London.s Published by ~he Printed in Great Britain by Camelot Press Ltd. 9 London and Southampton. . Wr. 1955 JReprinted9 with corrections and revised record lists9 1959 Reprinted 1962 G. Sell and Sons* Ltd York ffottse.First published 1953 Reprinted.C. Portugal St.

CONTENTS Chap. Suggestions for Study 1 Page 9 13 On the Study of Musical History The Beginnings of Western European Music 2 22 3 The Early Development Early Secular Music of Counterpoint 35 52 4 5 6 7 The 'New Art' and Its Development 55 69 Vocal Music in the Sixteenth Century The Rise of Instrumental Music 85 99 119 8 Vocal Music in the Seventeenth Century Instrumental Music in the Seventeenth Century 9 10 1 1 The Age The of Bach and Handel 134 147 Rise of Classicism 12 Developments in Opera Beethoven 160 170 178 198 13 14 15 1 The Romantics and Their Music Romantic Opera Late Romantics and Nationalists Impressionism and the Contemporary Scene 6 207 222 17 Inde 233 .


to some limited extent. I have given those sanctioned by the more recent research. I must record my gratitude to Dr.. The growth of an art does not take place in a IN vacuum. but also.Mus. but have rather referred to those who appear to be the more important. for his patience in reading by chapter. A book much the length can be no more than a bare outline. B. composers and their works is of but little value. my drafts chapter His comments and criticisms have invariably W. it is inevitably affected by many external and these cannot be overlooked or underestimated. styles In the case of often many of the earlier composers there is some divergence of opinion as to the dates of their births and deaths. the underlying causes of that development.FOREWORD writing this book I have tried to trace not only how the main stream of music developed. In any a history which consists mainly of lists of case.L. though even here there is at times some lack of agreement among authorities.A. the development of and forms. been both helpful and stimulating. to keep to line of development. What matters is the main way in which music grew. I have not attempted to mention every possible composer.. B. . of this factors. Wilfrid Dunwell. and that is of interest has had to be omitted.


It cannot be too strongly stressed that reference to the is studying the printed copy and listening to peressential for anything like a full understandformances. the writer has SINCE bibliography. each writer while another will angle. period. that the should supplement his reading by the books menstudent tioned below. a different approach. (It music itself. So that by the time the student adopt has been through three or four different books he should have a fairly all-round grasp of the basic facts. however. which every . not just of other people's opinions period up to Bach. may be pointed out to the prospective examination ing. it is It is suggested.) For the itself. also that relevant chapters of any or all in List i. a brief but useful book. one will tend to stress one aspect. rather than by constantly rereading deals with his subject from his own Moreover. Constant reference to relevant articles in such comto Music. Grove's pilations as Scholes Oxford Companion 9 Music. and any other comparable books on the general the history of music. should be read in conjunction with the present work. Examiners expect some knowledge of the music of it. is candidate that the days are long past when a pass in history could be achieved by writing about what one had merely read about.SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY this is specialist. Collins Music Encyclopediaandtlne Harvard Dictionary of 9 Dictionary ofMusic invaluable to supplement the inevitably condensed information given in the chapters which follow. From experience individual chapters of both in his student days and as a teacher. a book for the beginner. not for the not proposed to include a detailed found that a surer grasp of facts is to be gained by reading what several writers have to say about a given matter or a single book.

is Masterpieces of Music before 1750. Walker: History ofMusic in England (Oxford University Press) .. including miniature scores. Sachs: Short History of Music (Dobson). by son and Apel (2 vols. The last three are results of modern not always entirely in line with the research. Reese: Music in the Middle Ages (Dent). Parry: The Art of Music (Kegan Paul). available in any reputable library. Abraham: A Hundred Tears of Music (Duckworth). More comprehensive. but nevertheless contain much useful information. containing examples of the chief types of composition from the days of plainsong onwards. for the student to make his own selection with some guidance from a teacher. For More Detailed and Comprehensive Study The Oxford History of Music (Oxford University Press). Lang: Music Einstein: Music in the Romantic Era (Norton). For the period since 1750 sufficient music is available. (Rockcliffe). Man and his Music: 4 vols. List /. Oxford University Press). Bukofzer: Music in the Baroque Era (Norton). Stanford and Forsyth: History of Music (Macmillan). The record lists to each chapter do not pretend to be in any way comprehensive. is the unique Historical Anthology of Music. Dent: Opera (Pelican Books). . but they should be especially useful in the earlier period. in Western Civilisation (Norton). General Outlines Einstein: A Short History of Music (Cassell). List 2. Colles: The Growth of Music (Oxford University Press). Finney: History of Music (Harrap).io A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC student should possess. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (Faber). and invaluable to the earnest Davistudent. by Parrish and Ohl (Faber).

SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY 11 Essays and Lectures on Music. Maine: New Paths in Music (Nelson). K?enek: Studies in Counterpoint (Schirmer). are usefully dealt with in 9 Dent's Master Musicians series of books. Records For the earlier periods the H. Lambert: Music Ho! (Faber). Dyson: The New Music (Oxford University Press). The lists from the time of Bach onwards are the merest suggestions.M.V. but current catalogues should be consulted since frequent changes are made. the six volumes of Essays in Critical Analysis (Oxford University Press). and can be supplemented ad lib. by reference to the various catalogues. but stimulating. Garner: A Study of 20th-century Harmony (Williams). . History of Music in Sound. All records mentioned are available at the time of writing. and his articles on music in the writings of Sir The Donald Tovey Encyclopaedia Britannica are not only informative. The lives tion of their works c of most of the great composers. and the German Arckiv series are invaluable and it is hardly necessary to look elsewhere. with consideraand styles. Bauer: 20th-century Music (Putnam). Dunwell: Evolution of 20th-century Harmony (Novello). Those who wish to delve into the processes of contemporary music are referred to: Abraham: This Modern Stu/ (Citadel Press).


we can and gain enjoyment. The person who says. Not only can it augment our understanding and appreciation. but it can broaden them so that. is a waste of time. when watching a platoon on the . therefore it is no good. its value is that it can give us a greater appreciation of and insight into the works of the various composers. But there is no reason why both minds should not appreciate the greatness of all four composers.CHAPTER ONE ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY WE put may well begin with a question: What are the object and the value of the study of the history of music? It should be obvious that to undertake the study of any subject without some definite aim. for example. more strongly attracted by the style of Mozart or Beethoven than by that of Bach or Handel. not confining our liking and listenWe ing to that which makes the most immediate appeal. from intelligently the music of all periods. merely to load the mind with a host of facts which may never be to any use. interesting as it may be. *I don't like Bach's music. given the receptiveness which comes by follow deliberately trying to keep an open mind. while another may instinctively prefer the latter to the former. The object of our study of musical history should be to increase our understanding of the art.' is simply adopting the attitude of the fond mother who remarked. in the highest sense. by knowing why he wrote in his particular style. One type of mind is. everyone has personal preferences. this appreciation being fostered and deepened by the thoughtful study of history. Admittedly. of and sympathy with a can achieve some understanding composer whose work may at first seem unattractive.

his first important post was that of organist at in 1708.e. 1685. the effect was considerable. or whether we find it lacking in appeal. What does matter the first The the fact that his active life as a composer lay in half of the i8th century. personal circumstances of a composers life are imis portant in so far as they affected his output of composition. the toccatas. etc. to which he was appointed His duties necessitated the provision of works for performance on the instrument in the castle chapel. he was obliged to furnish a *new piece monthly for the chapel. Of these the least useful is the method of memorising the dates of the births and deaths of comis to be deprecated. and died on July s8th. hence many can9 From 1717 to 1723 Bach was kapellmeister to Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen. In some cases. be 9 .g. Blasius Church in Mulhausen. is relatively immaterial. Not that such knowledge the fact that Bach was born on March sist. More generally important are the influences which went to the formation of a composer's 1 style. in others. a large number of the composers of the 7th and i8th centuries. i. e. hence a large number of preludes and Little fugues. the Organ Book. since it is attested by the general consent of educated musical opinion. but posers. . it was far less so. and the way in which he may have influenced his successors. Our Jack's the only one in step lack of historical background. There are a number of ways of approaching the study it of musical history. Also. The effect which the course had on his output is well illustrated of a composer's life may have by reference to the held. he betrays a said. and especially since the beginning of the igth century. Whether we personally 'like the music of Bach or of any other great composer. chief appointments which Bach Leaving aside his 9 short year of service as organist at St. he was responsible tatas.I 4 c A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC 9 march. 1750. we must still admit its greatness. After his promotion to the position of konzertmeister in 1714. total of common sense. the Ducal Court of Weimar.

. harmony. We shall therefore try to trace. Bach was faced with the task. written under the It is had Bach remained at Cothen until he died. the structural principles. as Cantor at St. Returning now to the question of the study of musical history. of providing some fifty-nine cantatas annually. and is in any case bound up with the development of the various styles.* 6 was "reformed". the concertos. we might never have had the experience of being enthralled by the St. Besides these. texture. which is the approximate period * Bach. Hence such works stern Calvinist psalm tunes were heard.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY 15 for the court music which. Thomas's Church in Leipzig. was of a secular nature. adapting older movements to fresh words. as well as the actual aim and object of the compositions. obligations of his appointment. S. It is the study of the origins and development of these styles which is perhaps the most useful and generalised approach. to quote Prof. in 1723.e. 9 as the orchestral suites. a Biography. the growth of musical styles. In the past 1. 'The Cothen court*. admittedly only in brief outline. since the nature of a style is determined by all possible factors melody. Terry. in this instance. the Lord. suites for violin. in some of which the Prince himself took part. formal structure. or the to name no others. and although he indulged in a good deal of 'borrowing' from one work to another. Another method of approach is the study of the growth of the various forms. and the sonatas and For the time being he had no need to write choral music. among other things. On his appointment. and therefore gave it no attention. C.000 years. which have emerged in the course of the centuries. i. the Leipzig period also Passions saw the birth of the and other great choral works. But this is to some extent a limited aspect. a solemn thought that Matthew Passion. the motet Sing Te in to Mass B Minor. his extant cantatas number over 200. etc. its chapel an unlovely vault in which only Bach was concerned with the provision of instrumental music.

and then more or less gradually declined. among: other things. however.16 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC to be covered by our study. in due course reaching its culmination. in the first half of the 1 8th century. Up to about the year 1600. irreverently referring to him as 'the Old Wig'. through Haydn and Mozart to Beethoven. and germinating in successor. This may be clearly seen in reference to Bach. the satisfactory combination of two or more simultaneous melodies and rhythms. a number of differing styles have originated. is assumed to imply. new ideas. and the polyphonic summit was reached in the latter part of the i6th century. an entirely fresh start. . to the twin summits of Handel and Bach. as it were. some of whose own sons were among the progenitors of what developed into the 'classical' style. Neither must it be thought that a new style of writing makes. life the seeds of Such too labels as 'classic' and 'romantic' must not be taken 'Romanticism'. they merge. based on a more harmonic approach. leading. Before these two men had completed their life-work further ideas began to emerge. developed to a climax. by way of the sonata and symphony. with which are associated the names of such men as Weber. Liszt and Wagner. it is a gradual development from its its its predecessor. with its many conflicting currents. In the years immediately before 1600. It must be realised that there is no clear dividing line between the various periods and styles. for example. These were exploited in many directions and led. were in the air. the 'Age of Romanticism'. Schumann. the expression of personal emoliterally. and who were inclined to look upon their great father as old- fashioned. comwere chiefly concerned with mastering the technique posers of polyphony that is. Beethoven himself was the bridge into the next period. And so we move into the present cen'classical' new tury. A number of peaks were scaled en route. the culmination of one style being overlapped by the beginnings of a new one.

But the first to give their music this personal expressiveness. i. a new idiom. to enhance the devotional impulses of the . though this did not mean that they necessarily confined their attention and labours solely to such music. Similarly with the term 'modernism'. The history of the development of an art cannot be dealt with in isolation. were in holy orders. first gave system and order to singing at intervals other than the octave and unison. But there have always been modernists. at least in this connection. Schumann writes of Beethoven as one of the 'moderns'. especially in the 1 6th century. Music. from which conception derives all music written since their day. indeed. the greatest of all romantics was Bach. It is 17 the igth century. for instance the 4ths or 5ths which separate the tenor and bass voices. Bach's sons were modernists in that they thought and wrote in what was in their time a 'modern'. all that can be done is to indicate some of the more outstanding influences and to show their outcome. the Elizabethan madrigalists had done so over 200 years earlier. Their chief duty was to provide and perform music for the church services. In a relatively brief study of musical history it is obviously impossible to deal with the effects of such factors in any detail. some time before the year 1000. applied particularly to composers of this period music of were not while some would claim that. It is common to speak of 'modern' music and a 'modern' style as if they were inventions of the soth century. Up to the time of the reformers Luther. were in the service of the Church.e. like painting. many. generally conformable to the (Catholic) religious outlook of the times. and calculated.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY to this expression. Possibly the greatest and most influential of all modernists were those unknown pioneers who. In medieval times the majority of musicians. Calvin and the English Protestants church music developed on certain lines. has been continuously affected by external in particular ecclesiastical and social conditions and changes. tecture. sculpture or archifactors. whether composers or executants or both.

customary in the Western Church from its very beginning. was such as might satisfy the palate of the wealthy but possibly untutored layman. and much has depended on the employer. and some. was discarded. might never have been written. The composer. was expected to provide music acceptable Middle Ages the changing social conditions by the fashion of the moment. From this arose the Chorale Prelude. was expected to wear . took little or no part in the musical side of the services. either from natural inclination or in conformity with the prevailing fashion. a form of composition brought to the ultimate peak of perfection by Bach. had many aims in and personal of worship. The Reformers. of the music being congregational. however. the services being conducted in the vernacular. In the later and the wider spread of culture provided opportunities for large numbers of musicians to take service in the households of wealthy rulers and noblemen. incidentally. to cite a specific example. this taste being largely dictated This is not to imply that the only music written in. and his cantatas and Passions. This had an immediate effect on the style of music composed for use in the Reformed Churches. Most notable. posed as patrons of the arts. To this end the use of the Latin tongue. however employed. The congregation. Yet had Luther never begun his fight against abuses in the Church. may be said to have been indirectly responsible for a great amount of progress and development in music by his encouragement of his great musician-servant (who. to the taste of his employer. A patron such as the great Prince Nicholas Esterhazy. despite certain differences in method and achievement. an effect which participation common. was Luther's introduction of the chorale. at least.i8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC worshippers. Musicians have always been ready to experiment. among these being a more actual by the congregation in the act was rapidly felt in other directions. say. Haydn's employer for many years. the i8th century. Bach's chorale preludes. who. many of whose works in this genre are of unsurpassable beauty.

(Fewer than fifty years ago there were those who laughed at the Wright brothers' attempts to fly in a heavier-than-air machine. due largely to the work of musicians who had the interest to study the works of The musician-servant of the i8th earlier ages. was in a position to give rein to his inventive genius in every direction. and by his great personal interest in the art. ever fantastic they may seem to his contemporaries. Haydn. The reader should not misinterpret the preceding paragraphs. to the lasting benefit of music. Matthew Passion of Bach or Messiah of Handel. it is with the forward-looking type of mind. may based on principles which can lead his successors steadily forward to a goal which he himself could only be dimly envisage. and had to be prepared . for example. But who is to say whether. but his aims and ideas. who forces man out of the rut of 'what was good enough for my father is good enough for me Experiment may at times have been wild at one point it reached such a pitch that the authority of a papal Bull was needed to curb its exuberance but even the wildest experiments may have in them the seeds of future developments of real value. for example. for the delectation of his employer. the 'Age of Patronage'. by experiment that progress is possible. howIt is only the man 9 . be he musician. Music has not 'progressed in the sense that it has 9 and better'. provided only contemporary music century. To say that the science of medicine has progressed by 'getting better' between the Middle Ages and the present day is an obvious truism. both of which were continually got better c written before Beethoven was born? It is only in com- paratively recent times that a clear realisation of the value of much of the older music has come about. painter or designer of aeroplanes. possibly more than any other musician of this period. the gth Symphony of Beethoven is intrinsically 'better' than the St.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY 19 a livery like any other employee).) The c man with a mission 9 may be a fanatic with a large bee buzzing in his bonnet.

but neglecting entirely those of Haydn. and while personal preference may give the listener a bias towards the music of one period rather than another. is immense. this being presumably considered 'better' than that of preceding generations.* Composing to order was largely the rule. 709 he was appointed professor of the violin at the Ospedale delta Pieta in Venice. A condition of his appointment was that he should provide two concertos a month for performance by the orchestra. so that the total of his works in this form. And this before 'mass production' was heard of. refers to 'the modern Italian manner . Vaughan Williams and Walton.. and 'revivals' of older works were unheard of. Mozart and Beethoven. Heinrich Schiitz.20 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC compose what was required for any given occasion. all more or less written to order. In 1647. Nearly a hundred years later. See also the mention above of Bach's various posts and the types of example of the In 1 composition resulting therefrom. by means of which music is thought to have at length attained its final perfection'. in the Preface to the second part of his Symphoniae Sacrae.. Possibly the first to realise the fallacy of this attitude was the Belgian musicologist The Italian violinist Vivaldi furnishes an excellent working of this system. whatever post the musician held. artistic value were not being In the writings of the lyth and i8th centuries we find 'continual reference to the contemporary 'perfection' of music. it is essential to realise that there has never crete been a time when works of real written. While in 1752 Joachim Quantz states that 'it took a long time to bring music to that approximation of perfection in which * it stands to-day'. We can say categorically that penicillin is a better curative agent than some horrible medieval compound of frogs' eyes and bats' blood. At the present day this would be comparable to performing. the symphonies of Sibelius. In the case of medicine we are dealing with concrete facts. But music is of all things the least contheir and tangible. . becoming Maestro del Coneerti (concert director) in 1716. say. Jean Philippe Rameau implies that the music of his time is 'more perfect than that of the ancients'. What the audience wanted was the music of to own time.

Matthew Passion of Bach. who writes: 'One of the greatest obstacles to the fairness of judgments on the We may agree that perfection has been achieved within a given style. a Mozart or a Beethoven. Not every composer has been a Bach. Finally. that Bach's study of the works of Pachelbel and Buxtehude helped greatly to form his own much from them. and we can style. and that it progresses only in material elements. and music has no real existence full circle. while yet another may find the unsurpassable in Beethoven's Choral Symphony. at this distance of time. For one.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY 21 Fransois-Joseph F6tis (1784 to 1871). I have long striven against it. opening of this chapter. All our study of history.' be said at all'). so to speak. and I had to endure lively altercations when I maintained that music changes. the work of a Palestrina. of style. we may perhaps also say that perfection in music lies in the ear of the listener. but personal taste cannot be set aside. that they were. is in the eye of the beholder. If beauty. not every poet can be a Shakespeare or a Milton. for example. they produced much music which is itself of far from negligible value. as it has been said. We may admit. perfection may be represented by the St. for example. Which brings us. a Bach or a Mozart. back to the . But while they did not achieve the stature of their great successor. except in sound. the work of the lesser men has its value. and that not merely because it points towards that of the giants. the need to hear music of all periods and styles stressed most strongly. only part of the way up mountain whose summit he ultimately attained. as in. for another by the Jupiter Symphony of Mozart (which Schumann included e among the things in this world of which there is nothing to value of musical works is found in the doctrine of progress applied to the arts. Nevertheless. of form or of anything else is so much wasted effort must be unless it is ciation of music applied to improve our understanding and appreitself. it is certain that he learned the see.

Similarly. it * But let composed. and it is in the music for the services the Mass and the other 'Offices' developments which have led to the music of the present day are to be traced. gradually evolved and from it a scale-system was ultimately derived. It is important to realise that mode and key are two entirely different things. at first in the form of melody. In other words. if not the only patron of the was the Church. it can hardly first be said to have developed. the secular callings of minstrel and jongleur are of great antiquity.* The scales which were the basis of the early church music derive from those of the ancient Greeks and are known as modes. provided that the is not be thought that the scale is invented before the music Music. key depends on pitch. practice came before theory.) Possibly the only 20th-century survivals of the minstrels in the British Isles are the strolling fiddlers sometimes encountered in parts of Ireland. and its name and character are determined by the order of the tones and semitones (and sometimes other intervals) within that series. but their art developed only up to a certain point. . The actual pitch of a mode is immaterial. Folk-song is the oldest form of music.CHAPTER TWO THE BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC IN various that the arts early times the chief. mode does not. See also page 31. but although its style has varied from century to century and from country to country. A mode consists essentially of a series of sounds proceeding by steps from a note to its octave. (The French jongleur derives from the Latin joculatory whose function in Roman times had obviously some connection with the lighter side of musical entertainment. and an account of the origins of our music must begin with some consideration of the derivation of its scale-system. All music is based on some kind of scale.

the other degrees lie a tone apart. Thus. The difference between the keys of G major and G major lies in the fact that the latter begins a perfect 5th higher (or a perfect 4th lower) than the former.as that of any other one. There would seem to be little doubt that the earliest music of the Christian Church had strong affinities with that of the Jewish rite. while there is an augmented 2nd between the 6th and 7th. the scales being classified as diaThe medieval scaletonic. Hypolydian and Hypomixolydian. beginning a 5th below their respective principals. whatever its pitch or 'key'. which served as a basis for composition until the 1 6th century. the other degrees being separated by whole tones. The Greeks recognised four principal modes. there are semitones between the 3rd and 4th and the 7th and 8th degrees above the tonic. as in all major scales. This was so even in the Byzantine (Eastern) in can be spared. the mode remains unchanged. but differs from that of any major scale. by the positions of the semitones in relation to the lowest notes. whatever the pitch. but their mode is identical. as has already been mentioned. the Dorian. Lydian and Mixolydian. Phrygian. In any harmonic minor scale there are semitones between the and and 3rd. the Hypodorian. arose from a misunderstanding of the Greek diatonic system. Their characters were distinguished. of 'white notes' only. the differences systems are as follows. The modal system of the ancient Greeks was highly organised and complex. In both. but writers on music throughout the Middle Ages based their work on such garbled versions of Greek theory as were passed on from the ancient world to the Dark Ages. To describe in detail how this misunder- standing came about would require far beginning respectively on E. To these were added four subordinate modes. G and B. and consisting. D. Hypophiygian.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC set order of tones 23 and semitones is maintained. more space than between the two . system. the mode of any minor scale is the same . the 5th and 6th and the 7th and 8th degrees. Briefly. modern terminology. chromatic and enharmonic.

i. i. etc. 475 to 520) and Alcuin (735 to 804). F and G.- Phrygian Mode IV Hypophrygian Mode V-Lydian Mode VI Hypolydian ivioac vii Mode VII lYiixuiyuian Mixolydian^ ft " ' ^ Mode VIII Hypomixolydian order of the Greeks. Further. They were accepted by such western writers as Boethius (approx.e. the first mode was that on as against the Greek Dorian^ which began on E. F and G. The Byzantines Church.. as Dorian^ Phrygian. in ascending order as opposed to the descending Ex. E. which was. E. at inheritor of the ancient formulated four 'chief modes and four subordinate ones which began a 4th below their respective chiefs. Ptolemy. the most likely Greek tradition. with their respective plagal versions beginning a 4th lower called and Hypodorian^ Hypopktygian. The Medieval Modes I P 58== Q Mode Dorian Mode II Hypodorian Mode ^ III TT W * . failed to perceive the true Greek theory. and known as Authentic ning respectively modes. Lydian . D Later writers. The subordinate modes were called 'plagal' and corresponded to the 'hypo' modes of the Greeks. misunderstanding the explanations of the and-century author. The ultimate outcome was a series of modes known and Mixolydian. since the four 'chief modes of the Byzantines began respectively on D. but adopted the Greek names. applying them wrongly. But error had crept into the conception of the system. It is impossible to say exactly how or why these errors arose in the Byzantine theory. beginon D.24 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC least geographically.

2. A and would end on the lower D. Examination of Exx. the 'wanton mode. the lowest note of the final of both Dorian and Thus. that of the Mixolydian melody is G. however. Aeolian and Ionian Modes ^olian Mode ^ ^. its Final.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC 25 At a later period two more modes. not on A. The Ionian mode was far from uncommon in secular music the famous English round Sumer is icumen in Ex. with their plagal attendants. the Aeolian (A to A) and the This gave a series of twelve modes of Ionian (C to C). In the Hypodorian mode the melody would lie between A and its octave. and Hypomixolydian Hypodorian is D. in the authentic Dorian mode would lie fundamentally between and its octave. and the tions. its A mode was distinguished by 'authentic' version. were admitted. apparent rather than actual. The Ionian Aeolian mode is practically our minor scale. e. which the complete theory was ultimately expounded by the Swiss writer Henricus Glareanus in his Dodecachordon in 1547. and was dubbed Modus Lascivus. They were hardly new inven- but their incorporation into the official system did provide theoretical justification for the current practice of composers.g. An authentic Aeolian melody would D . Dorian and Hypomixolydian. Hypodorian and Aeolian^ are superficially identical. and that of the Aeolian and Hypoaeolian is A. our major. that is. i and 2 shows that some modes with different names. This identity ( 1 9 is. Hypoasolian Mode fl Ionia Ionian Mode Hypoionian Mode in the major scale 3th or early I4th century) is as clearly but it was frowned upon by the as anything ever written Church for this very reason. but would end on D. circling round the dominant A.

lies between G and its octave. It might be said to be in the 'authentic* key of G major. New National Song Book . but uses only the notes of the scale of G major and ends on G. Gregory was responsible for reforms in both ritual and music. and that St. It is doubtful whether either had anything to do with the theoretical basis of music or. final between A and its octave. and it has already been pointed out that the term 'key is inapplicable in 9 modal music. who was Pope from 590 to 604. The melody of 'Drink to me only with thine eyes'. It might therefore be said to be in the 'plagal form of G major. Ambrose (333 to 397) was difference 9 The 9 responsible for the arrangement of the four authentic modes. Ambrose. though both undertook or initiated some systema- tisation of the church music of their time. apart from insisting on a more restrained and devout style of performance than that prevailing. A tonic is the note which gives its name to a key. lies within the octave above D. It is far from certain that so. composed at all. origins of our present system of musical notation 1 These two melodies are to be found in the (Boosey and Hawkes). and was responsible for an Antiphonary which was later replaced by that of Gregory. if written in G major.26 also lie 9 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC A. His name is most commonly associated with 'Gregorian chant . this is added the plagal versions. . between authentic and plagal melodies be further clarified by reference to two wellmay perhaps known tunes of later date. was the author of a number of Latin hymns which are still in use. in the same key. a method of rendering the psalms which is still the standard in the Roman Church 9 and also in The many English churches. indeed. The melody of 'You Gentlemen of England . Gregory the Great. but would end on the It must be remembered that a 'final' is not a A final is the note on which a (modal) melody 'tonic ends the lowest note of its authentic mode.* It is sometimes stated that St.

As long as the body of church music remained but small.e. though by no means certain. They indicated. although it appeared in western Europe. A yellow line. made some system of notation obviously essential. probably undergoing frequent modification in the process. giving still greater exactness. strict accuracy was certain only within the immediate vicinity of the Line. and were at first little more than mnemonics for one who was already familiar with the music. i. These were a kind of directional signs placed above the Latin text. its general curve. fell.e. and the undesirability of variation. a large element of vagueness remained. within a range of four or five notes. representing G. i. was added above the red one for F. The Greeks had a notation based on their alphabet. across. it is possible. and may be compared with the cabalistic signs used by some and their shapes and meanings became increasingly definite. but this method. the origin of our present stave. was an enormous step forward. In course of time the number of neumes grew quite large. roughly. with neumes above. the interpretation of any given neume. never gained any great hold there. Even so. using Roman characters. and satisfactory method of pitch-notation. This. or group of neumes. that it may have been passed on orally. one on each side of the . depending too much on the individual singer. the increased use of music in the services. But even if oral transmission ever did exist. about the roth century. The earliest attempts were vague. consisting of neumes. since it clearly indicated one definite note from which others could be more or less accurately calculated. In the gth and loth centuries there were numerous attempts to devise a really teachers of elocution to indicate the rise and fall of the voice. Even so.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC 27 were remarkably humble. or remained on the same note. or below it. whether the tune rose. and finally two black lines were added. and some time before the year i ooo one writer it will never be known who decided to draw above the text a single red line representing the note F. The complete solution was eventually reached in definite two further stages.

He also made systematic use of the first seven letters of the alphabet for naming notes. but it seems more likely and helped to popularise a method which was already to some extent in use. are still used in France and Italy. . Many early writers seem almost to have been constitutionally incapable of expressing themselves with any clarity. E. The addition of the yellow and black lines to the original red F is sometimes attributed to the Benedictine monk 990 to 1050). which is at times almost incomprehensible. The authors. was This produced a complete stave of four lines. moreover. and De Ignoto Cantu. already had some idea of the subject with which any given treatise was dealing. and invented a system of 'Solmisation'. * It must be realised that the \vritings of this early period. and it was from the initial syllables of the lines of this hymn. which of a very large number of the traditional melodies. D. are scarce and their authorship often uncertain. and difficulties are increased by the fact that for centuries the language used was ecclesiastical Latin. with the addition of si for B. in which he expounds his methods of teaching. though in the latter country the more singable do is prophetic genius is debatable. a treatise on sight-singing which opens with the caustic statement that 'the most fatuous of all men of our times are the singers'! It is certain that Guido simplified and clarified neumatic notation. in which the degrees of the scale are designated by syllables rather than by letters. his reforms leading in the direction of our present note shapes.* Guido's chief works are Micrologus. There are therefore a number of matters on which even the most erudite of musicologists cannot be certain. G and A. John Baptist substituted for ut. Whether this was due to secular influence or to began successively on the notes G.28 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC sufficient for the notation F line. These names. in all probability. but on the 'wanton 9 Guido d'Arezzo (c. that he merely advocated Ionian. were not writing for posterity but for their contemporaries who. long before the invention of printing. that the lines of a well-known The fact is that he noticed hymn to St. his method was based not on one of the officially acceptable modes. used as mnemonics ut-re-mi-fa-sol-la that he formed his system. as in Tonic Solfa. Rather surprisingly. F.

by. a practice which. Thus. The solution to this difficulty was found in defs (a clef is literally a 'key ) which could be moved up or down the stave in the same way as the C clef moves on our present 9 five-line stave according to whether the part is being read a viola player (middle line) or a tenor trombonist (4th line) . be noted that absolute pitch was not then fixed however.* For a Hypodorian melody. The eleven-line stave. In the course of the centuries the is merely a theoretical abstraction. for the notation of a large number of melodies.3 DEFGABC D But as long as the second line represented F. a Hypodorian melody (A to A) would lie partly above or partly below the stave. for example. therefore. with three defs position. and leger lines were as yet far in the future. number of lines in the stave has varied.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC 39 It was stated above that the four-line stave was adequate It must. in combination with an unwieldy stave. . nowadays. Notation). and also according to the type of com- The G on the 6th line. overleaf. The relative as it is. 'was never in his practical use except by accident*. pitch of the notes of a scale was quite definite. and the maximum would seem to be one of no fewer than twenty-five lines for a five-part composition. Abdy Williams. 4. by general agreement. with the so beloved of writers of books on the rudiments of music. the clef would need to be placed higher on the stave so as to make available more lines and spaces below the note it indicated. but the absolute pitch of a melody would vary according to the singer and according to the mode. the authentic mode and any melody in that mode could be noted with no trouble within the limits of the four-line stave: Dorian Ex. at times produces results alarming to the QOth-century eye. The medieval composer shifted defs about to suit himself. often according to the caprice of the individual composer. as one authority says (G. There are examples of staves of fifteen lines at different levels. See Ex. * clef always so-called 'Great Stave* of eleven lines. F.

The sharp sign # was used equally with to t| So far only the theoretical aspects of the early music have been considered. and probably owing to the desire of scribes to embellish them. These two signs are respecindicated tively the origins of our t] and [>. the soft B B mollis was shown 9 by b. were performing together. indeed. one other point must be mentioned. 'magadizing . admitted what would now be called B flat in certain cases. In the course of time. or boys and men. The Greek diatonic system. but was only rarely used before the rise of instrumental music in the i6th century. also known as B qwdratum or 'square' B. 'hard' and 'soft 9 9 9 9 .30 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The earliest clefs were F and C. playing or singing in octaves. and were originally formed simply as capital letters. this was hardly avoidable if women and men. a later invention. The G (treble) clef appeared first in the 1 3th century. Two kinds of B were therefore The hard B B durum -was recognised. 4. occurred accidentally. necessary by the sign b. they have assumed their present shapes. what was the music itself? The answer to this question is 'pure melody Deliberate singing or playing in two or more parts seems to have been unheard of. Ex. B rotundum or 'round B. One reason for this was the dislike of the augmented 4th F to B (the medieval theorist's Diabolus in Musica or 'Devil in music ). which could be 'softened into the perfect interval by flattening the upper note. The ancient Greeks understood 9 Le. and this carried over into the medieval system. though it is hardly possible that it cannot at times have 9 . and was at first when indicate a contradiction of [>. But the mere duplication of a . Hypodorian Mode ABCDEFGA Before leaving this very rough outline of early notation. although largely based on the 'white-note scale.

it is music for use under certain conditions nity and must be heard in the surroundings for which it is intended. as in approaching any music which The need some effort for appreciation. are an open mind and an acceptance of the fact that. mous amount of such music still extant and still in never be known. as compared with the enorcomposed. and then and explains what he has done Many people find plainsong an acquired taste. theory. It is worth remembering that practice always precedes theory. as rewarding as any other style of music. It melody at the octave must be realised that misunderstandings of ancient Greek if Who and the lack of clear and definite notation. impelled to write. since educated musical opinion agrees that it is a highly-developed branch of musical art. could be but small. the composer writes as he feels the theorist comes along and how he has done it. had little on the composers themselves during the cenany turies when the body of Tlainsong' was being built up. much of which dates from very early times. plainsong first essentials. effect were the men who Even wrote much of the music will Ambrose and Gregory actually their contribution. It is most strongly urged that those to may whom plainsong is unfamiliar should take every oppor- tunity of hearing it as it is performed in the bigger Catholic churches and cathedrals. Merely humming it over to oneself. It is more than doubtful whether instruments were used in churches at all before . or playing it on the piano. conveys nothing of its digand beauty. and it must be admitted that the lack of harmony and the use of unfamiliar scales may be some slight bar to its immediate understanding and appreciation. there must be something of value in it which is worth searching for. Nevertheless. to those who will take the trouble to familiarise themselves is with it. Plainsong can only be correctly understood and interpreted when sung unaccompanied.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC is 31 not part-singing or playing. if regular use in the Catholic Church.

and the only instrument which haj never been considered unacceptable is the organ. frequently of a very straightforward kind. often using mainly An example is syllable.32 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC about the gth century. In the Middle Ages there was continual warfare between the musicians. Definite note values were not thought of until the 2th century. when 'measurable music' first made its appearance.) The earliest organs. is strictly speaking an anachronism.* The use of organ accom9 among other things. at least up to the loth century. etc. It was. was purely melodic. in any case. although common enough nowadays. the authorities modified their attitude considerably. all that can be said with any certainty is that there was no organised system of relative note values comparable to minim. of which * The 'keys' were actually 'sliders'. crotchet. and is only to be tolerated if of the most simple and restrained character. hence the term pulsator organorum organ-beater for the organist. even had such a thing as 'Harmony been evolved (it had not). the orchestrally paniment to plainsong. however. . the crude instruments of the time could not have attempted it. and exhibiting a minimum of the Advent hymn. pulled out or pushed in to admit or prevent the admission of air into the pipes. then. and the ecclesiastical authorities. the melodic The hymns style varying from simple to highly ornate. any melody being normally limited to the compass of one octave the octave of its mode. 1 The types of composition embodied in plainsong are those applicable to the various services of the Church. who tried to introduce into the church instruments other than the organ. (Later. which occur in services such as Vespers and Compline are one note to each ornamentation. moreover. not bound by any rigid metrical rhythm. whc disapproved of their use on account of secular associations. The music of the Church. Authorities differ considerably on the rhythmic treatment of plainsong. hence. accompanied Masses of Mozart and Schubert. The invention of keys to be depressed dates from the i2th century. and the earliest were of a size to be struck by the clenched fist. could hardly do more than duplicate the melody.

stars St.su. 6.mn. light. Gonditor alme siderum Con .BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC the words are attributed to siderum.di -tor al-me si. Conditor alme usual English version begins: 'Creator of the and 5. Qua vi -ta mor- tern - tu -lit Et mor te vi - tarn pro - tu - 1 This is readily agreed one of the great melodies of by all who have heard all time.der*um. with an amazingly complex melodic outline. Much of this is of great beauty. Melisma is a Greek word literally The most highly ornate melodies are found in some of the music for the Mass. Vexilla Regis J)J3J'J^J>J Jj Vac -il la J) de -unt: Re - gis pro - W** _ per Ful-get Cru-cis mys-ter - i . Of the more ornate kind we may quote the Passion Sunday hymn Vexilla Regis (The Royal banners forward go'). la -ten -de vo -tis sup-pli-cum.' Ex. Ac -ter na lux ere -den -ti_-um. classified as 'melismatic' plainsong. Ex. as will it be sung in its proper surroundings. Re-demp-tor om-ni-um. Je . 33 The Ambrose. . It dates from the end of the 6th century.

ntoi3.S. having been 'set' by composers only very rarely. ( Holy. The which is the official of music for both the Ordinary and the Proper.34 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC to pass- meaning 'song'. holy. It is divided into of plainsong categories. The Ordinary consists of those portions of which the Credo. the and Benedict the Lord') 9 Gloria. mz. RECORDS H. there is only one setting of each. is that for the two the Ordinary and the Proper. contains a number of plainsong settings of the Ordinary. Kyrie Eleison ('Lord have mercy ). Gradual. holy ) ('Blessed He that cometh in the name of and the Agnus Dei ('0 Lamb of God'). The most important body Mass. Offertory and Communion.M.Vol.Nos. those portions of which The Proper of the Mass comprises every passage has its the words vary according to the occasion. and although own music. thus permitting a certain amount of variety. These are always sung to plainsong.2. the Sanctus is c 5 the words are invariable. The term 'melismatic' is applied ages where several notes are taken to one syllable. The Proper consists of four sections Introit. The book a 'Mass' in the musical setting of these sections comprises sense. . there are no alternatives as in the Ordinary. Graduate Romanum.

. The authorship. like Guido d'Arezzo in his later writings on notation. merely explained a practice which was already in common use. since it gives the first account of a method of singing in anything but unisons or octaves. Thus.0. In its simplest form organum involved the straightforward doubling of a plainsong melody at the perfect 4th or 5th Ex.* This book. It expounds the principles of Organum or Diaphony (the two terms are synonymous medieval writers are always careful to insist on this). the simple fragment at Ex. is a landmark in the history of music. * It was formerly attributed to a Flemish monk named Hucbald. author of Musica Enchiriadis did not invent organum. whoever its author. is doubtis now generally attributed to a certain Abbot Otger. work but the latter part of the loth century was written a called Musica Enchiriadis.CHAPTER THREE THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT IN ful. below. j -^. of which the essential basis is the The duplication of a melody in parallel 4ths or sths. and the doubling part as the Vox Organdis or Organal Voice.7 (a) -e- ** ^ (b) (c) e- e- -Q- j? -e- -e- . It seems to have arisen some time in the gth century. as is the case with so many of the early writings. The plainsong was then known as the Vox Prindpalis or Principal Voice. so that Otger. 7 (a) could have an organal part added as at either (*) or ().

for the adding of the organum had been worked out in detail. forming what we should 9 .9 Principal voice Organum By the time of Guido d'Arezzo organum at the 4th below was the only accepted procedure. modified at times because of a rule that the organal voice might not descend below tenor G. to allow for all kinds of possibilities.) Thus. however. Much thought had also been given to the occursus. giving four-part parallel movement: Ex. Ex.fi. that at the 5th had fallen into disuse. but are far too complicated to be elucidated here. more or less complex. and the organal voice at the octave above. if the principal voice dropped below F. the 'coming together' of the voices at the end of a passage so that they ended on a unison. the principal voice could be doubled at the octave below. now rail a radftnr. and in his Micrologus Guido states clearly that it is 'not allowed Rules. (The reasons for this rule were logical enough to the musicians of the time. .36 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Further. and the employment of oblique movement was normal in the appropriate circumstances. oblique motion one part moving while the other is stationary came about.8 Absolute parallelism of the voices was.

