First published 1953 Reprinted. London. Portugal St. Wr.C. 1955 JReprinted9 with corrections and revised record lists9 1959 Reprinted 1962 G. 9 London and Southampton. Sell and Sons* Ltd York ffottse. .s Published by ~he Printed in Great Britain by Camelot Press Ltd.

CONTENTS Chap. Suggestions for Study 1 Page 9 13 On the Study of Musical History The Beginnings of Western European Music 2 22 3 The Early Development Early Secular Music of Counterpoint 35 52 4 5 6 7 The 'New Art' and Its Development 55 69 Vocal Music in the Sixteenth Century The Rise of Instrumental Music 85 99 119 8 Vocal Music in the Seventeenth Century Instrumental Music in the Seventeenth Century 9 10 1 1 The Age The of Bach and Handel 134 147 Rise of Classicism 12 Developments in Opera Beethoven 160 170 178 198 13 14 15 1 The Romantics and Their Music Romantic Opera Late Romantics and Nationalists Impressionism and the Contemporary Scene 6 207 222 17 Inde 233 .


A book much the length can be no more than a bare outline. composers and their works is of but little value. for his patience in reading by chapter. .L. B. but have rather referred to those who appear to be the more important. the development of and forms. my drafts chapter His comments and criticisms have invariably W. I must record my gratitude to Dr. it is inevitably affected by many external and these cannot be overlooked or underestimated. the underlying causes of that development. Wilfrid Dunwell. I have given those sanctioned by the more recent research. to keep to line of development. What matters is the main way in which music grew. The growth of an art does not take place in a IN vacuum. styles In the case of often many of the earlier composers there is some divergence of opinion as to the dates of their births and deaths. In any a history which consists mainly of lists of case. been both helpful and stimulating.A. to some limited extent.FOREWORD writing this book I have tried to trace not only how the main stream of music developed. and that is of interest has had to be omitted. B.Mus.. of this factors.. though even here there is at times some lack of agreement among authorities. I have not attempted to mention every possible composer. but also.


not for the not proposed to include a detailed found that a surer grasp of facts is to be gained by reading what several writers have to say about a given matter or a single book.) For the itself. So that by the time the student adopt has been through three or four different books he should have a fairly all-round grasp of the basic facts. It cannot be too strongly stressed that reference to the is studying the printed copy and listening to peressential for anything like a full understandformances. it is It is suggested. Examiners expect some knowledge of the music of it. Collins Music Encyclopediaandtlne Harvard Dictionary of 9 Dictionary ofMusic invaluable to supplement the inevitably condensed information given in the chapters which follow. may be pointed out to the prospective examination ing. which every . however. is candidate that the days are long past when a pass in history could be achieved by writing about what one had merely read about. one will tend to stress one aspect. the writer has SINCE bibliography.SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY this is specialist. a brief but useful book. a different approach. period. that the should supplement his reading by the books menstudent tioned below. (It music itself. a book for the beginner. should be read in conjunction with the present work. not just of other people's opinions period up to Bach. From experience individual chapters of both in his student days and as a teacher. Grove's pilations as Scholes Oxford Companion 9 Music. also that relevant chapters of any or all in List i. each writer while another will angle. Constant reference to relevant articles in such comto Music. and any other comparable books on the general the history of music. rather than by constantly rereading deals with his subject from his own Moreover.

Stanford and Forsyth: History of Music (Macmillan). Reese: Music in the Middle Ages (Dent). is the unique Historical Anthology of Music. but they should be especially useful in the earlier period. More comprehensive. Finney: History of Music (Harrap). containing examples of the chief types of composition from the days of plainsong onwards. available in any reputable library. but nevertheless contain much useful information. List /. For the period since 1750 sufficient music is available. Sachs: Short History of Music (Dobson). General Outlines Einstein: A Short History of Music (Cassell). Walker: History ofMusic in England (Oxford University Press) . The record lists to each chapter do not pretend to be in any way comprehensive. for the student to make his own selection with some guidance from a teacher. Bukofzer: Music in the Baroque Era (Norton). Colles: The Growth of Music (Oxford University Press). by son and Apel (2 vols. is Masterpieces of Music before 1750. . Man and his Music: 4 vols. Lang: Music Einstein: Music in the Romantic Era (Norton).. The last three are results of modern not always entirely in line with the research. including miniature scores. Abraham: A Hundred Tears of Music (Duckworth). Oxford University Press). Dent: Opera (Pelican Books). For More Detailed and Comprehensive Study The Oxford History of Music (Oxford University Press). (Rockcliffe). Parry: The Art of Music (Kegan Paul). Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (Faber). in Western Civilisation (Norton). by Parrish and Ohl (Faber).io A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC student should possess. and invaluable to the earnest Davistudent. List 2.

with consideraand styles. are usefully dealt with in 9 Dent's Master Musicians series of books. by reference to the various catalogues. The lists from the time of Bach onwards are the merest suggestions. The lives tion of their works c of most of the great composers. and the German Arckiv series are invaluable and it is hardly necessary to look elsewhere. the six volumes of Essays in Critical Analysis (Oxford University Press). and his articles on music in the writings of Sir The Donald Tovey Encyclopaedia Britannica are not only informative. Lambert: Music Ho! (Faber). but stimulating. and can be supplemented ad lib. Dunwell: Evolution of 20th-century Harmony (Novello). but current catalogues should be consulted since frequent changes are made.M. Garner: A Study of 20th-century Harmony (Williams). Bauer: 20th-century Music (Putnam).V. Maine: New Paths in Music (Nelson). .SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY 11 Essays and Lectures on Music. History of Music in Sound. Dyson: The New Music (Oxford University Press). Records For the earlier periods the H. All records mentioned are available at the time of writing. K?enek: Studies in Counterpoint (Schirmer). Those who wish to delve into the processes of contemporary music are referred to: Abraham: This Modern Stu/ (Citadel Press).


But there is no reason why both minds should not appreciate the greatness of all four composers. from intelligently the music of all periods. when watching a platoon on the . The object of our study of musical history should be to increase our understanding of the art. is a waste of time. while another may instinctively prefer the latter to the former. *I don't like Bach's music. not confining our liking and listenWe ing to that which makes the most immediate appeal. everyone has personal preferences. Not only can it augment our understanding and appreciation. we can and gain enjoyment. by knowing why he wrote in his particular style. interesting as it may be. Admittedly. One type of mind is. but it can broaden them so that. The person who says.' is simply adopting the attitude of the fond mother who remarked. therefore it is no good.CHAPTER ONE ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY WE put may well begin with a question: What are the object and the value of the study of the history of music? It should be obvious that to undertake the study of any subject without some definite aim. this appreciation being fostered and deepened by the thoughtful study of history. merely to load the mind with a host of facts which may never be to any use. given the receptiveness which comes by follow deliberately trying to keep an open mind. of and sympathy with a can achieve some understanding composer whose work may at first seem unattractive. for example. its value is that it can give us a greater appreciation of and insight into the works of the various composers. more strongly attracted by the style of Mozart or Beethoven than by that of Bach or Handel. in the highest sense.

be 9 . Not that such knowledge the fact that Bach was born on March sist. and died on July s8th. a large number of the composers of the 7th and i8th centuries. i. total of common sense. What does matter the first The the fact that his active life as a composer lay in half of the i8th century. the Ducal Court of Weimar. he was obliged to furnish a *new piece monthly for the chapel. since it is attested by the general consent of educated musical opinion. Whether we personally 'like the music of Bach or of any other great composer. the effect was considerable. he was responsible tatas. etc.g. The effect which the course had on his output is well illustrated of a composer's life may have by reference to the held. After his promotion to the position of konzertmeister in 1714. it was far less so. his first important post was that of organist at in 1708. he betrays a said. 1685. Of these the least useful is the method of memorising the dates of the births and deaths of comis to be deprecated. There are a number of ways of approaching the study it of musical history. and especially since the beginning of the igth century. hence a large number of preludes and Little fugues. personal circumstances of a composers life are imis portant in so far as they affected his output of composition. is relatively immaterial. we must still admit its greatness. and the way in which he may have influenced his successors. Our Jack's the only one in step lack of historical background. but posers. . Blasius Church in Mulhausen. the Organ Book. 1750. or whether we find it lacking in appeal. Also. to which he was appointed His duties necessitated the provision of works for performance on the instrument in the castle chapel. In some cases. the toccatas. e. More generally important are the influences which went to the formation of a composer's 1 style. chief appointments which Bach Leaving aside his 9 short year of service as organist at St.I 4 c A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC 9 march. hence many can9 From 1717 to 1723 Bach was kapellmeister to Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen.e. in others.

texture. On his appointment. and although he indulged in a good deal of 'borrowing' from one work to another. since the nature of a style is determined by all possible factors melody. the concertos. the motet Sing Te in to Mass B Minor. admittedly only in brief outline. to quote Prof. and is in any case bound up with the development of the various styles. . we might never have had the experience of being enthralled by the St. harmony.e. Bach was faced with the task. S. which have emerged in the course of the centuries.* 6 was "reformed". among other things. We shall therefore try to trace. Hence such works stern Calvinist psalm tunes were heard. of providing some fifty-nine cantatas annually. Another method of approach is the study of the growth of the various forms. its chapel an unlovely vault in which only Bach was concerned with the provision of instrumental music. in 1723. obligations of his appointment.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY 15 for the court music which. 'The Cothen court*. formal structure. the growth of musical styles. was of a secular nature. a Biography. Returning now to the question of the study of musical history. adapting older movements to fresh words. i. his extant cantatas number over 200. as Cantor at St. C. suites for violin. in this instance. as well as the actual aim and object of the compositions. which is the approximate period * Bach. Thomas's Church in Leipzig. the Leipzig period also Passions saw the birth of the and other great choral works. It is the study of the origins and development of these styles which is perhaps the most useful and generalised approach. 9 as the orchestral suites. Terry.000 years. a solemn thought that Matthew Passion. etc. the structural principles. In the past 1. or the to name no others. the Lord. Besides these. and the sonatas and For the time being he had no need to write choral music. But this is to some extent a limited aspect. and therefore gave it no attention. written under the It is had Bach remained at Cothen until he died. in some of which the Prince himself took part.

and germinating in successor.16 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC to be covered by our study. and then more or less gradually declined. This may be clearly seen in reference to Bach. they merge. comwere chiefly concerned with mastering the technique posers of polyphony that is. Before these two men had completed their life-work further ideas began to emerge. a number of differing styles have originated. A number of peaks were scaled en route. to the twin summits of Handel and Bach. in the first half of the 1 8th century. leading. And so we move into the present cen'classical' new tury. an entirely fresh start. with its many conflicting currents. some of whose own sons were among the progenitors of what developed into the 'classical' style. for example. the satisfactory combination of two or more simultaneous melodies and rhythms. is assumed to imply. it is a gradual development from its its its predecessor. and who were inclined to look upon their great father as old- fashioned. as it were. irreverently referring to him as 'the Old Wig'. developed to a climax. It must be realised that there is no clear dividing line between the various periods and styles. Neither must it be thought that a new style of writing makes. . These were exploited in many directions and led. the culmination of one style being overlapped by the beginnings of a new one. among: other things. Liszt and Wagner. by way of the sonata and symphony. through Haydn and Mozart to Beethoven. were in the air. the 'Age of Romanticism'. with which are associated the names of such men as Weber. In the years immediately before 1600. the expression of personal emoliterally. in due course reaching its culmination. and the polyphonic summit was reached in the latter part of the i6th century. based on a more harmonic approach. Up to about the year 1600. however. Beethoven himself was the bridge into the next period. life the seeds of Such too labels as 'classic' and 'romantic' must not be taken 'Romanticism'. new ideas. Schumann.

whether composers or executants or both. especially in the 1 6th century. Up to the time of the reformers Luther. generally conformable to the (Catholic) religious outlook of the times. at least in this connection. has been continuously affected by external in particular ecclesiastical and social conditions and changes.e. many. i. sculpture or archifactors. the greatest of all romantics was Bach. though this did not mean that they necessarily confined their attention and labours solely to such music. The history of the development of an art cannot be dealt with in isolation. Bach's sons were modernists in that they thought and wrote in what was in their time a 'modern'.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY to this expression. But there have always been modernists. and calculated. all that can be done is to indicate some of the more outstanding influences and to show their outcome. a new idiom. In a relatively brief study of musical history it is obviously impossible to deal with the effects of such factors in any detail. to enhance the devotional impulses of the . Schumann writes of Beethoven as one of the 'moderns'. Calvin and the English Protestants church music developed on certain lines. applied particularly to composers of this period music of were not while some would claim that. In medieval times the majority of musicians. indeed. It is common to speak of 'modern' music and a 'modern' style as if they were inventions of the soth century. the Elizabethan madrigalists had done so over 200 years earlier. for instance the 4ths or 5ths which separate the tenor and bass voices. first gave system and order to singing at intervals other than the octave and unison. Music. were in the service of the Church. But the first to give their music this personal expressiveness. tecture. like painting. Possibly the greatest and most influential of all modernists were those unknown pioneers who. from which conception derives all music written since their day. were in holy orders. It is 17 the igth century. Their chief duty was to provide and perform music for the church services. some time before the year 1000. Similarly with the term 'modernism'.

took little or no part in the musical side of the services. however employed. the services being conducted in the vernacular. incidentally. of the music being congregational. The composer. had many aims in and personal of worship. and his cantatas and Passions. was Luther's introduction of the chorale. Yet had Luther never begun his fight against abuses in the Church. A patron such as the great Prince Nicholas Esterhazy. This had an immediate effect on the style of music composed for use in the Reformed Churches. Musicians have always been ready to experiment. posed as patrons of the arts. Haydn's employer for many years. despite certain differences in method and achievement. an effect which participation common. Most notable. either from natural inclination or in conformity with the prevailing fashion. many of whose works in this genre are of unsurpassable beauty. the i8th century. Bach's chorale preludes. The Reformers. a form of composition brought to the ultimate peak of perfection by Bach. customary in the Western Church from its very beginning. this taste being largely dictated This is not to imply that the only music written in. and much has depended on the employer. was discarded. was expected to provide music acceptable Middle Ages the changing social conditions by the fashion of the moment. The congregation. however. From this arose the Chorale Prelude. to cite a specific example. among these being a more actual by the congregation in the act was rapidly felt in other directions.i8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC worshippers. and some. was such as might satisfy the palate of the wealthy but possibly untutored layman. was expected to wear . To this end the use of the Latin tongue. to the taste of his employer. who. at least. In the later and the wider spread of culture provided opportunities for large numbers of musicians to take service in the households of wealthy rulers and noblemen. say. might never have been written. may be said to have been indirectly responsible for a great amount of progress and development in music by his encouragement of his great musician-servant (who.

for example. may based on principles which can lead his successors steadily forward to a goal which he himself could only be dimly envisage. howIt is only the man 9 .ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY 19 a livery like any other employee). who forces man out of the rut of 'what was good enough for my father is good enough for me Experiment may at times have been wild at one point it reached such a pitch that the authority of a papal Bull was needed to curb its exuberance but even the wildest experiments may have in them the seeds of future developments of real value. possibly more than any other musician of this period. provided only contemporary music century. Haydn. ever fantastic they may seem to his contemporaries. due largely to the work of musicians who had the interest to study the works of The musician-servant of the i8th earlier ages. it is with the forward-looking type of mind. for the delectation of his employer. to the lasting benefit of music. painter or designer of aeroplanes. (Fewer than fifty years ago there were those who laughed at the Wright brothers' attempts to fly in a heavier-than-air machine. the 'Age of Patronage'. Music has not 'progressed in the sense that it has 9 and better'. and by his great personal interest in the art. Matthew Passion of Bach or Messiah of Handel. the gth Symphony of Beethoven is intrinsically 'better' than the St. both of which were continually got better c written before Beethoven was born? It is only in com- paratively recent times that a clear realisation of the value of much of the older music has come about.) The c man with a mission 9 may be a fanatic with a large bee buzzing in his bonnet. But who is to say whether. The reader should not misinterpret the preceding paragraphs. for example. and had to be prepared . be he musician. was in a position to give rein to his inventive genius in every direction. To say that the science of medicine has progressed by 'getting better' between the Middle Ages and the present day is an obvious truism. but his aims and ideas. by experiment that progress is possible.

becoming Maestro del Coneerti (concert director) in 1716. the symphonies of Sibelius. At the present day this would be comparable to performing. See also the mention above of Bach's various posts and the types of example of the In 1 composition resulting therefrom. Possibly the first to realise the fallacy of this attitude was the Belgian musicologist The Italian violinist Vivaldi furnishes an excellent working of this system. Heinrich Schiitz. . and 'revivals' of older works were unheard of. refers to 'the modern Italian manner . Jean Philippe Rameau implies that the music of his time is 'more perfect than that of the ancients'. In 1647. whatever post the musician held. But music is of all things the least contheir and tangible. this being presumably considered 'better' than that of preceding generations..* Composing to order was largely the rule. A condition of his appointment was that he should provide two concertos a month for performance by the orchestra. in the Preface to the second part of his Symphoniae Sacrae. say. Mozart and Beethoven. so that the total of his works in this form. artistic value were not being In the writings of the lyth and i8th centuries we find 'continual reference to the contemporary 'perfection' of music. is immense. What the audience wanted was the music of to own time. Nearly a hundred years later. Vaughan Williams and Walton. And this before 'mass production' was heard of. We can say categorically that penicillin is a better curative agent than some horrible medieval compound of frogs' eyes and bats' blood. all more or less written to order. While in 1752 Joachim Quantz states that 'it took a long time to bring music to that approximation of perfection in which * it stands to-day'. by means of which music is thought to have at length attained its final perfection'. 709 he was appointed professor of the violin at the Ospedale delta Pieta in Venice. In the case of medicine we are dealing with concrete facts. it is essential to realise that there has never crete been a time when works of real written. but neglecting entirely those of Haydn.. and while personal preference may give the listener a bias towards the music of one period rather than another.20 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC compose what was required for any given occasion.

and we can style. Nevertheless. If beauty. opening of this chapter. that they were. they produced much music which is itself of far from negligible value. Which brings us. All our study of history. of style. at this distance of time. and I had to endure lively altercations when I maintained that music changes. and that not merely because it points towards that of the giants. so to speak. I have long striven against it. Finally. For one. But while they did not achieve the stature of their great successor. not every poet can be a Shakespeare or a Milton. and that it progresses only in material elements. We may admit. it is certain that he learned the see. Not every composer has been a Bach. for example. the work of a Palestrina.' be said at all'). perfection may be represented by the St. except in sound. while yet another may find the unsurpassable in Beethoven's Choral Symphony. a Mozart or a Beethoven. we may perhaps also say that perfection in music lies in the ear of the listener. that Bach's study of the works of Pachelbel and Buxtehude helped greatly to form his own much from them. the work of the lesser men has its value. a Bach or a Mozart. back to the . Matthew Passion of Bach. the need to hear music of all periods and styles stressed most strongly. for another by the Jupiter Symphony of Mozart (which Schumann included e among the things in this world of which there is nothing to value of musical works is found in the doctrine of progress applied to the arts. as in. and music has no real existence full circle. but personal taste cannot be set aside. who writes: 'One of the greatest obstacles to the fairness of judgments on the We may agree that perfection has been achieved within a given style.ON THE STUDY OF MUSICAL HISTORY 21 Fransois-Joseph F6tis (1784 to 1871). as it has been said. of form or of anything else is so much wasted effort must be unless it is ciation of music applied to improve our understanding and appreitself. for example. is in the eye of the beholder. only part of the way up mountain whose summit he ultimately attained.

it can hardly first be said to have developed. All music is based on some kind of scale. The actual pitch of a mode is immaterial. the secular callings of minstrel and jongleur are of great antiquity. key depends on pitch. In other words.) Possibly the only 20th-century survivals of the minstrels in the British Isles are the strolling fiddlers sometimes encountered in parts of Ireland. gradually evolved and from it a scale-system was ultimately derived. (The French jongleur derives from the Latin joculatory whose function in Roman times had obviously some connection with the lighter side of musical entertainment. .* The scales which were the basis of the early church music derive from those of the ancient Greeks and are known as modes. but although its style has varied from century to century and from country to country. Folk-song is the oldest form of music. and it is in the music for the services the Mass and the other 'Offices' developments which have led to the music of the present day are to be traced. practice came before theory. but their art developed only up to a certain point. A mode consists essentially of a series of sounds proceeding by steps from a note to its octave. and its name and character are determined by the order of the tones and semitones (and sometimes other intervals) within that series. mode does not. provided that the is not be thought that the scale is invented before the music Music.CHAPTER TWO THE BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC IN various that the arts early times the chief. and an account of the origins of our music must begin with some consideration of the derivation of its scale-system. at first in the form of melody. See also page 31. if not the only patron of the was the Church. Similarly. It is important to realise that mode and key are two entirely different things. it * But let composed.

by the positions of the semitones in relation to the lowest notes. To these were added four subordinate modes.as that of any other one. of 'white notes' only. This was so even in the Byzantine (Eastern) in can be spared. The Greeks recognised four principal modes. the Hypodorian. arose from a misunderstanding of the Greek diatonic system. the scales being classified as diaThe medieval scaletonic. but writers on music throughout the Middle Ages based their work on such garbled versions of Greek theory as were passed on from the ancient world to the Dark Ages. more space than between the two . the mode of any minor scale is the same . Their characters were distinguished. which served as a basis for composition until the 1 6th century. the Dorian. and consisting. D. Thus. the other degrees being separated by whole tones. the other degrees lie a tone apart. chromatic and enharmonic. Hypophiygian.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC set order of tones 23 and semitones is maintained. whatever the pitch. In any harmonic minor scale there are semitones between the and and 3rd. Briefly. G and B. system. there are semitones between the 3rd and 4th and the 7th and 8th degrees above the tonic. In both. The difference between the keys of G major and G major lies in the fact that the latter begins a perfect 5th higher (or a perfect 4th lower) than the former. as in all major scales. the 5th and 6th and the 7th and 8th degrees. but differs from that of any major scale. modern terminology. as has already been mentioned. The modal system of the ancient Greeks was highly organised and complex. the mode remains unchanged. There would seem to be little doubt that the earliest music of the Christian Church had strong affinities with that of the Jewish rite. Lydian and Mixolydian. but their mode is identical. To describe in detail how this misunder- standing came about would require far beginning respectively on E. Hypolydian and Hypomixolydian. beginning a 5th below their respective principals. Phrygian. the differences systems are as follows. while there is an augmented 2nd between the 6th and 7th. whatever its pitch or 'key'.

