9 London and Southampton. Wr. London. . Sell and Sons* Ltd York ffottse.C. 1955 JReprinted9 with corrections and revised record lists9 1959 Reprinted 1962 G.First published 1953 Reprinted. Portugal St.s Published by ~he Printed in Great Britain by Camelot Press Ltd.

CONTENTS Chap. Suggestions for Study 1 Page 9 13 On the Study of Musical History The Beginnings of Western European Music 2 22 3 The Early Development Early Secular Music of Counterpoint 35 52 4 5 6 7 The 'New Art' and Its Development 55 69 Vocal Music in the Sixteenth Century The Rise of Instrumental Music 85 99 119 8 Vocal Music in the Seventeenth Century Instrumental Music in the Seventeenth Century 9 10 1 1 The Age The of Bach and Handel 134 147 Rise of Classicism 12 Developments in Opera Beethoven 160 170 178 198 13 14 15 1 The Romantics and Their Music Romantic Opera Late Romantics and Nationalists Impressionism and the Contemporary Scene 6 207 222 17 Inde 233 .


styles In the case of often many of the earlier composers there is some divergence of opinion as to the dates of their births and deaths. B. but have rather referred to those who appear to be the more important. the development of and forms. A book much the length can be no more than a bare outline. I must record my gratitude to Dr.FOREWORD writing this book I have tried to trace not only how the main stream of music developed. for his patience in reading by chapter.L. and that is of interest has had to be omitted. but also. been both helpful and stimulating.. The growth of an art does not take place in a IN vacuum. In any a history which consists mainly of lists of case.Mus. B. I have given those sanctioned by the more recent research.A. I have not attempted to mention every possible composer. though even here there is at times some lack of agreement among authorities. my drafts chapter His comments and criticisms have invariably W. What matters is the main way in which music grew. the underlying causes of that development. to some limited extent. composers and their works is of but little value. to keep to line of development. Wilfrid Dunwell. it is inevitably affected by many external and these cannot be overlooked or underestimated.. . of this factors.


however. that the should supplement his reading by the books menstudent tioned below. From experience individual chapters of both in his student days and as a teacher. also that relevant chapters of any or all in List i. a brief but useful book. and any other comparable books on the general the history of music. a different approach. may be pointed out to the prospective examination ing. is candidate that the days are long past when a pass in history could be achieved by writing about what one had merely read about. not for the not proposed to include a detailed found that a surer grasp of facts is to be gained by reading what several writers have to say about a given matter or a single book. So that by the time the student adopt has been through three or four different books he should have a fairly all-round grasp of the basic facts. one will tend to stress one aspect. which every . it is It is suggested. a book for the beginner.SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY this is specialist. the writer has SINCE bibliography.) For the itself. (It music itself. Collins Music Encyclopediaandtlne Harvard Dictionary of 9 Dictionary ofMusic invaluable to supplement the inevitably condensed information given in the chapters which follow. each writer while another will angle. It cannot be too strongly stressed that reference to the is studying the printed copy and listening to peressential for anything like a full understandformances. Examiners expect some knowledge of the music of it. period. rather than by constantly rereading deals with his subject from his own Moreover. should be read in conjunction with the present work. Grove's pilations as Scholes Oxford Companion 9 Music. Constant reference to relevant articles in such comto Music. not just of other people's opinions period up to Bach.

by Parrish and Ohl (Faber). including miniature scores. Finney: History of Music (Harrap). The record lists to each chapter do not pretend to be in any way comprehensive.. Man and his Music: 4 vols. For More Detailed and Comprehensive Study The Oxford History of Music (Oxford University Press). Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (Faber). Lang: Music Einstein: Music in the Romantic Era (Norton). is Masterpieces of Music before 1750. in Western Civilisation (Norton). General Outlines Einstein: A Short History of Music (Cassell). Walker: History ofMusic in England (Oxford University Press) . available in any reputable library. List 2. Reese: Music in the Middle Ages (Dent). List /. by son and Apel (2 vols. for the student to make his own selection with some guidance from a teacher. For the period since 1750 sufficient music is available. Parry: The Art of Music (Kegan Paul). and invaluable to the earnest Davistudent.io A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC student should possess. is the unique Historical Anthology of Music. Dent: Opera (Pelican Books). containing examples of the chief types of composition from the days of plainsong onwards. but they should be especially useful in the earlier period. Oxford University Press). Stanford and Forsyth: History of Music (Macmillan). but nevertheless contain much useful information. . Abraham: A Hundred Tears of Music (Duckworth). Bukofzer: Music in the Baroque Era (Norton). More comprehensive. Colles: The Growth of Music (Oxford University Press). Sachs: Short History of Music (Dobson). The last three are results of modern not always entirely in line with the research. (Rockcliffe).

SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY 11 Essays and Lectures on Music. but stimulating. Garner: A Study of 20th-century Harmony (Williams). and his articles on music in the writings of Sir The Donald Tovey Encyclopaedia Britannica are not only informative. are usefully dealt with in 9 Dent's Master Musicians series of books. Records For the earlier periods the H. History of Music in Sound. All records mentioned are available at the time of writing. Maine: New Paths in Music (Nelson). Dunwell: Evolution of 20th-century Harmony (Novello). Dyson: The New Music (Oxford University Press). but current catalogues should be consulted since frequent changes are made. the six volumes of Essays in Critical Analysis (Oxford University Press). K?enek: Studies in Counterpoint (Schirmer). and can be supplemented ad lib. Bauer: 20th-century Music (Putnam). The lives tion of their works c of most of the great composers. . The lists from the time of Bach onwards are the merest suggestions.V. and the German Arckiv series are invaluable and it is hardly necessary to look elsewhere.M. by reference to the various catalogues. Those who wish to delve into the processes of contemporary music are referred to: Abraham: This Modern Stu/ (Citadel Press). with consideraand styles. Lambert: Music Ho! (Faber).


by knowing why he wrote in his particular style. therefore it is no good. its value is that it can give us a greater appreciation of and insight into the works of the various composers.' is simply adopting the attitude of the fond mother who remarked. *I don't like Bach's music. in the highest sense. merely to load the mind with a host of facts which may never be to any use. for example. is a waste of time. The object of our study of musical history should be to increase our understanding of the art. Admittedly.CHAPTER ONE ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY WE put may well begin with a question: What are the object and the value of the study of the history of music? It should be obvious that to undertake the study of any subject without some definite aim. Not only can it augment our understanding and appreciation. this appreciation being fostered and deepened by the thoughtful study of history. while another may instinctively prefer the latter to the former. when watching a platoon on the . but it can broaden them so that. given the receptiveness which comes by follow deliberately trying to keep an open mind. not confining our liking and listenWe ing to that which makes the most immediate appeal. from intelligently the music of all periods. The person who says. interesting as it may be. everyone has personal preferences. more strongly attracted by the style of Mozart or Beethoven than by that of Bach or Handel. One type of mind is. But there is no reason why both minds should not appreciate the greatness of all four composers. of and sympathy with a can achieve some understanding composer whose work may at first seem unattractive. we can and gain enjoyment.

1685. be 9 . he was responsible tatas. e. Blasius Church in Mulhausen. There are a number of ways of approaching the study it of musical history. and died on July s8th. Whether we personally 'like the music of Bach or of any other great composer. in others. the Organ Book. In some cases. The effect which the course had on his output is well illustrated of a composer's life may have by reference to the held. Not that such knowledge the fact that Bach was born on March sist. chief appointments which Bach Leaving aside his 9 short year of service as organist at St. to which he was appointed His duties necessitated the provision of works for performance on the instrument in the castle chapel. etc. Our Jack's the only one in step lack of historical background. i. his first important post was that of organist at in 1708.I 4 c A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC 9 march. he was obliged to furnish a *new piece monthly for the chapel.g. personal circumstances of a composers life are imis portant in so far as they affected his output of composition. or whether we find it lacking in appeal. we must still admit its greatness. and the way in which he may have influenced his successors. since it is attested by the general consent of educated musical opinion. but posers. hence a large number of preludes and Little fugues. is relatively immaterial. and especially since the beginning of the igth century. a large number of the composers of the 7th and i8th centuries. the effect was considerable. After his promotion to the position of konzertmeister in 1714. . hence many can9 From 1717 to 1723 Bach was kapellmeister to Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen. Of these the least useful is the method of memorising the dates of the births and deaths of comis to be deprecated. Also. it was far less so. total of common sense. What does matter the first The the fact that his active life as a composer lay in half of the i8th century. the Ducal Court of Weimar.e. he betrays a said. the toccatas. More generally important are the influences which went to the formation of a composer's 1 style. 1750.

etc. the Lord. We shall therefore try to trace. and the sonatas and For the time being he had no need to write choral music. On his appointment. as well as the actual aim and object of the compositions. a solemn thought that Matthew Passion.* 6 was "reformed". a Biography. In the past 1. his extant cantatas number over 200. of providing some fifty-nine cantatas annually. harmony. i. Hence such works stern Calvinist psalm tunes were heard. which have emerged in the course of the centuries. adapting older movements to fresh words.000 years. It is the study of the origins and development of these styles which is perhaps the most useful and generalised approach. Bach was faced with the task. texture. S. C. But this is to some extent a limited aspect. the growth of musical styles. admittedly only in brief outline.e. or the to name no others. in this instance. in some of which the Prince himself took part. and although he indulged in a good deal of 'borrowing' from one work to another. formal structure. among other things. which is the approximate period * Bach. its chapel an unlovely vault in which only Bach was concerned with the provision of instrumental music. in 1723. 9 as the orchestral suites. Another method of approach is the study of the growth of the various forms. Returning now to the question of the study of musical history. written under the It is had Bach remained at Cothen until he died. and is in any case bound up with the development of the various styles. obligations of his appointment. to quote Prof. and therefore gave it no attention.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY 15 for the court music which. the concertos. 'The Cothen court*. the Leipzig period also Passions saw the birth of the and other great choral works. since the nature of a style is determined by all possible factors melody. the structural principles. we might never have had the experience of being enthralled by the St. suites for violin. Terry. was of a secular nature. Thomas's Church in Leipzig. the motet Sing Te in to Mass B Minor. Besides these. as Cantor at St. .

Liszt and Wagner. Up to about the year 1600. it is a gradual development from its its its predecessor. for example. as it were. A number of peaks were scaled en route. the expression of personal emoliterally. It must be realised that there is no clear dividing line between the various periods and styles. however. comwere chiefly concerned with mastering the technique posers of polyphony that is. Schumann. . to the twin summits of Handel and Bach. and the polyphonic summit was reached in the latter part of the i6th century. they merge. And so we move into the present cen'classical' new tury. This may be clearly seen in reference to Bach. in the first half of the 1 8th century. leading. with which are associated the names of such men as Weber. and who were inclined to look upon their great father as old- fashioned. some of whose own sons were among the progenitors of what developed into the 'classical' style. life the seeds of Such too labels as 'classic' and 'romantic' must not be taken 'Romanticism'. Beethoven himself was the bridge into the next period. through Haydn and Mozart to Beethoven.16 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC to be covered by our study. were in the air. developed to a climax. the culmination of one style being overlapped by the beginnings of a new one. the 'Age of Romanticism'. based on a more harmonic approach. is assumed to imply. These were exploited in many directions and led. new ideas. a number of differing styles have originated. In the years immediately before 1600. by way of the sonata and symphony. with its many conflicting currents. in due course reaching its culmination. Before these two men had completed their life-work further ideas began to emerge. Neither must it be thought that a new style of writing makes. and then more or less gradually declined. an entirely fresh start. irreverently referring to him as 'the Old Wig'. and germinating in successor. the satisfactory combination of two or more simultaneous melodies and rhythms. among: other things.

the Elizabethan madrigalists had done so over 200 years earlier. indeed. It is 17 the igth century. like painting. a new idiom. many. at least in this connection. though this did not mean that they necessarily confined their attention and labours solely to such music. Similarly with the term 'modernism'. Music. and calculated. for instance the 4ths or 5ths which separate the tenor and bass voices. applied particularly to composers of this period music of were not while some would claim that. all that can be done is to indicate some of the more outstanding influences and to show their outcome. In medieval times the majority of musicians. some time before the year 1000. especially in the 1 6th century. It is common to speak of 'modern' music and a 'modern' style as if they were inventions of the soth century. tecture. But there have always been modernists. whether composers or executants or both. Possibly the greatest and most influential of all modernists were those unknown pioneers who. from which conception derives all music written since their day. first gave system and order to singing at intervals other than the octave and unison. Calvin and the English Protestants church music developed on certain lines. to enhance the devotional impulses of the . the greatest of all romantics was Bach. Their chief duty was to provide and perform music for the church services. were in holy orders. In a relatively brief study of musical history it is obviously impossible to deal with the effects of such factors in any detail. But the first to give their music this personal expressiveness. The history of the development of an art cannot be dealt with in isolation.e. Up to the time of the reformers Luther. sculpture or archifactors. Bach's sons were modernists in that they thought and wrote in what was in their time a 'modern'. were in the service of the Church. Schumann writes of Beethoven as one of the 'moderns'. generally conformable to the (Catholic) religious outlook of the times.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY to this expression. has been continuously affected by external in particular ecclesiastical and social conditions and changes. i.

the services being conducted in the vernacular. was Luther's introduction of the chorale. To this end the use of the Latin tongue. to cite a specific example. posed as patrons of the arts. customary in the Western Church from its very beginning. was such as might satisfy the palate of the wealthy but possibly untutored layman. a form of composition brought to the ultimate peak of perfection by Bach. the i8th century. however employed. an effect which participation common. might never have been written. had many aims in and personal of worship. Musicians have always been ready to experiment. was expected to wear . took little or no part in the musical side of the services. Haydn's employer for many years. was discarded. A patron such as the great Prince Nicholas Esterhazy. Most notable. and his cantatas and Passions. and some. This had an immediate effect on the style of music composed for use in the Reformed Churches. of the music being congregational. was expected to provide music acceptable Middle Ages the changing social conditions by the fashion of the moment. either from natural inclination or in conformity with the prevailing fashion. The composer. Yet had Luther never begun his fight against abuses in the Church. who. to the taste of his employer. In the later and the wider spread of culture provided opportunities for large numbers of musicians to take service in the households of wealthy rulers and noblemen. say. despite certain differences in method and achievement. however. incidentally. From this arose the Chorale Prelude. this taste being largely dictated This is not to imply that the only music written in. The congregation. Bach's chorale preludes. The Reformers. many of whose works in this genre are of unsurpassable beauty. among these being a more actual by the congregation in the act was rapidly felt in other directions.i8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC worshippers. and much has depended on the employer. at least. may be said to have been indirectly responsible for a great amount of progress and development in music by his encouragement of his great musician-servant (who.

it is with the forward-looking type of mind. was in a position to give rein to his inventive genius in every direction. be he musician. for the delectation of his employer. the 'Age of Patronage'. may based on principles which can lead his successors steadily forward to a goal which he himself could only be dimly envisage. provided only contemporary music century. ever fantastic they may seem to his contemporaries.) The c man with a mission 9 may be a fanatic with a large bee buzzing in his bonnet. Music has not 'progressed in the sense that it has 9 and better'. The reader should not misinterpret the preceding paragraphs. but his aims and ideas. due largely to the work of musicians who had the interest to study the works of The musician-servant of the i8th earlier ages. for example. Matthew Passion of Bach or Messiah of Handel. possibly more than any other musician of this period. by experiment that progress is possible. to the lasting benefit of music. (Fewer than fifty years ago there were those who laughed at the Wright brothers' attempts to fly in a heavier-than-air machine. who forces man out of the rut of 'what was good enough for my father is good enough for me Experiment may at times have been wild at one point it reached such a pitch that the authority of a papal Bull was needed to curb its exuberance but even the wildest experiments may have in them the seeds of future developments of real value.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY 19 a livery like any other employee). But who is to say whether. painter or designer of aeroplanes. howIt is only the man 9 . To say that the science of medicine has progressed by 'getting better' between the Middle Ages and the present day is an obvious truism. the gth Symphony of Beethoven is intrinsically 'better' than the St. for example. Haydn. and by his great personal interest in the art. both of which were continually got better c written before Beethoven was born? It is only in com- paratively recent times that a clear realisation of the value of much of the older music has come about. and had to be prepared .

say. Mozart and Beethoven.. refers to 'the modern Italian manner . the symphonies of Sibelius. Nearly a hundred years later. in the Preface to the second part of his Symphoniae Sacrae. and 'revivals' of older works were unheard of. by means of which music is thought to have at length attained its final perfection'.20 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC compose what was required for any given occasion. We can say categorically that penicillin is a better curative agent than some horrible medieval compound of frogs' eyes and bats' blood. Heinrich Schiitz. this being presumably considered 'better' than that of preceding generations. See also the mention above of Bach's various posts and the types of example of the In 1 composition resulting therefrom. and while personal preference may give the listener a bias towards the music of one period rather than another. But music is of all things the least contheir and tangible. all more or less written to order. Jean Philippe Rameau implies that the music of his time is 'more perfect than that of the ancients'. but neglecting entirely those of Haydn. 709 he was appointed professor of the violin at the Ospedale delta Pieta in Venice. And this before 'mass production' was heard of. In 1647. so that the total of his works in this form. artistic value were not being In the writings of the lyth and i8th centuries we find 'continual reference to the contemporary 'perfection' of music. . Vaughan Williams and Walton. becoming Maestro del Coneerti (concert director) in 1716. At the present day this would be comparable to performing. What the audience wanted was the music of to own time. it is essential to realise that there has never crete been a time when works of real written.. whatever post the musician held. A condition of his appointment was that he should provide two concertos a month for performance by the orchestra. While in 1752 Joachim Quantz states that 'it took a long time to bring music to that approximation of perfection in which * it stands to-day'. In the case of medicine we are dealing with concrete facts. Possibly the first to realise the fallacy of this attitude was the Belgian musicologist The Italian violinist Vivaldi furnishes an excellent working of this system.* Composing to order was largely the rule. is immense.

We may admit. I have long striven against it. Not every composer has been a Bach. except in sound. Matthew Passion of Bach. it is certain that he learned the see.' be said at all'). at this distance of time. of style. that they were. of form or of anything else is so much wasted effort must be unless it is ciation of music applied to improve our understanding and appreitself. so to speak. the work of the lesser men has its value. All our study of history. Nevertheless. for example. a Bach or a Mozart. but personal taste cannot be set aside. and music has no real existence full circle. and I had to endure lively altercations when I maintained that music changes. perfection may be represented by the St. For one. is in the eye of the beholder. only part of the way up mountain whose summit he ultimately attained. the need to hear music of all periods and styles stressed most strongly. But while they did not achieve the stature of their great successor. Which brings us. the work of a Palestrina. Finally. not every poet can be a Shakespeare or a Milton. and we can style. for example. while yet another may find the unsurpassable in Beethoven's Choral Symphony. and that not merely because it points towards that of the giants. and that it progresses only in material elements. as it has been said. as in. that Bach's study of the works of Pachelbel and Buxtehude helped greatly to form his own much from them. who writes: 'One of the greatest obstacles to the fairness of judgments on the We may agree that perfection has been achieved within a given style. for another by the Jupiter Symphony of Mozart (which Schumann included e among the things in this world of which there is nothing to value of musical works is found in the doctrine of progress applied to the arts. back to the . they produced much music which is itself of far from negligible value.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY 21 Fransois-Joseph F6tis (1784 to 1871). we may perhaps also say that perfection in music lies in the ear of the listener. opening of this chapter. a Mozart or a Beethoven. If beauty.

gradually evolved and from it a scale-system was ultimately derived. A mode consists essentially of a series of sounds proceeding by steps from a note to its octave. (The French jongleur derives from the Latin joculatory whose function in Roman times had obviously some connection with the lighter side of musical entertainment. All music is based on some kind of scale. it * But let composed. In other words. It is important to realise that mode and key are two entirely different things. Similarly.CHAPTER TWO THE BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC IN various that the arts early times the chief. and an account of the origins of our music must begin with some consideration of the derivation of its scale-system. at first in the form of melody. if not the only patron of the was the Church. . but their art developed only up to a certain point. See also page 31. practice came before theory. the secular callings of minstrel and jongleur are of great antiquity. mode does not. Folk-song is the oldest form of music. and its name and character are determined by the order of the tones and semitones (and sometimes other intervals) within that series. The actual pitch of a mode is immaterial.* The scales which were the basis of the early church music derive from those of the ancient Greeks and are known as modes. and it is in the music for the services the Mass and the other 'Offices' developments which have led to the music of the present day are to be traced. but although its style has varied from century to century and from country to country. it can hardly first be said to have developed.) Possibly the only 20th-century survivals of the minstrels in the British Isles are the strolling fiddlers sometimes encountered in parts of Ireland. key depends on pitch. provided that the is not be thought that the scale is invented before the music Music.

There would seem to be little doubt that the earliest music of the Christian Church had strong affinities with that of the Jewish rite. Phrygian.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC set order of tones 23 and semitones is maintained. D. the Dorian. the differences systems are as follows. Thus. the mode remains unchanged. the scales being classified as diaThe medieval scaletonic. In any harmonic minor scale there are semitones between the and and 3rd. To describe in detail how this misunder- standing came about would require far beginning respectively on E. The difference between the keys of G major and G major lies in the fact that the latter begins a perfect 5th higher (or a perfect 4th lower) than the former. whatever the pitch. the Hypodorian. but differs from that of any major scale. In both. the 5th and 6th and the 7th and 8th degrees. modern terminology. but writers on music throughout the Middle Ages based their work on such garbled versions of Greek theory as were passed on from the ancient world to the Dark Ages. Their characters were distinguished. the mode of any minor scale is the same . The Greeks recognised four principal modes. The modal system of the ancient Greeks was highly organised and complex. more space than between the two . beginning a 5th below their respective principals. Hypolydian and Hypomixolydian. To these were added four subordinate modes. This was so even in the Byzantine (Eastern) in can be spared. there are semitones between the 3rd and 4th and the 7th and 8th degrees above the tonic. Lydian and Mixolydian. by the positions of the semitones in relation to the lowest notes. as in all major scales.as that of any other one. the other degrees being separated by whole tones. Briefly. but their mode is identical. arose from a misunderstanding of the Greek diatonic system. of 'white notes' only. as has already been mentioned. Hypophiygian. system. while there is an augmented 2nd between the 6th and 7th. the other degrees lie a tone apart. chromatic and enharmonic. which served as a basis for composition until the 1 6th century. G and B. and consisting. whatever its pitch or 'key'.

i. But error had crept into the conception of the system. the first mode was that on as against the Greek Dorian^ which began on E. 475 to 520) and Alcuin (735 to 804). It is impossible to say exactly how or why these errors arose in the Byzantine theory. as Dorian^ Phrygian. with their respective plagal versions beginning a 4th lower called and Hypodorian^ Hypopktygian. They were accepted by such western writers as Boethius (approx.24 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC least geographically. The Byzantines Church. Further. and known as Authentic ning respectively modes. since the four 'chief modes of the Byzantines began respectively on D. applying them wrongly. in ascending order as opposed to the descending Ex. but adopted the Greek names. Ptolemy.- Phrygian Mode IV Hypophrygian Mode V-Lydian Mode VI Hypolydian ivioac vii Mode VII lYiixuiyuian Mixolydian^ ft " ' ^ Mode VIII Hypomixolydian order of the Greeks. the most likely Greek tradition. failed to perceive the true Greek theory. F and G. at inheritor of the ancient formulated four 'chief modes and four subordinate ones which began a 4th below their respective chiefs. misunderstanding the explanations of the and-century author. The subordinate modes were called 'plagal' and corresponded to the 'hypo' modes of the Greeks. E. The Medieval Modes I P 58== Q Mode Dorian Mode II Hypodorian Mode ^ III TT W * . beginon D. i. The ultimate outcome was a series of modes known and Mixolydian. which was. Lydian . D Later writers.. F and G.e. E. etc.

In the Hypodorian mode the melody would lie between A and its octave. were admitted. A and would end on the lower D. and that of the Aeolian and Hypoaeolian is A. but would end on D. This identity ( 1 9 is. the Aeolian (A to A) and the This gave a series of twelve modes of Ionian (C to C). An authentic Aeolian melody would D . our major. with their plagal attendants. that of the Mixolydian melody is G. and Hypomixolydian Hypodorian is D. and the tions. apparent rather than actual. Aeolian and Ionian Modes ^olian Mode ^ ^. and was dubbed Modus Lascivus. The Ionian Aeolian mode is practically our minor scale. in the authentic Dorian mode would lie fundamentally between and its octave. i and 2 shows that some modes with different names. which the complete theory was ultimately expounded by the Swiss writer Henricus Glareanus in his Dodecachordon in 1547. not on A. circling round the dominant A. Examination of Exx. 2.g. Hypoasolian Mode fl Ionia Ionian Mode Hypoionian Mode in the major scale 3th or early I4th century) is as clearly but it was frowned upon by the as anything ever written Church for this very reason.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC 25 At a later period two more modes. e. that is. the lowest note of the final of both Dorian and Thus. its Final. Dorian and Hypomixolydian. Hypodorian and Aeolian^ are superficially identical. the 'wanton mode. They were hardly new inven- but their incorporation into the official system did provide theoretical justification for the current practice of composers. The Ionian mode was far from uncommon in secular music the famous English round Sumer is icumen in Ex. however. its A mode was distinguished by 'authentic' version.

New National Song Book . final between A and its octave. indeed.26 also lie 9 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC A. lies within the octave above D. and was responsible for an Antiphonary which was later replaced by that of Gregory. It is doubtful whether either had anything to do with the theoretical basis of music or. Ambrose (333 to 397) was difference 9 The 9 responsible for the arrangement of the four authentic modes. between authentic and plagal melodies be further clarified by reference to two wellmay perhaps known tunes of later date. apart from insisting on a more restrained and devout style of performance than that prevailing. and it has already been pointed out that the term 'key is inapplicable in 9 modal music.* It is sometimes stated that St. lies between G and its octave. origins of our present system of musical notation 1 These two melodies are to be found in the (Boosey and Hawkes). It might be said to be in the 'authentic* key of G major. a method of rendering the psalms which is still the standard in the Roman Church 9 and also in The many English churches. but would end on the It must be remembered that a 'final' is not a A final is the note on which a (modal) melody 'tonic ends the lowest note of its authentic mode. His name is most commonly associated with 'Gregorian chant . It might therefore be said to be in the 'plagal form of G major. Ambrose. It is far from certain that so. if written in G major. though both undertook or initiated some systema- tisation of the church music of their time. but uses only the notes of the scale of G major and ends on G. The melody of 'Drink to me only with thine eyes'. The melody of 'You Gentlemen of England . Gregory was responsible for reforms in both ritual and music. A tonic is the note which gives its name to a key. in the same key. . composed at all. Gregory the Great. and that St. who was Pope from 590 to 604. this is added the plagal versions. was the author of a number of Latin hymns which are still in use.

about the roth century. fell.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC 27 were remarkably humble. The earliest attempts were vague. A yellow line. the origin of our present stave. and were at first little more than mnemonics for one who was already familiar with the music. that it may have been passed on orally. and finally two black lines were added. was an enormous step forward. or below it. and may be compared with the cabalistic signs used by some and their shapes and meanings became increasingly definite. depending too much on the individual singer. or remained on the same note. although it appeared in western Europe. consisting of neumes. or group of neumes. In the gth and loth centuries there were numerous attempts to devise a really teachers of elocution to indicate the rise and fall of the voice. Even so. a large element of vagueness remained. was added above the red one for F. strict accuracy was certain only within the immediate vicinity of the Line.e. but this method. the increased use of music in the services. never gained any great hold there. i. though by no means certain. made some system of notation obviously essential. and some time before the year i ooo one writer it will never be known who decided to draw above the text a single red line representing the note F. the interpretation of any given neume. The complete solution was eventually reached in definite two further stages. giving still greater exactness. one on each side of the . since it clearly indicated one definite note from which others could be more or less accurately calculated.e. it is possible. representing G. and satisfactory method of pitch-notation. and the undesirability of variation. with neumes above. In course of time the number of neumes grew quite large. using Roman characters. probably undergoing frequent modification in the process. These were a kind of directional signs placed above the Latin text. But even if oral transmission ever did exist. its general curve. They indicated. As long as the body of church music remained but small. within a range of four or five notes. across. Even so. i. roughly. This. whether the tune rose. The Greeks had a notation based on their alphabet.

There are therefore a number of matters on which even the most erudite of musicologists cannot be certain. D. but on the 'wanton 9 Guido d'Arezzo (c. are still used in France and Italy. Whether this was due to secular influence or to began successively on the notes G. John Baptist substituted for ut. Many early writers seem almost to have been constitutionally incapable of expressing themselves with any clarity. already had some idea of the subject with which any given treatise was dealing. moreover. long before the invention of printing. The addition of the yellow and black lines to the original red F is sometimes attributed to the Benedictine monk 990 to 1050). though in the latter country the more singable do is prophetic genius is debatable. which is at times almost incomprehensible. but it seems more likely and helped to popularise a method which was already to some extent in use. in which he expounds his methods of teaching. F. . was This produced a complete stave of four lines. and difficulties are increased by the fact that for centuries the language used was ecclesiastical Latin. and invented a system of 'Solmisation'. which of a very large number of the traditional melodies. are scarce and their authorship often uncertain. He also made systematic use of the first seven letters of the alphabet for naming notes.* Guido's chief works are Micrologus. as in Tonic Solfa. used as mnemonics ut-re-mi-fa-sol-la that he formed his system. and De Ignoto Cantu. that the lines of a well-known The fact is that he noticed hymn to St. E. his method was based not on one of the officially acceptable modes. with the addition of si for B. and it was from the initial syllables of the lines of this hymn.28 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC sufficient for the notation F line. his reforms leading in the direction of our present note shapes. in which the degrees of the scale are designated by syllables rather than by letters. were not writing for posterity but for their contemporaries who. that he merely advocated Ionian. in all probability. * It must be realised that the \vritings of this early period. G and A. These names. a treatise on sight-singing which opens with the caustic statement that 'the most fatuous of all men of our times are the singers'! It is certain that Guido simplified and clarified neumatic notation. Rather surprisingly. The authors.

and also according to the type of com- The G on the 6th line. . 'was never in his practical use except by accident*. F. and the maximum would seem to be one of no fewer than twenty-five lines for a five-part composition. in combination with an unwieldy stave. be noted that absolute pitch was not then fixed however. for the notation of a large number of melodies. as one authority says (G. In the course of the centuries the is merely a theoretical abstraction. There are examples of staves of fifteen lines at different levels. with three defs position. Notation). pitch of the notes of a scale was quite definite. and leger lines were as yet far in the future. often according to the caprice of the individual composer. Thus. 4. but the absolute pitch of a melody would vary according to the singer and according to the mode. number of lines in the stave has varied. See Ex. a practice which. * clef always so-called 'Great Stave* of eleven lines.3 DEFGABC D But as long as the second line represented F.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC 39 It was stated above that the four-line stave was adequate It must. the clef would need to be placed higher on the stave so as to make available more lines and spaces below the note it indicated. the authentic mode and any melody in that mode could be noted with no trouble within the limits of the four-line stave: Dorian Ex. with the so beloved of writers of books on the rudiments of music. The solution to this difficulty was found in defs (a clef is literally a 'key ) which could be moved up or down the stave in the same way as the C clef moves on our present 9 five-line stave according to whether the part is being read a viola player (middle line) or a tenor trombonist (4th line) . by. The eleven-line stave. for example. at times produces results alarming to the QOth-century eye. Abdy Williams. therefore. by general agreement. The relative as it is. nowadays.* For a Hypodorian melody. overleaf. a Hypodorian melody (A to A) would lie partly above or partly below the stave. The medieval composer shifted defs about to suit himself.

One reason for this was the dislike of the augmented 4th F to B (the medieval theorist's Diabolus in Musica or 'Devil in music ). and probably owing to the desire of scribes to embellish them. Two kinds of B were therefore The hard B B durum -was recognised. this was hardly avoidable if women and men. The sharp sign # was used equally with to t| So far only the theoretical aspects of the early music have been considered. a later invention. The Greek diatonic system. indeed. the soft B B mollis was shown 9 by b. occurred accidentally. what was the music itself? The answer to this question is 'pure melody Deliberate singing or playing in two or more parts seems to have been unheard of. But the mere duplication of a . one other point must be mentioned. playing or singing in octaves. they have assumed their present shapes. necessary by the sign b. though it is hardly possible that it cannot at times have 9 . which could be 'softened into the perfect interval by flattening the upper note. The G (treble) clef appeared first in the 1 3th century. 'magadizing . Hypodorian Mode ABCDEFGA Before leaving this very rough outline of early notation. or boys and men. In the course of time. 'hard' and 'soft 9 9 9 9 . These two signs are respecindicated tively the origins of our t] and [>. although largely based on the 'white-note scale. and this carried over into the medieval system. were performing together. Ex. and was at first when indicate a contradiction of [>. B rotundum or 'round B. The ancient Greeks understood 9 Le. admitted what would now be called B flat in certain cases. and were originally formed simply as capital letters. 4. also known as B qwdratum or 'square' B. but was only rarely used before the rise of instrumental music in the i6th century.30 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The earliest clefs were F and C.

if regular use in the Catholic Church. the composer writes as he feels the theorist comes along and how he has done it. had little on the composers themselves during the cenany turies when the body of Tlainsong' was being built up. or playing it on the piano. It is worth remembering that practice always precedes theory. effect were the men who Even wrote much of the music will Ambrose and Gregory actually their contribution. Plainsong can only be correctly understood and interpreted when sung unaccompanied. It is most strongly urged that those to may whom plainsong is unfamiliar should take every oppor- tunity of hearing it as it is performed in the bigger Catholic churches and cathedrals. to those who will take the trouble to familiarise themselves is with it. It is more than doubtful whether instruments were used in churches at all before . could be but small. as in approaching any music which The need some effort for appreciation. Merely humming it over to oneself. mous amount of such music still extant and still in never be known. much of which dates from very early times. conveys nothing of its digand beauty. since educated musical opinion agrees that it is a highly-developed branch of musical art. as compared with the enorcomposed. theory. and then and explains what he has done Many people find plainsong an acquired taste. it is music for use under certain conditions nity and must be heard in the surroundings for which it is intended. and it must be admitted that the lack of harmony and the use of unfamiliar scales may be some slight bar to its immediate understanding and appreciation. as rewarding as any other style of music. are an open mind and an acceptance of the fact that. there must be something of value in it which is worth searching for. It melody at the octave must be realised that misunderstandings of ancient Greek if Who and the lack of clear and definite notation. impelled to write. Nevertheless. plainsong first essentials.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC is 31 not part-singing or playing.

Authorities differ considerably on the rhythmic treatment of plainsong. and the earliest were of a size to be struck by the clenched fist. any melody being normally limited to the compass of one octave the octave of its mode. The invention of keys to be depressed dates from the i2th century. however. often using mainly An example is syllable. at least up to the loth century. 1 The types of composition embodied in plainsong are those applicable to the various services of the Church. is strictly speaking an anachronism. the orchestrally paniment to plainsong. It was. could hardly do more than duplicate the melody. was purely melodic. and is only to be tolerated if of the most simple and restrained character. even had such a thing as 'Harmony been evolved (it had not). who tried to introduce into the church instruments other than the organ. moreover. the melodic The hymns style varying from simple to highly ornate. hence the term pulsator organorum organ-beater for the organist. The music of the Church. . crotchet. In the Middle Ages there was continual warfare between the musicians. (Later. etc. although common enough nowadays. not bound by any rigid metrical rhythm. accompanied Masses of Mozart and Schubert. and the ecclesiastical authorities. and the only instrument which haj never been considered unacceptable is the organ. whc disapproved of their use on account of secular associations.* The use of organ accom9 among other things. frequently of a very straightforward kind. pulled out or pushed in to admit or prevent the admission of air into the pipes. in any case.32 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC about the gth century. when 'measurable music' first made its appearance. which occur in services such as Vespers and Compline are one note to each ornamentation. the authorities modified their attitude considerably. of which * The 'keys' were actually 'sliders'. Definite note values were not thought of until the 2th century.) The earliest organs. the crude instruments of the time could not have attempted it. all that can be said with any certainty is that there was no organised system of relative note values comparable to minim. and exhibiting a minimum of the Advent hymn. then. hence.

with an amazingly complex melodic outline. Qua vi -ta mor- tern - tu -lit Et mor te vi - tarn pro - tu - 1 This is readily agreed one of the great melodies of by all who have heard all time. It dates from the end of the 6th century. Ac -ter na lux ere -den -ti_-um. Conditor alme usual English version begins: 'Creator of the and 5. .der*um.su. light. as will it be sung in its proper surroundings.mn. Ex. 6.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC the words are attributed to siderum. classified as 'melismatic' plainsong. Je . la -ten -de vo -tis sup-pli-cum. Vexilla Regis J)J3J'J^J>J Jj Vac -il la J) de -unt: Re - gis pro - W** _ per Ful-get Cru-cis mys-ter - i . Gonditor alme siderum Con . Melisma is a Greek word literally The most highly ornate melodies are found in some of the music for the Mass. stars St. 33 The Ambrose. Re-demp-tor om-ni-um.' Ex.di -tor al-me si. Much of this is of great beauty. Of the more ornate kind we may quote the Passion Sunday hymn Vexilla Regis (The Royal banners forward go').

and although own music. thus permitting a certain amount of variety.2. the Sanctus is c 5 the words are invariable. The most important body Mass. mz.Nos.Vol. holy. holy ) ('Blessed He that cometh in the name of and the Agnus Dei ('0 Lamb of God'). there is only one setting of each.34 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC to pass- meaning 'song'. RECORDS H. having been 'set' by composers only very rarely. Graduate Romanum.ntoi3. The book a 'Mass' in the musical setting of these sections comprises sense. the and Benedict the Lord') 9 Gloria. Gradual. These are always sung to plainsong. is that for the two the Ordinary and the Proper. contains a number of plainsong settings of the Ordinary. there are no alternatives as in the Ordinary. It is divided into of plainsong categories. The term 'melismatic' is applied ages where several notes are taken to one syllable. Offertory and Communion.M. The Proper consists of four sections Introit. those portions of which The Proper of the Mass comprises every passage has its the words vary according to the occasion. .S. Kyrie Eleison ('Lord have mercy ). ( Holy. The which is the official of music for both the Ordinary and the Proper. The Ordinary consists of those portions of which the Credo.

author of Musica Enchiriadis did not invent organum. and the doubling part as the Vox Organdis or Organal Voice. so that Otger. below. It seems to have arisen some time in the gth century. whoever its author. since it gives the first account of a method of singing in anything but unisons or octaves. like Guido d'Arezzo in his later writings on notation.CHAPTER THREE THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT IN ful. .7 (a) -e- ** ^ (b) (c) e- e- -Q- j? -e- -e- . It expounds the principles of Organum or Diaphony (the two terms are synonymous medieval writers are always careful to insist on this). j -^. * It was formerly attributed to a Flemish monk named Hucbald.* This book. the simple fragment at Ex. merely explained a practice which was already in common use.0. of which the essential basis is the The duplication of a melody in parallel 4ths or sths. The authorship. as is the case with so many of the early writings. work but the latter part of the loth century was written a called Musica Enchiriadis. Thus. 7 (a) could have an organal part added as at either (*) or (). The plainsong was then known as the Vox Prindpalis or Principal Voice. is doubtis now generally attributed to a certain Abbot Otger. In its simplest form organum involved the straightforward doubling of a plainsong melody at the perfect 4th or 5th Ex. is a landmark in the history of music.

the principal voice could be doubled at the octave below. Ex. modified at times because of a rule that the organal voice might not descend below tenor G. however. (The reasons for this rule were logical enough to the musicians of the time. the 'coming together' of the voices at the end of a passage so that they ended on a unison.8 Absolute parallelism of the voices was. more or less complex.fi. and the organal voice at the octave above. giving four-part parallel movement: Ex.) Thus. that at the 5th had fallen into disuse. Much thought had also been given to the occursus. and in his Micrologus Guido states clearly that it is 'not allowed Rules. now rail a radftnr. forming what we should 9 . to allow for all kinds of possibilities. for the adding of the organum had been worked out in detail. and the employment of oblique movement was normal in the appropriate circumstances.9 Principal voice Organum By the time of Guido d'Arezzo organum at the 4th below was the only accepted procedure. if the principal voice dropped below F. oblique motion one part moving while the other is stationary came about. but are far too complicated to be elucidated here. .36 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Further.

