9 London and Southampton.First published 1953 Reprinted. 1955 JReprinted9 with corrections and revised record lists9 1959 Reprinted 1962 G. Portugal St.s Published by ~he Printed in Great Britain by Camelot Press Ltd. Sell and Sons* Ltd York ffottse.C. London. Wr. .

Suggestions for Study 1 Page 9 13 On the Study of Musical History The Beginnings of Western European Music 2 22 3 The Early Development Early Secular Music of Counterpoint 35 52 4 5 6 7 The 'New Art' and Its Development 55 69 Vocal Music in the Sixteenth Century The Rise of Instrumental Music 85 99 119 8 Vocal Music in the Seventeenth Century Instrumental Music in the Seventeenth Century 9 10 1 1 The Age The of Bach and Handel 134 147 Rise of Classicism 12 Developments in Opera Beethoven 160 170 178 198 13 14 15 1 The Romantics and Their Music Romantic Opera Late Romantics and Nationalists Impressionism and the Contemporary Scene 6 207 222 17 Inde 233 .CONTENTS Chap.


A book much the length can be no more than a bare outline. I have not attempted to mention every possible composer. . styles In the case of often many of the earlier composers there is some divergence of opinion as to the dates of their births and deaths. to keep to line of development. The growth of an art does not take place in a IN vacuum. B. B. it is inevitably affected by many external and these cannot be overlooked or underestimated. but have rather referred to those who appear to be the more important. my drafts chapter His comments and criticisms have invariably W. to some limited extent.. What matters is the main way in which music grew. the underlying causes of that development. of this factors. I have given those sanctioned by the more recent research. for his patience in reading by chapter. and that is of interest has had to be omitted.A. I must record my gratitude to Dr.L. composers and their works is of but little value. but also. been both helpful and stimulating.FOREWORD writing this book I have tried to trace not only how the main stream of music developed. Wilfrid Dunwell. the development of and forms. though even here there is at times some lack of agreement among authorities..Mus. In any a history which consists mainly of lists of case.


it is It is suggested. which every . (It music itself. From experience individual chapters of both in his student days and as a teacher. Collins Music Encyclopediaandtlne Harvard Dictionary of 9 Dictionary ofMusic invaluable to supplement the inevitably condensed information given in the chapters which follow. Grove's pilations as Scholes Oxford Companion 9 Music. not just of other people's opinions period up to Bach. one will tend to stress one aspect. rather than by constantly rereading deals with his subject from his own Moreover. a book for the beginner. So that by the time the student adopt has been through three or four different books he should have a fairly all-round grasp of the basic facts. a different approach. the writer has SINCE bibliography. Constant reference to relevant articles in such comto Music. period. that the should supplement his reading by the books menstudent tioned below. also that relevant chapters of any or all in List i.SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY this is specialist. is candidate that the days are long past when a pass in history could be achieved by writing about what one had merely read about. however. Examiners expect some knowledge of the music of it. may be pointed out to the prospective examination ing. a brief but useful book. each writer while another will angle. not for the not proposed to include a detailed found that a surer grasp of facts is to be gained by reading what several writers have to say about a given matter or a single book. It cannot be too strongly stressed that reference to the is studying the printed copy and listening to peressential for anything like a full understandformances.) For the itself. and any other comparable books on the general the history of music. should be read in conjunction with the present work.

available in any reputable library. Dent: Opera (Pelican Books). Finney: History of Music (Harrap). Oxford University Press). Abraham: A Hundred Tears of Music (Duckworth). but nevertheless contain much useful information. is the unique Historical Anthology of Music. For the period since 1750 sufficient music is available. General Outlines Einstein: A Short History of Music (Cassell). containing examples of the chief types of composition from the days of plainsong onwards. The last three are results of modern not always entirely in line with the research. List /. in Western Civilisation (Norton). Stanford and Forsyth: History of Music (Macmillan). and invaluable to the earnest Davistudent. List 2. is Masterpieces of Music before 1750. for the student to make his own selection with some guidance from a teacher.io A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC student should possess. Walker: History ofMusic in England (Oxford University Press) . Colles: The Growth of Music (Oxford University Press). Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (Faber). (Rockcliffe). Bukofzer: Music in the Baroque Era (Norton).. including miniature scores. Man and his Music: 4 vols. The record lists to each chapter do not pretend to be in any way comprehensive. More comprehensive. by son and Apel (2 vols. but they should be especially useful in the earlier period. Lang: Music Einstein: Music in the Romantic Era (Norton). Reese: Music in the Middle Ages (Dent). For More Detailed and Comprehensive Study The Oxford History of Music (Oxford University Press). . by Parrish and Ohl (Faber). Parry: The Art of Music (Kegan Paul). Sachs: Short History of Music (Dobson).

Lambert: Music Ho! (Faber). Maine: New Paths in Music (Nelson). the six volumes of Essays in Critical Analysis (Oxford University Press). but stimulating. History of Music in Sound. and his articles on music in the writings of Sir The Donald Tovey Encyclopaedia Britannica are not only informative. are usefully dealt with in 9 Dent's Master Musicians series of books. Garner: A Study of 20th-century Harmony (Williams). with consideraand styles. Those who wish to delve into the processes of contemporary music are referred to: Abraham: This Modern Stu/ (Citadel Press). Dunwell: Evolution of 20th-century Harmony (Novello).M. All records mentioned are available at the time of writing. but current catalogues should be consulted since frequent changes are made. by reference to the various catalogues.V. Bauer: 20th-century Music (Putnam).SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY 11 Essays and Lectures on Music. K?enek: Studies in Counterpoint (Schirmer). The lists from the time of Bach onwards are the merest suggestions. and can be supplemented ad lib. The lives tion of their works c of most of the great composers. and the German Arckiv series are invaluable and it is hardly necessary to look elsewhere. Records For the earlier periods the H. . Dyson: The New Music (Oxford University Press).


CHAPTER ONE ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY WE put may well begin with a question: What are the object and the value of the study of the history of music? It should be obvious that to undertake the study of any subject without some definite aim. merely to load the mind with a host of facts which may never be to any use. The person who says. given the receptiveness which comes by follow deliberately trying to keep an open mind. we can and gain enjoyment. *I don't like Bach's music. while another may instinctively prefer the latter to the former. The object of our study of musical history should be to increase our understanding of the art. therefore it is no good. everyone has personal preferences. but it can broaden them so that. is a waste of time. its value is that it can give us a greater appreciation of and insight into the works of the various composers. when watching a platoon on the . Admittedly. in the highest sense. of and sympathy with a can achieve some understanding composer whose work may at first seem unattractive. for example. interesting as it may be. this appreciation being fostered and deepened by the thoughtful study of history. But there is no reason why both minds should not appreciate the greatness of all four composers. from intelligently the music of all periods. not confining our liking and listenWe ing to that which makes the most immediate appeal. Not only can it augment our understanding and appreciation. One type of mind is. more strongly attracted by the style of Mozart or Beethoven than by that of Bach or Handel.' is simply adopting the attitude of the fond mother who remarked. by knowing why he wrote in his particular style.

personal circumstances of a composers life are imis portant in so far as they affected his output of composition. 1685. to which he was appointed His duties necessitated the provision of works for performance on the instrument in the castle chapel. e. a large number of the composers of the 7th and i8th centuries. Blasius Church in Mulhausen. i. Also. since it is attested by the general consent of educated musical opinion.I 4 c A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC 9 march. etc. total of common sense. it was far less so. his first important post was that of organist at in 1708. and the way in which he may have influenced his successors. and died on July s8th. 1750. in others. but posers. In some cases. chief appointments which Bach Leaving aside his 9 short year of service as organist at St. is relatively immaterial.g. we must still admit its greatness. and especially since the beginning of the igth century. Whether we personally 'like the music of Bach or of any other great composer. he betrays a said. the Organ Book. hence a large number of preludes and Little fugues.e. hence many can9 From 1717 to 1723 Bach was kapellmeister to Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen. Not that such knowledge the fact that Bach was born on March sist. After his promotion to the position of konzertmeister in 1714. The effect which the course had on his output is well illustrated of a composer's life may have by reference to the held. or whether we find it lacking in appeal. the toccatas. There are a number of ways of approaching the study it of musical history. the Ducal Court of Weimar. he was obliged to furnish a *new piece monthly for the chapel. What does matter the first The the fact that his active life as a composer lay in half of the i8th century. he was responsible tatas. Our Jack's the only one in step lack of historical background. be 9 . Of these the least useful is the method of memorising the dates of the births and deaths of comis to be deprecated. the effect was considerable. . More generally important are the influences which went to the formation of a composer's 1 style.

written under the It is had Bach remained at Cothen until he died. and is in any case bound up with the development of the various styles. . etc. the Leipzig period also Passions saw the birth of the and other great choral works. and therefore gave it no attention. On his appointment. In the past 1. as Cantor at St. and the sonatas and For the time being he had no need to write choral music.000 years. a Biography. since the nature of a style is determined by all possible factors melody. adapting older movements to fresh words. But this is to some extent a limited aspect. It is the study of the origins and development of these styles which is perhaps the most useful and generalised approach. or the to name no others. its chapel an unlovely vault in which only Bach was concerned with the provision of instrumental music. obligations of his appointment. the structural principles. admittedly only in brief outline. texture.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY 15 for the court music which.e. the Lord. which is the approximate period * Bach. among other things.* 6 was "reformed". Besides these. Bach was faced with the task. we might never have had the experience of being enthralled by the St. a solemn thought that Matthew Passion. We shall therefore try to trace. Thomas's Church in Leipzig. in some of which the Prince himself took part. was of a secular nature. Hence such works stern Calvinist psalm tunes were heard. suites for violin. which have emerged in the course of the centuries. i. formal structure. Terry. the growth of musical styles. Another method of approach is the study of the growth of the various forms. 'The Cothen court*. of providing some fifty-nine cantatas annually. his extant cantatas number over 200. C. and although he indulged in a good deal of 'borrowing' from one work to another. harmony. in 1723. the motet Sing Te in to Mass B Minor. in this instance. S. 9 as the orchestral suites. as well as the actual aim and object of the compositions. the concertos. Returning now to the question of the study of musical history. to quote Prof.

among: other things. A number of peaks were scaled en route. In the years immediately before 1600. is assumed to imply. the culmination of one style being overlapped by the beginnings of a new one. in the first half of the 1 8th century. through Haydn and Mozart to Beethoven. the 'Age of Romanticism'. a number of differing styles have originated. Beethoven himself was the bridge into the next period. Neither must it be thought that a new style of writing makes. new ideas. by way of the sonata and symphony. Before these two men had completed their life-work further ideas began to emerge. and germinating in successor. Liszt and Wagner. to the twin summits of Handel and Bach. Schumann. and the polyphonic summit was reached in the latter part of the i6th century. based on a more harmonic approach. irreverently referring to him as 'the Old Wig'. an entirely fresh start. This may be clearly seen in reference to Bach. And so we move into the present cen'classical' new tury. they merge. the satisfactory combination of two or more simultaneous melodies and rhythms. comwere chiefly concerned with mastering the technique posers of polyphony that is. however.16 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC to be covered by our study. These were exploited in many directions and led. the expression of personal emoliterally. it is a gradual development from its its its predecessor. in due course reaching its culmination. developed to a climax. Up to about the year 1600. leading. some of whose own sons were among the progenitors of what developed into the 'classical' style. were in the air. as it were. with its many conflicting currents. with which are associated the names of such men as Weber. and then more or less gradually declined. life the seeds of Such too labels as 'classic' and 'romantic' must not be taken 'Romanticism'. for example. . and who were inclined to look upon their great father as old- fashioned. It must be realised that there is no clear dividing line between the various periods and styles.

were in holy orders. like painting. In a relatively brief study of musical history it is obviously impossible to deal with the effects of such factors in any detail. for instance the 4ths or 5ths which separate the tenor and bass voices. The history of the development of an art cannot be dealt with in isolation. applied particularly to composers of this period music of were not while some would claim that. a new idiom. Their chief duty was to provide and perform music for the church services. Up to the time of the reformers Luther. especially in the 1 6th century. generally conformable to the (Catholic) religious outlook of the times. But there have always been modernists. and calculated. Music. Schumann writes of Beethoven as one of the 'moderns'. all that can be done is to indicate some of the more outstanding influences and to show their outcome. tecture. whether composers or executants or both. Possibly the greatest and most influential of all modernists were those unknown pioneers who. some time before the year 1000. has been continuously affected by external in particular ecclesiastical and social conditions and changes. sculpture or archifactors. many. at least in this connection. Bach's sons were modernists in that they thought and wrote in what was in their time a 'modern'. Calvin and the English Protestants church music developed on certain lines.e. i. It is 17 the igth century. It is common to speak of 'modern' music and a 'modern' style as if they were inventions of the soth century. But the first to give their music this personal expressiveness. though this did not mean that they necessarily confined their attention and labours solely to such music. Similarly with the term 'modernism'. were in the service of the Church. first gave system and order to singing at intervals other than the octave and unison. the Elizabethan madrigalists had done so over 200 years earlier.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY to this expression. from which conception derives all music written since their day. to enhance the devotional impulses of the . indeed. the greatest of all romantics was Bach. In medieval times the majority of musicians.

and some. posed as patrons of the arts. either from natural inclination or in conformity with the prevailing fashion. From this arose the Chorale Prelude. Yet had Luther never begun his fight against abuses in the Church. was discarded. The Reformers. despite certain differences in method and achievement. took little or no part in the musical side of the services. and much has depended on the employer. A patron such as the great Prince Nicholas Esterhazy. Haydn's employer for many years. was Luther's introduction of the chorale. the services being conducted in the vernacular. was expected to wear .i8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC worshippers. to the taste of his employer. was such as might satisfy the palate of the wealthy but possibly untutored layman. many of whose works in this genre are of unsurpassable beauty. had many aims in and personal of worship. Musicians have always been ready to experiment. Most notable. a form of composition brought to the ultimate peak of perfection by Bach. was expected to provide music acceptable Middle Ages the changing social conditions by the fashion of the moment. the i8th century. The composer. customary in the Western Church from its very beginning. however employed. of the music being congregational. In the later and the wider spread of culture provided opportunities for large numbers of musicians to take service in the households of wealthy rulers and noblemen. this taste being largely dictated This is not to imply that the only music written in. however. among these being a more actual by the congregation in the act was rapidly felt in other directions. Bach's chorale preludes. an effect which participation common. To this end the use of the Latin tongue. to cite a specific example. might never have been written. who. at least. say. This had an immediate effect on the style of music composed for use in the Reformed Churches. The congregation. may be said to have been indirectly responsible for a great amount of progress and development in music by his encouragement of his great musician-servant (who. incidentally. and his cantatas and Passions.

but his aims and ideas. The reader should not misinterpret the preceding paragraphs. ever fantastic they may seem to his contemporaries. provided only contemporary music century. by experiment that progress is possible. to the lasting benefit of music. the gth Symphony of Beethoven is intrinsically 'better' than the St. and had to be prepared . howIt is only the man 9 .) The c man with a mission 9 may be a fanatic with a large bee buzzing in his bonnet. for example. Music has not 'progressed in the sense that it has 9 and better'. painter or designer of aeroplanes. Haydn. who forces man out of the rut of 'what was good enough for my father is good enough for me Experiment may at times have been wild at one point it reached such a pitch that the authority of a papal Bull was needed to curb its exuberance but even the wildest experiments may have in them the seeds of future developments of real value. But who is to say whether. due largely to the work of musicians who had the interest to study the works of The musician-servant of the i8th earlier ages. may based on principles which can lead his successors steadily forward to a goal which he himself could only be dimly envisage. possibly more than any other musician of this period. was in a position to give rein to his inventive genius in every direction. be he musician. Matthew Passion of Bach or Messiah of Handel. the 'Age of Patronage'. for the delectation of his employer. (Fewer than fifty years ago there were those who laughed at the Wright brothers' attempts to fly in a heavier-than-air machine. it is with the forward-looking type of mind.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY 19 a livery like any other employee). both of which were continually got better c written before Beethoven was born? It is only in com- paratively recent times that a clear realisation of the value of much of the older music has come about. and by his great personal interest in the art. for example. To say that the science of medicine has progressed by 'getting better' between the Middle Ages and the present day is an obvious truism.

709 he was appointed professor of the violin at the Ospedale delta Pieta in Venice. Mozart and Beethoven. becoming Maestro del Coneerti (concert director) in 1716. A condition of his appointment was that he should provide two concertos a month for performance by the orchestra. the symphonies of Sibelius.20 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC compose what was required for any given occasion. At the present day this would be comparable to performing. and 'revivals' of older works were unheard of. What the audience wanted was the music of to own time. We can say categorically that penicillin is a better curative agent than some horrible medieval compound of frogs' eyes and bats' blood. .* Composing to order was largely the rule. whatever post the musician held. artistic value were not being In the writings of the lyth and i8th centuries we find 'continual reference to the contemporary 'perfection' of music. Vaughan Williams and Walton. In the case of medicine we are dealing with concrete facts. it is essential to realise that there has never crete been a time when works of real written. in the Preface to the second part of his Symphoniae Sacrae.. Nearly a hundred years later. is immense. but neglecting entirely those of Haydn. In 1647. all more or less written to order. Jean Philippe Rameau implies that the music of his time is 'more perfect than that of the ancients'. And this before 'mass production' was heard of. See also the mention above of Bach's various posts and the types of example of the In 1 composition resulting therefrom. While in 1752 Joachim Quantz states that 'it took a long time to bring music to that approximation of perfection in which * it stands to-day'. this being presumably considered 'better' than that of preceding generations. so that the total of his works in this form. by means of which music is thought to have at length attained its final perfection'. say. But music is of all things the least contheir and tangible. Possibly the first to realise the fallacy of this attitude was the Belgian musicologist The Italian violinist Vivaldi furnishes an excellent working of this system.. Heinrich Schiitz. and while personal preference may give the listener a bias towards the music of one period rather than another. refers to 'the modern Italian manner .

for example. at this distance of time. it is certain that he learned the see. We may admit. we may perhaps also say that perfection in music lies in the ear of the listener. opening of this chapter. Nevertheless. Which brings us. as it has been said. and music has no real existence full circle. a Mozart or a Beethoven.' be said at all'). and that it progresses only in material elements. and we can style. perfection may be represented by the St. I have long striven against it. All our study of history. that they were. that Bach's study of the works of Pachelbel and Buxtehude helped greatly to form his own much from them. Matthew Passion of Bach. but personal taste cannot be set aside. except in sound. For one. the work of a Palestrina. a Bach or a Mozart. of style. for example. they produced much music which is itself of far from negligible value. while yet another may find the unsurpassable in Beethoven's Choral Symphony. for another by the Jupiter Symphony of Mozart (which Schumann included e among the things in this world of which there is nothing to value of musical works is found in the doctrine of progress applied to the arts. the work of the lesser men has its value. only part of the way up mountain whose summit he ultimately attained. back to the . of form or of anything else is so much wasted effort must be unless it is ciation of music applied to improve our understanding and appreitself. and that not merely because it points towards that of the giants. so to speak. and I had to endure lively altercations when I maintained that music changes. who writes: 'One of the greatest obstacles to the fairness of judgments on the We may agree that perfection has been achieved within a given style. Not every composer has been a Bach. But while they did not achieve the stature of their great successor. not every poet can be a Shakespeare or a Milton. the need to hear music of all periods and styles stressed most strongly. is in the eye of the beholder.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY 21 Fransois-Joseph F6tis (1784 to 1871). as in. Finally. If beauty.

(The French jongleur derives from the Latin joculatory whose function in Roman times had obviously some connection with the lighter side of musical entertainment. . but although its style has varied from century to century and from country to country. It is important to realise that mode and key are two entirely different things. it can hardly first be said to have developed. key depends on pitch. Folk-song is the oldest form of music. The actual pitch of a mode is immaterial.* The scales which were the basis of the early church music derive from those of the ancient Greeks and are known as modes. All music is based on some kind of scale. if not the only patron of the was the Church. Similarly. the secular callings of minstrel and jongleur are of great antiquity. In other words. at first in the form of melody. but their art developed only up to a certain point. provided that the is not be thought that the scale is invented before the music Music. and it is in the music for the services the Mass and the other 'Offices' developments which have led to the music of the present day are to be traced.CHAPTER TWO THE BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC IN various that the arts early times the chief. it * But let composed. mode does not. A mode consists essentially of a series of sounds proceeding by steps from a note to its octave. See also page 31.) Possibly the only 20th-century survivals of the minstrels in the British Isles are the strolling fiddlers sometimes encountered in parts of Ireland. practice came before theory. gradually evolved and from it a scale-system was ultimately derived. and an account of the origins of our music must begin with some consideration of the derivation of its scale-system. and its name and character are determined by the order of the tones and semitones (and sometimes other intervals) within that series.

Lydian and Mixolydian. whatever its pitch or 'key'. Phrygian. of 'white notes' only. while there is an augmented 2nd between the 6th and 7th. In any harmonic minor scale there are semitones between the and and 3rd. There would seem to be little doubt that the earliest music of the Christian Church had strong affinities with that of the Jewish rite.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC set order of tones 23 and semitones is maintained. modern terminology. Their characters were distinguished. as has already been mentioned. but writers on music throughout the Middle Ages based their work on such garbled versions of Greek theory as were passed on from the ancient world to the Dark Ages. there are semitones between the 3rd and 4th and the 7th and 8th degrees above the tonic. beginning a 5th below their respective principals. but differs from that of any major scale. the Dorian.as that of any other one. but their mode is identical. Hypolydian and Hypomixolydian. more space than between the two . chromatic and enharmonic. the Hypodorian. system. Hypophiygian. To these were added four subordinate modes. and consisting. G and B. the mode of any minor scale is the same . The Greeks recognised four principal modes. The difference between the keys of G major and G major lies in the fact that the latter begins a perfect 5th higher (or a perfect 4th lower) than the former. the mode remains unchanged. To describe in detail how this misunder- standing came about would require far beginning respectively on E. Thus. In both. the other degrees lie a tone apart. the differences systems are as follows. the 5th and 6th and the 7th and 8th degrees. the other degrees being separated by whole tones. as in all major scales. by the positions of the semitones in relation to the lowest notes. which served as a basis for composition until the 1 6th century. the scales being classified as diaThe medieval scaletonic. Briefly. D. whatever the pitch. arose from a misunderstanding of the Greek diatonic system. The modal system of the ancient Greeks was highly organised and complex. This was so even in the Byzantine (Eastern) in can be spared.

beginon D. E. F and G. The ultimate outcome was a series of modes known and Mixolydian. i. the first mode was that on as against the Greek Dorian^ which began on E. misunderstanding the explanations of the and-century author. They were accepted by such western writers as Boethius (approx. with their respective plagal versions beginning a 4th lower called and Hypodorian^ Hypopktygian. as Dorian^ Phrygian. the most likely Greek tradition. It is impossible to say exactly how or why these errors arose in the Byzantine theory. which was. F and G. in ascending order as opposed to the descending Ex. D Later writers.. etc. Further. E.- Phrygian Mode IV Hypophrygian Mode V-Lydian Mode VI Hypolydian ivioac vii Mode VII lYiixuiyuian Mixolydian^ ft " ' ^ Mode VIII Hypomixolydian order of the Greeks. i. The Byzantines Church. and known as Authentic ning respectively modes. failed to perceive the true Greek theory. since the four 'chief modes of the Byzantines began respectively on D. 475 to 520) and Alcuin (735 to 804). applying them wrongly.24 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC least geographically. Ptolemy. but adopted the Greek names. The subordinate modes were called 'plagal' and corresponded to the 'hypo' modes of the Greeks. But error had crept into the conception of the system. at inheritor of the ancient formulated four 'chief modes and four subordinate ones which began a 4th below their respective chiefs.e. The Medieval Modes I P 58== Q Mode Dorian Mode II Hypodorian Mode ^ III TT W * . Lydian .

A and would end on the lower D. the 'wanton mode. not on A. In the Hypodorian mode the melody would lie between A and its octave. which the complete theory was ultimately expounded by the Swiss writer Henricus Glareanus in his Dodecachordon in 1547. and was dubbed Modus Lascivus. i and 2 shows that some modes with different names. 2. and that of the Aeolian and Hypoaeolian is A. Hypodorian and Aeolian^ are superficially identical. its Final. were admitted. with their plagal attendants. e. circling round the dominant A. Aeolian and Ionian Modes ^olian Mode ^ ^. and Hypomixolydian Hypodorian is D. that is. that of the Mixolydian melody is G. They were hardly new inven- but their incorporation into the official system did provide theoretical justification for the current practice of composers. its A mode was distinguished by 'authentic' version. the Aeolian (A to A) and the This gave a series of twelve modes of Ionian (C to C). The Ionian mode was far from uncommon in secular music the famous English round Sumer is icumen in Ex. but would end on D. in the authentic Dorian mode would lie fundamentally between and its octave. Hypoasolian Mode fl Ionia Ionian Mode Hypoionian Mode in the major scale 3th or early I4th century) is as clearly but it was frowned upon by the as anything ever written Church for this very reason. Dorian and Hypomixolydian. however. This identity ( 1 9 is. the lowest note of the final of both Dorian and Thus.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC 25 At a later period two more modes. apparent rather than actual. The Ionian Aeolian mode is practically our minor scale. Examination of Exx. An authentic Aeolian melody would D .g. our major. and the tions.

was the author of a number of Latin hymns which are still in use. apart from insisting on a more restrained and devout style of performance than that prevailing. composed at all. . Gregory the Great. Ambrose. It might be said to be in the 'authentic* key of G major. a method of rendering the psalms which is still the standard in the Roman Church 9 and also in The many English churches. His name is most commonly associated with 'Gregorian chant . in the same key. though both undertook or initiated some systema- tisation of the church music of their time.* It is sometimes stated that St. and that St. who was Pope from 590 to 604. The melody of 'You Gentlemen of England . final between A and its octave. and was responsible for an Antiphonary which was later replaced by that of Gregory. but would end on the It must be remembered that a 'final' is not a A final is the note on which a (modal) melody 'tonic ends the lowest note of its authentic mode. It is far from certain that so. between authentic and plagal melodies be further clarified by reference to two wellmay perhaps known tunes of later date.26 also lie 9 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC A. indeed. origins of our present system of musical notation 1 These two melodies are to be found in the (Boosey and Hawkes). Gregory was responsible for reforms in both ritual and music. lies within the octave above D. this is added the plagal versions. if written in G major. It is doubtful whether either had anything to do with the theoretical basis of music or. It might therefore be said to be in the 'plagal form of G major. New National Song Book . but uses only the notes of the scale of G major and ends on G. and it has already been pointed out that the term 'key is inapplicable in 9 modal music. A tonic is the note which gives its name to a key. Ambrose (333 to 397) was difference 9 The 9 responsible for the arrangement of the four authentic modes. The melody of 'Drink to me only with thine eyes'. lies between G and its octave.

its general curve. strict accuracy was certain only within the immediate vicinity of the Line. one on each side of the . These were a kind of directional signs placed above the Latin text.e. with neumes above. that it may have been passed on orally. the interpretation of any given neume. The complete solution was eventually reached in definite two further stages. within a range of four or five notes. Even so. The Greeks had a notation based on their alphabet. A yellow line. since it clearly indicated one definite note from which others could be more or less accurately calculated. and some time before the year i ooo one writer it will never be known who decided to draw above the text a single red line representing the note F. but this method. about the roth century. consisting of neumes. it is possible. In course of time the number of neumes grew quite large. depending too much on the individual singer. But even if oral transmission ever did exist. a large element of vagueness remained. i. and the undesirability of variation. fell. roughly. or group of neumes. the origin of our present stave. using Roman characters. The earliest attempts were vague. i. the increased use of music in the services.e. As long as the body of church music remained but small. whether the tune rose. although it appeared in western Europe. and finally two black lines were added. and were at first little more than mnemonics for one who was already familiar with the music. never gained any great hold there. made some system of notation obviously essential. was added above the red one for F. They indicated. or remained on the same note. This. and satisfactory method of pitch-notation. or below it. though by no means certain. across. probably undergoing frequent modification in the process. and may be compared with the cabalistic signs used by some and their shapes and meanings became increasingly definite. Even so.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC 27 were remarkably humble. giving still greater exactness. was an enormous step forward. In the gth and loth centuries there were numerous attempts to devise a really teachers of elocution to indicate the rise and fall of the voice. representing G.

There are therefore a number of matters on which even the most erudite of musicologists cannot be certain. were not writing for posterity but for their contemporaries who. used as mnemonics ut-re-mi-fa-sol-la that he formed his system. though in the latter country the more singable do is prophetic genius is debatable. and it was from the initial syllables of the lines of this hymn. These names. Rather surprisingly. The addition of the yellow and black lines to the original red F is sometimes attributed to the Benedictine monk 990 to 1050). Many early writers seem almost to have been constitutionally incapable of expressing themselves with any clarity. long before the invention of printing. with the addition of si for B. in which he expounds his methods of teaching. in all probability. but on the 'wanton 9 Guido d'Arezzo (c. * It must be realised that the \vritings of this early period. that the lines of a well-known The fact is that he noticed hymn to St. already had some idea of the subject with which any given treatise was dealing. his method was based not on one of the officially acceptable modes. are scarce and their authorship often uncertain. that he merely advocated Ionian. He also made systematic use of the first seven letters of the alphabet for naming notes. which of a very large number of the traditional melodies. John Baptist substituted for ut. E. . as in Tonic Solfa. Whether this was due to secular influence or to began successively on the notes G.* Guido's chief works are Micrologus.28 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC sufficient for the notation F line. his reforms leading in the direction of our present note shapes. are still used in France and Italy. The authors. which is at times almost incomprehensible. G and A. a treatise on sight-singing which opens with the caustic statement that 'the most fatuous of all men of our times are the singers'! It is certain that Guido simplified and clarified neumatic notation. but it seems more likely and helped to popularise a method which was already to some extent in use. was This produced a complete stave of four lines. and invented a system of 'Solmisation'. moreover. and difficulties are increased by the fact that for centuries the language used was ecclesiastical Latin. D. and De Ignoto Cantu. in which the degrees of the scale are designated by syllables rather than by letters. F.

with three defs position. often according to the caprice of the individual composer. a practice which. for the notation of a large number of melodies. Abdy Williams. therefore. the authentic mode and any melody in that mode could be noted with no trouble within the limits of the four-line stave: Dorian Ex. nowadays. and the maximum would seem to be one of no fewer than twenty-five lines for a five-part composition. by. for example. at times produces results alarming to the QOth-century eye. pitch of the notes of a scale was quite definite. 4. 'was never in his practical use except by accident*. The medieval composer shifted defs about to suit himself. a Hypodorian melody (A to A) would lie partly above or partly below the stave.* For a Hypodorian melody. Notation). Thus. There are examples of staves of fifteen lines at different levels. in combination with an unwieldy stave. overleaf. F. the clef would need to be placed higher on the stave so as to make available more lines and spaces below the note it indicated. In the course of the centuries the is merely a theoretical abstraction. The eleven-line stave. The solution to this difficulty was found in defs (a clef is literally a 'key ) which could be moved up or down the stave in the same way as the C clef moves on our present 9 five-line stave according to whether the part is being read a viola player (middle line) or a tenor trombonist (4th line) . The relative as it is. as one authority says (G. number of lines in the stave has varied. See Ex. by general agreement.3 DEFGABC D But as long as the second line represented F. and leger lines were as yet far in the future. * clef always so-called 'Great Stave* of eleven lines.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC 39 It was stated above that the four-line stave was adequate It must. . and also according to the type of com- The G on the 6th line. with the so beloved of writers of books on the rudiments of music. but the absolute pitch of a melody would vary according to the singer and according to the mode. be noted that absolute pitch was not then fixed however.

In the course of time. and this carried over into the medieval system. and were originally formed simply as capital letters. also known as B qwdratum or 'square' B. which could be 'softened into the perfect interval by flattening the upper note. and probably owing to the desire of scribes to embellish them. and was at first when indicate a contradiction of [>. what was the music itself? The answer to this question is 'pure melody Deliberate singing or playing in two or more parts seems to have been unheard of. B rotundum or 'round B. admitted what would now be called B flat in certain cases. playing or singing in octaves. 4. a later invention. Hypodorian Mode ABCDEFGA Before leaving this very rough outline of early notation. The Greek diatonic system. The G (treble) clef appeared first in the 1 3th century. or boys and men. The ancient Greeks understood 9 Le. necessary by the sign b. Two kinds of B were therefore The hard B B durum -was recognised. indeed. The sharp sign # was used equally with to t| So far only the theoretical aspects of the early music have been considered. But the mere duplication of a . the soft B B mollis was shown 9 by b. 'magadizing .30 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The earliest clefs were F and C. Ex. though it is hardly possible that it cannot at times have 9 . this was hardly avoidable if women and men. they have assumed their present shapes. 'hard' and 'soft 9 9 9 9 . one other point must be mentioned. These two signs are respecindicated tively the origins of our t] and [>. were performing together. occurred accidentally. One reason for this was the dislike of the augmented 4th F to B (the medieval theorist's Diabolus in Musica or 'Devil in music ). but was only rarely used before the rise of instrumental music in the i6th century. although largely based on the 'white-note scale.

or playing it on the piano. as rewarding as any other style of music. impelled to write. if regular use in the Catholic Church. as in approaching any music which The need some effort for appreciation. are an open mind and an acceptance of the fact that. effect were the men who Even wrote much of the music will Ambrose and Gregory actually their contribution. the composer writes as he feels the theorist comes along and how he has done it. to those who will take the trouble to familiarise themselves is with it. there must be something of value in it which is worth searching for. and it must be admitted that the lack of harmony and the use of unfamiliar scales may be some slight bar to its immediate understanding and appreciation. plainsong first essentials. It is most strongly urged that those to may whom plainsong is unfamiliar should take every oppor- tunity of hearing it as it is performed in the bigger Catholic churches and cathedrals. mous amount of such music still extant and still in never be known. since educated musical opinion agrees that it is a highly-developed branch of musical art. and then and explains what he has done Many people find plainsong an acquired taste.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC is 31 not part-singing or playing. it is music for use under certain conditions nity and must be heard in the surroundings for which it is intended. It is more than doubtful whether instruments were used in churches at all before . It is worth remembering that practice always precedes theory. Plainsong can only be correctly understood and interpreted when sung unaccompanied. It melody at the octave must be realised that misunderstandings of ancient Greek if Who and the lack of clear and definite notation. conveys nothing of its digand beauty. could be but small. as compared with the enorcomposed. had little on the composers themselves during the cenany turies when the body of Tlainsong' was being built up. theory. much of which dates from very early times. Merely humming it over to oneself. Nevertheless.

and exhibiting a minimum of the Advent hymn. often using mainly An example is syllable. accompanied Masses of Mozart and Schubert. moreover. frequently of a very straightforward kind.32 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC about the gth century. was purely melodic. the authorities modified their attitude considerably. The music of the Church. 1 The types of composition embodied in plainsong are those applicable to the various services of the Church. of which * The 'keys' were actually 'sliders'. the melodic The hymns style varying from simple to highly ornate. (Later. when 'measurable music' first made its appearance. whc disapproved of their use on account of secular associations. and the earliest were of a size to be struck by the clenched fist. hence the term pulsator organorum organ-beater for the organist. and is only to be tolerated if of the most simple and restrained character. then. In the Middle Ages there was continual warfare between the musicians. could hardly do more than duplicate the melody.* The use of organ accom9 among other things. crotchet.) The earliest organs. the crude instruments of the time could not have attempted it. It was. and the only instrument which haj never been considered unacceptable is the organ. etc. Definite note values were not thought of until the 2th century. hence. and the ecclesiastical authorities. which occur in services such as Vespers and Compline are one note to each ornamentation. Authorities differ considerably on the rhythmic treatment of plainsong. who tried to introduce into the church instruments other than the organ. any melody being normally limited to the compass of one octave the octave of its mode. even had such a thing as 'Harmony been evolved (it had not). the orchestrally paniment to plainsong. is strictly speaking an anachronism. although common enough nowadays. . in any case. not bound by any rigid metrical rhythm. at least up to the loth century. The invention of keys to be depressed dates from the i2th century. however. all that can be said with any certainty is that there was no organised system of relative note values comparable to minim. pulled out or pushed in to admit or prevent the admission of air into the pipes.

su. It dates from the end of the 6th century. la -ten -de vo -tis sup-pli-cum. Of the more ornate kind we may quote the Passion Sunday hymn Vexilla Regis (The Royal banners forward go').BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC the words are attributed to siderum. Much of this is of great beauty. 6. with an amazingly complex melodic outline. Qua vi -ta mor- tern - tu -lit Et mor te vi - tarn pro - tu - 1 This is readily agreed one of the great melodies of by all who have heard all time. 33 The Ambrose.der*um. Vexilla Regis J)J3J'J^J>J Jj Vac -il la J) de -unt: Re - gis pro - W** _ per Ful-get Cru-cis mys-ter - i . light. Je . Melisma is a Greek word literally The most highly ornate melodies are found in some of the music for the Mass. as will it be sung in its proper surroundings. classified as 'melismatic' plainsong. Conditor alme usual English version begins: 'Creator of the and 5.mn. .di -tor al-me si. Re-demp-tor om-ni-um. stars St. Ex. Ac -ter na lux ere -den -ti_-um.' Ex. Gonditor alme siderum Con .

is that for the two the Ordinary and the Proper. contains a number of plainsong settings of the Ordinary. The most important body Mass. Kyrie Eleison ('Lord have mercy ).2. RECORDS H. mz. the and Benedict the Lord') 9 Gloria. The Ordinary consists of those portions of which the Credo. holy.Nos. The Proper consists of four sections Introit. holy ) ('Blessed He that cometh in the name of and the Agnus Dei ('0 Lamb of God'). The book a 'Mass' in the musical setting of these sections comprises sense. The which is the official of music for both the Ordinary and the Proper.S. Gradual.Vol. there is only one setting of each. Offertory and Communion.M. there are no alternatives as in the Ordinary. thus permitting a certain amount of variety.ntoi3. These are always sung to plainsong.34 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC to pass- meaning 'song'. It is divided into of plainsong categories. having been 'set' by composers only very rarely. ( Holy. . and although own music. The term 'melismatic' is applied ages where several notes are taken to one syllable. those portions of which The Proper of the Mass comprises every passage has its the words vary according to the occasion. Graduate Romanum. the Sanctus is c 5 the words are invariable.

of which the essential basis is the The duplication of a melody in parallel 4ths or sths. author of Musica Enchiriadis did not invent organum. 7 (a) could have an organal part added as at either (*) or (). In its simplest form organum involved the straightforward doubling of a plainsong melody at the perfect 4th or 5th Ex. below. since it gives the first account of a method of singing in anything but unisons or octaves. is a landmark in the history of music. * It was formerly attributed to a Flemish monk named Hucbald. merely explained a practice which was already in common use. as is the case with so many of the early writings.0. so that Otger. Thus. .* This book. like Guido d'Arezzo in his later writings on notation. It seems to have arisen some time in the gth century. and the doubling part as the Vox Organdis or Organal Voice. whoever its author. The authorship.7 (a) -e- ** ^ (b) (c) e- e- -Q- j? -e- -e- . the simple fragment at Ex. is doubtis now generally attributed to a certain Abbot Otger. It expounds the principles of Organum or Diaphony (the two terms are synonymous medieval writers are always careful to insist on this). work but the latter part of the loth century was written a called Musica Enchiriadis. The plainsong was then known as the Vox Prindpalis or Principal Voice.CHAPTER THREE THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT IN ful. j -^.

the principal voice could be doubled at the octave below.9 Principal voice Organum By the time of Guido d'Arezzo organum at the 4th below was the only accepted procedure. however. and the organal voice at the octave above.36 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Further. (The reasons for this rule were logical enough to the musicians of the time.fi. if the principal voice dropped below F. Ex.8 Absolute parallelism of the voices was. now rail a radftnr. the 'coming together' of the voices at the end of a passage so that they ended on a unison.) Thus. Much thought had also been given to the occursus. oblique motion one part moving while the other is stationary came about. that at the 5th had fallen into disuse. and the employment of oblique movement was normal in the appropriate circumstances. . to allow for all kinds of possibilities. and in his Micrologus Guido states clearly that it is 'not allowed Rules. giving four-part parallel movement: Ex. for the adding of the organum had been worked out in detail. modified at times because of a rule that the organal voice might not descend below tenor G. forming what we should 9 . but are far too complicated to be elucidated here. more or less complex.

There is also an anonymous treatise of about the same date. and which proves that contrary motion was rapidly being combined with the old parallel and oblique e procedures. shows that in certain cases a beyond oblique motion was taken. ledge. deals some extent with the new. M quoted from Guido. Guido man John to Unfortunately. in his Musica. and the English- Cotton. called the 'Winchester Troper'. More important. This at first would only occur in approaching a cadence. however. But writers between Guido and Cotton simply ignore new organum. . written about noo.. proves that there had been some progress since the time of Otger. is called the New Organum. 10 37 7 Ex. is the fact that the occasional use of contrary motion led musicians to explore and exploit its possibilities apart from the occursus. The kind of writing so far dealt with is known as the Old Organum. The most important and illuminating of these examples are found in an English MS.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT Ex. contrary motion. Ad Organum Faciendum ( On the Making of Organum'). viz. there is here a gap in our knowdeals with the old organum. that based on contrary motion. which dates from not later than 1080. which is generally accepted as dating from about 1050. step 10. which explains the new procedures. under however limited conditions. but the fact that by Guide's time (he died in 1050) it was accepted as 'correct' procedure. and the fact that it now came into existence is attested only by a few examples of the music itself. . composed for performance and not merely to illustrate theoretical principles.

Aurally. 5th and octave are perfect concords. regardless of scientific authority. By this time. in accordance with the laws of acoustics. and in e the course of time this aural tolerance 9 . and includes the 3rd as well as the perfect concords. the octave doubling of principal and organal voices had dropped out of use. ii This shows both similar and contrary motion. Although to us the major and minor 3rd are entirely consonant. some. but within the next century srds and. concord and discord are classified and distinguished in exact terms. 4th. but . The perfect 4th. to the early medieval musician they were discords. a concord is any combination of sounds which the ear is willing to accept as such. has increased more and more. and all combinations of three or more notes containing within themselves one or more dissonant intervals are also discords.38 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Ex. it is to be noted. indeed. The major and minor 6th were felt to be even more dissonant. In later examples of the new organum more and more prominence is given to movement in contrary motion. employ it almost exclusively. By the i6th century what may be called the traditional academic attitude to discord was fairly fully developed. Scientifically. Simple two-part writing was the rule. the major and minor 3rd and 6th are imperfect. 5th and octave. i. gradually. At this point it may be well to digress and to trace briefly the manner in which composers' attitude to concord and discord has developed. and it was some time before they were freely accepted as concords. The earliest examples of the new organum still rely mainly on the unison. All other intervals are discords. however. 6ths make more frequent appearance.e.

but he seems to have been anticipated by the Englishman William Byrd in his four-part Mass. in the traditional sense. In the course of the 1 7th century composers began to exploit the emotional possibilities of new methods of dissonance- unprepared 7ths. to a considerable degree. a 7th chord did not necessarily need to be resolved in the traditional way. The treatment. (1567 to 1643) was the first to take the 7th of a chord without preparation.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 39 such procedures as the unprepared appoggiatura were still outside the composer's vocabulary. and also of many of 9 their contemporaries. In the work of Liszt (1811 to 1886) and Wagner (1813 to e 1883) a change of attitude begins to emerge. for example. but a discord. In the latter half of this century there was a tendency to greater restraint. (By 'norm of consonance is meant what the ear tion. etc. Discords were taken either as passing notes. though to some extent the English madrigalists of the late i6th century had pointed the way. whose freedom is at times astounding.) To Wagner. not requiring resoluat least in his later works. was still a discord and must be resolved. In this respect the most forward-looking composer of the i8th century was Bach. or were prepared and resolved as It is often stated that Glaudio Monteverdi suspensions. we find some really surprising procedures. had become gradually less rigid. composers being on the whole content with a more restricted vocabulary. what is more important. appoggiaturas. will accept as a concord. sound logical. Throughout the i8th and much of the igth centuries composers continued to hold an orthodox and traditional attitude to the treatment and use of discord. he frequently used a series of more or less unrelated . and in the work of Henry Purcell. By the end of the 1 7th century the attitude to the handling of dissonance had developed enormously. The nonn of consonance' of both these composers was a good deal in advance of that of their predecessors. But it is to be noted that his most startling combinations of notes always resolve logically and. it is true.