The subordinate modes were called 'plagal' and corresponded to the 'hypo' modes of the Greeks. F and G. at inheritor of the ancient formulated four 'chief modes and four subordinate ones which began a 4th below their respective chiefs. Further. D Later writers. F and G. But error had crept into the conception of the system. the most likely Greek tradition. since the four 'chief modes of the Byzantines began respectively on D.. etc. The Byzantines Church. in ascending order as opposed to the descending Ex.- Phrygian Mode IV Hypophrygian Mode V-Lydian Mode VI Hypolydian ivioac vii Mode VII lYiixuiyuian Mixolydian^ ft " ' ^ Mode VIII Hypomixolydian order of the Greeks.e. Ptolemy. The ultimate outcome was a series of modes known and Mixolydian. They were accepted by such western writers as Boethius (approx. beginon D. which was. applying them wrongly.24 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC least geographically. E. the first mode was that on as against the Greek Dorian^ which began on E. Lydian . 475 to 520) and Alcuin (735 to 804). The Medieval Modes I P 58== Q Mode Dorian Mode II Hypodorian Mode ^ III TT W * . misunderstanding the explanations of the and-century author. and known as Authentic ning respectively modes. but adopted the Greek names. with their respective plagal versions beginning a 4th lower called and Hypodorian^ Hypopktygian. E. failed to perceive the true Greek theory. It is impossible to say exactly how or why these errors arose in the Byzantine theory. i. as Dorian^ Phrygian. i.

but would end on D. the 'wanton mode. were admitted. circling round the dominant A. the Aeolian (A to A) and the This gave a series of twelve modes of Ionian (C to C). and Hypomixolydian Hypodorian is D. Aeolian and Ionian Modes ^olian Mode ^ ^. The Ionian Aeolian mode is practically our minor scale. our major. which the complete theory was ultimately expounded by the Swiss writer Henricus Glareanus in his Dodecachordon in 1547. with their plagal attendants. i and 2 shows that some modes with different names.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC 25 At a later period two more modes. that of the Mixolydian melody is G. and that of the Aeolian and Hypoaeolian is A. Hypoasolian Mode fl Ionia Ionian Mode Hypoionian Mode in the major scale 3th or early I4th century) is as clearly but it was frowned upon by the as anything ever written Church for this very reason. An authentic Aeolian melody would D . however. A and would end on the lower D. apparent rather than actual. and was dubbed Modus Lascivus. The Ionian mode was far from uncommon in secular music the famous English round Sumer is icumen in Ex. Hypodorian and Aeolian^ are superficially identical. This identity ( 1 9 is. Examination of Exx. in the authentic Dorian mode would lie fundamentally between and its octave. e. Dorian and Hypomixolydian. They were hardly new inven- but their incorporation into the official system did provide theoretical justification for the current practice of composers. its A mode was distinguished by 'authentic' version. In the Hypodorian mode the melody would lie between A and its octave. not on A. and the tions. 2. the lowest note of the final of both Dorian and Thus. its Final.g. that is.

indeed.26 also lie 9 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC A. in the same key. final between A and its octave. and that St. who was Pope from 590 to 604. Ambrose (333 to 397) was difference 9 The 9 responsible for the arrangement of the four authentic modes. lies between G and its octave. A tonic is the note which gives its name to a key. but would end on the It must be remembered that a 'final' is not a A final is the note on which a (modal) melody 'tonic ends the lowest note of its authentic mode. though both undertook or initiated some systema- tisation of the church music of their time. if written in G major.* It is sometimes stated that St. this is added the plagal versions. Ambrose. It might therefore be said to be in the 'plagal form of G major. and was responsible for an Antiphonary which was later replaced by that of Gregory. between authentic and plagal melodies be further clarified by reference to two wellmay perhaps known tunes of later date. His name is most commonly associated with 'Gregorian chant . composed at all. was the author of a number of Latin hymns which are still in use. apart from insisting on a more restrained and devout style of performance than that prevailing. and it has already been pointed out that the term 'key is inapplicable in 9 modal music. Gregory the Great. but uses only the notes of the scale of G major and ends on G. It is far from certain that so. The melody of 'You Gentlemen of England . origins of our present system of musical notation 1 These two melodies are to be found in the (Boosey and Hawkes). It is doubtful whether either had anything to do with the theoretical basis of music or. a method of rendering the psalms which is still the standard in the Roman Church 9 and also in The many English churches. It might be said to be in the 'authentic* key of G major. New National Song Book . . Gregory was responsible for reforms in both ritual and music. lies within the octave above D. The melody of 'Drink to me only with thine eyes'.

it is possible. since it clearly indicated one definite note from which others could be more or less accurately calculated. about the roth century. though by no means certain. i. never gained any great hold there. The earliest attempts were vague. A yellow line. This. i. the increased use of music in the services. or group of neumes. made some system of notation obviously essential. but this method. its general curve. or below it. giving still greater exactness. In course of time the number of neumes grew quite large. whether the tune rose. They indicated. strict accuracy was certain only within the immediate vicinity of the Line. Even so. representing G. In the gth and loth centuries there were numerous attempts to devise a really teachers of elocution to indicate the rise and fall of the voice.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC 27 were remarkably humble. The Greeks had a notation based on their alphabet. But even if oral transmission ever did exist. The complete solution was eventually reached in definite two further stages. a large element of vagueness remained. and were at first little more than mnemonics for one who was already familiar with the music. consisting of neumes. that it may have been passed on orally.e. although it appeared in western Europe. across. depending too much on the individual singer. or remained on the same note. roughly. fell. As long as the body of church music remained but small. and may be compared with the cabalistic signs used by some and their shapes and meanings became increasingly definite. These were a kind of directional signs placed above the Latin text.e. and satisfactory method of pitch-notation. and some time before the year i ooo one writer it will never be known who decided to draw above the text a single red line representing the note F. Even so. and finally two black lines were added. was an enormous step forward. was added above the red one for F. one on each side of the . within a range of four or five notes. with neumes above. probably undergoing frequent modification in the process. the origin of our present stave. using Roman characters. and the undesirability of variation. the interpretation of any given neume.

used as mnemonics ut-re-mi-fa-sol-la that he formed his system. and it was from the initial syllables of the lines of this hymn. and invented a system of 'Solmisation'. in all probability. and De Ignoto Cantu. The authors. with the addition of si for B. which of a very large number of the traditional melodies. was This produced a complete stave of four lines. moreover. though in the latter country the more singable do is prophetic genius is debatable. He also made systematic use of the first seven letters of the alphabet for naming notes. in which the degrees of the scale are designated by syllables rather than by letters. are still used in France and Italy. which is at times almost incomprehensible. were not writing for posterity but for their contemporaries who. Rather surprisingly. in which he expounds his methods of teaching. The addition of the yellow and black lines to the original red F is sometimes attributed to the Benedictine monk 990 to 1050). already had some idea of the subject with which any given treatise was dealing. E. long before the invention of printing. but it seems more likely and helped to popularise a method which was already to some extent in use. John Baptist substituted for ut. There are therefore a number of matters on which even the most erudite of musicologists cannot be certain.28 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC sufficient for the notation F line. as in Tonic Solfa. and difficulties are increased by the fact that for centuries the language used was ecclesiastical Latin. his method was based not on one of the officially acceptable modes. Many early writers seem almost to have been constitutionally incapable of expressing themselves with any clarity. These names. . F.* Guido's chief works are Micrologus. G and A. Whether this was due to secular influence or to began successively on the notes G. that he merely advocated Ionian. D. but on the 'wanton 9 Guido d'Arezzo (c. his reforms leading in the direction of our present note shapes. that the lines of a well-known The fact is that he noticed hymn to St. a treatise on sight-singing which opens with the caustic statement that 'the most fatuous of all men of our times are the singers'! It is certain that Guido simplified and clarified neumatic notation. are scarce and their authorship often uncertain. * It must be realised that the \vritings of this early period.

The medieval composer shifted defs about to suit himself. number of lines in the stave has varied. 4. Notation). Thus. but the absolute pitch of a melody would vary according to the singer and according to the mode. overleaf. The eleven-line stave. by general agreement. See Ex. 'was never in his practical use except by accident*. therefore. at times produces results alarming to the QOth-century eye.3 DEFGABC D But as long as the second line represented F. The solution to this difficulty was found in defs (a clef is literally a 'key ) which could be moved up or down the stave in the same way as the C clef moves on our present 9 five-line stave according to whether the part is being read a viola player (middle line) or a tenor trombonist (4th line) . a Hypodorian melody (A to A) would lie partly above or partly below the stave. pitch of the notes of a scale was quite definite.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC 39 It was stated above that the four-line stave was adequate It must. often according to the caprice of the individual composer. * clef always so-called 'Great Stave* of eleven lines. . nowadays. as one authority says (G. and the maximum would seem to be one of no fewer than twenty-five lines for a five-part composition. in combination with an unwieldy stave. with three defs position. the authentic mode and any melody in that mode could be noted with no trouble within the limits of the four-line stave: Dorian Ex. F. for example. and leger lines were as yet far in the future. The relative as it is. In the course of the centuries the is merely a theoretical abstraction. by. for the notation of a large number of melodies. a practice which.* For a Hypodorian melody. the clef would need to be placed higher on the stave so as to make available more lines and spaces below the note it indicated. be noted that absolute pitch was not then fixed however. with the so beloved of writers of books on the rudiments of music. and also according to the type of com- The G on the 6th line. There are examples of staves of fifteen lines at different levels. Abdy Williams.

this was hardly avoidable if women and men. what was the music itself? The answer to this question is 'pure melody Deliberate singing or playing in two or more parts seems to have been unheard of.30 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The earliest clefs were F and C. 4. The Greek diatonic system. Ex. one other point must be mentioned. necessary by the sign b. but was only rarely used before the rise of instrumental music in the i6th century. occurred accidentally. Two kinds of B were therefore The hard B B durum -was recognised. they have assumed their present shapes. In the course of time. playing or singing in octaves. One reason for this was the dislike of the augmented 4th F to B (the medieval theorist's Diabolus in Musica or 'Devil in music ). also known as B qwdratum or 'square' B. though it is hardly possible that it cannot at times have 9 . 'hard' and 'soft 9 9 9 9 . were performing together. the soft B B mollis was shown 9 by b. The ancient Greeks understood 9 Le. The G (treble) clef appeared first in the 1 3th century. although largely based on the 'white-note scale. Hypodorian Mode ABCDEFGA Before leaving this very rough outline of early notation. 'magadizing . indeed. a later invention. B rotundum or 'round B. and probably owing to the desire of scribes to embellish them. These two signs are respecindicated tively the origins of our t] and [>. The sharp sign # was used equally with to t| So far only the theoretical aspects of the early music have been considered. which could be 'softened into the perfect interval by flattening the upper note. or boys and men. admitted what would now be called B flat in certain cases. But the mere duplication of a . and was at first when indicate a contradiction of [>. and were originally formed simply as capital letters. and this carried over into the medieval system.

conveys nothing of its digand beauty. the composer writes as he feels the theorist comes along and how he has done it. much of which dates from very early times. or playing it on the piano. It is more than doubtful whether instruments were used in churches at all before . Plainsong can only be correctly understood and interpreted when sung unaccompanied. effect were the men who Even wrote much of the music will Ambrose and Gregory actually their contribution. plainsong first essentials. Merely humming it over to oneself. are an open mind and an acceptance of the fact that. there must be something of value in it which is worth searching for. to those who will take the trouble to familiarise themselves is with it. It melody at the octave must be realised that misunderstandings of ancient Greek if Who and the lack of clear and definite notation. It is most strongly urged that those to may whom plainsong is unfamiliar should take every oppor- tunity of hearing it as it is performed in the bigger Catholic churches and cathedrals. as rewarding as any other style of music. impelled to write. and then and explains what he has done Many people find plainsong an acquired taste. could be but small. as in approaching any music which The need some effort for appreciation. since educated musical opinion agrees that it is a highly-developed branch of musical art.BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC is 31 not part-singing or playing. had little on the composers themselves during the cenany turies when the body of Tlainsong' was being built up. if regular use in the Catholic Church. mous amount of such music still extant and still in never be known. as compared with the enorcomposed. it is music for use under certain conditions nity and must be heard in the surroundings for which it is intended. Nevertheless. and it must be admitted that the lack of harmony and the use of unfamiliar scales may be some slight bar to its immediate understanding and appreciation. theory. It is worth remembering that practice always precedes theory.

any melody being normally limited to the compass of one octave the octave of its mode.* The use of organ accom9 among other things. the crude instruments of the time could not have attempted it.) The earliest organs. which occur in services such as Vespers and Compline are one note to each ornamentation. etc. whc disapproved of their use on account of secular associations. of which * The 'keys' were actually 'sliders'. often using mainly An example is syllable. frequently of a very straightforward kind. although common enough nowadays. hence. and the only instrument which haj never been considered unacceptable is the organ. It was. Definite note values were not thought of until the 2th century. when 'measurable music' first made its appearance. (Later. The music of the Church. pulled out or pushed in to admit or prevent the admission of air into the pipes. the orchestrally paniment to plainsong. crotchet. hence the term pulsator organorum organ-beater for the organist. and is only to be tolerated if of the most simple and restrained character. and exhibiting a minimum of the Advent hymn. all that can be said with any certainty is that there was no organised system of relative note values comparable to minim. was purely melodic. accompanied Masses of Mozart and Schubert. the authorities modified their attitude considerably. and the ecclesiastical authorities.32 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC about the gth century. The invention of keys to be depressed dates from the i2th century. at least up to the loth century. not bound by any rigid metrical rhythm. 1 The types of composition embodied in plainsong are those applicable to the various services of the Church. . in any case. however. moreover. the melodic The hymns style varying from simple to highly ornate. and the earliest were of a size to be struck by the clenched fist. is strictly speaking an anachronism. then. even had such a thing as 'Harmony been evolved (it had not). could hardly do more than duplicate the melody. who tried to introduce into the church instruments other than the organ. Authorities differ considerably on the rhythmic treatment of plainsong. In the Middle Ages there was continual warfare between the musicians.

33 The Ambrose.mn. Vexilla Regis J)J3J'J^J>J Jj Vac -il la J) de -unt: Re - gis pro - W** _ per Ful-get Cru-cis mys-ter - i . Ac -ter na lux ere -den -ti_-um. Melisma is a Greek word literally The most highly ornate melodies are found in some of the music for the Mass. . with an amazingly complex melodic outline. Much of this is of great beauty. la -ten -de vo -tis sup-pli-cum. Ex. Re-demp-tor om-ni-um. Je . light. Conditor alme usual English version begins: 'Creator of the and 5. Qua vi -ta mor- tern - tu -lit Et mor te vi - tarn pro - tu - 1 This is readily agreed one of the great melodies of by all who have heard all time.' Ex.di -tor al-me si. classified as 'melismatic' plainsong.der*um.su. stars St. Of the more ornate kind we may quote the Passion Sunday hymn Vexilla Regis (The Royal banners forward go'). 6. as will it be sung in its proper surroundings. Gonditor alme siderum Con .BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC the words are attributed to siderum. It dates from the end of the 6th century.

2. .Vol.Nos. The Ordinary consists of those portions of which the Credo.34 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC to pass- meaning 'song'. The which is the official of music for both the Ordinary and the Proper. holy ) ('Blessed He that cometh in the name of and the Agnus Dei ('0 Lamb of God'). there is only one setting of each.S. The Proper consists of four sections Introit. The term 'melismatic' is applied ages where several notes are taken to one syllable. there are no alternatives as in the Ordinary. Graduate Romanum. holy. the Sanctus is c 5 the words are invariable. contains a number of plainsong settings of the Ordinary. those portions of which The Proper of the Mass comprises every passage has its the words vary according to the occasion. RECORDS H. Kyrie Eleison ('Lord have mercy ).ntoi3. mz. and although own music. It is divided into of plainsong categories. These are always sung to plainsong. The most important body Mass. thus permitting a certain amount of variety. the and Benedict the Lord') 9 Gloria. having been 'set' by composers only very rarely.M. Gradual. Offertory and Communion. ( Holy. The book a 'Mass' in the musical setting of these sections comprises sense. is that for the two the Ordinary and the Proper.

In its simplest form organum involved the straightforward doubling of a plainsong melody at the perfect 4th or 5th Ex. whoever its author. is doubtis now generally attributed to a certain Abbot Otger. below.0. j -^. * It was formerly attributed to a Flemish monk named Hucbald. so that Otger. work but the latter part of the loth century was written a called Musica Enchiriadis. of which the essential basis is the The duplication of a melody in parallel 4ths or sths. as is the case with so many of the early writings. The authorship.7 (a) -e- ** ^ (b) (c) e- e- -Q- j? -e- -e- . author of Musica Enchiriadis did not invent organum. like Guido d'Arezzo in his later writings on notation.* This book. since it gives the first account of a method of singing in anything but unisons or octaves. It expounds the principles of Organum or Diaphony (the two terms are synonymous medieval writers are always careful to insist on this). and the doubling part as the Vox Organdis or Organal Voice. Thus.CHAPTER THREE THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT IN ful. . merely explained a practice which was already in common use. the simple fragment at Ex. The plainsong was then known as the Vox Prindpalis or Principal Voice. 7 (a) could have an organal part added as at either (*) or (). is a landmark in the history of music. It seems to have arisen some time in the gth century.

and the organal voice at the octave above.) Thus. the 'coming together' of the voices at the end of a passage so that they ended on a unison. for the adding of the organum had been worked out in detail. (The reasons for this rule were logical enough to the musicians of the time. modified at times because of a rule that the organal voice might not descend below tenor G. forming what we should 9 .36 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Further. that at the 5th had fallen into disuse. oblique motion one part moving while the other is stationary came about. . the principal voice could be doubled at the octave below. and the employment of oblique movement was normal in the appropriate circumstances.fi. more or less complex. Ex.9 Principal voice Organum By the time of Guido d'Arezzo organum at the 4th below was the only accepted procedure. but are far too complicated to be elucidated here. giving four-part parallel movement: Ex.8 Absolute parallelism of the voices was. now rail a radftnr. to allow for all kinds of possibilities. if the principal voice dropped below F. however. Much thought had also been given to the occursus. and in his Micrologus Guido states clearly that it is 'not allowed Rules.