. This at first would only occur in approaching a cadence. and which proves that contrary motion was rapidly being combined with the old parallel and oblique e procedures. Guido man John to Unfortunately. . however. which is generally accepted as dating from about 1050.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT Ex. is the fact that the occasional use of contrary motion led musicians to explore and exploit its possibilities apart from the occursus. deals some extent with the new. ledge. . written about noo. in his Musica. called the 'Winchester Troper'. contrary motion. and the English- Cotton. there is here a gap in our knowdeals with the old organum. But writers between Guido and Cotton simply ignore new organum. and the fact that it now came into existence is attested only by a few examples of the music itself. composed for performance and not merely to illustrate theoretical principles. that based on contrary motion. There is also an anonymous treatise of about the same date. 10 37 7 Ex. which dates from not later than 1080. shows that in certain cases a beyond oblique motion was taken. The most important and illuminating of these examples are found in an English MS. which explains the new procedures. proves that there had been some progress since the time of Otger. Ad Organum Faciendum ( On the Making of Organum'). viz. M quoted from Guido. is called the New Organum. The kind of writing so far dealt with is known as the Old Organum. but the fact that by Guide's time (he died in 1050) it was accepted as 'correct' procedure. step 10. under however limited conditions. More important.

the major and minor 3rd and 6th are imperfect. indeed. but . By this time. i. in accordance with the laws of acoustics. it is to be noted. Aurally. employ it almost exclusively. The earliest examples of the new organum still rely mainly on the unison. In later examples of the new organum more and more prominence is given to movement in contrary motion. All other intervals are discords. 5th and octave. and all combinations of three or more notes containing within themselves one or more dissonant intervals are also discords. to the early medieval musician they were discords. gradually. Although to us the major and minor 3rd are entirely consonant. regardless of scientific authority. but within the next century srds and.38 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Ex. the octave doubling of principal and organal voices had dropped out of use. Simple two-part writing was the rule. By the i6th century what may be called the traditional academic attitude to discord was fairly fully developed. and in e the course of time this aural tolerance 9 . some. and includes the 3rd as well as the perfect concords. The perfect 4th.e. 5th and octave are perfect concords. a concord is any combination of sounds which the ear is willing to accept as such. The major and minor 6th were felt to be even more dissonant. Scientifically. 6ths make more frequent appearance. however. has increased more and more. concord and discord are classified and distinguished in exact terms. ii This shows both similar and contrary motion. and it was some time before they were freely accepted as concords. At this point it may be well to digress and to trace briefly the manner in which composers' attitude to concord and discord has developed. 4th.

for example. (By 'norm of consonance is meant what the ear tion. or were prepared and resolved as It is often stated that Glaudio Monteverdi suspensions.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 39 such procedures as the unprepared appoggiatura were still outside the composer's vocabulary. we find some really surprising procedures. etc. it is true. had become gradually less rigid. Throughout the i8th and much of the igth centuries composers continued to hold an orthodox and traditional attitude to the treatment and use of discord.) To Wagner. what is more important. a 7th chord did not necessarily need to be resolved in the traditional way. appoggiaturas. but a discord. (1567 to 1643) was the first to take the 7th of a chord without preparation. not requiring resoluat least in his later works. sound logical. But it is to be noted that his most startling combinations of notes always resolve logically and. though to some extent the English madrigalists of the late i6th century had pointed the way. he frequently used a series of more or less unrelated . but he seems to have been anticipated by the Englishman William Byrd in his four-part Mass. will accept as a concord. and in the work of Henry Purcell. in the traditional sense. By the end of the 1 7th century the attitude to the handling of dissonance had developed enormously. In the work of Liszt (1811 to 1886) and Wagner (1813 to e 1883) a change of attitude begins to emerge. Discords were taken either as passing notes. In this respect the most forward-looking composer of the i8th century was Bach. and also of many of 9 their contemporaries. was still a discord and must be resolved. The nonn of consonance' of both these composers was a good deal in advance of that of their predecessors. to a considerable degree. whose freedom is at times astounding. The treatment. composers being on the whole content with a more restricted vocabulary. In the course of the 1 7th century composers began to exploit the emotional possibilities of new methods of dissonance- unprepared 7ths. In the latter half of this century there was a tendency to greater restraint.

e. we have to accept the fact that from about . of whatever style. words to which it was sung. the The are more less so. In the latter part of the i2th sibility century musicians began to turn their attention to the posof 'measure' in music that is. Despite the addi- an organal voice. it is almost as old as harmonised music itself. to the plainthe rhythm of the music still remained that of the song. far more pungent. of 'orthodox rules. quite easily. Schonberg and Bartok. sounds which a century ago would have been considered excruciating. howregardless ever astringent or unexpected. And the musical ear is able to move with them. largely The distinction. if it occurs in the course of a passage which is fundamentally consonant. too.g. the more advanced present-day writers do not admit the old distinction at all. But sense) as whereas the older composers used discord (in the traditional a relief from uninterrupted concord. on such matters as context and the prevailing The emotional or psychological effect of any given dissonant combination is far greater. and can now accept. they can be 'explained' in traditional terms. any distinction between concord and discord in the traditional sense has completely broken down. Returning tion of now to the isth century. to find some system less whereby musical sounds could be of definite length regardof the words. have a traditional basis. astringent combinations contrasting with those which Not that this principle is new. depends style. from the more tense ones. where desirable. than if its surroundings are almost entirely dissonant. 3 more 'advanced composers. principle is rather that of tension versus relaxation. Here again the origin of the initial impulse is obscure. They use the less tense combinations as a relief. Since Wagner's time composers have delved deeper and deeper into the possibilities of dissonance. and the ear has come to accept as concords combinations of sounds which were formerly considered case of some of the So that in the to be discords.40 discords for A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC 9 some specific emotional or illustrative purpose. But all his harmonies.

triple time. in which case some method was needed of fitting them together. It may also be pos- sible that. the value of a written note might depend on that of the note preceding. It is possible that the impulse came from a desire to sing two different sets of words simultaneously. in a variety of ways.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 41 the middle of the century works appeared dealing with the principles of musica mensurabilis or 'measurable music'. The basic fact of triple time was that the long note could be subdivided in three ways two beats plus one. a complicated system in which. The fragment on p. It has been claimed that from 1150 i. Dance tunes of this period were not infrequently in duple time. seems to suggest duple possibilities. Discantus Positio Vulgaris. with or without the inclusion of the long note itself. and that triple time became not merely the normal but the only kind of measure. and with the basic note. The merest outline . however. 42 shows some of the possible combinations in a three-voice passage. but that the laws of This. among other things. were organised into Rhythmic Modes. from the dance. Practically all the earliest examples of measurable music depend on the subdivision of a basic long note into three. so that not only would they start and finish at the same time. or one plus one plus one. the time is triple. and it is exactly this idea of the even beat which is the basis of measurable music. organum could also be complied with en route. there may have been some influence Any dance necessarily involves regular pulsation. one plus two. Extending the basic idea of the triple subdivision of the long note. is by no means certain. however. to about 1300 all music was in an overstatement There is. it. but this may be since the oldest extant treatise. or sometimes following. despite the Church's traditional lack of sympathy with secular music. no doubt that any leaning to such time in sacred music disappeared very quickly. series of such subdivisions. and as long as the time taken over the long note remained invariable these subdivisions could be combined with each other.e.

of and 5 as we can now Ex. system would require many pages of explanation. indeed. they did not divide their music into bars of equal mark similar to length. and the earliest ones. lay still in the future. without numerous examples. Its value. they fell into disuse. although musicians had now A a barline might be used at the end of a phrase. did not come into regular use until the rise of instrumental music in the i6th century.42 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC this its intelligibility. dividing up the music into portions each containing the same number of beats. when with the advent of new and freer ideas. It must be understood that arrived at an understanding of the even beat and exact note-values based on triple rhythm. would be questionable. as will be seen in due course. Timesignatures. the one 'mode persisting throughout the whole of the part. verbal rhythm of earlier times. it involved the setting out of a voice part in one or other of some six metrical arrangements of note-values. . and the whole method was undoubtedly mechanical in its application. but barlines in the modern sense. lay in the fact that it helped musicians to the understanding and management of metrical rhythm as opposed to the free. This obviously induced a great deal of rhythmical rigidity. 12 see. determined by a time-signature. had an entirely different signification from those of the present day. Broadly speaking. in any case. The use of the rhythmic modes persisted until about the end of the 1 3th century.

Franco's importance is shown by the name sometimes given to this period the 'Age of Franconian Discant'. held varying opinions on such matters. Different writers. John Garland's De Musica Men- surabilis Positio (early ton's De whom turies). Petrus de Cruce. but worth noting that two of the above theoretical works were by Englishmen. for example. by Franco of Cologne. i3th century). The advent of measurable music necessarily brought about changes and developments in notation. Other works of later date than Discantus in the British Positio Vulgaris are (a) (b) Museum. It was mentioned in Chapter 2 that Guido d'Arezzo's simplification of the old neumatic notation tended towards our presentday note-shapes. The basic note of measurable music was the Breve (Latin brevis short). There were. might be worth either two or three breves. until the I4th century that universal clarity and agreement were achieved. one of the few definitely known composers of the period. exact system of notation. Even as late as the i8th century the Italian Martini refers to one kind in a book printed in 1774. however. Longer than were the Long (Latin longa) and the Maxim (maxima greatest) . the principal composers of it is record exists were French. seems to have had individual ideas on the relative values of notes. though a number of the old specifically neumatic signs lingered on in use to some extent. It was not . and (c) Walter OdingMusicae (late I3th to early I4th cenSpeculation As will be seen later. and a breve two or three semibreves. A long. moreover. complications unknown in our modern. shorter were the Semibreve (semibrevis half-short) and the Minim (minima least).EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT The most important work is 43 dealing with measurable music the Ars Cantus Mensurabilis (The Art of Measurable Song*). this which was also known as a Time'. late iath century. an anonymous MS. This tendency was intensified in measurable music. requiring sometimes as many as seven semibreves to be sung to a breve. becoming gradually rarer. the idea of placing a dot after a note to show that it was divisible into three equal parts had not yet been thought of.

instructive condensation is to be found on p. H. 128 of Music in Western an astounding piece of work. But it exists. 1310. and the same words were used for all the voices. without coming to any definite conclusion. Musicologists have argued for A Civilisation. The most famous of all compositions of the rondel type is the English Rota (the term is the composer's). Lang. over a twopart independent bass which is also canonic. we do not know. the Conductus and Organum. Apart from its remarkable beauty. notable composer of rondels was Adam de la Hale (c. it is exceptional in being for six and many come under the and the management of the part-writing is much in advance of other works of the period. it is voices. since contemporary writings. but more recent research places its date at 1280 or later. and we may be proud of the fact that it is English. interchanging at the end of each phrase. The most those of Odington. Cantilenae included various kinds of dancesongs mrelais and ballades heading of rondels or rondeaux.f years on * Willi Apel places it c. in that each of its voice parts (usually three) was taken by each singer in turn. whether its composer was a freak genius. or whether it is the only surviving example of an English school which was far in advance of all others. Unlike other extant rondels. There is some doubt.g. It seems to have had some affinity with the later round. the Motet. but the voices did not begin one after another as in a true round. . The rondel varied in length from a few bars to something quite extensive. however. by F. a tromhe (see Chapter 4). in which the four upper voices enter in turn.44 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The principal styles of composition in the Age of Franconian Discant were the Cantilena. are somewhat obscure. how it could have been written in the 1 3th century. in canon. It was formerly supposed to have been written about 1226. f Giraldus Cambrensis (1147 to 1320) has some interesting things to useful and say about part singing in Wales in the i2th century. e. as to the exact construction of a rondel. All began together.* Even so. Sumer is icumen in. it is a true round. and probably never shall know. 1230 to 1287).

the object was the fitting of one or more known melodies above the tenor. took a melody. were probably played on instruments. being broken up by rests. the i6th century). and recent research suggests that these. to hold. oddly enough to us. known melodies. frequently give An single syllables of fantastic length.g. in the Oxford History of Music consists. In the period with which we are dealing the tenor was the lowest part in the score. The tendency was. In such a work as a motet the aim of the symphonetes was to fit together known melodies. normally in long notes. who was known as phonascus. Later motets sometimes used instrumental dance tunes for their tenors. The upper parts of a motet were not only * The Art of Music. and he who worked with already-existing material. from the Latin tenere.* 'easing off the corners and adapting the points where the cacophony was too intolerable to be endured'. merely. which part itself was most frequently derived from a fragment of plainsong. so that from the verbal point of view a mere vocalisation on 'ah' would be equally effective. and contemporary MSS. e. so that it was not so much composition as musical carpentry. against which the upper voice or voices 'discanted'. In the motet. In the motet the lowest voice. It is to be noted that in the Middle Ages there was a distinction between the 'inventor' of a melody. These discants were. the tenor having the one word latus. The syllable la endures for 86 bars.f Tenors were at first taken from plainsong. the tenor being he who 'held' this cantus Jirmus. The tenor part was known as the cantus firmus or 'fixed song'. as an addition below the tenor. as stated above. example quoted them in modern notation. the symphonetes. as well as those from plainsong. the tenor. however (not to be confused with that of later times. to quote Sir Hubert Parry. of some 87 bars of 3/2 time. t The use of the term *bass* for the lowest part came later.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 45 The cantilena was a true 'composition' in that its writer composed the whole thing. to rate the symphonetes higher than the phonascus. .

The A third . which term may possibly be derived from 'hiccough'. Rocketing has been described by one writer as a cruel medieval stratagem'. though Franco and Odington differ as to whether it should be made up by the composer or adapted from some other source. In Organa (plural of organum} both measured and unmeasured music appeared in the course of the same piece. The result of such unseemly practices will be seen in due course. different words to each voice. The epithet seems apt! In the Church services use was made not only of written works (contrapunctus a penna) but also of improvised discant e 9 (contrapunctus a mente or discantus supra librum). and was applied solely to music in two parts. latter practice (It still may persurvives. The reader may care to imagine the effect of the National Anthem sung as illustrated in Ex. The tenor took a fragment of plainsong in long notes while the duplum discanted freely above it. and tended to be more homophonic in It appears that some style than the motet or organum. The conductus was distinguished by having a tenor not based on plainsong. Organum purum ('pure organum ) seems to have designated the sections which were unmeasured. but also retained their original words. were performed with words and some without portions them. as in an example in Discantus Positio Vulgans^ where the duplum sings a Latin hymn to the Blessed Virgin and the triplum a French love-song. haps be mentioned that the * part next above the tenor was called duplum or motetus. In an example in the Oxford History the two discanting voices each sing different verses addressed to the Blessed Virgin. Mention may also be made of the Hocket. The Conductus avoided the use of ultra-long notes or syllables in the tenor. hence the peculiarity of 'polytextuality'.46 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC carpentered out of known melodies. part was the triplum. and a fourth the quadruplum.* It was a common enough practice for one or more of the added parts to take a secular song. It was an extraordinary system in which the notes of a melody were alternated between two voices. 13.

shriek and bark like a dog'. but it would seem that singers had changed but little since Guido voiced his bitter complaint in De Ignoto Cantu (see p. p. but by the beginning of the I4th century the patience of the Church authorities was exhausted. from the earliest . (1321). in the early days of discant. 13 his Speculum Musicae God our -tious ^ save gx& Queen.' pronouncement Without being quite so outspoken as John of Salisbury or Jacob of Liege. Even in the I2th century.) The choirman who improvised his discant above the plainsong cantus firmus was supposed to follow out certain definite rules. de Muris. t Singers seem to have tended to get out of hand times. 28) . The theorist Jacob of Liege inveighs similarly in Ex. and in 1 324/25 Pope John XXII promulgated a Bull calculated plore. 26.their unarisen. curtailment and corruption' of the song. under pain * Until recently this work was attributed to the Norman Johannes to bring this unmeasured terms. see the remark on Ambrose's reforms.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 47 9 though with a secular connotation. and finally boils over with the statement that the singers 'howl.']' seemly conduct. the Pope made it quite clear that florid discanting above the plainsong was to cease. in the 'jam sessions of certain dance musicians. goes on to castigate 'mutilation.* He begins by referring mildly to the 'impudence* of singers who know nothing of the nature of consonance. often in them to their senses. John of Salisbury (c. the practices which had For a time the musicians persisted in . and many other writers de- The essential substance of was: 'Stop desecrating the plainsong. 1115 to 1180) states categorically that 'music defiles the service of religion*.

before the appearance of the famous Bull. the singers. nor exactly when it first appeared. as apart from the theorists. where it had first flourished. But composers eventually discovered the pleasing effect of putting the so that the lowest. but of which the authenticity is more than doubtful. but it may be well to mention here a theory which has been current for long enough.e. though we are not told who was responsible for this innovation. Adam . Thus song. According to this theory. The outcome sorted to having perforce returned to parallel organum. In any case. since there are extant examples of parallel first inversions dating from about 1300. thus became 9 The principal known composers of the period with which we have been dealing. or bass. as positions. So potent was this prohibition that even in 14083 over eighty years later. the 'false 9 . of all this will be dealt with in Chapter 5. florid discant on plainsong was still forbidden at Notre Dame in Paris. are Adam de la Hale. It has already been made clear that in compositions based on plainsong. who automatically sang it an octave above its written pitch. 'bourdon melody in the highest part. rewhat has been called 'an artifice of the most ingenious and subtle kind'. i. a series of pleasant-sounding first inversions resulted. written below the organal parts. P6rotin and Petrus de Cruce. opposed to the allegedly crude progression of root One writer calls this 'a picturesque story of uncertain origin'. making complete triads.48 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC office of 'suspension from permissible discant of eight days'. and that the only was the old parallel organum of the time of Otger. producwgfauxbourdon. no real proof of this theory of the origin offauxbourdon has ever been produced. Leonin. or 'false bass'. that plainsong the basic foundational melody was in the lowest part. Between the two parallel lines of organum at the 5th were inserted 3rds. which would seem to be an apt description. To avoid a mere series of parallel triads in root position the plain- was assigned to the highest voice.

a motet simply for use in the He would not necessarily officiated. since sign it. The writer of therefore rudimentary to undertake such a huge task was only other composer his Chorafa Constanttnus. in certain sections. (Perotin the Great). and whose survives of which the composers dates can only be fixed by the style of com- approximate position A composer would write. organist.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 49 mentioned. Leoninus. As to the effect of the * music itself. Lfonin. and having fallen in the library of the of day until some into disuse might never see the light a igth-century later. an anonymous MS.f born at Amiens de Cruce is a somewhat shadowy figure in the second half of the 1 3th century. and had not yet been invented. apparently. in his Magnus of the undertook the composition of polyphonic settings which Mass 'Propers' (see p. i. tThe . of the time calls him optimus renowned as an from which it has been deduced that he was while This is incorrect. 34) for the liturgical year. Heinrich Isaac. s fame seems to have been known as orgamtor. So the music. An organista was a writer of organa. was He is also known as Perotinus Magnus notation.e. 1623) also set a number state. also known de la Hale has already been form of his name. it is unfortunate that orsanista. would quite possibly church concerned. 1 183 to 1236). church at which he the art of it would not be published. adding two or three organal parts Liber Organi ('Great Book of Organum'). when unearthed by hundreds of years musicologist. written printing remain buried for purely local use. Petrus were later revised and supplemented by P^rotin. William Byrd (1543 to though he consistently omits of movements in his GradudLia (1605 to 1607). the to a cantusfirmus. say. pro4ig and is especially noteworthy as being.* He was succeeded by instrumental in imwho apart from his compositions. L&min an organ player Organs were still in a very rests on his compositions. in Paris. amount of music Besides the work of these men. first to write for three or four voices. a certain are unknown. and the notation and writing in the manuscripts. some three centuries later. Leonin. lived in the by the Latinised officiated at the cathedral of Notre Dame 1 2th century and Perotin (c.

from one nation to another. perhaps. of it The mere silent reading conveys no true impression. who produced most of the in the i8th and igth centuries. Little.Vol. were greatest musicians actually the last to enter the field. is known of English composers. RECORDS EM. but in actual performance it has an odd attractiveness and beauty of its It well own. Of the Parisians.2. and the most important school of composition was centred on Paris.50 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC it opportunities of hearing performed are extremely rare. however. though recordings are available. shall see in how the leadership in music passed. quite unlike the music of any other period. . It at various times. On paper it tends to appear crude and experimental. repays any effort made to hear it sung. on both intellectual and artistic development. later chapters We is. i6toio. while playing examples is on the piano equally unilluminating. worth remembering that the Germans. Leonin and Perotin are the most important representatives.Nos. During the lath to the isth centuries the influence of the University of Paris was supreme in Europe. Attention was drawn above to the fact that some of the most noted theorists of the time were Englishmen.S.

or rather chanted. it is mainly in sacred music that we can trace growth and I But as in any other age. the 'jugglers'. and the use of duple time is not uncommon. they gestes. Cadence points are dearly defined and there is a feeling for shape and design. mixtures of three. naturally. in some cases even suggesting the idea of a rondo. who were looked upon with disfavour by the Church. strongly marked metrical rhythm. and with them may be associated their central and northern . songs and dance tunes abounded. which seem to have been long and musically dull. sang. There is. were often of considerable poetic French counterparts the Trouvhes.. each section being immediately repeated. but with a dif- ferent ending. Dances of the I3th and I4th centuries are generically known as Estampm. for the reasons already stated. They are sectional in construction. who appeared rather and musical value. and as early as the loth century jongleurs were divided into two classes. however. development. These were southern French poet-musicians. etc. Phrase lengths vary considerably. At the end of the nth century began the age of the Troubadours. though the composers are rarely known. and the jongleurs de These latter came from Provence and Picardy. ><_>/ that since so little of the secular music survives.CHAPTER FOUR EARLY SECULAR MUSIC UR study so far has dealt almost entirely with music I used in the Church. Their love songs. four and six bars being frequent. Mention has already been made of the antiquity of the term jongleur. acrobats. narrative poems (gestes) recounting heroic deeds. Anglicised into "juggler' it came to imply a body of public entertainers which included conjurers.

court or monastery. northern Spain and northern Italy. Such music of troubadours and trouveres as has survived is purely melodic. troubadours and trouveres were consocial standing The above that of the jongleur.52 later. One . fined to those parts where the Provengale tongue was spoken.e. was found in all parts of Europe. a trouvere. but only 259 of their melodies. exercising his art not as a professional but rather as a gifted amateur. to find. etc. a 'dramatic pastoral'. A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Both died out as the age of chivalry decayed towards the beginning of the I4th century. Richard I of England was a troubadour. (Grove states that the words of over 2.*. The names 'troubadour and 'trouvere have identical meanings. which they developed to a high pitch of beauty and refinement. Of these. France. Besides composing such works as those mentioned in Chapter 3. the 'finder' or inventor of a melody. to a rather mannered idealisation of of the troubadour and trouvere was The latter was in any case a and might be a welcome guest in professional entertainer. King of Navarre. and its anticipation of optra-comique is seen in the way in which the dialogue is interspersed with airs. i. and Thibaut. and the manuscripts do not indicate the {. of tie most notable trouveres was Adam de la Hale. Many of their poems survive. the most important is Le Jeu de Robin et Marion. he also wrote some entertainments which are sometimes stated to be the precursors of the French opera-comique. The troubadour or trouvere was of the phonascus or inventing variety.) Both troubadours and trouveres were notable for the cultivation of lyric poetry. 45. The jongleur9 whatever his standing.500 troubadours' songs are extant. The etymological root of both is the French verb trouver. many of the 9 9 poems being devoted woman. The troubadour or trouvere might himself be of noble birth. but only a much smaller proportion of the music. There is a clear connection here with the distinction between phonascus and symphonetes mentioned on p. It is divided into scenes like a play.

others are clearly based on the major scale the 'wanton' mode so disliked by the Church. himselfwere minnesingers and historical figures. Their art died about the same time as that of the troubadours. and that of version of that Parsifal on Wolfram von Eschenbach's The songs of the minnesingers. trouveres and minnesingers covered a relatively brief period of history. obviously so that the player could hardly avoid sounding at least seems certain that two notes simultaneously. As has already been noted. In a limited way it is an example of the effect of a purely social condition on music. like those of their legend. too. but in others there is clear metrical accentuation. though somewhat indirectly. since Wagner's opera Tannhduser includes a contest of song in which the protagonists Wolfram von Eschenbach and Tannhauser as plot of Tristan and Isolda is largely based on the story told by the minnesinger Godfrey of Strasburg. and was very limited in its range. show the use of the major scale and duple time. were mostly of noble birth Almost contemporary with the troubadours were the German and i3th and then- songs dealt chiefly with love. into the igth century. they were certainly not polyphonic. it coincided with the age of chivalry and ceased when that age came to an end. It is perhaps worth mentioning that their influence reached forward. who flourished in the I2th centuries. They are written in the contemporary plainsong notation on a four-line stave. They. Minnesingers. From which it may be deduced that the accompaniments were of a harmonic character. The rhythm of some of the songs is as free as that of plainsong. The art of the troubadours. But for .EARLY SECULAR MUSIC it 53 method of accompaniment. though some kind of instrumental support was improvised on the This was a crude kind of fiddle (which term vielle orfedeL derives from the old name) with a flat bridge. duple time being used as well as triple. While some of the melodies are modal in character. The French counterparts.

the well-known 'dawn song' in the third act being a setting of one of his poems. The first of these guilds was founded in 1311 at Mainz by Heinrich von Meissen. and functioned as a well to comparable in its structure to the various trade guilds of the late Middle Ages. who lived in the i6th century. parallel to the add a sketch of the work of the They were a kind of middle-class noble minnesingers. and the movement flourished from the i4th to the i yth centuries.M. members passing through the usual stages of apprentice. The most famous meistersinger was Hans Sachs.S. and their construction was subject to an accepted code of rigid rules. Before returning to the development of the main stream of music. 14 and 15. the art of these men would not have arisen and flourished. . Vol. He is intro- duced as one of the principal characters in Wagner's music drama The Mastersingers of Nuremberg. RECORDS H. Unlike those of the minnesingers. 2. journeyman and master. the songs of the meistersingers were mostly on Biblical themes. it German guild. Nos.54 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the rise of chivalry and all that it implied. may be Meistersingers.

however. and papal interdiction regarding the treatment of plainsong could not restrain musicians from further experiment. and it is from about 1300 that duple time appears in polyphonic compositions. Real development was not possible within the constricting influence of the rhythmic modes. We find. but rather a development from Ars Antiqua which. seen that the troubadours did not confine themselves to triple measure. was not. There is also improved shapeliness of melodic line and greater independence in the part-writing. reached a point where changes and modifications were . and its introduction was inevitably the beginning of the end of the rhythmic We modes which were nothing ideas else. that from about 1300 the rhythmic modes tend to fall into disuse and a far freer attitude to rhythm begins to appear. By the end of the i3th century the the IN principles of measurable music were fully established. therefore. became Composition in accordance with these new known as Ars Nova the 'New Art' in conthe c 9 * essentially based on triple time and trast to Ars Antigua Old Art Ars Nova. so also the year 1300 approximately separates an old style from a new one. It is first mentioned in a treatise by Odington about 1280. despite its name. had inevitable. an actual 'invention'.CHAPTER FIVE THE 'NEW ART AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 5 same way as the year 1050 forms a rough dividing line between the old and the new organum. as rehave gards both melodic style and freedom of rhythm. but the whole conception of the system was too rigid to last. There can be little doubt that the work of the troubadours and trouveres had some effect on polyphonic music. as stated above.

But such a dot appeared in the time-signature. Very briefly the follows. though their original meanings no longer hold good. for the difference in the names of the The whole-bar sound: . time and prolation. viz. Similarly. treating them as accepted facts rather than as mere theoretical possibilities. in 9 'Perfect Prolation the semibreve divided into three minims. A note 9 divisible into three equal parts was 'perfect and the dot 9 was therefore sometimes called the 'point of perfection . each semibreve dividing into two minims. This is comparable. if mode and time were perfect and prolation imperfect. the long dividing into three breves. since they perfect mode. and whether each was perfect or imperfect. with a series of separate signs. like Guido and Franco. the composer would place after the clef the signs CD. It is at this time. not after perfection of Time-signatures were inevitably had to show mode. fect among composers. So that. time and prolation were indicated by a complex system of signs of which two still remain in occasional use.The first indicated the note as nowadays. too. each of these breves dividing into three semibreves. and the third imperfect prolation. indicating subdivisibility into three. and In Ars Nova the long in 'Perbreves. allowing notes. He deals with the use of binary rhythms and their notation. complicated.56 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The first theorist to expound the principles of the New Art was Philippe de Vitry (c. C and $. the second perfect time. O and G. 1285 to 1361). first appears. he explained what was already more or less common practice tem may be described as was worth three breves. but in 'Imperfect 9 Mode' was worth three Mode 9 only two. Thus. the breve three semibreves. Perfection or im9 mode. whose work Ars Nova gives detailed instructions on the new rhythmic ideas. In 'Perfect Time the breve was worth three semibreves and in 'Imperfect Time' two. that the dot. and in 'Imperfect Prolation into two. rhythmic sysIn Ars Antiqua the long the semibreve three minims. to 9/8 time.

etc. apart from his strictures on singers. who.THE 'NEW ART' AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 57 divides into three: IJ. or vice versa. tended to oppose the new methods in his Speculum Musicae.I Each of these also divides into three: and each of these into two: further notational complication was the use of different coloured notes to show temporary changes from perfect to imperfect mode. but they certainly needed to have their wits about them in the I4th century! Of other contemporary theorists mention of the Franciscan Simon Tunsted (d. 1369). citing some specific examples. A To the singer who was accustomed to it. De Vitry states that 'another use of red notes is to enjoin singing at the octave in the passages in which 5 they occur . but unfortunately may the red notes might indicate something entirely unconnected with time. De Muris (Ars Novae Musicae). who wrote a treatise codifying the principles of Ars Nova. Singers may at one time have been 'the most fatuous of all men'. Jacob seems to have looked back to the 'good old days' of Franconian discant and although neither he nor anyone else could halt the progress of the may be made new ideas. c. red being the most usual. J. and Jacob of Liege.. he may perhaps have exerted some restraining . influence.J. this system have been logical and simple enough.

and within it he is apt to indulge in remarkably complex rhythmic combinations.* The cantilenae include ballades. In the Mass the tenor takes strictly a plainsong part in notes of variable but moderate length.58 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The outstanding composer in France during this was Guillaume de Machaut (c. generically known as cantilenae.he showed his genuine inventiveness and musicianship. to have paid scant attention to the papal in Chapter 3. chansons and lais. period In Machaut seems Bull mentioned his setting of the Mass. while the upper voices discant more or less freely. 1300 to 1377). as in the motets. The use of discord * hundred years after Machaut comPolytextuality died hard. the first movement of Bach's St. so that different sentences were being sung simultaneously. and it is in them that we see not only the freer rhythmic methods of Ars Nova. and there are plenty of later examples. In his polyphonic compositions there is notably greater ease in the management of the part-writing. but also the more shapely melodic style which gradually developed. Especially notable is the use of a basic motive. as a phonascus . who has been described as the first practical exponent of the Ars Nova of de Vitry. even to the use of secular songs for the discants above the long-note plainsong tenor. Duple measure is common in his work. Especially notable is his four and five voice setting of the Ordinary of the Mass the oldest existing setting apart from the anonymous three-part Messe de Tournai. He wrote a large number of secular works. rondeaux. In the motets Machaut adopts a severely conservative attitude. appearing in one guise or another in all the sections. replacing the angularity of Ars Antiqua. Some of his 'monoIt and may be said 9 phonic ness lais simple unharmonised songs and attractiveness of have all the freshFrench folk-song at its best. Each of these had its own peculiarities of construction. For that matter. that as a symphonetes Machaut was ingenious technically competent. A . Matthew Passion is to some extent polytextual. posers were indulging in the practice of 'telescoping* the words of Mass movements. sometimes in canon. as well as some twenty-three motets. binding the whole work together.

his music begins to have some real often real expressiveold tendency to mere and there meaning. The main centre of the Italian school was Florence. Polyphonic writing was. . Neither imitation nor canon were new inventions. There had been an Italian school since the time of Guido. a development of the art of the troubadours.* secular polyphonic noteworthy that in chiefly appear. since it reached a high level of accomplishment in accompanied song. but little if anything survives which was written before about the middle of the century with which we are dealing. as we have already seen. at least to some extent. were not based on a * The madrigals have no connection with those of the i6th century. both Italian and French. ness to the 20th-century ear.THE 'NEW ART' AND is ITS DEVELOPMENT is 59 much better controlled. a notable feature of it being the frequent use of canonic. or at least imitative writing. songs. while Sumer is icumen in is. and. In the 1 5th century the use of the term madrigal for a musical composition fell into disuse. and it is them the melody is in the upper part a characteristic which distinguishes them very markedly from other works. that It is in the madrigals. and the work seems to have been. it survived. cultivated. with its variants madriale and mandriale. occasional instances of the former appear. in connection with lyric poetry. rather casually. However. strictly canonic. of course. with the melody canon and imitation in the tenor. coming back into musical use early in the 1 6th century. like many Madrigals were mostly written for two voices other Italian forms. in the works of the 14th-century Italians both devices begin to assume more and more importance as unifying factors of construction. It is in the I4th century that we find the rise of an important body of composers in Italy. Passages in imitation are introduced with evident intention rather than haphazardly. The 9 mechanical 'note-spinning in accordance with the accepted rules is fast vanishing. in works of the I3th century. while strict canon is sometimes employed for a whole section of a movement. in contrast to the artificialities of the immediately preceding period.

for simultaneous singing and dancing. that is to say. its rhythmic scheme. Another sudden eruption.6o A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC They were. since Italian musicians would naturally be among the staff of the papal court. The second half of the i6th century saw the swift and amazing rise of the English madrigalists possibly the greatest any case we know that . Little is known of English compositions of the i4th cenMusic in this country has evolved in a distinctly tury. been suggested by some that the introduction of duple time into France may have been due to the transference of the papal see to Avignon in 1309. in the person of John Dunstable. 1325 to 1397). but this cannot be stated with any certainty. took place in the first half of the isth century. Manuscripts of the period are. whether it is an isolated phenomenon or the sole surviving work of a flourishing school. a period of relative stagnation set in. English musicians were content to pay homage to the traditions of the isth century. had a high reputation as organist and lutenist. after which there was another period when the lead passed to other countries. draw to a close. but it would seem that while composers in France and Italy were achieving mastery of the methods of Ars Nova. scarce. The possibility of some instrumental pre-selected cantus firmus. though blind. inconsiderable influence. spasmodic fashion. true the day of the symphonetes was beginning to compositions. The use of duple measure as well as triple was general. The most notable Florentine composer was Francesco di Landini (c. sometimes attributed to the influence of Italian It is also possible that such types of composi- tion as the Ballata. as compared with that of the madrigal. and after the surprising eruption of Sumer is icumen in. Others were Jacopo da Bologna and Giovanni da Giscia. and in as early as 1280 Odington refers to duple measure. accompaniment to the madrigal was not excluded. unfortunately. who. and is folk-music. being simpler and had not more obviously of a It has metrically regular kind.

THE 'NEW ART AND 3 ITS DEVELOPMENT 61 period in the whole story of our music followed by a decline which was broken by the solitary and unpredictable genius Henry Purcell in the latter part of the zyth century. however. have the former been so brief and the latter so long and dismal. was admitted. almost complete decay until almost the beginning of the present century. in his Ars Discantus. B flat. some mention must be made of what is known as We have seen. The practice of the chromatic altera- Europe have passed through peak periods and periods of decline. chromatic alteration is accepted and explained as common practice under the title ofmusicaficta. Musica Ficta or 'False Music 9 . After Purcell. It has already been explained that the character of a mode depended on the position of the semitones in relation to the final. with musica ficta semitones might appear almost anywhere in a to the rules with In the treatise the * It is a rather peculiar fact that the early theorists. formulates simple and exact rules for its application. at least according to 20th- century ideas. seem continuously to have had great difficulty in expressing themselves with ease and clarity. Before dealing with the work of Dunstable and his successors. By 1320 chromatic alteration of any note of the scale was admitted. Other countries in that to avoid the unacceptable tritone F to B the 'soft B*. perhaps. even as late as 1 6th century. and Garland's explanations and examples are not It is nevertheless clear that in altogether enlightening.* time there were certain rules regarding the sharpening his both in plainsong and in discants. tion of notes gradually extended. 9 Ars Contrapuncti ('The Art of Counterpoint ). ascribed to de Vitry. but in none. indicated in the written music. which he was supposed to be familiar. . and as early as the first quarter of the i3th century the Englishman John Garland refers to it under the heading of Error tertii soni error of the third sound. it was left to the performer to apply the system according and flattening of notes. and de Muris. and Nothing was. The exact meaning of this term is obscure. in Chapter 2.

whose use as the normal basis for composition became finally about the beginning of the i8th century. 1400 to 1467) is due the theorist Tinctoris refers to 'a .. writing before 1450. so that the individual characteristics of its mode tended gradually to disappear. in particular. The work of the composers of the late I4th century shows increasing ease and fluency of treatment. ultimately. their compositions have mostly been found. of whom to their mainly on the Continent. however. was highly honoured among continental musicians. and the poet Martin le Franc. Dunstable was the acknowledged leader of a school of English composers who flourished in the first half of the I5th century. apparently implying that he was the first to dispense with the use of a cantus Jirmus. and those with a minor 3rd. but this suggestion is more rapid and definite progress.6a A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC melody. 1370 to 1453). that the first stable He is sometimes credited with (c. and outstanding figure is the Englishman John Dunfeel we things as the dance tunes. Dunstable's name. in various important libraries. whose fount and origin is held to be among the English. and there are fewer corners which 9 seem to need 'easing off . The modes eventually condensed into two main types those with a major 3rd above the final. Leaving aside such monophonic lais of Machaut. Discord is used in a less casual fashion. It is in the isth century. A little later. and the early having followed Dunstable's lead. claims that the excellence of the contemporary French composers Dufay (1400 to 1474) and Binchois (c. stabilised We now return to the general development of music. new art . The work of this school seems to have been done highly debatable. our major and minor scales. his most important contemporary being Lionel Power.. Hence. the 'invention' of composition. we have already seen that the polyphonic of the 14th-century Italians were true composimadrigals tions not depending on the weaving of discants against some pre-selected melody. where their reputation stood high and where.

and of chord-progression. Although the ideas of chords as such. giving the same words to all the voices. but the practice of them certainly increased composers' technique and helped them to an assured and management of contrapuntal devices. These men began by writing in the style of the preceding generation. and he is noteworthy as being the first to cultivate confident the motet as a free composition to a liturgical text. with a good deal of not particularly attractive . With the death of Dunstable in 1453 the lead in music passed to the Burgundian school. there are far fewer awkward clashes than in the work of his predecessors. of which the principal representatives are Gulielmus Dufay and Gilles Binchois. and was first to indulge in the concoction of musical puzzles. had not yet entered the minds of composers. Apart from his facility in writing mellifluous music. such a work as Dunstable's Rosa Bella shows quite clearly that accompanied song some such conceptions lay in the not far distant future. easily singable phrases. and in Dunstable but little of it remains. Dunstable's compositions include both sacred and secular works. an occupation which was taken to extremes by some of his continental successors. Dunstable was far from deficient in mechanical ingenuity. He discarded both the old long-note cantusfirmus and the mixed text. rapidly in the madrigals of Landini had begun to disappear and his school. The traditional method of the voices pursuing almost entirely independent melodic paths between initial and final concords. He made one of the occasional use of points of imitation. which still survived in Machaut. and laying the foundations of a form which reached its peak in the works of such composers as Palestrina and Victoria a century later.THE 'NEW ART AND 1 ITS DEVELOPMENT 63 Dunstable stood forth as chief. Such puzzles various methods of devising canons often had but little musical value. The principal characteristics of Dunstable's style were suavity and shapeliness of melodic line. and harmonisation largely based on triads. While passing discord is still used at times with some freedom.

The incorporation of independent instrumental parts into vocal works was common. This practice sounds rather a return to the unseemliness of the 13th-century motets. as in Dufay's great motet Ecclesiae Militantis. they were so covered up by the surrounding counterpoint as to be almost. They served. and in the later works of Dufay especially 'we recognise. or part of it. Missing voicesecular cwtusfami parts might well be supplied by instruments. and the purely instrumental performance of works written for voices was accepted as a regular practice. introducing them at times into Mass movements. if not entirely. while the other voices wove counterpoints against it. cantos fami for Masses begins. merely as a framework on which the composer could build. but was not really so. and in his Masses he made considerable use of it. The melodies used as cantus fami were usually old and the words no longer in use. the pure harmony of the whole. But the influence of Dunstable was strongly felt. which include! * Wooldridge. the suave and flowing melody in the separate parts. The would be given to the tenor. Moreover. . and possibly decorated.* than anyone the possibilities of canon as a unifying device. realised clearly ment in parallel first inversions may also be mentioned as suggesting the dawning of a feeling for harmonic proIt is from Dufay's time that the use of secular gression. which we noticed as characteristic of the compositions of our own countrymen in the foreign Dufay. was the song Uhomme arme. unidentifiable by the ear. He was also a 9 deviser of 'puzzle canons . but this is an error. His fondness for fauxbourdon move- else. possibly earlier collections during this period'. the propriety in the sequence of the continued sounds.64 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC melody and arbitrary and uncontrolled discord. not necessarily in its original note-values. of the i4th and isth centuries are often Compositions regarded as having been written purely for unaccompanied vocal performance. the agreeable phrasing. unmistakably. in the Oxford History of Music. Possibly the most famous of like tune. in fact.

Dufay. Among his outstanding technical feats may . there was considerable emphasis on secular compositions ballades. rondeaux. with symbolic meanings. it soloists. It is not until we reach the i6th century that we encounter the pureacappella. 1495). But various manuscripts from about 1440 onwards dearly distinguish passages of polyphony to be sung by soloists from others to be taken by the chorus. explain the current technical methods. This change of attitude may possibly be due to the ending of the papal exile at Avignon and the consequent healthier state of the Church. Okeghem for long had a reputation for almost fiendish contrapuntal ingenuity. and there is no doubt that he explored the possibilities of com- an extent hitherto undreamed But study of his works reveals that his technique was really only a means to an end. as in those of the 14thcentury Italians. The first important names of the Flemish (Netherlands) school are Johannes Okeghem (c. which saw the foundation of the school of composers.THE 'NEW ART' AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 65 two such instrumental lines. so that on the whole music set for secular words might serve equally well for sacred ones and vice versa. etc. Le. that written for liturgical use. The great theorist of the time was Joannes Tinctoris (c. achieves a balance between the two. whose writings. the emphasis is rather on sacred music. It is in the time of Dufay that we find the rise of what is called choral polyphony. on the whole. 1 Until about the middle of the 5th century the was customary for polyphonic movements mass movements. while of no great originality. 1446 to 1511). Whatever the underlying cause. chansons but there is no particular distinction between sacred and secular styles. Jacob Obrecht (1430 to 1505) and Anton Busnois (d. full choir taking part only in the plainsong. to be sung by a group of motets. 1492). the Netherlander' best work is. the essentially unaccompanied vocal style. pressiveness. 1430 to c. especially. In the ensuing Netherlands generation. In the work of the Burgundians. that end being musical explicated canonic writing to of.

and was also a writer of instrumental pieces. an increasing tendency to harmonic approach through . In Florence he Isaac's career is typical. and there are evident signs of the formation of what might be called an early academic outlook. too. Obrecht's style is on the whole rather less florid than that of Okeghem. founders of the technique of imitative counterpoint. in 1496 he entered the service of the Emperor Maximilian. employing shorter phrases and more He was one of the real clearly defined cadence points. his use of discord is strictly controlled. poser at Innsbruck. 1450 to 1517). Busnois learned from his teacher Okeghem Obrecht. the Renaissance period. More than Obrecht and Busnois. Although much of Isaac's work is of a relatively straightforward character. Traces of the old 14th-century traditions are arily complicated rare. His style shows. served Lorenzo dei Medici. which would tax the capabilities of even the most reliable of performers. he wrote a Mass on Uhomme arme. and shows that the imitative style was rapidly becoming the fundamental basis of choral composition. Like so many of his contemporaries. occupied him for many years. which was the basis of the style of the i6th century. where most of the rest of his life was spent. 49). and for the next hundred years there was a continual move from the Netherlands of musicians in search of wealthy patrons to farther south. one of the first of the Flemish school to seek a livelihood in Italy. and his output of them was considerable.66 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC be mentioned a canon for thirty-six voices. he occasionally indulges in extraordin- rhythmic combinations. His greatest work. any artist than did those in the Low Countries. The brilliant courts of the Florentine princes in this. like considered as one of the founders of the 16th-century generation later appeared Heinrich Isaac (c. the Ckoralis Constantinus (see p. may be the technique of imitation and. The serious cultivation of purely instrumental works dates from his time. offered far greater opportunities A style. being appointed court comIn 1502 he returned to Florence.

With Josquin more than with his predecessors technique was a means to an end. and himself possibly 1475 to 1522). Another contemporary of Isaac was Pierre de la Rue Although the greater part of his work still (d. in a apart from the methods prevailing rather reactionary manner. his In England after the death of Dunstable music tended to languish.THE 'NEW ART' AND the triad. He was Okeghem's greatest pupil. serving a number of different masters. is usual. 1518). The exercise of this mechanical ingenuity gave him a complete command of his material. remains in manuscript. Like Isaac. the artifices of contrapuntal technique. in later secular pieces he often writes in a simpler He was style and achieves really amazing expressiveness. as a composer of both sacred and secular equally great music. and was highly esteemed in figures of the next generation. and was in many ways the finest musician of his generation. (c. established Okeghem and Obrecht. he travelled southwards. he appears to have attained very considerable technical mastery of the intricacies of canon. with Busnois. normal by Pr& most complex problems. and was described by the German musicologist Ambros as 'the first musician who impresses us as having genius'. A little later is Jean Mouton Willaert. and while some of his most musically interesting works are also exceedingly complex. pupil of Josquin. stable. but around the turn of the century we find a school of composers who seem to have deliberately held on the continent. a command which he used in both sacred and secular comin positions to 'bring off contrapuntal feats 3 passing his teacher in his ability to invent and solve the a natural and convincing manner. an eminent the teacher of Adrian one of the great great ability Mouton had time. ITS DEVELOPMENT as 67 already noted as traceable in the work of Dun- Almost exactly contemporary with Isaac is Josquin des (1450 to 1521). Although the effect of their . From Okeghem he learned. even sur- and four-part writing.

