i) (ii) (iii) Reservoir pressure.19: Aquifer models . Contacts can be detected by production tests. Position and movement of contacts. Pressure gradients in the reservoir. cased hole logging and 4D highresolution interwell seismic. To eﬀectively engineer these processes it is necessary to have an accurate reservoir description and an estimate of hydrocarbon recovery.
An estimate of the aquifer permeability can be determined from the results of drillstem tests on dry holes. This topic will be covered in detail in the section on water drive reservoirs. The aquifer can have a major eﬀect on the productionpressure performance of a reservoir.energy will determine if the reservoir will produce primarily by water drive or by liquid or gas expansion within the reservoir. 47 . At the present time. If an aquifer is large. the areal extent of the aquifer can be estimated. Reservoir drive mechanisms will be discussed in detail later in the course. we are concerned only with methods of determining the size and permeability of an aquifer. Equations for calculating permeability from ﬂow test data will be studies in the portion of the course entitled ﬂuid ﬂow. If enough dry holes are available. most of the information on it must come from wells drilled outside the reservoir area. Logs will show the thickness of waterbearing rock that is in communication with the reservoir. Logs and drillstem tests on dry holes are about the only source of aquifer data.
The maps may show the top or the bottom of a structure or reservoir unit. 3. (i) well control. Contour maps are commonly used to show reservoir geometry and the distribution of important reservoir parameters.1 STRUCTURE MAPS Structure maps show the geometric shape of a reservoir or formation. Structure maps are prepared by geologists. Examples of top of structure maps are attached. The data on which the maps are drawn usually come from. and (iii) geological models of depositional and postdepositional events. This requires data which will allow us to calculate the size and geometry of the reservoir and the ﬂuid volumes which the reservoir contains. In this section we will brieﬂy look at how maps and crosssections are used to describe the geometry of a reservoir and calculate the hydrocarbon volume inplace. (ii) geophysical data usually in the form of time maps. These maps also show the positions of ﬂuid contacts in the reservoir.Chapter 3 VOLUMETRICS AND INITIAL HYDROCARBON VOLUME The ﬁrst step in a reservoir study is to accurately determine the initial hydrocarbon volume. Structure maps on the top and on 48 . Gross thickness isopach maps show the total interval between the top and the base of the reservoir rock for each well.
1: Isometric schematic of the Ekoﬁsk structure 49 .Figure 3.
the depth of the top of the oil column minus the top of the bottom of the oil column. The gross pay isopach map for an oil reservoir is more descriptive of the hydrocarbon reservoir geometry than the gross thickness isopach.2: Topofstructure map of a hydrocarbon reservoir the base of the reservoir can provide data for the isopach map. the gross sand interval must be estimated from reservoir crosssections based on logs from the well which penetrated the entire interval. 50 . Net oil isopach maps are commonly used to calculate volumes of hydrocarbons inplace. Net oil thickness isopach map: contours net pay . In this case.2 ISOPACH MAPS Isopach maps show the distribution and thickness of reservoir properties of interest. 3.Figure 3. most of the wells are not drilled to the base of the reservoir so a base structure map cannot be drawn. Frequently. Examples of common isopach maps are: Gross oil thickness isopach map: contours gross pay . The contour lines connect points of equal vertical interval.gross pay minus nonreservoir intervals such as shales.
51 .3: Net sand isopach map for a hydrocarbon reservoir Other useful maps include: Nettogross ratio maps: fraction of the total hydrocarbon interval which contributes to recovery. Isoporosity map: contours average porosity over netpay portions of the desired formation.Figure 3. Isowater saturation map: contours average water saturation over netpay portions of the desired formation.
Figure 3.5: Isowater saturation map for a hydrocarbon reservoir 52 .4: Isoporosity map for a hydrocarbon reservoir Figure 3.
in any set of self consistent units: G= Vb φ(1 − S wi ) B gi 53 . expressed in Standard Cubic Feet (SCF). you should be able to calculate the constant 7758 in the preceeding equation.unit conversions on page 108 of Dake. B gi = average initial gas formation volume factor (RB/SCF) or.e. The original gasinplace (OGIP) contained in a reservoir. Vb φ S wi B oi = = = = reservoir bulk volume (acrefeet) average porosity (fraction) average initial water saturation (fraction) average initial oil formation volume factor (RB/STB) or. in any set of self consistent units: N= Vb φ(1 − S wi ) B oi In this and the following reservoir engineering courses it is assumed that you are familiar with units and unit conversions i.3. starting with the above equation for any set of self consistent units. 7758Vb φ(1 − S wi ) G= B gi where.3 VOLUMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING ORIGINAL OILINPLACE The original oilinplace (OOIP) contained in a reservoir expressed in Stock Tank Barrels (STB) is designated by the symbol N and is given by the equation (ﬁeld units): 7758Vb φ(1 − S wi ) N= B oi where.. If you wish to review the topic of units go to the section Units . is designated by the symbol G and is given by the equation (in ﬁeld units). Fundamentals of reservoir engineering.
3.1 Reservoir Volume The following information is required to calculate net reservoir volume: 1. Reservoir Stratiﬁcation (and nettogross ratio). Bulk reservoir Volume. the bottom of the reservoir. The gross thickness is the diﬀerence in depth between the top and the bottom of the reservoir zone. 2. Construct a gross sand isopach map by removing intervals containing only gas or water. 54 . The calculation procedure involves the following steps: 1.6: Schematic of the microstructure of a sandstone showing sand grains and interconnected pore space which allows ﬂuid ﬂow 3. 2. These intervals will generally lie above the gasoil contact (GOC) and below the oilwater contact (OWC).Figure 3. The map is based on log data and requires the construction of structure maps for. Prepare a map of gross reservoir thickness. (i) (ii) the top of the reservoir.
3. The restored state core is then used in the laboratory to duplicate the displacement processes by which the reservoir water saturation was initially established.3. siltstone. 3. Provided that invasion of drilling ﬂuids has not changed reservoir wettability. coal seam etc. Logging — induction and focused resistivity logs. These logs measure formation resistivity which may be related to water saturation. coring with oilbased mud can result in core which gives a good indication of the irreducible water saturation.2 Average Porosity Average reservoir porosity is determined by mapping individual well porosity values. Restored state tests. These tests attempt to restore the wettability of core in the laboratory to that in the actual reservoir. 3. Coring with oilbased muds. The actual intervals to be excluded are picked from porosity logs which have been calibrated using core data. 2. This requires a knowledge of the wettability state of the reservoir and special core test data. The calculation is usually performed numerically using digitized maps. Construct a net sand isopach map by eliminating all nonreservoir rock intervals (shale.3. This procedure will normally involve estimates of minimum porosity and permeability cutoﬀs. This corresponds to the water saturation in the reservoir above the transition zone. 55 .). These are determined from core data and from sonic and radioactivity logs calibrated with core data.3 Average Initial Water Saturation The methods used to determine reservoir water saturation include: 1. In the transition zone the core will indicate low water saturation because the oil from the oilbased mud will have displaced some of the mobile water from the core during the coring operation. 3.
The overall objective is to collect suﬃcient data to develop meaningful correlations between log measured resistivity and water saturations in restored state laboratory tests. at least one well should be cored in this manner to provide data for calibration of log resistivity.The data gathering program should include water saturation data determined by all of the above methods. This data is also used to calibrate logs. 3.4 Average Oil Formation Volume Factor The average oil formation volume factor is required to convert the reservoir oil or gas ﬁlled hydrocarbon volume to the equivalent volumes at surface or stock tank conditions. Although cutting core with oilbased mud is expensive. (ii) Reservoir temperature and pressure. For these conditions a topofstructure map and average porosity and water saturation are all that is needed to calculate the initial or original oilinplace. Laboratory measurements on restored state core also provide capillary pressure data which can be used to calculate water saturations in the transition zone. 3. we consider the very simple case of a homogeneous reservoir with unity nettogross ratio where the bottom of the reservoir is the horizontal surface formed by the wateroil contact (WOC). 56 .3.the spreadsheet program which we will be using throughout the course. These are usually estimated from DST tests conducted on exploration wells. Oil and gas formation volume factors are determined in laboratory PVT tests conducted with representative samples of reservoir oil and gas.5 Determining Initial OilInPlace In order to illustrate the calculation of initial oilinplace and introduce Mathcad .3. Estimates of oil formation volume factors may be obtained from empirical correlations if the following are known: (i) Initial gasoil ratio (solution GOR).
irreducible or connate water in a waterwet porous medium 57 .Figure 3.7: Schematic of interstitual.
This is usually done 58 .mcd] Calculate the initial volume of oilinplace for the Apache Pool reservoir (topofstructure map attached). The contour areas must be determined from the map. The ﬁrst step is to determine the area inside each depth contour. The areas of the spreadsheet where these changes may need to be made are highlighted in yellow.Figure 3.2715 (RB/STB) We use this exercise to introduce you to Mathcad.27 = 0. Data: φ S wi B oi = 0.Calculation of OOIP from a reservoir structure map [IHIP.1 . In order to see the solution to this exercise you will need to change some of the inputs to the spreadsheets. It is assumed that you have installed Mathcad on your PC and that you have worked through the basics in the online tutorial. average connate water saturation and average oil formation volume factor have been determined and these values are given below. The average porosity. [Answer: 340 MMSTB] Solution outline 1.8: Reservoir pressure survey map used to determine average reservoir pressure Example 3.38 = 1.
Figure 3.9: Structure map for the Apache ﬁeld 59 .
A1 . For this example I have digitized each of the contours by hand and used Simpson’s rule to numerically calculate the area. also located in the [Contours] folder. y) numbers . You will need to change the other input contour ﬁle names to see the areas and plots for each of the contours.it ignors blanks or anything which it does nor recognise as a numerical input. This makes it a little easier to program the calculations. y) points deﬁning each curve. [Contour. A2 . You can use as many data points as you like to deﬁne a contour . To determine the area of a depth contour I ﬁrst printed an enlarged copy of the Apache structure map and overlayed this with a 1 cm by 1 cm grid. 60 ..prn] in the folder [Contours]. If you open one of these ﬁles you will see the how the points are entered for the lower and upper contours.using specialized computer software and digitized maps. reads the contour ﬁles and calculates the areas. are multiplied by the map scalefactor squared to convert the map areas to actual ﬁeld values. A0 . This makes it easy to annotate or ”prettyup” the input ﬁle so that it is understandable to the casual reader. Note that the endpoints for the lower and upper contours are the same.the more points you use. I then divided each contour into an upper and lower curve as shown in the attached ﬁgure and readoﬀ the (x. the smoother the contour and the more accurate the area calculation. Study the three ﬁgures to be sure that you understand what is being done. The only limitation is that the total number of points deﬁning the lower and upper contours must be the same. This is done in the manner outlined in the course notes and you should have no trouble following the ﬂow of the calculation.mcd] . etc. and plots the contour. The areas within each contour. When you open [Contour.prn] all it ”sees” is a matrix of (x. When Mathcad reads a ﬁle like [C2000. The use of Simpson’s rule for numerical integration is shown in the attached ﬁgures. These points are entered into a ﬁle for each contour eg. [C2000.mcd] you will see that I have left it doing one contour over and over.
The initial oilinplace is the sum of the values for each volume element. or the contour interval. The initial volume of oilinplace in volume element ∆Vi . N= X i ∆Vi See the attached ﬁgures which show how Simpson’s rule is used to calculate contour areas from digitized map data. ∆Ni = ∆Vi φi (1 − S wc. the area enclosed by the lower contour.in any consistent set of units (as used by Mathcad). 61 .i 4.i ) B oi. the vertical height between the contours. The bulk volume between two successive contours is given by the pyramidal formula: µ ¶ q h Ai + Ai+1 + Ai Ai+1 ∆Vi = 3 where. is given by. ∆Vi Ai Ai+1 h = = = = bulk volume between contours i and i + 1. 3.2. the area enclosed by the upper contour.
Contour is divided into upper and lower curves Upper curve Lower curve Figure 3.1.11: Computer calculation of contour areas 62 .10: Computer calculation of contour areas Simpson's rule to calculate the area under the upper and lower curves yi yi+ 1 yi yi+ 1 AU ∆x A= X AL ∆x yi − yi+ 1 ∆x 2 Figure 3.
Contour Area AU AC = AU − AL AL Figure 3.12: Computer calculation of contour areas 63 .
Use this equation to calculate the gas formation factor. Problem 3..is in o R (o R=o F +460) and P the average reservoir pressure . [Answer: 223 BSCF] Solution hint The gas formation volume factor is given by. The average reservoir and ﬂuid properties are given below.877 ? All other data as for Exercise 3.19 210o F 2300 psia 0. Data: φ S wi T P z = = = = = 0. volumes etc. the initial reservoir temperature was 200o F.2 . If you want to master Mathcad you can modify the ﬁles used in the previous example to do the calculation.is in psia.00504 zT P [RB/SCF] where T .48 TSCF] 64 .21 0. If you choose to do this make sure that you have looked at the Units section of the online Mathcad tutorial before making the necessary changes. calculated in the previous exercise to help you solve this problem by hand calculation or using your favourite spreadsheet.89 [Answer: 6. If you do this be sure to be careful with units. B g = 0.Calculation of OGIP from a reservoir structure map How much gas would the Apache Pool contain if the initial reservoir pressure was 1500 psia.Calculation of OGIP from a reservoir structure map Estimate the initial volume of gasinplace for the Marlin Field (topofstructure map attached). You can use the areas.1 . and the gas compressibility factor was 0.1.the average reservoir temperature .Problem 3.
Note that for the Marlin contours the contour depth intervals are not all the same size.mcd] made for Problem 3. initial water saturation. Pay special attention to the particular manner in which these ﬁles are constructed! Modify the [Contour.1 to convert it to a gas inplace calculation. areas etc. You will need to make the same changes to [Contour. Create a full copy of the folder for Example 3. If you have been following the Mathcad route .1 and construct the data ﬁles for contours (there are 9 of these).13: Marlin ﬁeld topofstructure map Solution hint You are free to solve this problem any way you want including using any commercial or inhouse software to which you may have access. Print a fullsize (or larger) copy of the Marlin structure map.1 and in order to modify the ﬁles to solbe the present problem. You will probably need to revise the ’graphs’ section of the online manual to do this.mcd] by copyandpaste to calculate the areas for all nine contours.this problem will bring you right up the learning curve. The best way to handle this is to readin individual values of h in the same way as we already readin individual values of porosity. Follow the outline for Example 3.I recommend this strongly . You can do this 65 .Figure 3. Modify the ﬁnal graph which plots the contours to plot all nine contours.
Describing these changes is a lot more diﬃcult than making them! If you succede in making the above changes you will have learnt all you need to know to reproduce any of the Mathcad spreadsheets in this and other courses.by adding a column of numbers to the input data ﬁle and making the appropriate changes in the spreadsheet. introducing a new array for h. and modifying the equations to calculate with the array elements hi . 66 . These changes will involve readingin the new values.
The more production history available. 2. 3. This program (on an annual basis) should be continued throughout the producing life of the ﬁeld. . Material balance calculations: 1. OOIP is determined using the Volumetric Method. The computed water inﬂux and measured reservoir pressures are used to characterize the size and strength of the aquifer. 4. Accurately determine initial reservoir pressure. 67 2. The material balance method is the preferred method for determining the original gasinplace (OGIP) for gas reservoirs with no signiﬁcant water inﬂux. For reservoirs where water inﬂux is signiﬁcant the analysis procedure is as follows: 1.4 DETERMINATION OF OILINPLACE — MATERIAL BALANCE METHOD Material balance methods are another way of determining the initial hydrocarbon content of a reservoir. The method is most accurate for gascapdrive reservoirs if the pressure drop is at least 100 psi.3. The method is most precise for reservoirs where water inﬂux is not signiﬁcant. The Material Balance Equation is then used to predict future water inﬂux and hence future reservoir performance. Initiate a program for periodic reservoir pressure measurement immediately after commencement of production. 2. The Material Balance Equation is used to calculate the water inﬂux. the greater the accuracy of the calculation. Require some production history (reservoir pressure and ﬂuid production rates with time). For Material Balance calculations to produce realistic results it is necessary to: 1. This should be measured as part of the data gathering program for the discovery well.
The best oil samples are obtained before the reservoir is produced because the pressure drop which accompanies production may result in the release of solution gas and this may preclude the possibility of obtaining a representative ﬂuid sample. material balance calculations require equally accurate water and gas volumes. Establish the primary production mechanism. This will usually involve the use of numerical reservoir simulators. Although produced oil volumes are accurately measured as a matter of routine. Gas sampling does not have this problem. of critical importance. Rock property data (porosity and permeability).again. The implication of this is that the more reliable the data (production history data). Accurately determine ﬂuid PVT data. Apply the analysis procedure appropriate to the drive mechanism to estimate reserves. ﬂuid property data.5 ESTIMATING RESERVES Reserves for a particular ﬁeld are estimated from an analysis of the available engineering data. 68 . 4. reservoir description and production performance data (pressure decline and ﬂuid production rates) are the basis for the analysis. Accurately measure and diligently report the production volumes for all the ﬂuids produced.3. This requires representative oil and gas samples at reservoir conditions. 2. the more accurate will be the estimate of reserves. 3. Collecting all production data from early in the life of a ﬁeld is . The procedure for estimating reserves involves the following steps: 1.
6 ESTIMATING DECLINE IN OIL PRODUCTION RATES The decline in ﬁeld and individual well production rates is estimated on the basis of: 1. The productivity index is usually a function of ﬂow rate and reservoir pressure (oil relative permeability. The productivity index for a well is the well production rate per psi of pressure drawdown. 3.3. oil viscosity). Productivity index method. For wells subject to severe water and/or gas coning reservoir simulation oﬀers the most reliable method for predicting well decline rates and overall reservoir performance.Reservoir Engineering II. Well ﬂow tests must therefore be conducted at diﬀerent rates and the productivity index must be adjusted for falling reservoir pressure. For wells producing at limited drawdown (below their maximum rate) extrapolated decline rates are not meaningful. Decline curve analysis are studied in detail in course PTRL6007 . Reservoir engineering is studied in detail in course PTRL6004 . This is determined from well ﬂow tests.Reservoir Simulation. For wells not subject to severe water and/or gas coning this method provides reliable estimates of production decline rates. Decline curve analysis. 69 . 2. Reservoir simulation. Decline curve extrapolation is satisfactory only for wells which are produced continuously at maximum or near maximum rates.
Determination of gasoil and wateroil contacts from pressure data. Introduction to hydrostatic pressures in reservoirs. Locating exploration wells searching for oil in a water. 2.or gasbearing formation. 3. 5.the pressure which exists prior to signiﬁcant production from the reservoir. 4. 70 . Determination of oil water and gas densities and gradients from pressure data. Calculation of pressure kicks on penetrating a hydrocarbon zone.Chapter 4 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN RESERVOIRS This section deals with the hydrostatic or initial pressure distribution in a reservoir . We will consider the following speciﬁc topics: 1.
9 0. and the reservoir and associated aquifer are initially in static equilibrium.28 = = = = kg/m3 kPa bar m All of the above units may be embedded into working Mathcad ﬁles and can be used interchangeably or you can even mix units if you want.1 SUBSURFACE PRESSURES Water zone pressures In normally pressured sedimentary basins water contained in the pore space of a reservoir (connate water) is in pressure communication with the atmosphere through the oceans or outcrops.1 4. Normally we would not elect to mix units! 4. p2 − p1 = ρw g(D2 − D1 ) 71 .695 psia × × × × 16.02 6.069 3. The diﬀerence in hydrostatic pressure between any two depth points in a formation containing water is.1. Since the pore spaces which comprise the eﬀective porosity of the reservoir are all interconnected.01325 bar or 14.81 m/s2 1 N/m2 105 N/m2 1. pressure varies only with depth.Symbols and Units g D p ρ Dowc Dgoc Dgwc gravity constant depth to subsurface pressure density depth of initial oilwater contact depth of initial gasoil contact depth of initial gaswater contact = = = = m/s2 m N/m2 kg/m3 m m m g 1 Pascal (Pa) 1 bar 1 Atmosphere Conversion factors lb/ft3 psi psi ft 9.
we obtain the water gradient. In general we deﬁne a phase pressure gradient as γi = ρi g where the subscript i may be ooil.433 psi/ft. For the water zone the pressure diﬀerence is ∆pw = γw ∆D The gradient for fresh water is 0. 4. Using the deﬁnition of the ﬂuid gradient. ∆pi . If we divide this pressure diﬀerence by (D2 − D1 ). pwD = p0 + ρw gD The term ρw g(D2 − D1 ) is the hydrostatic pressure diﬀerence which has units of pressure.1. If we take p0 to be the pressure at the surface (atmospheric) where D1 = 0. wwater or ggas. γw . Since water is only slightly compressible. p2 − p1 = ρw g(D2 − D1 ) where it is understood that ρw is the average pressure over the interval of interest. the equation may be written as. poD . ρw varies with depth (pressure) and salinity. at depth D in the oil zone may be expressed in terms of the oil pressure at the initial OWC (a commonly used datum point for reservoir engineering calculations) as. poD − poDOW C = ρo g(D − DOW C ) 72 . it is customary to neglect the overbar symbol and simply write.2 Oil zone pressures The initial pressure. ρw is the average density of water over the interval (D2 − D1 ) and g is the gravitational acceleration. pwD − p0 = ρw gD or. we can write that the pressure diﬀerence between any two depths. which is equal to ρw g and has units of pressure per unit depth. is ∆pi = γi ∆D where ∆D is the diﬀerence in depth.where.
at depth D in the gas cap may be expressed in terms of the gas pressure at the initial GOC as. 4.3 Gas cap pressures The initial pressure. 73 . poD = poDOW C − ρo g(DOW C − D) or.1: Hydrostatic pressure distribution in a reservoir which may be rearranged to give. pgD .1. pgD = pgDGOC − ρg g(DGOC − D) or.Figure 4. pgD − pgDGOC = ρg g(D − DGOC ) or. poD = poDOW C − γo (DOW C − D) where ρo is the average density of oil at reservoir conditions. pgD = pgDGOC − γg (DGOC − D) where ρg is the average density of gas at reservoir conditions.