More important. in his Musica. there is here a gap in our knowdeals with the old organum.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT Ex. written about noo. 10 37 7 Ex. The most important and illuminating of these examples are found in an English MS. shows that in certain cases a beyond oblique motion was taken. but the fact that by Guide's time (he died in 1050) it was accepted as 'correct' procedure. which explains the new procedures. There is also an anonymous treatise of about the same date. deals some extent with the new. is called the New Organum. . which dates from not later than 1080. But writers between Guido and Cotton simply ignore new organum. The kind of writing so far dealt with is known as the Old Organum. Ad Organum Faciendum ( On the Making of Organum'). M quoted from Guido. that based on contrary motion. contrary motion. viz. which is generally accepted as dating from about 1050. and the fact that it now came into existence is attested only by a few examples of the music itself. and the English- Cotton. Guido man John to Unfortunately.. and which proves that contrary motion was rapidly being combined with the old parallel and oblique e procedures. is the fact that the occasional use of contrary motion led musicians to explore and exploit its possibilities apart from the occursus. called the 'Winchester Troper'. composed for performance and not merely to illustrate theoretical principles. ledge. step 10. under however limited conditions. however. proves that there had been some progress since the time of Otger. This at first would only occur in approaching a cadence. .

gradually. but . At this point it may be well to digress and to trace briefly the manner in which composers' attitude to concord and discord has developed.38 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Ex. however. ii This shows both similar and contrary motion. some. to the early medieval musician they were discords. 5th and octave. and includes the 3rd as well as the perfect concords. The perfect 4th. i. concord and discord are classified and distinguished in exact terms. it is to be noted. the octave doubling of principal and organal voices had dropped out of use. In later examples of the new organum more and more prominence is given to movement in contrary motion. regardless of scientific authority. employ it almost exclusively. in accordance with the laws of acoustics. The major and minor 6th were felt to be even more dissonant. 4th. and it was some time before they were freely accepted as concords. Simple two-part writing was the rule. the major and minor 3rd and 6th are imperfect. a concord is any combination of sounds which the ear is willing to accept as such. indeed. By the i6th century what may be called the traditional academic attitude to discord was fairly fully developed. and in e the course of time this aural tolerance 9 . but within the next century srds and. Scientifically. All other intervals are discords. has increased more and more. By this time.e. 6ths make more frequent appearance. The earliest examples of the new organum still rely mainly on the unison. Aurally. and all combinations of three or more notes containing within themselves one or more dissonant intervals are also discords. Although to us the major and minor 3rd are entirely consonant. 5th and octave are perfect concords.

and also of many of 9 their contemporaries. whose freedom is at times astounding. he frequently used a series of more or less unrelated . or were prepared and resolved as It is often stated that Glaudio Monteverdi suspensions. In the latter half of this century there was a tendency to greater restraint. and in the work of Henry Purcell. to a considerable degree. (By 'norm of consonance is meant what the ear tion. but a discord. In the work of Liszt (1811 to 1886) and Wagner (1813 to e 1883) a change of attitude begins to emerge. not requiring resoluat least in his later works. was still a discord and must be resolved. By the end of the 1 7th century the attitude to the handling of dissonance had developed enormously. But it is to be noted that his most startling combinations of notes always resolve logically and. etc.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 39 such procedures as the unprepared appoggiatura were still outside the composer's vocabulary.) To Wagner. will accept as a concord. appoggiaturas. though to some extent the English madrigalists of the late i6th century had pointed the way. but he seems to have been anticipated by the Englishman William Byrd in his four-part Mass. In this respect the most forward-looking composer of the i8th century was Bach. for example. had become gradually less rigid. composers being on the whole content with a more restricted vocabulary. Throughout the i8th and much of the igth centuries composers continued to hold an orthodox and traditional attitude to the treatment and use of discord. sound logical. In the course of the 1 7th century composers began to exploit the emotional possibilities of new methods of dissonance- unprepared 7ths. in the traditional sense. (1567 to 1643) was the first to take the 7th of a chord without preparation. we find some really surprising procedures. Discords were taken either as passing notes. The treatment. it is true. The nonn of consonance' of both these composers was a good deal in advance of that of their predecessors. what is more important. a 7th chord did not necessarily need to be resolved in the traditional way.

on such matters as context and the prevailing The emotional or psychological effect of any given dissonant combination is far greater. the The are more less so. any distinction between concord and discord in the traditional sense has completely broken down. Returning tion of now to the isth century. have a traditional basis. Since Wagner's time composers have delved deeper and deeper into the possibilities of dissonance. and can now accept. they can be 'explained' in traditional terms. They use the less tense combinations as a relief. to find some system less whereby musical sounds could be of definite length regardof the words. astringent combinations contrasting with those which Not that this principle is new. we have to accept the fact that from about . of whatever style. But all his harmonies. depends style. 3 more 'advanced composers. words to which it was sung. from the more tense ones. But sense) as whereas the older composers used discord (in the traditional a relief from uninterrupted concord. howregardless ever astringent or unexpected. Despite the addi- an organal voice. quite easily. and the ear has come to accept as concords combinations of sounds which were formerly considered case of some of the So that in the to be discords. Schonberg and Bartok. too.g. to the plainthe rhythm of the music still remained that of the song. if it occurs in the course of a passage which is fundamentally consonant. In the latter part of the i2th sibility century musicians began to turn their attention to the posof 'measure' in music that is. Here again the origin of the initial impulse is obscure. sounds which a century ago would have been considered excruciating. the more advanced present-day writers do not admit the old distinction at all. far more pungent. of 'orthodox rules.40 discords for A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC 9 some specific emotional or illustrative purpose. it is almost as old as harmonised music itself. And the musical ear is able to move with them. e. largely The distinction. than if its surroundings are almost entirely dissonant. where desirable. principle is rather that of tension versus relaxation.

and it is exactly this idea of the even beat which is the basis of measurable music. despite the Church's traditional lack of sympathy with secular music. It has been claimed that from 1150 i. the value of a written note might depend on that of the note preceding. and that triple time became not merely the normal but the only kind of measure. and as long as the time taken over the long note remained invariable these subdivisions could be combined with each other. with or without the inclusion of the long note itself. Practically all the earliest examples of measurable music depend on the subdivision of a basic long note into three. the time is triple. there may have been some influence Any dance necessarily involves regular pulsation. a complicated system in which. is by no means certain. so that not only would they start and finish at the same time. and with the basic note. or one plus one plus one. Dance tunes of this period were not infrequently in duple time. It may also be pos- sible that. seems to suggest duple possibilities. organum could also be complied with en route. The merest outline . in a variety of ways. but that the laws of This. Discantus Positio Vulgaris. It is possible that the impulse came from a desire to sing two different sets of words simultaneously. The basic fact of triple time was that the long note could be subdivided in three ways two beats plus one. from the dance.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 41 the middle of the century works appeared dealing with the principles of musica mensurabilis or 'measurable music'. series of such subdivisions.e. in which case some method was needed of fitting them together. one plus two. however. no doubt that any leaning to such time in sacred music disappeared very quickly. The fragment on p. among other things. Extending the basic idea of the triple subdivision of the long note. or sometimes following. triple time. to about 1300 all music was in an overstatement There is. but this may be since the oldest extant treatise. it. however. were organised into Rhythmic Modes. 42 shows some of the possible combinations in a three-voice passage.

and the earliest ones. dividing up the music into portions each containing the same number of beats. lay still in the future. they fell into disuse. system would require many pages of explanation. . without numerous examples. This obviously induced a great deal of rhythmical rigidity. of and 5 as we can now Ex. The use of the rhythmic modes persisted until about the end of the 1 3th century. but barlines in the modern sense. and the whole method was undoubtedly mechanical in its application. verbal rhythm of earlier times. when with the advent of new and freer ideas. in any case. It must be understood that arrived at an understanding of the even beat and exact note-values based on triple rhythm. Broadly speaking. they did not divide their music into bars of equal mark similar to length. the one 'mode persisting throughout the whole of the part. it involved the setting out of a voice part in one or other of some six metrical arrangements of note-values. did not come into regular use until the rise of instrumental music in the i6th century. Its value. determined by a time-signature. would be questionable. indeed. as will be seen in due course. had an entirely different signification from those of the present day. Timesignatures.42 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC this its intelligibility. 12 see. although musicians had now A a barline might be used at the end of a phrase. lay in the fact that it helped musicians to the understanding and management of metrical rhythm as opposed to the free.

complications unknown in our modern. this which was also known as a Time'. and a breve two or three semibreves. exact system of notation. It was mentioned in Chapter 2 that Guido d'Arezzo's simplification of the old neumatic notation tended towards our presentday note-shapes. one of the few definitely known composers of the period. requiring sometimes as many as seven semibreves to be sung to a breve. The advent of measurable music necessarily brought about changes and developments in notation. i3th century). shorter were the Semibreve (semibrevis half-short) and the Minim (minima least). John Garland's De Musica Men- surabilis Positio (early ton's De whom turies). late iath century. held varying opinions on such matters. This tendency was intensified in measurable music. the idea of placing a dot after a note to show that it was divisible into three equal parts had not yet been thought of. Longer than were the Long (Latin longa) and the Maxim (maxima greatest) . A long. Even as late as the i8th century the Italian Martini refers to one kind in a book printed in 1774. Franco's importance is shown by the name sometimes given to this period the 'Age of Franconian Discant'. an anonymous MS. seems to have had individual ideas on the relative values of notes. and (c) Walter OdingMusicae (late I3th to early I4th cenSpeculation As will be seen later. until the I4th century that universal clarity and agreement were achieved. There were. might be worth either two or three breves. though a number of the old specifically neumatic signs lingered on in use to some extent. Other works of later date than Discantus in the British Positio Vulgaris are (a) (b) Museum. however. It was not . the principal composers of it is record exists were French. Different writers. but worth noting that two of the above theoretical works were by Englishmen.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT The most important work is 43 dealing with measurable music the Ars Cantus Mensurabilis (The Art of Measurable Song*). becoming gradually rarer. Petrus de Cruce. The basic note of measurable music was the Breve (Latin brevis short). for example. moreover. by Franco of Cologne.

interchanging at the end of each phrase. but the voices did not begin one after another as in a true round. in which the four upper voices enter in turn. But it exists. The most famous of all compositions of the rondel type is the English Rota (the term is the composer's). it is exceptional in being for six and many come under the and the management of the part-writing is much in advance of other works of the period. but more recent research places its date at 1280 or later. it is a true round. Lang. It was formerly supposed to have been written about 1226.g. and probably never shall know. in that each of its voice parts (usually three) was taken by each singer in turn. e. the Motet. a tromhe (see Chapter 4). without coming to any definite conclusion. f Giraldus Cambrensis (1147 to 1320) has some interesting things to useful and say about part singing in Wales in the i2th century. are somewhat obscure. Musicologists have argued for A Civilisation.* Even so. instructive condensation is to be found on p. we do not know. how it could have been written in the 1 3th century. The most those of Odington. over a twopart independent bass which is also canonic. by F. the Conductus and Organum. 128 of Music in Western an astounding piece of work. however. it is voices. notable composer of rondels was Adam de la Hale (c. There is some doubt. in canon. The rondel varied in length from a few bars to something quite extensive. Cantilenae included various kinds of dancesongs mrelais and ballades heading of rondels or rondeaux. as to the exact construction of a rondel. 1310. All began together. It seems to have had some affinity with the later round. or whether it is the only surviving example of an English school which was far in advance of all others. . since contemporary writings.f years on * Willi Apel places it c. Sumer is icumen in. Apart from its remarkable beauty. whether its composer was a freak genius. 1230 to 1287).44 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The principal styles of composition in the Age of Franconian Discant were the Cantilena. and the same words were used for all the voices. and we may be proud of the fact that it is English. Unlike other extant rondels. H.

against which the upper voice or voices 'discanted'. example quoted them in modern notation. oddly enough to us. as well as those from plainsong. normally in long notes. the tenor having the one word latus. in the Oxford History of Music consists. These discants were. the tenor. and he who worked with already-existing material. which part itself was most frequently derived from a fragment of plainsong. took a melody. It is to be noted that in the Middle Ages there was a distinction between the 'inventor' of a melody.f Tenors were at first taken from plainsong. so that it was not so much composition as musical carpentry. Later motets sometimes used instrumental dance tunes for their tenors. In the period with which we are dealing the tenor was the lowest part in the score. .* 'easing off the corners and adapting the points where the cacophony was too intolerable to be endured'. were probably played on instruments. the object was the fitting of one or more known melodies above the tenor. the tenor being he who 'held' this cantus Jirmus. so that from the verbal point of view a mere vocalisation on 'ah' would be equally effective. and recent research suggests that these. The syllable la endures for 86 bars.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 45 The cantilena was a true 'composition' in that its writer composed the whole thing. who was known as phonascus. The tendency was. In such a work as a motet the aim of the symphonetes was to fit together known melodies. frequently give An single syllables of fantastic length. In the motet. as stated above. the i6th century). to hold. as an addition below the tenor. The upper parts of a motet were not only * The Art of Music.g. the symphonetes. to quote Sir Hubert Parry. In the motet the lowest voice. of some 87 bars of 3/2 time. however (not to be confused with that of later times. The tenor part was known as the cantus firmus or 'fixed song'. t The use of the term *bass* for the lowest part came later. merely. being broken up by rests. and contemporary MSS. e. from the Latin tenere. known melodies. to rate the symphonetes higher than the phonascus.

46 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC carpentered out of known melodies. haps be mentioned that the * part next above the tenor was called duplum or motetus. The conductus was distinguished by having a tenor not based on plainsong. and tended to be more homophonic in It appears that some style than the motet or organum. part was the triplum. The epithet seems apt! In the Church services use was made not only of written works (contrapunctus a penna) but also of improvised discant e 9 (contrapunctus a mente or discantus supra librum). Rocketing has been described by one writer as a cruel medieval stratagem'. The tenor took a fragment of plainsong in long notes while the duplum discanted freely above it. Organum purum ('pure organum ) seems to have designated the sections which were unmeasured. latter practice (It still may persurvives. The result of such unseemly practices will be seen in due course. Mention may also be made of the Hocket. and a fourth the quadruplum. The Conductus avoided the use of ultra-long notes or syllables in the tenor. though Franco and Odington differ as to whether it should be made up by the composer or adapted from some other source. and was applied solely to music in two parts. The reader may care to imagine the effect of the National Anthem sung as illustrated in Ex. but also retained their original words. The A third . as in an example in Discantus Positio Vulgans^ where the duplum sings a Latin hymn to the Blessed Virgin and the triplum a French love-song.* It was a common enough practice for one or more of the added parts to take a secular song. which term may possibly be derived from 'hiccough'. different words to each voice. It was an extraordinary system in which the notes of a melody were alternated between two voices. hence the peculiarity of 'polytextuality'. In Organa (plural of organum} both measured and unmeasured music appeared in the course of the same piece. In an example in the Oxford History the two discanting voices each sing different verses addressed to the Blessed Virgin. were performed with words and some without portions them. 13.

but it would seem that singers had changed but little since Guido voiced his bitter complaint in De Ignoto Cantu (see p. de Muris. and finally boils over with the statement that the singers 'howl. and in 1 324/25 Pope John XXII promulgated a Bull calculated plore. The theorist Jacob of Liege inveighs similarly in Ex. John of Salisbury (c. see the remark on Ambrose's reforms. and many other writers de- The essential substance of was: 'Stop desecrating the plainsong. shriek and bark like a dog'. (1321). in the 'jam sessions of certain dance musicians.their unarisen. Even in the I2th century.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 47 9 though with a secular connotation. 28) .']' seemly conduct.) The choirman who improvised his discant above the plainsong cantus firmus was supposed to follow out certain definite rules. t Singers seem to have tended to get out of hand times. 13 his Speculum Musicae God our -tious ^ save gx& Queen. 1115 to 1180) states categorically that 'music defiles the service of religion*. often in them to their senses.* He begins by referring mildly to the 'impudence* of singers who know nothing of the nature of consonance. p. under pain * Until recently this work was attributed to the Norman Johannes to bring this unmeasured terms. the Pope made it quite clear that florid discanting above the plainsong was to cease. goes on to castigate 'mutilation. but by the beginning of the I4th century the patience of the Church authorities was exhausted. curtailment and corruption' of the song. from the earliest . in the early days of discant. the practices which had For a time the musicians persisted in . 26.' pronouncement Without being quite so outspoken as John of Salisbury or Jacob of Liege.

P6rotin and Petrus de Cruce. According to this theory. To avoid a mere series of parallel triads in root position the plain- was assigned to the highest voice. nor exactly when it first appeared. though we are not told who was responsible for this innovation. before the appearance of the famous Bull. but it may be well to mention here a theory which has been current for long enough. that plainsong the basic foundational melody was in the lowest part.e. In any case. florid discant on plainsong was still forbidden at Notre Dame in Paris. as positions. Between the two parallel lines of organum at the 5th were inserted 3rds. opposed to the allegedly crude progression of root One writer calls this 'a picturesque story of uncertain origin'. or 'false bass'. where it had first flourished.48 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC office of 'suspension from permissible discant of eight days'. producwgfauxbourdon. which would seem to be an apt description. It has already been made clear that in compositions based on plainsong. are Adam de la Hale. or bass. who automatically sang it an octave above its written pitch. the 'false 9 . written below the organal parts. of all this will be dealt with in Chapter 5. and that the only was the old parallel organum of the time of Otger. rewhat has been called 'an artifice of the most ingenious and subtle kind'. as apart from the theorists. i. the singers. thus became 9 The principal known composers of the period with which we have been dealing. Adam . since there are extant examples of parallel first inversions dating from about 1300. no real proof of this theory of the origin offauxbourdon has ever been produced. But composers eventually discovered the pleasing effect of putting the so that the lowest. The outcome sorted to having perforce returned to parallel organum. but of which the authenticity is more than doubtful. Leonin. a series of pleasant-sounding first inversions resulted. So potent was this prohibition that even in 14083 over eighty years later. 'bourdon melody in the highest part. making complete triads. Thus song.

in Paris. in certain sections. 1623) also set a number state. the to a cantusfirmus. An organista was a writer of organa. and whose survives of which the composers dates can only be fixed by the style of com- approximate position A composer would write. was He is also known as Perotinus Magnus notation. when unearthed by hundreds of years musicologist. apparently. So the music. William Byrd (1543 to though he consistently omits of movements in his GradudLia (1605 to 1607). i. Leoninus. of the time calls him optimus renowned as an from which it has been deduced that he was while This is incorrect. The writer of therefore rudimentary to undertake such a huge task was only other composer his Chorafa Constanttnus.* He was succeeded by instrumental in imwho apart from his compositions. 1 183 to 1236). L&min an organ player Organs were still in a very rests on his compositions. Lfonin. since sign it. written printing remain buried for purely local use.e.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 49 mentioned. pro4ig and is especially noteworthy as being. As to the effect of the * music itself. in his Magnus of the undertook the composition of polyphonic settings which Mass 'Propers' (see p. amount of music Besides the work of these men. some three centuries later. Petrus were later revised and supplemented by P^rotin. lived in the by the Latinised officiated at the cathedral of Notre Dame 1 2th century and Perotin (c. and had not yet been invented. 34) for the liturgical year. Leonin. Heinrich Isaac. it is unfortunate that orsanista. first to write for three or four voices. an anonymous MS. adding two or three organal parts Liber Organi ('Great Book of Organum'). church at which he the art of it would not be published.f born at Amiens de Cruce is a somewhat shadowy figure in the second half of the 1 3th century. tThe . organist. say. (Perotin the Great). would quite possibly church concerned. a certain are unknown. also known de la Hale has already been form of his name. and the notation and writing in the manuscripts. and having fallen in the library of the of day until some into disuse might never see the light a igth-century later. a motet simply for use in the He would not necessarily officiated. s fame seems to have been known as orgamtor.

though recordings are available. Of the Parisians.50 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC it opportunities of hearing performed are extremely rare.Nos.2. perhaps. repays any effort made to hear it sung. is known of English composers. shall see in how the leadership in music passed.S. It at various times. while playing examples is on the piano equally unilluminating. On paper it tends to appear crude and experimental. on both intellectual and artistic development. Little. RECORDS EM. worth remembering that the Germans. were greatest musicians actually the last to enter the field. i6toio. . During the lath to the isth centuries the influence of the University of Paris was supreme in Europe. quite unlike the music of any other period. later chapters We is. Leonin and Perotin are the most important representatives. of it The mere silent reading conveys no true impression. however. but in actual performance it has an odd attractiveness and beauty of its It well own. and the most important school of composition was centred on Paris. Attention was drawn above to the fact that some of the most noted theorists of the time were Englishmen. who produced most of the in the i8th and igth centuries. from one nation to another.Vol.

There is. Dances of the I3th and I4th centuries are generically known as Estampm. These were southern French poet-musicians. and as early as the loth century jongleurs were divided into two classes. They are sectional in construction. they gestes.. narrative poems (gestes) recounting heroic deeds. etc. who appeared rather and musical value. it is mainly in sacred music that we can trace growth and I But as in any other age. for the reasons already stated. Mention has already been made of the antiquity of the term jongleur. four and six bars being frequent. and the jongleurs de These latter came from Provence and Picardy. songs and dance tunes abounded. acrobats. At the end of the nth century began the age of the Troubadours. Cadence points are dearly defined and there is a feeling for shape and design. however. were often of considerable poetic French counterparts the Trouvhes. development. ><_>/ that since so little of the secular music survives. which seem to have been long and musically dull. and with them may be associated their central and northern .CHAPTER FOUR EARLY SECULAR MUSIC UR study so far has dealt almost entirely with music I used in the Church. mixtures of three. or rather chanted. and the use of duple time is not uncommon. though the composers are rarely known. who were looked upon with disfavour by the Church. Anglicised into "juggler' it came to imply a body of public entertainers which included conjurers. strongly marked metrical rhythm. in some cases even suggesting the idea of a rondo. but with a dif- ferent ending. the 'jugglers'. Phrase lengths vary considerably. each section being immediately repeated. Their love songs. sang. naturally.

The names 'troubadour and 'trouvere have identical meanings. i.) Both troubadours and trouveres were notable for the cultivation of lyric poetry. Of these. Richard I of England was a troubadour.*. and Thibaut. many of the 9 9 poems being devoted woman. he also wrote some entertainments which are sometimes stated to be the precursors of the French opera-comique. which they developed to a high pitch of beauty and refinement. Such music of troubadours and trouveres as has survived is purely melodic. to find. exercising his art not as a professional but rather as a gifted amateur. court or monastery. a trouvere.52 later. (Grove states that the words of over 2. and the manuscripts do not indicate the {. but only a much smaller proportion of the music. to a rather mannered idealisation of of the troubadour and trouvere was The latter was in any case a and might be a welcome guest in professional entertainer. The troubadour or trouvere was of the phonascus or inventing variety. a 'dramatic pastoral'. The jongleur9 whatever his standing. the most important is Le Jeu de Robin et Marion. There is a clear connection here with the distinction between phonascus and symphonetes mentioned on p. The etymological root of both is the French verb trouver. was found in all parts of Europe. It is divided into scenes like a play.500 troubadours' songs are extant. fined to those parts where the Provengale tongue was spoken. One . A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Both died out as the age of chivalry decayed towards the beginning of the I4th century. northern Spain and northern Italy. King of Navarre. etc. Many of their poems survive. Besides composing such works as those mentioned in Chapter 3.e. troubadours and trouveres were consocial standing The above that of the jongleur. of tie most notable trouveres was Adam de la Hale. and its anticipation of optra-comique is seen in the way in which the dialogue is interspersed with airs. The troubadour or trouvere might himself be of noble birth. 45. but only 259 of their melodies. the 'finder' or inventor of a melody. France.

were mostly of noble birth Almost contemporary with the troubadours were the German and i3th and then- songs dealt chiefly with love. Their art died about the same time as that of the troubadours. Minnesingers. The rhythm of some of the songs is as free as that of plainsong. it coincided with the age of chivalry and ceased when that age came to an end. and was very limited in its range. who flourished in the I2th centuries. himselfwere minnesingers and historical figures. obviously so that the player could hardly avoid sounding at least seems certain that two notes simultaneously. From which it may be deduced that the accompaniments were of a harmonic character. though some kind of instrumental support was improvised on the This was a crude kind of fiddle (which term vielle orfedeL derives from the old name) with a flat bridge. trouveres and minnesingers covered a relatively brief period of history. The art of the troubadours. but in others there is clear metrical accentuation. though somewhat indirectly.EARLY SECULAR MUSIC it 53 method of accompaniment. The French counterparts. In a limited way it is an example of the effect of a purely social condition on music. They are written in the contemporary plainsong notation on a four-line stave. They. and that of version of that Parsifal on Wolfram von Eschenbach's The songs of the minnesingers. show the use of the major scale and duple time. As has already been noted. like those of their legend. But for . While some of the melodies are modal in character. into the igth century. others are clearly based on the major scale the 'wanton' mode so disliked by the Church. duple time being used as well as triple. too. since Wagner's opera Tannhduser includes a contest of song in which the protagonists Wolfram von Eschenbach and Tannhauser as plot of Tristan and Isolda is largely based on the story told by the minnesinger Godfrey of Strasburg. they were certainly not polyphonic. It is perhaps worth mentioning that their influence reached forward.

S. The most famous meistersinger was Hans Sachs. Before returning to the development of the main stream of music. 14 and 15. and the movement flourished from the i4th to the i yth centuries. He is intro- duced as one of the principal characters in Wagner's music drama The Mastersingers of Nuremberg.M. Nos. The first of these guilds was founded in 1311 at Mainz by Heinrich von Meissen. Vol. who lived in the i6th century. members passing through the usual stages of apprentice. it German guild. journeyman and master. may be Meistersingers. and their construction was subject to an accepted code of rigid rules. and functioned as a well to comparable in its structure to the various trade guilds of the late Middle Ages. . the well-known 'dawn song' in the third act being a setting of one of his poems. 2. RECORDS H.54 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the rise of chivalry and all that it implied. Unlike those of the minnesingers. the art of these men would not have arisen and flourished. parallel to the add a sketch of the work of the They were a kind of middle-class noble minnesingers. the songs of the meistersingers were mostly on Biblical themes.

but rather a development from Ars Antiqua which. and it is from about 1300 that duple time appears in polyphonic compositions. that from about 1300 the rhythmic modes tend to fall into disuse and a far freer attitude to rhythm begins to appear. seen that the troubadours did not confine themselves to triple measure. became Composition in accordance with these new known as Ars Nova the 'New Art' in conthe c 9 * essentially based on triple time and trast to Ars Antigua Old Art Ars Nova. so also the year 1300 approximately separates an old style from a new one. was not. had inevitable. but the whole conception of the system was too rigid to last. There is also improved shapeliness of melodic line and greater independence in the part-writing. Real development was not possible within the constricting influence of the rhythmic modes. It is first mentioned in a treatise by Odington about 1280. however. as rehave gards both melodic style and freedom of rhythm.CHAPTER FIVE THE 'NEW ART AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 5 same way as the year 1050 forms a rough dividing line between the old and the new organum. By the end of the i3th century the the IN principles of measurable music were fully established. There can be little doubt that the work of the troubadours and trouveres had some effect on polyphonic music. as stated above. We find. and its introduction was inevitably the beginning of the end of the rhythmic We modes which were nothing ideas else. despite its name. and papal interdiction regarding the treatment of plainsong could not restrain musicians from further experiment. an actual 'invention'. reached a point where changes and modifications were . therefore.

not after perfection of Time-signatures were inevitably had to show mode. but in 'Imperfect 9 Mode' was worth three Mode 9 only two. and In Ars Nova the long in 'Perbreves. each of these breves dividing into three semibreves. since they perfect mode. He deals with the use of binary rhythms and their notation. In 'Perfect Time the breve was worth three semibreves and in 'Imperfect Time' two. indicating subdivisibility into three. rhythmic sysIn Ars Antiqua the long the semibreve three minims. Perfection or im9 mode. time and prolation were indicated by a complex system of signs of which two still remain in occasional use. This is comparable. complicated. 1285 to 1361). that the dot. C and $. he explained what was already more or less common practice tem may be described as was worth three breves. and the third imperfect prolation. first appears. the second perfect time. whose work Ars Nova gives detailed instructions on the new rhythmic ideas. and whether each was perfect or imperfect. and in 'Imperfect Prolation into two.The first indicated the note as nowadays. It is at this time. the long dividing into three breves. too. for the difference in the names of the The whole-bar sound: . the breve three semibreves. in 9 'Perfect Prolation the semibreve divided into three minims. fect among composers. like Guido and Franco. But such a dot appeared in the time-signature. A note 9 divisible into three equal parts was 'perfect and the dot 9 was therefore sometimes called the 'point of perfection . time and prolation. to 9/8 time. each semibreve dividing into two minims. the composer would place after the clef the signs CD. Thus.56 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The first theorist to expound the principles of the New Art was Philippe de Vitry (c. treating them as accepted facts rather than as mere theoretical possibilities. with a series of separate signs. if mode and time were perfect and prolation imperfect. O and G. Similarly. though their original meanings no longer hold good. allowing notes. viz. Very briefly the follows. So that.

he may perhaps have exerted some restraining . Singers may at one time have been 'the most fatuous of all men'. Jacob seems to have looked back to the 'good old days' of Franconian discant and although neither he nor anyone else could halt the progress of the may be made new ideas.J. A To the singer who was accustomed to it. De Vitry states that 'another use of red notes is to enjoin singing at the octave in the passages in which 5 they occur . De Muris (Ars Novae Musicae). tended to oppose the new methods in his Speculum Musicae. but they certainly needed to have their wits about them in the I4th century! Of other contemporary theorists mention of the Franciscan Simon Tunsted (d. 1369). or vice versa.THE 'NEW ART' AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 57 divides into three: IJ. red being the most usual. c. etc. but unfortunately may the red notes might indicate something entirely unconnected with time. and Jacob of Liege. who. apart from his strictures on singers.I Each of these also divides into three: and each of these into two: further notational complication was the use of different coloured notes to show temporary changes from perfect to imperfect mode. influence. J.. who wrote a treatise codifying the principles of Ars Nova. this system have been logical and simple enough. citing some specific examples.

replacing the angularity of Ars Antiqua. to have paid scant attention to the papal in Chapter 3. He wrote a large number of secular works. Especially notable is his four and five voice setting of the Ordinary of the Mass the oldest existing setting apart from the anonymous three-part Messe de Tournai. but also the more shapely melodic style which gradually developed. and it is in them that we see not only the freer rhythmic methods of Ars Nova. The use of discord * hundred years after Machaut comPolytextuality died hard. chansons and lais. and within it he is apt to indulge in remarkably complex rhythmic combinations. rondeaux. Duple measure is common in his work. who has been described as the first practical exponent of the Ars Nova of de Vitry. as a phonascus . that as a symphonetes Machaut was ingenious technically competent. appearing in one guise or another in all the sections.* The cantilenae include ballades. In the motets Machaut adopts a severely conservative attitude. Some of his 'monoIt and may be said 9 phonic ness lais simple unharmonised songs and attractiveness of have all the freshFrench folk-song at its best. A . as in the motets. the first movement of Bach's St. so that different sentences were being sung simultaneously. In the Mass the tenor takes strictly a plainsong part in notes of variable but moderate length. period In Machaut seems Bull mentioned his setting of the Mass. generically known as cantilenae. Each of these had its own peculiarities of construction. even to the use of secular songs for the discants above the long-note plainsong tenor. For that matter. as well as some twenty-three motets. and there are plenty of later examples. In his polyphonic compositions there is notably greater ease in the management of the part-writing.he showed his genuine inventiveness and musicianship. Matthew Passion is to some extent polytextual.58 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The outstanding composer in France during this was Guillaume de Machaut (c. binding the whole work together. Especially notable is the use of a basic motive. while the upper voices discant more or less freely. 1300 to 1377). sometimes in canon. posers were indulging in the practice of 'telescoping* the words of Mass movements.

The main centre of the Italian school was Florence. or at least imitative writing. but little if anything survives which was written before about the middle of the century with which we are dealing. of course. and the work seems to have been. in contrast to the artificialities of the immediately preceding period. in connection with lyric poetry. a development of the art of the troubadours. There had been an Italian school since the time of Guido. cultivated.THE 'NEW ART' AND is ITS DEVELOPMENT is 59 much better controlled. at least to some extent. rather casually. occasional instances of the former appear. However. with its variants madriale and mandriale. his music begins to have some real often real expressiveold tendency to mere and there meaning. and. It is in the I4th century that we find the rise of an important body of composers in Italy. in works of the I3th century.* secular polyphonic noteworthy that in chiefly appear. since it reached a high level of accomplishment in accompanied song. . The 9 mechanical 'note-spinning in accordance with the accepted rules is fast vanishing. that It is in the madrigals. Polyphonic writing was. with the melody canon and imitation in the tenor. and it is them the melody is in the upper part a characteristic which distinguishes them very markedly from other works. Neither imitation nor canon were new inventions. In the 1 5th century the use of the term madrigal for a musical composition fell into disuse. strictly canonic. a notable feature of it being the frequent use of canonic. songs. Passages in imitation are introduced with evident intention rather than haphazardly. ness to the 20th-century ear. like many Madrigals were mostly written for two voices other Italian forms. both Italian and French. it survived. as we have already seen. while strict canon is sometimes employed for a whole section of a movement. coming back into musical use early in the 1 6th century. while Sumer is icumen in is. in the works of the 14th-century Italians both devices begin to assume more and more importance as unifying factors of construction. were not based on a * The madrigals have no connection with those of the i6th century.

that is to say. draw to a close. spasmodic fashion. The second half of the i6th century saw the swift and amazing rise of the English madrigalists possibly the greatest any case we know that . its rhythmic scheme. whether it is an isolated phenomenon or the sole surviving work of a flourishing school. The use of duple measure as well as triple was general. English musicians were content to pay homage to the traditions of the isth century. 1325 to 1397). accompaniment to the madrigal was not excluded. and is folk-music. but it would seem that while composers in France and Italy were achieving mastery of the methods of Ars Nova. as compared with that of the madrigal. and after the surprising eruption of Sumer is icumen in. Another sudden eruption. had a high reputation as organist and lutenist. and in as early as 1280 Odington refers to duple measure. though blind. but this cannot be stated with any certainty. for simultaneous singing and dancing. Little is known of English compositions of the i4th cenMusic in this country has evolved in a distinctly tury. Manuscripts of the period are. The most notable Florentine composer was Francesco di Landini (c. since Italian musicians would naturally be among the staff of the papal court. been suggested by some that the introduction of duple time into France may have been due to the transference of the papal see to Avignon in 1309.6o A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC They were. scarce. true the day of the symphonetes was beginning to compositions. took place in the first half of the isth century. in the person of John Dunstable. inconsiderable influence. The possibility of some instrumental pre-selected cantus firmus. after which there was another period when the lead passed to other countries. unfortunately. who. being simpler and had not more obviously of a It has metrically regular kind. a period of relative stagnation set in. Others were Jacopo da Bologna and Giovanni da Giscia. sometimes attributed to the influence of Italian It is also possible that such types of composi- tion as the Ballata.

The practice of the chromatic altera- Europe have passed through peak periods and periods of decline. but in none. Other countries in that to avoid the unacceptable tritone F to B the 'soft B*. 9 Ars Contrapuncti ('The Art of Counterpoint ). perhaps. which he was supposed to be familiar. almost complete decay until almost the beginning of the present century. and de Muris. it was left to the performer to apply the system according and flattening of notes. B flat. The exact meaning of this term is obscure. was admitted. however. By 1320 chromatic alteration of any note of the scale was admitted. and Nothing was. seem continuously to have had great difficulty in expressing themselves with ease and clarity. in his Ars Discantus. indicated in the written music. tion of notes gradually extended. even as late as 1 6th century. Musica Ficta or 'False Music 9 . and as early as the first quarter of the i3th century the Englishman John Garland refers to it under the heading of Error tertii soni error of the third sound.* time there were certain rules regarding the sharpening his both in plainsong and in discants. formulates simple and exact rules for its application. chromatic alteration is accepted and explained as common practice under the title ofmusicaficta. at least according to 20th- century ideas. ascribed to de Vitry. Before dealing with the work of Dunstable and his successors. and Garland's explanations and examples are not It is nevertheless clear that in altogether enlightening. some mention must be made of what is known as We have seen. with musica ficta semitones might appear almost anywhere in a to the rules with In the treatise the * It is a rather peculiar fact that the early theorists. It has already been explained that the character of a mode depended on the position of the semitones in relation to the final. in Chapter 2.THE 'NEW ART AND 3 ITS DEVELOPMENT 61 period in the whole story of our music followed by a decline which was broken by the solitary and unpredictable genius Henry Purcell in the latter part of the zyth century. . After Purcell. have the former been so brief and the latter so long and dismal.

in various important libraries. writing before 1450. whose use as the normal basis for composition became finally about the beginning of the i8th century. Hence. whose fount and origin is held to be among the English. in particular.6a A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC melody. Dunstable was the acknowledged leader of a school of English composers who flourished in the first half of the I5th century. The modes eventually condensed into two main types those with a major 3rd above the final. new art . of whom to their mainly on the Continent. Leaving aside such monophonic lais of Machaut. however. and outstanding figure is the Englishman John Dunfeel we things as the dance tunes. stabilised We now return to the general development of music. and the poet Martin le Franc. their compositions have mostly been found. The work of the composers of the late I4th century shows increasing ease and fluency of treatment. The work of this school seems to have been done highly debatable. It is in the isth century. but this suggestion is more rapid and definite progress. and the early having followed Dunstable's lead. his most important contemporary being Lionel Power. 1400 to 1467) is due the theorist Tinctoris refers to 'a . where their reputation stood high and where. Discord is used in a less casual fashion. the 'invention' of composition. and those with a minor 3rd. and there are fewer corners which 9 seem to need 'easing off . apparently implying that he was the first to dispense with the use of a cantus Jirmus. that the first stable He is sometimes credited with (c. our major and minor scales. ultimately. so that the individual characteristics of its mode tended gradually to disappear. A little later. we have already seen that the polyphonic of the 14th-century Italians were true composimadrigals tions not depending on the weaving of discants against some pre-selected melody.. was highly honoured among continental musicians. 1370 to 1453). claims that the excellence of the contemporary French composers Dufay (1400 to 1474) and Binchois (c.. Dunstable's name.

such a work as Dunstable's Rosa Bella shows quite clearly that accompanied song some such conceptions lay in the not far distant future. an occupation which was taken to extremes by some of his continental successors. and laying the foundations of a form which reached its peak in the works of such composers as Palestrina and Victoria a century later. there are far fewer awkward clashes than in the work of his predecessors. Apart from his facility in writing mellifluous music. which still survived in Machaut. and of chord-progression. and he is noteworthy as being the first to cultivate confident the motet as a free composition to a liturgical text. Dunstable's compositions include both sacred and secular works. Although the ideas of chords as such. and was first to indulge in the concoction of musical puzzles. These men began by writing in the style of the preceding generation. but the practice of them certainly increased composers' technique and helped them to an assured and management of contrapuntal devices. easily singable phrases. had not yet entered the minds of composers. He discarded both the old long-note cantusfirmus and the mixed text. He made one of the occasional use of points of imitation. giving the same words to all the voices. With the death of Dunstable in 1453 the lead in music passed to the Burgundian school. The traditional method of the voices pursuing almost entirely independent melodic paths between initial and final concords. of which the principal representatives are Gulielmus Dufay and Gilles Binchois. rapidly in the madrigals of Landini had begun to disappear and his school. The principal characteristics of Dunstable's style were suavity and shapeliness of melodic line. While passing discord is still used at times with some freedom. Dunstable was far from deficient in mechanical ingenuity. and in Dunstable but little of it remains.THE 'NEW ART AND 1 ITS DEVELOPMENT 63 Dunstable stood forth as chief. with a good deal of not particularly attractive . and harmonisation largely based on triads. Such puzzles various methods of devising canons often had but little musical value.

they were so covered up by the surrounding counterpoint as to be almost. Missing voicesecular cwtusfami parts might well be supplied by instruments.64 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC melody and arbitrary and uncontrolled discord. They served. The would be given to the tenor. the agreeable phrasing. unmistakably. the propriety in the sequence of the continued sounds. in the Oxford History of Music. the pure harmony of the whole. and possibly decorated. the suave and flowing melody in the separate parts. . of the i4th and isth centuries are often Compositions regarded as having been written purely for unaccompanied vocal performance. which we noticed as characteristic of the compositions of our own countrymen in the foreign Dufay. realised clearly ment in parallel first inversions may also be mentioned as suggesting the dawning of a feeling for harmonic proIt is from Dufay's time that the use of secular gression. He was also a 9 deviser of 'puzzle canons . was the song Uhomme arme. which include! * Wooldridge. The melodies used as cantus fami were usually old and the words no longer in use. Possibly the most famous of like tune. cantos fami for Masses begins. possibly earlier collections during this period'.* than anyone the possibilities of canon as a unifying device. in fact. Moreover. unidentifiable by the ear. The incorporation of independent instrumental parts into vocal works was common. But the influence of Dunstable was strongly felt. introducing them at times into Mass movements. as in Dufay's great motet Ecclesiae Militantis. but was not really so. not necessarily in its original note-values. while the other voices wove counterpoints against it. This practice sounds rather a return to the unseemliness of the 13th-century motets. or part of it. but this is an error. and the purely instrumental performance of works written for voices was accepted as a regular practice. His fondness for fauxbourdon move- else. and in the later works of Dufay especially 'we recognise. and in his Masses he made considerable use of it. merely as a framework on which the composer could build. if not entirely.

pressiveness. the Netherlander' best work is. the essentially unaccompanied vocal style. It is in the time of Dufay that we find the rise of what is called choral polyphony. which saw the foundation of the school of composers. In the ensuing Netherlands generation. The great theorist of the time was Joannes Tinctoris (c. so that on the whole music set for secular words might serve equally well for sacred ones and vice versa. while of no great originality. the emphasis is rather on sacred music. It is not until we reach the i6th century that we encounter the pureacappella. In the work of the Burgundians. rondeaux. Okeghem for long had a reputation for almost fiendish contrapuntal ingenuity. that written for liturgical use. full choir taking part only in the plainsong. whose writings. 1 Until about the middle of the 5th century the was customary for polyphonic movements mass movements. Dufay. Whatever the underlying cause. on the whole. Le. Jacob Obrecht (1430 to 1505) and Anton Busnois (d. 1492). to be sung by a group of motets. with symbolic meanings. achieves a balance between the two. as in those of the 14thcentury Italians. 1430 to c. 1446 to 1511). But various manuscripts from about 1440 onwards dearly distinguish passages of polyphony to be sung by soloists from others to be taken by the chorus. there was considerable emphasis on secular compositions ballades. The first important names of the Flemish (Netherlands) school are Johannes Okeghem (c. and there is no doubt that he explored the possibilities of com- an extent hitherto undreamed But study of his works reveals that his technique was really only a means to an end. especially. etc. Among his outstanding technical feats may . it soloists. explain the current technical methods. This change of attitude may possibly be due to the ending of the papal exile at Avignon and the consequent healthier state of the Church. that end being musical explicated canonic writing to of. 1495).THE 'NEW ART' AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 65 two such instrumental lines. chansons but there is no particular distinction between sacred and secular styles.

he wrote a Mass on Uhomme arme. and his output of them was considerable. which was the basis of the style of the i6th century. poser at Innsbruck. The serious cultivation of purely instrumental works dates from his time. Like so many of his contemporaries. where most of the rest of his life was spent. Although much of Isaac's work is of a relatively straightforward character. served Lorenzo dei Medici. Obrecht's style is on the whole rather less florid than that of Okeghem.66 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC be mentioned a canon for thirty-six voices. Traces of the old 14th-century traditions are arily complicated rare. one of the first of the Flemish school to seek a livelihood in Italy. like considered as one of the founders of the 16th-century generation later appeared Heinrich Isaac (c. Busnois learned from his teacher Okeghem Obrecht. founders of the technique of imitative counterpoint. offered far greater opportunities A style. 1450 to 1517). and for the next hundred years there was a continual move from the Netherlands of musicians in search of wealthy patrons to farther south. More than Obrecht and Busnois. which would tax the capabilities of even the most reliable of performers. 49). too. in 1496 he entered the service of the Emperor Maximilian. he occasionally indulges in extraordin- rhythmic combinations. and there are evident signs of the formation of what might be called an early academic outlook. occupied him for many years. and was also a writer of instrumental pieces. and shows that the imitative style was rapidly becoming the fundamental basis of choral composition. His greatest work. being appointed court comIn 1502 he returned to Florence. any artist than did those in the Low Countries. the Ckoralis Constantinus (see p. His style shows. The brilliant courts of the Florentine princes in this. In Florence he Isaac's career is typical. employing shorter phrases and more He was one of the real clearly defined cadence points. may be the technique of imitation and. an increasing tendency to harmonic approach through . the Renaissance period. his use of discord is strictly controlled.

in later secular pieces he often writes in a simpler He was style and achieves really amazing expressiveness. 1518). his In England after the death of Dunstable music tended to languish. he appears to have attained very considerable technical mastery of the intricacies of canon. but around the turn of the century we find a school of composers who seem to have deliberately held on the continent. established Okeghem and Obrecht. he travelled southwards. in a apart from the methods prevailing rather reactionary manner. (c. stable. and was described by the German musicologist Ambros as 'the first musician who impresses us as having genius'. ITS DEVELOPMENT as 67 already noted as traceable in the work of Dun- Almost exactly contemporary with Isaac is Josquin des (1450 to 1521). remains in manuscript. From Okeghem he learned. Although the effect of their . He was Okeghem's greatest pupil. and while some of his most musically interesting works are also exceedingly complex. and himself possibly 1475 to 1522). With Josquin more than with his predecessors technique was a means to an end. a command which he used in both sacred and secular comin positions to 'bring off contrapuntal feats 3 passing his teacher in his ability to invent and solve the a natural and convincing manner. The exercise of this mechanical ingenuity gave him a complete command of his material. pupil of Josquin. serving a number of different masters.THE 'NEW ART' AND the triad. A little later is Jean Mouton Willaert. and was highly esteemed in figures of the next generation. normal by Pr& most complex problems. as a composer of both sacred and secular equally great music. even sur- and four-part writing. Another contemporary of Isaac was Pierre de la Rue Although the greater part of his work still (d. an eminent the teacher of Adrian one of the great great ability Mouton had time. Like Isaac. is usual. and was in many ways the finest musician of his generation. with Busnois. the artifices of contrapuntal technique.

68 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC music is agreeable enough. Vol. 3.70 to 1554). . recitation of the Passion in Holy Week dates from as far back as the 4th century. Richard Davy (end of I5th to early 1 6th centuries) 9 William Gornyshe (c. No. Davy is notable as being the first Englishman definitely known to have set the The traditional 'Passion* of Christ in harmonised form. RECORDS H. 14. 20 to 30. interest in contrapuntal devices is lacking. and the arbitrary use of discord is rare. 19 and Vol. Obrecht is sometimes said to have produced a four-part setting. The principal composers of this school were Robert Fayrfax (d.M. 2. and by the i2th it was sung with a fairly complex ritual. Nos. but the authorship is doubtful. 1521). 1465 to 1523) and Richard Sampson (c. but little more. there is smooth and equable flow of the parts.S.