68 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC music is agreeable enough. Nos. 20 to 30. RECORDS H. No.70 to 1554). Richard Davy (end of I5th to early 1 6th centuries) 9 William Gornyshe (c. Davy is notable as being the first Englishman definitely known to have set the The traditional 'Passion* of Christ in harmonised form. there is smooth and equable flow of the parts. and the arbitrary use of discord is rare. Vol.S. 14. Obrecht is sometimes said to have produced a four-part setting. interest in contrapuntal devices is lacking. The principal composers of this school were Robert Fayrfax (d. 3.M. but the authorship is doubtful. 2. 19 and Vol. 1465 to 1523) and Richard Sampson (c. and by the i2th it was sung with a fairly complex ritual. recitation of the Passion in Holy Week dates from as far back as the 4th century. but little more. . 1521).

now assumed very great importance.CHAPTER SIX IN THE SIXTEENTH VOCAL MUSIC CENTURY THE (a) (b) (c) Italy. ^ imitation Note also that this technique of 1 6 for an illustration. Each successive phrase of words is introduced a 'point of imitation' or 'fugue . though not necessarily at the same pitch.hands of Bach. of the i6th important not only as a structural method of the fugue. the highest expressiveness achievements being in the works of Palestrina. In the work of such composers as Isaac and Josquin the contrapuntal technique of the Flemish school had reached a high level of competence. instrumental music will be considered in a separate chapter. and (e) the rise of instrumental music. The motet. and strengthened by Dufay and his successors. In the structural principles are truly polyphonic motet the general as follows. but also as the ultimate origin climax of perfection in the. The great writers outstanding features of the i6th century are the culmination of polyphonic sacred music. * See Ex. Victoria. the rise and development of the madrigal in of the still greater competence and in their Masses and motets. to build up generally with a good deal of a complete 'section'. galists. This figure is used. (d) the brief but brilliant work of the English madrithe effects of the Reformation. is . and was applied to the production of music of real expressiveness. of which the post-Machaut foundations had been laid by Dunstable. Each section concludes with a cadence. The first four of these will be dealt with in the order given. word repetition.* the voices entering 9 by one after another with the same melodic figure. which reached its century. 1 6th century attained Lassus and Byrd.

with little. But in such a work as Ave Verum Corpus it seems evident that Victoria lines. incidental. There is relatively little use of the full choir. the texture is chord-progressions are. always and entirely contrapuntal in texture. an attitude of mind which from now on assumes increasingly great importance. Victoria's Ave Verum Corpus and Palestrina's Bone Jesu are good examples. It is based not so much on imitative technique as on the contrasting of varying groups of voices within the choir. One is almost entirely chordal. which would consist of not fewer than five voices. but variation in the combinations used is exploited to the limit a kind of vocal orchestration. A noteworthy point about the chordal type of motet is that it shows an increasing feeling for chords and chord-progression as such. there were two other common methods of procedure. In the polyphonic works of the period it may be said that the chords arise from the interweaving of simultaneous melodic and rhyth- mic conceived horizontally and the were. as it must have been thinking in terms of chords as chords. Motets were not. In longer motets the three styles may be found used for different sections. and the same method is used with great effectiveness in Byrd's five-part Mass. Tallis was not the only 16th-century composer to attempt a task of such magnitude and complexity. The same attitude is clearly evident in such a passage as the opening of Palestrina's Stabat Mater: . Thus a continuous contrapuntal web of sound is Motets were written for from three to eight voices. if any.70 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC as a rule the figure for the ensuing point of imitation within that cadence. however. so that the sections are inter- and arises locked. created. The other kind lies between the purely polyphonic and the chordal. though there are occasional freak examples such as Thomas Tallis's Spem in alium for forty voices. Palestrina's Tu es Petrus is an example of this type of motet. arranged in eight fivepart choirs. really independent movement of the voices. but he was the only one to succeed in producing real music under such conditions.

severely criticised the use of the secular cantus firmus. Palestrina wrote some Masses on secular cantus firmi. Qui a quern me - min - i - sti por .cut dix-it. The use of the secular cantus ftrmus for masses was rapidly dying out. Early in his career. Re -sur - rex - it.li lae . Al-le . as well as the undue complexity and length of Masses. written after the Council's decree and in accordance with its views. only a very few are based on such material. The cantus ftrmus had changed since the time of Dufay.ia .lu . 14 The basic material for Masses and motets was often taken from plainsong. 15 tTT Re ! gi - na ^ cae . and composers found it expedient to follow the lead given by Palestrina in his Missa Papae Marcelli.ta - re. Al-le-lu - ia. including two on Uhomme arme.ta .VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY j\ i 71 Ex. Undue repetition of words was generally avoided. The Council of Trent. A simple example of this method of writing is provided in Palestrina's Missa Regina Coeli. Instead of being employed primarily as a melodic method of using a line around which counterpoints were woven.re.lu -ia: -ra pro no -bis De-urn. . but of his total of ninety-three. Al - le . it was now broken up into its constituent phrases. Al - le .lu - ia. in 1563. si . and points of imitation were worked out based on these phrases. The melody from which it takes its title is: Ex.

but some unity was often achieved by the use of the same material for at least the 9 * Pietro Cerone (b. openings of some. often by other composers. 'In composing a Mass. 1560). obligatory that the inventions (i. thus giving thematic unity whole work. 'Mass without a name . the Sanctus and the Agnus Dei should be one and the same. thematic inventions being Nomine.72 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC brackets first The show the various sections which are used is as themes in the mass. 16 /.IJ L . and goes into considerable detail.* Other movements are also based on this phrase and on marked in Ex. a Mass was often known as Missa Sine among composers. such as madrigals. 15. the themes) at the beginnings of the the Gloria. When entirely original material was used. c.e. of the movements 5 *motto-theme procedure. The opening of the Sanctus based on the phrase: San Ex. if not all. ^ J. U J M i the others to the J^ JJ J J- J . Another source of material was used in what is usually known as the 'parody Mass' (Missa Parodia). In this the musical themes were borrowed from other compositions. goes so far as to insist on some such method. There seems to have been a sort of musical freemasonry treated largely as common property. it is perforce necessary and first Kyrie. the Credo.' Not every contemporary composer seems to have . in his huge compUation El melopeo maestro. motets and chansons.* a kind of y agreed with him.

1510 to 1586) and his nephew Giovanni (1557 to 1612). One of his greatest and best-known works is the setting of the Seven Penitential Psalms. His technical mastery was consummate. with a European reputation and an enormous output of music of all kinds. Willaert was the founder of the Venetian school associated with the cathedral of St. Lassus (also known by the Latinised and Italianised versions of his name Orlandus Lassus and Orlando di Lasso) was the greatest of them all. and the union of sessed . Like so many of his countrymen he travelled widely. on an even grander scale. and spent most of his life in Rome. the two sections acting either antiphonally or in combination. St. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 to 1594) was the greatest of the Italians. 1485 to 1562) are the most important. Mark in Venice. and he was noted for his use of musica reservata the art of giving dramatic expression to the words. This type of writing was continued. Palestrina's Veni Sponsa Christi is a setting of a verse which the composer splits into four phrases. The long occupation by the Moors had tended to isolate this country from the rest of Europe.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY The cantusfirmus 73 method outlined above was sometimes used in motets. Of the Netherlanders a long list could be given -Orlande de Lassus (1532 to 1594) and Adrian Willaert (c. Mark's posrise to the two organs and two choirs. Each of the four interlocked sections of the motet is based on imitative treatment of the relevant phrase of the plainsong tune associated with the words. and his music attains a pitch of serenity which is unsurpassed by any of his contemporaries. He is also notable for his use of chromaticism. but their final expulsion in the i6th century. by Willaert's successors Cipriano da Rore (1516 to 1565). a strongly marked characteristic of the English school in the latter part of the century. Andrea Gabrieli (c. and these resources gave composition of works on a grand scale for double chorus. It is at this time that Spain first comes clearly into the musical picture.

possibly rather narrowly religious. and from about 1500 we find a school of Spanish composers who were basing their work on the ideas of the Netherlanders. but achieves a remarkable degree of mystic fervour. 1500 to 1553) and Tomas Luis de Victoria* (c. Nicholas Gombert (c. but early in the i6th century these methods begin to appear. brought about contact and exchange of ideas between Spanish and Flemish musicians. and strongly influenced the Spaniards in the adoption of the northern technical methods. 1535 to 1574). 1497 to c. Thomas Tallis (c. Victoria is serenity. 1535 to 1611). Morales spent part of his life in Rome. . and despite his adherence to Flemish methods managed to retain a good deal of personal idiom. Of the musicians working in Italy. Victoria. Tye.74 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the crowns of the Netherlands and Spain under Charles V. a Tallis. Many of the Spanish musicians wrote but little secular music. but gradually acquired the Flemish technique. 1572). wrote none at all. He lacks the latter's possibly second only to Palestrina. spent a good deal of time in Spain. 1495 to I 56o). The greatest name in English music of this period one of the greatest of all time is that of William Byrd. All three showed great competence in the handling of the imitative style. with an occasional distinctively Spanish flavour. 1505 to 1585) and Robert Whyte (c. may note especially Tye's Mass on the popular tune Westron Wynde and his six-part one on Euge We Bone. in the works of Christopher Tye (c. We have seen that in England the school of Fayrfax was but little affected by current continental methods. began by writing in the style of the preceding generation. Works by Josquin were in the library of Seville Cathedral. his mastery being shown in such motets as Audivi media nocte and Bone Jesu. like for the use of the Italianised * There seems to be no particular reason form of his name Vittoria. a Fleming attached to the court of Charles V. The two most important members of the Spanish school were Cristobal Morales (c.

four and five voices refor spectively. with occasional excursions into the unseemly. for three. By then the technique of choral composition had developed enormously. Unlike many of his countrymen. The great Italian litterathe leader of a school which cultivated an aristocratic and rather affected style of poetry. and was often vulgar and frivolous. Although he produced a certain quantity of music for the Reformed Church. sacred or secular. he continued to compose for the old rite as late as the publication of his two books of Gradualia in 1605 and 1607. being revived in the early i6th century. last collection teur appeared in 1531. and he surpassed them all in intensity of emotional expressiveness. After the time of Landini the term fell into disuse. are outstanding among the sacred music of the century. and his reputation was such that one writer dubbed him 'the Parent of British Music'. and composers were ready and able to apply the latest methods to the setting of suitable poems. These were collections of Latin motets which also included a three-part setting of 6 the crowd' parts of the Passion a rather rare production times in his an English composer. vocal or instrumental. we have seen (p. The madrigal seems to have been to some extent a reaction against ihefrottola. His three Masses. he did not change his religion at the Reformation. Byrd's technique was at least equal to that of any of his continental contemporaries. excelled in all forms of composition. 59) that compositions with this title were produced in the I4th century. of which the In the first common Italian form.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 75 He remarkably versatile genius who lived from 1543 to 1623. with the deliberate aim of getting away from the more 'popular' which types. quarter of the century the Frottola was a It was usually a popular song treated with some amount of ingenuity. Since composers were attached to courts for Bembo was . Such poems were chiefly of a pastoral or amorous character. Turning now to the Italian madrigal. thereby causing himself a certain amount of inconvenience at various life.

Waelrant was exceptional in that he seems to have spent his life in his native The list of madrigalists (c. 1521 to 1603) and Lassus are notable among the Netherlanders. the melody being always in the topmost part. public concerts were The most notable of the earliest were the Roman Constanzo Festa (d. both words and music amorous or acquire a marvellously tuousness . was. and although the subjects remained chiefly pastoral. an accepted practice. De Monte was among the most prolific. 1545) composers and the expatriate Fleming Phillippe Verdelot (d. The earliest madrigals the first collection of twenty was published in 1533 under the title Madrigali novi de diversi excellentissimi musici ('New Madrigals by various excellent musicians') were for four unaccompanied voices. Great care was taken over apt setting of the words and. The general plan of construction became similar to that of the polyphonic motet. a series of interlocked sections based on imitations of a melodic The poems set were generally not longer than figure. or in combination with all the voices. they naturally began to set it 9 to music. twelve lines. country. 1570). before for domestic was far in the future. Hubert Waelrant (c. whether to the top part as a solo. pro- . Jacob 1514 to c. 9 skilful technique of deliberate volup- Arcadelt is extensive. 1518 to 1 595)> Philippe de Monte (c. to quote the writer c of the article in Grove's Dictionary. Willaert. madrigals were also written dealing with such matters as children's games and the chatter of washerwomen Bembo notwithstanding. It should be understood that the madrigal still music-making. and the frottola and similar 'vulgar forms fell into disuse. greater use was made of contrapuntal artifice.76 this A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC new poetry was written. 1567)- In the ensuing generations. however. and five-part work is typical. six voices were also often used. and the texture showing but little contrapuntal ingenuity. which saw the rapid development and culmination of the form. Instrumental accompaniment.

Palestrina's output of madrigals was small. ofMusica Transalpina. out of fashion. a great flood of madrigals appeared. there is Richard Edwards' In going to my naked bed. but earlier in the year than Musica Transalpina. ideas and a new outlook at the of the I7th century. Of the Italians we may mention Cipriano da Rore and Luca Marenzio (c. not later than 1564. . Leaving aside a collection of secular songs published in 1530 by Wynkyn de Worde. the madrigal underwent beginning rapid modification. the madrigal proper. . no fewer than forty-three sets being brought out before the final one by (a) John Hilton in 1627. 1560 to 1599). corrupters of youth. In the Preface to his fourth book of motets he says: 'There exists a vast mass of love-songs of the poets. Sonnets and Songs of Sadness and Pietie which appeared in 1588. in 1588.. and (c) the Ayre. and a great number of musicians. and was for simultaneous . which will be briefly considered in Chapter 8. The English madrigal falls into three classes.' Palestrina must have developed much the same kind of outlook as Victoria. and then went quickly. (4) the Ballett. Not that the form was unknown here before this. make them the concern of their art. principal stimulus to the writing of madrigals in England was the publication by Nicholas Yonge.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 77 ducing over 600 madrigals as well as numerous sacred works. almost suddenly. The first approximating in publication containing a number of pieces style to the Italian (or Flemish) madrigal was Byrd's Psalmes. . After the publication of the Italian work. . a collection of Italian madrigals with With the advent of new The the words translated into English. The ballett was a descendant of the Italian ballata> which originated in the I4th century.. whose normal style and structure have already been mentioned. however. They are the song of men ruled by passion. and in his later years he seems to have been rather ashamed of having written ijhem. I blush and grieve to think that once I was of their number.

(c. Still more notable. 1556 to 1622) . * Even late in the i6th century Giovanni Gastoldi published balletts *fbr singing. an intensity unmatched by any of the Italians or Flemings.* retained much of the traditional dance-like rhythm. The term Canzonet was sometimes used as an alternative to madrigal. the same music was used for word repetition being avoided. and it is a magnificent example.78 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The 16th-century English form singing and dancing. is the degree of emotional intensity which is achieved in settings of the sadder poems. the accompaniment being either vocal or instrumental. any word or phrase that suggests the is seized upon with avidity and dealt with vividly. some sets entitled 'Balletts or Fa-las'. met with. thou wilt despatch me to realise the truth of the statement in Chapter i that the Elizabethans were romanticists.e. it was strophic and simple in texture. was usually strophic. two or more verses of words.e. purely homophonic. Weelkes 9 Care provides On texture. chorda! passages are often in these that the composers exploit what they were learning about the emotional possibilities of chords and chord-progression. was It was also strongly metrical and rarely contrapuntal. i. Most notable in the works of the English madrigalists is the exceedingly apt and subtle way in which the music It thus differed strongly words. 9 characterised by the use of a 'fa-la refrain. generally on the lute. chord-progression Although the madrigal proper was generally of polyphonic the technical side there appears for i. We have only to read through such a work as Thomas Weelkes' Care. The Ayre (=Air) was in the nature of an accompanied solo song. perhaps. illustrates the possibility of musical illustration an increasing feeling and key (as opposed to mode). especially by Thomas Morley. whose attempted explanation of it does not always match the works which he designates as such. Like the ballett. It being from the madrigal proper which was 'through-composed' and inevitably employed much repetition of words. playing and dancing'.

but not sacred. often attained. a meditation on human weakness. 17 Hence Care ! 79 thou. Purcell and Bach before again Possibly the greatest of our madrigalists were Weelkes to 1623) and John Wilbye (1574 to 1638). The Ayre. as it were.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY Ex. which was a standard instructional work for two centuries. like the madrigal. a peculiarly English form of composition. Thomas Morley (1557 to JohnDowland (1562 to 1626) and Thomas Campion in (1567 to 1620) are perhaps the two greatest composers . 1575 overlooked. between the normal type and the madrigals motet serious. and is an invaluable source of information on the contemporary methods of composition. One of his finest examples rather than is is 1603) unsurpassed for delicacy and lightness of touch. He is notable also as the author of A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Music. of which the words have a moral an amorous tone. What is our life. remarkable intensity of expression. We have to look forward to finding such poignancy. Of the writers of balletts. From this point of view his lie. the work of Orlando Gibbons (1583 to 1625) must not be Gibbons specialised in what has been called the 'ethical' madrigal. but (c.

He has rightly been described as one of the world's greatest song-writers. He was possibly the the composer of a (vocal) battle-piece. 1560). He was probably the finest lutenist of his time. varying in style from simple homophony.g. with lute accompaniment. Claude le Jeune (c. made many settings of the psalms. being second in value only to the work of Dowland. and that the congregation themselves should take some part in the singing. is . but also a harmonic innovator of great originality. The Calvinists were in some ways the most radical. and was not only a superb melodist. We have now to aims of consider the effects of the Reformation on music. Gampian was both poet and musician. The important musicians here are the French Huguenots Claude Goudimd (c. Bourgeois was for many years editor of the Genevan Psalter. the musical many all the reformers.8o this A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC form. 1528 to 1600) Goudimel and le Jeune 1510). were considered unacceptable. being 'man- made' and not biblical. should be heard and understood by the congregation. and Loys Bourgeois ment strongly marked. Hymns. mention may be made of Clement Jannequin (1485 to c. that the words. and spent part of his life in Paris and in Italy. Bartholomew. viz. c. His work lay chiefly in the direction of secular chansons. in which the element of chordal treat(b. mostly for four voices. Of the 16th-century French musicians. his settings of his own lyric poems. which are generally more notable for naivete than for musical also first value. The Song of the Nightingale. 1505 to 1572). apart from those to be considered in succeeding paragraphs. to quite elaborate polyphony. in the Dowland was one of the best-known musicians whole of Europe. e. Apart from purely doctrinal matters. of a long line of such pieces. and he is notable for his attempts at illustrative setting of words. in England (Granmer). in the vernacular. who died in the Massacre of St. in Ger(Luther) or in Geneva (Calvin) were much the same. permitting only metrical versions of the psalms.

anc^ drals. His Protestant hymnbook appeared in 1524. had built up a fine musical tradition which continued unbroken despite the changed aspects of religious belief. the far-reaching results of which will be seen in later chapters. and yet others were original compositions. and yet not so drastic as in Geneva. Martin Luther was himself a practical musician.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 81 md :>ne his settings are almost entirely chordal in style. together with some of the musical sections. with note to a syllable. one of the most famous. The Chapel Royal. though he was not averse to the employment of proHis great contribution to music was the fessional choirs. Other chorale tunes were adapted from traditional plainsong put into 'measured music'. In England the musical effects of the Reformation were far-reaching. Innsbruck I must leave thee. Te Deum. who also wrote the words. and laid on congregational singing in his reformed services. ing a and promptly clinched his argument by appropriatnumber of well-known secular melodies and making of their words. 18 etc. 'sacred parodies' Thus. Ein Feste Burg ('A Sure Stronghold') being reputedly by Luther himself. Benedictus> ^ . the words of Heinrich Isaac's melody: Ex. Polyphonic music for the Mass was replaced by 'Services* which consisted of settings of the Venite. He was the first religious leader to remark that he did not see why the Devil should have all the best tunes. were parodied into world 1 now must leave thee. of *&& cathewhich records exist as early as 1135. great stress introduction of the Chorale or German hymn into the services. the reformed English Church retained services based at least to some extent on the traditional 'Offices'. Whereas first Calvin severed any connection with the old Catholic ritual.


able settings are Tallis' Dorian service and Byrd's 'Short service. In both of these, as in such works as Tye's Acts of

A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Creed, Magnificat and Jfimc Dimittis. Two
a simpler, more harmonic

most not-

the Apostles,

of treatment

Byrd's work is almost entirely one note to a appears. to key as opposed to mode is syllable, and the tendency
strongly marked. Besides such large-scale works, we must note the appearance of the 'Anglican Chant' for use with the vernacular use with the metrical prose psalms, and of psalm-tunes for versions. Anglican chants were mainly simple harmonisations of the old Gregorians, with the tune in the tenor.

The earliest complete metrical psalter was that of Sternhold
and Hopkins, published
for over

in 1562;


was a standard work

a century.

The great importance

on by


the reformers

of the simplification of style which lies in the fact that it

forced composers to 'think vertically', i.e. in terms of chordmelodic lines. We progressions rather than of simultaneous have seen that as far back as Dunstable there were signs

of a feeling towards the triad, and Dufay's use of faux-

bourdon also shows some tendency to harmonic thinking. This tendency was now rapidly intensified, and in the next century the idea of contrapuntal texture based on the decoration of a preconceived chord-basis gradually takes the place of a texture in which the vertical combinations, i.e. the chords, arise from the interplay of melodic lines.

Despite the general simplicity demanded by the reformers, contrapuntal music was not banished from the English rite. as any of Byrd's 'Great' service is as polyphonic in texture
his -Latin works,

and the anthem, which may be

called the

English substitute for the motet, was often written in the traditional complex manner. The finest anthems of the

period are those of Gibbons. Of his forty examples, some fifteen are polyphonic, possibly the best known, and certainly one of the finest, being Hosanna to the Son of David. Gibbons was not averse to experiment, and was one of the



(though Byrd anticipated him) to write "verse* anthems, in which solo passages and independent instrumental accompaniment are introduced. This form, new in Gibbons' time, was chiefly popular around the end of the lyth century in the hands of such Restoration composers as Purcell and Blow.

H.M.S. Vol.
4, Nos. 31? to 38,

and 40.



state of the instruments themselves and the fact that composers were so largely concerned with the provision of music for the Church naturally brought about concentration on the vocal rather than on the instrumental side. Little seems to have been written purely for instrumental performance, and there was little or no differentiation of style. From the earliest times there was a wealth of dance tunes for the vielle or fiedel, but their composers are unknown. In any case, the 'serious' composer had other things to do than to write such pieces. Of medieval instrumental music written for use in church a number of short organ preludes survive, rambling and formless affairs which show clearly the undeveloped state of the instrument and the composers' lack of grasp of a suitable style. The earliest extant keyboard music is in the Robertsbridge Codex of about 1325, an organ estampie. It is to some extent stylised, being in dance rhythm but not suitable for actual dancing.

The undeveloped

to give


study so far has been concerned exclusively with the development of vocal music. It was not until late in the I5th century that composers began
serious attention to that for instruments alone.

Instruments, as we have seen, were often combined with or substituted for voices, and by the i6th century many had reached a high state of development. Brief consideration of the most important now follows. The organ had progressed far beyond its condition in the days of the pulsator organorum, having one or more manageable keyboards and a considerable variety of stops. It was most advanced in Germany, where an adequate

In Spain the place of the lute was taken by the vihuela.* The ordinary staff nota9 most popular being the theorbo or tenor tion was not used. true polyphony. an ancestor of the guitar. the lute. pedals were either lacking or but poorly provided with we find registers. .16 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC was considered essential. Even in Bach's time an organ tablature was still in use by the more conservative composers in Germany. and the various keyboard instruments. in his Musikalische him what music *A true tablature rather directed the player what Handleitvng of 1700. as was also the style of writing for them. pedal department the first quarter of the i6th century. The lute was of great antiquity. Niedt. the notation and the manner of playing the two instruments were similar. castigates severely and amusingly those who still clung to such an antiquated system. The only present-day survivals of the tablature system are in connection with such instruments as the mandoline and the ukulele. four of the sixteen stops were 3n the pedal. the viols 3 recorders. and since. and the theorist F. Like many other instruments of the time. though such composers as nature the lute was incapable of by the end of the i6th century Molinaro were achieving some remark- Of its able effects of 'faking'. Oxford Companion). lutes were made in families of five or more were plucked by the different sizes. The strings strained fingers and the tone was reand gentle. and as we move on towards the 1 7th century this department tending to increase more and more. not the actual sounds to be played. Of domestic instruments the chief were the lute. Its notation was called 'tablature and was designed to show the positions of the fingers on the fingerboard. The number of strings and their tuning. In England. Its body was shaped rather like a pear cut in half from top to bottom. E. The * viol was a development of the medieval vielle. both in size and variety. Italy and France the organ was less developed and remained so until much later. in As early as an organ built by Arnold Schlick in Heidelberg. Tablatures for various instruments survived into the i8th century. one to do than told to play' (Scholes.

lacking the brightness and incisiveness of the violins. (Methuen) . were related in their method of tone production. but by the i8th there were no fewer than nine. At the beginning of the i6th century four sizes were in use. two-manual harpsichords were developed. the strings being plucked and the tone consequently tending to be 'twangy'. A 'chest of viols' was an actual chest in which a small set of various sizes was kept for domestic use. sloping shoulders. a type of endblown flute (as opposed to the side-blown or 'transverse' flute of the modern orchestra). not under the chin. with a round and gentle tone. and 'C'-shaped sound holes. six strings instead of four. to the great bass. an impracticable sort of instrument with a penchant for leaping up an octave on the slightest provocation or on no provocation at all.* Later. roughly equivalent to a piccolo. each keyboard controlling its own set of strings (see frontispiece). the spinet and the harpsichord. 9 all held either resting on the knees or between them. Recorder ranging from the sopranino. As compared with their relations the violin family. * In the clavichord. The tone was sombre. Of the four domestic keyboard instruments three. and from it came a large family. The tone of the harpsichord was louder and richer than that of its companions. viols have a flat back.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 87 form of which was held in front of the body. the virginals. and even before 1600 instruments were being built with mechanism enabling differing qualities of tone to be produced. Family groups included the recorders. This was gradually transformed into the viola da gamba or 'leg viol . a more essentially domestic instrument The reader is referred to Donington's The Instruments of Music for details.



with a cup-shaped mouthpiece. including the 'great bass pommer or 'bombard'. and it would seem that it was intended to be played on whatever mig. (a) dances. Other instruments.ht be available. for domestic use. composers began to take a serious interest in writing instrumental music they were faced with the problem of what kind of pieces to write. some for specified instruments. A fourth but less important no solution was the writing of descriptive music. within some- what narrow limits. the strings were struck by a metal tangent fixed to the rear end of the key. trumpet-like affairs of wood. Broadly speaking.* There were also cornetts. These last were the ancestors of Shawm Gornett and bassoon. In much of lie early music particular instruments were specified. A . (4) adaptations of the current vocal polyphonic style and (c) variations on a theme. There was no intervening mechanism as in the case of the plucked-string instruments. * practice which survives perhaps only in one part of the world. When first this was solved in three directions.90 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC than the harpsichord. Large quantities of dances appeared. or occathe oboe 9 sionally of ivory. with the monstrous temple trumpets of Tibet. a ten-foot giant which needed one man to blow it and another to support it at the front. and the tone could be varied. for church or open-air rather than were the sackbuts (trombones) and the shawms and pommers. according to the degree offeree applied to the key.

From the earliest days dance tunes had been sectional in construction. But even at this early stage the grouping of dances into sets. was quite common. possess any great musical distinction. second of a pair often being a variation on the first. The harmony of the Attaignant dances is of the simplest character. is internal organisation of individual dances notable view of its bearing on the development of later instrumental forms. gay. the The pavane was a 7th- The in and 18th-century form. the most popular group being the pavane and galliard. twentypavanes with fifteen galliards in music for four parts'. Such processional dances were . they are entirely homophonic. some. indeed. and the composition of dances played an important part in the development of this. lumps together 'nine basses danses. the Suite. and in triple time as opposed to the duple of its companion. over Europe.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 91 some not. This pairing of dances is hisof great importance. since it is the genesis of the torically 1 generally contrasting pairs. important collections were printed in 1 529 and 1 530 by the Parisian publisher Pierre Attaignant. Attaignant's sets of dances were not arranged according to any plan. Use of the major scale is common. galliards. basse danses and branles. Galliards were frequently written as variations of their associated pavanes. Of the latter. but are noteworthy in that. conformably to the pattern of the dances themselves. In some cases the contrast between * common Compare all the Polish Polonaise. The pairing of a slow dance and a quick one was most common. as music for the dance must naturally be. employing little but tonic and dominant. We have seen how from the time of Dunstable there was an increasing feeling for chords and chord-progression. for example. more of a procession than a dance in the usual sense. at a time when other kinds of music They do not were predominantly contrapuntal. The First Dance Book of 1530.* while the galliard was quick. stately affair. once it ceases to be purely melodic. two five branles. comprising pavanes.

and further that from it ultimately grew the sonata form which is the structural basis of much of the work of the composers of the 'classical' period. Examples of the polyphonic style transferred to instruments appear as early as Obrecht. First sentence of eight bars leading to a half-close. balanced by another sentence of similar length ending with a full-close. as in the case . This term originally signified a certain variety of lyric verse. for example. This is as rigidly binary last but the end with a half-close. solidly based on the major scale. and was later adopted for the musical setting of such poetry in a somewhat madrigalian style. Such pieces were usually known as canzonas. in a Hornpipe by Aston. found in a MS. It the binary design is that as the Suite developed (see Chapter 9) practically all its movements were written in this form. More important is the frequent use of the two-period. Towards the end of the i6th century the stylised treatment of dances led to some conventionalisation of structure. There is even one in Attaignant's collection of 1530. binary plan. It is also as anything suggested by any textbook on Form. with a very occasional supertonic or subdominant. of about 1500. This has five sections so strongly contrasted that but for the fact that all might as well be five a good example of the harmonic simplicity already mentioned. of which a well-known example is Byrd's Earl of Salisbury's Pavane. it separate pieces. though there are occasional instances of a true ternary (ABA) design. From this it came to be used for instrumental pieces in the same style. In the case of the latter the music falls into three clearly defined different sections. who died in 1505.92 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC sections Hugh is very strong as. generally into two or three main periods. Attaignant's dances are all clearly sectionalised. the chord-scheme is almost entirely tonic and dominant. though in varying ways and without any strong contrasts of style. The importance of happens also to be a particularly beautiful piece of music. In early canzonas the use of a tenor cantus firmus was common.

as the though historian Dr. and in this sense might imply a kind of prelude in which. but Isaac also produced this was by no means obligatory. we may note first two important schools. etc. based on a Dutch folksong. Willaert's ricercares are of considerable importance. 1515) may also be mentioned. in which the number of voices is apt to vary frequently within a single composition. Variations were written largely for the keyboard instruments and for the lute. works of this kind. The term Fantasia a piece have seen that in pairs of dances the second was not infrequently a variation on the first. and in applying to it. . 'the composer seems to search or look out for the strains and touches of harmony. a seeking-out. c. Turning now to the composers and the instruments for which they wrote. Within rather restricted limits. term has had a number of different implications. (in England 'Fancy') might also imply in canzona style. He is notable.. simply 'following the dictates of 9 the composer's fancy . too. as the composer chose. In the 1 6th century it was often used with this implication in Italian lute music. The practice of writing variations on a theme was developed quickly and with considerable skill by many composers. em- ploying all such devices as canon. for the freedom of his part-writing. but equally it might mean something of a rambling nature. which he is to use in the regular piece to be played afterwards'. written for three melodic instruments such The Italian Girolamo Gavazzoni as viols or recorders. (b. Literally it implies research. Burney says. new figures of accompaniment The theme might be made up by the composer. augmentation. being the first writer of ricercares for the organ. or might equally well be some popular song.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 93 of Obrecht's sat. great ingenuity We was shown in embellishing the tune. The contrapuntal ricercare was a deliberate imitation of the polyphonic motet. interesting maiden A Of rather this similar construction was the ricercar or ricercare. the ricercare being a short prelude to a transcription of a song.

Narvaez was a particularly good writer of variations. and showed great ingenuity in producon an instrument which ing a pseudo-contrapuntal texture Theorbo or Archlute is Viola da Gamba is also fundamentally non-contrapuntal. The Spanish school flourished in the first half of the 1 6th century. This ingenuity of the Italians. who in 1599 was maestro di capella at the cathedral of Genoa. Luis de Narvaez and composers Anriquez de Valderrano.94 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC of vihuelists in Spain and of lutenists in Italy. Some of the finest and cleverest work is that of Simone Molinaro. notable being Luis de Milan. His comshow genuine melodic inventiveness. whose school flourished characteristic of some more towards the end of the century. and evidence positions .

but also in his arrangements 9 of canzonas by other composers. He was a virtuoso of keyboard instruments.g. Clemens non Papa. but the former's fame rests chiefly on his ayres. not only in his original compositions. contains examples of such dances as the Saltarello and the Passamezzo (in as many as ten separate sections. as being the first music. More than 600 pieces are in existence. as with Byrd's Earl of Salisbury pavane. produced the greatest virginal music of the century. published in the year of his appointment to Genoa. Gibbons and Dr. of 1611. e. his fame on the continent being great. Fellowes says: *No other European country has anything that can remotely be compared with it. reached its climax considerably later. lutenist school. 'The virtuous coquette In France the 1 of the . beginning in the latter part 6th century. as well as a number of galliards in three or four sections. in a dedicatory fashion. It contains works of only Byrd. and from 1613 to his death was organist at Antwerp Cathedral. and nearly a quarter of alone. E. e. Commenting on the English virginal music of this period.' . he often gave fanciful titles to his dances. but sometimes for no apparent reason beyond caprice* This is also the case with the lutenist Santino Garsi. Molinaro was almost fantastically clever at 'faking a contrapuntal texture in his fantasias. Of English lutenists Dowland and Campian were the most renowned. H. Dr. Bull lived much abroad. sometimes. from the pens of Byrd. each ending in the tonic). by Byrd.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC that he was no mean performer. these are known engraved book of keyboard Especially notable. Like many of his contemporaries. too. in the person of Denis Gaultier (d. is the collection called Parthenia. He. while the latter appears to have written nothing for lute England. 95 His Intavolatura di Liuto. followed 9 the fashion of using 'fancy' titles. who entitles one of his galliards 'The lie in the throat'.g. however. 1672). John Bull (1563 to 1628). with the same visionary insight into the possibilities of technique and sonority as was later to distinguish Domenico Scarlatti and Franz Liszt.

who played a leading part in the development of variation writing. in particular Byrd and Gibbons.96 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Gibbons and Bull. last These fantasies. Both showed great mastery in applying the contemporary vocal style to instruments. The organ music of the period is of great variety. practice of writing preludial movements These. preludes. and both produced works which are not only technically ingenious but also of considerable musical value. (1485 to 1545). with harmonisation which might be quite simple or moderately contra- The These 'organ hymns' appear very early in the i6th century. . gradually became less utterly rambling than those of earlier times. together with the original books of Benjamin Cosyn and Will Forster it are in manuscript. Cavazzoni being notable in this direction. the cantusftrmus being more or less decorated. Besides dances. there being extant examples by Arnold Schlick. was the property of the Viscount Fitzwilliam who presented it to Cambridge University in 1816). who died about 1517. and began to exploit the possibilities of short-value notes in the form of extended scalic runs. They are noteworthy as anticipations of the Chorale Prelude which took such a strong hold of German composers once the Lutheran reformation was firmly established. Here again the English composers are outstanding. corantos and jigs. continued. In Spain the outstanding writer for keyboard instruments was the blind Antonio de Cab&on (1510 to 1566). including allemandes. and consists largely of pavanes and galOther collections of the time are My Ladye NeoelFs Booke and the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (so called because liards. and a large amount of music exists written for liturgical purposes. there are numerous (1624). and the Englishman John Redford puntal. although often far from being highly organised. the ricercare and the fantasie or fancy. Canzonas abound. There are numerous pieces based on plainsong hymns. For the viols the chief types of composition were the canzona. and sets of variations.

which are often but the original significance of toccata was not unlike that of sonata. based on the 'tone to which the psalm was being chanted. however. work intended. Le. c . Venice. The term toccata comes from the verb toccare.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 97 Also for liturgical purposes are many sets of 'verses for the tones'. something played as opposed to something sung. Certain portions of each movement were replaced by an organ piece of a more or less contrapuntal character. The name of Cavazzoni may again be noted in this connection. which inevitably became monotonous with the unvarying repetition of the same melodic formula for each verse. though the earliest known use of the title is for a lute piece of 1536 by Gastelione. and the movements for organ by such composers as Guilmant and Widor. who served at St. relatively little effect on the ultimate development of organ music as such. to exhibit the touch and execution of the performer'. to touch. The practice grew up of replacing the plainchant of the even-numbered verses by polyphonic settings for the choir or by organ 'versets'. and Cabezon among others wrote numerous examples. based on the omitted plainsong. however. choir and congregation meanwhile repeated the words of the missing verse silently. A rather similar practice obtained at times even in the performance of a plainsong Mass. These were used in connection with the singing of the psalms. Sets of such versets 9 were published in 1531 by Attaignant. Toccatas for the organ date from about 1550. Such works as the above had. but possibly the greatest of the early writers of toccatas was Claudio Merulo (1533 to 1604). More important are the many toccatas which appear from about the middle of the century onwards. Both the Gabrielis wrote in this form. as. There was. for example. always a proportion of brilliant to quote Grove. Mark's. Nowadays it tends to imply a piece designed primarily to exhibit the performer's dexterity and virtuosity. In the latter case clergy. as scalic passage of greater value as extended finger exercises than as music. Schumann's Toccata for piano.

His toccatas nation of sections in brilliant virtuoso style with others in the ricercare manner. produced one of almost incredible naivety. 3. Essays in programme or illustrative music range from the reasonably effective to the almost ludicrous. in the John Mundy's (d.g. Nos. 30 and 31. solid passages which exploited of the organ. 41 and 42. various states of the atmosphere A chare day. such as The fall of the leaf. e. 1630) virginal fantasia words of Sir Hubert Parry.and 20th-century composers. 1580 to 1650) also wrote some charming little tone pictures. . etc. in which an attempt is made to illustrate the various stages of the battle. RECORDS H. and are imthe ultimate origin of a portant chiefly in that they were led to such works type of composition which eventually as the symphonic poems of Liszt. the lute.M. 4 Nos. with carefully detailed instructions as to their meaning. Martin Peerson (c. consisting mainly of passages suggesting trumpets and drums. in which a quietly autumnal feeling is created. Richard Strauss and other igth. Among the more effective pieces A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC from 1557 to 1584. He may be considered as one taining power of the most important founders of the Italian organ school which flourished in the next century. albeit in a rather elementary manner.S. Lightning. who flourished round the turn of the century. Battle pieces were even written for that least bellicose of instruments. He was one of the first to realise the effectiveness of contrast between quick movement and the inexorable sussteady. of Jannequin's vocal battle piece. He was renowned depicting. Vol. In Chapter 6 mention was is made appeared also for virginals. and such pieces The all Italian Santino Garsi.98 as a masorganist are interesting in their alterterly performer. Vol. that by Byrd.

described by one writer* as a noisy group of litterati\ came together in Florence and launched an attack on the current polyphonic e necessary to sketch briefly the changes brought about these developments. taught the Italians and the Spaniards. Other important members were Giulio Gaccini. From the France of Perotin and Machaut passed to England (Dunstable). Manuel Bukofzer. since for much of the time each of the voices would be singing different words. however. it the preceding chapters it has been shown how the leadership in European music passed from one country to another. which admittedly it did. They. Each race produced its own supreme genius of polyphony. * Dr. the Spaniards Victoria and the English Byrd. In the early 1 7th century the lead passed to the Italians. and style of composition. maid of Some members of the group. hitherto the factor. Vincenzo Galilei and Ottavio Rinuccini. the Italians Palestrina. We have seen. too. a singer. in the Baroque Era. how the Elizabethans adopted the madrigal and developed it. a poet. Counterpoint was therefore anathema and music. But of outlook which the new technical methods involved. They are known as the Camerata. Music . to a height hardly reached elsewhere.CHAPTER EIGHT VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TN I JL. must be treated rather as the hand- predominant poetry. Jacopo Peri. in their own way. and were led by Counts Bardi and Corsi. then to the Burgundians (Dufay) and from them to the Netherlanders. and it is their new developments which we have now before doing so it is to consider. in their turn. The basis of their attack was that the contrapuntal style obscured the poetry. the Flemings Lassus. Shortly before 1600 a band of men.

insisting that the music should agree with the mood of the words as a whole. which they polyphony did not possess. for example. not on the passion and expression of the words'. There were even stereotyped musical figures to represent the various verbal affections. and no in this direction group of composers showed greater ability did the Elizabethans. The use of musica reservata by Lassus has been mentioned. and the 'affecof the music must correspond to that of the words. emotions. and so on. than other things. words. refers to the 'old way of composition' which causes 'a laceration of the poetry'. Caccini. must not be thought that the new outlook brought . there As so often happens with new movements of any kind. tion. 1580). the exponents of the new no measured terms. But musica reservata included. so that at the back of their attack may realisation that the technique of vocal possibly have been a needed lengthy professional training. It Examples could be multiplied almost indefinitely. castigates composers who wish 'to stand and imitasolely on the observance of canonic treatment tion of the notes. in 1607. Their attitude to the musical expression of the words was different from that of the polyphonic composers. Bardi. writing in 1602. the musical illustration of individual not merely the expression of their general mood. An avowed aim of the Camerata was the revival of what method of declamathey considered to be the ancient Greek in the form of a musical intensification of the text. would be expressed by a among quick-moving scalic passage. Agostino Agazzari.ioo A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC were amateurs. in theories expressing themselves in his Discourse on Ancient Musk and Good Singing (c. The Camerata cried such methods. The word 'run'. Moods were classidefied into tion' a series of 'affections'. Le. was a good deal of pamphleteering and letter-writing. since as a professional musician he had already proved himself a capable contrapuntist. Galilei's attitude is rather curious. contrasts counterpoint and the 'art of good singing' much to the detriment of the former.