40 discords for A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC 9 some specific emotional or illustrative purpose. quite easily. than if its surroundings are almost entirely dissonant. words to which it was sung. to find some system less whereby musical sounds could be of definite length regardof the words. Returning tion of now to the isth century. and can now accept. But sense) as whereas the older composers used discord (in the traditional a relief from uninterrupted concord. They use the less tense combinations as a relief. of whatever style. In the latter part of the i2th sibility century musicians began to turn their attention to the posof 'measure' in music that is. any distinction between concord and discord in the traditional sense has completely broken down. to the plainthe rhythm of the music still remained that of the song. we have to accept the fact that from about . too. howregardless ever astringent or unexpected. where desirable. from the more tense ones. Since Wagner's time composers have delved deeper and deeper into the possibilities of dissonance. 3 more 'advanced composers. Despite the addi- an organal voice. and the ear has come to accept as concords combinations of sounds which were formerly considered case of some of the So that in the to be discords. of 'orthodox rules. the more advanced present-day writers do not admit the old distinction at all.g. if it occurs in the course of a passage which is fundamentally consonant. Schonberg and Bartok. depends style. e. the The are more less so. they can be 'explained' in traditional terms. sounds which a century ago would have been considered excruciating. have a traditional basis. far more pungent. principle is rather that of tension versus relaxation. But all his harmonies. largely The distinction. Here again the origin of the initial impulse is obscure. it is almost as old as harmonised music itself. on such matters as context and the prevailing The emotional or psychological effect of any given dissonant combination is far greater. And the musical ear is able to move with them. astringent combinations contrasting with those which Not that this principle is new.

and as long as the time taken over the long note remained invariable these subdivisions could be combined with each other. the time is triple. were organised into Rhythmic Modes. in which case some method was needed of fitting them together.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 41 the middle of the century works appeared dealing with the principles of musica mensurabilis or 'measurable music'. or sometimes following. Discantus Positio Vulgaris. Dance tunes of this period were not infrequently in duple time. The fragment on p. series of such subdivisions. however. and it is exactly this idea of the even beat which is the basis of measurable music. seems to suggest duple possibilities. It may also be pos- sible that.e. and with the basic note. so that not only would they start and finish at the same time. is by no means certain. organum could also be complied with en route. Extending the basic idea of the triple subdivision of the long note. but this may be since the oldest extant treatise. The merest outline . to about 1300 all music was in an overstatement There is. triple time. no doubt that any leaning to such time in sacred music disappeared very quickly. or one plus one plus one. there may have been some influence Any dance necessarily involves regular pulsation. a complicated system in which. from the dance. it. It has been claimed that from 1150 i. one plus two. but that the laws of This. 42 shows some of the possible combinations in a three-voice passage. the value of a written note might depend on that of the note preceding. despite the Church's traditional lack of sympathy with secular music. Practically all the earliest examples of measurable music depend on the subdivision of a basic long note into three. however. The basic fact of triple time was that the long note could be subdivided in three ways two beats plus one. with or without the inclusion of the long note itself. in a variety of ways. among other things. It is possible that the impulse came from a desire to sing two different sets of words simultaneously. and that triple time became not merely the normal but the only kind of measure.

Broadly speaking. . lay in the fact that it helped musicians to the understanding and management of metrical rhythm as opposed to the free. Its value. of and 5 as we can now Ex. although musicians had now A a barline might be used at the end of a phrase. did not come into regular use until the rise of instrumental music in the i6th century. The use of the rhythmic modes persisted until about the end of the 1 3th century. and the earliest ones. verbal rhythm of earlier times. the one 'mode persisting throughout the whole of the part. lay still in the future. they did not divide their music into bars of equal mark similar to length. they fell into disuse. when with the advent of new and freer ideas. It must be understood that arrived at an understanding of the even beat and exact note-values based on triple rhythm. Timesignatures. dividing up the music into portions each containing the same number of beats. without numerous examples. would be questionable. This obviously induced a great deal of rhythmical rigidity.42 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC this its intelligibility. had an entirely different signification from those of the present day. system would require many pages of explanation. as will be seen in due course. but barlines in the modern sense. in any case. and the whole method was undoubtedly mechanical in its application. determined by a time-signature. 12 see. indeed. it involved the setting out of a voice part in one or other of some six metrical arrangements of note-values.

moreover. There were.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT The most important work is 43 dealing with measurable music the Ars Cantus Mensurabilis (The Art of Measurable Song*). and (c) Walter OdingMusicae (late I3th to early I4th cenSpeculation As will be seen later. an anonymous MS. Franco's importance is shown by the name sometimes given to this period the 'Age of Franconian Discant'. by Franco of Cologne. this which was also known as a Time'. becoming gradually rarer. might be worth either two or three breves. held varying opinions on such matters. the idea of placing a dot after a note to show that it was divisible into three equal parts had not yet been thought of. though a number of the old specifically neumatic signs lingered on in use to some extent. late iath century. for example. one of the few definitely known composers of the period. Petrus de Cruce. requiring sometimes as many as seven semibreves to be sung to a breve. This tendency was intensified in measurable music. until the I4th century that universal clarity and agreement were achieved. It was not . Even as late as the i8th century the Italian Martini refers to one kind in a book printed in 1774. and a breve two or three semibreves. however. shorter were the Semibreve (semibrevis half-short) and the Minim (minima least). the principal composers of it is record exists were French. It was mentioned in Chapter 2 that Guido d'Arezzo's simplification of the old neumatic notation tended towards our presentday note-shapes. A long. Other works of later date than Discantus in the British Positio Vulgaris are (a) (b) Museum. The advent of measurable music necessarily brought about changes and developments in notation. complications unknown in our modern. Different writers. Longer than were the Long (Latin longa) and the Maxim (maxima greatest) . John Garland's De Musica Men- surabilis Positio (early ton's De whom turies). The basic note of measurable music was the Breve (Latin brevis short). but worth noting that two of the above theoretical works were by Englishmen. seems to have had individual ideas on the relative values of notes. i3th century). exact system of notation.

instructive condensation is to be found on p. in that each of its voice parts (usually three) was taken by each singer in turn. Apart from its remarkable beauty. or whether it is the only surviving example of an English school which was far in advance of all others.44 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The principal styles of composition in the Age of Franconian Discant were the Cantilena. There is some doubt. as to the exact construction of a rondel. in canon. over a twopart independent bass which is also canonic. Cantilenae included various kinds of dancesongs mrelais and ballades heading of rondels or rondeaux. Musicologists have argued for A Civilisation. by F. it is a true round. Unlike other extant rondels. how it could have been written in the 1 3th century. The rondel varied in length from a few bars to something quite extensive. however. Sumer is icumen in. but the voices did not begin one after another as in a true round.f years on * Willi Apel places it c. the Conductus and Organum.* Even so. The most famous of all compositions of the rondel type is the English Rota (the term is the composer's). All began together. f Giraldus Cambrensis (1147 to 1320) has some interesting things to useful and say about part singing in Wales in the i2th century. and the same words were used for all the voices. Lang. . The most those of Odington. but more recent research places its date at 1280 or later. and we may be proud of the fact that it is English. it is exceptional in being for six and many come under the and the management of the part-writing is much in advance of other works of the period. It seems to have had some affinity with the later round. the Motet. are somewhat obscure. interchanging at the end of each phrase. we do not know. whether its composer was a freak genius. and probably never shall know. 1230 to 1287).g. a tromhe (see Chapter 4). 1310. But it exists. it is voices. 128 of Music in Western an astounding piece of work. since contemporary writings. It was formerly supposed to have been written about 1226. without coming to any definite conclusion. e. in which the four upper voices enter in turn. notable composer of rondels was Adam de la Hale (c. H.

of some 87 bars of 3/2 time. as stated above. the i6th century). from the Latin tenere. as an addition below the tenor. It is to be noted that in the Middle Ages there was a distinction between the 'inventor' of a melody. e. the tenor being he who 'held' this cantus Jirmus. These discants were. In such a work as a motet the aim of the symphonetes was to fit together known melodies. example quoted them in modern notation.f Tenors were at first taken from plainsong. normally in long notes. the object was the fitting of one or more known melodies above the tenor. the tenor. which part itself was most frequently derived from a fragment of plainsong.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 45 The cantilena was a true 'composition' in that its writer composed the whole thing. Later motets sometimes used instrumental dance tunes for their tenors. In the motet the lowest voice. known melodies. in the Oxford History of Music consists. The tenor part was known as the cantus firmus or 'fixed song'. In the motet. the symphonetes. The upper parts of a motet were not only * The Art of Music. In the period with which we are dealing the tenor was the lowest part in the score. The syllable la endures for 86 bars.g. took a melody. merely. . as well as those from plainsong. frequently give An single syllables of fantastic length. against which the upper voice or voices 'discanted'. were probably played on instruments. to hold. so that from the verbal point of view a mere vocalisation on 'ah' would be equally effective. however (not to be confused with that of later times. being broken up by rests. so that it was not so much composition as musical carpentry. to rate the symphonetes higher than the phonascus. The tendency was. and recent research suggests that these. and he who worked with already-existing material. oddly enough to us. to quote Sir Hubert Parry. who was known as phonascus. the tenor having the one word latus. t The use of the term *bass* for the lowest part came later.* 'easing off the corners and adapting the points where the cacophony was too intolerable to be endured'. and contemporary MSS.

The A third . The conductus was distinguished by having a tenor not based on plainsong. 13. Organum purum ('pure organum ) seems to have designated the sections which were unmeasured. which term may possibly be derived from 'hiccough'. but also retained their original words. In an example in the Oxford History the two discanting voices each sing different verses addressed to the Blessed Virgin. as in an example in Discantus Positio Vulgans^ where the duplum sings a Latin hymn to the Blessed Virgin and the triplum a French love-song. were performed with words and some without portions them.46 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC carpentered out of known melodies. In Organa (plural of organum} both measured and unmeasured music appeared in the course of the same piece. Mention may also be made of the Hocket. It was an extraordinary system in which the notes of a melody were alternated between two voices. The epithet seems apt! In the Church services use was made not only of written works (contrapunctus a penna) but also of improvised discant e 9 (contrapunctus a mente or discantus supra librum). The reader may care to imagine the effect of the National Anthem sung as illustrated in Ex. part was the triplum. latter practice (It still may persurvives. hence the peculiarity of 'polytextuality'. and tended to be more homophonic in It appears that some style than the motet or organum. The Conductus avoided the use of ultra-long notes or syllables in the tenor.* It was a common enough practice for one or more of the added parts to take a secular song. and a fourth the quadruplum. haps be mentioned that the * part next above the tenor was called duplum or motetus. The result of such unseemly practices will be seen in due course. and was applied solely to music in two parts. Rocketing has been described by one writer as a cruel medieval stratagem'. The tenor took a fragment of plainsong in long notes while the duplum discanted freely above it. different words to each voice. though Franco and Odington differ as to whether it should be made up by the composer or adapted from some other source.

the Pope made it quite clear that florid discanting above the plainsong was to cease. (1321). and finally boils over with the statement that the singers 'howl. the practices which had For a time the musicians persisted in . The theorist Jacob of Liege inveighs similarly in Ex. 1115 to 1180) states categorically that 'music defiles the service of religion*. John of Salisbury (c. often in them to their senses. but it would seem that singers had changed but little since Guido voiced his bitter complaint in De Ignoto Cantu (see p. shriek and bark like a dog'. and many other writers de- The essential substance of was: 'Stop desecrating the plainsong. 26. de Muris.* He begins by referring mildly to the 'impudence* of singers who know nothing of the nature of consonance. p. in the early days of discant. from the earliest . in the 'jam sessions of certain dance musicians. t Singers seem to have tended to get out of hand times.' pronouncement Without being quite so outspoken as John of Salisbury or Jacob of Liege. 28) . curtailment and corruption' of the song. see the remark on Ambrose's reforms.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 47 9 though with a secular connotation.) The choirman who improvised his discant above the plainsong cantus firmus was supposed to follow out certain definite rules. but by the beginning of the I4th century the patience of the Church authorities was exhausted.their unarisen. and in 1 324/25 Pope John XXII promulgated a Bull calculated plore.']' seemly conduct. under pain * Until recently this work was attributed to the Norman Johannes to bring this unmeasured terms. goes on to castigate 'mutilation. 13 his Speculum Musicae God our -tious ^ save gx& Queen. Even in the I2th century.

e. To avoid a mere series of parallel triads in root position the plain- was assigned to the highest voice. florid discant on plainsong was still forbidden at Notre Dame in Paris. before the appearance of the famous Bull. Thus song. that plainsong the basic foundational melody was in the lowest part. or bass. of all this will be dealt with in Chapter 5. but of which the authenticity is more than doubtful. rewhat has been called 'an artifice of the most ingenious and subtle kind'. but it may be well to mention here a theory which has been current for long enough. making complete triads. P6rotin and Petrus de Cruce. In any case. are Adam de la Hale. where it had first flourished. the 'false 9 . But composers eventually discovered the pleasing effect of putting the so that the lowest. and that the only was the old parallel organum of the time of Otger. no real proof of this theory of the origin offauxbourdon has ever been produced. So potent was this prohibition that even in 14083 over eighty years later. the singers. a series of pleasant-sounding first inversions resulted. who automatically sang it an octave above its written pitch. 'bourdon melody in the highest part. opposed to the allegedly crude progression of root One writer calls this 'a picturesque story of uncertain origin'.48 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC office of 'suspension from permissible discant of eight days'. Leonin. which would seem to be an apt description. i. or 'false bass'. thus became 9 The principal known composers of the period with which we have been dealing. producwgfauxbourdon. Between the two parallel lines of organum at the 5th were inserted 3rds. though we are not told who was responsible for this innovation. It has already been made clear that in compositions based on plainsong. written below the organal parts. as apart from the theorists. nor exactly when it first appeared. since there are extant examples of parallel first inversions dating from about 1300. Adam . as positions. The outcome sorted to having perforce returned to parallel organum. According to this theory.

apparently. adding two or three organal parts Liber Organi ('Great Book of Organum'). written printing remain buried for purely local use. since sign it. 1 183 to 1236). i. say.e.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 49 mentioned. amount of music Besides the work of these men. a motet simply for use in the He would not necessarily officiated. when unearthed by hundreds of years musicologist. Leonin. Lfonin. (Perotin the Great). and the notation and writing in the manuscripts. So the music. 34) for the liturgical year. some three centuries later. Heinrich Isaac.f born at Amiens de Cruce is a somewhat shadowy figure in the second half of the 1 3th century. it is unfortunate that orsanista. and whose survives of which the composers dates can only be fixed by the style of com- approximate position A composer would write. The writer of therefore rudimentary to undertake such a huge task was only other composer his Chorafa Constanttnus. in his Magnus of the undertook the composition of polyphonic settings which Mass 'Propers' (see p. Leoninus. church at which he the art of it would not be published. As to the effect of the * music itself. and had not yet been invented. and having fallen in the library of the of day until some into disuse might never see the light a igth-century later. L&min an organ player Organs were still in a very rests on his compositions. tThe . 1623) also set a number state. an anonymous MS. was He is also known as Perotinus Magnus notation. lived in the by the Latinised officiated at the cathedral of Notre Dame 1 2th century and Perotin (c. also known de la Hale has already been form of his name. would quite possibly church concerned. s fame seems to have been known as orgamtor. a certain are unknown. in certain sections. of the time calls him optimus renowned as an from which it has been deduced that he was while This is incorrect. William Byrd (1543 to though he consistently omits of movements in his GradudLia (1605 to 1607). organist. first to write for three or four voices.* He was succeeded by instrumental in imwho apart from his compositions. An organista was a writer of organa. in Paris. pro4ig and is especially noteworthy as being. the to a cantusfirmus. Petrus were later revised and supplemented by P^rotin.

Vol.50 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC it opportunities of hearing performed are extremely rare. from one nation to another. Of the Parisians.S. is known of English composers. who produced most of the in the i8th and igth centuries. though recordings are available. Little. perhaps. shall see in how the leadership in music passed.Nos. Attention was drawn above to the fact that some of the most noted theorists of the time were Englishmen. quite unlike the music of any other period. but in actual performance it has an odd attractiveness and beauty of its It well own.2. i6toio. It at various times. while playing examples is on the piano equally unilluminating. Leonin and Perotin are the most important representatives. On paper it tends to appear crude and experimental. repays any effort made to hear it sung. and the most important school of composition was centred on Paris. . however. were greatest musicians actually the last to enter the field. worth remembering that the Germans. on both intellectual and artistic development. of it The mere silent reading conveys no true impression. RECORDS EM. During the lath to the isth centuries the influence of the University of Paris was supreme in Europe. later chapters We is.

Mention has already been made of the antiquity of the term jongleur. They are sectional in construction. and the use of duple time is not uncommon. but with a dif- ferent ending. These were southern French poet-musicians. four and six bars being frequent. which seem to have been long and musically dull. naturally. narrative poems (gestes) recounting heroic deeds. each section being immediately repeated.. songs and dance tunes abounded. in some cases even suggesting the idea of a rondo. Phrase lengths vary considerably. who appeared rather and musical value. they gestes. however. mixtures of three. There is. sang. and with them may be associated their central and northern . or rather chanted. Dances of the I3th and I4th centuries are generically known as Estampm. and the jongleurs de These latter came from Provence and Picardy. it is mainly in sacred music that we can trace growth and I But as in any other age. acrobats. development. ><_>/ that since so little of the secular music survives. who were looked upon with disfavour by the Church. the 'jugglers'. strongly marked metrical rhythm. Cadence points are dearly defined and there is a feeling for shape and design. At the end of the nth century began the age of the Troubadours. for the reasons already stated. were often of considerable poetic French counterparts the Trouvhes.CHAPTER FOUR EARLY SECULAR MUSIC UR study so far has dealt almost entirely with music I used in the Church. Their love songs. etc. and as early as the loth century jongleurs were divided into two classes. though the composers are rarely known. Anglicised into "juggler' it came to imply a body of public entertainers which included conjurers.

The troubadour or trouvere might himself be of noble birth. 45. to find. (Grove states that the words of over 2. The jongleur9 whatever his standing. which they developed to a high pitch of beauty and refinement. One .*. Such music of troubadours and trouveres as has survived is purely melodic. There is a clear connection here with the distinction between phonascus and symphonetes mentioned on p. fined to those parts where the Provengale tongue was spoken. The etymological root of both is the French verb trouver. but only a much smaller proportion of the music. Besides composing such works as those mentioned in Chapter 3. and the manuscripts do not indicate the {. a 'dramatic pastoral'. The names 'troubadour and 'trouvere have identical meanings. The troubadour or trouvere was of the phonascus or inventing variety. exercising his art not as a professional but rather as a gifted amateur. and Thibaut. Of these. many of the 9 9 poems being devoted woman. A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Both died out as the age of chivalry decayed towards the beginning of the I4th century. was found in all parts of Europe. northern Spain and northern Italy. Richard I of England was a troubadour. he also wrote some entertainments which are sometimes stated to be the precursors of the French opera-comique. King of Navarre. the most important is Le Jeu de Robin et Marion. Many of their poems survive.52 later.500 troubadours' songs are extant. but only 259 of their melodies. France. etc. i. troubadours and trouveres were consocial standing The above that of the jongleur. and its anticipation of optra-comique is seen in the way in which the dialogue is interspersed with airs. to a rather mannered idealisation of of the troubadour and trouvere was The latter was in any case a and might be a welcome guest in professional entertainer. It is divided into scenes like a play. a trouvere. court or monastery.) Both troubadours and trouveres were notable for the cultivation of lyric poetry. of tie most notable trouveres was Adam de la Hale.e. the 'finder' or inventor of a melody.

duple time being used as well as triple. Minnesingers. too. From which it may be deduced that the accompaniments were of a harmonic character. and was very limited in its range. like those of their legend. It is perhaps worth mentioning that their influence reached forward. were mostly of noble birth Almost contemporary with the troubadours were the German and i3th and then- songs dealt chiefly with love. As has already been noted. but in others there is clear metrical accentuation. who flourished in the I2th centuries. Their art died about the same time as that of the troubadours. it coincided with the age of chivalry and ceased when that age came to an end. The art of the troubadours. The rhythm of some of the songs is as free as that of plainsong. obviously so that the player could hardly avoid sounding at least seems certain that two notes simultaneously. The French counterparts. While some of the melodies are modal in character. himselfwere minnesingers and historical figures. But for . and that of version of that Parsifal on Wolfram von Eschenbach's The songs of the minnesingers. though somewhat indirectly. In a limited way it is an example of the effect of a purely social condition on music. they were certainly not polyphonic. They are written in the contemporary plainsong notation on a four-line stave. show the use of the major scale and duple time. others are clearly based on the major scale the 'wanton' mode so disliked by the Church. though some kind of instrumental support was improvised on the This was a crude kind of fiddle (which term vielle orfedeL derives from the old name) with a flat bridge. trouveres and minnesingers covered a relatively brief period of history. into the igth century. They. since Wagner's opera Tannhduser includes a contest of song in which the protagonists Wolfram von Eschenbach and Tannhauser as plot of Tristan and Isolda is largely based on the story told by the minnesinger Godfrey of Strasburg.EARLY SECULAR MUSIC it 53 method of accompaniment.

14 and 15. He is intro- duced as one of the principal characters in Wagner's music drama The Mastersingers of Nuremberg. Before returning to the development of the main stream of music. Nos. 2.54 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the rise of chivalry and all that it implied. and functioned as a well to comparable in its structure to the various trade guilds of the late Middle Ages. and their construction was subject to an accepted code of rigid rules. the songs of the meistersingers were mostly on Biblical themes. . parallel to the add a sketch of the work of the They were a kind of middle-class noble minnesingers.S. Vol. the well-known 'dawn song' in the third act being a setting of one of his poems. the art of these men would not have arisen and flourished. who lived in the i6th century.M. Unlike those of the minnesingers. and the movement flourished from the i4th to the i yth centuries. journeyman and master. it German guild. members passing through the usual stages of apprentice. may be Meistersingers. RECORDS H. The first of these guilds was founded in 1311 at Mainz by Heinrich von Meissen. The most famous meistersinger was Hans Sachs.

however. that from about 1300 the rhythmic modes tend to fall into disuse and a far freer attitude to rhythm begins to appear. became Composition in accordance with these new known as Ars Nova the 'New Art' in conthe c 9 * essentially based on triple time and trast to Ars Antigua Old Art Ars Nova. an actual 'invention'. and papal interdiction regarding the treatment of plainsong could not restrain musicians from further experiment. as stated above. and its introduction was inevitably the beginning of the end of the rhythmic We modes which were nothing ideas else.CHAPTER FIVE THE 'NEW ART AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 5 same way as the year 1050 forms a rough dividing line between the old and the new organum. but rather a development from Ars Antiqua which. therefore. was not. so also the year 1300 approximately separates an old style from a new one. but the whole conception of the system was too rigid to last. had inevitable. despite its name. There is also improved shapeliness of melodic line and greater independence in the part-writing. Real development was not possible within the constricting influence of the rhythmic modes. There can be little doubt that the work of the troubadours and trouveres had some effect on polyphonic music. seen that the troubadours did not confine themselves to triple measure. We find. and it is from about 1300 that duple time appears in polyphonic compositions. It is first mentioned in a treatise by Odington about 1280. as rehave gards both melodic style and freedom of rhythm. reached a point where changes and modifications were . By the end of the i3th century the the IN principles of measurable music were fully established.

56 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The first theorist to expound the principles of the New Art was Philippe de Vitry (c. Thus. and In Ars Nova the long in 'Perbreves. since they perfect mode. So that. and whether each was perfect or imperfect. he explained what was already more or less common practice tem may be described as was worth three breves. Very briefly the follows. the long dividing into three breves. It is at this time. treating them as accepted facts rather than as mere theoretical possibilities. each of these breves dividing into three semibreves. A note 9 divisible into three equal parts was 'perfect and the dot 9 was therefore sometimes called the 'point of perfection . indicating subdivisibility into three. like Guido and Franco. O and G. not after perfection of Time-signatures were inevitably had to show mode. But such a dot appeared in the time-signature. whose work Ars Nova gives detailed instructions on the new rhythmic ideas. the composer would place after the clef the signs CD. In 'Perfect Time the breve was worth three semibreves and in 'Imperfect Time' two. time and prolation. to 9/8 time. the breve three semibreves. and the third imperfect prolation. with a series of separate signs. This is comparable. He deals with the use of binary rhythms and their notation. 1285 to 1361). in 9 'Perfect Prolation the semibreve divided into three minims. too. rhythmic sysIn Ars Antiqua the long the semibreve three minims.The first indicated the note as nowadays. C and $. and in 'Imperfect Prolation into two. for the difference in the names of the The whole-bar sound: . the second perfect time. though their original meanings no longer hold good. complicated. Similarly. first appears. but in 'Imperfect 9 Mode' was worth three Mode 9 only two. if mode and time were perfect and prolation imperfect. allowing notes. that the dot. fect among composers. viz. Perfection or im9 mode. time and prolation were indicated by a complex system of signs of which two still remain in occasional use. each semibreve dividing into two minims.

J. Singers may at one time have been 'the most fatuous of all men'. this system have been logical and simple enough.. 1369). c. apart from his strictures on singers. citing some specific examples. De Vitry states that 'another use of red notes is to enjoin singing at the octave in the passages in which 5 they occur . but unfortunately may the red notes might indicate something entirely unconnected with time. he may perhaps have exerted some restraining . influence.I Each of these also divides into three: and each of these into two: further notational complication was the use of different coloured notes to show temporary changes from perfect to imperfect mode.THE 'NEW ART' AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 57 divides into three: IJ. J. Jacob seems to have looked back to the 'good old days' of Franconian discant and although neither he nor anyone else could halt the progress of the may be made new ideas. De Muris (Ars Novae Musicae). A To the singer who was accustomed to it. tended to oppose the new methods in his Speculum Musicae. etc. who wrote a treatise codifying the principles of Ars Nova. who. but they certainly needed to have their wits about them in the I4th century! Of other contemporary theorists mention of the Franciscan Simon Tunsted (d. or vice versa. red being the most usual. and Jacob of Liege.

and there are plenty of later examples. but also the more shapely melodic style which gradually developed. as in the motets. appearing in one guise or another in all the sections. Especially notable is the use of a basic motive. Some of his 'monoIt and may be said 9 phonic ness lais simple unharmonised songs and attractiveness of have all the freshFrench folk-song at its best. Duple measure is common in his work. to have paid scant attention to the papal in Chapter 3. generically known as cantilenae. and it is in them that we see not only the freer rhythmic methods of Ars Nova. as well as some twenty-three motets. period In Machaut seems Bull mentioned his setting of the Mass. Matthew Passion is to some extent polytextual. rondeaux. as a phonascus . The use of discord * hundred years after Machaut comPolytextuality died hard. Each of these had its own peculiarities of construction. while the upper voices discant more or less freely. 1300 to 1377). even to the use of secular songs for the discants above the long-note plainsong tenor. In the Mass the tenor takes strictly a plainsong part in notes of variable but moderate length. sometimes in canon. In the motets Machaut adopts a severely conservative attitude.58 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The outstanding composer in France during this was Guillaume de Machaut (c. posers were indulging in the practice of 'telescoping* the words of Mass movements. A . that as a symphonetes Machaut was ingenious technically competent. In his polyphonic compositions there is notably greater ease in the management of the part-writing. He wrote a large number of secular works. chansons and lais. who has been described as the first practical exponent of the Ars Nova of de Vitry. Especially notable is his four and five voice setting of the Ordinary of the Mass the oldest existing setting apart from the anonymous three-part Messe de Tournai. replacing the angularity of Ars Antiqua. the first movement of Bach's St. For that matter. and within it he is apt to indulge in remarkably complex rhythmic combinations.he showed his genuine inventiveness and musicianship. so that different sentences were being sung simultaneously.* The cantilenae include ballades. binding the whole work together.

cultivated. Passages in imitation are introduced with evident intention rather than haphazardly. both Italian and French. a development of the art of the troubadours. in works of the I3th century. since it reached a high level of accomplishment in accompanied song. ness to the 20th-century ear. However. with its variants madriale and mandriale.THE 'NEW ART' AND is ITS DEVELOPMENT is 59 much better controlled. Neither imitation nor canon were new inventions. were not based on a * The madrigals have no connection with those of the i6th century. occasional instances of the former appear. It is in the I4th century that we find the rise of an important body of composers in Italy. while strict canon is sometimes employed for a whole section of a movement. of course. while Sumer is icumen in is. but little if anything survives which was written before about the middle of the century with which we are dealing. strictly canonic. The 9 mechanical 'note-spinning in accordance with the accepted rules is fast vanishing. in the works of the 14th-century Italians both devices begin to assume more and more importance as unifying factors of construction. coming back into musical use early in the 1 6th century. his music begins to have some real often real expressiveold tendency to mere and there meaning. and the work seems to have been. at least to some extent. rather casually. in connection with lyric poetry. The main centre of the Italian school was Florence. like many Madrigals were mostly written for two voices other Italian forms. with the melody canon and imitation in the tenor.* secular polyphonic noteworthy that in chiefly appear. it survived. There had been an Italian school since the time of Guido. and. that It is in the madrigals. Polyphonic writing was. In the 1 5th century the use of the term madrigal for a musical composition fell into disuse. . songs. in contrast to the artificialities of the immediately preceding period. as we have already seen. or at least imitative writing. and it is them the melody is in the upper part a characteristic which distinguishes them very markedly from other works. a notable feature of it being the frequent use of canonic.

sometimes attributed to the influence of Italian It is also possible that such types of composi- tion as the Ballata. and after the surprising eruption of Sumer is icumen in. and is folk-music. in the person of John Dunstable. accompaniment to the madrigal was not excluded. its rhythmic scheme. Another sudden eruption. Others were Jacopo da Bologna and Giovanni da Giscia. The most notable Florentine composer was Francesco di Landini (c. since Italian musicians would naturally be among the staff of the papal court. true the day of the symphonetes was beginning to compositions. scarce. as compared with that of the madrigal. a period of relative stagnation set in. that is to say. and in as early as 1280 Odington refers to duple measure. English musicians were content to pay homage to the traditions of the isth century. who. whether it is an isolated phenomenon or the sole surviving work of a flourishing school. unfortunately. The use of duple measure as well as triple was general. spasmodic fashion. Manuscripts of the period are. inconsiderable influence. though blind. draw to a close. being simpler and had not more obviously of a It has metrically regular kind. but it would seem that while composers in France and Italy were achieving mastery of the methods of Ars Nova. 1325 to 1397). Little is known of English compositions of the i4th cenMusic in this country has evolved in a distinctly tury. took place in the first half of the isth century. The second half of the i6th century saw the swift and amazing rise of the English madrigalists possibly the greatest any case we know that . The possibility of some instrumental pre-selected cantus firmus. been suggested by some that the introduction of duple time into France may have been due to the transference of the papal see to Avignon in 1309. had a high reputation as organist and lutenist. after which there was another period when the lead passed to other countries. for simultaneous singing and dancing.6o A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC They were. but this cannot be stated with any certainty.

Other countries in that to avoid the unacceptable tritone F to B the 'soft B*. but in none.THE 'NEW ART AND 3 ITS DEVELOPMENT 61 period in the whole story of our music followed by a decline which was broken by the solitary and unpredictable genius Henry Purcell in the latter part of the zyth century. perhaps. chromatic alteration is accepted and explained as common practice under the title ofmusicaficta. some mention must be made of what is known as We have seen. After Purcell. The practice of the chromatic altera- Europe have passed through peak periods and periods of decline. with musica ficta semitones might appear almost anywhere in a to the rules with In the treatise the * It is a rather peculiar fact that the early theorists. tion of notes gradually extended. which he was supposed to be familiar. however. Musica Ficta or 'False Music 9 . and de Muris. indicated in the written music. have the former been so brief and the latter so long and dismal. at least according to 20th- century ideas. in his Ars Discantus. Before dealing with the work of Dunstable and his successors. in Chapter 2. and as early as the first quarter of the i3th century the Englishman John Garland refers to it under the heading of Error tertii soni error of the third sound. formulates simple and exact rules for its application. even as late as 1 6th century. By 1320 chromatic alteration of any note of the scale was admitted. ascribed to de Vitry. it was left to the performer to apply the system according and flattening of notes. It has already been explained that the character of a mode depended on the position of the semitones in relation to the final. and Nothing was. 9 Ars Contrapuncti ('The Art of Counterpoint ). The exact meaning of this term is obscure.* time there were certain rules regarding the sharpening his both in plainsong and in discants. almost complete decay until almost the beginning of the present century. . seem continuously to have had great difficulty in expressing themselves with ease and clarity. was admitted. B flat. and Garland's explanations and examples are not It is nevertheless clear that in altogether enlightening.

that the first stable He is sometimes credited with (c. but this suggestion is more rapid and definite progress. and outstanding figure is the Englishman John Dunfeel we things as the dance tunes. Discord is used in a less casual fashion. and the early having followed Dunstable's lead.. Leaving aside such monophonic lais of Machaut. we have already seen that the polyphonic of the 14th-century Italians were true composimadrigals tions not depending on the weaving of discants against some pre-selected melody. stabilised We now return to the general development of music. however. our major and minor scales. of whom to their mainly on the Continent. in various important libraries. 1370 to 1453). his most important contemporary being Lionel Power.6a A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC melody. new art . their compositions have mostly been found. the 'invention' of composition. The modes eventually condensed into two main types those with a major 3rd above the final.. and those with a minor 3rd. and the poet Martin le Franc. apparently implying that he was the first to dispense with the use of a cantus Jirmus. where their reputation stood high and where. Dunstable's name. The work of this school seems to have been done highly debatable. claims that the excellence of the contemporary French composers Dufay (1400 to 1474) and Binchois (c. The work of the composers of the late I4th century shows increasing ease and fluency of treatment. ultimately. Hence. writing before 1450. 1400 to 1467) is due the theorist Tinctoris refers to 'a . Dunstable was the acknowledged leader of a school of English composers who flourished in the first half of the I5th century. whose use as the normal basis for composition became finally about the beginning of the i8th century. whose fount and origin is held to be among the English. A little later. It is in the isth century. and there are fewer corners which 9 seem to need 'easing off . in particular. so that the individual characteristics of its mode tended gradually to disappear. was highly honoured among continental musicians.

an occupation which was taken to extremes by some of his continental successors. and laying the foundations of a form which reached its peak in the works of such composers as Palestrina and Victoria a century later. While passing discord is still used at times with some freedom. and was first to indulge in the concoction of musical puzzles. With the death of Dunstable in 1453 the lead in music passed to the Burgundian school. The traditional method of the voices pursuing almost entirely independent melodic paths between initial and final concords. there are far fewer awkward clashes than in the work of his predecessors. which still survived in Machaut. Such puzzles various methods of devising canons often had but little musical value. rapidly in the madrigals of Landini had begun to disappear and his school. such a work as Dunstable's Rosa Bella shows quite clearly that accompanied song some such conceptions lay in the not far distant future. Dunstable's compositions include both sacred and secular works. Although the ideas of chords as such. giving the same words to all the voices. Dunstable was far from deficient in mechanical ingenuity. of which the principal representatives are Gulielmus Dufay and Gilles Binchois. and he is noteworthy as being the first to cultivate confident the motet as a free composition to a liturgical text. The principal characteristics of Dunstable's style were suavity and shapeliness of melodic line. These men began by writing in the style of the preceding generation. He made one of the occasional use of points of imitation. Apart from his facility in writing mellifluous music. easily singable phrases. had not yet entered the minds of composers. and of chord-progression. He discarded both the old long-note cantusfirmus and the mixed text. and harmonisation largely based on triads.THE 'NEW ART AND 1 ITS DEVELOPMENT 63 Dunstable stood forth as chief. but the practice of them certainly increased composers' technique and helped them to an assured and management of contrapuntal devices. with a good deal of not particularly attractive . and in Dunstable but little of it remains.

. the pure harmony of the whole. This practice sounds rather a return to the unseemliness of the 13th-century motets. if not entirely.* than anyone the possibilities of canon as a unifying device. and possibly decorated. His fondness for fauxbourdon move- else.64 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC melody and arbitrary and uncontrolled discord. The melodies used as cantus fami were usually old and the words no longer in use. He was also a 9 deviser of 'puzzle canons . in fact. as in Dufay's great motet Ecclesiae Militantis. unmistakably. introducing them at times into Mass movements. but was not really so. The incorporation of independent instrumental parts into vocal works was common. but this is an error. They served. realised clearly ment in parallel first inversions may also be mentioned as suggesting the dawning of a feeling for harmonic proIt is from Dufay's time that the use of secular gression. of the i4th and isth centuries are often Compositions regarded as having been written purely for unaccompanied vocal performance. or part of it. But the influence of Dunstable was strongly felt. in the Oxford History of Music. which we noticed as characteristic of the compositions of our own countrymen in the foreign Dufay. was the song Uhomme arme. The would be given to the tenor. the propriety in the sequence of the continued sounds. which include! * Wooldridge. possibly earlier collections during this period'. and the purely instrumental performance of works written for voices was accepted as a regular practice. not necessarily in its original note-values. Possibly the most famous of like tune. Missing voicesecular cwtusfami parts might well be supplied by instruments. the suave and flowing melody in the separate parts. and in his Masses he made considerable use of it. while the other voices wove counterpoints against it. cantos fami for Masses begins. unidentifiable by the ear. Moreover. the agreeable phrasing. merely as a framework on which the composer could build. and in the later works of Dufay especially 'we recognise. they were so covered up by the surrounding counterpoint as to be almost.

with symbolic meanings. while of no great originality. on the whole. the Netherlander' best work is. especially. etc. It is in the time of Dufay that we find the rise of what is called choral polyphony. chansons but there is no particular distinction between sacred and secular styles. which saw the foundation of the school of composers. 1446 to 1511). full choir taking part only in the plainsong. so that on the whole music set for secular words might serve equally well for sacred ones and vice versa. This change of attitude may possibly be due to the ending of the papal exile at Avignon and the consequent healthier state of the Church. But various manuscripts from about 1440 onwards dearly distinguish passages of polyphony to be sung by soloists from others to be taken by the chorus. The great theorist of the time was Joannes Tinctoris (c. pressiveness. 1492). the essentially unaccompanied vocal style. achieves a balance between the two. that end being musical explicated canonic writing to of. Whatever the underlying cause. there was considerable emphasis on secular compositions ballades. Okeghem for long had a reputation for almost fiendish contrapuntal ingenuity.THE 'NEW ART' AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 65 two such instrumental lines. Jacob Obrecht (1430 to 1505) and Anton Busnois (d. It is not until we reach the i6th century that we encounter the pureacappella. rondeaux. that written for liturgical use. 1 Until about the middle of the 5th century the was customary for polyphonic movements mass movements. 1495). Among his outstanding technical feats may . to be sung by a group of motets. In the work of the Burgundians. the emphasis is rather on sacred music. Dufay. In the ensuing Netherlands generation. explain the current technical methods. 1430 to c. whose writings. and there is no doubt that he explored the possibilities of com- an extent hitherto undreamed But study of his works reveals that his technique was really only a means to an end. Le. as in those of the 14thcentury Italians. The first important names of the Flemish (Netherlands) school are Johannes Okeghem (c. it soloists.

The serious cultivation of purely instrumental works dates from his time. an increasing tendency to harmonic approach through . More than Obrecht and Busnois. he wrote a Mass on Uhomme arme. poser at Innsbruck. The brilliant courts of the Florentine princes in this.66 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC be mentioned a canon for thirty-six voices. Although much of Isaac's work is of a relatively straightforward character. and for the next hundred years there was a continual move from the Netherlands of musicians in search of wealthy patrons to farther south. employing shorter phrases and more He was one of the real clearly defined cadence points. founders of the technique of imitative counterpoint. and shows that the imitative style was rapidly becoming the fundamental basis of choral composition. like considered as one of the founders of the 16th-century generation later appeared Heinrich Isaac (c. 49). In Florence he Isaac's career is typical. where most of the rest of his life was spent. Obrecht's style is on the whole rather less florid than that of Okeghem. His greatest work. Like so many of his contemporaries. any artist than did those in the Low Countries. too. Busnois learned from his teacher Okeghem Obrecht. may be the technique of imitation and. which would tax the capabilities of even the most reliable of performers. and his output of them was considerable. the Renaissance period. and was also a writer of instrumental pieces. in 1496 he entered the service of the Emperor Maximilian. occupied him for many years. being appointed court comIn 1502 he returned to Florence. which was the basis of the style of the i6th century. His style shows. Traces of the old 14th-century traditions are arily complicated rare. 1450 to 1517). he occasionally indulges in extraordin- rhythmic combinations. his use of discord is strictly controlled. served Lorenzo dei Medici. one of the first of the Flemish school to seek a livelihood in Italy. offered far greater opportunities A style. and there are evident signs of the formation of what might be called an early academic outlook. the Ckoralis Constantinus (see p.

even sur- and four-part writing. and was in many ways the finest musician of his generation. but around the turn of the century we find a school of composers who seem to have deliberately held on the continent. with Busnois. serving a number of different masters. and while some of his most musically interesting works are also exceedingly complex. With Josquin more than with his predecessors technique was a means to an end. and himself possibly 1475 to 1522). Another contemporary of Isaac was Pierre de la Rue Although the greater part of his work still (d. as a composer of both sacred and secular equally great music. in later secular pieces he often writes in a simpler He was style and achieves really amazing expressiveness. he appears to have attained very considerable technical mastery of the intricacies of canon. is usual. in a apart from the methods prevailing rather reactionary manner. Although the effect of their . (c. an eminent the teacher of Adrian one of the great great ability Mouton had time.THE 'NEW ART' AND the triad. a command which he used in both sacred and secular comin positions to 'bring off contrapuntal feats 3 passing his teacher in his ability to invent and solve the a natural and convincing manner. stable. 1518). ITS DEVELOPMENT as 67 already noted as traceable in the work of Dun- Almost exactly contemporary with Isaac is Josquin des (1450 to 1521). The exercise of this mechanical ingenuity gave him a complete command of his material. and was highly esteemed in figures of the next generation. From Okeghem he learned. pupil of Josquin. and was described by the German musicologist Ambros as 'the first musician who impresses us as having genius'. he travelled southwards. He was Okeghem's greatest pupil. established Okeghem and Obrecht. the artifices of contrapuntal technique. his In England after the death of Dunstable music tended to languish. Like Isaac. remains in manuscript. A little later is Jean Mouton Willaert. normal by Pr& most complex problems.