74 . the WOC and GOC are sharp and the ﬂuid pressures at the contacts are equal. The resulting hydrostatic pressure distribution in the reservoir is shown in the attached ﬁgure.4.2 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN A RESERVOIR CONTAINING OIL. Note that the contacts correspond to the intersections of the ﬂuid gradient lines. WATER AND GAS In the absence of capillary pressure. This can be used estimate the positions of the contacts from measured pressuredepth data.
2: Hydrostatic pressure distribution in a reservoir assuming negligible capillary pressure 75 .Figure 4.
Example 4.1 [REGPRES.mcd]

Calculation
of
regional
hydrostatic
pressures
Five widely separated exploration wells were drilled in a large sedimentary basin. While penetrating the aquifer, the following pressure measurements were made in each of the wells: Well A B C Rotary table elevation (ft above MSL) 2133 1312 2707 Measured depth (ft) 9744 13993 8235 Gauge Pressure (psia) 4340 5656 2480 Determine if all the wells belong to the same pressure system. In answering this question you can use the Mathcad spreadsheet [REGPRES.mcd] which reads the above data and calculates the required ﬂuid gradients. [Answer: WellA is clearly in an overpressured separate hydraulic system] D 3937 17388 6005 E 197 9383 4090
Solution hints The relationship between true vertical depth subsea DT V D , measured depth DM D , and depth above mean sea level DM SL is given by DT V D = DM D − DM SL The average water gradient (sealevel to depth of measurement), γw , is given by γw = ∆p DT V D
76
Example 4.2  Calculation of ﬂuid contacts and ﬂuid gradients from pressure data [CONTACTS.mcd] The following formation tester pressure measurements were made in an exploration well. Estimate: (i) the depths of the contacts (ii) the density and the nature of the ﬂuids present in the formation Depth Pressure (ft) (psia) 8120 2912 8202 2920 8284 2927 8366 2950 8448 2978 8530 3005 8612 3038 8694 3075 8776 3114
Solution hints Plot the data on a depthpressure plot. Identify lines of constant slope, these show zones of diﬀerent ﬂuid saturation. Determine the gradients of depthpressure lines and from these calculate the ﬂuid densities. The densities identify the ﬂuids. [CONTACTS.mcd] is a general spreadsheet which I have found very useful in analysing a wide range of formation pressuredepth data. If you have access to commercial or inhouse software which does similar things, feel free to use it. [Answer: DGOC = 8302 ft ss., DOW C = 8573 ft ss., ρg = 13.2 lb/cubic ft., ρo = 48.3 lb/cubic ft., ρw = 66.8 lb/cubic ft. ]
77
Figure 4.3: Hydrostatic pressuredepth data plot
78
Problem 4.1  Optimal Location of an Exploration Well [EXPLOR.mcd] Exploration well EX1 intersected a hydrocarbon bearing sand with a vertical thickness of 200 ft between 6560 and 6760 ftsubsea. A wireline formation tester recovered some gas and mud and recorded a pressure of 3850 psia at 6660 ftss. A second exploration well EX2 encountered the same sand between 7780 ftss and 7980 ftss but found it to be only waterbearing. Mechanical problems with the downhole gauge prevented a pressure measurement from being taken. The two wells are 12,000 ft apart. On the basis of previous experience and sampling of reservoir ﬂuids we have determined that the regional water gradient is 0.524 psi/ft. The formation is normally pressured. The pressure gradient for the gas phase at reservoir conditions is calculated to be 0.084 psi/ft. The oil gradient, at reservoir conditions, is estimated to be 0.296 psi/ft. Questions (i) (ii) (iii) Is the above data consistent with the assumption that the formation could be oilbearing between 6660 and 7880 ftss ? Where would you locate an additional exploration well which would deﬁnitely ﬁnd oil if any oil is indeed present? What is the maximum possible thickness of the oil zone?
[Answers: (i) yes, (ii) new well should intersect the sand at a depth of 7445 ft ss., (iii) 910 ft.]
Solution hints Each of the wells gives us a ﬂuid and a corresponding ﬂuid pressure. Where a mechanical problem prevented the measurement of a water phase pressure, we can estimate the pressure by assuming that the formation is normally pressured (i.e., water gradient times depth). The ﬁrst well gives us the depth of lowest known gas. The second well gives the depth of highest known water. If an oil zone exists, it must be between these depths. Knowing the gas and water gradients, and a ﬂuid pressure and corresponding depth in the gas and water zones, we can draw the gas and water gradient lines 79
Figure 4.4: Maximum thickness of an oil zone between gas and water contacts
on a pressuredepth plot. If there is no oil present (only gas and water), the depth of the GWC can be found from the intersection of the gas and water gradient lines. If a drop of oil is present it must gravitate to this depth splitting the GWC into a WOC and a GOC. The third well must intersect this depth to prove if any oil is present in the reservoir. The maximum possible thickness of the oil zone occurs when either the lowest known gas or the highest known water corresponds to an oil contact. How do we select which of the two is a possible contact? Simple, draw the oil gradient line through each of the points and select the one which produces a set of contacts (OWC and GOC) which are consistent with lowest known gas and highest known water. If you understand the principles involved and the steps required to solve the problem you should have little problem in entering the correct data into [EXPLOR.mcd] and manipulating the graph by setting appropriate contact and oil gradient lines to produce the correct answer. 80
If you know what you are doing you can solve the problem faster with a hand calculator! I have prepared the spreadsheet [PKICK.35 psi/ft gas gradient 0. water gradient 0. This diﬀerence gives rise to a pressure kick. the reservoir pressure at the top of the reservoir is higher than the pressure at the base of the seal.mcd] as an example of how a simple calculation can be layed out in Mathcad. 81 . On penetrating the hydrocarbon column the reservoir pressure is equal to the pressure at the contact minus the gravity head of hydrocarbon column from the contact to the top of the reservoir. the drill bit experiences a water hydrostatic pressure gradient because the seal is saturated with water and in a normally pressured system this water is in hydraulic communication with the aquifer.08 psi/ft What would the pressure kick be if the entire hydrocarbon zone contained gas? [Answer: 104 psi] Solution hints When drilling through the cap rock which forms the reservoir seal. You do not really need a spreadsheet to solve this problem.2 .Problem 4.Calculation of a Pressure Kick when Penetrating a Hydrocarbon Zone [PKICK. Since a hydrocarbon column is lighter than a water column of equivalent height.mcd] Calculate the pressure kick to be expected when a well ﬁrst penetrates a reservoir at 5000 ft subsea if the reservoir is known to have an OWC at 5500 ft and an GOC at 5200 ft. Just before the bit penetrates the reservoir the bit pressure is the of the water gradient and depth. The formation is known to be normally pressured with the following phase gradients.45 psi/ft oil gradient 0. Enter the correct numbers and you will get the solution.
WellA was drilled downdip of the structure and encountered only the aquifer. Six RFT pressures were measured over this interval.Interpretation of Repeat Formation Tester (RFT) data The RFT allows an unlimited number of spot pressure measurements to be made in a single trip in an open hole.Figure 4. This allows the engineer to determine pressuredepth proﬁles across reservoir sections of interest. 82 .5: Calculation of a pressure kick Problem 4. Comparing pressuredepth proﬁles in diﬀerent wells can provide valuable information on ﬁeld ﬂuid contacts and the degree of areal and vertical communication . The operator had the foresight to measure water pressures over a 160 foot interval to determine the water pressure regime in this new area. The second WellB.3 .sealing or nonsealing faults. Two wells were drilled in a remote region. was drilled upstructure several kilometers from WellA and discovered a 50 foot oil column with good porosity and permeability.
ss) 6075 6091 6108 6220 6232 WellB Depth (ft.The pressures recorded for the two wells are summarized below.ss) Pressure (psia) 5771 2602 5778 2604 5790 2608 5800 2610 5806 2612 5816 2615 Pressure (psia) 2662 2669 2677 2725 2731 What conclusions can you draw from this data with regard to the ﬂuids. WellA Depth (ft. 83 . Note that in order to meaningfully compare the pressures in the wells it is necessary to convert measured depths to a common datum (depth subsea) and to express pressures in absolute units (psia). the reservoir and the aquifer? [Answer: you tell me] Solution hints Try using CONTACTS.mcd.
3 GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT The geothermal gradient.Figure 4. On the average it is about 1o F/100 ft. GT . varies considerably from location to location. 84 . Tf = Ts + GT Df where Ts is the surface temperature and Df is the formation depth. We can use this to estimate subsurface formation (reservoir) temperatures. Tf .6: Lithostatic gradient 4. as.
7: Geothermal gradient 85 .Figure 4.
gas initially dissolved in the oil is released from solution. The properties are called PVT (pressurevolumetemperature) properties of the reservoir ﬂuids. Density. Before considering the speciﬁc PVT parameters of interest to reservoir engineering it is necessary to review some general but basic concepts in hydrocarbon phase behavior. The volume of solution gas released and the associated changes in oil properties have a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on the production characteristics of the reservoir.Chapter 5 FLUID PROPERTIES Production from a reservoir is usually accompanied by a decline in reservoir pressure. When suﬃcient production has taken place for the pressure to fall below the oil bubble point pressure. These properties are determined in special laboratory tests which require representative reservoir ﬂuid samples. Oil shrinkage. 86 . compressibility and viscosity of all the ﬂuids present. The ﬂuid properties of interest in the analysis of reservoirs include: Amount of gas in solution. The attached ﬁgure shows a schematic of solution gas release in an oil reservoir.
The PT phase diagram can be constructed by experimentally observing the behavior of the pure substance in a windowed high pressure test cell as shown in the attached ﬁgure. which terminates in a critical point (C). may be compressed indeﬁnitely without passing through a phase transition.. the vapor pressure curve.1.1: Oil reservoir above and below the bubble point 5. a liquid or a solid (or a mixture of liquid and gas or a mixture of all three) depends on: Pressure.Figure 5. A gas at a temperature above it’s critical temperature. propane. Over the pressure and temperature range shown in the attached ﬁgure. Composition 5.1 PHASE BEHAVIOR All substances can exist as gases. Temperature. divides the PT space into liquid and gas regions. methane etc. The state of a pure substance can be represented on a PT phase diagram. To the right of the critical point lies a single phase super critical region. temperature and pressure fully deﬁne the state of the hydrocarbon. liquids or solids.1 Pure Hydrocarbons For a pure hydrocarbon such as ethane. Whether a particular substance exists as a gas. butane. 87 .
3: Surface production system for an oil reservoir 88 .Figure 5.2: Surface production system for a gas reservoir Figure 5.
liquid for points above the vapor pressure curve. mixture of liquid and vapor for points on the vapor pressure curve.    5. increasing temperature at constant pressure (states A to B) does not result in a phase change. Point F represents a liquid state at high pressure. When the pressure falls below the vapour pressure to point A. The attached ﬁgure shows the P T phase diagram for a 50:50 mixture of propane and heptane. increasing the pressure at constant temperature can result in a phase change from vapor to liquid when the pressure increases to the vapor pressure. If the pressure is reduced to the ﬂuid vapour pressure (the intersection of the line AF and the vapour pressure curve) both liquid and vapour phases can coexist. state A. For pure substances at temperatures above the critical temperature changing pressure (states E to D) at constant temperature does not result in a phase change.1. The PT phase diagram shows that: For a liquid state at high pressure. Also plotted are the pure component vapor pressure curves.2 Hydrocarbons Mixtures The behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures is more complex than that of a pure ﬂuid.To the left of the critical point the ﬂuid is. reducing the pressure at constant temperature can result in a phase change from liquid to vapor when the pressure falls to the vapor pressure. For a gas state at high temperature. The behavior of more complex mixtures is similar. The major diﬀerences between the P T phase diagrams for a single component and a twocomponent mixture are: 89 . For purposes of illustration we consider a two component mixture. For a gas state at temperatures below the critical temperature. vapor for points below the vapor pressure curve. the ﬂuid is in a single vapour state.
Figure 5.4: Pressuretemperature diagram for ethane 90 .
The size and shape of the twophase region and the location of the critical point vary with mixture composition. The twophase region is bound by a bubble point line and a dew point line which meet at the mixture critical point. 91 . liquid and gas phases mixtures may exist at conditions above the critical point. 4. 5. For the mixture there now exists a twophase region or a range of pressures over which two phases can coexist at constant temperature. The bubble point pressure is the pressure at which the ﬁrst bubble of gas appears as the pressure of a liquid is reduced at constant temperature. P − T phase diagrams are used to classify reservoir types. The critical point is the temperature and pressure at which the properties of the liquid and vapor phases are identical. We note that for mixtures. Within the twophase region are lines of constant liquid (or gas) content.5: Pressuretemperature diagram for ethaneheptane mixtures 1. 2.Figure 5. The dew point pressure is the pressure at which the ﬁrst drop of liquid appears as the pressure of a gas is increased at constant temperature. 3.
1. As the pressure continues to fall below the bubble point pressure along the line ABC. With production the reservoir pressure will fall at constant temperature T along the line A’ABC.6: Pressuretemperature diagram for a multicomponent mixture 5. free gas appears in the reservoir as a result of solution gas release.3 Classiﬁcation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs Oil Reservoir The phase diagram for a typical oil reservoir having a temperature T is shown in the attached ﬁgure. 92 . As the pressure continues to fall in the twophase region. the percentage liquid volume decreases. The reservoir is said to be undersaturated because the initial reservoir pressure is higher than the bubble point pressure which is at point A. The initial condition of the reservoir (temperature and pressure) is at point A’.Figure 5.
the reservoir temperature.7: Pressuretemperature diagram for a reservoir oil For an oil reservoir T . Retrograde Condensate Gas Reservoir The phase diagram for a typical retrograde condensate gas reservoir having a temperature T is shown in the attached ﬁgure. This behavior is termed retrograde. lies to the left of the critical point. the reservoir temperature. 93 . When pressure falls this reservoir enters the twophase region through a dew point producing a condensate phase in the reservoir.Figure 5. lies to the right of the critical point. For a retrograde condensate gas reservoir T .
Figure 5.9: Pressuretemperature diagram for a gas reservoir 94 .8: Pressuretemperature diagram for a gas condensate reservoir Figure 5.
The reservoirs may be further classiﬁed as wet gas if the separator condition falls in the twophase region. Parameter Oil Formation Volume Factor Symbol Deﬁnition Bo The reservoir volume in barrels (RB) that is occupied by one stock tank barrel (STB) of oil and its dissolved gas. 5. The volume of gas in SCF dissolved in one STB of oil at a speciﬁc reservoir pressure. The reservoir volume in barrels (RB) that is occupied by one standard cubic foot (SCF) of gas.Gas Reservoir The phase diagram for a typical gas reservoir having a temperature T is shown in the attached ﬁgures. When pressure falls these reservoirs do not enter the twophase region. The fractional reduction in water volume that results from a pressure increase of one psi. The pressure at which the ﬁrst bubble of gas evolves from solution. Gas Formation Volume Factor Bg Solution GasOil Ratio Oil Compressibility Rs co Water Compressibility cw Bubble Point Pressure pb 95 . and dry gas if the separator condition is singlephase. For a gas reservoir T lies to the right of the twophase region. The fractional reduction in oil volume that results from a pressure increase of one psi.2 PVT PROPERTIES The following deﬁnitions refer to the PVT properties used in reservoir engineering to characterize oil and gas reservoirs.
10: Production of an oil reservoir above and below the bubble point The above properties are used to relate surface volumes (mass) to reservoir volumes.Figure 5. What are the corresponding underground withdrawal rates in (RB/D)? The producing gasoil ratio is R = Qg /Qo (SCF/ST B) This means that for every STB of oil which is produced at this pressure. the volume of free gas produced from the reservoir is (R − RS ) (SCF/STB) 96 . Calculation of underground withdrawal rates from surface measurements Oil and gas production rates. Since every STB of oil produced to the surface produces Rs SCF of solution gas. we produce R SCF of gas at the surface. are measured at the surface at a time when the reservoir pressure is P . Qo (STB/D)and Qg (SCF/D). This pressure is below the bubble point pressure Pb .
Bo =1.8 lb/ft3 and the gas gravity is 0.Relating surface rates to subsurface withdrawals [SUBSURV.mcd] The oil production rate is 2500 STB/D and the gas production rate is 2.67 (density of air at standard conditions is 0. the total underground withdrawal is Qo (Bo + (R − Rs )Bg ) Example 5. If the reservoir pressure at this time is 2400 psia.1822 RB/STB Rs =352 SCF/STB 97 Bg =0.1 . what are the underground withdrawal rates? If the density of stocktank oil is 52.Figure 5. The PVT data at 2400 psia are. If we produce Qo STB of oil.11: Use of PVT properties to relate surface measured production rates to reservoir withdrawal volumes Each STB of oil produced to the surface requires the withdrawal of Bo RB of oil and is accompanied by (R − Rs )Bg RB of free gas.00119 RB/SCF .0763 lb/ft3 ) calculate the oil density and gas density at reservoir conditions when the reservoir pressure is 2400 psia.125 MMSCF/D.
5.65 lb/cubic ft.1 Pressure Dependence of PVT Properties Typical relationships between PVT properties and pressure are shown schematically in the attached ﬁgure.] Solution hint To calculate reservoir ﬂuid densities use 1 STB oil and 1 SCF gas as a basis. Solution GOR The volume of dissolved gas decreases from Rsi . At pressures above Pb the gas in solution remains constant at Rsi . qg = 1482 RB/day.4 lb/cubic ft. ρo =47. Use the PVT properties and the surface densities to calculate the corresponding ﬂuid masses at reservoir conditions.[Answer: qo = 2956 RB/day..2. Oil Formation Volume Factor Bo is generally greater than 1. Study the spreadsheet carefully in order to fully understand the calculation of densities at reservoir conditions. the initial solution GOR at the bubble point (Pb ). to zero at atmospheric pressure. Bo increases with pressure to Pb as a result of the increasing solubility of gas (the mass of the oil phase increases).0 at 0 psig because reservoir temperature is greater than the standard reference temperature of 60o F (oil expands with increasing temperature at constant pressure). This gives Bo and Bg as the reservoir volumes of oil and gas. 98 .mcd] and see the solution. ρg =7. Enter the correct numbers into the spreadsheet [SUBSURV. respectively.
12: Dependence of oil PVT properties on reservoir pressure 99 .Figure 5.
At reservoir conditions the volumetric behavior of gases is governed by the real gas law. lb mole gas constant. o R (o R =o F + 460) Taking one mole of gas at standard conditions (14. 10. ft3 gas deviation factor. psia volume.65 VR zR TR = 5. Bg = 14.73 psia ft3 /o R lb mole temperature. for natural gas may be estimated from the attached ﬁgure where the compressibility factor is plotted as a function of pseudoreduced temperature (Tpr ) and pseudoreduced pressure (Ppr ).65 zR TR = V1 520 z1 PR Since Bg has the units RB/SCF (1 bbl = 5.65V1 = z1 nR(60 + 460) PR VR = zR nR(TR ) Dividing the above equations we obtain. dimensionless number of moles.65 psia and 60 o F) and compressing it to reservoir conditions (PR psia and TR o R) gives. Gas Formation Volume Factor Bg decreases with increasing pressure as a result of the compressibility of the gas. Tpr = T Tpc 100 . 14. zR .For pressures greater than Pb .02 × 10−3 The compressibility factor.615 × 520 1 PR zR T R PR Bg = 5. VR 14.0. P V z n R T = = = = = = pressure. P V = znRT where. Bo decreases due to compression as pressure increases.615 5.615 ft3 ) and z1 = 1.
P V = nRT The number of moles n. The pseudocritical properties of a gas are a function of gas gravity and may be estimated from the attached ﬁgure. γg is thus simply.Ppr = P Ppc where Tpc and Ppc are the gas pseudocritical temperature and pseudocritical pressure respectively. At standard conditions gases obey the ideal gas law and gas density may be expressed as. the density of air is. ρg = Similarly. and the molecular weight of the gas M . ρair = The gas gravity. m n= M Combining the equations gives. Gas gravity Gas gravity is the ratio of the density of a gas to the density of air at standard conditions. PV = or. may be expressed in terms of the mass of gas m. 101 . γg = ρg Mg = ρair 29 m P Mair = V RT m P Mg = V RT m RT M The molecular weight of the gas is determined from a laboratory analysis of a gas sample.
Figure 5.13: Pseudocritical properties for natural gas and gas condensates 102 .
o R pressure of interest. the reduced temperature.3. zT P 103 . Tr . and reduced pressure.5. the compressibility factor.02 × 10−3 where T is in o R and P is in psia. may be read from compressibility charts and Bg in units of RB/SCF is calculated from: Bg = 5. psia critical pressure of the gas. z.1 CALCULATION OF GAS PROPERTIES Single Gas Component For a single gas component. Once Tr and Pr are known. T Tc P Pc = = = = temperature of interest.3 5. psia Tc and Pc are constants for a single gas component and may be obtained from standard tables of the properties of pure gas components. o R critical temperature of the gas. Pr . are deﬁned as follows: T Tr = Tc P Pr = Pc where.