* See Ex.CHAPTER SIX IN THE SIXTEENTH VOCAL MUSIC CENTURY THE (a) (b) (c) Italy. to build up generally with a good deal of a complete 'section'. which reached its century. Victoria. though not necessarily at the same pitch. the rise and development of the madrigal in of the still greater competence and in their Masses and motets. the highest expressiveness achievements being in the works of Palestrina. Each successive phrase of words is introduced a 'point of imitation' or 'fugue . ^ imitation Note also that this technique of 1 6 for an illustration. galists. but also as the ultimate origin climax of perfection in the. and was applied to the production of music of real expressiveness.hands of Bach. In the structural principles are truly polyphonic motet the general as follows. is . now assumed very great importance. 1 6th century attained Lassus and Byrd. The first four of these will be dealt with in the order given. and (e) the rise of instrumental music. This figure is used. The great writers outstanding features of the i6th century are the culmination of polyphonic sacred music. Each section concludes with a cadence. of which the post-Machaut foundations had been laid by Dunstable.* the voices entering 9 by one after another with the same melodic figure. In the work of such composers as Isaac and Josquin the contrapuntal technique of the Flemish school had reached a high level of competence. and strengthened by Dufay and his successors. of the i6th important not only as a structural method of the fugue. The motet. (d) the brief but brilliant work of the English madrithe effects of the Reformation. word repetition. instrumental music will be considered in a separate chapter.

Tallis was not the only 16th-century composer to attempt a task of such magnitude and complexity. and the same method is used with great effectiveness in Byrd's five-part Mass. so that the sections are inter- and arises locked. Motets were not. Thus a continuous contrapuntal web of sound is Motets were written for from three to eight voices. there were two other common methods of procedure. however.70 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC as a rule the figure for the ensuing point of imitation within that cadence. with little. but he was the only one to succeed in producing real music under such conditions. arranged in eight fivepart choirs. One is almost entirely chordal. Palestrina's Tu es Petrus is an example of this type of motet. which would consist of not fewer than five voices. The other kind lies between the purely polyphonic and the chordal. In the polyphonic works of the period it may be said that the chords arise from the interweaving of simultaneous melodic and rhyth- mic conceived horizontally and the were. as it must have been thinking in terms of chords as chords. an attitude of mind which from now on assumes increasingly great importance. really independent movement of the voices. incidental. But in such a work as Ave Verum Corpus it seems evident that Victoria lines. A noteworthy point about the chordal type of motet is that it shows an increasing feeling for chords and chord-progression as such. In longer motets the three styles may be found used for different sections. if any. There is relatively little use of the full choir. Victoria's Ave Verum Corpus and Palestrina's Bone Jesu are good examples. always and entirely contrapuntal in texture. The same attitude is clearly evident in such a passage as the opening of Palestrina's Stabat Mater: . the texture is chord-progressions are. though there are occasional freak examples such as Thomas Tallis's Spem in alium for forty voices. created. but variation in the combinations used is exploited to the limit a kind of vocal orchestration. It is based not so much on imitative technique as on the contrasting of varying groups of voices within the choir.

as well as the undue complexity and length of Masses. Al - le . it was now broken up into its constituent phrases. only a very few are based on such material.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY j\ i 71 Ex.ta - re.li lae . The melody from which it takes its title is: Ex.ta . written after the Council's decree and in accordance with its views. Undue repetition of words was generally avoided. Instead of being employed primarily as a melodic method of using a line around which counterpoints were woven. The Council of Trent. Re -sur - rex - it.lu - ia. The cantus ftrmus had changed since the time of Dufay. Al-le-lu - ia.lu . si . in 1563. 15 tTT Re ! gi - na ^ cae . Qui a quern me - min - i - sti por .cut dix-it.ia .lu -ia: -ra pro no -bis De-urn. severely criticised the use of the secular cantus firmus. The use of the secular cantus ftrmus for masses was rapidly dying out. Early in his career. but of his total of ninety-three. and points of imitation were worked out based on these phrases. A simple example of this method of writing is provided in Palestrina's Missa Regina Coeli. 14 The basic material for Masses and motets was often taken from plainsong. and composers found it expedient to follow the lead given by Palestrina in his Missa Papae Marcelli.re. including two on Uhomme arme. . Al-le . Al - le . Palestrina wrote some Masses on secular cantus firmi.

motets and chansons. obligatory that the inventions (i. c. 1560).72 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC brackets first The show the various sections which are used is as themes in the mass. the Sanctus and the Agnus Dei should be one and the same.* Other movements are also based on this phrase and on marked in Ex.IJ L . in his huge compUation El melopeo maestro. When entirely original material was used. U J M i the others to the J^ JJ J J- J . thus giving thematic unity whole work. such as madrigals. thematic inventions being Nomine. the themes) at the beginnings of the the Gloria. it is perforce necessary and first Kyrie. ^ J. openings of some. a Mass was often known as Missa Sine among composers. the Credo. goes so far as to insist on some such method. 'In composing a Mass. Another source of material was used in what is usually known as the 'parody Mass' (Missa Parodia). and goes into considerable detail. 'Mass without a name . if not all. The opening of the Sanctus based on the phrase: San Ex. There seems to have been a sort of musical freemasonry treated largely as common property. but some unity was often achieved by the use of the same material for at least the 9 * Pietro Cerone (b.' Not every contemporary composer seems to have . of the movements 5 *motto-theme procedure.* a kind of y agreed with him. 15. 16 /.e. often by other composers. In this the musical themes were borrowed from other compositions.

It is at this time that Spain first comes clearly into the musical picture. St. and he was noted for his use of musica reservata the art of giving dramatic expression to the words. by Willaert's successors Cipriano da Rore (1516 to 1565). He is also notable for his use of chromaticism. His technical mastery was consummate. and spent most of his life in Rome. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 to 1594) was the greatest of the Italians. Mark's posrise to the two organs and two choirs. 1510 to 1586) and his nephew Giovanni (1557 to 1612). Andrea Gabrieli (c. and these resources gave composition of works on a grand scale for double chorus. with a European reputation and an enormous output of music of all kinds. The long occupation by the Moors had tended to isolate this country from the rest of Europe. a strongly marked characteristic of the English school in the latter part of the century.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY The cantusfirmus 73 method outlined above was sometimes used in motets. Willaert was the founder of the Venetian school associated with the cathedral of St. One of his greatest and best-known works is the setting of the Seven Penitential Psalms. 1485 to 1562) are the most important. but their final expulsion in the i6th century. This type of writing was continued. Lassus (also known by the Latinised and Italianised versions of his name Orlandus Lassus and Orlando di Lasso) was the greatest of them all. the two sections acting either antiphonally or in combination. Mark in Venice. and his music attains a pitch of serenity which is unsurpassed by any of his contemporaries. on an even grander scale. Of the Netherlanders a long list could be given -Orlande de Lassus (1532 to 1594) and Adrian Willaert (c. Like so many of his countrymen he travelled widely. Each of the four interlocked sections of the motet is based on imitative treatment of the relevant phrase of the plainsong tune associated with the words. and the union of sessed . Palestrina's Veni Sponsa Christi is a setting of a verse which the composer splits into four phrases.

began by writing in the style of the preceding generation. a Fleming attached to the court of Charles V. . The greatest name in English music of this period one of the greatest of all time is that of William Byrd. Many of the Spanish musicians wrote but little secular music. may note especially Tye's Mass on the popular tune Westron Wynde and his six-part one on Euge We Bone. but gradually acquired the Flemish technique. 1535 to 1611). with an occasional distinctively Spanish flavour. All three showed great competence in the handling of the imitative style. in the works of Christopher Tye (c. like for the use of the Italianised * There seems to be no particular reason form of his name Vittoria. 1572). We have seen that in England the school of Fayrfax was but little affected by current continental methods. The two most important members of the Spanish school were Cristobal Morales (c. He lacks the latter's possibly second only to Palestrina. Morales spent part of his life in Rome. spent a good deal of time in Spain. possibly rather narrowly religious. but achieves a remarkable degree of mystic fervour. but early in the i6th century these methods begin to appear. 1535 to 1574). 1505 to 1585) and Robert Whyte (c. Of the musicians working in Italy. Works by Josquin were in the library of Seville Cathedral. his mastery being shown in such motets as Audivi media nocte and Bone Jesu. 1497 to c. Nicholas Gombert (c. and strongly influenced the Spaniards in the adoption of the northern technical methods. a Tallis. Thomas Tallis (c. wrote none at all.74 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the crowns of the Netherlands and Spain under Charles V. 1500 to 1553) and Tomas Luis de Victoria* (c. and despite his adherence to Flemish methods managed to retain a good deal of personal idiom. Victoria is serenity. 1495 to I 56o). Tye. brought about contact and exchange of ideas between Spanish and Flemish musicians. and from about 1500 we find a school of Spanish composers who were basing their work on the ideas of the Netherlanders. Victoria.

The madrigal seems to have been to some extent a reaction against ihefrottola. Since composers were attached to courts for Bembo was . Such poems were chiefly of a pastoral or amorous character. sacred or secular. His three Masses. are outstanding among the sacred music of the century. 59) that compositions with this title were produced in the I4th century. Byrd's technique was at least equal to that of any of his continental contemporaries. being revived in the early i6th century.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 75 He remarkably versatile genius who lived from 1543 to 1623. four and five voices refor spectively. Unlike many of his countrymen. last collection teur appeared in 1531. he continued to compose for the old rite as late as the publication of his two books of Gradualia in 1605 and 1607. thereby causing himself a certain amount of inconvenience at various life. excelled in all forms of composition. of which the In the first common Italian form. Turning now to the Italian madrigal. These were collections of Latin motets which also included a three-part setting of 6 the crowd' parts of the Passion a rather rare production times in his an English composer. Although he produced a certain quantity of music for the Reformed Church. he did not change his religion at the Reformation. with the deliberate aim of getting away from the more 'popular' which types. for three. with occasional excursions into the unseemly. we have seen (p. and he surpassed them all in intensity of emotional expressiveness. and was often vulgar and frivolous. quarter of the century the Frottola was a It was usually a popular song treated with some amount of ingenuity. By then the technique of choral composition had developed enormously. vocal or instrumental. After the time of Landini the term fell into disuse. and his reputation was such that one writer dubbed him 'the Parent of British Music'. The great Italian litterathe leader of a school which cultivated an aristocratic and rather affected style of poetry. and composers were ready and able to apply the latest methods to the setting of suitable poems.

an accepted practice. It should be understood that the madrigal still music-making. a series of interlocked sections based on imitations of a melodic The poems set were generally not longer than figure. 1570). and the frottola and similar 'vulgar forms fell into disuse. twelve lines. public concerts were The most notable of the earliest were the Roman Constanzo Festa (d. whether to the top part as a solo. pro- . the melody being always in the topmost part. De Monte was among the most prolific. Hubert Waelrant (c. Jacob 1514 to c. was. madrigals were also written dealing with such matters as children's games and the chatter of washerwomen Bembo notwithstanding. The earliest madrigals the first collection of twenty was published in 1533 under the title Madrigali novi de diversi excellentissimi musici ('New Madrigals by various excellent musicians') were for four unaccompanied voices. greater use was made of contrapuntal artifice. Instrumental accompaniment. country. or in combination with all the voices. Waelrant was exceptional in that he seems to have spent his life in his native The list of madrigalists (c. both words and music amorous or acquire a marvellously tuousness . and the texture showing but little contrapuntal ingenuity. 9 skilful technique of deliberate volup- Arcadelt is extensive. 1521 to 1603) and Lassus are notable among the Netherlanders. 1545) composers and the expatriate Fleming Phillippe Verdelot (d. 1567)- In the ensuing generations. Great care was taken over apt setting of the words and. they naturally began to set it 9 to music.76 this A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC new poetry was written. 1518 to 1 595)> Philippe de Monte (c. Willaert. six voices were also often used. The general plan of construction became similar to that of the polyphonic motet. to quote the writer c of the article in Grove's Dictionary. before for domestic was far in the future. and five-part work is typical. which saw the rapid development and culmination of the form. and although the subjects remained chiefly pastoral. however.

however. (4) the Ballett. The English madrigal falls into three classes. Leaving aside a collection of secular songs published in 1530 by Wynkyn de Worde. and (c) the Ayre. .. . Of the Italians we may mention Cipriano da Rore and Luca Marenzio (c. Palestrina's output of madrigals was small. Sonnets and Songs of Sadness and Pietie which appeared in 1588. in 1588. a great flood of madrigals appeared. there is Richard Edwards' In going to my naked bed. make them the concern of their art.' Palestrina must have developed much the same kind of outlook as Victoria. out of fashion. 1560 to 1599). After the publication of the Italian work. almost suddenly. ideas and a new outlook at the of the I7th century. . ofMusica Transalpina. I blush and grieve to think that once I was of their number. not later than 1564. whose normal style and structure have already been mentioned. The ballett was a descendant of the Italian ballata> which originated in the I4th century. The first approximating in publication containing a number of pieces style to the Italian (or Flemish) madrigal was Byrd's Psalmes. . corrupters of youth. the madrigal underwent beginning rapid modification. They are the song of men ruled by passion. no fewer than forty-three sets being brought out before the final one by (a) John Hilton in 1627. a collection of Italian madrigals with With the advent of new The the words translated into English. Not that the form was unknown here before this. and was for simultaneous . and then went quickly. and in his later years he seems to have been rather ashamed of having written ijhem. the madrigal proper. which will be briefly considered in Chapter 8.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 77 ducing over 600 madrigals as well as numerous sacred works. but earlier in the year than Musica Transalpina. principal stimulus to the writing of madrigals in England was the publication by Nicholas Yonge. In the Preface to his fourth book of motets he says: 'There exists a vast mass of love-songs of the poets. and a great number of musicians..

It being from the madrigal proper which was 'through-composed' and inevitably employed much repetition of words. was usually strophic. (c. Like the ballett.e. The Ayre (=Air) was in the nature of an accompanied solo song. We have only to read through such a work as Thomas Weelkes' Care. illustrates the possibility of musical illustration an increasing feeling and key (as opposed to mode). Still more notable. was It was also strongly metrical and rarely contrapuntal.* retained much of the traditional dance-like rhythm.78 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The 16th-century English form singing and dancing. 9 characterised by the use of a 'fa-la refrain. generally on the lute. perhaps. the same music was used for word repetition being avoided. especially by Thomas Morley. an intensity unmatched by any of the Italians or Flemings. Weelkes 9 Care provides On texture. the accompaniment being either vocal or instrumental. it was strophic and simple in texture.e. thou wilt despatch me to realise the truth of the statement in Chapter i that the Elizabethans were romanticists. 1556 to 1622) . and it is a magnificent example. met with. The term Canzonet was sometimes used as an alternative to madrigal. is the degree of emotional intensity which is achieved in settings of the sadder poems. purely homophonic. playing and dancing'. chorda! passages are often in these that the composers exploit what they were learning about the emotional possibilities of chords and chord-progression. chord-progression Although the madrigal proper was generally of polyphonic the technical side there appears for i. some sets entitled 'Balletts or Fa-las'. Most notable in the works of the English madrigalists is the exceedingly apt and subtle way in which the music It thus differed strongly words. i. whose attempted explanation of it does not always match the works which he designates as such. any word or phrase that suggests the is seized upon with avidity and dealt with vividly. * Even late in the i6th century Giovanni Gastoldi published balletts *fbr singing. two or more verses of words.

between the normal type and the madrigals motet serious. but not sacred. 1575 overlooked. From this point of view his lie. often attained. Thomas Morley (1557 to JohnDowland (1562 to 1626) and Thomas Campion in (1567 to 1620) are perhaps the two greatest composers . 17 Hence Care ! 79 thou. but (c.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY Ex. The Ayre. a peculiarly English form of composition. a meditation on human weakness. and is an invaluable source of information on the contemporary methods of composition. One of his finest examples rather than is is 1603) unsurpassed for delicacy and lightness of touch. What is our life. We have to look forward to finding such poignancy. as it were. Purcell and Bach before again Possibly the greatest of our madrigalists were Weelkes to 1623) and John Wilbye (1574 to 1638). of which the words have a moral an amorous tone. He is notable also as the author of A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Music. like the madrigal. which was a standard instructional work for two centuries. Of the writers of balletts. the work of Orlando Gibbons (1583 to 1625) must not be Gibbons specialised in what has been called the 'ethical' madrigal. remarkable intensity of expression.

being second in value only to the work of Dowland. Hymns. and spent part of his life in Paris and in Italy. being 'man- made' and not biblical.8o this A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC form. Gampian was both poet and musician. which are generally more notable for naivete than for musical also first value. We have now to aims of consider the effects of the Reformation on music. the musical many all the reformers. 1528 to 1600) Goudimel and le Jeune 1510). that the words. c. The important musicians here are the French Huguenots Claude Goudimd (c. made many settings of the psalms. apart from those to be considered in succeeding paragraphs. should be heard and understood by the congregation. and he is notable for his attempts at illustrative setting of words. but also a harmonic innovator of great originality. Apart from purely doctrinal matters. mostly for four voices. in Ger(Luther) or in Geneva (Calvin) were much the same. His work lay chiefly in the direction of secular chansons. 1560). and that the congregation themselves should take some part in the singing. his settings of his own lyric poems. is . in which the element of chordal treat(b. Bartholomew. were considered unacceptable. in the vernacular. mention may be made of Clement Jannequin (1485 to c. He was possibly the the composer of a (vocal) battle-piece. of a long line of such pieces. in the Dowland was one of the best-known musicians whole of Europe. and Loys Bourgeois ment strongly marked. and was not only a superb melodist. He was probably the finest lutenist of his time. with lute accompaniment. Bourgeois was for many years editor of the Genevan Psalter. Claude le Jeune (c. e. 1505 to 1572). to quite elaborate polyphony. permitting only metrical versions of the psalms. Of the 16th-century French musicians. varying in style from simple homophony. who died in the Massacre of St. viz. The Song of the Nightingale. He has rightly been described as one of the world's greatest song-writers.g. in England (Granmer). The Calvinists were in some ways the most radical.

He was the first religious leader to remark that he did not see why the Devil should have all the best tunes. together with some of the musical sections. anc^ drals. 18 etc. In England the musical effects of the Reformation were far-reaching. and yet not so drastic as in Geneva. one of the most famous. Innsbruck I must leave thee. Te Deum. who also wrote the words. Martin Luther was himself a practical musician. the far-reaching results of which will be seen in later chapters. the reformed English Church retained services based at least to some extent on the traditional 'Offices'. were parodied into world 1 now must leave thee. though he was not averse to the employment of proHis great contribution to music was the fessional choirs. with note to a syllable. ing a and promptly clinched his argument by appropriatnumber of well-known secular melodies and making of their words.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 81 md :>ne his settings are almost entirely chordal in style. and yet others were original compositions. Polyphonic music for the Mass was replaced by 'Services* which consisted of settings of the Venite. Benedictus> ^ . had built up a fine musical tradition which continued unbroken despite the changed aspects of religious belief. His Protestant hymnbook appeared in 1524. Whereas first Calvin severed any connection with the old Catholic ritual. of *&& cathewhich records exist as early as 1135. and laid on congregational singing in his reformed services. Other chorale tunes were adapted from traditional plainsong put into 'measured music'. great stress introduction of the Chorale or German hymn into the services. Ein Feste Burg ('A Sure Stronghold') being reputedly by Luther himself. The Chapel Royal. 'sacred parodies' Thus. the words of Heinrich Isaac's melody: Ex.


able settings are Tallis' Dorian service and Byrd's 'Short service. In both of these, as in such works as Tye's Acts of

A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Creed, Magnificat and Jfimc Dimittis. Two
a simpler, more harmonic

most not-

the Apostles,

of treatment

Byrd's work is almost entirely one note to a appears. to key as opposed to mode is syllable, and the tendency
strongly marked. Besides such large-scale works, we must note the appearance of the 'Anglican Chant' for use with the vernacular use with the metrical prose psalms, and of psalm-tunes for versions. Anglican chants were mainly simple harmonisations of the old Gregorians, with the tune in the tenor.

The earliest complete metrical psalter was that of Sternhold
and Hopkins, published
for over

in 1562;


was a standard work

a century.

The great importance

on by


the reformers

of the simplification of style which lies in the fact that it

forced composers to 'think vertically', i.e. in terms of chordmelodic lines. We progressions rather than of simultaneous have seen that as far back as Dunstable there were signs

of a feeling towards the triad, and Dufay's use of faux-

bourdon also shows some tendency to harmonic thinking. This tendency was now rapidly intensified, and in the next century the idea of contrapuntal texture based on the decoration of a preconceived chord-basis gradually takes the place of a texture in which the vertical combinations, i.e. the chords, arise from the interplay of melodic lines.

Despite the general simplicity demanded by the reformers, contrapuntal music was not banished from the English rite. as any of Byrd's 'Great' service is as polyphonic in texture
his -Latin works,

and the anthem, which may be

called the

English substitute for the motet, was often written in the traditional complex manner. The finest anthems of the

period are those of Gibbons. Of his forty examples, some fifteen are polyphonic, possibly the best known, and certainly one of the finest, being Hosanna to the Son of David. Gibbons was not averse to experiment, and was one of the



(though Byrd anticipated him) to write "verse* anthems, in which solo passages and independent instrumental accompaniment are introduced. This form, new in Gibbons' time, was chiefly popular around the end of the lyth century in the hands of such Restoration composers as Purcell and Blow.

H.M.S. Vol.
4, Nos. 31? to 38,

and 40.



state of the instruments themselves and the fact that composers were so largely concerned with the provision of music for the Church naturally brought about concentration on the vocal rather than on the instrumental side. Little seems to have been written purely for instrumental performance, and there was little or no differentiation of style. From the earliest times there was a wealth of dance tunes for the vielle or fiedel, but their composers are unknown. In any case, the 'serious' composer had other things to do than to write such pieces. Of medieval instrumental music written for use in church a number of short organ preludes survive, rambling and formless affairs which show clearly the undeveloped state of the instrument and the composers' lack of grasp of a suitable style. The earliest extant keyboard music is in the Robertsbridge Codex of about 1325, an organ estampie. It is to some extent stylised, being in dance rhythm but not suitable for actual dancing.

The undeveloped

to give


study so far has been concerned exclusively with the development of vocal music. It was not until late in the I5th century that composers began
serious attention to that for instruments alone.

Instruments, as we have seen, were often combined with or substituted for voices, and by the i6th century many had reached a high state of development. Brief consideration of the most important now follows. The organ had progressed far beyond its condition in the days of the pulsator organorum, having one or more manageable keyboards and a considerable variety of stops. It was most advanced in Germany, where an adequate

not the actual sounds to be played. the notation and the manner of playing the two instruments were similar. Tablatures for various instruments survived into the i8th century. Its body was shaped rather like a pear cut in half from top to bottom. as was also the style of writing for them. and the theorist F.16 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC was considered essential. Of domestic instruments the chief were the lute. Even in Bach's time an organ tablature was still in use by the more conservative composers in Germany. though such composers as nature the lute was incapable of by the end of the i6th century Molinaro were achieving some remark- Of its able effects of 'faking'. In Spain the place of the lute was taken by the vihuela. Niedt. true polyphony. the lute. E. The lute was of great antiquity. and as we move on towards the 1 7th century this department tending to increase more and more. an ancestor of the guitar. The strings strained fingers and the tone was reand gentle. Its notation was called 'tablature and was designed to show the positions of the fingers on the fingerboard. Italy and France the organ was less developed and remained so until much later. in his Musikalische him what music *A true tablature rather directed the player what Handleitvng of 1700. In England. Like many other instruments of the time. in As early as an organ built by Arnold Schlick in Heidelberg. The * viol was a development of the medieval vielle. and since. The only present-day survivals of the tablature system are in connection with such instruments as the mandoline and the ukulele. castigates severely and amusingly those who still clung to such an antiquated system. both in size and variety.* The ordinary staff nota9 most popular being the theorbo or tenor tion was not used. four of the sixteen stops were 3n the pedal. Oxford Companion). one to do than told to play' (Scholes. lutes were made in families of five or more were plucked by the different sizes. The number of strings and their tuning. and the various keyboard instruments. . pedals were either lacking or but poorly provided with we find registers. the viols 3 recorders. pedal department the first quarter of the i6th century.

the strings being plucked and the tone consequently tending to be 'twangy'. to the great bass.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 87 form of which was held in front of the body. Family groups included the recorders. Of the four domestic keyboard instruments three. lacking the brightness and incisiveness of the violins. an impracticable sort of instrument with a penchant for leaping up an octave on the slightest provocation or on no provocation at all. and from it came a large family. six strings instead of four.* Later. A 'chest of viols' was an actual chest in which a small set of various sizes was kept for domestic use. were related in their method of tone production. a type of endblown flute (as opposed to the side-blown or 'transverse' flute of the modern orchestra). This was gradually transformed into the viola da gamba or 'leg viol . (Methuen) . but by the i8th there were no fewer than nine. 9 all held either resting on the knees or between them. the virginals. each keyboard controlling its own set of strings (see frontispiece). * In the clavichord. with a round and gentle tone. and even before 1600 instruments were being built with mechanism enabling differing qualities of tone to be produced. and 'C'-shaped sound holes. At the beginning of the i6th century four sizes were in use. roughly equivalent to a piccolo. not under the chin. Recorder ranging from the sopranino. two-manual harpsichords were developed. a more essentially domestic instrument The reader is referred to Donington's The Instruments of Music for details. The tone of the harpsichord was louder and richer than that of its companions. The tone was sombre. the spinet and the harpsichord. sloping shoulders. As compared with their relations the violin family. viols have a flat back.



These last were the ancestors of Shawm Gornett and bassoon. composers began to take a serious interest in writing instrumental music they were faced with the problem of what kind of pieces to write. with the monstrous temple trumpets of Tibet.90 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC than the harpsichord. the strings were struck by a metal tangent fixed to the rear end of the key. A .ht be available. for church or open-air rather than were the sackbuts (trombones) and the shawms and pommers. a ten-foot giant which needed one man to blow it and another to support it at the front. In much of lie early music particular instruments were specified. including the 'great bass pommer or 'bombard'. according to the degree offeree applied to the key. trumpet-like affairs of wood. or occathe oboe 9 sionally of ivory. There was no intervening mechanism as in the case of the plucked-string instruments. and the tone could be varied. (4) adaptations of the current vocal polyphonic style and (c) variations on a theme. Broadly speaking. * practice which survives perhaps only in one part of the world. Large quantities of dances appeared. Other instruments. for domestic use. some for specified instruments. within some- what narrow limits. with a cup-shaped mouthpiece. and it would seem that it was intended to be played on whatever mig. A fourth but less important no solution was the writing of descriptive music.* There were also cornetts. (a) dances. When first this was solved in three directions.

employing little but tonic and dominant. lumps together 'nine basses danses. as music for the dance must naturally be. The First Dance Book of 1530. stately affair. once it ceases to be purely melodic. second of a pair often being a variation on the first. and the composition of dances played an important part in the development of this. galliards. for example. Attaignant's sets of dances were not arranged according to any plan. they are entirely homophonic. From the earliest days dance tunes had been sectional in construction. We have seen how from the time of Dunstable there was an increasing feeling for chords and chord-progression. important collections were printed in 1 529 and 1 530 by the Parisian publisher Pierre Attaignant. some. but are noteworthy in that. at a time when other kinds of music They do not were predominantly contrapuntal.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 91 some not. is internal organisation of individual dances notable view of its bearing on the development of later instrumental forms. Galliards were frequently written as variations of their associated pavanes. Such processional dances were . and in triple time as opposed to the duple of its companion. indeed. Use of the major scale is common. The pairing of a slow dance and a quick one was most common. gay. the most popular group being the pavane and galliard. twentypavanes with fifteen galliards in music for four parts'. over Europe. the The pavane was a 7th- The in and 18th-century form. two five branles. basse danses and branles. But even at this early stage the grouping of dances into sets. conformably to the pattern of the dances themselves. since it is the genesis of the torically 1 generally contrasting pairs. comprising pavanes. possess any great musical distinction. Of the latter. more of a procession than a dance in the usual sense. was quite common. In some cases the contrast between * common Compare all the Polish Polonaise. the Suite. This pairing of dances is hisof great importance.* while the galliard was quick. The harmony of the Attaignant dances is of the simplest character.

There is even one in Attaignant's collection of 1530. In early canzonas the use of a tenor cantus firmus was common. as in the case . In the case of the latter the music falls into three clearly defined different sections. The importance of happens also to be a particularly beautiful piece of music. Attaignant's dances are all clearly sectionalised. for example. It the binary design is that as the Suite developed (see Chapter 9) practically all its movements were written in this form.92 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC sections Hugh is very strong as. and was later adopted for the musical setting of such poetry in a somewhat madrigalian style. of about 1500. with a very occasional supertonic or subdominant. the chord-scheme is almost entirely tonic and dominant. This has five sections so strongly contrasted that but for the fact that all might as well be five a good example of the harmonic simplicity already mentioned. it separate pieces. balanced by another sentence of similar length ending with a full-close. Examples of the polyphonic style transferred to instruments appear as early as Obrecht. From this it came to be used for instrumental pieces in the same style. though in varying ways and without any strong contrasts of style. It is also as anything suggested by any textbook on Form. who died in 1505. This is as rigidly binary last but the end with a half-close. Such pieces were usually known as canzonas. First sentence of eight bars leading to a half-close. Towards the end of the i6th century the stylised treatment of dances led to some conventionalisation of structure. generally into two or three main periods. of which a well-known example is Byrd's Earl of Salisbury's Pavane. This term originally signified a certain variety of lyric verse. and further that from it ultimately grew the sonata form which is the structural basis of much of the work of the composers of the 'classical' period. More important is the frequent use of the two-period. though there are occasional instances of a true ternary (ABA) design. solidly based on the major scale. in a Hornpipe by Aston. found in a MS. binary plan.

'the composer seems to search or look out for the strains and touches of harmony. c. too. great ingenuity We was shown in embellishing the tune. Variations were written largely for the keyboard instruments and for the lute. we may note first two important schools. He is notable. term has had a number of different implications. The practice of writing variations on a theme was developed quickly and with considerable skill by many composers. new figures of accompaniment The theme might be made up by the composer. em- ploying all such devices as canon. (b. or might equally well be some popular song. and in this sense might imply a kind of prelude in which. The contrapuntal ricercare was a deliberate imitation of the polyphonic motet. and in applying to it.. in which the number of voices is apt to vary frequently within a single composition. being the first writer of ricercares for the organ. (in England 'Fancy') might also imply in canzona style. works of this kind. a seeking-out. interesting maiden A Of rather this similar construction was the ricercar or ricercare. Literally it implies research. as the composer chose. Turning now to the composers and the instruments for which they wrote. In the 1 6th century it was often used with this implication in Italian lute music. . written for three melodic instruments such The Italian Girolamo Gavazzoni as viols or recorders. etc.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 93 of Obrecht's sat. the ricercare being a short prelude to a transcription of a song. as the though historian Dr. Burney says. Willaert's ricercares are of considerable importance. 1515) may also be mentioned. simply 'following the dictates of 9 the composer's fancy . augmentation. based on a Dutch folksong. which he is to use in the regular piece to be played afterwards'. The term Fantasia a piece have seen that in pairs of dances the second was not infrequently a variation on the first. but Isaac also produced this was by no means obligatory. for the freedom of his part-writing. but equally it might mean something of a rambling nature. Within rather restricted limits.

Luis de Narvaez and composers Anriquez de Valderrano. Narvaez was a particularly good writer of variations. notable being Luis de Milan. His comshow genuine melodic inventiveness. and showed great ingenuity in producon an instrument which ing a pseudo-contrapuntal texture Theorbo or Archlute is Viola da Gamba is also fundamentally non-contrapuntal. Some of the finest and cleverest work is that of Simone Molinaro.94 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC of vihuelists in Spain and of lutenists in Italy. who in 1599 was maestro di capella at the cathedral of Genoa. The Spanish school flourished in the first half of the 1 6th century. whose school flourished characteristic of some more towards the end of the century. and evidence positions . This ingenuity of the Italians.

too.' . while the latter appears to have written nothing for lute England. in the person of Denis Gaultier (d. He was a virtuoso of keyboard instruments. Like many of his contemporaries. e. as being the first music. each ending in the tonic). beginning in the latter part 6th century. It contains works of only Byrd. followed 9 the fashion of using 'fancy' titles. 1672).g. but also in his arrangements 9 of canzonas by other composers. contains examples of such dances as the Saltarello and the Passamezzo (in as many as ten separate sections. He. published in the year of his appointment to Genoa. and from 1613 to his death was organist at Antwerp Cathedral.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC that he was no mean performer. reached its climax considerably later. in a dedicatory fashion. 'The virtuous coquette In France the 1 of the . as well as a number of galliards in three or four sections. from the pens of Byrd. but the former's fame rests chiefly on his ayres. sometimes. is the collection called Parthenia. who entitles one of his galliards 'The lie in the throat'. Molinaro was almost fantastically clever at 'faking a contrapuntal texture in his fantasias. as with Byrd's Earl of Salisbury pavane. however. More than 600 pieces are in existence. Fellowes says: *No other European country has anything that can remotely be compared with it. E. e. with the same visionary insight into the possibilities of technique and sonority as was later to distinguish Domenico Scarlatti and Franz Liszt. Gibbons and Dr.g. Dr. and nearly a quarter of alone. not only in his original compositions. of 1611. lutenist school. Of English lutenists Dowland and Campian were the most renowned. these are known engraved book of keyboard Especially notable. Bull lived much abroad. Clemens non Papa. H. Commenting on the English virginal music of this period. produced the greatest virginal music of the century. his fame on the continent being great. he often gave fanciful titles to his dances. John Bull (1563 to 1628). 95 His Intavolatura di Liuto. by Byrd. but sometimes for no apparent reason beyond caprice* This is also the case with the lutenist Santino Garsi.

Besides dances. although often far from being highly organised. practice of writing preludial movements These. preludes. and began to exploit the possibilities of short-value notes in the form of extended scalic runs. there are numerous (1624). gradually became less utterly rambling than those of earlier times. In Spain the outstanding writer for keyboard instruments was the blind Antonio de Cab&on (1510 to 1566). the cantusftrmus being more or less decorated. Both showed great mastery in applying the contemporary vocal style to instruments. who died about 1517. They are noteworthy as anticipations of the Chorale Prelude which took such a strong hold of German composers once the Lutheran reformation was firmly established. and both produced works which are not only technically ingenious but also of considerable musical value. and sets of variations. and a large amount of music exists written for liturgical purposes. There are numerous pieces based on plainsong hymns. and the Englishman John Redford puntal. Cavazzoni being notable in this direction. The organ music of the period is of great variety. and consists largely of pavanes and galOther collections of the time are My Ladye NeoelFs Booke and the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (so called because liards. continued. there being extant examples by Arnold Schlick. (1485 to 1545). with harmonisation which might be quite simple or moderately contra- The These 'organ hymns' appear very early in the i6th century. together with the original books of Benjamin Cosyn and Will Forster it are in manuscript. the ricercare and the fantasie or fancy. who played a leading part in the development of variation writing. corantos and jigs. Here again the English composers are outstanding. was the property of the Viscount Fitzwilliam who presented it to Cambridge University in 1816). in particular Byrd and Gibbons. . last These fantasies. Canzonas abound. For the viols the chief types of composition were the canzona. including allemandes.96 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Gibbons and Bull.

In the latter case clergy. Such works as the above had. which inevitably became monotonous with the unvarying repetition of the same melodic formula for each verse. Certain portions of each movement were replaced by an organ piece of a more or less contrapuntal character. work intended. but possibly the greatest of the early writers of toccatas was Claudio Merulo (1533 to 1604). as.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 97 Also for liturgical purposes are many sets of 'verses for the tones'. however. c . There was. Mark's. relatively little effect on the ultimate development of organ music as such. and Cabezon among others wrote numerous examples. Both the Gabrielis wrote in this form. and the movements for organ by such composers as Guilmant and Widor. to exhibit the touch and execution of the performer'. as scalic passage of greater value as extended finger exercises than as music. Schumann's Toccata for piano. Venice. to touch. A rather similar practice obtained at times even in the performance of a plainsong Mass. though the earliest known use of the title is for a lute piece of 1536 by Gastelione. choir and congregation meanwhile repeated the words of the missing verse silently. however. These were used in connection with the singing of the psalms. Le. More important are the many toccatas which appear from about the middle of the century onwards. who served at St. based on the omitted plainsong. Toccatas for the organ date from about 1550. Sets of such versets 9 were published in 1531 by Attaignant. Nowadays it tends to imply a piece designed primarily to exhibit the performer's dexterity and virtuosity. for example. always a proportion of brilliant to quote Grove. something played as opposed to something sung. The practice grew up of replacing the plainchant of the even-numbered verses by polyphonic settings for the choir or by organ 'versets'. The term toccata comes from the verb toccare. which are often but the original significance of toccata was not unlike that of sonata. The name of Cavazzoni may again be noted in this connection. based on the 'tone to which the psalm was being chanted.

the lute. 3. In Chapter 6 mention was is made appeared also for virginals.98 as a masorganist are interesting in their alterterly performer. Among the more effective pieces A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC from 1557 to 1584. Vol. e. 30 and 31. who flourished round the turn of the century. with carefully detailed instructions as to their meaning. consisting mainly of passages suggesting trumpets and drums. produced one of almost incredible naivety. 4 Nos. in the John Mundy's (d. solid passages which exploited of the organ. 41 and 42. such as The fall of the leaf. in which a quietly autumnal feeling is created. Martin Peerson (c. He was one of the first to realise the effectiveness of contrast between quick movement and the inexorable sussteady. that by Byrd. His toccatas nation of sections in brilliant virtuoso style with others in the ricercare manner. RECORDS H.and 20th-century composers. Nos. of Jannequin's vocal battle piece. and such pieces The all Italian Santino Garsi. Battle pieces were even written for that least bellicose of instruments. 1630) virginal fantasia words of Sir Hubert Parry.M. Essays in programme or illustrative music range from the reasonably effective to the almost ludicrous. etc. Richard Strauss and other igth. He was renowned depicting. various states of the atmosphere A chare day. in which an attempt is made to illustrate the various stages of the battle. Lightning. He may be considered as one taining power of the most important founders of the Italian organ school which flourished in the next century.S. albeit in a rather elementary manner. and are imthe ultimate origin of a portant chiefly in that they were led to such works type of composition which eventually as the symphonic poems of Liszt. Vol.g. . 1580 to 1650) also wrote some charming little tone pictures.

Each race produced its own supreme genius of polyphony. Shortly before 1600 a band of men. Other important members were Giulio Gaccini. But of outlook which the new technical methods involved. the Flemings Lassus. described by one writer* as a noisy group of litterati\ came together in Florence and launched an attack on the current polyphonic e necessary to sketch briefly the changes brought about these developments. * Dr. a poet. since for much of the time each of the voices would be singing different words. Jacopo Peri. which admittedly it did. In the early 1 7th century the lead passed to the Italians. The basis of their attack was that the contrapuntal style obscured the poetry. the Spaniards Victoria and the English Byrd. and were led by Counts Bardi and Corsi. the Italians Palestrina.CHAPTER EIGHT VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TN I JL. Manuel Bukofzer. then to the Burgundians (Dufay) and from them to the Netherlanders. Music . how the Elizabethans adopted the madrigal and developed it. must be treated rather as the hand- predominant poetry. to a height hardly reached elsewhere. too. however. maid of Some members of the group. a singer. They. it the preceding chapters it has been shown how the leadership in European music passed from one country to another. in their turn. From the France of Perotin and Machaut passed to England (Dunstable). They are known as the Camerata. Vincenzo Galilei and Ottavio Rinuccini. taught the Italians and the Spaniards. hitherto the factor. in their own way. and style of composition. Counterpoint was therefore anathema and music. and it is their new developments which we have now before doing so it is to consider. in the Baroque Era. We have seen.

there As so often happens with new movements of any kind. emotions. which they polyphony did not possess. Their attitude to the musical expression of the words was different from that of the polyphonic composers. There were even stereotyped musical figures to represent the various verbal affections. It Examples could be multiplied almost indefinitely. not on the passion and expression of the words'. tion. the exponents of the new no measured terms. in theories expressing themselves in his Discourse on Ancient Musk and Good Singing (c. words. and the 'affecof the music must correspond to that of the words. The use of musica reservata by Lassus has been mentioned. But musica reservata included. refers to the 'old way of composition' which causes 'a laceration of the poetry'. An avowed aim of the Camerata was the revival of what method of declamathey considered to be the ancient Greek in the form of a musical intensification of the text. writing in 1602.ioo A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC were amateurs. insisting that the music should agree with the mood of the words as a whole. castigates composers who wish 'to stand and imitasolely on the observance of canonic treatment tion of the notes. in 1607. Galilei's attitude is rather curious. Agostino Agazzari. so that at the back of their attack may realisation that the technique of vocal possibly have been a needed lengthy professional training. would be expressed by a among quick-moving scalic passage. must not be thought that the new outlook brought . Bardi. Caccini. was a good deal of pamphleteering and letter-writing. than other things. for example. the musical illustration of individual not merely the expression of their general mood. Le. since as a professional musician he had already proved himself a capable contrapuntist. The word 'run'. and so on. 1580). Moods were classidefied into tion' a series of 'affections'. contrasts counterpoint and the 'art of good singing' much to the detriment of the former. The Camerata cried such methods. and no in this direction group of composers showed greater ability did the Elizabethans.

his earlier works being latter clearly in stilo antico. two styles now came to be recognised.f such a work as Gibbons' What is our life could be set to sacred words with no violation of propriety. broadly speaking. and offer another contrast with the outlook of the preceding generation. The two styles were also known asprima and seconda prattica. another for the church. for little difference in the style example. and training in the former was still considered indispensable to the professional composer. Monteverdi. chamber music and theatre music. since he was not composing in the old style. Giovanni Gabrieli. and his later ones in stilo moderno. In the course of the century further distinctions of style. * The inventor of these terms appears to have been Monteverdi. Whereas in the great days of polyphony there was one over-all prevailing style of composition. though increasingly influenced by the new or 'modern' style stilo moderno. These distinctions obviously operated according to the purpose for which the music was written. viz. whether sacred or secular. In the i6th century there was. one of the greatest figures of the time. though in a different connection. too. though there was at times a good deal of overlapping. while there is little if any difference between the style of a Palestrina motet and that of one of his early madrigals.* first and second practices. The old style stilo antico persisted in a good deal of music for the he simply retorted that it was justified. The i yth-century composer tended to adopt one style in writing for the opera. When attacked for his advanced use of dissonance in the about a complete and immediate break with the old ideals. . a motet and a polyphonic madrigal. t Though naturally such forms as the ballett and the ayre were automatically non-ecclesiastical in style. exhibits mastery of both styles. Many musicians wrote equally well in either style. came to be recognised. some employing stilo antico and some stilo moderno. and apart from any question of antico or moderno. of. wrote a number of sets of madrigals. church music.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 101 church. and so on.

under the 'The New Music 3 . and (4) they firmly established a practice. Unprepared discords become more and more common. with the simplest possible accompaniment. a good deal Although of emotional intensity and dramatic force is at times achieved. as we have seen. According to Bardi's son. . In all these compositions a notable feature is the rhythmic freedom of the voice part. which persisted for about the next 150 years. Equally notable is the increasingly free use of dissonance. under discussion. speaking music. and great stress is laid on the use by the voice of the more 'affective' intervals. The accompanimental methods of monody* are of great importance. and thus the only possible harmonic * This term is it frequently used for music of the kind from. It was musica parlante. Galilei was 'the 9 to let us hear singing in the stile rappresentativo .g. Pietro. e. and can only be dealt with in the barest outline. which could follow the exact inflexions of the declaiming voice. deemed to be of prime importance. which is made to approximate to some extent to speech-rhythm. The Camerata strove to achieve a type of simple melody. already in use to some extent. since (0) they show an almost sudden swerve to the use of chords as such. also called stile rappresentativo or 'representative style first . brief mention of which was made in Chapter 3. most important early example of this was a collection of vocal 9 A pieces published in 1602 title of Le Nuove Musiche experimental. despite the tendencies already noted in Chapter 6. as in Caccini's well-known Amarilli.102 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC technical results of the The new ideas were manifold. polyphony. known as basso continuo or 'thorough bass'. Lute accompaniments to ayres often tried to preserve a kind of faked contrapuntal texture. and so enhance and intensify the meaning of the words. the diminished 4th and chromatic progressions. but the Camerata eschewed counterpoint. far more than might have been anticipated. The appropriate style of declamation was. for which the term recitative is usually employed.