RECORDS H. 1465 to 1523) and Richard Sampson (c. and by the i2th it was sung with a fairly complex ritual. 2.70 to 1554). The principal composers of this school were Robert Fayrfax (d. recitation of the Passion in Holy Week dates from as far back as the 4th century. 20 to 30. interest in contrapuntal devices is lacking. Vol.S.68 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC music is agreeable enough. Richard Davy (end of I5th to early 1 6th centuries) 9 William Gornyshe (c. No.M. 3. . and the arbitrary use of discord is rare. 19 and Vol. but the authorship is doubtful. there is smooth and equable flow of the parts. Davy is notable as being the first Englishman definitely known to have set the The traditional 'Passion* of Christ in harmonised form. but little more. 1521). Nos. 14. Obrecht is sometimes said to have produced a four-part setting.

which reached its century. In the work of such composers as Isaac and Josquin the contrapuntal technique of the Flemish school had reached a high level of competence. 1 6th century attained Lassus and Byrd. and was applied to the production of music of real expressiveness. Each section concludes with a cadence. the highest expressiveness achievements being in the works of Palestrina. the rise and development of the madrigal in of the still greater competence and in their Masses and motets. The great writers outstanding features of the i6th century are the culmination of polyphonic sacred music. The first four of these will be dealt with in the order given.CHAPTER SIX IN THE SIXTEENTH VOCAL MUSIC CENTURY THE (a) (b) (c) Italy. of which the post-Machaut foundations had been laid by Dunstable. to build up generally with a good deal of a complete 'section'. is .hands of Bach.* the voices entering 9 by one after another with the same melodic figure. Victoria. * See Ex. (d) the brief but brilliant work of the English madrithe effects of the Reformation. but also as the ultimate origin climax of perfection in the. The motet. ^ imitation Note also that this technique of 1 6 for an illustration. and (e) the rise of instrumental music. of the i6th important not only as a structural method of the fugue. now assumed very great importance. In the structural principles are truly polyphonic motet the general as follows. This figure is used. instrumental music will be considered in a separate chapter. and strengthened by Dufay and his successors. Each successive phrase of words is introduced a 'point of imitation' or 'fugue . word repetition. galists. though not necessarily at the same pitch.

the texture is chord-progressions are. One is almost entirely chordal. if any. though there are occasional freak examples such as Thomas Tallis's Spem in alium for forty voices. always and entirely contrapuntal in texture. with little. so that the sections are inter- and arises locked. however.70 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC as a rule the figure for the ensuing point of imitation within that cadence. there were two other common methods of procedure. and the same method is used with great effectiveness in Byrd's five-part Mass. In the polyphonic works of the period it may be said that the chords arise from the interweaving of simultaneous melodic and rhyth- mic conceived horizontally and the were. really independent movement of the voices. It is based not so much on imitative technique as on the contrasting of varying groups of voices within the choir. arranged in eight fivepart choirs. as it must have been thinking in terms of chords as chords. created. an attitude of mind which from now on assumes increasingly great importance. A noteworthy point about the chordal type of motet is that it shows an increasing feeling for chords and chord-progression as such. Motets were not. Tallis was not the only 16th-century composer to attempt a task of such magnitude and complexity. Palestrina's Tu es Petrus is an example of this type of motet. Victoria's Ave Verum Corpus and Palestrina's Bone Jesu are good examples. The same attitude is clearly evident in such a passage as the opening of Palestrina's Stabat Mater: . but he was the only one to succeed in producing real music under such conditions. But in such a work as Ave Verum Corpus it seems evident that Victoria lines. Thus a continuous contrapuntal web of sound is Motets were written for from three to eight voices. The other kind lies between the purely polyphonic and the chordal. In longer motets the three styles may be found used for different sections. but variation in the combinations used is exploited to the limit a kind of vocal orchestration. which would consist of not fewer than five voices. There is relatively little use of the full choir. incidental.

The use of the secular cantus ftrmus for masses was rapidly dying out.ia .li lae . Early in his career.ta . 15 tTT Re ! gi - na ^ cae . Qui a quern me - min - i - sti por . only a very few are based on such material. and points of imitation were worked out based on these phrases. written after the Council's decree and in accordance with its views. The cantus ftrmus had changed since the time of Dufay. si . Undue repetition of words was generally avoided. Re -sur - rex - it.re. but of his total of ninety-three. Al-le . including two on Uhomme arme. .VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY j\ i 71 Ex. Al - le .ta - re. and composers found it expedient to follow the lead given by Palestrina in his Missa Papae Marcelli. severely criticised the use of the secular cantus firmus. Al - le .lu . Instead of being employed primarily as a melodic method of using a line around which counterpoints were woven. in 1563. it was now broken up into its constituent phrases. 14 The basic material for Masses and motets was often taken from plainsong.cut dix-it. The melody from which it takes its title is: Ex.lu - ia. A simple example of this method of writing is provided in Palestrina's Missa Regina Coeli.lu -ia: -ra pro no -bis De-urn. The Council of Trent. Palestrina wrote some Masses on secular cantus firmi. as well as the undue complexity and length of Masses. Al-le-lu - ia.

of the movements 5 *motto-theme procedure. motets and chansons. a Mass was often known as Missa Sine among composers. The opening of the Sanctus based on the phrase: San Ex. Another source of material was used in what is usually known as the 'parody Mass' (Missa Parodia). such as madrigals. c. thus giving thematic unity whole work. openings of some. the Sanctus and the Agnus Dei should be one and the same.IJ L . goes so far as to insist on some such method. 15.* a kind of y agreed with him. 1560). 'In composing a Mass.' Not every contemporary composer seems to have . obligatory that the inventions (i. it is perforce necessary and first Kyrie. 'Mass without a name . There seems to have been a sort of musical freemasonry treated largely as common property. the themes) at the beginnings of the the Gloria. but some unity was often achieved by the use of the same material for at least the 9 * Pietro Cerone (b. and goes into considerable detail.* Other movements are also based on this phrase and on marked in Ex. the Credo. if not all. thematic inventions being Nomine.e. U J M i the others to the J^ JJ J J- J .72 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC brackets first The show the various sections which are used is as themes in the mass. When entirely original material was used. often by other composers. 16 /. In this the musical themes were borrowed from other compositions. ^ J. in his huge compUation El melopeo maestro.

1510 to 1586) and his nephew Giovanni (1557 to 1612). the two sections acting either antiphonally or in combination. and the union of sessed . and these resources gave composition of works on a grand scale for double chorus. It is at this time that Spain first comes clearly into the musical picture. Lassus (also known by the Latinised and Italianised versions of his name Orlandus Lassus and Orlando di Lasso) was the greatest of them all. Each of the four interlocked sections of the motet is based on imitative treatment of the relevant phrase of the plainsong tune associated with the words. He is also notable for his use of chromaticism. Mark's posrise to the two organs and two choirs. Mark in Venice. and his music attains a pitch of serenity which is unsurpassed by any of his contemporaries. Of the Netherlanders a long list could be given -Orlande de Lassus (1532 to 1594) and Adrian Willaert (c. but their final expulsion in the i6th century. and he was noted for his use of musica reservata the art of giving dramatic expression to the words.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY The cantusfirmus 73 method outlined above was sometimes used in motets. The long occupation by the Moors had tended to isolate this country from the rest of Europe. This type of writing was continued. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 to 1594) was the greatest of the Italians. St. One of his greatest and best-known works is the setting of the Seven Penitential Psalms. 1485 to 1562) are the most important. on an even grander scale. His technical mastery was consummate. Willaert was the founder of the Venetian school associated with the cathedral of St. Palestrina's Veni Sponsa Christi is a setting of a verse which the composer splits into four phrases. and spent most of his life in Rome. by Willaert's successors Cipriano da Rore (1516 to 1565). a strongly marked characteristic of the English school in the latter part of the century. with a European reputation and an enormous output of music of all kinds. Like so many of his countrymen he travelled widely. Andrea Gabrieli (c.

1500 to 1553) and Tomas Luis de Victoria* (c. He lacks the latter's possibly second only to Palestrina. with an occasional distinctively Spanish flavour. The greatest name in English music of this period one of the greatest of all time is that of William Byrd. Many of the Spanish musicians wrote but little secular music. and strongly influenced the Spaniards in the adoption of the northern technical methods. spent a good deal of time in Spain. but early in the i6th century these methods begin to appear. Thomas Tallis (c. possibly rather narrowly religious. 1572). 1495 to I 56o). and despite his adherence to Flemish methods managed to retain a good deal of personal idiom. 1505 to 1585) and Robert Whyte (c. wrote none at all. We have seen that in England the school of Fayrfax was but little affected by current continental methods. brought about contact and exchange of ideas between Spanish and Flemish musicians. Works by Josquin were in the library of Seville Cathedral. The two most important members of the Spanish school were Cristobal Morales (c. Tye. Morales spent part of his life in Rome. his mastery being shown in such motets as Audivi media nocte and Bone Jesu. a Fleming attached to the court of Charles V. may note especially Tye's Mass on the popular tune Westron Wynde and his six-part one on Euge We Bone. 1535 to 1611). All three showed great competence in the handling of the imitative style. in the works of Christopher Tye (c. began by writing in the style of the preceding generation. Victoria. and from about 1500 we find a school of Spanish composers who were basing their work on the ideas of the Netherlanders. a Tallis. Of the musicians working in Italy. but gradually acquired the Flemish technique. . 1497 to c. Nicholas Gombert (c. 1535 to 1574). Victoria is serenity.74 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the crowns of the Netherlands and Spain under Charles V. but achieves a remarkable degree of mystic fervour. like for the use of the Italianised * There seems to be no particular reason form of his name Vittoria.

and composers were ready and able to apply the latest methods to the setting of suitable poems. with the deliberate aim of getting away from the more 'popular' which types. four and five voices refor spectively. and his reputation was such that one writer dubbed him 'the Parent of British Music'. Turning now to the Italian madrigal. and he surpassed them all in intensity of emotional expressiveness. His three Masses. Such poems were chiefly of a pastoral or amorous character. he continued to compose for the old rite as late as the publication of his two books of Gradualia in 1605 and 1607. with occasional excursions into the unseemly. we have seen (p. of which the In the first common Italian form. These were collections of Latin motets which also included a three-part setting of 6 the crowd' parts of the Passion a rather rare production times in his an English composer. last collection teur appeared in 1531. and was often vulgar and frivolous. being revived in the early i6th century. for three. After the time of Landini the term fell into disuse. quarter of the century the Frottola was a It was usually a popular song treated with some amount of ingenuity. Unlike many of his countrymen. By then the technique of choral composition had developed enormously. thereby causing himself a certain amount of inconvenience at various life. Byrd's technique was at least equal to that of any of his continental contemporaries. The madrigal seems to have been to some extent a reaction against ihefrottola. are outstanding among the sacred music of the century. sacred or secular. vocal or instrumental. he did not change his religion at the Reformation.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 75 He remarkably versatile genius who lived from 1543 to 1623. Since composers were attached to courts for Bembo was . Although he produced a certain quantity of music for the Reformed Church. 59) that compositions with this title were produced in the I4th century. The great Italian litterathe leader of a school which cultivated an aristocratic and rather affected style of poetry. excelled in all forms of composition.

before for domestic was far in the future. a series of interlocked sections based on imitations of a melodic The poems set were generally not longer than figure. six voices were also often used. The earliest madrigals the first collection of twenty was published in 1533 under the title Madrigali novi de diversi excellentissimi musici ('New Madrigals by various excellent musicians') were for four unaccompanied voices. country. The general plan of construction became similar to that of the polyphonic motet. public concerts were The most notable of the earliest were the Roman Constanzo Festa (d. 1518 to 1 595)> Philippe de Monte (c. was. De Monte was among the most prolific. greater use was made of contrapuntal artifice. which saw the rapid development and culmination of the form. an accepted practice. Waelrant was exceptional in that he seems to have spent his life in his native The list of madrigalists (c. twelve lines. 9 skilful technique of deliberate volup- Arcadelt is extensive. Great care was taken over apt setting of the words and. 1570). they naturally began to set it 9 to music. and five-part work is typical. and the texture showing but little contrapuntal ingenuity. madrigals were also written dealing with such matters as children's games and the chatter of washerwomen Bembo notwithstanding. and although the subjects remained chiefly pastoral. however. Instrumental accompaniment. It should be understood that the madrigal still music-making. the melody being always in the topmost part. both words and music amorous or acquire a marvellously tuousness . 1567)- In the ensuing generations. pro- .76 this A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC new poetry was written. Hubert Waelrant (c. Willaert. or in combination with all the voices. 1545) composers and the expatriate Fleming Phillippe Verdelot (d. whether to the top part as a solo. Jacob 1514 to c. to quote the writer c of the article in Grove's Dictionary. and the frottola and similar 'vulgar forms fell into disuse. 1521 to 1603) and Lassus are notable among the Netherlanders.

and (c) the Ayre. out of fashion. and in his later years he seems to have been rather ashamed of having written ijhem. the madrigal underwent beginning rapid modification. no fewer than forty-three sets being brought out before the final one by (a) John Hilton in 1627. The English madrigal falls into three classes. and was for simultaneous . Palestrina's output of madrigals was small. Leaving aside a collection of secular songs published in 1530 by Wynkyn de Worde. They are the song of men ruled by passion. The first approximating in publication containing a number of pieces style to the Italian (or Flemish) madrigal was Byrd's Psalmes. almost suddenly. the madrigal proper.. In the Preface to his fourth book of motets he says: 'There exists a vast mass of love-songs of the poets. (4) the Ballett. whose normal style and structure have already been mentioned. and a great number of musicians. corrupters of youth. ofMusica Transalpina. a great flood of madrigals appeared. . Not that the form was unknown here before this. principal stimulus to the writing of madrigals in England was the publication by Nicholas Yonge.' Palestrina must have developed much the same kind of outlook as Victoria. .VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 77 ducing over 600 madrigals as well as numerous sacred works. make them the concern of their art. however. After the publication of the Italian work. in 1588. but earlier in the year than Musica Transalpina.. I blush and grieve to think that once I was of their number. ideas and a new outlook at the of the I7th century. and then went quickly. which will be briefly considered in Chapter 8. . a collection of Italian madrigals with With the advent of new The the words translated into English. Of the Italians we may mention Cipriano da Rore and Luca Marenzio (c. The ballett was a descendant of the Italian ballata> which originated in the I4th century. there is Richard Edwards' In going to my naked bed. 1560 to 1599). Sonnets and Songs of Sadness and Pietie which appeared in 1588. not later than 1564. .

playing and dancing'. the accompaniment being either vocal or instrumental. 1556 to 1622) . The Ayre (=Air) was in the nature of an accompanied solo song.78 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The 16th-century English form singing and dancing. was usually strophic. chord-progression Although the madrigal proper was generally of polyphonic the technical side there appears for i. was It was also strongly metrical and rarely contrapuntal. The term Canzonet was sometimes used as an alternative to madrigal. (c. chorda! passages are often in these that the composers exploit what they were learning about the emotional possibilities of chords and chord-progression. * Even late in the i6th century Giovanni Gastoldi published balletts *fbr singing. perhaps. whose attempted explanation of it does not always match the works which he designates as such. Most notable in the works of the English madrigalists is the exceedingly apt and subtle way in which the music It thus differed strongly words. any word or phrase that suggests the is seized upon with avidity and dealt with vividly. It being from the madrigal proper which was 'through-composed' and inevitably employed much repetition of words. generally on the lute. it was strophic and simple in texture. and it is a magnificent example. Weelkes 9 Care provides On texture. met with.e. 9 characterised by the use of a 'fa-la refrain. two or more verses of words. i. an intensity unmatched by any of the Italians or Flemings. Still more notable.* retained much of the traditional dance-like rhythm. Like the ballett.e. thou wilt despatch me to realise the truth of the statement in Chapter i that the Elizabethans were romanticists. We have only to read through such a work as Thomas Weelkes' Care. especially by Thomas Morley. illustrates the possibility of musical illustration an increasing feeling and key (as opposed to mode). some sets entitled 'Balletts or Fa-las'. is the degree of emotional intensity which is achieved in settings of the sadder poems. purely homophonic. the same music was used for word repetition being avoided.

remarkable intensity of expression. The Ayre. Thomas Morley (1557 to JohnDowland (1562 to 1626) and Thomas Campion in (1567 to 1620) are perhaps the two greatest composers . a peculiarly English form of composition. like the madrigal. Of the writers of balletts. What is our life. We have to look forward to finding such poignancy.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY Ex. From this point of view his lie. but (c. but not sacred. 1575 overlooked. and is an invaluable source of information on the contemporary methods of composition. He is notable also as the author of A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Music. Purcell and Bach before again Possibly the greatest of our madrigalists were Weelkes to 1623) and John Wilbye (1574 to 1638). of which the words have a moral an amorous tone. between the normal type and the madrigals motet serious. as it were. a meditation on human weakness. the work of Orlando Gibbons (1583 to 1625) must not be Gibbons specialised in what has been called the 'ethical' madrigal. which was a standard instructional work for two centuries. often attained. 17 Hence Care ! 79 thou. One of his finest examples rather than is is 1603) unsurpassed for delicacy and lightness of touch.

c. 1560). We have now to aims of consider the effects of the Reformation on music. The Calvinists were in some ways the most radical. which are generally more notable for naivete than for musical also first value. 1528 to 1600) Goudimel and le Jeune 1510). 1505 to 1572). being 'man- made' and not biblical. Gampian was both poet and musician. Claude le Jeune (c. e. who died in the Massacre of St. is . the musical many all the reformers. He was probably the finest lutenist of his time. Bartholomew. were considered unacceptable. mention may be made of Clement Jannequin (1485 to c. in the vernacular. that the words. and was not only a superb melodist. The Song of the Nightingale. and that the congregation themselves should take some part in the singing. of a long line of such pieces. He has rightly been described as one of the world's greatest song-writers. varying in style from simple homophony. in the Dowland was one of the best-known musicians whole of Europe. Of the 16th-century French musicians. but also a harmonic innovator of great originality. his settings of his own lyric poems. Apart from purely doctrinal matters. He was possibly the the composer of a (vocal) battle-piece. Bourgeois was for many years editor of the Genevan Psalter. in Ger(Luther) or in Geneva (Calvin) were much the same. with lute accompaniment. His work lay chiefly in the direction of secular chansons. should be heard and understood by the congregation. being second in value only to the work of Dowland. in England (Granmer). apart from those to be considered in succeeding paragraphs. and spent part of his life in Paris and in Italy. viz. in which the element of chordal treat(b. permitting only metrical versions of the psalms.g. to quite elaborate polyphony. mostly for four voices. Hymns. and Loys Bourgeois ment strongly marked. The important musicians here are the French Huguenots Claude Goudimd (c. made many settings of the psalms. and he is notable for his attempts at illustrative setting of words.8o this A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC form.

Other chorale tunes were adapted from traditional plainsong put into 'measured music'. His Protestant hymnbook appeared in 1524. of *&& cathewhich records exist as early as 1135. though he was not averse to the employment of proHis great contribution to music was the fessional choirs. Benedictus> ^ . In England the musical effects of the Reformation were far-reaching. and laid on congregational singing in his reformed services. Martin Luther was himself a practical musician. 18 etc. were parodied into world 1 now must leave thee. who also wrote the words. the words of Heinrich Isaac's melody: Ex. one of the most famous. Polyphonic music for the Mass was replaced by 'Services* which consisted of settings of the Venite. the reformed English Church retained services based at least to some extent on the traditional 'Offices'. The Chapel Royal. Te Deum. and yet not so drastic as in Geneva. anc^ drals. 'sacred parodies' Thus. Ein Feste Burg ('A Sure Stronghold') being reputedly by Luther himself. with note to a syllable. Whereas first Calvin severed any connection with the old Catholic ritual. Innsbruck I must leave thee. great stress introduction of the Chorale or German hymn into the services. He was the first religious leader to remark that he did not see why the Devil should have all the best tunes. had built up a fine musical tradition which continued unbroken despite the changed aspects of religious belief. the far-reaching results of which will be seen in later chapters. and yet others were original compositions. ing a and promptly clinched his argument by appropriatnumber of well-known secular melodies and making of their words.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 81 md :>ne his settings are almost entirely chordal in style. together with some of the musical sections.


able settings are Tallis' Dorian service and Byrd's 'Short service. In both of these, as in such works as Tye's Acts of

A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Creed, Magnificat and Jfimc Dimittis. Two
a simpler, more harmonic

most not-

the Apostles,

of treatment

Byrd's work is almost entirely one note to a appears. to key as opposed to mode is syllable, and the tendency
strongly marked. Besides such large-scale works, we must note the appearance of the 'Anglican Chant' for use with the vernacular use with the metrical prose psalms, and of psalm-tunes for versions. Anglican chants were mainly simple harmonisations of the old Gregorians, with the tune in the tenor.

The earliest complete metrical psalter was that of Sternhold
and Hopkins, published
for over

in 1562;


was a standard work

a century.

The great importance

on by


the reformers

of the simplification of style which lies in the fact that it

forced composers to 'think vertically', i.e. in terms of chordmelodic lines. We progressions rather than of simultaneous have seen that as far back as Dunstable there were signs

of a feeling towards the triad, and Dufay's use of faux-

bourdon also shows some tendency to harmonic thinking. This tendency was now rapidly intensified, and in the next century the idea of contrapuntal texture based on the decoration of a preconceived chord-basis gradually takes the place of a texture in which the vertical combinations, i.e. the chords, arise from the interplay of melodic lines.

Despite the general simplicity demanded by the reformers, contrapuntal music was not banished from the English rite. as any of Byrd's 'Great' service is as polyphonic in texture
his -Latin works,

and the anthem, which may be

called the

English substitute for the motet, was often written in the traditional complex manner. The finest anthems of the

period are those of Gibbons. Of his forty examples, some fifteen are polyphonic, possibly the best known, and certainly one of the finest, being Hosanna to the Son of David. Gibbons was not averse to experiment, and was one of the



(though Byrd anticipated him) to write "verse* anthems, in which solo passages and independent instrumental accompaniment are introduced. This form, new in Gibbons' time, was chiefly popular around the end of the lyth century in the hands of such Restoration composers as Purcell and Blow.

H.M.S. Vol.
4, Nos. 31? to 38,

and 40.



state of the instruments themselves and the fact that composers were so largely concerned with the provision of music for the Church naturally brought about concentration on the vocal rather than on the instrumental side. Little seems to have been written purely for instrumental performance, and there was little or no differentiation of style. From the earliest times there was a wealth of dance tunes for the vielle or fiedel, but their composers are unknown. In any case, the 'serious' composer had other things to do than to write such pieces. Of medieval instrumental music written for use in church a number of short organ preludes survive, rambling and formless affairs which show clearly the undeveloped state of the instrument and the composers' lack of grasp of a suitable style. The earliest extant keyboard music is in the Robertsbridge Codex of about 1325, an organ estampie. It is to some extent stylised, being in dance rhythm but not suitable for actual dancing.

The undeveloped

to give


study so far has been concerned exclusively with the development of vocal music. It was not until late in the I5th century that composers began
serious attention to that for instruments alone.

Instruments, as we have seen, were often combined with or substituted for voices, and by the i6th century many had reached a high state of development. Brief consideration of the most important now follows. The organ had progressed far beyond its condition in the days of the pulsator organorum, having one or more manageable keyboards and a considerable variety of stops. It was most advanced in Germany, where an adequate

The * viol was a development of the medieval vielle. in his Musikalische him what music *A true tablature rather directed the player what Handleitvng of 1700. The only present-day survivals of the tablature system are in connection with such instruments as the mandoline and the ukulele. and as we move on towards the 1 7th century this department tending to increase more and more. and the theorist F. Like many other instruments of the time. In England. Tablatures for various instruments survived into the i8th century. and the various keyboard instruments. both in size and variety. in As early as an organ built by Arnold Schlick in Heidelberg. and since. castigates severely and amusingly those who still clung to such an antiquated system. the notation and the manner of playing the two instruments were similar. as was also the style of writing for them. an ancestor of the guitar. the viols 3 recorders. though such composers as nature the lute was incapable of by the end of the i6th century Molinaro were achieving some remark- Of its able effects of 'faking'. The strings strained fingers and the tone was reand gentle. lutes were made in families of five or more were plucked by the different sizes.* The ordinary staff nota9 most popular being the theorbo or tenor tion was not used. Its notation was called 'tablature and was designed to show the positions of the fingers on the fingerboard. one to do than told to play' (Scholes. . E. not the actual sounds to be played. Niedt. the lute. Its body was shaped rather like a pear cut in half from top to bottom. true polyphony. pedals were either lacking or but poorly provided with we find registers. In Spain the place of the lute was taken by the vihuela.16 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC was considered essential. four of the sixteen stops were 3n the pedal. Italy and France the organ was less developed and remained so until much later. pedal department the first quarter of the i6th century. The lute was of great antiquity. The number of strings and their tuning. Even in Bach's time an organ tablature was still in use by the more conservative composers in Germany. Of domestic instruments the chief were the lute. Oxford Companion).

Family groups included the recorders. with a round and gentle tone.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 87 form of which was held in front of the body. six strings instead of four. an impracticable sort of instrument with a penchant for leaping up an octave on the slightest provocation or on no provocation at all. the virginals. a more essentially domestic instrument The reader is referred to Donington's The Instruments of Music for details. A 'chest of viols' was an actual chest in which a small set of various sizes was kept for domestic use. were related in their method of tone production. 9 all held either resting on the knees or between them. the strings being plucked and the tone consequently tending to be 'twangy'. * In the clavichord. roughly equivalent to a piccolo. and from it came a large family. (Methuen) . two-manual harpsichords were developed. As compared with their relations the violin family. each keyboard controlling its own set of strings (see frontispiece). lacking the brightness and incisiveness of the violins. Recorder ranging from the sopranino. and 'C'-shaped sound holes. a type of endblown flute (as opposed to the side-blown or 'transverse' flute of the modern orchestra). not under the chin. the spinet and the harpsichord. The tone of the harpsichord was louder and richer than that of its companions. Of the four domestic keyboard instruments three. The tone was sombre. to the great bass. sloping shoulders. and even before 1600 instruments were being built with mechanism enabling differing qualities of tone to be produced. This was gradually transformed into the viola da gamba or 'leg viol .* Later. viols have a flat back. At the beginning of the i6th century four sizes were in use. but by the i8th there were no fewer than nine.



(a) dances. for domestic use. the strings were struck by a metal tangent fixed to the rear end of the key. with the monstrous temple trumpets of Tibet. * practice which survives perhaps only in one part of the world. according to the degree offeree applied to the key. composers began to take a serious interest in writing instrumental music they were faced with the problem of what kind of pieces to write. A fourth but less important no solution was the writing of descriptive music.* There were also cornetts. and the tone could be varied. with a cup-shaped mouthpiece. a ten-foot giant which needed one man to blow it and another to support it at the front.90 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC than the harpsichord. including the 'great bass pommer or 'bombard'. or occathe oboe 9 sionally of ivory. Large quantities of dances appeared. some for specified instruments. In much of lie early music particular instruments were specified. Other instruments. When first this was solved in three directions. within some- what narrow limits. A . for church or open-air rather than were the sackbuts (trombones) and the shawms and pommers. trumpet-like affairs of wood. These last were the ancestors of Shawm Gornett and bassoon. There was no intervening mechanism as in the case of the plucked-string instruments.ht be available. and it would seem that it was intended to be played on whatever mig. (4) adaptations of the current vocal polyphonic style and (c) variations on a theme. Broadly speaking.

THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 91 some not. some. Of the latter. and in triple time as opposed to the duple of its companion. two five branles. comprising pavanes. more of a procession than a dance in the usual sense. Such processional dances were . was quite common. In some cases the contrast between * common Compare all the Polish Polonaise. Attaignant's sets of dances were not arranged according to any plan. basse danses and branles.* while the galliard was quick. galliards. second of a pair often being a variation on the first. the Suite. since it is the genesis of the torically 1 generally contrasting pairs. important collections were printed in 1 529 and 1 530 by the Parisian publisher Pierre Attaignant. is internal organisation of individual dances notable view of its bearing on the development of later instrumental forms. The First Dance Book of 1530. for example. lumps together 'nine basses danses. The harmony of the Attaignant dances is of the simplest character. they are entirely homophonic. This pairing of dances is hisof great importance. indeed. The pairing of a slow dance and a quick one was most common. as music for the dance must naturally be. over Europe. twentypavanes with fifteen galliards in music for four parts'. and the composition of dances played an important part in the development of this. But even at this early stage the grouping of dances into sets. employing little but tonic and dominant. once it ceases to be purely melodic. at a time when other kinds of music They do not were predominantly contrapuntal. conformably to the pattern of the dances themselves. From the earliest days dance tunes had been sectional in construction. possess any great musical distinction. gay. the most popular group being the pavane and galliard. Use of the major scale is common. but are noteworthy in that. Galliards were frequently written as variations of their associated pavanes. the The pavane was a 7th- The in and 18th-century form. stately affair. We have seen how from the time of Dunstable there was an increasing feeling for chords and chord-progression.

There is even one in Attaignant's collection of 1530.92 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC sections Hugh is very strong as. for example. It is also as anything suggested by any textbook on Form. solidly based on the major scale. it separate pieces. binary plan. and was later adopted for the musical setting of such poetry in a somewhat madrigalian style. who died in 1505. The importance of happens also to be a particularly beautiful piece of music. of which a well-known example is Byrd's Earl of Salisbury's Pavane. found in a MS. generally into two or three main periods. This is as rigidly binary last but the end with a half-close. though there are occasional instances of a true ternary (ABA) design. balanced by another sentence of similar length ending with a full-close. First sentence of eight bars leading to a half-close. the chord-scheme is almost entirely tonic and dominant. This has five sections so strongly contrasted that but for the fact that all might as well be five a good example of the harmonic simplicity already mentioned. with a very occasional supertonic or subdominant. though in varying ways and without any strong contrasts of style. and further that from it ultimately grew the sonata form which is the structural basis of much of the work of the composers of the 'classical' period. in a Hornpipe by Aston. Examples of the polyphonic style transferred to instruments appear as early as Obrecht. of about 1500. It the binary design is that as the Suite developed (see Chapter 9) practically all its movements were written in this form. This term originally signified a certain variety of lyric verse. More important is the frequent use of the two-period. In early canzonas the use of a tenor cantus firmus was common. Such pieces were usually known as canzonas. Attaignant's dances are all clearly sectionalised. Towards the end of the i6th century the stylised treatment of dances led to some conventionalisation of structure. From this it came to be used for instrumental pieces in the same style. as in the case . In the case of the latter the music falls into three clearly defined different sections.

which he is to use in the regular piece to be played afterwards'. He is notable. great ingenuity We was shown in embellishing the tune. interesting maiden A Of rather this similar construction was the ricercar or ricercare. . The term Fantasia a piece have seen that in pairs of dances the second was not infrequently a variation on the first. 1515) may also be mentioned. (b. c. 'the composer seems to search or look out for the strains and touches of harmony. we may note first two important schools. new figures of accompaniment The theme might be made up by the composer. and in this sense might imply a kind of prelude in which. but equally it might mean something of a rambling nature. or might equally well be some popular song. (in England 'Fancy') might also imply in canzona style.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 93 of Obrecht's sat. The practice of writing variations on a theme was developed quickly and with considerable skill by many composers. the ricercare being a short prelude to a transcription of a song. term has had a number of different implications. works of this kind. The contrapuntal ricercare was a deliberate imitation of the polyphonic motet. Willaert's ricercares are of considerable importance. In the 1 6th century it was often used with this implication in Italian lute music. simply 'following the dictates of 9 the composer's fancy . but Isaac also produced this was by no means obligatory. Within rather restricted limits. Literally it implies research. based on a Dutch folksong.. too. Burney says. augmentation. etc. for the freedom of his part-writing. as the composer chose. being the first writer of ricercares for the organ. em- ploying all such devices as canon. written for three melodic instruments such The Italian Girolamo Gavazzoni as viols or recorders. in which the number of voices is apt to vary frequently within a single composition. Variations were written largely for the keyboard instruments and for the lute. a seeking-out. and in applying to it. Turning now to the composers and the instruments for which they wrote. as the though historian Dr.

notable being Luis de Milan.94 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC of vihuelists in Spain and of lutenists in Italy. His comshow genuine melodic inventiveness. Some of the finest and cleverest work is that of Simone Molinaro. who in 1599 was maestro di capella at the cathedral of Genoa. This ingenuity of the Italians. Narvaez was a particularly good writer of variations. The Spanish school flourished in the first half of the 1 6th century. and showed great ingenuity in producon an instrument which ing a pseudo-contrapuntal texture Theorbo or Archlute is Viola da Gamba is also fundamentally non-contrapuntal. Luis de Narvaez and composers Anriquez de Valderrano. whose school flourished characteristic of some more towards the end of the century. and evidence positions .

Dr. not only in his original compositions. of 1611. E.g. sometimes. 'The virtuous coquette In France the 1 of the . as well as a number of galliards in three or four sections. his fame on the continent being great. Molinaro was almost fantastically clever at 'faking a contrapuntal texture in his fantasias. lutenist school. as being the first music. John Bull (1563 to 1628). e. too. More than 600 pieces are in existence. in a dedicatory fashion. and from 1613 to his death was organist at Antwerp Cathedral. with the same visionary insight into the possibilities of technique and sonority as was later to distinguish Domenico Scarlatti and Franz Liszt. each ending in the tonic). reached its climax considerably later. e. but sometimes for no apparent reason beyond caprice* This is also the case with the lutenist Santino Garsi. He was a virtuoso of keyboard instruments. contains examples of such dances as the Saltarello and the Passamezzo (in as many as ten separate sections. in the person of Denis Gaultier (d. from the pens of Byrd.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC that he was no mean performer. Of English lutenists Dowland and Campian were the most renowned. He. beginning in the latter part 6th century. followed 9 the fashion of using 'fancy' titles. who entitles one of his galliards 'The lie in the throat'. while the latter appears to have written nothing for lute England.g. and nearly a quarter of alone. Gibbons and Dr. H. produced the greatest virginal music of the century. Bull lived much abroad. he often gave fanciful titles to his dances. Commenting on the English virginal music of this period. 1672). It contains works of only Byrd. by Byrd. as with Byrd's Earl of Salisbury pavane.' . is the collection called Parthenia. these are known engraved book of keyboard Especially notable. Clemens non Papa. but also in his arrangements 9 of canzonas by other composers. but the former's fame rests chiefly on his ayres. 95 His Intavolatura di Liuto. Like many of his contemporaries. Fellowes says: *No other European country has anything that can remotely be compared with it. published in the year of his appointment to Genoa. however.

who played a leading part in the development of variation writing. with harmonisation which might be quite simple or moderately contra- The These 'organ hymns' appear very early in the i6th century. and consists largely of pavanes and galOther collections of the time are My Ladye NeoelFs Booke and the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (so called because liards. Canzonas abound. In Spain the outstanding writer for keyboard instruments was the blind Antonio de Cab&on (1510 to 1566). and the Englishman John Redford puntal. together with the original books of Benjamin Cosyn and Will Forster it are in manuscript. and a large amount of music exists written for liturgical purposes. There are numerous pieces based on plainsong hymns. was the property of the Viscount Fitzwilliam who presented it to Cambridge University in 1816). there are numerous (1624). in particular Byrd and Gibbons. The organ music of the period is of great variety. and both produced works which are not only technically ingenious but also of considerable musical value. although often far from being highly organised. and sets of variations. the cantusftrmus being more or less decorated. Besides dances. Here again the English composers are outstanding. including allemandes. Cavazzoni being notable in this direction. and began to exploit the possibilities of short-value notes in the form of extended scalic runs. For the viols the chief types of composition were the canzona. preludes. who died about 1517. practice of writing preludial movements These. gradually became less utterly rambling than those of earlier times. Both showed great mastery in applying the contemporary vocal style to instruments.96 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Gibbons and Bull. there being extant examples by Arnold Schlick. corantos and jigs. . They are noteworthy as anticipations of the Chorale Prelude which took such a strong hold of German composers once the Lutheran reformation was firmly established. continued. the ricercare and the fantasie or fancy. last These fantasies. (1485 to 1545).

The term toccata comes from the verb toccare. based on the omitted plainsong. Venice. but possibly the greatest of the early writers of toccatas was Claudio Merulo (1533 to 1604). which inevitably became monotonous with the unvarying repetition of the same melodic formula for each verse. though the earliest known use of the title is for a lute piece of 1536 by Gastelione. Le. as scalic passage of greater value as extended finger exercises than as music. however. The name of Cavazzoni may again be noted in this connection. More important are the many toccatas which appear from about the middle of the century onwards. and the movements for organ by such composers as Guilmant and Widor. for example. The practice grew up of replacing the plainchant of the even-numbered verses by polyphonic settings for the choir or by organ 'versets'. something played as opposed to something sung. Certain portions of each movement were replaced by an organ piece of a more or less contrapuntal character. Such works as the above had. Schumann's Toccata for piano. work intended. choir and congregation meanwhile repeated the words of the missing verse silently. There was. and Cabezon among others wrote numerous examples. which are often but the original significance of toccata was not unlike that of sonata. A rather similar practice obtained at times even in the performance of a plainsong Mass. based on the 'tone to which the psalm was being chanted. to touch.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 97 Also for liturgical purposes are many sets of 'verses for the tones'. who served at St. relatively little effect on the ultimate development of organ music as such. Mark's. Both the Gabrielis wrote in this form. c . always a proportion of brilliant to quote Grove. as. to exhibit the touch and execution of the performer'. however. These were used in connection with the singing of the psalms. Toccatas for the organ date from about 1550. Nowadays it tends to imply a piece designed primarily to exhibit the performer's dexterity and virtuosity. Sets of such versets 9 were published in 1531 by Attaignant. In the latter case clergy.

e. in the John Mundy's (d. 3. the lute. . consisting mainly of passages suggesting trumpets and drums.g. solid passages which exploited of the organ. Vol. produced one of almost incredible naivety. of Jannequin's vocal battle piece. Lightning. He was one of the first to realise the effectiveness of contrast between quick movement and the inexorable sussteady. Richard Strauss and other igth. 1630) virginal fantasia words of Sir Hubert Parry. 4 Nos. that by Byrd. 1580 to 1650) also wrote some charming little tone pictures. who flourished round the turn of the century. and such pieces The all Italian Santino Garsi. RECORDS H. 41 and 42. He may be considered as one taining power of the most important founders of the Italian organ school which flourished in the next century. Battle pieces were even written for that least bellicose of instruments. Vol. 30 and 31. such as The fall of the leaf. in which an attempt is made to illustrate the various stages of the battle. In Chapter 6 mention was is made appeared also for virginals.M. various states of the atmosphere A chare day. His toccatas nation of sections in brilliant virtuoso style with others in the ricercare manner. He was renowned depicting. albeit in a rather elementary manner. Among the more effective pieces A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC from 1557 to 1584. Essays in programme or illustrative music range from the reasonably effective to the almost ludicrous.and 20th-century composers. Nos. with carefully detailed instructions as to their meaning. and are imthe ultimate origin of a portant chiefly in that they were led to such works type of composition which eventually as the symphonic poems of Liszt.S.98 as a masorganist are interesting in their alterterly performer. Martin Peerson (c. etc. in which a quietly autumnal feeling is created.

In the early 1 7th century the lead passed to the Italians. They are known as the Camerata. The basis of their attack was that the contrapuntal style obscured the poetry. hitherto the factor. a singer. But of outlook which the new technical methods involved. the Italians Palestrina. Shortly before 1600 a band of men. and it is their new developments which we have now before doing so it is to consider. Other important members were Giulio Gaccini. * Dr. and style of composition. Manuel Bukofzer. Jacopo Peri. must be treated rather as the hand- predominant poetry. in the Baroque Era. too. Vincenzo Galilei and Ottavio Rinuccini. maid of Some members of the group. however. Music . it the preceding chapters it has been shown how the leadership in European music passed from one country to another. which admittedly it did. the Flemings Lassus. a poet. described by one writer* as a noisy group of litterati\ came together in Florence and launched an attack on the current polyphonic e necessary to sketch briefly the changes brought about these developments. then to the Burgundians (Dufay) and from them to the Netherlanders. the Spaniards Victoria and the English Byrd. since for much of the time each of the voices would be singing different words. They. and were led by Counts Bardi and Corsi. taught the Italians and the Spaniards. in their own way. in their turn. From the France of Perotin and Machaut passed to England (Dunstable). We have seen.CHAPTER EIGHT VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TN I JL. Each race produced its own supreme genius of polyphony. to a height hardly reached elsewhere. Counterpoint was therefore anathema and music. how the Elizabethans adopted the madrigal and developed it.

than other things. Bardi. and no in this direction group of composers showed greater ability did the Elizabethans. in 1607. 1580). Agostino Agazzari. so that at the back of their attack may realisation that the technique of vocal possibly have been a needed lengthy professional training.ioo A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC were amateurs. and so on. contrasts counterpoint and the 'art of good singing' much to the detriment of the former. for example. words. The Camerata cried such methods. the exponents of the new no measured terms. There were even stereotyped musical figures to represent the various verbal affections. The word 'run'. Their attitude to the musical expression of the words was different from that of the polyphonic composers. refers to the 'old way of composition' which causes 'a laceration of the poetry'. since as a professional musician he had already proved himself a capable contrapuntist. tion. But musica reservata included. in theories expressing themselves in his Discourse on Ancient Musk and Good Singing (c. writing in 1602. Le. and the 'affecof the music must correspond to that of the words. Moods were classidefied into tion' a series of 'affections'. insisting that the music should agree with the mood of the words as a whole. Caccini. there As so often happens with new movements of any kind. was a good deal of pamphleteering and letter-writing. The use of musica reservata by Lassus has been mentioned. would be expressed by a among quick-moving scalic passage. the musical illustration of individual not merely the expression of their general mood. Galilei's attitude is rather curious. It Examples could be multiplied almost indefinitely. emotions. castigates composers who wish 'to stand and imitasolely on the observance of canonic treatment tion of the notes. An avowed aim of the Camerata was the revival of what method of declamathey considered to be the ancient Greek in the form of a musical intensification of the text. must not be thought that the new outlook brought . which they polyphony did not possess. not on the passion and expression of the words'.

though increasingly influenced by the new or 'modern' style stilo moderno.f such a work as Gibbons' What is our life could be set to sacred words with no violation of propriety. When attacked for his advanced use of dissonance in the about a complete and immediate break with the old ideals. wrote a number of sets of madrigals. Whereas in the great days of polyphony there was one over-all prevailing style of composition. t Though naturally such forms as the ballett and the ayre were automatically non-ecclesiastical in style. Giovanni Gabrieli. of. These distinctions obviously operated according to the purpose for which the music was written. * The inventor of these terms appears to have been Monteverdi. Monteverdi. exhibits mastery of both styles. whether sacred or secular. In the i6th century there was. two styles now came to be recognised. one of the greatest figures of the time. The two styles were also known asprima and seconda prattica.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 101 church. church music. since he was not composing in the old style.* first and second practices. Many musicians wrote equally well in either style. while there is little if any difference between the style of a Palestrina motet and that of one of his early madrigals. his earlier works being latter clearly in stilo antico. . and training in the former was still considered indispensable to the professional composer. came to be recognised. another for the church. and his later ones in stilo moderno. The old style stilo antico persisted in a good deal of music for the he simply retorted that it was justified. and apart from any question of antico or moderno. viz. some employing stilo antico and some stilo moderno. too. a motet and a polyphonic madrigal. chamber music and theatre music. broadly speaking. though there was at times a good deal of overlapping. though in a different connection. for little difference in the style example. The i yth-century composer tended to adopt one style in writing for the opera. and offer another contrast with the outlook of the preceding generation. and so on. In the course of the century further distinctions of style.