* first and second practices. chamber music and theatre music. though increasingly influenced by the new or 'modern' style stilo moderno.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 101 church. . though in a different connection. exhibits mastery of both styles. of. Whereas in the great days of polyphony there was one over-all prevailing style of composition. The old style stilo antico persisted in a good deal of music for the he simply retorted that it was justified. came to be recognised. whether sacred or secular. his earlier works being latter clearly in stilo antico. broadly speaking. and apart from any question of antico or moderno. church music. some employing stilo antico and some stilo moderno. and his later ones in stilo moderno. When attacked for his advanced use of dissonance in the about a complete and immediate break with the old ideals. Monteverdi. though there was at times a good deal of overlapping. Many musicians wrote equally well in either style. In the i6th century there was. and so on. and training in the former was still considered indispensable to the professional composer. t Though naturally such forms as the ballett and the ayre were automatically non-ecclesiastical in style. too. wrote a number of sets of madrigals. two styles now came to be recognised. a motet and a polyphonic madrigal. while there is little if any difference between the style of a Palestrina motet and that of one of his early madrigals. viz. one of the greatest figures of the time. In the course of the century further distinctions of style. and offer another contrast with the outlook of the preceding generation. since he was not composing in the old style. another for the church. for little difference in the style example.f such a work as Gibbons' What is our life could be set to sacred words with no violation of propriety. The two styles were also known asprima and seconda prattica. These distinctions obviously operated according to the purpose for which the music was written. Giovanni Gabrieli. The i yth-century composer tended to adopt one style in writing for the opera. * The inventor of these terms appears to have been Monteverdi.

e. and great stress is laid on the use by the voice of the more 'affective' intervals. which persisted for about the next 150 years. but the Camerata eschewed counterpoint. In all these compositions a notable feature is the rhythmic freedom of the voice part. speaking music. already in use to some extent. According to Bardi's son. and can only be dealt with in the barest outline. It was musica parlante. Lute accompaniments to ayres often tried to preserve a kind of faked contrapuntal texture. as we have seen. under the 'The New Music 3 .g. polyphony. and so enhance and intensify the meaning of the words. The accompanimental methods of monody* are of great importance. brief mention of which was made in Chapter 3. also called stile rappresentativo or 'representative style first . most important early example of this was a collection of vocal 9 A pieces published in 1602 title of Le Nuove Musiche experimental. and thus the only possible harmonic * This term is it frequently used for music of the kind from. which could follow the exact inflexions of the declaiming voice. the diminished 4th and chromatic progressions. as in Caccini's well-known Amarilli. . for which the term recitative is usually employed.102 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC technical results of the The new ideas were manifold. Galilei was 'the 9 to let us hear singing in the stile rappresentativo . a good deal Although of emotional intensity and dramatic force is at times achieved. and (4) they firmly established a practice. far more than might have been anticipated. despite the tendencies already noted in Chapter 6. known as basso continuo or 'thorough bass'. The Camerata strove to achieve a type of simple melody. which is made to approximate to some extent to speech-rhythm. under discussion. Equally notable is the increasingly free use of dissonance. deemed to be of prime importance. Pietro. The appropriate style of declamation was. since (0) they show an almost sudden swerve to the use of chords as such. with the simplest possible accompaniment. Unprepared discords become more and more common.

for example. The complete and unrestricted establishment of the new scalesystem was the work of Bach. however. The bass line itself would be played by some low-pitched instrument such as a 'cello. indeed. Even in the second half of the century we find that Purcell. contrapuntal. whatever the texture of the upper parts. and the bases of composition were the major and minor scales.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY support to the voice 103 was chordal. uses the major scale pure and simple in some of his more 'modern' pieces. the 1 7th century saw the final disintegration of the modal ability One system and its supplanting by the major. though there were. We turn now to the types of composition which first saw light in the I7th century. he adopts a more archaic. By the end of the xyth century. Thus. while it became the regular practice for the 'realisation* to be played on harpsichord or organ. composers seeming to hover between the modes and the later system. but in some movements deliberately in his anthems. backward-looking idiom. for reasons which will appear later. To what extent this would be purely chordal or. would depend on the style of the movement concerned and on the of the player. but all that the monody might player had was a figured bass line from which he was expected to 'realise . further point must be mentioned. We have seen that largely owing to the use of musica fata the individual characteristics of the modes gradually became obscured. alternatively. the modes were dead. vagueness of tonality. Accompaniments to well be played on a lute. employ either at will. there was always a 5 harmonic background. fertile which was an extraordinarily of the rest of this chapter period. certain inevitable restrictions. Although much . that is to build up. his chordal progressions. some.and minor-scale In the early years there is often considerable system. Until about the middle of the i8th century all vocal compositions and the majority of instrumental ones included in the score a part for continue. and in his string fantasias.

entertainments in which a drama was enacted. often due to always the travels of the composers themselves and the natural desire of the younger men to seek the help or instruction of the most eminent musicians of any country. its result was based on an ancient Greek story an obvious of the Bardi group's preoccupation with Greek tragedy. but there was soon to appear a genius of great inventiveness and dramatic power. it must be remembered new ideas which have been outlined above spread all over Europe. a kind of play with incidental music. In 1600 came Eurydice. conditions. which was by Rinuccini. was Dqfne by Peri. had little if any value as dramatic representations. which consisted of a whole series of unaccompanied fivepart madrigals. produced in 1597 but now lost. The principles oSNuove Musicke found complete expression in opera.104 will A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC be devoted to music in Italy. these aspects that the being affected by. whatever their purely musical virtues. interspersed with the singing of madrigals. The first true opera. with a somewhat haphazard collection of accompanying instruments. Before the end of the i6th century there had been written 'madrigal-operas'. It may plot be imagined that the effect would be hardly exciting to 20th-century ears. social that the music of and religious any one country was from that of its neighbours. Each country tended to stress rapidly one or more particular aspects of composition. and it was exactly this matter of the application of music to dramatic ends which was exercising the minds of the Camerata. followed in the same year by Caccini's own setting of the same libretto. there was. called by the composer Commedia Armonica. continual 'cross-fertilisation . isolated Not among other things. 1551 to 1605). The style of these works is entirely monodic. Claudio . as there 9 has been. But such works. (Compare Adam de la Kale's Robin et Marion.} More purely musical was such a work as Amfiparnasso of Orazio Vecchi (c. Like most of its successors for nearly two hundred years. that is drama set to music. partly by Peri and partly by Caccini. In other words.

possibly more than his master. most beginning to appear as a break in the monotony. Monteverdi is notable as an innovator in orchestral technique. Marc Antonio Cesti (1623 to 1669). maestro di capella* to the Duke of Mantua. So much so that a composer commissioned to write an opera would begin by setting the recitatives. produced in 1608. Orfeo. 'fell into the background. His first opera. which often became vehicles for vocal display. while melodious arias. the original sole constituent of opera. and is credited with the invention of the string tremolando. A The earliest operas were performed privately. "j* His full is Cavalli name was Pier-Francesco Galetti-Bruni. as did also his contemporary. produced in 1607. cultivated easy-flowing and rhythmic the first public opera house Cassiano in Venice. 9 and quite quickly recitative. came to be regarded as the most important movements. and we now find the aria. U melody. It was now used simply to carry on the action of the plot. MonteAdorn and also Le Nozze di Peleo e di Teti by his verdi's pupil Cavallif (1602 to 1676). together with the corresponding German kapellmeister. the Teatro di San Here was produced. The use of a chorus in dramatically appropriate places was accepted. and the maestro or meister was the musical director. Cavalli. and certainly in opposition to the original ideas of the Camerata. expressive example is the famous 'Lament of Ariadne' from Arianna. The capella or kapelle of a house or institution was the body of musicians attached to it. Monteverdi soon began to turn away from the use of uninterrupted recitative.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 105 Monteverdi (1567 to 1643). The public found this much to their taste. but in 1637 was opened. has not necessarily any ecclesiastical significance. but the generally used. and there are clear signs of the beginnings of the use of the string orchestra as the main instrumental support. shows great power of dramatic expression. In later works he tended to be less orchestrally adventurous. but would not tackle the * This term. i.. nickname . a properly organised melody commenting on the action. and requires a large and heterogeneous collection of instruments for an orchestra. in 1640.

Stradella (1645 to 1682) is perhaps the most noteworthy. with figured bass accompaniment on the harpsichord. After the middle of the century the greatest name in opera is Alessandro Scarlatti (1658 or 1659 to I 7 2I ) the founder of the Neapolitan school. Ziani and Strozzi. In France the earliest operas were closely associated with the Court ballet.io6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC he had heard. quick hands it became a under the title scale. the recitativo secco. a summons to attention. digression. its hisit of Sinfonia avanti F opera. Although on a small importance is considerable. and assessed the capabilities of. of a stereotyped form of operatic overture. restatement). an excuse for a ballet would be found. if not the invention. Alessandro century. Sartorio. Scarlatti is notable for the popularisation. cities were not backward in taking to opera. slow. 'accompanied recitative'. it is to him that we owe the standardisation of the aria into ternary form (statement. The overture originated as a kind of preliminary flourish. Hector Berlioz remarks. since was the germ of the classical symphony. Before the end of the century Venice had no fewer than eleven opera houses. His use of the stereotyped e 9 ternary ( da capo ) aria was only part of the conventionalisation of opera which persisted for many years until an Of Scarlatti's fellow Neapolitans. simple and quick-moving. the singers engaged to take part. which was used for the more emotionally intense passages. but hardly to the same extent. even in a representation of the Last Judgment'! . had but three houses.* Early attempts to introduce * Writing as late as 1834. He employed two varieties of recitative. *at the OpeYa. but in Scarlatti's affair attempt to break it down was made by Gluck in the i8th three-movement torical quick. A superb melodist. Rome. and recitativo accompagnato (or stromentato] . for example. employing a group of composers arias until Other including Legrenzi. and for a long period ballet was considered an essential in opera.

preferring instead excellently managed de- clamation in the form of accompanied recitative. But was not to last. (b) a quick fugal movement. de Montpensier. despite the powerful influence of Cardinal Mazarin during the reign of Louis XIV. followed by (c} one or more dances. The first of these. and are often of considerable emotional power. Les FStes de I Amour et de Bacchus. His arias. modelled on those of Gavalli. in which the King himself often took part. As with the 9 an 'Academy of Music'. Perrin. and all begin with a prologue glorifying Le Roi SoleiL The inclusion of ballet was invariable. . and contemporary Italian works. Roi de Mogol. The well-known Bois of Lulli at his best. Lulli did not use the Italian recitativo secco. is described as the first 'legitimate' French opera. fipais is an excellent example To ture. or a repetition of the plan was opening movement. and in 1653 he was appointed the King's composer of dance music.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 107 Italian opera were unsuccessful. His musical ability soon became apparent. first the musician Robert and in 1659 began the association of Cambert with the librettist Pierre Their most successful work was Pomone (1671). Jean Baptiste Lully. Lulli Its is ascribed the invention of the Trench' over- much with (a) a slow introduction. the Abbe Mailly's Akebar. the their success French opera to be publicly performed in Paris. In 1672 Lulli secured for himself the patent hitherto held by Perrin to establish thereafter produced some twenty operas in conjunction with the librettist Quinault. Unlike the Italian overture. rapidly achieving almost a monopoly of the writing of court ballets. In 1646 one Giovanni Batista Lulli* (1632 to 1687) had come to Paris as page-boy to Mile. niece of Louis XIV. and much greater use was made of the chorus than in Italian opera. generally dotted-note rhythm. In 1646 came the private production of what is usually described as the first real French opera. Lulli's * Also known by the French form of his name. the subjects of Lulli's operas are chiefly drawn from classical mythology. avoid the Italian conventionality of structure.

and the only clue to its character is the composer's statement that the dialogue was in recitative. It was followed by the same writer's though it is usually referred to as 'the first The Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru. 'Puritans and Music'. dancing.* To what extent this was a real opera is perhaps a little conjectural. See Scholes* Oxford Companion. with one outstanding exception. In that city Reinhard Keiser (1674 to 1739). combined music. in 1627. sung in the original tongue. The Masque. when Joharm Theile's Adam und Eva was given in Hamburg. poetry. Italian works were imported. the real father of German opera. on this. The music is lost. In England opera only just managed to exist at all. German opera proper dates from 1678.io8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC form. . 9 Arne's Alfred appearing as late as 1740. the nearest English equivalent to opera was the Masque^ a form of entertainment which was also cultivated in France and Italy. had no further development. There seems to be no record of any truly operatic performance until Sir William Davenant's The Siege of Rhodes in 1657. The one great English opera of the period is Dido and * The fact that this was during the Commonwealth period is in itself a refutation of the widely-held theory that the Puritans deprecated music of any kind. although still in use by Handel nearly a hundred years later. The form survived into the i8th century. His work is entirely German in style. reigned supreme from the end of the i7th century up to about 1739. and Henry Lawes setting of Milton's Comus. exhibiting characteristic Teutonic earnestness. pageantry and lavish scenic and mechanical effects. art. English opera'. The music is lost. In Germany opera began with the setting of a German translation of Rinuccini's Dafne by Heinrich Schiitz (1585 to 1672). whose origins are of considerable antiquity. which latter were also a great feature of the French opera. After this. The French Court Ballet was of similar type. Possibly the two most famous masques were Matthew Locke's setting of Shirley's Cupid and Death. Throughout the I7th century.

early in the i6th century. death in 1595.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 109 Aeneas by Henry Purcell (1659 to 1695). (Dialogue). In 1556 St. secular songs. Oratorio in the accepted sense was yet to come. one of the most poignantly moving pieces of music ever written. including a final dance. The dialogue is in recitative and some dances are included. instrumental intersubjects. founder of the Order of Oratorians. instituted in Rome popular services which incorporated elements from plays on sacred subjects as well as rounding country. perhaps. in the laudi. but it is actually a sacra rappresentazione. and by the 1 4th century were being dramatised into religious plays with music. ludes and dancing. which prefigured oratorio to a greater It consisted of dialogues in simple recitative . Later they were often cast in dialogue form. Parallel with the development of opera ran that of oratorio. The most Dido's 'Lament'. This is often called the first oratorio. Concurrent with the sacred representation was the Dialogo extent. simple devotional songs in the vernacular. In 1600 such a work by Emilio di Cavalieri (c. called La Rappresentazione di Anima e di Corpo the Representation of Soul and Body. the sacre rappresentazioni (sacred representations) of which lavish performances were given in Florence and the sur- They were practically operas on sacred including laudi. but their character rapidly changed with the introduction into them of the sacre rappresentazioni. The ultimate origins of this form go back to the 1 3th century. the singing of laudi his The services continued after spirituali. Many were written by Franciscan monks. Philip Neri. and we may be permitted to wonder whether the student who took the part of Dido could possibly have realised the full emotional scope of her lament. performed by companies called laudesi. From the dramatised laudi evolved. 1550 to 1602) was performed in the Oratorio della Vallicella. Rather oddly. Dido was composed for performance by notable movement is the pupils at an academy for young ladies.

which may be translated literally as 'The Spiritual Harmonic Theatre of Madrigals for 5. We may note to-day. in the hands of such men as Domenico Mazzocchi and Giovanni Carissimi (c. uses those of Jephtha. and mention may also be made of his contemporaries Giovanni Colonna 1735)- (c. like opera. In the latter part of the century the most notable composer is Alessandro Scarlatti. and the form became essentially what it is its some sacred story. As in his operas he used the da capo plan of aria. 1604 to 1674). These latter were often of a 'reflective' character. sette e otto voci (1619).* Stage representation ceased. duets. 7 and 8 voices'. Theodosia. became such an important part of oratorio proper. equally great in opera and oratorio. who showed a fondness for such cumbersome titles as Teatro Armonico Spirituals di Madrigali a cinque^ sei. and the reader tings of the Passion. Job. all with instrumental accompaniment. The stories were taken largely from the Old Testament. etc. 6. anticipating the reflective arias which. movements are often of a contrapuntal character. In the years after 1600. 1567 to c. showing the persistence of the stilo antico. 1645 to 1682) and Antonio Qaldara (1670 to form. Abraham and Isaac. the incipient oratorio. Notable among composers of Dialoghi is Giovanni Anerio (c. and on rather similar lines. as in opera. interspersed with choral movements. 1620). and this rapidly became normal practice everywhere. and a Historicus or Narrator was introduced to make clear the progress of the story. solos. including recitatives. gradually became transformed. We under that note the use of the term 'madrigal' and the inclusion The choral title of movements in recitative. and choral movements. for example. * The Narrator or Evangelist was of the greatest importance in set- Lack of space forbids any consideration of this is referred to the article in Grove. the musical presentation of his Sacrifice of Abraham and Martyrdom of St. and the Judgment of Solomon.. The aria made way in. . Carissimi.i to A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC between two persons.

etc. of the procedures of some of his lesser imitators. such as Benedetti and Belli. but the work of the German Heinrich Schiitz must not be overlooked. being in a accompaniment of The madrigal did not long survive the coming of the 'new music'. and in those of Monteverdi. The work of Gesualdo actually led nowhere. whose harmonic experi- ments. This cannot be said. according to St. and is well worth some study. and also passages for accompanied solo voice. we find instruments used not as mere optional substitutes for voices in the sense of 'apt for viols or voices'. Works under the old title were still written. The utterances of the 'crowd* are in four-part harmony and lean to the stilo antico. but the works are remarkably telling in their restrained 'affectiveness*. but obligatory. well justify the epithet used above. some of whose efforts sound like experimentalism gone mad. St. Prince of Venosa (1560 to 1614). written before 1600.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY in In the 7th century oratorio was almost exclusively of Italian cultivation. but it is interesting as the final outcome of a style initiated by Willaert and da Rore. however. Luke. John and St. The the solo parts free recitative Evangelist. and large numbers of works of this period which were published as the former might . His most important works 1 of the oratorio type are his three settings of the Passion. As a medium of domestic music-making the madrigal gave place to the cantata. Peter. much in advance of those of most of his contem- poraries. Christ. Frequently he achieves great emotional expressiveness. austere. and his Story of the Resurrection. but the traditional polyphonic style gave way before the new influences. which has some affinity with plainsong. He was a 'modernist' in the colloquial sense of the word. The Story of the Resurrection employs an Schiitz's style is strings and organ. The most surprising of the late Italian madrigalists was Carlo Gesualdo. and as a rule his startling chord-progressions and modulations 'come off'. Matthew. Passions are unaccompanied. In the madrigals of Luzzasco Luzzaschi.

containing many fine movements. In England the secular cantata was very popular as a substitute for the madrigal. carry domestic performance. which was a kind of miniature oratorio for one or two solo voices with accom- Carissimi was the paniment. characters whose histories and circumstances are well-known to the audience. In some of these cantatas the tendency towards the typical iSth-century style of Handel is very clearly seen. Sacred cantatas. were popular. under the title of Cantata da Camera or Chamber Cantata. To quote Sir Hubert Parry in the Oxford History of Music: The cardinal idea of the form is the semi-histrionic presentation of some imagined situation under domestic conditions. Especially notable is the introduction of florid coloratura passages which obviously prefigure the kind of writing which Handel used in such movements as Rejoice Greatly in Messiah. with a simple accompaniment. as opposed to the more or less private meetings of the various Collegia Musica. or personified on poetic discourse in musical terms. made its way into the form. the first being founded in London in 1672 by John Banister. for example. without scenic accessories of any kind. alternating with the The accompaniment tended to become more elaborate. Public concerts in the present-day sense did not originate until late in the lyth century. monologues and dialogues appearing in quantity. As in opera and oratorio.' Such compositions were produced by Henry Lawes and his brother William. as did also Scarlatti. in which. first to write cantatas on sacred themes the Cantata da Ckiesa or Church Cantata. The cantata. the aria soon recitative.ii2 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC equally well be called the latter. followed in 1678 by those of Thomas Britton. and two voices in dialogue were often employed. the continent possibly the first. were the On . those of Pelham Humfrey. In its most elementary form the cantata was a short story told in recitative. too. like the madrigal of earlier times. Laniere and Goleman. Carissimi wrote a number of such works. was for abstractions.

and that performances by the kapelle were always more or less private affairs.. became public once opera houses were established. in particular of voices and instruments. but opera is not a concert in the accepted sense. He was the first to make any clear differentiation between vocal and instrumental styles in such works. its earliest Andrea and use was in connection with vocal works. This independent use was known The derivation of this term is generally taken concertato. etc. introduced occasional purely instrumental interludes or sinIn his later works his 'modernity* is strongly evident . whose association with St. Mark's. 1564 to 1627). the voices. or doubas lings of. The chief implition cation of the concertato style was that of contrasting groups of performers. The most important name concertato style is the fonias. to compete. Giovanni Gabrieli produced in 1587 Centi Concerti for 6. and a work with the same title by the Viadana's concertos are for from one lutenist Molinaro. with a figured bass accompaniment for organ. Venice. 7. and besides this he made great use of the possibilities of contrast between solo voices and chorus. of Lodovico Viadana (c. to four voices. and between opposing choirs. In the paragraph above dealing with the madrigal menwas made of the independent use of instruments as distinct from their introduction as substitutes for. in which concerti is used 8. of course. Of importance in this connection are the Con- certi Ecclesiastici published in 1602. Opera. He also justified the title. Although the word concerto (with the same derivation) is commonly associated with instrumental music. It must be remembered that the system of patronage to which reference has been made involved the employment of large numbers of musicians in the various courts. the first work as a title. It was the independent part for the instrument which in the early development of Giovanni Gabrieli. to be from the verb concertare. has already been noted.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 113 Concerts Spirituels founded in Paris in 1725 by Philidor. 10 and 16 voices.

treatment of dissonance. Mark's must have been overwhelming. but two of his contemporaries are well worthy of note. Schiitz was by far the greatest German musician of his time. the only appropriate epieffect of such a work in the vastness of St. not only in his use of the concertato style. and in 1619 published his first really important work. this time coming under the influence of Monteverdi. In 1629 Schiitz paid a second visit to Italy. In 1609 he went to Venice The concertato style . Whatever the technical method or style. scale as Gabrieli's In Ecclesiis. Psalms of David> in which the manner of his teacher is evident. For such compositions as his motet In Ecclesiis (for solo. the Latin texts. various movements range from small-scale monodies with basso continuo accompaniment up to 9 . all is intended as a means to one end the glory of God. chorus. the 'Father of German Music'. quartet. lacking any signs of the intense use of dissonance such as Schiitz displayed in his Cantiones Sacrae. etc. Schein's Cymbalum Sionum (1615) shows the Venetian influence. In 1625 came the Cantiones Sacrae. as does also Scheldt's Concertos Sacri (1622). there monic outlook. then at the height of his powers. use of 'affective 9 intervals in the voice parts. together with an increased differentiation between vocal and instrumental styles. in which he goes almost to extremes in his use of dissonance for pictorial purposes. The development of the musical side of the Lutheran .ii4 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC in every direction. but in his illustrative treatment of the text. but both are relatively conservative in their har- In all Schiitz's sacred works a notable intensity and sincerity of expression. passed to Germany through Schiitz. and The viola). deriving from the firm faith of the devout Lutheran. Saul which are monumental composion' the same Johann Hermann Schein (1586 to 1630) and Samuel Scheldt (1587 to 1654). to to study with Gabrieli. brass thet is monumental. and thereafter produced the three parts of the Sympkoniae Sacrae and the Kleins geistliche In these works the Konzerte (Little Sacred Concertos). tions such as the famous is 'Saul.

From 1641 Tunder. which signified a piec performed by the choir. concertato or symphonia sacra. but this term did not conn into use in this particular connection until about 1700 being first employed by one Pastor Neumeister of Hambuq in a series of text for such works. and chorus movements. sometimes a poetic paraphrase of a passage o scripture. etc. The motet was normally based on a biblical text.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY n service. duets. Ultimately th< motet became known as cantata. and in any case designed to edify and 'point i moral The normal cantata was arranged in the form of recita tives. Zachau was Handel's teacher. These move ments were selected so that their subject had a close con nection with the Gospel of the day and. was organist at the Marienkirche in Liibeck. sometimes for congregational performance. succeeded by Buxtehude. the cantata was based on a 'com posed' one. a pupil of Frescobaldi (see Chapter 9). who raised the musical fame oi the church to even greater heights. The work of all these foreshadows that of Bach. at least among the 'orthodox' school as oppose to the Pietists. where he established a famous He was series of sacred recitals known as Abendmusikm. offered suitable opportunity for the perforan ance of such choral works as have been mentioned abov< The hymn which at first followed the recitation of the Lati Greed became replaced by a 'motet'. Frequently a chorale was included 9 . for the spokei sermon which followed later in the service. as it were. and which might also go by th title of dialogue. with orchestral accompaniment. In England the concertato style is in evidence in the many verse anthems of the i7th century. arias. Dietrich Buxtehude (1637 to 1707] and Wilhelm Zachau (1663 to I 7 12 ).. but in the opposition of a solo erouo and the . The term itself was not used. as is pointed ou by the great authority Albert Schweitzer. sometimes not Among the important composers of cantatas are Fran: Tunder (1614 to 1667). served as ser mons in music preparing the way. on whom they had considerable influence.

ii6 full A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC able break during the Commonwealth period. . by the and mention was made in Chapter i of its effect on Bach's output while he was at Cothen. for example. The return of Charles II in 1660 brought about the establishment of the 'Restoration anthem . Charles had heard of the early anthems. since Carissimi uses it in at least one of his cantatas. deriving from the Latin motet. he wrote a few 'full* anthems for from five to the greatest. in the same verbal connection. and the use of independent accompaniment. Throughout the century the verse anthem developed. tion * The most important composers were William Child (1606 Humfrey every way BukofzeTj Musk in the Baroque Era. Apart from his verse anthems. the royal taste demanded easily comprehensible tunes. though with an inevit- This attitude was adopted. characterised often by a distinctly secular which at times seems to go beyond the limits of propriety. 9 feeling storation style'. and rhythms which induced the tapping of A number of common idioms developed. the royal foot. solo ensemble. including that of a jigging dotted-note rhythmfor such words as Alleluia. and that of the simplest kind. the principles of the style are present. to 1697). and it was this style that he required from the composers of his Chapel Royal. though this was hardly specifically English. 3 * The serious style During his exile in France. in common with others of the more strictly reformed sects. The Puritans had no objection to music as such. chorus and instrumental accompaniment are fully exploited. but. John Blow (1648/9 to 1708). Simultaneously appears the 'Re- German Galvinists. went out of fashion. 'The prime object of the court music in England was to provide sensuous entertainment and to serve as sonorous ornament. would allow but little. Pelham (1647 to 1674) and Henry Purcell. Purcell is in and in his work English music of the Restoraperiod reaches its climax. much of the bright music in favour at the Court of Louis XIV. in their church services. chorus. in which the resources of solo.

Cecilia's Day.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 117 eight voices. or a royal birthday. having accompaniment for string orchestra. written to celebrate such occasions as the return of the King to London. fatuous adulatoriness of the texts. Purcell's verse anthems often show the style at its finest. gradually ousting the old conceptions of vocal polyphony. as opposed to the old pure polyphony. with an introductory Trench' overture and instrumental interludes between the verses. Of greater literary value are the odes for St. The polyphonic style and the modal system on which it was based both died out. towering edifices erected by Handel . New ideas on the handling of dissonance came to the fore. together with a new attitude to the treatment of words. and the increasing feeling for counterpoint arising from harmony. Many are conceived on an extended scale. To sum up. and in the creation of rich and sombre sonorities he is unsurpassed. Hail bright Cecilia. but without recapturing the true tradiideas The style is inevitably strongly affected by the new which had developed during the century declamation. are planned similarly to the anthems. These anthems show. containing some of Purcell's finest choral writing. it will be seen that during the I7th century music underwent a great revolution. in which he looks back to the polyphony of the Elizabethans. however. And over all looms the shadow of instrumental music. The flexible rhythmic principles which had their ultimate origin in musica mensurata gave way to the relatively 'the rigid system imposed by what is sometimes called tyranny of the barline'. and producing much music that is of far more than merely Yet it can now be seen as a time of historical interest. his great mastery of contrapuntal writing. His 'Welcome' and 'Birthday* songs. that of 1692. 'afiectiveness'. and the use of voices in general. but while containing some fine movements are marred by the tion. in which were laid the foundations and Bach. of the preparation. amazingly fertile in new ideas. It is a century of transition.

4. 44. Vol. and 58.ii8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC RECORDS No.S.M. See also: Italian i6th. 57 H. 6.and 17th-century arias . 45 to 54. 5 Nos. Nos. Vol. andVol.

the rise of the sonata.CHAPTER NINE INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY WE It have seen in Chapter 8 how fertile the century was in the development of new vocal forms. there was the achievement of a truly instrumental style of writing. we must deal further with the viols and their music. home of violin-making was Italy. In the out. and it will be necessary to trace the course of each one separately. Besides all this. and thus for competing with the human voice in tenderness. mellowness and emotional expressiveness. . paving the way for the supreme works of genius of Bach and Handel in the first half of the i8th century. the viola and violoncello. and the rise of important schools of violinists and organists. and the transformation of the ricercare into the fugue. the concerto. These were the most important developments. This was due largely to a change of taste. the sombre and heavy viol. Musical Instruments* . to the old polyphonic complexity of the c The highest value was set upon those instrumadrigalists. saw the expansion of dance-pairs into the suite. it was equally so on the instrumental side. . corresponding in a way to the change which now preferred the solo voice. the chorale prelude and other forms of organ music. the principal workshops * Geiringer. Before doing so. i and they were supplanted by the violin and its larger brethren. as opposed to the often tentative efforts of the preceding century. interpreting the 'affec- yth century the use of the viols gradually died tion of the words. however. 5 ments that were best equipped for producing singing tone. became the queen of all the instruments. outstrip9* The ping her elder sister. violin The .

The quality of their work is apt to be variable. or as briefly. The greatest of the Amatis was Nicolo. The weakness of the Fancy as a form lay in its tendency to be split up into a number of often unrelated sections. Fancies for viols were written until late in John Jenkins. In England. William Lawes. was the work of his pupil Antonio Stradivari (1644 to 1737). and often shows the intermediate hovering between the modal system and the major and minor scales. derivation from the motet or madrigal. presumably for reasons of prestige. Even greater. struggle. and later at Cremona. Matthew 1 729 but with the death of the virtuoso Carl Friedrich Abel hi 1787 the viol died too. The com- poser would work a point of imitation for as long. and looks back regretgood old days of polyphonic viol music. where the with unsurpassed Amati family produced instruments beauty of tone. of the third generation. Italianised his name to Giovanni Coperario). the Fancy had no such solid guiding principle. John Cooper (who. and in England especially their use persisted almost to the end of the century. Among those who opposed the violin may be mentioned Thomas Mace Passion of (c. Purcell's Fancies at times reach great heights of emotional intensity and are by far the finest of all. and above all Purcell. as he chose. Almost equally great was Giuseppe Guarneri ( 1 687 to 1 742) The viols did not surrender their supremacy without a . in 1620 to 1710). the impression sometimes remains that . Cambridge. whose violins remain supreme examples of artistic craftsmanship. perhaps.lao A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC first being at Brescia. a natural consequence of its the century. important composers being Alfonso Ferrabosco. But whereas in the vocal forms the words gave logic to the musical plan. Thereafter only the bass viola it for da gamba survived in use to some extent Bach uses the accompaniment to one of the arias in his St. who. a lay clerk of Trinity College. and despite the beauty of many individual passages. his Musick's Monument of 1676. they were also the last to be written. inveighs bitterly fully to the against the violins and their music.

True. all being in is sometimes stated that the Allemande was not a dance. French and Italian composers treated the suite simply as a series of contrasting movements. This It was a stately court dance from Switzerland and Germany. based on dances. their place being taken by another slow-quick pair. Another aspect of viol playing which survived in England until the end of the century was the improvisation of variations or 'divisions' on a ground bass. Minuet. incorrect. . but this did not necessarily lead to structural logic and stability. We have noted that the suite originated in the pairing of such dances as the pavane and galliard. Jig (or Gigue). mainly. in the latter part of the I7th century and the beginning of the i8th. or. English. followed perhaps by other dances such as the Gavotte. and bound together chiefly by unity of the same tonic key. why it should not have been expanded to twice its length. applied Germany. * It is tonality. and it may be well to mention that the basic group of allemande. sarabande and gigue. there was no set order or scheme in the suite. a Prelude. which is sometimes insisted on mainly in by writers of textbooks on Form. At this time there was a fairly well-established and definite sequence of formal ballroom dances. This art is dealt with in Christopher Sympson's Division Violist of 1659- development of instrumental forms yth century. but not entirely. courante. alternatively. Apart from the invariable allemande and by courante. Quite early in the century the dancing of these went out of fashion.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY there was no particular reason why any given 121 section should last as long as it does. After the Courante composers of suites most often added a slow Sarabande. originating in the i6th century. the ball regularly beginning with to the To turn i now in the a slow dance followed by a quick one. the Allemande* and the Cowrante or Coranto. the idea of the form was that the composer could 'follow the dictates of his fancy'. The whole might be introduced Bourrte.

produced a multitude of delightful Couperin and ingenious pieces which he grouped into Ordres ( =suites) . of whom the greatest was Frangois (1668 to 1733). whose harpsichord 'Lessons' exhibit his natural tunefulness and his strong grasp of a true keyboard style. of which only eight are dances. all of whom were more or less influenced by anything . Buxtehude. so common in the i6th binary. was discarded.122 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC stylised. though faint traces of it linger even into the i8th century. with or without 'fancy' titles. 1645 to 1 1 Q and others. 1597 to 1672). known as Couperin The works of this school show a keen insight le Grand. Couperin's first Ordre (1713) contains no fewer than eighteen movements. harpsichordist to Louis XIV. to write very lengthy suites. In England the outstanding figure is once again Purcell. His suites generally begin with a prelude. Georg Muffat (c. often giving them The Frenchmen tended fanciful titles suggesting their moods. into the character of the instrument in particular and its possibilities. The founder was Jacques Champion de Chambonnieres (c. includ- ing not only dances. in some of Bach's dances. century. but after that. His most important successors various were Jean Frangois Dandrieu (1684 to 1740) and members of the Gouperin family. often in rondo form. teristic may happen. In Germany the first important name in connection with the suite is that of Johann Jacob Froberger (1616 to 1667). but also a number of programmatic pieces. The dance movements were and their form into a straightforward rapidly became conventionalised The old three-section plan. It was in the lyth century that the great French school of clavednists (=harpsichordists) arose. He achieved a delicacy and economy of means which have for long been charac- of the best of French music. having no connection with any dance. He was followed by Johann Adam Reinken (1623 to 1722). whose style was to some extent modelled on that of die French school. and like Couperin he retains the orthodox allemande and courante.

. the continuo being. The earliest chamber sonatas. was part of the staple fare of this period. was fully established. say. as distinct from the sonata da chiesa or church sonata. however. In this sense it may cover a large range of instrumental music. The student may be warned to disabuse^ his mind of any idea that sonata necessarily means a work with that title in the Sonata. Such sonatas were deviola signated a fre. a cawyma sonata (or can&na da sonare) being a 'played canzona*. In Italy the suite went by the name of sonata da camera* or chamber sonata. By the time of Arcangelo Gorelli (1653 to 1713) the regular basis of allemande and courante. whether chamber or church. those of Tarquinio Merula. originally associated with the noun canzona. in that the latter were conceived primarily as dance suites. as opposed to cantata. Corelli was one of the founders of the great school of violin playing in Bologna. it was simply of a character serious * The literal meaning of sonata. for three instruments.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY With Buxtehude we find 123 strict adherence the French style. Bassani (1657 to 1716). Mozart or Beethoven. introduced by a preludial movement sonatas and followed by one or more other dances. is something played. sarabande and gigue.f published in 1637. Twenty years later. and was so used in the lyth century.e. to the 'textbook' order of allemande. courante. B. the past participle. to be dealt with later. taken for granted. from the verb sonare. was style of. e. at first The church no sonata.g. to sound. which remained the standard in Germany until the suite died out in the middle of the i8th century. and in this respect are associated with him the names of Giovanni Battista Vitali (1644 to 1692) and G. the distinction between church and chamber had become more strongly marked. The 'trio sonata'. were not restricted to dances. The chamber sonatas of these and men were written generally for two violins da gamba (or 'cello). as it were. something sung. ^ t Not to be confused with the organist Merulo. but were merely suitable for secular rather than for sacred (church) use. with a part for continue to be realised on the harpsichord. had fixed form. like its brother of the chamber. i.

those of his op. i and op. precedes a quick movement in fugal style. By his time (his op. and the work concludes with another quick movement. 1630). however. we fin(l fairly strongly suggested the basis of what was later to become the normal plan until well into the 1 8th century. a monuservice. This was 9 established as the standard plan by Corelli. A slow introductory section. contrasts of soft and loud are deliberately used for the first time. Until about the middle of the century the terms 'sonata and 'canzona' are practically interchangeable. but consist of a series of short sections in contrasting styles and speeds. In this. 2 of 1667. as do also solo* sonatas for e a single violin and continue.124 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC for use during enough a sacred the 16th-century known Sonata pian* canzona sonata. for example in the works of Giovanni Battista Fontana (d. respectively in 1681 his last ones gigues. grave. remained variable. too. This crossing of the two styles ultimately obliterated the original distinction. and The Purcell to Italian style of sonata reached England in time for show that in it his genius was not less than that . though he does not always adhere strictly to it. They are of no fixed plan. 3. The plan and order of the movements.g. e. were published and 1689) the distinction between church and chamber styles was tending to break down.g. of Corelli's chamber sonatas could equally well serve as movements for church sonatas. e. The preludes. Merula produced similar works under the title of canzone. In some of the sonatas of Vitali. sometimes in the style of a gigue. though it gradually became customary for one of them to be fugal in style. consisting of church sonatas. Sonatas a tre appear quite early in the i7th century. His slow third movements are often of the sarabande type. Massimiliano Neri. This is followed by a melodious largo. e forte and derived from Such a work is the wellof Giovanni Gabrieli. but the latter title gradually dropped out of use. mental piece for two brass choirs (except that the highest part in the second choir is for violin). as did many others.

during or after is little High Mass. both members of the Bolognese school. he shows Italian influence. whose works have been described as 'the first German violin music of any artistic worth at all* (Grove) Like Purcell. The essential principles of the style. slow. everything depends the contrasting of the two groups of performers. who pro- duced what is known as the Concerto Grosso. His compositions prove that he . Torelli quick. Rather later we find sonatas for trumpet accompanied by string orchestra by such writers as Stradella and Vitali. In Germany the one really great name in the line of sonatists is that of Heinrich Biber (1644 to 1704).INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 125 was no mean of his continental contemporaries. and the ripieni fall or *tutti* strings. The contrast lay between the concertino or solo group. and still more in one of his canzonas. the . the former being for use before. in Corelli's case consisting of a string trio (two violins and 'cello).e. Similar methods are found in the canzonas of other Venetians of the time. quick. more than Corelli. 1708).g. those of Handel and Bach. and he admits in his preface to the first set (1683) t^t he has 'faithfully endeavour'd a just imitation of the most fam'd Italian Masters'. Formally there on sign of any conventional layout. established plan what was to remain the normal three-movement He exhibits. Corelli's concertos church and chamber. e. Neri and Francesco Usper. This is seen in essence in Gabrieli's Sonata piarf e forte. Like his sonatas. virtuoso. i. as they are found in the greatest examples of the form. His two sets of Sonatas of III Parts are fully equal to other similar publications. instrumental concerto was based on the same fundamental principles as the vocal one. but exhibits also considerable individuality and grave sincerity. into two types. where a small body of instruments contrasts with a larger one. in which the idea of contrast is still more strongly marked. the playing off against The each other of two contrasted groups. were first fully worked out by Corelli and Torelli (d.

'concerto style' in the the vigorous. As far as is known. in violin technique. Benedetto Marcello (1686 to position of the concertino. Lack of space forbids any consideration of the structural principles of the movements. learned much from the study of his works. t Bukofzer. but the emphasis remains primarily on contrast between solo and tutti. (The 'display concerto.f and in the strength and character of his themes he often anticipates Bach. O. The form used for the allegros is generally known as Ritornello form. was a product of the late i8th and i gth centuries. The Introduction to Vol.) Other composers of solo concertos were Tomasso Albinoni (? 1674 9 the to Z 745) an d Giuseppe Jacchini. In the period with which we are dealing the technical ability demanded of the soloist was generally little greater than that required of the orchestra. designed to allow the soloist to show off his technical ability. though they were not published until a year after his death. In them the solo part begins to demand a certain amount of virtuosity.* In some of the later concerti grossi of Corelli there is a tendency for the first violin to take the lead over the other members of the concertino.is6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC allegros. pounding metrical pulsation and the general feeling of 'busyness 9 . the first such works were by Torelli. This led to the writing of 'solo 9 concertos. * . The same applies to the concertino in a concerto grosso. indeed. More than Torelli he exploits what has been called the 'relentless mechanical beat of the concerto style'. who wrote the first 'cello Further progress was to 1741) of Venice. Among Vivaldi's Venetian contemporaries who emulated his style are Francesco Gasparini (1668 to 1727). 1676 who also made considerable advances In his concerti grossi he varied the comsometimes using a group of wind instruments. concerto. Music in the Baroque Era. for a single violin with accompaniment by the string orchestra. 3 of Tovey's Essays in Musical Analysis contains a most illuminating discussion of the form. and the reader is referred to R. Morris's The Structure of Music for a simple explanation of it. who. made by Antonio Vivaldi (c.

a vastly important branch. based on the Netherlands and Germany. entitled The Art of Playing Rather younger than Geminiani was Pietro in demand them we Locatelli (1693 to 1764). based on Italy. This instrument was used for the continue. concertino^ life He used a string quartet for adding the viola to the usual trio. They also exhibit much greater coherence in the more brilliant passages. and Of the former. In the next generation comes Francesco Geminiani (1674 to 1762). It may be noted that at this time no concertos were written for harpsichord. was spent in England (he died in Dublin). Much of his the Violin.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 127 1739) and Giuseppe Valentin! (b. Peter's. It is not until Bach's $th Brandenlonger is it No coming of a new conception of the were the we find the harpsichord used as a solo instrument. but at least five of these are transcriptions of works originally for violin and orchestra. 1680). where Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583 to 1643). He was a pupil of Corelli and Scarlatti and was rather conservative in his outlook. we have already noted the Venetian Merulo as one of the founders. In music for the organ. (There are also seven concertos by Bach for solo harpsichord burg Concerto that and orchestra. They are later in date than the $th Brandenburg. the northern. c. there arose two great schools. was renowned as one of the most brilliant performers of his day. as a background. and he was the author of the first 'method' for the violin. which duty it shares with a flute and a violin. with first among equals. as mere subordinate accompaniment. the orchestra now begins to recede into the background. After him the emphasis shifts to Rome. His toccatas show a great advance on those of the Gabrielis and Merulo in their careful planning of contrasted sections and their truly dramatic effect. and see the it form. His solo concertos technical ability of a truly virtuoso standard. the southern. organist of St. the soloist as primarily a matter of contrast.} The earliest sonatas will be considered in the next chapter. the vaguely rambling scales of the earlier .



composers being organised into shapely and logically designed figuration. In passing, it may be mentioned that Frescobaldi seems to have had an adequate appreciation of the technical difficulty of some of his compositions. At
the end of one toccata he writes, 'non senzafatiga
si giunge

alfm\ which

through this Of equal importance to Frescobaldi's toccatas are his organ ricercares. At the beginning of the century the ricercare, derived from the vocal motet, occurred commonly in two guises. In one the same principle was used as in the fantasia, i.e. it consisted of a series of fugal sections, each based on a new theme. In the other, the ricercare sopra un e soggetto ( on a subject'), only one basic theme was used for treatment. This type had two possibilities. There fugal might be a series of fugal expositions on various modifications of the theme, or alternatively the theme itself might be kept more or less unchanged, but used in a series of expositions with a new countersubject for each. The ricercare 'on a subject

be freely translated without feeling tired*.




you won't get



developed gradually into the fugue as we know it in the hands of Bach. Like the fancy, the ricercare had the structural weakness of being so highly sectionalised, though 5 in the examples 'on a subject this is not so noticeable as
in the other type, since at least one basic theme ran through the whole piece. But even so, it was inevitably chopped up in effect, and composers gradually realised that it was
effective and satisfactory to work out the possibilities of a single unvaried theme to the limit, rather than to piece together a series of more or less brief snippets. Possibly the most distinguished pupil of Frescobaldi was Froberger, a Catholic Saxon, whose work shows increased facility in the methods of organisation initiated by his teacher, and possibly an even greater appreciation of the characteristics of the organ. With him may be associated another Saxon, Johann Kasper Kerll (1627 to ^93)> w^ maY ak have studied with Frescobaldi.

by Frescobaldi, and




of the German Catholic organists of any real importHis most notable work is the Apparatus MusicoOrganisticus of 1690, which contains, among other things, twelve toccatas. Structurally they are variable, but the principle of brilliant bravura sections contrasting with steadylast

The purely Italian school soon declined in importance, the initiative passing to southern Germany. Besides the two Saxons just mentioned, we may note Georg Muffat, the

moving passages designed to exploit the sustaining power of the organ, as well as the inclusion of sections in fugal The toccata had not begun to style, still holds good. degenerate into a mere show-piece. In Muffat's work, still more than in that of his predecessors, there is an increased power of organisation of runs into coherent patterns; the feeling for design becomes continually stronger. In the north-west of Europe a school of organists flourished whose work was based on the requirements of the reformed faith. The father of this school was Jan PieterszoonSweelinck (1562 to 1621) of Amsterdam. The organs of the Netherlands and northern Germany had already a well-developed pedal department, unlike those of Italy, and Sweelinck provides some of the earliest examples of independent pedal He is most notable for his development of the parts. ricercare into the fully worked-out fugue, at a time when the Italians were still content with the ricercare sopra un

Through his pupils Sweelinck's influence spread throughout northern Germany, among the most important being Samuel Scheidt and Heinrich Scheidemann (1596 to 1663). Their contemporary Herman Schein (1586 to 1630) was of the same school, though not a pupil of its founder. In the next generation appears Reinken, who followed Scheide-

mann at St. Catherine's Church, Hamburg, and whose fame
so great that the

young Bach walked long distances to With these men must be mentioned two of Bach's uncles Johann Christoph (1642 to 1703) and Johann Michael (1648 to 1694), and Johann Pachdbd of
hear and play to him.



to 1706),

Nuremburg (1653


serves as

a link between

the southern and northern schools. He was a pupil of Kerll, and so came to some extent under the influence of little earlier, and perhaps the greatest of Frescobaldi. all organists before Bach, was Buxtehude, born in 1637.



Swede, he was for long the chief musician in Liibeck, and Bach was willing to walk 200 miles to sit at his feet. These are only an important few of a great galaxy of Lutheran organists on whose work was founded Bach's
colossal superstructure.