09 58.02 34.02 44.08 28.01 28.12 72.90 Tc R Pc psia 673 712 617 551 485 435 397 362 o Methane Ethane Propane nButane nPentane nHexane nHeptane nOctane Water Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Hydrogen sulphide Air 344 550 666 766 847 914 972 1025 1365 3206 548 1073 227 492 673 1306 239 547 104 .2 18.2 114.CRITICAL PROPERTIES OF GASES Component Molecular Weight 16.07 44.17 100.15 86.04 30.
02 × 10−3 where T is in o R and P is in psia. Tpc . Gas gravity known If the gas gravity is known. Note: the gas gravity may be calculated from gas composition. the compressibility factor.3. Ppr . psia The pseudo reduced temperature.5. z. the chart may be used to estimate the gas pseudo critical properties. and pseudo critical pressure. o R = pseudo critical pressure of the gas. Ppc : Tpc = Ppc = where. Tpr . Gas molecular weight. may be read from compressibility charts and Bg calculated from: Bg = 5.2 MultiComponent Gas Mixtures A multicomponent gas mixture may be treated as a single pseudocomponent gas by deﬁning appropriate pseudo critical temperature. and pseudo reduced pressure. are deﬁned as follows: T Tpr = Tpc P Ppr = Ppc Once Tpr and Ppr are known. γg = Mg 29 105 . yi Tpc Ppc n X 1 n X 1 yi Tci yi Pci = mole fraction of component i in the mixture = pseudo critical temperature of the gas. Mg Mg = n X 1 zT P yi Mi where Mi is the molecular weight of component i.
5 33. The gas composition is: Component Mole Fraction Methane Ethane Propane 0. read z = 0.05 1.8 82.05 Solution Component Mole Fraction Tc (o R) Tc (o F ) Pc (psia) Methane Ethane Propane TOTAL o yTc 274.87)(225 + 460) = 5.00 117 90 206 343 550 666 673 708 617 R =o F + 460 1.15 0.02×10−3 zT (0.80 0. Tpr = T 460 + 225 = = 1.80 0. Tpc = 391o R Ppc = 676psia 2. Bg = 5.75 Tpc 391 P 2500 = = 3.Example Calculation — Bg Calculate the gas formation volume and gas density at reservoir conditions of 225o F and 2500 psia. From the generalized compressibility chart.15 0.70 Ppc 676 Ppr = 3.2×10−3 RB/SCF P 2500 106 .02×10−3 = 1.87 4.3 390.6 yPc 539 106 31 676 0.
87 × 10. ρg = P Mg 2500 × 19.83 4.675 29 29 3 X 1 yi Mi (o F ) 12.20 19.Mg .54 = = 0.80 0.15 0.73 × (460 + 225) Mg 19. The gas composition is: Component Mole Fraction Methane Ethane Propane 0.05 Solution Component Mole Fraction Mi Methane Ethane Propane TOTAL 1.15 0.80 0.54 107 . γg = 3. gas gravity and the gas density at reservoir conditions of 225o F and 2500 psia.00 16 30 44 yi Mi = 19.05 1.51 2.54 = = 7.Example Calculation .64 lb/f t3 zRT 0. Mg = 2. γg and ρg Calculate the gas molecular weight.54 0.
10 0.0 66.12 0.266 Ppc 662 Ppr = 3. From the generalized compressibility chart.08 1.08 Solution Component Mole Fraction Tc (o R) Tc (o F ) Pc (psia) Methane Ethane Propane nButane TOTAL o yTc yPc 0. Tpc = 434o R Ppc = 662psia 2. Tpr = T 460 + 150 = = 1. read z = 0.Calculation of Gas Properties Calculate γg .8 R =o F + 460 1. Bg and ρg at reservoir conditions of 150o F and 1500 psia.70 0.7 61.3 44.00 117 90 206 306 343 550 666 766 673 708 617 551 240.406 Tpc 434 P 1500 = = 2.12 0.10 0.6 61.0 85.70 0. The gas composition is: Component Mole Fraction Methane Ethane Propane nButane 0.0 661.1 434.1 471.75 108 .1 66.
12 0. Mg = 6.6 23.70 0.8 Component Mole Fraction Mi Methane Ethane Propane nButane TOTAL 5.8 Mg 23.10 0.08 1.4.29 lb/f t3 zRT 0.2 3.00 16 30 44 58 yi Mi = 23. ρg = 3 X 1 0.4 4. γg = 7.73 × (460 + 150) 109 .8 = = 7. Bg = 5.82 29 29 P Mg 1500 × 23.02×10−3 = 1.75)(150 + 460) = 5.6 4.02×10−3 zT (0.53×10−3 RB/SCF P 1500 yi Mi (o F ) 11.8 = = 0.75 × 10.
4 DETERMINATION OF OIL PVT DATA FROM LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS Laboratory tests to measure PVT parameters are carried using samples of reservoir oil at a constant reservoir temperature. 110 . 2. Separator ﬂash expansion test. This is achieved by removing accurately measured volumes of mercury from the cell using a calibrated high precision piston pump. The pressure in the cell is lowered by increasing the cell volume. These cells allow accurate visual measurement of oil and gas volumes in the cell at diﬀerent pressures. 3. Three speciﬁc tests are performed to characterize an oil and it’s associated gas: 1. The attached ﬁgure shows the essential features of the PVT test apparatus. Diﬀerential liberation test.Figure 5.14: Schematic of a laboratory PVT test cell 5. Flash expansion test . The laboratory tests are conducted in high pressure windowed cells.
15: Windowed PVT test cell 111 .Figure 5.
Figure 5.16: PVT laboratory at UNSW 112 .
The following table shows a set of typical laboratory data for this test.027 1. 5. pb .9975 1.4.9850 0. in the cell is measured at each step.9810 0. pb .2 Diﬀerential Liberation Test This test is designed to approximate the conditions in a reservoir where gas is released from solution as the pressure falls and the released gas moves away from the oil as a result of gravity segregation.1060 1.9925 0. vt . by noting that the total compressibility of the cell increases dramatically when gas is released from solution.1680 pi pb This data is used to determine the bubble point pressure. The cell pressure is lowered in small steps by removing a small volume of mercury at each step. All cell volumes are reported relative to the volume in the cell at the bubble point pressure. The total hydrocarbon volume. experiment starts with the cell at the bubble point pressure.0025 1. The pressure in the cell is reduced in small steps by removing mercury from the cell.5.0603 1. pi .0000 1. 113 .1 Flash Expansion Test A reservoir oil sample is introduced into the cell and mercury is injected to raise the cell pressure above the initial reservoir pressure.4. Pressure (psia) 5000 4500 4000 3500 3330 3290 3000 2700 2400 2100 Relative Total Volume vt = v/vb (RB/RBb ) 0.
Figure 5.17: Schematic representation of ﬂash and diﬀerential liberation tests 114 .
0597 0.2369 6.0417 0.7794 pb 0.At each step the cell oil volume.7 psia and 200o F=74.2333 6.5859 6. The above procedure is repeated for small steps down to atmospheric pressure. the laboratory also reports the Cumulative Relative Gas Volumes collected at atmospheric pressure and reservoir temperature and at STC: Cumulative Relative Gas Volume at 14. Vg at p and T .0000 0.4114 6.8603 0.0535 0. vg .0460 0. are measured.7 Relative Gas Vol.9557 115 .1220 0.2297 In addition to the above data.9022 0.9449 0.1818 0.3728 200o F 60o F 8.0923 0. at p and T . Typical data produced from a diﬀerential liberation test is shown in the table below: Pressure (psia) 4000 3500 3330 3000 2700 2400 2100 1800 1500 1200 900 600 300 14.9152 0.8296 0.9769 0. Relative Gas Vol.8459 0.5895 6.8744 0. vo .8884 0.9457 6.9557 Cumulative Relative Gas Volume at 14.9975 1. vo 0. The gas in the cell is then slowly displaced from the cell with mercury at constant pressure.0687 0.9457 6.5221 6.7 psia and 60o F=74.0466 0. Vg . The displaced gas volume is measured at standard conditions and the volume.9925 0.7 14. Relative Oil Vol.9731 6. vg at sc.9298 0. and gas volume.9609 0. is noted.
Separator Stock Tank Shrinkage GOR Pressure Pressure Factor Rsif (psia) (psia) cbf (STB/RBb )) (SCF/STB) 200 150 100 50 14. The data from such tests is used to determine the oil shrinkage factor.7 0. Rsif . The cell contents are then ﬂashed through the separator system to standard conditions. and the initial solution GOR.4. The PVT cell is brought to the bubble point pressure and connected to the separator system which may be a single separator or a series of staged separators with staged pressures and temperatures to simulate the actual production system. The resulting volumes of produced oil and gas are measured.18: Laboratory test separator 5.7834 512 510 515 526 116 . cbf .7932 0.Figure 5.7983 0.7 14.7993 0.7 14.7 14.3 Separator Flash Expansion Test This test is designed to approximate the surface production system.
117 . F . The procedure involves the following steps: 1. Vg Use the diﬀerential ﬂash data and the oil shrinkage factor. Plot the ﬂash expansion data. cbf and the cumulative gas liberated.6) may be manipulated to yield. Fp = 4.Gas in solution solution at pressure p ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ STB SCF SCF 1 RBb F × 5. 2.4 Procedure for calculating PVT parameters from laboratory data The above data can be used to compute the PVT properties for the tested oil and gas. 1 vg Bg = 5. F . the oil shrinkage factor. 5.615 × = (Rsif − Rs ) RBb STB cbf STB STB The following example illustrates the application of the above procedure.4—4. liberated from the cell at every pressure step. p vs vt . to compute Bo .5. Use the diﬀerential ﬂash data to compute Bg . cbf . pb X p 3. " # ∙ ¸ vo RB RB/RBb Bo = = STB cbf STB/RBb Use the diﬀerential ﬂash data. to determine the bubble point pressure. Cumulative Gas Liberated at pressure p ∙ ¸ ∙ = Total Gas in . to compute Rs .615 Vg Use the diﬀerential ﬂash data to compute the cumulative relative gas volume.4. Eqns.(4.
mcd] Using the Flash expansion.2 . Bubble point pressure 2. Solution gasoil ratio 5.mcd] 118 . [Answer: Open PVT. Gas formation volume factor 6. Oil formation volume factor 4. Gas compressibility Determine the above properties for the optimum surface operating condition.Example 5. determine the following as a function pressure at reservoir temperature: 1. diﬀerential liberation and separator ﬂash expansion data discussed in the previous sections.Calculation of PVT properties from laboratory PVT data [PVT. Oil compressibility above the bubble point 3.
The liquid volume is usually very small compared to the total volume of the system and in order to measure it accurately it is necessary to use special condensate PVT cells. If the reservoir is saturated (initial reservoir pressure is equal to the bubble point pressure).6 PVT TESTS FOR GAS CONDENSATE FIELDS Gas condensate exist as a single gaseous phase at initial reservoir conditions. Irrespective of the sampling method used. the oil ﬂowing into the wellbore must have the same solution GOR as the reservoir oil away from the well. 5. the very high mobility (low viscosity) of the gas will result in a disproportion ally high volume of gas entering the wellbore. oil ﬂowing into the wellbore will be deﬁcient in gas. the problems of obtaining a truly representative sample of reservoir oil are the same.5 FLUID SAMPLING Fluid samples for PVT analysis are collected early in the life of a reservoir. the oil ﬂowing into the wellbore is reservoir oil and the sample is representative. a liquid phase is produced in the reservoir. During the period that the gas saturation is below the critical value. When gas is ﬁrst released in a reservoir. When reservoir pressure falls below the dewpoint. The reservoir is usually sampled in one of two ways. surface sampling. the pressure in the vicinity of the wellbore will be below the bubble point pressure and gas will come out of solution as the oil ﬂows to the wellbore. Gas condensate tests are designed to measure this volume of liquid as a function of pressure . subsurface sampling 2. On the other hand. These cells are designed to allow light to pass through the liquid and 119 . Under these conditions the oil sample may not be representative. 1. If the reservoir is undersaturated (reservoir pressure is above the bubble point pressure) and the well production rate is suﬃciently low for the pressure in the vicinity of the wellbore to be everywhere above the bubble point pressure. the gas remains immobile until the gas saturation increases to a value called the critical gas saturation.liquid dropout curve. when suﬃcient gas has been released for gas to become mobile.5. If the sample is to be representative.
19: Constant mass expansion test for a gas condensate are ﬁtted with front and back windows for this purpose. The richer the gas condensate. Typical liquid dropout curves for constant mass and constant volume depletion tests are shown in the attached ﬁgure. The liquid will move to the bottom of the reservoir under the action of gravity and a constant volume depletion test is more appropriate. In the case of very rich condensates where the volume of liquid produced is relatively large. The most common type of test used to characterize a gas condensate is the constant mass depletion test.Figure 5. the liquid phase in the reservoir may become mobile. Some condensate cells are made out of a solid block of sapphire to allow un obstructed viewing of the liquid phase. the more liquid is produced and the greater the diﬀerence between the liquid dropout curves. The constant volume depletion test simulates this behavior. 120 . Since the liquid volume produced in the reservoir is small. it is immobile and remains in contact with the gas from which it was produced.
processing and measuring equipment. and pipelines.20: Constant volume expansion test for a gas condensate 5.7 GAS HYDRATES Gas hydrates are solid. ethanol. ethylene glycol diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol. A typical phase diagram for a hydrate forming gaswater system is shown in the attached ﬁgure. semistable compounds which sometimes plug natural gas ﬂowlines.a solid foam. Hydrates consist of geometric lattices of water molecules containing cavities ﬁlled with gas . The attached sheet provides a guide to temperature reduction which may be expected from the use of the diﬀerent additives. 121 .Figure 5. Gas hydrates form when hydrocarbon gases come into contact with water at temperatures below 35o C. More accurate predictions require the use of special equations of state designed speciﬁcally for this purpose. The temperature for hydrate formation is reduced by the addition of inhibitors such as methanol.
Diethylene Glycol and Triethylene Glycol Figure 5. Ethylene Glycol. processing equipment and pipelines Geometric lattices of water molecules containing cavities filled with gas Formed when hydrocarbon gases are in contact with water at temperatures below 35C Temperature for hydrate formation is reduced by the addition of inhibitors such as Methanol.Figure 5. Ethanol.21: Liquid dropout curves for a gas condensate Gas Hydrates Solid. semistable compounds which sometimes plug natural gas flowlines.22: A simple summary of gas hydrates 122 .
23: Gas hydrate coexistence curves. Iice Figure 5. Hhydrate. Ggas. L1water.Figure 5.24: Comparison between measured and calculated hydrate curves for a gas with MEOH inhibitor 123 . L2liquid hydrocarbon.
The surface tension of hydrocarbon mixtures may be 124 . water and gas phases and between gas and oil phases. Ds H = = = = density diﬀerence for the two ﬂuids gravitational acceleration drop diameters as shown in the attached ﬁgure tabulated function of Ds /De ∆ρgDe H 5.8. A typical test setup is shown in the attached ﬁgure.1 Estimating Surface Tension The surface tension between two ﬂuids is a function of pressure.8 SURFACE TENSION Surface tension between two ﬂuids is an important parameter in reservoir analysis because it determines the manner in which ﬂuids move through reservoir rock. σ= where.25: Eﬀect of diﬀerent inhibitors on hydrate formation 5. Surface tension may be measured at reservoir conditions using the pendant drop method.Figure 5. ∆ρ g De . Surface tension may exist between water and oil phases. The surface tension is given by. temperature and composition of the phases.
26: Pendant drop tensiometer 125 .Figure 5.
9 CORRELATIONS FOR PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS Several useful correlations exist for estimating reservoir ﬂuid properties in the absence of laboratory data. gm/cm3 surface tension. ρL − ρV σ 1/4 = Pch M where. Examples of these correlations are given in attached ﬁgures. dynes/cm molecular weight Parachors account for intermolecular forces and are predicted from the structures of molecules. A correlation for the parachor with molecular weight is given in the attached ﬁgure.estimated using the parachor method. For mixtures the surface tension is given by. Pchi xi . For a pure liquid in equilibrium with it’s vapor. yi ρL . ρV σ M = = = = parachor phase densities. An example of such a program is given in the ﬁle PropEst.mcd. Pch ρL . Computer based correlations Many of the available graphical correlations of ﬂuid properties have been computerized which makes their use particularly easy. σ 1/4 = where. gm/cm3 mixture surface tension. ρV σ ML . 126 . dynes/cm phase molecular weights X Pchi xi µ ρL ρV − yi ML MV ¶ 5. MV = = = = = parachor for component i in the mixture mole fraction of component i in the liquid and vapor phases phase densities.
3 . water and gas? TR PR PS TS AP I GOR γg C N aCl = = = = = = = = = 200 3330 115 60 30 510 0.000 ppm) o [Answer: open the spreadsheet.Figure 5.27: Surface tensions for hydrocarbons at atmospheric pressure Example 5. enter the appropriate input values and see] 127 .Estimation of reservoir ﬂuid properties [PropEst. What are the reservoir properties of the oil.75 100 6 F psia psi o F o API SCF/STB (air= 1) (water salinity in units of kg/m3 ) (water salinity in units of 10.mcd] The following estimates are made of reservoir and produced ﬂuid properties from a DST on an exploration well.
28: Parachors for hydrocarbons 128 .Figure 5.
30: Viscosity of saturated crude oil 129 .29: Standing correlation for reservoir oils Figure 5.Figure 5.
Figure 5.31: Viscosity of reservoir brine 130 .
32: Viscosity of hydrocarbon gases at atmospheric pressure Figure 5.Figure 5.33: Ratio of viscosity at reservoir pressure to viscosity at atmospheric pressure for hydrocarbon gases 131 .
Mercury was then reinjected at constant temperature and pressure to displace the gas from the cell. 132 . Bo .001721 RB/SCF. The process was repeated. This left 263. Bg = 0. Bo = 1. reducing the pressure to 14.5 cm3 of liquid in the cell and resulted in the collection of 0. Determine the following: 1. [Answer: Bob = 1. Rs = 299.8 cm3 of mercury was withdrawn from the cell and the pressure fell to 1600 psia.] solution hints If you can do this without using the PVT. Then 0. A volume of 18.2 SCF/STB. 2.mcd spreadsheet you have a good understanding of PVT properties. Rs and z at 1600 psia.Calculation of PVT properties from laboratory PVT data A laboratory PVT cell contained 280.129 SCF of gas.388 SCF of gas were removed from the cell and 205. Bob and Rsi . Rsi = 399.9 cm3 of liquid remained in the cell.2797 RB/STB.6 SCF/STB.Problem 5.1 .7 psia and the temperature to 60o F. Bg .0 cm3 of reservoir liquid at its bubble point of 2000 psia at 140o F.3599 RB/STB.
Unless ﬂuid is injected.reduction of pore volume. — inﬂux of ﬂuid from an adjoining aquifer or gas cap.Chapter 6 MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS When a volume of oil is produced from a reservoir. the space originally occupied by the produced oil volume must now be occupied by something else. — expansion of ﬂuids in the reservoir. You may wish to make colour prints of these ﬁgures. Material balance equations express this dependence in mathematical form. The decline in reservoir pressure can cause. — expansion of reservoir rock grains . 133 . The diagrams in this section are best viewed on the electronic version of the course notes. the production of oil must result in a decline in reservoir pressure. The material balance equation is the basic reservoir engineering analysis tool used to examine past reservoir performance and to predict future performance. There is therefore a relationship between the rate of production and the rate of decline of reservoir pressure.
4. however.GAS CAP OIL ZONE AQUIFER Figure 6. volume of oil remaining in the reservoir. as are the expansions of rock and connate water. volume occupied by expansion of rock grains .1 ORIGINAL OIL VOLUME BALANCE Most material balance equations are written in terms of the original volume occupied by the oil. 1. volume of gas released by oil (if reservoir pressure falls below the bubble point). inﬂux of water from an adjoining aquifer (if the aquifer is strong enough). volume occupied by expansion of connate water. expansion of an adjoining gas cap (if one is present). It should be understood that the attached diagram is for illustrative purposes and is not intended to imply that the materials in the reservoir are segregated in the manner shown. 6. 2. gas released from solution will segregate to the top of the structure. Under some conditions. 5. Some of the released solution gas will always be evenly distributed throughout the reservoir. The volume originally occupied by produced oil may now be occupied by. 3. 134 .1: Schematic of a combination reservoir 6.pore space compressibility.
2: Material balance on the pore space occupied by the original oil volume 6.1. Gas cap expansion = where.1 Gas Cap Expansion If a gas cap is present. ∆VGCE = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi 135 . [RB/SCF] Note that if Gpc is large. [SCF] gas formation volume factor at current pressure.Gas cap shrinkage should never be allowed because it always results in a loss of oil recovery.Figure 6. the gas cap may actually shrink rather than expand. [SCF] cumulative gas production from the gas cap. [RB/SCF] gas formation volume factor at original reservoir pressure. The above equation may be written as. and the reservoir pressure drops. G Gpc Bg Bgi = = = =  [RB] {z } (G − Gpc )Bg  {z gas volume at lower pressure } − GBgi initial gas volume  {z } original gas cap gas volume. the gas cap will expand to replace some of the volume initially occupied by the produced oil.
The gas cap originally contained 21.e.3 × 109 SCF.1 . the gas cap has actually shrunk..002125 Bgc at 1100 psig = 0..8Gi 2. We would not allow this to actually happen in the actual reservoir. G = 0. This would result in a loss of about 1MMRB of oil. Data: G = 21. At 1100 psig the gas cap containing 0.88 × 106 RB ∆VGCE = (0. 136 .3 ×109 Bgc at 1225 psig = 0.3 × 109 − 0) 0.Calculation of gas cap expansion [MBE.3 × 109 × 0.002370 [SCF] [RB/SCF] [RB/SCF] Solution 1. a zone originally free of oil.002370 − 21. ∆VGCE = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi ∆VGCE = −4.Figure 6.3: Gas cap expansion volume Example 6.002125 i. This would allow about 5 MMRB oil to migrate into the gas cap.8 times the original gas cap volume i.8 × 21.mcd] Calculate the change in the size of the gas cap after 20% of the gas cap gas has been produced while the reservoir pressure had dropped from 1225 psig to 1100 psig.e.