The Camerata strove to achieve a type of simple melody. brief mention of which was made in Chapter 3. Pietro. Equally notable is the increasingly free use of dissonance. far more than might have been anticipated. despite the tendencies already noted in Chapter 6. Galilei was 'the 9 to let us hear singing in the stile rappresentativo . speaking music. In all these compositions a notable feature is the rhythmic freedom of the voice part. a good deal Although of emotional intensity and dramatic force is at times achieved. deemed to be of prime importance. already in use to some extent. but the Camerata eschewed counterpoint. and (4) they firmly established a practice. since (0) they show an almost sudden swerve to the use of chords as such. The appropriate style of declamation was. which could follow the exact inflexions of the declaiming voice. . Unprepared discords become more and more common. and thus the only possible harmonic * This term is it frequently used for music of the kind from. which is made to approximate to some extent to speech-rhythm. the diminished 4th and chromatic progressions. e. under the 'The New Music 3 . Lute accompaniments to ayres often tried to preserve a kind of faked contrapuntal texture. most important early example of this was a collection of vocal 9 A pieces published in 1602 title of Le Nuove Musiche experimental. which persisted for about the next 150 years. also called stile rappresentativo or 'representative style first .102 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC technical results of the The new ideas were manifold. with the simplest possible accompaniment. as we have seen.g. for which the term recitative is usually employed. and so enhance and intensify the meaning of the words. as in Caccini's well-known Amarilli. The accompanimental methods of monody* are of great importance. known as basso continuo or 'thorough bass'. under discussion. polyphony. and great stress is laid on the use by the voice of the more 'affective' intervals. According to Bardi's son. It was musica parlante. and can only be dealt with in the barest outline.

there was always a 5 harmonic background. fertile which was an extraordinarily of the rest of this chapter period. The bass line itself would be played by some low-pitched instrument such as a 'cello. To what extent this would be purely chordal or. further point must be mentioned. composers seeming to hover between the modes and the later system. vagueness of tonality. Although much . backward-looking idiom. but in some movements deliberately in his anthems. the 1 7th century saw the final disintegration of the modal ability One system and its supplanting by the major. some. alternatively. for reasons which will appear later. would depend on the style of the movement concerned and on the of the player. and the bases of composition were the major and minor scales. Accompaniments to well be played on a lute. employ either at will. for example. he adopts a more archaic. The complete and unrestricted establishment of the new scalesystem was the work of Bach. and in his string fantasias. though there were. By the end of the xyth century. while it became the regular practice for the 'realisation* to be played on harpsichord or organ. but all that the monody might player had was a figured bass line from which he was expected to 'realise . Until about the middle of the i8th century all vocal compositions and the majority of instrumental ones included in the score a part for continue. however. the modes were dead.and minor-scale In the early years there is often considerable system. Thus. uses the major scale pure and simple in some of his more 'modern' pieces. Even in the second half of the century we find that Purcell.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY support to the voice 103 was chordal. whatever the texture of the upper parts. that is to build up. We turn now to the types of composition which first saw light in the I7th century. We have seen that largely owing to the use of musica fata the individual characteristics of the modes gradually became obscured. contrapuntal. certain inevitable restrictions. his chordal progressions. indeed.

isolated Not among other things. which was by Rinuccini. called by the composer Commedia Armonica. that is drama set to music. often due to always the travels of the composers themselves and the natural desire of the younger men to seek the help or instruction of the most eminent musicians of any country. 1551 to 1605). partly by Peri and partly by Caccini. whatever their purely musical virtues. Each country tended to stress rapidly one or more particular aspects of composition. conditions. produced in 1597 but now lost. there was. Before the end of the i6th century there had been written 'madrigal-operas'. Claudio . The style of these works is entirely monodic. In other words. But such works. Like most of its successors for nearly two hundred years. social that the music of and religious any one country was from that of its neighbours.104 will A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC be devoted to music in Italy. The principles oSNuove Musicke found complete expression in opera. which consisted of a whole series of unaccompanied fivepart madrigals. a kind of play with incidental music. was Dqfne by Peri. continual 'cross-fertilisation . as there 9 has been. but there was soon to appear a genius of great inventiveness and dramatic power. interspersed with the singing of madrigals. entertainments in which a drama was enacted. The first true opera. followed in the same year by Caccini's own setting of the same libretto. with a somewhat haphazard collection of accompanying instruments. these aspects that the being affected by. had little if any value as dramatic representations. It may plot be imagined that the effect would be hardly exciting to 20th-century ears. and it was exactly this matter of the application of music to dramatic ends which was exercising the minds of the Camerata. In 1600 came Eurydice.} More purely musical was such a work as Amfiparnasso of Orazio Vecchi (c. (Compare Adam de la Kale's Robin et Marion. it must be remembered new ideas which have been outlined above spread all over Europe. its result was based on an ancient Greek story an obvious of the Bardi group's preoccupation with Greek tragedy.

In later works he tended to be less orchestrally adventurous. while melodious arias. possibly more than his master. and there are clear signs of the beginnings of the use of the string orchestra as the main instrumental support. Marc Antonio Cesti (1623 to 1669). The use of a chorus in dramatically appropriate places was accepted. and requires a large and heterogeneous collection of instruments for an orchestra. It was now used simply to carry on the action of the plot.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 105 Monteverdi (1567 to 1643). but in 1637 was opened. as did also his contemporary. together with the corresponding German kapellmeister. the Teatro di San Here was produced. i. in 1640. but the generally used. and is credited with the invention of the string tremolando. produced in 1607. Cavalli. which often became vehicles for vocal display. and certainly in opposition to the original ideas of the Camerata. U melody. produced in 1608. but would not tackle the * This term. Orfeo. maestro di capella* to the Duke of Mantua. Monteverdi soon began to turn away from the use of uninterrupted recitative. His first opera. most beginning to appear as a break in the monotony. The capella or kapelle of a house or institution was the body of musicians attached to it. Monteverdi is notable as an innovator in orchestral technique. nickname . and the maestro or meister was the musical director. A The earliest operas were performed privately. "j* His full is Cavalli name was Pier-Francesco Galetti-Bruni. and we now find the aria. a properly organised melody commenting on the action. The public found this much to their taste. has not necessarily any ecclesiastical significance. So much so that a composer commissioned to write an opera would begin by setting the recitatives. 9 and quite quickly recitative. came to be regarded as the most important movements.. the original sole constituent of opera. shows great power of dramatic expression. MonteAdorn and also Le Nozze di Peleo e di Teti by his verdi's pupil Cavallif (1602 to 1676). expressive example is the famous 'Lament of Ariadne' from Arianna. cultivated easy-flowing and rhythmic the first public opera house Cassiano in Venice. 'fell into the background.

* Early attempts to introduce * Writing as late as 1834. and assessed the capabilities of. His use of the stereotyped e 9 ternary ( da capo ) aria was only part of the conventionalisation of opera which persisted for many years until an Of Scarlatti's fellow Neapolitans. 'accompanied recitative'. restatement). its hisit of Sinfonia avanti F opera. had but three houses. Before the end of the century Venice had no fewer than eleven opera houses. even in a representation of the Last Judgment'! . After the middle of the century the greatest name in opera is Alessandro Scarlatti (1658 or 1659 to I 7 2I ) the founder of the Neapolitan school. but in Scarlatti's affair attempt to break it down was made by Gluck in the i8th three-movement torical quick. slow. but hardly to the same extent. with figured bass accompaniment on the harpsichord. an excuse for a ballet would be found. and for a long period ballet was considered an essential in opera. The overture originated as a kind of preliminary flourish. Sartorio. employing a group of composers arias until Other including Legrenzi. of a stereotyped form of operatic overture. and recitativo accompagnato (or stromentato] . He employed two varieties of recitative. the recitativo secco. Although on a small importance is considerable. In France the earliest operas were closely associated with the Court ballet. the singers engaged to take part. *at the OpeYa. A superb melodist. digression. for example. simple and quick-moving. a summons to attention. which was used for the more emotionally intense passages. if not the invention. Hector Berlioz remarks. Ziani and Strozzi. cities were not backward in taking to opera. quick hands it became a under the title scale.io6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC he had heard. since was the germ of the classical symphony. it is to him that we owe the standardisation of the aria into ternary form (statement. Scarlatti is notable for the popularisation. Stradella (1645 to 1682) is perhaps the most noteworthy. Rome. Alessandro century.

and all begin with a prologue glorifying Le Roi SoleiL The inclusion of ballet was invariable. His arias. the their success French opera to be publicly performed in Paris. Perrin. the Abbe Mailly's Akebar. Lulli Its is ascribed the invention of the Trench' over- much with (a) a slow introduction. modelled on those of Gavalli. first the musician Robert and in 1659 began the association of Cambert with the librettist Pierre Their most successful work was Pomone (1671). But was not to last. Lulli's * Also known by the French form of his name. avoid the Italian conventionality of structure. despite the powerful influence of Cardinal Mazarin during the reign of Louis XIV. . preferring instead excellently managed de- clamation in the form of accompanied recitative. (b) a quick fugal movement. generally dotted-note rhythm. Unlike the Italian overture. Roi de Mogol. and in 1653 he was appointed the King's composer of dance music. and much greater use was made of the chorus than in Italian opera. the subjects of Lulli's operas are chiefly drawn from classical mythology.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 107 Italian opera were unsuccessful. and are often of considerable emotional power. In 1646 came the private production of what is usually described as the first real French opera. As with the 9 an 'Academy of Music'. in which the King himself often took part. Les FStes de I Amour et de Bacchus. rapidly achieving almost a monopoly of the writing of court ballets. In 1672 Lulli secured for himself the patent hitherto held by Perrin to establish thereafter produced some twenty operas in conjunction with the librettist Quinault. niece of Louis XIV. In 1646 one Giovanni Batista Lulli* (1632 to 1687) had come to Paris as page-boy to Mile. and contemporary Italian works. His musical ability soon became apparent. Lulli did not use the Italian recitativo secco. Jean Baptiste Lully. or a repetition of the plan was opening movement. followed by (c} one or more dances. de Montpensier. The first of these. fipais is an excellent example To ture. The well-known Bois of Lulli at his best. is described as the first 'legitimate' French opera.

although still in use by Handel nearly a hundred years later. The music is lost. . and Henry Lawes setting of Milton's Comus. The form survived into the i8th century. whose origins are of considerable antiquity. sung in the original tongue. There seems to be no record of any truly operatic performance until Sir William Davenant's The Siege of Rhodes in 1657. Italian works were imported. The music is lost. with one outstanding exception. exhibiting characteristic Teutonic earnestness. the real father of German opera. 9 Arne's Alfred appearing as late as 1740.* To what extent this was a real opera is perhaps a little conjectural. when Joharm Theile's Adam und Eva was given in Hamburg. dancing. art. German opera proper dates from 1678. The French Court Ballet was of similar type. In that city Reinhard Keiser (1674 to 1739). reigned supreme from the end of the i7th century up to about 1739. the nearest English equivalent to opera was the Masque^ a form of entertainment which was also cultivated in France and Italy. in 1627. The Masque. In England opera only just managed to exist at all. poetry. The one great English opera of the period is Dido and * The fact that this was during the Commonwealth period is in itself a refutation of the widely-held theory that the Puritans deprecated music of any kind. His work is entirely German in style. See Scholes* Oxford Companion. 'Puritans and Music'. It was followed by the same writer's though it is usually referred to as 'the first The Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru. Possibly the two most famous masques were Matthew Locke's setting of Shirley's Cupid and Death. which latter were also a great feature of the French opera. English opera'.io8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC form. combined music. After this. and the only clue to its character is the composer's statement that the dialogue was in recitative. Throughout the I7th century. In Germany opera began with the setting of a German translation of Rinuccini's Dafne by Heinrich Schiitz (1585 to 1672). pageantry and lavish scenic and mechanical effects. had no further development. on this.

and by the 1 4th century were being dramatised into religious plays with music. In 1600 such a work by Emilio di Cavalieri (c. (Dialogue). This is often called the first oratorio. including a final dance. Philip Neri. perhaps. secular songs. From the dramatised laudi evolved. early in the i6th century. Oratorio in the accepted sense was yet to come. Dido was composed for performance by notable movement is the pupils at an academy for young ladies. and we may be permitted to wonder whether the student who took the part of Dido could possibly have realised the full emotional scope of her lament. Rather oddly.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 109 Aeneas by Henry Purcell (1659 to 1695). death in 1595. The ultimate origins of this form go back to the 1 3th century. one of the most poignantly moving pieces of music ever written. Parallel with the development of opera ran that of oratorio. The most Dido's 'Lament'. in the laudi. Many were written by Franciscan monks. which prefigured oratorio to a greater It consisted of dialogues in simple recitative . ludes and dancing. performed by companies called laudesi. instituted in Rome popular services which incorporated elements from plays on sacred subjects as well as rounding country. called La Rappresentazione di Anima e di Corpo the Representation of Soul and Body. but it is actually a sacra rappresentazione. the sacre rappresentazioni (sacred representations) of which lavish performances were given in Florence and the sur- They were practically operas on sacred including laudi. instrumental intersubjects. but their character rapidly changed with the introduction into them of the sacre rappresentazioni. simple devotional songs in the vernacular. In 1556 St. Later they were often cast in dialogue form. The dialogue is in recitative and some dances are included. Concurrent with the sacred representation was the Dialogo extent. 1550 to 1602) was performed in the Oratorio della Vallicella. founder of the Order of Oratorians. the singing of laudi his The services continued after spirituali.

showing the persistence of the stilo antico. and on rather similar lines. and mention may also be made of his contemporaries Giovanni Colonna 1735)- (c. as in opera.. The aria made way in. and the form became essentially what it is its some sacred story. including recitatives. the incipient oratorio. etc. In the years after 1600. who showed a fondness for such cumbersome titles as Teatro Armonico Spirituals di Madrigali a cinque^ sei. in the hands of such men as Domenico Mazzocchi and Giovanni Carissimi (c. These latter were often of a 'reflective' character. the musical presentation of his Sacrifice of Abraham and Martyrdom of St. and the reader tings of the Passion. duets. Job. Carissimi. Notable among composers of Dialoghi is Giovanni Anerio (c. anticipating the reflective arias which. 7 and 8 voices'. 1620). became such an important part of oratorio proper. interspersed with choral movements. and choral movements. Theodosia. Abraham and Isaac. gradually became transformed. In the latter part of the century the most notable composer is Alessandro Scarlatti. and a Historicus or Narrator was introduced to make clear the progress of the story. 1645 to 1682) and Antonio Qaldara (1670 to form.i to A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC between two persons. like opera. 1567 to c. * The Narrator or Evangelist was of the greatest importance in set- Lack of space forbids any consideration of this is referred to the article in Grove. We under that note the use of the term 'madrigal' and the inclusion The choral title of movements in recitative. sette e otto voci (1619). The stories were taken largely from the Old Testament. 1604 to 1674).* Stage representation ceased. and this rapidly became normal practice everywhere. 6. We may note to-day. solos. As in his operas he used the da capo plan of aria. uses those of Jephtha. . all with instrumental accompaniment. which may be translated literally as 'The Spiritual Harmonic Theatre of Madrigals for 5. for example. movements are often of a contrapuntal character. and the Judgment of Solomon. equally great in opera and oratorio.

austere. some of whose efforts sound like experimentalism gone mad. but the works are remarkably telling in their restrained 'affectiveness*. Passions are unaccompanied.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY in In the 7th century oratorio was almost exclusively of Italian cultivation. and his Story of the Resurrection. and as a rule his startling chord-progressions and modulations 'come off'. written before 1600. of the procedures of some of his lesser imitators. but the work of the German Heinrich Schiitz must not be overlooked. His most important works 1 of the oratorio type are his three settings of the Passion. The utterances of the 'crowd* are in four-part harmony and lean to the stilo antico. but the traditional polyphonic style gave way before the new influences. such as Benedetti and Belli. This cannot be said. whose harmonic experi- ments. and is well worth some study. St. and in those of Monteverdi. Luke. and large numbers of works of this period which were published as the former might . Matthew. In the madrigals of Luzzasco Luzzaschi. Christ. and also passages for accompanied solo voice. The most surprising of the late Italian madrigalists was Carlo Gesualdo. well justify the epithet used above. Prince of Venosa (1560 to 1614). The the solo parts free recitative Evangelist. John and St. we find instruments used not as mere optional substitutes for voices in the sense of 'apt for viols or voices'. etc. but obligatory. Frequently he achieves great emotional expressiveness. which has some affinity with plainsong. much in advance of those of most of his contem- poraries. Works under the old title were still written. according to St. He was a 'modernist' in the colloquial sense of the word. however. being in a accompaniment of The madrigal did not long survive the coming of the 'new music'. The work of Gesualdo actually led nowhere. The Story of the Resurrection employs an Schiitz's style is strings and organ. but it is interesting as the final outcome of a style initiated by Willaert and da Rore. Peter. As a medium of domestic music-making the madrigal gave place to the cantata.

ii2 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC equally well be called the latter. Public concerts in the present-day sense did not originate until late in the lyth century. was for abstractions. under the title of Cantata da Camera or Chamber Cantata. first to write cantatas on sacred themes the Cantata da Ckiesa or Church Cantata. or personified on poetic discourse in musical terms. the first being founded in London in 1672 by John Banister. for example. followed in 1678 by those of Thomas Britton. which was a kind of miniature oratorio for one or two solo voices with accom- Carissimi was the paniment. as did also Scarlatti. Especially notable is the introduction of florid coloratura passages which obviously prefigure the kind of writing which Handel used in such movements as Rejoice Greatly in Messiah. too. In England the secular cantata was very popular as a substitute for the madrigal. As in opera and oratorio. characters whose histories and circumstances are well-known to the audience. containing many fine movements. like the madrigal of earlier times. In some of these cantatas the tendency towards the typical iSth-century style of Handel is very clearly seen. To quote Sir Hubert Parry in the Oxford History of Music: The cardinal idea of the form is the semi-histrionic presentation of some imagined situation under domestic conditions. made its way into the form. In its most elementary form the cantata was a short story told in recitative. and two voices in dialogue were often employed. alternating with the The accompaniment tended to become more elaborate. Carissimi wrote a number of such works. with a simple accompaniment. monologues and dialogues appearing in quantity.' Such compositions were produced by Henry Lawes and his brother William. Laniere and Goleman. were the On . The cantata. the continent possibly the first. were popular. as opposed to the more or less private meetings of the various Collegia Musica. those of Pelham Humfrey. without scenic accessories of any kind. Sacred cantatas. carry domestic performance. the aria soon recitative. in which.

became public once opera houses were established. in particular of voices and instruments. 7.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 113 Concerts Spirituels founded in Paris in 1725 by Philidor. its earliest Andrea and use was in connection with vocal works. the voices. to compete. In the paragraph above dealing with the madrigal menwas made of the independent use of instruments as distinct from their introduction as substitutes for. Mark's. It must be remembered that the system of patronage to which reference has been made involved the employment of large numbers of musicians in the various courts. Of importance in this connection are the Con- certi Ecclesiastici published in 1602.. He was the first to make any clear differentiation between vocal and instrumental styles in such works. of course. Venice. introduced occasional purely instrumental interludes or sinIn his later works his 'modernity* is strongly evident . of Lodovico Viadana (c. and besides this he made great use of the possibilities of contrast between solo voices and chorus. The chief implition cation of the concertato style was that of contrasting groups of performers. to be from the verb concertare. has already been noted. 10 and 16 voices. in which concerti is used 8. etc. Opera. and a work with the same title by the Viadana's concertos are for from one lutenist Molinaro. or doubas lings of. The most important name concertato style is the fonias. with a figured bass accompaniment for organ. whose association with St. but opera is not a concert in the accepted sense. It was the independent part for the instrument which in the early development of Giovanni Gabrieli. and that performances by the kapelle were always more or less private affairs. Giovanni Gabrieli produced in 1587 Centi Concerti for 6. This independent use was known The derivation of this term is generally taken concertato. to four voices. and between opposing choirs. the first work as a title. Although the word concerto (with the same derivation) is commonly associated with instrumental music. 1564 to 1627). He also justified the title.

passed to Germany through Schiitz. but in his illustrative treatment of the text. treatment of dissonance. brass thet is monumental. Mark's must have been overwhelming. the only appropriate epieffect of such a work in the vastness of St. Schiitz was by far the greatest German musician of his time. the Latin texts. to to study with Gabrieli. there monic outlook. not only in his use of the concertato style. Psalms of David> in which the manner of his teacher is evident. For such compositions as his motet In Ecclesiis (for solo. as does also Scheldt's Concertos Sacri (1622). in which he goes almost to extremes in his use of dissonance for pictorial purposes. Schein's Cymbalum Sionum (1615) shows the Venetian influence. all is intended as a means to one end the glory of God. but both are relatively conservative in their har- In all Schiitz's sacred works a notable intensity and sincerity of expression. In 1609 he went to Venice The concertato style . quartet. and in 1619 published his first really important work. Whatever the technical method or style. and The viola). Saul which are monumental composion' the same Johann Hermann Schein (1586 to 1630) and Samuel Scheldt (1587 to 1654). chorus. In 1625 came the Cantiones Sacrae.ii4 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC in every direction. together with an increased differentiation between vocal and instrumental styles. lacking any signs of the intense use of dissonance such as Schiitz displayed in his Cantiones Sacrae. scale as Gabrieli's In Ecclesiis. In 1629 Schiitz paid a second visit to Italy. tions such as the famous is 'Saul. and thereafter produced the three parts of the Sympkoniae Sacrae and the Kleins geistliche In these works the Konzerte (Little Sacred Concertos). then at the height of his powers. deriving from the firm faith of the devout Lutheran. but two of his contemporaries are well worthy of note. use of 'affective 9 intervals in the voice parts. this time coming under the influence of Monteverdi. etc. the 'Father of German Music'. The development of the musical side of the Lutheran . various movements range from small-scale monodies with basso continuo accompaniment up to 9 .

as it were. which signified a piec performed by the choir. and chorus movements. served as ser mons in music preparing the way. succeeded by Buxtehude. for the spokei sermon which followed later in the service. the cantata was based on a 'com posed' one. who raised the musical fame oi the church to even greater heights. sometimes a poetic paraphrase of a passage o scripture. The work of all these foreshadows that of Bach. arias. but this term did not conn into use in this particular connection until about 1700 being first employed by one Pastor Neumeister of Hambuq in a series of text for such works. Frequently a chorale was included 9 . where he established a famous He was series of sacred recitals known as Abendmusikm. and which might also go by th title of dialogue. The term itself was not used. at least among the 'orthodox' school as oppose to the Pietists. with orchestral accompaniment. and in any case designed to edify and 'point i moral The normal cantata was arranged in the form of recita tives. a pupil of Frescobaldi (see Chapter 9). on whom they had considerable influence. offered suitable opportunity for the perforan ance of such choral works as have been mentioned abov< The hymn which at first followed the recitation of the Lati Greed became replaced by a 'motet'. was organist at the Marienkirche in Liibeck. etc. sometimes not Among the important composers of cantatas are Fran: Tunder (1614 to 1667).From 1641 Tunder. Dietrich Buxtehude (1637 to 1707] and Wilhelm Zachau (1663 to I 7 12 ).VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY n service. but in the opposition of a solo erouo and the .. These move ments were selected so that their subject had a close con nection with the Gospel of the day and. concertato or symphonia sacra. In England the concertato style is in evidence in the many verse anthems of the i7th century. as is pointed ou by the great authority Albert Schweitzer. Zachau was Handel's teacher. Ultimately th< motet became known as cantata. duets. The motet was normally based on a biblical text. sometimes for congregational performance.

in their church services. the royal foot. .ii6 full A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC able break during the Commonwealth period. 'The prime object of the court music in England was to provide sensuous entertainment and to serve as sonorous ornament. 9 feeling storation style'. the principles of the style are present. including that of a jigging dotted-note rhythmfor such words as Alleluia. and it was this style that he required from the composers of his Chapel Royal. to 1697). much of the bright music in favour at the Court of Louis XIV. by the and mention was made in Chapter i of its effect on Bach's output while he was at Cothen. and rhythms which induced the tapping of A number of common idioms developed. The return of Charles II in 1660 brought about the establishment of the 'Restoration anthem . would allow but little. Charles had heard of the early anthems. though this was hardly specifically English. went out of fashion. The Puritans had no objection to music as such. deriving from the Latin motet. Apart from his verse anthems. in common with others of the more strictly reformed sects. though with an inevit- This attitude was adopted. in which the resources of solo. but. chorus. chorus and instrumental accompaniment are fully exploited. Purcell is in and in his work English music of the Restoraperiod reaches its climax. the royal taste demanded easily comprehensible tunes. and that of the simplest kind. John Blow (1648/9 to 1708). for example. and the use of independent accompaniment. tion * The most important composers were William Child (1606 Humfrey every way BukofzeTj Musk in the Baroque Era. Throughout the century the verse anthem developed. Simultaneously appears the 'Re- German Galvinists. Pelham (1647 to 1674) and Henry Purcell. solo ensemble. in the same verbal connection. characterised often by a distinctly secular which at times seems to go beyond the limits of propriety. since Carissimi uses it in at least one of his cantatas. 3 * The serious style During his exile in France. he wrote a few 'full* anthems for from five to the greatest.

and the increasing feeling for counterpoint arising from harmony. with an introductory Trench' overture and instrumental interludes between the verses. that of 1692. amazingly fertile in new ideas. of the preparation. and the use of voices in general. together with a new attitude to the treatment of words. in which he looks back to the polyphony of the Elizabethans. as opposed to the old pure polyphony. towering edifices erected by Handel . To sum up. in which were laid the foundations and Bach. are planned similarly to the anthems. His 'Welcome' and 'Birthday* songs. and producing much music that is of far more than merely Yet it can now be seen as a time of historical interest. and in the creation of rich and sombre sonorities he is unsurpassed. Many are conceived on an extended scale. Of greater literary value are the odes for St. Hail bright Cecilia. Purcell's verse anthems often show the style at its finest. or a royal birthday. it will be seen that during the I7th century music underwent a great revolution. fatuous adulatoriness of the texts. And over all looms the shadow of instrumental music. but without recapturing the true tradiideas The style is inevitably strongly affected by the new which had developed during the century declamation. New ideas on the handling of dissonance came to the fore. but while containing some fine movements are marred by the tion. 'afiectiveness'.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 117 eight voices. Cecilia's Day. however. These anthems show. his great mastery of contrapuntal writing. The polyphonic style and the modal system on which it was based both died out. gradually ousting the old conceptions of vocal polyphony. written to celebrate such occasions as the return of the King to London. having accompaniment for string orchestra. containing some of Purcell's finest choral writing. The flexible rhythmic principles which had their ultimate origin in musica mensurata gave way to the relatively 'the rigid system imposed by what is sometimes called tyranny of the barline'. It is a century of transition.

4. 45 to 54.ii8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC RECORDS No. 6.M. 5 Nos. Vol. Vol. 57 H.S. andVol. Nos.and 17th-century arias . See also: Italian i6th. 44. and 58.

Before doing so. became the queen of all the instruments. In the out. to the old polyphonic complexity of the c The highest value was set upon those instrumadrigalists. home of violin-making was Italy. saw the expansion of dance-pairs into the suite. and the rise of important schools of violinists and organists. the viola and violoncello. violin The . we must deal further with the viols and their music. Musical Instruments* . Besides all this. . interpreting the 'affec- yth century the use of the viols gradually died tion of the words. and it will be necessary to trace the course of each one separately. outstrip9* The ping her elder sister. mellowness and emotional expressiveness. as opposed to the often tentative efforts of the preceding century. These were the most important developments. and the transformation of the ricercare into the fugue. it was equally so on the instrumental side. the rise of the sonata. the concerto. 5 ments that were best equipped for producing singing tone. This was due largely to a change of taste. the principal workshops * Geiringer. however. i and they were supplanted by the violin and its larger brethren. there was the achievement of a truly instrumental style of writing. and thus for competing with the human voice in tenderness. paving the way for the supreme works of genius of Bach and Handel in the first half of the i8th century. corresponding in a way to the change which now preferred the solo voice. . the chorale prelude and other forms of organ music. the sombre and heavy viol.CHAPTER NINE INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY WE It have seen in Chapter 8 how fertile the century was in the development of new vocal forms.

perhaps. in 1620 to 1710). a natural consequence of its the century. Thereafter only the bass viola it for da gamba survived in use to some extent Bach uses the accompaniment to one of the arias in his St. and above all Purcell. whose violins remain supreme examples of artistic craftsmanship. as he chose. and often shows the intermediate hovering between the modal system and the major and minor scales. Fancies for viols were written until late in John Jenkins. his Musick's Monument of 1676. derivation from the motet or madrigal. Cambridge. William Lawes. struggle. The quality of their work is apt to be variable. a lay clerk of Trinity College. the Fancy had no such solid guiding principle. and later at Cremona. Italianised his name to Giovanni Coperario). inveighs bitterly fully to the against the violins and their music. important composers being Alfonso Ferrabosco. presumably for reasons of prestige. Matthew 1 729 but with the death of the virtuoso Carl Friedrich Abel hi 1787 the viol died too. Among those who opposed the violin may be mentioned Thomas Mace Passion of (c. they were also the last to be written. Purcell's Fancies at times reach great heights of emotional intensity and are by far the finest of all. The weakness of the Fancy as a form lay in its tendency to be split up into a number of often unrelated sections. But whereas in the vocal forms the words gave logic to the musical plan. The greatest of the Amatis was Nicolo.lao A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC first being at Brescia. and looks back regretgood old days of polyphonic viol music. was the work of his pupil Antonio Stradivari (1644 to 1737). of the third generation. who. and despite the beauty of many individual passages. where the with unsurpassed Amati family produced instruments beauty of tone. Even greater. and in England especially their use persisted almost to the end of the century. the impression sometimes remains that . In England. or as briefly. The com- poser would work a point of imitation for as long. Almost equally great was Giuseppe Guarneri ( 1 687 to 1 742) The viols did not surrender their supremacy without a . John Cooper (who.

English. there was no set order or scheme in the suite.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY there was no particular reason why any given 121 section should last as long as it does. This art is dealt with in Christopher Sympson's Division Violist of 1659- development of instrumental forms yth century. and it may be well to mention that the basic group of allemande. the ball regularly beginning with to the To turn i now in the a slow dance followed by a quick one. their place being taken by another slow-quick pair. Minuet. originating in the i6th century. courante. * It is tonality. applied Germany. . sarabande and gigue. We have noted that the suite originated in the pairing of such dances as the pavane and galliard. incorrect. French and Italian composers treated the suite simply as a series of contrasting movements. Another aspect of viol playing which survived in England until the end of the century was the improvisation of variations or 'divisions' on a ground bass. a Prelude. based on dances. Quite early in the century the dancing of these went out of fashion. True. Apart from the invariable allemande and by courante. all being in is sometimes stated that the Allemande was not a dance. Jig (or Gigue). in the latter part of the I7th century and the beginning of the i8th. or. After the Courante composers of suites most often added a slow Sarabande. mainly. which is sometimes insisted on mainly in by writers of textbooks on Form. why it should not have been expanded to twice its length. but not entirely. and bound together chiefly by unity of the same tonic key. At this time there was a fairly well-established and definite sequence of formal ballroom dances. the idea of the form was that the composer could 'follow the dictates of his fancy'. the Allemande* and the Cowrante or Coranto. The whole might be introduced Bourrte. alternatively. followed perhaps by other dances such as the Gavotte. but this did not necessarily lead to structural logic and stability. This It was a stately court dance from Switzerland and Germany.

in some of Bach's dances. with or without 'fancy' titles. and like Couperin he retains the orthodox allemande and courante. often giving them The Frenchmen tended fanciful titles suggesting their moods. harpsichordist to Louis XIV. 1645 to 1 1 Q and others. whose harpsichord 'Lessons' exhibit his natural tunefulness and his strong grasp of a true keyboard style. all of whom were more or less influenced by anything . Couperin's first Ordre (1713) contains no fewer than eighteen movements. having no connection with any dance. produced a multitude of delightful Couperin and ingenious pieces which he grouped into Ordres ( =suites) . whose style was to some extent modelled on that of die French school. often in rondo form. His most important successors various were Jean Frangois Dandrieu (1684 to 1740) and members of the Gouperin family. 1597 to 1672). to write very lengthy suites. known as Couperin The works of this school show a keen insight le Grand. teristic may happen. It was in the lyth century that the great French school of clavednists (=harpsichordists) arose. though faint traces of it linger even into the i8th century. The dance movements were and their form into a straightforward rapidly became conventionalised The old three-section plan. was discarded. includ- ing not only dances.122 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC stylised. into the character of the instrument in particular and its possibilities. but also a number of programmatic pieces. of whom the greatest was Frangois (1668 to 1733). Buxtehude. He achieved a delicacy and economy of means which have for long been charac- of the best of French music. century. In England the outstanding figure is once again Purcell. He was followed by Johann Adam Reinken (1623 to 1722). In Germany the first important name in connection with the suite is that of Johann Jacob Froberger (1616 to 1667). Georg Muffat (c. The founder was Jacques Champion de Chambonnieres (c. His suites generally begin with a prelude. of which only eight are dances. so common in the i6th binary. but after that.

Corelli was one of the founders of the great school of violin playing in Bologna. was fully established. Bassani (1657 to 1716). in that the latter were conceived primarily as dance suites. the continuo being. The student may be warned to disabuse^ his mind of any idea that sonata necessarily means a work with that title in the Sonata. those of Tarquinio Merula. In this sense it may cover a large range of instrumental music. as it were. whether chamber or church. In Italy the suite went by the name of sonata da camera* or chamber sonata. at first The church no sonata. introduced by a preludial movement sonatas and followed by one or more other dances. the past participle. as opposed to cantata. with a part for continue to be realised on the harpsichord. however. like its brother of the chamber. ^ t Not to be confused with the organist Merulo. originally associated with the noun canzona. B. as distinct from the sonata da chiesa or church sonata. to be dealt with later. Mozart or Beethoven. had fixed form. sarabande and gigue. something sung. a cawyma sonata (or can&na da sonare) being a 'played canzona*. the distinction between church and chamber had become more strongly marked. i. The 'trio sonata'. and in this respect are associated with him the names of Giovanni Battista Vitali (1644 to 1692) and G. Twenty years later. taken for granted. The chamber sonatas of these and men were written generally for two violins da gamba (or 'cello).INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY With Buxtehude we find 123 strict adherence the French style. The earliest chamber sonatas. Such sonatas were deviola signated a fre. courante.g. was part of the staple fare of this period. was style of. which remained the standard in Germany until the suite died out in the middle of the i8th century. from the verb sonare.e. for three instruments. it was simply of a character serious * The literal meaning of sonata. and was so used in the lyth century. say. is something played. but were merely suitable for secular rather than for sacred (church) use. . to sound. were not restricted to dances. e. to the 'textbook' order of allemande.f published in 1637. By the time of Arcangelo Gorelli (1653 to 1713) the regular basis of allemande and courante.

Merula produced similar works under the title of canzone. as do also solo* sonatas for e a single violin and continue. 1630). i and op. however. sometimes in the style of a gigue. grave. but the latter title gradually dropped out of use. as did many others. for example in the works of Giovanni Battista Fontana (d. His slow third movements are often of the sarabande type. were published and 1689) the distinction between church and chamber styles was tending to break down. though it gradually became customary for one of them to be fugal in style. remained variable.124 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC for use during enough a sacred the 16th-century known Sonata pian* canzona sonata. e. 3. They are of no fixed plan. In some of the sonatas of Vitali. 2 of 1667. The plan and order of the movements. precedes a quick movement in fugal style. contrasts of soft and loud are deliberately used for the first time. The preludes. A slow introductory section. a monuservice. and the work concludes with another quick movement.g. Sonatas a tre appear quite early in the i7th century. e forte and derived from Such a work is the wellof Giovanni Gabrieli. though he does not always adhere strictly to it. This crossing of the two styles ultimately obliterated the original distinction. those of his op. respectively in 1681 his last ones gigues. Until about the middle of the century the terms 'sonata and 'canzona' are practically interchangeable. This is followed by a melodious largo. we fin(l fairly strongly suggested the basis of what was later to become the normal plan until well into the 1 8th century. but consist of a series of short sections in contrasting styles and speeds. By his time (his op. too. consisting of church sonatas. In this. mental piece for two brass choirs (except that the highest part in the second choir is for violin). e. This was 9 established as the standard plan by Corelli. of Corelli's chamber sonatas could equally well serve as movements for church sonatas. Massimiliano Neri. and The Purcell to Italian style of sonata reached England in time for show that in it his genius was not less than that .g.

e. The contrast lay between the concertino or solo group.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 125 was no mean of his continental contemporaries. In Germany the one really great name in the line of sonatists is that of Heinrich Biber (1644 to 1704). the former being for use before. 1708). Like his sonatas. Torelli quick. and he admits in his preface to the first set (1683) t^t he has 'faithfully endeavour'd a just imitation of the most fam'd Italian Masters'. whose works have been described as 'the first German violin music of any artistic worth at all* (Grove) Like Purcell. both members of the Bolognese school. instrumental concerto was based on the same fundamental principles as the vocal one. where a small body of instruments contrasts with a larger one.g. Similar methods are found in the canzonas of other Venetians of the time. His compositions prove that he . those of Handel and Bach. slow. he shows Italian influence. as they are found in the greatest examples of the form. i. Neri and Francesco Usper. Rather later we find sonatas for trumpet accompanied by string orchestra by such writers as Stradella and Vitali. Corelli's concertos church and chamber. into two types. This is seen in essence in Gabrieli's Sonata piarf e forte. but exhibits also considerable individuality and grave sincerity. established plan what was to remain the normal three-movement He exhibits. who pro- duced what is known as the Concerto Grosso. and still more in one of his canzonas. and the ripieni fall or *tutti* strings. Formally there on sign of any conventional layout.e. The essential principles of the style. His two sets of Sonatas of III Parts are fully equal to other similar publications. during or after is little High Mass. the playing off against The each other of two contrasted groups. in Corelli's case consisting of a string trio (two violins and 'cello). were first fully worked out by Corelli and Torelli (d. in which the idea of contrast is still more strongly marked. quick. the . more than Corelli. virtuoso. everything depends the contrasting of the two groups of performers.

the first such works were by Torelli. concerto. The form used for the allegros is generally known as Ritornello form. In them the solo part begins to demand a certain amount of virtuosity. Lack of space forbids any consideration of the structural principles of the movements. in violin technique. but the emphasis remains primarily on contrast between solo and tutti. O. Benedetto Marcello (1686 to position of the concertino. Morris's The Structure of Music for a simple explanation of it. As far as is known. designed to allow the soloist to show off his technical ability. indeed. t Bukofzer. 'concerto style' in the the vigorous.f and in the strength and character of his themes he often anticipates Bach. 1676 who also made considerable advances In his concerti grossi he varied the comsometimes using a group of wind instruments. 3 of Tovey's Essays in Musical Analysis contains a most illuminating discussion of the form. who wrote the first 'cello Further progress was to 1741) of Venice. More than Torelli he exploits what has been called the 'relentless mechanical beat of the concerto style'. was a product of the late i8th and i gth centuries. and the reader is referred to R. pounding metrical pulsation and the general feeling of 'busyness 9 . Music in the Baroque Era. In the period with which we are dealing the technical ability demanded of the soloist was generally little greater than that required of the orchestra. though they were not published until a year after his death.* In some of the later concerti grossi of Corelli there is a tendency for the first violin to take the lead over the other members of the concertino. The same applies to the concertino in a concerto grosso. who. made by Antonio Vivaldi (c. This led to the writing of 'solo 9 concertos. for a single violin with accompaniment by the string orchestra. learned much from the study of his works. Among Vivaldi's Venetian contemporaries who emulated his style are Francesco Gasparini (1668 to 1727). The Introduction to Vol. (The 'display concerto. * .is6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC allegros.) Other composers of solo concertos were Tomasso Albinoni (? 1674 9 the to Z 745) an d Giuseppe Jacchini.

It is not until Bach's $th Brandenlonger is it No coming of a new conception of the were the we find the harpsichord used as a solo instrument. with first among equals. the orchestra now begins to recede into the background. and Of the former. was spent in England (he died in Dublin). They are later in date than the $th Brandenburg. the vaguely rambling scales of the earlier . a vastly important branch. and he was the author of the first 'method' for the violin. and see the it form. In the next generation comes Francesco Geminiani (1674 to 1762). which duty it shares with a flute and a violin. entitled The Art of Playing Rather younger than Geminiani was Pietro in demand them we Locatelli (1693 to 1764). He was a pupil of Corelli and Scarlatti and was rather conservative in his outlook. where Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583 to 1643). 1680). In music for the organ.} The earliest sonatas will be considered in the next chapter. (There are also seven concertos by Bach for solo harpsichord burg Concerto that and orchestra. His solo concertos technical ability of a truly virtuoso standard. organist of St. After him the emphasis shifts to Rome. the soloist as primarily a matter of contrast. It may be noted that at this time no concertos were written for harpsichord. c. concertino^ life He used a string quartet for adding the viola to the usual trio. there arose two great schools. as mere subordinate accompaniment.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 127 1739) and Giuseppe Valentin! (b. but at least five of these are transcriptions of works originally for violin and orchestra. we have already noted the Venetian Merulo as one of the founders. Much of his the Violin. the southern. based on Italy. His toccatas show a great advance on those of the Gabrielis and Merulo in their careful planning of contrasted sections and their truly dramatic effect. Peter's. They also exhibit much greater coherence in the more brilliant passages. This instrument was used for the continue. as a background. the northern. based on the Netherlands and Germany. was renowned as one of the most brilliant performers of his day.



composers being organised into shapely and logically designed figuration. In passing, it may be mentioned that Frescobaldi seems to have had an adequate appreciation of the technical difficulty of some of his compositions. At
the end of one toccata he writes, 'non senzafatiga
si giunge

alfm\ which

through this Of equal importance to Frescobaldi's toccatas are his organ ricercares. At the beginning of the century the ricercare, derived from the vocal motet, occurred commonly in two guises. In one the same principle was used as in the fantasia, i.e. it consisted of a series of fugal sections, each based on a new theme. In the other, the ricercare sopra un e soggetto ( on a subject'), only one basic theme was used for treatment. This type had two possibilities. There fugal might be a series of fugal expositions on various modifications of the theme, or alternatively the theme itself might be kept more or less unchanged, but used in a series of expositions with a new countersubject for each. The ricercare 'on a subject

be freely translated without feeling tired*.




you won't get



developed gradually into the fugue as we know it in the hands of Bach. Like the fancy, the ricercare had the structural weakness of being so highly sectionalised, though 5 in the examples 'on a subject this is not so noticeable as
in the other type, since at least one basic theme ran through the whole piece. But even so, it was inevitably chopped up in effect, and composers gradually realised that it was
effective and satisfactory to work out the possibilities of a single unvaried theme to the limit, rather than to piece together a series of more or less brief snippets. Possibly the most distinguished pupil of Frescobaldi was Froberger, a Catholic Saxon, whose work shows increased facility in the methods of organisation initiated by his teacher, and possibly an even greater appreciation of the characteristics of the organ. With him may be associated another Saxon, Johann Kasper Kerll (1627 to ^93)> w^ maY ak have studied with Frescobaldi.

by Frescobaldi, and




of the German Catholic organists of any real importHis most notable work is the Apparatus MusicoOrganisticus of 1690, which contains, among other things, twelve toccatas. Structurally they are variable, but the principle of brilliant bravura sections contrasting with steadylast

The purely Italian school soon declined in importance, the initiative passing to southern Germany. Besides the two Saxons just mentioned, we may note Georg Muffat, the

moving passages designed to exploit the sustaining power of the organ, as well as the inclusion of sections in fugal The toccata had not begun to style, still holds good. degenerate into a mere show-piece. In Muffat's work, still more than in that of his predecessors, there is an increased power of organisation of runs into coherent patterns; the feeling for design becomes continually stronger. In the north-west of Europe a school of organists flourished whose work was based on the requirements of the reformed faith. The father of this school was Jan PieterszoonSweelinck (1562 to 1621) of Amsterdam. The organs of the Netherlands and northern Germany had already a well-developed pedal department, unlike those of Italy, and Sweelinck provides some of the earliest examples of independent pedal He is most notable for his development of the parts. ricercare into the fully worked-out fugue, at a time when the Italians were still content with the ricercare sopra un

Through his pupils Sweelinck's influence spread throughout northern Germany, among the most important being Samuel Scheidt and Heinrich Scheidemann (1596 to 1663). Their contemporary Herman Schein (1586 to 1630) was of the same school, though not a pupil of its founder. In the next generation appears Reinken, who followed Scheide-

mann at St. Catherine's Church, Hamburg, and whose fame
so great that the

young Bach walked long distances to With these men must be mentioned two of Bach's uncles Johann Christoph (1642 to 1703) and Johann Michael (1648 to 1694), and Johann Pachdbd of
hear and play to him.



to 1706),

Nuremburg (1653


serves as

a link between

the southern and northern schools. He was a pupil of Kerll, and so came to some extent under the influence of little earlier, and perhaps the greatest of Frescobaldi. all organists before Bach, was Buxtehude, born in 1637.



Swede, he was for long the chief musician in Liibeck, and Bach was willing to walk 200 miles to sit at his feet. These are only an important few of a great galaxy of Lutheran organists on whose work was founded Bach's
colossal superstructure.