. and the fact that it now came into existence is attested only by a few examples of the music itself. which dates from not later than 1080. that based on contrary motion. But writers between Guido and Cotton simply ignore new organum. and which proves that contrary motion was rapidly being combined with the old parallel and oblique e procedures. there is here a gap in our knowdeals with the old organum. The most important and illuminating of these examples are found in an English MS. under however limited conditions. is the fact that the occasional use of contrary motion led musicians to explore and exploit its possibilities apart from the occursus. M quoted from Guido. shows that in certain cases a beyond oblique motion was taken. written about noo. but the fact that by Guide's time (he died in 1050) it was accepted as 'correct' procedure. deals some extent with the new. Guido man John to Unfortunately. which is generally accepted as dating from about 1050. in his Musica. This at first would only occur in approaching a cadence. . which explains the new procedures. ledge. and the English- Cotton. step 10. called the 'Winchester Troper'. proves that there had been some progress since the time of Otger. The kind of writing so far dealt with is known as the Old Organum. 10 37 7 Ex. composed for performance and not merely to illustrate theoretical principles. . viz. There is also an anonymous treatise of about the same date. is called the New Organum. contrary motion. however.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT Ex. Ad Organum Faciendum ( On the Making of Organum'). More important.

the octave doubling of principal and organal voices had dropped out of use. however. Aurally. but within the next century srds and. gradually. and all combinations of three or more notes containing within themselves one or more dissonant intervals are also discords. in accordance with the laws of acoustics. Although to us the major and minor 3rd are entirely consonant. the major and minor 3rd and 6th are imperfect. regardless of scientific authority. concord and discord are classified and distinguished in exact terms. 4th. and includes the 3rd as well as the perfect concords. Scientifically. i. The major and minor 6th were felt to be even more dissonant. 5th and octave are perfect concords.38 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Ex. to the early medieval musician they were discords. but . The earliest examples of the new organum still rely mainly on the unison. and it was some time before they were freely accepted as concords. In later examples of the new organum more and more prominence is given to movement in contrary motion. a concord is any combination of sounds which the ear is willing to accept as such. has increased more and more. and in e the course of time this aural tolerance 9 . employ it almost exclusively. indeed. Simple two-part writing was the rule. 5th and octave. All other intervals are discords. ii This shows both similar and contrary motion.e. The perfect 4th. By this time. it is to be noted. At this point it may be well to digress and to trace briefly the manner in which composers' attitude to concord and discord has developed. 6ths make more frequent appearance. some. By the i6th century what may be called the traditional academic attitude to discord was fairly fully developed.

(1567 to 1643) was the first to take the 7th of a chord without preparation. not requiring resoluat least in his later works. etc. though to some extent the English madrigalists of the late i6th century had pointed the way. will accept as a concord.) To Wagner. Throughout the i8th and much of the igth centuries composers continued to hold an orthodox and traditional attitude to the treatment and use of discord. or were prepared and resolved as It is often stated that Glaudio Monteverdi suspensions. In the work of Liszt (1811 to 1886) and Wagner (1813 to e 1883) a change of attitude begins to emerge. (By 'norm of consonance is meant what the ear tion. and in the work of Henry Purcell. and also of many of 9 their contemporaries. In this respect the most forward-looking composer of the i8th century was Bach. sound logical. In the course of the 1 7th century composers began to exploit the emotional possibilities of new methods of dissonance- unprepared 7ths. composers being on the whole content with a more restricted vocabulary. but a discord. In the latter half of this century there was a tendency to greater restraint. The treatment. had become gradually less rigid. to a considerable degree. By the end of the 1 7th century the attitude to the handling of dissonance had developed enormously. in the traditional sense. was still a discord and must be resolved. The nonn of consonance' of both these composers was a good deal in advance of that of their predecessors. for example. whose freedom is at times astounding. it is true. appoggiaturas. but he seems to have been anticipated by the Englishman William Byrd in his four-part Mass. he frequently used a series of more or less unrelated . But it is to be noted that his most startling combinations of notes always resolve logically and. we find some really surprising procedures. what is more important. a 7th chord did not necessarily need to be resolved in the traditional way. Discords were taken either as passing notes.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 39 such procedures as the unprepared appoggiatura were still outside the composer's vocabulary.

Schonberg and Bartok. have a traditional basis. too. In the latter part of the i2th sibility century musicians began to turn their attention to the posof 'measure' in music that is. howregardless ever astringent or unexpected. they can be 'explained' in traditional terms. on such matters as context and the prevailing The emotional or psychological effect of any given dissonant combination is far greater. largely The distinction. Despite the addi- an organal voice. far more pungent. principle is rather that of tension versus relaxation. And the musical ear is able to move with them. and the ear has come to accept as concords combinations of sounds which were formerly considered case of some of the So that in the to be discords. to the plainthe rhythm of the music still remained that of the song. where desirable. words to which it was sung. Returning tion of now to the isth century. But sense) as whereas the older composers used discord (in the traditional a relief from uninterrupted concord. from the more tense ones. 3 more 'advanced composers.g.40 discords for A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC 9 some specific emotional or illustrative purpose. Since Wagner's time composers have delved deeper and deeper into the possibilities of dissonance. the more advanced present-day writers do not admit the old distinction at all. of 'orthodox rules. of whatever style. e. depends style. They use the less tense combinations as a relief. and can now accept. Here again the origin of the initial impulse is obscure. quite easily. we have to accept the fact that from about . it is almost as old as harmonised music itself. But all his harmonies. sounds which a century ago would have been considered excruciating. to find some system less whereby musical sounds could be of definite length regardof the words. any distinction between concord and discord in the traditional sense has completely broken down. if it occurs in the course of a passage which is fundamentally consonant. the The are more less so. than if its surroundings are almost entirely dissonant. astringent combinations contrasting with those which Not that this principle is new.

to about 1300 all music was in an overstatement There is. Discantus Positio Vulgaris. and as long as the time taken over the long note remained invariable these subdivisions could be combined with each other. there may have been some influence Any dance necessarily involves regular pulsation. the time is triple. it. seems to suggest duple possibilities. It may also be pos- sible that. The merest outline . with or without the inclusion of the long note itself.e. organum could also be complied with en route. the value of a written note might depend on that of the note preceding. series of such subdivisions. Dance tunes of this period were not infrequently in duple time. no doubt that any leaning to such time in sacred music disappeared very quickly. or sometimes following. It has been claimed that from 1150 i. among other things. or one plus one plus one. in which case some method was needed of fitting them together.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 41 the middle of the century works appeared dealing with the principles of musica mensurabilis or 'measurable music'. The basic fact of triple time was that the long note could be subdivided in three ways two beats plus one. and it is exactly this idea of the even beat which is the basis of measurable music. triple time. Practically all the earliest examples of measurable music depend on the subdivision of a basic long note into three. is by no means certain. but that the laws of This. in a variety of ways. despite the Church's traditional lack of sympathy with secular music. from the dance. and that triple time became not merely the normal but the only kind of measure. however. were organised into Rhythmic Modes. Extending the basic idea of the triple subdivision of the long note. a complicated system in which. however. It is possible that the impulse came from a desire to sing two different sets of words simultaneously. and with the basic note. but this may be since the oldest extant treatise. The fragment on p. one plus two. so that not only would they start and finish at the same time. 42 shows some of the possible combinations in a three-voice passage.

The use of the rhythmic modes persisted until about the end of the 1 3th century.42 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC this its intelligibility. Timesignatures. it involved the setting out of a voice part in one or other of some six metrical arrangements of note-values. determined by a time-signature. they fell into disuse. indeed. 12 see. as will be seen in due course. and the earliest ones. Its value. system would require many pages of explanation. although musicians had now A a barline might be used at the end of a phrase. had an entirely different signification from those of the present day. Broadly speaking. did not come into regular use until the rise of instrumental music in the i6th century. lay in the fact that it helped musicians to the understanding and management of metrical rhythm as opposed to the free. without numerous examples. lay still in the future. . This obviously induced a great deal of rhythmical rigidity. they did not divide their music into bars of equal mark similar to length. dividing up the music into portions each containing the same number of beats. but barlines in the modern sense. the one 'mode persisting throughout the whole of the part. and the whole method was undoubtedly mechanical in its application. of and 5 as we can now Ex. in any case. verbal rhythm of earlier times. when with the advent of new and freer ideas. would be questionable. It must be understood that arrived at an understanding of the even beat and exact note-values based on triple rhythm.

EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT The most important work is 43 dealing with measurable music the Ars Cantus Mensurabilis (The Art of Measurable Song*). seems to have had individual ideas on the relative values of notes. Longer than were the Long (Latin longa) and the Maxim (maxima greatest) . i3th century). the idea of placing a dot after a note to show that it was divisible into three equal parts had not yet been thought of. though a number of the old specifically neumatic signs lingered on in use to some extent. A long. and a breve two or three semibreves. for example. moreover. Even as late as the i8th century the Italian Martini refers to one kind in a book printed in 1774. The advent of measurable music necessarily brought about changes and developments in notation. This tendency was intensified in measurable music. Other works of later date than Discantus in the British Positio Vulgaris are (a) (b) Museum. but worth noting that two of the above theoretical works were by Englishmen. Franco's importance is shown by the name sometimes given to this period the 'Age of Franconian Discant'. by Franco of Cologne. It was mentioned in Chapter 2 that Guido d'Arezzo's simplification of the old neumatic notation tended towards our presentday note-shapes. and (c) Walter OdingMusicae (late I3th to early I4th cenSpeculation As will be seen later. Petrus de Cruce. might be worth either two or three breves. late iath century. until the I4th century that universal clarity and agreement were achieved. requiring sometimes as many as seven semibreves to be sung to a breve. It was not . this which was also known as a Time'. held varying opinions on such matters. Different writers. becoming gradually rarer. however. John Garland's De Musica Men- surabilis Positio (early ton's De whom turies). the principal composers of it is record exists were French. There were. complications unknown in our modern. shorter were the Semibreve (semibrevis half-short) and the Minim (minima least). one of the few definitely known composers of the period. The basic note of measurable music was the Breve (Latin brevis short). an anonymous MS. exact system of notation.

It seems to have had some affinity with the later round.* Even so. in canon. It was formerly supposed to have been written about 1226. notable composer of rondels was Adam de la Hale (c. Unlike other extant rondels. how it could have been written in the 1 3th century. we do not know.g. f Giraldus Cambrensis (1147 to 1320) has some interesting things to useful and say about part singing in Wales in the i2th century. The rondel varied in length from a few bars to something quite extensive. since contemporary writings.f years on * Willi Apel places it c. however. and probably never shall know. e. All began together. whether its composer was a freak genius. 1310. a tromhe (see Chapter 4). are somewhat obscure.44 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The principal styles of composition in the Age of Franconian Discant were the Cantilena. . it is a true round. it is exceptional in being for six and many come under the and the management of the part-writing is much in advance of other works of the period. 128 of Music in Western an astounding piece of work. 1230 to 1287). by F. in which the four upper voices enter in turn. without coming to any definite conclusion. and we may be proud of the fact that it is English. The most those of Odington. but the voices did not begin one after another as in a true round. Musicologists have argued for A Civilisation. instructive condensation is to be found on p. over a twopart independent bass which is also canonic. the Motet. Lang. interchanging at the end of each phrase. it is voices. H. but more recent research places its date at 1280 or later. But it exists. There is some doubt. in that each of its voice parts (usually three) was taken by each singer in turn. and the same words were used for all the voices. the Conductus and Organum. The most famous of all compositions of the rondel type is the English Rota (the term is the composer's). Sumer is icumen in. Apart from its remarkable beauty. Cantilenae included various kinds of dancesongs mrelais and ballades heading of rondels or rondeaux. or whether it is the only surviving example of an English school which was far in advance of all others. as to the exact construction of a rondel.

so that from the verbal point of view a mere vocalisation on 'ah' would be equally effective. oddly enough to us. In the motet. being broken up by rests. t The use of the term *bass* for the lowest part came later. and contemporary MSS. example quoted them in modern notation. however (not to be confused with that of later times. the tenor having the one word latus. the object was the fitting of one or more known melodies above the tenor. of some 87 bars of 3/2 time. the tenor being he who 'held' this cantus Jirmus. and recent research suggests that these. . to rate the symphonetes higher than the phonascus. as an addition below the tenor.f Tenors were at first taken from plainsong. In the period with which we are dealing the tenor was the lowest part in the score.* 'easing off the corners and adapting the points where the cacophony was too intolerable to be endured'. known melodies. the symphonetes. normally in long notes. from the Latin tenere. to quote Sir Hubert Parry.g. the tenor. e. in the Oxford History of Music consists. frequently give An single syllables of fantastic length. as well as those from plainsong. which part itself was most frequently derived from a fragment of plainsong. were probably played on instruments. so that it was not so much composition as musical carpentry. as stated above. It is to be noted that in the Middle Ages there was a distinction between the 'inventor' of a melody. who was known as phonascus.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 45 The cantilena was a true 'composition' in that its writer composed the whole thing. The tendency was. The tenor part was known as the cantus firmus or 'fixed song'. against which the upper voice or voices 'discanted'. In the motet the lowest voice. The syllable la endures for 86 bars. Later motets sometimes used instrumental dance tunes for their tenors. the i6th century). The upper parts of a motet were not only * The Art of Music. and he who worked with already-existing material. took a melody. These discants were. to hold. merely. In such a work as a motet the aim of the symphonetes was to fit together known melodies.

The tenor took a fragment of plainsong in long notes while the duplum discanted freely above it. The conductus was distinguished by having a tenor not based on plainsong. were performed with words and some without portions them. haps be mentioned that the * part next above the tenor was called duplum or motetus. and a fourth the quadruplum. which term may possibly be derived from 'hiccough'. hence the peculiarity of 'polytextuality'. The Conductus avoided the use of ultra-long notes or syllables in the tenor. different words to each voice.46 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC carpentered out of known melodies. 13. In an example in the Oxford History the two discanting voices each sing different verses addressed to the Blessed Virgin. Organum purum ('pure organum ) seems to have designated the sections which were unmeasured. Mention may also be made of the Hocket. as in an example in Discantus Positio Vulgans^ where the duplum sings a Latin hymn to the Blessed Virgin and the triplum a French love-song. The A third . though Franco and Odington differ as to whether it should be made up by the composer or adapted from some other source. The result of such unseemly practices will be seen in due course. In Organa (plural of organum} both measured and unmeasured music appeared in the course of the same piece. part was the triplum. Rocketing has been described by one writer as a cruel medieval stratagem'. and tended to be more homophonic in It appears that some style than the motet or organum. and was applied solely to music in two parts. The epithet seems apt! In the Church services use was made not only of written works (contrapunctus a penna) but also of improvised discant e 9 (contrapunctus a mente or discantus supra librum). The reader may care to imagine the effect of the National Anthem sung as illustrated in Ex. It was an extraordinary system in which the notes of a melody were alternated between two voices. but also retained their original words. latter practice (It still may persurvives.* It was a common enough practice for one or more of the added parts to take a secular song.

']' seemly conduct. shriek and bark like a dog'. and in 1 324/25 Pope John XXII promulgated a Bull calculated plore.' pronouncement Without being quite so outspoken as John of Salisbury or Jacob of Liege.their unarisen. curtailment and corruption' of the song. under pain * Until recently this work was attributed to the Norman Johannes to bring this unmeasured terms. Even in the I2th century. p. John of Salisbury (c. 13 his Speculum Musicae God our -tious ^ save gx& Queen. see the remark on Ambrose's reforms.) The choirman who improvised his discant above the plainsong cantus firmus was supposed to follow out certain definite rules. de Muris.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 47 9 though with a secular connotation. 26. 28) . the Pope made it quite clear that florid discanting above the plainsong was to cease. goes on to castigate 'mutilation. often in them to their senses. from the earliest . the practices which had For a time the musicians persisted in . but it would seem that singers had changed but little since Guido voiced his bitter complaint in De Ignoto Cantu (see p. The theorist Jacob of Liege inveighs similarly in Ex. and finally boils over with the statement that the singers 'howl. in the 'jam sessions of certain dance musicians. but by the beginning of the I4th century the patience of the Church authorities was exhausted. 1115 to 1180) states categorically that 'music defiles the service of religion*. and many other writers de- The essential substance of was: 'Stop desecrating the plainsong. (1321). in the early days of discant. t Singers seem to have tended to get out of hand times.* He begins by referring mildly to the 'impudence* of singers who know nothing of the nature of consonance.

no real proof of this theory of the origin offauxbourdon has ever been produced. In any case. the singers. thus became 9 The principal known composers of the period with which we have been dealing. where it had first flourished. though we are not told who was responsible for this innovation. the 'false 9 . opposed to the allegedly crude progression of root One writer calls this 'a picturesque story of uncertain origin'. before the appearance of the famous Bull. of all this will be dealt with in Chapter 5. P6rotin and Petrus de Cruce. But composers eventually discovered the pleasing effect of putting the so that the lowest. or 'false bass'. 'bourdon melody in the highest part. florid discant on plainsong was still forbidden at Notre Dame in Paris. and that the only was the old parallel organum of the time of Otger. a series of pleasant-sounding first inversions resulted. Thus song. According to this theory. are Adam de la Hale. i.e. Leonin.48 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC office of 'suspension from permissible discant of eight days'. To avoid a mere series of parallel triads in root position the plain- was assigned to the highest voice. who automatically sang it an octave above its written pitch. or bass. Between the two parallel lines of organum at the 5th were inserted 3rds. as positions. that plainsong the basic foundational melody was in the lowest part. but it may be well to mention here a theory which has been current for long enough. nor exactly when it first appeared. producwgfauxbourdon. Adam . written below the organal parts. which would seem to be an apt description. So potent was this prohibition that even in 14083 over eighty years later. but of which the authenticity is more than doubtful. as apart from the theorists. rewhat has been called 'an artifice of the most ingenious and subtle kind'. The outcome sorted to having perforce returned to parallel organum. making complete triads. It has already been made clear that in compositions based on plainsong. since there are extant examples of parallel first inversions dating from about 1300.

William Byrd (1543 to though he consistently omits of movements in his GradudLia (1605 to 1607). 1 183 to 1236). a certain are unknown. So the music. in his Magnus of the undertook the composition of polyphonic settings which Mass 'Propers' (see p. organist. was He is also known as Perotinus Magnus notation. L&min an organ player Organs were still in a very rests on his compositions. a motet simply for use in the He would not necessarily officiated. Leonin.e. The writer of therefore rudimentary to undertake such a huge task was only other composer his Chorafa Constanttnus. the to a cantusfirmus. 34) for the liturgical year. it is unfortunate that orsanista. i. and the notation and writing in the manuscripts. written printing remain buried for purely local use. also known de la Hale has already been form of his name. in certain sections. when unearthed by hundreds of years musicologist. lived in the by the Latinised officiated at the cathedral of Notre Dame 1 2th century and Perotin (c. Petrus were later revised and supplemented by P^rotin. of the time calls him optimus renowned as an from which it has been deduced that he was while This is incorrect. As to the effect of the * music itself. pro4ig and is especially noteworthy as being. some three centuries later. adding two or three organal parts Liber Organi ('Great Book of Organum'). Leoninus. tThe . Heinrich Isaac.EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTERPOINT 49 mentioned. and whose survives of which the composers dates can only be fixed by the style of com- approximate position A composer would write. 1623) also set a number state. since sign it. amount of music Besides the work of these men. and having fallen in the library of the of day until some into disuse might never see the light a igth-century later.* He was succeeded by instrumental in imwho apart from his compositions. (Perotin the Great).f born at Amiens de Cruce is a somewhat shadowy figure in the second half of the 1 3th century. apparently. first to write for three or four voices. say. Lfonin. an anonymous MS. and had not yet been invented. church at which he the art of it would not be published. s fame seems to have been known as orgamtor. would quite possibly church concerned. in Paris. An organista was a writer of organa.

on both intellectual and artistic development. were greatest musicians actually the last to enter the field. later chapters We is. of it The mere silent reading conveys no true impression.2. worth remembering that the Germans. but in actual performance it has an odd attractiveness and beauty of its It well own. RECORDS EM. quite unlike the music of any other period. repays any effort made to hear it sung. During the lath to the isth centuries the influence of the University of Paris was supreme in Europe. Attention was drawn above to the fact that some of the most noted theorists of the time were Englishmen. Leonin and Perotin are the most important representatives.50 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC it opportunities of hearing performed are extremely rare. however. perhaps. who produced most of the in the i8th and igth centuries. . while playing examples is on the piano equally unilluminating. i6toio. On paper it tends to appear crude and experimental. Little.S. though recordings are available. shall see in how the leadership in music passed. from one nation to another. and the most important school of composition was centred on Paris. It at various times. Of the Parisians.Vol. is known of English composers.Nos.

the 'jugglers'. which seem to have been long and musically dull.. for the reasons already stated. each section being immediately repeated. mixtures of three. sang. Mention has already been made of the antiquity of the term jongleur. and as early as the loth century jongleurs were divided into two classes. At the end of the nth century began the age of the Troubadours. Cadence points are dearly defined and there is a feeling for shape and design. and with them may be associated their central and northern . These were southern French poet-musicians. who were looked upon with disfavour by the Church.CHAPTER FOUR EARLY SECULAR MUSIC UR study so far has dealt almost entirely with music I used in the Church. they gestes. and the use of duple time is not uncommon. naturally. who appeared rather and musical value. acrobats. and the jongleurs de These latter came from Provence and Picardy. Phrase lengths vary considerably. There is. narrative poems (gestes) recounting heroic deeds. though the composers are rarely known. were often of considerable poetic French counterparts the Trouvhes. or rather chanted. They are sectional in construction. ><_>/ that since so little of the secular music survives. Anglicised into "juggler' it came to imply a body of public entertainers which included conjurers. however. etc. four and six bars being frequent. Their love songs. development. Dances of the I3th and I4th centuries are generically known as Estampm. it is mainly in sacred music that we can trace growth and I But as in any other age. in some cases even suggesting the idea of a rondo. but with a dif- ferent ending. songs and dance tunes abounded. strongly marked metrical rhythm.