Until about the middle of the i8th century all vocal compositions and the majority of instrumental ones included in the score a part for continue. alternatively. We have seen that largely owing to the use of musica fata the individual characteristics of the modes gradually became obscured. backward-looking idiom. composers seeming to hover between the modes and the later system. while it became the regular practice for the 'realisation* to be played on harpsichord or organ. fertile which was an extraordinarily of the rest of this chapter period. certain inevitable restrictions. indeed.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY support to the voice 103 was chordal.and minor-scale In the early years there is often considerable system. the modes were dead. some. his chordal progressions. the 1 7th century saw the final disintegration of the modal ability One system and its supplanting by the major. further point must be mentioned. Although much . he adopts a more archaic. whatever the texture of the upper parts. Even in the second half of the century we find that Purcell. The bass line itself would be played by some low-pitched instrument such as a 'cello. vagueness of tonality. for example. however. contrapuntal. employ either at will. that is to build up. but all that the monody might player had was a figured bass line from which he was expected to 'realise . By the end of the xyth century. and in his string fantasias. uses the major scale pure and simple in some of his more 'modern' pieces. The complete and unrestricted establishment of the new scalesystem was the work of Bach. for reasons which will appear later. Accompaniments to well be played on a lute. though there were. To what extent this would be purely chordal or. there was always a 5 harmonic background. and the bases of composition were the major and minor scales. We turn now to the types of composition which first saw light in the I7th century. would depend on the style of the movement concerned and on the of the player. but in some movements deliberately in his anthems. Thus.

conditions. had little if any value as dramatic representations. but there was soon to appear a genius of great inventiveness and dramatic power.} More purely musical was such a work as Amfiparnasso of Orazio Vecchi (c. partly by Peri and partly by Caccini. with a somewhat haphazard collection of accompanying instruments. these aspects that the being affected by. It may plot be imagined that the effect would be hardly exciting to 20th-century ears. Each country tended to stress rapidly one or more particular aspects of composition. The principles oSNuove Musicke found complete expression in opera. social that the music of and religious any one country was from that of its neighbours. and it was exactly this matter of the application of music to dramatic ends which was exercising the minds of the Camerata. Before the end of the i6th century there had been written 'madrigal-operas'. entertainments in which a drama was enacted. followed in the same year by Caccini's own setting of the same libretto. Like most of its successors for nearly two hundred years. The style of these works is entirely monodic. often due to always the travels of the composers themselves and the natural desire of the younger men to seek the help or instruction of the most eminent musicians of any country. In 1600 came Eurydice. produced in 1597 but now lost. (Compare Adam de la Kale's Robin et Marion. isolated Not among other things. whatever their purely musical virtues. continual 'cross-fertilisation . that is drama set to music. But such works. The first true opera. it must be remembered new ideas which have been outlined above spread all over Europe. which was by Rinuccini. was Dqfne by Peri. there was. which consisted of a whole series of unaccompanied fivepart madrigals. Claudio . as there 9 has been. In other words. interspersed with the singing of madrigals. called by the composer Commedia Armonica. its result was based on an ancient Greek story an obvious of the Bardi group's preoccupation with Greek tragedy. 1551 to 1605).104 will A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC be devoted to music in Italy. a kind of play with incidental music.

VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 105 Monteverdi (1567 to 1643). So much so that a composer commissioned to write an opera would begin by setting the recitatives. "j* His full is Cavalli name was Pier-Francesco Galetti-Bruni. but would not tackle the * This term. and is credited with the invention of the string tremolando. MonteAdorn and also Le Nozze di Peleo e di Teti by his verdi's pupil Cavallif (1602 to 1676). a properly organised melody commenting on the action. shows great power of dramatic expression. came to be regarded as the most important movements. In later works he tended to be less orchestrally adventurous. A The earliest operas were performed privately. The capella or kapelle of a house or institution was the body of musicians attached to it. nickname . expressive example is the famous 'Lament of Ariadne' from Arianna. and we now find the aria. maestro di capella* to the Duke of Mantua. Marc Antonio Cesti (1623 to 1669). The use of a chorus in dramatically appropriate places was accepted. His first opera. has not necessarily any ecclesiastical significance. together with the corresponding German kapellmeister. Cavalli. U melody. cultivated easy-flowing and rhythmic the first public opera house Cassiano in Venice. Monteverdi soon began to turn away from the use of uninterrupted recitative. Monteverdi is notable as an innovator in orchestral technique. the Teatro di San Here was produced. and certainly in opposition to the original ideas of the Camerata. and requires a large and heterogeneous collection of instruments for an orchestra. the original sole constituent of opera. The public found this much to their taste. Orfeo. possibly more than his master. most beginning to appear as a break in the monotony. but in 1637 was opened. and there are clear signs of the beginnings of the use of the string orchestra as the main instrumental support. produced in 1608.. 'fell into the background. 9 and quite quickly recitative. as did also his contemporary. in 1640. produced in 1607. It was now used simply to carry on the action of the plot. while melodious arias. i. which often became vehicles for vocal display. and the maestro or meister was the musical director. but the generally used.

and recitativo accompagnato (or stromentato] . digression. with figured bass accompaniment on the harpsichord. Scarlatti is notable for the popularisation. it is to him that we owe the standardisation of the aria into ternary form (statement. the recitativo secco. Sartorio. an excuse for a ballet would be found. for example. His use of the stereotyped e 9 ternary ( da capo ) aria was only part of the conventionalisation of opera which persisted for many years until an Of Scarlatti's fellow Neapolitans. *at the OpeYa. since was the germ of the classical symphony. Alessandro century. quick hands it became a under the title scale. which was used for the more emotionally intense passages. Before the end of the century Venice had no fewer than eleven opera houses. restatement). In France the earliest operas were closely associated with the Court ballet. had but three houses. A superb melodist. Rome. 'accompanied recitative'. if not the invention. The overture originated as a kind of preliminary flourish.io6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC he had heard. and assessed the capabilities of. simple and quick-moving. a summons to attention. After the middle of the century the greatest name in opera is Alessandro Scarlatti (1658 or 1659 to I 7 2I ) the founder of the Neapolitan school. Stradella (1645 to 1682) is perhaps the most noteworthy. employing a group of composers arias until Other including Legrenzi. but in Scarlatti's affair attempt to break it down was made by Gluck in the i8th three-movement torical quick. even in a representation of the Last Judgment'! . He employed two varieties of recitative. Ziani and Strozzi. but hardly to the same extent. Hector Berlioz remarks.* Early attempts to introduce * Writing as late as 1834. and for a long period ballet was considered an essential in opera. the singers engaged to take part. Although on a small importance is considerable. of a stereotyped form of operatic overture. its hisit of Sinfonia avanti F opera. cities were not backward in taking to opera. slow.

the their success French opera to be publicly performed in Paris. His arias. Les FStes de I Amour et de Bacchus. avoid the Italian conventionality of structure. rapidly achieving almost a monopoly of the writing of court ballets. Jean Baptiste Lully. Unlike the Italian overture. and contemporary Italian works. (b) a quick fugal movement. In 1672 Lulli secured for himself the patent hitherto held by Perrin to establish thereafter produced some twenty operas in conjunction with the librettist Quinault. or a repetition of the plan was opening movement. But was not to last. preferring instead excellently managed de- clamation in the form of accompanied recitative. and in 1653 he was appointed the King's composer of dance music. The first of these. first the musician Robert and in 1659 began the association of Cambert with the librettist Pierre Their most successful work was Pomone (1671). . In 1646 one Giovanni Batista Lulli* (1632 to 1687) had come to Paris as page-boy to Mile. niece of Louis XIV.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 107 Italian opera were unsuccessful. the subjects of Lulli's operas are chiefly drawn from classical mythology. As with the 9 an 'Academy of Music'. and all begin with a prologue glorifying Le Roi SoleiL The inclusion of ballet was invariable. modelled on those of Gavalli. in which the King himself often took part. fipais is an excellent example To ture. de Montpensier. generally dotted-note rhythm. Lulli did not use the Italian recitativo secco. In 1646 came the private production of what is usually described as the first real French opera. His musical ability soon became apparent. Roi de Mogol. followed by (c} one or more dances. the Abbe Mailly's Akebar. despite the powerful influence of Cardinal Mazarin during the reign of Louis XIV. and are often of considerable emotional power. The well-known Bois of Lulli at his best. and much greater use was made of the chorus than in Italian opera. Perrin. is described as the first 'legitimate' French opera. Lulli's * Also known by the French form of his name. Lulli Its is ascribed the invention of the Trench' over- much with (a) a slow introduction.

'Puritans and Music'. exhibiting characteristic Teutonic earnestness. with one outstanding exception. There seems to be no record of any truly operatic performance until Sir William Davenant's The Siege of Rhodes in 1657. poetry. The music is lost. the real father of German opera. The French Court Ballet was of similar type. when Joharm Theile's Adam und Eva was given in Hamburg. whose origins are of considerable antiquity. sung in the original tongue. His work is entirely German in style. Italian works were imported. In Germany opera began with the setting of a German translation of Rinuccini's Dafne by Heinrich Schiitz (1585 to 1672). English opera'. The one great English opera of the period is Dido and * The fact that this was during the Commonwealth period is in itself a refutation of the widely-held theory that the Puritans deprecated music of any kind. In England opera only just managed to exist at all. and Henry Lawes setting of Milton's Comus. on this. dancing. The form survived into the i8th century. Possibly the two most famous masques were Matthew Locke's setting of Shirley's Cupid and Death. After this. the nearest English equivalent to opera was the Masque^ a form of entertainment which was also cultivated in France and Italy. although still in use by Handel nearly a hundred years later. combined music. pageantry and lavish scenic and mechanical effects. The Masque. German opera proper dates from 1678. had no further development. . in 1627. In that city Reinhard Keiser (1674 to 1739). and the only clue to its character is the composer's statement that the dialogue was in recitative. art. The music is lost. which latter were also a great feature of the French opera. It was followed by the same writer's though it is usually referred to as 'the first The Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru. See Scholes* Oxford Companion. reigned supreme from the end of the i7th century up to about 1739.* To what extent this was a real opera is perhaps a little conjectural.io8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC form. Throughout the I7th century. 9 Arne's Alfred appearing as late as 1740.

perhaps. and by the 1 4th century were being dramatised into religious plays with music. The dialogue is in recitative and some dances are included. Philip Neri. ludes and dancing.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 109 Aeneas by Henry Purcell (1659 to 1695). 1550 to 1602) was performed in the Oratorio della Vallicella. but their character rapidly changed with the introduction into them of the sacre rappresentazioni. in the laudi. founder of the Order of Oratorians. Rather oddly. secular songs. the singing of laudi his The services continued after spirituali. early in the i6th century. In 1600 such a work by Emilio di Cavalieri (c. Parallel with the development of opera ran that of oratorio. The ultimate origins of this form go back to the 1 3th century. simple devotional songs in the vernacular. Concurrent with the sacred representation was the Dialogo extent. called La Rappresentazione di Anima e di Corpo the Representation of Soul and Body. Dido was composed for performance by notable movement is the pupils at an academy for young ladies. This is often called the first oratorio. Oratorio in the accepted sense was yet to come. In 1556 St. performed by companies called laudesi. Many were written by Franciscan monks. From the dramatised laudi evolved. instituted in Rome popular services which incorporated elements from plays on sacred subjects as well as rounding country. Later they were often cast in dialogue form. but it is actually a sacra rappresentazione. and we may be permitted to wonder whether the student who took the part of Dido could possibly have realised the full emotional scope of her lament. one of the most poignantly moving pieces of music ever written. instrumental intersubjects. The most Dido's 'Lament'. death in 1595. (Dialogue). including a final dance. which prefigured oratorio to a greater It consisted of dialogues in simple recitative . the sacre rappresentazioni (sacred representations) of which lavish performances were given in Florence and the sur- They were practically operas on sacred including laudi.

and the form became essentially what it is its some sacred story. 1645 to 1682) and Antonio Qaldara (1670 to form. etc. * The Narrator or Evangelist was of the greatest importance in set- Lack of space forbids any consideration of this is referred to the article in Grove. gradually became transformed. in the hands of such men as Domenico Mazzocchi and Giovanni Carissimi (c. 1604 to 1674). We under that note the use of the term 'madrigal' and the inclusion The choral title of movements in recitative. like opera. including recitatives. and mention may also be made of his contemporaries Giovanni Colonna 1735)- (c. These latter were often of a 'reflective' character. Notable among composers of Dialoghi is Giovanni Anerio (c. As in his operas he used the da capo plan of aria. anticipating the reflective arias which. uses those of Jephtha. which may be translated literally as 'The Spiritual Harmonic Theatre of Madrigals for 5. equally great in opera and oratorio. for example. and choral movements. and the reader tings of the Passion. became such an important part of oratorio proper. .. as in opera. 1620). sette e otto voci (1619). Abraham and Isaac. duets. the incipient oratorio. 1567 to c. showing the persistence of the stilo antico. The stories were taken largely from the Old Testament. 6. and this rapidly became normal practice everywhere. movements are often of a contrapuntal character. 7 and 8 voices'. and the Judgment of Solomon. and a Historicus or Narrator was introduced to make clear the progress of the story. In the latter part of the century the most notable composer is Alessandro Scarlatti. The aria made way in. and on rather similar lines. solos. Theodosia. Carissimi. who showed a fondness for such cumbersome titles as Teatro Armonico Spirituals di Madrigali a cinque^ sei.* Stage representation ceased.i to A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC between two persons. Job. We may note to-day. In the years after 1600. the musical presentation of his Sacrifice of Abraham and Martyrdom of St. interspersed with choral movements. all with instrumental accompaniment.

The the solo parts free recitative Evangelist. As a medium of domestic music-making the madrigal gave place to the cantata. Matthew. The most surprising of the late Italian madrigalists was Carlo Gesualdo. His most important works 1 of the oratorio type are his three settings of the Passion. He was a 'modernist' in the colloquial sense of the word. Frequently he achieves great emotional expressiveness. This cannot be said. however. written before 1600. etc. and is well worth some study. The utterances of the 'crowd* are in four-part harmony and lean to the stilo antico. and his Story of the Resurrection. and large numbers of works of this period which were published as the former might . Peter. of the procedures of some of his lesser imitators. which has some affinity with plainsong. The work of Gesualdo actually led nowhere. and as a rule his startling chord-progressions and modulations 'come off'. but the works are remarkably telling in their restrained 'affectiveness*. In the madrigals of Luzzasco Luzzaschi. Christ. much in advance of those of most of his contem- poraries. Passions are unaccompanied. Prince of Venosa (1560 to 1614). Luke. austere. and in those of Monteverdi. The Story of the Resurrection employs an Schiitz's style is strings and organ. some of whose efforts sound like experimentalism gone mad. but the work of the German Heinrich Schiitz must not be overlooked. we find instruments used not as mere optional substitutes for voices in the sense of 'apt for viols or voices'. St. such as Benedetti and Belli. Works under the old title were still written. but obligatory. being in a accompaniment of The madrigal did not long survive the coming of the 'new music'. whose harmonic experi- ments.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY in In the 7th century oratorio was almost exclusively of Italian cultivation. and also passages for accompanied solo voice. but it is interesting as the final outcome of a style initiated by Willaert and da Rore. well justify the epithet used above. John and St. according to St. but the traditional polyphonic style gave way before the new influences.

In its most elementary form the cantata was a short story told in recitative. To quote Sir Hubert Parry in the Oxford History of Music: The cardinal idea of the form is the semi-histrionic presentation of some imagined situation under domestic conditions. In some of these cantatas the tendency towards the typical iSth-century style of Handel is very clearly seen. the first being founded in London in 1672 by John Banister. in which. Especially notable is the introduction of florid coloratura passages which obviously prefigure the kind of writing which Handel used in such movements as Rejoice Greatly in Messiah. which was a kind of miniature oratorio for one or two solo voices with accom- Carissimi was the paniment. with a simple accompaniment. the continent possibly the first. In England the secular cantata was very popular as a substitute for the madrigal. made its way into the form. followed in 1678 by those of Thomas Britton. without scenic accessories of any kind. Carissimi wrote a number of such works. As in opera and oratorio. and two voices in dialogue were often employed. containing many fine movements. were the On .ii2 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC equally well be called the latter. as did also Scarlatti. as opposed to the more or less private meetings of the various Collegia Musica. Public concerts in the present-day sense did not originate until late in the lyth century. those of Pelham Humfrey. or personified on poetic discourse in musical terms. under the title of Cantata da Camera or Chamber Cantata. monologues and dialogues appearing in quantity. The cantata. characters whose histories and circumstances are well-known to the audience. were popular. too. for example. Laniere and Goleman. was for abstractions. like the madrigal of earlier times. carry domestic performance.' Such compositions were produced by Henry Lawes and his brother William. first to write cantatas on sacred themes the Cantata da Ckiesa or Church Cantata. alternating with the The accompaniment tended to become more elaborate. Sacred cantatas. the aria soon recitative.

but opera is not a concert in the accepted sense. in which concerti is used 8. became public once opera houses were established.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 113 Concerts Spirituels founded in Paris in 1725 by Philidor. Giovanni Gabrieli produced in 1587 Centi Concerti for 6. and between opposing choirs. the first work as a title. of course. or doubas lings of. It was the independent part for the instrument which in the early development of Giovanni Gabrieli. introduced occasional purely instrumental interludes or sinIn his later works his 'modernity* is strongly evident . The chief implition cation of the concertato style was that of contrasting groups of performers. He also justified the title. to four voices. to be from the verb concertare. In the paragraph above dealing with the madrigal menwas made of the independent use of instruments as distinct from their introduction as substitutes for. and that performances by the kapelle were always more or less private affairs. Opera. The most important name concertato style is the fonias. its earliest Andrea and use was in connection with vocal works. whose association with St. to compete. Although the word concerto (with the same derivation) is commonly associated with instrumental music. Of importance in this connection are the Con- certi Ecclesiastici published in 1602. Venice. has already been noted. 1564 to 1627). It must be remembered that the system of patronage to which reference has been made involved the employment of large numbers of musicians in the various courts. 10 and 16 voices. Mark's. He was the first to make any clear differentiation between vocal and instrumental styles in such works. and besides this he made great use of the possibilities of contrast between solo voices and chorus. of Lodovico Viadana (c. etc. 7.. with a figured bass accompaniment for organ. This independent use was known The derivation of this term is generally taken concertato. and a work with the same title by the Viadana's concertos are for from one lutenist Molinaro. the voices. in particular of voices and instruments.

together with an increased differentiation between vocal and instrumental styles. The development of the musical side of the Lutheran . Schiitz was by far the greatest German musician of his time. the Latin texts. the 'Father of German Music'. use of 'affective 9 intervals in the voice parts. Saul which are monumental composion' the same Johann Hermann Schein (1586 to 1630) and Samuel Scheldt (1587 to 1654). Whatever the technical method or style. deriving from the firm faith of the devout Lutheran. For such compositions as his motet In Ecclesiis (for solo. various movements range from small-scale monodies with basso continuo accompaniment up to 9 . In 1609 he went to Venice The concertato style . but both are relatively conservative in their har- In all Schiitz's sacred works a notable intensity and sincerity of expression.ii4 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC in every direction. not only in his use of the concertato style. all is intended as a means to one end the glory of God. this time coming under the influence of Monteverdi. tions such as the famous is 'Saul. Mark's must have been overwhelming. and in 1619 published his first really important work. scale as Gabrieli's In Ecclesiis. and thereafter produced the three parts of the Sympkoniae Sacrae and the Kleins geistliche In these works the Konzerte (Little Sacred Concertos). Psalms of David> in which the manner of his teacher is evident. passed to Germany through Schiitz. Schein's Cymbalum Sionum (1615) shows the Venetian influence. as does also Scheldt's Concertos Sacri (1622). In 1629 Schiitz paid a second visit to Italy. quartet. then at the height of his powers. chorus. brass thet is monumental. and The viola). there monic outlook. in which he goes almost to extremes in his use of dissonance for pictorial purposes. the only appropriate epieffect of such a work in the vastness of St. to to study with Gabrieli. In 1625 came the Cantiones Sacrae. but two of his contemporaries are well worthy of note. but in his illustrative treatment of the text. treatment of dissonance. lacking any signs of the intense use of dissonance such as Schiitz displayed in his Cantiones Sacrae. etc.

The motet was normally based on a biblical text. sometimes a poetic paraphrase of a passage o scripture. as it were. sometimes for congregational performance. was organist at the Marienkirche in Liibeck. and in any case designed to edify and 'point i moral The normal cantata was arranged in the form of recita tives. The work of all these foreshadows that of Bach.. succeeded by Buxtehude. Zachau was Handel's teacher. duets. Ultimately th< motet became known as cantata. the cantata was based on a 'com posed' one. The term itself was not used. but in the opposition of a solo erouo and the . concertato or symphonia sacra. at least among the 'orthodox' school as oppose to the Pietists. served as ser mons in music preparing the way. as is pointed ou by the great authority Albert Schweitzer. where he established a famous He was series of sacred recitals known as Abendmusikm. who raised the musical fame oi the church to even greater heights. and chorus movements. etc. In England the concertato style is in evidence in the many verse anthems of the i7th century. sometimes not Among the important composers of cantatas are Fran: Tunder (1614 to 1667).From 1641 Tunder. a pupil of Frescobaldi (see Chapter 9). which signified a piec performed by the choir. for the spokei sermon which followed later in the service. on whom they had considerable influence. arias. These move ments were selected so that their subject had a close con nection with the Gospel of the day and. and which might also go by th title of dialogue. offered suitable opportunity for the perforan ance of such choral works as have been mentioned abov< The hymn which at first followed the recitation of the Lati Greed became replaced by a 'motet'. but this term did not conn into use in this particular connection until about 1700 being first employed by one Pastor Neumeister of Hambuq in a series of text for such works. with orchestral accompaniment. Dietrich Buxtehude (1637 to 1707] and Wilhelm Zachau (1663 to I 7 12 ).VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY n service. Frequently a chorale was included 9 .

. tion * The most important composers were William Child (1606 Humfrey every way BukofzeTj Musk in the Baroque Era. Apart from his verse anthems. would allow but little. and it was this style that he required from the composers of his Chapel Royal. in common with others of the more strictly reformed sects. in the same verbal connection. to 1697). deriving from the Latin motet. in which the resources of solo. though with an inevit- This attitude was adopted. he wrote a few 'full* anthems for from five to the greatest. Simultaneously appears the 'Re- German Galvinists. the royal taste demanded easily comprehensible tunes. characterised often by a distinctly secular which at times seems to go beyond the limits of propriety. Pelham (1647 to 1674) and Henry Purcell. chorus and instrumental accompaniment are fully exploited. and rhythms which induced the tapping of A number of common idioms developed. 9 feeling storation style'. much of the bright music in favour at the Court of Louis XIV. The Puritans had no objection to music as such. and that of the simplest kind. chorus. Charles had heard of the early anthems. the principles of the style are present. by the and mention was made in Chapter i of its effect on Bach's output while he was at Cothen. 'The prime object of the court music in England was to provide sensuous entertainment and to serve as sonorous ornament. since Carissimi uses it in at least one of his cantatas. but. John Blow (1648/9 to 1708). Throughout the century the verse anthem developed. including that of a jigging dotted-note rhythmfor such words as Alleluia. Purcell is in and in his work English music of the Restoraperiod reaches its climax. the royal foot. The return of Charles II in 1660 brought about the establishment of the 'Restoration anthem .ii6 full A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC able break during the Commonwealth period. though this was hardly specifically English. and the use of independent accompaniment. went out of fashion. solo ensemble. for example. in their church services. 3 * The serious style During his exile in France.

Purcell's verse anthems often show the style at its finest. Cecilia's Day. amazingly fertile in new ideas. and the use of voices in general. fatuous adulatoriness of the texts. It is a century of transition. his great mastery of contrapuntal writing. New ideas on the handling of dissonance came to the fore. as opposed to the old pure polyphony. or a royal birthday.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 117 eight voices. 'afiectiveness'. having accompaniment for string orchestra. with an introductory Trench' overture and instrumental interludes between the verses. Hail bright Cecilia. written to celebrate such occasions as the return of the King to London. These anthems show. but without recapturing the true tradiideas The style is inevitably strongly affected by the new which had developed during the century declamation. however. and producing much music that is of far more than merely Yet it can now be seen as a time of historical interest. containing some of Purcell's finest choral writing. To sum up. And over all looms the shadow of instrumental music. in which were laid the foundations and Bach. Of greater literary value are the odes for St. but while containing some fine movements are marred by the tion. are planned similarly to the anthems. that of 1692. The flexible rhythmic principles which had their ultimate origin in musica mensurata gave way to the relatively 'the rigid system imposed by what is sometimes called tyranny of the barline'. His 'Welcome' and 'Birthday* songs. together with a new attitude to the treatment of words. and in the creation of rich and sombre sonorities he is unsurpassed. and the increasing feeling for counterpoint arising from harmony. in which he looks back to the polyphony of the Elizabethans. Many are conceived on an extended scale. it will be seen that during the I7th century music underwent a great revolution. gradually ousting the old conceptions of vocal polyphony. of the preparation. The polyphonic style and the modal system on which it was based both died out. towering edifices erected by Handel .

S. andVol. See also: Italian i6th. Vol. 5 Nos. 6. Vol.M. 44. and 58.ii8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC RECORDS No. 57 H. 45 to 54. Nos.and 17th-century arias . 4.

These were the most important developments. and thus for competing with the human voice in tenderness. Musical Instruments* . . the sombre and heavy viol. This was due largely to a change of taste. as opposed to the often tentative efforts of the preceding century. it was equally so on the instrumental side. outstrip9* The ping her elder sister. became the queen of all the instruments. and the transformation of the ricercare into the fugue. there was the achievement of a truly instrumental style of writing. Before doing so. mellowness and emotional expressiveness. the rise of the sonata. interpreting the 'affec- yth century the use of the viols gradually died tion of the words. the viola and violoncello. the principal workshops * Geiringer. Besides all this. corresponding in a way to the change which now preferred the solo voice. to the old polyphonic complexity of the c The highest value was set upon those instrumadrigalists. however. paving the way for the supreme works of genius of Bach and Handel in the first half of the i8th century. the chorale prelude and other forms of organ music. and it will be necessary to trace the course of each one separately. saw the expansion of dance-pairs into the suite. the concerto.CHAPTER NINE INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY WE It have seen in Chapter 8 how fertile the century was in the development of new vocal forms. we must deal further with the viols and their music. and the rise of important schools of violinists and organists. 5 ments that were best equipped for producing singing tone. violin The . In the out. i and they were supplanted by the violin and its larger brethren. home of violin-making was Italy. .

Fancies for viols were written until late in John Jenkins. The greatest of the Amatis was Nicolo. The com- poser would work a point of imitation for as long. was the work of his pupil Antonio Stradivari (1644 to 1737). Thereafter only the bass viola it for da gamba survived in use to some extent Bach uses the accompaniment to one of the arias in his St. presumably for reasons of prestige. Cambridge. Even greater. a lay clerk of Trinity College. struggle. The weakness of the Fancy as a form lay in its tendency to be split up into a number of often unrelated sections. Purcell's Fancies at times reach great heights of emotional intensity and are by far the finest of all. perhaps. as he chose. and in England especially their use persisted almost to the end of the century. and despite the beauty of many individual passages. and often shows the intermediate hovering between the modal system and the major and minor scales. and above all Purcell. where the with unsurpassed Amati family produced instruments beauty of tone. and looks back regretgood old days of polyphonic viol music. William Lawes. or as briefly. important composers being Alfonso Ferrabosco. Almost equally great was Giuseppe Guarneri ( 1 687 to 1 742) The viols did not surrender their supremacy without a . inveighs bitterly fully to the against the violins and their music. they were also the last to be written. the impression sometimes remains that . of the third generation. derivation from the motet or madrigal. who. Italianised his name to Giovanni Coperario). In England. John Cooper (who. whose violins remain supreme examples of artistic craftsmanship. But whereas in the vocal forms the words gave logic to the musical plan. his Musick's Monument of 1676. in 1620 to 1710). Among those who opposed the violin may be mentioned Thomas Mace Passion of (c. and later at Cremona. The quality of their work is apt to be variable. a natural consequence of its the century.lao A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC first being at Brescia. the Fancy had no such solid guiding principle. Matthew 1 729 but with the death of the virtuoso Carl Friedrich Abel hi 1787 the viol died too.

and bound together chiefly by unity of the same tonic key. French and Italian composers treated the suite simply as a series of contrasting movements. This art is dealt with in Christopher Sympson's Division Violist of 1659- development of instrumental forms yth century. sarabande and gigue. courante. At this time there was a fairly well-established and definite sequence of formal ballroom dances. why it should not have been expanded to twice its length. there was no set order or scheme in the suite. True. based on dances. . Jig (or Gigue).INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY there was no particular reason why any given 121 section should last as long as it does. which is sometimes insisted on mainly in by writers of textbooks on Form. in the latter part of the I7th century and the beginning of the i8th. the idea of the form was that the composer could 'follow the dictates of his fancy'. * It is tonality. their place being taken by another slow-quick pair. Apart from the invariable allemande and by courante. but not entirely. alternatively. incorrect. This It was a stately court dance from Switzerland and Germany. Minuet. We have noted that the suite originated in the pairing of such dances as the pavane and galliard. English. but this did not necessarily lead to structural logic and stability. the Allemande* and the Cowrante or Coranto. Quite early in the century the dancing of these went out of fashion. all being in is sometimes stated that the Allemande was not a dance. or. Another aspect of viol playing which survived in England until the end of the century was the improvisation of variations or 'divisions' on a ground bass. The whole might be introduced Bourrte. the ball regularly beginning with to the To turn i now in the a slow dance followed by a quick one. mainly. and it may be well to mention that the basic group of allemande. originating in the i6th century. applied Germany. followed perhaps by other dances such as the Gavotte. a Prelude. After the Courante composers of suites most often added a slow Sarabande.

1645 to 1 1 Q and others. often in rondo form. though faint traces of it linger even into the i8th century. but also a number of programmatic pieces. but after that. Georg Muffat (c. was discarded. He achieved a delicacy and economy of means which have for long been charac- of the best of French music. produced a multitude of delightful Couperin and ingenious pieces which he grouped into Ordres ( =suites) . It was in the lyth century that the great French school of clavednists (=harpsichordists) arose. His most important successors various were Jean Frangois Dandrieu (1684 to 1740) and members of the Gouperin family. century. into the character of the instrument in particular and its possibilities. in some of Bach's dances. known as Couperin The works of this school show a keen insight le Grand. all of whom were more or less influenced by anything . The founder was Jacques Champion de Chambonnieres (c. and like Couperin he retains the orthodox allemande and courante. includ- ing not only dances. 1597 to 1672). having no connection with any dance. so common in the i6th binary. whose style was to some extent modelled on that of die French school. often giving them The Frenchmen tended fanciful titles suggesting their moods. to write very lengthy suites. In Germany the first important name in connection with the suite is that of Johann Jacob Froberger (1616 to 1667). harpsichordist to Louis XIV. teristic may happen.122 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC stylised. Couperin's first Ordre (1713) contains no fewer than eighteen movements. His suites generally begin with a prelude. Buxtehude. In England the outstanding figure is once again Purcell. whose harpsichord 'Lessons' exhibit his natural tunefulness and his strong grasp of a true keyboard style. The dance movements were and their form into a straightforward rapidly became conventionalised The old three-section plan. with or without 'fancy' titles. of whom the greatest was Frangois (1668 to 1733). of which only eight are dances. He was followed by Johann Adam Reinken (1623 to 1722).

as opposed to cantata. something sung. with a part for continue to be realised on the harpsichord. introduced by a preludial movement sonatas and followed by one or more other dances. the continuo being. whether chamber or church. was style of. however. taken for granted. in that the latter were conceived primarily as dance suites. In Italy the suite went by the name of sonata da camera* or chamber sonata. The student may be warned to disabuse^ his mind of any idea that sonata necessarily means a work with that title in the Sonata. the distinction between church and chamber had become more strongly marked. and in this respect are associated with him the names of Giovanni Battista Vitali (1644 to 1692) and G. was fully established. to sound. Corelli was one of the founders of the great school of violin playing in Bologna. were not restricted to dances. had fixed form. those of Tarquinio Merula. the past participle. i.g. sarabande and gigue. to the 'textbook' order of allemande. it was simply of a character serious * The literal meaning of sonata. which remained the standard in Germany until the suite died out in the middle of the i8th century. and was so used in the lyth century. was part of the staple fare of this period. like its brother of the chamber. a cawyma sonata (or can&na da sonare) being a 'played canzona*. for three instruments. originally associated with the noun canzona. . The chamber sonatas of these and men were written generally for two violins da gamba (or 'cello). is something played. to be dealt with later. from the verb sonare. The 'trio sonata'. Such sonatas were deviola signated a fre. ^ t Not to be confused with the organist Merulo. at first The church no sonata.f published in 1637. By the time of Arcangelo Gorelli (1653 to 1713) the regular basis of allemande and courante. say. as distinct from the sonata da chiesa or church sonata.e. courante. e. Bassani (1657 to 1716). B. In this sense it may cover a large range of instrumental music. Twenty years later. as it were.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY With Buxtehude we find 123 strict adherence the French style. Mozart or Beethoven. but were merely suitable for secular rather than for sacred (church) use. The earliest chamber sonatas.

i and op. sometimes in the style of a gigue. Massimiliano Neri. too. The preludes. remained variable. Until about the middle of the century the terms 'sonata and 'canzona' are practically interchangeable. of Corelli's chamber sonatas could equally well serve as movements for church sonatas. but consist of a series of short sections in contrasting styles and speeds. 3.g. as did many others. In this. Sonatas a tre appear quite early in the i7th century. e forte and derived from Such a work is the wellof Giovanni Gabrieli. A slow introductory section. By his time (his op. consisting of church sonatas. however. Merula produced similar works under the title of canzone. though he does not always adhere strictly to it. His slow third movements are often of the sarabande type. and The Purcell to Italian style of sonata reached England in time for show that in it his genius was not less than that . though it gradually became customary for one of them to be fugal in style. This is followed by a melodious largo. In some of the sonatas of Vitali. e. but the latter title gradually dropped out of use. and the work concludes with another quick movement. This crossing of the two styles ultimately obliterated the original distinction. 2 of 1667.124 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC for use during enough a sacred the 16th-century known Sonata pian* canzona sonata. as do also solo* sonatas for e a single violin and continue. a monuservice. The plan and order of the movements. contrasts of soft and loud are deliberately used for the first time. They are of no fixed plan. for example in the works of Giovanni Battista Fontana (d. those of his op. we fin(l fairly strongly suggested the basis of what was later to become the normal plan until well into the 1 8th century. This was 9 established as the standard plan by Corelli. were published and 1689) the distinction between church and chamber styles was tending to break down.g. e. grave. respectively in 1681 his last ones gigues. precedes a quick movement in fugal style. 1630). mental piece for two brass choirs (except that the highest part in the second choir is for violin).

His two sets of Sonatas of III Parts are fully equal to other similar publications. as they are found in the greatest examples of the form. who pro- duced what is known as the Concerto Grosso. and he admits in his preface to the first set (1683) t^t he has 'faithfully endeavour'd a just imitation of the most fam'd Italian Masters'. everything depends the contrasting of the two groups of performers. both members of the Bolognese school. during or after is little High Mass. In Germany the one really great name in the line of sonatists is that of Heinrich Biber (1644 to 1704). he shows Italian influence. Neri and Francesco Usper. Formally there on sign of any conventional layout.e. The contrast lay between the concertino or solo group. and the ripieni fall or *tutti* strings. the . but exhibits also considerable individuality and grave sincerity. Like his sonatas. where a small body of instruments contrasts with a larger one. in which the idea of contrast is still more strongly marked. in Corelli's case consisting of a string trio (two violins and 'cello). those of Handel and Bach. Similar methods are found in the canzonas of other Venetians of the time. were first fully worked out by Corelli and Torelli (d.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 125 was no mean of his continental contemporaries. the former being for use before. slow. i. whose works have been described as 'the first German violin music of any artistic worth at all* (Grove) Like Purcell. The essential principles of the style. established plan what was to remain the normal three-movement He exhibits. e. His compositions prove that he .g. quick. into two types. This is seen in essence in Gabrieli's Sonata piarf e forte. the playing off against The each other of two contrasted groups. Corelli's concertos church and chamber. Rather later we find sonatas for trumpet accompanied by string orchestra by such writers as Stradella and Vitali. virtuoso. and still more in one of his canzonas. 1708). instrumental concerto was based on the same fundamental principles as the vocal one. more than Corelli. Torelli quick.

Music in the Baroque Era. In the period with which we are dealing the technical ability demanded of the soloist was generally little greater than that required of the orchestra. in violin technique. As far as is known. The form used for the allegros is generally known as Ritornello form. 'concerto style' in the the vigorous. indeed. Among Vivaldi's Venetian contemporaries who emulated his style are Francesco Gasparini (1668 to 1727). though they were not published until a year after his death. Lack of space forbids any consideration of the structural principles of the movements. made by Antonio Vivaldi (c. designed to allow the soloist to show off his technical ability. O.f and in the strength and character of his themes he often anticipates Bach. but the emphasis remains primarily on contrast between solo and tutti. was a product of the late i8th and i gth centuries. The Introduction to Vol. * . In them the solo part begins to demand a certain amount of virtuosity. (The 'display concerto. and the reader is referred to R.* In some of the later concerti grossi of Corelli there is a tendency for the first violin to take the lead over the other members of the concertino. This led to the writing of 'solo 9 concertos. t Bukofzer. The same applies to the concertino in a concerto grosso. Benedetto Marcello (1686 to position of the concertino.) Other composers of solo concertos were Tomasso Albinoni (? 1674 9 the to Z 745) an d Giuseppe Jacchini.is6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC allegros. learned much from the study of his works. who wrote the first 'cello Further progress was to 1741) of Venice. concerto. More than Torelli he exploits what has been called the 'relentless mechanical beat of the concerto style'. Morris's The Structure of Music for a simple explanation of it. 3 of Tovey's Essays in Musical Analysis contains a most illuminating discussion of the form. for a single violin with accompaniment by the string orchestra. the first such works were by Torelli. 1676 who also made considerable advances In his concerti grossi he varied the comsometimes using a group of wind instruments. who. pounding metrical pulsation and the general feeling of 'busyness 9 .

the northern. It is not until Bach's $th Brandenlonger is it No coming of a new conception of the were the we find the harpsichord used as a solo instrument. and he was the author of the first 'method' for the violin.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 127 1739) and Giuseppe Valentin! (b. They also exhibit much greater coherence in the more brilliant passages. In the next generation comes Francesco Geminiani (1674 to 1762). His toccatas show a great advance on those of the Gabrielis and Merulo in their careful planning of contrasted sections and their truly dramatic effect. They are later in date than the $th Brandenburg. the vaguely rambling scales of the earlier . After him the emphasis shifts to Rome. we have already noted the Venetian Merulo as one of the founders. was spent in England (he died in Dublin). the soloist as primarily a matter of contrast. It may be noted that at this time no concertos were written for harpsichord. concertino^ life He used a string quartet for adding the viola to the usual trio. c. This instrument was used for the continue. 1680). and see the it form. where Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583 to 1643).} The earliest sonatas will be considered in the next chapter. based on the Netherlands and Germany. (There are also seven concertos by Bach for solo harpsichord burg Concerto that and orchestra. He was a pupil of Corelli and Scarlatti and was rather conservative in his outlook. Peter's. the orchestra now begins to recede into the background. based on Italy. as mere subordinate accompaniment. but at least five of these are transcriptions of works originally for violin and orchestra. as a background. there arose two great schools. was renowned as one of the most brilliant performers of his day. In music for the organ. with first among equals. Much of his the Violin. His solo concertos technical ability of a truly virtuoso standard. which duty it shares with a flute and a violin. and Of the former. a vastly important branch. entitled The Art of Playing Rather younger than Geminiani was Pietro in demand them we Locatelli (1693 to 1764). organist of St. the southern.



composers being organised into shapely and logically designed figuration. In passing, it may be mentioned that Frescobaldi seems to have had an adequate appreciation of the technical difficulty of some of his compositions. At
the end of one toccata he writes, 'non senzafatiga
si giunge

alfm\ which

through this Of equal importance to Frescobaldi's toccatas are his organ ricercares. At the beginning of the century the ricercare, derived from the vocal motet, occurred commonly in two guises. In one the same principle was used as in the fantasia, i.e. it consisted of a series of fugal sections, each based on a new theme. In the other, the ricercare sopra un e soggetto ( on a subject'), only one basic theme was used for treatment. This type had two possibilities. There fugal might be a series of fugal expositions on various modifications of the theme, or alternatively the theme itself might be kept more or less unchanged, but used in a series of expositions with a new countersubject for each. The ricercare 'on a subject

be freely translated without feeling tired*.




you won't get



developed gradually into the fugue as we know it in the hands of Bach. Like the fancy, the ricercare had the structural weakness of being so highly sectionalised, though 5 in the examples 'on a subject this is not so noticeable as
in the other type, since at least one basic theme ran through the whole piece. But even so, it was inevitably chopped up in effect, and composers gradually realised that it was
effective and satisfactory to work out the possibilities of a single unvaried theme to the limit, rather than to piece together a series of more or less brief snippets. Possibly the most distinguished pupil of Frescobaldi was Froberger, a Catholic Saxon, whose work shows increased facility in the methods of organisation initiated by his teacher, and possibly an even greater appreciation of the characteristics of the organ. With him may be associated another Saxon, Johann Kasper Kerll (1627 to ^93)> w^ maY ak have studied with Frescobaldi.

by Frescobaldi, and




of the German Catholic organists of any real importHis most notable work is the Apparatus MusicoOrganisticus of 1690, which contains, among other things, twelve toccatas. Structurally they are variable, but the principle of brilliant bravura sections contrasting with steadylast

The purely Italian school soon declined in importance, the initiative passing to southern Germany. Besides the two Saxons just mentioned, we may note Georg Muffat, the

moving passages designed to exploit the sustaining power of the organ, as well as the inclusion of sections in fugal The toccata had not begun to style, still holds good. degenerate into a mere show-piece. In Muffat's work, still more than in that of his predecessors, there is an increased power of organisation of runs into coherent patterns; the feeling for design becomes continually stronger. In the north-west of Europe a school of organists flourished whose work was based on the requirements of the reformed faith. The father of this school was Jan PieterszoonSweelinck (1562 to 1621) of Amsterdam. The organs of the Netherlands and northern Germany had already a well-developed pedal department, unlike those of Italy, and Sweelinck provides some of the earliest examples of independent pedal He is most notable for his development of the parts. ricercare into the fully worked-out fugue, at a time when the Italians were still content with the ricercare sopra un

Through his pupils Sweelinck's influence spread throughout northern Germany, among the most important being Samuel Scheidt and Heinrich Scheidemann (1596 to 1663). Their contemporary Herman Schein (1586 to 1630) was of the same school, though not a pupil of its founder. In the next generation appears Reinken, who followed Scheide-

mann at St. Catherine's Church, Hamburg, and whose fame
so great that the

young Bach walked long distances to With these men must be mentioned two of Bach's uncles Johann Christoph (1642 to 1703) and Johann Michael (1648 to 1694), and Johann Pachdbd of
hear and play to him.



to 1706),

Nuremburg (1653


serves as

a link between

the southern and northern schools. He was a pupil of Kerll, and so came to some extent under the influence of little earlier, and perhaps the greatest of Frescobaldi. all organists before Bach, was Buxtehude, born in 1637.



Swede, he was for long the chief musician in Liibeck, and Bach was willing to walk 200 miles to sit at his feet. These are only an important few of a great galaxy of Lutheran organists on whose work was founded Bach's
colossal superstructure.