The most important types of composition evolved by the north Germans for use in the reformed services were those based on the chorale. Luther's introduction of the chorale into the church service was eagerly welcomed, and we cannot do better than to quote Sir Hubert Parry, in the Oxford History of Musk, on the subject: 'The influence which the German chorales exerted upon the German Protestant organists was of the utmost importance, and the seriousness and deep feeling, which were engendered in their attempts to set them and adorn them, were answerable for a great deal of the nobility in their organ music. . . . The chorales . . . were a kind of religious folk-songs. They came spontaneously from the hearts of the people, and had their roots in the deepest sentiments of the race. . . . Upon these tunes the organist-composers of the I7th century expended all the best of their artistic powers. The tunes became symbols, which were enshrined in all the richest devices of expressive ornament and contrapuntal skill, woven fugal artifice, and melodic sweetness, which the devotion
of the composers could achieve. Although the term 'chorale prelude' is used loosely to describe all kinds of pieces based thematically on chorales, there were actually four different types. The chorale prelude proper, used in the service to introduce the congregational singing of the hymn (much as the present-day organist
'gives out* the first line or two)

was generally fairly terse, the melody, decorated or otherwise, being usually in the

top part.


In many cases, ceded by a more or less free fugal exposition This procedure was used by the early writers as far it. back as Scheidt, and many fine examples were written
line of the tune


was prebased on



of treatment,


Although perhaps the commonest method was but one among many, Kipling's

'There are nine-and-sixty ways


Of constructing

tribal lays,

every single one of them



might well apply to chorale preludes. Other types of chorale composition were (a) the chorale fugue, in which the first line of the tune served as the subject of an extended fugue* also found in Pachelbd's work; or variations on a chorale (V) the chorale partita, Bohm and Buxtehude are important here; and Pachelbel, the chorale fantasia, which might be of considerable (c) and the length, designed to show off both the instrument
ability of the performer.

on chorales, toccatas were popular, and Buxtehude being the most notable. those of Reinken Both men had first-rate instruments at their disposal, and both possessed consummate technique which they were not unwilling to display. The prelude and fugue, too, graduBesides works based
ally took shape,

but as yet lacked the intense concentration of thought and economy of material which characterises the greatest of those by Bach, By the time of Buxtehude, and especially noticeable in his work, a purely instrumental the organ had been evolved, free style of writing for

from the influence of the old vocal




tie effective possibilities of the instrument to the highest

Summing up, we may say that during the lyth-century instrumental music underwent as great a revolution as did that for voices. In all branches the influence of the old
* Bach's so-called 'Giant Fugue*

an example.

and it is also dealt with by the Italian theorist Zarlino (1517 to 1590). Buxtehude. fa. became an essential foundation over which the inter- play of contrapuntal parts could be carried out. re. tuning in accordance basically with the natural laws of Acoustics. 'just temperament'. to allow for the possibility of modulation. the effect became more and more unpleasant. in 1482. A suite by Andreas Werckmeister (1645 to 1706) uses seventeen of them. ment from one key and especially in minor keys. would nevertheless be unbearable on anything but a 'tempered' instrument. was adequate. As long as music remained modal. la ranges through every major key. By the use of equal tempera- ment able. but so slightly as to be imperceptible to all but the keenest of ears. And a number of works appeared containing pieces in most of the twenty-four possible keys. writes a toccata based on E major which. John Bull must have understood the system. In the course of the ryth century more keys and all modulations became equally avail- and more works appear in which equal temperament is. since his Fantasia on Ut. sol. The ultimate solution was found in 'equal temperament' in which every one of the semitones is of the chromatic octave slightly out of tune by strict acoustic theory. Purely instrumental forms and a purely instrumental style of writing were evolved. chord-progression. and a modification called 'mean tone' temperament was first worked out.132 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC vocal polyphony was shaken off. while Johann . at least by implication. extreme keys such as B and F sharp being excruciatingly out of tune. moveto another. although it does not modulate widely. The supersession of the modal system by the major and minor scales involved new methods of tuning. but this was not by any means satisfactory in dealing with a 'key 9 system . taken for granted. mi.e. for example. For a few keys around C major this was good enough. instead of arising chiefly from the interweaving of separate melodic lines. all The first suggestion of this method of tuning appears in a work of the Spaniard Ramos de Pareja. but beyond two or three sharps or flats. i.

Vivaldi D min.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 133 Ferdinand Fischer (d. min. sold in in the sets. Buxtehude Purcell Prelude and Fugue. (four Goossens NLP HLPi024 0X8367/8 Couperiu Frescobaldi Various records. of which the full title was The Well-Tempered two preludes and fugues in each of the twentyClavier* four major and minor keys. and cover both harpsichord and clavichord. Henry Wood) Wood/QHO is De. Bach's Forty-eight. HMV i Toccata sopra pedali Sweelinck Scheldt Fantasia No. c. not separately. 10 (echo)/ Variations on Da Jesus Videro an dem Kreuze stand \. used in this period to . AK975/6 * Clavier literally means keyboard. are obtainable Society Edition. G Videro HMV HMV HMV DB52I3 035248 Suite in 5 pieces (arr. The works are played on the harpsichord by Wanda Landowska. of course. Videro -. (oboe) A min. JVb. Cat. The eventual outcome was. RECORDS Corelli Composer Title Oboe concerto Christmas concerto Sonata D min. 1738) in his Ariadne Musica adds two more. ('cello) Concerto Concerto harpsichords) Recorded by Rothwell/HO LSO Stocker HMV C354O HMV 063639/40 NLP PLP54O Col.

so deceptively simple. published by Ricordi. most and important Domenico and Scarlatti (1685 to 1757). first JL There negligible Of these the composers who may are. for minor (Longo 36). is far more where the occatesting than. however. son of Alessandro. the sonata in G * The standard edition is that of Longo. with outstanding technique and an almost fantastic insight into the possibilities of his instrument. taking the art of playing and he is comparable ultimate limit. the more so since their texture is always so economical. a Liszt Rhapsody. though there are a number which subdivide into a series of movements. cantatas Although he wrote a number of operas. Scarlatti wrote over 500 sonatas. Arrangements of some of his pieces by such igth-century virtuosi as von Biilow are easier than the originals. many of his works remain quite difficult enough for any but the above-average player. The majority are short onemovement affairs in binary form.CHAPTER TEN THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL Y | I 1HE half of the eighteenth century is overshadowed by the colossal genius of Bach and Handel. In this. other vocal works. since in the latter there in a is no room way for error of any kind. many under the title of Exercises for Harpsichord. say. as Mozart's Rondo in Any A pianist knows that such a piece minor. In these respects to Liszt. . Scarlatti is chiefly famous for his harpsichord sonatas. Scarlatti is com- parable to Mozart. certain striking lesser but by no means is first be briefly considered. Despite writing for the harpsichord to the the advances made in keyboard technique since his day. sional handful of wrong notes (though hardly to be recommended) may be lost in the welter of sound.* in four example. See. He was the great virtuoso of his time.

An opening mood of vigour and cheerfulness is maintained throughout. immediate predecessor These sonatas are in three or more movements. Here again Scarlatti in a way looks forward to the practice of later generations. rhythmic first subject may be opposed by a melodious and strongly contrasted second group. it may be said. one mood*. is a fasEqually important is his frequent use of cinating study. and ranging from a few bars to something quite extensive. For example. Thomas's. after a bar's rest. But Scarlatti is far from being rigid or stereotyped in his handling of form. similarly. In his use of binary form Scarlatti shows some notable features. But with Scarlatti we often find quite strong. In the greater contrasting part of instrumental music of all kinds up to about the middle of the i8th century we find the principle of 'one movement. Any concerto of the period furnishes an adequate example of this consistency. It may be fundamentally binary. is reproduced in the tonic at the end of the second part. changes in the emotional temperature take place only within narrow limits. The first clavier sonatas. Leipzig. D major. and include by Johann Kuhnau (1660 Six Biblical Sonatas. moods within a single movement. This is to some extent a foreshadowing of the 'second subject group which is a normal feature of the sonata form of the next generation. from a bright and happy major-key start to a really mournful. almost capricious changes. a sad mood or a reflective one. were written to 1722).THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL contrasted sections. The last section of the first part. the most important being his frequent employment of 'corresponding cadence figures'. as distinct from suites. in both halves of the binary form there is a sudden change. as is. but the organisation of the internal details is infinitely variable and. who was Bach's as Cantor at St. remarkable instances of programme . and so on. in whose sonata form movements a vigorous. generally in the dominant or relative major key. 9 minor-key continuation. in Longo No. all 135 based on the same tonic key. 12.

Contemporary with Kuhnau was the Belgian J. where the flight of the stone not altogether so naively) thus: expressed (perhaps Ex. for example. 5 the 'story programme was rare. In his sonatas for flute or oboe he often achieves really remarkable emotional intensity. in The Combat between David and from David's sling is Goliath. 20 Loeillet. Rather younger was Joachim Quantz (1697 to 1773). But apart from 'battle pieces. 19 followed. by the fall Ex. for example. and occasionally produces a movement quite worthy of Bach. who is less widely known than he deserves to be. with elucidatory comments above We separate the music. B. Kuhnau. however. and the principle was carried on in. the suites of the French 9 lutenists and clavednists. as.I 36 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC music. At times he indulges in rather naive attempts at realism. . as the of Goliath: commenting text informs us. in movements. have seen that in the i6th century a certain amount of illustrative music was written. took Old Testament stories and illustrated them step by step.

who was for a time kapellmeister to Frederick the Great.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL 137 a brilliant flautist and a sound musician. unhampered by the taste or will of any person. Quantz was flautist and composer to Frederick the Great. trios. He refers to Bach as 'a man this is in connection with 1741 to his death. was immense. as that the quality is often so Quantz. F. wrote as he felt and as he wished. to others which were quite insignificant. after the Louis XIV. the Arts. and in their efforts to obtain the services of the . worked freely and. etc. ing that monarch to play the for his instrument high. and in this position had the possibly uncomfortable privilege of teach- worthy of admiration'. but his organ playing. shows how composers of the time. he contrasts the operas of Hasse and Graun. serving a sympathetic master at the Dresden 6 court. Reichardt. even though it were the best piece in the opera. He points out that Hasse. Graun. From His output of works concertos. for example. In his treatise on flute playing he has much of value to say about interpretation and musical aesthetics. were cultivated.' In Germany alone there were over three hundred states. though by no means a composer of the first rank. like Vivaldi's interminable list ofconcerti grossi. were forced by the conditions of their appointments to go on turning out work after work to satisfy the demands of their employers. The rulers of such states vied with each other in the size of their kapelle. But wherever (and however) the money could be found. ranging from important and extensive ones like that of Prussia. worked only according to the taste of his king [Frederick]. The difficulties under which the 'tied' composer might labour are made clear in the Letters of an Attentive Traveller by J. . fashion set by especially Music. . what failed to please him was struck out. solos. Writing in 1774. the 'Age of Patronage*. nevertheless rarely falls below a high level of competence. . the magnificence of their opera most houses. The amazing thing is not so much that flute. less generally known. they were able to do this. on the other hand. and.

when he had finished his course of study at the university of Halle. Bach was trained to be a professional musician as a matter of course. a P: . while doubtless equally sincere. it was not until 1703. Bach came of a long line of professional musicians. shall we go over to Dresden to hear the pretty iL tunes?' See G. Handel had to overcome paternal opposition. Friedemann. It would be a ridiculous overstatement to suggest that there any resemblance ceases. on February 23rd. fifty-three of them being musicians.f Bach was a devout Lutheran (his library at his death consisted largely of theological works). Handel was Space forbids the tracing of Bach's ancestry. Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frederick Handel were born in the same year as Scarlatti. Bach remained within one narrow area in central Germany. Handel remained a bachelor all his life. Terry. in that the musician might be assured of a reasonably safe livelihood.* Handel's family tree seems to have provided him with no musical ancestors. Bach never touched that form. Bach married twice and was the father of twenty children. and with the right land of employer might be able. Johann Sebastian was his great-great-great grandson. from the point of view of musical progress. Back. that he was free to follow his own inclinations. was of a less strictly doctrinal character. like Hasse. Handel was widely travelled. t * line t His attitude to opera is attested by his remark to his eldest son: *WeU. and although his father died in 1696. to hear Buxtehude. Some sixty of the family have been identified by name. 9 . who was living in 1561. He was intended for the Law. be a distinct handicap. to 'write as he felt and as he wished But a ruler like Frederick might. Handel was a master of opera. This system had its advantages. S.138 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC famous musicians of the time. Bach at Eisenach in Thuringia. 1685. Handel at Halle in Saxony. The founder of the was one Hans Bach. but there are sufficient fundamental differ- ences between the two series men and their work to warrant a of comparisons. on March aist (Old Style). all his life his longest journey being to Liibeck in 1 705. Handel's faith.

whereas Bach wrote simply to satisfy his own conscience.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL for 139 much of his life service of either the Church or some a freelance. Bach was always in the princely court. was produced his first opera. the two men never met. who was later to become George I of England. 'Well. Bach was but little concerned with the effect of his music on his audience. though he never merely pandered to it. In 1703 ment was in the same capacity to the Duke of Chandos. in 1705. which in Bach's case sometimes degenerated into what can only be called 'cussedness'. and perhaps the most important of all is that Handel always tended to bear in mind the taste of his public. In one respect at least their characters were similar neither seems to have suffered fools Both seem to have had a certain streak of obstinacy. His only other comparable appoint- Handel went Handel's musical life dates from 1693. his reply was to the effect of. had an eye on the man in the back row of the gallery. to put it colloquially. We can generally feel that list a which at times drew the censure of his employers. In 1710 he became Kapellmeister to the Elector of Hanover. for whose private chapel he wrote the . Zachau was a thoroughly sound musician. Such Handel. Here. when he began to study with Zachau. among other works. being employed at the opera house under Keiser. you've got a deputy' and that seems to have been all he had to say. Almira. and it is worth noting that a number of turns of phrase which are generally labelled as 'typically Handelian' are to be found in the work of the older man. and where was produced. where he learned all there was to be known about the Italian style of writing. from 1717 to 1720. Unfortunately for posterity. When reproached by the Gongladly. sistorium of Arnstadt for having prolonged four weeks' leave of absence to four months. though on two occasions Bach endeavoured to get in personal touch with his great contemporary. to Hamburg. the opera Agrippina (1709). an attitude of contrasts could be extended almost indefinitely. Four years later he was in Italy.

poser 1712 until his death in 1759 Handel's life as a cominto two periods. in 1712. until Orlando of 1732. Instead. as were those of the Italian type.* falls From began to show less regard for convention. Almira and Rodrigo. of the *Royal Academy of Music'. with spoken dialogue. but were taken from everyday life. and the purely Italian style was no longer so favoured as formerly. There were no long da capo arias. many of the tunes were well-known contemporary songs. Handel's first visit to London. In them he showed that he had nothing to learn of the art of choral writing for the English rite. an operatic venture begun in 1719 with the support of the king. The subjects of ballad operas were not mythological or historical. but public taste was changing. . show the influence of his Neapolitan friend Alessandro Scarlatti.140 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC twelve Chandos anthems. with which he came in contact in the early part of his stay in Italy. This was a *ballad opera'. Court intrigue the king was at loggerheads with the Prince of Wales and rivalries within the company itself caused the final bankruptcy and collapse of the Academy. Ballad opera was a live. quick-moving and * It may variety. and like all of its kind was in the vernacular. but his second. with Buononcini and Ariosto. or on his own. his first London opera. Rinaldo (1711). Agrippina leans to the methods of the Venetian school of Legrenzi and Caldara. was the beginning of permanent residence in this country. and this influence persists. designed chiefly for the singers to display their ability. Up to 1740 he was mainly concerned with the writing of opera. was brief. and thereafter with oratorio. and in the next few years Handel produced operas either in conjunction with the impresario Heidegger. In his earliest operas. in 1710. This was partly due to the production in 1728 of The Beggar's Opera. Later works. be noted that although Handel's operas were of the Italian he quite often opens with a 'French* overture.g. e. Until 1728 he was a director. Handel shows the influence of Keiser. with much of its conFrom this time he ventionality.

Deidamia. which year also saw the composition of Saul. every variety of aria is to be found. Handel. and the last to be written was Jephtha of 1751. Handel struggled against the current. gives . From the simplicity and fervour of / know that my Redeemer liveth to the brilliant coloratura of Rejoice Greatly. which is unfortunately too little known. The Resurrection and The Triumph of Time and Truth. he realised that his day as a composer of operas was ended. followed by on earth*. A comparison is sometimes drawn between their respective settings of the words Glory to God in the highest . no fewer than twenty-eight are choral. In all these works Handel shows his mastery of all kinds of vocal writing. and may well suffice here. Messiah. on the whole he lacks the intense concentration of Bach. an initial hammer-blow with a sudden hush at and peace an effect calculated to make an immediate appeal e to the non-musician. mention must be made of a setting of the Passion text of Brockes. the first was Israel in Egypt of 1738. As early as 1708 Handel had written two Italian oratorios. the first and second versions of Esther (1720 and 1732). Deborah and Athalia (1733). Although Handel was as capable a contrapuntist as any composer of his time. Others had appeared at intervals before the final group of master works of his later years. in which the influence of the Roman Carissimi is evident. much expanded. when he wrote his operatic swan- song. Of its thirty-nine numbers. Bach. in his * 5 version in Messiah. which made an immediate appeal to a public which had grown tired of the grandiose artificiality of the Italian style. appeared in 1757.g. while in Israel in Egypt the chorus for the first time becomes the protagonist. Besides these. two years before the composer's death. In 1741 followed the best known of all oratorios. in 1716. e. but by 1740. gives us c 9 Glory to God . Of the few oratorios which are now performed with any frequency. Both were first performed in 1739. in the Christmas Oratorio. though an English version of The Triumph of Time and Truth.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL 141 easily understood kind of work.

a pupil of Pachelbel. Bach obtained his first independent appointment. The concerti grossi follow the tradition of Vivaldi. but only a New few miles from his birthplace. Handd may be said to have summed up the Italian style of writing which had evolved during the I7th century. Bach. No. Such movements as 'Glory to God'. Blasius's . It was during this period that Bach for the first time walked the thirty miles to Hamburg to hear that great old man. at the other lies the setting of the one of the greatest 'Comfort ye first two words of Messiah strokes of genius in the whole of music. After a short period in the service of Duke Johann Ernst. At this time. contains no dances at all.143 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC us page after page of magnificent rolling counterpoint which appeals more to the trained musician. he trudged sixty miles to Celle. In 1707 he moved to become organist of his life has Church in Mulhaiisen. 2. and again returned with impressions that remained. at Ohrdruf. or the 'Alleluia' chorus stand at 9 one end of Handel's scale. he came under the influence of Buxtehude. Apart from his operas and oratorios. there are various suites for harpsichord. Bach's father died when the boy was but ten years old. which show that Handel was by no means hidebound in his attitude to that form. too. adopted what he thought best from both and incorporated it into the essential German style to which he had St. bringing back impressions which for long showed in his compositions. far south of Lizneburg. studying and copying the music of both Italy and France. The remainder of been briefly outlined in Chapter i. younger brother of the reigning Duke of Weimar. as do also the various sonatas. where he encountered music in the French style. In 1700 he was admitted to the Michaelisschiile at Liineburg. While there. as organist at the Church at Arnstadt. where he remained for three years. who was himself a pupil of Reinken. thanks to his willingness to undertake long walks. and he received his musical education at first from his elder brother Johann Christoph. coming under the influence of Bohm. for example.

Reinken and Buxtehude. a string of musical pearls. Bach was supreme. and which he raised to the highest perIt was for Handel to develop Italian fection. and forgotten after his death. except during his time at Gothen (1717 to 1723). of the Weimar period (1708 to show much of the influence of the northern school. With increasing age and experience we find greater concentration and oratorio to a point not hitherto attained. the young organist with a fine technique which he was not unwilling to display. as. for example. in which the models of Gorelli and Vivaldi are raised to the highest power. Matthew Passion) and others. opera and early organ works. The subject-matter becomes increasingly terse and the treatment of it more and tautness of texture. This tendency reaches its climax in the works C intensified. and the great Prelude and Fugue in D major. harpsichord and organ.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL 143 been brought up. employing every possible method of treatment. in the great Passacaglia minor. led to a revival of interest in his works which has lasted to the present day and shows no signs of diminishing. In all other branches of music. such as the 'Great* B minor prelude and fugue and that in G major. and adding always the intangible something which was the fruit of his own genius. for example. 1717). Their brilliant style and somewhat loose construction are in the Buxtehude tradition. the publication of ForkeFs monograph in 1802. Throughout his life. From his Weimar days comes the Little Organ Book) unfortunately never completed. The in of the Leipzig period. and the work done by Mendelssohn (who arranged. in cantatas and Passions. incidentally. Hardly acknowledged in his lifetime as anything more than a composer of competent kapellmeister status. and they reveal. Bach wrote Chorale Preludes. a centenary performance of the St. more Cothen saw the composition of the Brandenburg Concertos (so called from their dedication to the ruler of that state). in 1829. In them Bach varies the composition . Such are. a model of succinctness. for orchestra. the wellknown Toccata and Fugue in D minor.

To the Leipzig period. It was at Cothen that the first book of The Well-Tempered Clavier was completed (the second book dates from 1744. and resulted in the composition of the Musical Offering. as well as many other purely instrumental works. the St. His rather prickly temper often involved him in difficulties with them. and shows that was possible than had been achieved by Vivaldi. the Art of Fugue. and proceeds to treat it in a truly royal manner. Technically it is stupendous. but died before finishing it. at Leipzig). This last. John and St.144 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC concertino to a far greater degree than had any of his even greater rhythmic drive predecessors. This has been aptly described by C. S. including the six 'Schiibler' chorale preludes and those in the Clavierubung. was written (and partly compiled by adaptations from cantatas) to enable Bach to obtain the post of court composer to die Elector of Saxony. We may of the note also the four Overtures (suites) for orchestra. Towards the end of his life Bach began work on what he intended to be a complete exposition of everything fugal. the first of the great 'concert' masses. This was arranged by his son Carl Philipp Emanud. from 1723. Matthew Passions and the Mass in B Minor. The great event in Bach's later life was his visit to Frederick the Great at Potsdam. in 1747. musically it stands almost alone. . Terry as 'his conclusive contribution to the controversy raging round the tuning of the clavichord'. which coveted title he hoped might improve his standing with the authorities in Leipzig. the latest and greatest of the organ works. belong most of the cantatas (though some date from his appointment as kon&rtmeister at Weimar in 1714). at that time in the king's service. a series of pieces based on a subject given by Frederick. the violin concertos and sonatas. royal subject'. The great six-part ricercare in it is a masterpiece among masterIn his dedication Bach refers to the king's 'truly pieces. After the Forty-eight there was nothing more to be said on the matter.

for example. only half as long. but the latter. 60. 2540. Harpsichord Suite Messiah Recital of Arias G LX. 516 LXT. 3029. Technical ability. With the death of Bach in 1750 and Handel in 1759 an era comes to an end. 3081 DA. 33 KLC. words 'wept noticeable even in works which are separated by only Compare. but by their later years tastes were changing. 59. the treatment of the 9 bitterly in Peter's denial in the St. 66. The complexities of the contrapuntal style were no longer acceptable. Matthew of 1729. The difference a few years. John Passion of 1723 with that in the St. way is The occasional straggliness of the early works gives to the concentration of the later ones. as with 145 most of the great composers. No. Between them they summed up all the tendencies of music since 1600. APL.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL With Bach. is almost unbearable in its despair. 61. LXA. RECORDS H. Nos. The former is moving. is used simply to serve expressive ends. LXT. we see maturity in age bringing an increase of intensity and economy as to in his compositions. 3006 .S. 2757 33 OCX. 2501. structure becomes more and more tightly knit. in a rather derogatory sense. 13001 LM.) Title 6. See also: Composer Scarlatti (D. so great be almost superhuman. Cat. and such music became known as 'learned'. nai/3 LXTA. 4541 Handel Two Goncerti Grossi minor Oboe Concerto. 8 Essercizi for Gravicembalo 8 Sonatas (piano) AP. 1171 1146/8 Bach Mass in B Minor Brandenburg Concertos Concerto for two violins Cantata "Praise our God" OCX.M. 9150 LX. Vol. The development of the new style will be the subject of our next chapter.

No.I 46 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Title Bach Composer (contd. 3007 i 8236 (orchestral arrangement) KL.) Cat. Cantata "Jesu. 532 . Joy of Man's Toccata and Fugue in Desiring" Fantasia and Fugue in D Minor FAP G Minor LX.C.

We have seen how. there arose changes of taste which involved corresponding changes in the style of music. essentially non-contrapuntal. Besides this. a serious style evolved. say. of course. Broadly speaking. there was a IN and Handel were producing swing away from polyphony (at least in certain cases) to homophony.g. while Domenico Scarlatti's sonatas show a complete lack of interest in anything truly contra- The cantatas of Georg Philipp Telemann (1681 and Christoph Graupner (1683 to 1760) show leanings to the style galant. work t Dr. Bukofzer. a Bach concerto. Pietro Locatelli (1693 to 1764) and puntaLT to 1767) which * It must be pointed out that this chapter will not deal with opera. in Music in the Baroque Era. e. at the beginning of the lyth century. . lighter. as in the clavecin pieces of Couperin and his successor Jean Philippe Rameau (1683 to 1764). while Bach their greatest works.CHAPTER ELEVEN THE RISE OF CLASSICISM the second quarter of the i8th century. which aimed chiefly at grace and elegance. is. less generally such music was of a kind to be heard rather than carefully listened to. Anticipations of the new style are numerous. usually known as the style galant. From about 1 730 onwards there was a rather similar swing away from the contrapuntal style* to music in which the stress was on the vertical aspect rather than on the horizontal. as does the work of some of the successors of Vivaldi. suggests that in Scarlatti's 'the nearing classic style manifests itself openly'. it required but little of the mental concentration which was needed for the appreciation of.

In his slow movements. It is noticeable that the traditional trio sonata now falls into disuse. quick. its place being taken by the solo sonata. By the end of the century the harpsichord was obsolescent.* which reached its climax in the pianoforte sonatas of Beethoven. His important book The True Manner of Keyboard Performance remains a mine of information on the musical practice of his time. being distinguished from the older instrument by the fact that its strings were struck by hammers. He movements Using the 'corresponding cadence mentioned in connection with Scarlatti. he seems to have held a poor opinion of 'learned music'.148 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Francesco Veracini (c. Despite his professed admiration for the works of his father. Carl Philipp Emanuel (1714 worked on the three movement plan. the Cantor . 1683 to 1750). Later. This gave the player control by the fingers over gradations of tone. slow. and to * The ousting of the harpsichord by the piano took place in the second half of the century. The initial slow move- movement and becoming homophonic. the normal plan becomes that of the out. using a wide range of keys and styles. he gradually increased their contrast with the opening material. which were figures' also much employed by his father in suite movements. and even indulging in experiments in recitative. hence the name originally used by the inventor. which Bach was able to try when he visited Potsdam. the most important composer being Bach's third son. Possibly more than any of his predecessors except Scarlatti. The piano was invented about 1709 by Cristofori in Florence. thus pointing the way to the true second subject group of the later. grauicembalo (=harpsichord) col piano e forte. though as late as 1802 some of Beethoven's sonatas were as 'for I published sichord or pianoforte*. Silbermann. not plucked. It is at this time that the foundations of the clavier sonata. The new invention was exploited in Germany by who found Bach critical of his early efforts. His to first 1788). Thus. were laid. allegro ment of the sonata drops takes first and the place. fully-developed form. he achieved a true keyboard style. more developed examples. losing its fugal character Italian overture quick. he shows a considerable advance on the practice of the older composers. are basically binary. he found more satisfactory. preferred his clavichord.

including various dances. the symphony really dates from around 1740. which might run to a large number of movements. Above these might be a pair of flutes or oboes. The demand for symphonies became very great. and still are. violas. as in the Italian overture.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM 149 have considered lack of contrapuntal ability no great matter. a carry-over from the divertimento type of work. and two horns. There exists one of 1629 for two violins and bass by Bartolomeo Mont'-Albano. Clarinets do not appear until the end of the century. But these are really canzonas under another name. The early orchestras were small. Such symphonies were. Later it became customary to employ a pair of both flutes and oboes. Works under the title of symphony. plus one or two bassoons. sonatas for orchestra. and their composition was variable. and at first was naturally of a very crude nature. The normal plan was of three movements. To this was often added a minuet between the last two movements. the last two being omitted in the quiet slow movements. apart from the sinfonia avanti Vopera. deriving from the Italian overture. as in the case of that to Bach's G minor Partita (=suite) for clavier. an overture for two clarinets and corno da caccia.* Orchestration in the modern sense of the term . and composers found it desirable to write them apart from any operatic connection. and another of 1650 for two violins. The symphony began to develop contemporaneously with the sonata. viola and bass viol by Gregorio Allegri. two trumpets and two kettledrums. 'cellos and basses (whose parts were normally identical) with harpsichord continuo. and its rise was at least partly due to the establishment of public concerts. Nuremburg in Handel wrote . There was always a basis of strings ist and and violins. As an independent form. * The clarinet was invented by Johann Denner of 1694. their structural development following that of the solo sonata for clavier or violin. The term 'symphony' was also sometimes used for introductory movements (apart from opera). had been written well back in the 1 7th century.

Quite as despair. violins. % The 'hunting oboe*. rather naturally in view of their fundamentally contrapuntal texture. ferred literally to flutes or oboes.I 5o A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC to develop. As long e as the principle of one movement. Matthew Passion by a flute and two oboi da cacda>% we can only feel that the colour is entirely 'right'. when Bach accompanies the aria For love of us my Saviour suffered in the St. one mood' held good. but possibly more instructive. and which became normal in anything approaching the kaleidoscopic changes of colour later ages was obviously out of the question. But the whole method and approach were different. * Space has forbidden any consideration of Bach's use of the orchestra in the preceding chapter. For example. being bound up with the generally contrapuntal style of writing. In Bach and Handel we find. 1 7th- much as the voice does it express Peter's utter indefinitely. The student should realise that although he lived before the rise of orchestration in the present-day sense of the term. as has been pointed out. Lord. that little distinction is made in the style of writing for the various instruments. One of the most important changes which came over music in the second half of the i8th century was the tendency to strong contrasts of emotional temperature within a single movement. are the first and third movements of Bach's 2nd Brandenburg Concerto. Scarlatti was a pioneer. Bach's handling of the orchestra was. predecessor of the cor anglais. Examples could be multiplied early 18th-century orchestration was naturally largely conditioned by the doctrine of 'affections'. In this. and Where may later appear transthese composers show their appreciation of tone colour is in their choice of instruments for particular movements.* now begins in the use of the instruments as ceding generation.! This is especially noticeable in the accompaniments to vocal pieces. on me. Similarly with the solo violin which is added to the quartet in the aria Have mercy. t For a simple example of the early iSth-century style of orchestra^ tion the reader may refer to one of the oboe concertos of Handel. with some considerable differences compared with the pre- A passage first stated on the entirely suited to them. Less simple. as masterly as that of any later composer. . in its own way.

even Haydn. Johann was in of Mannheim. Mozart made perhaps more progress in this direction than anybody. The list of early symphonists is lengthy. But in the new galant style the wind are largely relegated to holding notes. All these were Karl Ditters concerned with the gradual evolution of the symphony as we know it. But this must not be taken too liter- As to the that the new ally. with Bach's youngest son Johann Christian 1787). charge of the orchestra at the electoral court reached a height of expressiveness where his renderings hitherto almost unknown. their parts often being almost devoid of melodic interest. RISE OF CLASSICISM find that the 151 In Bach and Handel we wood wind and the violas are expected to work as hard as the violins. for which reason composers of the galant period rarely gave the viola a truly independent or important part. the wind. on a melody (in the broadest sense of the term) and a bass. Karl Friedrich who. 1700 Baldassare Galuppi (1706 to 1785). as the new style after all life that he had done to develop the new style. The standard of viola playing was generally low. in London.THE. and (1735 to 1782) was active for many years von Dittersdorf (i 739 to 1 799). roughly speaking. plus the contimto. We must assume that Bach and Handel took not inconsiderable risks in their writing for this instrument. Specially important are Johann Stamitz (1717 to 1757) and his son Karl (1746 to 1801). The violas cling tightly to the 'cellos and spend much of their time doubling the parts of their larger brothers. Georg Christoph Abel (1725 to Wagenseil (1715 to 1777). we must realise style of writing was based. provided a background. developed so did the use and individualisation of the instruments. The upper strings did most of the melodic work. said late in it was a pity he had to die just as he was learning how to use the wood wind. with non-contrapuntal inner parts. Among the more to important are Giovanni Battista Sammartini (c. on whose (im1775). He was one of the first to make . changed use of wood wind. aginary) toccata Browning wrote his poem.

as is sometimes implied. was born at Rohrau in Austria on March 3ist.i 52 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC full use. as he himself said. 'cared not a straw whether he was an artist or a shoemaker'. The pretext for his dismissal. Le. and Geminiani employed them in instrumental music. and until 1 756 was miserably poor. He was now thrown on his own resources. with a small but secure 20 a year plus board and lodging. of the preceding 9 period. Haydn. however. In 1759 he obtained an appointment with Count Morzin. he seems to have had no notable musical ancestry. saddled with a vixen of a wife who. From 1761 to 1790 he was in the service of the enormously wealthy Esterhazys. in orchestral performance. and the 'Mannheim crescendo was famous through- out musical Europe. his voice having broken. to obtain and study the important theoretical works of the time and so gradually built up his technique as a composer. * Crescendo and diminuendo were not. 'block' contrasts of degrees of tone. At the age of eight he was admitted as a chorister at St. 1732. of a gradual increase or decrease of tone as opposed to the 'terrace' dynamics. It is extraordinary that Haydn. Stamitz's They had been in use in opera since the time of Caccini. The two greatest figures of the second half of the i8th century are Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Italian musicians in the early part of the i8th century used swelling and diminishing of tone in all kinds of music. was one of the greatest benefactors of music in the whole of invention. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. but from a very early age gave signs of talent. As a composer he must have been able to shut himself up in a mental world of his own. Prince Nicholas 'the Magnificent'.* Mozart was greatly influenced by the performances he heard at Mannheim. was a practical joke which he had perpetrated on one of his fellows. who succeeded to the title in 1762. Like Handel. He managed. the son of a wheelwright. The second of these. where he remained until 1748. . and salary of about proceeded to marry the daughter of a wigmaker who was a perpetual cross to him until she died in 1800. could write so much music of a happy and carefree nature.

is notable for his adventurousness in key plan. 1809. they wanted They (the audiences) appear to have cared very little. beyond anything that Emanuel Bach ever attempted. He died in Vienna on May 3ist. Haydn to allow a second subject to grow from on the whole went Haydn the only real difference being that of key. The clavier sonatas are built on the foundations laid by Emanuel Bach. Then followed his two visits to London under the aegis of the impresario Salomon. to 'write as he felt and as he wished . 82. In movement The early symphonies (Haydn wrote altogether over & hundred) are mostly in the galant style. famous all over 5 In Haydn we see the work of the early sonatists and symphonists developed to a point from which Beethoven was able to take his departure. and he was given every livery like encouragement. the slow is in the very distant key of E major. to whose work Haydn admitted he owed much. Although Haydn had to wear a any other servant. not stirred with deep emotion. far the E flat sonata. his salary generous. From Bach's more or less tentative development of binary form he gradually evolved the settled outline of the full Europe. Performances must have been often rough and ready. character of thematic material within a movement. 'with regard to deep meaning. and the purposes of composers in those days were consequently not exalted to any high pitch. the orchestra small and its treatment relatively undeveloped. Mozart farther. op. like Hasse at Dresden. but . his relations with his employer were easy. refinement. After 1790 he was free of any appointment. It re- mained for Beethoven to develop real differentiation in the was often content the first. with a comfortable pension.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM the 153 Age of Patronage. poetical intention. or originality. for example. since in his early days the symphony was not considered a very important branch of art. to be healthily pleased and entertained. but hardly the whole distance. honoured by all. As Sir Hubert Parry says in the article Symphony in Grove. This was natural enough. sonata form.

written *in an entirely new and special manner'. dating from the middle 1 760*8. We have by now moved a long . were limited to a simple and unpretentious supply. not the composer). in particular. While there is not the emotional depth of. 3 (the opus number is that of a publisher. consisting of an indefinite number of movements. Haydn was composed influenced by these considerations till the last/ In the latest symphonies. The latter derived mainly from the sonata for strings and continue. leaving Besides such works were a multitude of divertimenti. spontaneity. for his visits to London. 17 (1769 and 1771 respectively) we With op. the mature hand of the great master is evident. as in the symphony. cassations and serenades. an outstanding violinist of the generation G men occasionally dispensed with the the strings to stand on their own feet. . are a landmark in their mastery of thematic development. is now exsix quartets pected to pull his weight with greater independence. Haydn is sometimes called the Father of the Symphony. contimo. are more truly quartets in the accepted sense. .154 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC . the third being a minuet. The inclusion of this movement. The part-writing is of greater interest. and designed primarily for open-air performafter Vivaldi. which often contained two or more. and the wealth of delightful ideas shows that increasing age brought no diminution of inventiveness and. the craftsis superb and the orchestration manship impeccable. 9 find the true quartet style firmly established. Haydn's are of the divertimento type. and op. reason they lacked a continuo part. the two 'Salomon* sets. The of op. but those of op. These ance. say. They are in four movements. equally he was the Father of the String Quartet. In his young days there was but little distinction between symphony and quartet. however. via such works as the quadri of Sam-martini and his fellow-countryman Giuseppe Tartini (1692 to 1770). and the viola. 33 (1781). the former master of the galant style has now become the great classic. Mozart's great minor. was a relic of the divertithis For earliest quartets mento.

were dragged round Europe and to England as infant prodigies. Rome. The Creation and The Seasons. is the true successor of the oraThe Seasons. have much preferred him * still to though his father would remain in a settled post. He was born in Salzburg on January 27th 1756. and he received careful instruction from his father. written in 1800. his father. if not 'born fully armed .) At the age of six. who was a musician of considerable attainments. also musically gifted. may be considered possibly the most naturally gifted musician who has ever lived. Mozart. Mozart travelled widely throughout his life Mannheim. From his earliest years the young Mozart's great talent was evident. Leopold. Milan. Haydn was in poor health and did private orchestra of the Prince Archbishop of that city. where he had attended various performances of Handel's oratorios. in The Seasons they were merely peasants. even in the barest outline. with much of Haydn's other work. The former was the outcome of his experiences in London. and had been overwhelmed by their power. including mastery of counterpoint. that Mozart was a greater contrapuntist than Bach.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM way from the 155 slightly developed binary form of Emanuel Bach. allowing for the inevitable differences in idiom. achieved his mastery by struggle and hard work over a period of years. . (His still Method for the Violin was for long a standard work and is to be studied with profit. Unlike Haydn. The writer^has even heard the opinion expressed.* It is impossible to deal. was on the torios of Handel. etc. composers' training was and largely based on contrapuntal practice. The not find the libretto really attractive. but reference must be made to his two great choral works. whole less successful. Despite public distaste for learned* music. Paris. He remarked that whereas the characters in The Creation were angels. The later quartets show increasing mastery in all directions. by a musician of great erudition and experience. Wolfgang and his sister Marianne. being a violinist (later vice-kapellmeister) in the 9 3 Creation was written in 1797 and. apart from his natural ability. and both Haydn Mozart were brilliant contrapuntists. Haydn.

possibly the most tidy and ever lived. proportion and pure beauty are unsurpassed. dying December 5th. make pitiable reading). Not that the emotional side is eliminated. and when away from home was perpetually chased by his father. some twentyprofitable. In cautionary letters and admonitions from had 1782 he married Gonstanze Weber. As time went on he became his friend and fellow deeply in debt (his begging letters to Freemason Michael Puchberg. but are distinguished aries by their superior craftsmanship and elegance. Mozart's early works are naturally enough in the style from those of his contemporgalant. always with promises of on speedy repayment. the elements of structural balance. showed increasing fecklessness as he grew older.i5 6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC with an eye Leopold was of a careful disposition. as in those of his elder contemporary. so strongly characteristic of the Romantics of the igth century. Although Haydn was the elder by four years. thereby adding to his difficulties with Leopold. an encounter which turned out to be mutually Haydn. and again. the emotion is strictly controlled. 1791. a richer harmonisation. having previously an affaire with her elder sister Aloysia. His to a steady income and the economical composer who son. its free expression. He was at first strongly influenced by the style of Christian Bach. whom he met as a child in London. minor symphony to realise has only to think of the great this. while from Mozart Haydn learned 'a rounder phrase. and. in whose later works. each learned from the other. in Paris. there One is much more than mere well-balanced 'patterning'. is not the G . was buried in a pauper's grave outside Vienna. It is from this time that the clever young exponent of the style galant develops into the great classic. always favour of his employer. at In 1781 he first met the age of twenty-two. From Haydn Mozart learned much of the possibilities of form and expression. with comparatively rare exceptions. and a fuller command of the orchestra' (Grove). But.

and there is never a note too many. his craftsmanship is pure delight. the It is in the last for piano was in the year of his death. written at the age of seventeen. In them he exhibits the complete range of his style. in the context of complete with such strokes of performance. he concertos. Mozart understood the art of concealing art. the reader may turn to the second movement of the minor string quintet. no. Above all composers. progressed and possibly farther. to No sketch of Mozart's Brilliant . but whereas the last complete concerto for violin was written in 1777. quoted. and greater depth of meanmore rapidly ing.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM prime it 157 wells up Occasionally object. Passion. work can omit reference to his both as a clavierist and a violinist. Mozart. Everything is vital to the total effect. be realised fully. but it is never allowed to override perfect balance A irresistibly. Haydn. Matthew in 'Truly. as they achieved greater mastery of form. and of obtaining the maximum effectiveness by the Pages of examples could be simplest of means. as the shorter-lived. Even more than is the case with much the same line of development as Haydn. or Bach's ultimate affirmation of faith this was the Son of God' in the St. of course. as in symmetry of form. the quintessential Mozart. we find. the slow movement of the major piano concerto (K. viola and orchesand tra. put from minor into major key (a mechanical procedure if ever there was one). For a single. superb instance. wrote equally well for both instruments. becomes the opening of the The incredible effect of this transformation can only trio. It is comparable only as the first entry of the fugue subject in Beethoven's genius sonata op. as in the later symphonies concertos for piano that and chamber music. nical mastery of the medium. did space permit. In his symphonies and chamber music Mozart followed Both. from the gdanthe sheer terie of the first. noting how the cadence figure of the G minuet. 488) or that of the Sinfonia Concertante for violin. greater techprogressed.

and about 150 to It took the masterpieces of Bach and Handel. it may be pointed out. The display element is strictly controlled. (We do not use the word 'progress* here. the continuo during the century. for See Tovey. Companion to Mozart's Pianoforte Concertos. strictly correct.* The second movement is most frequently an andante^ and the finale often a rondo. All are in three movements. and the frequent statement that they are in exposition* is 'sonata Essays in Musical Analysis. not a full discussion. moving. On the purely technical side. In his passage-work. 'slow'. the harpsichord and Torelli. beginnings Then another 150 before Ars Nova appeared. and of limpid clarity. Mozart means every At this stage we may pause to note the gradual speedingup of the tempo of musical change. in the works of such composers decline in importance of With the gradual Tartini.e. especially in the orchestral introduction which serves as an 'opening ritornello . i. sometimes of distinctly complex internal 9 construction. as in everything else. the day of handfuls of notes. the concertos show the 9 This element.i 58 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC beauty of the famous the great C year. introduction to Vol. means *going*. as it is apt to lead to misunderstanding. not . * There is But now we find a good deal of misunderstanding regarding the form of form with a double these movements. note to say something to the point.) about 300 years for music to evolve from the of the old organum up to measurable music. In the first movements there are traces of the old concerto form of the preceding period. rise and development of the 'display to creep into works for the violin as early had A major of 1786 and the tragedy of minor of the same as and the tendency was intensified as time as Veracini and passed. t Which term. lacking the minuet. but the first of real importance are those of Mozart. Haydn wrote a small number of piano concertos. and Hutchings. was as yet far distant. Another 300 to the climax of the polyphonic style. splashed liberally all over the keyboard. begun the piano came into their own as individuals in concerted music. 3.

followed in comparatively rapid succession. but the major and minor scale system. 3022 LX. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik A Major G Minor LXT. 1088 OALP. 6 With Verdure Clad (Creation) Mozart Symphonies in G.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM 159 a new style reaching a climax in three-quarters of a century. and we shall see later how further changes. of course. 1052 LX. both in outlook and technical method. 14084 ABR. (Jupiter) String Quintet. It took over 600 years for the modal system to be played out. Bach Boccherini Composer Title Divertimento and Serenade Sinfonias in E fiat and String Quartet in Symphony in F sharp minor D D APM. at least according to some contemporary musicians. Mozart J. this. Cat. 2 in D Major (London) ALP. 2515 1 178 . C. 2680 DX. But after less than 300. reaching the end of its tether. is already. JVb. RECORDS L. LPM. 33 OCX. 3010 OBLP. is purely a matter of personal opinion. 10140 Overtures Piano Concerto. 1316 PL. 64 No. 2680 Haydn (Farewell) Symphony No. 1061 - 18397 cx Quartet in E Flat. Op. 4005 LXT. Symphony in Symphony in D and C G Minor C Major LXT.

jects for libretti were number arias were an occasional duet. and the overture was often of few if any of the audience Opera (Pdican Books). for example. True. by the early years of the i8th century. the arias. had considerable musical value.* 'just a concert in costume'. holds up an exotic and irrational entertainment' The irrationality was in no way diminished by the employment of male e ! sopranos for heroic parts. outside the action and serving largely as media dungeon. mostly strings with harpsichord negligible value. continue. and in ternary form. there was a set mythology of characters. to or ancient history. as which they found themselves. many of the arias. Dent puts it. The heroine. if not entirely. The action of the story was carried along by recitative with the barest of accompaniment. in his dictionary. except for the characters' re- actions to the situations in being really for the singers to exhibit their vocal talents. or led away to the torture chamber. but an opera as a whole was. her captors awaiting the end of her outburst with exemplary patience.CHAPTER TWELVE DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA WE classical must now retrace our steps to follow the course pursued by opera from the point at which we left it in Chapter 8. finding herself about to be cast into the deepest the action while she expresses at length. Johnson defined opera. In any * case. The orchestra was small. as separate pieces. expressing ensemble numbers. were almost unheard-of. the number and order of whose strictly regulated. No wonder Dr. her feelings on her predicament. Subrestricted almost. opera was bogged down in a mass of conventions. In Italy. as Prof. . especially in the Neapolitan school of Scarlatti and his successors.

and with the development of opera a similar practice obtained. madrigals would be sung. Though. and served to cover up the shuffling of feet and the conversation of the audience who were awaiting the appearance of their pet singers. were discountenanced. judging by the applause. From very early times it had been customary to provide it light relief between the acts of a tragedy. for example. the comedy turns did little to "repose* the spirits of the sepoys who formed the bulk of the audience! .DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA 161 bothered to listen to it. Gradually the Intermezzi achieved character and coherence of their own. 'to cheer and repose the spirit of the spectator. the Intermezzo became known as opera buffd comic due course the Intermezzi achieving independence as * The writer was interested to find a similar procedure occurring in India as recently as 1943. as was ballet. In the period before 1600. by Intermezzi. mere vocal pyrotechnics. choral movements were a regular constituent. A travelling company of entertainers whom he saw alternated the acts of an historical drama with low comedy turns. was sometimes used.* In became separated from the opera. Besides this. In France the Lullian tradition was carried on by Rameau. a possibility entirely overlooked by the Italians. at least by Rameau. too. The subjects of the French operas were similar to those of the Italian. an individual form. The idea seems to have been similar to that of the Intermezzi as explained by Rousseau in his Dictionary of Music (1767). saddened by thoughts of the tragic and strained by its attention to matters of gravity*. Instead of merely providing a subordinate accompaniment. whose La Serva Padrona is the most famous of all such works. but in the musical setting there was more insistence on declamation as opposed to pure singing. for descriptive purposes. with which they had no connection either in plot or music. By the beginning of the i8th century they had become little two-act affairs. Separated from the opera seria> the 'serious opera*. It had rarely any recognisable connection with the opera itself. was used with greater ingenuity than was common in Italy. This independence was largely the work of Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710 to 1736). which were interlocked with the three acts of the opera proper. The orchestra. as in the aria di bravura of Italy.