3 × 109 × 0.. At 900 psig the gas cap cumulative production is i.e.2 .Example 6.8 × 21. ∆VGCE = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi ∆VGCE = (0.Calculation of gas cap expansion [MBE.3 ×109 Bgc at 1225 psig = 0.002905 − 21.002905 [SCF] [RB/SCF] [RB/SCF] Solution 1. 137 .002125 Bgc at 900 psig = 0. the gas cap has expanded into the oil zone and no oil is lost to the gas zone.002125 ∆VGCE = 4.e..24 × 106 RB i.2Gi 2. Gp = 0. Data: G = 21.mcd] Calculate the change in gas cap size for the reservoir of Example1 if the reservoir pressure had dropped from 1225 psig to 900 psig at the time that 20% of the gas was produced.3 × 109 − 0) 0.
Figure 6.4: Released solution gas volume
6.1.2
Released Gas Volume
If the reservoir pressure falls below the bubble point pressure gas will be released from solution. At any time during the production of a reservoir, the gas originally in solution can be placed into three categories; 1. 2. 3. gas remaining in solution gas released from solution and produced from the reservoir gas released from solution but remaining in the reservoir.
On this basis we write, Released gas volume = where, N Np Rsi Rs Bg = = = = =

[RB]
{z
}
N Rsi Bg
 {z
gas originally in solution
}
− (N − Np )Rs Bg −

gas still in solution
{z
}
Gps Bg
produced solution gas
 {z }
original oil volume, [STB] cumulative oil produced, [STB] original solution gasoil ratio, [SCF/STB] solution gasoil ratio at current pressure, [SCF/STB] gas formation volume factor at current pressure, [RB/SCF]
The above equation is usually written as, ∆VRSG = {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg 138
Example 6.3  Calculation of released solution gas volume [MBE.mcd] Cumulative oil production for our example reservoir was 14.73 ×106 STB at the time when reservoir pressure was 900 psig. At the same time cumulative production of solution gas was 4.05 ×109 SCF. Calculate the reservoir volume occupied by released gas. Data: N Rsi at 1225 psig Rs at 900 psig Bg at 900 psig = = = = 90.46 ×106 230 169 0.002905 [STB] [SCF/STB] [SCF/STB] [RB/SCF]
Solution ∆VRSG = {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg ∆VRSG = {(90.46 × 230 − (90.46 − 14.73) × 169 − 4050) × 106 } 0.002905 ∆VRSG = 11.5 × 106 RB
139
Figure 6.5: Remaining oil volume
6.1.3
Remaining Oil Volume
The oil volume remaining in the reservoir is simply, Reservoir{z volume = (N − Np )Bo oil  }
[RB]
oil still in reservoir

{z
}
where, N Np Bo = original oil volume, [STB] = cumulative oil produced, [STB] = oil formation volume factor at current pressure, [RB/STB]
The above equation is written as, ∆VROV = (N − Np )Bo
140
Example 6.4  Calculation of remaining oil volume [MBE.mcd] What is the remaining reservoir oil volume for the previous example at 900 psig. Data: Bo at 900 psig = 1.104 [RB/STB]
Solution ∆VROV = (N − Np )Bo ∆VROV = (90.46 × 106 − 14.73 × 106 ) 1.104 ∆VROV = 83.63 × 106 RB
141
Figure 6.6: Rock and connate water expansion volume
6.1.4
Rock and Connate Water Expansion
The expansion of rock and connate water are combined into one term and expressed as the formation compressibility cf . cf is deﬁned as the fractional change in pore volume per psi change in reservoir pressure. The pore volume can be expressed in terms of the original oil volume, as is required for material balance calculations. original oil volume = N Boi = Vp Soi = Vp (1 − Swi ) where, N Boi Vp Soi Swi or, Vp = = = = = = original oil volume, [STB] oil formation volume factor at initial pressure, [RB/STB] reservoir pore volume, [RB] initial oil saturation initial or connate water saturation
µ
N Boi 1 − Swi
¶
142
original connate water volume = Swi Vp = Swi where. The rock and connate water term is usually only important for oil reservoirs when the oil pressure remains above the bubble point. [vol/vol/psi] = initial water saturation µ ¶ µ N Boi 1 − Swi ¶ The connate water expansion is. [psig] = current reservoir pressure. cf p1 p {z } µ N Boi (pi − p) 1 − Swi ¶ = formation compressibility. [vol/vol/psi] = initial reservoir pressure.The total amount of rock expansion is calculated by utilizing the deﬁnition of compressibility. 1 ∆V c= V ∆P from which we have ∆V = cV ∆P  Rock expansion = formation compressibility × pore volume × pressure change [RB] {z } Rock expansion = cf  [RB] where. [psig] The total amount of connate water expansion is given by.  Water expansion = cw Swi [RB] {z } N Boi (pi − p) 1 − Swi Combining the above equations. the rock and water expansion term is so small that it may safely be neglected. ∆VRW E N Boi = (cf + cw Swi ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi µ ¶ For reservoirs where a gas phase is present.  Water expansion = water compressibility × water volume × pressure change [RB] {z } The initial connate water volume is given by. 143 . cw Swi = water compressibility. we have for rock and water expansion.
mcd] What is the rock and water expansion volume for the previous example when the pressure falls from 1225 psig to 900 psig.0×10−6 [psi−1 ] [psi−1 ] Solution ∆VRW E N Boi = (cf + cw Swi ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi ³ ´ µ ¶ ∆VRW E = (cf + cw Swi ) (Vp ) (pi − p) ∆VRW E = (3.0×10−6 = 3.5 .0(0.0 + 3.84(106 ) (1225 − 900) ∆VRW E = 0. Data: Swi cf cw = 0.Example 6.15 × 106 RB We see that rock and water expansion amounts to about 1% of the released gas volume. 144 .205)) 10−6 127.Calculation of rock and connate water expansion volume MBE. This is usually the case in practice and rock and connate water expansion can be neglected for calculations below the bubble point.205 = 3.
5 Water Inﬂux Unlike the above items in the material balance equation. we can determine the net water inﬂux into the reservoir — total water entering the reservoir less water produced — by diﬀerence. We Wp Bw e {z} W − Wp Bw cumulative produced water  {z } = cumulative water inﬂux. [STB] = water formation volume factor at current pressure. However.1.Figure 6. This is because the calculation of water inﬂux requires information characterizing the size and strength of the aquifer and this information is not generally known with any certainty during the early production life of a reservoir. since we can calculate all the other terms in the material balance equation. the volume of water inﬂux cannot be calculated directly. [RB/STB] The above equation may be written as.7: Water inﬂux volume 6. Net water inﬂux =  {z } [RB] cumulative water inﬂux where. ∆VN W I = We − Wp Bw 145 . [RB] = cumulative water produced.
. gas and water production. reservoir pressure and cumulative oil. N Boi = G(Bg − Bgi ) + {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg − Gp Bg + µ ¶ N Boi (N − Np )Bo + (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) + 1 − Swi We − Wp Bw (6.6 General Material Balance Equation Having analyzed all the individual terms in the material balance equation.6. Cumulative water inﬂux is. we can write.3) 146 .1) We − Wp Bw Note that the two gas production terms are additive and equal to the total gas production at the surface ie.1. This only requires that we know the volume of initial ﬂuids inplace.2) One of the most important uses of the material balance equation is to calculate water inﬂux into a reservoir. (Gpc + Gps )Bg = Gp Bg The material balance equation may be rewritten as. We N Boi = N Boi − (N − Np )Bo − (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi −GBg + GBgi + Gp Bg − {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg +Wp Bw µ ¶ (6. Original oil volume = Gas cap expansion + Released gas volume + Oil volume + Rock and water expansion + Net water inﬂux ∆VOOIP = ∆VGCE + ∆VRGV + ∆VROV + ∆VRW E + ∆VN W I N Boi = (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi + {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg + µ ¶ N Boi (N − Np )Bo + (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) + 1 − Swi (6.
Released Gas Remaining Oil Rock & Water Exp.4 and 5.4) We = (101. 2 3 4 5 Item Calculated Gas Cap Exp.mcd] Using the results of the Examples 2.24 11.6 . ﬁnd the water inﬂux when the pressure falls from 1225 psig to 900 psig.15 + 0.63 − 4.62 × 1. Cumulative water production at this time is 620. µ ¶ We N Boi = N Boi − (N − Np )Bo − (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi −GBg + GBgi + Gp Bg − {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg +Wp Bw (6.24 − 11. Data: Wp Bw = 0.50 83.64 − 83.74 × 106 RB 147 .15 Rearranging the material balance equation to calculate We .50 − 0. Ex.3.Calculation of water inﬂux from material balance [MBE. (G − Gpc )Bg − GBgi {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg (N − Np )Bo ³ ´ NB (cf + Swi cw ) 1−Soi (pi − p) wi ×106 RB 4.62×106 = 1.000 STB.0) × 106 = 2.63 0.Example 6.0 [STB] [RB/STB] Solution The following items were calculated in the previous examples.
A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is. is called a gas cap drive reservoir. 1 = Igc + Isg + Ipd + Iw where. If we divide the overall material balance equation by N Boi we obtain. Isg . A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is.5) The above equation may be written as. Iw . is called a water drive reservoir. A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is. 1 = (G − Gp )Bg − GBgi {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs − Gps }Bg + + N{z oi B N{z oi B  }  } Igc We − Wp Bw N{z oi } B  Iw  1 (N − Np )Bo + (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) + N Boi 1 − Swi Ipd {z µ Isg ¶ } (6. Igc Isg Ipd Iw = = = = gas cap drive index solution gas drive index pressure depletion drive index water drive index The above indices represent the eﬀectiveness of each drive mechanism for a particular reservoir.6. Igc . 148 . is called a solution gas drive reservoir.2 PRIMARY RECOVERY MECHANISMS Each of the terms of the material balance equation represents a drive mechanism which contributes to the total energy required to produce oil from the reservoir.
Pressure depletion drive (ﬂuid and rock expansion) results in a rapid straight line pressure response and may be expected to recover less than 5% of the original oilinplace. 6. A reservoir for which more than one drive mechanism is important. 1. pressure falls rapidly. 149 2.Figure 6. Ultimate recovery is strongly inﬂuenced by the type of drive mechanism. is called a depletion drive reservoir. . Ipd .2. The trends which are observed when one of the mechanisms dominates are summarized in the following ﬁgures. Solution gas drive — pressure drops slowly at ﬁrst. Ultimate recoveries are in the range 1530 %. is called a combination drive reservoir. As the producing GOR increases.1 Typical Performance Characteristics for the Diﬀerent Drive Mechanisms The dominant drive mechanism for a particular reservoir can often be deduced from the rate of pressure decline and the trend of the producing gasoil ratio.8: Reservoir drive index as a function of time A reservoir for which the dominant drive mechanism is.
Figure 6.10: Producing GOR as a function of cumulative oil production 150 .9: Reservoir pressure as a function of cumulative oil production Figure 6.
but the decline rate decreases as water inﬂux from the aquifer increases.Figure 6. 151 . Water drive — pressure declines rapidly at ﬁrst. The producing GOR remains approximately constant and ultimate recoveries are 50% or more.11: Producing characteristics of gas cap drive reservoirs 3.
Figure 6.12: Producing characteristics of solution gas drive reservoirs Figure 6.13: Producing characteristics of water drive reservoirs 152 .
6.3. Rs ) cw cf Bw 153 .3 USING MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATIONS Average Reservoir Pressure 6.6) Vp j where pj and Vp j are the drainage area pressure and pore volume drained by well j.2 Knowns and Unknowns When solving the material balance equation the parameters may be classiﬁed into the following groups of knowns and unknowns. These tests require short test times (hours to days) and allow reservoir pressure to be mapped over the ﬁeld.6. Pressure data obtained from a pressure buildup test can be used to estimate the average pressure in the volume or area drained by the tested well. knowns unknowns Np N Gp G Wp We Swc p (Bo . The mapped pressures may be averaged to give the average reservoir pressure as. initial volumes of oil.1 The material balance equation describes the whole reservoir in terms of average reservoir pressure. water and gas production) when the material balance equation is to be applied. gas and water inplace and cumulative oil.3. In order to use the material balance equation it is necessary to determine average reservoir pressure for the time (cumulative oil. Bg . This may take months to years (depending on reservoir permeability) and result in considerable loss in revenue because of lost production. water and gas production volumes. Direct measurement of average reservoir pressure would require that all the wells are shutin and that the bottomhole pressure is measured at a time after shutin which is suﬃciently long for all the pressure gradients in the reservoir to equalize. P pj Vp j p= P (6. The direct measurement approach is therefore impractical.
from laboratory tests on formation brine. p .this is usually known because oil is the primary production target which is sold to generate revenue. Bw . This is the central problem with the use of the material balance equation. lets consider some of the parameters in the material balance equation. problems with the interpretation of pressure buildup test data may introduce serious errors and there may be considerable uncertainty in estimates of average reservoir pressure. When these are unknown it is not possible to perform material balance calculations for the reservoir. Knowns Np .pore volume or formation compressibility is usually considered to be small and constant.these are known. Unknowns N.this is probably the greatest unknown in reservoir development . One of the most important uses of material balance calculations is to estimate water inﬂux. cw . compaction may form a major part of the reservoir drive energy and usually leads 154 . whereas material balance calculation provides the eﬀective volume or the volume which contributes to actual production. In some cases it may be large and variable. Wp . or may be estimated. This reduces the number of unknowns to ﬁve but we have only one equation.whether there has been any water inﬂux or not. Bg . cf . This will usually be smaller than the volumetric estimate due to compartmentilization of the reservoir by faults or low permeability zones. Swc .The PVT properties (Bo .cumulative gas and water production be unknown for older oil and gas ﬁelds because they had little or no value at the time of production. G . When it is large.although we usually consider reservoir pressure to be known.is usually considered to be accurately known from petrophysical evaluation. This is because volumetric estimates include all the mapped hydrocarbon volume. We .volumetric estimates of the original oil and gascap volumes inplace are always known from the ﬁeld appraisal stage. These are disregarded as soon as productionpressure data becomes available and an attempt is made to estimate inplace volumes from material balance calculations. Gp . Before considering speciﬁc examples of the application of the material balance equation. Rs ) may be considered to be known if the average reservoir pressure is known and representative ﬂuid samples have obtained and analysed.
91465 1.00121 0.91465 1.34270 0.21229 Wp (MMSTB) 0.06898 1.to considerable subsidence at the surface.1 Calculating water inﬂux from material balance for history matching aquifer performance The ﬁrst step in characterizing or history matching an aquifer is to calculate water inﬂux from available production and pressure data.00000 0.17821 0.00000 0. You will be performing this history match in the reservoir engineering course which follows from the present course.17304 0.64397 1.17304 0.09929 1.91465 2.91465 1.99562 1.16959 1.91465 1. There was a strong and clear aquifer response to the shutin (use Mathcad to plot the ﬁeld pressure as a function of time to see the response).00000 0.91465 1.25094 0.63405 1. The reservoir for this exercise is a small oﬀshore oil ﬁeld which has been onstream for only 700 days.32970 0.07041 0.17304 0. This may be of little consequence on land in remote areas but may cause serious problems for operations oﬀshore.17304 0.99562 0.36788 1.33133 0.12218 0. After the aquifer has been characterized.24921 2.02636 0.99562 0. PRODUCTION HISTORY Time P Np Gp (day) (psia) (MMSTB) (BSCF) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 4217 3915 3725 3570 3450 3390 3365 3600 3740 3850 3900 3920 3720 3650 3640 0. the resultant aquifer model is attached to a numerical reservoir simulation model which is used to predict future reservoir performance. The ﬁeld was shutin for a 250 day period for upgrading of the gathering system and production facilities.17304 0.99562 0.99562 0.55587 0.85487 0.71130 0.11402 2.99562 0.20368 0.31690 155 . Problem 6.17304 0.00000 0. The ﬁeld production history is given in the table below.
0 1.0 1. Alternatively.2385 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 1.0 1.0 1. Determine the cumulative water inﬂux for each of the 50 day time periods in the production history table.2413 1.mcd] to do the calculation for each period. PVT DATA P Bo Rs Bg Bw (psia) (RB/STB) (SCF/STB) (RB/SCF) (RB/STB) 3365 3465 3565 3665 3765 3865 3965 4065 4165 4265 1.0 1.2511 1. You can simply use [MBE. Each calculation is identical to the calculations performed in Examples 61 to 66.2455 1.2469 1. Reservoir system properties were estimated to be: cf = 5×10−6 psi−1 cw = 3×10−6 psi−1 Swc = 0.0 1.0 Reservoir temperature is 210o F and the gas gravity is 0. you could modify [MBE.0 1.0 1.2 MMSTB.The initial oil inplace is estimated (volumetrically) to be 33.2399 1.2427 1.2441 1.0 1.69.778 MMRB] 156 .mcd] to readin the production data and do the 14 calculations in one pass or prepare your owm spreadsheet using whatever software you are most comfortable with.2497 1.2483 1.248 PVT data for the reservoir oil is given in the following table. Solution hint You need to calculate a cumulative water inﬂux volume for each 50 day period (a total of 14 calculations). [Answer: We at 700 days is 2.
N Boi 0 = N Boi − (N − Np )Bo − (cf + Swi cw ) (pi − p) 1 − Swi −GBg + GBgi + Gp Bg − {N Rsi − (N − Np )Rs }Bg µ ¶ (6. Prediction of future reservoir pressure After the original oil inplace has been established. this diﬃculty is eliminated.6. This provides a very valuable check on the volumetrically determined value. N .7) If the original gas cap volume may be estimated from a volumetric calculation. and reliable productionpressure data is available. the material balance equation may be used to predict future reservoir pressure if future cumulative production can be estimated. the formation compressibility is known. weak to moderate aquifers during early stages of production when the aquifer response is small) there is negligible water production and the material balance equation reduces to. 157 . The main diﬃculty with this procedure is estimating the volumes of gas and water which will accompany the speciﬁed oil production volume. As discussed previously.4 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED OIL RESERVOIR When water inﬂux from the aquifer is small or negligible (small ineﬀective aquifer. If all the produced oil and water is reinjected. the only unknown is the original oil inplace. the material balance derived value of N may be more reliable than the volumetrically determined volume.
14 BSCF.mcd] The discovery pressure of a reservoir containing a gas cap was 3330 psia.206 BSCF.you can do this if you like. The value of N which makes the drive indices sum to one is the correct oilinplace. so we could rearrange it and solve directly for N . The reservoir was produced until the reservoir fell to 2700 psia.0×10−6 = 3.503 MMSTB and cumulative gas production is 14.Problem 6.mcd] you will see the I have simply rearranged [MBE. The volumetric estimates of the original oilinplace.21 = 3..2 . Does the material balance calculation conﬁrm this estimate? Data: Swi cf cw = 0. (N ). is 105 MMSTB and the initial gas cap volume is 81.Calculation of original oil inplace using material balance equation [OIPMBE. Cumulative oil production at this time is 11. guess a value of N which makes both sides of the material balance equation equal.0×10−6 [psi−1 ] [psi−1 ] [Answer: 113 MMSTB] Solution hints The material balance equation is explicit in N . An alternative way is to solve the material balance equation by trial and error ie.mcd] to allow me to enter a value of N and see the sum of the drive indices with the drive index for water set to zero (closed reservoir condition). Geological evidence suggests that aquifer quality is poor and that water inﬂux into the reservoir is likely to be negligible. If you use [OIPMBE. 158 .
6.5
MATERIAL BALANCE FOR A CLOSED GAS RESERVOIR
The material balance equation for a closed gas reservoir is so simple that it may be solved graphically. The graphical solution method is commonly referred to as the P/zplot. The plot can be used to estimate the original gas inplace and to predict future reservoir pressure given a production forecast. The general material balance equation for a closed gas reservoir reduces to; GBgi = (G − Gpc )Bg Since Bg is given by, Bg = 5.02 × 10−3 zT P
we can write for the above material balance equation (where reservoir temperature is assumed to remain constant), G 5.02 × 10−3 which may be rearranged to, G or, P G z or,
µ µ
zi T Pi
¶
= (G − Gp ) 5.02 × 10−3
µ
zT P
¶
zi z = (G − Gp ) Pi P
¶ µ
P = (G − Gp ) z
¶
µ
¶ ¶
i
P P = z z
1 P − Gp G z i
µ
i
The above equation results in a straight line relationship between (P/z) and Gp . The straight line on a (P/z)—Gp plot passes through (P/z)i at Gp = 0 and through G at (P/z) = 0. The straightline relationship is very useful in estimating the initial volume of gasinplace (G) from limited production history.
159
Figure 6.14: p/z plot for a closed gas reservoir
Example 6.7  Calculation of initial gas inplace for a closed gas reservoir [GIP.mcd] Estimate the initial gas content, G, for a closed gas reservoir having the following production history. Pressure Cumulative Gas Gas Deviation (psig) Production (MMSCF) Factor (z) 3500 3350 3200 3050 2750 0 46.7 125.0 203.5 380.0 0.84 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.78
160
Solution
1. Calculate P/z for each pressure point and plot against cumulative production, Gp . Pressure Cumulative Gas Gas Deviation (psig) Production (MMSCF) Factor (z) 3500 3350 3200 3050 2750 0 46.7 125.0 203.5 380.0 0.84 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.78 P/z (psig) 4166.7 4085.3 3950.6 3812.5 3525.6
2. Draw the bestﬁt straight line through the data and extrapolate to P/z = 0. The intercept at P/z = 0 is the initial gas in place, G. To see this plot open [GIP.mcd]. G = 2400 MMSCF.