One . Richard I of England was a troubadour.) Both troubadours and trouveres were notable for the cultivation of lyric poetry. The names 'troubadour and 'trouvere have identical meanings. northern Spain and northern Italy. but only a much smaller proportion of the music. A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Both died out as the age of chivalry decayed towards the beginning of the I4th century. Many of their poems survive. troubadours and trouveres were consocial standing The above that of the jongleur. and its anticipation of optra-comique is seen in the way in which the dialogue is interspersed with airs. he also wrote some entertainments which are sometimes stated to be the precursors of the French opera-comique. a trouvere. was found in all parts of Europe.*. many of the 9 9 poems being devoted woman. There is a clear connection here with the distinction between phonascus and symphonetes mentioned on p. to find. i. France. a 'dramatic pastoral'. to a rather mannered idealisation of of the troubadour and trouvere was The latter was in any case a and might be a welcome guest in professional entertainer. and the manuscripts do not indicate the {. (Grove states that the words of over 2. fined to those parts where the Provengale tongue was spoken. It is divided into scenes like a play. court or monastery. of tie most notable trouveres was Adam de la Hale. the 'finder' or inventor of a melody.52 later. The troubadour or trouvere might himself be of noble birth. King of Navarre. The etymological root of both is the French verb trouver. which they developed to a high pitch of beauty and refinement. but only 259 of their melodies. 45. Such music of troubadours and trouveres as has survived is purely melodic. Besides composing such works as those mentioned in Chapter 3.e. etc. and Thibaut. The jongleur9 whatever his standing. Of these. The troubadour or trouvere was of the phonascus or inventing variety. the most important is Le Jeu de Robin et Marion. exercising his art not as a professional but rather as a gifted amateur.500 troubadours' songs are extant.

they were certainly not polyphonic. though some kind of instrumental support was improvised on the This was a crude kind of fiddle (which term vielle orfedeL derives from the old name) with a flat bridge. From which it may be deduced that the accompaniments were of a harmonic character. They are written in the contemporary plainsong notation on a four-line stave. It is perhaps worth mentioning that their influence reached forward. since Wagner's opera Tannhduser includes a contest of song in which the protagonists Wolfram von Eschenbach and Tannhauser as plot of Tristan and Isolda is largely based on the story told by the minnesinger Godfrey of Strasburg. But for . who flourished in the I2th centuries. into the igth century. and was very limited in its range. others are clearly based on the major scale the 'wanton' mode so disliked by the Church.EARLY SECULAR MUSIC it 53 method of accompaniment. In a limited way it is an example of the effect of a purely social condition on music. The art of the troubadours. Minnesingers. obviously so that the player could hardly avoid sounding at least seems certain that two notes simultaneously. were mostly of noble birth Almost contemporary with the troubadours were the German and i3th and then- songs dealt chiefly with love. As has already been noted. trouveres and minnesingers covered a relatively brief period of history. The French counterparts. Their art died about the same time as that of the troubadours. like those of their legend. and that of version of that Parsifal on Wolfram von Eschenbach's The songs of the minnesingers. The rhythm of some of the songs is as free as that of plainsong. too. show the use of the major scale and duple time. but in others there is clear metrical accentuation. While some of the melodies are modal in character. duple time being used as well as triple. They. it coincided with the age of chivalry and ceased when that age came to an end. though somewhat indirectly. himselfwere minnesingers and historical figures.

parallel to the add a sketch of the work of the They were a kind of middle-class noble minnesingers. it German guild.M. 14 and 15. 2. Nos. the well-known 'dawn song' in the third act being a setting of one of his poems. the songs of the meistersingers were mostly on Biblical themes. members passing through the usual stages of apprentice. and the movement flourished from the i4th to the i yth centuries. Unlike those of the minnesingers. the art of these men would not have arisen and flourished. and their construction was subject to an accepted code of rigid rules. Before returning to the development of the main stream of music.54 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the rise of chivalry and all that it implied. Vol. may be Meistersingers. who lived in the i6th century. The most famous meistersinger was Hans Sachs. RECORDS H. The first of these guilds was founded in 1311 at Mainz by Heinrich von Meissen. journeyman and master. He is intro- duced as one of the principal characters in Wagner's music drama The Mastersingers of Nuremberg. and functioned as a well to comparable in its structure to the various trade guilds of the late Middle Ages.S. .

therefore. reached a point where changes and modifications were . that from about 1300 the rhythmic modes tend to fall into disuse and a far freer attitude to rhythm begins to appear. and it is from about 1300 that duple time appears in polyphonic compositions. had inevitable. despite its name. There is also improved shapeliness of melodic line and greater independence in the part-writing. was not. and its introduction was inevitably the beginning of the end of the rhythmic We modes which were nothing ideas else. but the whole conception of the system was too rigid to last. It is first mentioned in a treatise by Odington about 1280. however. became Composition in accordance with these new known as Ars Nova the 'New Art' in conthe c 9 * essentially based on triple time and trast to Ars Antigua Old Art Ars Nova. We find. seen that the troubadours did not confine themselves to triple measure. but rather a development from Ars Antiqua which. as stated above. as rehave gards both melodic style and freedom of rhythm.CHAPTER FIVE THE 'NEW ART AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 5 same way as the year 1050 forms a rough dividing line between the old and the new organum. By the end of the i3th century the the IN principles of measurable music were fully established. so also the year 1300 approximately separates an old style from a new one. There can be little doubt that the work of the troubadours and trouveres had some effect on polyphonic music. an actual 'invention'. Real development was not possible within the constricting influence of the rhythmic modes. and papal interdiction regarding the treatment of plainsong could not restrain musicians from further experiment.

56 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The first theorist to expound the principles of the New Art was Philippe de Vitry (c. too. indicating subdivisibility into three. the long dividing into three breves. C and $. the second perfect time. fect among composers. 1285 to 1361). treating them as accepted facts rather than as mere theoretical possibilities. So that. for the difference in the names of the The whole-bar sound: . and in 'Imperfect Prolation into two. He deals with the use of binary rhythms and their notation. if mode and time were perfect and prolation imperfect. but in 'Imperfect 9 Mode' was worth three Mode 9 only two. It is at this time. the composer would place after the clef the signs CD. viz. In 'Perfect Time the breve was worth three semibreves and in 'Imperfect Time' two. But such a dot appeared in the time-signature. not after perfection of Time-signatures were inevitably had to show mode. Similarly. he explained what was already more or less common practice tem may be described as was worth three breves. whose work Ars Nova gives detailed instructions on the new rhythmic ideas. complicated. O and G. to 9/8 time. and the third imperfect prolation. time and prolation. first appears. Perfection or im9 mode. since they perfect mode. and whether each was perfect or imperfect. rhythmic sysIn Ars Antiqua the long the semibreve three minims. the breve three semibreves. like Guido and Franco. each of these breves dividing into three semibreves. though their original meanings no longer hold good. that the dot. in 9 'Perfect Prolation the semibreve divided into three minims. This is comparable. with a series of separate signs. each semibreve dividing into two minims. Very briefly the follows. allowing notes. and In Ars Nova the long in 'Perbreves.The first indicated the note as nowadays. time and prolation were indicated by a complex system of signs of which two still remain in occasional use. Thus. A note 9 divisible into three equal parts was 'perfect and the dot 9 was therefore sometimes called the 'point of perfection .

De Muris (Ars Novae Musicae). Singers may at one time have been 'the most fatuous of all men'. c. apart from his strictures on singers. red being the most usual. 1369). J.THE 'NEW ART' AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 57 divides into three: IJ. but unfortunately may the red notes might indicate something entirely unconnected with time. who. tended to oppose the new methods in his Speculum Musicae.I Each of these also divides into three: and each of these into two: further notational complication was the use of different coloured notes to show temporary changes from perfect to imperfect mode. but they certainly needed to have their wits about them in the I4th century! Of other contemporary theorists mention of the Franciscan Simon Tunsted (d. and Jacob of Liege. Jacob seems to have looked back to the 'good old days' of Franconian discant and although neither he nor anyone else could halt the progress of the may be made new ideas. influence.. A To the singer who was accustomed to it. this system have been logical and simple enough. citing some specific examples. De Vitry states that 'another use of red notes is to enjoin singing at the octave in the passages in which 5 they occur . he may perhaps have exerted some restraining . or vice versa. etc. who wrote a treatise codifying the principles of Ars Nova.J.

as a phonascus . He wrote a large number of secular works.he showed his genuine inventiveness and musicianship. the first movement of Bach's St. rondeaux. who has been described as the first practical exponent of the Ars Nova of de Vitry. Matthew Passion is to some extent polytextual. even to the use of secular songs for the discants above the long-note plainsong tenor. In his polyphonic compositions there is notably greater ease in the management of the part-writing. appearing in one guise or another in all the sections.* The cantilenae include ballades. For that matter. chansons and lais. binding the whole work together. generically known as cantilenae. Each of these had its own peculiarities of construction. In the motets Machaut adopts a severely conservative attitude. posers were indulging in the practice of 'telescoping* the words of Mass movements. while the upper voices discant more or less freely. and it is in them that we see not only the freer rhythmic methods of Ars Nova. Some of his 'monoIt and may be said 9 phonic ness lais simple unharmonised songs and attractiveness of have all the freshFrench folk-song at its best. as well as some twenty-three motets. sometimes in canon. that as a symphonetes Machaut was ingenious technically competent.58 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The outstanding composer in France during this was Guillaume de Machaut (c. and there are plenty of later examples. The use of discord * hundred years after Machaut comPolytextuality died hard. to have paid scant attention to the papal in Chapter 3. period In Machaut seems Bull mentioned his setting of the Mass. Especially notable is the use of a basic motive. replacing the angularity of Ars Antiqua. but also the more shapely melodic style which gradually developed. Especially notable is his four and five voice setting of the Ordinary of the Mass the oldest existing setting apart from the anonymous three-part Messe de Tournai. In the Mass the tenor takes strictly a plainsong part in notes of variable but moderate length. 1300 to 1377). A . as in the motets. so that different sentences were being sung simultaneously. and within it he is apt to indulge in remarkably complex rhythmic combinations. Duple measure is common in his work.

in connection with lyric poetry. in contrast to the artificialities of the immediately preceding period. and it is them the melody is in the upper part a characteristic which distinguishes them very markedly from other works. it survived. since it reached a high level of accomplishment in accompanied song. that It is in the madrigals. In the 1 5th century the use of the term madrigal for a musical composition fell into disuse. cultivated. with the melody canon and imitation in the tenor. The 9 mechanical 'note-spinning in accordance with the accepted rules is fast vanishing. or at least imitative writing. in the works of the 14th-century Italians both devices begin to assume more and more importance as unifying factors of construction. songs. a notable feature of it being the frequent use of canonic. his music begins to have some real often real expressiveold tendency to mere and there meaning. but little if anything survives which was written before about the middle of the century with which we are dealing. while strict canon is sometimes employed for a whole section of a movement. like many Madrigals were mostly written for two voices other Italian forms. a development of the art of the troubadours. occasional instances of the former appear. Passages in imitation are introduced with evident intention rather than haphazardly. both Italian and French. of course. with its variants madriale and mandriale. ness to the 20th-century ear. and. . and the work seems to have been. There had been an Italian school since the time of Guido. However. The main centre of the Italian school was Florence. Polyphonic writing was. were not based on a * The madrigals have no connection with those of the i6th century. rather casually. coming back into musical use early in the 1 6th century. strictly canonic. Neither imitation nor canon were new inventions. while Sumer is icumen in is. at least to some extent. It is in the I4th century that we find the rise of an important body of composers in Italy.THE 'NEW ART' AND is ITS DEVELOPMENT is 59 much better controlled. in works of the I3th century.* secular polyphonic noteworthy that in chiefly appear. as we have already seen.

6o A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC They were. its rhythmic scheme. and after the surprising eruption of Sumer is icumen in. a period of relative stagnation set in. sometimes attributed to the influence of Italian It is also possible that such types of composi- tion as the Ballata. The most notable Florentine composer was Francesco di Landini (c. Others were Jacopo da Bologna and Giovanni da Giscia. The second half of the i6th century saw the swift and amazing rise of the English madrigalists possibly the greatest any case we know that . scarce. unfortunately. draw to a close. been suggested by some that the introduction of duple time into France may have been due to the transference of the papal see to Avignon in 1309. but this cannot be stated with any certainty. though blind. but it would seem that while composers in France and Italy were achieving mastery of the methods of Ars Nova. took place in the first half of the isth century. English musicians were content to pay homage to the traditions of the isth century. had a high reputation as organist and lutenist. Another sudden eruption. The use of duple measure as well as triple was general. inconsiderable influence. Little is known of English compositions of the i4th cenMusic in this country has evolved in a distinctly tury. accompaniment to the madrigal was not excluded. that is to say. as compared with that of the madrigal. Manuscripts of the period are. being simpler and had not more obviously of a It has metrically regular kind. since Italian musicians would naturally be among the staff of the papal court. and in as early as 1280 Odington refers to duple measure. spasmodic fashion. after which there was another period when the lead passed to other countries. for simultaneous singing and dancing. who. true the day of the symphonetes was beginning to compositions. and is folk-music. 1325 to 1397). whether it is an isolated phenomenon or the sole surviving work of a flourishing school. The possibility of some instrumental pre-selected cantus firmus. in the person of John Dunstable.

B flat. and Garland's explanations and examples are not It is nevertheless clear that in altogether enlightening. some mention must be made of what is known as We have seen. seem continuously to have had great difficulty in expressing themselves with ease and clarity. and as early as the first quarter of the i3th century the Englishman John Garland refers to it under the heading of Error tertii soni error of the third sound. chromatic alteration is accepted and explained as common practice under the title ofmusicaficta.* time there were certain rules regarding the sharpening his both in plainsong and in discants. and Nothing was. but in none. in his Ars Discantus. 9 Ars Contrapuncti ('The Art of Counterpoint ). tion of notes gradually extended. perhaps. Other countries in that to avoid the unacceptable tritone F to B the 'soft B*. It has already been explained that the character of a mode depended on the position of the semitones in relation to the final. at least according to 20th- century ideas. in Chapter 2. was admitted. The practice of the chromatic altera- Europe have passed through peak periods and periods of decline. even as late as 1 6th century. almost complete decay until almost the beginning of the present century. The exact meaning of this term is obscure. Musica Ficta or 'False Music 9 . Before dealing with the work of Dunstable and his successors. formulates simple and exact rules for its application. By 1320 chromatic alteration of any note of the scale was admitted. and de Muris. which he was supposed to be familiar.THE 'NEW ART AND 3 ITS DEVELOPMENT 61 period in the whole story of our music followed by a decline which was broken by the solitary and unpredictable genius Henry Purcell in the latter part of the zyth century. ascribed to de Vitry. indicated in the written music. After Purcell. . it was left to the performer to apply the system according and flattening of notes. have the former been so brief and the latter so long and dismal. with musica ficta semitones might appear almost anywhere in a to the rules with In the treatise the * It is a rather peculiar fact that the early theorists. however.

A little later. but this suggestion is more rapid and definite progress.. claims that the excellence of the contemporary French composers Dufay (1400 to 1474) and Binchois (c. 1370 to 1453). and outstanding figure is the Englishman John Dunfeel we things as the dance tunes. was highly honoured among continental musicians. writing before 1450. whose use as the normal basis for composition became finally about the beginning of the i8th century. and the early having followed Dunstable's lead. that the first stable He is sometimes credited with (c. their compositions have mostly been found. 1400 to 1467) is due the theorist Tinctoris refers to 'a . we have already seen that the polyphonic of the 14th-century Italians were true composimadrigals tions not depending on the weaving of discants against some pre-selected melody. Discord is used in a less casual fashion. It is in the isth century.6a A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC melody. so that the individual characteristics of its mode tended gradually to disappear. and there are fewer corners which 9 seem to need 'easing off . The work of this school seems to have been done highly debatable. stabilised We now return to the general development of music. Dunstable's name. and those with a minor 3rd.. ultimately. whose fount and origin is held to be among the English. The work of the composers of the late I4th century shows increasing ease and fluency of treatment. Leaving aside such monophonic lais of Machaut. Hence. in particular. apparently implying that he was the first to dispense with the use of a cantus Jirmus. Dunstable was the acknowledged leader of a school of English composers who flourished in the first half of the I5th century. our major and minor scales. the 'invention' of composition. The modes eventually condensed into two main types those with a major 3rd above the final. however. his most important contemporary being Lionel Power. where their reputation stood high and where. of whom to their mainly on the Continent. new art . and the poet Martin le Franc. in various important libraries.