With the arrival of Les Bouffons warfare flared up violently. was to be considered the more important. Throughout of the lyth and i8th centuries Paris was an operatic battleground the Parisians took their opera very seriously the grounds of contention being mainly whether the purely musical side. or the dramatic side. writers Pamphleteering was rife. that its harmony is crude and devoid of expression*. concluding c that there is melody in French music. it will be so much the worse for them somewhat startling condemnation of the national art from one who language is . arrived in Paris perform their Intermezzi. was bound by no conventions and so achieved real vitality. 'that the French have no music and cannot have any.. von Grimm (1723 to 1807) and Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712 to 1778). as in Italian opera. In England. many being F. * . dancing. two of the most important supporters of opera buffa to 1719) had Italian style. or that if they ever 9 have. Finally. who preferred the traditional much French style deriving from Lully. that French singing is continual squalling. use of chorus.162 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC It opera. and almost immediately arose the Guerre des Bouffons between those who supported the to Italians and those. more conservative. generally lauds the Italians and their performances as compared with the French. the Italian faction retorted to the effect that the French had no good singers anyway. neither measure nor A . 1660) and Le Gerf de La Vieville. because the not capable of them. Les Bouffons. Argument went back and forth on the importance or otherwise of stage machinery. often conducted in a remarkably virulent manner. In 1752 an Italian troupe. Among the more prominent pam* phleteers were the Abbe Frangois Raguenet (b. . The pro-French complained that all the Italians thought of was singing. W. and so on. as in the French. etc. The latter. in his Letter on French Music. Joseph Addison ( 1 672 witty things to say of the traditional while in Italy itself Benedetto Marcdlo satirised the native opera and the vanity of the singers.

I' other things. Paris at way on French La Serva Padrona. like opera buffa. famous especially for The Secret Marriage. that highly the recitative should be given greater importance. the great name in Italian opera buffa is Domenico Cimarosa (1749 to 1801). Its last great representative was Daniel Auber (1786 to 1871). After Pergolesi. He was not the only one to feel that it had reached a ridiculous pitch of irrationality. Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714 to 1787) began by writing successfully in the forty-six. In this work he showed considerable originality. It is from this time that the tradition of the French opera-comique. stemming from opera buffa. famous also as a chess player. many to the least musically educated audience. Rousseau himself wrote an in French. The Guerre des Bouffbns having died down. eventually made its into favour. poorly received in presentation in 1746. and a rather unexpected ability to handle the grand manner. his A visit to Paris in 1746 enabled him to hear works by Rameau. and had ultimately considerable influence Pergolesi's its first opera. his operas numberincluding the 'grand' opera Masaniello. Paris was almost immediately plunged into another operatic struggle. that of the Gluckists versus the Piccinnists. in the Italian style.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA only three years earlier 163 had written strongly supporting French opera against Intermezzo. and that brilliant passages in the arias should be introduced only He demanded. was far removed from the formality and heaviness of the Lully-Rameau style. among opera in musica (1755)9 was . was built up by such composers as Francois Philidor (1726 to 1795). du Village. in his Saggio sopra critical. of his contemporaries and predecessors. who possessed a remarkable flair for writing works which appealed Like ing facility in composition was amazing. Opera comique had spoken dialogue and. called Le Devin Italian. Algarotti. Pierre Monsigny (1729 to 1817) and Andre Gr6try (1741 to 1813). the Italian Francesco conventional Italian manner. which gave him cause to reflect on the possible weaknesses of the Italian style.

of the time. Further. The most popular appeared librettist first in his whose works were set by all was Metastasio. but the general tone of his complaint is that the true aims of the founders of opera. I resolved to divest it entirely of all those abuses which have so long disfigured Italian opera. however. 'the overture ought to apprise the spectators of the nature of the action that is to plains. 9 to restrict music to its true office of serving poetry by means of expression and by following the situations of the story. a century later. even to thematic material being taken from that in the main scenes of the opera. so to speak. are c 9 be represented and to form. In essence it found in many overtures to Venetian operas of the mid-iyth century. its argument In this he anticipates Wagner. without interrupting the action or stifling it with a useless superfluity of ornaments . . but with the first note of the overture. insisted that an opera begins not with the rise of the curtain. the originator of this idea.A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC when really appropriate. only a halfway house. and it was not until 1767. a hundred and fifty years earlier. His aims. 9 The results of Gluck's reflections Orfeo of 1762. whom he found in Raniero da CalzabigL Orfeo was. He admits that occasional move1 64 ments by such composers as Jommelli (1714 to 1774) and Hasse (1699 to 1783) are worthy of praise. but for his new ideas he needed a writer of sympathy and originality.* We may mention that 9 . to return to the methods and aims of the Camerata. had been completely forgotten. the most famous musicians. He deplores the undramatic formality of the da capo aria and insists that the action of the plot must not be held up 'un9 reasonably or wantonly . in the Preface to Alce$te> that Gluck first fully expounded his ideas on what opera should and should not be. . who. is * Gluck was not. In other words. however. In the dedication of this work he begins by saying: 'When I undertook to write the music for Alceste. he ex. as a dramatic unity it did not exist. . His libretti were designed exactly to suit the conventions of opera seria. As a 'concert in costume it might be effective enough. Gluck had set some of his libretti.

his former singing pupil. and their application in practice.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA Gluck in his 9 165 accompany harpsichord. Even so. In 1772 Gluck wrote. produced in Paris in 1774. Iphigtnie en Aulide. instead of the traditional Such theories. it was a success. The war of the Gluckists and the Piccinnists broke out in 1777. the complete unreality and formality of opera seria eventually passed away. Except for Etienne M&iul (1763 to 1817) the French composers remained unaffected directly by Gluck's reforms. IphigSnie m Tauride. and was followed by the presentation of Orphee et Eurydice (adapted from Orfeo) and Alceste. Nor were there any conventions in the form. The initial impulse seems to have come from the performance of a German version of the ballad opera The Devil to Pay by . the argument was carried on after Gluck had returned to Vienna. two years later. The Italian conventions. Mehul's greatest work was the sacred opera Joseph. which city had by this time become the chief centre of Italian opera. however. the mythological-historical subjects of opera seria being excluded. Piccinni was the protege of the Italian faction. Gluck's version. produced in 1779. was a comparative failure. and eventually the two composers were invited to set the same libretto. without recitative. Originally it was related to the English ballad opera spoken dialogue in the verna- cular with interpolated songs but by degrees evolved into something more approaching true opera. and his Roland was to be produced four months after Gluck's Armide. gradually broke down. Largely due to the support of Marie Antoinette. Piccinni's. did not please the opera public of Vienna. Singspiels were often based on everyday stories. to a French libretto. 'reformed operas used the orchestra to the recitatives. The contest was waged with great violence. and although in Italian opera the accent remained primarily on the singing. was a great success. In Germany a type of opera known as the singspiel grew up during the i8th century.

Neither has the often trivial plot. referred to as The Magic Flute (which the composer is 'my German opera'). of the general run of opere buffe. F. whether it would be pos- beauty with a most elementary harmonic progression and an almost static voice part than Mozart does in the opening of the aria Dove sow in Figaro. for example. and led to the composition of a number of similar pieces by Johann Adam Hiller (1728 to 1804) in conjunction with the poet C. a 'humorous But neither Figaro nor Don Giovanni is comedy drama pure and simple. The former is in essence a social satire. may almost be considered as a 'cautionary tale'. which had a great success in Leipzig in 1764. There is no particular virtue in trying to decide which of Mozart's operas is the greatest. sible to achieve greater . opere serie. though or Dittersdorf. and are the ancestors of such works as Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier. This the composer describes as a 'comedy with music'. They lie. he simply does everything better than any of his contemporaries. by Lorenzo da Ponte. between serious and comic opera. its libretto being arranged. always with the greatest simplicity and ease. Weisse. Idomeneo and La Clemenza di Of the others. are opere bujfe. nor the trivial music. Especially notable. too. As with so many of his works. Of Mozart's operas. Hiller is often called the father of the singspiel. Dittersdorf s Doctor and Apothecary is one of the most famous of all such works. It is doubtful.it were. while Don Giovanni is described as a Dramma Giocoso. Don Giovanni. described on the title- page as a singspiel. from a comedy by Beaumarchais which at the time was banned by the authorities. based on a story of considerable antiquity.166 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Charles Coffey. but again there is much more under the surface than mere comedy. much more developed in every way than the works of Hiller Mozart wrote two Tito. apart from those already tutte mentioned. Figaro and Cosifan 5 . while The Flight from the Seraglio and the less-known Theatre Director are of the same class. as . is his power of characterisation.

g. The Huguenots and UAfricaine* demanded a large cast and orchestra. In all these directions Luigi Cherubim ( 1 760 to 1 842) excelled. (Gluck does the same in Iphigenie en Tauride.g. The style is well exemplified in Spontini's its La Vestale (1807).DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA With only the minimum his characters 167 of resources. Concerted numbers became longer and more important. Cherubini. he defines each of clarity. however reformed. and we may note his Lodoiska and Les Deux Journees. are entirely based on themes be heard later. with the greatest As with Gluck. e. and Parsifal. while spectacular and melodramatic elements came more to the fore. By the end of the i8th century the old French tradition of opera. the overture is an integral part of the work.} In the overtures to both Don Giovanni and The Magic Flute there are brief references to music which will be heard This is an important anticipation of later in the opera. in accordance with prevailing taste. Italian born. Hatevy's La Juive. Musically there was gradually greater freedom. on fairy tales. and so on. and were full of brilliant solos. rather than to confine the movement of the plot to recitative or spoken dialogue. for example. Weber. that of Don Giovanni leads without break into the first scene. Mastersingers some of Wagner's introductory movements. From the beginning of the igth century Parisian grand opera became more and more of a spectacle. had disintegrated. scenic effects. but 'grand opera' continued. on the chivalry of the Middle Ages. while e. dating back to Lulli. Stories were based on Oriental romance. and a tendency to carry on the action continuously. Plots became less stereotyped as literary romanticism began to have its effect. 1864). used material from the body of the opera for much of his overtures. was for many years director of the Paris Conservatory of Music. the practice of later composers. and was a learned writer to of technical treatises. and reaches height in the operas of Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791 to the Devil. Robert All such works spectacular .

Of other Italians. finale'. The establishment of * name was Jacob Liebmann Meyerbeer came of a German-Jewish business family. and he wrote no more. of the voice and of the orchestra. large-scale concerted in Berlin as well as in Paris. His most famous works are The Barber of Seville (1816) (of which the plot is actually the first part of Beaumarchais's story of Figaro. in either from about the middle of the i8th as great changes came about in opera as in other century forms of writing. a master of melody. and to a wider range of subject-matter. In the remaining thirty-nine years of his life he seems to have been more interested in gastronomy than in composition. then. The old conto learn Jew banker who composes Wagner referred to him as music'. In Italy. In Italian opera the solo voice still remained the predominant factor. Both were accomplished melodists. *a and use some of his effective tricks of orchestration. but neither showed any great ingenuity Tell (1829). as in France. His real . the old insistence on the mythological-historical plot faded away. also and 'romantic to appear. he certainly understood public taste. and whatever the underlying vulgarity of much of his music. Although many of his contemporaries had hard things to say of Meyerbeer. picture. especially the 'concerted began The greatest Italian of the early igth century was Gioachino Rossini (1792 to 1868). In France opera branched out in a number of different directions. despite the continued insistence see. convention and formgave way to greater freedom of design.* but did not disdain ventions died out. but.i68 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC numbers. Gaetano Donizetti (1797 to 1848) and Vincenzo Bellini (1801 to 1835) were chiefly concerned with carrying on the tradition of opera as a vehicle for vocal (solo) melody and technique. Beer. and melodramatic incident. that We harmony or use of the orchestra. 9 subjects came into the Concerted numbers. Mozart's work being the second part) and William after it This latter was his thirty-sixth opera. on the ality exploitation of pure singing.

LPEM LPEM Rossini Largo atfactotum (Barber of Seville) Una voce pocofa Overtures 0.1406 7 ERO.opira comique although good declamation remained of the utmost importance. No. Alceste JSurydice from Orpheus and Cat. Of German opera we shall speak later. 6025 19053. a more easily appreciated and melodious style of vocal writing evolved. 5038 19041. 1069 LS. 33 OCX. . and RECORDS Mozart Composer Selection Title Operatic arias Overture. DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA helped in breaking down the old 169 rigidity. together with the spectacular element.

survived. was director of music to the Elector. but it was no longer taken for granted that the musician would seek an assured livelihood in some salaried court or church post. and he also received training from Christian Neefe. freedom to write what he wished and as he wished. of course. and the old system less The last of the really great kapellmeisters was Haydn. The day of the 'tame musician' was nearing its end. while still only twelve years Beethoven became the 'orchestral harpsichordist' . Archbishop of Salzburg. His father. was. a tenor singer at the court of the Elector of Cologne. bound to provide became a freelance. well into the igth century. old. born in Bonn on December i6th.CHAPTER THIRTEEN BEETHOVEN the latter part of the i8th century the 'Age of Patronage was drawing to a close. and thenceforward had to make his own way independently. as in the case of Liszt's appointment as director of music at the court of Saxe-Weimar. gradual. Even when such a post was held. had been ignominiously discharged by his employer. too easy. 1827. who. the composer expected. by the time he was twenty-six. from 1 783. died in Vienna on March 26th. and the professional composer. In this year. as they relied for encouragement and possibly some kind of periodical financial assistance. dwindling. instead of being the paid servant of 9 IN some wealthy amateur. gave him his first musical instruction. After Mozart the first of the great freelances was Ludwig Many composers still had their patrons. and was granted. on whom a consequence finding life none van Beethoven. 1770. more or music to The change suit his employer's taste. Hieronymous Colloredo. Mozart.

No. is the great intensity of emotional power which at times comes to the surface. Beethoven. a modification of the conventional form (as in the last movement of the same work). Composers of the preceding period rarely 'let themselves go* emotionally. too. Albrechtsberger. op. ultimately becoming completely so. the obvious models for a young composer of the time. No. and when they did. Although a freelance. 2. where he had sible position. 2. 2. a few lessons from Mozart. But the . a dis- tinctly conservative contrapuntist. Beethoven nevertheless accepted At the age of about thirty Beethoven period we see the influence of Mozart and Haydn. In the first greatly impressed. in the new sense. In the work of Beethoven three periods are usually distinguished. of many of the nobility in Vienna. like Bach. and in 1792 he settled there permanently. The first period takes us to about the year 1802. and still more in that of the D major sonata. 3. it was with a certain amount of trepidation as to the reactions of their audience. seems not to have been the patronage. but he persevered with the theorist Albrechtsberger until 1 795. though there is some overlapping. No. For some years he lived in the house of Prince Karl Lichnowsky. Notable. an abrupt and forcefiil manner of expression (as in the first subject of the piano sonata. as is evident from some of Mozart's letters.BEETHOVEN and thus 171 early obtained experience of a responunpaid In 1787 he visited Vienna. as in the brooding of the slow movement of op. in which the second of the nine symphonies was written. was but little concerned with what his auditors wanted. who made him a yearly allowance. but rarely without something which is essentially Beethoven and nobody else. began to go deaf. The dedications of many of his works show that he was in close touch with many wealthy and titled people. op. or any one of a dozen things. they had to take what he gave them. 10. It may be a turn of phrase. Lessons in counterpoint with Haydn were not a success and soon ceased. Beethoven the individualist is always there. i).

31. the piano sonatas up to op. the concertos in major and E flat major. In works of the sonata type he tends to employ a wider range of keys. 95. For example. The compositions of the first and second periods show a number of important technical advances. like Mozart. the Rassoumovsfy quartets. as is evident in the piano sonatas of opp. distinctly unexpected of Beethoven to put the slow movement of his C minor piano concerto in the key of E major. to mention some of the chief. was far from being hidebound. In sonata form first movements there are instances of unusual keys for the second . is something which had never before been expressed in music. But Beethoven. No. In this second period are found a great body of works of all kinds the third to the eighth symphonies. It was. This is not to suggest that greater length necessarily implies greater value. 26 and 27. holds our attention from the first note to the last. the miniature score of the whole of Mozart's Jupiter symphony runs to eighty-four pages. as we have seen. the string quartets up to op. for example. The fury of the first movement of the D minor sonata. 59. and entirely sure of himself. 31 of 1802. the violin piano concerto. 90. the first movement alone of Beethoven's Eroica takes eightyone. while perhaps only Bach had plumbed such depths as are found in its slow movement. forceful.172 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC move into the second period was already under way. independent. and those of op. though it is to be noted that in many of them Beethoven was to some page more meaning than many other composers extent anticipated by Haydn and Mozart. op. op. In these it is obvious that the real Beethoven. Mozart was capable of packing into a single could achieve in a dozen. In many of them we are impressed by the enormous scale on which the composer works. the Kreut&r sonata G for violin and piano. which include the so-called 'Moonlight' sonata a publisher's title. 2. has emerged. as compared with his predecessors. though Haydn. the overture to Coriolanus. not the composer's of 1801. and the one opera Fidelio.

equally remote from the tonic. as it were. where the coda is down to the last detail. The first movement of the Eroica offers an example which is almost a second development.g. towards greater continuity within extended movements. op. at the development begins in F sharp minor. Beethoven realised the Mozart. The range of modulaapt to be wider than had formerly been customary. with a flourish of trumpets. say. and that the second group is ushered in. K. a link that has got to be there. for example. The structure of the G second group becomes more consistently complex (though here he was anticipated by Mozart). every possible deduction is made.BEETHOVEN 173 subject group as. In development sections there is a tendency to greater length. had set the No. ball rolling. as it were. too. the last move- potentialities of the coda. is for example. major. Even in ment of the sonata short cut. Often in the works of earlier composers we feel that the bridge passage is more or less mechanical padding. Beethoven's Appassionato. where it is in E major. But in Mozart's one point finds itself in the extremely re- G minor symphony e. 2. a comprehensive summing-up. Not that Beethoven invariably wrote long codas. the various sections moving into each other almost imperceptibly. If the reader will refer to the second group of Mozart's sonata in F. symphony. too. as in the last movement of his Jupiter 2. is a tendency. though again Mozart pointed the way. it depended on whether he felt one to be appropriate. from the material selected for discussion. and shows the composer's genius for holding our attention while arguing a point. The development of the first movement of the Eroica symphony. quite early works. this will be readily apparent. as it were. With Beethoven the bridge tends to become an integral part of the material. yet again. and its character also. tion. and There . 332. and compare with it that of. in the Waldstein sonata. or Waldstein sonatas. and reached by a really startling harmonic mote key of E minor.

2. what is evident purely musically in so many of Beethoven's sonatas. etc. Beethoven. The relaxed in the slow movement. 2. This leads without break into ihs finale another new departure and the finale itself is whole movement on the well-known rhythmic is interrupted by a is reference back to the first theme of the scherzo. and in it we can trace the distance which Beethoven had travelled. The very opening is a revelation. however contrasted. we find a scherzo in which there is but little trace of its In the 5th symphony the literal conception of a playful movement becomes metamorphosed.174 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the second group. as in the quartets of op. This the instance of such thematic cross- referencing. are all that he uses to replace the frequent conventional slow introduction of the earlier symphonists. 33. one slow movement or finale would suit as well as another. Firstly. but returns in a different guise in the scherzo. definitely changed the character of the movement. and is especially notable in two ways. But it cannot be denied that in many of the earlier . rising to heights tension of almost shattering intensity. in the Eroica. to flow out of it. mechanically. a scherzo as four notes tically the at his audience. Beethoven simply hurls his subject-matter ancestry. but he was anticipated to some by Haydn. The 5th symphony is a work of great importance in the development of symphonic writing. that he viewed the work as a unified whole. Not that he was the first and symphonies and quartets. and proceeds to build prac- figure. As early as op.. it led to further such developments by later composers. at least in the first and last sections. or the G minor Qtiintet. into something almost macabre. There is no concession to convention. Such works as Mozart's G minor or Jupiter symphonies. are one and indivisible. The scherzo in sonata or symphony is often assumed to extent be Beethoven's invention. some of whose minuets. sonatas in this. approach the style. while in most cases retaining the 3/4 time-signature. not even so much as the two introductory chords which. No. and secondly it shows.

Vaughan Williams's Sea Symphony and Hoist's Choral Symphony. and trombones appear again only in the 'storm' movement of the Pastoral Symphony and in the second and last movements of the gth. feels them inadequate In this. Fidelio. From his first symphony (1800) Beethoven had used clarinets regularly. 101 onwards. too. obviously to allow for the notable horn passage which opens the trio of the In the 5th there are only two horns. The use of voices (soloists and chorus) in the last movement of the gth was another forward-looking innovation. advances in the use of the orchestra. Mozart uses the double bassoon in his Masonic Funeral Music. ranks among the greatest stands on a peak with Bach's all. Not until the gth Symphony does Beethoven employ four horns.BEETHOVEN The 175 5th symphony shows. In the works of the third period. Beethoven begins to move away from strict adherence to the traditional forms. for the expression of Beethoven points the way to the . which include the last quartets and the piano sonatas from op. of B Beethoven's one opera. and each work the composer his thought. and in the Eroica he employed three horns instead of the usual two. double bassoon and three trombones. by the message which he wished to convey. with progeny including such works as Mendelssohn's Hymn of Praise. Comparison D less. their is supreme in its own way. even though the basic outlines were those customarily followed at the time. As with all great composers. but trombones were usually reserved for use in opera. In these latest works the conventional plans are modified or discarded if composers' outlook and approach were entirely different. The entry of the statue in the last act of Don Giovanni is an example of the latter. especially in connection with funeral music and the supernatural. i. movement brings in piccolo. while his Mass in of these two works would be fruitminor.e. but the last scherzo. his organisation of the internal details had always been conditioned by emotional intention. the first time these had been used in such a work.

to name no other examples. shows the same principle in operation. Bach had done so in the Art of Fugue (notwithstanding its pedagogical aim) and in the great Ricercare of the Musical Offering. unlike in themselves. his designs. As Sir Donald Tovey so often pointed out. fugue and variations. since fugue. emotionally and in every other which he casts his music. is that in which the principle of continuous be of a new character. too. is basic. or a de Madariaga expresses his philosophical deductions in an essay. whether for single always movements or for whole works. It is works Beethoven was preoccupied with thinking In the same way as a Bertrand Russell music not for 'entertainment9 . the great architect. No better summing up 9 express. but to give expression to thought. that which the composer wishes to way. to whom But.176 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC 9 form was subservient to emotional some of his successors. or based on figuration. 'Content^ implies 'meaning . by conventional or textbook standards. and however unorthodox 'Romantics . withdrawn into himself by the of his later years. offered possibilities beyond those of sonata and other traditional forms. scale * total deafness But Beethoven. regardless of the form in t It is undesirable to think of fugue as a 'form'. This is not to suggest that Beethoven was the first to 'think in sound 9 . . are always perfect The relationship between form and content* is indivisible. the subject. The use of variations. he was expression. For this purpose. in however high a sense we interpret the word. and the variations exploring implications. it is a 'texture*. tends to As opposed to the subject which was so often melodic. neither of them 'forms' in the conventional sense. the cell its e j being the theme. In his last in musical terms.f of all styles of composition. His frequent adoption of fugue in later works shows this. too. The thematic material. did so on a far greater than any earlier composer. Beethoven used matter which can be best described as germinal a cell from which a movement grows. growth from a germinal cell. so Beethoven gives us the fruits of his meditations in sound.

5016 7 TCA. . identification with the sufferings of all living creatures. in unison with all genuine mystics and ethical teachers. OALP. and touches upon the domain of the seer and the prophet. 57 (AppasViolin Sonata Op. 18/1 and 2 Quartet Op. 52/2 sionato) Op. Piano Sonatas Piano Sonata Op. Leonora. 27/2 Op. No. deprecation of sel negation of personality. 1077 LWA. Symphony No. 3 Overture. i. release from the world.' RECORDS Beethoven Composer Title Cat. 1168 33 OCX.BEETHOVEN e 177 of the works of the last period can be found than that of Edward Dannreuther: He passes beyond the horizon of a mere singer and poet. 1236 KLC 564 33 OCX. he delivers a message of religious love and resignation. 5. Coriolan Song-Cycle: An die feme Geliebte Symphony No. 47 (Kreut&r) Quartets Op. where. 40 ALP. C Major C Minor 1094 1319 33 OCX. 1073 Overture. 1066 OALP. 13 and 33 OCX. JVb.

for domestic or instructional use. Thomas's Church. but fundamentally it was Gebrauschmusik utility music. that anyone could do as well if he worked hard enough. It might be for the Church. approach died out. Matthew Passion was written simply because Bach needed a new setting for use at St. without restrictions or inhibitions. The utilitarian and the musician. It has already been noted that the decline of the patronage system brought about changes in the conditions under which composers worked. at least in his own estimation. for the opera house. or what not. Official posts in the Church and the opera house still remained. 'art for art's sake' was unheardof. Composing was looked upon largely as a 'job of work'. became an 'artist'. he would probably have replied. The new conditions and outlook were part and parcel of the general tendency towards greater freedom. as he did in another connection. Comparable tendencies are observable among The rather rigid formalism of the *Age of Reason' . taneously there came about a change in the composers' UNTIL all attitude to their art. the poets. Had someone commented to him on its greatness (a most unlikely happening at the time). of which the French Revolution and similar smaller movements were but the more violent manifestations. Even such a masterpiece as the St. but the old system of reguSimullarly composing to order no longer held good. whose aim was at all costs to express himself.CHAPTER FOURTEEN THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC the latter part of the i8th century practically music was written for a specific purpose or occasion. for a court or civic function.

but these were mostly either propaganda or simply controversial. but to the musically educated public. thetics as composing The new had hardly been touched. Of the musical litterateurs whose writings provided both i. Romanticism. a tone-poet. Weber was the first of the line. To gave way the cool. There were. Aesversely. . what has been called 'the stiff couplets and clenched quatrains'f was replaced by greater flexibility and variety. numerous writings on opera. and the musician. con- the began to consider himself as a poet in musical sound. too. as well as of the musical literary man. this label is retained for f Louis Untermeyer in The Albatross Book of Living Verse.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC to 179 a more humanistic and natural approach. The poet sang. whose writings were chiefly designed as propaganda for his own works. Schiller and the brothers August and Friedrich Schlegel. rather naturally as long was regarded largely as a 'job to be done'. while possibly the most verbose and controversial of all was Richard Wagner (1813 to 1883). the rise of the 'literary' musician. In former times almost all books on music. more appreciated in his lifetime as a musical avowed object of encouraging the poetic principle in music. and was followed by Hector Berlioz (1803 to 1869). from Musica Enchiriadis onwards. the lyricism of a Shelley. The almost rigid versification of 1 8th century. In 1834 Robert Schumann (1810 to 1856) founded the New Journal for Music with the generation of composer-critics addressed themmerely to musicians or students.* is represented by such poets as Goethe. It is at this time that we find. as in the Dramatic and Musical Notices of Carl Maria von Weber (1786 to 1826). had been of an instructional nature. * Despite what was said in Chapter convenience. classical poise of an Alexander Pope succeeds the vision of a William Blake. selves not journalist than as a composer. of course. Franz Liszt (1811 to 1886) wrote voluminously on a wide range of subjects. In Germany the new movement.

The basic aims of the Romantics were. There were. With regard to (<z). . Schumann's father was a bookseller of considerable culture. The musical results of these aims. while Mendelssohn was on relatively easy terms with the British Royal Family. and bolt exerted a great influence on Schumann. The status.i8o A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC background and encouragement to the romantic movement. T. very broadly speaking. again in very general terms. From Weber and Schubert onwards. A. and so on. the Bach family. (b) a relaxation and broadening of the attitude to the importance and function of We now form. But we may also think of the Gabrielis. Berlioz and Spohr were sons of physicians. son of a wheelwright. now he was admitted to terms of something like equality with wealthy and titled people. Under the patronage system he normally occupied a subordinate position. of course. Mendelssohn came of a wealthy and cultured family of Jewish bankers. son of a surgeon. too. In any case. (d) song. With the coming of the romantics we find composers from a wider range of social strata. usually known as Jean Paul. Mozart and Beethoven. the most important were Johann Paul Richter (1763 to 1825). of the musician rose. They were the high priests of Romanticism. see a change in the social and cultural backof the musician. Hoffmann (1776 to 1822). freedom and self-expression. the Scarlattis. and E. Haydn. were (a) a greater appreciation of sound as such. notable exceptions Handel. new possibilities of colour and sonority are continually explored. (c) free and unrestricted expression of personal emo- a tendency to ally music to some literary or other non-musical background. the vital factor is the development of the orchestra. We may note also the cultivation of small-scale works and concentration on the solo tion. Formerly the great composer had ground most frequently come of a family of musicians. the musician was generally of humble origin. who was in some ways the most romantic-minded of all romantic musicians.

in some of his works. taken still further Richard Strauss and Edward Elgar. Liszt says much the same: 'The artist may pursue the beautiful outside the rules of the 9 school. The interaction of form and content has always presented composers with a problem. The orchestra tended to increase in size. The romantics' attitude to form is expressed in Berlioz's 9 statement that music must not be based on 'rule but on 'direct reaction to feeling*. but with its actual sound-effect. Anyone who has heard the Ring will realise that. His Traite d Instrumentation (1844) is still a standard work. within the accepted limits of classical form. and so on.e. In between stands by in certain cases. ordy the bass clarinet could produce the exact psychological effect that Wagner intended Berlioz. Much of their work is little more than well-ordered patterning with notes. The early symphonists of the galant style often solved this problem by almost eliminating any worth-while meaning. in its melodic and harmonic aspects. and Wagner's colossal music-dramas needed an orchestra of comparable size triple wood wind. The musical god of the romantic . i. But the introduction of new or extra instruments was not merely to achieve a greater volume of sound. Near the end of the period lies who could play only the flute and the guitar. demands huge forces. Weber's magic horn which opens the overture to Oberon (the horn was considered a most romantic instrument). for example. stand at the beginning. Berlioz. with the sensuous side. Composers wanted a wider range of colour. but whose orchestral imagination was unrivalled. both Berlioz and Wagner are sparing in their use of the full orchestra. as many as eight horns. or Schubert's visionary use of the trombones in his great C major symphony.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 181 composers are not concerned merely with the music as such. 9 the orchestral virtuosity of Wagner. Haydn and Mozart had the genius to combine structural stability with vital content. To Beethoven's standard requirements were added two more horns and three trombones.

and Love* appears this theme: . Berlioz's programme symphonies. by the way. realised that the idea of programme music could only be carried out logically by breaking with formal tradition and allowing the form to be dictated by the programme in each individual case. by some kind of modification. of a which acts as a psychological connecting thread. rhythmic. however. also.i82 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC school was Beethoven.) Liszt. The former has five movements instead of the usual four and uses a kind of motto theme. often. whether an actual story or merely some more or less vaguely The formal problems of the romantics were intensified by their fondness for illustrative music. the traditional outlines. Examples from Les Preludes (of which. Liszt was also largely responsible for developing the system of thematic metamorphosis. he was still the great architect. as much but they seem at times to have overlooked the fact that however far he may have departed from the classical forms of Haydn and Mozart. Beethoven was quite pator who 'broke the bonds of of a 'self-expressionist as any professed romantic. actually more of a classic than a romantic. the varied forms of his works in this genre. broadly. would not necessarily fit into the con- classical form. the programme was written after the music. to them he was the great emanciform'. since poetical background. by which means ideas or characters can be shown in different lights or situations. they are symphonies with a programme. though not necessarily. however much he may have adapted form in order to express his meaning. Hence his adoption of the title symphonic poem. a 'programme*. still retain. and consequently in meaning and significance. not before In the opening 'Moods of Spring it) will make this clear. but still sym(At least one writer has argued that Berlioz is phonies. fines the Fantastic and Harold in Italy. But there is no attempt at a complete break with tradition. and hence. the idee fixe. The principle is that a basic theme can be varied in character. His forms can still stand as examples of structural 9 perfection.

25 Allegro marziale animate Although the symphonic poem originated from the symto phony. 22 little later to: Andante maestoso In the next Ex. each developing on its own lines. 23 section. 9 it becomes: Ex. it did not replace it. it is modified to: Allegro ma non troppo and later to: Ex. 'Storms of Life'. in 'Strife and Victory . the two forms have tended run parallel.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC Ex. 21 183 Andante changed a Ex. The first . 24 Allegro tempestoso Finally.

Then comes Mendelssohn (1809 to 1847)4 He has been described as a romantic-classicist romantic in his attitude to musical sound and in his lyricism. In hi last two symphonies.* ouring a homogeneity which the great classics achieved superbly without any such adventitious aid. The cyclic idea is a method mechanical. the homogeneity of a work as a whole. 58 regarding his use of a basic motive. he showed himself capable of thinking in a really extended and dramatic manner.i84 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC important symphonist of the romantic era was Franz Schubert (1797 to 1828). In the Wanderer the opening subject is the basis of the principal material of each of the three succeeding movements. Schubert was. by metamorphosis. Schubert died before the romantic attitude to form was fully defined. and remains. and next to Mozart he was possibly the most naturally gifted of all composers. . or endeavto ensure. the great C major and the Unfinished. though its results may be musical enough of ensuring. His early symphonies are in the Mozart tradition. of some. * The principle is seen as far back as the i6th century in the 'cyclic* masses. whose methods have already been briefly considered. he looked forward to later developments in his use of the 'cyclic' principle. those in which material such as a plainsong tune is used thematically for the various movements.e. i. of the thematic material of later movements from that stated initially. yet without losing anything of his essential tunefulness. but in his Wanderer Fantaste for piano. either in an introduction or in the exposition of the first movement. G major may seem to some to be diffuse and repetitive Schumann remarked on the 'heavenly length' of its second movement but not a bar can be cut without marring the symmetry and balance. relatively brief and essentially tuneful. if not all. unexcelled as a melodist. Chronologically the next important symphonist is Berlioz. This involves the derivation. He The effected a fusion of the dramatic and the lyrical. t His full name was Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. classic in his attitude to form. It may even be traced as far back as Machaut see the remark on p.

which are really extended symphonic poems with a non-musical background. But of all the romantics he was perhaps the finest craftsman and in this may be compared with Mozart. for example. Their titles are Symphony on . there is. 4 (originally No. He lacks the fire of a Berlioz. The two flutes wandering about at the top of the score in the slow movement. Like his great predecessor. none could resist its allure. the histrionic (and weakness) of a Liszt. in so far as they were applicable to his own rather limited style. 26 Schumann's four symphonies. Mendelssohn rarely touches great depths. the earnestness of a Schumann. a not infrequent tendency to shallowness in his work. while containing much delightful music. 2). and both include great choral parts. he was rather the perfector of it. Perhaps the most outstanding example of * A volume could be written on the romantics* fondness for the horn. Beethoven was not the breaker of the bonds of form. are marred by his lack of ability as an orchestrator. and the 'horns of elfland faintly blowing in the trio of the minuet* even though two of them are bassoons: Italian 9 Ex. for instance.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 185 To him. Dante's Divine Comedy This same principle was used by Liszt in his two symphonies. there was little he did not know about the orchestra and its possibilities. which makes some use of the cyclic principle. From Weber to Strauss. Structurally the most interesting is No. in fact. Both make use of thematic metamorphosis. is full of the deftest touches. His ability symphony. he understood 'economy of means'. which are a delight both to the amateur and to the trained musician. and while he never indulged in orchestral virtuosity. and A Faust Symphony.

develop from those of Mozart classic outlook. describing it as a 'Characteristic Overture* most have a more or less programmatic they are a kind of miniature symphonic background. numerous overtures had been written to plays.. Chamber music did not attract the romantics as it did their predecessors. e. at first usually based on signification sonata form. and domestic music-making now began to change its character. From being mainly a concerted affair. and Beethoven. poem. The igth century saw the rise of the concert overture. they really suitable media for the expression of 'direct reaction to feeling'. The working out is interrupted by an intermezzo which serves as a slow movement. retaining the essential outlines of sonata form. for instance. etc. e.g. The Hebrides was inspired by a visit to those islands. after is resumed in fugal style. originally intended as the first movement of a symphony. With Mendelssohn's title Hebrides appears with a new a single movement. of which the best-known and possibly the finest is the Piano In any case. not introducing anything and not even necessarily used to 'open' a concert. Although many such works overture (1830. which development tically all the Apart from their function as introductions to operas or oratorios. written for the opening of the Josephstadt Theatre in Vienna. wrote one about 1807. as Mendelssohn. his Consecration of the House.g. or for special occasions. Schubert's quartets. some fine works and Schumann also produced a few. chamber music was priQpintet in E flat. But for quartet and allied were not in many ways he had the most of the romantics the string forms were too purely abstract.i86 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC formal experiment on cyclic lines was Liszt's piano sonata in B minor. is another great example. It is in one huge movement. wrote . domestic music. revised 1832) the have been written as abstract musicBeethoven. or at least was originally conceived marily as such. Practhematic material is derived from three terse subjects announced in the introduction. Beethoven's Coriolanus. Wagner's Faust Overture. classically minded.

and mention has been made of the rise of the display concerto in the latter part of the 1 8th century. and achieved his aim. had pointed the way. was also the era of the greatest virtuosity. and Schumann. whose technique was such that many believed him to be in league with the Devil.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 187 it had been since the days of the sonata a tre. with his Songs without Words. Thalberg. In his early life he spent many years as a touring virtuoso. In his compositions for piano he discovered and exploited hitherto unheard-of effects and . the domestic supremacy of the piano now begins. but the intensive cultivation of the short. etc. But with him the difficulties are a matter of necessity. What Paganini could do as a violinist. and who took the art of violin-playing to a stage never yet exceeded.). possibly miniature composition is an outcome of romanticism. works. it is simply a means to a purely musical end. in contrast to the expansiveness of their more extended works. in his early years. In their little tone pictures. as is evident in those of Beethoven. There is no suggestion of difficulty for difficulty's sake. Herz and Hunten. But the virtuosity of these With such composers paled before that of the violinist Nicol6 Paganini (1782 to 1840). The purely technical difficulty of concert whether concertos or sonatas. Scenes of Childhood. to supply the literature. astounding all Europe by his amazing brilliance. as Weber. Such works as Beethoven's Bagatelles. who. increased continually. Liszt decided to emulate at the piano. his thoughts could not be expressed otherwise. we find a strong tendency to brilliance for its own sake Showing off'. was famed as a pianist. however. We have noted how the Italian violinists tended gradually to exalt the soloist in their concertos. Waldscenen. the composers could express themselves in a concentrated and intimate manner. while stressing for the first time the small-scale tone picture. with his numerous small-scale pieces (Fantasiestucke. It is a rather odd contradiction that the romantic era. terse mood-pictures. with such composers as Mendelssohn. it became more a matter for a solo performer.