The most important types of composition evolved by the north Germans for use in the reformed services were those based on the chorale. Luther's introduction of the chorale into the church service was eagerly welcomed, and we cannot do better than to quote Sir Hubert Parry, in the Oxford History of Musk, on the subject: 'The influence which the German chorales exerted upon the German Protestant organists was of the utmost importance, and the seriousness and deep feeling, which were engendered in their attempts to set them and adorn them, were answerable for a great deal of the nobility in their organ music. . . . The chorales . . . were a kind of religious folk-songs. They came spontaneously from the hearts of the people, and had their roots in the deepest sentiments of the race. . . . Upon these tunes the organist-composers of the I7th century expended all the best of their artistic powers. The tunes became symbols, which were enshrined in all the richest devices of expressive ornament and contrapuntal skill, woven fugal artifice, and melodic sweetness, which the devotion
of the composers could achieve. Although the term 'chorale prelude' is used loosely to describe all kinds of pieces based thematically on chorales, there were actually four different types. The chorale prelude proper, used in the service to introduce the congregational singing of the hymn (much as the present-day organist
'gives out* the first line or two)

was generally fairly terse, the melody, decorated or otherwise, being usually in the

top part.


In many cases, ceded by a more or less free fugal exposition This procedure was used by the early writers as far it. back as Scheidt, and many fine examples were written
line of the tune


was prebased on



of treatment,


Although perhaps the commonest method was but one among many, Kipling's

'There are nine-and-sixty ways


Of constructing

tribal lays,

every single one of them



might well apply to chorale preludes. Other types of chorale composition were (a) the chorale fugue, in which the first line of the tune served as the subject of an extended fugue* also found in Pachelbd's work; or variations on a chorale (V) the chorale partita, Bohm and Buxtehude are important here; and Pachelbel, the chorale fantasia, which might be of considerable (c) and the length, designed to show off both the instrument
ability of the performer.

on chorales, toccatas were popular, and Buxtehude being the most notable. those of Reinken Both men had first-rate instruments at their disposal, and both possessed consummate technique which they were not unwilling to display. The prelude and fugue, too, graduBesides works based
ally took shape,

but as yet lacked the intense concentration of thought and economy of material which characterises the greatest of those by Bach, By the time of Buxtehude, and especially noticeable in his work, a purely instrumental the organ had been evolved, free style of writing for

from the influence of the old vocal




tie effective possibilities of the instrument to the highest

Summing up, we may say that during the lyth-century instrumental music underwent as great a revolution as did that for voices. In all branches the influence of the old
* Bach's so-called 'Giant Fugue*

an example.

chord-progression. And a number of works appeared containing pieces in most of the twenty-four possible keys. at least by implication. was adequate. writes a toccata based on E major which. The ultimate solution was found in 'equal temperament' in which every one of the semitones is of the chromatic octave slightly out of tune by strict acoustic theory. sol. but beyond two or three sharps or flats. i. and a modification called 'mean tone' temperament was first worked out. extreme keys such as B and F sharp being excruciatingly out of tune. while Johann . As long as music remained modal. A suite by Andreas Werckmeister (1645 to 1706) uses seventeen of them. Buxtehude. although it does not modulate widely. would nevertheless be unbearable on anything but a 'tempered' instrument. instead of arising chiefly from the interweaving of separate melodic lines. The supersession of the modal system by the major and minor scales involved new methods of tuning. since his Fantasia on Ut. became an essential foundation over which the inter- play of contrapuntal parts could be carried out. Purely instrumental forms and a purely instrumental style of writing were evolved. fa. For a few keys around C major this was good enough. for example. By the use of equal tempera- ment able. but so slightly as to be imperceptible to all but the keenest of ears.132 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC vocal polyphony was shaken off. la ranges through every major key. John Bull must have understood the system. but this was not by any means satisfactory in dealing with a 'key 9 system . re. to allow for the possibility of modulation. all The first suggestion of this method of tuning appears in a work of the Spaniard Ramos de Pareja. moveto another. In the course of the ryth century more keys and all modulations became equally avail- and more works appear in which equal temperament is.e. in 1482. taken for granted. tuning in accordance basically with the natural laws of Acoustics. and it is also dealt with by the Italian theorist Zarlino (1517 to 1590). the effect became more and more unpleasant. mi. 'just temperament'. ment from one key and especially in minor keys.

of which the full title was The Well-Tempered two preludes and fugues in each of the twentyClavier* four major and minor keys. RECORDS Corelli Composer Title Oboe concerto Christmas concerto Sonata D min. min. sold in in the sets. used in this period to .INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 133 Ferdinand Fischer (d. and cover both harpsichord and clavichord. of course. 10 (echo)/ Variations on Da Jesus Videro an dem Kreuze stand \. Henry Wood) Wood/QHO is De. ('cello) Concerto Concerto harpsichords) Recorded by Rothwell/HO LSO Stocker HMV C354O HMV 063639/40 NLP PLP54O Col. not separately. The eventual outcome was. (four Goossens NLP HLPi024 0X8367/8 Couperiu Frescobaldi Various records. (oboe) A min. Cat. The works are played on the harpsichord by Wanda Landowska. HMV i Toccata sopra pedali Sweelinck Scheldt Fantasia No. Videro -. Bach's Forty-eight. Buxtehude Purcell Prelude and Fugue. c. AK975/6 * Clavier literally means keyboard. are obtainable Society Edition. G Videro HMV HMV HMV DB52I3 035248 Suite in 5 pieces (arr. 1738) in his Ariadne Musica adds two more. Vivaldi D min. JVb.

other vocal works.CHAPTER TEN THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL Y | I 1HE half of the eighteenth century is overshadowed by the colossal genius of Bach and Handel. Despite writing for the harpsichord to the the advances made in keyboard technique since his day. Scarlatti is com- parable to Mozart. the more so since their texture is always so economical. . sional handful of wrong notes (though hardly to be recommended) may be lost in the welter of sound. as Mozart's Rondo in Any A pianist knows that such a piece minor.* in four example. Scarlatti wrote over 500 sonatas. He was the great virtuoso of his time. In this. certain striking lesser but by no means is first be briefly considered. See. since in the latter there in a is no room way for error of any kind. many under the title of Exercises for Harpsichord. Scarlatti is chiefly famous for his harpsichord sonatas. published by Ricordi. so deceptively simple. taking the art of playing and he is comparable ultimate limit. though there are a number which subdivide into a series of movements. first JL There negligible Of these the composers who may are. son of Alessandro. say. most and important Domenico and Scarlatti (1685 to 1757). In these respects to Liszt. many of his works remain quite difficult enough for any but the above-average player. with outstanding technique and an almost fantastic insight into the possibilities of his instrument. a Liszt Rhapsody. however. is far more where the occatesting than. for minor (Longo 36). cantatas Although he wrote a number of operas. the sonata in G * The standard edition is that of Longo. The majority are short onemovement affairs in binary form. Arrangements of some of his pieces by such igth-century virtuosi as von Biilow are easier than the originals.

in Longo No. who was Bach's as Cantor at St. as distinct from suites. and so on. is a fasEqually important is his frequent use of cinating study. the most important being his frequent employment of 'corresponding cadence figures'. This is to some extent a foreshadowing of the 'second subject group which is a normal feature of the sonata form of the next generation. as is. is reproduced in the tonic at the end of the second part. For example. changes in the emotional temperature take place only within narrow limits. immediate predecessor These sonatas are in three or more movements. it may be said. In his use of binary form Scarlatti shows some notable features. 9 minor-key continuation. all 135 based on the same tonic key. a sad mood or a reflective one. An opening mood of vigour and cheerfulness is maintained throughout. generally in the dominant or relative major key. The first clavier sonatas. Any concerto of the period furnishes an adequate example of this consistency. The last section of the first part.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL contrasted sections. similarly. Leipzig. one mood*. were written to 1722). after a bar's rest. but the organisation of the internal details is infinitely variable and. moods within a single movement. in whose sonata form movements a vigorous. But Scarlatti is far from being rigid or stereotyped in his handling of form. But with Scarlatti we often find quite strong. D major. remarkable instances of programme . and ranging from a few bars to something quite extensive. Thomas's. Here again Scarlatti in a way looks forward to the practice of later generations. in both halves of the binary form there is a sudden change. almost capricious changes. It may be fundamentally binary. rhythmic first subject may be opposed by a melodious and strongly contrasted second group. and include by Johann Kuhnau (1660 Six Biblical Sonatas. 12. from a bright and happy major-key start to a really mournful. In the greater contrasting part of instrumental music of all kinds up to about the middle of the i8th century we find the principle of 'one movement.

B. for example. 19 followed. the suites of the French 9 lutenists and clavednists. by the fall Ex. as the of Goliath: commenting text informs us. 20 Loeillet. Kuhnau. and occasionally produces a movement quite worthy of Bach. took Old Testament stories and illustrated them step by step. in movements. But apart from 'battle pieces. with elucidatory comments above We separate the music. where the flight of the stone not altogether so naively) thus: expressed (perhaps Ex. for example. . however. In his sonatas for flute or oboe he often achieves really remarkable emotional intensity. Contemporary with Kuhnau was the Belgian J. as. 5 the 'story programme was rare. in The Combat between David and from David's sling is Goliath. have seen that in the i6th century a certain amount of illustrative music was written. and the principle was carried on in. At times he indulges in rather naive attempts at realism. Rather younger was Joachim Quantz (1697 to 1773). who is less widely known than he deserves to be.I 36 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC music.

the magnificence of their opera most houses. shows how composers of the time. . Graun. ranging from important and extensive ones like that of Prussia. worked only according to the taste of his king [Frederick]. like Vivaldi's interminable list ofconcerti grossi. he contrasts the operas of Hasse and Graun. He points out that Hasse. for example. were cultivated. on the other hand. after the Louis XIV. Quantz was flautist and composer to Frederick the Great. ing that monarch to play the for his instrument high. but his organ playing. unhampered by the taste or will of any person. The rulers of such states vied with each other in the size of their kapelle. He refers to Bach as 'a man this is in connection with 1741 to his death. serving a sympathetic master at the Dresden 6 court. the Arts. and in this position had the possibly uncomfortable privilege of teach- worthy of admiration'. as that the quality is often so Quantz. they were able to do this. The amazing thing is not so much that flute. The difficulties under which the 'tied' composer might labour are made clear in the Letters of an Attentive Traveller by J. less generally known. From His output of works concertos. wrote as he felt and as he wished. who was for a time kapellmeister to Frederick the Great. solos. what failed to please him was struck out. nevertheless rarely falls below a high level of competence.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL 137 a brilliant flautist and a sound musician. Writing in 1774. But wherever (and however) the money could be found. In his treatise on flute playing he has much of value to say about interpretation and musical aesthetics. the 'Age of Patronage*. etc. Reichardt. . trios. was immense. worked freely and. were forced by the conditions of their appointments to go on turning out work after work to satisfy the demands of their employers.' In Germany alone there were over three hundred states. and in their efforts to obtain the services of the . even though it were the best piece in the opera. though by no means a composer of the first rank. to others which were quite insignificant. F. and. . fashion set by especially Music.

S. Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frederick Handel were born in the same year as Scarlatti.f Bach was a devout Lutheran (his library at his death consisted largely of theological works). Friedemann. who was living in 1561. it was not until 1703. be a distinct handicap. like Hasse. Bach at Eisenach in Thuringia. Bach never touched that form. on March aist (Old Style). in that the musician might be assured of a reasonably safe livelihood. to 'write as he felt and as he wished But a ruler like Frederick might. The founder of the was one Hans Bach. when he had finished his course of study at the university of Halle. that he was free to follow his own inclinations. Handel's faith. Handel was widely travelled.* Handel's family tree seems to have provided him with no musical ancestors. This system had its advantages. Bach remained within one narrow area in central Germany. shall we go over to Dresden to hear the pretty iL tunes?' See G. Handel was a master of opera. It would be a ridiculous overstatement to suggest that there any resemblance ceases. Johann Sebastian was his great-great-great grandson. Handel had to overcome paternal opposition. a P: . Handel remained a bachelor all his life. was of a less strictly doctrinal character. Bach was trained to be a professional musician as a matter of course. Terry.138 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC famous musicians of the time. and with the right land of employer might be able. He was intended for the Law. t * line t His attitude to opera is attested by his remark to his eldest son: *WeU. Bach came of a long line of professional musicians. Bach married twice and was the father of twenty children. Some sixty of the family have been identified by name. Handel at Halle in Saxony. on February 23rd. and although his father died in 1696. fifty-three of them being musicians. Back. all his life his longest journey being to Liibeck in 1 705. but there are sufficient fundamental differ- ences between the two series men and their work to warrant a of comparisons. 9 . 1685. while doubtless equally sincere. to hear Buxtehude. Handel was Space forbids the tracing of Bach's ancestry. from the point of view of musical progress.

an attitude of contrasts could be extended almost indefinitely. though on two occasions Bach endeavoured to get in personal touch with his great contemporary. Unfortunately for posterity. for whose private chapel he wrote the . his reply was to the effect of.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL for 139 much of his life service of either the Church or some a freelance. to Hamburg. among other works. the two men never met. which in Bach's case sometimes degenerated into what can only be called 'cussedness'. In one respect at least their characters were similar neither seems to have suffered fools Both seem to have had a certain streak of obstinacy. Here. sistorium of Arnstadt for having prolonged four weeks' leave of absence to four months. In 1710 he became Kapellmeister to the Elector of Hanover. in 1705. was produced his first opera. Bach was but little concerned with the effect of his music on his audience. Bach was always in the princely court. though he never merely pandered to it. and where was produced. from 1717 to 1720. and perhaps the most important of all is that Handel always tended to bear in mind the taste of his public. whereas Bach wrote simply to satisfy his own conscience. you've got a deputy' and that seems to have been all he had to say. 'Well. In 1703 ment was in the same capacity to the Duke of Chandos. being employed at the opera house under Keiser. We can generally feel that list a which at times drew the censure of his employers. Zachau was a thoroughly sound musician. His only other comparable appoint- Handel went Handel's musical life dates from 1693. when he began to study with Zachau. Almira. the opera Agrippina (1709). had an eye on the man in the back row of the gallery. where he learned all there was to be known about the Italian style of writing. Such Handel. to put it colloquially. When reproached by the Gongladly. who was later to become George I of England. Four years later he was in Italy. and it is worth noting that a number of turns of phrase which are generally labelled as 'typically Handelian' are to be found in the work of the older man.

Later works. Agrippina leans to the methods of the Venetian school of Legrenzi and Caldara. Almira and Rodrigo. with Buononcini and Ariosto. Handel's first visit to London. In his earliest operas. There were no long da capo arias. in 1712. many of the tunes were well-known contemporary songs. with spoken dialogue. This was a *ballad opera'. in 1710. This was partly due to the production in 1728 of The Beggar's Opera. and like all of its kind was in the vernacular. The subjects of ballad operas were not mythological or historical. and the purely Italian style was no longer so favoured as formerly. In them he showed that he had nothing to learn of the art of choral writing for the English rite. Instead. until Orlando of 1732. was the beginning of permanent residence in this country. Until 1728 he was a director. with much of its conFrom this time he ventionality. as were those of the Italian type.g. Rinaldo (1711). an operatic venture begun in 1719 with the support of the king. Ballad opera was a live. be noted that although Handel's operas were of the Italian he quite often opens with a 'French* overture. but were taken from everyday life. and thereafter with oratorio. and this influence persists. with which he came in contact in the early part of his stay in Italy. . quick-moving and * It may variety. his first London opera. but public taste was changing. Court intrigue the king was at loggerheads with the Prince of Wales and rivalries within the company itself caused the final bankruptcy and collapse of the Academy. show the influence of his Neapolitan friend Alessandro Scarlatti. was brief.* falls From began to show less regard for convention. Handel shows the influence of Keiser. Up to 1740 he was mainly concerned with the writing of opera. or on his own. but his second. and in the next few years Handel produced operas either in conjunction with the impresario Heidegger. designed chiefly for the singers to display their ability. of the *Royal Academy of Music'.140 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC twelve Chandos anthems. poser 1712 until his death in 1759 Handel's life as a cominto two periods. e.

Others had appeared at intervals before the final group of master works of his later years. Handel struggled against the current. though an English version of The Triumph of Time and Truth. A comparison is sometimes drawn between their respective settings of the words Glory to God in the highest . From the simplicity and fervour of / know that my Redeemer liveth to the brilliant coloratura of Rejoice Greatly. In 1741 followed the best known of all oratorios. Deborah and Athalia (1733).THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL 141 easily understood kind of work. appeared in 1757. The Resurrection and The Triumph of Time and Truth. Besides these. every variety of aria is to be found.g. Bach. followed by on earth*. two years before the composer's death. In all these works Handel shows his mastery of all kinds of vocal writing. but by 1740. in the Christmas Oratorio. when he wrote his operatic swan- song. mention must be made of a setting of the Passion text of Brockes. gives us c 9 Glory to God . no fewer than twenty-eight are choral. e. the first and second versions of Esther (1720 and 1732). Of its thirty-nine numbers. and may well suffice here. in which the influence of the Roman Carissimi is evident. Handel. which year also saw the composition of Saul. he realised that his day as a composer of operas was ended. Messiah. while in Israel in Egypt the chorus for the first time becomes the protagonist. Both were first performed in 1739. the first was Israel in Egypt of 1738. which is unfortunately too little known. As early as 1708 Handel had written two Italian oratorios. Although Handel was as capable a contrapuntist as any composer of his time. an initial hammer-blow with a sudden hush at and peace an effect calculated to make an immediate appeal e to the non-musician. and the last to be written was Jephtha of 1751. Deidamia. in his * 5 version in Messiah. in 1716. gives . much expanded. on the whole he lacks the intense concentration of Bach. which made an immediate appeal to a public which had grown tired of the grandiose artificiality of the Italian style. Of the few oratorios which are now performed with any frequency.

where he remained for three years. at the other lies the setting of the one of the greatest 'Comfort ye first two words of Messiah strokes of genius in the whole of music. At this time. who was himself a pupil of Reinken. thanks to his willingness to undertake long walks. for example. Handd may be said to have summed up the Italian style of writing which had evolved during the I7th century. Bach obtained his first independent appointment. Bach. In 1700 he was admitted to the Michaelisschiile at Liineburg. he trudged sixty miles to Celle. bringing back impressions which for long showed in his compositions. as organist at the Church at Arnstadt. adopted what he thought best from both and incorporated it into the essential German style to which he had St. and he received his musical education at first from his elder brother Johann Christoph. he came under the influence of Buxtehude. far south of Lizneburg. It was during this period that Bach for the first time walked the thirty miles to Hamburg to hear that great old man. which show that Handel was by no means hidebound in his attitude to that form. No. Bach's father died when the boy was but ten years old. contains no dances at all. but only a New few miles from his birthplace. Such movements as 'Glory to God'. 2.143 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC us page after page of magnificent rolling counterpoint which appeals more to the trained musician. After a short period in the service of Duke Johann Ernst. coming under the influence of Bohm. studying and copying the music of both Italy and France. Blasius's . at Ohrdruf. or the 'Alleluia' chorus stand at 9 one end of Handel's scale. The remainder of been briefly outlined in Chapter i. there are various suites for harpsichord. and again returned with impressions that remained. a pupil of Pachelbel. younger brother of the reigning Duke of Weimar. While there. too. In 1707 he moved to become organist of his life has Church in Mulhaiisen. The concerti grossi follow the tradition of Vivaldi. as do also the various sonatas. Apart from his operas and oratorios. where he encountered music in the French style.

in which the models of Gorelli and Vivaldi are raised to the highest power. of the Weimar period (1708 to show much of the influence of the northern school. a string of musical pearls. In all other branches of music. and adding always the intangible something which was the fruit of his own genius. led to a revival of interest in his works which has lasted to the present day and shows no signs of diminishing. and forgotten after his death. and the great Prelude and Fugue in D major. as. employing every possible method of treatment. for example. in 1829. Reinken and Buxtehude. From his Weimar days comes the Little Organ Book) unfortunately never completed. harpsichord and organ. This tendency reaches its climax in the works C intensified. and the work done by Mendelssohn (who arranged. The subject-matter becomes increasingly terse and the treatment of it more and tautness of texture. a model of succinctness. opera and early organ works. and which he raised to the highest perIt was for Handel to develop Italian fection. Their brilliant style and somewhat loose construction are in the Buxtehude tradition. the publication of ForkeFs monograph in 1802. In them Bach varies the composition . The in of the Leipzig period. incidentally. the wellknown Toccata and Fugue in D minor. a centenary performance of the St. 1717). Throughout his life. Bach was supreme. Bach wrote Chorale Preludes. in the great Passacaglia minor. and they reveal. Matthew Passion) and others. Hardly acknowledged in his lifetime as anything more than a composer of competent kapellmeister status. the young organist with a fine technique which he was not unwilling to display. With increasing age and experience we find greater concentration and oratorio to a point not hitherto attained. except during his time at Gothen (1717 to 1723). for orchestra. such as the 'Great* B minor prelude and fugue and that in G major. for example. in cantatas and Passions.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL 143 been brought up. Such are. more Cothen saw the composition of the Brandenburg Concertos (so called from their dedication to the ruler of that state).

This was arranged by his son Carl Philipp Emanud. musically it stands almost alone. belong most of the cantatas (though some date from his appointment as kon&rtmeister at Weimar in 1714). the violin concertos and sonatas. After the Forty-eight there was nothing more to be said on the matter. Technically it is stupendous. in 1747. The great event in Bach's later life was his visit to Frederick the Great at Potsdam. at Leipzig). This last. The great six-part ricercare in it is a masterpiece among masterIn his dedication Bach refers to the king's 'truly pieces. Towards the end of his life Bach began work on what he intended to be a complete exposition of everything fugal. but died before finishing it. John and St. including the six 'Schiibler' chorale preludes and those in the Clavierubung. This has been aptly described by C. It was at Cothen that the first book of The Well-Tempered Clavier was completed (the second book dates from 1744. His rather prickly temper often involved him in difficulties with them. Terry as 'his conclusive contribution to the controversy raging round the tuning of the clavichord'. . To the Leipzig period. the latest and greatest of the organ works. the St. the first of the great 'concert' masses. at that time in the king's service. as well as many other purely instrumental works. which coveted title he hoped might improve his standing with the authorities in Leipzig. S. and shows that was possible than had been achieved by Vivaldi. was written (and partly compiled by adaptations from cantatas) to enable Bach to obtain the post of court composer to die Elector of Saxony. the Art of Fugue. Matthew Passions and the Mass in B Minor.144 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC concertino to a far greater degree than had any of his even greater rhythmic drive predecessors. and resulted in the composition of the Musical Offering. from 1723. royal subject'. We may of the note also the four Overtures (suites) for orchestra. a series of pieces based on a subject given by Frederick. and proceeds to treat it in a truly royal manner.

3006 . 516 LXT. nai/3 LXTA. Technical ability. in a rather derogatory sense.S. 59. 13001 LM. With the death of Bach in 1750 and Handel in 1759 an era comes to an end. the treatment of the 9 bitterly in Peter's denial in the St. 9150 LX. structure becomes more and more tightly knit. 2501. LXA. Matthew of 1729. Harpsichord Suite Messiah Recital of Arias G LX. words 'wept noticeable even in works which are separated by only Compare. LXT. 33 KLC. 8 Essercizi for Gravicembalo 8 Sonatas (piano) AP. 2540. and such music became known as 'learned'.M. as with 145 most of the great composers. APL. Between them they summed up all the tendencies of music since 1600. The difference a few years. for example. Nos. 66. Cat. The complexities of the contrapuntal style were no longer acceptable. Vol. we see maturity in age bringing an increase of intensity and economy as to in his compositions.) Title 6. only half as long.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL With Bach. 60. 3029. The development of the new style will be the subject of our next chapter. is used simply to serve expressive ends. No. RECORDS H. See also: Composer Scarlatti (D. 2757 33 OCX. 4541 Handel Two Goncerti Grossi minor Oboe Concerto. way is The occasional straggliness of the early works gives to the concentration of the later ones. but the latter. but by their later years tastes were changing. so great be almost superhuman. The former is moving. John Passion of 1723 with that in the St. is almost unbearable in its despair. 1171 1146/8 Bach Mass in B Minor Brandenburg Concertos Concerto for two violins Cantata "Praise our God" OCX. 3081 DA. 61.

No. 532 .) Cat. Joy of Man's Toccata and Fugue in Desiring" Fantasia and Fugue in D Minor FAP G Minor LX.I 46 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Title Bach Composer (contd. 3007 i 8236 (orchestral arrangement) KL. Cantata "Jesu.C.

lighter. less generally such music was of a kind to be heard rather than carefully listened to. there was a IN and Handel were producing swing away from polyphony (at least in certain cases) to homophony. as does the work of some of the successors of Vivaldi. there arose changes of taste which involved corresponding changes in the style of music. a serious style evolved. while Bach their greatest works. as in the clavecin pieces of Couperin and his successor Jean Philippe Rameau (1683 to 1764). while Domenico Scarlatti's sonatas show a complete lack of interest in anything truly contra- The cantatas of Georg Philipp Telemann (1681 and Christoph Graupner (1683 to 1760) show leanings to the style galant. Pietro Locatelli (1693 to 1764) and puntaLT to 1767) which * It must be pointed out that this chapter will not deal with opera. usually known as the style galant. at the beginning of the lyth century. We have seen how. Bukofzer.CHAPTER ELEVEN THE RISE OF CLASSICISM the second quarter of the i8th century. From about 1 730 onwards there was a rather similar swing away from the contrapuntal style* to music in which the stress was on the vertical aspect rather than on the horizontal. e. Broadly speaking.g. say. of course. Besides this. essentially non-contrapuntal. work t Dr. which aimed chiefly at grace and elegance. suggests that in Scarlatti's 'the nearing classic style manifests itself openly'. Anticipations of the new style are numerous. . in Music in the Baroque Era. it required but little of the mental concentration which was needed for the appreciation of. is. a Bach concerto.

were laid. its place being taken by the solo sonata. His to first 1788). The new invention was exploited in Germany by who found Bach critical of his early efforts. Silbermann. not plucked. preferred his clavichord. allegro ment of the sonata drops takes first and the place. It is at this time that the foundations of the clavier sonata. though as late as 1802 some of Beethoven's sonatas were as 'for I published sichord or pianoforte*. Carl Philipp Emanuel (1714 worked on the three movement plan. and to * The ousting of the harpsichord by the piano took place in the second half of the century. the normal plan becomes that of the out. Possibly more than any of his predecessors except Scarlatti. and even indulging in experiments in recitative. This gave the player control by the fingers over gradations of tone. It is noticeable that the traditional trio sonata now falls into disuse. he shows a considerable advance on the practice of the older composers. He movements Using the 'corresponding cadence mentioned in connection with Scarlatti. the Cantor . slow.148 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Francesco Veracini (c. he seems to have held a poor opinion of 'learned music'. In his slow movements. being distinguished from the older instrument by the fact that its strings were struck by hammers. hence the name originally used by the inventor. thus pointing the way to the true second subject group of the later. His important book The True Manner of Keyboard Performance remains a mine of information on the musical practice of his time. which were figures' also much employed by his father in suite movements. fully-developed form. he found more satisfactory. Despite his professed admiration for the works of his father. using a wide range of keys and styles. he achieved a true keyboard style. Later. 1683 to 1750). which Bach was able to try when he visited Potsdam. the most important composer being Bach's third son. quick. losing its fugal character Italian overture quick. more developed examples. By the end of the century the harpsichord was obsolescent. he gradually increased their contrast with the opening material. Thus. The piano was invented about 1709 by Cristofori in Florence. The initial slow move- movement and becoming homophonic. are basically binary.* which reached its climax in the pianoforte sonatas of Beethoven. grauicembalo (=harpsichord) col piano e forte.

To this was often added a minuet between the last two movements. There was always a basis of strings ist and and violins. the symphony really dates from around 1740. But these are really canzonas under another name. had been written well back in the 1 7th century. The symphony began to develop contemporaneously with the sonata. and another of 1650 for two violins. 'cellos and basses (whose parts were normally identical) with harpsichord continuo. The demand for symphonies became very great. a carry-over from the divertimento type of work. Nuremburg in Handel wrote . The term 'symphony' was also sometimes used for introductory movements (apart from opera). and their composition was variable.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM 149 have considered lack of contrapuntal ability no great matter. and composers found it desirable to write them apart from any operatic connection. including various dances. plus one or two bassoons. There exists one of 1629 for two violins and bass by Bartolomeo Mont'-Albano. which might run to a large number of movements.* Orchestration in the modern sense of the term . Above these might be a pair of flutes or oboes. * The clarinet was invented by Johann Denner of 1694. an overture for two clarinets and corno da caccia. As an independent form. sonatas for orchestra. Later it became customary to employ a pair of both flutes and oboes. and two horns. two trumpets and two kettledrums. as in the case of that to Bach's G minor Partita (=suite) for clavier. viola and bass viol by Gregorio Allegri. apart from the sinfonia avanti Vopera. their structural development following that of the solo sonata for clavier or violin. The normal plan was of three movements. and still are. The early orchestras were small. Such symphonies were. the last two being omitted in the quiet slow movements. and its rise was at least partly due to the establishment of public concerts. deriving from the Italian overture. Works under the title of symphony. as in the Italian overture. and at first was naturally of a very crude nature. violas. Clarinets do not appear until the end of the century.

* Space has forbidden any consideration of Bach's use of the orchestra in the preceding chapter. The student should realise that although he lived before the rise of orchestration in the present-day sense of the term. In this. For example. violins. on me. Matthew Passion by a flute and two oboi da cacda>% we can only feel that the colour is entirely 'right'. that little distinction is made in the style of writing for the various instruments. Scarlatti was a pioneer. predecessor of the cor anglais. are the first and third movements of Bach's 2nd Brandenburg Concerto. In Bach and Handel we find. t For a simple example of the early iSth-century style of orchestra^ tion the reader may refer to one of the oboe concertos of Handel. Examples could be multiplied early 18th-century orchestration was naturally largely conditioned by the doctrine of 'affections'.! This is especially noticeable in the accompaniments to vocal pieces.I 5o A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC to develop. Similarly with the solo violin which is added to the quartet in the aria Have mercy. . in its own way. and which became normal in anything approaching the kaleidoscopic changes of colour later ages was obviously out of the question. rather naturally in view of their fundamentally contrapuntal texture. and Where may later appear transthese composers show their appreciation of tone colour is in their choice of instruments for particular movements. 1 7th- much as the voice does it express Peter's utter indefinitely.* now begins in the use of the instruments as ceding generation. Lord. with some considerable differences compared with the pre- A passage first stated on the entirely suited to them. ferred literally to flutes or oboes. Bach's handling of the orchestra was. % The 'hunting oboe*. as has been pointed out. As long e as the principle of one movement. when Bach accompanies the aria For love of us my Saviour suffered in the St. one mood' held good. One of the most important changes which came over music in the second half of the i8th century was the tendency to strong contrasts of emotional temperature within a single movement. being bound up with the generally contrapuntal style of writing. Less simple. as masterly as that of any later composer. but possibly more instructive. Quite as despair. But the whole method and approach were different.

RISE OF CLASSICISM find that the 151 In Bach and Handel we wood wind and the violas are expected to work as hard as the violins. Karl Friedrich who. as the new style after all life that he had done to develop the new style. We must assume that Bach and Handel took not inconsiderable risks in their writing for this instrument. The upper strings did most of the melodic work. for which reason composers of the galant period rarely gave the viola a truly independent or important part. even Haydn. on a melody (in the broadest sense of the term) and a bass. The standard of viola playing was generally low. roughly speaking. All these were Karl Ditters concerned with the gradual evolution of the symphony as we know it. aginary) toccata Browning wrote his poem. on whose (im1775). provided a background. 1700 Baldassare Galuppi (1706 to 1785). But in the new galant style the wind are largely relegated to holding notes. charge of the orchestra at the electoral court reached a height of expressiveness where his renderings hitherto almost unknown. changed use of wood wind. we must realise style of writing was based. But this must not be taken too liter- As to the that the new ally. The list of early symphonists is lengthy. plus the contimto. and (1735 to 1782) was active for many years von Dittersdorf (i 739 to 1 799). Johann was in of Mannheim. with Bach's youngest son Johann Christian 1787). in London. Among the more to important are Giovanni Battista Sammartini (c.THE. developed so did the use and individualisation of the instruments. the wind. Georg Christoph Abel (1725 to Wagenseil (1715 to 1777). The violas cling tightly to the 'cellos and spend much of their time doubling the parts of their larger brothers. Specially important are Johann Stamitz (1717 to 1757) and his son Karl (1746 to 1801). He was one of the first to make . their parts often being almost devoid of melodic interest. said late in it was a pity he had to die just as he was learning how to use the wood wind. Mozart made perhaps more progress in this direction than anybody. with non-contrapuntal inner parts.

however.i 52 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC full use. In 1759 he obtained an appointment with Count Morzin. 'cared not a straw whether he was an artist or a shoemaker'. He managed. and the 'Mannheim crescendo was famous through- out musical Europe. with a small but secure 20 a year plus board and lodging. was one of the greatest benefactors of music in the whole of invention. As a composer he must have been able to shut himself up in a mental world of his own. his voice having broken. Prince Nicholas 'the Magnificent'. It is extraordinary that Haydn. . At the age of eight he was admitted as a chorister at St. The second of these.* Mozart was greatly influenced by the performances he heard at Mannheim. but from a very early age gave signs of talent. Italian musicians in the early part of the i8th century used swelling and diminishing of tone in all kinds of music. The pretext for his dismissal. He was now thrown on his own resources. he seems to have had no notable musical ancestry. Like Handel. saddled with a vixen of a wife who. the son of a wheelwright. could write so much music of a happy and carefree nature. 1732. and salary of about proceeded to marry the daughter of a wigmaker who was a perpetual cross to him until she died in 1800. was a practical joke which he had perpetrated on one of his fellows. Stamitz's They had been in use in opera since the time of Caccini. as he himself said. where he remained until 1748. Le. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. * Crescendo and diminuendo were not. to obtain and study the important theoretical works of the time and so gradually built up his technique as a composer. who succeeded to the title in 1762. was born at Rohrau in Austria on March 3ist. 'block' contrasts of degrees of tone. of a gradual increase or decrease of tone as opposed to the 'terrace' dynamics. and Geminiani employed them in instrumental music. The two greatest figures of the second half of the i8th century are Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. and until 1 756 was miserably poor. of the preceding 9 period. From 1761 to 1790 he was in the service of the enormously wealthy Esterhazys. in orchestral performance. Haydn. as is sometimes implied.

the orchestra small and its treatment relatively undeveloped. character of thematic material within a movement. his salary generous. and the purposes of composers in those days were consequently not exalted to any high pitch. his relations with his employer were easy. As Sir Hubert Parry says in the article Symphony in Grove. far the E flat sonata. He died in Vienna on May 3ist. The clavier sonatas are built on the foundations laid by Emanuel Bach.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM the 153 Age of Patronage. but hardly the whole distance. 1809. This was natural enough. but . since in his early days the symphony was not considered a very important branch of art. From Bach's more or less tentative development of binary form he gradually evolved the settled outline of the full Europe. Performances must have been often rough and ready. refinement. or originality. famous all over 5 In Haydn we see the work of the early sonatists and symphonists developed to a point from which Beethoven was able to take his departure. Although Haydn had to wear a any other servant. Mozart farther. for example. the slow is in the very distant key of E major. 82. Then followed his two visits to London under the aegis of the impresario Salomon. Haydn to allow a second subject to grow from on the whole went Haydn the only real difference being that of key. beyond anything that Emanuel Bach ever attempted. is notable for his adventurousness in key plan. and he was given every livery like encouragement. sonata form. It re- mained for Beethoven to develop real differentiation in the was often content the first. to be healthily pleased and entertained. to whose work Haydn admitted he owed much. to 'write as he felt and as he wished . After 1790 he was free of any appointment. 'with regard to deep meaning. not stirred with deep emotion. poetical intention. like Hasse at Dresden. In movement The early symphonies (Haydn wrote altogether over & hundred) are mostly in the galant style. with a comfortable pension. op. they wanted They (the audiences) appear to have cared very little. honoured by all.

not the composer). leaving Besides such works were a multitude of divertimenti.154 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC . and the viola. written *in an entirely new and special manner'. the former master of the galant style has now become the great classic. Mozart's great minor. the craftsis superb and the orchestration manship impeccable. reason they lacked a continuo part. 9 find the true quartet style firmly established. contimo. for his visits to London. We have by now moved a long . dating from the middle 1 760*8. cassations and serenades. The latter derived mainly from the sonata for strings and continue. 33 (1781). 3 (the opus number is that of a publisher. Haydn is sometimes called the Father of the Symphony. are a landmark in their mastery of thematic development. The inclusion of this movement. The part-writing is of greater interest. and designed primarily for open-air performafter Vivaldi. While there is not the emotional depth of. however. an outstanding violinist of the generation G men occasionally dispensed with the the strings to stand on their own feet. consisting of an indefinite number of movements. was a relic of the divertithis For earliest quartets mento. the two 'Salomon* sets. Haydn's are of the divertimento type. is now exsix quartets pected to pull his weight with greater independence. the mature hand of the great master is evident. 17 (1769 and 1771 respectively) we With op. and op. equally he was the Father of the String Quartet. the third being a minuet. as in the symphony. were limited to a simple and unpretentious supply. The of op. via such works as the quadri of Sam-martini and his fellow-countryman Giuseppe Tartini (1692 to 1770). in particular. . say. are more truly quartets in the accepted sense. spontaneity. and the wealth of delightful ideas shows that increasing age brought no diminution of inventiveness and. which often contained two or more. Haydn was composed influenced by these considerations till the last/ In the latest symphonies. . These ance. In his young days there was but little distinction between symphony and quartet. but those of op. They are in four movements.

Mozart travelled widely throughout his life Mannheim. achieved his mastery by struggle and hard work over a period of years. From his earliest years the young Mozart's great talent was evident. The not find the libretto really attractive. Haydn. The writer^has even heard the opinion expressed.* It is impossible to deal. were dragged round Europe and to England as infant prodigies. Despite public distaste for learned* music. have much preferred him * still to though his father would remain in a settled post. composers' training was and largely based on contrapuntal practice. and both Haydn Mozart were brilliant contrapuntists. Paris. The later quartets show increasing mastery in all directions. Wolfgang and his sister Marianne. who was a musician of considerable attainments. where he had attended various performances of Handel's oratorios. apart from his natural ability. with much of Haydn's other work. He remarked that whereas the characters in The Creation were angels. and had been overwhelmed by their power.) At the age of six.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM way from the 155 slightly developed binary form of Emanuel Bach. even in the barest outline. Rome. his father. by a musician of great erudition and experience. etc. written in 1800. whole less successful. if not 'born fully armed . also musically gifted. . Mozart. allowing for the inevitable differences in idiom. including mastery of counterpoint. but reference must be made to his two great choral works. Leopold. and he received careful instruction from his father. is the true successor of the oraThe Seasons. that Mozart was a greater contrapuntist than Bach. in The Seasons they were merely peasants. was on the torios of Handel. may be considered possibly the most naturally gifted musician who has ever lived. The former was the outcome of his experiences in London. Milan. being a violinist (later vice-kapellmeister) in the 9 3 Creation was written in 1797 and. Haydn was in poor health and did private orchestra of the Prince Archbishop of that city. The Creation and The Seasons. Unlike Haydn. (His still Method for the Violin was for long a standard work and is to be studied with profit. He was born in Salzburg on January 27th 1756.

always favour of his employer. its free expression. and a fuller command of the orchestra' (Grove). Although Haydn was the elder by four years. with comparatively rare exceptions. having previously an affaire with her elder sister Aloysia. make pitiable reading). Mozart's early works are naturally enough in the style from those of his contemporgalant. the emotion is strictly controlled. and again. at In 1781 he first met the age of twenty-two. is not the G . proportion and pure beauty are unsurpassed. In cautionary letters and admonitions from had 1782 he married Gonstanze Weber. in whose later works. the elements of structural balance. but are distinguished aries by their superior craftsmanship and elegance. Not that the emotional side is eliminated. thereby adding to his difficulties with Leopold. dying December 5th. possibly the most tidy and ever lived. and when away from home was perpetually chased by his father. and. was buried in a pauper's grave outside Vienna. so strongly characteristic of the Romantics of the igth century. an encounter which turned out to be mutually Haydn. His to a steady income and the economical composer who son. always with promises of on speedy repayment. while from Mozart Haydn learned 'a rounder phrase. showed increasing fecklessness as he grew older. 1791.i5 6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC with an eye Leopold was of a careful disposition. some twentyprofitable. It is from this time that the clever young exponent of the style galant develops into the great classic. in Paris. there One is much more than mere well-balanced 'patterning'. each learned from the other. He was at first strongly influenced by the style of Christian Bach. as in those of his elder contemporary. a richer harmonisation. minor symphony to realise has only to think of the great this. From Haydn Mozart learned much of the possibilities of form and expression. But. whom he met as a child in London. As time went on he became his friend and fellow deeply in debt (his begging letters to Freemason Michael Puchberg.

the slow movement of the major piano concerto (K. or Bach's ultimate affirmation of faith this was the Son of God' in the St. he concertos. wrote equally well for both instruments. his craftsmanship is pure delight. Passion. but it is never allowed to override perfect balance A irresistibly. 488) or that of the Sinfonia Concertante for violin. quoted. we find. did space permit. noting how the cadence figure of the G minuet. It is comparable only as the first entry of the fugue subject in Beethoven's genius sonata op. from the gdanthe sheer terie of the first. Even more than is the case with much the same line of development as Haydn. and there is never a note too many. becomes the opening of the The incredible effect of this transformation can only trio. greater techprogressed. work can omit reference to his both as a clavierist and a violinist. the It is in the last for piano was in the year of his death. nical mastery of the medium. viola and orchesand tra. In his symphonies and chamber music Mozart followed Both. progressed and possibly farther. Above all composers. the quintessential Mozart. in the context of complete with such strokes of performance. no. put from minor into major key (a mechanical procedure if ever there was one). written at the age of seventeen. as they achieved greater mastery of form. be realised fully. as in the later symphonies concertos for piano that and chamber music. In them he exhibits the complete range of his style. and of obtaining the maximum effectiveness by the Pages of examples could be simplest of means. superb instance. but whereas the last complete concerto for violin was written in 1777. as in symmetry of form. Mozart understood the art of concealing art. the reader may turn to the second movement of the minor string quintet. Haydn. Matthew in 'Truly. as the shorter-lived. to No sketch of Mozart's Brilliant . For a single. of course.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM prime it 157 wells up Occasionally object. and greater depth of meanmore rapidly ing. Mozart. Everything is vital to the total effect.

but the first of real importance are those of Mozart. the day of handfuls of notes. In his passage-work. On the purely technical side. as it is apt to lead to misunderstanding. the continuo during the century.) about 300 years for music to evolve from the of the old organum up to measurable music. i. In the first movements there are traces of the old concerto form of the preceding period. strictly correct. as in everything else.* The second movement is most frequently an andante^ and the finale often a rondo. the concertos show the 9 This element. especially in the orchestral introduction which serves as an 'opening ritornello . in the works of such composers decline in importance of With the gradual Tartini. The display element is strictly controlled. moving. 'slow'. Companion to Mozart's Pianoforte Concertos. 3. rise and development of the 'display to creep into works for the violin as early had A major of 1786 and the tragedy of minor of the same as and the tendency was intensified as time as Veracini and passed. and Hutchings. and of limpid clarity. means *going*. it may be pointed out. Another 300 to the climax of the polyphonic style. Haydn wrote a small number of piano concertos. All are in three movements. splashed liberally all over the keyboard. t Which term. (We do not use the word 'progress* here. Mozart means every At this stage we may pause to note the gradual speedingup of the tempo of musical change. beginnings Then another 150 before Ars Nova appeared. begun the piano came into their own as individuals in concerted music. * There is But now we find a good deal of misunderstanding regarding the form of form with a double these movements. and the frequent statement that they are in exposition* is 'sonata Essays in Musical Analysis. introduction to Vol. the harpsichord and Torelli. not . sometimes of distinctly complex internal 9 construction. for See Tovey.i 58 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC beauty of the famous the great C year. lacking the minuet. note to say something to the point.e. was as yet far distant. not a full discussion. and about 150 to It took the masterpieces of Bach and Handel.