He discarded both the old long-note cantusfirmus and the mixed text. Dunstable was far from deficient in mechanical ingenuity. which still survived in Machaut. While passing discord is still used at times with some freedom. such a work as Dunstable's Rosa Bella shows quite clearly that accompanied song some such conceptions lay in the not far distant future. Dunstable's compositions include both sacred and secular works. and was first to indulge in the concoction of musical puzzles. rapidly in the madrigals of Landini had begun to disappear and his school. and of chord-progression. with a good deal of not particularly attractive . and laying the foundations of a form which reached its peak in the works of such composers as Palestrina and Victoria a century later. giving the same words to all the voices. but the practice of them certainly increased composers' technique and helped them to an assured and management of contrapuntal devices. He made one of the occasional use of points of imitation. of which the principal representatives are Gulielmus Dufay and Gilles Binchois.THE 'NEW ART AND 1 ITS DEVELOPMENT 63 Dunstable stood forth as chief. The traditional method of the voices pursuing almost entirely independent melodic paths between initial and final concords. With the death of Dunstable in 1453 the lead in music passed to the Burgundian school. an occupation which was taken to extremes by some of his continental successors. These men began by writing in the style of the preceding generation. had not yet entered the minds of composers. and harmonisation largely based on triads. easily singable phrases. and he is noteworthy as being the first to cultivate confident the motet as a free composition to a liturgical text. The principal characteristics of Dunstable's style were suavity and shapeliness of melodic line. Although the ideas of chords as such. there are far fewer awkward clashes than in the work of his predecessors. Apart from his facility in writing mellifluous music. and in Dunstable but little of it remains. Such puzzles various methods of devising canons often had but little musical value.

and the purely instrumental performance of works written for voices was accepted as a regular practice. but this is an error. cantos fami for Masses begins. as in Dufay's great motet Ecclesiae Militantis. in the Oxford History of Music. not necessarily in its original note-values. of the i4th and isth centuries are often Compositions regarded as having been written purely for unaccompanied vocal performance. He was also a 9 deviser of 'puzzle canons . realised clearly ment in parallel first inversions may also be mentioned as suggesting the dawning of a feeling for harmonic proIt is from Dufay's time that the use of secular gression. while the other voices wove counterpoints against it. merely as a framework on which the composer could build. the agreeable phrasing. and in the later works of Dufay especially 'we recognise. if not entirely. or part of it. unidentifiable by the ear. was the song Uhomme arme. but was not really so. The incorporation of independent instrumental parts into vocal works was common. The melodies used as cantus fami were usually old and the words no longer in use. This practice sounds rather a return to the unseemliness of the 13th-century motets.64 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC melody and arbitrary and uncontrolled discord. But the influence of Dunstable was strongly felt. which we noticed as characteristic of the compositions of our own countrymen in the foreign Dufay. Missing voicesecular cwtusfami parts might well be supplied by instruments. they were so covered up by the surrounding counterpoint as to be almost. the propriety in the sequence of the continued sounds. .* than anyone the possibilities of canon as a unifying device. His fondness for fauxbourdon move- else. the pure harmony of the whole. the suave and flowing melody in the separate parts. They served. possibly earlier collections during this period'. Possibly the most famous of like tune. unmistakably. introducing them at times into Mass movements. and in his Masses he made considerable use of it. which include! * Wooldridge. The would be given to the tenor. in fact. and possibly decorated. Moreover.

pressiveness. whose writings. Okeghem for long had a reputation for almost fiendish contrapuntal ingenuity. 1495). This change of attitude may possibly be due to the ending of the papal exile at Avignon and the consequent healthier state of the Church. there was considerable emphasis on secular compositions ballades. achieves a balance between the two. rondeaux. Among his outstanding technical feats may . so that on the whole music set for secular words might serve equally well for sacred ones and vice versa. It is not until we reach the i6th century that we encounter the pureacappella. Le. especially. to be sung by a group of motets. It is in the time of Dufay that we find the rise of what is called choral polyphony. Dufay. Jacob Obrecht (1430 to 1505) and Anton Busnois (d. it soloists. that written for liturgical use. the emphasis is rather on sacred music. explain the current technical methods. with symbolic meanings. which saw the foundation of the school of composers. In the ensuing Netherlands generation. while of no great originality. 1 Until about the middle of the 5th century the was customary for polyphonic movements mass movements. the Netherlander' best work is. Whatever the underlying cause. the essentially unaccompanied vocal style. chansons but there is no particular distinction between sacred and secular styles. 1492). But various manuscripts from about 1440 onwards dearly distinguish passages of polyphony to be sung by soloists from others to be taken by the chorus. 1446 to 1511). and there is no doubt that he explored the possibilities of com- an extent hitherto undreamed But study of his works reveals that his technique was really only a means to an end. full choir taking part only in the plainsong. that end being musical explicated canonic writing to of. In the work of the Burgundians. on the whole. The great theorist of the time was Joannes Tinctoris (c. 1430 to c.THE 'NEW ART' AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 65 two such instrumental lines. The first important names of the Flemish (Netherlands) school are Johannes Okeghem (c. as in those of the 14thcentury Italians. etc.

and there are evident signs of the formation of what might be called an early academic outlook. any artist than did those in the Low Countries. and was also a writer of instrumental pieces. like considered as one of the founders of the 16th-century generation later appeared Heinrich Isaac (c. an increasing tendency to harmonic approach through . founders of the technique of imitative counterpoint. where most of the rest of his life was spent. In Florence he Isaac's career is typical. and his output of them was considerable. poser at Innsbruck. Like so many of his contemporaries. More than Obrecht and Busnois. the Renaissance period. may be the technique of imitation and. which would tax the capabilities of even the most reliable of performers. occupied him for many years. Busnois learned from his teacher Okeghem Obrecht. served Lorenzo dei Medici. 1450 to 1517). the Ckoralis Constantinus (see p. Obrecht's style is on the whole rather less florid than that of Okeghem. he wrote a Mass on Uhomme arme. he occasionally indulges in extraordin- rhythmic combinations. offered far greater opportunities A style. his use of discord is strictly controlled. His style shows. in 1496 he entered the service of the Emperor Maximilian. one of the first of the Flemish school to seek a livelihood in Italy. and for the next hundred years there was a continual move from the Netherlands of musicians in search of wealthy patrons to farther south. and shows that the imitative style was rapidly becoming the fundamental basis of choral composition. which was the basis of the style of the i6th century.66 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC be mentioned a canon for thirty-six voices. The serious cultivation of purely instrumental works dates from his time. being appointed court comIn 1502 he returned to Florence. The brilliant courts of the Florentine princes in this. employing shorter phrases and more He was one of the real clearly defined cadence points. Although much of Isaac's work is of a relatively straightforward character. Traces of the old 14th-century traditions are arily complicated rare. too. His greatest work. 49).

but around the turn of the century we find a school of composers who seem to have deliberately held on the continent. serving a number of different masters. and was highly esteemed in figures of the next generation. an eminent the teacher of Adrian one of the great great ability Mouton had time. and was described by the German musicologist Ambros as 'the first musician who impresses us as having genius'. The exercise of this mechanical ingenuity gave him a complete command of his material. 1518). in later secular pieces he often writes in a simpler He was style and achieves really amazing expressiveness. Another contemporary of Isaac was Pierre de la Rue Although the greater part of his work still (d. even sur- and four-part writing. and was in many ways the finest musician of his generation. remains in manuscript. the artifices of contrapuntal technique. his In England after the death of Dunstable music tended to languish. A little later is Jean Mouton Willaert. Although the effect of their . is usual. he appears to have attained very considerable technical mastery of the intricacies of canon. normal by Pr& most complex problems. With Josquin more than with his predecessors technique was a means to an end. with Busnois. stable. From Okeghem he learned. established Okeghem and Obrecht. pupil of Josquin. and himself possibly 1475 to 1522). and while some of his most musically interesting works are also exceedingly complex. in a apart from the methods prevailing rather reactionary manner. Like Isaac. He was Okeghem's greatest pupil. ITS DEVELOPMENT as 67 already noted as traceable in the work of Dun- Almost exactly contemporary with Isaac is Josquin des (1450 to 1521). (c.THE 'NEW ART' AND the triad. as a composer of both sacred and secular equally great music. he travelled southwards. a command which he used in both sacred and secular comin positions to 'bring off contrapuntal feats 3 passing his teacher in his ability to invent and solve the a natural and convincing manner.

interest in contrapuntal devices is lacking. but the authorship is doubtful.70 to 1554). 2. Obrecht is sometimes said to have produced a four-part setting. Vol. Nos. there is smooth and equable flow of the parts. but little more. 19 and Vol.S. Richard Davy (end of I5th to early 1 6th centuries) 9 William Gornyshe (c.68 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC music is agreeable enough. and by the i2th it was sung with a fairly complex ritual. The principal composers of this school were Robert Fayrfax (d. 1521). 14. Davy is notable as being the first Englishman definitely known to have set the The traditional 'Passion* of Christ in harmonised form. RECORDS H. 20 to 30.M. 1465 to 1523) and Richard Sampson (c. No. 3. and the arbitrary use of discord is rare. . recitation of the Passion in Holy Week dates from as far back as the 4th century.

In the structural principles are truly polyphonic motet the general as follows. though not necessarily at the same pitch. word repetition. to build up generally with a good deal of a complete 'section'. ^ imitation Note also that this technique of 1 6 for an illustration.* the voices entering 9 by one after another with the same melodic figure.CHAPTER SIX IN THE SIXTEENTH VOCAL MUSIC CENTURY THE (a) (b) (c) Italy. which reached its century. The great writers outstanding features of the i6th century are the culmination of polyphonic sacred music. the highest expressiveness achievements being in the works of Palestrina. is . and was applied to the production of music of real expressiveness. but also as the ultimate origin climax of perfection in the. now assumed very great importance. This figure is used. The first four of these will be dealt with in the order given. and (e) the rise of instrumental music.hands of Bach. instrumental music will be considered in a separate chapter. Each successive phrase of words is introduced a 'point of imitation' or 'fugue . The motet. Victoria. Each section concludes with a cadence. the rise and development of the madrigal in of the still greater competence and in their Masses and motets. (d) the brief but brilliant work of the English madrithe effects of the Reformation. 1 6th century attained Lassus and Byrd. of which the post-Machaut foundations had been laid by Dunstable. galists. of the i6th important not only as a structural method of the fugue. and strengthened by Dufay and his successors. * See Ex. In the work of such composers as Isaac and Josquin the contrapuntal technique of the Flemish school had reached a high level of competence.

incidental. But in such a work as Ave Verum Corpus it seems evident that Victoria lines. In the polyphonic works of the period it may be said that the chords arise from the interweaving of simultaneous melodic and rhyth- mic conceived horizontally and the were. but he was the only one to succeed in producing real music under such conditions. and the same method is used with great effectiveness in Byrd's five-part Mass. The other kind lies between the purely polyphonic and the chordal. the texture is chord-progressions are. created. as it must have been thinking in terms of chords as chords. though there are occasional freak examples such as Thomas Tallis's Spem in alium for forty voices. In longer motets the three styles may be found used for different sections. so that the sections are inter- and arises locked. One is almost entirely chordal. with little. Palestrina's Tu es Petrus is an example of this type of motet. an attitude of mind which from now on assumes increasingly great importance. arranged in eight fivepart choirs. there were two other common methods of procedure. if any. but variation in the combinations used is exploited to the limit a kind of vocal orchestration. Tallis was not the only 16th-century composer to attempt a task of such magnitude and complexity. Motets were not. Victoria's Ave Verum Corpus and Palestrina's Bone Jesu are good examples. There is relatively little use of the full choir.70 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC as a rule the figure for the ensuing point of imitation within that cadence. Thus a continuous contrapuntal web of sound is Motets were written for from three to eight voices. which would consist of not fewer than five voices. always and entirely contrapuntal in texture. however. really independent movement of the voices. It is based not so much on imitative technique as on the contrasting of varying groups of voices within the choir. A noteworthy point about the chordal type of motet is that it shows an increasing feeling for chords and chord-progression as such. The same attitude is clearly evident in such a passage as the opening of Palestrina's Stabat Mater: .

li lae . . written after the Council's decree and in accordance with its views. Al - le . The use of the secular cantus ftrmus for masses was rapidly dying out. The Council of Trent. 14 The basic material for Masses and motets was often taken from plainsong. but of his total of ninety-three. Re -sur - rex - it. si . Palestrina wrote some Masses on secular cantus firmi.cut dix-it.lu .VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY j\ i 71 Ex. The melody from which it takes its title is: Ex.re.ta - re. Qui a quern me - min - i - sti por .ia . Undue repetition of words was generally avoided. Al-le-lu - ia. severely criticised the use of the secular cantus firmus.lu -ia: -ra pro no -bis De-urn. only a very few are based on such material.ta . Early in his career. Al-le . Instead of being employed primarily as a melodic method of using a line around which counterpoints were woven. in 1563. as well as the undue complexity and length of Masses. and points of imitation were worked out based on these phrases. 15 tTT Re ! gi - na ^ cae . Al - le . including two on Uhomme arme.lu - ia. The cantus ftrmus had changed since the time of Dufay. it was now broken up into its constituent phrases. A simple example of this method of writing is provided in Palestrina's Missa Regina Coeli. and composers found it expedient to follow the lead given by Palestrina in his Missa Papae Marcelli.

in his huge compUation El melopeo maestro. The opening of the Sanctus based on the phrase: San Ex.IJ L . 15. 1560). When entirely original material was used. thus giving thematic unity whole work. motets and chansons. Another source of material was used in what is usually known as the 'parody Mass' (Missa Parodia).* Other movements are also based on this phrase and on marked in Ex. 'Mass without a name . 'In composing a Mass. of the movements 5 *motto-theme procedure.* a kind of y agreed with him.e. the Sanctus and the Agnus Dei should be one and the same. U J M i the others to the J^ JJ J J- J . it is perforce necessary and first Kyrie. obligatory that the inventions (i. a Mass was often known as Missa Sine among composers. 16 /. the Credo. ^ J. In this the musical themes were borrowed from other compositions. and goes into considerable detail. openings of some.' Not every contemporary composer seems to have .72 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC brackets first The show the various sections which are used is as themes in the mass. thematic inventions being Nomine. c. but some unity was often achieved by the use of the same material for at least the 9 * Pietro Cerone (b. such as madrigals. if not all. often by other composers. the themes) at the beginnings of the the Gloria. goes so far as to insist on some such method. There seems to have been a sort of musical freemasonry treated largely as common property.

a strongly marked characteristic of the English school in the latter part of the century. Each of the four interlocked sections of the motet is based on imitative treatment of the relevant phrase of the plainsong tune associated with the words. Andrea Gabrieli (c. He is also notable for his use of chromaticism. 1485 to 1562) are the most important. and his music attains a pitch of serenity which is unsurpassed by any of his contemporaries. and he was noted for his use of musica reservata the art of giving dramatic expression to the words. on an even grander scale. 1510 to 1586) and his nephew Giovanni (1557 to 1612). and spent most of his life in Rome. and these resources gave composition of works on a grand scale for double chorus. Lassus (also known by the Latinised and Italianised versions of his name Orlandus Lassus and Orlando di Lasso) was the greatest of them all. This type of writing was continued. Of the Netherlanders a long list could be given -Orlande de Lassus (1532 to 1594) and Adrian Willaert (c. His technical mastery was consummate. One of his greatest and best-known works is the setting of the Seven Penitential Psalms. and the union of sessed .VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY The cantusfirmus 73 method outlined above was sometimes used in motets. Mark's posrise to the two organs and two choirs. Like so many of his countrymen he travelled widely. with a European reputation and an enormous output of music of all kinds. Willaert was the founder of the Venetian school associated with the cathedral of St. the two sections acting either antiphonally or in combination. Mark in Venice. The long occupation by the Moors had tended to isolate this country from the rest of Europe. but their final expulsion in the i6th century. Palestrina's Veni Sponsa Christi is a setting of a verse which the composer splits into four phrases. St. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 to 1594) was the greatest of the Italians. by Willaert's successors Cipriano da Rore (1516 to 1565). It is at this time that Spain first comes clearly into the musical picture.

a Tallis. 1572). He lacks the latter's possibly second only to Palestrina. Thomas Tallis (c. Of the musicians working in Italy. Victoria is serenity. began by writing in the style of the preceding generation. possibly rather narrowly religious. Victoria. spent a good deal of time in Spain. but early in the i6th century these methods begin to appear. but achieves a remarkable degree of mystic fervour. a Fleming attached to the court of Charles V. Many of the Spanish musicians wrote but little secular music. wrote none at all. but gradually acquired the Flemish technique. 1495 to I 56o). 1500 to 1553) and Tomas Luis de Victoria* (c. 1505 to 1585) and Robert Whyte (c. Nicholas Gombert (c. Morales spent part of his life in Rome. The greatest name in English music of this period one of the greatest of all time is that of William Byrd. 1497 to c. like for the use of the Italianised * There seems to be no particular reason form of his name Vittoria.74 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the crowns of the Netherlands and Spain under Charles V. Works by Josquin were in the library of Seville Cathedral. We have seen that in England the school of Fayrfax was but little affected by current continental methods. brought about contact and exchange of ideas between Spanish and Flemish musicians. and despite his adherence to Flemish methods managed to retain a good deal of personal idiom. The two most important members of the Spanish school were Cristobal Morales (c. 1535 to 1611). his mastery being shown in such motets as Audivi media nocte and Bone Jesu. with an occasional distinctively Spanish flavour. 1535 to 1574). and from about 1500 we find a school of Spanish composers who were basing their work on the ideas of the Netherlanders. Tye. . and strongly influenced the Spaniards in the adoption of the northern technical methods. in the works of Christopher Tye (c. may note especially Tye's Mass on the popular tune Westron Wynde and his six-part one on Euge We Bone. All three showed great competence in the handling of the imitative style.

he did not change his religion at the Reformation. 59) that compositions with this title were produced in the I4th century. are outstanding among the sacred music of the century.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 75 He remarkably versatile genius who lived from 1543 to 1623. Unlike many of his countrymen. Such poems were chiefly of a pastoral or amorous character. quarter of the century the Frottola was a It was usually a popular song treated with some amount of ingenuity. By then the technique of choral composition had developed enormously. for three. Although he produced a certain quantity of music for the Reformed Church. and composers were ready and able to apply the latest methods to the setting of suitable poems. excelled in all forms of composition. vocal or instrumental. we have seen (p. These were collections of Latin motets which also included a three-part setting of 6 the crowd' parts of the Passion a rather rare production times in his an English composer. with the deliberate aim of getting away from the more 'popular' which types. The madrigal seems to have been to some extent a reaction against ihefrottola. four and five voices refor spectively. sacred or secular. and he surpassed them all in intensity of emotional expressiveness. and his reputation was such that one writer dubbed him 'the Parent of British Music'. and was often vulgar and frivolous. Since composers were attached to courts for Bembo was . he continued to compose for the old rite as late as the publication of his two books of Gradualia in 1605 and 1607. Turning now to the Italian madrigal. After the time of Landini the term fell into disuse. Byrd's technique was at least equal to that of any of his continental contemporaries. His three Masses. of which the In the first common Italian form. last collection teur appeared in 1531. The great Italian litterathe leader of a school which cultivated an aristocratic and rather affected style of poetry. thereby causing himself a certain amount of inconvenience at various life. with occasional excursions into the unseemly. being revived in the early i6th century.

an accepted practice. It should be understood that the madrigal still music-making. Instrumental accompaniment. 1518 to 1 595)> Philippe de Monte (c. however. to quote the writer c of the article in Grove's Dictionary. they naturally began to set it 9 to music. six voices were also often used. 1545) composers and the expatriate Fleming Phillippe Verdelot (d. Willaert. Waelrant was exceptional in that he seems to have spent his life in his native The list of madrigalists (c. which saw the rapid development and culmination of the form. greater use was made of contrapuntal artifice. The general plan of construction became similar to that of the polyphonic motet. public concerts were The most notable of the earliest were the Roman Constanzo Festa (d. Jacob 1514 to c. Hubert Waelrant (c. 1570). and five-part work is typical. 1521 to 1603) and Lassus are notable among the Netherlanders. Great care was taken over apt setting of the words and.76 this A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC new poetry was written. both words and music amorous or acquire a marvellously tuousness . twelve lines. The earliest madrigals the first collection of twenty was published in 1533 under the title Madrigali novi de diversi excellentissimi musici ('New Madrigals by various excellent musicians') were for four unaccompanied voices. 9 skilful technique of deliberate volup- Arcadelt is extensive. or in combination with all the voices. 1567)- In the ensuing generations. before for domestic was far in the future. country. and the texture showing but little contrapuntal ingenuity. pro- . and although the subjects remained chiefly pastoral. and the frottola and similar 'vulgar forms fell into disuse. whether to the top part as a solo. De Monte was among the most prolific. was. madrigals were also written dealing with such matters as children's games and the chatter of washerwomen Bembo notwithstanding. a series of interlocked sections based on imitations of a melodic The poems set were generally not longer than figure. the melody being always in the topmost part.

a collection of Italian madrigals with With the advent of new The the words translated into English.. Leaving aside a collection of secular songs published in 1530 by Wynkyn de Worde. Sonnets and Songs of Sadness and Pietie which appeared in 1588. I blush and grieve to think that once I was of their number. ideas and a new outlook at the of the I7th century. the madrigal underwent beginning rapid modification. The ballett was a descendant of the Italian ballata> which originated in the I4th century. . not later than 1564. no fewer than forty-three sets being brought out before the final one by (a) John Hilton in 1627. and in his later years he seems to have been rather ashamed of having written ijhem. a great flood of madrigals appeared. but earlier in the year than Musica Transalpina. .' Palestrina must have developed much the same kind of outlook as Victoria. 1560 to 1599).. . In the Preface to his fourth book of motets he says: 'There exists a vast mass of love-songs of the poets. The first approximating in publication containing a number of pieces style to the Italian (or Flemish) madrigal was Byrd's Psalmes. whose normal style and structure have already been mentioned. almost suddenly. They are the song of men ruled by passion. Of the Italians we may mention Cipriano da Rore and Luca Marenzio (c. corrupters of youth. principal stimulus to the writing of madrigals in England was the publication by Nicholas Yonge. however. which will be briefly considered in Chapter 8. The English madrigal falls into three classes. there is Richard Edwards' In going to my naked bed. After the publication of the Italian work. (4) the Ballett. make them the concern of their art. and a great number of musicians. and was for simultaneous . out of fashion. and then went quickly. in 1588. the madrigal proper. . Not that the form was unknown here before this.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 77 ducing over 600 madrigals as well as numerous sacred works. ofMusica Transalpina. Palestrina's output of madrigals was small. and (c) the Ayre.