* The nocturac which 3 Chopin raised to the highest pitch of perfection. of a melody with arpeggio accompaniment. near Warsaw. Chopin was a pianist pure and simple. a genius'.!88 sonorities. It is not the same as the 18th-century Nottwrno meaning literally 'night-music'. (Admittedly Schumann. especially perhaps the latter. op. while Chopin once wrote I should c : like to steal from him the way to play What Liszt achieved in brilliance. The aim of this form is the description of an event. but his interpretations of Beethoven. and died in Paris in 1849. as used by Mozart in K. prove his mastery of the larger scale. We come now to some consideration of song writing. for example. 2. but in this instance he did not err. while Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg (1760 to 1802) was a pioneer of the dramatic and narrative ballad. were revelatory. however. Admittedly he was not averse to playing to the gallery. Both Mozart and Beethoven wrote a certain number of songs. He was born. it is fundamentally logical. in 1810. was not merely a purveyor of pianistic fireworks.) Chopin's Preludes and many of his Mazurkas show him to be unexcelled as a miniaturist. and while his handling of form is at times distinctly unorthodox. by the Irishman John Field (1782-1837). 286. and his compositions in other media are negligible. gentlemen. was given its character. while in the Etudes he proved that the study of advanced technique need not involve the dullness of a Czerny. while such works as the Polonaises and the Ballades. is evidence enough of the impression made by his work as early as the variations on La my own Etudes. . The Nocturnes* show that as a melodist he stands in the is same class as Schubert. was rather apt to confuse geese and swans. in his eagerness to encourage young composers. as were Herz. Liszt. 'Hats off. There great originality and a strong poetic impulse in everything he wrote. 9 d darem la mano. Hunten and Thalberg. Not that it had ever been entirely neglected. Schumann's famous remark. an art which comes to the fore for the first time since the days of the Elizabethan lutenists. Chopin matched in poetry. A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC and his influence still persists.

covers every style. since his amazing facility he once wrote eight songs in a single day led him at times to set verses of poor quality. Schubert covers an enormous range. that is. however. both of whom helped to found and develop the German lied or 'art song . Heidenroslein might almost be a folk-song. The In Zumsteeg's ballads. the piano part is at least half the making of the song. Zumsteeg was followed by the much greater Carl Loewe (1796 to 1869). basically. while in Erlkonig we have dramatic recitative of awesome intensity. for each of several 9 verses. in the latter. the terrified child. it could almost be dispensed with. His enormous output of songs. Carl Zdter (1765 to 1832) and Johann Reichardt (1752 to 1814). Schubert's choice of times perhaps too much so. But whatever the value of the poems was wide and varied. over 600. in which the instrumental part is as important as that for the voice. are all typical. ErlkSnig is almost a complete exposiThe storm. and it is in this that we see the beginnings of the fully developed lied. Songs of their time are normally strophic. the supertion of Romanticism in itself. In his treatment of the vocal part. is a subordinate accompaniment. the instrumental part is often of greater importance. the same music is used. and the instrumental part voice part is fundamentally a tune. the settings themselves always show the maximum . the frenzied galloping ofthe horse. An die Musik gives us sophisticated melody of extraordinary beauty. The first. We may also note Mendelssohn's teacher. not so much a mere accompaniment as a commentary on the words. whose ballads often achieve considerable vividness and dramatic power. from the simplicity of the well-known Heidenroslein to the intense drama of In the former the accompaniment is so slender Erlkonig. a duet for voice and piano.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 189 or chain of events. some- words. and in the opinion of ponent of the true lied was Schubert. many the greatest. and the final tragic climax *In his arms the child lay dead' with the vivid characterisation. ex- that natural element.

as is his inventiveness on the instrumental side. Brahms will be considered later. the words of both being by the poet Wilhelm Muller. Under the German title of Liederkreis (song-rircfe). the year of his marriage to Clara WiecL This victory after a long struggle against the opposition of his prospective father-inlaw unlocked the floodgates of song. The idea of a song-cycle is a group of songs with a continuous underlying theme or story. of insight. 9 Beethoven's An die feme Geliebte ('To the Distant Beloved') of 1816 antedates Schubert's Maid of the Mill by seven years. The idea was not new. he was born to be a song writer. and no songwriter has ever created a juster balance between words and by a . are in the true lied tradition. Unlike Schubert. Wolf (1860 to 1903) developed the 'duet' principle of the lied to the limit. Like his predecessor. Schumann wrote no songs until 1840. many of which. numbers of such cycles have been written. and in the one year he wrote over one hundred. Apart from separate songs. Schumann rarely if ever set words which lacked some literary distinction. although hardly comparable in value to those of Schubert and Schumann. his fame would be assured. In these. notably Schumann's Frauenliebe undLeben ('Woman's Love and Life') and Dichterliebe ('A Poet's Love'). Since Schubert's time. Of Schumann's contemporaries. Liszt is represented collection of fifty-five songs (1860). Schumann proves himself the true inheritor of the tradition established by Schubert. as in all his songs. The first known example dates from the early years of the I7th century. in which the voice part predominates. Mendelssohn looks back rather to the strophic style of Zelter and Reichardt. After Liszt the line passes through Brahms and Hugo Wolf. Schubert wrote the song-cycles Die SckSne Mullmn (The Beautiful Maid of the Mill ) and Lie Winteneise ('Winter Journey'). so that the whole series constitutes an entity.igo A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Schubert was not only born to be a musician. his treatment of the vocal part is infinitely varied. and had he written nothing eke.

and in his article 'New Paths . like His early works. one man who would bring us mastery. the Scherzo in are very clearly the production of a whole9 hearted romantic outlook. he knew little else. but a fusion of the two. Johannes Brahms (1833 to 1897) may k e described as a classic romanticist. unlike Schubert.. e. songs were his life. Schubert. referred to him as 'one man who would be singled out to make articulate in an ideal way the highest expression of our time. Like Beethoven. too. he found it possible to express himself to the full. controlled his essential romanticism by a classic regard for form.. . the true successor of Beethoven. He was. This Bach. on the St.. iplitting arguments as to whether or rf all song-writers are immaterial. If Mendelssohn was a romantic classicist. Hairnot he was the greatest 9 we may say that. the discarding of 'rule' advocated by Berlioz. with as much intensity as any belligerent romantic. Although Brahms was far from making consistent use of . an . he was a master of variation-writing. Seated at the piano. But Brahms. he at once discovered to us wondrous regions . Like Beethoven. what he did not know about the writing of songs was not worth the knowing. . the three piano sonatas. as he developed. Schumann took him to his heart. without disregarding the vital necessity of structural stability and without the continual need for some literary or programmatic impulse. Not for him were the structural experiments of a Liszt. his sets on a theme of Handel. in fact. E flat minor. even though he had not quite the same complete mastery of form. igi him was poetry absorbed and recreated n terms of something which was neither melody by itself jrove: 'A song to lor He may best be summed up by a quotation from mere declamation. But. of an unknown youngster of twenty. Anthony Chorale and on the theme of Paganini ranking with those of the older master and of altogether inspired style of playing which made of the 9 piano an orchestra of lamenting and exultant voices.g. etc. written in 1853.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC nusic.

to more subtle case occurs in the second off the last. cyclic In the There are occasional instances of thematic cross-referencing. 29 Sir Edward Elgar made the penetrating remark that the latter is the 'tragic outcome* of the former.i 92 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC methods. op. metamorphosed in significance. i. We may instance the major violin G sonata. there are occasional instances in his work. as in the third symphony where the first subject of the opening movement round returns. first piano sonata. in which the three movements are related persistence of a rhythmic motive: by the . A and fourth movements of subject of the former: Ex. The subtlety that lies in the art of concealing art is often evident in Brahms. 28 the same work. the first subject of the last movement is clearly derived from that of the first. The second MM mh gives rise in the latter to: i | i i |i Ex.

where the basic motive is melodic: Ex.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 193 III This kind of thing is far from being obvious. 31 The essential fall and rise of a step occurs in the thematic material of all the movements. It is seen in Beethoven's sth Symphony. being inverted in the third. though it clearly opened up a path which has been followed by many later composers. 9 This kind of 'germinal procedure was not invented by Brahms. Similarly. where the basic idea of a threenote anacrusis to an accent is quite clear in the first. in the second symphony. third and last movements: . and it is not until the work has been carefully studied that its significance is realised.

34 Wf" first. Such well arise without the cominterrelationships may quite of them.I94 A SHORT HISTORY OF MUSIC extent this is arguable. only to be pointed out after poser being aware event by the keen-eyed analyst. If taken far enough it can lead to such fatuity as suggesting that the fugue subject in Brahms' E minor 'cello Passion! The sonata is derived from the opening of the reader may care to work this out for himself. is an integral part of his style. ^His use of the orchestra. Matthew . where the subject To what was intentional if may first r if r if first f f\r subject of the (or may not) be derived from the movement:* Ex. in the piano the of the fugue: sonata. op. St. 9 Brahms' classic^tendencies are seen in his output of his finest work. being produced when he was forty-three years old. A Brahms symphony rescored would cease to be Brahms. He was no orchestral virtuoso. no. however far removed from that of a Berlioz or a Wagner. has sometimes been suggested that Brahms 'could not score . though he had as keen an appreciation of tone-colour as most of his contemporaries. But he rarely insists on sound as such. as is his chamber music. his in G minor. but this is a misstatement. His handling of the instruments is irreproachable. rather It it is the music itself which he forces on our attention. which contains some of * It may be well to point out that this game of tracing thematic relationships can be carried to idiotic extremes. Similarly. Jjrair 1 f ir r Brahms approached the symphony with diffidence.

No song-writer surpassed him in emotional intensity or intimacy of expression. In his songs Brahms relies more on melody than on declamation.g. he tends on the whole to tip the balance in favour of the voice. it is natural that many of his works for the instrument are of considerable technical difficulty.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 195 feeling for the appropriate style. tradition. Unlike some later comtries to make a quartet sound like a string posers. Liszt and Schumann. His last published compositions were the Four Serious Songs. say. not mere flashy display. but here again the classic outlook appears. e. and each is in a perfectly balanced form. the Intermezzi being in steady tempo and the Capricci Each is a complete little tone-poem. In his later years Brahms produced a number of short but intensely concentrated Intermezzi and Capricci. and in many of its the songs there are influences from the German Volkslied or folksong. As a orchestra. despite fine moments. The church music is rarely of any great value. which form a fitting apotheosis to the work of one who. . The strophic plan of treatment is most usual. with some admixture of Bach. remains to deal briefly with choral works of the romantic period. lack the It while St. a mood with singular clarity and distinction. They are in varied styles. In his oratorios Paul and Elijah Mendelssohn developed the Handel in his own idiom. The same applies to the far from easy violin concerto. were conceived chiefly as 'concert Masses*. Even in the two concertos Brahms does not indulge in virtuosity for own sake. The Masses of Schubert. the most difficult or brilliant passages are an integral part of the work. first-rate pianist himself. many by other composers. while not by any means reducing the piano part to a mere subordinate accompaniment. was one of the most sincere and earnest-minded of all the great musicians. true liturgical appropriateness of. pin-pointing less so. while not perhaps greatly interested in the niceties of ecclesiastical dogma. the Bach cantatas. to biblical words. he never nor does he 'stunt' with the instruments.

1006 OCX. CX. 1206 2887 Schumann Symphony No.196 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC and St. B Flat OSX. the Song of Destiny and the Alto Rhapsody Brahms proved that his mastery of choral writing was no less than of any other branch of music. F Minor Sonata. 33 2961 1325 Fantastic Symphony 4. 133 A Flat 33 33 Liszt Les Preludes (orchestra) Hungarian Rhapsodies Piano Concertos Violin Concerto. but rather a meditation on death a forerunner of the Four Serious Songs. Piano Concerto. Symphony No. Song Cycle. It is not a requiem Mass. 1040 CLP. RECORDS Schubert Composer Title Cat. as in his other choral works the Triumph Song. 2. 1203 33 OCX. LXT. B Minor Chopin Recital Polonaise in CX. 5025 Brahms D LXT. Major Piano Concerto. 1013 OSX. 3074 2556 2j Chopin Two Etudes Concerto. Camaval (piano) A Minor D Minor und Leben LXTA. 1039 Mendelssohn Overtures Symphony Berlioz A major (Italian) LXTA. for which the impulse came primarily from the death of his mother in 1865. 1001 LX. OALP. ALP. 8 (Unfinished) Symphony No. In it. Possibly the greatest sacred choral work of the period is Brahms's German Requiem. B flat Symphony No. Elizabeth Liszt's Christus are effective and highly characteristic of their composer. C major Song Recital Quintet in No. 1066 LX. 2719 33 CX. 9. 33 OC. 2566 2723 . 33 Frauenliebe LXTA. 1014 LXT. 1061 33 C major LXT.

F Major C Minor OALP. LXTA. LXTA.) 197 Composer Title Piano recital Four Songs Symphony No. No. Symphony No.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC Brahms (contd. Cat. 3. i. LXTA. 1152 2843 2935 2850 .

. France and Germany. and is the direct successor of Wranitzky's work of the same name.* while Wranitzky's Oberon. the first use 9 of the term 'romantic being in the subtitle of Gotthilf von Baumgarten's setting of a libretto based on that of Gretry's It is 'described as a 'Romantic-Comic Zfmire et Azor. which followed in 1823. the supernatural (one of the characters has sold his soul to the Devil) . In Germany similar changes came about. we find also the fondness for the fantastic and the Oriental. k based on a medieval plot. Especially notable are the vividness of the orchestration and the general effectiveness of both solo and choral writing. new tendencies IN appear in the latter part of the i8th century. As in France. and so on. Opera'. His Der Freischiitt. it is a full-dress 'grand' opera. Oberon (1826) returns to spoken dialogue. 'Turkish' opera was a distinct fashion from about 1770 onwards. leading to the style which is usually known as Romantic Opera. raised the singspiel to a new level (it has spoken dialogue). * Mozart's Seraglio is an example. as it was of opera buffa and opera comique. King of the Fairies may be considered the prototype of the 'fairy-tale opera'. and discards the spoken dialogue. completed in 1820. in Italy. of which the best known example is perhaps Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel of 1893. Weber is usually regarded as the real founder of German romantic opera. while the plot contains all the ingredients which were so dear to the romantics magic.CHAPTER FIFTEEN ROMANTIC OPERA Chapter 12 a brief sketch was given of the way in which the character of opera changed in France and Italy in the period around 1800. Euryantke. As well as the lack of conventions which was typical of the singspiel.

too. somewhat as a musical drama'. Schumann's one opera. based broadly on Scott's Ivanhoe) show it at its crudest and most violently melodramatic. It is 'through-composed'. it was hardly theatrical enough for the audiences of the time. and how Mozart. Wagner. in which spoken dialogue and set 'numbers' are dispensed with. in Don Giovanni. which. Otto Jahn. the biographer of Mozart. and the singers still preferred the separate recitative and aria. His best work is Hans Heiling (1833). We have seen how Gluck insisted that the overture should prepare the audience for the opera itself. a continuous move- ment for solo and chorus. Weber builds his overtures almost entirely from material which is to be used later. . The romantic style was followed by Heinrich Marschner (1795 to 1861). The use of the term 'musical drama' is significant. foreshadowing the continuity on which Wagner insisted in his later works. at that time thirty-two years old. It was criticised. Genoveva. Although the value of much of the music was recognised by at least one of the critics. is 'throughcomposed . Audiences were as yet far from being trained to sit silent through the hour and a half (or more) which Wagner sometimes demands for a single act. at the end of which they could receive their meed of clapping and bravos.ROMANTIC OPERA 199 Weber's treatment of the overture shows a notable advance. opens with a reference to the dramatic climax of the whole work. for its lack of separate 'numbers'. remarked on the great amount of effort it demanded of the listeners. thereby stressing still further their integral function. was a complete failure on its production in 1850. whose The Vampire (1823) an <l Templar and Jewess (1829. and complained that the possibility of the singers 'being accorded immediate applause is eliminated'. This is notable for the plan of the prologue. This style was taken farther by Louis Spohr in his The Crusaders (1845) . With* Richard Wagner (1813 to 1883) we come to the . entitled his later works 'music drama' rather than 'opera'. to quote the composer's own words.

achieved. settled in Zurich. The story is in the best romantic tradition. erected the Festival Theatre. The former had to wait until five years after his death for its first performance. Both as a musician and a reformer. and is notable also as being a northern legend. tending to provide a commentary on the and as blatant action. in his approach. A cardinal doctrine of the later Wagner was that plots for operas should be based on folk-lore. In the Flying Dutchman (1841). when he received permission to re-enter any state except Saxony. For the greater part of his lite he had to struggle against adversity. was the lineal descendant of Gluck. In 1864 he at last achieved an assured position. is a grand opera in the manner of Meyerbeer. due to his tion for others. produced in 1834. if ever. nor do his first two operas. develop use of the leit-motif principle also begins to the principle which is so vital in the thematic construction and the texture of the later works. and after a short stay in Paris. who. as any work of that composer. chased by a warrant for his arrest as a 'politically dangerous individual'. however. was an utter failure. The ban on Saxony was lifted in 1862. Musically the Dutchman carries on the tendency to continuity which is seen in such works as Hans Heiling. His few early non-operatic works the piano sonata. where his political activities had originally led to his exile. and here he was able to superintend the production of his works on the scale and in the manner which he had always intended but had rarely. for example give no hint of the genius of the Ring or the Mastersingers.zoo A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC great reformer of opera. it must be admitted. own impetuosity and lack of considera- In 1849 he had to flee from Germany. often. op. Rienzi. He was banned from returning to Germany until 1861. i. we find strong pointers to what was to come. Wagner developed slowly. The orchestra begins to occupy a more important position. while the latter. Die Feen and Das Liebesverbot. his next work. thanks to the At Bayreuth was generosity of Ludwig II of Bavaria. The .

Wagner did a great deal of heavy thinkDuring his arguments ing on the problems of opera. but the principle begins to emerge. both based on Teutonic legends. idea. the prelude to Act i. tween pure recitative and song-like melody. and must begin. etc. his conclusions may marised as follows. generally short. Their use in capacity. dramatist. there are than style of Rmdt though fewer which we can others. It may be primarily melodic. The and conclusions in his essays Art Work of the Future (1850) and Opera and Drama (1852). the orchestra. rhythmic. utilising a texture of leading themes. singing. The music must no longer be allowed to override the unfolding of the drama. acting. must must unfold continuously. not an end in itself.. harmonic. in the overture. a continuous commentary on the action. or what not. but also give coherence the Flying Dutchman is undeveloped. expounding Art and Revolution (1849). it The action ber'. Opera must go back to the original the (completed 1848). All the factors concerned libretto. etc. and very broadly. associated with some particular character. by 'exciting our feeling from a general state must not be held up by the 'set num- The aria as such of tension to a special sensation of premonition'. aims of its founders. or a combination of them. leading themes not only serve in an illustrative and unity. are of equal importance. The vocal writing must vary betherefore be discarded. scene. cast into alliterative . and be thought of as musical drama. in see that whatever Wagner may have thought of himself as he matters most as a musician. While there are still passages in Tamhauser.ROMANTIC OPERA The leit-motif aoi or 'leading theme' is a passage. Of Tannhauser (produced 1845) and Lohengrin latter shows the greater advance in technique. The will give orchestra. As used by Wagner in his later works. according to the needs of the situation at any given moment. It also shows the musical side of Wagner's nature rapidly developwhich look back to the ing. for example. staging. it must be the means of expression of it. poet. The plot should be based on national legend. be sumBriefly. his exile.

without voices at all. but nobody. It must be realised that Wagner. the first of the huge tetralogy of music dramas known as The Ring of the Nibelungen. it provides. while that of The Mastersingers is in normal The *set piece' appears. tells the story in its own symphonic poem which runs concurrently with the action on the stage. the musician pure and simple cannot be restrained. Still more outside the strict theory of Opera and Drama is the quintet in the last act of The Mastersingers. of which Mr. But.* Wagner carries out his theories with considerable strictness. * The of the Gods.202 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC poetry. even in The Val- Siegmund's Spring Song is an example. in the face of such sheer beauty. reaching their full expression in the Ring and later works. but in the re- maining three. From the Dutchman onwards his ideas graduillustrative an idiom. libretti. in order. Siegfried. Ernest Newman once remarked that it has no right to be there and yet is the emotional climax of the whole work. portant role of the orchestra is evidenced by the fact that sections of the music dramas are sometimes performed as concert pieces. in is fact. The poem of Tristan is not entirely alliterative. as it were. . The way 1 8th century. ally crystallised. are The Valkyrie. so that the music itself tends to become the predominant factor. did not simply sit down and think out in cold blood a new way of writing opera. The increasingly imlikely to cavil on that account. Not that he ever dropped back to the 'melody opera' of former times. although rightly called a reformer. and The Twilight t In A Hundred Tears of Music. Gerald Abraham says. as well as in his other works.f 'Wagner was no rigid doctrinaire*. Tristan and Isolda. The orchestra. rhymed kyrie. others. The Mastersingers ofNuremberg^ and Parsifal. as Prof. verse. We may note that Wagner always wrote his own In Rhinegold. in which the whole action is held up while five people express their feelings and emotions is almost pure at all.

first highest point. Broadly speaking. He did not. He was brought up in the Italian tradition. and in some of his latest piano works he anticipates procedures which are customarily associated more with such a composer as Debussy. talcing the style of Donizetti to a climax. His operatic career falls into four periods. To Verdi. despite his adherence to tradition in the importance of the voice and the relative unimportance of the orchestra. in which vocal melody was all-important. In these the style of Bellini and Donizetti is evident. during which he had more or less success with works which are now almost forgotten. Wagner was not eager to admit what he had learned from Liszt. such as Oberto and Ernani. as it The despised in opera. M Trovatore and La Traviata. he was also a harmonic innovator. his harmony developed in the direction of intense use of chromaticism. Mention of . In this direction he was to some extent indebted to Liszt. In the second period are Rigoletto. up to 1850. and his great raised the style to his its name was anathema. opera was far from being a mere 'concert in costume'. To the Wagnerians since he stood for all that they was a time of apprenticeship. At the other end of the operatic scale from Wagner stands contemporary Giuseppe Verdi (1813 to 1901). in a somewhat secretive manner. In these he really found himself. but with greater dramatic power and greater earnestness than the older man had ever achieved. though he did so once. with whom he was for long on terms of intimacy. who was not born until 1862. in a letter to Hans von Biilow.ROMANTIC OPERA 203 Wagner was not only an operatic reformer. was to the Wagnerians. attempt to 'invent' a new his system. Liszt's harmonic innovations are at times quite startling. Verdi was no reformer. Cosima's first husband. and whose daughter Gosima he married as his second wife. he simply expanded on the basis of tradition. thereby creating a system which was perfectly adapted to own expressive ends. it was a serious matter. or rather developer. like some of his successors. and a loosening of the bonds of key.

a grand opera in every sense of the word. this is grand opera to the French It is followed by three purely Italian operas. and then another work for Paris. they are not mere stage puppets. the Shakespearian characters. The Vespers. The Masked Ball and The Force of Destiny. though there is some use of the leit-motif principle. subtle use of the orchestra. for the opening of the Suez Canal in 1871. including Englebert Humperdinck (1854 to 1921). His only other notable work is the Siegfried Idyll.204 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC opera. In all of these there is increasing control of the medium and increasing importance is given to the orchestra. Without imitating Wagner. And however melodramatic he may seem at times. found no difficulty in providing a really great work. It was written to order. at a time when the practice of com- missioning operas had fallen into disuse. Simon* Boccanegra. who took no small part in the shaping of the libretto. Verdi makes of Othello a music drama. The climax of this period comes with Aida. opera buffa. of such beauty that we can only regret its lack of successors. Don Carlos. or art in general. as 'entertainment' infuriated him. is nevertheless of the greatest power and sincerity. Neither Wagner nor Verdi wrote much of importance apart from their stage works. third period begins. there is always underlying sincerity. but in that year he produced both based on In them a transfigured style is seen. almost every writer of operas since his day. Wagner's ideas have affected. Verdi's one great non-operatic work is the Requiem Mass which. to a greater or less degree. with The Sicilian written for Paris. Even in his early operas his characters are alive. Wagner's Faust overture has already been mentioned. But Verdi. from 1855. and in 1893 Falstaff. with highly expressive declamation and a rich and Othello. Until 1887 Verdi wrote no more operas. whose one really . Falstaff is the apotheosis of but at the same time employs the principle of music drama as seen through the eyes of its composer. although it may appear superficially to be rather theatrical in conception and outlook. taste.

Puccini was a greater musician. is a greater work than the rarity of its performance would suggest. . he reached perhaps his greatest heights in his last. The more lyrical opera is represented by Gounod's Faust (1859) and Romeo and Juliet (1867). Rather later ( 1 877} is Saint-Sagns's well-known Samson and Delilah. exhibits its In Italy. while the orchestration is masterly. while Peter Cornelius's Barber of Baghdad (1858). most important successors were Ruggiero Pietro Mascagni and Giacomo Puccini. Both comhad a more than adequate feeling for dramatic. though never a great success. with a complete lack of anything Wagnerian. Of non-Wagnerian Nicolai's Merry composer's fine lyrical talent. Although his popularity rests Boheme. without being obviously obtrusive. showing to some extent interest of his scenes Wagnerian influence in the musically sustained and in his modified use of the leit-motif. Their use of the orchestra is approximately that of the late Verdi. at least. Berlioz. Twrandot. The Leoncavallo. is Carmen Possibly the greatest French opera of the period by Georges Bizet (1838 to 1875). In France the style of Meyerbeer's grand opera was followed by Jacques Hatevy (1799 to 1862). too. Verdi's Pagliacci posers and Cavallena Rusticana respectively. sometimes melodramatic effect. and the aria. now known only by La Juive. Otto Wives of Windsor (1849) *s a delightful example of German opera buffa. and his orchestration is masterly.ROMANTIC OPERA successful work. first two of these are famous chiefly for one work each. unfinished work. produced Benoenuto Cellini and The Trojans9 of which the latter. 205 has been described as works. Despite some use (1875) of a pseudo-Spanish idiom. in all of which the accent is on lyrical melody. it is typically French in its economy and deftness. While not a 'modern' in the colloquial sense. 'Wagner for children'. Tosca and Madame mainly on such operas as La Butterfly. his harmony shows some originality. Hansel and Gretel. F&icien David's Lalla Rookh (1862) and Ambroise Thomas's Mignon (1866). still holds its place in their work.

1086 Verdi CdtsUAih (AM) ts-/J A 6010 Pooa 30ii6EPL Tmaton Verdi Recital LXA.so6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC some limitations.3094 OALP. 1014 OALP. Oberm Overture. Elsa's 5o3 8 Dream (kkngrk) Song (Mtutompr) JJ "Dl_* yRO.ioS DB. Bizet. and in Carmn he produced a masterpiece. 1069 1820/1 LWA. Weber Cavatlna from DerFreiscktz Overture. 1858 Prize T OALP. Ritnv OALP. AK. RECORDS Cat.6oi8 OALP. No. Operatic arias Excerpts from 700003 1204 33 OCX. Carm SELO. 1538 . Leoncavallo Puccini Bizet 1284 GEPO. notwithstanding was possibly the most naturally gifted French musician of his time. 1014 Brunnhilde's Immolation Siegfried IdyU 7EB0. 1076 DIP.

as it were. We shall now deal briefly with some consideration of national movements. As we draw nearer to our own times it becomes more and more difficult to assess the value and importance of the work of composers and schools of thought. we find the late romanticism of Elgar and Strauss running parallel with the 'advanced* modernity of Schonberg and Bart6k. while others. His later works had a highly personal to be seen in the case of Alexander Scriabin (18752 He began by writing in a kind of post-Chopin . but gradually developed his own advanced harmonic style. A nationalist. for example. In the present century. these together with It in harmony and form. may be romantic in his outlook. a good deal of overlapping of styles. pursued new lines of thought to a considerable degree. for instance. there has been. but not every Some composers have late romantic was a nationalist. be thrown off our critical balance by the impact of new ideas. and we may. as has so often happened in earlier ages. contemporary with them. and to decide which tendencies are likely to have a lasting effect on the development of music. Our judgment of contemporary or near-contemporary art is almost inevitably coloured by personal preference. from about the middle of the igth century. have been content to depart little if at all from traditional methods. In the past hundred years. must be realised that not every composer has been vitally affected by all or any of the newer ideas. and idiom.CHAPTER SIXTEEN AND NATIONALISTS Chapter 14 some reference was made to developments LATE ROMANTICS IN developments in the hands of a later generation. An instance of this is to 1915).

employed a great deal of high-powered chromaticism. the fuller savour of the sunshine in which the berries ripened. It marked by a broader conan increasingly free use of is not merely an expansion of the range of keys used within a * movement late Sir as in the He was considered so 'advanced* that the performed his symphonic poem Prometheus twice at one concert. We are now far enough from the second half of the igth century to be able to distinguish what is really important from what is less so. we have to be able to look back over a period of time. for example. as has already been stated. Dvofak (1841 to 1904). F. if the juice be noble. Not every composer has been equally affected by their innovations. His vocabulary was more extensive and his use of it highly personal. time only reveals its weakness and age its acidity. on the other hand. t E. The pioneers of harmonic development were.' acts Henry Wood . And it is worth recalling that in their own day Telemann was considered a much greater composer than Bach. we can now see that his expert mentalism was sterile. so as to give the audience a better chance of understanding it. But he is now seen to have dealt merely in a sort of over-ripe romanticism.* and in many quarters he was deemed to have opened up a new path of vital importance. Wagner and Liszt.ao8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC startling effect in the period around the First World War. His new path turned out to be a cul-de-sac. so as to view things whole and to see them in perspective. Properly to assess the work of a composer or the value of a trend of thought we need to be at a distance. Benson puts the matter pointedly in his As We Were: 'Time on sound work much as it does on the vintages of the grape. was content with a relatively limited harmonic vocabulary and a very moderate use of chromaticism. and we find wide differences between contemporaries. maturing and bringing out.! Three and a half centuries ago Gesualdo was as startling as was Scriabin between 1910 and 1925. Cesar Franck (1822 to 1890). The Wagnerian tendencies are ception of tonality (key) and discord and chromaticism. while if it is thin by nature.

use of musicajicta gradually destroyed the individuality of the modes and paved the way for the major-minor scale . It should not be thought that Wagner and his followers necessarily employed such methods to the c 9 exclusion of anything eke. sometimes to such extent that the tonality becomes almost. This 'stretching of tonality may be illustrated 5 the 'Magic Sleep motive in Wagner's Valkyrie: by entirely. and one would merge into the other according to the expressive needs of the moment. even the combination at It is the (a) can be explained in purely academic terms. Ex. In Woteafs Farewell (the closing scene of the Valkyrie) the pass- age quoted above is immediately followed by a long stretch of almost undiluted diatonic writing.35 There are no new chords here. Their vocabularies included both the old and the new.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS Eroica 209 ment an developin the use of chromaticism. The 5 obscured. In this advanced chromaticism and the expansion of tonality we may see a parallel with what happened to the modal system during the late i6th and The early iyth centuries. juxtaposition of the chords and the resultant vagueness of key which are new. if not lies symphony and comparable instances.

2io A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC system. became more and more integral in the structure of his music-dramas. Tschaikovsky (1840 to 1893) provides obvious examples in his 4th and 5th symphonies. Directly or indirectly. but it may perhaps be pointed out that there are still composers of international reputation who seem to find something vital to say without severing all links with tradition. In the former the motto reappears (in the first and last movements only) always in the * may be studied in Arnold Schonberg et son osuore by Rene* Leibowitz (libraire Janin). This is paralleled among the later romantics a 'motto theme' practically another name for the same thing announced in an introduction and brought in at by the frequent introduction of dramatically appropriate points in the course of the work. It is not proposed to argue the point here. unfortunately not available in an English translation. We have seen how Wagner's We theories of opera led him to the virtual abolition of the set number and to the greatest possible continuity of dramatic action and musical have also noted how his use of the orchestra thought. his ideas have affected almost every writer of opera since his day. The chromaticism of the late igth century created conditions under which new technical methods could . Not that all have made such consistent use of the leading-theme principle.* In the opinion of some the day of the major-minor system is over. But the principle of continuity at least has been taken for granted. together with the employment of the orchestra as something very much more than a mere accompanying instrument. In instrumental music the developments of the earlier romantics have followed a logical course. tending to the disintegration of classical tonality. emerge. nor has the orchestra necessarily been used to provide a kind of symphonic poem concurrent with the stage action. We have referred to Berlioz's use of the idetfixe as a method of binding together the movements of a symphony. A few aspects of formal development must now be considered. A view of the processes as they arose in the work of one composer .

no particular and is found. of Rimsky-Korsakov (1864 to 1908). compare the first subject of the first movement with the theme of the variations in the finale: piano sonata has been widely adopted. for instance. though the extent to which they are deliberate is at times debatable. material from the first two . in Elgar's where the initial descending four notes of symphony. in some cases whole-heartedly. in Franck's violin sonata Partial application of the principle is seen and his Prelude. A case which we may take as intentional occurs in the 4th symphony of Dvorak. which copies the Liszt sonata even to the enunciation of three basic themes in an Wanderer Fantasie The cyclic principle exhibited in such works as Schubert's and Liszt's introduction. in others only parFor the former we may turn to the piano concerto tially. 211 significance as it is originally In the latter it recurs in all the later subtlety in this.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS same form and with the same stated. There is movements. more subtle We may refer also to Sibelius's 4th symphony with its almost obsessive insistence on the interval of the augmented 4th. The Brahmsian art of concealing art by the use of a germinal figure ist is undergoing some metamorphosis. though its effectiveness is undeniable. among other works. the motto tend to associate themselves with later material. Ana and Finale for piano. In his one symphony Franck uses thematic cross-reference. The work of many composers of the last hundred years abounds in such thematic interrelationships.

so to speak. Elgar's ist. Another development arising from the romantic outlook the frequent use of an 'emotional programme' in extended works. op. metamorphosed. Sibelius's 2nd and Tschaikovsky's 4th and 5th. In his 6th (Pathttique] the last-named composer effectively modified what looked like developing into the same programme. may be labelled as the beginning of the second group. and among its offspring may be mentioned Franck's symphony. incorporating themes from the first two movements into the show further development of Beethoven's attitude to the composition of subject-matter. Possibly more than any of his contemporaries he achieved an integra* first An excellent movement of the little some example of such a 'concealed opening' occurs in the sonata. The reader may care to spend time deciding exactly where the second group begins. Dvorak takes the idea farther in his New World symphony. The progenitor is Beethoven's 5th symphony. one composer stands out as the inheritor of the classical outlook and the truly architectural mind.212 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC movements recurring. and perhaps the most common. the Finn Jean Sibelius (1865 to 1957). from its character and possibly its key. movement of (The way was pointed by Mozart in the last the Jupiter symphony. ideas which occur in both first and second groups. including. light is (b) relaxation. (c) triumph. Elgar's two symphonies provide good examples. in the ist. While the late romantics concerned themselves largely with problems of form. in the last. The later romantics and his tendency to avoid any obvious indication of the beginning of the second group* has led composers to treat the exposition as one consolidated lump of subjectmatter. His treatment of the bridge-passage as part of the thematic material development of thej&wzfe. but it is. The most obvious. 1 10. ending in the depths of despair. is a kind of ascent from darkness to (a] struggle.) There is generally something which. only the first among equals. .

is 'flutter-tonguing' on . and this applies also in some of his operatic writing.* He employed in a masterly fashion. The point cannot be argued here. for those t The method. muted brass. for example. The national or racial characteristics of composers have always tended to show in their music. even was a master of 'economy of means'. Nationalism has two aspects. practically everything arises from a single short basic theme. via the tremendous compression of the first movement of No. to the entirely original one movement.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS tion of 313 form and content unsurpassed since Beethoven. 5. but it may be pointed out that the principle is merely an extension of that used in. Where Strauss goes knowledge farther than any of his predecessors. From the rather angular sonata form basis of his ist symphony he progressed. The reader referred to Sibelius.Far more than Liszt he allowed form to be dictated by programme. so that no is possible without preof the literary background. who are interested. We may think. possibly the greatest masterpiece of musical architecture since Beethoven. of No. Development of the symphonic poem is associated largely with Richard Strauss (1864 to X 949). metamorphosis being real understanding of the music to the as the bleating of sheep in the second of the uncanny reproduction of non-musical sounds such Don Quixote Pastoral symphony. or of the precision and elegance of the French. by Gerald Abraham (Lindsay Drummond). each race has produced its own interpretation of the common stock of technique and style. 4 and the 'telescoping of first 9 movement and structure. for example. In this. the 'storm* variations-! approach of the Germans and their frequent tendency to complexity. No Frenchman could have written the earnest is * Discussion of Sibelius's architecture is impossible here. of the movement of Beethoven's The question then arises whether such procedures are musically justifiable. the innate and the cultivated. is in his use of realism. in scher& of No. as may be seen in his symphonic poem Tapiola. 7.

was told to 'go home and write Russian music*. But such distinctions of style are instinctive. in the same way as have non-nationalists. as are minor the Englishness of Purcell or Elgar. Leaving aside France. in the Italian style. * . it normally begins by deliberate cultivation. the first of the Russian His early works are in the Italian tradition.* Glinka. Nationalist composers have followed the prevailing trends to a greater or less degree. and its effects have been as it were local. Equally. such men as Galuppi. having remarked to his teacher Siegfried Dehn that he was tired of the Italian style. case of Michael Glinka (1804 to 1857). no German could have written Carmen. which has During the i8th and early igth centuries the prevailing taste. it was to become was sufficient music*.ai4 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC B Mass or the gth Symphony. Paisiello and Gimarosa holding court Russian musicians were sent to Italy for training and wrote positions. and although the 'folk* influence in the for their is not so strong in them as it work of some of his successors. This is seen. Music and musicians were largely imported. for example. set by the court. Although a national idiom may ultimately become instinctive. was for Italian opera. Such nationalism arose in the igth century as a revolt against the shackles of an alien style. notable developments in the harmonic field. stories* The composer to be accused of writing 'coachmen's libretti are based on national (Russian) The importance of nationalism lies in the breaking away from alien influence. which up to his time had been considered the only acceptable style in musically educated Russia. according to personal inclination. or the Russianness of Tschaikovsky. Nationalism in the commonly accepted meaning of the term implies the conscious basing of a composer's idiom on that of the folk-music of his country. This he did in his operas A Life for the Czar (1836) and Russian and Ludmilla (1842). There has been no question of new basic ideas on structure nor has it given rise to arising from a nationalist outlook. in the nationalists. nor could either have composed Aida.

He was followed by Alexander Dargomijsky (1813 to 1869) and the group known as the Tive'. Handel. They were Alexander Borodin (1833 to 1887). and so on. as it were. headed by Glinka. and practically all the great developments in music had arisen there. was furthered largely by German composers. Considerations of space forbid any detailed account of the work of individual composers. The German (or Italian) manner of thought and the technique bound up with it were taken for granted. Mfly Balakireff (1837 to 1910). all music from the beginning of the i8th century the greatest had emanated from Germany. Wagner's operatic reforms were the work of a German. It may be said that as far as Central Europe and England were concerned. The classical sonata and symphony were of German development. whose own compositions are * In this sense Germany. led the way. and little more than a mere In point of list of the most important must suffice. in The work of the early nationalists his own language. Modeste Mussorgsky (1839 to 1881) and Nicholas Rimsky- Korsakov (1844 to 1908). but wrote. enabled their followers to forge a musical language. initiated by German poets. the romantic movement. began to think on his own lines. . who deliberately adopted the thesis that music should be based on national or 'folk* idiom. the chief propagandist curiously devoid of a national idiom. they were no longer using the lingua franca of German. or idiom.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS always tended to 315 be individualistic in matters of art. or Italian. time the Russian school. of their own. The founder was Balakireff and Cui. however.* No other country had produced composers of the calibre of Bach. Mozart or Beethoven. in their native 9 tongue. 'music meant 'German music'. Beethoven the seer was a German. C&ar Cui (1835 to 1918). of course. The nationalist. while in Russia it meant little but Italian opera. so that to whatever extent they were affected by the work of the outstanding figures of their generation. includes Austria.

1931) has a high reputation.2i6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Immediately after the Russians came the Bohemians. never fulfilled his early promise. Wesley's natural son of mediocrities. only by his light operas. largely owing to his professional appointments as Principal of the Royal Professor of Music at Cambridge University. Gilbert. friend of Mendelssohn and Schumann. with a predominantly lyrical talent (1879-1949). which served him well in small-scale works. The latter's pupil Vitezslav Novak (1870 to 1949) shows nationalist leanings in his later works. apart from the work of Arne. In Spain. and way any of whom contributed in any development of the main stream of music. There is a long list In Denmark Carl Nielsen (1865 to training shows prominently. a national school was founded by Felipe Pedrdl (1841 to 1922). now lives S. orchestral works. later are A generation Joaquin Turina (1882 to 1949) and Joaquin Nin Of Scandinavians the best-known nationalist is Edvard Grieg (1843 to *97)9 a Norwegian of Scottish descent. few to the if Samuel Sebastian (1810 to 1876) exerted an influence for good on music for the Anglican rite. Notable among his followers are his pupils Enrique Granados (1867 to I 9 I 6) and Manuel de Falla (1876 to 1946). In England. music suffered a rapid decline after the death of Purcell. William Sterndale Bennett (1816 to 1875). followed by Antonin Dvorak (1841 to 1904).. Academy of Music and W. He was essentially a miniaturist. etc. Samuel Wesley (1766 to 1837) is notable for some fine Latin motets and for his championship of Bach at a time when his name was hardly known. whose influence was asserted mainly through his writings and teaching. In the larger forms his German he is less successful. lacking music of any particular distinction since the days of Morales and Victoria. cantatas. also Isaac Albeniz (1860 to 1909). despite a varied output of oratorios. Arthur Seymour Sullivan (1842 to 1900). with libretti by They contain a wealth of good tunes and . Frederick Smetana (1824 to 1884).

economical and sparkling
limits, is



satire is




Their social and but their continued popuits

larity is assured

by the music, which, within


of great attractiveness.* Three names herald the real revival of English music,

Alexander Mackenzie (1847 to 1935), Hubert Parry (1848
to 1918)

and Charles

While hardly of the
next generation,



to 1924). the way for the rank, they paved of whom were pupils of Parry and

Villiers Stanford

Stanford, of Irish birth, was perhaps the most spontaneously gifted. His work has at times an attractive

Irish-folky flavour, and some of his songs are perfect gems. Parry was at his best, perhaps, in choral works, where his fine contrapuntal technique, derived from his study of Bach

book on that composer remains a standard work), has


Born in 1857, the outstanding figure of his generation was Edward Elgar, who died in 1934. Unlike the three composers mentioned above, he had no academic training, but in natural gifts he excelled them all. His early works,
while often showing his great gift for melody, give little foretaste of the possibilities realised in the Enigma Variations of 1899 an(i t*16 l n Ik* f compositions which followed.

In the Dream of

Gerontius, the

two symphonies, the



'cello concertos,

and the symphonic study

name but a

few, Elgar proved his right to be of greatest English composer since Purcell. His mastery he rarely, if ever, the orchestra was consummate (though in Straussian 'stunting'), and Falstaff showed that

Fdstqff, to called the

indulged in the sphere of


music he had no need

to fear

second of the line of great Viennese waltz-kings. His best known 9 In operetta, Die Fledermaus (The Bat ), is a complete masterpiece. view of the ultra-serious view of music which is not uncommon among students and the tendency to look down on 'light* music, it may be worth while to point out that such great artists as Lotte Lehmann and Elisabeth Schumann were c[uite happy to turn from The Rxng or The Mastersingers and take part in The Bat,,

competition. * Mention must not be omitted of Johann

Strauss (1825 to 1899),



as of Parry, is of the instinctive, kind; there is no use of a 'folk' idiom. In the intangible work of Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872 to 1958) we find an idiom whose roots are largely in the folksong tradition, phonists.

The Englishncss of Elgar,

by his study of the works of the early polyDr. H. C. Colles put the matter succinctly when he remarked, in connection with Vaughan Williams's Pastoral symphony, that his 'creative power seems to have been set free by his converse with the folk singers. 9 He was

no way limited in his harmonic outlook; like Sibelius, he was prepared to use anything from the mildest consonance to the most astringent dissonance (as in his 4th symphony)
to give appropriate expression to his thoughts. Vaughan Williams had a great influence on the younger generation, and helped them by his example to find their own language.