4005 LXT. both in outlook and technical method. (Jupiter) String Quintet. 1052 LX. Bach Boccherini Composer Title Divertimento and Serenade Sinfonias in E fiat and String Quartet in Symphony in F sharp minor D D APM. 33 OCX. 6 With Verdure Clad (Creation) Mozart Symphonies in G. this. 2680 Haydn (Farewell) Symphony No. 14084 ABR. 1061 - 18397 cx Quartet in E Flat. 2680 DX. JVb. 10140 Overtures Piano Concerto. 1316 PL. Cat. 2515 1 178 . Op. C. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik A Major G Minor LXT. 3022 LX. It took over 600 years for the modal system to be played out. 64 No. and we shall see later how further changes. but the major and minor scale system. RECORDS L. 1088 OALP. is already. of course. 3010 OBLP. But after less than 300.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM 159 a new style reaching a climax in three-quarters of a century. 2 in D Major (London) ALP. Symphony in Symphony in D and C G Minor C Major LXT. LPM. Mozart J. followed in comparatively rapid succession. reaching the end of its tether. is purely a matter of personal opinion. at least according to some contemporary musicians.

especially in the Neapolitan school of Scarlatti and his successors. continue. her feelings on her predicament. Johnson defined opera. the arias. many of the arias. except for the characters' re- actions to the situations in being really for the singers to exhibit their vocal talents. as which they found themselves. No wonder Dr. expressing ensemble numbers. but an opera as a whole was.* 'just a concert in costume'. jects for libretti were number arias were an occasional duet. opera was bogged down in a mass of conventions. The heroine. and the overture was often of few if any of the audience Opera (Pdican Books). Subrestricted almost. True. or led away to the torture chamber. The action of the story was carried along by recitative with the barest of accompaniment. The orchestra was small. to or ancient history. there was a set mythology of characters. In Italy.CHAPTER TWELVE DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA WE classical must now retrace our steps to follow the course pursued by opera from the point at which we left it in Chapter 8. holds up an exotic and irrational entertainment' The irrationality was in no way diminished by the employment of male e ! sopranos for heroic parts. had considerable musical value. if not entirely. outside the action and serving largely as media dungeon. her captors awaiting the end of her outburst with exemplary patience. mostly strings with harpsichord negligible value. Dent puts it. and in ternary form. for example. as separate pieces. the number and order of whose strictly regulated. in his dictionary. as Prof. were almost unheard-of. by the early years of the i8th century. In any * case. finding herself about to be cast into the deepest the action while she expresses at length. .

judging by the applause. mere vocal pyrotechnics. saddened by thoughts of the tragic and strained by its attention to matters of gravity*.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA 161 bothered to listen to it. 'to cheer and repose the spirit of the spectator. The orchestra. and served to cover up the shuffling of feet and the conversation of the audience who were awaiting the appearance of their pet singers. a possibility entirely overlooked by the Italians. too. and with the development of opera a similar practice obtained. This independence was largely the work of Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710 to 1736). Separated from the opera seria> the 'serious opera*. at least by Rameau. whose La Serva Padrona is the most famous of all such works. Though. as was ballet. an individual form. The subjects of the French operas were similar to those of the Italian. It had rarely any recognisable connection with the opera itself. Gradually the Intermezzi achieved character and coherence of their own. was used with greater ingenuity than was common in Italy. By the beginning of the i8th century they had become little two-act affairs. by Intermezzi. was sometimes used. The idea seems to have been similar to that of the Intermezzi as explained by Rousseau in his Dictionary of Music (1767). the Intermezzo became known as opera buffd comic due course the Intermezzi achieving independence as * The writer was interested to find a similar procedure occurring in India as recently as 1943. with which they had no connection either in plot or music. for descriptive purposes. the comedy turns did little to "repose* the spirits of the sepoys who formed the bulk of the audience! . A travelling company of entertainers whom he saw alternated the acts of an historical drama with low comedy turns. which were interlocked with the three acts of the opera proper. were discountenanced. Besides this.* In became separated from the opera. From very early times it had been customary to provide it light relief between the acts of a tragedy. In the period before 1600. In France the Lullian tradition was carried on by Rameau. madrigals would be sung. choral movements were a regular constituent. for example. but in the musical setting there was more insistence on declamation as opposed to pure singing. as in the aria di bravura of Italy. Instead of merely providing a subordinate accompaniment.

neither measure nor A . dancing. as in the French. in his Letter on French Music. 'that the French have no music and cannot have any. With the arrival of Les Bouffons warfare flared up violently. or the dramatic side. Joseph Addison ( 1 672 witty things to say of the traditional while in Italy itself Benedetto Marcdlo satirised the native opera and the vanity of the singers. that its harmony is crude and devoid of expression*. more conservative. often conducted in a remarkably virulent manner. as in Italian opera. * . The pro-French complained that all the Italians thought of was singing.162 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC It opera. etc. many being F. The latter. Finally. In 1752 an Italian troupe. von Grimm (1723 to 1807) and Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712 to 1778). because the not capable of them. who preferred the traditional much French style deriving from Lully. concluding c that there is melody in French music. Les Bouffons. the Italian faction retorted to the effect that the French had no good singers anyway. 1660) and Le Gerf de La Vieville. W. two of the most important supporters of opera buffa to 1719) had Italian style. Throughout of the lyth and i8th centuries Paris was an operatic battleground the Parisians took their opera very seriously the grounds of contention being mainly whether the purely musical side. . and almost immediately arose the Guerre des Bouffons between those who supported the to Italians and those. it will be so much the worse for them somewhat startling condemnation of the national art from one who language is . Among the more prominent pam* phleteers were the Abbe Frangois Raguenet (b. and so on. or that if they ever 9 have. In England. Argument went back and forth on the importance or otherwise of stage machinery. use of chorus.. was to be considered the more important. was bound by no conventions and so achieved real vitality. writers Pamphleteering was rife. generally lauds the Italians and their performances as compared with the French. arrived in Paris perform their Intermezzi. that French singing is continual squalling.

Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714 to 1787) began by writing successfully in the forty-six. that highly the recitative should be given greater importance. The Guerre des Bouffbns having died down. the Italian Francesco conventional Italian manner. who possessed a remarkable flair for writing works which appealed Like ing facility in composition was amazing. He was not the only one to feel that it had reached a ridiculous pitch of irrationality. was built up by such composers as Francois Philidor (1726 to 1795). called Le Devin Italian. was far removed from the formality and heaviness of the Lully-Rameau style. stemming from opera buffa. In this work he showed considerable originality. and that brilliant passages in the arias should be introduced only He demanded. eventually made its into favour. the great name in Italian opera buffa is Domenico Cimarosa (1749 to 1801). and had ultimately considerable influence Pergolesi's its first opera. in his Saggio sopra critical. Paris was almost immediately plunged into another operatic struggle.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA only three years earlier 163 had written strongly supporting French opera against Intermezzo. du Village. Opera comique had spoken dialogue and. After Pergolesi. famous especially for The Secret Marriage. his operas numberincluding the 'grand' opera Masaniello. Its last great representative was Daniel Auber (1786 to 1871). poorly received in presentation in 1746. many to the least musically educated audience. Algarotti. which gave him cause to reflect on the possible weaknesses of the Italian style. like opera buffa. his A visit to Paris in 1746 enabled him to hear works by Rameau. I' other things. Pierre Monsigny (1729 to 1817) and Andre Gr6try (1741 to 1813). It is from this time that the tradition of the French opera-comique. Paris at way on French La Serva Padrona. and a rather unexpected ability to handle the grand manner. in the Italian style. that of the Gluckists versus the Piccinnists. among opera in musica (1755)9 was . famous also as a chess player. Rousseau himself wrote an in French. of his contemporaries and predecessors.

he ex. however. whom he found in Raniero da CalzabigL Orfeo was.* We may mention that 9 . a century later. is * Gluck was not. but for his new ideas he needed a writer of sympathy and originality. 9 The results of Gluck's reflections Orfeo of 1762. to return to the methods and aims of the Camerata. are c 9 be represented and to form. without interrupting the action or stifling it with a useless superfluity of ornaments . He deplores the undramatic formality of the da capo aria and insists that the action of the plot must not be held up 'un9 reasonably or wantonly . even to thematic material being taken from that in the main scenes of the opera. . insisted that an opera begins not with the rise of the curtain.A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC when really appropriate. Gluck had set some of his libretti. . so to speak. of the time. In the dedication of this work he begins by saying: 'When I undertook to write the music for Alceste. 9 to restrict music to its true office of serving poetry by means of expression and by following the situations of the story. The most popular appeared librettist first in his whose works were set by all was Metastasio. as a dramatic unity it did not exist. and it was not until 1767. He admits that occasional move1 64 ments by such composers as Jommelli (1714 to 1774) and Hasse (1699 to 1783) are worthy of praise. however. Further. 'the overture ought to apprise the spectators of the nature of the action that is to plains. in the Preface to Alce$te> that Gluck first fully expounded his ideas on what opera should and should not be. but the general tone of his complaint is that the true aims of the founders of opera. His aims. but with the first note of the overture. In other words. In essence it found in many overtures to Venetian operas of the mid-iyth century. had been completely forgotten. its argument In this he anticipates Wagner. the originator of this idea. His libretti were designed exactly to suit the conventions of opera seria. a hundred and fifty years earlier. I resolved to divest it entirely of all those abuses which have so long disfigured Italian opera. the most famous musicians. As a 'concert in costume it might be effective enough. who. . only a halfway house.

Gluck's version. Except for Etienne M&iul (1763 to 1817) the French composers remained unaffected directly by Gluck's reforms. produced in Paris in 1774. which city had by this time become the chief centre of Italian opera. his former singing pupil. The initial impulse seems to have come from the performance of a German version of the ballad opera The Devil to Pay by . instead of the traditional Such theories. did not please the opera public of Vienna. and although in Italian opera the accent remained primarily on the singing. gradually broke down. The contest was waged with great violence. Mehul's greatest work was the sacred opera Joseph. In 1772 Gluck wrote. was a comparative failure. two years later. however. Even so. without recitative. it was a success. Originally it was related to the English ballad opera spoken dialogue in the verna- cular with interpolated songs but by degrees evolved into something more approaching true opera. The war of the Gluckists and the Piccinnists broke out in 1777.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA Gluck in his 9 165 accompany harpsichord. 'reformed operas used the orchestra to the recitatives. Piccinni was the protege of the Italian faction. IphigSnie m Tauride. and his Roland was to be produced four months after Gluck's Armide. and was followed by the presentation of Orphee et Eurydice (adapted from Orfeo) and Alceste. produced in 1779. to a French libretto. the complete unreality and formality of opera seria eventually passed away. the mythological-historical subjects of opera seria being excluded. Nor were there any conventions in the form. the argument was carried on after Gluck had returned to Vienna. Singspiels were often based on everyday stories. Piccinni's. and their application in practice. Largely due to the support of Marie Antoinette. and eventually the two composers were invited to set the same libretto. was a great success. In Germany a type of opera known as the singspiel grew up during the i8th century. The Italian conventions. Iphigtnie en Aulide.

They lie. though or Dittersdorf. much more developed in every way than the works of Hiller Mozart wrote two Tito. Don Giovanni. while Don Giovanni is described as a Dramma Giocoso. Hiller is often called the father of the singspiel. Neither has the often trivial plot.it were. while The Flight from the Seraglio and the less-known Theatre Director are of the same class. may almost be considered as a 'cautionary tale'. Figaro and Cosifan 5 . There is no particular virtue in trying to decide which of Mozart's operas is the greatest. as . As with so many of his works. and are the ancestors of such works as Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier. of the general run of opere buffe. The former is in essence a social satire. are opere bujfe. from a comedy by Beaumarchais which at the time was banned by the authorities. Dittersdorf s Doctor and Apothecary is one of the most famous of all such works. he simply does everything better than any of his contemporaries. which had a great success in Leipzig in 1764. too. a 'humorous But neither Figaro nor Don Giovanni is comedy drama pure and simple. between serious and comic opera. but again there is much more under the surface than mere comedy. Especially notable. This the composer describes as a 'comedy with music'. based on a story of considerable antiquity. nor the trivial music.166 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Charles Coffey. its libretto being arranged. for example. sible to achieve greater . F. Weisse. Idomeneo and La Clemenza di Of the others. apart from those already tutte mentioned. opere serie. Of Mozart's operas. described on the title- page as a singspiel. whether it would be pos- beauty with a most elementary harmonic progression and an almost static voice part than Mozart does in the opening of the aria Dove sow in Figaro. is his power of characterisation. referred to as The Magic Flute (which the composer is 'my German opera'). and led to the composition of a number of similar pieces by Johann Adam Hiller (1728 to 1804) in conjunction with the poet C. by Lorenzo da Ponte. always with the greatest simplicity and ease. It is doubtful.

Plots became less stereotyped as literary romanticism began to have its effect. that of Don Giovanni leads without break into the first scene. on the chivalry of the Middle Ages. and was a learned writer to of technical treatises. and were full of brilliant solos. and so on. scenic effects. he defines each of clarity. and we may note his Lodoiska and Les Deux Journees. Hatevy's La Juive. and a tendency to carry on the action continuously. Mastersingers some of Wagner's introductory movements. By the end of the i8th century the old French tradition of opera. are entirely based on themes be heard later. used material from the body of the opera for much of his overtures. for example.g. 1864). the overture is an integral part of the work. e. was for many years director of the Paris Conservatory of Music. Robert All such works spectacular . while spectacular and melodramatic elements came more to the fore. Musically there was gradually greater freedom. Italian born. Weber. had disintegrated. while e.g. (Gluck does the same in Iphigenie en Tauride. dating back to Lulli. In all these directions Luigi Cherubim ( 1 760 to 1 842) excelled. The Huguenots and UAfricaine* demanded a large cast and orchestra. The style is well exemplified in Spontini's its La Vestale (1807). however reformed. rather than to confine the movement of the plot to recitative or spoken dialogue. with the greatest As with Gluck. and Parsifal. in accordance with prevailing taste. Concerted numbers became longer and more important. the practice of later composers.} In the overtures to both Don Giovanni and The Magic Flute there are brief references to music which will be heard This is an important anticipation of later in the opera. Stories were based on Oriental romance.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA With only the minimum his characters 167 of resources. From the beginning of the igth century Parisian grand opera became more and more of a spectacle. on fairy tales. and reaches height in the operas of Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791 to the Devil. but 'grand opera' continued. Cherubini.

Gaetano Donizetti (1797 to 1848) and Vincenzo Bellini (1801 to 1835) were chiefly concerned with carrying on the tradition of opera as a vehicle for vocal (solo) melody and technique. 9 subjects came into the Concerted numbers. as in France. The old conto learn Jew banker who composes Wagner referred to him as music'. large-scale concerted in Berlin as well as in Paris. In Italy. then. In the remaining thirty-nine years of his life he seems to have been more interested in gastronomy than in composition. on the ality exploitation of pure singing. but neither showed any great ingenuity Tell (1829). Mozart's work being the second part) and William after it This latter was his thirty-sixth opera. especially the 'concerted began The greatest Italian of the early igth century was Gioachino Rossini (1792 to 1868). Beer. he certainly understood public taste. Of other Italians. and to a wider range of subject-matter. *a and use some of his effective tricks of orchestration. the old insistence on the mythological-historical plot faded away. also and 'romantic to appear. picture.* but did not disdain ventions died out. and whatever the underlying vulgarity of much of his music. and he wrote no more. and melodramatic incident. In Italian opera the solo voice still remained the predominant factor. a master of melody. His most famous works are The Barber of Seville (1816) (of which the plot is actually the first part of Beaumarchais's story of Figaro. of the voice and of the orchestra. Both were accomplished melodists. In France opera branched out in a number of different directions. Although many of his contemporaries had hard things to say of Meyerbeer. but. despite the continued insistence see. His real .i68 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC numbers. The establishment of * name was Jacob Liebmann Meyerbeer came of a German-Jewish business family. convention and formgave way to greater freedom of design. finale'. in either from about the middle of the i8th as great changes came about in opera as in other century forms of writing. that We harmony or use of the orchestra.

together with the spectacular element. LPEM LPEM Rossini Largo atfactotum (Barber of Seville) Una voce pocofa Overtures 0. No. DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA helped in breaking down the old 169 rigidity. . Of German opera we shall speak later.1406 7 ERO. 5038 19041. a more easily appreciated and melodious style of vocal writing evolved. 33 OCX. and RECORDS Mozart Composer Selection Title Operatic arias Overture. Alceste JSurydice from Orpheus and Cat. 6025 19053.opira comique although good declamation remained of the utmost importance. 1069 LS.

was.CHAPTER THIRTEEN BEETHOVEN the latter part of the i8th century the 'Age of Patronage was drawing to a close. instead of being the paid servant of 9 IN some wealthy amateur. Even when such a post was held. the composer expected. was director of music to the Elector. 1770. and thenceforward had to make his own way independently. and he also received training from Christian Neefe. died in Vienna on March 26th. and was granted. gave him his first musical instruction. Archbishop of Salzburg. had been ignominiously discharged by his employer. old. of course. while still only twelve years Beethoven became the 'orchestral harpsichordist' . bound to provide became a freelance. freedom to write what he wished and as he wished. born in Bonn on December i6th. from 1 783. a tenor singer at the court of the Elector of Cologne. on whom a consequence finding life none van Beethoven. too easy. as they relied for encouragement and possibly some kind of periodical financial assistance. well into the igth century. 1827. Mozart. as in the case of Liszt's appointment as director of music at the court of Saxe-Weimar. and the old system less The last of the really great kapellmeisters was Haydn. Hieronymous Colloredo. who. His father. After Mozart the first of the great freelances was Ludwig Many composers still had their patrons. survived. by the time he was twenty-six. dwindling. but it was no longer taken for granted that the musician would seek an assured livelihood in some salaried court or church post. The day of the 'tame musician' was nearing its end. and the professional composer. gradual. more or music to The change suit his employer's taste. In this year.

2. Beethoven nevertheless accepted At the age of about thirty Beethoven period we see the influence of Mozart and Haydn. Albrechtsberger. 2. 3. and when they did. where he had sible position. No. Lessons in counterpoint with Haydn were not a success and soon ceased. op. the obvious models for a young composer of the time. i). For some years he lived in the house of Prince Karl Lichnowsky. In the work of Beethoven three periods are usually distinguished. 10. a modification of the conventional form (as in the last movement of the same work). was but little concerned with what his auditors wanted. and in 1792 he settled there permanently. Beethoven. though there is some overlapping. In the first greatly impressed. in the new sense. as in the brooding of the slow movement of op. of many of the nobility in Vienna. Notable. is the great intensity of emotional power which at times comes to the surface. it was with a certain amount of trepidation as to the reactions of their audience. but he persevered with the theorist Albrechtsberger until 1 795. Composers of the preceding period rarely 'let themselves go* emotionally.BEETHOVEN and thus 171 early obtained experience of a responunpaid In 1787 he visited Vienna. But the . as is evident from some of Mozart's letters. began to go deaf. Although a freelance. a few lessons from Mozart. a dis- tinctly conservative contrapuntist. The dedications of many of his works show that he was in close touch with many wealthy and titled people. but rarely without something which is essentially Beethoven and nobody else. who made him a yearly allowance. The first period takes us to about the year 1802. It may be a turn of phrase. too. an abrupt and forcefiil manner of expression (as in the first subject of the piano sonata. 2. No. No. or any one of a dozen things. like Bach. seems not to have been the patronage. in which the second of the nine symphonies was written. they had to take what he gave them. op. Beethoven the individualist is always there. and still more in that of the D major sonata. ultimately becoming completely so.

and the one opera Fidelio. For example. It was. as compared with his predecessors. op. the miniature score of the whole of Mozart's Jupiter symphony runs to eighty-four pages. In works of the sonata type he tends to employ a wider range of keys. the violin piano concerto. distinctly unexpected of Beethoven to put the slow movement of his C minor piano concerto in the key of E major. has emerged. But Beethoven. as we have seen. holds our attention from the first note to the last. The fury of the first movement of the D minor sonata. for example. and those of op. 59. 31 of 1802. Mozart was capable of packing into a single could achieve in a dozen. forceful. the concertos in major and E flat major. the first movement alone of Beethoven's Eroica takes eightyone. while perhaps only Bach had plumbed such depths as are found in its slow movement. 90. No. and entirely sure of himself. 26 and 27. In many of them we are impressed by the enormous scale on which the composer works. the string quartets up to op. which include the so-called 'Moonlight' sonata a publisher's title. as is evident in the piano sonatas of opp. though it is to be noted that in many of them Beethoven was to some page more meaning than many other composers extent anticipated by Haydn and Mozart. independent. is something which had never before been expressed in music. was far from being hidebound. the overture to Coriolanus. In these it is obvious that the real Beethoven. the Kreut&r sonata G for violin and piano. the piano sonatas up to op. not the composer's of 1801. In this second period are found a great body of works of all kinds the third to the eighth symphonies.172 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC move into the second period was already under way. 95. This is not to suggest that greater length necessarily implies greater value. to mention some of the chief. op. like Mozart. though Haydn. 31. 2. the Rassoumovsfy quartets. The compositions of the first and second periods show a number of important technical advances. In sonata form first movements there are instances of unusual keys for the second .

as it were. Beethoven realised the Mozart. If the reader will refer to the second group of Mozart's sonata in F. though again Mozart pointed the way. The range of modulaapt to be wider than had formerly been customary. it depended on whether he felt one to be appropriate. and compare with it that of. is for example. op. symphony. K. with a flourish of trumpets. at the development begins in F sharp minor. But in Mozart's one point finds itself in the extremely re- G minor symphony e. a comprehensive summing-up. Even in ment of the sonata short cut. quite early works. The development of the first movement of the Eroica symphony. too. major.g. towards greater continuity within extended movements. in the Waldstein sonata. where the coda is down to the last detail. and There . say. from the material selected for discussion. In development sections there is a tendency to greater length. Often in the works of earlier composers we feel that the bridge passage is more or less mechanical padding. and that the second group is ushered in. the various sections moving into each other almost imperceptibly. and shows the composer's genius for holding our attention while arguing a point. Beethoven's Appassionato. for example. the last move- potentialities of the coda. as in the last movement of his Jupiter 2. a link that has got to be there. where it is in E major. 332. ball rolling. is a tendency. 2. every possible deduction is made.BEETHOVEN 173 subject group as. and reached by a really startling harmonic mote key of E minor. yet again. or Waldstein sonatas. equally remote from the tonic. tion. The first movement of the Eroica offers an example which is almost a second development. With Beethoven the bridge tends to become an integral part of the material. and its character also. as it were. had set the No. this will be readily apparent. as it were. too. Not that Beethoven invariably wrote long codas. The structure of the G second group becomes more consistently complex (though here he was anticipated by Mozart).

while in most cases retaining the 3/4 time-signature. Beethoven simply hurls his subject-matter ancestry. But it cannot be denied that in many of the earlier . that he viewed the work as a unified whole. The very opening is a revelation. are all that he uses to replace the frequent conventional slow introduction of the earlier symphonists. sonatas in this. definitely changed the character of the movement. etc. Not that he was the first and symphonies and quartets. what is evident purely musically in so many of Beethoven's sonatas. at least in the first and last sections. to flow out of it. Firstly. some of whose minuets. as in the quartets of op. 33. it led to further such developments by later composers. This the instance of such thematic cross- referencing. however contrasted. and secondly it shows. The scherzo in sonata or symphony is often assumed to extent be Beethoven's invention. not even so much as the two introductory chords which. a scherzo as four notes tically the at his audience. in the Eroica. and proceeds to build prac- figure. mechanically. No. but he was anticipated to some by Haydn. The 5th symphony is a work of great importance in the development of symphonic writing. one slow movement or finale would suit as well as another. Beethoven. The relaxed in the slow movement. 2. are one and indivisible. we find a scherzo in which there is but little trace of its In the 5th symphony the literal conception of a playful movement becomes metamorphosed. As early as op. and in it we can trace the distance which Beethoven had travelled. approach the style. Such works as Mozart's G minor or Jupiter symphonies. 2. There is no concession to convention. and is especially notable in two ways.174 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the second group. or the G minor Qtiintet. into something almost macabre. rising to heights tension of almost shattering intensity.. This leads without break into ihs finale another new departure and the finale itself is whole movement on the well-known rhythmic is interrupted by a is reference back to the first theme of the scherzo. but returns in a different guise in the scherzo.

of B Beethoven's one opera. In these latest works the conventional plans are modified or discarded if composers' outlook and approach were entirely different. obviously to allow for the notable horn passage which opens the trio of the In the 5th there are only two horns. From his first symphony (1800) Beethoven had used clarinets regularly. the first time these had been used in such a work. but trombones were usually reserved for use in opera. with progeny including such works as Mendelssohn's Hymn of Praise. his organisation of the internal details had always been conditioned by emotional intention. Vaughan Williams's Sea Symphony and Hoist's Choral Symphony. but the last scherzo. i. Mozart uses the double bassoon in his Masonic Funeral Music. even though the basic outlines were those customarily followed at the time. advances in the use of the orchestra. ranks among the greatest stands on a peak with Bach's all. feels them inadequate In this. In the works of the third period. and trombones appear again only in the 'storm' movement of the Pastoral Symphony and in the second and last movements of the gth. double bassoon and three trombones.e. which include the last quartets and the piano sonatas from op. while his Mass in of these two works would be fruitminor. Beethoven begins to move away from strict adherence to the traditional forms. As with all great composers.BEETHOVEN The 175 5th symphony shows. by the message which he wished to convey. for the expression of Beethoven points the way to the . 101 onwards. Fidelio. Not until the gth Symphony does Beethoven employ four horns. movement brings in piccolo. especially in connection with funeral music and the supernatural. The use of voices (soloists and chorus) in the last movement of the gth was another forward-looking innovation. Comparison D less. and each work the composer his thought. too. their is supreme in its own way. The entry of the statue in the last act of Don Giovanni is an example of the latter. and in the Eroica he employed three horns instead of the usual two.

it is a 'texture*. is that in which the principle of continuous be of a new character. that which the composer wishes to way. to name no other examples. and however unorthodox 'Romantics . growth from a germinal cell. by conventional or textbook standards. This is not to suggest that Beethoven was the first to 'think in sound 9 . are always perfect The relationship between form and content* is indivisible. whether for single always movements or for whole works.f of all styles of composition. His frequent adoption of fugue in later works shows this. or a de Madariaga expresses his philosophical deductions in an essay. . As Sir Donald Tovey so often pointed out. emotionally and in every other which he casts his music. offered possibilities beyond those of sonata and other traditional forms. withdrawn into himself by the of his later years.176 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC 9 form was subservient to emotional some of his successors. unlike in themselves. The use of variations. since fugue. the cell its e j being the theme. his designs. in however high a sense we interpret the word. In his last in musical terms. too. but to give expression to thought. For this purpose. The thematic material. or based on figuration. so Beethoven gives us the fruits of his meditations in sound. is basic. regardless of the form in t It is undesirable to think of fugue as a 'form'. neither of them 'forms' in the conventional sense. he was expression. tends to As opposed to the subject which was so often melodic. and the variations exploring implications. the subject. No better summing up 9 express. too. to whom But. Beethoven used matter which can be best described as germinal a cell from which a movement grows. Bach had done so in the Art of Fugue (notwithstanding its pedagogical aim) and in the great Ricercare of the Musical Offering. shows the same principle in operation. did so on a far greater than any earlier composer. the great architect. scale * total deafness But Beethoven. It is works Beethoven was preoccupied with thinking In the same way as a Bertrand Russell music not for 'entertainment9 . fugue and variations. 'Content^ implies 'meaning .

' RECORDS Beethoven Composer Title Cat. in unison with all genuine mystics and ethical teachers. 1077 LWA. JVb. 5016 7 TCA. where. 57 (AppasViolin Sonata Op. 1236 KLC 564 33 OCX. 27/2 Op. . Symphony No. 5. 3 Overture. deprecation of sel negation of personality. Coriolan Song-Cycle: An die feme Geliebte Symphony No. identification with the sufferings of all living creatures. 18/1 and 2 Quartet Op. Leonora.BEETHOVEN e 177 of the works of the last period can be found than that of Edward Dannreuther: He passes beyond the horizon of a mere singer and poet. No. and touches upon the domain of the seer and the prophet. he delivers a message of religious love and resignation. C Major C Minor 1094 1319 33 OCX. 52/2 sionato) Op. 47 (Kreut&r) Quartets Op. 1073 Overture. i. 1066 OALP. OALP. Piano Sonatas Piano Sonata Op. 1168 33 OCX. 40 ALP. release from the world. 13 and 33 OCX.

for the opera house. as he did in another connection. became an 'artist'. for domestic or instructional use. he would probably have replied. that anyone could do as well if he worked hard enough. Composing was looked upon largely as a 'job of work'. Even such a masterpiece as the St. without restrictions or inhibitions. Official posts in the Church and the opera house still remained. taneously there came about a change in the composers' UNTIL all attitude to their art. but fundamentally it was Gebrauschmusik utility music. for a court or civic function. The utilitarian and the musician. Thomas's Church. It might be for the Church. but the old system of reguSimullarly composing to order no longer held good. whose aim was at all costs to express himself.CHAPTER FOURTEEN THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC the latter part of the i8th century practically music was written for a specific purpose or occasion. It has already been noted that the decline of the patronage system brought about changes in the conditions under which composers worked. at least in his own estimation. Had someone commented to him on its greatness (a most unlikely happening at the time). of which the French Revolution and similar smaller movements were but the more violent manifestations. or what not. 'art for art's sake' was unheardof. Comparable tendencies are observable among The rather rigid formalism of the *Age of Reason' . the poets. Matthew Passion was written simply because Bach needed a new setting for use at St. approach died out. The new conditions and outlook were part and parcel of the general tendency towards greater freedom.

whose writings were chiefly designed as propaganda for his own works. the lyricism of a Shelley. con- the began to consider himself as a poet in musical sound. Aesversely. In Germany the new movement. In former times almost all books on music. Weber was the first of the line. had been of an instructional nature. more appreciated in his lifetime as a musical avowed object of encouraging the poetic principle in music. while possibly the most verbose and controversial of all was Richard Wagner (1813 to 1883). It is at this time that we find. Romanticism. In 1834 Robert Schumann (1810 to 1856) founded the New Journal for Music with the generation of composer-critics addressed themmerely to musicians or students. Schiller and the brothers August and Friedrich Schlegel. this label is retained for f Louis Untermeyer in The Albatross Book of Living Verse. thetics as composing The new had hardly been touched. classical poise of an Alexander Pope succeeds the vision of a William Blake. as in the Dramatic and Musical Notices of Carl Maria von Weber (1786 to 1826). as well as of the musical literary man. * Despite what was said in Chapter convenience. Franz Liszt (1811 to 1886) wrote voluminously on a wide range of subjects. what has been called 'the stiff couplets and clenched quatrains'f was replaced by greater flexibility and variety. . To gave way the cool. and was followed by Hector Berlioz (1803 to 1869). but these were mostly either propaganda or simply controversial. from Musica Enchiriadis onwards. The almost rigid versification of 1 8th century.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC to 179 a more humanistic and natural approach. but to the musically educated public. too. and the musician. numerous writings on opera. a tone-poet. Of the musical litterateurs whose writings provided both i. of course. selves not journalist than as a composer. the rise of the 'literary' musician. There were. The poet sang.* is represented by such poets as Goethe. rather naturally as long was regarded largely as a 'job to be done'.

Formerly the great composer had ground most frequently come of a family of musicians. very broadly speaking. The basic aims of the Romantics were. the Bach family. But we may also think of the Gabrielis. while Mendelssohn was on relatively easy terms with the British Royal Family. With the coming of the romantics we find composers from a wider range of social strata. (c) free and unrestricted expression of personal emo- a tendency to ally music to some literary or other non-musical background. The status. Hoffmann (1776 to 1822). son of a wheelwright. Under the patronage system he normally occupied a subordinate position. were (a) a greater appreciation of sound as such. the most important were Johann Paul Richter (1763 to 1825). the musician was generally of humble origin. and E. Mozart and Beethoven. Haydn. . T. From Weber and Schubert onwards. usually known as Jean Paul. Berlioz and Spohr were sons of physicians. There were. and bolt exerted a great influence on Schumann. freedom and self-expression. and so on. They were the high priests of Romanticism. see a change in the social and cultural backof the musician. The musical results of these aims. new possibilities of colour and sonority are continually explored. (b) a relaxation and broadening of the attitude to the importance and function of We now form. With regard to (<z). the Scarlattis. Schumann's father was a bookseller of considerable culture. of the musician rose. the vital factor is the development of the orchestra. now he was admitted to terms of something like equality with wealthy and titled people. Mendelssohn came of a wealthy and cultured family of Jewish bankers. who was in some ways the most romantic-minded of all romantic musicians. son of a surgeon. too. (d) song. again in very general terms. We may note also the cultivation of small-scale works and concentration on the solo tion. of course. In any case. notable exceptions Handel. A.i8o A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC background and encouragement to the romantic movement.

The romantics' attitude to form is expressed in Berlioz's 9 statement that music must not be based on 'rule but on 'direct reaction to feeling*. Weber's magic horn which opens the overture to Oberon (the horn was considered a most romantic instrument). but whose orchestral imagination was unrivalled. In between stands by in certain cases. in its melodic and harmonic aspects. To Beethoven's standard requirements were added two more horns and three trombones. and so on. 9 the orchestral virtuosity of Wagner. demands huge forces. with the sensuous side. The musical god of the romantic . as many as eight horns. Haydn and Mozart had the genius to combine structural stability with vital content. The early symphonists of the galant style often solved this problem by almost eliminating any worth-while meaning. Anyone who has heard the Ring will realise that. within the accepted limits of classical form. The orchestra tended to increase in size. Composers wanted a wider range of colour. Near the end of the period lies who could play only the flute and the guitar.e. The interaction of form and content has always presented composers with a problem. i.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 181 composers are not concerned merely with the music as such. Liszt says much the same: 'The artist may pursue the beautiful outside the rules of the 9 school. ordy the bass clarinet could produce the exact psychological effect that Wagner intended Berlioz. for example. Much of their work is little more than well-ordered patterning with notes. Berlioz. and Wagner's colossal music-dramas needed an orchestra of comparable size triple wood wind. But the introduction of new or extra instruments was not merely to achieve a greater volume of sound. or Schubert's visionary use of the trombones in his great C major symphony. both Berlioz and Wagner are sparing in their use of the full orchestra. His Traite d Instrumentation (1844) is still a standard work. stand at the beginning. taken still further Richard Strauss and Edward Elgar. but with its actual sound-effect. in some of his works.

Liszt was also largely responsible for developing the system of thematic metamorphosis. however. whether an actual story or merely some more or less vaguely The formal problems of the romantics were intensified by their fondness for illustrative music. But there is no attempt at a complete break with tradition. also. Examples from Les Preludes (of which. by which means ideas or characters can be shown in different lights or situations.) Liszt. rhythmic. as much but they seem at times to have overlooked the fact that however far he may have departed from the classical forms of Haydn and Mozart. but still sym(At least one writer has argued that Berlioz is phonies. by some kind of modification. of a which acts as a psychological connecting thread. realised that the idea of programme music could only be carried out logically by breaking with formal tradition and allowing the form to be dictated by the programme in each individual case. His forms can still stand as examples of structural 9 perfection. to them he was the great emanciform'. Hence his adoption of the title symphonic poem. fines the Fantastic and Harold in Italy.i82 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC school was Beethoven. still retain. and Love* appears this theme: . and hence. they are symphonies with a programme. the traditional outlines. Beethoven was quite pator who 'broke the bonds of of a 'self-expressionist as any professed romantic. often. broadly. and consequently in meaning and significance. however much he may have adapted form in order to express his meaning. The principle is that a basic theme can be varied in character. since poetical background. he was still the great architect. the varied forms of his works in this genre. not before In the opening 'Moods of Spring it) will make this clear. the programme was written after the music. the idee fixe. would not necessarily fit into the con- classical form. by the way. The former has five movements instead of the usual four and uses a kind of motto theme. Berlioz's programme symphonies. actually more of a classic than a romantic. a 'programme*. though not necessarily.

21 183 Andante changed a Ex. it is modified to: Allegro ma non troppo and later to: Ex. 'Storms of Life'. 24 Allegro tempestoso Finally. 9 it becomes: Ex. in 'Strife and Victory . each developing on its own lines. 23 section. 22 little later to: Andante maestoso In the next Ex.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC Ex. the two forms have tended run parallel. The first . 25 Allegro marziale animate Although the symphonic poem originated from the symto phony. it did not replace it.

either in an introduction or in the exposition of the first movement. His early symphonies are in the Mozart tradition. It may even be traced as far back as Machaut see the remark on p. relatively brief and essentially tuneful. . by metamorphosis. of some. The cyclic idea is a method mechanical. yet without losing anything of his essential tunefulness. or endeavto ensure. those in which material such as a plainsong tune is used thematically for the various movements.i84 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC important symphonist of the romantic era was Franz Schubert (1797 to 1828). the great C major and the Unfinished. unexcelled as a melodist. This involves the derivation. In the Wanderer the opening subject is the basis of the principal material of each of the three succeeding movements. of the thematic material of later movements from that stated initially. and remains. 58 regarding his use of a basic motive. Schubert was. he looked forward to later developments in his use of the 'cyclic' principle. i. Then comes Mendelssohn (1809 to 1847)4 He has been described as a romantic-classicist romantic in his attitude to musical sound and in his lyricism. and next to Mozart he was possibly the most naturally gifted of all composers. whose methods have already been briefly considered. though its results may be musical enough of ensuring. * The principle is seen as far back as the i6th century in the 'cyclic* masses. the homogeneity of a work as a whole. He The effected a fusion of the dramatic and the lyrical. he showed himself capable of thinking in a really extended and dramatic manner. t His full name was Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. Schubert died before the romantic attitude to form was fully defined.e.* ouring a homogeneity which the great classics achieved superbly without any such adventitious aid. G major may seem to some to be diffuse and repetitive Schumann remarked on the 'heavenly length' of its second movement but not a bar can be cut without marring the symmetry and balance. Chronologically the next important symphonist is Berlioz. classic in his attitude to form. but in his Wanderer Fantaste for piano. In hi last two symphonies. if not all.