We have only to read through such a work as Thomas Weelkes' Care. the accompaniment being either vocal or instrumental. The term Canzonet was sometimes used as an alternative to madrigal. the same music was used for word repetition being avoided. purely homophonic. was usually strophic. (c. generally on the lute. playing and dancing'. Still more notable. perhaps. 9 characterised by the use of a 'fa-la refrain. is the degree of emotional intensity which is achieved in settings of the sadder poems. whose attempted explanation of it does not always match the works which he designates as such. an intensity unmatched by any of the Italians or Flemings. The Ayre (=Air) was in the nature of an accompanied solo song.78 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC The 16th-century English form singing and dancing. i. Most notable in the works of the English madrigalists is the exceedingly apt and subtle way in which the music It thus differed strongly words. two or more verses of words. it was strophic and simple in texture. illustrates the possibility of musical illustration an increasing feeling and key (as opposed to mode). chord-progression Although the madrigal proper was generally of polyphonic the technical side there appears for i.e.e. some sets entitled 'Balletts or Fa-las'. * Even late in the i6th century Giovanni Gastoldi published balletts *fbr singing. and it is a magnificent example. especially by Thomas Morley. 1556 to 1622) . thou wilt despatch me to realise the truth of the statement in Chapter i that the Elizabethans were romanticists. It being from the madrigal proper which was 'through-composed' and inevitably employed much repetition of words. was It was also strongly metrical and rarely contrapuntal.* retained much of the traditional dance-like rhythm. Weelkes 9 Care provides On texture. met with. chorda! passages are often in these that the composers exploit what they were learning about the emotional possibilities of chords and chord-progression. any word or phrase that suggests the is seized upon with avidity and dealt with vividly. Like the ballett.

1575 overlooked. as it were. 17 Hence Care ! 79 thou. and is an invaluable source of information on the contemporary methods of composition. Thomas Morley (1557 to JohnDowland (1562 to 1626) and Thomas Campion in (1567 to 1620) are perhaps the two greatest composers .VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY Ex. between the normal type and the madrigals motet serious. We have to look forward to finding such poignancy. a meditation on human weakness. He is notable also as the author of A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Music. the work of Orlando Gibbons (1583 to 1625) must not be Gibbons specialised in what has been called the 'ethical' madrigal. The Ayre. Purcell and Bach before again Possibly the greatest of our madrigalists were Weelkes to 1623) and John Wilbye (1574 to 1638). From this point of view his lie. often attained. a peculiarly English form of composition. which was a standard instructional work for two centuries. Of the writers of balletts. but not sacred. of which the words have a moral an amorous tone. like the madrigal. One of his finest examples rather than is is 1603) unsurpassed for delicacy and lightness of touch. remarkable intensity of expression. but (c. What is our life.

8o this A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC form. in the vernacular. should be heard and understood by the congregation. The important musicians here are the French Huguenots Claude Goudimd (c. and he is notable for his attempts at illustrative setting of words. He has rightly been described as one of the world's greatest song-writers. made many settings of the psalms. but also a harmonic innovator of great originality. 1560). Bartholomew. with lute accompaniment. and Loys Bourgeois ment strongly marked. in England (Granmer). were considered unacceptable. He was probably the finest lutenist of his time. Apart from purely doctrinal matters. Bourgeois was for many years editor of the Genevan Psalter. The Song of the Nightingale. viz. He was possibly the the composer of a (vocal) battle-piece. We have now to aims of consider the effects of the Reformation on music. is . the musical many all the reformers. and that the congregation themselves should take some part in the singing. being second in value only to the work of Dowland. mostly for four voices. his settings of his own lyric poems. mention may be made of Clement Jannequin (1485 to c. The Calvinists were in some ways the most radical. being 'man- made' and not biblical. 1505 to 1572). to quite elaborate polyphony. Claude le Jeune (c. Of the 16th-century French musicians. c. 1528 to 1600) Goudimel and le Jeune 1510). in the Dowland was one of the best-known musicians whole of Europe. varying in style from simple homophony. His work lay chiefly in the direction of secular chansons. which are generally more notable for naivete than for musical also first value. of a long line of such pieces. in Ger(Luther) or in Geneva (Calvin) were much the same. Hymns. who died in the Massacre of St. in which the element of chordal treat(b. Gampian was both poet and musician. e.g. permitting only metrical versions of the psalms. that the words. and spent part of his life in Paris and in Italy. apart from those to be considered in succeeding paragraphs. and was not only a superb melodist.

the far-reaching results of which will be seen in later chapters. one of the most famous. had built up a fine musical tradition which continued unbroken despite the changed aspects of religious belief. and yet others were original compositions. of *&& cathewhich records exist as early as 1135. Whereas first Calvin severed any connection with the old Catholic ritual. 'sacred parodies' Thus. the words of Heinrich Isaac's melody: Ex. The Chapel Royal. together with some of the musical sections. anc^ drals. Innsbruck I must leave thee. and yet not so drastic as in Geneva. His Protestant hymnbook appeared in 1524. He was the first religious leader to remark that he did not see why the Devil should have all the best tunes. and laid on congregational singing in his reformed services. Martin Luther was himself a practical musician. great stress introduction of the Chorale or German hymn into the services. the reformed English Church retained services based at least to some extent on the traditional 'Offices'. with note to a syllable. ing a and promptly clinched his argument by appropriatnumber of well-known secular melodies and making of their words. Te Deum. Polyphonic music for the Mass was replaced by 'Services* which consisted of settings of the Venite. were parodied into world 1 now must leave thee. who also wrote the words.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 81 md :>ne his settings are almost entirely chordal in style. 18 etc. Ein Feste Burg ('A Sure Stronghold') being reputedly by Luther himself. Benedictus> ^ . In England the musical effects of the Reformation were far-reaching. Other chorale tunes were adapted from traditional plainsong put into 'measured music'. though he was not averse to the employment of proHis great contribution to music was the fessional choirs.


able settings are Tallis' Dorian service and Byrd's 'Short service. In both of these, as in such works as Tye's Acts of

A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Creed, Magnificat and Jfimc Dimittis. Two
a simpler, more harmonic

most not-

the Apostles,

of treatment

Byrd's work is almost entirely one note to a appears. to key as opposed to mode is syllable, and the tendency
strongly marked. Besides such large-scale works, we must note the appearance of the 'Anglican Chant' for use with the vernacular use with the metrical prose psalms, and of psalm-tunes for versions. Anglican chants were mainly simple harmonisations of the old Gregorians, with the tune in the tenor.

The earliest complete metrical psalter was that of Sternhold
and Hopkins, published
for over

in 1562;


was a standard work

a century.

The great importance

on by


the reformers

of the simplification of style which lies in the fact that it

forced composers to 'think vertically', i.e. in terms of chordmelodic lines. We progressions rather than of simultaneous have seen that as far back as Dunstable there were signs

of a feeling towards the triad, and Dufay's use of faux-

bourdon also shows some tendency to harmonic thinking. This tendency was now rapidly intensified, and in the next century the idea of contrapuntal texture based on the decoration of a preconceived chord-basis gradually takes the place of a texture in which the vertical combinations, i.e. the chords, arise from the interplay of melodic lines.

Despite the general simplicity demanded by the reformers, contrapuntal music was not banished from the English rite. as any of Byrd's 'Great' service is as polyphonic in texture
his -Latin works,

and the anthem, which may be

called the

English substitute for the motet, was often written in the traditional complex manner. The finest anthems of the

period are those of Gibbons. Of his forty examples, some fifteen are polyphonic, possibly the best known, and certainly one of the finest, being Hosanna to the Son of David. Gibbons was not averse to experiment, and was one of the



(though Byrd anticipated him) to write "verse* anthems, in which solo passages and independent instrumental accompaniment are introduced. This form, new in Gibbons' time, was chiefly popular around the end of the lyth century in the hands of such Restoration composers as Purcell and Blow.

H.M.S. Vol.
4, Nos. 31? to 38,

and 40.



state of the instruments themselves and the fact that composers were so largely concerned with the provision of music for the Church naturally brought about concentration on the vocal rather than on the instrumental side. Little seems to have been written purely for instrumental performance, and there was little or no differentiation of style. From the earliest times there was a wealth of dance tunes for the vielle or fiedel, but their composers are unknown. In any case, the 'serious' composer had other things to do than to write such pieces. Of medieval instrumental music written for use in church a number of short organ preludes survive, rambling and formless affairs which show clearly the undeveloped state of the instrument and the composers' lack of grasp of a suitable style. The earliest extant keyboard music is in the Robertsbridge Codex of about 1325, an organ estampie. It is to some extent stylised, being in dance rhythm but not suitable for actual dancing.

The undeveloped

to give


study so far has been concerned exclusively with the development of vocal music. It was not until late in the I5th century that composers began
serious attention to that for instruments alone.

Instruments, as we have seen, were often combined with or substituted for voices, and by the i6th century many had reached a high state of development. Brief consideration of the most important now follows. The organ had progressed far beyond its condition in the days of the pulsator organorum, having one or more manageable keyboards and a considerable variety of stops. It was most advanced in Germany, where an adequate

and the theorist F. the lute. both in size and variety. in his Musikalische him what music *A true tablature rather directed the player what Handleitvng of 1700. E. and since. . Like many other instruments of the time. In Spain the place of the lute was taken by the vihuela. not the actual sounds to be played. the notation and the manner of playing the two instruments were similar. the viols 3 recorders. The lute was of great antiquity. an ancestor of the guitar. Its notation was called 'tablature and was designed to show the positions of the fingers on the fingerboard. and the various keyboard instruments. though such composers as nature the lute was incapable of by the end of the i6th century Molinaro were achieving some remark- Of its able effects of 'faking'. The number of strings and their tuning. The only present-day survivals of the tablature system are in connection with such instruments as the mandoline and the ukulele.* The ordinary staff nota9 most popular being the theorbo or tenor tion was not used. Of domestic instruments the chief were the lute. one to do than told to play' (Scholes. in As early as an organ built by Arnold Schlick in Heidelberg. Its body was shaped rather like a pear cut in half from top to bottom. Even in Bach's time an organ tablature was still in use by the more conservative composers in Germany. Niedt. four of the sixteen stops were 3n the pedal. as was also the style of writing for them. Tablatures for various instruments survived into the i8th century. pedals were either lacking or but poorly provided with we find registers. castigates severely and amusingly those who still clung to such an antiquated system.16 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC was considered essential. In England. and as we move on towards the 1 7th century this department tending to increase more and more. The strings strained fingers and the tone was reand gentle. pedal department the first quarter of the i6th century. Oxford Companion). The * viol was a development of the medieval vielle. lutes were made in families of five or more were plucked by the different sizes. Italy and France the organ was less developed and remained so until much later. true polyphony.

As compared with their relations the violin family. six strings instead of four. two-manual harpsichords were developed. and from it came a large family. and even before 1600 instruments were being built with mechanism enabling differing qualities of tone to be produced. (Methuen) . were related in their method of tone production. a type of endblown flute (as opposed to the side-blown or 'transverse' flute of the modern orchestra). This was gradually transformed into the viola da gamba or 'leg viol . The tone was sombre. Family groups included the recorders. At the beginning of the i6th century four sizes were in use. 9 all held either resting on the knees or between them. the strings being plucked and the tone consequently tending to be 'twangy'. an impracticable sort of instrument with a penchant for leaping up an octave on the slightest provocation or on no provocation at all. The tone of the harpsichord was louder and richer than that of its companions. the virginals. lacking the brightness and incisiveness of the violins. viols have a flat back.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 87 form of which was held in front of the body. but by the i8th there were no fewer than nine. not under the chin. and 'C'-shaped sound holes. Of the four domestic keyboard instruments three. roughly equivalent to a piccolo. * In the clavichord. the spinet and the harpsichord. a more essentially domestic instrument The reader is referred to Donington's The Instruments of Music for details. Recorder ranging from the sopranino. sloping shoulders. with a round and gentle tone. A 'chest of viols' was an actual chest in which a small set of various sizes was kept for domestic use. each keyboard controlling its own set of strings (see frontispiece).* Later. to the great bass.



(a) dances. * practice which survives perhaps only in one part of the world.ht be available. In much of lie early music particular instruments were specified. Large quantities of dances appeared. These last were the ancestors of Shawm Gornett and bassoon. a ten-foot giant which needed one man to blow it and another to support it at the front. for church or open-air rather than were the sackbuts (trombones) and the shawms and pommers. some for specified instruments. the strings were struck by a metal tangent fixed to the rear end of the key. within some- what narrow limits. (4) adaptations of the current vocal polyphonic style and (c) variations on a theme. with a cup-shaped mouthpiece.90 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC than the harpsichord. A . composers began to take a serious interest in writing instrumental music they were faced with the problem of what kind of pieces to write. and the tone could be varied. for domestic use. with the monstrous temple trumpets of Tibet. trumpet-like affairs of wood.* There were also cornetts. A fourth but less important no solution was the writing of descriptive music. including the 'great bass pommer or 'bombard'. and it would seem that it was intended to be played on whatever mig. When first this was solved in three directions. according to the degree offeree applied to the key. Other instruments. There was no intervening mechanism as in the case of the plucked-string instruments. Broadly speaking. or occathe oboe 9 sionally of ivory.

Such processional dances were . In some cases the contrast between * common Compare all the Polish Polonaise. basse danses and branles. Of the latter.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 91 some not. The pairing of a slow dance and a quick one was most common. at a time when other kinds of music They do not were predominantly contrapuntal. comprising pavanes. the most popular group being the pavane and galliard. and in triple time as opposed to the duple of its companion. We have seen how from the time of Dunstable there was an increasing feeling for chords and chord-progression. over Europe. possess any great musical distinction. This pairing of dances is hisof great importance. galliards. Attaignant's sets of dances were not arranged according to any plan. since it is the genesis of the torically 1 generally contrasting pairs. and the composition of dances played an important part in the development of this. second of a pair often being a variation on the first. stately affair. But even at this early stage the grouping of dances into sets. employing little but tonic and dominant. more of a procession than a dance in the usual sense.* while the galliard was quick. indeed. The First Dance Book of 1530. but are noteworthy in that. twentypavanes with fifteen galliards in music for four parts'. is internal organisation of individual dances notable view of its bearing on the development of later instrumental forms. some. From the earliest days dance tunes had been sectional in construction. as music for the dance must naturally be. two five branles. the The pavane was a 7th- The in and 18th-century form. The harmony of the Attaignant dances is of the simplest character. Galliards were frequently written as variations of their associated pavanes. conformably to the pattern of the dances themselves. for example. the Suite. Use of the major scale is common. was quite common. once it ceases to be purely melodic. important collections were printed in 1 529 and 1 530 by the Parisian publisher Pierre Attaignant. gay. lumps together 'nine basses danses. they are entirely homophonic.

Towards the end of the i6th century the stylised treatment of dances led to some conventionalisation of structure. binary plan. with a very occasional supertonic or subdominant. There is even one in Attaignant's collection of 1530. The importance of happens also to be a particularly beautiful piece of music. in a Hornpipe by Aston. In the case of the latter the music falls into three clearly defined different sections. of which a well-known example is Byrd's Earl of Salisbury's Pavane. This has five sections so strongly contrasted that but for the fact that all might as well be five a good example of the harmonic simplicity already mentioned. It is also as anything suggested by any textbook on Form. found in a MS. it separate pieces. balanced by another sentence of similar length ending with a full-close. Examples of the polyphonic style transferred to instruments appear as early as Obrecht. First sentence of eight bars leading to a half-close. In early canzonas the use of a tenor cantus firmus was common. This is as rigidly binary last but the end with a half-close. of about 1500. From this it came to be used for instrumental pieces in the same style.92 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC sections Hugh is very strong as. More important is the frequent use of the two-period. as in the case . who died in 1505. and further that from it ultimately grew the sonata form which is the structural basis of much of the work of the composers of the 'classical' period. though there are occasional instances of a true ternary (ABA) design. generally into two or three main periods. though in varying ways and without any strong contrasts of style. This term originally signified a certain variety of lyric verse. for example. and was later adopted for the musical setting of such poetry in a somewhat madrigalian style. Attaignant's dances are all clearly sectionalised. Such pieces were usually known as canzonas. solidly based on the major scale. It the binary design is that as the Suite developed (see Chapter 9) practically all its movements were written in this form. the chord-scheme is almost entirely tonic and dominant.

being the first writer of ricercares for the organ. The contrapuntal ricercare was a deliberate imitation of the polyphonic motet. works of this kind. the ricercare being a short prelude to a transcription of a song. The term Fantasia a piece have seen that in pairs of dances the second was not infrequently a variation on the first. 1515) may also be mentioned. Burney says. In the 1 6th century it was often used with this implication in Italian lute music. . simply 'following the dictates of 9 the composer's fancy . in which the number of voices is apt to vary frequently within a single composition. The practice of writing variations on a theme was developed quickly and with considerable skill by many composers. which he is to use in the regular piece to be played afterwards'. (b. or might equally well be some popular song. Within rather restricted limits. Variations were written largely for the keyboard instruments and for the lute. and in applying to it. and in this sense might imply a kind of prelude in which.. augmentation. (in England 'Fancy') might also imply in canzona style. a seeking-out. 'the composer seems to search or look out for the strains and touches of harmony. but Isaac also produced this was by no means obligatory. interesting maiden A Of rather this similar construction was the ricercar or ricercare.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 93 of Obrecht's sat. new figures of accompaniment The theme might be made up by the composer. based on a Dutch folksong. c. em- ploying all such devices as canon. Willaert's ricercares are of considerable importance. Literally it implies research. Turning now to the composers and the instruments for which they wrote. term has had a number of different implications. etc. as the composer chose. great ingenuity We was shown in embellishing the tune. He is notable. we may note first two important schools. written for three melodic instruments such The Italian Girolamo Gavazzoni as viols or recorders. as the though historian Dr. but equally it might mean something of a rambling nature. too. for the freedom of his part-writing.

This ingenuity of the Italians. notable being Luis de Milan. The Spanish school flourished in the first half of the 1 6th century. Narvaez was a particularly good writer of variations.94 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC of vihuelists in Spain and of lutenists in Italy. and evidence positions . Luis de Narvaez and composers Anriquez de Valderrano. and showed great ingenuity in producon an instrument which ing a pseudo-contrapuntal texture Theorbo or Archlute is Viola da Gamba is also fundamentally non-contrapuntal. whose school flourished characteristic of some more towards the end of the century. who in 1599 was maestro di capella at the cathedral of Genoa. His comshow genuine melodic inventiveness. Some of the finest and cleverest work is that of Simone Molinaro.

but also in his arrangements 9 of canzonas by other composers. reached its climax considerably later. but sometimes for no apparent reason beyond caprice* This is also the case with the lutenist Santino Garsi. Dr. as being the first music. lutenist school. and nearly a quarter of alone. followed 9 the fashion of using 'fancy' titles. from the pens of Byrd. e. H. too. Like many of his contemporaries.g. He. Molinaro was almost fantastically clever at 'faking a contrapuntal texture in his fantasias. Commenting on the English virginal music of this period. John Bull (1563 to 1628). He was a virtuoso of keyboard instruments. is the collection called Parthenia. who entitles one of his galliards 'The lie in the throat'. published in the year of his appointment to Genoa. 95 His Intavolatura di Liuto.g. as with Byrd's Earl of Salisbury pavane. Of English lutenists Dowland and Campian were the most renowned. 'The virtuous coquette In France the 1 of the . not only in his original compositions. Gibbons and Dr. with the same visionary insight into the possibilities of technique and sonority as was later to distinguish Domenico Scarlatti and Franz Liszt. in the person of Denis Gaultier (d. Fellowes says: *No other European country has anything that can remotely be compared with it. these are known engraved book of keyboard Especially notable. however. It contains works of only Byrd. produced the greatest virginal music of the century. 1672). More than 600 pieces are in existence. of 1611. he often gave fanciful titles to his dances. sometimes. while the latter appears to have written nothing for lute England. as well as a number of galliards in three or four sections. but the former's fame rests chiefly on his ayres. E. his fame on the continent being great. beginning in the latter part 6th century. contains examples of such dances as the Saltarello and the Passamezzo (in as many as ten separate sections. Bull lived much abroad. and from 1613 to his death was organist at Antwerp Cathedral. e.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC that he was no mean performer. in a dedicatory fashion.' . each ending in the tonic). Clemens non Papa. by Byrd.

and both produced works which are not only technically ingenious but also of considerable musical value. For the viols the chief types of composition were the canzona. Besides dances. Both showed great mastery in applying the contemporary vocal style to instruments.96 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Gibbons and Bull. who played a leading part in the development of variation writing. in particular Byrd and Gibbons. last These fantasies. and began to exploit the possibilities of short-value notes in the form of extended scalic runs. with harmonisation which might be quite simple or moderately contra- The These 'organ hymns' appear very early in the i6th century. practice of writing preludial movements These. (1485 to 1545). They are noteworthy as anticipations of the Chorale Prelude which took such a strong hold of German composers once the Lutheran reformation was firmly established. the ricercare and the fantasie or fancy. together with the original books of Benjamin Cosyn and Will Forster it are in manuscript. corantos and jigs. Canzonas abound. including allemandes. . who died about 1517. was the property of the Viscount Fitzwilliam who presented it to Cambridge University in 1816). Cavazzoni being notable in this direction. the cantusftrmus being more or less decorated. and a large amount of music exists written for liturgical purposes. Here again the English composers are outstanding. preludes. and sets of variations. gradually became less utterly rambling than those of earlier times. In Spain the outstanding writer for keyboard instruments was the blind Antonio de Cab&on (1510 to 1566). and the Englishman John Redford puntal. continued. The organ music of the period is of great variety. although often far from being highly organised. There are numerous pieces based on plainsong hymns. there are numerous (1624). and consists largely of pavanes and galOther collections of the time are My Ladye NeoelFs Booke and the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (so called because liards. there being extant examples by Arnold Schlick.