161
Figure 6.15: Material balance for a gas reservoir
6.5.1
Water Drive Gas Reservoirs
When a gas reservoir is in contact with a signiﬁcant aquifer, water inﬂux will occur as the reservoir pressure declines with production. The material balance for such a reservoir may be written as, GBgi = (G − Gp )Bg + We − Wp Bw This equation can be solved for water inﬂux, We = GBgi − (G − Gp )Bg + Wp Bw If G can be evaluated volumetrically and if the ﬁeld production data is known (Gp and Wp ) at corresponding reservoir pressures, the material balance equation can be used to calculate the cumulative water inﬂux at these times.
162
Figure 6.16: p/z plot for a gas reservoir experiencing water inﬂux
Example 6.8  Production history of a water drive gas reservoir [GIP.mcd] The following pressure production data were recorded for a gas reservoir. Can we estimate G from this data? Pressure Cumulative Gas Gas Deviation (psig) Production (MMSCF) Factor (z) 3500 3350 3200 3050 2950 0 52 155 425 880 0.84 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.79
[Answer: yes, G= 2.67 TSCF]
Solution hint Even if the aquifer is active, it takes time for the aquifer to respond to the decrease in reservoir pressure. This means that early in the life of the reservoir will behaive like a closed system. The early data should therefore plot as a straight line on a 163
I used [GIP.mcd] to allow you to select the points through which to ﬁt the straight line. 0.569 MMRB] Solution hint Do this any way you like. Extrapolating this plot to zero pressure will therefore give a realistic estimate of the original gasinplace.mcd] For the water drive gas reservoir of the previous example calculate the cumulative water inﬂux corresponding to the times at which cumulative gas production is given. Problem 6.mcd] from the previous example and added a calculation for Bg from z and the material balance equation for a water drive gas reservoir. 164 . Cumulative water production is zero for the period and the reservoir temperature is TR = 275 o F.016. 0. 0. [Answer: 0.Calculation of water inﬂux for a gas reservoir [GWMTB. 0. I have setup the spreadsheet [GIP.P/zplot.3 .192.
Permeability. Saturation dependent properties.1 POROSITY Deﬁnition The total fraction of the bulk volume which is void space Parameter Symbol Porosity φ 165 . In this section we look at the basic properties . Porosity. 2.porosity. The saturation dependent properties will be considered in the next chapter. permeability and compressibility. Rock compressibility.Chapter 7 RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES AND CORE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Reservoir engineering calculations require a knowledge of certain basic rock properties. 7. — Relative permeability. — Wettability. 3. 4. These include: 1. — Capillary pressure.
φ is in the range 0. Porosity modiﬁed by postdepositional processes is referred to as secondary porosity.05 — 0.1: Eﬀect of grain size distribution on porosity Porosity is important in determining the volume of oil and/or gas which will be contained in a reservoir — for reservoirs of interest. The original porosity of a formation is usually refereed to as primary porosity. porelining chlorite and porebridging illite) aﬀect primary porosity.5% poorly sorted sandstone 1% Figure 7. 166 . For limestones porosity is determined by changes after deposition . — for sandstones sedimentological processes are important. Eﬀective porosity and permeability may be greatly reduced by deposition of ﬁne particulate minerals in the pore space.40. Cementation.well sorted sandstone 21. Porosity for both sandstones and limestones can be greatly modiﬁed by postdepositional events or digenesis. The attached ﬁgures show the eﬀect dispersed ﬁnes (particulate kaolinite.dissolution and fracturing. chemical action. and fracturing are events which can modify the original porosity of rocks. — porosity is a strong function of grain size distribution but only a weak function of grain size itself.
is given by.2: Schematic of a clean wellsorted sandstone 7. The total porosity.Figure 7. — disconnected porosity — this porosity is inaccessible to ﬂow and is of no interest because it is not accessible to ﬂow of ﬂuids and therefore does not contribute to hydrocarbon production.1. φt .1 Eﬀective and Total Porosity Porosity is divided into two categories. is given by. φ. φt = total pore volume bulk volume − grain volume = bulk volume bulk volume Eﬀective porosity. — eﬀective porosity — interconnected pore space. φ= eﬀective or connected pore volume bulk volume 167 . Total porosity is the sum of eﬀective and disconnected porosity.
1. The equipment used is called a Boyle’s law porosimeter and is shown schematically in the attached ﬁgure.bridging illite Figure 7.particle kaolinite Pore. This pressure is recorded and valve A is closed. 7. 2. (p2 + pa ). They therefore all measure eﬀective porosity. 168 . The apparatus and measurement procedure consists: 1. This is referred to as Condition I. The equilibrium absolute pressure. The clean and dry core sample is placed in the second cell. 3. Two cells of accurately known volume.Discrete. Valve B is closes and cell 1 is pressured with gas G through valve A to an absolute pressure (p1 + pa ).3: Common types of dispersed shales.2 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity The most common method employed to measure porosity is based on Boyle’s law. are connected and at atmospheric pressure. pa . This is called Condition II. is recorded. Valve B is opened and the two cells are allowed to equilibrate. V1 and V2 . clays and ﬁnes and their eﬀect on porosity Conventional laboratory experiments used to determine porosity are all based on introducing ﬂuids into the pore space.lining chlorite Pore.
The ideal gas law is written as. moles of gas in cells 1 and 2 = moles of gas in cells 1 and 2 at Condition I at Condition II Assume an isothermal expansion process. pV n= RT where. p T V n R = = = = = absolute pressure absolute temperature volume moles of gas universal gas constant 169 .Figure 7.4: SEM micrograph of poreﬁlling authigenic kaolinite (x1000) A mole balance at Condition I and Condition II gives. The grain volume of the sample is Vs . and pressures suﬃciently low so that the ideal gas law applies.
6: SEM micrograph of delicate ﬁbers of illite bridging pores (x1000).5: SEM micrograph of chlorite (feldspar) lined pore (x1000) Figure 7. These ﬁbers may breakoﬀ at high ﬂow rates and block pores 170 .Figure 7.
is either determined from measurements of the sample dimensions (core plugs) or by measuring the displaced liquid volume when the sample is immersed in a nonwetting liquid such as mercury. (p1 + pa )V1 pa (V2 − Vs ) (p2 + pa )V1 (p2 + pa )(V2 − Vs ) + = + RT RT RT RT Solving for the grain volume. Using the ideal gas law we write. 171 . φ= Vb − Vs Vb where the bulk volume of the sample. Vs = V1 + V2 − p1 V1 p2 Note that the pressures p1 and p2 are gauge pressures as read in the actual experiment. gives.7: SEM micrograph of pore ﬁlling kaolinite plates (x1000). for the above word equation. Vb . Porosity is calculated from the equation.Figure 7. Vs .
8: Solution and fracture porosity in limestones Figure 7.Figure 7.9: Boyle’s law porisometer 172 .
23] 173 .10: Schematic of Boyle’s law porisometer test procedure Example 7.Determination of the porosity of a core plug using helium porosimetry [HEPOR.Figure 7.1 .5 cm = 4 cm and the following measured porosimeter pressures and parameters.79 psig Calculate the porosity of the plug.03 psig 41. D L = 2. V1 V2 p1 p2 = = = = 25 cm3 50 cm3 100. [Answer: 0.mcd] Given the diameter and length of a cylindrical core plug.
2 PERMEABILITY Symbol Deﬁnition k A measure of the ease with which ﬂuid ﬂows through a porous rock Parameter Permeability Permeability is important in determining the rate at which oil and gas will ﬂow to the wellbore Permeability will usually vary over several orders of magnitude in the same reservoir. — reservoir rocks typically have permeabilities in the range 1 — 10. The variation in permeability (heterogeneity) has a great eﬀect on oil recovery for both conventional and EOR processes. 174 .q= kA ∆P µ L ∆P A q q L Figure 7.000 md.11: Datcy’s law and permeability 7. — permeability is a weak function of grain size distribution but a strong function of pore size (throat size).
1 Measurement of Permeability The attached ﬁgure shows a schematic of the experimental apparatus used to measure the permeability of cylindrical core samples or plugs.Figure 7. k= qµ∆L A∆p 175 . The steadystate ﬂow rate (q) of a ﬂuid which completely saturates the core is directly proportional to the xsectional area (A) over which the ﬂow occurs. the imposed pressure gradient over the core (∆p/L) and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the ﬂuid. µ ¶ ∆p 1 q∝A ∆L µ The constant of proportionality is called permeability and is an intrinsic property of the rock.12: Schematic of permeameter 7. kA∆p q= µ∆L This equation is known as Darcy’s law and is the basic equation for calculating ﬂuid ﬂow rates in reservoir engineering. Darcy’s law deﬁnes permeability as.2.
1 cm3 /sec viscosity. ft2 volumetric ﬂow rate. 1 atmosphere ﬂow length. psi ﬂow length. the computed permeability has the units of darcys. A rock sample has a permeability of one darcy when. res. ∆p ∆L A q µ k = = = = = = pressure diﬀerence. cp permeability. 1 cp permeability. 1 cm xsectional area. 1 darcy The darcy unit is too large for most reservoir rocks and it is common practice to express permeability in terms of millidarcys. md 176 . 1 cm2 volumetric ﬂow rate. kA∆p q = 0. ft xsectional area. 1darcy = 1000 millidarcy = 1000 md Field Units In oil ﬁeld units the linear form of Darcy’s Law for the ﬂow of an incompressible ﬂuid is written as.When the variables in the above equation are expressed in Darcy units. ∆p ∆L A q µ k = = = = = = pressure diﬀerence. bbl/day (RB/D) viscosity.001127 µ∆L where.
Since a liquid is used to measure it.82 cp 1 atm 2 atm 0.Laboratory determination of the liquid permeability of a core plug [LPERM. the permeability is called the liquid permeability. Check the laboratory calculation which suggests that the permeability of the plug is 200 md.52 cm 2 cm 1.275 cm3 /sec [Answer: 201 md] Solution hint Use k= qµ∆L A∆p to calculate the permeability.Example 7. The laboratory measured data is given below: plug diameter plug length test oil viscosity outlet pressure inlet pressure ﬂow rate = = = = = = 2. 177 .mcd] The laboratory has conducted a steadystate liquid permeability test on a core plug from a reservoir of interest to you.2 .
The reservoir oil has a viscosity of 0.mcd] to see how Mathcad handles the unit conversions.3 .001127 arises from unit conversions. Study [LINQ.mcd] The core plug in the previous example was taken from a reservoir undergoing a horizontal line drive over a ﬂow length of 10.Calculation of ﬁeld ﬂow rates [LINQ.Example 7.8 cp. The constant 0.001127 kA∆p µ∆L to calculate the rate in RB/day if you are not using Mathcad which handles mixed systems of units automatically. Production well spacing is 1000 feet and the sand thickness is 30 feet. 178 .000 feet. What is the well rate when the pressure diﬀerence between injectors and producers is 500 psi? [Answer: 425 RB/day] Solution hint Use q = 0.
7. Assuming that the gas is ideal . respectively. kA(p1 2 − p2 2 ) qa = 2pa µ∆L or 2qa pa µ∆L k= A(p1 2 − p2 2 ) We use this equation to calculate the gas permeability of the test plug. The experiment consists of ﬂowing a gas through the core plug. particularly if we expect the permeability to be constant! 179 kA(p1 − p2 ) µ∆L .2. This may appear to be a problem. q= ¯ Substituting for q gives. Gas does not have this problem. Darcy’s law may be written as. The average gas pressure (¯) in the core is given by.a reasonable assumption if the pressures are low. p p= ¯ (p1 + p2 ) 2 where. the previous equations. Liquids may adsorb onto the rock surface and potentially change wettability which could adversely aﬀect later experiments. the product qp (equivalent to V p for a static system) is constant. must be modiﬁed. When his done at a number of diﬀerent average pressures we ﬁnd that the calculated permeability is not constant but that it decreases with increasing pressure. in terms of q the measured volumetric ﬂow rate at atmospheric conditions (qa ).2 Laboratory Measurement of Permeability It is usually more convenient to measure permeability in the laboratory using a gas as the working ﬂuid. p1 and p2 are the inlet and outlet pressures. Since gas is compressible. qa pa = q (p1 + p2 )/2 ¯ qa pa q= ¯ (p1 + p2 )/2 where pa is atmospheric pressure. which are valid only for incompressible ﬂuids. We can therefore express the volumetric ﬂow rate at the average pressure (¯). ¯ qa pa kA(p1 − p2 ) = (p1 + p2 )/2 µ∆L which on rearrangement gives.
At very low pressures. 3. The variation of gas permeability with pressure is given by the equation. Measure several gas permeabilities (kgas ) at diﬀerent mean ﬂowing pressures.7. to 1/¯ = 0. ¯ Plot kgas vs 1/¯. the mean free path of gas molecules is similar to the dimensions of the pore space. laboratory data because pressures are low.3 The Klinkenberg Eﬀect The apparent decrease in measured gas permeability which occurs with increasing average ﬂowing pressure is known as the Klinkenberg eﬀect. kliquid and b are determined from the slope and intercept of the plot. The extrapp olated permeability is equivalent to the liquid permeability.e. molecules are always present at the pore walls and the velocity of the ﬂuid at the pore walls is zero (noslip condition). Under these conditions the solid pore walls do not signiﬁcantly retard gas ﬂow close to the pore walls because molecules spend little time at the walls (freeslip condition). To correct gas measured permeabilities for the Klinkenberg eﬀect: 1. kliquid = intercept b= slope kliquid Ã b 1+ p ¯ ! The Klinkenberg correction may be quite signiﬁcant for gas ﬂow in: low permeability rocks and quite high pressures. p. p Extrapolate the linear plot to inﬁnite pressure i. kgas = kliquid where b is the Klinkenberg factor. The measured permeability is therefore lower than that for gases at low pressure. For liquids and gases at very high pressure. 2.2. 180 .
k= 2qa pa µ∆L A(p1 2 − p2 2 ) 3.979 0. Calculate the permeability of the plug.0182 cp = 2 atm = 0.169 4 3.146 0. Plot kgas vs 1/¯. p Open [KLINK. for each test. A series of tests was made with increasing inlet gas pressure.737 [Answer: 27.348 1 1.1 .979 atm = 0. 181 . check the input data and read the answer.Laboratory determination of the liquid permeability of a core plug using gas [KLINK.979 2. The intercept p at 1/¯ = 0 is the equivalent liquid permeability. The test data is given below.275 cm3 /sec Run Inlet Pressure Outlet Pressure Discharge Rate p1 (atm) p2 (atm) qa (cm3 /sec) 1 1.Problem 7.mcd] A clean core plug was mounted in a gas permeameter to measure permeability. p. p Extrapolate the linear plot to inﬁnite pressure i. Calculate the mean ﬂowing pressure. ¯ p= ¯ 2. The laboratory data is plug diameter plug length atmospheric pressure gas viscosity inlet pressure ﬂow rate as follows: = 1.mcd] .979 9. to 1/¯ = 0.486 0.815 0.979 1.e.168 3 1. The core was discharged to atmospheric pressure.481 0.953 cm = 3 cm = 0. (p1 + p2 ) 2 Calculate kgas for each test using Darcy’s law.5 md] Solution hint 1. 4.
Although simple.13: Simple capillary tube model for a porous medium 7. 182 . The pore space is made up of a total of n uniform capillaries of radius R and length L. qc . Laminar (creeping) ﬂow in a single capillary. is described by the Poiseuille equation πR4 ∆P qc = 8µ L where µ is the viscosity of the ﬂuid and ∆P is the imposed pressure gradient.3.3 POROSITYPERMEABILITY TIONSHIPS Capillary Tube Model RELA 7. the bundle of capillaries is a good model for porous medium made up of packed particles such as a sandstones.1 In this section we examine the relationship between porosity and permeability using simple models to represent the porous medium. The simplest possible model for a porous medium is to consider a bundle of equal sized capillary tubes. The matrix consists of a solid block having dimensions L × L × L.kA ∆P πR4 ∆P q = nq c = n = 8µ L µ L πR4 ∆P qc = 8µ L Figure 7. This model is illustrated in the attached diagram.
q. φ= L2 = n πR2 φ Substituting for L2 in the equation for k gives. k=n πR4 8L2 The porosity of the simple porous medium is. gives kA ∆P πR4 ∆P =n µ L 8µ L Eliminating the common parameters and rearranging to solve for permeability. q= kA ∆P µ L where A is the xsectional area of the porous medium perpendicular to the direction of ﬂow. 183 . Equating the two equations for.The total steadystate ﬂow rate. The unit of permeability is clearly length2 . q. φ= pore volume bulk volume πR2 L L3 πR2 φ= 2 L We use this equation to express L in terms of φ and R. q = nqc = n πR4 ∆P 8µ L According to Darcy’s law. Rearranging gives. k= R2 φ 8 It has been experimentally veriﬁed that permeability is well correlated to the square of particle diameter for porous media consisting of spherical particles. the ﬂow q is given by. is simply the sum of the ﬂows in each capillary.
ΣV p . This is very important in reservoir characterization. k= φ 2Σ2 p V Deﬁning the speciﬁc surface area per unit grain volume of the porous medium. gives k= 1 φ3 2ΣV g (1 − φ)2 This is similar to the empirical Kozeny relation for unconsolidated porous media and forms the basis for powerlaw correlations or transforms between porosity and permeability for actual reservoir rocks. as pore surf ace area ΣV p = pore volume n2πRL ΣV p = nπR2 L 2 ΣV p = R or 2 R= ΣV p Substituting for R in the equation for k yields. 184 .Deﬁning the speciﬁc surface area per unit pore volume of the porous medium. ΣV g . Actual relationships follow a power law because in real porous media ΣV g depends on φ and k in a complex way. Porositypermeability transforms are important because they can be used to convert log measured porosities to permeabilities. as pore surf ace area ΣV g = grain volume ΣV g = ΣV p pore volume grain volume φ 1−φ 1−φ φ ΣV g = ΣV p or ΣV p = ΣV g Substituting into the equation for k.
q= From Darcy’s law we have q= kA ∆P kHW ∆P = µ L µ L h3 W ∆P 12µ L Equating the two equations for q gives. height H and width W containing a fracture of height h as shown in the attached ﬁgure.14: Simple model for a fractured porous medium 7.3. k= h2 h3 ³ ´ = 12H 12 H h hW L h = HW L H 185 We can deﬁne a fracture porosity as φf = .∆P H q h W L q= kA ∆P kHW ∆P = µ L µ L k= 1 1 2h h = h 2φ f 12 H 12 h3 W ∆P q= 12µ L Figure 7. The average velocity for laminar (viscous) ﬂow in the fracture is given by.2 Fractured medium model Consider a block of length L. v= h2 ∆P 12µ L The volumetric ﬂow rate through the fracture (q = vAf = vhW ) is.
pore and bulk volumes decrease with increasing stress. The resultant stress. σ−P . cr = 1 dVr Vr d(σ − P ) where. exerted by the ﬂuids in the pore space. The fractional change in total or bulk volume per unit change in rock stress is called the bulk volume compressibility. P . σ. cp = − 1 dVp Vp d(σ − P ) 186 . The fractional change in grain volume per unit change in rock stress is called the rock or matrix compressibility. cr .e. The overall result is that grain. Internal stress — reservoir or pore pressure. it is diﬀerent in diﬀerent directions. cb = 1 dVr Vb d(σ − P ) Bulk volume compressibility may be important in determining levels of ground subsidence. External stress — exerted by the pressure of the overburden.e. This stress is isotropic i. cp . This stress increases with burial depth and is anisotropic i. 7. Vr is the grain or matrix volume. cb . The fractional change in pore volume per unit change in rock stress is called the pore volume or formation compressibility. the same in all directions. 2.This gives k= 1 2 h φf 12 Actual fractured media conﬁrm that fracture permeability is a strong function of fracture height. causes a strain or deformation of the rock.4 ROCK COMPRESSIBILITY Reservoir rocks (porous rocks) are subject to two stresses: 1.
permeability and rock microstructure 187 .Figure 7.15: Relationships between porosity.
17: Measured porositypermeability relationships for diﬀerent limestones 188 .16: Measured porositypermeability relationships for diﬀerent rock types Figure 7.Figure 7.
dVb ≈ dVp and since Vp = φVb . show that cr << cb . This means that. in which the external rock stress (σ) is constant. 189 . For reservoir engineering calculations the primary interest is in the change in pore volume as reservoir or pore volume pressure changes.Figure 7. The above relationships are useful in interpreting laboratory measurements. bulk and pore volume compressibilities are measured in special laboratory experiments which will be described in the next section.4.1 Pore Volume Compressibility Experimental measurements for sandstones and shales.18: Measured permeabilityspeciﬁc area relationships for diﬀerent sandstones The matrix. 7. we have that cp = with cp = cf = − cb φ 1 dVp Vp dP where cf is the formation compressibility and is commonly used interchangeably with pore volume compressibility.
7.Figure 7. A small bore capillary tube is used to measure the changes in pore volume by measuring the volume of ﬂuid expelled from the pore space. Geersma (1966) showed that for these conditions. 190 . 1 cf ≈ cp 2 this shows that the eﬀective pore volume compressibility for reservoir rocks is only onehalf of the value measured in laboratory tests.4.2 Measurement of Formation Compressibility The apparatus shown schematically in the attached ﬁgure is used to measure rock compressibility (pore volume compressibility). The apparatus allows both the internal or ﬂuid pressure in the core and the external or overburden pressure to be varied independently.19: Hydrostatic load cell for measuring pore volume compressibility For actual reservoir conditions only the vertical component of external stress is constant with the stress components in the horizontal plane characterized by boundary conditions that there is no bulk deformation in these directions.