The most important types of composition evolved by the north Germans for use in the reformed services were those based on the chorale. Luther's introduction of the chorale into the church service was eagerly welcomed, and we cannot do better than to quote Sir Hubert Parry, in the Oxford History of Musk, on the subject: 'The influence which the German chorales exerted upon the German Protestant organists was of the utmost importance, and the seriousness and deep feeling, which were engendered in their attempts to set them and adorn them, were answerable for a great deal of the nobility in their organ music. . . . The chorales . . . were a kind of religious folk-songs. They came spontaneously from the hearts of the people, and had their roots in the deepest sentiments of the race. . . . Upon these tunes the organist-composers of the I7th century expended all the best of their artistic powers. The tunes became symbols, which were enshrined in all the richest devices of expressive ornament and contrapuntal skill, woven fugal artifice, and melodic sweetness, which the devotion
of the composers could achieve. Although the term 'chorale prelude' is used loosely to describe all kinds of pieces based thematically on chorales, there were actually four different types. The chorale prelude proper, used in the service to introduce the congregational singing of the hymn (much as the present-day organist
'gives out* the first line or two)

was generally fairly terse, the melody, decorated or otherwise, being usually in the

top part.


In many cases, ceded by a more or less free fugal exposition This procedure was used by the early writers as far it. back as Scheidt, and many fine examples were written
line of the tune


was prebased on



of treatment,


Although perhaps the commonest method was but one among many, Kipling's

'There are nine-and-sixty ways


Of constructing

tribal lays,

every single one of them



might well apply to chorale preludes. Other types of chorale composition were (a) the chorale fugue, in which the first line of the tune served as the subject of an extended fugue* also found in Pachelbd's work; or variations on a chorale (V) the chorale partita, Bohm and Buxtehude are important here; and Pachelbel, the chorale fantasia, which might be of considerable (c) and the length, designed to show off both the instrument
ability of the performer.

on chorales, toccatas were popular, and Buxtehude being the most notable. those of Reinken Both men had first-rate instruments at their disposal, and both possessed consummate technique which they were not unwilling to display. The prelude and fugue, too, graduBesides works based
ally took shape,

but as yet lacked the intense concentration of thought and economy of material which characterises the greatest of those by Bach, By the time of Buxtehude, and especially noticeable in his work, a purely instrumental the organ had been evolved, free style of writing for

from the influence of the old vocal




tie effective possibilities of the instrument to the highest

Summing up, we may say that during the lyth-century instrumental music underwent as great a revolution as did that for voices. In all branches the influence of the old
* Bach's so-called 'Giant Fugue*

an example.

and it is also dealt with by the Italian theorist Zarlino (1517 to 1590). A suite by Andreas Werckmeister (1645 to 1706) uses seventeen of them. Buxtehude. John Bull must have understood the system. became an essential foundation over which the inter- play of contrapuntal parts could be carried out. mi. at least by implication. And a number of works appeared containing pieces in most of the twenty-four possible keys. The ultimate solution was found in 'equal temperament' in which every one of the semitones is of the chromatic octave slightly out of tune by strict acoustic theory.132 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC vocal polyphony was shaken off. chord-progression. The supersession of the modal system by the major and minor scales involved new methods of tuning. re. la ranges through every major key. 'just temperament'. In the course of the ryth century more keys and all modulations became equally avail- and more works appear in which equal temperament is. moveto another. although it does not modulate widely. but so slightly as to be imperceptible to all but the keenest of ears. instead of arising chiefly from the interweaving of separate melodic lines. i. to allow for the possibility of modulation. By the use of equal tempera- ment able. all The first suggestion of this method of tuning appears in a work of the Spaniard Ramos de Pareja. but beyond two or three sharps or flats. ment from one key and especially in minor keys. was adequate. in 1482.e. taken for granted. tuning in accordance basically with the natural laws of Acoustics. while Johann . sol. for example. the effect became more and more unpleasant. Purely instrumental forms and a purely instrumental style of writing were evolved. and a modification called 'mean tone' temperament was first worked out. fa. For a few keys around C major this was good enough. but this was not by any means satisfactory in dealing with a 'key 9 system . since his Fantasia on Ut. writes a toccata based on E major which. would nevertheless be unbearable on anything but a 'tempered' instrument. As long as music remained modal. extreme keys such as B and F sharp being excruciatingly out of tune.

10 (echo)/ Variations on Da Jesus Videro an dem Kreuze stand \. The works are played on the harpsichord by Wanda Landowska. Cat. used in this period to . 1738) in his Ariadne Musica adds two more. RECORDS Corelli Composer Title Oboe concerto Christmas concerto Sonata D min. JVb. Videro -.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 133 Ferdinand Fischer (d. ('cello) Concerto Concerto harpsichords) Recorded by Rothwell/HO LSO Stocker HMV C354O HMV 063639/40 NLP PLP54O Col. Bach's Forty-eight. AK975/6 * Clavier literally means keyboard. are obtainable Society Edition. not separately. min. of which the full title was The Well-Tempered two preludes and fugues in each of the twentyClavier* four major and minor keys. Henry Wood) Wood/QHO is De. Buxtehude Purcell Prelude and Fugue. of course. Vivaldi D min. HMV i Toccata sopra pedali Sweelinck Scheldt Fantasia No. and cover both harpsichord and clavichord. (oboe) A min. (four Goossens NLP HLPi024 0X8367/8 Couperiu Frescobaldi Various records. c. sold in in the sets. The eventual outcome was. G Videro HMV HMV HMV DB52I3 035248 Suite in 5 pieces (arr.

son of Alessandro.CHAPTER TEN THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL Y | I 1HE half of the eighteenth century is overshadowed by the colossal genius of Bach and Handel. certain striking lesser but by no means is first be briefly considered. the sonata in G * The standard edition is that of Longo. The majority are short onemovement affairs in binary form. though there are a number which subdivide into a series of movements. first JL There negligible Of these the composers who may are. See. is far more where the occatesting than. so deceptively simple.* in four example. many under the title of Exercises for Harpsichord. cantatas Although he wrote a number of operas. . Scarlatti is chiefly famous for his harpsichord sonatas. In these respects to Liszt. however. sional handful of wrong notes (though hardly to be recommended) may be lost in the welter of sound. most and important Domenico and Scarlatti (1685 to 1757). Despite writing for the harpsichord to the the advances made in keyboard technique since his day. Scarlatti wrote over 500 sonatas. He was the great virtuoso of his time. as Mozart's Rondo in Any A pianist knows that such a piece minor. the more so since their texture is always so economical. other vocal works. In this. say. for minor (Longo 36). a Liszt Rhapsody. taking the art of playing and he is comparable ultimate limit. Arrangements of some of his pieces by such igth-century virtuosi as von Biilow are easier than the originals. many of his works remain quite difficult enough for any but the above-average player. since in the latter there in a is no room way for error of any kind. Scarlatti is com- parable to Mozart. with outstanding technique and an almost fantastic insight into the possibilities of his instrument. published by Ricordi.

and include by Johann Kuhnau (1660 Six Biblical Sonatas. and ranging from a few bars to something quite extensive. rhythmic first subject may be opposed by a melodious and strongly contrasted second group. is a fasEqually important is his frequent use of cinating study.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL contrasted sections. but the organisation of the internal details is infinitely variable and. after a bar's rest. as distinct from suites. The last section of the first part. in whose sonata form movements a vigorous. The first clavier sonatas. and so on. were written to 1722). the most important being his frequent employment of 'corresponding cadence figures'. similarly. generally in the dominant or relative major key. is reproduced in the tonic at the end of the second part. in both halves of the binary form there is a sudden change. in Longo No. Thomas's. Any concerto of the period furnishes an adequate example of this consistency. changes in the emotional temperature take place only within narrow limits. remarkable instances of programme . 9 minor-key continuation. But with Scarlatti we often find quite strong. who was Bach's as Cantor at St. In the greater contrasting part of instrumental music of all kinds up to about the middle of the i8th century we find the principle of 'one movement. from a bright and happy major-key start to a really mournful. In his use of binary form Scarlatti shows some notable features. immediate predecessor These sonatas are in three or more movements. a sad mood or a reflective one. almost capricious changes. But Scarlatti is far from being rigid or stereotyped in his handling of form. moods within a single movement. It may be fundamentally binary. as is. For example. all 135 based on the same tonic key. This is to some extent a foreshadowing of the 'second subject group which is a normal feature of the sonata form of the next generation. D major. it may be said. one mood*. Leipzig. 12. Here again Scarlatti in a way looks forward to the practice of later generations. An opening mood of vigour and cheerfulness is maintained throughout.

have seen that in the i6th century a certain amount of illustrative music was written. for example. with elucidatory comments above We separate the music. for example. in The Combat between David and from David's sling is Goliath. Rather younger was Joachim Quantz (1697 to 1773). in movements. and the principle was carried on in. who is less widely known than he deserves to be. as. . however.I 36 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC music. Kuhnau. took Old Testament stories and illustrated them step by step. At times he indulges in rather naive attempts at realism. where the flight of the stone not altogether so naively) thus: expressed (perhaps Ex. Contemporary with Kuhnau was the Belgian J. 5 the 'story programme was rare. But apart from 'battle pieces. 20 Loeillet. by the fall Ex. B. In his sonatas for flute or oboe he often achieves really remarkable emotional intensity. 19 followed. and occasionally produces a movement quite worthy of Bach. as the of Goliath: commenting text informs us. the suites of the French 9 lutenists and clavednists.

He refers to Bach as 'a man this is in connection with 1741 to his death. But wherever (and however) the money could be found. worked freely and. even though it were the best piece in the opera. like Vivaldi's interminable list ofconcerti grossi. to others which were quite insignificant. on the other hand. unhampered by the taste or will of any person.' In Germany alone there were over three hundred states. and in this position had the possibly uncomfortable privilege of teach- worthy of admiration'. and. who was for a time kapellmeister to Frederick the Great. Quantz was flautist and composer to Frederick the Great. fashion set by especially Music. were cultivated. for example. Writing in 1774. He points out that Hasse. the magnificence of their opera most houses. The amazing thing is not so much that flute. were forced by the conditions of their appointments to go on turning out work after work to satisfy the demands of their employers. From His output of works concertos. . nevertheless rarely falls below a high level of competence. but his organ playing. shows how composers of the time. and in their efforts to obtain the services of the . worked only according to the taste of his king [Frederick]. as that the quality is often so Quantz. after the Louis XIV. ranging from important and extensive ones like that of Prussia. solos. Graun. the 'Age of Patronage*. ing that monarch to play the for his instrument high. less generally known. Reichardt. . The difficulties under which the 'tied' composer might labour are made clear in the Letters of an Attentive Traveller by J. though by no means a composer of the first rank. trios. wrote as he felt and as he wished. what failed to please him was struck out. The rulers of such states vied with each other in the size of their kapelle. was immense. the Arts. serving a sympathetic master at the Dresden 6 court.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL 137 a brilliant flautist and a sound musician. In his treatise on flute playing he has much of value to say about interpretation and musical aesthetics. etc. . they were able to do this. F. he contrasts the operas of Hasse and Graun.

t * line t His attitude to opera is attested by his remark to his eldest son: *WeU. be a distinct handicap. to hear Buxtehude. 1685. Bach never touched that form. He was intended for the Law. but there are sufficient fundamental differ- ences between the two series men and their work to warrant a of comparisons. shall we go over to Dresden to hear the pretty iL tunes?' See G. Handel remained a bachelor all his life. Friedemann. This system had its advantages. from the point of view of musical progress.* Handel's family tree seems to have provided him with no musical ancestors. 9 . a P: . on March aist (Old Style). It would be a ridiculous overstatement to suggest that there any resemblance ceases. Terry. that he was free to follow his own inclinations. Handel's faith. Bach remained within one narrow area in central Germany. all his life his longest journey being to Liibeck in 1 705. Back. Bach married twice and was the father of twenty children. Handel at Halle in Saxony. Bach at Eisenach in Thuringia. while doubtless equally sincere. on February 23rd.138 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC famous musicians of the time. Bach was trained to be a professional musician as a matter of course. Handel was a master of opera. S. and although his father died in 1696. was of a less strictly doctrinal character. Some sixty of the family have been identified by name. Bach came of a long line of professional musicians. to 'write as he felt and as he wished But a ruler like Frederick might. it was not until 1703. Handel was widely travelled. and with the right land of employer might be able. Handel had to overcome paternal opposition. when he had finished his course of study at the university of Halle. who was living in 1561.f Bach was a devout Lutheran (his library at his death consisted largely of theological works). in that the musician might be assured of a reasonably safe livelihood. The founder of the was one Hans Bach. Johann Sebastian was his great-great-great grandson. fifty-three of them being musicians. Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frederick Handel were born in the same year as Scarlatti. Handel was Space forbids the tracing of Bach's ancestry. like Hasse.

for whose private chapel he wrote the . to Hamburg. Four years later he was in Italy. an attitude of contrasts could be extended almost indefinitely. though on two occasions Bach endeavoured to get in personal touch with his great contemporary. had an eye on the man in the back row of the gallery. the two men never met. from 1717 to 1720. and where was produced. Almira. was produced his first opera. In 1703 ment was in the same capacity to the Duke of Chandos. Bach was but little concerned with the effect of his music on his audience. which in Bach's case sometimes degenerated into what can only be called 'cussedness'. Bach was always in the princely court. His only other comparable appoint- Handel went Handel's musical life dates from 1693. who was later to become George I of England. When reproached by the Gongladly. Unfortunately for posterity. the opera Agrippina (1709). 'Well. whereas Bach wrote simply to satisfy his own conscience. you've got a deputy' and that seems to have been all he had to say. among other works. Such Handel. We can generally feel that list a which at times drew the censure of his employers. Zachau was a thoroughly sound musician. to put it colloquially. when he began to study with Zachau. In 1710 he became Kapellmeister to the Elector of Hanover. Here. his reply was to the effect of. where he learned all there was to be known about the Italian style of writing. and perhaps the most important of all is that Handel always tended to bear in mind the taste of his public. in 1705.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL for 139 much of his life service of either the Church or some a freelance. sistorium of Arnstadt for having prolonged four weeks' leave of absence to four months. though he never merely pandered to it. being employed at the opera house under Keiser. In one respect at least their characters were similar neither seems to have suffered fools Both seem to have had a certain streak of obstinacy. and it is worth noting that a number of turns of phrase which are generally labelled as 'typically Handelian' are to be found in the work of the older man.

This was a *ballad opera'. e.* falls From began to show less regard for convention. poser 1712 until his death in 1759 Handel's life as a cominto two periods. Almira and Rodrigo. was the beginning of permanent residence in this country. designed chiefly for the singers to display their ability. Agrippina leans to the methods of the Venetian school of Legrenzi and Caldara. be noted that although Handel's operas were of the Italian he quite often opens with a 'French* overture. Later works. with Buononcini and Ariosto. quick-moving and * It may variety. but were taken from everyday life. as were those of the Italian type.140 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC twelve Chandos anthems. with spoken dialogue. but his second. but public taste was changing. . an operatic venture begun in 1719 with the support of the king. Court intrigue the king was at loggerheads with the Prince of Wales and rivalries within the company itself caused the final bankruptcy and collapse of the Academy. many of the tunes were well-known contemporary songs. and thereafter with oratorio. Handel's first visit to London. in 1710. show the influence of his Neapolitan friend Alessandro Scarlatti. with much of its conFrom this time he ventionality. until Orlando of 1732. or on his own. was brief. Instead. Up to 1740 he was mainly concerned with the writing of opera. Rinaldo (1711). of the *Royal Academy of Music'. Handel shows the influence of Keiser.g. and the purely Italian style was no longer so favoured as formerly. his first London opera. and this influence persists. This was partly due to the production in 1728 of The Beggar's Opera. In them he showed that he had nothing to learn of the art of choral writing for the English rite. Until 1728 he was a director. in 1712. and in the next few years Handel produced operas either in conjunction with the impresario Heidegger. Ballad opera was a live. There were no long da capo arias. and like all of its kind was in the vernacular. In his earliest operas. The subjects of ballad operas were not mythological or historical. with which he came in contact in the early part of his stay in Italy.

Bach. which year also saw the composition of Saul. when he wrote his operatic swan- song.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL 141 easily understood kind of work. Although Handel was as capable a contrapuntist as any composer of his time. The Resurrection and The Triumph of Time and Truth. but by 1740. on the whole he lacks the intense concentration of Bach. Others had appeared at intervals before the final group of master works of his later years. the first was Israel in Egypt of 1738. in his * 5 version in Messiah. In 1741 followed the best known of all oratorios. in which the influence of the Roman Carissimi is evident. In all these works Handel shows his mastery of all kinds of vocal writing. e. Handel struggled against the current. two years before the composer's death.g. Deborah and Athalia (1733). mention must be made of a setting of the Passion text of Brockes. followed by on earth*. From the simplicity and fervour of / know that my Redeemer liveth to the brilliant coloratura of Rejoice Greatly. the first and second versions of Esther (1720 and 1732). gives . Messiah. and may well suffice here. Of the few oratorios which are now performed with any frequency. no fewer than twenty-eight are choral. every variety of aria is to be found. while in Israel in Egypt the chorus for the first time becomes the protagonist. much expanded. A comparison is sometimes drawn between their respective settings of the words Glory to God in the highest . As early as 1708 Handel had written two Italian oratorios. an initial hammer-blow with a sudden hush at and peace an effect calculated to make an immediate appeal e to the non-musician. Deidamia. he realised that his day as a composer of operas was ended. appeared in 1757. Both were first performed in 1739. which made an immediate appeal to a public which had grown tired of the grandiose artificiality of the Italian style. which is unfortunately too little known. and the last to be written was Jephtha of 1751. Of its thirty-nine numbers. gives us c 9 Glory to God . in 1716. though an English version of The Triumph of Time and Truth. in the Christmas Oratorio. Besides these. Handel.

as organist at the Church at Arnstadt. which show that Handel was by no means hidebound in his attitude to that form. Bach. In 1700 he was admitted to the Michaelisschiile at Liineburg. there are various suites for harpsichord. At this time. adopted what he thought best from both and incorporated it into the essential German style to which he had St. who was himself a pupil of Reinken. studying and copying the music of both Italy and France. and he received his musical education at first from his elder brother Johann Christoph. he trudged sixty miles to Celle. No. but only a New few miles from his birthplace. he came under the influence of Buxtehude. far south of Lizneburg. too. The remainder of been briefly outlined in Chapter i. bringing back impressions which for long showed in his compositions. Apart from his operas and oratorios. thanks to his willingness to undertake long walks. contains no dances at all. coming under the influence of Bohm. It was during this period that Bach for the first time walked the thirty miles to Hamburg to hear that great old man.143 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC us page after page of magnificent rolling counterpoint which appeals more to the trained musician. and again returned with impressions that remained. Handd may be said to have summed up the Italian style of writing which had evolved during the I7th century. After a short period in the service of Duke Johann Ernst. The concerti grossi follow the tradition of Vivaldi. 2. Bach obtained his first independent appointment. Such movements as 'Glory to God'. where he remained for three years. where he encountered music in the French style. While there. at Ohrdruf. for example. a pupil of Pachelbel. at the other lies the setting of the one of the greatest 'Comfort ye first two words of Messiah strokes of genius in the whole of music. Blasius's . younger brother of the reigning Duke of Weimar. In 1707 he moved to become organist of his life has Church in Mulhaiisen. Bach's father died when the boy was but ten years old. or the 'Alleluia' chorus stand at 9 one end of Handel's scale. as do also the various sonatas.

and the work done by Mendelssohn (who arranged. a string of musical pearls. and which he raised to the highest perIt was for Handel to develop Italian fection. for example. led to a revival of interest in his works which has lasted to the present day and shows no signs of diminishing. Matthew Passion) and others. such as the 'Great* B minor prelude and fugue and that in G major. in cantatas and Passions. Throughout his life. the publication of ForkeFs monograph in 1802. 1717). This tendency reaches its climax in the works C intensified. Hardly acknowledged in his lifetime as anything more than a composer of competent kapellmeister status. for example. Reinken and Buxtehude. in which the models of Gorelli and Vivaldi are raised to the highest power. the wellknown Toccata and Fugue in D minor. more Cothen saw the composition of the Brandenburg Concertos (so called from their dedication to the ruler of that state). From his Weimar days comes the Little Organ Book) unfortunately never completed. for orchestra. in the great Passacaglia minor. and the great Prelude and Fugue in D major. except during his time at Gothen (1717 to 1723). The subject-matter becomes increasingly terse and the treatment of it more and tautness of texture. opera and early organ works. Bach wrote Chorale Preludes. Their brilliant style and somewhat loose construction are in the Buxtehude tradition. and forgotten after his death. Bach was supreme. incidentally. Such are. The in of the Leipzig period. In them Bach varies the composition . In all other branches of music. employing every possible method of treatment. a centenary performance of the St. With increasing age and experience we find greater concentration and oratorio to a point not hitherto attained.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL 143 been brought up. of the Weimar period (1708 to show much of the influence of the northern school. and they reveal. and adding always the intangible something which was the fruit of his own genius. the young organist with a fine technique which he was not unwilling to display. harpsichord and organ. a model of succinctness. as. in 1829.

at Leipzig). It was at Cothen that the first book of The Well-Tempered Clavier was completed (the second book dates from 1744. After the Forty-eight there was nothing more to be said on the matter. His rather prickly temper often involved him in difficulties with them. Technically it is stupendous. This last. at that time in the king's service. was written (and partly compiled by adaptations from cantatas) to enable Bach to obtain the post of court composer to die Elector of Saxony. S. This has been aptly described by C. Towards the end of his life Bach began work on what he intended to be a complete exposition of everything fugal. the violin concertos and sonatas. including the six 'Schiibler' chorale preludes and those in the Clavierubung. The great event in Bach's later life was his visit to Frederick the Great at Potsdam. The great six-part ricercare in it is a masterpiece among masterIn his dedication Bach refers to the king's 'truly pieces. musically it stands almost alone. the St. the Art of Fugue. belong most of the cantatas (though some date from his appointment as kon&rtmeister at Weimar in 1714). and proceeds to treat it in a truly royal manner. royal subject'.144 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC concertino to a far greater degree than had any of his even greater rhythmic drive predecessors. but died before finishing it. To the Leipzig period. This was arranged by his son Carl Philipp Emanud. Terry as 'his conclusive contribution to the controversy raging round the tuning of the clavichord'. John and St. and shows that was possible than had been achieved by Vivaldi. and resulted in the composition of the Musical Offering. which coveted title he hoped might improve his standing with the authorities in Leipzig. from 1723. the latest and greatest of the organ works. . a series of pieces based on a subject given by Frederick. the first of the great 'concert' masses. as well as many other purely instrumental works. We may of the note also the four Overtures (suites) for orchestra. in 1747. Matthew Passions and the Mass in B Minor.

THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL With Bach. Between them they summed up all the tendencies of music since 1600. in a rather derogatory sense. The former is moving. so great be almost superhuman. for example. With the death of Bach in 1750 and Handel in 1759 an era comes to an end. Vol. is used simply to serve expressive ends. Nos. structure becomes more and more tightly knit. APL. is almost unbearable in its despair. 13001 LM. 9150 LX. only half as long. but the latter. 4541 Handel Two Goncerti Grossi minor Oboe Concerto. as with 145 most of the great composers. and such music became known as 'learned'. but by their later years tastes were changing.M. words 'wept noticeable even in works which are separated by only Compare. 61.) Title 6. 59. John Passion of 1723 with that in the St. 3029. Cat. Harpsichord Suite Messiah Recital of Arias G LX. 516 LXT. No. 33 KLC. 2540. the treatment of the 9 bitterly in Peter's denial in the St. we see maturity in age bringing an increase of intensity and economy as to in his compositions. RECORDS H. 3006 .S. 8 Essercizi for Gravicembalo 8 Sonatas (piano) AP. LXA. nai/3 LXTA. Matthew of 1729. 66. 60. 2501. The complexities of the contrapuntal style were no longer acceptable. 3081 DA. 1171 1146/8 Bach Mass in B Minor Brandenburg Concertos Concerto for two violins Cantata "Praise our God" OCX. way is The occasional straggliness of the early works gives to the concentration of the later ones. 2757 33 OCX. Technical ability. The difference a few years. LXT. See also: Composer Scarlatti (D. The development of the new style will be the subject of our next chapter.

) Cat. Cantata "Jesu. 532 . Joy of Man's Toccata and Fugue in Desiring" Fantasia and Fugue in D Minor FAP G Minor LX. 3007 i 8236 (orchestral arrangement) KL.C. No.I 46 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Title Bach Composer (contd.

Anticipations of the new style are numerous. From about 1 730 onwards there was a rather similar swing away from the contrapuntal style* to music in which the stress was on the vertical aspect rather than on the horizontal. say. We have seen how. a Bach concerto. as does the work of some of the successors of Vivaldi. essentially non-contrapuntal. while Domenico Scarlatti's sonatas show a complete lack of interest in anything truly contra- The cantatas of Georg Philipp Telemann (1681 and Christoph Graupner (1683 to 1760) show leanings to the style galant. in Music in the Baroque Era. Pietro Locatelli (1693 to 1764) and puntaLT to 1767) which * It must be pointed out that this chapter will not deal with opera. Bukofzer. lighter. it required but little of the mental concentration which was needed for the appreciation of. suggests that in Scarlatti's 'the nearing classic style manifests itself openly'. Besides this. at the beginning of the lyth century. work t Dr. Broadly speaking. usually known as the style galant. is. of course. less generally such music was of a kind to be heard rather than carefully listened to. as in the clavecin pieces of Couperin and his successor Jean Philippe Rameau (1683 to 1764). a serious style evolved. . while Bach their greatest works. e. which aimed chiefly at grace and elegance. there arose changes of taste which involved corresponding changes in the style of music. there was a IN and Handel were producing swing away from polyphony (at least in certain cases) to homophony.CHAPTER ELEVEN THE RISE OF CLASSICISM the second quarter of the i8th century.g.

The piano was invented about 1709 by Cristofori in Florence. more developed examples. he found more satisfactory. being distinguished from the older instrument by the fact that its strings were struck by hammers. though as late as 1802 some of Beethoven's sonatas were as 'for I published sichord or pianoforte*. Later. grauicembalo (=harpsichord) col piano e forte. its place being taken by the solo sonata. are basically binary. He movements Using the 'corresponding cadence mentioned in connection with Scarlatti. preferred his clavichord. Despite his professed admiration for the works of his father. quick. which were figures' also much employed by his father in suite movements. This gave the player control by the fingers over gradations of tone. Silbermann. not plucked. he seems to have held a poor opinion of 'learned music'. which Bach was able to try when he visited Potsdam. the normal plan becomes that of the out. he shows a considerable advance on the practice of the older composers. It is at this time that the foundations of the clavier sonata. In his slow movements. losing its fugal character Italian overture quick. the most important composer being Bach's third son. hence the name originally used by the inventor. fully-developed form. thus pointing the way to the true second subject group of the later. 1683 to 1750). His to first 1788). His important book The True Manner of Keyboard Performance remains a mine of information on the musical practice of his time. Thus. were laid.* which reached its climax in the pianoforte sonatas of Beethoven. The new invention was exploited in Germany by who found Bach critical of his early efforts. It is noticeable that the traditional trio sonata now falls into disuse. he gradually increased their contrast with the opening material.148 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Francesco Veracini (c. Possibly more than any of his predecessors except Scarlatti. he achieved a true keyboard style. By the end of the century the harpsichord was obsolescent. and even indulging in experiments in recitative. Carl Philipp Emanuel (1714 worked on the three movement plan. using a wide range of keys and styles. and to * The ousting of the harpsichord by the piano took place in the second half of the century. The initial slow move- movement and becoming homophonic. slow. the Cantor . allegro ment of the sonata drops takes first and the place.

viola and bass viol by Gregorio Allegri. the symphony really dates from around 1740. * The clarinet was invented by Johann Denner of 1694.* Orchestration in the modern sense of the term . which might run to a large number of movements. Above these might be a pair of flutes or oboes. To this was often added a minuet between the last two movements. Such symphonies were. and another of 1650 for two violins. As an independent form. their structural development following that of the solo sonata for clavier or violin. There was always a basis of strings ist and and violins. and two horns. as in the case of that to Bach's G minor Partita (=suite) for clavier. The normal plan was of three movements. a carry-over from the divertimento type of work. deriving from the Italian overture. Works under the title of symphony. and composers found it desirable to write them apart from any operatic connection. Clarinets do not appear until the end of the century. plus one or two bassoons. The term 'symphony' was also sometimes used for introductory movements (apart from opera). including various dances. violas. and their composition was variable. 'cellos and basses (whose parts were normally identical) with harpsichord continuo. as in the Italian overture. Nuremburg in Handel wrote . The symphony began to develop contemporaneously with the sonata.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM 149 have considered lack of contrapuntal ability no great matter. There exists one of 1629 for two violins and bass by Bartolomeo Mont'-Albano. But these are really canzonas under another name. an overture for two clarinets and corno da caccia. sonatas for orchestra. Later it became customary to employ a pair of both flutes and oboes. and still are. and at first was naturally of a very crude nature. had been written well back in the 1 7th century. apart from the sinfonia avanti Vopera. The demand for symphonies became very great. the last two being omitted in the quiet slow movements. and its rise was at least partly due to the establishment of public concerts. two trumpets and two kettledrums. The early orchestras were small.

but possibly more instructive. and Where may later appear transthese composers show their appreciation of tone colour is in their choice of instruments for particular movements. as has been pointed out. and which became normal in anything approaching the kaleidoscopic changes of colour later ages was obviously out of the question. . Bach's handling of the orchestra was. 1 7th- much as the voice does it express Peter's utter indefinitely. But the whole method and approach were different. In this. with some considerable differences compared with the pre- A passage first stated on the entirely suited to them. violins. Scarlatti was a pioneer. are the first and third movements of Bach's 2nd Brandenburg Concerto. t For a simple example of the early iSth-century style of orchestra^ tion the reader may refer to one of the oboe concertos of Handel. Less simple.* now begins in the use of the instruments as ceding generation. in its own way. In Bach and Handel we find. on me. % The 'hunting oboe*. Quite as despair. ferred literally to flutes or oboes. one mood' held good. as masterly as that of any later composer. Examples could be multiplied early 18th-century orchestration was naturally largely conditioned by the doctrine of 'affections'. Similarly with the solo violin which is added to the quartet in the aria Have mercy. Lord. that little distinction is made in the style of writing for the various instruments.I 5o A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC to develop. One of the most important changes which came over music in the second half of the i8th century was the tendency to strong contrasts of emotional temperature within a single movement. Matthew Passion by a flute and two oboi da cacda>% we can only feel that the colour is entirely 'right'.! This is especially noticeable in the accompaniments to vocal pieces. * Space has forbidden any consideration of Bach's use of the orchestra in the preceding chapter. For example. rather naturally in view of their fundamentally contrapuntal texture. The student should realise that although he lived before the rise of orchestration in the present-day sense of the term. when Bach accompanies the aria For love of us my Saviour suffered in the St. predecessor of the cor anglais. being bound up with the generally contrapuntal style of writing. As long e as the principle of one movement.

provided a background. the wind. on whose (im1775). Georg Christoph Abel (1725 to Wagenseil (1715 to 1777). The standard of viola playing was generally low. RISE OF CLASSICISM find that the 151 In Bach and Handel we wood wind and the violas are expected to work as hard as the violins. Specially important are Johann Stamitz (1717 to 1757) and his son Karl (1746 to 1801). He was one of the first to make .THE. for which reason composers of the galant period rarely gave the viola a truly independent or important part. as the new style after all life that he had done to develop the new style. their parts often being almost devoid of melodic interest. said late in it was a pity he had to die just as he was learning how to use the wood wind. Mozart made perhaps more progress in this direction than anybody. developed so did the use and individualisation of the instruments. even Haydn. The list of early symphonists is lengthy. Johann was in of Mannheim. The violas cling tightly to the 'cellos and spend much of their time doubling the parts of their larger brothers. But in the new galant style the wind are largely relegated to holding notes. in London. We must assume that Bach and Handel took not inconsiderable risks in their writing for this instrument. changed use of wood wind. on a melody (in the broadest sense of the term) and a bass. But this must not be taken too liter- As to the that the new ally. roughly speaking. The upper strings did most of the melodic work. All these were Karl Ditters concerned with the gradual evolution of the symphony as we know it. aginary) toccata Browning wrote his poem. plus the contimto. and (1735 to 1782) was active for many years von Dittersdorf (i 739 to 1 799). we must realise style of writing was based. charge of the orchestra at the electoral court reached a height of expressiveness where his renderings hitherto almost unknown. 1700 Baldassare Galuppi (1706 to 1785). Among the more to important are Giovanni Battista Sammartini (c. with non-contrapuntal inner parts. Karl Friedrich who. with Bach's youngest son Johann Christian 1787).

he seems to have had no notable musical ancestry. of the preceding 9 period. of a gradual increase or decrease of tone as opposed to the 'terrace' dynamics. in orchestral performance. was a practical joke which he had perpetrated on one of his fellows. He managed. as he himself said. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna.* Mozart was greatly influenced by the performances he heard at Mannheim. where he remained until 1748. and salary of about proceeded to marry the daughter of a wigmaker who was a perpetual cross to him until she died in 1800. and until 1 756 was miserably poor. The two greatest figures of the second half of the i8th century are Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 'cared not a straw whether he was an artist or a shoemaker'. Prince Nicholas 'the Magnificent'. At the age of eight he was admitted as a chorister at St. From 1761 to 1790 he was in the service of the enormously wealthy Esterhazys.i 52 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC full use. Like Handel. . In 1759 he obtained an appointment with Count Morzin. who succeeded to the title in 1762. to obtain and study the important theoretical works of the time and so gradually built up his technique as a composer. Le. however. was one of the greatest benefactors of music in the whole of invention. Haydn. and the 'Mannheim crescendo was famous through- out musical Europe. As a composer he must have been able to shut himself up in a mental world of his own. but from a very early age gave signs of talent. Stamitz's They had been in use in opera since the time of Caccini. The second of these. as is sometimes implied. * Crescendo and diminuendo were not. could write so much music of a happy and carefree nature. was born at Rohrau in Austria on March 3ist. with a small but secure 20 a year plus board and lodging. the son of a wheelwright. The pretext for his dismissal. Italian musicians in the early part of the i8th century used swelling and diminishing of tone in all kinds of music. 'block' contrasts of degrees of tone. saddled with a vixen of a wife who. It is extraordinary that Haydn. He was now thrown on his own resources. his voice having broken. and Geminiani employed them in instrumental music. 1732.

his relations with his employer were easy. to 'write as he felt and as he wished . 82. not stirred with deep emotion. is notable for his adventurousness in key plan. As Sir Hubert Parry says in the article Symphony in Grove. refinement. It re- mained for Beethoven to develop real differentiation in the was often content the first. He died in Vienna on May 3ist. his salary generous. Although Haydn had to wear a any other servant. 'with regard to deep meaning. Haydn to allow a second subject to grow from on the whole went Haydn the only real difference being that of key. to whose work Haydn admitted he owed much.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM the 153 Age of Patronage. beyond anything that Emanuel Bach ever attempted. The clavier sonatas are built on the foundations laid by Emanuel Bach. character of thematic material within a movement. but hardly the whole distance. for example. they wanted They (the audiences) appear to have cared very little. famous all over 5 In Haydn we see the work of the early sonatists and symphonists developed to a point from which Beethoven was able to take his departure. the slow is in the very distant key of E major. with a comfortable pension. This was natural enough. the orchestra small and its treatment relatively undeveloped. poetical intention. or originality. and he was given every livery like encouragement. but . sonata form. In movement The early symphonies (Haydn wrote altogether over & hundred) are mostly in the galant style. 1809. From Bach's more or less tentative development of binary form he gradually evolved the settled outline of the full Europe. After 1790 he was free of any appointment. Then followed his two visits to London under the aegis of the impresario Salomon. to be healthily pleased and entertained. since in his early days the symphony was not considered a very important branch of art. op. honoured by all. far the E flat sonata. Mozart farther. like Hasse at Dresden. and the purposes of composers in those days were consequently not exalted to any high pitch. Performances must have been often rough and ready.

is now exsix quartets pected to pull his weight with greater independence. . The of op. via such works as the quadri of Sam-martini and his fellow-countryman Giuseppe Tartini (1692 to 1770). The inclusion of this movement. the third being a minuet. Haydn is sometimes called the Father of the Symphony. leaving Besides such works were a multitude of divertimenti. are more truly quartets in the accepted sense. spontaneity. the craftsis superb and the orchestration manship impeccable. reason they lacked a continuo part. Mozart's great minor. the mature hand of the great master is evident. which often contained two or more. were limited to a simple and unpretentious supply. dating from the middle 1 760*8. These ance. 9 find the true quartet style firmly established. say. While there is not the emotional depth of. an outstanding violinist of the generation G men occasionally dispensed with the the strings to stand on their own feet. was a relic of the divertithis For earliest quartets mento. equally he was the Father of the String Quartet. cassations and serenades. in particular. and designed primarily for open-air performafter Vivaldi. The latter derived mainly from the sonata for strings and continue. consisting of an indefinite number of movements. They are in four movements. In his young days there was but little distinction between symphony and quartet. the former master of the galant style has now become the great classic. 33 (1781). the two 'Salomon* sets. written *in an entirely new and special manner'. Haydn's are of the divertimento type. Haydn was composed influenced by these considerations till the last/ In the latest symphonies. as in the symphony. but those of op.154 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC . however. for his visits to London. and op. We have by now moved a long . 3 (the opus number is that of a publisher. 17 (1769 and 1771 respectively) we With op. and the wealth of delightful ideas shows that increasing age brought no diminution of inventiveness and. . and the viola. are a landmark in their mastery of thematic development. The part-writing is of greater interest. not the composer). contimo.

if not 'born fully armed . Leopold. allowing for the inevitable differences in idiom. in The Seasons they were merely peasants. . who was a musician of considerable attainments. He remarked that whereas the characters in The Creation were angels. Mozart. From his earliest years the young Mozart's great talent was evident. Unlike Haydn. Despite public distaste for learned* music. by a musician of great erudition and experience. whole less successful. were dragged round Europe and to England as infant prodigies. achieved his mastery by struggle and hard work over a period of years. Rome. where he had attended various performances of Handel's oratorios. have much preferred him * still to though his father would remain in a settled post. and both Haydn Mozart were brilliant contrapuntists.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM way from the 155 slightly developed binary form of Emanuel Bach. but reference must be made to his two great choral works. He was born in Salzburg on January 27th 1756. written in 1800. that Mozart was a greater contrapuntist than Bach. is the true successor of the oraThe Seasons. The not find the libretto really attractive. The writer^has even heard the opinion expressed. (His still Method for the Violin was for long a standard work and is to be studied with profit. with much of Haydn's other work. The former was the outcome of his experiences in London. may be considered possibly the most naturally gifted musician who has ever lived. etc. The Creation and The Seasons. being a violinist (later vice-kapellmeister) in the 9 3 Creation was written in 1797 and. The later quartets show increasing mastery in all directions. was on the torios of Handel. including mastery of counterpoint. and had been overwhelmed by their power. and he received careful instruction from his father. Mozart travelled widely throughout his life Mannheim. composers' training was and largely based on contrapuntal practice. his father. Wolfgang and his sister Marianne.* It is impossible to deal.) At the age of six. Haydn. also musically gifted. apart from his natural ability. even in the barest outline. Haydn was in poor health and did private orchestra of the Prince Archbishop of that city. Milan. Paris.

He was at first strongly influenced by the style of Christian Bach. the elements of structural balance. and a fuller command of the orchestra' (Grove). and. in Paris. possibly the most tidy and ever lived. with comparatively rare exceptions. In cautionary letters and admonitions from had 1782 he married Gonstanze Weber.i5 6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC with an eye Leopold was of a careful disposition. at In 1781 he first met the age of twenty-two. is not the G . a richer harmonisation. some twentyprofitable. an encounter which turned out to be mutually Haydn. was buried in a pauper's grave outside Vienna. its free expression. But. showed increasing fecklessness as he grew older. thereby adding to his difficulties with Leopold. and again. It is from this time that the clever young exponent of the style galant develops into the great classic. Mozart's early works are naturally enough in the style from those of his contemporgalant. Not that the emotional side is eliminated. always favour of his employer. in whose later works. always with promises of on speedy repayment. From Haydn Mozart learned much of the possibilities of form and expression. make pitiable reading). As time went on he became his friend and fellow deeply in debt (his begging letters to Freemason Michael Puchberg. Although Haydn was the elder by four years. so strongly characteristic of the Romantics of the igth century. while from Mozart Haydn learned 'a rounder phrase. dying December 5th. 1791. there One is much more than mere well-balanced 'patterning'. each learned from the other. whom he met as a child in London. having previously an affaire with her elder sister Aloysia. proportion and pure beauty are unsurpassed. minor symphony to realise has only to think of the great this. but are distinguished aries by their superior craftsmanship and elegance. the emotion is strictly controlled. and when away from home was perpetually chased by his father. as in those of his elder contemporary. His to a steady income and the economical composer who son.

we find. did space permit. For a single. work can omit reference to his both as a clavierist and a violinist. quoted. Everything is vital to the total effect. Matthew in 'Truly. nical mastery of the medium. becomes the opening of the The incredible effect of this transformation can only trio. be realised fully. and greater depth of meanmore rapidly ing. Even more than is the case with much the same line of development as Haydn. progressed and possibly farther. noting how the cadence figure of the G minuet.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM prime it 157 wells up Occasionally object. Above all composers. It is comparable only as the first entry of the fugue subject in Beethoven's genius sonata op. but it is never allowed to override perfect balance A irresistibly. 488) or that of the Sinfonia Concertante for violin. superb instance. as the shorter-lived. Mozart understood the art of concealing art. In them he exhibits the complete range of his style. as in the later symphonies concertos for piano that and chamber music. the reader may turn to the second movement of the minor string quintet. greater techprogressed. as they achieved greater mastery of form. in the context of complete with such strokes of performance. as in symmetry of form. and of obtaining the maximum effectiveness by the Pages of examples could be simplest of means. wrote equally well for both instruments. no. Passion. viola and orchesand tra. his craftsmanship is pure delight. the slow movement of the major piano concerto (K. the It is in the last for piano was in the year of his death. and there is never a note too many. but whereas the last complete concerto for violin was written in 1777. of course. from the gdanthe sheer terie of the first. to No sketch of Mozart's Brilliant . written at the age of seventeen. the quintessential Mozart. In his symphonies and chamber music Mozart followed Both. Mozart. put from minor into major key (a mechanical procedure if ever there was one). he concertos. Haydn. or Bach's ultimate affirmation of faith this was the Son of God' in the St.

in the works of such composers decline in importance of With the gradual Tartini. means *going*. splashed liberally all over the keyboard. not a full discussion. Another 300 to the climax of the polyphonic style. but the first of real importance are those of Mozart.) about 300 years for music to evolve from the of the old organum up to measurable music. introduction to Vol. 3. All are in three movements. the concertos show the 9 This element. not .e.* The second movement is most frequently an andante^ and the finale often a rondo. the continuo during the century. lacking the minuet. t Which term. it may be pointed out. beginnings Then another 150 before Ars Nova appeared. and the frequent statement that they are in exposition* is 'sonata Essays in Musical Analysis. (We do not use the word 'progress* here. moving. sometimes of distinctly complex internal 9 construction. and about 150 to It took the masterpieces of Bach and Handel. 'slow'. for See Tovey. i. the harpsichord and Torelli. as it is apt to lead to misunderstanding. the day of handfuls of notes. Companion to Mozart's Pianoforte Concertos.i 58 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC beauty of the famous the great C year. note to say something to the point. as in everything else. and Hutchings. and of limpid clarity. In his passage-work. * There is But now we find a good deal of misunderstanding regarding the form of form with a double these movements. Mozart means every At this stage we may pause to note the gradual speedingup of the tempo of musical change. was as yet far distant. Haydn wrote a small number of piano concertos. especially in the orchestral introduction which serves as an 'opening ritornello . rise and development of the 'display to creep into works for the violin as early had A major of 1786 and the tragedy of minor of the same as and the tendency was intensified as time as Veracini and passed. strictly correct. In the first movements there are traces of the old concerto form of the preceding period. begun the piano came into their own as individuals in concerted music. On the purely technical side. The display element is strictly controlled.

is purely a matter of personal opinion. 1061 - 18397 cx Quartet in E Flat. this. and we shall see later how further changes. But after less than 300. 2515 1 178 . Bach Boccherini Composer Title Divertimento and Serenade Sinfonias in E fiat and String Quartet in Symphony in F sharp minor D D APM. is already. 14084 ABR. C. 4005 LXT. 2680 DX. 1316 PL. 64 No. 2 in D Major (London) ALP. 6 With Verdure Clad (Creation) Mozart Symphonies in G. LPM. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik A Major G Minor LXT. at least according to some contemporary musicians. 3022 LX. Mozart J. 10140 Overtures Piano Concerto. 1052 LX. of course. RECORDS L. but the major and minor scale system. 1088 OALP. (Jupiter) String Quintet. both in outlook and technical method. 2680 Haydn (Farewell) Symphony No. JVb. 33 OCX. It took over 600 years for the modal system to be played out. reaching the end of its tether. followed in comparatively rapid succession.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM 159 a new style reaching a climax in three-quarters of a century. Op. 3010 OBLP. Symphony in Symphony in D and C G Minor C Major LXT. Cat.

especially in the Neapolitan school of Scarlatti and his successors. her captors awaiting the end of her outburst with exemplary patience. many of the arias. or led away to the torture chamber. except for the characters' re- actions to the situations in being really for the singers to exhibit their vocal talents. In any * case. as separate pieces. the number and order of whose strictly regulated. there was a set mythology of characters. Johnson defined opera. and the overture was often of few if any of the audience Opera (Pdican Books). The action of the story was carried along by recitative with the barest of accompaniment. continue. were almost unheard-of. finding herself about to be cast into the deepest the action while she expresses at length. Subrestricted almost. opera was bogged down in a mass of conventions. jects for libretti were number arias were an occasional duet. mostly strings with harpsichord negligible value. No wonder Dr. for example. outside the action and serving largely as media dungeon. had considerable musical value. as Prof. and in ternary form. In Italy. Dent puts it. The heroine. holds up an exotic and irrational entertainment' The irrationality was in no way diminished by the employment of male e ! sopranos for heroic parts. True. her feelings on her predicament. the arias. as which they found themselves. but an opera as a whole was. if not entirely. to or ancient history.CHAPTER TWELVE DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA WE classical must now retrace our steps to follow the course pursued by opera from the point at which we left it in Chapter 8. expressing ensemble numbers.* 'just a concert in costume'. in his dictionary. . The orchestra was small. by the early years of the i8th century.

by Intermezzi. Instead of merely providing a subordinate accompaniment. It had rarely any recognisable connection with the opera itself. From very early times it had been customary to provide it light relief between the acts of a tragedy. and with the development of opera a similar practice obtained. at least by Rameau. was sometimes used.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA 161 bothered to listen to it. This independence was largely the work of Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710 to 1736). were discountenanced. mere vocal pyrotechnics. judging by the applause. By the beginning of the i8th century they had become little two-act affairs. Though. Gradually the Intermezzi achieved character and coherence of their own. choral movements were a regular constituent. for example. In the period before 1600. the Intermezzo became known as opera buffd comic due course the Intermezzi achieving independence as * The writer was interested to find a similar procedure occurring in India as recently as 1943. and served to cover up the shuffling of feet and the conversation of the audience who were awaiting the appearance of their pet singers. madrigals would be sung. The idea seems to have been similar to that of the Intermezzi as explained by Rousseau in his Dictionary of Music (1767). as in the aria di bravura of Italy. was used with greater ingenuity than was common in Italy. which were interlocked with the three acts of the opera proper. too. The subjects of the French operas were similar to those of the Italian. the comedy turns did little to "repose* the spirits of the sepoys who formed the bulk of the audience! . but in the musical setting there was more insistence on declamation as opposed to pure singing. an individual form. saddened by thoughts of the tragic and strained by its attention to matters of gravity*.* In became separated from the opera. In France the Lullian tradition was carried on by Rameau. Besides this. 'to cheer and repose the spirit of the spectator. for descriptive purposes. The orchestra. whose La Serva Padrona is the most famous of all such works. Separated from the opera seria> the 'serious opera*. A travelling company of entertainers whom he saw alternated the acts of an historical drama with low comedy turns. as was ballet. a possibility entirely overlooked by the Italians. with which they had no connection either in plot or music.