These were used in connection with the singing of the psalms. There was. The term toccata comes from the verb toccare. who served at St. and Cabezon among others wrote numerous examples. The practice grew up of replacing the plainchant of the even-numbered verses by polyphonic settings for the choir or by organ 'versets'. Mark's. Le. Certain portions of each movement were replaced by an organ piece of a more or less contrapuntal character. based on the 'tone to which the psalm was being chanted. Toccatas for the organ date from about 1550. but possibly the greatest of the early writers of toccatas was Claudio Merulo (1533 to 1604). A rather similar practice obtained at times even in the performance of a plainsong Mass. choir and congregation meanwhile repeated the words of the missing verse silently. Venice. as scalic passage of greater value as extended finger exercises than as music. relatively little effect on the ultimate development of organ music as such. Such works as the above had.THE RISE OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 97 Also for liturgical purposes are many sets of 'verses for the tones'. work intended. however. always a proportion of brilliant to quote Grove. though the earliest known use of the title is for a lute piece of 1536 by Gastelione. Sets of such versets 9 were published in 1531 by Attaignant. something played as opposed to something sung. and the movements for organ by such composers as Guilmant and Widor. for example. More important are the many toccatas which appear from about the middle of the century onwards. Schumann's Toccata for piano. The name of Cavazzoni may again be noted in this connection. which are often but the original significance of toccata was not unlike that of sonata. to touch. however. c . Both the Gabrielis wrote in this form. as. to exhibit the touch and execution of the performer'. Nowadays it tends to imply a piece designed primarily to exhibit the performer's dexterity and virtuosity. In the latter case clergy. based on the omitted plainsong. which inevitably became monotonous with the unvarying repetition of the same melodic formula for each verse.

. He may be considered as one taining power of the most important founders of the Italian organ school which flourished in the next century. 41 and 42. e. He was one of the first to realise the effectiveness of contrast between quick movement and the inexorable sussteady. Battle pieces were even written for that least bellicose of instruments. Nos. Vol. solid passages which exploited of the organ. RECORDS H. He was renowned depicting. and are imthe ultimate origin of a portant chiefly in that they were led to such works type of composition which eventually as the symphonic poems of Liszt. the lute. who flourished round the turn of the century. various states of the atmosphere A chare day. of Jannequin's vocal battle piece. with carefully detailed instructions as to their meaning.S. 1630) virginal fantasia words of Sir Hubert Parry. in which an attempt is made to illustrate the various stages of the battle. in which a quietly autumnal feeling is created. in the John Mundy's (d. Richard Strauss and other igth. In Chapter 6 mention was is made appeared also for virginals. Among the more effective pieces A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC from 1557 to 1584.98 as a masorganist are interesting in their alterterly performer.g. Martin Peerson (c. consisting mainly of passages suggesting trumpets and drums. etc. albeit in a rather elementary manner. His toccatas nation of sections in brilliant virtuoso style with others in the ricercare manner. and such pieces The all Italian Santino Garsi. that by Byrd. Lightning. 4 Nos. such as The fall of the leaf. 1580 to 1650) also wrote some charming little tone pictures. produced one of almost incredible naivety. Essays in programme or illustrative music range from the reasonably effective to the almost ludicrous. Vol.M. 30 and 31.and 20th-century composers. 3.

We have seen. in their turn. in the Baroque Era. however. too. maid of Some members of the group. Jacopo Peri. They. * Dr. the Flemings Lassus. From the France of Perotin and Machaut passed to England (Dunstable). In the early 1 7th century the lead passed to the Italians. since for much of the time each of the voices would be singing different words. taught the Italians and the Spaniards. Vincenzo Galilei and Ottavio Rinuccini. Counterpoint was therefore anathema and music. the Italians Palestrina. Manuel Bukofzer. hitherto the factor. which admittedly it did. to a height hardly reached elsewhere. But of outlook which the new technical methods involved. it the preceding chapters it has been shown how the leadership in European music passed from one country to another. must be treated rather as the hand- predominant poetry. a singer. the Spaniards Victoria and the English Byrd. Shortly before 1600 a band of men. They are known as the Camerata. in their own way. and were led by Counts Bardi and Corsi. described by one writer* as a noisy group of litterati\ came together in Florence and launched an attack on the current polyphonic e necessary to sketch briefly the changes brought about these developments. Music . then to the Burgundians (Dufay) and from them to the Netherlanders. and it is their new developments which we have now before doing so it is to consider. Other important members were Giulio Gaccini. a poet. The basis of their attack was that the contrapuntal style obscured the poetry. how the Elizabethans adopted the madrigal and developed it. and style of composition.CHAPTER EIGHT VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TN I JL. Each race produced its own supreme genius of polyphony.

The word 'run'. There were even stereotyped musical figures to represent the various verbal affections. Their attitude to the musical expression of the words was different from that of the polyphonic composers. in 1607. writing in 1602. Agostino Agazzari. the musical illustration of individual not merely the expression of their general mood. refers to the 'old way of composition' which causes 'a laceration of the poetry'. not on the passion and expression of the words'. tion. It Examples could be multiplied almost indefinitely. so that at the back of their attack may realisation that the technique of vocal possibly have been a needed lengthy professional training. 1580). words. Moods were classidefied into tion' a series of 'affections'. Le. insisting that the music should agree with the mood of the words as a whole. which they polyphony did not possess. contrasts counterpoint and the 'art of good singing' much to the detriment of the former. and so on. than other things. and no in this direction group of composers showed greater ability did the Elizabethans. the exponents of the new no measured terms. and the 'affecof the music must correspond to that of the words. there As so often happens with new movements of any kind. The Camerata cried such methods. Galilei's attitude is rather curious. Caccini.ioo A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC were amateurs. must not be thought that the new outlook brought . The use of musica reservata by Lassus has been mentioned. But musica reservata included. in theories expressing themselves in his Discourse on Ancient Musk and Good Singing (c. since as a professional musician he had already proved himself a capable contrapuntist. would be expressed by a among quick-moving scalic passage. An avowed aim of the Camerata was the revival of what method of declamathey considered to be the ancient Greek in the form of a musical intensification of the text. was a good deal of pamphleteering and letter-writing. emotions. Bardi. castigates composers who wish 'to stand and imitasolely on the observance of canonic treatment tion of the notes. for example.

* The inventor of these terms appears to have been Monteverdi. his earlier works being latter clearly in stilo antico. Whereas in the great days of polyphony there was one over-all prevailing style of composition. came to be recognised. and his later ones in stilo moderno. These distinctions obviously operated according to the purpose for which the music was written. a motet and a polyphonic madrigal.* first and second practices. viz. Giovanni Gabrieli. two styles now came to be recognised. church music. wrote a number of sets of madrigals. . exhibits mastery of both styles. another for the church. and training in the former was still considered indispensable to the professional composer. for little difference in the style example. though in a different connection.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 101 church. Many musicians wrote equally well in either style. In the course of the century further distinctions of style. The old style stilo antico persisted in a good deal of music for the he simply retorted that it was justified. Monteverdi. while there is little if any difference between the style of a Palestrina motet and that of one of his early madrigals. The two styles were also known asprima and seconda prattica. chamber music and theatre music. since he was not composing in the old style. some employing stilo antico and some stilo moderno. too. In the i6th century there was. The i yth-century composer tended to adopt one style in writing for the opera. and offer another contrast with the outlook of the preceding generation. of. and so on. one of the greatest figures of the time. and apart from any question of antico or moderno. t Though naturally such forms as the ballett and the ayre were automatically non-ecclesiastical in style. though there was at times a good deal of overlapping. broadly speaking. When attacked for his advanced use of dissonance in the about a complete and immediate break with the old ideals. though increasingly influenced by the new or 'modern' style stilo moderno. whether sacred or secular.f such a work as Gibbons' What is our life could be set to sacred words with no violation of propriety.

. which is made to approximate to some extent to speech-rhythm.g. which persisted for about the next 150 years. far more than might have been anticipated. with the simplest possible accompaniment. The accompanimental methods of monody* are of great importance. under discussion. also called stile rappresentativo or 'representative style first . and thus the only possible harmonic * This term is it frequently used for music of the kind from.102 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC technical results of the The new ideas were manifold. Unprepared discords become more and more common. speaking music. According to Bardi's son. but the Camerata eschewed counterpoint. and great stress is laid on the use by the voice of the more 'affective' intervals. since (0) they show an almost sudden swerve to the use of chords as such. Galilei was 'the 9 to let us hear singing in the stile rappresentativo . a good deal Although of emotional intensity and dramatic force is at times achieved. most important early example of this was a collection of vocal 9 A pieces published in 1602 title of Le Nuove Musiche experimental. e. and so enhance and intensify the meaning of the words. The appropriate style of declamation was. despite the tendencies already noted in Chapter 6. and (4) they firmly established a practice. deemed to be of prime importance. It was musica parlante. In all these compositions a notable feature is the rhythmic freedom of the voice part. already in use to some extent. Lute accompaniments to ayres often tried to preserve a kind of faked contrapuntal texture. for which the term recitative is usually employed. Equally notable is the increasingly free use of dissonance. Pietro. as in Caccini's well-known Amarilli. polyphony. known as basso continuo or 'thorough bass'. as we have seen. which could follow the exact inflexions of the declaiming voice. brief mention of which was made in Chapter 3. the diminished 4th and chromatic progressions. and can only be dealt with in the barest outline. under the 'The New Music 3 . The Camerata strove to achieve a type of simple melody.

Even in the second half of the century we find that Purcell. his chordal progressions. uses the major scale pure and simple in some of his more 'modern' pieces. Accompaniments to well be played on a lute. indeed. however. would depend on the style of the movement concerned and on the of the player.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY support to the voice 103 was chordal. Thus. that is to build up. backward-looking idiom. further point must be mentioned. By the end of the xyth century. for reasons which will appear later. he adopts a more archaic. the 1 7th century saw the final disintegration of the modal ability One system and its supplanting by the major. We turn now to the types of composition which first saw light in the I7th century. and the bases of composition were the major and minor scales. employ either at will. The complete and unrestricted establishment of the new scalesystem was the work of Bach.and minor-scale In the early years there is often considerable system. alternatively. certain inevitable restrictions. and in his string fantasias. there was always a 5 harmonic background. To what extent this would be purely chordal or. The bass line itself would be played by some low-pitched instrument such as a 'cello. vagueness of tonality. composers seeming to hover between the modes and the later system. but in some movements deliberately in his anthems. some. fertile which was an extraordinarily of the rest of this chapter period. but all that the monody might player had was a figured bass line from which he was expected to 'realise . contrapuntal. though there were. the modes were dead. We have seen that largely owing to the use of musica fata the individual characteristics of the modes gradually became obscured. for example. whatever the texture of the upper parts. Although much . while it became the regular practice for the 'realisation* to be played on harpsichord or organ. Until about the middle of the i8th century all vocal compositions and the majority of instrumental ones included in the score a part for continue.

produced in 1597 but now lost. It may plot be imagined that the effect would be hardly exciting to 20th-century ears. which consisted of a whole series of unaccompanied fivepart madrigals. there was. called by the composer Commedia Armonica. In other words. The principles oSNuove Musicke found complete expression in opera. Each country tended to stress rapidly one or more particular aspects of composition. and it was exactly this matter of the application of music to dramatic ends which was exercising the minds of the Camerata. its result was based on an ancient Greek story an obvious of the Bardi group's preoccupation with Greek tragedy. Like most of its successors for nearly two hundred years. The style of these works is entirely monodic. followed in the same year by Caccini's own setting of the same libretto. a kind of play with incidental music. it must be remembered new ideas which have been outlined above spread all over Europe. often due to always the travels of the composers themselves and the natural desire of the younger men to seek the help or instruction of the most eminent musicians of any country. conditions.} More purely musical was such a work as Amfiparnasso of Orazio Vecchi (c. as there 9 has been. social that the music of and religious any one country was from that of its neighbours. (Compare Adam de la Kale's Robin et Marion. In 1600 came Eurydice. but there was soon to appear a genius of great inventiveness and dramatic power. 1551 to 1605).104 will A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC be devoted to music in Italy. was Dqfne by Peri. The first true opera. isolated Not among other things. these aspects that the being affected by. had little if any value as dramatic representations. But such works. whatever their purely musical virtues. which was by Rinuccini. Claudio . entertainments in which a drama was enacted. partly by Peri and partly by Caccini. that is drama set to music. interspersed with the singing of madrigals. with a somewhat haphazard collection of accompanying instruments. continual 'cross-fertilisation . Before the end of the i6th century there had been written 'madrigal-operas'.

The use of a chorus in dramatically appropriate places was accepted. It was now used simply to carry on the action of the plot. expressive example is the famous 'Lament of Ariadne' from Arianna. a properly organised melody commenting on the action. possibly more than his master. The capella or kapelle of a house or institution was the body of musicians attached to it. and we now find the aria. His first opera. Orfeo. cultivated easy-flowing and rhythmic the first public opera house Cassiano in Venice. 'fell into the background. The public found this much to their taste. Monteverdi is notable as an innovator in orchestral technique. MonteAdorn and also Le Nozze di Peleo e di Teti by his verdi's pupil Cavallif (1602 to 1676). maestro di capella* to the Duke of Mantua. the Teatro di San Here was produced. produced in 1608. produced in 1607. which often became vehicles for vocal display. nickname . but the generally used. as did also his contemporary.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 105 Monteverdi (1567 to 1643). Monteverdi soon began to turn away from the use of uninterrupted recitative. while melodious arias. i. "j* His full is Cavalli name was Pier-Francesco Galetti-Bruni. A The earliest operas were performed privately. and there are clear signs of the beginnings of the use of the string orchestra as the main instrumental support. U melody. together with the corresponding German kapellmeister. but would not tackle the * This term. but in 1637 was opened. in 1640.. most beginning to appear as a break in the monotony. and requires a large and heterogeneous collection of instruments for an orchestra. and certainly in opposition to the original ideas of the Camerata. Marc Antonio Cesti (1623 to 1669). came to be regarded as the most important movements. and the maestro or meister was the musical director. 9 and quite quickly recitative. and is credited with the invention of the string tremolando. So much so that a composer commissioned to write an opera would begin by setting the recitatives. Cavalli. the original sole constituent of opera. has not necessarily any ecclesiastical significance. In later works he tended to be less orchestrally adventurous. shows great power of dramatic expression.

The overture originated as a kind of preliminary flourish. He employed two varieties of recitative. for example. digression. its hisit of Sinfonia avanti F opera. 'accompanied recitative'. the singers engaged to take part. In France the earliest operas were closely associated with the Court ballet. His use of the stereotyped e 9 ternary ( da capo ) aria was only part of the conventionalisation of opera which persisted for many years until an Of Scarlatti's fellow Neapolitans. had but three houses. with figured bass accompaniment on the harpsichord. and for a long period ballet was considered an essential in opera.* Early attempts to introduce * Writing as late as 1834. since was the germ of the classical symphony. Hector Berlioz remarks. simple and quick-moving. Sartorio. but in Scarlatti's affair attempt to break it down was made by Gluck in the i8th three-movement torical quick. if not the invention. Ziani and Strozzi. a summons to attention. quick hands it became a under the title scale. employing a group of composers arias until Other including Legrenzi. the recitativo secco. After the middle of the century the greatest name in opera is Alessandro Scarlatti (1658 or 1659 to I 7 2I ) the founder of the Neapolitan school. Scarlatti is notable for the popularisation. *at the OpeYa. an excuse for a ballet would be found. Before the end of the century Venice had no fewer than eleven opera houses. even in a representation of the Last Judgment'! . restatement). it is to him that we owe the standardisation of the aria into ternary form (statement.io6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC he had heard. of a stereotyped form of operatic overture. A superb melodist. Rome. which was used for the more emotionally intense passages. slow. Alessandro century. Stradella (1645 to 1682) is perhaps the most noteworthy. Although on a small importance is considerable. cities were not backward in taking to opera. and recitativo accompagnato (or stromentato] . and assessed the capabilities of. but hardly to the same extent.

first the musician Robert and in 1659 began the association of Cambert with the librettist Pierre Their most successful work was Pomone (1671).VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 107 Italian opera were unsuccessful. The first of these. the Abbe Mailly's Akebar. is described as the first 'legitimate' French opera. niece of Louis XIV. Lulli Its is ascribed the invention of the Trench' over- much with (a) a slow introduction. and in 1653 he was appointed the King's composer of dance music. and are often of considerable emotional power. generally dotted-note rhythm. In 1646 one Giovanni Batista Lulli* (1632 to 1687) had come to Paris as page-boy to Mile. Perrin. Unlike the Italian overture. despite the powerful influence of Cardinal Mazarin during the reign of Louis XIV. and contemporary Italian works. But was not to last. avoid the Italian conventionality of structure. preferring instead excellently managed de- clamation in the form of accompanied recitative. Lulli did not use the Italian recitativo secco. modelled on those of Gavalli. (b) a quick fugal movement. in which the King himself often took part. His musical ability soon became apparent. The well-known Bois of Lulli at his best. Jean Baptiste Lully. and all begin with a prologue glorifying Le Roi SoleiL The inclusion of ballet was invariable. fipais is an excellent example To ture. In 1646 came the private production of what is usually described as the first real French opera. followed by (c} one or more dances. and much greater use was made of the chorus than in Italian opera. Lulli's * Also known by the French form of his name. the their success French opera to be publicly performed in Paris. . His arias. Les FStes de I Amour et de Bacchus. rapidly achieving almost a monopoly of the writing of court ballets. the subjects of Lulli's operas are chiefly drawn from classical mythology. In 1672 Lulli secured for himself the patent hitherto held by Perrin to establish thereafter produced some twenty operas in conjunction with the librettist Quinault. or a repetition of the plan was opening movement. Roi de Mogol. As with the 9 an 'Academy of Music'. de Montpensier.