191 . Typical results for various reservoir rock types are shown in attached ﬁgure.20: Porosity and permeability as a function of stress Two types of measurements may be made: 1. Rock compaction — the external pressure on the sample sheath is increased with the internal pressure held at atmospheric. The internal pressure is reduced in steps and the liquid produced at each pressure is noted. The diﬀerence between the measured and calculated liquid volumes is the change in pore space volume.Figure 7. 2. The volume of liquid squeezed out into the capillary tube is directly related to the change in bulk volume of the sample. The volume of liquid which would have been produced had the pore space volume remained constant is readily calculated from a knowledge of the liquid compressibility. Pore volume compressibility — The external pressure is maintained constant.
7. So = Sg = 0 and Sw = 1. water and gas phase saturations The total compressibility is used to evaluate the diﬀusivity factor for unsteadystate ﬂow calculations. ct = cw + cf Typical Values Typical values of the individual compressibilities at reservoir conditions are: cf cw co cg for. Estimates of total compressibility are important in well pressure test analysis. we have.2 = 0. ct cf co . When there is no oil or free gas present (aquifer zone).1 ct = So co + Sw cw + Sg cg + cf ct = 64 × 10−6 psi−1 = = = = 3 × 10−6 psi−1 3 × 10−6 psi−1 15 × 10−6 psi−1 500 × 10−6 psi−1 @ 2000 psia 192 .3 Use of Rock Compressibilities When oil. Sw So Sg = 0. (φ). water and gas all occupy the pore space. cw . Sw .4. in a unit bulk volume. Sg = = = = total compressibility formation or pore space compressibility oil. the volume of liquid which is expelled from the rock per unit drop in pressure may be written as. cg So . ct = So co + Sw cw + Sg cg + cf where.7 = 0. water and gas phase compressibilities oil.
Figure 7.21: Porosity variation with depth in a sedimentary basin Figure 7.22: Anisotropic stress and directional permeability 193 .
as a result of the converging nature of the ﬂow. A common exception is ﬂow close to a wellbore where. q k ∆p =− A µ ∆L where. q A k µ ∆p ∆L = = = = = = ﬂow rate. is an intrinsic property of the porous medium. This is generally true for most reservoir conditions where actual ﬂow velocities are low. In the above equation the porous medium is saturated with a single ﬂuid. crosssectional area open to ﬂow.Chapter 8 FLUID FLOW 8.1 DARCY’S LAW All the equations used to describe the ﬂow of ﬂuids in reservoirs are based on Darcy’s law. k. ﬂuid viscosity. Darcy (1856). cc/sec cm2 darcy cp atmospheres cm The permeability. a French engineer.inlet pressure. He observed the following relationship between superﬁcial velocity and the properties of the sand bed and ﬂuid. investigated the ﬂow of water through sand ﬁlters for water puriﬁcation. velocities may be high enough for turbulent or nonlinear ﬂow. 194 . outlet pressure . distance between inlet and outlet. permeability. The linear dependence of ﬂow rate on the pressure gradient implies laminar or viscous ﬂow in the porespaces of the porous medium.
In such cases it is convenient to deﬁne a pressure potential as.1 Pressure Potential The above form of Darcy’s law applies to horizontal ﬂow where there are no gravity eﬀects. usually taken as pr = 0. Φ= Z p pr dp − gdz ρ where z is the vertical coordinate measured positive downward and g is the gravitational acceleration. The sign convention is therefore that distance is measured positive in the direction of ﬂow. 8. In reservoir analysis we are often interested in vertical or inclined ﬂow where the ﬂow occurs in the presence of a hydrostatic gradient.1: Darcy’s law and linear ﬂow The above equation is general and may be written in diﬀerential form as.1. q k dp =− A µ dx where dp/dx is the pressure gradient in the direction of ﬂow The negative sign in the above equations indicates that pressure decreases in the direction of ﬂow. pr is an arbitrary reference pressure. 195 .Figure 8. This is the basic equation used to analyze single phase ﬂow in reservoir engineering.
q k =− A µ Ã dp − ρg sin α dx 196 ! . z = x sin α and the pressure potential is. Darcy’s law may be written as. Φ= Z p pr dp − gdx sin α ρ If the reservoir ﬂuid is considered to be incompressible the potential may be written as p Φ = − gx sin α ρ An alternate deﬁnition of ﬂuid potential is Ψ = ρΦ = p − ρgz With this deﬁnition. q k dΨ =− A µ dx or. potential has the units of pressure.Figure 8.2: Pressure potential and inclined linear ﬂow For a reservoir dipping upward in the direction of ﬂow with dip angle α.
2.Figure 8. q=− kA ∆p µ L This equation is commonly used to evaluate ﬂow tests in reservoir core samples and calculate rates in line drives. 197 .1 STEADYSTATE FLOW Horizontal Linear Flow of an Incompressible Fluid The linear ﬂow system is depicted in the attached ﬁgure. The medium has uniform permeability. 8.3.1 . µ. Darcy’s law is written as. If you are not using Mathcad be careful with units. and is saturated with an incompressible (ρ is constant) ﬂuid having constant viscosity.2 8. k.3: Linear vertical ﬂow problem Problem 8.Fluid potential and Darcy’s law In order to test your understanding of Darcy’s law and ﬂuid potential solve the problem shown in Figure 8.
P2 .4: Linear ﬂow in parallel Horizontal ﬂow in parallel Consider the case where the ﬂow system consists of a n layers having diﬀerent thicknesses. Equating the two expressions for q gives. qi = − The total ﬂow rate is q= or q=− ki (hi w) (P2 − P1 ) µ L n X i=1 qi n w(P2 − P1 ) X ki hi µL i=1 Darcy’s law for the total ﬂow may also be written as. For a common inlet face pressure. the pressure drop across each layer is the same and the ﬂow rate for each layer is. i=1 ki hi ¯ k = Pn i=1 hi Pn This equation is used to determine the average horizontal permeability of a layered system. hi . and outlet face pressure.Figure 8. ki . P1 . 198 . q=− ¯ k(hw) (P2 − P1 ) µ L ¯ where k is the average system permeability and h is the total thickness. and permeabilities.
5: Linear ﬂow in series Example 8. q = qi where. For this arrangement the ﬂow through each layer is the same.1 .mcd] Determine the average permeability of four parallel beds having the following thicknesses and permeabilities.Average permeability for beds in parallel [PARK. q=− ki (hw) ∆Pi µ Li 199 .Figure 8. Layer Thickness Horizontal Permeability (ft) (md) 1 20 100 2 15 200 3 10 300 4 5 400 [Answer: 200 md] Horizontal ﬂow in series Consider the arrangement where the diﬀerent permeabilities are arranged in series.
(P1 − P2 ) = where. ∆Pi = qµ Li hw ki and the total pressure drop is the sum of the pressure drops in each layer. L = P qµ L ¯ hw k Li . (P1 − P2 ) = n X i=1 ∆Pi = n qµ X Li hw i=1 ki Darcy’s law for the series arrangement may be written as. Layer Length Permeability (ft) (md) 1 250 25 2 250 50 3 500 100 4 1000 200 [Answer: 80 md] 200 . Li ¯ k = Pn i=1 i=1 Li /ki This equation is used to calculate the eﬀective vertical permeability for a layered reservoir system.2 . Example 8.where ∆Pi is the pressure drop across slab i.Average permeability for beds in series [SERK.mcd] Determine the average permeability of four beds in series having the following lengths and permeabilities. is the total length for ﬂow. This may be rewritten as. Pn Equating the above equations gives.
This is the basic model for ﬂow into a well and is used in reservoir engineering to evaluate well performance.2. Substituting into Darcy’s law gives. The following nomenclature employed. A. is constant and the ﬂow area. rw re h = wellbore radius = well drainage radius = formation thickness Flow enters the system across the outer perimeter at radius re . and leaves at the wellbore of radius rw .2 Radial Flow of an Incompressible Fluid The radial ﬂow system is depicted in the attached ﬁgure. is 2πrh. q k dp = 2πrh µ dr Note that for radial ﬂow pressure decreases with decreasing r. q. 201 .Figure 8. The volumetric ﬂow rate.6: Radial ﬂow model 8.
RB/D permeability of well drainage area. psi external drainage radius. psi wellbore pressure . feet ﬂuid viscosity. q = 0. q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µ ln rw This equation is widely used in reservoir engineering to calculate production and injection rates for individual wells. feet wellbore radius.Separating variables and integrating gives: q Z re rw dr 2πkh Z pe = dp r µ pw 2πkh(pe − pw ) µ q(ln rw − ln re ) = Solving for q. cp pressure at external radius. feet kh(pe − pw ) re µ ln rw 202 . md average reservoir thickness. The equation may be written in ﬁeld units as. q k h µ pe pw re rw = = = = = = = = well rate.00708 where.
mcd] Calculate the maximum possible pumping rate for an oil well in a reservoir where the pressure is being maintained at 2000 psia at the drainage radius. The theoretical minimum ﬂowing bottom hole pressure for a pumped well is one atmosphere.Figure 8. md feet cp feet feet 203 . Since we have only studied steadystate ﬂow to this point. = = = = = 230 10 3.you will be using it a lot.5 0.Steadystate radial ﬂow [RADSSF.7: Pressure distribution in steadystate radial ﬂow Example 8. It solves a great variety of radial ﬂow problems and does many vertical well performance calculations.5. The following data apply: k h µ rw re [Answer: 1114 RB/day] Solution hint Study [RADSSF. 2000. take the answer for this equation and ignore the other equations and results.3 .mcd] carefully .
8: Radial ﬂow in series Radial ﬂow in parallel This arrangement results in the same expression for eﬀective or average permeability as that for linear ﬂow. Radial ﬂow in series Using the same reasoning as for linear ﬂow in series yields the result.Figure 8. M X log(ri )/(ri−1 ) 1 1 = ¯ log(re /rw ) i=1 ki k 204 .
Figure 8.9: Radial ﬂow in parallel 205 .
This pressure drop simply adds to that for the case of no damage.3 Wellbore Damage Wells are always drilled with overpressure (mud pressure greater than formation pressure) to prevent inﬂow of reservoir ﬂuids which could lighten the mud column and lead to a blowout. Radial Layer Radius (ft) r1 250 r2 250 500 r3 r4 1000 [Answer: 30. q= or pe − pw = 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µ ln rw qµ re ln 2πkh rw 206 µ ¶ .4 . where ra is the radius of the damaged zone.Example 8. As a result of overpressure some of the drilling mud ﬂows into the formation and the particles suspended in the mud partially plug the pore spaces through which ﬂuid ﬂows.4 md] Permeability (md) 25 50 100 200 8. This creates a lower permeability zone or a damaged zone close to the wellbore.Average permeability for radial beds in series [RADSERK.2. The wellbore radius is 0.mcd] Determine the average permeability of four radial layers in series having the following radial distances to bed boundaries and bed permeabilities. The damaged zone results in an additional pressure ∆pskin at the wellbore. For steadystate radial ﬂow. the pressure drop for an undamaged well is given by. Wellbore damage is depicted in the attached ﬁgure.5 ft and the well drainage radius is 2000 ft.
for a damaged well we have a modiﬁed radial ﬂow equation. the skinfactor may be positive (a damaged well). negative (a stimulated well) or zero (undamaged well). In general. In practice.Figure 8. then the total pressure drop for a damaged well may be written as. q. qµ re pe − pw = ln + ∆pskin 2πkh rw If we write.10: Radial ﬂow model with an altered or damaged zone If the additional pressure drop due to the damaged zone is ∆pskin . ∆pskin = pe − pw = or q= qµ re ln +s 2πkh rw µ ¶ µ ¶ 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µ ln rw + s where s is the skinfactor for the well. In application of the radial ﬂow equation to wells we usually specify the rate at surface 207 . s is determined from the interpretation of transient pressure well tests (pressure buildups and drawdown). is the reservoir or sandface rate. qµ (s) 2πkh Than. In the above equations the rate.
When this is done we write the radial ﬂow equation as. It is understood that when an equation contains B the rate. is in surface volumes. the rate is understood to be in reservoir volumes.conditions. q. In the absence of B. q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) re µB ln rw + s where B is the formation volume factor which relates surface rates to reservoir rates. 208 .
11: Skin pressure drop 209 .Figure 8.
md feet cp feet feet (ii) What would the well rate be if the wellbore is cleaned with an acid. has an upper limit on the magnitude of the actual value which the skin factor can take. A well test has shown the well to be highly damaged with a skin factor of +7.5. This may be demonstrated by considering the steadystate radial ﬂow equation. (iii) 1745 RB/day] 8.Steadystate radial ﬂow with skin [RADSSF. ln(re /rw ).Example 8.5 .4 Relationship between s and the size of the altered zone The skin factor for a stimulated well .mcd] (i) Calculate the maximum possible pumping rate for an oil well in a reservoir where the pressure is being maintained at 2000 psia at the drainage radius. A successful acid job may be expected to reduce the skin factor to approximately zero. (iii) What would the rate be for a stimulated well after a frac job which is expected to achieve a skin factor of 3. the equation produces answers which are physically impossible.5 0.2. The following data apply: k h µ rw re = = = = = 230 10 3. [Answer: (i) 604 RB/day. This problem is removed by the introduction of the thick skin model. (ii) 1114 RB/day. q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ µB ln re + s rw If −s is equal to.where the skin factor is negative. 210 . or greater than. 2000.
12: Realatinship between skinfactor and the size of the altered zone If the altered zone extends from rw to ra and the altered permeability is ka . qBµ re pe − pa = ln 2πkh ra where re is the drainage radius and pe is the pressure at re . Also. and if the bulk formation permeability (from ra to re ) is k. µ ¶ qBµ ra ln pa − pw = 2πkh rw where ra is the radius of the altered zone and pa is the pressure at ra . pe − pw = qBµ re ln +s 2πkh rw 211 ½ µ ¶ ¾ . Adding the two equations gives the pressure across the formation (pe − pw ) pe − pw = qBµ 1 re 1 ra ln + ln 2πh k ra ka rw ½ µ ¶ µ ¶¾ µ ¶ The thin skin model expresses the above pressure drop as.Figure 8. we can use the steadystate radial ﬂow equation to calculate the pressure drops across the altered zone and the formation.
ka . q= where 0 rw is the eﬀective wellbore radius. we have for a well with skin. k/ka → 0 and the equation gives ra s = − ln rw µ ¶ µ which is the upper physical limit on the value of s for a stimulated well. Again. using the steadystate radial ﬂow equation. ½ µ ¶ µ ¶¾ # ½ µ ½ µ ¶ ¾ ¾ 1 re 1 ra + ln ln k ra ka rw " = 1 re 1 + s ln k rw k ¶ ¶ This may be simpliﬁed to give. The skin factor for a stimulated well depends both on the permeability of the altered zone. 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ q= Bµ ln re + s rw We can also write this as. Ã ! Ã 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ Bµ ln r0e rw Equating both expressions for q gives. qBµ 1 1 re pe − pw = ln + s 2πh k rw k Equating the two expressions for (pe − pw ) gives. 8. k ra s= − 1 ln ka rw If ka → ∞.5 Eﬀective Wellbore Radius Another common way of expressing the skin factor is in terms of an eﬀective wellbore radius. This may be rewritten as. and the size of the altered zone. ra .where k is the permeability of the bulk formation and s is the skin factor. re ln 0 rw which can be written as = ln ! µ re +s rw ¶ r0 ln w rw = −s 212 .2.
213 . 0 rw = rw e−s The eﬀective wellbore radius concept is often used to characterize fractured and horizontal wells. 0 rw = xf where xf is the fracture halflength. 0 rw = L 4 where L is the length of the horizontal well.2. 8. the well has 100% eﬃciency. FE = pi − pwf − ∆ps qactual = pi − pwf qundamaged When ∆ps = 0. For example.This may be simpliﬁed to. The eﬀective wellbore radius for a long horizontal well in a thin reservoir approaches that of a fractured well with a fracture halflength equal to onequarter the length of the horizontal well.6 Flow Eﬃciency Once a numerical value for the skin factor has been determined it can be used to determine the well ﬂow eﬃciency F E. This is deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure drop at the damaged wellbore to that for an undamaged well. the eﬀective wellbore radius for a vertical well with an inﬁnite conductivity fracture is.
The last ﬂowing pressure was pwf =2650 psi. re = 2000 ft.mcd] A pressure test conducted on a production well indicated a skinfactor of s = +3.5 ft. The pressure drop due to skineﬀect. 10 ft. [Answer: 255 md. µ = 0. The following information and ﬂuid properties apply: k = 30 md h = 40 ft. The ﬂow eﬃciency for the well. [Answer: 0.72] 3.12 RB/STB.4 cp B = 1.025 ft.Problem 8.Skinfactor [SKIN.] If the fracture is estimated to aﬀect a zone extending 15 ft. into the formation estimate the permeability of the aﬀected zone.63.] The well is a candidate for stimulation by fracturing. The eﬀective wellbore radius.2 . rw = 0. pi = 2800 psi Calculate. 1.] 214 . [Answer: 42 psi] 2. [Answer: 0. If fracturing results in a skinfactor of s = −3. 1. what would the above parameters be for the stimulated well? [Answer: 94 psi.
13: Transient radial ﬂow 8. The partial diﬀerential equation is nonlinear because the coeﬃcients (particularly the density. p = p(r. 1 ∂ r ∂r Ã kρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φcρ ∂p ∂t where c is the total system compressibility. t is time and ρ is the ﬂuid density. ρ) are functions of pressure. t). The dependent variable is pressure (p).e.Figure 8.3 UNSTEADY STATE FLOW The basic equation which describes single phase unsteadystate ﬂow in a radial system is the radial diﬀusivity equation. The independent variables are time (t) and spatial position (r). 215 .. Pressure is a function of both space and time i.
.Figure 8. Ã ∂ρ ∂t ∂(ρ) ∂t qρ r+dr − qρ r dr ! = 2πrhφ 216 .1 Radial Diﬀusivity Equation The radial system is similar to that described for steadystate ﬂow. We make the following assumptions: .14: Pressure distribution in transient radial ﬂow 8.3. Consider the ﬂow through a volume element of thickness dr.the well is fully penetrating ie.the reservoir is homogeneous and isotropic (k is constant). it is completed over the entire vertical section so that the ﬂow is strictly radial. mass rate in −mass rate out = rate of accumulation of mass ∂ qρ r+dr −qρ r = (2πrhφρdr) ∂t This may be expressed as. qρ r+dr − qρ r = 2πrhφdr The above may be simpliﬁed..
∂ ∂r or Ã 2πkhr ∂p ρ µ ∂r Ã ! = 2πrhφ ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ ∂t 1 ∂ r ∂r kρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! =φ This is the general form of the radial diﬀusivity equation. 217 .Figure 8. Darcy’s law for a radial system may be written as. q= 2πkhr ∂p µ ∂r Substituting into the continuity equation gives.15: Diﬀerential material balance for the radial diﬀusivity equation ∂(qρ) ∂ρ = 2πrhφ ∂r ∂t this is called the continuity equation.
Deﬁning the isothermal compressibility of the ﬂuid as c=− 1 ∂V V ∂p Since ρ = m/V . 218 . c= This may be written as. which is one of the coeﬃcients is a function of pressure p. ρ. cρ∂p = ∂pρ dividing both sides of the equation by ∂t. gives cρ ∂ρ ∂p = ∂t ∂t 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p Substituting into the previous equation gives 1 ∂ r ∂r Ã kρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φcρ ∂p ∂t This is the general form of the radial diﬀusivity equation for the ﬂow of a single phase in a porous medium. The equation is nonlinear because density. and mass m is constant.The term ∂ρ/∂t may be expressed in terms of pressure by introducing an equationofstate for the ﬂuid.
dividing throughout by ρ. ∂ρ = cρ∂p Substituting in the diﬀerential equation 1 ∂p ∂p ∂p ∂2p rcρ + ρ + ρr 2 r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r Finally. 1 r Ã Ã ∂(ρr) ∂p ∂ 2p + ρr 2 ∂r ∂r ∂r ! = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t ! 1 ∂(ρ) ∂p ∂(r) ∂p ∂2p r +ρ + ρr 2 r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r 1 ∂ρ ∂p ∂p ∂2p r + ρ + ρr 2 r ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r Ã ! = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t An alternate deﬁnition for compressibility. the diﬀusivity equation becomes 1 ∂ ∂p ρr r ∂r ∂r Ã ! = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t Using the chain rule for diﬀerentiation.2 Liquids Having Small and Constant Compressibility Reservoir oil and water are relatively incompressible and the assumption of constant and small compressibility is a good model for these ﬂuids. c= or.3.8. µ and c are constant. in terms of ﬂuid density. we expand the LHS of the equation. gives 1 ∂p rc r ∂r This is simpliﬁed to ∂p c ∂r Ã !2 Ã !2 Ã ! 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p = φcρµ ∂p k ∂t ∂p ∂2p φcµ ∂p + + r 2 = ∂r ∂r k ∂t + 1 ∂p ∂ 2 p φµc ∂p + 2 = r ∂r ∂r k ∂t 219 . φ. Since we have assumed that k.