In his long list of works, from the Fantasia on a Theme of Tallis onwards, there is none which does not bear the imprint of a strong and sincere personality. The work of Gustav Hoist (1874 to 1934), despite the frequent use of a markedly dissonant idiom, shows nationalist feeling, and so to some extent does that of Frederick Ddius (1862 to 1934), together with influences from Greig and Debussy (to be considered later). Nationalism in Hungary is represented by Zoltan Kodaly (b. 1882) and Bela Bart6k (1881 to 1945). Of the latter some mention will be made in the next chapter. Kodaly's studies of Hungarian folksong have given a distinctly national flavour to such works as his Psalmus Hungarian, one of the finest choral works of the present

have already referred briefly to Sibelius. It well to mention that he was not a nationalist in the


may be

accepted sense and made no use of a folk idiom. He has been described as a 'nationalist in sentiment9 ,* as was Elgar, but there is none of the deliberate nationalism of the Russian


9 .



by Gerald Abraham,


by David Cherniavsky.

might be called a nationalist in


Tschaikovsky, too, He did occasionally make use of a Russian folk as in the last movement of his 4th symphony, but tune, he never adopted the methods of the 'Five'. His work is outstanding in its free expression of emotion, sometimes

degenerating to sentimentality, and he was in the same line of superb orchestral craftsmen as Mozart and Mendelssohn.* In the next generation are Alexander Glazounov

I (1865 to 1936) and Serge Rachmaninov (1873 to 943) Neither was a deliberate nationalist, nor in the front rank of composers, but both produced much work with considerable appeal. Rachmaninov's songs rank with those of Mussorgsky, and he perhaps took the display concerto


The Germans,
volkslied in

piano to




Apart from Strauss there are the Austrian Anton Bruckner (1824 to 1896) and the Bohemian Gustav Mahler (1860 to 1911), Viennese by education and residence. Both are 'classic-romantic , both absorbed Wagnerian influences, and both tend to prolixity. Opinions vary as to the ultimate value of their compositions; all that can

Brahms's songs, have yet to show

despite the occasional influence of the interest in folk

be said objectively is that they continued the tendencies of Wagnerian romanticism. As in Germany, so in France there have been no signs of interest in folksong as a basis of style. The ballets of

Leo Delibes (1836 to 1891) and the operas ofJules Massenet to J 9*9)> Gustavo (1842 to 1912), Andrd Messager (1853 to 1956) and Emmanuel Ghabrier Charpentier (1860 in their elegance and (1841 to 1894) are typically French charm. Rather later was Paul Dukas (1865 to 1935), who is known chiefly by his vivid and amusing scherzo, Uapprenti

The most

was Franck, who, although of Belgian parentage, was so long
* An example occurs at the opening of the 5th symphony. another composer might have stated the motto theme on one effect. Tschaikovsky uses two in unison a quite unique

serious-minded composer of the century




is usually counted as a Frenchman. His somewhat weighty romanticism, with its highly personal melodic idioms and at times exotically chromatic harmony, was something new in French music. Notable among his pupils were Vincent d'Indy (1851 to 1931), Henri Duparc (1848 to 1933), famous for some fine songs,

resident in Paris that he

and Guy Ropartz (1864


to 1956). Standing apart from Gabriel Faure (1845 to 1924) exerted much group,

influence as a teacher, perhaps his most important pupil being Maurice Ravel (1875 to I 937)




Great Scenes from Boris Godounov Pictures at an Exhibition
Prince Igor


No. 323 1003

Polovtsian Dances



RimskyKorsakov Smetana

(from Ma Wast) Bartered Bride, Overture etc.

The Moldau
Symphony, Symphony,

N ooSaoR

33 SX. 1007


D Minor



World} Slavonic Dances


Piano Concerto, Lyric Suite

A Minor

LXT. 2608 OCLP. 1019



1003 1020



The Lady and

the Nightingale




The Three-Cornered Hat


Violin Sonata


D Minor


CX. 1049

Nutcracker Suite

Symphony No. 5 Symphony No. 6

LXTA. 2905 33 OCX. 1201 LPM. 18333 LPM. 18334


Mahler Wolf

Symphony No. 3 Symphony No. 4
Song Recital Song Recital

Don Juan

TU EuLertspiegel \

LXTA. 2969 LXT. 2718 LW. 5 i62 33 OCX. 1162



Extracts from Der Rosenkaoalier



2871 * Summer night on Symphony No. Symphony No. Symphony No. 1456 LXT. i On hearing the first cuckoo 33 33 the river OOT b2QI 2 5 OALP.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS Composer Elgar Title Cat. 1085 1122 1047 . No. Vaughan Hoist Delius Sibelius Enigma Variations Violin Concerto Fantasia on a theme of Tallis Williams London Symphony Pastoral Symphony Planets KLC. 2699 LXT. 527 OALP. CX. 2787 LXTA. OCX. 2693 LXT.

The poets were willing to discard prosody and even to neglect the normal rules of syntax. concerning themselves with the purely sensuous effect of words words as sounds and symbols rather than as Hnfcg in a chain of thought. Claude Achille Debussy came early under the influence of the pictorial and poetical impressionists. (It is arguable that he was to some extent anticipated by Liszt in some of his latest piano works. largely disregarding traditional methods of 'composition* and eschewing anything that savoured of photographic realism. Both painters and poets sought to suggest rather than to state. JL as he died in 1918. since he brought to music a new outlook and new methods which are most logically treated in a section which is concerned with what is usually called 'modern' music. and his style came to be based on an application to music of their underlying principles. consideration of his work has been deferred until now. . in their Born in 1862. IMPRESSIONISM The principles of impressionism are seen in the work of such painters as Monet and Cezanne and such poets as Verlaine and Mallarme.) We have noted the romantics' interest in sound as such. ally have been dealt with in the previous chapter.CHAPTER SEVENTEEN AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE A LTHOUGH the composer who is regarded as the f-\ chief exponent of impressionism could chronologic\. calculated. to developments in the use of the orchestra. combinations of notes. The painters concentrated on light and colour as the most important elements in a picture. among other things. Debussy's interest was in sounds as sounds. whether analysable as 'chords' in the traditional sense or not. leading.

though it peeps through in such a piece as the prelude Feux d* artifice. much of Debussy's harmony is more straightforwardly diatonic than that of Wagner in Tristan or Parsifal. . though not to the extent which is sometimes imagined. to induce certain mental or psychological reactions. Anything contrapuntal was therefore alien to his style. retaining but expanding the traditional vocabulary. we may add. He 'attempted to create the musical equivalent of a literature' (and. it is a 'sound' to be used for its particular effect the impression in its context. Music in Western Civilisation. and the use of clusters of notes which can hardly be classified as chords in the traditional manner.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 223 context. like the painters and poets from of the orchestra inspiration. music intriguing. since the traditional attitude ninth or thirteenth to discord no longer holds good. (For a simple example. Not that he attempted to sever it conveys all links of harmony. and in this he showed himself the successor of such lythand 18th-century clavecinists as Couperin. we recognise We have only to listen to the very opening of suggestion.* His The realism of a Strauss is is illustrative a new sense. not his object. In his use of the delicate tints whom economical to the last degree and in his highly personal the master of style of keyboard writing. Lang. and he was led to experiment with such possibilities as the whole-tone scale. of a pictorial art) 'permeated with ambiguity- m he took his sion. Despite the opinions held by many who have not closely studied his work. H. with the past or to found an entirely 'new' system Rather he indicated the possibility of a new attitude towards its functions. * P. he aims to suggest.) The traditional principle that a discord needs some kind of resolution is therefore often completely discarded. to give an impres- Debussy's aim was the capturing of a sensation or a mood. A chord. rather than as links in a musical argument. yet attractive ambiguity'. deceiving. is not to Debussy a discord. for instance. see the third and fourth bars from the end of the piano prelude Le Cathedrale Engloutie.

viola and harp 6 (1915-17). nearer to traditional form and line though harmonically quite advanced less. is at the opposite pole from both Wagnerian music-drama and the Italian tradition. the orchestra is used not as ment. and precision. the minimum strokes of the brush. his musical characteristics developed on different lines from those of Debussy. the sonatas for piano 'cello and piano. with tradition. two main classes. cultivated a harmonic style which tends to be lush. and lacked the finesse and elusiveness of the Frenchmen. J than his impressionist work. perhaps. Ravel learned the value of formal stability. Delius. As a pupil of Faur6.224 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the famous Prilude d PAprh-midi fun Faune (1892) to realise his ability to create an atmosphere with. Neverthe- he was perhaps more of a whole-hearted impressionist than any other composer. Firstly. e. postromantics working concurrently with the more advanced composers. PelUas et Melisande. Debussy entered a kind of neo-classic phase.g. approaching natural a mere accompanispeech. It suggests the atmosphere in an entirely individual manner. nor does it provide a Wagnerian symphonic poem. though the dividing line is by no means There are those who retain strong links clearly drawn. as it were. With his and violin. but PelUas stands as an isolated phenomenon. the overlapping of styles referred to in Chapter 16. at his best. in smaller works. clarity of outline. latest compositions. Debussy's one opera. Debussy influenced many composers to a greater or less degree. and flute. however. and those in whose work the links are wearing Among contemporaries we may distinguish . The singing is entirely declamatory. both harmonically and in their general outlook. and the influence of the 18th-century clavecinists is sometimes apparent. As a preliminary to some consideration of the more recent trends in music three points must be mentioned. lacking both predecessors and successors. Ravel and Delius were among those who came under his influence. based on the play by Maurice Maeterlinck.

In fifty years' time it may be possible an opinion as to their potential value. All have carried on. logically enough. in fact. but rather a continued development of the processes of the igth century. above. too. arising from this general rather than particular consideration of contemporary work. In many instances nationalist traits are evident to a greater or less extent. the English tradition of choral music. Arnold Bax (1883 to 1953). there is no violent break with the past. enable him to achieve a wide Younger Benjamin Britten His . 1892). as in the case of such British writers as John Ireland (b. and Herbert Howells (b. It is still fundamentally based on the major-minor scale system. which can still find fresh resource in diatonic melody. we must again stress the importance of the time factor. as there are individual composers. among other things.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 225 more or less thin or appear to have snapped. fertile imagination (especially stimulated in the setting of words) and his fluent technique. In the work of composers whose links with tradition are still firm their harmonic vocabulary is. 1913). 1891) is more eclectic and rather less traditional in his outlook. Of a younger and dynamic. notable works including Bax's motet Mater ora Filium and Howells' Hyrnnus Paradisi. Thirdly. Arthur Bliss (b. almost as many. All that can be done at present is to indicate what appear to be the general trends. forceful may be coupled with still is the choral works mentioned (b. His Bekhazzar's Feast generation William Walton (b. It would be possible to give a comprehensive list of names. At the present day many different lines of development are being pursued. Secondly. often with some influence from Debussy. 1902) is to be noted. 1879). It is the music which matters most. an extension of that of Liszt and Wagner. no attempt can be made passing from the swans and to decide which composers are on the main road and which are merely exploring dead-ends. but to do so would be singularly uninformative. with a highly individualised style. In matters of form. without to distinguish the geese and to mention every single composer.

the notable feature (b. His violin concerto is one of the finest recent works of its genre.S. His music has often a rhapsodic tendency and shows racial characteristics. and we may refer also to Ernest Bloch (1880-1959). are highly individual and of great dynamic power. Of music in Russia it is difficult to give an opinion owing to the peculiar conditions (at least to the Western mind) under which artists are expected to work. Apart from a completely free treatment of dissonance. and their influence is evidently strong in shaping at any rate the language of a number of American composers. but more recently there has been a tendency to considerable individuality and an eagerness to absorb the most advanced methods. Such composers as Serge Prokofieff (1891 to 1953) and Dmitri Shostakovich (b.A. 1896).. the breaking down of the traditional distinction between concord and discord mentioned in Chapter 3. and his style and idiom. from a rather steely post-romanticism to the most advanced modernity.S. Among the more prominent of these are Samuel Barber Aaron Copland (b. born in Switzerland of Jewish parentage. and a new attitude to form. The methods of the earlier writers were naturally based on the German tradition.226 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC range of style. often markedly dissonant but with a traditional background. They cannot be regarded as a 'school' since their styles and aims vary widely. Many of the leading European musicians have made their home in the U. Among Continental composers the late romantic attitude is perhaps less common.S. 1900). In recent years a number of native-born composers have appeared in the United States of America. Roy Harris and Virgil Thompson (b. They are therefore not entirely at liberty to develop according to their natural inclinations. (b. He has a very original mind. 1906) have had to conform to the canons promulgated by those who dictate artistic style in the U. Kodaly has been mentioned. 1910). 1898) . We must now deal briefly with the work of the more advanced composers.R.

regardless of euphony. indeed. it is rather a matter of an almost mathematical handling of sounds. Thus.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 227 the disintegration. whatever variations there have been in style and method. The twelve notes of what is usually called the chromatic scale all become of equal importance. Some. also automatically discards chromaticism. feeling. of. or less definite plan. of tonality. Notes of the diatonic scale are the true 'modern'. even though the emotion may not always be universally palatable. is that to the normal Western ear the music merely sounds out of tune. and expression igth century A reaction of some kind was to be expected. their music is Such a conception of an art is new.) In the work of the more advanced composers we find not only function new technical methods. still however emotional expression. when a certainly in direct opposition to the aims of composers since the I5th century. but a new attitude to the and meaning of music itself. We see the possibilities of this taken to an advanced stage in the late Wagner and in the work of many of the contemporary post-romantics. as has been suggested by Alois Haba* (The result of this. chromaticism in the true sense of the word no longer exists. Most notably opposed to the romantic spirit of the music as a direct response to. according to a more startling his music looks upon it as a means of may seem harmonically. interesting enough in theory. 'key* is a thing of the past. The true 'modern' often tends to what is called 'cerebral' music. it is . This implies that composition is more a matter of 'patterning' with sounds. seem to suggest that not intended to have any 'meaning' in the usual sense of the word. The traditionalist. so that there is nothing left to be coloured unless we introduce intervals smaller than a semitone. To many contemporary composers the major-minor scale system is played out. But 'coloured' colouring. in discarding traditional tonality. unless we go back similar attitude It is to the early days of polyphony seems largely to have held good. Chroma- of such work is ticism means by accidentals.

1882) produced such works as his Octet for Wind Instruments (1923) and Piano Concerto (1924) that neo-classicism began to have any widespread is effect. Composers all kinds. as Debussy followed that of the impressionist painters and poets. together with the advent of the 'mechanical age'. of artists of stractions'. tending to modify man's outlook on This is reflected in the work of at least a proportion life. Non-musical factors also have influence. for example. Such a work as his Fantasia Contrappuntistica (1912) clearly looks back to Bach's Art of Fugue for its inspiration. On the fringe. passacaglia. suite. as it were. Painters and sculptors produce 'abno emotional message and representconveying ing nothing except some kind of visual pattern.228 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC History shows us that when a style reaches its apogee a revulsion is sooner or later inevitable. attempt to follow their lead. however. The new outlook is expressed in 'neo-classicism'. and of the stricter contrapuntal forms. etc. The revival of contrapuntal writing. alien to the true romantics. fugue. though his popular fame rests on his prowess as a pianist. which are associated especially with Bach. alien to the impressionists. of neo-classicism lies the work of a number of composers who. We may recall the aversion of the Camerata to polyphony. until Igor Stravinsky (b. as well as the cultivation of chamber music. while not to be considered seen also in . The characteristic impersonality many works by Paul Hindemith (b. His Ludus Tonalis is another descendant of the Art of Fugue. It was not. is a notable feature of contemporary music. in which he pursues a highly developed contrapuntal style. in the case of the Camerata their pre- occupation with Greek drama. The earliest neo-classicist was Ferruccio Busoni (1866 to 1924). It implies a complete turning away from the emotionalism of the late romantics and a return to many older forms concerto grosso. and of the Forty-eight. of which we have noted signs but not more than signs in the late Debussy. 1895). In the case of 20th-century music we have to allow for two world wars and a number of revolutions.

With him may be mentioned the Englishman LordBerners (1883 to 1950) and Prokofieffinhis earlier years. His curiosity regarding new aspects of sounds and their organisupplementary to traditional methods. There is often a kind of light 'entertainment value'. the use of new scales. but in others it seems to have been largely empirical. In some cases such experiment has been systematic. too. has led composers in many directions. Poulenc is an exponent of the 'witty in music. led him to explore. The desire to experiment. sometimes becoming merely flippant. a believer in harmony. Arthur Honegger (1892-1955. poly* sation. masterpiece of its kind. indulged in this witty approach in his satirical music to Edith Sitwcll's Fafadea. Germaine Tailleferre (b. to explore new technical methods and possibilities. though quite personal system of He was. and has produced works of considerable power and origin5 ality. perhaps more than now. 1888). too. Of composers who have made systematic attempts to enlarge the bounds of harmony Bela Bartok is noteworthy. 1 899) . 1892). Walton. but seldom any great depth of meaning. have nevertheless attempted to break away. up in 4ths and other intervals His Mikrokosmos for piano is a simple but instructive exposi- tion of such experiments. from romanticism. Honegger seems to some extent to have modified his point of view of late years. has done much to elaborate a logical. Hindemith. in various ways. They were Louis Durey (b.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 229 as true exponents of this style. Besides being anti-romantics they also placed themselves in opposition to the impressionism of Debussy. . The band of composers in France who called themselves Les Six and who had a not inconsiderable vogue immediately after the First World War. GebroMchsmusik remarking that *a composer utility music should neverwrite unlesshe knows ofa demand for his work. fol(b. among other things. lowing the leadership of Erik Satie. of Swiss parentage). 1899) and Francis Poulenc (b. 1892). Darius Milhaud Georges Auric (b. are a case in point. chords built tonality (two or more keys simultaneously) and instead of the customary srds.

Schonberg's works of his early post-Wagnerian phase the Gumlieder and Pelleas and Melisande utilise enormous forces. rather than to write automatically for a full normal orchestra. In one respect. The tendency generally is to employ only those instruments which are felt to be actually needed. clarinet. he looks back to the attitude of the 18th-century kapellmeister. therefore. but his Histoire du Soldat (1918) is scored for one each of violin. It is useless demand an nobody We have mentioned die wide variations of style to be found in the work of some contemporary composers. The early years of the present century saw the apotheosis of the mammoth Stravinsky's Sacre du Printemps (1913) needs a huge orchestra. Economic to factors have also to be considered. requiring only fifteen solo instruments. with eight percussion instru- ments. . cornet and trombone. In others. but his Chamber Symphony of 1906 goes to the other extreme. especially movement. a peak of modernity is followed by some relaxation. in attempts to break away from the regular metrical accentuation which has been the norm for some three hundred years. The 'tyranny of the barline' has come under fire.* some return to a more 'human' style. too. In the case of * orchestra of a hundred-odd players can afford to pay them. Notable. double-bass. orchestra in the works of such men as Strauss and Mahler. but the contemporary composer often prefers not merely to reduce the number of players but to use entirely new combinations of instruments. when Compare the remark on Schutz's Cantiones Sacrae in Chapter 8. is epoch-making in this direction. as in the case of Bartok. is the tendency of some composers to discard the standard orchestral combination which has developed since the second half of the i8th century. Experiment has not been confined to the harmonic side. bassoon. In some cases we can trace a clear and continuous line of development onwards from a post-romantic idiom to more or less advanced modernity. Such a work in its final as Stravinsky's ballet Le Sacre du Printemps.230 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC not for his own satisfaction'.

has been described as a master of styles rather than of style. by Ralph Hill (Pelican Books) too comexposition of Schonberg's final technical methods in Counterpoint by plex to be elucidated here will be found in Studies Ernst Kfenek (Schirmer). comparable in a way to the I7th century. Beginning as a post-Wagnerian romantic. in which every note is of equal importance. A simple * Mosco . at the same time following his emotions down to their deep-seated subconscious roots'. ultimately arriving at a highly organised system of atonality (absence of key) based on a scale of twelve semitones. almost from opera The Rake's Progress. to the century. he moved farther and farther towards intense use of discord and away from traditional tonality. but varies his mode of expression from work to work. artide in The Concerto. In his a kind of vacillation.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE Stravinsky there has been 231 work 1 8th to work. while latterly in the ballet Agon and the choral work Canticum Sacrum. He has never limited himself to a single style. in patterns of pure sound. . Anton Webern (1883 to 1945) has perhaps taken the purely cerebral aspect to its extreme. whose influence on the younger generation has been not inconsiderable. Stravinsky. Another pupil.* The system involves a use of dissonance which reaches the limit of intensity. Schonberg's pupil Alban e Berg (1885 to 1935) proved in other works. among master's possibilities of his methods though he was by no means inflexible in his application of them. The urge behind this development was a desire to increase the emotionally expressive power of music. in structural method if not in harmony. Garner. Possibly the most consistent line of development is found in the work of Arnold Schonberg (1874 to 1952). The question remains: Whither are they leading? It would seem that we are living in a period of transition. he has made use of Serial Technique developed from Schonberg's Twelve-note System. he made a return. the great expressive his violin concerto. to express an excessive degree of emotional tension. With this we must conclude our all-too-brief discussion of 20th-century trends.

stand still. new ideas are in the air. experiment is widespread. know is that music will not.23 s A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC As then. We RECORDS Composer Debussy Ravel Walton Britten Stravinsky Poulenc Bartok Prokofieff Schoenberg . cannot say which ideas or experiments may be really All we fruitful or which may turn out to be valueless. and cannot.

105 Arne. 24 Algarotti. 34 Agon. 226 Barber of Baghdad. 174 19. 42 Bartok. 75 BACH. i5 Balakireff.. 91 Basso continuo. 106. 180. 65 Brandenburg Concertos. 216 Albinoni. 148 J. 149 _. 100. 123 Basse danse. 13. 129 J. Benedetti. AmarilK. Novae Musicae. 120 Axnbros. 25 Aesthetics. 26 Arcadelt. 60 Ballet. 101 technical advances. 231 Berners. 186 Coriolanus. 186. 37 Aeolian mode. 15. 127. 144. Michael. t Aston. 45w. 1 19 J 22. St. 129 J. 77^. in Benedictus. 120. 143 Marc. Passion. 176 iSingr y* *<> the Lord. 76 Aria. *75 _. Bagatelles. 187 Consecration of the House. Sebastian. 194 21. 135 . 229 Ars Ars Ars Ars Ars Cantus Mensurabths. 108. 67 Banister. 24. 26. 43 Anthem. 96. 191. 52. 97 Auber. I2 5 116. 175 Belli. 115 A cappetta. Anglican chant. 150 Agazzari. 210 Binary form. C. 204 Albeniz. 175 Liederkreis. 187. 205 Berg. 182. 119. 61 Bassam. 165 Ballade. 208 Art of Fugue. 154. 127. giff. use of orchestra. 15. 143 Christmas Oratorio. Scherzo. 92 Attaignant. 112 Barber. i?9 Affections. "8. 175 Mttwca/ Offering. 231 Atda. 117 Antiphonary. 102 Amati. ijzff. 163 Ninth Symphony. 175 Nova. 14. 148. 168 Bembo. 151 J. 82 Anonymous MS. Christian. 44. 205 Bardi.. 102.INDEX ABEL. 162 Ad Qrganum Faciendum. 141 Forty-eight Preludes and Fugues. 100 Agnus Dei. 43 Contrapuncti. 144. 186 Fidelio. 144.. 163 AUegri. 125 Berlioz. 17. 19. 198 Bax. 107 *. 229 Biber. 101 Allemande. 158 Bassoon. 90 Baumgarten. 112. 81 Bennett. 140. 34. 104 Addison. 106. 205. 65 Ballata. 225 Beethoven. 144. J 7> i Benvenuto Celhm. iziff. 13. 79 i3 I9 117. 144 Matthew Passion. Christoph. 138^. 144* *?o 16. 40j Bass. 126 Albrechtsberger. JWm Ballett. 157. 151 Abendmusiken. 181. 190 Mass in D. 15 Adam de la Hale. 55 no 31.. 58. Augmentation. 25 Ayre. P. 171 Alcuin. in Bellini.. 16. i49 iSi. 216 I4 39 69. 58. 93 Auric. 99. 215 Ballad opera. 92. 229 Authentic mode. E. 57 ssff. iS7. 82.. Little 'Organ Book.. 216 Ars Antigua. 212 170^. ISO. 77^. 33 47 Bars. 100 Ambrose. 181. 61 Discantus. Anerio.

96 Cotton. 116 Boethius. 44. 46 Contrapunctus a mente. 33 Conductus. 65 Busoni. 130 fantasia. 115. Cranmer. 143 Cornelius. 45. 223 Chabrier. 98 Cosyn. 215 BoufEbns. 192. 144 Concerto. songs. 60 Bombard. 162 Bourgeois. 123. 92. 98 Byzantines.. 80 Bounce. 96. 96 Canzona. 99 Burney. 164 Campion. 109 Cremona. 122 Clavichord. nijf. La. 79. 74. Concertino. Collegia Musica. 18. 132 Bulow. 115. 96. 120 . 58 Cantusfirmus. da. 123*1. 105 Cezanne. 130 ChoraUs Constantinus. 64. 15. Carisstmi. 46 Cooper. 95. 63. 63. 135. de. 15271. I33ft. 65 Chapel Royal.. 122 Courante. 70 Caldara. 58. 163. 99ff. 63 Blake. cyclic methods.. 36. 91 Brescia. 112 196. 93. 96. 67 Cantata. ax. 188 Chorale. 225 Britton. Canticum Sacrum. 105 Cavazzoni. 226 Coranto. 60 Clarinet. 73. 43 Britten. 24 Coffey. 122 Chanson. 95 Classical style. 112 Colonna. 112. 116 Charpentier. 125. 164 Cambert. xpxjfc choral works. H3ff. 121 Corelli. 205 Cavalli. 205 Bohm. 99J^. 81... 65. no. 219 Bull. 131 prelude. 121 Brahms.. 130. 75. 97 Cavalieri. von. 140 Burgundian school. 92. 46 CAB&ON. 219 Cherubini. 226 Blow. 107 Camerata. 90 Borodin. 10511. 77i 82. 60. 63^. Clemens non Papa.234 Bizet.. 131 Byrd. 24 Boheme. 18. 148 Bruckner. 83.. 14971. 120 Brevis. 95. 96. 231 Cantilena. 2i4n. 195 variations. 205 Bliss. 123 Jacopo da. 203 Buononcini. 120 Copland. a penna. 116 Cornyshe. 116 Chopin. 80 CasteUone. 96. 167 Child. 179 225 Bloch. 1 66 Coleman. 16 Clavecinists. 7271. 191 Cerone. 93 Busnois. 45. 96. 90 124 Capella. 81 Charles II. 80 Calzabigi. 135 ~~ grosso. 97 Bjnchois. iizff. 113 Conditor alme siderum. 125^. 49*1. 37 Couperin. 49. 228 Buxtehude. 83. 44. iz$ff Concerts Spirituels. 95 Canon. 66 Cimarosa. 131. 71. 205 Cornett. 97 Caccini. Ciscia. Cadence. 140 Calvin. 121^. 112 no Communion. 49. i23Jf. INDEX Cavalleria Rusticana. Cesti. 47. 68 Corsi. 95. 34 Concertato. 87. 219 Chambonnieres. Branle.. 133*** Clavier. 142 Bologna. 131 fugue.

205 Fauxbourdon. 218. 69. igg Cui. 208. 46 Durey. 212. 30 Dvofak. 82 Fayrfax. 214^. 43 De Pres. Faur6. 204 Forster. 26 Dufay. 208. Dandrieu. 79. 51. De Ignoto Cantu. 98. ANDREA. 102 Galliard. Feux Fetis. Fantasia. I7 Don Carlos. 218.. 199 Frescobaldi. DE. Dukas. 20 d'artifice. 43. 78*. 69. 60^. 199 Evangelist. 121 Gebrauchsmustk. 82. Speculatione Musicae. 201 Folksong. 46 Discord. 119. 102 Dittersdorf. 97t "3. 121 Dodecachordon. 151. i88w. 25 Fischer. 204 Donizetti. 61 Estampie. Froberger. 75 Fugue. 82. 99 Flute. 97. 144 Freischute. 120 Festa. 93. 208 Gibbons. 215 . zion. 77 e Eus Feste Burg. 98 Gasparim. 128 Giraldus Cambrensis. 90^. 25 Glazounov. 216 FALLA. Cyclic principle. 18. i47i *5i Galilei. 95 64 Edwards. 200.. 96 Flat. 224 Mensurabths. 151 Divertimento. 168 Dorian mode. W Florence. 6l Garsi. 214. *54 Divisions on a ground. Gaultier. 68 Ferrabosco. 73. t Gavotte. 24 Dowland. 126 Gastoldi. 67. 220 Duplum. 28 Delibes. 85 Esterhazy. 64. Garland. 219 51. 48. 215 Gloria. 35 Die Feen. GABRIELI. 73. gar. 220 Faust. 91 Duparc. 128 Frottola. Final. 67. 122 Dargomijsky. 180 4. i27Jf. 132 FitzzoiWam Virginal Book. 44- 34 .. 14811. Giovanni. 81 Error terttt soni. 216 Fdstaffy 204 ia8 Fancy. 68 Debussy. 43. 91. 63. 53. 22zff. 7i. 215 Davenant. 219 Franco of Cologne. 109 Diaphony. 22 Dialogues. 69. tfff. 63^. Gesuao. 127 Genevan psalter. 99 Dunstable. "3. 43 Diabolus in musica. 76 DANCES. 85 Field. 149. 229 Geminiani. Glareanus. 25 Fontana. 95. 96 Franck. 184 . 124 Force of Destiny. * 81 Galant style. The. 216 Ecclesiae MiKtantis. 80 Genoveva. 219 32. 41. 200 d'Indy. 211. 127. 93. 229 Durum. 199 Gestes. 219 Glinka. 235 Crusaders. 46 Discantus supra tibrum. 30 De Musica Des Delius. in. 136 Flying Dutchman. 137. 220 Discantus Positio Vulgaris. 1 80 *53. 121 Galuppi. 122. 205 Davy. 95 . 30 . 124 Gilbert. 223 Fiedel. 15* Euryanthe.INDEX Cristofori. 79. 46 Frederick the Great. 51 Gesualdo. 9$ Gigue. 108 David. 121. Drink to me only. 178.

Gluck, 1 06, i63ff., 167, 199 Goethe, 179

Impressionism, 2,22$. Intermezzi, 161ff.

Gombert, 74 Goudixnel, 80 Gounod, 205

Graduate Romanum, 34 Granados, 216 Graun, 137 Graupner, 147 Great stave, 2971. Greeks, 22jf., 27, 30 Gregorian chant, 26

Ionian mode, 25 Ireland, 225



66, 69, 81, 93

Gregory the Great, 26, 31 Gretry, 163, 198 Grieg, 216

JACCHINI, 126 Jacob of Liege, 47, 57 Jahn, 199 Jannequin, 80, 98 Jenkins, 120 feu de Robin et Marion, 52
[ohn of Salisbury, 47 [ohnson, Dr., 160 "ommelli, 164
tongleurs, 22, 51,

Grimm, 162

Guarneri, 120 Guido d'Arezzo, 28, 36, 37, 43, 59

Guilmant, 97

fosquin " '

des Pres, 67, 69, 74 la, 167


HABA, 227
Hale'vy, 205 Handel, 13, 108, us, 115, i3&ff., 147, 150, 151, 180


Kapelle, 10572., 113 Kapellmeister, 14, iO5. Keiser, 108, 139




Messiah, 19, 141
operas, 140; oratorios, 141

KerU, 128 Key, 22 Kodaly, 218

Royal Academy of Music, 140 Hansel and Gretel, 205 Hans Helling, 199

Konzertmeister, 14 Kuhnau, 135 Kyrie Eleison, 34, 82

Hans Sachs, 54 Harmony, 32

Harpsichord, 87, 103, 142, Harris, 226 Hasse, 137, 153, 164



18, 19, 20, 151^., 170, 171; oratorios, 155; quartets, 154;

symphonies, 153 Heinrich von Meissen, 54 Herz, 187 Killer, 166 Hindemith, 229

LAI, 58, 62 Lalla Rookh, 205 Landini, 60, 63, 75 Laniere, 112 L'apres-midi d'un Faune, 224 Lassus, 73, 76, 99, 100 Loudest, 109 Laudi, 109


Hocket, 46
Hoist, 175, 218

Homophony, 147
Honegger, 229
Huxnfrey, 112, 116

Humperdinck, 198, 204 Hunten, 187
Idee fixe, 182

Lawes, Henry, 108, 1x2 William, 112, 120 Leading theme, 200, 205, 210 Le Franc, 62 Legrenzi, 106 Leit motif, 200, 205 Le Jeune, 80 Leoncavallo, 205 L^onin, 49 Les Six, 229 Uhomme arme, 64, 71 Lichnowsky, 171 Liebesverbot, Das, 200 Lied, 189^.
Liszt, 16, 187, 1 86, 190;

music, 98, 135, 182 Imitation, 59, 63, 66

39, 95, 98, 179., 181, 182, 190, 196, 203; piano sonata, 21 1; oratorios, 196; songs,

symphonies, 185


Locke, 108

LocateUi, 127, 147

LoeiUet, 136 Loewe, 189 Lohengrin, 201


Loms'xiV, 107, 116,137 Ludwig II, 200
Lulli, 107ff; 161 Lute, 86, 94

Meyerbeer, 167, 200 Micrologus, 28, 36 Mignon, 205 Milan, 94 Milhaud, 229
Milton, 21, 122
Minstrels, 22 Minuet, 121

Minima, 43
Minnesingers, 53

Lutenists, 93^., 130

Luther, 18, Luzzaschi, in


Lydian mode, 24

Missa parodia, 72 sine nomine, 72 Mixolydian mode, 24
99, 184*.

MACE, 120
Machaut, 58, 62, Mackenzie, 217

Mode, 56 Modernism, 17


103, 132


Butterfly, 205

Madriale, 5971. Madrigal, 59, 75^-, 99, xox, Maestro di capetta, 94, 105 Maeterlinck, 224 Magadizing, 30 Magnificat, 82 Magnus Liber Orgam, 49

m. 12

rhythmic, 41 Molinaro, 94, "3

Monet, 222

Monody, 102
Monsigny, 163

Mont* Albano, 149 Monte, de, 76

Mahler, 219 Mailly, 107 Mallarme, 222 Mandriale, sgn.


151 Marcello, 127, 162

Monteverdi, 39, 101, 105, in, 114 Morales, 74, 216 Morley, 79 Motet, 44, 58, 63, 69, 73, 82, 93, "5 Motto theme, 72, 182, 210 Mouton, 67 Mozart, Leopold, 155
\V. A., 13, 16, 32, 134, xsx, *S5J(r-i *75, 166, 168, 171, X 72 *73 180, 181, 182, 185, 188, 199 concertos, 157 Don Giovanni, 175

Marenzio, 77 Marschner, 199

Masked Ball, The, 204 Masque, 108
22, 33, 34*


Massenet, 219

21 Jupiter Symphony, operas, 166 Muffat, 122

Mastersingers of Nuremberg, 54, 167,

Mundy, 98
Musica EncMriadts, 35, *79 ficta, 61, 103, 209
mensurabilis, 41


Muris, de, 57


Maxima, 43
Mazarin, 107 Mazzocchi, no Measurable music, 32, 41 Mehul, 165 Meistersingers, 54

mensurata, 117
parlante, 102 reservata, 73, 100 Transalpina, 77

Mendelssohn, 180, 184, 187, 216
Hebrides Overture, 186 oratorios, 195 , Merry Wives of Windsor, 205 Merula, 123

Fs Booke, 96

chamber music, 186

NARRATOR, no Narvaez, 94


Merulo, 97 Messager, 219 . Messe de Tourrm t 58 Metastasio, 164

Nationalism, 2i3ffNatural, 30. Neo-classicism, 228 5 Neri, M., 124, St. Philip, 109

Netherlands school, 65 JJ-, 99


Neumeister, 115 Neumes, 27 New Music, 102 Nicolai, 205
Niedt, 86. Nielsen, 216
Parsifal, 53, 202 Passacaglia, 143

Nin, 216

Passamezzo, 95 Passion music, 68, 75, Patronage, 18 Pavane, 91, 121



Notation, 26^., 43

Nunc Dimittis, 82 Nuove Musiche, 102
Oberon, 198 , King of the Fairies, 198

Novak, 216

Peerson, 98 Pelleas et Melisande, 224 Pergolesi, 161

Pen, 99, 104
Perotin, 49, 50, 99 Perrin, 107 Petrus de Cruce, 43, 49, 50 Philidor, 163 Phonascus, 45, 52, 58

Oboe, 90 da caccia, 150
Obrecht, 65, 67, 92 Core, tou tt7* despatch me, 78


Phrygian mode, 24
Piano, 14872.
Piccinni, 165 Plagal mode, 24 Plainsong, 31, 45, 55, Point of perfection, 56 Polonaise, 91 Polyphony, 16, 99, 101, 131, 147 choral, 65 Polytextuality, 46, 58**. Polytonality, 229

Occursus, 36

Odes, 117 Odington, 43, 44, 46, 55, 60 Offertory, 34
Offices, church, 22, 8z


Okeghem, 65
ggff., itoff., ig&ff. buffa, i6iff., 198, 204

cormque, 52, 163, 169, 198 houses, 105
seria, ifaff.

Oratorio, 109

Ordinary of the Mass, 34 Ordres, 122 Organ, 32, 85, 96 hymns, 96

Pope, Alexander, 179 Poulenc, 229 Power, 62

and fugue, 131 Prima prattica, zoi

Prelude, 96, 121

Programme music,
Prokofieff, 226, Prolation, 56

98, 182

Organista, 4971.


Otger, 35

35ff., 44,


Proper of the Mass, 34 Ptolemy, 24

140?!., 144,

Overture, 106, 107, 117, 148, 199
concert, 186

Purcell, 39, 61, 79, 83, 109, 116, 117, 120, 122, 124, 216

Puritans, ioSn., 116

Dido and Aeneas, 109

PACHELBKL, 21, 129, 131, 142 Paganini, 187 Paglfacci, 205 Paisiellp, 214



Mtssa Papae Marcelh, 71 Missa Regina Coett, 71 O Bone jesu, 70 Stabat Mater, 70 Tu es PetniSf 70 Vern Sponsa Christ** 73 Papal bull, 19, 47, 58 Pareja, 132 Parry, 217
Parthenia, 95

Palestrma, 21, 63, 69, 71. 73. 77, 99


Raguenet, 162 Rake's Progress, The, 231 Rameau, 20, 145, 161
Ravel, 220, 224 Recitative, 102, 115

Recitative accompagnato, 106


stromentatot 106 Recorders, 87

Redford, 96 Reformation, 80
Reichardt, 137. 189, 190 Reinken, 122, 129, 142 Restoration style, 116 Rhinegold, The, 202 Ricercare, 93, 9 6 JI 9 J 28
sopra un soggetto, 128 Richard I, Richter, 180 Rienxi, 200 Rigoletto, 203
Schweitzer, 115
Scriabin, 207


Seconda prattica, 101 Semibrevis, 43 Serial Technique, 231
Service (reformed),


Sharp, 30 Shawm, 90 Shirley, 108 Shostakovich, 226

Sibelius, 20, 212, 218 Sicilian Vespers, 204

Rimsky-Korsakov, 211, 215 Ring, The, 202 Rinuccini, 99, 104
Ripieni, 125

Siegfried Idyll,


Silbermann, 148

Simone Boccanegra, 204
Sinfonia avanti Vopera, 106, 149 Singspiel, 165, 198

Ritomello form, i20. Robertsbridge Codex, 85 Romanticism, 16, i78jf.

Rondeau, rondel, 44 5 Rondo, 51, 122 Ropartz, 220 Rore, da, 73. 77
Rossini, 168


229 Smetana, 216 Solmisation, 28
Sonata, 97, 123 a tre, 123 da camera, 123 da ckiesa, 123 form, 92, 135

Rotundum, 30 Round, 44 f

Rousseau, 162 Rue, de la, 67

Songs, i88jy. Speculum Musicae, 47, 57

Spem in

alium, 70

Spinet, 87

SACKBUT, 90 Sacre du Printemps, Le, 230 Sacre Rappresentastioni, 109
Saint-Saens, 205 Salomon, 153

Spohr, 199 Spontini, 167
Stamitz, 151 Stanford, 217

05 Sammartini, 151, 154 Sampson, 68 Samson and Delilah, 205 Sanctus, 34. 7* Sarabande, 121, 123 Sartorio, 106
Scale, 22ff.
Scarlatti, A., 106,

Sternhold and Hopkins, 82
Stilo antico, 101

moderno, 101
rappresentativo, Stradella, 106 Stradivari, 120



112, 127, 140

D., 95, 134. 147. 148,150 Scheidemann, 129 Scheldt, 114, "9 *3* Schein, 114, 129 Schiller, i?9 Schlegel, 179 Schlick, 86, 96 SchSnberg, 40, 231 Schubert, 32, 180, 184, 186; quartets, 186; songs, 189; symphonies, 184; Wanderer Fantaste, 184 Schumann, i7,97 *79 l8 5J chamber music, 186; songs, 190 Schutz, 20, 108, in, 114 Schutz, Sympkoniae Sacrae, 114

Stravinsky, 228, 230 Strauss, J., 217 R., 80,98, 166 String quartet, 154

Strozzi, 106 Suite, 91, 121^., 14* Sullivan, 216 Sumer is icumen tn, 44. 59 &o

Sweelinck, 129

2 Symphonetes, 45, 5 > 5 219 Symphonia sacra, 115 Symphonic poem, 98*



Symphony, 106, Sympson, 121
TaiUeferre, 229



102 Time. 219. 231 Weelkes. 162 Viola da gamba. 63. 53. 189. 120 Telemann. 70. 205 Traviata. 69. 202 Walton. 33 S. 20. 137. 126 Tosca. 216 Turkish opera. 148 Triple time. 210. 44. 203 Verlaine. 131 Tonality. 198 Constanze. 42. II. 216 Tannhauser. 41. S. 94 Thibaut. 132 Zelter. I99J0M 208. 201 Siegfried Idyll. 113 Venite. 179. 76 Verdi. 55 Triplum. 227 Faust Overture. 5 iff. 199 Variations. 87 Virtuosity. 86. 113 Zumsteeg. 142. 104 Venice. 97. 55. 16. 125 VALDERRANO. 204 leading themes. 198 Freischutz. Tonic. 53 Wranitzky. 186. 202 Vampire. 198 Trwatore. 190 Wolfram von Eschenbach. 76 Wagenseil. 119. 57 Turandot. 204 Tristan and Isolda. 175. 132 Tenor. 154. 187 Vitali. 158 Te Deum. 78. 53. 81 Vie"ville. 223. H9 Theorbo. 74 Widor. 226 Thorough bass.. La. 198 YONGE. 61 Vivaldi. 53. 28 Temperament. 35 124 WAELRANT. 191 Vaughan Williams. 147 Volkslied. 14?. de. 219 Tunder. 179. 126 o Viols. 123. 64 Ternary form. 26 ZACHAU. 93 Williams.. 97 Wieck. 181. 115 Tunsted. 46. 105 St. 67. 77 You Gentlemen of England. 106 Thalberg. 16. 198 Oberon. 87. The.. 125. 126. 37 Wolf. 188 . 103. 216 USPER. Tristan and Isolda. 227 Vitry. 148 Verdelot. 79 Willaert. 156 Webern. 108 Violin.87. 218 Vecchi. 205 Turina. 53. Vaughan. S3. 73 76. 106 Viadana. 52 Thomas. 56^. 94. 201 Tartini. 223 Whyte. 132 Wesley. 203 Trio sonata. 56 Tinctoris. 195 Vox organatis. The. 175. 94 Valentini. 201 role of orchestra. 56 signatures. 225 Weber. 205 Troubadours. 216 Whole-tone scale. The. Violoncello. 123. 53 164. 45. 26 Torelli. 187 Theile. 143. 190 Ziani. 97. 90. 139 Zarlino. 87. 85.. 202 Trojans. INDEX 74 82 Victoria. 187. 86 77 98. "9> Virginals. 198 Tye. 86. 93. 115. 92. 2on. 222 Versets. 62. 218 'Winchester Troper*. 225. 59 Trouveres. 205 Thompson. 79 Werckmeister. 7. Mark's. 74 82 Euryanthe. 65 Toccata. 81 Veracini. 151 Wagner. 190 Wilbye. 201 Parsifal. 212. 97 Vexilla Regis. 35 principaUs. 176. s*ff*> 55 202 prose works.. 203 Tschaikovsky. 74* Vielle. 127. S. 127 Valkyrie.240 Tallis.

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