. 'that the French have no music and cannot have any. dancing. Argument went back and forth on the importance or otherwise of stage machinery. * . Throughout of the lyth and i8th centuries Paris was an operatic battleground the Parisians took their opera very seriously the grounds of contention being mainly whether the purely musical side. two of the most important supporters of opera buffa to 1719) had Italian style. neither measure nor A . Among the more prominent pam* phleteers were the Abbe Frangois Raguenet (b. With the arrival of Les Bouffons warfare flared up violently. the Italian faction retorted to the effect that the French had no good singers anyway. Finally. was to be considered the more important. because the not capable of them. generally lauds the Italians and their performances as compared with the French. that its harmony is crude and devoid of expression*. etc. 1660) and Le Gerf de La Vieville. often conducted in a remarkably virulent manner. The latter.. or the dramatic side. or that if they ever 9 have. In 1752 an Italian troupe. writers Pamphleteering was rife. as in the French. more conservative.162 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC It opera. it will be so much the worse for them somewhat startling condemnation of the national art from one who language is . In England. arrived in Paris perform their Intermezzi. that French singing is continual squalling. many being F. and almost immediately arose the Guerre des Bouffons between those who supported the to Italians and those. W. was bound by no conventions and so achieved real vitality. as in Italian opera. concluding c that there is melody in French music. who preferred the traditional much French style deriving from Lully. in his Letter on French Music. Les Bouffons. von Grimm (1723 to 1807) and Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712 to 1778). and so on. use of chorus. The pro-French complained that all the Italians thought of was singing. Joseph Addison ( 1 672 witty things to say of the traditional while in Italy itself Benedetto Marcdlo satirised the native opera and the vanity of the singers.

eventually made its into favour. his operas numberincluding the 'grand' opera Masaniello. Paris at way on French La Serva Padrona. and had ultimately considerable influence Pergolesi's its first opera. stemming from opera buffa. that of the Gluckists versus the Piccinnists. and that brilliant passages in the arias should be introduced only He demanded. like opera buffa. his A visit to Paris in 1746 enabled him to hear works by Rameau. in the Italian style.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA only three years earlier 163 had written strongly supporting French opera against Intermezzo. famous also as a chess player. which gave him cause to reflect on the possible weaknesses of the Italian style. Pierre Monsigny (1729 to 1817) and Andre Gr6try (1741 to 1813). Rousseau himself wrote an in French. After Pergolesi. was built up by such composers as Francois Philidor (1726 to 1795). In this work he showed considerable originality. du Village. who possessed a remarkable flair for writing works which appealed Like ing facility in composition was amazing. Algarotti. famous especially for The Secret Marriage. the Italian Francesco conventional Italian manner. Its last great representative was Daniel Auber (1786 to 1871). poorly received in presentation in 1746. The Guerre des Bouffbns having died down. was far removed from the formality and heaviness of the Lully-Rameau style. I' other things. He was not the only one to feel that it had reached a ridiculous pitch of irrationality. among opera in musica (1755)9 was . the great name in Italian opera buffa is Domenico Cimarosa (1749 to 1801). in his Saggio sopra critical. of his contemporaries and predecessors. called Le Devin Italian. and a rather unexpected ability to handle the grand manner. Paris was almost immediately plunged into another operatic struggle. Opera comique had spoken dialogue and. It is from this time that the tradition of the French opera-comique. Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714 to 1787) began by writing successfully in the forty-six. many to the least musically educated audience. that highly the recitative should be given greater importance.

without interrupting the action or stifling it with a useless superfluity of ornaments . Gluck had set some of his libretti. 'the overture ought to apprise the spectators of the nature of the action that is to plains. are c 9 be represented and to form. a hundred and fifty years earlier. so to speak. however. He admits that occasional move1 64 ments by such composers as Jommelli (1714 to 1774) and Hasse (1699 to 1783) are worthy of praise. In essence it found in many overtures to Venetian operas of the mid-iyth century. the most famous musicians. but with the first note of the overture. a century later. only a halfway house.A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC when really appropriate. in the Preface to Alce$te> that Gluck first fully expounded his ideas on what opera should and should not be. 9 The results of Gluck's reflections Orfeo of 1762. as a dramatic unity it did not exist. Further. In the dedication of this work he begins by saying: 'When I undertook to write the music for Alceste. His libretti were designed exactly to suit the conventions of opera seria. however. His aims. whom he found in Raniero da CalzabigL Orfeo was. had been completely forgotten. He deplores the undramatic formality of the da capo aria and insists that the action of the plot must not be held up 'un9 reasonably or wantonly . In other words. insisted that an opera begins not with the rise of the curtain. of the time. he ex. to return to the methods and aims of the Camerata. The most popular appeared librettist first in his whose works were set by all was Metastasio. I resolved to divest it entirely of all those abuses which have so long disfigured Italian opera. . and it was not until 1767. 9 to restrict music to its true office of serving poetry by means of expression and by following the situations of the story. its argument In this he anticipates Wagner. even to thematic material being taken from that in the main scenes of the opera. who. but for his new ideas he needed a writer of sympathy and originality.* We may mention that 9 . . . is * Gluck was not. the originator of this idea. but the general tone of his complaint is that the true aims of the founders of opera. As a 'concert in costume it might be effective enough.

the mythological-historical subjects of opera seria being excluded. In Germany a type of opera known as the singspiel grew up during the i8th century. The war of the Gluckists and the Piccinnists broke out in 1777. The contest was waged with great violence. did not please the opera public of Vienna. Singspiels were often based on everyday stories. and although in Italian opera the accent remained primarily on the singing. was a comparative failure. to a French libretto. it was a success. the complete unreality and formality of opera seria eventually passed away. and was followed by the presentation of Orphee et Eurydice (adapted from Orfeo) and Alceste. and eventually the two composers were invited to set the same libretto. Even so. Piccinni was the protege of the Italian faction. Originally it was related to the English ballad opera spoken dialogue in the verna- cular with interpolated songs but by degrees evolved into something more approaching true opera. Except for Etienne M&iul (1763 to 1817) the French composers remained unaffected directly by Gluck's reforms. gradually broke down. Mehul's greatest work was the sacred opera Joseph. Largely due to the support of Marie Antoinette. The initial impulse seems to have come from the performance of a German version of the ballad opera The Devil to Pay by . his former singing pupil. and his Roland was to be produced four months after Gluck's Armide. and their application in practice. 'reformed operas used the orchestra to the recitatives. however. IphigSnie m Tauride.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA Gluck in his 9 165 accompany harpsichord. Iphigtnie en Aulide. produced in 1779. was a great success. Nor were there any conventions in the form. The Italian conventions. two years later. Piccinni's. the argument was carried on after Gluck had returned to Vienna. which city had by this time become the chief centre of Italian opera. Gluck's version. In 1772 Gluck wrote. produced in Paris in 1774. instead of the traditional Such theories. without recitative.

he simply does everything better than any of his contemporaries. Idomeneo and La Clemenza di Of the others. while The Flight from the Seraglio and the less-known Theatre Director are of the same class. but again there is much more under the surface than mere comedy. which had a great success in Leipzig in 1764. It is doubtful. between serious and comic opera. They lie. based on a story of considerable antiquity. Figaro and Cosifan 5 . always with the greatest simplicity and ease. Don Giovanni. are opere bujfe. for example. its libretto being arranged. sible to achieve greater . too. This the composer describes as a 'comedy with music'. opere serie. apart from those already tutte mentioned. Hiller is often called the father of the singspiel. of the general run of opere buffe. a 'humorous But neither Figaro nor Don Giovanni is comedy drama pure and simple.166 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Charles Coffey. Dittersdorf s Doctor and Apothecary is one of the most famous of all such works. and are the ancestors of such works as Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier. As with so many of his works. Especially notable. though or Dittersdorf. and led to the composition of a number of similar pieces by Johann Adam Hiller (1728 to 1804) in conjunction with the poet C. while Don Giovanni is described as a Dramma Giocoso. by Lorenzo da Ponte. as . The former is in essence a social satire. much more developed in every way than the works of Hiller Mozart wrote two Tito. nor the trivial music. Of Mozart's operas. described on the title- page as a singspiel. is his power of characterisation. may almost be considered as a 'cautionary tale'. whether it would be pos- beauty with a most elementary harmonic progression and an almost static voice part than Mozart does in the opening of the aria Dove sow in Figaro. There is no particular virtue in trying to decide which of Mozart's operas is the greatest.it were. referred to as The Magic Flute (which the composer is 'my German opera'). F. from a comedy by Beaumarchais which at the time was banned by the authorities. Weisse. Neither has the often trivial plot.

Weber. on the chivalry of the Middle Ages. for example. Musically there was gradually greater freedom. In all these directions Luigi Cherubim ( 1 760 to 1 842) excelled. scenic effects. and Parsifal. on fairy tales. Plots became less stereotyped as literary romanticism began to have its effect.g. in accordance with prevailing taste. By the end of the i8th century the old French tradition of opera. used material from the body of the opera for much of his overtures. and we may note his Lodoiska and Les Deux Journees. while spectacular and melodramatic elements came more to the fore. the overture is an integral part of the work. and so on.g. he defines each of clarity. dating back to Lulli. with the greatest As with Gluck. are entirely based on themes be heard later. that of Don Giovanni leads without break into the first scene. Concerted numbers became longer and more important. had disintegrated. Robert All such works spectacular . Cherubini. Mastersingers some of Wagner's introductory movements. (Gluck does the same in Iphigenie en Tauride. was for many years director of the Paris Conservatory of Music. Italian born. 1864). and reaches height in the operas of Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791 to the Devil.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA With only the minimum his characters 167 of resources. while e. the practice of later composers. and were full of brilliant solos. however reformed. rather than to confine the movement of the plot to recitative or spoken dialogue. The style is well exemplified in Spontini's its La Vestale (1807). From the beginning of the igth century Parisian grand opera became more and more of a spectacle. The Huguenots and UAfricaine* demanded a large cast and orchestra. but 'grand opera' continued. and a tendency to carry on the action continuously. Stories were based on Oriental romance. and was a learned writer to of technical treatises. e. Hatevy's La Juive.} In the overtures to both Don Giovanni and The Magic Flute there are brief references to music which will be heard This is an important anticipation of later in the opera.

but. In the remaining thirty-nine years of his life he seems to have been more interested in gastronomy than in composition. *a and use some of his effective tricks of orchestration. convention and formgave way to greater freedom of design. then. Gaetano Donizetti (1797 to 1848) and Vincenzo Bellini (1801 to 1835) were chiefly concerned with carrying on the tradition of opera as a vehicle for vocal (solo) melody and technique. and whatever the underlying vulgarity of much of his music. In Italian opera the solo voice still remained the predominant factor.i68 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC numbers. 9 subjects came into the Concerted numbers. that We harmony or use of the orchestra. also and 'romantic to appear. despite the continued insistence see. of the voice and of the orchestra. His real . and melodramatic incident. a master of melody. and he wrote no more. Both were accomplished melodists.* but did not disdain ventions died out. His most famous works are The Barber of Seville (1816) (of which the plot is actually the first part of Beaumarchais's story of Figaro. The establishment of * name was Jacob Liebmann Meyerbeer came of a German-Jewish business family. finale'. but neither showed any great ingenuity Tell (1829). large-scale concerted in Berlin as well as in Paris. Mozart's work being the second part) and William after it This latter was his thirty-sixth opera. he certainly understood public taste. the old insistence on the mythological-historical plot faded away. in either from about the middle of the i8th as great changes came about in opera as in other century forms of writing. especially the 'concerted began The greatest Italian of the early igth century was Gioachino Rossini (1792 to 1868). The old conto learn Jew banker who composes Wagner referred to him as music'. In France opera branched out in a number of different directions. Although many of his contemporaries had hard things to say of Meyerbeer. Beer. and to a wider range of subject-matter. on the ality exploitation of pure singing. picture. Of other Italians. In Italy. as in France.

6025 19053. 33 OCX. LPEM LPEM Rossini Largo atfactotum (Barber of Seville) Una voce pocofa Overtures 0. together with the spectacular element. 1069 LS.opira comique although good declamation remained of the utmost importance. No. . DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA helped in breaking down the old 169 rigidity. Of German opera we shall speak later. 5038 19041. a more easily appreciated and melodious style of vocal writing evolved. Alceste JSurydice from Orpheus and Cat. and RECORDS Mozart Composer Selection Title Operatic arias Overture.1406 7 ERO.

too easy. a tenor singer at the court of the Elector of Cologne. who. and thenceforward had to make his own way independently. Archbishop of Salzburg. old. had been ignominiously discharged by his employer. survived. well into the igth century. from 1 783. of course. Even when such a post was held. 1827. After Mozart the first of the great freelances was Ludwig Many composers still had their patrons. In this year. was. and the professional composer. gradual. born in Bonn on December i6th. gave him his first musical instruction. as in the case of Liszt's appointment as director of music at the court of Saxe-Weimar. and he also received training from Christian Neefe. dwindling. but it was no longer taken for granted that the musician would seek an assured livelihood in some salaried court or church post. His father. instead of being the paid servant of 9 IN some wealthy amateur. and the old system less The last of the really great kapellmeisters was Haydn. freedom to write what he wished and as he wished. was director of music to the Elector. by the time he was twenty-six. The day of the 'tame musician' was nearing its end. as they relied for encouragement and possibly some kind of periodical financial assistance. on whom a consequence finding life none van Beethoven.CHAPTER THIRTEEN BEETHOVEN the latter part of the i8th century the 'Age of Patronage was drawing to a close. died in Vienna on March 26th. Hieronymous Colloredo. while still only twelve years Beethoven became the 'orchestral harpsichordist' . bound to provide became a freelance. 1770. more or music to The change suit his employer's taste. the composer expected. Mozart. and was granted.

or any one of a dozen things. in the new sense. 10. a modification of the conventional form (as in the last movement of the same work). who made him a yearly allowance. 2. 2. Beethoven. but he persevered with the theorist Albrechtsberger until 1 795. No. but rarely without something which is essentially Beethoven and nobody else. op. Albrechtsberger. The first period takes us to about the year 1802. began to go deaf. the obvious models for a young composer of the time. where he had sible position. Lessons in counterpoint with Haydn were not a success and soon ceased. Beethoven nevertheless accepted At the age of about thirty Beethoven period we see the influence of Mozart and Haydn. Notable. of many of the nobility in Vienna. For some years he lived in the house of Prince Karl Lichnowsky. a dis- tinctly conservative contrapuntist. No. Beethoven the individualist is always there. was but little concerned with what his auditors wanted. Composers of the preceding period rarely 'let themselves go* emotionally. like Bach. is the great intensity of emotional power which at times comes to the surface. an abrupt and forcefiil manner of expression (as in the first subject of the piano sonata. they had to take what he gave them. In the first greatly impressed. Although a freelance. as is evident from some of Mozart's letters. in which the second of the nine symphonies was written. it was with a certain amount of trepidation as to the reactions of their audience. No.BEETHOVEN and thus 171 early obtained experience of a responunpaid In 1787 he visited Vienna. op. seems not to have been the patronage. as in the brooding of the slow movement of op. The dedications of many of his works show that he was in close touch with many wealthy and titled people. too. In the work of Beethoven three periods are usually distinguished. ultimately becoming completely so. and in 1792 he settled there permanently. though there is some overlapping. 2. 3. a few lessons from Mozart. It may be a turn of phrase. and still more in that of the D major sonata. i). and when they did. But the .

No. as is evident in the piano sonatas of opp. op. In sonata form first movements there are instances of unusual keys for the second . 26 and 27. for example. though Haydn.172 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC move into the second period was already under way. the Rassoumovsfy quartets. In these it is obvious that the real Beethoven. and those of op. 31 of 1802. forceful. distinctly unexpected of Beethoven to put the slow movement of his C minor piano concerto in the key of E major. In this second period are found a great body of works of all kinds the third to the eighth symphonies. as we have seen. independent. 90. which include the so-called 'Moonlight' sonata a publisher's title. 2. holds our attention from the first note to the last. 31. the concertos in major and E flat major. to mention some of the chief. The compositions of the first and second periods show a number of important technical advances. as compared with his predecessors. and entirely sure of himself. op. while perhaps only Bach had plumbed such depths as are found in its slow movement. The fury of the first movement of the D minor sonata. was far from being hidebound. the piano sonatas up to op. has emerged. is something which had never before been expressed in music. not the composer's of 1801. Mozart was capable of packing into a single could achieve in a dozen. This is not to suggest that greater length necessarily implies greater value. 59. 95. the violin piano concerto. In many of them we are impressed by the enormous scale on which the composer works. the miniature score of the whole of Mozart's Jupiter symphony runs to eighty-four pages. the string quartets up to op. It was. For example. In works of the sonata type he tends to employ a wider range of keys. and the one opera Fidelio. the Kreut&r sonata G for violin and piano. the overture to Coriolanus. though it is to be noted that in many of them Beethoven was to some page more meaning than many other composers extent anticipated by Haydn and Mozart. But Beethoven. the first movement alone of Beethoven's Eroica takes eightyone. like Mozart.

quite early works. with a flourish of trumpets. op.g. The first movement of the Eroica offers an example which is almost a second development. though again Mozart pointed the way. The range of modulaapt to be wider than had formerly been customary. as it were. from the material selected for discussion. K. as in the last movement of his Jupiter 2. equally remote from the tonic. and reached by a really startling harmonic mote key of E minor. at the development begins in F sharp minor. where the coda is down to the last detail. and shows the composer's genius for holding our attention while arguing a point. The structure of the G second group becomes more consistently complex (though here he was anticipated by Mozart). ball rolling. where it is in E major. and compare with it that of. 2. The development of the first movement of the Eroica symphony. and its character also. Often in the works of earlier composers we feel that the bridge passage is more or less mechanical padding. had set the No. is for example. If the reader will refer to the second group of Mozart's sonata in F. the last move- potentialities of the coda.BEETHOVEN 173 subject group as. in the Waldstein sonata. major. it depended on whether he felt one to be appropriate. symphony. as it were. Even in ment of the sonata short cut. is a tendency. towards greater continuity within extended movements. With Beethoven the bridge tends to become an integral part of the material. 332. and that the second group is ushered in. for example. the various sections moving into each other almost imperceptibly. Beethoven realised the Mozart. But in Mozart's one point finds itself in the extremely re- G minor symphony e. too. tion. too. a comprehensive summing-up. In development sections there is a tendency to greater length. or Waldstein sonatas. yet again. every possible deduction is made. as it were. this will be readily apparent. a link that has got to be there. Not that Beethoven invariably wrote long codas. Beethoven's Appassionato. say. and There .

2. Firstly. approach the style. it led to further such developments by later composers. that he viewed the work as a unified whole. are one and indivisible. at least in the first and last sections. a scherzo as four notes tically the at his audience. while in most cases retaining the 3/4 time-signature. etc. into something almost macabre. This leads without break into ihs finale another new departure and the finale itself is whole movement on the well-known rhythmic is interrupted by a is reference back to the first theme of the scherzo. rising to heights tension of almost shattering intensity. to flow out of it. The 5th symphony is a work of great importance in the development of symphonic writing. however contrasted. some of whose minuets. The very opening is a revelation. 33. but returns in a different guise in the scherzo. but he was anticipated to some by Haydn.174 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the second group. or the G minor Qtiintet. and is especially notable in two ways. as in the quartets of op. The relaxed in the slow movement. 2. mechanically. The scherzo in sonata or symphony is often assumed to extent be Beethoven's invention. But it cannot be denied that in many of the earlier . No. There is no concession to convention. not even so much as the two introductory chords which.. and secondly it shows. definitely changed the character of the movement. and in it we can trace the distance which Beethoven had travelled. This the instance of such thematic cross- referencing. Such works as Mozart's G minor or Jupiter symphonies. Beethoven simply hurls his subject-matter ancestry. As early as op. one slow movement or finale would suit as well as another. Not that he was the first and symphonies and quartets. Beethoven. in the Eroica. and proceeds to build prac- figure. what is evident purely musically in so many of Beethoven's sonatas. sonatas in this. are all that he uses to replace the frequent conventional slow introduction of the earlier symphonists. we find a scherzo in which there is but little trace of its In the 5th symphony the literal conception of a playful movement becomes metamorphosed.

for the expression of Beethoven points the way to the . Not until the gth Symphony does Beethoven employ four horns. with progeny including such works as Mendelssohn's Hymn of Praise. the first time these had been used in such a work.BEETHOVEN The 175 5th symphony shows. i. of B Beethoven's one opera. which include the last quartets and the piano sonatas from op. Vaughan Williams's Sea Symphony and Hoist's Choral Symphony. In the works of the third period. feels them inadequate In this. movement brings in piccolo. but trombones were usually reserved for use in opera. too. even though the basic outlines were those customarily followed at the time. and trombones appear again only in the 'storm' movement of the Pastoral Symphony and in the second and last movements of the gth. but the last scherzo. obviously to allow for the notable horn passage which opens the trio of the In the 5th there are only two horns. Mozart uses the double bassoon in his Masonic Funeral Music. From his first symphony (1800) Beethoven had used clarinets regularly. double bassoon and three trombones. Comparison D less. especially in connection with funeral music and the supernatural. 101 onwards.e. by the message which he wished to convey. and in the Eroica he employed three horns instead of the usual two. their is supreme in its own way. The use of voices (soloists and chorus) in the last movement of the gth was another forward-looking innovation. while his Mass in of these two works would be fruitminor. In these latest works the conventional plans are modified or discarded if composers' outlook and approach were entirely different. Beethoven begins to move away from strict adherence to the traditional forms. ranks among the greatest stands on a peak with Bach's all. and each work the composer his thought. advances in the use of the orchestra. The entry of the statue in the last act of Don Giovanni is an example of the latter. Fidelio. As with all great composers. his organisation of the internal details had always been conditioned by emotional intention.

and the variations exploring implications. unlike in themselves.176 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC 9 form was subservient to emotional some of his successors. fugue and variations. growth from a germinal cell. This is not to suggest that Beethoven was the first to 'think in sound 9 . Bach had done so in the Art of Fugue (notwithstanding its pedagogical aim) and in the great Ricercare of the Musical Offering. too. so Beethoven gives us the fruits of his meditations in sound. As Sir Donald Tovey so often pointed out. did so on a far greater than any earlier composer. In his last in musical terms. are always perfect The relationship between form and content* is indivisible. the cell its e j being the theme. The use of variations. . neither of them 'forms' in the conventional sense. tends to As opposed to the subject which was so often melodic.f of all styles of composition. and however unorthodox 'Romantics . 'Content^ implies 'meaning . whether for single always movements or for whole works. emotionally and in every other which he casts his music. is that in which the principle of continuous be of a new character. too. No better summing up 9 express. For this purpose. but to give expression to thought. his designs. His frequent adoption of fugue in later works shows this. offered possibilities beyond those of sonata and other traditional forms. scale * total deafness But Beethoven. to whom But. The thematic material. is basic. or based on figuration. by conventional or textbook standards. it is a 'texture*. It is works Beethoven was preoccupied with thinking In the same way as a Bertrand Russell music not for 'entertainment9 . to name no other examples. or a de Madariaga expresses his philosophical deductions in an essay. since fugue. in however high a sense we interpret the word. Beethoven used matter which can be best described as germinal a cell from which a movement grows. withdrawn into himself by the of his later years. he was expression. the subject. the great architect. that which the composer wishes to way. regardless of the form in t It is undesirable to think of fugue as a 'form'. shows the same principle in operation.

Leonora. 5. 13 and 33 OCX. 40 ALP. Symphony No. 27/2 Op. where. 1236 KLC 564 33 OCX. 3 Overture.' RECORDS Beethoven Composer Title Cat. . 57 (AppasViolin Sonata Op. 1073 Overture. 47 (Kreut&r) Quartets Op. C Major C Minor 1094 1319 33 OCX. Coriolan Song-Cycle: An die feme Geliebte Symphony No. deprecation of sel negation of personality. Piano Sonatas Piano Sonata Op. No. 52/2 sionato) Op. 1077 LWA. he delivers a message of religious love and resignation. OALP. JVb.BEETHOVEN e 177 of the works of the last period can be found than that of Edward Dannreuther: He passes beyond the horizon of a mere singer and poet. and touches upon the domain of the seer and the prophet. 1066 OALP. 5016 7 TCA. in unison with all genuine mystics and ethical teachers. 1168 33 OCX. release from the world. 18/1 and 2 Quartet Op. identification with the sufferings of all living creatures. i.

It might be for the Church. as he did in another connection. the poets. 'art for art's sake' was unheardof. or what not. he would probably have replied. taneously there came about a change in the composers' UNTIL all attitude to their art. that anyone could do as well if he worked hard enough. Even such a masterpiece as the St. The new conditions and outlook were part and parcel of the general tendency towards greater freedom. for domestic or instructional use. Matthew Passion was written simply because Bach needed a new setting for use at St. Had someone commented to him on its greatness (a most unlikely happening at the time). but the old system of reguSimullarly composing to order no longer held good. without restrictions or inhibitions. whose aim was at all costs to express himself. Comparable tendencies are observable among The rather rigid formalism of the *Age of Reason' . became an 'artist'. approach died out. It has already been noted that the decline of the patronage system brought about changes in the conditions under which composers worked. for the opera house. The utilitarian and the musician. Official posts in the Church and the opera house still remained.CHAPTER FOURTEEN THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC the latter part of the i8th century practically music was written for a specific purpose or occasion. Thomas's Church. of which the French Revolution and similar smaller movements were but the more violent manifestations. for a court or civic function. at least in his own estimation. Composing was looked upon largely as a 'job of work'. but fundamentally it was Gebrauschmusik utility music.

had been of an instructional nature. Franz Liszt (1811 to 1886) wrote voluminously on a wide range of subjects. To gave way the cool. more appreciated in his lifetime as a musical avowed object of encouraging the poetic principle in music. . It is at this time that we find. Weber was the first of the line. rather naturally as long was regarded largely as a 'job to be done'. whose writings were chiefly designed as propaganda for his own works. too. while possibly the most verbose and controversial of all was Richard Wagner (1813 to 1883). con- the began to consider himself as a poet in musical sound. a tone-poet. but to the musically educated public. Aesversely. * Despite what was said in Chapter convenience. The poet sang. from Musica Enchiriadis onwards. Of the musical litterateurs whose writings provided both i. numerous writings on opera. In former times almost all books on music. Romanticism.* is represented by such poets as Goethe.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC to 179 a more humanistic and natural approach. and the musician. In Germany the new movement. There were. of course. as well as of the musical literary man. what has been called 'the stiff couplets and clenched quatrains'f was replaced by greater flexibility and variety. as in the Dramatic and Musical Notices of Carl Maria von Weber (1786 to 1826). thetics as composing The new had hardly been touched. the lyricism of a Shelley. selves not journalist than as a composer. but these were mostly either propaganda or simply controversial. In 1834 Robert Schumann (1810 to 1856) founded the New Journal for Music with the generation of composer-critics addressed themmerely to musicians or students. classical poise of an Alexander Pope succeeds the vision of a William Blake. and was followed by Hector Berlioz (1803 to 1869). this label is retained for f Louis Untermeyer in The Albatross Book of Living Verse. The almost rigid versification of 1 8th century. Schiller and the brothers August and Friedrich Schlegel. the rise of the 'literary' musician.

while Mendelssohn was on relatively easy terms with the British Royal Family.i8o A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC background and encouragement to the romantic movement. (b) a relaxation and broadening of the attitude to the importance and function of We now form. From Weber and Schubert onwards. were (a) a greater appreciation of sound as such. The musical results of these aims. the Bach family. Mozart and Beethoven. again in very general terms. who was in some ways the most romantic-minded of all romantic musicians. of the musician rose. son of a surgeon. now he was admitted to terms of something like equality with wealthy and titled people. new possibilities of colour and sonority are continually explored. the musician was generally of humble origin. (c) free and unrestricted expression of personal emo- a tendency to ally music to some literary or other non-musical background. With the coming of the romantics we find composers from a wider range of social strata. Mendelssohn came of a wealthy and cultured family of Jewish bankers. Haydn. very broadly speaking. There were. the vital factor is the development of the orchestra. They were the high priests of Romanticism. In any case. With regard to (<z). and E. and bolt exerted a great influence on Schumann. We may note also the cultivation of small-scale works and concentration on the solo tion. usually known as Jean Paul. the Scarlattis. Berlioz and Spohr were sons of physicians. see a change in the social and cultural backof the musician. and so on. The basic aims of the Romantics were. Under the patronage system he normally occupied a subordinate position. Formerly the great composer had ground most frequently come of a family of musicians. too. The status. notable exceptions Handel. son of a wheelwright. A. freedom and self-expression. the most important were Johann Paul Richter (1763 to 1825). But we may also think of the Gabrielis. Hoffmann (1776 to 1822). (d) song. . T. of course. Schumann's father was a bookseller of considerable culture.

stand at the beginning. Near the end of the period lies who could play only the flute and the guitar. taken still further Richard Strauss and Edward Elgar. i.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 181 composers are not concerned merely with the music as such. and so on. within the accepted limits of classical form. and Wagner's colossal music-dramas needed an orchestra of comparable size triple wood wind. 9 the orchestral virtuosity of Wagner. The orchestra tended to increase in size. But the introduction of new or extra instruments was not merely to achieve a greater volume of sound. Haydn and Mozart had the genius to combine structural stability with vital content. Liszt says much the same: 'The artist may pursue the beautiful outside the rules of the 9 school. both Berlioz and Wagner are sparing in their use of the full orchestra. demands huge forces. for example. To Beethoven's standard requirements were added two more horns and three trombones. Weber's magic horn which opens the overture to Oberon (the horn was considered a most romantic instrument). or Schubert's visionary use of the trombones in his great C major symphony. but with its actual sound-effect. Composers wanted a wider range of colour. Much of their work is little more than well-ordered patterning with notes. The musical god of the romantic .e. ordy the bass clarinet could produce the exact psychological effect that Wagner intended Berlioz. The early symphonists of the galant style often solved this problem by almost eliminating any worth-while meaning. In between stands by in certain cases. Anyone who has heard the Ring will realise that. His Traite d Instrumentation (1844) is still a standard work. but whose orchestral imagination was unrivalled. Berlioz. in its melodic and harmonic aspects. as many as eight horns. in some of his works. The interaction of form and content has always presented composers with a problem. The romantics' attitude to form is expressed in Berlioz's 9 statement that music must not be based on 'rule but on 'direct reaction to feeling*. with the sensuous side.

His forms can still stand as examples of structural 9 perfection. of a which acts as a psychological connecting thread. actually more of a classic than a romantic. since poetical background. the traditional outlines.i82 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC school was Beethoven. still retain. they are symphonies with a programme. Beethoven was quite pator who 'broke the bonds of of a 'self-expressionist as any professed romantic. often. rhythmic. Liszt was also largely responsible for developing the system of thematic metamorphosis.) Liszt. however much he may have adapted form in order to express his meaning. fines the Fantastic and Harold in Italy. however. by some kind of modification. though not necessarily. broadly. but still sym(At least one writer has argued that Berlioz is phonies. he was still the great architect. to them he was the great emanciform'. whether an actual story or merely some more or less vaguely The formal problems of the romantics were intensified by their fondness for illustrative music. But there is no attempt at a complete break with tradition. and consequently in meaning and significance. Berlioz's programme symphonies. The principle is that a basic theme can be varied in character. the programme was written after the music. Hence his adoption of the title symphonic poem. would not necessarily fit into the con- classical form. Examples from Les Preludes (of which. by the way. realised that the idea of programme music could only be carried out logically by breaking with formal tradition and allowing the form to be dictated by the programme in each individual case. the varied forms of his works in this genre. The former has five movements instead of the usual four and uses a kind of motto theme. the idee fixe. by which means ideas or characters can be shown in different lights or situations. and Love* appears this theme: . as much but they seem at times to have overlooked the fact that however far he may have departed from the classical forms of Haydn and Mozart. not before In the opening 'Moods of Spring it) will make this clear. and hence. a 'programme*. also.

each developing on its own lines.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC Ex. it is modified to: Allegro ma non troppo and later to: Ex. 9 it becomes: Ex. 23 section. 21 183 Andante changed a Ex. 'Storms of Life'. 25 Allegro marziale animate Although the symphonic poem originated from the symto phony. The first . it did not replace it. 24 Allegro tempestoso Finally. 22 little later to: Andante maestoso In the next Ex. in 'Strife and Victory . the two forms have tended run parallel.

He The effected a fusion of the dramatic and the lyrical. though its results may be musical enough of ensuring. he looked forward to later developments in his use of the 'cyclic' principle. Schubert died before the romantic attitude to form was fully defined. Schubert was. Then comes Mendelssohn (1809 to 1847)4 He has been described as a romantic-classicist romantic in his attitude to musical sound and in his lyricism. and next to Mozart he was possibly the most naturally gifted of all composers. the great C major and the Unfinished. yet without losing anything of his essential tunefulness. In the Wanderer the opening subject is the basis of the principal material of each of the three succeeding movements. This involves the derivation. G major may seem to some to be diffuse and repetitive Schumann remarked on the 'heavenly length' of its second movement but not a bar can be cut without marring the symmetry and balance. and remains. In hi last two symphonies. of the thematic material of later movements from that stated initially. he showed himself capable of thinking in a really extended and dramatic manner. t His full name was Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy.* ouring a homogeneity which the great classics achieved superbly without any such adventitious aid. . or endeavto ensure. The cyclic idea is a method mechanical.e. the homogeneity of a work as a whole. whose methods have already been briefly considered.i84 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC important symphonist of the romantic era was Franz Schubert (1797 to 1828). of some. It may even be traced as far back as Machaut see the remark on p. unexcelled as a melodist. classic in his attitude to form. if not all. but in his Wanderer Fantaste for piano. by metamorphosis. His early symphonies are in the Mozart tradition. either in an introduction or in the exposition of the first movement. i. those in which material such as a plainsong tune is used thematically for the various movements. relatively brief and essentially tuneful. Chronologically the next important symphonist is Berlioz. 58 regarding his use of a basic motive. * The principle is seen as far back as the i6th century in the 'cyclic* masses.

26 Schumann's four symphonies. there was little he did not know about the orchestra and its possibilities. which are a delight both to the amateur and to the trained musician. he was rather the perfector of it. which are really extended symphonic poems with a non-musical background. The two flutes wandering about at the top of the score in the slow movement. 4 (originally No. there is. Mendelssohn rarely touches great depths. none could resist its allure. for instance. are marred by his lack of ability as an orchestrator. and A Faust Symphony. 2). and while he never indulged in orchestral virtuosity. the histrionic (and weakness) of a Liszt. Like his great predecessor. Dante's Divine Comedy This same principle was used by Liszt in his two symphonies. Beethoven was not the breaker of the bonds of form. Their titles are Symphony on . His ability symphony. in fact. while containing much delightful music. Both make use of thematic metamorphosis. for example. is full of the deftest touches. From Weber to Strauss. in so far as they were applicable to his own rather limited style. he understood 'economy of means'. which makes some use of the cyclic principle.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 185 To him. and the 'horns of elfland faintly blowing in the trio of the minuet* even though two of them are bassoons: Italian 9 Ex. Structurally the most interesting is No. the earnestness of a Schumann. But of all the romantics he was perhaps the finest craftsman and in this may be compared with Mozart. Perhaps the most outstanding example of * A volume could be written on the romantics* fondness for the horn. a not infrequent tendency to shallowness in his work. and both include great choral parts. He lacks the fire of a Berlioz.

or at least was originally conceived marily as such. It is in one huge movement. which development tically all the Apart from their function as introductions to operas or oratorios. as Mendelssohn. e. originally intended as the first movement of a symphony. chamber music was priQpintet in E flat. Beethoven's Coriolanus. not introducing anything and not even necessarily used to 'open' a concert. The igth century saw the rise of the concert overture.g. describing it as a 'Characteristic Overture* most have a more or less programmatic they are a kind of miniature symphonic background.i86 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC formal experiment on cyclic lines was Liszt's piano sonata in B minor. or for special occasions. for instance. wrote . Practhematic material is derived from three terse subjects announced in the introduction. and domestic music-making now began to change its character. The Hebrides was inspired by a visit to those islands. is another great example.g.. retaining the essential outlines of sonata form. at first usually based on signification sonata form. they really suitable media for the expression of 'direct reaction to feeling'. after is resumed in fugal style. Wagner's Faust Overture. poem. classically minded. Although many such works overture (1830. With Mendelssohn's title Hebrides appears with a new a single movement. of which the best-known and possibly the finest is the Piano In any case. etc. The working out is interrupted by an intermezzo which serves as a slow movement. and Beethoven. develop from those of Mozart classic outlook. revised 1832) the have been written as abstract musicBeethoven. his Consecration of the House. Schubert's quartets. numerous overtures had been written to plays. Chamber music did not attract the romantics as it did their predecessors. written for the opening of the Josephstadt Theatre in Vienna. e. But for quartet and allied were not in many ways he had the most of the romantics the string forms were too purely abstract. wrote one about 1807. domestic music. some fine works and Schumann also produced a few. From being mainly a concerted affair.