The equation is linear and therefore amenable to analytical solution. Ã ! 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r = 1 ∂p η ∂t where η = k/φµc is the hydraulic diﬀusivity.6 × 10−6 psi−1 = = = = = 10 × 10−6 psi−1 3 × 10−6 psi−1 6 × 10−6 psi−1 0.20 3000 psi 220 . It forms the basis for many important reservoir analysis techniques which include transient pressure well test analysis and aquifer modeling. the leading term on the LHS of the above equation may be neglected and the diﬀusivity equation becomes φcµ ∂p 1 ∂p ∂ 2 p + 2 = r ∂r ∂r k ∂t which may be written as Ã ! 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r = φµc ∂p k ∂t This is the ﬁnal form of the diﬀusivity equation for a slightly compressible ﬂuid. is the total compressibility of the system. the compressibility. Total system compressibility In actual applications of the above equation to single phase oil ﬂow where the formation contains connate water and the formation is itself compressible. water and pore volume or formation compressibilities. cw and cf are the oil. This is determined using the following equation c = co So + cw Sw + cf where co . c. Typical values may be co cw cf Sw p This results in c = 14. respectively.∂p/∂r is small and since c << 1. The equation is also written as. So and Sw are the oil and water saturations.
The pseudosteady state solution is important because it describes the situation of a reservoir producing by natural pressure depletion where the production for the well originates from within the well’s own drainage area. (i) no ﬂow across the external boundary. thus ∂p q =− 2 ∂t cπre hφ 221 . c is the compressibility and Vp is the pore volume. Diﬀerentiating this equation we obtain. can be calculated from a simple material balance ¯ (total compressibility of the poreﬂuid system). cVp (pi − p) = qt ¯ where pi is the initial pressure and. q. the average pressure. Pseudosteadystate ﬂow is a special form of stabilized unsteadystate ﬂow in which the shape of the pressure proﬁle from the wellbore to the drainage radius is independent of time. ∂p = constant ∂t The value for the constant is obtained from the material balance equation written above. Vp = πre hφ. but the average drainage area pressure declines with production.3 PseudoSteadyState Radial Flow The simplest solution to the radial diﬀusivity equation (other than the steadystate solution) is for pseudosteadystate ﬂow. p. For a reservoir producing at a constant production rate. No ﬂow occurs across the drainage radius. by natural pressure depletion. t is time.3. r ∂p = 0 at r = re ∂r (ii) pseudosteadystate ﬂow condition. The boundary conditions are.8. cVp (−d¯) = qdt p or d¯ dp p q = =− dt dt cVp 2 For the radial model.
The radial diﬀusivity equation is 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r substituting for ∂p/∂t.. r∂p/∂r = 0 at r = re qµ C1 = 2πkh Substituting for C1 .e. ∂p qµr2 r =− + C1 2 ∂r 2πre kh The constant of integration. gives 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r which simpliﬁes to Ã Ã ! Ã ! = φµc ∂p k ∂t =− ! φµc q 2 k cπre hφ qµ 2 πre kh 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r This equation may be written as ∂p ∂ r ∂r Ã ! =− =− qµ r∂r 2 πre kh Integrating the above equation gives. Z pr pw Ã 1 r − 2 r re ! ! Ã 1 r − 2 ∂r r re Ã qµ Z r ∂p = 2πkh rw " 1 r − 2 ∂r r re #r ! [p]pr pw or qµ r2 = ln r − 2 2πkh 2re Ã rw qµ r r2 r2 pr − pw = ln − 2 + w2 2πkh rw 2re 2re 222 ! . and simplifying gives ∂p qµ = ∂r 2πkh Separating variables. is easily evaluated from the ﬁrst BC i. C1 . qµ ∂p = 2πkh Integrating.
the pressure at the outer drainage radius. p.2 2 The term rw /re is clearly negligible and the equation is written as. The particular case of practical interest is when r = re qµ re 1 pe − pw = ln − 2πkh rw 2 or q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) µB ln(re /rw ) − µ ¶ 1 2 With the inclusion of the skinfactor the equation is q= 2πkh (pe − pw ) µB ln(re /rw ) − 1 + s 2 This equation is useful for determining well production rates.3. Well tests provide a measure of the average drainage area pressure and it is therefore more convenient to express the pressure drawdown in terms of the average reservoir. The rates predicted by the steadystate and the pseudo steadystate equations are usually very similar (within 10%). ¯ The average reservoir pressure is given by r p = R we ¯ r R re pdVp rw dVp 223 . 2πkh (pe − pw ) q= µB ln(re /rw ) + s The term ln(re /rw ) has a value typically between 6 and 7. 8. pe .4 Flow Equations in terms of Average Reservoir Pressure A problem with using the above radial ﬂow equations is that although pw and q can be measured directly. qµ r r2 pr − pw = ln − 2 2πkh rw 2re Ã ! The above equation is a general expression for pressure as a function of radius. cannot. It is interesting to compare this equation to the previously derived steadystate equation.
Now. Ã ! 2 Z re 2 Z re qµ r r2 p= 2 ¯ pw rdr + 2 ln − 2 rdr re rw re rw 2πkh rw 2re Ã ! Ã ! 2 2 2 re rw − p = 2 pw ¯ re 2 2 2 2 Again. so r p = R we ¯ r R re p2πrhφdr rw 2πrhφdr R re or 2 2 2 Since re − rw ≈ re Z re 2 p= 2 ¯ prdr 2 re − rw rw r p = R we ¯ r prdr rw rdr 2 Z re p= 2 ¯ prdr re rw qµ r r2 ln − 2 pr − pw = 2πkh rw 2re Ã ! For pseudosteadystate ﬂow. rw << re . so 2 qµ Z re r r2 + 2 r ln − 2 dr re 2πkh rw rw 2re Ã ! 2 qµ Z re r r2 p = pw + 2 ¯ r ln − 2 dr re 2πkh rw rw 2re The ﬁrst term in the integrand must be evaluated by parts. Z re rw r r r2 r ln dr = ln rw 2 rw " µ ¶ " #re rw − Z re rw 1 r2 dr r 2 Z re rw r r r2 r ln dr = ln rw 2 rw µ ¶ #re rw r2 − 4 " #re rw 224 . or qµ r r2 p = pw + ln − 2 2πkh rw 2re Ã ! Therefore. dVp = 2πrhφdr.
In the presence of formation damage or stimulation (positive or negative skin) the equation becomes qµ re 3 p − pw = ¯ ln − +s 2πkh rw 4 or q= 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p µB ln(re /rw ) − 3 + s 4 µ ¶ The equation is similar to the previously derived equations of pseudosteadystate and steadystate ﬂow and predicts similar well rates.5 Dietz Shape Factors for Vertical Wells The pseudo steadystate equation for a well centered in a circular drainage area. 8.Again. neglecting small terms. 2 re r2 r2 re − e − e ln 2 rw 4 8 ! qµ re 1 1 p = pw + ¯ ln − − 2πkh rw 2 4 µ ¶ qµ re 3 p − pw = ¯ ln − 2πkh rw 4 µ ¶ Which is the required inﬂow equation.3. q= 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p µB ln(re /rw ) − 3 + s 4 may be generalized for wells located anywhere in an arbitrary drainage area q= 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p q µB ln( 2. Z re rw r3 r4 dr = 2 2 2re 8re Ã = rw 2 re 8 The equation for average pressure becomes. Z re rw r r2 re r2 r ln dr = e ln − e rw 2 rw 4 " #re µ ¶ Integration of the second term gives.2458A/(CA r2 ) + s w 225 . 2 qµ p = pw + 2 ¯ re 2πkh Simplifying.
75 + ln( 2. the drainage area. [Answer: 480 STB/day] 226 . If re is the eﬀective drainage radius.at the center of a square drainage area.75 q Problem 8.2458π/CA ) + 0.1 md feet cp feet psia RB/STB What would the rate be using the steadystate solution? [Answer: 721 STB/day] What would the rate be if the well was located. [Answer: 652 STB/day] (ii) .where CA is the Dietz shape factor which depends on the geometry of the drainage area.3 .75 + sCA + s where sCA is a shape related skinfactor and is given by. Values for the shape factor are given in various handbooks and texts. sCA = ln( 2.2 0.? (i) .2458π/CA ) + 0.Pseudosteadystate radial ﬂow and drainage area shape factors [RADSSF. The following data apply: k h µ rw pw s Bo = = = = = = = 180 16 2.75 + s This equation may be written as 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p q= µB ln(re /rw ) − 0.at the center of a rectangular (5:1). drainage area [Answer: 562 STB/day] (iii) .at the apex of a triangular drainage area. may be expressed as A = πre 2 the pseudo steadystate solution may be written as 2πkh (¯ − pw ) p h q i q= µB ln(re /rw ) − 0. A.mcd] Calculate the production rate of an oil well in a 160 acre drainage area when the average pressure is 1850 psia.5 1230 0 1.
8 4.13 22.111 2.36 2 0.38 1 0.9 1/3 1 2 1 2 1 4 1 5 1 3.6 0.16: Dietz shape factors for vertical wells 227 .72 27.6 0.9 2.6 10.9 In water drive reservoirs 19.607 5.1 4.86 30.6 1 4 2.232 0.115 27.39 21.07 31.098 12.Shape of drainage area CA CA 1 2 31.1 60o 3.57 In reservoirs of unknown production character 25 Figure 8.
it is usually possible to approximate the system using simple idealizations.17: Approximating complex geometries 8. 2πkh (pe − pw ) ³ ´ q=f µB ln re rw where. the well rate is given by.6 Approximating Complex Geometries In cases where the ﬂow geometry is more complex than those considered by the Dietz shape factors.3. If the angle between the faults is θ and the ﬂow is assumed to be steadystate. An example of this is shown in the attached ﬁgure for a well completed close to the intersection of two linear sealing faults. 228 . f= θ 360o The above equation is based on the fact that every streamline in a radial ﬂow system can represent a noﬂow boundary.Figure 8.
To see why this is so. The productivity index for a well is not constant and may vary considerably over the life of the well. h.increase length of completion interval.4 8.stimulate or fracture to reduce skin. q. in psi. . s will also change with time. Increasing Well PI The above equation shows the options available to increase well productivity are: .increase reservoir pressure to increase kro and reduce µo 229 . ∆p.1 WELL PRODUCTIVITY Productivity Index The productivity index. J. consider the pseudosteadystate radial ﬂow equation.8. Moreover. S. in STB/D divided by the pressure drawdown.4. . ¯ 2πkh(P − Pw ) q= re µB(ln( rw ) − 3 + s) 4 So. J= q ∆p The productivity index is a simple measure of the productivity of a production well. J= q 2πkkro h = re (∆p) µBo (ln( rw ) − 3 + s) 4 The above equation may be grouped into those parameters which remain constant with time and those which change with time. if the well is stimulated or if it gradually cleansup with production. J= Ã 2πkh re (ln( rw ) − 3 + s) 4 !Ã kro µBo ! The terms kro /µBo vary with time because reservoir pressure ( which aﬀect µ and Bo ) and saturation ( which aﬀects kro ) change with time. of a well is deﬁned as the production rate.
the ﬂow in the vicinity of a partially penetrating well must deviate from pure radial ﬂow as streamlines converge towards the well. 230 .2 Partial Penetration The well models discussed above considered a well completed over the entire section of the reservoir. These wells are referred to as partially penetrating wells.4. This results in an additional pressure drop close to the wellbore which can be treated as a pseudoskin due to partial penetration.18: Partial penetration 8.Figure 8. Many oil and gas wells are completed over only part of the producing sand interval. When comparing a partially penetrating well to a fully penetrating well.
75 + sp than the ratio J/Jpp is readily calculated.A number of correlations have been published which account for the eﬀect of partial penetration on well performance.25hp h h1 + 0. 231 . sp . Ã 1 πhD − 1 ln hpD 2 ! Ã ! 1 hpD + ln hpD 2 + hpD " µ A−1 B−1 ¶0.75hp Initially a partially penetrating well behaves as if it is producing from a formation of thickness hp . sp . For this correlation the pseudoskin factor. this ratio is approximately hp /h. is given by (see attached ﬁgure for deﬁnition of variables). sp = where.5 # hpD = h hD = rw A= B= hp h s kh kv h h1 + 0.75 and that for a partially penetrating well is. Jpp = 2πkh h 1 µB ln re /rw − 0. J= 2πkh h 1 µB ln re /rw − 0. If the productivity index (J = q/∆p) for a fully penetrating well is. As a rule of thumb. All are based on potential ﬂow solutions or numerical simulations for the twodimensional cylindrical diﬀusivity equation in twodimensions. The correlation by Papatzacos (1988) is typical. After some time a transition occurs to ﬂow from the entire formation and the establishment of the pseudoskin factor.
69 STB/daypsi. Calculate the productivity index for the well and the ratio of productivities for the well and for a fully penetrating well. (iv) over the top 25 ft of pay. 0. 1. (iv) 2. (iii) 4. 0.Partially penetrating well [PARPEN. The formation thickness is 100 ft. (vi) over the middle 50 ft of pay. (iii) over the top 50 ft of pay.09.mcd] A ﬁeld is developed on a 40 acre spacing.57] 232 . 100 md kh = kv = 5 md rw = 0.4 STB/daypsi.32.8. 0.8 STB/daypsi.Problem 8. (ii) over the top 75 ft of pay.4 STB/daypsi. 0.0 (ii) 6.5 STB/daypsi. Other reservoir properties are.4 .25 RB/STB [Answer: (i) 7. (vi)4. (i) over the entire 100 ft of pay. µ= 1 cp B = 1. (v) 0. (v) over the top 5 ft of pay. 0.57.5 ft.2 STB/daypsi.
we write. q. 233 . The result is. we have previously written the radial diﬀusivity equation as. ∂ ∂ρ (ρq) = 2πrhφ ∂r ∂t We then substituted Darcy’s law for the volumetric ﬂow rate. T is the temperature (assumed to be constant). n is the number of moles of gas and R is the universal gas law constant. k. For the case of a slightly compressible ﬂuid with constant viscosity.5 GAS FLOW In treating the ﬂow of a slightly compressible ﬂuid we began by writing the continuity equation for a radial element. v is the volume of the gas. k ∂p 1 ∂ ρ r r ∂r µ ∂r Ã Ã ! 2πkhr ∂p µ ∂r =φ ∂ρ ∂t Assuming that permeability. 1 ∂ r ∂r ρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φ ∂ρ k ∂t This is the basic material balance for a radial volume element of the reservoir and it applies to all ﬂows. is constant. Equation of state for a compressible ﬂuid The pressurevolumetemperature (PVT) behavior of a gas is given by the real gas law.8. pv = znRT where z is the compressibility factor. q= to eliminate q. 1 ∂ ∂p r r ∂r ∂r Ã ! = φµc ∂p k ∂t Gases are highly compressible and we cannot expect that the above diﬀusivity equation will apply for gases.
µ = µ(p) and we cannot assume a constant viscosity. c= 1 1 ∂z − p z ∂p ( ( ∂ (pz −1 ) ∂p 1 p ∂z − 2 z z ∂p i. n= c= which gives c= z ∂(p/z) p ∂p ) ) Since 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p In performing the integration we note that z = z(p). the real gas law may be written as. 1 ∂ r ∂r Ã ρ ∂p r µ ∂r ! = φ ∂ρ k ∂t For a gas. we begin our analysis for a gas by writing the continuity equation. m M p ρ= = v RT z We may use this expression together with the deﬁnition of compressibility to write an expression for the compressibility of a real gas. z c= p z c= p Finally. A further complication for gases is that viscosity is also a function of pressure (µ = µ(p)) Diﬀusivity equation for a compressible ﬂuid As previously. Since ρ= M p RT z 234 . the compressibility of a gas is a highly nonlinear function of pressure.e.m M where m is the mass of the gas and M is the gas molecular weight..
∂ρ = cρ ∂p ∂ρ M p =c ∂p RT z which gives 1 ∂ r ∂r Ã M p 1 ∂p r RT z µ ∂r Ã ! ! = φ ∂p M p c k ∂t RT z dividing both sides by the constants we ﬁnally obtain. ∂p µz = ∂ψ 2p Ã ! 235 . deﬁned as ψ(p) = 2 Z p a p dp µz where a is an arbitrarily low reference pressure. Ã ! 1 ∂ p ∂ψ dp φcp ∂ψ dp r = r ∂r µz ∂r dψ kz ∂t dψ Now. In order to solve the equation it is necessary to ﬁrst linearize it. Pseudopressure Introduce a new variable called the pseudo pressure. from our deﬁnition of compressibility. This transformation gives p dψ = 2 dp µz Rewriting the nonlinear diﬀusivity equation in therm of pseudopressure we have. 1 ∂ r ∂r p ∂p r µz ∂r = φcp ∂p kz ∂t This is a highly nonlinear equation because the coeﬃcients on both sides of the equations are highly nonlinear functions of pressure.we have 1 ∂ r ∂r Ã M p 1 ∂p r RT z µ ∂r ! φ ∂p = k ∂t Ã ∂ρ ∂p ! Now. ψ(p).
∂ψ 1 = ∂(p2 ) µz ¯¯ 236 .5.therefore. 000psi and ∆p small For low pressure and small pressure drop. Since ∆p is small (p approximately constant) we may use average properties for the coeﬃcient terms. resulting in a linear diﬀusivity equation in terms ¯ ¯ of the pseudo pressure. 1 ∂ r ∂r Ã p ∂ψ µz r µz ∂r 2p Ã ! ! = φcp ∂ψ µz kz ∂t 2p Simplifying this expression gives ∂ψ 1 ∂ r r ∂r ∂r = φµc ∂ψ k ∂t This has eliminated the nonlinearity on the LHS and made the equation look like the diﬀusivity equation for a slightly compressible liquid except that the coeﬃcient on the RHS is still nonlinear (c is a function of pressure). ψ(p) = 2 Z p a p ∂p µz with the reference pressure to zero. c and µ.1 Low pressure approximation — p < 3. is now written as. ψ(p) = 2 Zp p∂p µz 0 ¯¯ 2 p2 µz 2 ¯¯ ψ(p) = p2 µz ¯¯ The pseudo pressure is easily evaluated on a spreadsheet or in a computer code. 8. Ã ! 1 ∂ ∂ψ φ¯c ∂ψ µ¯ r = r ∂r ∂r k ∂t ψ(p) = If we are doing the analysis by hand and wish to eliminate the need to evaluate pseudopressures we may simply write the equation in terms of p2 . µz ≈ constant = µz ¯¯ The deﬁnition of pseudo pressure.
237 . 8.2 High pressure approximation — p > 3. and as for the case of low pressure we can show that the diﬀusivity in terms of ψ is linearized to 1 ∂ ∂(p) r r ∂r ∂r Ã ! = φ¯c ∂(p) µ¯ k ∂t which is identical to the case of a slightly compressible ﬂuid. 000psi and ∆p small At high pressures and small pressure drops.and 1 ∂ ∂(p2 ) ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r ∂(p2 ) 1 ∂ ∂(p2 ) r r ∂r ∂r Ã Ã ! ! φ¯c ∂(p2 ) ∂ψ µ¯ = k ∂t ∂(p2 ) = φ¯c ∂(p2 ) µ¯ k ∂t which gives The result is identical to that which would be obtained by deﬁning ψ = p2 This is commonly referred to as the pressure squared method of analysis.5. ψ(p) = 2 which can be written as or Z p a p ∂p µz p Zp ¯ ∂p ψ(p) = µz a ¯¯ ψ(p) = p ¯ p µz ¯¯ Again the pseudopressure is easily evaluated. p p ¯ ≈ constant = µz µz ¯¯ From the deﬁnition of pseudo pressure we have.
In terms of ψ the nonlinear diﬀusivity equation is 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r We may write this as 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r Deﬁning a pseudotime as. 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r Ã ! = φ(µc)i ∂ψ k ∂τn Again. this equation has exact ally the same form as the diﬀusivity equation for a slightly compressible ﬂuid. The situation is readily remedied by the introduction of a normalized pseudotime. τn . as a function of time. deﬁned as Z t dt τn = (µc)i 0 µc (µc)i is the viscositycompressibility product evaluated at the initial test pressure. dτ = The diﬀusivity equation may now be written as. τ= or Ã Ã ! = φµc ∂ψ k ∂t ! = φ ∂ψ k {∂t/µc} dt µc Z t 0 dt µc Pseudotime is easily evaluated since pressure.8. but convention is to take the value at the initial test pressure. the pressure being arbitrary.5. c and µ vary considerably and we cannot use average values for these parameters over the ﬂow conditions. The product may be deﬁned at any pressure. 238 . The diﬀusivity equation in terms of pseudopressure and pseudotime is.3 ∆p is not small When ∆p is not small. ∂ψ 1 ∂ r r ∂r ∂r Ã ! = φ ∂ψ k ∂τ A problem with the pseudotime it does not have units of time and this is undesirable in actual practice where the engineer likes to relate time to distance via the depth of investigation concept. is known.