Mendelssohn rarely touches great depths. in fact. there was little he did not know about the orchestra and its possibilities. there is. for example. Beethoven was not the breaker of the bonds of form. Dante's Divine Comedy This same principle was used by Liszt in his two symphonies. which makes some use of the cyclic principle. Perhaps the most outstanding example of * A volume could be written on the romantics* fondness for the horn. are marred by his lack of ability as an orchestrator. Their titles are Symphony on . none could resist its allure. a not infrequent tendency to shallowness in his work. and the 'horns of elfland faintly blowing in the trio of the minuet* even though two of them are bassoons: Italian 9 Ex. and both include great choral parts. while containing much delightful music. The two flutes wandering about at the top of the score in the slow movement. he understood 'economy of means'. His ability symphony. for instance. the histrionic (and weakness) of a Liszt. Like his great predecessor. Structurally the most interesting is No. 2).THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 185 To him. 26 Schumann's four symphonies. is full of the deftest touches. which are really extended symphonic poems with a non-musical background. But of all the romantics he was perhaps the finest craftsman and in this may be compared with Mozart. the earnestness of a Schumann. which are a delight both to the amateur and to the trained musician. Both make use of thematic metamorphosis. and while he never indulged in orchestral virtuosity. From Weber to Strauss. in so far as they were applicable to his own rather limited style. he was rather the perfector of it. He lacks the fire of a Berlioz. 4 (originally No. and A Faust Symphony.

e. and Beethoven. Beethoven's Coriolanus. after is resumed in fugal style. classically minded. some fine works and Schumann also produced a few. or at least was originally conceived marily as such. or for special occasions. develop from those of Mozart classic outlook. of which the best-known and possibly the finest is the Piano In any case. Although many such works overture (1830. The igth century saw the rise of the concert overture. describing it as a 'Characteristic Overture* most have a more or less programmatic they are a kind of miniature symphonic background. and domestic music-making now began to change its character. With Mendelssohn's title Hebrides appears with a new a single movement. revised 1832) the have been written as abstract musicBeethoven.g. is another great example. written for the opening of the Josephstadt Theatre in Vienna. The working out is interrupted by an intermezzo which serves as a slow movement. The Hebrides was inspired by a visit to those islands. Practhematic material is derived from three terse subjects announced in the introduction. e. at first usually based on signification sonata form. poem. they really suitable media for the expression of 'direct reaction to feeling'.g.i86 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC formal experiment on cyclic lines was Liszt's piano sonata in B minor. It is in one huge movement. numerous overtures had been written to plays. chamber music was priQpintet in E flat. Wagner's Faust Overture. wrote one about 1807.. wrote . retaining the essential outlines of sonata form. his Consecration of the House. etc. which development tically all the Apart from their function as introductions to operas or oratorios. for instance. originally intended as the first movement of a symphony. Schubert's quartets. not introducing anything and not even necessarily used to 'open' a concert. From being mainly a concerted affair. as Mendelssohn. Chamber music did not attract the romantics as it did their predecessors. But for quartet and allied were not in many ways he had the most of the romantics the string forms were too purely abstract. domestic music.

who. What Paganini could do as a violinist. Thalberg. The purely technical difficulty of concert whether concertos or sonatas. as is evident in those of Beethoven. was also the era of the greatest virtuosity. however. it is simply a means to a purely musical end. with his numerous small-scale pieces (Fantasiestucke. to supply the literature. the domestic supremacy of the piano now begins. We have noted how the Italian violinists tended gradually to exalt the soloist in their concertos. with his Songs without Words. But with him the difficulties are a matter of necessity. the composers could express themselves in a concentrated and intimate manner. and who took the art of violin-playing to a stage never yet exceeded. etc. and Schumann. Herz and Hunten. and achieved his aim. whose technique was such that many believed him to be in league with the Devil.). his thoughts could not be expressed otherwise. But the virtuosity of these With such composers paled before that of the violinist Nicol6 Paganini (1782 to 1840). in his early years. Liszt decided to emulate at the piano. works. in contrast to the expansiveness of their more extended works. In his compositions for piano he discovered and exploited hitherto unheard-of effects and . had pointed the way. as Weber. Scenes of Childhood. In their little tone pictures. it became more a matter for a solo performer. astounding all Europe by his amazing brilliance. It is a rather odd contradiction that the romantic era. In his early life he spent many years as a touring virtuoso. but the intensive cultivation of the short.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 187 it had been since the days of the sonata a tre. with such composers as Mendelssohn. There is no suggestion of difficulty for difficulty's sake. increased continually. terse mood-pictures. was famed as a pianist. while stressing for the first time the small-scale tone picture. and mention has been made of the rise of the display concerto in the latter part of the 1 8th century. Waldscenen. we find a strong tendency to brilliance for its own sake Showing off'. possibly miniature composition is an outcome of romanticism. Such works as Beethoven's Bagatelles.

near Warsaw. Liszt. Both Mozart and Beethoven wrote a certain number of songs. Chopin matched in poetry. was not merely a purveyor of pianistic fireworks. by the Irishman John Field (1782-1837). in his eagerness to encourage young composers. op.!88 sonorities. 286. He was born. while such works as the Polonaises and the Ballades. while in the Etudes he proved that the study of advanced technique need not involve the dullness of a Czerny. a genius'. especially perhaps the latter. and his compositions in other media are negligible. 'Hats off. The Nocturnes* show that as a melodist he stands in the is same class as Schubert. an art which comes to the fore for the first time since the days of the Elizabethan lutenists. and while his handling of form is at times distinctly unorthodox. while Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg (1760 to 1802) was a pioneer of the dramatic and narrative ballad. while Chopin once wrote I should c : like to steal from him the way to play What Liszt achieved in brilliance. in 1810. 2. Hunten and Thalberg. We come now to some consideration of song writing. is evidence enough of the impression made by his work as early as the variations on La my own Etudes. for example. It is not the same as the 18th-century Nottwrno meaning literally 'night-music'. it is fundamentally logical. as were Herz. Chopin was a pianist pure and simple. but his interpretations of Beethoven. gentlemen. were revelatory. There great originality and a strong poetic impulse in everything he wrote. as used by Mozart in K. (Admittedly Schumann. of a melody with arpeggio accompaniment. Schumann's famous remark. A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC and his influence still persists. 9 d darem la mano. was rather apt to confuse geese and swans. * The nocturac which 3 Chopin raised to the highest pitch of perfection. . The aim of this form is the description of an event. was given its character. Admittedly he was not averse to playing to the gallery. but in this instance he did not err. prove his mastery of the larger scale. and died in Paris in 1849. Not that it had ever been entirely neglected.) Chopin's Preludes and many of his Mazurkas show him to be unexcelled as a miniaturist. however.

whose ballads often achieve considerable vividness and dramatic power. the settings themselves always show the maximum . basically. it could almost be dispensed with. The first. Carl Zdter (1765 to 1832) and Johann Reichardt (1752 to 1814). and it is in this that we see the beginnings of the fully developed lied. the frenzied galloping ofthe horse. ErlkSnig is almost a complete exposiThe storm. and the instrumental part voice part is fundamentally a tune. Songs of their time are normally strophic. in which the instrumental part is as important as that for the voice. the piano part is at least half the making of the song.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 189 or chain of events. however. while in Erlkonig we have dramatic recitative of awesome intensity. and in the opinion of ponent of the true lied was Schubert. An die Musik gives us sophisticated melody of extraordinary beauty. for each of several 9 verses. Heidenroslein might almost be a folk-song. In his treatment of the vocal part. some- words. in the latter. Schubert's choice of times perhaps too much so. But whatever the value of the poems was wide and varied. the supertion of Romanticism in itself. His enormous output of songs. covers every style. not so much a mere accompaniment as a commentary on the words. We may also note Mendelssohn's teacher. Schubert covers an enormous range. over 600. the terrified child. ex- that natural element. since his amazing facility he once wrote eight songs in a single day led him at times to set verses of poor quality. the same music is used. many the greatest. the instrumental part is often of greater importance. The In Zumsteeg's ballads. Zumsteeg was followed by the much greater Carl Loewe (1796 to 1869). that is. and the final tragic climax *In his arms the child lay dead' with the vivid characterisation. from the simplicity of the well-known Heidenroslein to the intense drama of In the former the accompaniment is so slender Erlkonig. both of whom helped to found and develop the German lied or 'art song . a duet for voice and piano. are all typical. is a subordinate accompaniment.

his fame would be assured. his treatment of the vocal part is infinitely varied. 9 Beethoven's An die feme Geliebte ('To the Distant Beloved') of 1816 antedates Schubert's Maid of the Mill by seven years. are in the true lied tradition. numbers of such cycles have been written. he was born to be a song writer. The idea was not new. Brahms will be considered later. the words of both being by the poet Wilhelm Muller. and in the one year he wrote over one hundred. although hardly comparable in value to those of Schubert and Schumann. Since Schubert's time. Wolf (1860 to 1903) developed the 'duet' principle of the lied to the limit. Schumann proves himself the true inheritor of the tradition established by Schubert. as in all his songs. many of which. Like his predecessor. notably Schumann's Frauenliebe undLeben ('Woman's Love and Life') and Dichterliebe ('A Poet's Love'). and had he written nothing eke. The idea of a song-cycle is a group of songs with a continuous underlying theme or story. Schubert wrote the song-cycles Die SckSne Mullmn (The Beautiful Maid of the Mill ) and Lie Winteneise ('Winter Journey'). of insight. as is his inventiveness on the instrumental side. so that the whole series constitutes an entity. Of Schumann's contemporaries. Unlike Schubert. Schumann wrote no songs until 1840. Under the German title of Liederkreis (song-rircfe). The first known example dates from the early years of the I7th century. Schumann rarely if ever set words which lacked some literary distinction. Apart from separate songs. In these. After Liszt the line passes through Brahms and Hugo Wolf. the year of his marriage to Clara WiecL This victory after a long struggle against the opposition of his prospective father-inlaw unlocked the floodgates of song. and no songwriter has ever created a juster balance between words and by a .igo A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Schubert was not only born to be a musician. Liszt is represented collection of fifty-five songs (1860). in which the voice part predominates. Mendelssohn looks back rather to the strophic style of Zelter and Reichardt.

but a fusion of the two.g.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC nusic. on the St. But Brahms. Not for him were the structural experiments of a Liszt. Although Brahms was far from making consistent use of . Seated at the piano. unlike Schubert. like His early works. Johannes Brahms (1833 to 1897) may k e described as a classic romanticist. and in his article 'New Paths . he was a master of variation-writing. igi him was poetry absorbed and recreated n terms of something which was neither melody by itself jrove: 'A song to lor He may best be summed up by a quotation from mere declamation. what he did not know about the writing of songs was not worth the knowing. Anthony Chorale and on the theme of Paganini ranking with those of the older master and of altogether inspired style of playing which made of the 9 piano an orchestra of lamenting and exultant voices. Schubert. E flat minor. without disregarding the vital necessity of structural stability and without the continual need for some literary or programmatic impulse. . in fact. the three piano sonatas. of an unknown youngster of twenty. e.. Like Beethoven. Schumann took him to his heart. Like Beethoven. he found it possible to express himself to the full. referred to him as 'one man who would be singled out to make articulate in an ideal way the highest expression of our time. He was. as he developed. etc. the Scherzo in are very clearly the production of a whole9 hearted romantic outlook. songs were his life. controlled his essential romanticism by a classic regard for form. he at once discovered to us wondrous regions . the true successor of Beethoven. one man who would bring us mastery. even though he had not quite the same complete mastery of form. his sets on a theme of Handel. This Bach. But... with as much intensity as any belligerent romantic. too. an . iplitting arguments as to whether or rf all song-writers are immaterial. the discarding of 'rule' advocated by Berlioz. Hairnot he was the greatest 9 we may say that. he knew little else. If Mendelssohn was a romantic classicist. written in 1853. .

in which the three movements are related persistence of a rhythmic motive: by the . We may instance the major violin G sonata. there are occasional instances in his work. i. 29 Sir Edward Elgar made the penetrating remark that the latter is the 'tragic outcome* of the former. as in the third symphony where the first subject of the opening movement round returns. A and fourth movements of subject of the former: Ex. 28 the same work. cyclic In the There are occasional instances of thematic cross-referencing. The second MM mh gives rise in the latter to: i | i i |i Ex. metamorphosed in significance. op.i 92 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC methods. to more subtle case occurs in the second off the last. the first subject of the last movement is clearly derived from that of the first. The subtlety that lies in the art of concealing art is often evident in Brahms. first piano sonata.

Similarly. though it clearly opened up a path which has been followed by many later composers. where the basic motive is melodic: Ex. being inverted in the third.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 193 III This kind of thing is far from being obvious. and it is not until the work has been carefully studied that its significance is realised. where the basic idea of a threenote anacrusis to an accent is quite clear in the first. 9 This kind of 'germinal procedure was not invented by Brahms. 31 The essential fall and rise of a step occurs in the thematic material of all the movements. It is seen in Beethoven's sth Symphony. in the second symphony. third and last movements: .

Such well arise without the cominterrelationships may quite of them. as is his chamber music.I94 A SHORT HISTORY OF MUSIC extent this is arguable. no. being produced when he was forty-three years old. rather It it is the music itself which he forces on our attention. is an integral part of his style. op. however far removed from that of a Berlioz or a Wagner. A Brahms symphony rescored would cease to be Brahms. only to be pointed out after poser being aware event by the keen-eyed analyst. but this is a misstatement. But he rarely insists on sound as such. He was no orchestral virtuoso. 9 Brahms' classic^tendencies are seen in his output of his finest work. Similarly. has sometimes been suggested that Brahms 'could not score .34 Wf" first. his in G minor. Matthew . ^His use of the orchestra. Jjrair 1 f ir r Brahms approached the symphony with diffidence. which contains some of * It may be well to point out that this game of tracing thematic relationships can be carried to idiotic extremes. St. If taken far enough it can lead to such fatuity as suggesting that the fugue subject in Brahms' E minor 'cello Passion! The sonata is derived from the opening of the reader may care to work this out for himself. though he had as keen an appreciation of tone-colour as most of his contemporaries. where the subject To what was intentional if may first r if r if first f f\r subject of the (or may not) be derived from the movement:* Ex. in the piano the of the fugue: sonata. His handling of the instruments is irreproachable.

despite fine moments. a mood with singular clarity and distinction. true liturgical appropriateness of. and each is in a perfectly balanced form. . were conceived chiefly as 'concert Masses*. In his later years Brahms produced a number of short but intensely concentrated Intermezzi and Capricci. pin-pointing less so. remains to deal briefly with choral works of the romantic period. the most difficult or brilliant passages are an integral part of the work. lack the It while St. say. which form a fitting apotheosis to the work of one who. while not by any means reducing the piano part to a mere subordinate accompaniment. he tends on the whole to tip the balance in favour of the voice. the Bach cantatas. The Masses of Schubert. The same applies to the far from easy violin concerto. Unlike some later comtries to make a quartet sound like a string posers.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 195 feeling for the appropriate style. but here again the classic outlook appears. many by other composers. In his oratorios Paul and Elijah Mendelssohn developed the Handel in his own idiom.g. and in many of its the songs there are influences from the German Volkslied or folksong. Liszt and Schumann. In his songs Brahms relies more on melody than on declamation. They are in varied styles. No song-writer surpassed him in emotional intensity or intimacy of expression. The strophic plan of treatment is most usual. e. the Intermezzi being in steady tempo and the Capricci Each is a complete little tone-poem. it is natural that many of his works for the instrument are of considerable technical difficulty. As a orchestra. to biblical words. The church music is rarely of any great value. while not perhaps greatly interested in the niceties of ecclesiastical dogma. His last published compositions were the Four Serious Songs. tradition. with some admixture of Bach. was one of the most sincere and earnest-minded of all the great musicians. Even in the two concertos Brahms does not indulge in virtuosity for own sake. he never nor does he 'stunt' with the instruments. first-rate pianist himself. not mere flashy display.

1013 OSX. OALP. the Song of Destiny and the Alto Rhapsody Brahms proved that his mastery of choral writing was no less than of any other branch of music. 1001 LX.196 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC and St. 33 2961 1325 Fantastic Symphony 4. B Minor Chopin Recital Polonaise in CX. 1061 33 C major LXT. 1006 OCX. 1206 2887 Schumann Symphony No. 2719 33 CX. LXT. B Flat OSX. 1203 33 OCX. 33 OC. Possibly the greatest sacred choral work of the period is Brahms's German Requiem. 1040 CLP. 2566 2723 . 1014 LXT. Piano Concerto. 2. Major Piano Concerto. Symphony No. 9. as in his other choral works the Triumph Song. Elizabeth Liszt's Christus are effective and highly characteristic of their composer. In it. RECORDS Schubert Composer Title Cat. Camaval (piano) A Minor D Minor und Leben LXTA. ALP. It is not a requiem Mass. 133 A Flat 33 33 Liszt Les Preludes (orchestra) Hungarian Rhapsodies Piano Concertos Violin Concerto. B flat Symphony No. but rather a meditation on death a forerunner of the Four Serious Songs. CX. F Minor Sonata. 1039 Mendelssohn Overtures Symphony Berlioz A major (Italian) LXTA. 1066 LX. 3074 2556 2j Chopin Two Etudes Concerto. C major Song Recital Quintet in No. 5025 Brahms D LXT. for which the impulse came primarily from the death of his mother in 1865. Song Cycle. 8 (Unfinished) Symphony No. 33 Frauenliebe LXTA.

Symphony No.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC Brahms (contd. LXTA. i. LXTA. LXTA.) 197 Composer Title Piano recital Four Songs Symphony No. F Major C Minor OALP. 1152 2843 2935 2850 . 3. Cat. No.

* Mozart's Seraglio is an example. the first use 9 of the term 'romantic being in the subtitle of Gotthilf von Baumgarten's setting of a libretto based on that of Gretry's It is 'described as a 'Romantic-Comic Zfmire et Azor. His Der Freischiitt.* while Wranitzky's Oberon. k based on a medieval plot. Weber is usually regarded as the real founder of German romantic opera. as it was of opera buffa and opera comique. completed in 1820. Oberon (1826) returns to spoken dialogue. Especially notable are the vividness of the orchestration and the general effectiveness of both solo and choral writing.CHAPTER FIFTEEN ROMANTIC OPERA Chapter 12 a brief sketch was given of the way in which the character of opera changed in France and Italy in the period around 1800. Euryantke. it is a full-dress 'grand' opera. and discards the spoken dialogue. In Germany similar changes came about. of which the best known example is perhaps Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel of 1893. in Italy. leading to the style which is usually known as Romantic Opera. 'Turkish' opera was a distinct fashion from about 1770 onwards. the supernatural (one of the characters has sold his soul to the Devil) . which followed in 1823. and so on. As in France. As well as the lack of conventions which was typical of the singspiel. raised the singspiel to a new level (it has spoken dialogue). new tendencies IN appear in the latter part of the i8th century. while the plot contains all the ingredients which were so dear to the romantics magic. and is the direct successor of Wranitzky's work of the same name. we find also the fondness for the fantastic and the Oriental. . France and Germany. Opera'. King of the Fairies may be considered the prototype of the 'fairy-tale opera'.

for its lack of separate 'numbers'. The romantic style was followed by Heinrich Marschner (1795 to 1861). Although the value of much of the music was recognised by at least one of the critics. entitled his later works 'music drama' rather than 'opera'. thereby stressing still further their integral function. It was criticised. Schumann's one opera. the biographer of Mozart. and complained that the possibility of the singers 'being accorded immediate applause is eliminated'. somewhat as a musical drama'.ROMANTIC OPERA 199 Weber's treatment of the overture shows a notable advance. opens with a reference to the dramatic climax of the whole work. and how Mozart. Genoveva. foreshadowing the continuity on which Wagner insisted in his later works. a continuous move- ment for solo and chorus. to quote the composer's own words. is 'throughcomposed . Weber builds his overtures almost entirely from material which is to be used later. Audiences were as yet far from being trained to sit silent through the hour and a half (or more) which Wagner sometimes demands for a single act. and the singers still preferred the separate recitative and aria. . His best work is Hans Heiling (1833). remarked on the great amount of effort it demanded of the listeners. Otto Jahn. The use of the term 'musical drama' is significant. We have seen how Gluck insisted that the overture should prepare the audience for the opera itself. This style was taken farther by Louis Spohr in his The Crusaders (1845) . whose The Vampire (1823) an <l Templar and Jewess (1829. based broadly on Scott's Ivanhoe) show it at its crudest and most violently melodramatic. With* Richard Wagner (1813 to 1883) we come to the . in Don Giovanni. at that time thirty-two years old. It is 'through-composed'. was a complete failure on its production in 1850. which. it was hardly theatrical enough for the audiences of the time. in which spoken dialogue and set 'numbers' are dispensed with. too. at the end of which they could receive their meed of clapping and bravos. Wagner. This is notable for the plan of the prologue.

was the lineal descendant of Gluck. The . Die Feen and Das Liebesverbot. The ban on Saxony was lifted in 1862. Wagner developed slowly. i. due to his tion for others. however. Both as a musician and a reformer. Rienzi. His few early non-operatic works the piano sonata. For the greater part of his lite he had to struggle against adversity. op. The story is in the best romantic tradition. and after a short stay in Paris. chased by a warrant for his arrest as a 'politically dangerous individual'. if ever. nor do his first two operas.zoo A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC great reformer of opera. Musically the Dutchman carries on the tendency to continuity which is seen in such works as Hans Heiling. where his political activities had originally led to his exile. who. The orchestra begins to occupy a more important position. In 1864 he at last achieved an assured position. often. we find strong pointers to what was to come. tending to provide a commentary on the and as blatant action. He was banned from returning to Germany until 1861. as any work of that composer. was an utter failure. when he received permission to re-enter any state except Saxony. A cardinal doctrine of the later Wagner was that plots for operas should be based on folk-lore. while the latter. erected the Festival Theatre. The former had to wait until five years after his death for its first performance. own impetuosity and lack of considera- In 1849 he had to flee from Germany. it must be admitted. settled in Zurich. his next work. thanks to the At Bayreuth was generosity of Ludwig II of Bavaria. In the Flying Dutchman (1841). achieved. for example give no hint of the genius of the Ring or the Mastersingers. produced in 1834. is a grand opera in the manner of Meyerbeer. and is notable also as being a northern legend. in his approach. and here he was able to superintend the production of his works on the scale and in the manner which he had always intended but had rarely. develop use of the leit-motif principle also begins to the principle which is so vital in the thematic construction and the texture of the later works.

The music must no longer be allowed to override the unfolding of the drama. The plot should be based on national legend. must must unfold continuously. there are than style of Rmdt though fewer which we can others. While there are still passages in Tamhauser. Of Tannhauser (produced 1845) and Lohengrin latter shows the greater advance in technique. and must begin. staging. scene. are of equal importance. As used by Wagner in his later works. for example. it The action ber'.. rhythmic. etc. idea. The vocal writing must vary betherefore be discarded. but also give coherence the Flying Dutchman is undeveloped. Opera must go back to the original the (completed 1848). Their use in capacity. harmonic.ROMANTIC OPERA The leit-motif aoi or 'leading theme' is a passage. both based on Teutonic legends. and be thought of as musical drama. the orchestra. All the factors concerned libretto. be sumBriefly. in see that whatever Wagner may have thought of himself as he matters most as a musician. it must be the means of expression of it. a continuous commentary on the action. acting. cast into alliterative . but the principle begins to emerge. according to the needs of the situation at any given moment. singing. dramatist. or a combination of them. It may be primarily melodic. aims of its founders. leading themes not only serve in an illustrative and unity. expounding Art and Revolution (1849). not an end in itself. It also shows the musical side of Wagner's nature rapidly developwhich look back to the ing. generally short. utilising a texture of leading themes. tween pure recitative and song-like melody. etc. in the overture. his conclusions may marised as follows. The will give orchestra. by 'exciting our feeling from a general state must not be held up by the 'set num- The aria as such of tension to a special sensation of premonition'. the prelude to Act i. poet. and very broadly. his exile. Wagner did a great deal of heavy thinkDuring his arguments ing on the problems of opera. or what not. associated with some particular character. The and conclusions in his essays Art Work of the Future (1850) and Opera and Drama (1852).

portant role of the orchestra is evidenced by the fact that sections of the music dramas are sometimes performed as concert pieces. of which Mr. it provides. The poem of Tristan is not entirely alliterative. others. The way 1 8th century. as well as in his other works. . libretti. * The of the Gods. It must be realised that Wagner. while that of The Mastersingers is in normal The *set piece' appears. but in the re- maining three. as it were. so that the music itself tends to become the predominant factor. From the Dutchman onwards his ideas graduillustrative an idiom. in the face of such sheer beauty. The increasingly imlikely to cavil on that account. without voices at all. tells the story in its own symphonic poem which runs concurrently with the action on the stage. Ernest Newman once remarked that it has no right to be there and yet is the emotional climax of the whole work. Siegfried. the first of the huge tetralogy of music dramas known as The Ring of the Nibelungen.202 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC poetry. even in The Val- Siegmund's Spring Song is an example. The orchestra. in order. and The Twilight t In A Hundred Tears of Music. But. Gerald Abraham says. Not that he ever dropped back to the 'melody opera' of former times. are The Valkyrie. did not simply sit down and think out in cold blood a new way of writing opera. We may note that Wagner always wrote his own In Rhinegold. Still more outside the strict theory of Opera and Drama is the quintet in the last act of The Mastersingers. Tristan and Isolda. reaching their full expression in the Ring and later works. the musician pure and simple cannot be restrained. verse.* Wagner carries out his theories with considerable strictness. in is fact. although rightly called a reformer. The Mastersingers ofNuremberg^ and Parsifal. in which the whole action is held up while five people express their feelings and emotions is almost pure at all. but nobody. ally crystallised.f 'Wagner was no rigid doctrinaire*. rhymed kyrie. as Prof.

he was also a harmonic innovator. talcing the style of Donizetti to a climax. and whose daughter Gosima he married as his second wife. it was a serious matter. despite his adherence to tradition in the importance of the voice and the relative unimportance of the orchestra. like some of his successors. opera was far from being a mere 'concert in costume'. he simply expanded on the basis of tradition. His operatic career falls into four periods. Verdi was no reformer. Mention of . In these he really found himself. Cosima's first husband. with whom he was for long on terms of intimacy. during which he had more or less success with works which are now almost forgotten. in a somewhat secretive manner. Wagner was not eager to admit what he had learned from Liszt. In these the style of Bellini and Donizetti is evident. in a letter to Hans von Biilow. and a loosening of the bonds of key. thereby creating a system which was perfectly adapted to own expressive ends. To the Wagnerians since he stood for all that they was a time of apprenticeship. or rather developer. his harmony developed in the direction of intense use of chromaticism. though he did so once. such as Oberto and Ernani. was to the Wagnerians. At the other end of the operatic scale from Wagner stands contemporary Giuseppe Verdi (1813 to 1901). Liszt's harmonic innovations are at times quite startling. He did not. who was not born until 1862. To Verdi. In the second period are Rigoletto. and in some of his latest piano works he anticipates procedures which are customarily associated more with such a composer as Debussy. as it The despised in opera. and his great raised the style to his its name was anathema. first highest point. In this direction he was to some extent indebted to Liszt. Broadly speaking. in which vocal melody was all-important. M Trovatore and La Traviata. but with greater dramatic power and greater earnestness than the older man had ever achieved. attempt to 'invent' a new his system.ROMANTIC OPERA 203 Wagner was not only an operatic reformer. up to 1850. He was brought up in the Italian tradition.

and in 1893 Falstaff. almost every writer of operas since his day. opera buffa.204 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC opera. Until 1887 Verdi wrote no more operas. but in that year he produced both based on In them a transfigured style is seen. The climax of this period comes with Aida. It was written to order. taste. to a greater or less degree. or art in general. found no difficulty in providing a really great work. there is always underlying sincerity. Falstaff is the apotheosis of but at the same time employs the principle of music drama as seen through the eyes of its composer. though there is some use of the leit-motif principle. and then another work for Paris. third period begins. is nevertheless of the greatest power and sincerity. Verdi makes of Othello a music drama. with highly expressive declamation and a rich and Othello. the Shakespearian characters. The Vespers. Neither Wagner nor Verdi wrote much of importance apart from their stage works. But Verdi. at a time when the practice of com- missioning operas had fallen into disuse. Even in his early operas his characters are alive. subtle use of the orchestra. of such beauty that we can only regret its lack of successors. Don Carlos. with The Sicilian written for Paris. who took no small part in the shaping of the libretto. this is grand opera to the French It is followed by three purely Italian operas. a grand opera in every sense of the word. from 1855. His only other notable work is the Siegfried Idyll. whose one really . Wagner's ideas have affected. The Masked Ball and The Force of Destiny. although it may appear superficially to be rather theatrical in conception and outlook. as 'entertainment' infuriated him. Wagner's Faust overture has already been mentioned. In all of these there is increasing control of the medium and increasing importance is given to the orchestra. they are not mere stage puppets. for the opening of the Suez Canal in 1871. And however melodramatic he may seem at times. Simon* Boccanegra. including Englebert Humperdinck (1854 to 1921). Verdi's one great non-operatic work is the Requiem Mass which. Without imitating Wagner.

Both comhad a more than adequate feeling for dramatic. is Carmen Possibly the greatest French opera of the period by Georges Bizet (1838 to 1875). now known only by La Juive. Despite some use (1875) of a pseudo-Spanish idiom. Otto Wives of Windsor (1849) *s a delightful example of German opera buffa. Of non-Wagnerian Nicolai's Merry composer's fine lyrical talent. In France the style of Meyerbeer's grand opera was followed by Jacques Hatevy (1799 to 1862). it is typically French in its economy and deftness. too. in all of which the accent is on lyrical melody. Verdi's Pagliacci posers and Cavallena Rusticana respectively. Berlioz. Twrandot. though never a great success. Hansel and Gretel. while Peter Cornelius's Barber of Baghdad (1858). The more lyrical opera is represented by Gounod's Faust (1859) and Romeo and Juliet (1867). and the aria. with a complete lack of anything Wagnerian. first two of these are famous chiefly for one work each. The Leoncavallo. exhibits its In Italy. Puccini was a greater musician. unfinished work. is a greater work than the rarity of its performance would suggest. he reached perhaps his greatest heights in his last. showing to some extent interest of his scenes Wagnerian influence in the musically sustained and in his modified use of the leit-motif. without being obviously obtrusive. still holds its place in their work. 205 has been described as works. Tosca and Madame mainly on such operas as La Butterfly. 'Wagner for children'. Their use of the orchestra is approximately that of the late Verdi.ROMANTIC OPERA successful work. sometimes melodramatic effect. Rather later ( 1 877} is Saint-Sagns's well-known Samson and Delilah. F&icien David's Lalla Rookh (1862) and Ambroise Thomas's Mignon (1866). most important successors were Ruggiero Pietro Mascagni and Giacomo Puccini. Although his popularity rests Boheme. While not a 'modern' in the colloquial sense. his harmony shows some originality. at least. and his orchestration is masterly. . while the orchestration is masterly. produced Benoenuto Cellini and The Trojans9 of which the latter.

Ritnv OALP. notwithstanding was possibly the most naturally gifted French musician of his time. 1086 Verdi CdtsUAih (AM) ts-/J A 6010 Pooa 30ii6EPL Tmaton Verdi Recital LXA. 1538 . Oberm Overture.3094 OALP.6oi8 OALP. 1069 1820/1 LWA. No. AK.ioS DB. Leoncavallo Puccini Bizet 1284 GEPO. 1858 Prize T OALP.so6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC some limitations. Bizet. Elsa's 5o3 8 Dream (kkngrk) Song (Mtutompr) JJ "Dl_* yRO. 1014 OALP. 1076 DIP. RECORDS Cat. Weber Cavatlna from DerFreiscktz Overture. 1014 Brunnhilde's Immolation Siegfried IdyU 7EB0. and in Carmn he produced a masterpiece. Operatic arias Excerpts from 700003 1204 33 OCX. Carm SELO.

for example. as has so often happened in earlier ages. and to decide which tendencies are likely to have a lasting effect on the development of music. while others. be thrown off our critical balance by the impact of new ideas. and we may. but not every Some composers have late romantic was a nationalist. Our judgment of contemporary or near-contemporary art is almost inevitably coloured by personal preference. and idiom.CHAPTER SIXTEEN AND NATIONALISTS Chapter 14 some reference was made to developments LATE ROMANTICS IN developments in the hands of a later generation. these together with It in harmony and form. have been content to depart little if at all from traditional methods. we find the late romanticism of Elgar and Strauss running parallel with the 'advanced* modernity of Schonberg and Bart6k. An instance of this is to 1915). contemporary with them. must be realised that not every composer has been vitally affected by all or any of the newer ideas. from about the middle of the igth century. for instance. there has been. but gradually developed his own advanced harmonic style. a good deal of overlapping of styles. A nationalist. His later works had a highly personal to be seen in the case of Alexander Scriabin (18752 He began by writing in a kind of post-Chopin . In the past hundred years. pursued new lines of thought to a considerable degree. may be romantic in his outlook. In the present century. as it were. We shall now deal briefly with some consideration of national movements. As we draw nearer to our own times it becomes more and more difficult to assess the value and importance of the work of composers and schools of thought.

so as to view things whole and to see them in perspective. so as to give the audience a better chance of understanding it. the fuller savour of the sunshine in which the berries ripened. F. But he is now seen to have dealt merely in a sort of over-ripe romanticism. His new path turned out to be a cul-de-sac. we have to be able to look back over a period of time. Properly to assess the work of a composer or the value of a trend of thought we need to be at a distance. for example. His vocabulary was more extensive and his use of it highly personal.' acts Henry Wood . time only reveals its weakness and age its acidity. The pioneers of harmonic development were. was content with a relatively limited harmonic vocabulary and a very moderate use of chromaticism.* and in many quarters he was deemed to have opened up a new path of vital importance. We are now far enough from the second half of the igth century to be able to distinguish what is really important from what is less so. The Wagnerian tendencies are ception of tonality (key) and discord and chromaticism. as has already been stated. Cesar Franck (1822 to 1890). And it is worth recalling that in their own day Telemann was considered a much greater composer than Bach. maturing and bringing out. if the juice be noble. while if it is thin by nature.! Three and a half centuries ago Gesualdo was as startling as was Scriabin between 1910 and 1925. and we find wide differences between contemporaries. Wagner and Liszt. Benson puts the matter pointedly in his As We Were: 'Time on sound work much as it does on the vintages of the grape. on the other hand. Dvofak (1841 to 1904). Not every composer has been equally affected by their innovations.ao8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC startling effect in the period around the First World War. It marked by a broader conan increasingly free use of is not merely an expansion of the range of keys used within a * movement late Sir as in the He was considered so 'advanced* that the performed his symphonic poem Prometheus twice at one concert. employed a great deal of high-powered chromaticism. we can now see that his expert mentalism was sterile. t E.

The 5 obscured. Ex. It should not be thought that Wagner and his followers necessarily employed such methods to the c 9 exclusion of anything eke. sometimes to such extent that the tonality becomes almost. even the combination at It is the (a) can be explained in purely academic terms.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS Eroica 209 ment an developin the use of chromaticism.35 There are no new chords here. use of musicajicta gradually destroyed the individuality of the modes and paved the way for the major-minor scale . if not lies symphony and comparable instances. and one would merge into the other according to the expressive needs of the moment. This 'stretching of tonality may be illustrated 5 the 'Magic Sleep motive in Wagner's Valkyrie: by entirely. In this advanced chromaticism and the expansion of tonality we may see a parallel with what happened to the modal system during the late i6th and The early iyth centuries. juxtaposition of the chords and the resultant vagueness of key which are new. In Woteafs Farewell (the closing scene of the Valkyrie) the pass- age quoted above is immediately followed by a long stretch of almost undiluted diatonic writing. Their vocabularies included both the old and the new.

It is not proposed to argue the point here. A view of the processes as they arose in the work of one composer . We have seen how Wagner's We theories of opera led him to the virtual abolition of the set number and to the greatest possible continuity of dramatic action and musical have also noted how his use of the orchestra thought. But the principle of continuity at least has been taken for granted. emerge. A few aspects of formal development must now be considered. but it may perhaps be pointed out that there are still composers of international reputation who seem to find something vital to say without severing all links with tradition. In instrumental music the developments of the earlier romantics have followed a logical course. Tschaikovsky (1840 to 1893) provides obvious examples in his 4th and 5th symphonies. nor has the orchestra necessarily been used to provide a kind of symphonic poem concurrent with the stage action. We have referred to Berlioz's use of the idetfixe as a method of binding together the movements of a symphony. Not that all have made such consistent use of the leading-theme principle. unfortunately not available in an English translation. This is paralleled among the later romantics a 'motto theme' practically another name for the same thing announced in an introduction and brought in at by the frequent introduction of dramatically appropriate points in the course of the work. In the former the motto reappears (in the first and last movements only) always in the * may be studied in Arnold Schonberg et son osuore by Rene* Leibowitz (libraire Janin). Directly or indirectly. tending to the disintegration of classical tonality. became more and more integral in the structure of his music-dramas. The chromaticism of the late igth century created conditions under which new technical methods could .* In the opinion of some the day of the major-minor system is over. his ideas have affected almost every writer of opera since his day.2io A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC system. together with the employment of the orchestra as something very much more than a mere accompanying instrument.

no particular and is found.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS same form and with the same stated. compare the first subject of the first movement with the theme of the variations in the finale: piano sonata has been widely adopted. among other works. Ana and Finale for piano. material from the first two . more subtle We may refer also to Sibelius's 4th symphony with its almost obsessive insistence on the interval of the augmented 4th. though its effectiveness is undeniable. in others only parFor the former we may turn to the piano concerto tially. in Elgar's where the initial descending four notes of symphony. in some cases whole-heartedly. of Rimsky-Korsakov (1864 to 1908). The work of many composers of the last hundred years abounds in such thematic interrelationships. There is movements. In his one symphony Franck uses thematic cross-reference. though the extent to which they are deliberate is at times debatable. The Brahmsian art of concealing art by the use of a germinal figure ist is undergoing some metamorphosis. 211 significance as it is originally In the latter it recurs in all the later subtlety in this. in Franck's violin sonata Partial application of the principle is seen and his Prelude. A case which we may take as intentional occurs in the 4th symphony of Dvorak. the motto tend to associate themselves with later material. for instance. which copies the Liszt sonata even to the enunciation of three basic themes in an Wanderer Fantasie The cyclic principle exhibited in such works as Schubert's and Liszt's introduction.

the Finn Jean Sibelius (1865 to 1957). op. is a kind of ascent from darkness to (a] struggle. While the late romantics concerned themselves largely with problems of form. In his 6th (Pathttique] the last-named composer effectively modified what looked like developing into the same programme. (c) triumph. movement of (The way was pointed by Mozart in the last the Jupiter symphony. The most obvious. Elgar's two symphonies provide good examples. ending in the depths of despair. so to speak. Possibly more than any of his contemporaries he achieved an integra* first An excellent movement of the little some example of such a 'concealed opening' occurs in the sonata.) There is generally something which. His treatment of the bridge-passage as part of the thematic material development of thej&wzfe. including. incorporating themes from the first two movements into the show further development of Beethoven's attitude to the composition of subject-matter. only the first among equals. light is (b) relaxation. The later romantics and his tendency to avoid any obvious indication of the beginning of the second group* has led composers to treat the exposition as one consolidated lump of subjectmatter. Another development arising from the romantic outlook the frequent use of an 'emotional programme' in extended works. may be labelled as the beginning of the second group. Sibelius's 2nd and Tschaikovsky's 4th and 5th.212 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC movements recurring. Elgar's ist. ideas which occur in both first and second groups. metamorphosed. one composer stands out as the inheritor of the classical outlook and the truly architectural mind. from its character and possibly its key. The progenitor is Beethoven's 5th symphony. and perhaps the most common. The reader may care to spend time deciding exactly where the second group begins. . and among its offspring may be mentioned Franck's symphony. but it is. 1 10. in the last. Dvorak takes the idea farther in his New World symphony. in the ist.

possibly the greatest masterpiece of musical architecture since Beethoven. to the entirely original one movement. is in his use of realism. or of the precision and elegance of the French. 7. and this applies also in some of his operatic writing. The reader referred to Sibelius. even was a master of 'economy of means'. the innate and the cultivated. as may be seen in his symphonic poem Tapiola. for those t The method. The point cannot be argued here.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS tion of 313 form and content unsurpassed since Beethoven. The national or racial characteristics of composers have always tended to show in their music. practically everything arises from a single short basic theme. for example. by Gerald Abraham (Lindsay Drummond). of the movement of Beethoven's The question then arises whether such procedures are musically justifiable.Far more than Liszt he allowed form to be dictated by programme. 5. Nationalism has two aspects. for example. No Frenchman could have written the earnest is * Discussion of Sibelius's architecture is impossible here. each race has produced its own interpretation of the common stock of technique and style. From the rather angular sonata form basis of his ist symphony he progressed. Where Strauss goes knowledge farther than any of his predecessors. but it may be pointed out that the principle is merely an extension of that used in. metamorphosis being real understanding of the music to the as the bleating of sheep in the second of the uncanny reproduction of non-musical sounds such Don Quixote Pastoral symphony. 4 and the 'telescoping of first 9 movement and structure. who are interested. the 'storm* variations-! approach of the Germans and their frequent tendency to complexity. of No. is 'flutter-tonguing' on . In this. Development of the symphonic poem is associated largely with Richard Strauss (1864 to X 949). so that no is possible without preof the literary background. via the tremendous compression of the first movement of No. muted brass. in scher& of No. We may think.* He employed in a masterly fashion.

But such distinctions of style are instinctive. which has During the i8th and early igth centuries the prevailing taste. according to personal inclination. as are minor the Englishness of Purcell or Elgar. and its effects have been as it were local. notable developments in the harmonic field.ai4 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC B Mass or the gth Symphony. the first of the Russian His early works are in the Italian tradition. no German could have written Carmen. There has been no question of new basic ideas on structure nor has it given rise to arising from a nationalist outlook. Nationalist composers have followed the prevailing trends to a greater or less degree. such men as Galuppi. set by the court. in the nationalists. This he did in his operas A Life for the Czar (1836) and Russian and Ludmilla (1842). Music and musicians were largely imported. and although the 'folk* influence in the for their is not so strong in them as it work of some of his successors. stories* The composer to be accused of writing 'coachmen's libretti are based on national (Russian) The importance of nationalism lies in the breaking away from alien influence. having remarked to his teacher Siegfried Dehn that he was tired of the Italian style. it normally begins by deliberate cultivation. Paisiello and Gimarosa holding court Russian musicians were sent to Italy for training and wrote positions. in the same way as have non-nationalists. Equally. Although a national idiom may ultimately become instinctive. nor could either have composed Aida. Such nationalism arose in the igth century as a revolt against the shackles of an alien style. or the Russianness of Tschaikovsky. was told to 'go home and write Russian music*. This is seen. which up to his time had been considered the only acceptable style in musically educated Russia. case of Michael Glinka (1804 to 1857). * .* Glinka. in the Italian style. Leaving aside France. was for Italian opera. it was to become was sufficient music*. for example. Nationalism in the commonly accepted meaning of the term implies the conscious basing of a composer's idiom on that of the folk-music of his country.

of course. initiated by German poets. The German (or Italian) manner of thought and the technique bound up with it were taken for granted. The nationalist. and so on. It may be said that as far as Central Europe and England were concerned. includes Austria. and little more than a mere In point of list of the most important must suffice. while in Russia it meant little but Italian opera. or Italian. they were no longer using the lingua franca of German. enabled their followers to forge a musical language.* No other country had produced composers of the calibre of Bach. Mozart or Beethoven. began to think on his own lines. 'music meant 'German music'. of their own. They were Alexander Borodin (1833 to 1887). He was followed by Alexander Dargomijsky (1813 to 1869) and the group known as the Tive'. or idiom. the chief propagandist curiously devoid of a national idiom. in The work of the early nationalists his own language. The founder was Balakireff and Cui. Wagner's operatic reforms were the work of a German. . Considerations of space forbid any detailed account of the work of individual composers. all music from the beginning of the i8th century the greatest had emanated from Germany.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS always tended to 315 be individualistic in matters of art. Beethoven the seer was a German. who deliberately adopted the thesis that music should be based on national or 'folk* idiom. headed by Glinka. was furthered largely by German composers. Handel. Mfly Balakireff (1837 to 1910). but wrote. as it were. C&ar Cui (1835 to 1918). whose own compositions are * In this sense Germany. in their native 9 tongue. led the way. time the Russian school. and practically all the great developments in music had arisen there. so that to whatever extent they were affected by the work of the outstanding figures of their generation. the romantic movement. The classical sonata and symphony were of German development. Modeste Mussorgsky (1839 to 1881) and Nicholas Rimsky- Korsakov (1844 to 1908). however.

never fulfilled his early promise. a national school was founded by Felipe Pedrdl (1841 to 1922). Academy of Music and W. whose influence was asserted mainly through his writings and teaching. friend of Mendelssohn and Schumann. cantatas. etc. 1931) has a high reputation. with a predominantly lyrical talent (1879-1949). which served him well in small-scale works. Notable among his followers are his pupils Enrique Granados (1867 to I 9 I 6) and Manuel de Falla (1876 to 1946). music suffered a rapid decline after the death of Purcell.. William Sterndale Bennett (1816 to 1875). apart from the work of Arne. In England. largely owing to his professional appointments as Principal of the Royal Professor of Music at Cambridge University. The latter's pupil Vitezslav Novak (1870 to 1949) shows nationalist leanings in his later works. Arthur Seymour Sullivan (1842 to 1900). lacking music of any particular distinction since the days of Morales and Victoria. few to the if Samuel Sebastian (1810 to 1876) exerted an influence for good on music for the Anglican rite.2i6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Immediately after the Russians came the Bohemians. despite a varied output of oratorios. also Isaac Albeniz (1860 to 1909). He was essentially a miniaturist. In Spain. and way any of whom contributed in any development of the main stream of music. There is a long list In Denmark Carl Nielsen (1865 to training shows prominently. Frederick Smetana (1824 to 1884). with libretti by They contain a wealth of good tunes and . orchestral works. later are A generation Joaquin Turina (1882 to 1949) and Joaquin Nin Of Scandinavians the best-known nationalist is Edvard Grieg (1843 to *97)9 a Norwegian of Scottish descent. Samuel Wesley (1766 to 1837) is notable for some fine Latin motets and for his championship of Bach at a time when his name was hardly known. only by his light operas. Wesley's natural son of mediocrities. now lives S. Gilbert. In the larger forms his German he is less successful. followed by Antonin Dvorak (1841 to 1904).

economical and sparkling
limits, is



satire is




Their social and but their continued popuits

larity is assured

by the music, which, within


of great attractiveness.* Three names herald the real revival of English music,

Alexander Mackenzie (1847 to 1935), Hubert Parry (1848
to 1918)

and Charles

While hardly of the
next generation,



to 1924). the way for the rank, they paved of whom were pupils of Parry and

Villiers Stanford

Stanford, of Irish birth, was perhaps the most spontaneously gifted. His work has at times an attractive

Irish-folky flavour, and some of his songs are perfect gems. Parry was at his best, perhaps, in choral works, where his fine contrapuntal technique, derived from his study of Bach

book on that composer remains a standard work), has


Born in 1857, the outstanding figure of his generation was Edward Elgar, who died in 1934. Unlike the three composers mentioned above, he had no academic training, but in natural gifts he excelled them all. His early works,
while often showing his great gift for melody, give little foretaste of the possibilities realised in the Enigma Variations of 1899 an(i t*16 l n Ik* f compositions which followed.

In the Dream of

Gerontius, the

two symphonies, the



'cello concertos,

and the symphonic study

name but a

few, Elgar proved his right to be of greatest English composer since Purcell. His mastery he rarely, if ever, the orchestra was consummate (though in Straussian 'stunting'), and Falstaff showed that

Fdstqff, to called the

indulged in the sphere of


music he had no need

to fear

second of the line of great Viennese waltz-kings. His best known 9 In operetta, Die Fledermaus (The Bat ), is a complete masterpiece. view of the ultra-serious view of music which is not uncommon among students and the tendency to look down on 'light* music, it may be worth while to point out that such great artists as Lotte Lehmann and Elisabeth Schumann were c[uite happy to turn from The Rxng or The Mastersingers and take part in The Bat,,

competition. * Mention must not be omitted of Johann

Strauss (1825 to 1899),



as of Parry, is of the instinctive, kind; there is no use of a 'folk' idiom. In the intangible work of Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872 to 1958) we find an idiom whose roots are largely in the folksong tradition, phonists.

The Englishncss of Elgar,

by his study of the works of the early polyDr. H. C. Colles put the matter succinctly when he remarked, in connection with Vaughan Williams's Pastoral symphony, that his 'creative power seems to have been set free by his converse with the folk singers. 9 He was

no way limited in his harmonic outlook; like Sibelius, he was prepared to use anything from the mildest consonance to the most astringent dissonance (as in his 4th symphony)
to give appropriate expression to his thoughts. Vaughan Williams had a great influence on the younger generation, and helped them by his example to find their own language.