Waldscenen. who. the domestic supremacy of the piano now begins. it became more a matter for a solo performer. however. the composers could express themselves in a concentrated and intimate manner. while stressing for the first time the small-scale tone picture. in his early years. terse mood-pictures. In their little tone pictures. with such composers as Mendelssohn. whose technique was such that many believed him to be in league with the Devil. in contrast to the expansiveness of their more extended works. Herz and Hunten. and who took the art of violin-playing to a stage never yet exceeded. was also the era of the greatest virtuosity. But the virtuosity of these With such composers paled before that of the violinist Nicol6 Paganini (1782 to 1840). astounding all Europe by his amazing brilliance. works. to supply the literature. What Paganini could do as a violinist.). had pointed the way. but the intensive cultivation of the short. and Schumann. possibly miniature composition is an outcome of romanticism. we find a strong tendency to brilliance for its own sake Showing off'. We have noted how the Italian violinists tended gradually to exalt the soloist in their concertos. with his numerous small-scale pieces (Fantasiestucke. Thalberg. and mention has been made of the rise of the display concerto in the latter part of the 1 8th century. increased continually. In his early life he spent many years as a touring virtuoso. The purely technical difficulty of concert whether concertos or sonatas. it is simply a means to a purely musical end. with his Songs without Words. Scenes of Childhood. Such works as Beethoven's Bagatelles. as is evident in those of Beethoven.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 187 it had been since the days of the sonata a tre. etc. his thoughts could not be expressed otherwise. There is no suggestion of difficulty for difficulty's sake. But with him the difficulties are a matter of necessity. was famed as a pianist. as Weber. and achieved his aim. It is a rather odd contradiction that the romantic era. In his compositions for piano he discovered and exploited hitherto unheard-of effects and . Liszt decided to emulate at the piano.

by the Irishman John Field (1782-1837).!88 sonorities. a genius'. The aim of this form is the description of an event. gentlemen. and died in Paris in 1849. while Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg (1760 to 1802) was a pioneer of the dramatic and narrative ballad. 'Hats off. 2. as were Herz. was not merely a purveyor of pianistic fireworks. prove his mastery of the larger scale. * The nocturac which 3 Chopin raised to the highest pitch of perfection. There great originality and a strong poetic impulse in everything he wrote. Chopin matched in poetry. Hunten and Thalberg. He was born. We come now to some consideration of song writing. near Warsaw. (Admittedly Schumann. in his eagerness to encourage young composers. while Chopin once wrote I should c : like to steal from him the way to play What Liszt achieved in brilliance. Not that it had ever been entirely neglected. was given its character.) Chopin's Preludes and many of his Mazurkas show him to be unexcelled as a miniaturist. but in this instance he did not err. It is not the same as the 18th-century Nottwrno meaning literally 'night-music'. A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC and his influence still persists. it is fundamentally logical. Schumann's famous remark. but his interpretations of Beethoven. were revelatory. especially perhaps the latter. Both Mozart and Beethoven wrote a certain number of songs. . is evidence enough of the impression made by his work as early as the variations on La my own Etudes. of a melody with arpeggio accompaniment. as used by Mozart in K. for example. The Nocturnes* show that as a melodist he stands in the is same class as Schubert. 9 d darem la mano. Admittedly he was not averse to playing to the gallery. Liszt. 286. and his compositions in other media are negligible. Chopin was a pianist pure and simple. while such works as the Polonaises and the Ballades. was rather apt to confuse geese and swans. in 1810. while in the Etudes he proved that the study of advanced technique need not involve the dullness of a Czerny. however. an art which comes to the fore for the first time since the days of the Elizabethan lutenists. and while his handling of form is at times distinctly unorthodox. op.

in the latter.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 189 or chain of events. An die Musik gives us sophisticated melody of extraordinary beauty. the same music is used. some- words. The In Zumsteeg's ballads. that is. whose ballads often achieve considerable vividness and dramatic power. the terrified child. His enormous output of songs. many the greatest. Carl Zdter (1765 to 1832) and Johann Reichardt (1752 to 1814). however. Songs of their time are normally strophic. the instrumental part is often of greater importance. and it is in this that we see the beginnings of the fully developed lied. from the simplicity of the well-known Heidenroslein to the intense drama of In the former the accompaniment is so slender Erlkonig. But whatever the value of the poems was wide and varied. ex- that natural element. the frenzied galloping ofthe horse. for each of several 9 verses. Zumsteeg was followed by the much greater Carl Loewe (1796 to 1869). and the final tragic climax *In his arms the child lay dead' with the vivid characterisation. Schubert's choice of times perhaps too much so. are all typical. both of whom helped to found and develop the German lied or 'art song . a duet for voice and piano. The first. the supertion of Romanticism in itself. while in Erlkonig we have dramatic recitative of awesome intensity. is a subordinate accompaniment. in which the instrumental part is as important as that for the voice. We may also note Mendelssohn's teacher. In his treatment of the vocal part. Heidenroslein might almost be a folk-song. the piano part is at least half the making of the song. not so much a mere accompaniment as a commentary on the words. it could almost be dispensed with. ErlkSnig is almost a complete exposiThe storm. and the instrumental part voice part is fundamentally a tune. over 600. and in the opinion of ponent of the true lied was Schubert. covers every style. basically. Schubert covers an enormous range. since his amazing facility he once wrote eight songs in a single day led him at times to set verses of poor quality. the settings themselves always show the maximum .

of insight. Wolf (1860 to 1903) developed the 'duet' principle of the lied to the limit.igo A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Schubert was not only born to be a musician. Of Schumann's contemporaries. in which the voice part predominates. After Liszt the line passes through Brahms and Hugo Wolf. numbers of such cycles have been written. his treatment of the vocal part is infinitely varied. and had he written nothing eke. 9 Beethoven's An die feme Geliebte ('To the Distant Beloved') of 1816 antedates Schubert's Maid of the Mill by seven years. Under the German title of Liederkreis (song-rircfe). The idea was not new. although hardly comparable in value to those of Schubert and Schumann. Apart from separate songs. Liszt is represented collection of fifty-five songs (1860). as in all his songs. the words of both being by the poet Wilhelm Muller. Schubert wrote the song-cycles Die SckSne Mullmn (The Beautiful Maid of the Mill ) and Lie Winteneise ('Winter Journey'). In these. Brahms will be considered later. Schumann rarely if ever set words which lacked some literary distinction. Unlike Schubert. as is his inventiveness on the instrumental side. The idea of a song-cycle is a group of songs with a continuous underlying theme or story. Schumann proves himself the true inheritor of the tradition established by Schubert. Since Schubert's time. notably Schumann's Frauenliebe undLeben ('Woman's Love and Life') and Dichterliebe ('A Poet's Love'). he was born to be a song writer. many of which. and in the one year he wrote over one hundred. the year of his marriage to Clara WiecL This victory after a long struggle against the opposition of his prospective father-inlaw unlocked the floodgates of song. Like his predecessor. and no songwriter has ever created a juster balance between words and by a . Schumann wrote no songs until 1840. are in the true lied tradition. Mendelssohn looks back rather to the strophic style of Zelter and Reichardt. so that the whole series constitutes an entity. The first known example dates from the early years of the I7th century. his fame would be assured.

with as much intensity as any belligerent romantic. too. e. Schumann took him to his heart. the discarding of 'rule' advocated by Berlioz. he at once discovered to us wondrous regions . one man who would bring us mastery. his sets on a theme of Handel. iplitting arguments as to whether or rf all song-writers are immaterial. etc. as he developed. of an unknown youngster of twenty. Not for him were the structural experiments of a Liszt. Schubert. and in his article 'New Paths . even though he had not quite the same complete mastery of form. he knew little else.g. If Mendelssohn was a romantic classicist. . what he did not know about the writing of songs was not worth the knowing. written in 1853. in fact. Anthony Chorale and on the theme of Paganini ranking with those of the older master and of altogether inspired style of playing which made of the 9 piano an orchestra of lamenting and exultant voices. referred to him as 'one man who would be singled out to make articulate in an ideal way the highest expression of our time.. E flat minor. songs were his life. But Brahms. without disregarding the vital necessity of structural stability and without the continual need for some literary or programmatic impulse. he found it possible to express himself to the full.. igi him was poetry absorbed and recreated n terms of something which was neither melody by itself jrove: 'A song to lor He may best be summed up by a quotation from mere declamation. He was. controlled his essential romanticism by a classic regard for form. Like Beethoven. Johannes Brahms (1833 to 1897) may k e described as a classic romanticist. This Bach. like His early works. the Scherzo in are very clearly the production of a whole9 hearted romantic outlook. but a fusion of the two. the three piano sonatas.. . But. the true successor of Beethoven. unlike Schubert. an . Although Brahms was far from making consistent use of . Seated at the piano. on the St. he was a master of variation-writing.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC nusic. Hairnot he was the greatest 9 we may say that. Like Beethoven.

cyclic In the There are occasional instances of thematic cross-referencing. i. A and fourth movements of subject of the former: Ex. We may instance the major violin G sonata.i 92 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC methods. 29 Sir Edward Elgar made the penetrating remark that the latter is the 'tragic outcome* of the former. The second MM mh gives rise in the latter to: i | i i |i Ex. first piano sonata. The subtlety that lies in the art of concealing art is often evident in Brahms. there are occasional instances in his work. as in the third symphony where the first subject of the opening movement round returns. to more subtle case occurs in the second off the last. in which the three movements are related persistence of a rhythmic motive: by the . metamorphosed in significance. the first subject of the last movement is clearly derived from that of the first. 28 the same work. op.

in the second symphony. being inverted in the third. third and last movements: . where the basic idea of a threenote anacrusis to an accent is quite clear in the first. 9 This kind of 'germinal procedure was not invented by Brahms. where the basic motive is melodic: Ex. It is seen in Beethoven's sth Symphony.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 193 III This kind of thing is far from being obvious. though it clearly opened up a path which has been followed by many later composers. and it is not until the work has been carefully studied that its significance is realised. Similarly. 31 The essential fall and rise of a step occurs in the thematic material of all the movements.

however far removed from that of a Berlioz or a Wagner. where the subject To what was intentional if may first r if r if first f f\r subject of the (or may not) be derived from the movement:* Ex. has sometimes been suggested that Brahms 'could not score . A Brahms symphony rescored would cease to be Brahms. only to be pointed out after poser being aware event by the keen-eyed analyst. But he rarely insists on sound as such. Matthew . rather It it is the music itself which he forces on our attention. op. in the piano the of the fugue: sonata. Such well arise without the cominterrelationships may quite of them.I94 A SHORT HISTORY OF MUSIC extent this is arguable. If taken far enough it can lead to such fatuity as suggesting that the fugue subject in Brahms' E minor 'cello Passion! The sonata is derived from the opening of the reader may care to work this out for himself. though he had as keen an appreciation of tone-colour as most of his contemporaries. ^His use of the orchestra. no. being produced when he was forty-three years old. is an integral part of his style. Jjrair 1 f ir r Brahms approached the symphony with diffidence. as is his chamber music.34 Wf" first. Similarly. St. He was no orchestral virtuoso. which contains some of * It may be well to point out that this game of tracing thematic relationships can be carried to idiotic extremes. His handling of the instruments is irreproachable. his in G minor. but this is a misstatement. 9 Brahms' classic^tendencies are seen in his output of his finest work.

No song-writer surpassed him in emotional intensity or intimacy of expression. while not perhaps greatly interested in the niceties of ecclesiastical dogma. and in many of its the songs there are influences from the German Volkslied or folksong. As a orchestra. which form a fitting apotheosis to the work of one who. and each is in a perfectly balanced form. first-rate pianist himself. Liszt and Schumann. were conceived chiefly as 'concert Masses*. a mood with singular clarity and distinction. with some admixture of Bach. true liturgical appropriateness of. Even in the two concertos Brahms does not indulge in virtuosity for own sake. remains to deal briefly with choral works of the romantic period. the Intermezzi being in steady tempo and the Capricci Each is a complete little tone-poem. the most difficult or brilliant passages are an integral part of the work. The same applies to the far from easy violin concerto.g. lack the It while St. not mere flashy display. In his songs Brahms relies more on melody than on declamation. it is natural that many of his works for the instrument are of considerable technical difficulty. to biblical words. say. many by other composers. The Masses of Schubert.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 195 feeling for the appropriate style. The strophic plan of treatment is most usual. In his later years Brahms produced a number of short but intensely concentrated Intermezzi and Capricci. he never nor does he 'stunt' with the instruments. tradition. he tends on the whole to tip the balance in favour of the voice. . pin-pointing less so. His last published compositions were the Four Serious Songs. In his oratorios Paul and Elijah Mendelssohn developed the Handel in his own idiom. e. was one of the most sincere and earnest-minded of all the great musicians. Unlike some later comtries to make a quartet sound like a string posers. They are in varied styles. while not by any means reducing the piano part to a mere subordinate accompaniment. the Bach cantatas. but here again the classic outlook appears. The church music is rarely of any great value. despite fine moments.

1203 33 OCX. LXT. 2719 33 CX. 1206 2887 Schumann Symphony No. OALP. 9. 33 OC. F Minor Sonata. Elizabeth Liszt's Christus are effective and highly characteristic of their composer. 1001 LX. as in his other choral works the Triumph Song. 133 A Flat 33 33 Liszt Les Preludes (orchestra) Hungarian Rhapsodies Piano Concertos Violin Concerto. B Flat OSX. 8 (Unfinished) Symphony No. 2566 2723 . 5025 Brahms D LXT. Song Cycle. It is not a requiem Mass. 1039 Mendelssohn Overtures Symphony Berlioz A major (Italian) LXTA. Piano Concerto. Camaval (piano) A Minor D Minor und Leben LXTA. B flat Symphony No. RECORDS Schubert Composer Title Cat. 1006 OCX. but rather a meditation on death a forerunner of the Four Serious Songs. 1013 OSX. CX. Symphony No. the Song of Destiny and the Alto Rhapsody Brahms proved that his mastery of choral writing was no less than of any other branch of music. 3074 2556 2j Chopin Two Etudes Concerto. ALP.196 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC and St. 2. 1066 LX. B Minor Chopin Recital Polonaise in CX. 1040 CLP. In it. 33 Frauenliebe LXTA. 1061 33 C major LXT. 1014 LXT. 33 2961 1325 Fantastic Symphony 4. for which the impulse came primarily from the death of his mother in 1865. Major Piano Concerto. C major Song Recital Quintet in No. Possibly the greatest sacred choral work of the period is Brahms's German Requiem.

LXTA. No. 1152 2843 2935 2850 . i. Symphony No.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC Brahms (contd.) 197 Composer Title Piano recital Four Songs Symphony No. 3. LXTA. LXTA. Cat. F Major C Minor OALP.

* while Wranitzky's Oberon. . the supernatural (one of the characters has sold his soul to the Devil) . Euryantke. Especially notable are the vividness of the orchestration and the general effectiveness of both solo and choral writing. Opera'. His Der Freischiitt. it is a full-dress 'grand' opera.CHAPTER FIFTEEN ROMANTIC OPERA Chapter 12 a brief sketch was given of the way in which the character of opera changed in France and Italy in the period around 1800. we find also the fondness for the fantastic and the Oriental. and is the direct successor of Wranitzky's work of the same name. raised the singspiel to a new level (it has spoken dialogue). King of the Fairies may be considered the prototype of the 'fairy-tale opera'. leading to the style which is usually known as Romantic Opera. in Italy. new tendencies IN appear in the latter part of the i8th century. As well as the lack of conventions which was typical of the singspiel. * Mozart's Seraglio is an example. Weber is usually regarded as the real founder of German romantic opera. as it was of opera buffa and opera comique. which followed in 1823. France and Germany. Oberon (1826) returns to spoken dialogue. and so on. and discards the spoken dialogue. completed in 1820. As in France. while the plot contains all the ingredients which were so dear to the romantics magic. In Germany similar changes came about. the first use 9 of the term 'romantic being in the subtitle of Gotthilf von Baumgarten's setting of a libretto based on that of Gretry's It is 'described as a 'Romantic-Comic Zfmire et Azor. of which the best known example is perhaps Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel of 1893. k based on a medieval plot. 'Turkish' opera was a distinct fashion from about 1770 onwards.

Genoveva. too. thereby stressing still further their integral function. which. whose The Vampire (1823) an <l Templar and Jewess (1829. and the singers still preferred the separate recitative and aria. It was criticised.ROMANTIC OPERA 199 Weber's treatment of the overture shows a notable advance. Although the value of much of the music was recognised by at least one of the critics. Schumann's one opera. to quote the composer's own words. opens with a reference to the dramatic climax of the whole work. was a complete failure on its production in 1850. This style was taken farther by Louis Spohr in his The Crusaders (1845) . Weber builds his overtures almost entirely from material which is to be used later. His best work is Hans Heiling (1833). for its lack of separate 'numbers'. Audiences were as yet far from being trained to sit silent through the hour and a half (or more) which Wagner sometimes demands for a single act. at the end of which they could receive their meed of clapping and bravos. in Don Giovanni. is 'throughcomposed . a continuous move- ment for solo and chorus. the biographer of Mozart. It is 'through-composed'. Otto Jahn. and complained that the possibility of the singers 'being accorded immediate applause is eliminated'. based broadly on Scott's Ivanhoe) show it at its crudest and most violently melodramatic. We have seen how Gluck insisted that the overture should prepare the audience for the opera itself. . at that time thirty-two years old. The use of the term 'musical drama' is significant. This is notable for the plan of the prologue. in which spoken dialogue and set 'numbers' are dispensed with. and how Mozart. somewhat as a musical drama'. it was hardly theatrical enough for the audiences of the time. The romantic style was followed by Heinrich Marschner (1795 to 1861). With* Richard Wagner (1813 to 1883) we come to the . Wagner. remarked on the great amount of effort it demanded of the listeners. entitled his later works 'music drama' rather than 'opera'. foreshadowing the continuity on which Wagner insisted in his later works.

it must be admitted. He was banned from returning to Germany until 1861. achieved. if ever. thanks to the At Bayreuth was generosity of Ludwig II of Bavaria. while the latter. For the greater part of his lite he had to struggle against adversity. when he received permission to re-enter any state except Saxony. nor do his first two operas. due to his tion for others. who. op. The former had to wait until five years after his death for its first performance. A cardinal doctrine of the later Wagner was that plots for operas should be based on folk-lore. settled in Zurich. as any work of that composer. The . and after a short stay in Paris. produced in 1834. often. Musically the Dutchman carries on the tendency to continuity which is seen in such works as Hans Heiling. and is notable also as being a northern legend. The ban on Saxony was lifted in 1862. is a grand opera in the manner of Meyerbeer. where his political activities had originally led to his exile. however. erected the Festival Theatre. Die Feen and Das Liebesverbot. and here he was able to superintend the production of his works on the scale and in the manner which he had always intended but had rarely. Both as a musician and a reformer. his next work.zoo A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC great reformer of opera. tending to provide a commentary on the and as blatant action. i. In the Flying Dutchman (1841). Wagner developed slowly. His few early non-operatic works the piano sonata. own impetuosity and lack of considera- In 1849 he had to flee from Germany. Rienzi. The orchestra begins to occupy a more important position. was the lineal descendant of Gluck. develop use of the leit-motif principle also begins to the principle which is so vital in the thematic construction and the texture of the later works. for example give no hint of the genius of the Ring or the Mastersingers. chased by a warrant for his arrest as a 'politically dangerous individual'. was an utter failure. In 1864 he at last achieved an assured position. in his approach. we find strong pointers to what was to come. The story is in the best romantic tradition.

Opera must go back to the original the (completed 1848).ROMANTIC OPERA The leit-motif aoi or 'leading theme' is a passage. it must be the means of expression of it. or what not. for example. The vocal writing must vary betherefore be discarded. are of equal importance. must must unfold continuously. As used by Wagner in his later works. expounding Art and Revolution (1849). according to the needs of the situation at any given moment. etc. in see that whatever Wagner may have thought of himself as he matters most as a musician. dramatist. not an end in itself. generally short. acting. the orchestra. While there are still passages in Tamhauser. but also give coherence the Flying Dutchman is undeveloped. It may be primarily melodic. the prelude to Act i. utilising a texture of leading themes. both based on Teutonic legends. Wagner did a great deal of heavy thinkDuring his arguments ing on the problems of opera. staging. tween pure recitative and song-like melody. Of Tannhauser (produced 1845) and Lohengrin latter shows the greater advance in technique. his exile. The and conclusions in his essays Art Work of the Future (1850) and Opera and Drama (1852). scene. The plot should be based on national legend. or a combination of them. The will give orchestra. aims of its founders. harmonic. poet. idea. rhythmic. singing. cast into alliterative . and very broadly. associated with some particular character. The music must no longer be allowed to override the unfolding of the drama. etc.. by 'exciting our feeling from a general state must not be held up by the 'set num- The aria as such of tension to a special sensation of premonition'. in the overture. be sumBriefly. a continuous commentary on the action. and be thought of as musical drama. leading themes not only serve in an illustrative and unity. All the factors concerned libretto. and must begin. but the principle begins to emerge. Their use in capacity. his conclusions may marised as follows. there are than style of Rmdt though fewer which we can others. It also shows the musical side of Wagner's nature rapidly developwhich look back to the ing. it The action ber'.

even in The Val- Siegmund's Spring Song is an example. The way 1 8th century. libretti. so that the music itself tends to become the predominant factor. in order. The poem of Tristan is not entirely alliterative.202 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC poetry. Ernest Newman once remarked that it has no right to be there and yet is the emotional climax of the whole work.f 'Wagner was no rigid doctrinaire*. as Prof. Not that he ever dropped back to the 'melody opera' of former times. and The Twilight t In A Hundred Tears of Music. ally crystallised. Gerald Abraham says. . verse. The Mastersingers ofNuremberg^ and Parsifal. in is fact. * The of the Gods. But. It must be realised that Wagner. others. in which the whole action is held up while five people express their feelings and emotions is almost pure at all. Tristan and Isolda. Siegfried. but nobody. The increasingly imlikely to cavil on that account.* Wagner carries out his theories with considerable strictness. in the face of such sheer beauty. did not simply sit down and think out in cold blood a new way of writing opera. without voices at all. tells the story in its own symphonic poem which runs concurrently with the action on the stage. reaching their full expression in the Ring and later works. while that of The Mastersingers is in normal The *set piece' appears. as it were. as well as in his other works. are The Valkyrie. although rightly called a reformer. but in the re- maining three. The orchestra. it provides. From the Dutchman onwards his ideas graduillustrative an idiom. portant role of the orchestra is evidenced by the fact that sections of the music dramas are sometimes performed as concert pieces. the musician pure and simple cannot be restrained. rhymed kyrie. We may note that Wagner always wrote his own In Rhinegold. of which Mr. Still more outside the strict theory of Opera and Drama is the quintet in the last act of The Mastersingers. the first of the huge tetralogy of music dramas known as The Ring of the Nibelungen.

At the other end of the operatic scale from Wagner stands contemporary Giuseppe Verdi (1813 to 1901). He did not. Verdi was no reformer. To the Wagnerians since he stood for all that they was a time of apprenticeship. up to 1850. like some of his successors. He was brought up in the Italian tradition. and his great raised the style to his its name was anathema. M Trovatore and La Traviata. thereby creating a system which was perfectly adapted to own expressive ends. as it The despised in opera. who was not born until 1862. talcing the style of Donizetti to a climax. In this direction he was to some extent indebted to Liszt. he simply expanded on the basis of tradition. Liszt's harmonic innovations are at times quite startling. and a loosening of the bonds of key. it was a serious matter. opera was far from being a mere 'concert in costume'. though he did so once. in a somewhat secretive manner. he was also a harmonic innovator. Mention of . Cosima's first husband. and whose daughter Gosima he married as his second wife. during which he had more or less success with works which are now almost forgotten. and in some of his latest piano works he anticipates procedures which are customarily associated more with such a composer as Debussy. was to the Wagnerians. Broadly speaking. In the second period are Rigoletto. To Verdi. in a letter to Hans von Biilow. with whom he was for long on terms of intimacy. in which vocal melody was all-important.ROMANTIC OPERA 203 Wagner was not only an operatic reformer. such as Oberto and Ernani. attempt to 'invent' a new his system. In these the style of Bellini and Donizetti is evident. His operatic career falls into four periods. In these he really found himself. but with greater dramatic power and greater earnestness than the older man had ever achieved. despite his adherence to tradition in the importance of the voice and the relative unimportance of the orchestra. first highest point. Wagner was not eager to admit what he had learned from Liszt. his harmony developed in the direction of intense use of chromaticism. or rather developer.

The climax of this period comes with Aida. but in that year he produced both based on In them a transfigured style is seen. although it may appear superficially to be rather theatrical in conception and outlook. with The Sicilian written for Paris. Don Carlos. And however melodramatic he may seem at times. there is always underlying sincerity. the Shakespearian characters. third period begins. Wagner's Faust overture has already been mentioned. subtle use of the orchestra. Falstaff is the apotheosis of but at the same time employs the principle of music drama as seen through the eyes of its composer. His only other notable work is the Siegfried Idyll. The Masked Ball and The Force of Destiny. almost every writer of operas since his day. But Verdi. for the opening of the Suez Canal in 1871. In all of these there is increasing control of the medium and increasing importance is given to the orchestra. who took no small part in the shaping of the libretto. with highly expressive declamation and a rich and Othello. Neither Wagner nor Verdi wrote much of importance apart from their stage works. whose one really . and then another work for Paris. The Vespers. a grand opera in every sense of the word. is nevertheless of the greatest power and sincerity. taste. of such beauty that we can only regret its lack of successors. to a greater or less degree. Without imitating Wagner. opera buffa. they are not mere stage puppets. Even in his early operas his characters are alive. at a time when the practice of com- missioning operas had fallen into disuse. as 'entertainment' infuriated him. Verdi makes of Othello a music drama. found no difficulty in providing a really great work. It was written to order. Simon* Boccanegra. including Englebert Humperdinck (1854 to 1921). though there is some use of the leit-motif principle. or art in general. Wagner's ideas have affected. from 1855. and in 1893 Falstaff. Until 1887 Verdi wrote no more operas. this is grand opera to the French It is followed by three purely Italian operas.204 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC opera. Verdi's one great non-operatic work is the Requiem Mass which.

205 has been described as works. Verdi's Pagliacci posers and Cavallena Rusticana respectively. Both comhad a more than adequate feeling for dramatic. Hansel and Gretel. While not a 'modern' in the colloquial sense. is a greater work than the rarity of its performance would suggest.ROMANTIC OPERA successful work. Rather later ( 1 877} is Saint-Sagns's well-known Samson and Delilah. in all of which the accent is on lyrical melody. The more lyrical opera is represented by Gounod's Faust (1859) and Romeo and Juliet (1867). first two of these are famous chiefly for one work each. is Carmen Possibly the greatest French opera of the period by Georges Bizet (1838 to 1875). Berlioz. exhibits its In Italy. while Peter Cornelius's Barber of Baghdad (1858). produced Benoenuto Cellini and The Trojans9 of which the latter. 'Wagner for children'. most important successors were Ruggiero Pietro Mascagni and Giacomo Puccini. still holds its place in their work. he reached perhaps his greatest heights in his last. Otto Wives of Windsor (1849) *s a delightful example of German opera buffa. F&icien David's Lalla Rookh (1862) and Ambroise Thomas's Mignon (1866). and his orchestration is masterly. showing to some extent interest of his scenes Wagnerian influence in the musically sustained and in his modified use of the leit-motif. Although his popularity rests Boheme. Twrandot. with a complete lack of anything Wagnerian. Of non-Wagnerian Nicolai's Merry composer's fine lyrical talent. it is typically French in its economy and deftness. Their use of the orchestra is approximately that of the late Verdi. unfinished work. while the orchestration is masterly. Puccini was a greater musician. and the aria. Tosca and Madame mainly on such operas as La Butterfly. though never a great success. at least. Despite some use (1875) of a pseudo-Spanish idiom. sometimes melodramatic effect. now known only by La Juive. . In France the style of Meyerbeer's grand opera was followed by Jacques Hatevy (1799 to 1862). without being obviously obtrusive. his harmony shows some originality. The Leoncavallo. too.

AK.so6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC some limitations. Leoncavallo Puccini Bizet 1284 GEPO. Carm SELO. RECORDS Cat. 1014 OALP. and in Carmn he produced a masterpiece. 1014 Brunnhilde's Immolation Siegfried IdyU 7EB0. 1858 Prize T OALP. Operatic arias Excerpts from 700003 1204 33 OCX. 1538 . Oberm Overture. No. Ritnv OALP.6oi8 OALP.3094 OALP. 1086 Verdi CdtsUAih (AM) ts-/J A 6010 Pooa 30ii6EPL Tmaton Verdi Recital LXA. Bizet. 1076 DIP. notwithstanding was possibly the most naturally gifted French musician of his time. Weber Cavatlna from DerFreiscktz Overture. Elsa's 5o3 8 Dream (kkngrk) Song (Mtutompr) JJ "Dl_* yRO. 1069 1820/1 LWA.ioS DB.

a good deal of overlapping of styles. Our judgment of contemporary or near-contemporary art is almost inevitably coloured by personal preference. In the past hundred years. as has so often happened in earlier ages. but gradually developed his own advanced harmonic style. His later works had a highly personal to be seen in the case of Alexander Scriabin (18752 He began by writing in a kind of post-Chopin . for example. must be realised that not every composer has been vitally affected by all or any of the newer ideas. but not every Some composers have late romantic was a nationalist. and idiom. As we draw nearer to our own times it becomes more and more difficult to assess the value and importance of the work of composers and schools of thought. pursued new lines of thought to a considerable degree. while others. as it were. have been content to depart little if at all from traditional methods. In the present century. for instance. from about the middle of the igth century. these together with It in harmony and form. we find the late romanticism of Elgar and Strauss running parallel with the 'advanced* modernity of Schonberg and Bart6k. there has been. and we may. We shall now deal briefly with some consideration of national movements. be thrown off our critical balance by the impact of new ideas. and to decide which tendencies are likely to have a lasting effect on the development of music.CHAPTER SIXTEEN AND NATIONALISTS Chapter 14 some reference was made to developments LATE ROMANTICS IN developments in the hands of a later generation. An instance of this is to 1915). contemporary with them. may be romantic in his outlook. A nationalist.

It marked by a broader conan increasingly free use of is not merely an expansion of the range of keys used within a * movement late Sir as in the He was considered so 'advanced* that the performed his symphonic poem Prometheus twice at one concert. t E. if the juice be noble. for example. His vocabulary was more extensive and his use of it highly personal. was content with a relatively limited harmonic vocabulary and a very moderate use of chromaticism. Benson puts the matter pointedly in his As We Were: 'Time on sound work much as it does on the vintages of the grape. so as to view things whole and to see them in perspective. The pioneers of harmonic development were. employed a great deal of high-powered chromaticism. while if it is thin by nature. Properly to assess the work of a composer or the value of a trend of thought we need to be at a distance.' acts Henry Wood . Dvofak (1841 to 1904).! Three and a half centuries ago Gesualdo was as startling as was Scriabin between 1910 and 1925. we can now see that his expert mentalism was sterile. Cesar Franck (1822 to 1890). His new path turned out to be a cul-de-sac. And it is worth recalling that in their own day Telemann was considered a much greater composer than Bach. as has already been stated. time only reveals its weakness and age its acidity. so as to give the audience a better chance of understanding it. and we find wide differences between contemporaries.* and in many quarters he was deemed to have opened up a new path of vital importance. We are now far enough from the second half of the igth century to be able to distinguish what is really important from what is less so. on the other hand. Not every composer has been equally affected by their innovations. The Wagnerian tendencies are ception of tonality (key) and discord and chromaticism. Wagner and Liszt. But he is now seen to have dealt merely in a sort of over-ripe romanticism. the fuller savour of the sunshine in which the berries ripened. we have to be able to look back over a period of time. F. maturing and bringing out.ao8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC startling effect in the period around the First World War.

This 'stretching of tonality may be illustrated 5 the 'Magic Sleep motive in Wagner's Valkyrie: by entirely. Their vocabularies included both the old and the new.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS Eroica 209 ment an developin the use of chromaticism. The 5 obscured. In Woteafs Farewell (the closing scene of the Valkyrie) the pass- age quoted above is immediately followed by a long stretch of almost undiluted diatonic writing. even the combination at It is the (a) can be explained in purely academic terms.35 There are no new chords here. juxtaposition of the chords and the resultant vagueness of key which are new. and one would merge into the other according to the expressive needs of the moment. if not lies symphony and comparable instances. sometimes to such extent that the tonality becomes almost. use of musicajicta gradually destroyed the individuality of the modes and paved the way for the major-minor scale . It should not be thought that Wagner and his followers necessarily employed such methods to the c 9 exclusion of anything eke. Ex. In this advanced chromaticism and the expansion of tonality we may see a parallel with what happened to the modal system during the late i6th and The early iyth centuries.

This is paralleled among the later romantics a 'motto theme' practically another name for the same thing announced in an introduction and brought in at by the frequent introduction of dramatically appropriate points in the course of the work. A view of the processes as they arose in the work of one composer . It is not proposed to argue the point here. emerge.2io A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC system. A few aspects of formal development must now be considered. In the former the motto reappears (in the first and last movements only) always in the * may be studied in Arnold Schonberg et son osuore by Rene* Leibowitz (libraire Janin). Not that all have made such consistent use of the leading-theme principle. together with the employment of the orchestra as something very much more than a mere accompanying instrument. In instrumental music the developments of the earlier romantics have followed a logical course. The chromaticism of the late igth century created conditions under which new technical methods could . nor has the orchestra necessarily been used to provide a kind of symphonic poem concurrent with the stage action. but it may perhaps be pointed out that there are still composers of international reputation who seem to find something vital to say without severing all links with tradition. became more and more integral in the structure of his music-dramas. We have seen how Wagner's We theories of opera led him to the virtual abolition of the set number and to the greatest possible continuity of dramatic action and musical have also noted how his use of the orchestra thought. his ideas have affected almost every writer of opera since his day. We have referred to Berlioz's use of the idetfixe as a method of binding together the movements of a symphony. But the principle of continuity at least has been taken for granted. Tschaikovsky (1840 to 1893) provides obvious examples in his 4th and 5th symphonies. tending to the disintegration of classical tonality.* In the opinion of some the day of the major-minor system is over. Directly or indirectly. unfortunately not available in an English translation.

in some cases whole-heartedly. The work of many composers of the last hundred years abounds in such thematic interrelationships. the motto tend to associate themselves with later material. no particular and is found. A case which we may take as intentional occurs in the 4th symphony of Dvorak. in Elgar's where the initial descending four notes of symphony. The Brahmsian art of concealing art by the use of a germinal figure ist is undergoing some metamorphosis. though the extent to which they are deliberate is at times debatable. for instance. There is movements. In his one symphony Franck uses thematic cross-reference. more subtle We may refer also to Sibelius's 4th symphony with its almost obsessive insistence on the interval of the augmented 4th. 211 significance as it is originally In the latter it recurs in all the later subtlety in this.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS same form and with the same stated. though its effectiveness is undeniable. among other works. in others only parFor the former we may turn to the piano concerto tially. which copies the Liszt sonata even to the enunciation of three basic themes in an Wanderer Fantasie The cyclic principle exhibited in such works as Schubert's and Liszt's introduction. of Rimsky-Korsakov (1864 to 1908). material from the first two . Ana and Finale for piano. compare the first subject of the first movement with the theme of the variations in the finale: piano sonata has been widely adopted. in Franck's violin sonata Partial application of the principle is seen and his Prelude.

but it is. Sibelius's 2nd and Tschaikovsky's 4th and 5th. from its character and possibly its key. Dvorak takes the idea farther in his New World symphony. His treatment of the bridge-passage as part of the thematic material development of thej&wzfe. Elgar's two symphonies provide good examples. The reader may care to spend time deciding exactly where the second group begins. may be labelled as the beginning of the second group. The later romantics and his tendency to avoid any obvious indication of the beginning of the second group* has led composers to treat the exposition as one consolidated lump of subjectmatter. The most obvious. (c) triumph.212 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC movements recurring. so to speak. including. In his 6th (Pathttique] the last-named composer effectively modified what looked like developing into the same programme. the Finn Jean Sibelius (1865 to 1957). While the late romantics concerned themselves largely with problems of form. . in the ist. one composer stands out as the inheritor of the classical outlook and the truly architectural mind. in the last. 1 10. ending in the depths of despair. and perhaps the most common. is a kind of ascent from darkness to (a] struggle. and among its offspring may be mentioned Franck's symphony. ideas which occur in both first and second groups. The progenitor is Beethoven's 5th symphony. Elgar's ist. Possibly more than any of his contemporaries he achieved an integra* first An excellent movement of the little some example of such a 'concealed opening' occurs in the sonata. op. Another development arising from the romantic outlook the frequent use of an 'emotional programme' in extended works.) There is generally something which. incorporating themes from the first two movements into the show further development of Beethoven's attitude to the composition of subject-matter. movement of (The way was pointed by Mozart in the last the Jupiter symphony. light is (b) relaxation. only the first among equals. metamorphosed.

or of the precision and elegance of the French. for example. so that no is possible without preof the literary background. metamorphosis being real understanding of the music to the as the bleating of sheep in the second of the uncanny reproduction of non-musical sounds such Don Quixote Pastoral symphony. by Gerald Abraham (Lindsay Drummond). 7. 4 and the 'telescoping of first 9 movement and structure. who are interested. In this. and this applies also in some of his operatic writing. The point cannot be argued here. From the rather angular sonata form basis of his ist symphony he progressed. Nationalism has two aspects. even was a master of 'economy of means'. as may be seen in his symphonic poem Tapiola.* He employed in a masterly fashion. practically everything arises from a single short basic theme. Development of the symphonic poem is associated largely with Richard Strauss (1864 to X 949). is 'flutter-tonguing' on . We may think.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS tion of 313 form and content unsurpassed since Beethoven. The national or racial characteristics of composers have always tended to show in their music. 5. in scher& of No. The reader referred to Sibelius. of the movement of Beethoven's The question then arises whether such procedures are musically justifiable. via the tremendous compression of the first movement of No. possibly the greatest masterpiece of musical architecture since Beethoven. for example. but it may be pointed out that the principle is merely an extension of that used in. No Frenchman could have written the earnest is * Discussion of Sibelius's architecture is impossible here. each race has produced its own interpretation of the common stock of technique and style. muted brass. Where Strauss goes knowledge farther than any of his predecessors. of No. to the entirely original one movement. is in his use of realism. the 'storm* variations-! approach of the Germans and their frequent tendency to complexity. for those t The method. the innate and the cultivated.Far more than Liszt he allowed form to be dictated by programme.

* Glinka. it normally begins by deliberate cultivation. But such distinctions of style are instinctive. Paisiello and Gimarosa holding court Russian musicians were sent to Italy for training and wrote positions. according to personal inclination. as are minor the Englishness of Purcell or Elgar. nor could either have composed Aida. case of Michael Glinka (1804 to 1857).ai4 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC B Mass or the gth Symphony. * . was for Italian opera. in the Italian style. which up to his time had been considered the only acceptable style in musically educated Russia. There has been no question of new basic ideas on structure nor has it given rise to arising from a nationalist outlook. or the Russianness of Tschaikovsky. Such nationalism arose in the igth century as a revolt against the shackles of an alien style. Equally. and its effects have been as it were local. set by the court. was told to 'go home and write Russian music*. Leaving aside France. This is seen. the first of the Russian His early works are in the Italian tradition. Nationalism in the commonly accepted meaning of the term implies the conscious basing of a composer's idiom on that of the folk-music of his country. having remarked to his teacher Siegfried Dehn that he was tired of the Italian style. such men as Galuppi. it was to become was sufficient music*. This he did in his operas A Life for the Czar (1836) and Russian and Ludmilla (1842). Although a national idiom may ultimately become instinctive. stories* The composer to be accused of writing 'coachmen's libretti are based on national (Russian) The importance of nationalism lies in the breaking away from alien influence. and although the 'folk* influence in the for their is not so strong in them as it work of some of his successors. for example. which has During the i8th and early igth centuries the prevailing taste. notable developments in the harmonic field. Music and musicians were largely imported. no German could have written Carmen. Nationalist composers have followed the prevailing trends to a greater or less degree. in the nationalists. in the same way as have non-nationalists.

The classical sonata and symphony were of German development. and practically all the great developments in music had arisen there. as it were. They were Alexander Borodin (1833 to 1887). whose own compositions are * In this sense Germany. and so on. Beethoven the seer was a German. or Italian. began to think on his own lines. It may be said that as far as Central Europe and England were concerned. was furthered largely by German composers. Handel. Mozart or Beethoven. however. He was followed by Alexander Dargomijsky (1813 to 1869) and the group known as the Tive'. C&ar Cui (1835 to 1918). so that to whatever extent they were affected by the work of the outstanding figures of their generation. The founder was Balakireff and Cui. The German (or Italian) manner of thought and the technique bound up with it were taken for granted. and little more than a mere In point of list of the most important must suffice. 'music meant 'German music'. led the way.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS always tended to 315 be individualistic in matters of art. . or idiom. time the Russian school. enabled their followers to forge a musical language.* No other country had produced composers of the calibre of Bach. in The work of the early nationalists his own language. initiated by German poets. Mfly Balakireff (1837 to 1910). of their own. the chief propagandist curiously devoid of a national idiom. The nationalist. headed by Glinka. Wagner's operatic reforms were the work of a German. of course. all music from the beginning of the i8th century the greatest had emanated from Germany. includes Austria. the romantic movement. Considerations of space forbid any detailed account of the work of individual composers. while in Russia it meant little but Italian opera. they were no longer using the lingua franca of German. in their native 9 tongue. but wrote. Modeste Mussorgsky (1839 to 1881) and Nicholas Rimsky- Korsakov (1844 to 1908). who deliberately adopted the thesis that music should be based on national or 'folk* idiom.

Academy of Music and W.2i6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Immediately after the Russians came the Bohemians. Arthur Seymour Sullivan (1842 to 1900). now lives S. cantatas. lacking music of any particular distinction since the days of Morales and Victoria. only by his light operas. Wesley's natural son of mediocrities. In Spain. He was essentially a miniaturist. largely owing to his professional appointments as Principal of the Royal Professor of Music at Cambridge University. with libretti by They contain a wealth of good tunes and . also Isaac Albeniz (1860 to 1909). despite a varied output of oratorios. Frederick Smetana (1824 to 1884).. later are A generation Joaquin Turina (1882 to 1949) and Joaquin Nin Of Scandinavians the best-known nationalist is Edvard Grieg (1843 to *97)9 a Norwegian of Scottish descent. orchestral works. William Sterndale Bennett (1816 to 1875). a national school was founded by Felipe Pedrdl (1841 to 1922). Gilbert. In the larger forms his German he is less successful. apart from the work of Arne. In England. The latter's pupil Vitezslav Novak (1870 to 1949) shows nationalist leanings in his later works. music suffered a rapid decline after the death of Purcell. friend of Mendelssohn and Schumann. Samuel Wesley (1766 to 1837) is notable for some fine Latin motets and for his championship of Bach at a time when his name was hardly known. never fulfilled his early promise. with a predominantly lyrical talent (1879-1949). 1931) has a high reputation. and way any of whom contributed in any development of the main stream of music. followed by Antonin Dvorak (1841 to 1904). etc. There is a long list In Denmark Carl Nielsen (1865 to training shows prominently. Notable among his followers are his pupils Enrique Granados (1867 to I 9 I 6) and Manuel de Falla (1876 to 1946). whose influence was asserted mainly through his writings and teaching. few to the if Samuel Sebastian (1810 to 1876) exerted an influence for good on music for the Anglican rite. which served him well in small-scale works.

economical and sparkling
limits, is



satire is




Their social and but their continued popuits

larity is assured

by the music, which, within


of great attractiveness.* Three names herald the real revival of English music,

Alexander Mackenzie (1847 to 1935), Hubert Parry (1848
to 1918)

and Charles

While hardly of the
next generation,



to 1924). the way for the rank, they paved of whom were pupils of Parry and

Villiers Stanford

Stanford, of Irish birth, was perhaps the most spontaneously gifted. His work has at times an attractive

Irish-folky flavour, and some of his songs are perfect gems. Parry was at his best, perhaps, in choral works, where his fine contrapuntal technique, derived from his study of Bach

book on that composer remains a standard work), has


Born in 1857, the outstanding figure of his generation was Edward Elgar, who died in 1934. Unlike the three composers mentioned above, he had no academic training, but in natural gifts he excelled them all. His early works,
while often showing his great gift for melody, give little foretaste of the possibilities realised in the Enigma Variations of 1899 an(i t*16 l n Ik* f compositions which followed.

In the Dream of

Gerontius, the

two symphonies, the



'cello concertos,

and the symphonic study

name but a

few, Elgar proved his right to be of greatest English composer since Purcell. His mastery he rarely, if ever, the orchestra was consummate (though in Straussian 'stunting'), and Falstaff showed that

Fdstqff, to called the

indulged in the sphere of


music he had no need

to fear

second of the line of great Viennese waltz-kings. His best known 9 In operetta, Die Fledermaus (The Bat ), is a complete masterpiece. view of the ultra-serious view of music which is not uncommon among students and the tendency to look down on 'light* music, it may be worth while to point out that such great artists as Lotte Lehmann and Elisabeth Schumann were c[uite happy to turn from The Rxng or The Mastersingers and take part in The Bat,,

competition. * Mention must not be omitted of Johann

Strauss (1825 to 1899),



as of Parry, is of the instinctive, kind; there is no use of a 'folk' idiom. In the intangible work of Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872 to 1958) we find an idiom whose roots are largely in the folksong tradition, phonists.

The Englishncss of Elgar,

by his study of the works of the early polyDr. H. C. Colles put the matter succinctly when he remarked, in connection with Vaughan Williams's Pastoral symphony, that his 'creative power seems to have been set free by his converse with the folk singers. 9 He was

no way limited in his harmonic outlook; like Sibelius, he was prepared to use anything from the mildest consonance to the most astringent dissonance (as in his 4th symphony)
to give appropriate expression to his thoughts. Vaughan Williams had a great influence on the younger generation, and helped them by his example to find their own language.