To evaluate the value of the constant of integration. we write Darcy’s law for radial ﬂow.8. The rate at surface conditions is given by 2πkh ∂p r qsc = µBg ∂r where Bg is the gas formation volume factor which is given by psc Bg = Tsc Substituting for Bg gives qsc = Ã ! µ ¶ zT p 2πTsc psc ! kh p ∂p r µ zT ∂r The equation is written in terms of pseudopressure as qsc = Ã 2πTsc psc kh p ∂ψ dp r µ zT ∂r dψ From the deﬁnition of pseudopressure dp µz = dψ 2p 239 . and we can write ∂ψ 1 ∂ r r ∂r ∂r or.5. C1 . ∂ψ/∂t = 0. ∂ ∂ψ r ∂r ∂r Integrating gives r ∂ψ = C1 ∂r Ã ! =0 ! =0 This is the solution for steadystate radial ﬂow of a gas. 2πkh ∂p q= r µ ∂r where q is the rate at reservoir conditions.4 Steady and PseudoSteady State Radial Gas Flow Ã ! The radial diﬀusivity equation for gas is 1 ∂ ∂ψ r r ∂r ∂r Ã = φµc ∂ψ k ∂t For steadystate ﬂow.
r Ã πTsc psc µ ! kh ∂ψ r T ∂r ¶ ∂ψ psc = ∂r πTsc qsc T kh This is the required constant of integration C1 . µ = Ã πTsc psc ! ! kh (ψe − ψw ) qsc T qsc = Ã πTsc psc kh (ψe − ψw ) ³ ´ T ln re rw As before.75 + s rw The above equation is valid for all conditions and may be used to estimate the stabilized rate for gas wells under Darcy ﬂow conditions. Z rw re Ã Ã πTsc psc ! kh ∂ψ qsc T kh Z ψw ∂ψ qsc T ψe ∂r = r ¶ πTsc psc ! gives re ln rw or. It requires evaluation of pseudopressures. Pseudopressures are easily calculated by numerically integrating P . An example of such a calculation is given in Exercise8. µ and z data for the gas. for pseudosteady state ﬂow in terms of average pseudopressure and in the presence of skin.5.11. we can write qsc = Ã πTsc psc ! ¯ kh (ψe − ψw ) h ³ ´ i T ln re − 0. Separating variables.5 NonDarcy ﬂow In high rate gas wells ﬂow velocities close to the wellbore may suﬃciently high for turbulent or nonDarcy ﬂow to occur. This introduces an additional pressure 240 . ∂r = r Integrating. 8.Substituting for dp/dψ gives qsc = or.
deﬁned as Z p p ψ=2 dp 0 µz may be written as 2 Zp p2 ψ= pdp = µz 0 ¯¯ µz ¯¯ where µ and z are evaluated at average ﬂowing conditions.drop which depends on the gas rate.75 + s + Dqsc  ¯¯ rw 8.75 + s0 rw πTsc psc ¯ kh (ψe − ψw ) h ³ ´ i T ln re − 0. The nonDarcy ﬂow pressure drop may be included by deﬁning an eﬀective skin factor.6 Pressuresquared approximation For pressures below about 3000 psia the product µz is approximately constant and pseudopressure. can now be written as qsc = or. Pseudosteady state ﬂow in terms of average pseudopressure and in the presence of skin and nonDarcy ﬂow eﬀects. as s0 = s + Dqsc  where D is the nonDarcy ﬂow constant and s is the Darcy ﬂow skin factor.5. s0 .5. ¯ ¯ Substituting for ψ in the rate equation gives qsc = Ã ! πTsc psc kh (pe 2 − pw 2 ) h ³ ´ i µz T ln re − 0. qsc = Ã Ã πTsc psc ! ! ¯ kh (ψe − ψw ) h ³ ´ i T ln re − 0.7 High Pressure approximation For pressures above about 3000 psia the product p/µz is approximately constant and pseudopressure. The absolute value of rate indicates that there is a positive nonDarcy ﬂow loss for both production and injection operations. D and s are determined from multirate well pressure test data. deﬁned as Z p p ψ=2 dp 0 µz 241 .75 + s + Dqsc  rw 8.
may be written as 2¯ p 2¯ Z p p dp = ψ= p µz 0 ¯¯ µz ¯¯ where µ. z and p are evaluated at average ﬂowing conditions. 242 . ¯ ¯ ¯ Substituting for ψ in the rate equation gives qsc = Ã ! 2πTsc psc (pe − pw ) kh¯ p h ³ ´ i re µz T ln ¯¯ − 0. this equation is identical to the equation previously derived for the ﬂow of a slightly compressible ﬂuid.75 + s + Dqsc  rw The average gas formation factor may be written as ¯ Bg = Ã Tsc psc ! zT ¯¯ p ¯ The gas rate equation becomes qsc = 2πkh (pe − pw ) h ³ ´ i ¯g ln re − 0.75 + s + Dq  µB ¯ sc rw With the nonDarcy ﬂow term set to zero (D = 0).
015 (MMSCF/day)−1 What is the eﬀect of nonDarcy (turbulent) ﬂow on well performance? [Answer: 344 MSCF/day] 243 .018 cp 0. 0.Problem 8.3 0.Calculation of gas well rate [GASFLOW. 0.5 ft.87 200o F 0. The following reservoir and ﬂuid properties are known: k= h= rw = re = µ= z= T = s= D= 5 md 35 ft.mcd] Estimate the production rate of a gas well when the average reservoir pressure is 2723 psia and the ﬂowing wellbore pressure is maintained at 2655 psia.5 . 2640 ft.
8795 0.01862 0.9112 0.Gas well rate using pseudopressures [PSUDOP.01813 0.8745 0.01767 0.01485 0.01329 0. 342 MSCF/day] 244 .01238 0.01428 0.01630 0. Reservoir temperature is 200o F and the gas gravity is 0.8705 0.01520 0.mcd] Estimate the production rate of a gas well when the average reservoir pressure is 2723 psia and the ﬂowing wellbore pressure is maintained at 2655 psia. The following reservoir and ﬂuid properties are known: k= h= rw = re = T = s= D= 5 md 35 ft.8671 0.8830 [Answer: 346 MSCF/day.01961 z 0.015 (MMSCF/day)−1 GAS PROPERTIES p (psia) 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 2850 3000 3150 µ (cp) 0. 2640 ft.9856 0.5 ft.Problem 8.9582 0.9332 0.01451 0.8931 0.01254 0.8780 0.9717 0.8857 0.9218 0.01387 0.9016 0.8684 0.01303 0.01554 0.9453 0.01274 0.3 0.7.01676 0.01911 0. 0.6 . Use pseudopressure and the pressuresquared method to calculate the gas rate.01589 0. 200o F 0.8738 0.01721 0.8683 0.8671 0.8708 0.01360 0.
After a number of rate changes (usually four). n is an exponent which has a value between 0. The well is ﬂowed at a constant rate (qsc ) until the ﬂowing wellbore pressure (pw ) has stabilized. p 245 .19: Pseudopressure as a function of pressure 8. The equation is written as. the well is shutin until the shutin wellbore has stabilized. Flow after ﬂow tests The constants C and n are determined from ﬂow after ﬂow or conventional backpressure tests. pw is the ﬂowing wellbore pressure.Figure 8.5 (nonDarcy or turbulent ﬂow) and 1 (Darcy or laminar ﬂow) and C is the well performance coeﬃcient.5. This is the average reservoir pressure (¯R ). The equation is frequently used to determine well deliverability. The rate is then changed (increased) and the process repeated. qsc = C(¯2 − p2 )n pR w where pR is the average reservoir pressure.8 Gas Well Back Pressure Equation This is an empirical equation which relates ﬂow rate and pressure for gas wells.
Figure 8.20: Gas well deliverability plot Figure 8.21: Four point ﬂowafterﬂow well deliverability test 246 .
6 . Example 8. The test and interpretation procedure is illustrated in the attached ﬁgures.Figure 8.22: Interpretation of four point ﬂowafterﬂow well deliverability test A plot of log(¯2 − p2 ) against log qsc gives a straight line of slope equal to 1/n pR w and intercept −(1/n) log C.Flow after ﬂow conventional backpressure test [FAFGAS.mcd] The following ﬂow rate and wellbore pressure data was obtained from a four point ﬂowafterﬂow test on a gas well: Flow period qsc (MMSCF/day) pw (psia) 1 2190 3387 2 2570 3268 3 3160 3092 4 3400 3015 shutin 0 3884 247 .
(iii) Make a well deliverability plot for the well. n = 0.4 MMSCF/day.69 C = 0.mcd] A four point ﬂowafterﬂow test produced the following back pressure equation constants.4 MMSCF/day] 248 . (ii) 35. (ii) What would the well ﬂow rate be if the ﬂowing wellbore pressure was maintained at 300 psia. C = 4.7 . Calculate the Absolute Open Flow (AOF) for the well (the AOF is a commonly used ﬁgureofmerit for a gas well and corresponds to the well rate at a ﬂowing well pressure of one atmosphere).035 × 10−6 MMSCF/day − psia2n .874. [Answer: n = 0. AOF=7.6 MMSCF/day] Problem 8. (i) Determine the absolute open ﬂow rate (AOF) for the well. [Answer: (i) 60.Determine the exponent n and the performance coeﬃcient C.01508 MSCF/daypsia2n The average reservoir pressure is 408 psia.Well deliverability using back pressure equation [DELGAS.
horizontal wells can connect regions of high permeability rock which are separated by regions of low permeability. This can be important in allowing production of heavier crudes at economical rates and reducing or completely elimination the detrimental eﬀects of water and gas coning. In reservoirs which display complex and diﬃcult to predict heterogeneity (carbonates.The greater length of horizontal wells may result in smaller pressure gradients (increased productivity) when compared to vertical wells ﬂowing at the same rate.6 HORIZONTAL WELLS Horizontal wells are now routinely used in primary. 249 . The major advantages over conventional vertical wells are in overcoming: Reservoir heterogeneity .Figure 8. secondary and tertiary recovery operations. channel point bar sands.Horizontal wells contact a larger area of the reservoir than vertical wells. Reservoir ﬂow problems .23: Horizontal well in a compartmentalized reservoir 8. braided stream systems and fractured reservoirs).
Slotted liner .In low permeability reservoirs it is possible to place multiple transverse fractures along the length of the well and greatly increase productivity over that possible with a vertical well. . perforated. Completion options The attached ﬁgure shows a number of diﬀerent techniques used to complete horizontal wells. Recovery is also increased because the cone for a similar situation exists in a sand subject to gas coning with the horizontal well being placed at the base of the sand.In sands where water coning is a problem horizontal wells can be placed near the top of the sand increasing the vertical distance between the perforations and the wateroil contact and therefore increasing recovery when compared with a vertical well in the same sand.Inexpensive but limited to competent formations. Open hole . Rarely used except for formations such as Austin Chalk. slotted.24: Comparison between eﬀective reservoir contact areas for horizontal and vertical wells . Liners are used to prevent hole collapse and to control sand production. and prepacked liners.Figure 8. Diﬃcult to control rate along length of well and diﬃcult to stimulate. 250 .Three types commonly used.
25: Horizontal wells with multiple transverse fractures play a vital role in the production of tight gas reservoirs Liners with partial isolation allow the horizontal section to be divided into several isolated sections.Figure 8. Areally isotropic reservoir . This allows production control along the well length and selective stimulation or multiple fracking. A vertical well drains a cylindrical volume and a horizontal well drains an ellipsoid (threedimensional ellipse). 251 . A horizontal well will usually drain a larger area than a vertical well. Under similar operating conditions.6.1 Drainage Area Wells are drilled on a pattern to provide adequate drainage of the reservoir. 8. The area drained by a single well in the pattern is the drainage area for the well. Cemented and perforated liners provide the best completions provided that care is taken to ensure a good cement job.kx = ky A horizontal well can be viewed as a number of vertical wells drilled on a line and completed in a limited pay thickness.
Figure 8.26: Completion techeniques for horizontal wells 252 .
Figure 8. the drainage area of a horizontal well may be estimated from that for a vertical well as shown in the attached ﬁgure. a 1000 ft horizontal well will drain twice the area of a vertical well and a 2000 ft horizontal well will drain three times the area of a vertical well. The eﬀective drainage radius of a horizontal well is q reh = Ah /π s As a rule of thumb.27: Comparison of horizontal and vertical well costs for Prudhoe Bay in Alaska the drainage area of a horizontal well may be estimated from that for a vertical well as shown in the attached ﬁgure. If the drainage area for a vertical well is Av . Under similar operating conditions. the drainage radius is rev = q Av /π The drainage area for a vertical well may also be approximated as a square of dimensions 2xe by 2ye where xe = ye Av = 4xe or xe = ye = Av 4 A horizontal well can be viewed as a number of vertical wells drilled on a line and completed in a limited pay thickness. Ah = 2ye L + Av where L is the length of the horizontal section. 253 .
Figure 8.28: Drainage areas for horizontal and vertical wells 254 .
Figure 8.29: Drainage areas for horizontal wells 255 .
we can write " # ∂2p ∂2p kh + =0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 For an anisotropic reservoir we multiply and divide the conservation equation q throughout by kx ky q v s u u kx ∂ 2 p ky ∂ 2 p kx ky t + =0 2 2 ky ∂x kx ∂y # or q kx ky " ∂ 2 p ky ∂ 2 p + =0 ∂x2 kx ∂y 2 # This equation may be written as q kx ky " ∂2p ∂ 2p + =0 ∂x2 ∂Y 2 s where y=Y ky kx # Comparing this equation with that for the isotropic system.Areally anisotropic reservoir . we can write the following conservation equation Ã ! Ã ! ∂ ∂p ∂ ∂p kx + ky =0 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y or. kh " ∂2p ∂2p + =0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 shows that in an anisotropic reservoir a vertical q drains a rectangle which has well a length along the high permeability direction ky /kx the length along the low permeability direction with an eﬀective permeability q kx ky . 256 .kx < ky Consider an anisotropic (kx < ky ) homogeneous (kx . kx = ky = kh . ky constant). Assuming steadystate ﬂow in two dimensions. where k−h is the horizontal permeability. since kx and ky are constant kx ∂2p ∂2p + ky 2 = 0 ∂x2 ∂y For an isotropic reservoir.
30: Drainage areas for horizontal wells in fractured or anisotropic reservoirs 257 .Figure 8.
ye = s ky xe kx and the drainage area for a vertical well is Ah = 4ye xe and the eﬀective horizontal permeability is. kh = q kx ky The above analysis shows that it is diﬃcult to drain a reservoir in the low permeability direction using vertical wells. 258 .31: Drainage areas for vertical and horizontal wells in anisotropic reservoirs If ky > kx . the drainage area for the well is Ah = 2ye L + Av The number of horizontal wells required for adequate reservoir drainage is considerably smaller than that for a conventional vertical well development.Figure 8. If a horizontal well is drilled in the direction of low permeability.
5 md.] 259 .Example 8. [Answer: 75 acres.5md. 5 2000ft wells] Problem 8.mcd] A vertical well is known to drain approximately 40 acres in a naturally fractured reservoir.mcd] A 600 acre lease is to be developed with 10 vertical wells.Drainage area for horizontal wells in an isotropic reservoir [HORWELL. An alternative is to drill 500 ft. Estimate the number of horizontal wells required to drain the lease eﬀectively assuming that the reservoir is isotropic.8 .Drainage for a horizontal well in an anisotropic reservoir [HORWELL. [Answer: 8 500ft wells. 7 1000ft wells. 145 acres. The permeability in the direction perpendicular to the fractures is only kx =0. What are the drainage areas for a 2000 ft horizontal well drilled along the direction of the fractures and one drilled in a direction perpendicular to the fractures. 1000 ft. The permeability along the direction of the fractures is ky =4. or 2000 ft long horizontal wells.7 .
dlate time linear ﬂow 260 . clate time radial ﬂow.32: Complexity of ﬂow regimes for horizontal wells. bearly time linear ﬂow. aearly time radial ﬂow.Figure 8.
6. Joshi (JPT June 1988)divided the threedimensional steadystate ﬂow problem into separate twodimensional vertical and horizontal problems and summed the solutions.Figure 8. 2πkh h/(µB) Jv = ln(rev /rw ) Homogeneous isotropic reservoirs . The diﬀerences between the various equations result from the diﬀerences in solution techniques employed and the details of the assumptions made in developing the solution.2 Productivity of Horizontal Wells The steadystate rate for a vertical is given by qv = 2πkh h ∆p µB ln(rev /rw ) The productivity index. h. For a horizontal well completed in the middle of sand of thickness. Jh = qh = ∆p ∙ a+ ln √ 2πkh h/(µB) ¸ a2 −(L/2)2 L/2 + ³ ´ h L ln ³ h 2rw ´ 261 . The diﬀerences are generally small. ∆p. The solution obtained was shown to be in excellent agreement with laboratory simulations using electrical networks.33: Approximating threedimensional steadystate ﬂow in horizontal wells with two twodimensional solutions 8. is deﬁned as the rate. qv . divided by the pressure diﬀerence. with constant pressure boundary conditions at the drainage area boundary. Jv .kv = kh Numerous equations have been developed for steadystate ﬂow of horizontal wells.
h. L a = 0. increases.9reh . Ah π The above equation shows that as reservoir thickness. Jh .5 reh = for L > h and (L/2) < 0.Figure 8. In the limit L >> h.translated into English in 1984) Jh = 2πkh h/(µB) ln (4reh /L) + (h/L) ln (h/2πrw ) This equation gives results very similar to those using the Joshi equation.5 + 2 s 2reh 0. the second term in the denominator of the equation is negligible and the result can be rewritten as Jh = 2πkh h/(µB) ln (reh /[L/4]) 262 . Moscow 1964 . decreases. the eﬀectiveness of the horizontal well.34: Productivity ratio Jh /Jv for horizontal wells in isotropic reservoirs where a is half the major axis of the drainage area ellipse deﬁned as.25 + L s µ ¶4 0. Horizontal wells are most eﬀective in thin reservoirs. Another equation for horizontal wells was developed by Borisov(Nedra.
Jh = ln where β= ∙ a+ √ 2πkh h/(µB) ¸ a2 −(L/2)2 L/2 + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh 2rw ´ s kh kv 263 . We will later show that the above equation is identical to that for a vertical well with an inﬁniteconductivity vertical fracture of length L. in a manner similar to that previously shown.Comparing this equation with the corresponding equation for a vertical well shows that in the limit L >> h. a horizontal well is equivalent to a vertical well with 0 an eﬀective wellbore radius rw = L/4 (a highly stimulated vertical well).kv 6= kh When the horizontal permeability is diﬀerent from the vertical permeability. the eﬀect is to increase the eﬀective thickness of the reservoir. The result is. This reduces the eﬀectiveness of a horizontal well relative to a vertical well. s kh H=h kv When kv < kh . Z=z s kh kv The inﬂuence of anisotropy is therefore to change the eﬀective reservoir thickness. H. Isotropic reservoirs . To obtain the productivity of a horizontal well in an isotropic reservoir we simply substitute the eﬀective thickness of the reservoir for h in the equation for an isotropic reservoir. the ﬂow ﬁeld is equivalent to that for √ an average permeability of kh kv with the zaxis modiﬁed.
δ.8reh . For long horizontal wells. there is no bottom water or top gas.Figure 8. 264 . (L >> h). A schematic of an oﬀcentered horizontal well is shown in the attached ﬁgure. This is strictly true only for bound reservoirs where the top and bottom boundaries are closed ie.. δ < h/2 and L < 1. eccentricity has little eﬀect and the well can be located anywhere in the vertical plane without signiﬁcant loss in productivity. Jh = ln ∙ a+ √ 2πkh h/(µB) ¸ a2 −(L/2)2 L/2 + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh [1 2rw + δ2 ] ´ which is valid for L > βh. We deﬁne well eccentricity. δ = 1 for a well at the base or top of the sand.35: Productivity ratio Jh /Jv for horizontal wells in anisotropic reservoirs Horizontal well eccentricity The above equations are for the case where the horizontal well is centered with respect to the sand in which the well is completed. as δ= h/2 − zw h/2 δ = 0 for a centered well. Joshi gives the following equation for this case.
36: Horizontal well accentricity Figure 8.37: Eﬀect of eccentricity on the productivity of a horizontal well 265 .Figure 8.
2 cp rw =0.mcd] A 1000 ft.0. [Answer: Joshi equation (i) 7.? (i) 200 ft. 13. 13.Horizontal well productivities II [HORWELL.9 STB/daypsi (ii) 12. [Joshi equation (i) 1.Horizontal well productivities I [HORWELL.1] 266 . 16.5.1.4 cp rw =0. 16. Other reservoir and ﬂuid parameters are.2.mcd] A 1000 ft. (ii) 4. 0. kh =50 md µ =0.3. (ii) For kv /kh =0. horizontal well is drilled through the centre of a 50 ft sand on a 160 acre spacing. The horizontal permeability averages 200 md and the vertical permeability averages 20 md.33 ft B =1.9 .35 RB/STB (i) Compare the horizontal well productivities for kv /kh of 0.7.35 RB/STB What is the improvement in productivity which may be expected over that for a vertical well if the sand thickness is.10 .2 STB/daypsi ] Problem 8. µ =0.33 ft B =1. Other data reservoir and ﬂuid parameters are.5 and 1.1. 13. (ii) 20 ft. 10 ft and 20 ft from the base of the sand.01.Problem 8. 0.1 compare the horizontal well productivities if the well is located at distances of 1 ft. horizontal well is drilled in a reservoir on a 160 acre spacing.
The ratio of productivities for a damaged and undamaged horizontal well is therefore. Jh = ³ 2πkh h/(µB) 2a L cosh −1 ´ + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh (1+β)πrw ´ where a is half the major axis of the drainage area ellipse as previously deﬁned. formation damage can have a severe eﬀect on horizontal well productivity.d = cosh−1 ³ 2a L ´ 2πkh h/(µB) + ³ βh L ´ ln ³ βh (1+β)πrw ´ + sh where sh is the horizontal well skin factor which must be determined from well tests. Renard and Dupuy wrote. For a damaged well. ³ ´ ³ ´ ³ ´ βh cosh−1 2a + βh ln (1+β)πrw Jhd L L ³ ´ ³ ´ ³ ´ = βh βh −1 2a Jh cosh + L ln (1+β)πrw + sh L or Jhd B = Jh B + sh where B = cosh −1 µ 2a βh βh + ln L L (1 + β)πrw ¶ Ã ! Ã ! 267 . Consider the case of a horizontal well completed at the center of a homogeneous anisotropic sand. Jh.Eﬀect of Formation Damage on Horizontal Well Productivity As in the case of vertical wells. The above equation and the previously discussed equation developed by Joshi produce similar estimates for horizontal well productivity. 1990) developed the following equation for the productivity index. Renard and Dupuy (SPE19414.
38: Comparison between formation damage for horizonral and vertical wells 268 .Figure 8.