In his long list of works, from the Fantasia on a Theme of Tallis onwards, there is none which does not bear the imprint of a strong and sincere personality. The work of Gustav Hoist (1874 to 1934), despite the frequent use of a markedly dissonant idiom, shows nationalist feeling, and so to some extent does that of Frederick Ddius (1862 to 1934), together with influences from Greig and Debussy (to be considered later). Nationalism in Hungary is represented by Zoltan Kodaly (b. 1882) and Bela Bart6k (1881 to 1945). Of the latter some mention will be made in the next chapter. Kodaly's studies of Hungarian folksong have given a distinctly national flavour to such works as his Psalmus Hungarian, one of the finest choral works of the present

have already referred briefly to Sibelius. It well to mention that he was not a nationalist in the


may be

accepted sense and made no use of a folk idiom. He has been described as a 'nationalist in sentiment9 ,* as was Elgar, but there is none of the deliberate nationalism of the Russian


9 .



by Gerald Abraham,


by David Cherniavsky.

might be called a nationalist in


Tschaikovsky, too, He did occasionally make use of a Russian folk as in the last movement of his 4th symphony, but tune, he never adopted the methods of the 'Five'. His work is outstanding in its free expression of emotion, sometimes

degenerating to sentimentality, and he was in the same line of superb orchestral craftsmen as Mozart and Mendelssohn.* In the next generation are Alexander Glazounov

I (1865 to 1936) and Serge Rachmaninov (1873 to 943) Neither was a deliberate nationalist, nor in the front rank of composers, but both produced much work with considerable appeal. Rachmaninov's songs rank with those of Mussorgsky, and he perhaps took the display concerto


The Germans,
volkslied in

piano to




Apart from Strauss there are the Austrian Anton Bruckner (1824 to 1896) and the Bohemian Gustav Mahler (1860 to 1911), Viennese by education and residence. Both are 'classic-romantic , both absorbed Wagnerian influences, and both tend to prolixity. Opinions vary as to the ultimate value of their compositions; all that can

Brahms's songs, have yet to show

despite the occasional influence of the interest in folk

be said objectively is that they continued the tendencies of Wagnerian romanticism. As in Germany, so in France there have been no signs of interest in folksong as a basis of style. The ballets of

Leo Delibes (1836 to 1891) and the operas ofJules Massenet to J 9*9)> Gustavo (1842 to 1912), Andrd Messager (1853 to 1956) and Emmanuel Ghabrier Charpentier (1860 in their elegance and (1841 to 1894) are typically French charm. Rather later was Paul Dukas (1865 to 1935), who is known chiefly by his vivid and amusing scherzo, Uapprenti

The most

was Franck, who, although of Belgian parentage, was so long
* An example occurs at the opening of the 5th symphony. another composer might have stated the motto theme on one effect. Tschaikovsky uses two in unison a quite unique

serious-minded composer of the century




is usually counted as a Frenchman. His somewhat weighty romanticism, with its highly personal melodic idioms and at times exotically chromatic harmony, was something new in French music. Notable among his pupils were Vincent d'Indy (1851 to 1931), Henri Duparc (1848 to 1933), famous for some fine songs,

resident in Paris that he

and Guy Ropartz (1864


to 1956). Standing apart from Gabriel Faure (1845 to 1924) exerted much group,

influence as a teacher, perhaps his most important pupil being Maurice Ravel (1875 to I 937)




Great Scenes from Boris Godounov Pictures at an Exhibition
Prince Igor


No. 323 1003

Polovtsian Dances



RimskyKorsakov Smetana

(from Ma Wast) Bartered Bride, Overture etc.

The Moldau
Symphony, Symphony,

N ooSaoR

33 SX. 1007


D Minor



World} Slavonic Dances


Piano Concerto, Lyric Suite

A Minor

LXT. 2608 OCLP. 1019



1003 1020



The Lady and

the Nightingale




The Three-Cornered Hat


Violin Sonata


D Minor


CX. 1049

Nutcracker Suite

Symphony No. 5 Symphony No. 6

LXTA. 2905 33 OCX. 1201 LPM. 18333 LPM. 18334


Mahler Wolf

Symphony No. 3 Symphony No. 4
Song Recital Song Recital

Don Juan

TU EuLertspiegel \

LXTA. 2969 LXT. 2718 LW. 5 i62 33 OCX. 1162



Extracts from Der Rosenkaoalier



2871 * Summer night on Symphony No. Symphony No. 1085 1122 1047 . Vaughan Hoist Delius Sibelius Enigma Variations Violin Concerto Fantasia on a theme of Tallis Williams London Symphony Pastoral Symphony Planets KLC. No. OCX. 2693 LXT. CX. i On hearing the first cuckoo 33 33 the river OOT b2QI 2 5 OALP. 527 OALP. 2699 LXT. Symphony No. 2787 LXTA. 1456 LXT.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS Composer Elgar Title Cat.

to developments in the use of the orchestra. leading. Both painters and poets sought to suggest rather than to state. Claude Achille Debussy came early under the influence of the pictorial and poetical impressionists. (It is arguable that he was to some extent anticipated by Liszt in some of his latest piano works. among other things. whether analysable as 'chords' in the traditional sense or not. consideration of his work has been deferred until now.) We have noted the romantics' interest in sound as such. ally have been dealt with in the previous chapter. combinations of notes. IMPRESSIONISM The principles of impressionism are seen in the work of such painters as Monet and Cezanne and such poets as Verlaine and Mallarme.CHAPTER SEVENTEEN AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE A LTHOUGH the composer who is regarded as the f-\ chief exponent of impressionism could chronologic\. The poets were willing to discard prosody and even to neglect the normal rules of syntax. JL as he died in 1918. since he brought to music a new outlook and new methods which are most logically treated in a section which is concerned with what is usually called 'modern' music. and his style came to be based on an application to music of their underlying principles. Debussy's interest was in sounds as sounds. in their Born in 1862. concerning themselves with the purely sensuous effect of words words as sounds and symbols rather than as Hnfcg in a chain of thought. . largely disregarding traditional methods of 'composition* and eschewing anything that savoured of photographic realism. The painters concentrated on light and colour as the most important elements in a picture. calculated.

we recognise We have only to listen to the very opening of suggestion. is not to Debussy a discord. music intriguing. since the traditional attitude ninth or thirteenth to discord no longer holds good. Despite the opinions held by many who have not closely studied his work. see the third and fourth bars from the end of the piano prelude Le Cathedrale Engloutie. to induce certain mental or psychological reactions. of a pictorial art) 'permeated with ambiguity- m he took his sion. retaining but expanding the traditional vocabulary. like the painters and poets from of the orchestra inspiration. (For a simple example. and he was led to experiment with such possibilities as the whole-tone scale.) The traditional principle that a discord needs some kind of resolution is therefore often completely discarded. we may add. though not to the extent which is sometimes imagined. Not that he attempted to sever it conveys all links of harmony. * P. He 'attempted to create the musical equivalent of a literature' (and.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 223 context. Lang. A chord. In his use of the delicate tints whom economical to the last degree and in his highly personal the master of style of keyboard writing. it is a 'sound' to be used for its particular effect the impression in its context. with the past or to found an entirely 'new' system Rather he indicated the possibility of a new attitude towards its functions. rather than as links in a musical argument. for instance. Music in Western Civilisation. much of Debussy's harmony is more straightforwardly diatonic than that of Wagner in Tristan or Parsifal.* His The realism of a Strauss is is illustrative a new sense. Anything contrapuntal was therefore alien to his style. and the use of clusters of notes which can hardly be classified as chords in the traditional manner. . he aims to suggest. yet attractive ambiguity'. to give an impres- Debussy's aim was the capturing of a sensation or a mood. not his object. though it peeps through in such a piece as the prelude Feux d* artifice. H. and in this he showed himself the successor of such lythand 18th-century clavecinists as Couperin. deceiving.

PelUas et Melisande. lacking both predecessors and successors. Firstly. and lacked the finesse and elusiveness of the Frenchmen. With his and violin. though the dividing line is by no means There are those who retain strong links clearly drawn. the sonatas for piano 'cello and piano. viola and harp 6 (1915-17). and the influence of the 18th-century clavecinists is sometimes apparent. Debussy entered a kind of neo-classic phase. Neverthe- he was perhaps more of a whole-hearted impressionist than any other composer. nearer to traditional form and line though harmonically quite advanced less. It suggests the atmosphere in an entirely individual manner. is at the opposite pole from both Wagnerian music-drama and the Italian tradition. clarity of outline. The singing is entirely declamatory. his musical characteristics developed on different lines from those of Debussy. cultivated a harmonic style which tends to be lush. nor does it provide a Wagnerian symphonic poem. Debussy's one opera. but PelUas stands as an isolated phenomenon. and precision. and those in whose work the links are wearing Among contemporaries we may distinguish . J than his impressionist work. perhaps. in smaller works. with tradition. postromantics working concurrently with the more advanced composers. the overlapping of styles referred to in Chapter 16. based on the play by Maurice Maeterlinck. and flute. both harmonically and in their general outlook. two main classes. e. As a pupil of Faur6. as it were. the minimum strokes of the brush. at his best. however. approaching natural a mere accompanispeech. the orchestra is used not as ment.g. Ravel and Delius were among those who came under his influence. latest compositions.224 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the famous Prilude d PAprh-midi fun Faune (1892) to realise his ability to create an atmosphere with. Debussy influenced many composers to a greater or less degree. Delius. Ravel learned the value of formal stability. As a preliminary to some consideration of the more recent trends in music three points must be mentioned.

no attempt can be made passing from the swans and to decide which composers are on the main road and which are merely exploring dead-ends. fertile imagination (especially stimulated in the setting of words) and his fluent technique. an extension of that of Liszt and Wagner. without to distinguish the geese and to mention every single composer. enable him to achieve a wide Younger Benjamin Britten His . above. It would be possible to give a comprehensive list of names. as in the case of such British writers as John Ireland (b. arising from this general rather than particular consideration of contemporary work. Arthur Bliss (b. as there are individual composers. and Herbert Howells (b. In matters of form. Of a younger and dynamic. In fifty years' time it may be possible an opinion as to their potential value. In the work of composers whose links with tradition are still firm their harmonic vocabulary is. among other things. forceful may be coupled with still is the choral works mentioned (b. It is still fundamentally based on the major-minor scale system. 1913). 1879). in fact. Arnold Bax (1883 to 1953). Secondly.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 225 more or less thin or appear to have snapped. Thirdly. All have carried on. 1892). which can still find fresh resource in diatonic melody. logically enough. we must again stress the importance of the time factor. with a highly individualised style. 1902) is to be noted. 1891) is more eclectic and rather less traditional in his outlook. too. often with some influence from Debussy. there is no violent break with the past. but to do so would be singularly uninformative. At the present day many different lines of development are being pursued. almost as many. but rather a continued development of the processes of the igth century. His Bekhazzar's Feast generation William Walton (b. It is the music which matters most. In many instances nationalist traits are evident to a greater or less extent. All that can be done at present is to indicate what appear to be the general trends. notable works including Bax's motet Mater ora Filium and Howells' Hyrnnus Paradisi. the English tradition of choral music.

1896). 1906) have had to conform to the canons promulgated by those who dictate artistic style in the U. Apart from a completely free treatment of dissonance. He has a very original mind. Of music in Russia it is difficult to give an opinion owing to the peculiar conditions (at least to the Western mind) under which artists are expected to work.226 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC range of style. In recent years a number of native-born composers have appeared in the United States of America.R. Such composers as Serge Prokofieff (1891 to 1953) and Dmitri Shostakovich (b. His violin concerto is one of the finest recent works of its genre. Many of the leading European musicians have made their home in the U.A. 1898) .S. and their influence is evidently strong in shaping at any rate the language of a number of American composers. 1900). are highly individual and of great dynamic power. The methods of the earlier writers were naturally based on the German tradition..S. His music has often a rhapsodic tendency and shows racial characteristics. but more recently there has been a tendency to considerable individuality and an eagerness to absorb the most advanced methods. They are therefore not entirely at liberty to develop according to their natural inclinations. and his style and idiom. (b. Among Continental composers the late romantic attitude is perhaps less common. and a new attitude to form. born in Switzerland of Jewish parentage. the breaking down of the traditional distinction between concord and discord mentioned in Chapter 3. often markedly dissonant but with a traditional background. from a rather steely post-romanticism to the most advanced modernity.S. We must now deal briefly with the work of the more advanced composers. Kodaly has been mentioned. the notable feature (b. 1910). They cannot be regarded as a 'school' since their styles and aims vary widely. Roy Harris and Virgil Thompson (b. Among the more prominent of these are Samuel Barber Aaron Copland (b. and we may refer also to Ernest Bloch (1880-1959).

as has been suggested by Alois Haba* (The result of this. The twelve notes of what is usually called the chromatic scale all become of equal importance.) In the work of the more advanced composers we find not only function new technical methods. The traditionalist. This implies that composition is more a matter of 'patterning' with sounds. chromaticism in the true sense of the word no longer exists. But 'coloured' colouring. unless we go back similar attitude It is to the early days of polyphony seems largely to have held good. it is rather a matter of an almost mathematical handling of sounds. whatever variations there have been in style and method. The true 'modern' often tends to what is called 'cerebral' music. We see the possibilities of this taken to an advanced stage in the late Wagner and in the work of many of the contemporary post-romantics. is that to the normal Western ear the music merely sounds out of tune. even though the emotion may not always be universally palatable. Chroma- of such work is ticism means by accidentals.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 227 the disintegration. according to a more startling his music looks upon it as a means of may seem harmonically. their music is Such a conception of an art is new. 'key* is a thing of the past. Most notably opposed to the romantic spirit of the music as a direct response to. or less definite plan. when a certainly in direct opposition to the aims of composers since the I5th century. of tonality. still however emotional expression. so that there is nothing left to be coloured unless we introduce intervals smaller than a semitone. and expression igth century A reaction of some kind was to be expected. Thus. it is . To many contemporary composers the major-minor scale system is played out. but a new attitude to the and meaning of music itself. interesting enough in theory. also automatically discards chromaticism. indeed. feeling. Notes of the diatonic scale are the true 'modern'. Some. of. regardless of euphony. in discarding traditional tonality. seem to suggest that not intended to have any 'meaning' in the usual sense of the word.

It implies a complete turning away from the emotionalism of the late romantics and a return to many older forms concerto grosso. suite. is a notable feature of contemporary music. The characteristic impersonality many works by Paul Hindemith (b. The earliest neo-classicist was Ferruccio Busoni (1866 to 1924). attempt to follow their lead. of which we have noted signs but not more than signs in the late Debussy. Composers all kinds. In the case of 20th-century music we have to allow for two world wars and a number of revolutions. tending to modify man's outlook on This is reflected in the work of at least a proportion life. and of the stricter contrapuntal forms. It was not. 1895). in the case of the Camerata their pre- occupation with Greek drama. while not to be considered seen also in . On the fringe. passacaglia. in which he pursues a highly developed contrapuntal style. The revival of contrapuntal writing. however. We may recall the aversion of the Camerata to polyphony. Such a work as his Fantasia Contrappuntistica (1912) clearly looks back to Bach's Art of Fugue for its inspiration. Non-musical factors also have influence.228 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC History shows us that when a style reaches its apogee a revulsion is sooner or later inevitable. The new outlook is expressed in 'neo-classicism'. though his popular fame rests on his prowess as a pianist. His Ludus Tonalis is another descendant of the Art of Fugue. of artists of stractions'. fugue. as it were. for example. alien to the true romantics. etc. as well as the cultivation of chamber music. of neo-classicism lies the work of a number of composers who. Painters and sculptors produce 'abno emotional message and representconveying ing nothing except some kind of visual pattern. until Igor Stravinsky (b. alien to the impressionists. together with the advent of the 'mechanical age'. 1882) produced such works as his Octet for Wind Instruments (1923) and Piano Concerto (1924) that neo-classicism began to have any widespread is effect. which are associated especially with Bach. as Debussy followed that of the impressionist painters and poets. and of the Forty-eight.

sometimes becoming merely flippant. among other things. They were Louis Durey (b. a believer in harmony. 1899) and Francis Poulenc (b. indulged in this witty approach in his satirical music to Edith Sitwcll's Fafadea. fol(b. Germaine Tailleferre (b. chords built tonality (two or more keys simultaneously) and instead of the customary srds. The band of composers in France who called themselves Les Six and who had a not inconsiderable vogue immediately after the First World War. Darius Milhaud Georges Auric (b. GebroMchsmusik remarking that *a composer utility music should neverwrite unlesshe knows ofa demand for his work. . The desire to experiment. have nevertheless attempted to break away. in various ways. Arthur Honegger (1892-1955. the use of new scales. Honegger seems to some extent to have modified his point of view of late years. but in others it seems to have been largely empirical. Of composers who have made systematic attempts to enlarge the bounds of harmony Bela Bartok is noteworthy. Walton. masterpiece of its kind. Besides being anti-romantics they also placed themselves in opposition to the impressionism of Debussy. but seldom any great depth of meaning. perhaps more than now. of Swiss parentage). His curiosity regarding new aspects of sounds and their organisupplementary to traditional methods. Hindemith. has done much to elaborate a logical. 1 899) . up in 4ths and other intervals His Mikrokosmos for piano is a simple but instructive exposi- tion of such experiments. from romanticism. has led composers in many directions. lowing the leadership of Erik Satie. are a case in point. There is often a kind of light 'entertainment value'. 1892). and has produced works of considerable power and origin5 ality. though quite personal system of He was. Poulenc is an exponent of the 'witty in music. 1892). 1888). led him to explore. to explore new technical methods and possibilities. With him may be mentioned the Englishman LordBerners (1883 to 1950) and Prokofieffinhis earlier years. too. poly* sation.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 229 as true exponents of this style. too. In some cases such experiment has been systematic.

Economic to factors have also to be considered. It is useless demand an nobody We have mentioned die wide variations of style to be found in the work of some contemporary composers. In the case of * orchestra of a hundred-odd players can afford to pay them. In others.* some return to a more 'human' style. Notable. is epoch-making in this direction. clarinet. he looks back to the attitude of the 18th-century kapellmeister. cornet and trombone. is the tendency of some composers to discard the standard orchestral combination which has developed since the second half of the i8th century. Schonberg's works of his early post-Wagnerian phase the Gumlieder and Pelleas and Melisande utilise enormous forces. too. especially movement.230 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC not for his own satisfaction'. a peak of modernity is followed by some relaxation. requiring only fifteen solo instruments. rather than to write automatically for a full normal orchestra. therefore. orchestra in the works of such men as Strauss and Mahler. Such a work in its final as Stravinsky's ballet Le Sacre du Printemps. with eight percussion instru- ments. in attempts to break away from the regular metrical accentuation which has been the norm for some three hundred years. double-bass. as in the case of Bartok. but his Chamber Symphony of 1906 goes to the other extreme. The tendency generally is to employ only those instruments which are felt to be actually needed. but the contemporary composer often prefers not merely to reduce the number of players but to use entirely new combinations of instruments. but his Histoire du Soldat (1918) is scored for one each of violin. . Experiment has not been confined to the harmonic side. The early years of the present century saw the apotheosis of the mammoth Stravinsky's Sacre du Printemps (1913) needs a huge orchestra. In some cases we can trace a clear and continuous line of development onwards from a post-romantic idiom to more or less advanced modernity. bassoon. In one respect. when Compare the remark on Schutz's Cantiones Sacrae in Chapter 8. The 'tyranny of the barline' has come under fire.

Possibly the most consistent line of development is found in the work of Arnold Schonberg (1874 to 1952). in which every note is of equal importance. the great expressive his violin concerto. among master's possibilities of his methods though he was by no means inflexible in his application of them. Anton Webern (1883 to 1945) has perhaps taken the purely cerebral aspect to its extreme. Another pupil. artide in The Concerto. ultimately arriving at a highly organised system of atonality (absence of key) based on a scale of twelve semitones. In his a kind of vacillation. by Ralph Hill (Pelican Books) too comexposition of Schonberg's final technical methods in Counterpoint by plex to be elucidated here will be found in Studies Ernst Kfenek (Schirmer). at the same time following his emotions down to their deep-seated subconscious roots'. A simple * Mosco . whose influence on the younger generation has been not inconsiderable. he made a return. . he has made use of Serial Technique developed from Schonberg's Twelve-note System. Beginning as a post-Wagnerian romantic. The urge behind this development was a desire to increase the emotionally expressive power of music. to express an excessive degree of emotional tension. while latterly in the ballet Agon and the choral work Canticum Sacrum. With this we must conclude our all-too-brief discussion of 20th-century trends. comparable in a way to the I7th century.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE Stravinsky there has been 231 work 1 8th to work. He has never limited himself to a single style. in patterns of pure sound. Stravinsky. in structural method if not in harmony. to the century. Garner. The question remains: Whither are they leading? It would seem that we are living in a period of transition. he moved farther and farther towards intense use of discord and away from traditional tonality. Schonberg's pupil Alban e Berg (1885 to 1935) proved in other works.* The system involves a use of dissonance which reaches the limit of intensity. almost from opera The Rake's Progress. has been described as a master of styles rather than of style. but varies his mode of expression from work to work.

experiment is widespread. We RECORDS Composer Debussy Ravel Walton Britten Stravinsky Poulenc Bartok Prokofieff Schoenberg . new ideas are in the air. stand still. know is that music will not. cannot say which ideas or experiments may be really All we fruitful or which may turn out to be valueless.23 s A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC As then. and cannot.

. 75 BACH. 61 Bassam.INDEX ABEL. Bagatelles. 154. C. Anerio. 61 Discantus. 77^. 101 Allemande. 143 Christmas Oratorio. 100 Agnus Dei. Novae Musicae. 16. 141 Forty-eight Preludes and Fugues. 119. 44. 181. 37 Aeolian mode. 33 47 Bars. 93 Auric. 175 Liederkreis. 163 AUegri.. 25 Aesthetics. 82. 76 Aria. 144 Matthew Passion. 150 Agazzari. 99. 24 Algarotti. Sebastian. Benedetti. J 7> i Benvenuto Celhm. 58. 187. JWm Ballett. 19. 205 Berg. P. 14. 226 Barber of Baghdad.. 34. in Bellini. AmarilK. 212 170^. 91 Basso continuo. 191. 112 Barber. 34 Agon. Little 'Organ Book. 15 Adam de la Hale. 176 iSingr y* *<> the Lord. E. Michael. 186. Christian. 45w. 162 Ad Qrganum Faciendum. 106. 225 Beethoven. 105 Arne. 187 Consecration of the House. 186 Fidelio. 231 Berners. 108. 106. 52. 229 Biber. 144. 81 Bennett. 65 Brandenburg Concertos. 229 Ars Ars Ars Ars Ars Cantus Mensurabths. 216 Albinoni. 174 19.. 135 . use of orchestra. 92 Attaignant. 115 A cappetta. 40j Bass. 229 Authentic mode. Christoph. 15. 100 Ambrose. 194 21. 163 Ninth Symphony. t Aston. i5 Balakireff. 60 Ballet. 204 Albeniz. 127. 148 J. iziff. "8. 148. giff. 168 Bembo. 57 ssff. 151 J. 175 Nova. 58. 79 i3 I9 117. 208 Art of Fugue. Anglican chant. 180. 117 Antiphonary.. 205 Bardi. in Benedictus. 181. 97 Auber. 143 Marc. 144. i49 iSi. I2 5 116. 144. 216 Ars Antigua.. 120. 175 Belli. 96. 1 19 J 22. St. 55 no 31. 82 Anonymous MS. 77^. 15. 186 Coriolanus. 157. 215 Ballad opera. 123 Basse danse. 205. Scherzo. 198 Bax. 129 J. 42 Bartok. 102 Amati. 26. 43 Anthem. 126 Albrechtsberger. 158 Bassoon. 13. 182. 210 Binary form. 101 technical advances. 125 Berlioz. 216 I4 39 69. 138^. ijzff. 144. 92. Passion. 175 Mttwca/ Offering. i?9 Affections. 13. 129 J. 102. iS7. 25 Ayre. 140. 67 Banister. *75 _. 104 Addison. 144* *?o 16. 26 Arcadelt. Augmentation. 151 Abendmusiken. 171 Alcuin. 112. 43 Contrapuncti. 127. 24. 107 *. ISO. 120 Axnbros. 231 Atda.. 149 _. 17. 165 Ballade. 100. 90 Baumgarten. 65 Ballata. 190 Mass in D.

120 Copland. 96. 49*1. 66 Cimarosa. nijf. 109 Cremona. Cadence. ax. 116 Cornyshe. 205 Bohm. 107 Camerata. 113 Conditor alme siderum. 58 Cantusfirmus. 162 Bourgeois. 90 124 Capella. 123 Jacopo da. 47. 131. 115.. 112 Colonna. 49. 112 no Communion. xpxjfc choral works. 90 Borodin. 95. 16 Clavecinists. 63. 98 Cosyn. 46 Cooper. 64.. 7271. 96. 45.. de. 93 Busnois. 135. 195 variations. 81 Charles II. 73. 63 Blake.. 140 Burgundian school. 96. 65 Chapel Royal. 93. 92. 132 Bulow. iizff. 24 Coffey. 125. 116 Chopin. 140 Calvin. 112 196. 95 Classical style.. 179 225 Bloch. 135 ~~ grosso.234 Bizet. 43 Britten. 79. 99J^. iz$ff Concerts Spirituels. 131 prelude. 71. 205 Cavalli. 80 Calzabigi. 130 ChoraUs Constantinus. 37 Couperin. 219 Cherubini. 98 Byzantines. 99 Burney. 148 Bruckner. 191 Cerone. 46 Contrapunctus a mente. 44. 219 Chambonnieres. 231 Cantilena. 143 Cornelius. 96 Cotton. 120 Brevis. 68 Corsi. 215 BoufEbns. Clemens non Papa. 46 CAB&ON. H3ff. 95. 24 Boheme. Ciscia. 121^.. 116 Boethius. 112. 60 Clarinet. 67 Cantata. 97 Caccini.. 75. 45. 77i 82. 188 Chorale. 33 Conductus. Concertino. 95. 163. 74. 130 fantasia. von. 226 Blow. 97 Bjnchois. 120 . 219 Bull. 121 Corelli.. 142 Bologna. 34 Concertato. 95 Canon. 14971. 121 Brahms. 123.. 80 Bounce. 105 Cavazzoni. La. 131 fugue. 164 Cambert. 18. Cranmer. 105 Cezanne. Carisstmi. Cesti. 123*1. 63. 18. 130. 122 Chanson. 49. 1 66 Coleman. 228 Buxtehude. 192. 125^. 10511. 83. 96. 144 Concerto. INDEX Cavalleria Rusticana. 116 Charpentier. 122 Courante. 99ff. 133*** Clavier. i23Jf. 115. cyclic methods. Canticum Sacrum. 226 Coranto. 2i4n. 87. 63^. 70 Caldara. songs. 58. 205 Cornett. 225 Britton. 92. 65 Busoni. 96. I33ft. 65. 15. a penna. 83. 80 CasteUone. 15271. 122 Clavichord. 91 Brescia. 36. da. 60. 60 Bombard. Branle. 96. 96 Canzona. 81. 131 Byrd. 167 Child. 97 Cavalieri. 44. Collegia Musica. 164 Campion. no. 223 Chabrier. 203 Buononcini. 205 Bliss.

68 Ferrabosco.. zion. 200. Garland. 20 d'artifice. 205 Davy. 219 51. 18. 69. 121. 53. 93. 204 Donizetti. 67. 24 Dowland. 93. 82. 95 64 Edwards. 216 FALLA. i47i *5i Galilei. 51 Gesualdo. 200 d'Indy. 212. 211. 79. 14811. 46 Durey. 43. 126 Gastoldi. 97. GABRIELI. 178. Froberger. 224 Mensurabths. 43 Diabolus in musica. 219 32. 15* Euryanthe. Dandrieu. 30 Dvofak. 85 Esterhazy. 28 Delibes. 144 Freischute. 30 De Musica Des Delius. 109 Diaphony. 91 Duparc. 128 Frottola. 127. 26 Dufay. 218. Feux Fetis. 124 Gilbert. 60^. 68 Debussy. 122. 229 Durum.. 63^. 6l Garsi. 219 Franco of Cologne. 201 Folksong. Gesuao. 46 Discantus supra tibrum. 82 Fayrfax. Cyclic principle. 22 Dialogues. Dukas. 69. 64. 215 Davenant. 79. 78*. 97t "3. 43 De Pres. 204 Forster. 7i. 119. 69. i88w. 41. 199 Evangelist. 81 Error terttt soni. Drink to me only. 73.INDEX Cristofori. *54 Divisions on a ground. 51. 77 e Eus Feste Burg. 149. 98. Final. 220 Discantus Positio Vulgaris. Gaultier. I7 Don Carlos. 127 Genevan psalter. 85 Field. 61 Estampie. 22zff. 9$ Gigue. 137. 215 . 220 Duplum. De Ignoto Cantu. 216 Fdstaffy 204 ia8 Fancy. 99 Flute. 98 Gasparim. 80 Genoveva. 214^. 151 Divertimento. 184 . 121 Galuppi. in. 108 David. 121 Gebrauchsmustk. 219 Glinka. 46 Discord. 1 80 *53. DE. 218. The. tfff. 208. 136 Flying Dutchman. Giovanni. 67. ANDREA. 99 Dunstable. 220 Faust. Glareanus. 208. gar. 35 Die Feen. "3. 235 Crusaders. 168 Dorian mode. 91. 82. 46 Frederick the Great. 73. t Gavotte. 44- 34 . 124 Force of Destiny. 30 . i27Jf. 128 Giraldus Cambrensis. 25 Glazounov. 208 Gibbons. 180 4. 63. 96 Franck. 95 . Faur6. 43. 95. 75 Fugue. 121 Dodecachordon. 214. 199 Gestes. 96 Flat. 223 Fiedel. W Florence. 25 Fontana. igg Cui. 120 Festa. 132 FitzzoiWam Virginal Book. 102 Galliard. 151. 25 Fischer. 48. Speculatione Musicae. 205 Fauxbourdon. 76 DANCES. * 81 Galant style. 199 Frescobaldi. 215 Gloria. 122 Dargomijsky. 216 Ecclesiae MiKtantis.. 90^. Fantasia. 229 Geminiani. 102 Dittersdorf.

Gluck, 1 06, i63ff., 167, 199 Goethe, 179

Impressionism, 2,22$. Intermezzi, 161ff.

Gombert, 74 Goudixnel, 80 Gounod, 205

Graduate Romanum, 34 Granados, 216 Graun, 137 Graupner, 147 Great stave, 2971. Greeks, 22jf., 27, 30 Gregorian chant, 26

Ionian mode, 25 Ireland, 225



66, 69, 81, 93

Gregory the Great, 26, 31 Gretry, 163, 198 Grieg, 216

JACCHINI, 126 Jacob of Liege, 47, 57 Jahn, 199 Jannequin, 80, 98 Jenkins, 120 feu de Robin et Marion, 52
[ohn of Salisbury, 47 [ohnson, Dr., 160 "ommelli, 164
tongleurs, 22, 51,

Grimm, 162

Guarneri, 120 Guido d'Arezzo, 28, 36, 37, 43, 59

Guilmant, 97

fosquin " '

des Pres, 67, 69, 74 la, 167


HABA, 227
Hale'vy, 205 Handel, 13, 108, us, 115, i3&ff., 147, 150, 151, 180


Kapelle, 10572., 113 Kapellmeister, 14, iO5. Keiser, 108, 139




Messiah, 19, 141
operas, 140; oratorios, 141

KerU, 128 Key, 22 Kodaly, 218

Royal Academy of Music, 140 Hansel and Gretel, 205 Hans Helling, 199

Konzertmeister, 14 Kuhnau, 135 Kyrie Eleison, 34, 82

Hans Sachs, 54 Harmony, 32

Harpsichord, 87, 103, 142, Harris, 226 Hasse, 137, 153, 164



18, 19, 20, 151^., 170, 171; oratorios, 155; quartets, 154;

symphonies, 153 Heinrich von Meissen, 54 Herz, 187 Killer, 166 Hindemith, 229

LAI, 58, 62 Lalla Rookh, 205 Landini, 60, 63, 75 Laniere, 112 L'apres-midi d'un Faune, 224 Lassus, 73, 76, 99, 100 Loudest, 109 Laudi, 109


Hocket, 46
Hoist, 175, 218

Homophony, 147
Honegger, 229
Huxnfrey, 112, 116

Humperdinck, 198, 204 Hunten, 187
Idee fixe, 182

Lawes, Henry, 108, 1x2 William, 112, 120 Leading theme, 200, 205, 210 Le Franc, 62 Legrenzi, 106 Leit motif, 200, 205 Le Jeune, 80 Leoncavallo, 205 L^onin, 49 Les Six, 229 Uhomme arme, 64, 71 Lichnowsky, 171 Liebesverbot, Das, 200 Lied, 189^.
Liszt, 16, 187, 1 86, 190;

music, 98, 135, 182 Imitation, 59, 63, 66

39, 95, 98, 179., 181, 182, 190, 196, 203; piano sonata, 21 1; oratorios, 196; songs,

symphonies, 185


Locke, 108

LocateUi, 127, 147

LoeiUet, 136 Loewe, 189 Lohengrin, 201


Loms'xiV, 107, 116,137 Ludwig II, 200
Lulli, 107ff; 161 Lute, 86, 94

Meyerbeer, 167, 200 Micrologus, 28, 36 Mignon, 205 Milan, 94 Milhaud, 229
Milton, 21, 122
Minstrels, 22 Minuet, 121

Minima, 43
Minnesingers, 53

Lutenists, 93^., 130

Luther, 18, Luzzaschi, in


Lydian mode, 24

Missa parodia, 72 sine nomine, 72 Mixolydian mode, 24
99, 184*.

MACE, 120
Machaut, 58, 62, Mackenzie, 217

Mode, 56 Modernism, 17


103, 132


Butterfly, 205

Madriale, 5971. Madrigal, 59, 75^-, 99, xox, Maestro di capetta, 94, 105 Maeterlinck, 224 Magadizing, 30 Magnificat, 82 Magnus Liber Orgam, 49

m. 12

rhythmic, 41 Molinaro, 94, "3

Monet, 222

Monody, 102
Monsigny, 163

Mont* Albano, 149 Monte, de, 76

Mahler, 219 Mailly, 107 Mallarme, 222 Mandriale, sgn.


151 Marcello, 127, 162

Monteverdi, 39, 101, 105, in, 114 Morales, 74, 216 Morley, 79 Motet, 44, 58, 63, 69, 73, 82, 93, "5 Motto theme, 72, 182, 210 Mouton, 67 Mozart, Leopold, 155
\V. A., 13, 16, 32, 134, xsx, *S5J(r-i *75, 166, 168, 171, X 72 *73 180, 181, 182, 185, 188, 199 concertos, 157 Don Giovanni, 175

Marenzio, 77 Marschner, 199

Masked Ball, The, 204 Masque, 108
22, 33, 34*


Massenet, 219

21 Jupiter Symphony, operas, 166 Muffat, 122

Mastersingers of Nuremberg, 54, 167,

Mundy, 98
Musica EncMriadts, 35, *79 ficta, 61, 103, 209
mensurabilis, 41


Muris, de, 57


Maxima, 43
Mazarin, 107 Mazzocchi, no Measurable music, 32, 41 Mehul, 165 Meistersingers, 54

mensurata, 117
parlante, 102 reservata, 73, 100 Transalpina, 77

Mendelssohn, 180, 184, 187, 216
Hebrides Overture, 186 oratorios, 195 , Merry Wives of Windsor, 205 Merula, 123

Fs Booke, 96

chamber music, 186

NARRATOR, no Narvaez, 94


Merulo, 97 Messager, 219 . Messe de Tourrm t 58 Metastasio, 164

Nationalism, 2i3ffNatural, 30. Neo-classicism, 228 5 Neri, M., 124, St. Philip, 109

Netherlands school, 65 JJ-, 99


Neumeister, 115 Neumes, 27 New Music, 102 Nicolai, 205
Niedt, 86. Nielsen, 216
Parsifal, 53, 202 Passacaglia, 143

Nin, 216

Passamezzo, 95 Passion music, 68, 75, Patronage, 18 Pavane, 91, 121



Notation, 26^., 43

Nunc Dimittis, 82 Nuove Musiche, 102
Oberon, 198 , King of the Fairies, 198

Novak, 216

Peerson, 98 Pelleas et Melisande, 224 Pergolesi, 161

Pen, 99, 104
Perotin, 49, 50, 99 Perrin, 107 Petrus de Cruce, 43, 49, 50 Philidor, 163 Phonascus, 45, 52, 58

Oboe, 90 da caccia, 150
Obrecht, 65, 67, 92 Core, tou tt7* despatch me, 78


Phrygian mode, 24
Piano, 14872.
Piccinni, 165 Plagal mode, 24 Plainsong, 31, 45, 55, Point of perfection, 56 Polonaise, 91 Polyphony, 16, 99, 101, 131, 147 choral, 65 Polytextuality, 46, 58**. Polytonality, 229

Occursus, 36

Odes, 117 Odington, 43, 44, 46, 55, 60 Offertory, 34
Offices, church, 22, 8z


Okeghem, 65
ggff., itoff., ig&ff. buffa, i6iff., 198, 204

cormque, 52, 163, 169, 198 houses, 105
seria, ifaff.

Oratorio, 109

Ordinary of the Mass, 34 Ordres, 122 Organ, 32, 85, 96 hymns, 96

Pope, Alexander, 179 Poulenc, 229 Power, 62

and fugue, 131 Prima prattica, zoi

Prelude, 96, 121

Programme music,
Prokofieff, 226, Prolation, 56

98, 182

Organista, 4971.


Otger, 35

35ff., 44,


Proper of the Mass, 34 Ptolemy, 24

140?!., 144,

Overture, 106, 107, 117, 148, 199
concert, 186

Purcell, 39, 61, 79, 83, 109, 116, 117, 120, 122, 124, 216

Puritans, ioSn., 116

Dido and Aeneas, 109

PACHELBKL, 21, 129, 131, 142 Paganini, 187 Paglfacci, 205 Paisiellp, 214



Mtssa Papae Marcelh, 71 Missa Regina Coett, 71 O Bone jesu, 70 Stabat Mater, 70 Tu es PetniSf 70 Vern Sponsa Christ** 73 Papal bull, 19, 47, 58 Pareja, 132 Parry, 217
Parthenia, 95

Palestrma, 21, 63, 69, 71. 73. 77, 99


Raguenet, 162 Rake's Progress, The, 231 Rameau, 20, 145, 161
Ravel, 220, 224 Recitative, 102, 115

Recitative accompagnato, 106


stromentatot 106 Recorders, 87

Redford, 96 Reformation, 80
Reichardt, 137. 189, 190 Reinken, 122, 129, 142 Restoration style, 116 Rhinegold, The, 202 Ricercare, 93, 9 6 JI 9 J 28
sopra un soggetto, 128 Richard I, Richter, 180 Rienxi, 200 Rigoletto, 203
Schweitzer, 115
Scriabin, 207


Seconda prattica, 101 Semibrevis, 43 Serial Technique, 231
Service (reformed),


Sharp, 30 Shawm, 90 Shirley, 108 Shostakovich, 226

Sibelius, 20, 212, 218 Sicilian Vespers, 204

Rimsky-Korsakov, 211, 215 Ring, The, 202 Rinuccini, 99, 104
Ripieni, 125

Siegfried Idyll,


Silbermann, 148

Simone Boccanegra, 204
Sinfonia avanti Vopera, 106, 149 Singspiel, 165, 198

Ritomello form, i20. Robertsbridge Codex, 85 Romanticism, 16, i78jf.

Rondeau, rondel, 44 5 Rondo, 51, 122 Ropartz, 220 Rore, da, 73. 77
Rossini, 168


229 Smetana, 216 Solmisation, 28
Sonata, 97, 123 a tre, 123 da camera, 123 da ckiesa, 123 form, 92, 135

Rotundum, 30 Round, 44 f

Rousseau, 162 Rue, de la, 67

Songs, i88jy. Speculum Musicae, 47, 57

Spem in

alium, 70

Spinet, 87

SACKBUT, 90 Sacre du Printemps, Le, 230 Sacre Rappresentastioni, 109
Saint-Saens, 205 Salomon, 153

Spohr, 199 Spontini, 167
Stamitz, 151 Stanford, 217

05 Sammartini, 151, 154 Sampson, 68 Samson and Delilah, 205 Sanctus, 34. 7* Sarabande, 121, 123 Sartorio, 106
Scale, 22ff.
Scarlatti, A., 106,

Sternhold and Hopkins, 82
Stilo antico, 101

moderno, 101
rappresentativo, Stradella, 106 Stradivari, 120



112, 127, 140

D., 95, 134. 147. 148,150 Scheidemann, 129 Scheldt, 114, "9 *3* Schein, 114, 129 Schiller, i?9 Schlegel, 179 Schlick, 86, 96 SchSnberg, 40, 231 Schubert, 32, 180, 184, 186; quartets, 186; songs, 189; symphonies, 184; Wanderer Fantaste, 184 Schumann, i7,97 *79 l8 5J chamber music, 186; songs, 190 Schutz, 20, 108, in, 114 Schutz, Sympkoniae Sacrae, 114

Stravinsky, 228, 230 Strauss, J., 217 R., 80,98, 166 String quartet, 154

Strozzi, 106 Suite, 91, 121^., 14* Sullivan, 216 Sumer is icumen tn, 44. 59 &o

Sweelinck, 129

2 Symphonetes, 45, 5 > 5 219 Symphonia sacra, 115 Symphonic poem, 98*



Symphony, 106, Sympson, 121
TaiUeferre, 229



203 Tschaikovsky. 56^. I99J0M 208. 102 Time. 132 Tenor. 87. 151 Wagner. 106 Thalberg. 28 Temperament. 205 Thompson. 7. 219. 202 Walton. s*ff*> 55 202 prose works. 26 ZACHAU. 175. 188 . 198 Freischutz. 131 Tonality. 139 Zarlino. 126 Tosca. The. 201 Parsifal. 61 Vivaldi. 158 Te Deum. 205 Traviata. 132 Zelter. 73 76. 115 Tunsted. 216 Tannhauser. 90. 44. 119. 186. 62. 70. 191 Vaughan Williams. 227 Vitry. 223. 198 Tye. 5 iff. 94 Valentini. 225. 123. 205 Turina.. 86.240 Tallis. 87. 223 Whyte. 97. 64 Ternary form. 103. 201 role of orchestra.87. 53. 74 82 Euryanthe. 120 Telemann. 198 Constanze. 123. 104 Venice.. 65 Toccata. 78. 216 Turkish opera. 14?. 125. 156 Webern. 199 Variations. 198 YONGE. 53. Mark's. 126. 212. 55 Triplum. 108 Violin. 190 Wilbye. 202 Vampire. 115. 79 Werckmeister. 132 Wesley. "9> Virginals. 216 USPER. The. II. 41. 219 Tunder. 142.. 26 Torelli. 94. 55. 179. S3. 198 Oberon. 147 Volkslied. 53 Wranitzky. Tristan and Isolda. 74* Vielle. 175. 216 Whole-tone scale. 67. 203 Verlaine. 218 Vecchi. 222 Versets. 76 Verdi. 46. 113 Zumsteeg. 52 Thomas.. The. 203 Trio sonata. 187 Theile. Violoncello. 35 124 WAELRANT. 93 Williams. 77 You Gentlemen of England. Tonic. 2on. 125 VALDERRANO. 201 Tartini. 201 Siegfried Idyll. 74 Widor. 37 Wolf. 105 St. 33 S. de. 187 Vitali. 59 Trouveres. 189. 45. 81 Vie"ville. 42. 181. 35 principaUs. 190 Wolfram von Eschenbach. 87 Virtuosity. 176. 162 Viola da gamba. 97 Wieck. 179. 106 Viadana. 16. 148 Verdelot. 204 leading themes. 127 Valkyrie. 56 Tinctoris. 79 Willaert. 85. 97 Vexilla Regis.. 187. 81 Veracini. 113 Venite. 86. 86 77 98. Vaughan. INDEX 74 82 Victoria. 226 Thorough bass. 92. 76 Wagenseil. 69. 57 Turandot. 137. 225 Weber. 63. 53. 195 Vox organatis. 127. 210. 218 'Winchester Troper*. 202 Trojans. 126 o Viols. 148 Triple time. 227 Faust Overture. 97. H9 Theorbo. 190 Ziani. S. 154. 56 signatures. La. 204 Tristan and Isolda. 198 Trwatore. 16. 53. 93. 20. 231 Weelkes. 53 164. 143. S. 205 Troubadours. 94 Thibaut.

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