In his long list of works, from the Fantasia on a Theme of Tallis onwards, there is none which does not bear the imprint of a strong and sincere personality. The work of Gustav Hoist (1874 to 1934), despite the frequent use of a markedly dissonant idiom, shows nationalist feeling, and so to some extent does that of Frederick Ddius (1862 to 1934), together with influences from Greig and Debussy (to be considered later). Nationalism in Hungary is represented by Zoltan Kodaly (b. 1882) and Bela Bart6k (1881 to 1945). Of the latter some mention will be made in the next chapter. Kodaly's studies of Hungarian folksong have given a distinctly national flavour to such works as his Psalmus Hungarian, one of the finest choral works of the present

have already referred briefly to Sibelius. It well to mention that he was not a nationalist in the


may be

accepted sense and made no use of a folk idiom. He has been described as a 'nationalist in sentiment9 ,* as was Elgar, but there is none of the deliberate nationalism of the Russian


9 .



by Gerald Abraham,


by David Cherniavsky.

might be called a nationalist in


Tschaikovsky, too, He did occasionally make use of a Russian folk as in the last movement of his 4th symphony, but tune, he never adopted the methods of the 'Five'. His work is outstanding in its free expression of emotion, sometimes

degenerating to sentimentality, and he was in the same line of superb orchestral craftsmen as Mozart and Mendelssohn.* In the next generation are Alexander Glazounov

I (1865 to 1936) and Serge Rachmaninov (1873 to 943) Neither was a deliberate nationalist, nor in the front rank of composers, but both produced much work with considerable appeal. Rachmaninov's songs rank with those of Mussorgsky, and he perhaps took the display concerto


The Germans,
volkslied in

piano to




Apart from Strauss there are the Austrian Anton Bruckner (1824 to 1896) and the Bohemian Gustav Mahler (1860 to 1911), Viennese by education and residence. Both are 'classic-romantic , both absorbed Wagnerian influences, and both tend to prolixity. Opinions vary as to the ultimate value of their compositions; all that can

Brahms's songs, have yet to show

despite the occasional influence of the interest in folk

be said objectively is that they continued the tendencies of Wagnerian romanticism. As in Germany, so in France there have been no signs of interest in folksong as a basis of style. The ballets of

Leo Delibes (1836 to 1891) and the operas ofJules Massenet to J 9*9)> Gustavo (1842 to 1912), Andrd Messager (1853 to 1956) and Emmanuel Ghabrier Charpentier (1860 in their elegance and (1841 to 1894) are typically French charm. Rather later was Paul Dukas (1865 to 1935), who is known chiefly by his vivid and amusing scherzo, Uapprenti

The most

was Franck, who, although of Belgian parentage, was so long
* An example occurs at the opening of the 5th symphony. another composer might have stated the motto theme on one effect. Tschaikovsky uses two in unison a quite unique

serious-minded composer of the century




is usually counted as a Frenchman. His somewhat weighty romanticism, with its highly personal melodic idioms and at times exotically chromatic harmony, was something new in French music. Notable among his pupils were Vincent d'Indy (1851 to 1931), Henri Duparc (1848 to 1933), famous for some fine songs,

resident in Paris that he

and Guy Ropartz (1864


to 1956). Standing apart from Gabriel Faure (1845 to 1924) exerted much group,

influence as a teacher, perhaps his most important pupil being Maurice Ravel (1875 to I 937)




Great Scenes from Boris Godounov Pictures at an Exhibition
Prince Igor


No. 323 1003

Polovtsian Dances



RimskyKorsakov Smetana

(from Ma Wast) Bartered Bride, Overture etc.

The Moldau
Symphony, Symphony,

N ooSaoR

33 SX. 1007


D Minor



World} Slavonic Dances


Piano Concerto, Lyric Suite

A Minor

LXT. 2608 OCLP. 1019



1003 1020



The Lady and

the Nightingale




The Three-Cornered Hat


Violin Sonata


D Minor


CX. 1049

Nutcracker Suite

Symphony No. 5 Symphony No. 6

LXTA. 2905 33 OCX. 1201 LPM. 18333 LPM. 18334


Mahler Wolf

Symphony No. 3 Symphony No. 4
Song Recital Song Recital

Don Juan

TU EuLertspiegel \

LXTA. 2969 LXT. 2718 LW. 5 i62 33 OCX. 1162



Extracts from Der Rosenkaoalier



CX. Symphony No. 2871 * Summer night on Symphony No. 527 OALP. Vaughan Hoist Delius Sibelius Enigma Variations Violin Concerto Fantasia on a theme of Tallis Williams London Symphony Pastoral Symphony Planets KLC. No. 2693 LXT. 1456 LXT.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS Composer Elgar Title Cat. 1085 1122 1047 . OCX. 2699 LXT. 2787 LXTA. i On hearing the first cuckoo 33 33 the river OOT b2QI 2 5 OALP. Symphony No.

Both painters and poets sought to suggest rather than to state. Claude Achille Debussy came early under the influence of the pictorial and poetical impressionists. to developments in the use of the orchestra. leading.) We have noted the romantics' interest in sound as such. The poets were willing to discard prosody and even to neglect the normal rules of syntax. (It is arguable that he was to some extent anticipated by Liszt in some of his latest piano works. concerning themselves with the purely sensuous effect of words words as sounds and symbols rather than as Hnfcg in a chain of thought. in their Born in 1862. largely disregarding traditional methods of 'composition* and eschewing anything that savoured of photographic realism. combinations of notes. calculated. and his style came to be based on an application to music of their underlying principles. . JL as he died in 1918. since he brought to music a new outlook and new methods which are most logically treated in a section which is concerned with what is usually called 'modern' music. ally have been dealt with in the previous chapter.CHAPTER SEVENTEEN AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE A LTHOUGH the composer who is regarded as the f-\ chief exponent of impressionism could chronologic\. The painters concentrated on light and colour as the most important elements in a picture. consideration of his work has been deferred until now. among other things. Debussy's interest was in sounds as sounds. IMPRESSIONISM The principles of impressionism are seen in the work of such painters as Monet and Cezanne and such poets as Verlaine and Mallarme. whether analysable as 'chords' in the traditional sense or not.

he aims to suggest. we may add. * P. we recognise We have only to listen to the very opening of suggestion. yet attractive ambiguity'.* His The realism of a Strauss is is illustrative a new sense. In his use of the delicate tints whom economical to the last degree and in his highly personal the master of style of keyboard writing. and in this he showed himself the successor of such lythand 18th-century clavecinists as Couperin. like the painters and poets from of the orchestra inspiration. to induce certain mental or psychological reactions. Despite the opinions held by many who have not closely studied his work. Music in Western Civilisation. retaining but expanding the traditional vocabulary. see the third and fourth bars from the end of the piano prelude Le Cathedrale Engloutie. of a pictorial art) 'permeated with ambiguity- m he took his sion. (For a simple example. to give an impres- Debussy's aim was the capturing of a sensation or a mood. since the traditional attitude ninth or thirteenth to discord no longer holds good. rather than as links in a musical argument. though not to the extent which is sometimes imagined. and the use of clusters of notes which can hardly be classified as chords in the traditional manner. A chord.) The traditional principle that a discord needs some kind of resolution is therefore often completely discarded. H. Not that he attempted to sever it conveys all links of harmony. much of Debussy's harmony is more straightforwardly diatonic than that of Wagner in Tristan or Parsifal. Anything contrapuntal was therefore alien to his style. it is a 'sound' to be used for its particular effect the impression in its context. and he was led to experiment with such possibilities as the whole-tone scale. for instance.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 223 context. Lang. with the past or to found an entirely 'new' system Rather he indicated the possibility of a new attitude towards its functions. though it peeps through in such a piece as the prelude Feux d* artifice. . music intriguing. not his object. is not to Debussy a discord. He 'attempted to create the musical equivalent of a literature' (and. deceiving.

224 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the famous Prilude d PAprh-midi fun Faune (1892) to realise his ability to create an atmosphere with. As a pupil of Faur6. the overlapping of styles referred to in Chapter 16. and precision. As a preliminary to some consideration of the more recent trends in music three points must be mentioned. Debussy entered a kind of neo-classic phase. J than his impressionist work. based on the play by Maurice Maeterlinck. viola and harp 6 (1915-17). but PelUas stands as an isolated phenomenon. approaching natural a mere accompanispeech. Neverthe- he was perhaps more of a whole-hearted impressionist than any other composer. as it were. with tradition. and those in whose work the links are wearing Among contemporaries we may distinguish . though the dividing line is by no means There are those who retain strong links clearly drawn. and the influence of the 18th-century clavecinists is sometimes apparent. clarity of outline. the minimum strokes of the brush. and flute. Firstly. two main classes. PelUas et Melisande.g. perhaps. Debussy's one opera. is at the opposite pole from both Wagnerian music-drama and the Italian tradition. nor does it provide a Wagnerian symphonic poem. lacking both predecessors and successors. e. Ravel and Delius were among those who came under his influence. both harmonically and in their general outlook. latest compositions. cultivated a harmonic style which tends to be lush. however. It suggests the atmosphere in an entirely individual manner. postromantics working concurrently with the more advanced composers. and lacked the finesse and elusiveness of the Frenchmen. With his and violin. the sonatas for piano 'cello and piano. the orchestra is used not as ment. Delius. at his best. nearer to traditional form and line though harmonically quite advanced less. in smaller works. Ravel learned the value of formal stability. The singing is entirely declamatory. his musical characteristics developed on different lines from those of Debussy. Debussy influenced many composers to a greater or less degree.

the English tradition of choral music. among other things. In fifty years' time it may be possible an opinion as to their potential value. Arthur Bliss (b. 1902) is to be noted. It is the music which matters most. fertile imagination (especially stimulated in the setting of words) and his fluent technique. arising from this general rather than particular consideration of contemporary work.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 225 more or less thin or appear to have snapped. notable works including Bax's motet Mater ora Filium and Howells' Hyrnnus Paradisi. logically enough. above. Arnold Bax (1883 to 1953). often with some influence from Debussy. In the work of composers whose links with tradition are still firm their harmonic vocabulary is. as in the case of such British writers as John Ireland (b. It would be possible to give a comprehensive list of names. At the present day many different lines of development are being pursued. we must again stress the importance of the time factor. as there are individual composers. forceful may be coupled with still is the choral works mentioned (b. almost as many. there is no violent break with the past. which can still find fresh resource in diatonic melody. All have carried on. in fact. In many instances nationalist traits are evident to a greater or less extent. Thirdly. 1879). Secondly. but to do so would be singularly uninformative. 1892). 1891) is more eclectic and rather less traditional in his outlook. and Herbert Howells (b. an extension of that of Liszt and Wagner. no attempt can be made passing from the swans and to decide which composers are on the main road and which are merely exploring dead-ends. In matters of form. His Bekhazzar's Feast generation William Walton (b. without to distinguish the geese and to mention every single composer. with a highly individualised style. but rather a continued development of the processes of the igth century. All that can be done at present is to indicate what appear to be the general trends. Of a younger and dynamic. enable him to achieve a wide Younger Benjamin Britten His . 1913). It is still fundamentally based on the major-minor scale system. too.

are highly individual and of great dynamic power. born in Switzerland of Jewish parentage.A.226 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC range of style. In recent years a number of native-born composers have appeared in the United States of America. Of music in Russia it is difficult to give an opinion owing to the peculiar conditions (at least to the Western mind) under which artists are expected to work. Such composers as Serge Prokofieff (1891 to 1953) and Dmitri Shostakovich (b. but more recently there has been a tendency to considerable individuality and an eagerness to absorb the most advanced methods.R.S. often markedly dissonant but with a traditional background. We must now deal briefly with the work of the more advanced composers. His violin concerto is one of the finest recent works of its genre. and we may refer also to Ernest Bloch (1880-1959). (b. The methods of the earlier writers were naturally based on the German tradition. Among the more prominent of these are Samuel Barber Aaron Copland (b. Roy Harris and Virgil Thompson (b.. He has a very original mind. from a rather steely post-romanticism to the most advanced modernity. They are therefore not entirely at liberty to develop according to their natural inclinations. His music has often a rhapsodic tendency and shows racial characteristics. Kodaly has been mentioned. 1906) have had to conform to the canons promulgated by those who dictate artistic style in the U. and their influence is evidently strong in shaping at any rate the language of a number of American composers. They cannot be regarded as a 'school' since their styles and aims vary widely. the notable feature (b. Many of the leading European musicians have made their home in the U. 1898) . 1896).S. Among Continental composers the late romantic attitude is perhaps less common. Apart from a completely free treatment of dissonance. and a new attitude to form. and his style and idiom.S. 1900). 1910). the breaking down of the traditional distinction between concord and discord mentioned in Chapter 3.

We see the possibilities of this taken to an advanced stage in the late Wagner and in the work of many of the contemporary post-romantics. according to a more startling his music looks upon it as a means of may seem harmonically. Some. interesting enough in theory. whatever variations there have been in style and method. is that to the normal Western ear the music merely sounds out of tune. indeed. chromaticism in the true sense of the word no longer exists. The traditionalist. and expression igth century A reaction of some kind was to be expected. it is rather a matter of an almost mathematical handling of sounds. of tonality. Most notably opposed to the romantic spirit of the music as a direct response to. 'key* is a thing of the past. in discarding traditional tonality.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 227 the disintegration. Thus. The twelve notes of what is usually called the chromatic scale all become of equal importance. still however emotional expression. also automatically discards chromaticism. This implies that composition is more a matter of 'patterning' with sounds. seem to suggest that not intended to have any 'meaning' in the usual sense of the word. To many contemporary composers the major-minor scale system is played out. The true 'modern' often tends to what is called 'cerebral' music. Notes of the diatonic scale are the true 'modern'. Chroma- of such work is ticism means by accidentals. unless we go back similar attitude It is to the early days of polyphony seems largely to have held good. or less definite plan. when a certainly in direct opposition to the aims of composers since the I5th century.) In the work of the more advanced composers we find not only function new technical methods. it is . feeling. so that there is nothing left to be coloured unless we introduce intervals smaller than a semitone. But 'coloured' colouring. of. but a new attitude to the and meaning of music itself. as has been suggested by Alois Haba* (The result of this. regardless of euphony. even though the emotion may not always be universally palatable. their music is Such a conception of an art is new.

His Ludus Tonalis is another descendant of the Art of Fugue. alien to the impressionists. The characteristic impersonality many works by Paul Hindemith (b. suite. Such a work as his Fantasia Contrappuntistica (1912) clearly looks back to Bach's Art of Fugue for its inspiration. of artists of stractions'. In the case of 20th-century music we have to allow for two world wars and a number of revolutions. On the fringe. is a notable feature of contemporary music. for example. It was not. Non-musical factors also have influence. as Debussy followed that of the impressionist painters and poets. of neo-classicism lies the work of a number of composers who. though his popular fame rests on his prowess as a pianist. and of the stricter contrapuntal forms. The new outlook is expressed in 'neo-classicism'. 1882) produced such works as his Octet for Wind Instruments (1923) and Piano Concerto (1924) that neo-classicism began to have any widespread is effect. while not to be considered seen also in . together with the advent of the 'mechanical age'. fugue. in the case of the Camerata their pre- occupation with Greek drama. Painters and sculptors produce 'abno emotional message and representconveying ing nothing except some kind of visual pattern. however. which are associated especially with Bach. The revival of contrapuntal writing.228 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC History shows us that when a style reaches its apogee a revulsion is sooner or later inevitable. We may recall the aversion of the Camerata to polyphony. and of the Forty-eight. attempt to follow their lead. in which he pursues a highly developed contrapuntal style. tending to modify man's outlook on This is reflected in the work of at least a proportion life. The earliest neo-classicist was Ferruccio Busoni (1866 to 1924). as it were. Composers all kinds. etc. alien to the true romantics. It implies a complete turning away from the emotionalism of the late romantics and a return to many older forms concerto grosso. of which we have noted signs but not more than signs in the late Debussy. as well as the cultivation of chamber music. until Igor Stravinsky (b. passacaglia. 1895).

1892). among other things. too. Poulenc is an exponent of the 'witty in music. though quite personal system of He was. fol(b. masterpiece of its kind. has led composers in many directions. in various ways. to explore new technical methods and possibilities. Darius Milhaud Georges Auric (b. up in 4ths and other intervals His Mikrokosmos for piano is a simple but instructive exposi- tion of such experiments. chords built tonality (two or more keys simultaneously) and instead of the customary srds. poly* sation. 1 899) . led him to explore. are a case in point. Honegger seems to some extent to have modified his point of view of late years. 1888). a believer in harmony. The desire to experiment. have nevertheless attempted to break away. the use of new scales. but seldom any great depth of meaning. too. In some cases such experiment has been systematic. lowing the leadership of Erik Satie. indulged in this witty approach in his satirical music to Edith Sitwcll's Fafadea. and has produced works of considerable power and origin5 ality. 1899) and Francis Poulenc (b. from romanticism. 1892). They were Louis Durey (b. of Swiss parentage). Besides being anti-romantics they also placed themselves in opposition to the impressionism of Debussy. perhaps more than now. There is often a kind of light 'entertainment value'. The band of composers in France who called themselves Les Six and who had a not inconsiderable vogue immediately after the First World War. Hindemith. Walton. sometimes becoming merely flippant.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 229 as true exponents of this style. Germaine Tailleferre (b. but in others it seems to have been largely empirical. Arthur Honegger (1892-1955. . His curiosity regarding new aspects of sounds and their organisupplementary to traditional methods. Of composers who have made systematic attempts to enlarge the bounds of harmony Bela Bartok is noteworthy. With him may be mentioned the Englishman LordBerners (1883 to 1950) and Prokofieffinhis earlier years. GebroMchsmusik remarking that *a composer utility music should neverwrite unlesshe knows ofa demand for his work. has done much to elaborate a logical.

as in the case of Bartok. bassoon.230 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC not for his own satisfaction'. requiring only fifteen solo instruments. but the contemporary composer often prefers not merely to reduce the number of players but to use entirely new combinations of instruments. The early years of the present century saw the apotheosis of the mammoth Stravinsky's Sacre du Printemps (1913) needs a huge orchestra. Notable. in attempts to break away from the regular metrical accentuation which has been the norm for some three hundred years. Experiment has not been confined to the harmonic side. The tendency generally is to employ only those instruments which are felt to be actually needed. orchestra in the works of such men as Strauss and Mahler. especially movement. therefore. with eight percussion instru- ments. rather than to write automatically for a full normal orchestra. Economic to factors have also to be considered. he looks back to the attitude of the 18th-century kapellmeister. double-bass. is epoch-making in this direction. clarinet. when Compare the remark on Schutz's Cantiones Sacrae in Chapter 8. . too. Such a work in its final as Stravinsky's ballet Le Sacre du Printemps. In one respect.* some return to a more 'human' style. is the tendency of some composers to discard the standard orchestral combination which has developed since the second half of the i8th century. In some cases we can trace a clear and continuous line of development onwards from a post-romantic idiom to more or less advanced modernity. cornet and trombone. Schonberg's works of his early post-Wagnerian phase the Gumlieder and Pelleas and Melisande utilise enormous forces. It is useless demand an nobody We have mentioned die wide variations of style to be found in the work of some contemporary composers. The 'tyranny of the barline' has come under fire. In others. a peak of modernity is followed by some relaxation. In the case of * orchestra of a hundred-odd players can afford to pay them. but his Chamber Symphony of 1906 goes to the other extreme. but his Histoire du Soldat (1918) is scored for one each of violin.

he moved farther and farther towards intense use of discord and away from traditional tonality. Schonberg's pupil Alban e Berg (1885 to 1935) proved in other works. by Ralph Hill (Pelican Books) too comexposition of Schonberg's final technical methods in Counterpoint by plex to be elucidated here will be found in Studies Ernst Kfenek (Schirmer). almost from opera The Rake's Progress. Anton Webern (1883 to 1945) has perhaps taken the purely cerebral aspect to its extreme. at the same time following his emotions down to their deep-seated subconscious roots'. but varies his mode of expression from work to work. .IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE Stravinsky there has been 231 work 1 8th to work. while latterly in the ballet Agon and the choral work Canticum Sacrum. artide in The Concerto. the great expressive his violin concerto. he has made use of Serial Technique developed from Schonberg's Twelve-note System. The urge behind this development was a desire to increase the emotionally expressive power of music. he made a return. Another pupil. in patterns of pure sound. ultimately arriving at a highly organised system of atonality (absence of key) based on a scale of twelve semitones. whose influence on the younger generation has been not inconsiderable. has been described as a master of styles rather than of style. Garner.* The system involves a use of dissonance which reaches the limit of intensity. The question remains: Whither are they leading? It would seem that we are living in a period of transition. to express an excessive degree of emotional tension. He has never limited himself to a single style. With this we must conclude our all-too-brief discussion of 20th-century trends. to the century. comparable in a way to the I7th century. A simple * Mosco . Beginning as a post-Wagnerian romantic. in structural method if not in harmony. Stravinsky. In his a kind of vacillation. among master's possibilities of his methods though he was by no means inflexible in his application of them. in which every note is of equal importance. Possibly the most consistent line of development is found in the work of Arnold Schonberg (1874 to 1952).

stand still. new ideas are in the air. experiment is widespread.23 s A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC As then. know is that music will not. and cannot. cannot say which ideas or experiments may be really All we fruitful or which may turn out to be valueless. We RECORDS Composer Debussy Ravel Walton Britten Stravinsky Poulenc Bartok Prokofieff Schoenberg .

106.. 138^.. 129 J. 210 Binary form. 181. 96. Little 'Organ Book. 55 no 31. Sebastian. Anerio. 190 Mass in D. 149 _. 174 19. 67 Banister. 25 Aesthetics. Augmentation. 26. 205. 157.. 120 Axnbros. Passion. 165 Ballade. E. 143 Christmas Oratorio.INDEX ABEL. 79 i3 I9 117. 205 Berg. 229 Ars Ars Ars Ars Ars Cantus Mensurabths. Novae Musicae. 229 Biber. 61 Discantus. "8.. 82. 26 Arcadelt. 225 Beethoven. 158 Bassoon. 151 Abendmusiken. Scherzo. 44. 216 Albinoni. 58. 77^. 216 I4 39 69. 181. 14. 65 Brandenburg Concertos. 43 Anthem. 125 Berlioz. C. 92 Attaignant. 101 technical advances. giff. 24. Benedetti. 163 AUegri. 144. 106. 135 . 204 Albeniz. 52. 104 Addison. use of orchestra. *75 _. Christian. St. 198 Bax. 90 Baumgarten. 150 Agazzari. 123 Basse danse. 61 Bassam. I2 5 116. 15. 205 Bardi. 100 Ambrose. 163 Ninth Symphony. 144 Matthew Passion. 212 170^. 175 Liederkreis. 101 Allemande. 119. 162 Ad Qrganum Faciendum. 13. 194 21. 60 Ballet. 77^. 226 Barber of Baghdad. 143 Marc. ijzff. 45w. 81 Bennett. AmarilK. 105 Arne. 58. 37 Aeolian mode. i5 Balakireff. Christoph. Anglican chant. 91 Basso continuo. 99.... 186 Fidelio. 34. 144. 215 Ballad opera. 175 Nova. 76 Aria. 140. 24 Algarotti. 16. 108. 82 Anonymous MS. 191. 127. 107 *. 144* *?o 16. 93 Auric. 102 Amati. in Bellini. 186 Coriolanus. 40j Bass. 168 Bembo. 175 Belli. Michael. 17. 34 Agon. iS7. J 7> i Benvenuto Celhm. 141 Forty-eight Preludes and Fugues. 127. Bagatelles. 180. 144. t Aston. 144. 102. 15 Adam de la Hale. 92. 231 Berners. i?9 Affections. 25 Ayre. 1 19 J 22. 187 Consecration of the House. 57 ssff. 176 iSingr y* *<> the Lord. 182. 208 Art of Fugue. 126 Albrechtsberger. i49 iSi. 231 Atda. in Benedictus. 120. 75 BACH. 154. 148 J. 13. 100. 186. 15. 229 Authentic mode. 148. 19. 171 Alcuin. 175 Mttwca/ Offering. JWm Ballett. 42 Bartok. 187. P. 33 47 Bars. 216 Ars Antigua. iziff. 100 Agnus Dei. 97 Auber. 65 Ballata. ISO. 151 J. 115 A cappetta. 112 Barber. 112. 43 Contrapuncti. 129 J. 117 Antiphonary.

131 fugue. xpxjfc choral works. 105 Cavazzoni. 68 Corsi. 99ff. 45. de. 131. INDEX Cavalleria Rusticana. von. 140 Burgundian school. Clemens non Papa. 97 Cavalieri. 205 Bliss. 60 Bombard. 144 Concerto. 80 CasteUone. cyclic methods. 95.. 96 Cotton. 81 Charles II. 191 Cerone. 231 Cantilena. 24 Boheme. 64. 33 Conductus. 112 196. 205 Cornett. Branle. 179 225 Bloch. 135 ~~ grosso. 96. 96. 123 Jacopo da. 122 Courante. 116 Boethius. da. 15. 58 Cantusfirmus. 116 Chopin. 63. 219 Cherubini. 18. 15271. iz$ff Concerts Spirituels. 130. 223 Chabrier.. 43 Britten. 46 CAB&ON. 16 Clavecinists. 122 Clavichord. 63^. Cadence. a penna. 93. 80 Calzabigi.. 96. nijf. 47. 140 Calvin. 131 prelude. 79. 121 Corelli. 164 Campion. 205 Cavalli. 109 Cremona. 63. 75. Cesti. 226 Blow. 215 BoufEbns. 219 Chambonnieres. 46 Contrapunctus a mente. 93 Busnois. 49. 36. 99J^. La. 142 Bologna. 49*1. 91 Brescia. i23Jf. 44. 188 Chorale. 125. 70 Caldara. 90 Borodin. 164 Cambert. 225 Britton. iizff. 98 Cosyn. 45. 163. 120 Brevis. 205 Bohm. 44. Carisstmi. 80 Bounce. 167 Child. 60. 92. 125^. 66 Cimarosa.. 14971.. 192. 120 . songs. Canticum Sacrum. 130 ChoraUs Constantinus. 96. 90 124 Capella. ax. 2i4n. 7271. 121^. Collegia Musica.. 105 Cezanne. 81. 112. 24 Coffey. 96. Ciscia.. 107 Camerata. 143 Cornelius. 65. 1 66 Coleman. 37 Couperin. 195 variations. 112 Colonna. 133*** Clavier. 65 Chapel Royal. 67 Cantata.234 Bizet. 95 Classical style. 95. 228 Buxtehude. 135. 226 Coranto. Cranmer. 97 Bjnchois. 115. 97 Caccini. 99 Burney. 73. 132 Bulow. no. 65 Busoni. 112 no Communion. 115. 123*1. 77i 82. 95. 203 Buononcini. 74. 121 Brahms. 116 Cornyshe. 18. 162 Bourgeois. 96. 49. 113 Conditor alme siderum. 95 Canon. 116 Charpentier. 96 Canzona. 98 Byzantines. 63 Blake. 34 Concertato. 71. 58. 120 Copland. 148 Bruckner... Concertino. 131 Byrd. 60 Clarinet. I33ft. 46 Cooper. 92. 10511. 87. 83. 123. 83. 122 Chanson. 130 fantasia. 219 Bull. H3ff.

ANDREA. 218. 46 Frederick the Great. 79. 69. 22zff. Garland. 46 Durey. 109 Diaphony. 95. 121 Galuppi. 30 De Musica Des Delius. 82 Fayrfax. 136 Flying Dutchman. 24 Dowland. 219 51. Feux Fetis. 216 FALLA. 96 Franck. 75 Fugue. i27Jf. Glareanus. 25 Glazounov. 25 Fontana. 144 Freischute. 22 Dialogues. 151. 121 Gebrauchsmustk. 224 Mensurabths. 73. 80 Genoveva. Faur6. 97t "3. 211. 91 Duparc. 46 Discord. 98 Gasparim. 63. 51 Gesualdo. 35 Die Feen. 82. 128 Giraldus Cambrensis. Cyclic principle. 122 Dargomijsky. 51. 95 64 Edwards. 215 Gloria. 73. 223 Fiedel. 220 Faust. 127. 82. 201 Folksong. 229 Durum. 20 d'artifice. Dukas. 78*. 214. 18. I7 Don Carlos. 43. 64. 180 4. 67. 98. 215 . Fantasia. 102 Galliard. 200 d'Indy. 132 FitzzoiWam Virginal Book. 26 Dufay. 69. 85 Field. 199 Evangelist. 215 Davenant. 121. 69. 220 Duplum. 30 Dvofak. The. tfff.INDEX Cristofori. 15* Euryanthe. W Florence. 127 Genevan psalter. 99 Flute. 43. 46 Discantus supra tibrum. 219 Glinka. igg Cui. 149. 97. 67. 178. 205 Fauxbourdon. 199 Gestes. 199 Frescobaldi. 120 Festa. 220 Discantus Positio Vulgaris. 200. 76 DANCES. 184 . 99 Dunstable. Dandrieu. 41. 219 32.. 119. 216 Ecclesiae MiKtantis. 218. 168 Dorian mode. 44- 34 . 126 Gastoldi. zion. Froberger. 79. 204 Forster. 205 Davy. 28 Delibes. 108 David. 6l Garsi. Gaultier. gar. *54 Divisions on a ground. Speculatione Musicae. 208. 77 e Eus Feste Burg. 53. 229 Geminiani. 124 Gilbert. Giovanni. Drink to me only. 81 Error terttt soni. 91. 7i. 95 . 60^. 63^. i88w. 1 80 *53. 208 Gibbons. 61 Estampie. Final. 122. 43 De Pres. 96 Flat. 68 Ferrabosco. 124 Force of Destiny. 235 Crusaders. 25 Fischer. 214^. * 81 Galant style. 93. "3. 204 Donizetti. 137. DE. 48. 102 Dittersdorf. GABRIELI. 90^. De Ignoto Cantu. Gesuao. 208. i47i *5i Galilei. 14811. 216 Fdstaffy 204 ia8 Fancy. 30 . 121 Dodecachordon. 43 Diabolus in musica. 93. 68 Debussy. 219 Franco of Cologne.. 85 Esterhazy. in. 128 Frottola. t Gavotte.. 212. 151 Divertimento. 9$ Gigue.

Gluck, 1 06, i63ff., 167, 199 Goethe, 179

Impressionism, 2,22$. Intermezzi, 161ff.

Gombert, 74 Goudixnel, 80 Gounod, 205

Graduate Romanum, 34 Granados, 216 Graun, 137 Graupner, 147 Great stave, 2971. Greeks, 22jf., 27, 30 Gregorian chant, 26

Ionian mode, 25 Ireland, 225



66, 69, 81, 93

Gregory the Great, 26, 31 Gretry, 163, 198 Grieg, 216

JACCHINI, 126 Jacob of Liege, 47, 57 Jahn, 199 Jannequin, 80, 98 Jenkins, 120 feu de Robin et Marion, 52
[ohn of Salisbury, 47 [ohnson, Dr., 160 "ommelli, 164
tongleurs, 22, 51,

Grimm, 162

Guarneri, 120 Guido d'Arezzo, 28, 36, 37, 43, 59

Guilmant, 97

fosquin " '

des Pres, 67, 69, 74 la, 167


HABA, 227
Hale'vy, 205 Handel, 13, 108, us, 115, i3&ff., 147, 150, 151, 180


Kapelle, 10572., 113 Kapellmeister, 14, iO5. Keiser, 108, 139




Messiah, 19, 141
operas, 140; oratorios, 141

KerU, 128 Key, 22 Kodaly, 218

Royal Academy of Music, 140 Hansel and Gretel, 205 Hans Helling, 199

Konzertmeister, 14 Kuhnau, 135 Kyrie Eleison, 34, 82

Hans Sachs, 54 Harmony, 32

Harpsichord, 87, 103, 142, Harris, 226 Hasse, 137, 153, 164



18, 19, 20, 151^., 170, 171; oratorios, 155; quartets, 154;

symphonies, 153 Heinrich von Meissen, 54 Herz, 187 Killer, 166 Hindemith, 229

LAI, 58, 62 Lalla Rookh, 205 Landini, 60, 63, 75 Laniere, 112 L'apres-midi d'un Faune, 224 Lassus, 73, 76, 99, 100 Loudest, 109 Laudi, 109


Hocket, 46
Hoist, 175, 218

Homophony, 147
Honegger, 229
Huxnfrey, 112, 116

Humperdinck, 198, 204 Hunten, 187
Idee fixe, 182

Lawes, Henry, 108, 1x2 William, 112, 120 Leading theme, 200, 205, 210 Le Franc, 62 Legrenzi, 106 Leit motif, 200, 205 Le Jeune, 80 Leoncavallo, 205 L^onin, 49 Les Six, 229 Uhomme arme, 64, 71 Lichnowsky, 171 Liebesverbot, Das, 200 Lied, 189^.
Liszt, 16, 187, 1 86, 190;

music, 98, 135, 182 Imitation, 59, 63, 66

39, 95, 98, 179., 181, 182, 190, 196, 203; piano sonata, 21 1; oratorios, 196; songs,

symphonies, 185


Locke, 108

LocateUi, 127, 147

LoeiUet, 136 Loewe, 189 Lohengrin, 201


Loms'xiV, 107, 116,137 Ludwig II, 200
Lulli, 107ff; 161 Lute, 86, 94

Meyerbeer, 167, 200 Micrologus, 28, 36 Mignon, 205 Milan, 94 Milhaud, 229
Milton, 21, 122
Minstrels, 22 Minuet, 121

Minima, 43
Minnesingers, 53

Lutenists, 93^., 130

Luther, 18, Luzzaschi, in


Lydian mode, 24

Missa parodia, 72 sine nomine, 72 Mixolydian mode, 24
99, 184*.

MACE, 120
Machaut, 58, 62, Mackenzie, 217

Mode, 56 Modernism, 17


103, 132


Butterfly, 205

Madriale, 5971. Madrigal, 59, 75^-, 99, xox, Maestro di capetta, 94, 105 Maeterlinck, 224 Magadizing, 30 Magnificat, 82 Magnus Liber Orgam, 49

m. 12

rhythmic, 41 Molinaro, 94, "3

Monet, 222

Monody, 102
Monsigny, 163

Mont* Albano, 149 Monte, de, 76

Mahler, 219 Mailly, 107 Mallarme, 222 Mandriale, sgn.


151 Marcello, 127, 162

Monteverdi, 39, 101, 105, in, 114 Morales, 74, 216 Morley, 79 Motet, 44, 58, 63, 69, 73, 82, 93, "5 Motto theme, 72, 182, 210 Mouton, 67 Mozart, Leopold, 155
\V. A., 13, 16, 32, 134, xsx, *S5J(r-i *75, 166, 168, 171, X 72 *73 180, 181, 182, 185, 188, 199 concertos, 157 Don Giovanni, 175

Marenzio, 77 Marschner, 199

Masked Ball, The, 204 Masque, 108
22, 33, 34*


Massenet, 219

21 Jupiter Symphony, operas, 166 Muffat, 122

Mastersingers of Nuremberg, 54, 167,

Mundy, 98
Musica EncMriadts, 35, *79 ficta, 61, 103, 209
mensurabilis, 41


Muris, de, 57


Maxima, 43
Mazarin, 107 Mazzocchi, no Measurable music, 32, 41 Mehul, 165 Meistersingers, 54

mensurata, 117
parlante, 102 reservata, 73, 100 Transalpina, 77

Mendelssohn, 180, 184, 187, 216
Hebrides Overture, 186 oratorios, 195 , Merry Wives of Windsor, 205 Merula, 123

Fs Booke, 96

chamber music, 186

NARRATOR, no Narvaez, 94


Merulo, 97 Messager, 219 . Messe de Tourrm t 58 Metastasio, 164

Nationalism, 2i3ffNatural, 30. Neo-classicism, 228 5 Neri, M., 124, St. Philip, 109

Netherlands school, 65 JJ-, 99


Neumeister, 115 Neumes, 27 New Music, 102 Nicolai, 205
Niedt, 86. Nielsen, 216
Parsifal, 53, 202 Passacaglia, 143

Nin, 216

Passamezzo, 95 Passion music, 68, 75, Patronage, 18 Pavane, 91, 121



Notation, 26^., 43

Nunc Dimittis, 82 Nuove Musiche, 102
Oberon, 198 , King of the Fairies, 198

Novak, 216

Peerson, 98 Pelleas et Melisande, 224 Pergolesi, 161

Pen, 99, 104
Perotin, 49, 50, 99 Perrin, 107 Petrus de Cruce, 43, 49, 50 Philidor, 163 Phonascus, 45, 52, 58

Oboe, 90 da caccia, 150
Obrecht, 65, 67, 92 Core, tou tt7* despatch me, 78


Phrygian mode, 24
Piano, 14872.
Piccinni, 165 Plagal mode, 24 Plainsong, 31, 45, 55, Point of perfection, 56 Polonaise, 91 Polyphony, 16, 99, 101, 131, 147 choral, 65 Polytextuality, 46, 58**. Polytonality, 229

Occursus, 36

Odes, 117 Odington, 43, 44, 46, 55, 60 Offertory, 34
Offices, church, 22, 8z


Okeghem, 65
ggff., itoff., ig&ff. buffa, i6iff., 198, 204

cormque, 52, 163, 169, 198 houses, 105
seria, ifaff.

Oratorio, 109

Ordinary of the Mass, 34 Ordres, 122 Organ, 32, 85, 96 hymns, 96

Pope, Alexander, 179 Poulenc, 229 Power, 62

and fugue, 131 Prima prattica, zoi

Prelude, 96, 121

Programme music,
Prokofieff, 226, Prolation, 56

98, 182

Organista, 4971.


Otger, 35

35ff., 44,


Proper of the Mass, 34 Ptolemy, 24

140?!., 144,

Overture, 106, 107, 117, 148, 199
concert, 186

Purcell, 39, 61, 79, 83, 109, 116, 117, 120, 122, 124, 216

Puritans, ioSn., 116

Dido and Aeneas, 109

PACHELBKL, 21, 129, 131, 142 Paganini, 187 Paglfacci, 205 Paisiellp, 214



Mtssa Papae Marcelh, 71 Missa Regina Coett, 71 O Bone jesu, 70 Stabat Mater, 70 Tu es PetniSf 70 Vern Sponsa Christ** 73 Papal bull, 19, 47, 58 Pareja, 132 Parry, 217
Parthenia, 95

Palestrma, 21, 63, 69, 71. 73. 77, 99


Raguenet, 162 Rake's Progress, The, 231 Rameau, 20, 145, 161
Ravel, 220, 224 Recitative, 102, 115

Recitative accompagnato, 106


stromentatot 106 Recorders, 87

Redford, 96 Reformation, 80
Reichardt, 137. 189, 190 Reinken, 122, 129, 142 Restoration style, 116 Rhinegold, The, 202 Ricercare, 93, 9 6 JI 9 J 28
sopra un soggetto, 128 Richard I, Richter, 180 Rienxi, 200 Rigoletto, 203
Schweitzer, 115
Scriabin, 207


Seconda prattica, 101 Semibrevis, 43 Serial Technique, 231
Service (reformed),


Sharp, 30 Shawm, 90 Shirley, 108 Shostakovich, 226

Sibelius, 20, 212, 218 Sicilian Vespers, 204

Rimsky-Korsakov, 211, 215 Ring, The, 202 Rinuccini, 99, 104
Ripieni, 125

Siegfried Idyll,


Silbermann, 148

Simone Boccanegra, 204
Sinfonia avanti Vopera, 106, 149 Singspiel, 165, 198

Ritomello form, i20. Robertsbridge Codex, 85 Romanticism, 16, i78jf.

Rondeau, rondel, 44 5 Rondo, 51, 122 Ropartz, 220 Rore, da, 73. 77
Rossini, 168


229 Smetana, 216 Solmisation, 28
Sonata, 97, 123 a tre, 123 da camera, 123 da ckiesa, 123 form, 92, 135

Rotundum, 30 Round, 44 f

Rousseau, 162 Rue, de la, 67

Songs, i88jy. Speculum Musicae, 47, 57

Spem in

alium, 70

Spinet, 87

SACKBUT, 90 Sacre du Printemps, Le, 230 Sacre Rappresentastioni, 109
Saint-Saens, 205 Salomon, 153

Spohr, 199 Spontini, 167
Stamitz, 151 Stanford, 217

05 Sammartini, 151, 154 Sampson, 68 Samson and Delilah, 205 Sanctus, 34. 7* Sarabande, 121, 123 Sartorio, 106
Scale, 22ff.
Scarlatti, A., 106,

Sternhold and Hopkins, 82
Stilo antico, 101

moderno, 101
rappresentativo, Stradella, 106 Stradivari, 120



112, 127, 140

D., 95, 134. 147. 148,150 Scheidemann, 129 Scheldt, 114, "9 *3* Schein, 114, 129 Schiller, i?9 Schlegel, 179 Schlick, 86, 96 SchSnberg, 40, 231 Schubert, 32, 180, 184, 186; quartets, 186; songs, 189; symphonies, 184; Wanderer Fantaste, 184 Schumann, i7,97 *79 l8 5J chamber music, 186; songs, 190 Schutz, 20, 108, in, 114 Schutz, Sympkoniae Sacrae, 114

Stravinsky, 228, 230 Strauss, J., 217 R., 80,98, 166 String quartet, 154

Strozzi, 106 Suite, 91, 121^., 14* Sullivan, 216 Sumer is icumen tn, 44. 59 &o

Sweelinck, 129

2 Symphonetes, 45, 5 > 5 219 Symphonia sacra, 115 Symphonic poem, 98*



Symphony, 106, Sympson, 121
TaiUeferre, 229



53. The. 78. s*ff*> 55 202 prose works. 56 signatures. 64 Ternary form. 198 YONGE. 127. 115.240 Tallis. 225 Weber. 37 Wolf. 55. 162 Viola da gamba. 62... 105 St. 20. 126 Tosca. 79 Werckmeister. "9> Virginals. 93 Williams. S. 46. 201 Parsifal. 87 Virtuosity. 52 Thomas. 102 Time. 219 Tunder. 55 Triplum. 67. 53. 16. 94 Thibaut. 81 Vie"ville. 203 Trio sonata. 216 Tannhauser. 201 Siegfried Idyll. 35 principaUs. 216 USPER. Violoncello. 53 164. 216 Turkish opera. 77 You Gentlemen of England. 204 Tristan and Isolda. 94. 127 Valkyrie. 203 Tschaikovsky. 210. 87. 218 Vecchi. I99J0M 208. 92. H9 Theorbo. 41. 179. 147 Volkslied. 33 S. 187. 201 role of orchestra. 65 Toccata. 74 Widor. 35 124 WAELRANT. 202 Vampire. 74* Vielle. 93. 86 77 98. 143. 97. Mark's. 16. 74 82 Euryanthe. 212. La. 61 Vivaldi. 137. 132 Zelter.. 106 Thalberg. 175. 132 Wesley. 97 Vexilla Regis. Tristan and Isolda. 113 Zumsteeg. 44. 139 Zarlino. 201 Tartini. 142. 123.. 223 Whyte. 97 Wieck. 151 Wagner. 70. 63. 90. 86. 76 Wagenseil. 205 Thompson. 53 Wranitzky. 202 Walton. 198 Constanze. 198 Freischutz. 69. 126 o Viols. 216 Whole-tone scale. 205 Troubadours. 223. 187 Theile. 198 Trwatore. 198 Oberon. INDEX 74 82 Victoria. II. 113 Venite. 198 Tye. 73 76. 181. 53. 222 Versets. 191 Vaughan Williams. 188 . S3. 119. 199 Variations. 79 Willaert. 205 Turina. 190 Ziani. 125. 56 Tinctoris. 86. 53. 190 Wolfram von Eschenbach. 5 iff. 154. 190 Wilbye. 42. 175.87. 103. 7. 2on. 225. 187 Vitali.. 94 Valentini. 205 Traviata. 59 Trouveres. 81 Veracini. 126. 56^. 227 Faust Overture. 14?. de. 87. 57 Turandot. 203 Verlaine. 219. 85. 106 Viadana. 97. 104 Venice. The. 179. 202 Trojans. 26 Torelli. 231 Weelkes. 148 Verdelot. S. 120 Telemann. 226 Thorough bass. 186. 176. 156 Webern. 204 leading themes. 132 Tenor. Vaughan. 108 Violin. 131 Tonality. 218 'Winchester Troper*. The. 115 Tunsted. 76 Verdi. 26 ZACHAU. 227 Vitry. 189. 125 VALDERRANO. 45. 148 Triple time. 195 Vox organatis. 123. Tonic. 158 Te Deum. 28 Temperament.

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