. whose origins are of considerable antiquity. in 1627. and the only clue to its character is the composer's statement that the dialogue was in recitative. German opera proper dates from 1678. had no further development. The Masque. Throughout the I7th century. exhibiting characteristic Teutonic earnestness. although still in use by Handel nearly a hundred years later. the real father of German opera. 'Puritans and Music'. sung in the original tongue. There seems to be no record of any truly operatic performance until Sir William Davenant's The Siege of Rhodes in 1657. The form survived into the i8th century. The one great English opera of the period is Dido and * The fact that this was during the Commonwealth period is in itself a refutation of the widely-held theory that the Puritans deprecated music of any kind. the nearest English equivalent to opera was the Masque^ a form of entertainment which was also cultivated in France and Italy. and Henry Lawes setting of Milton's Comus. when Joharm Theile's Adam und Eva was given in Hamburg. His work is entirely German in style. with one outstanding exception. pageantry and lavish scenic and mechanical effects. In Germany opera began with the setting of a German translation of Rinuccini's Dafne by Heinrich Schiitz (1585 to 1672). The music is lost. dancing. In England opera only just managed to exist at all. art. After this. 9 Arne's Alfred appearing as late as 1740. In that city Reinhard Keiser (1674 to 1739). See Scholes* Oxford Companion.* To what extent this was a real opera is perhaps a little conjectural. The music is lost. on this. poetry.io8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC form. Possibly the two most famous masques were Matthew Locke's setting of Shirley's Cupid and Death. Italian works were imported. English opera'. The French Court Ballet was of similar type. It was followed by the same writer's though it is usually referred to as 'the first The Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru. which latter were also a great feature of the French opera. reigned supreme from the end of the i7th century up to about 1739. combined music.

the sacre rappresentazioni (sacred representations) of which lavish performances were given in Florence and the sur- They were practically operas on sacred including laudi. death in 1595. The dialogue is in recitative and some dances are included. Concurrent with the sacred representation was the Dialogo extent. Many were written by Franciscan monks. In 1600 such a work by Emilio di Cavalieri (c. founder of the Order of Oratorians. Oratorio in the accepted sense was yet to come.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 109 Aeneas by Henry Purcell (1659 to 1695). performed by companies called laudesi. perhaps. Rather oddly. This is often called the first oratorio. called La Rappresentazione di Anima e di Corpo the Representation of Soul and Body. simple devotional songs in the vernacular. one of the most poignantly moving pieces of music ever written. secular songs. the singing of laudi his The services continued after spirituali. instrumental intersubjects. (Dialogue). but their character rapidly changed with the introduction into them of the sacre rappresentazioni. From the dramatised laudi evolved. Dido was composed for performance by notable movement is the pupils at an academy for young ladies. The ultimate origins of this form go back to the 1 3th century. The most Dido's 'Lament'. and we may be permitted to wonder whether the student who took the part of Dido could possibly have realised the full emotional scope of her lament. in the laudi. instituted in Rome popular services which incorporated elements from plays on sacred subjects as well as rounding country. In 1556 St. Parallel with the development of opera ran that of oratorio. Philip Neri. but it is actually a sacra rappresentazione. Later they were often cast in dialogue form. 1550 to 1602) was performed in the Oratorio della Vallicella. ludes and dancing. early in the i6th century. and by the 1 4th century were being dramatised into religious plays with music. including a final dance. which prefigured oratorio to a greater It consisted of dialogues in simple recitative .

became such an important part of oratorio proper. 1604 to 1674). and on rather similar lines. including recitatives. and a Historicus or Narrator was introduced to make clear the progress of the story. equally great in opera and oratorio. and mention may also be made of his contemporaries Giovanni Colonna 1735)- (c. solos. etc.. and the form became essentially what it is its some sacred story. 7 and 8 voices'. and the reader tings of the Passion. the musical presentation of his Sacrifice of Abraham and Martyrdom of St. showing the persistence of the stilo antico. 1645 to 1682) and Antonio Qaldara (1670 to form. . anticipating the reflective arias which. We may note to-day. like opera. as in opera. 6. In the latter part of the century the most notable composer is Alessandro Scarlatti. The aria made way in.* Stage representation ceased. who showed a fondness for such cumbersome titles as Teatro Armonico Spirituals di Madrigali a cinque^ sei. We under that note the use of the term 'madrigal' and the inclusion The choral title of movements in recitative. which may be translated literally as 'The Spiritual Harmonic Theatre of Madrigals for 5. the incipient oratorio. in the hands of such men as Domenico Mazzocchi and Giovanni Carissimi (c. Job. Abraham and Isaac. Notable among composers of Dialoghi is Giovanni Anerio (c. 1567 to c. all with instrumental accompaniment. and the Judgment of Solomon. duets. Theodosia. for example. uses those of Jephtha. The stories were taken largely from the Old Testament. * The Narrator or Evangelist was of the greatest importance in set- Lack of space forbids any consideration of this is referred to the article in Grove. movements are often of a contrapuntal character. sette e otto voci (1619).i to A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC between two persons. 1620). interspersed with choral movements. and choral movements. As in his operas he used the da capo plan of aria. These latter were often of a 'reflective' character. gradually became transformed. In the years after 1600. Carissimi. and this rapidly became normal practice everywhere.

but the works are remarkably telling in their restrained 'affectiveness*. The the solo parts free recitative Evangelist. we find instruments used not as mere optional substitutes for voices in the sense of 'apt for viols or voices'. St. Prince of Venosa (1560 to 1614). Christ. Luke. Passions are unaccompanied. being in a accompaniment of The madrigal did not long survive the coming of the 'new music'. Peter. whose harmonic experi- ments. well justify the epithet used above. and his Story of the Resurrection. but the work of the German Heinrich Schiitz must not be overlooked. As a medium of domestic music-making the madrigal gave place to the cantata. The utterances of the 'crowd* are in four-part harmony and lean to the stilo antico. much in advance of those of most of his contem- poraries. This cannot be said. and is well worth some study. written before 1600. In the madrigals of Luzzasco Luzzaschi. The work of Gesualdo actually led nowhere. Matthew. and large numbers of works of this period which were published as the former might . some of whose efforts sound like experimentalism gone mad. and as a rule his startling chord-progressions and modulations 'come off'. austere.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY in In the 7th century oratorio was almost exclusively of Italian cultivation. but the traditional polyphonic style gave way before the new influences. Works under the old title were still written. He was a 'modernist' in the colloquial sense of the word. etc. His most important works 1 of the oratorio type are his three settings of the Passion. and also passages for accompanied solo voice. The Story of the Resurrection employs an Schiitz's style is strings and organ. according to St. of the procedures of some of his lesser imitators. but it is interesting as the final outcome of a style initiated by Willaert and da Rore. and in those of Monteverdi. but obligatory. which has some affinity with plainsong. however. The most surprising of the late Italian madrigalists was Carlo Gesualdo. such as Benedetti and Belli. John and St. Frequently he achieves great emotional expressiveness.

carry domestic performance. which was a kind of miniature oratorio for one or two solo voices with accom- Carissimi was the paniment. Sacred cantatas. too.ii2 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC equally well be called the latter. As in opera and oratorio. the continent possibly the first. In some of these cantatas the tendency towards the typical iSth-century style of Handel is very clearly seen. as opposed to the more or less private meetings of the various Collegia Musica. In England the secular cantata was very popular as a substitute for the madrigal. first to write cantatas on sacred themes the Cantata da Ckiesa or Church Cantata. were the On . Laniere and Goleman. made its way into the form. Carissimi wrote a number of such works. The cantata. To quote Sir Hubert Parry in the Oxford History of Music: The cardinal idea of the form is the semi-histrionic presentation of some imagined situation under domestic conditions. like the madrigal of earlier times. containing many fine movements. in which. the first being founded in London in 1672 by John Banister. Especially notable is the introduction of florid coloratura passages which obviously prefigure the kind of writing which Handel used in such movements as Rejoice Greatly in Messiah. followed in 1678 by those of Thomas Britton. under the title of Cantata da Camera or Chamber Cantata. for example. those of Pelham Humfrey. characters whose histories and circumstances are well-known to the audience. without scenic accessories of any kind. were popular. the aria soon recitative. monologues and dialogues appearing in quantity. and two voices in dialogue were often employed. with a simple accompaniment.' Such compositions were produced by Henry Lawes and his brother William. Public concerts in the present-day sense did not originate until late in the lyth century. alternating with the The accompaniment tended to become more elaborate. as did also Scarlatti. was for abstractions. In its most elementary form the cantata was a short story told in recitative. or personified on poetic discourse in musical terms.

Of importance in this connection are the Con- certi Ecclesiastici published in 1602. became public once opera houses were established. etc. its earliest Andrea and use was in connection with vocal works. or doubas lings of. the first work as a title. He also justified the title. 10 and 16 voices. 1564 to 1627). Mark's.. whose association with St. and besides this he made great use of the possibilities of contrast between solo voices and chorus. He was the first to make any clear differentiation between vocal and instrumental styles in such works. has already been noted. but opera is not a concert in the accepted sense. to be from the verb concertare. Giovanni Gabrieli produced in 1587 Centi Concerti for 6. Although the word concerto (with the same derivation) is commonly associated with instrumental music. introduced occasional purely instrumental interludes or sinIn his later works his 'modernity* is strongly evident . in which concerti is used 8. the voices. to four voices. in particular of voices and instruments. It must be remembered that the system of patronage to which reference has been made involved the employment of large numbers of musicians in the various courts. and that performances by the kapelle were always more or less private affairs. In the paragraph above dealing with the madrigal menwas made of the independent use of instruments as distinct from their introduction as substitutes for. Venice. Opera. The chief implition cation of the concertato style was that of contrasting groups of performers. to compete. 7. with a figured bass accompaniment for organ. It was the independent part for the instrument which in the early development of Giovanni Gabrieli. of Lodovico Viadana (c. of course. This independent use was known The derivation of this term is generally taken concertato. The most important name concertato style is the fonias. and between opposing choirs.VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 113 Concerts Spirituels founded in Paris in 1725 by Philidor. and a work with the same title by the Viadana's concertos are for from one lutenist Molinaro.

and thereafter produced the three parts of the Sympkoniae Sacrae and the Kleins geistliche In these works the Konzerte (Little Sacred Concertos). brass thet is monumental. the Latin texts. Saul which are monumental composion' the same Johann Hermann Schein (1586 to 1630) and Samuel Scheldt (1587 to 1654). In 1629 Schiitz paid a second visit to Italy. For such compositions as his motet In Ecclesiis (for solo. there monic outlook. quartet. Mark's must have been overwhelming. lacking any signs of the intense use of dissonance such as Schiitz displayed in his Cantiones Sacrae. treatment of dissonance. The development of the musical side of the Lutheran . in which he goes almost to extremes in his use of dissonance for pictorial purposes. use of 'affective 9 intervals in the voice parts. chorus. but in his illustrative treatment of the text. In 1609 he went to Venice The concertato style . tions such as the famous is 'Saul. this time coming under the influence of Monteverdi. not only in his use of the concertato style.ii4 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC in every direction. Schein's Cymbalum Sionum (1615) shows the Venetian influence. and The viola). the 'Father of German Music'. and in 1619 published his first really important work. but two of his contemporaries are well worthy of note. various movements range from small-scale monodies with basso continuo accompaniment up to 9 . as does also Scheldt's Concertos Sacri (1622). to to study with Gabrieli. etc. then at the height of his powers. but both are relatively conservative in their har- In all Schiitz's sacred works a notable intensity and sincerity of expression. scale as Gabrieli's In Ecclesiis. together with an increased differentiation between vocal and instrumental styles. passed to Germany through Schiitz. Psalms of David> in which the manner of his teacher is evident. Schiitz was by far the greatest German musician of his time. the only appropriate epieffect of such a work in the vastness of St. deriving from the firm faith of the devout Lutheran. Whatever the technical method or style. In 1625 came the Cantiones Sacrae. all is intended as a means to one end the glory of God.

arias. duets. was organist at the Marienkirche in Liibeck. and which might also go by th title of dialogue. Ultimately th< motet became known as cantata. the cantata was based on a 'com posed' one. The work of all these foreshadows that of Bach. on whom they had considerable influence. The term itself was not used. but this term did not conn into use in this particular connection until about 1700 being first employed by one Pastor Neumeister of Hambuq in a series of text for such works.. a pupil of Frescobaldi (see Chapter 9).VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY n service. offered suitable opportunity for the perforan ance of such choral works as have been mentioned abov< The hymn which at first followed the recitation of the Lati Greed became replaced by a 'motet'. etc. The motet was normally based on a biblical text. sometimes for congregational performance. and in any case designed to edify and 'point i moral The normal cantata was arranged in the form of recita tives. concertato or symphonia sacra. served as ser mons in music preparing the way. Zachau was Handel's teacher. Frequently a chorale was included 9 . These move ments were selected so that their subject had a close con nection with the Gospel of the day and. where he established a famous He was series of sacred recitals known as Abendmusikm. for the spokei sermon which followed later in the service. at least among the 'orthodox' school as oppose to the Pietists. with orchestral accompaniment. succeeded by Buxtehude. Dietrich Buxtehude (1637 to 1707] and Wilhelm Zachau (1663 to I 7 12 ). who raised the musical fame oi the church to even greater heights. and chorus movements. In England the concertato style is in evidence in the many verse anthems of the i7th century. as it were. sometimes a poetic paraphrase of a passage o scripture. but in the opposition of a solo erouo and the . which signified a piec performed by the choir. sometimes not Among the important composers of cantatas are Fran: Tunder (1614 to 1667). as is pointed ou by the great authority Albert Schweitzer.From 1641 Tunder.

ii6 full A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC able break during the Commonwealth period. the royal foot. tion * The most important composers were William Child (1606 Humfrey every way BukofzeTj Musk in the Baroque Era. in their church services. deriving from the Latin motet. since Carissimi uses it in at least one of his cantatas. . in the same verbal connection. characterised often by a distinctly secular which at times seems to go beyond the limits of propriety. including that of a jigging dotted-note rhythmfor such words as Alleluia. 9 feeling storation style'. solo ensemble. he wrote a few 'full* anthems for from five to the greatest. the royal taste demanded easily comprehensible tunes. The return of Charles II in 1660 brought about the establishment of the 'Restoration anthem . 'The prime object of the court music in England was to provide sensuous entertainment and to serve as sonorous ornament. the principles of the style are present. The Puritans had no objection to music as such. Simultaneously appears the 'Re- German Galvinists. chorus and instrumental accompaniment are fully exploited. to 1697). Throughout the century the verse anthem developed. and rhythms which induced the tapping of A number of common idioms developed. much of the bright music in favour at the Court of Louis XIV. John Blow (1648/9 to 1708). Pelham (1647 to 1674) and Henry Purcell. went out of fashion. and the use of independent accompaniment. though with an inevit- This attitude was adopted. chorus. and that of the simplest kind. would allow but little. Purcell is in and in his work English music of the Restoraperiod reaches its climax. for example. in common with others of the more strictly reformed sects. in which the resources of solo. and it was this style that he required from the composers of his Chapel Royal. Charles had heard of the early anthems. Apart from his verse anthems. 3 * The serious style During his exile in France. though this was hardly specifically English. by the and mention was made in Chapter i of its effect on Bach's output while he was at Cothen. but.

VOCAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 117 eight voices. It is a century of transition. These anthems show. towering edifices erected by Handel . Purcell's verse anthems often show the style at its finest. and producing much music that is of far more than merely Yet it can now be seen as a time of historical interest. it will be seen that during the I7th century music underwent a great revolution. and in the creation of rich and sombre sonorities he is unsurpassed. Cecilia's Day. having accompaniment for string orchestra. amazingly fertile in new ideas. 'afiectiveness'. Of greater literary value are the odes for St. as opposed to the old pure polyphony. with an introductory Trench' overture and instrumental interludes between the verses. in which he looks back to the polyphony of the Elizabethans. And over all looms the shadow of instrumental music. The polyphonic style and the modal system on which it was based both died out. together with a new attitude to the treatment of words. or a royal birthday. that of 1692. New ideas on the handling of dissonance came to the fore. however. gradually ousting the old conceptions of vocal polyphony. Hail bright Cecilia. but without recapturing the true tradiideas The style is inevitably strongly affected by the new which had developed during the century declamation. his great mastery of contrapuntal writing. in which were laid the foundations and Bach. containing some of Purcell's finest choral writing. and the use of voices in general. Many are conceived on an extended scale. written to celebrate such occasions as the return of the King to London. and the increasing feeling for counterpoint arising from harmony. The flexible rhythmic principles which had their ultimate origin in musica mensurata gave way to the relatively 'the rigid system imposed by what is sometimes called tyranny of the barline'. His 'Welcome' and 'Birthday* songs. but while containing some fine movements are marred by the tion. of the preparation. To sum up. are planned similarly to the anthems. fatuous adulatoriness of the texts.

45 to 54. 6.ii8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC RECORDS No. See also: Italian i6th. andVol. Vol. 4. 44. Nos. 57 H. Vol. and 58.S. 5 Nos.and 17th-century arias .M.

This was due largely to a change of taste. paving the way for the supreme works of genius of Bach and Handel in the first half of the i8th century. These were the most important developments. the rise of the sonata. the principal workshops * Geiringer. In the out. mellowness and emotional expressiveness. the sombre and heavy viol. 5 ments that were best equipped for producing singing tone. as opposed to the often tentative efforts of the preceding century. we must deal further with the viols and their music. the concerto. corresponding in a way to the change which now preferred the solo voice. violin The . home of violin-making was Italy. and the rise of important schools of violinists and organists. however. and it will be necessary to trace the course of each one separately. Before doing so. interpreting the 'affec- yth century the use of the viols gradually died tion of the words.CHAPTER NINE INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY WE It have seen in Chapter 8 how fertile the century was in the development of new vocal forms. and the transformation of the ricercare into the fugue. . Besides all this. became the queen of all the instruments. the viola and violoncello. the chorale prelude and other forms of organ music. and thus for competing with the human voice in tenderness. there was the achievement of a truly instrumental style of writing. . outstrip9* The ping her elder sister. it was equally so on the instrumental side. to the old polyphonic complexity of the c The highest value was set upon those instrumadrigalists. saw the expansion of dance-pairs into the suite. Musical Instruments* . i and they were supplanted by the violin and its larger brethren.

Even greater. The quality of their work is apt to be variable. and in England especially their use persisted almost to the end of the century. as he chose. The weakness of the Fancy as a form lay in its tendency to be split up into a number of often unrelated sections. John Cooper (who. Italianised his name to Giovanni Coperario). William Lawes. struggle. The greatest of the Amatis was Nicolo. the Fancy had no such solid guiding principle. Thereafter only the bass viola it for da gamba survived in use to some extent Bach uses the accompaniment to one of the arias in his St. a lay clerk of Trinity College. who. Cambridge. inveighs bitterly fully to the against the violins and their music. his Musick's Monument of 1676. they were also the last to be written. and above all Purcell. and looks back regretgood old days of polyphonic viol music. Matthew 1 729 but with the death of the virtuoso Carl Friedrich Abel hi 1787 the viol died too. was the work of his pupil Antonio Stradivari (1644 to 1737). In England. whose violins remain supreme examples of artistic craftsmanship. Almost equally great was Giuseppe Guarneri ( 1 687 to 1 742) The viols did not surrender their supremacy without a .lao A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC first being at Brescia. The com- poser would work a point of imitation for as long. important composers being Alfonso Ferrabosco. But whereas in the vocal forms the words gave logic to the musical plan. Purcell's Fancies at times reach great heights of emotional intensity and are by far the finest of all. a natural consequence of its the century. and despite the beauty of many individual passages. and later at Cremona. presumably for reasons of prestige. the impression sometimes remains that . of the third generation. derivation from the motet or madrigal. Among those who opposed the violin may be mentioned Thomas Mace Passion of (c. Fancies for viols were written until late in John Jenkins. or as briefly. and often shows the intermediate hovering between the modal system and the major and minor scales. perhaps. where the with unsurpassed Amati family produced instruments beauty of tone. in 1620 to 1710).

After the Courante composers of suites most often added a slow Sarabande. * It is tonality. French and Italian composers treated the suite simply as a series of contrasting movements. but not entirely. the ball regularly beginning with to the To turn i now in the a slow dance followed by a quick one. incorrect. and bound together chiefly by unity of the same tonic key. Minuet. but this did not necessarily lead to structural logic and stability. all being in is sometimes stated that the Allemande was not a dance. Jig (or Gigue). sarabande and gigue. which is sometimes insisted on mainly in by writers of textbooks on Form. . in the latter part of the I7th century and the beginning of the i8th. Quite early in the century the dancing of these went out of fashion. English. mainly.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY there was no particular reason why any given 121 section should last as long as it does. True. there was no set order or scheme in the suite. We have noted that the suite originated in the pairing of such dances as the pavane and galliard. why it should not have been expanded to twice its length. courante. This It was a stately court dance from Switzerland and Germany. originating in the i6th century. applied Germany. Another aspect of viol playing which survived in England until the end of the century was the improvisation of variations or 'divisions' on a ground bass. alternatively. and it may be well to mention that the basic group of allemande. Apart from the invariable allemande and by courante. At this time there was a fairly well-established and definite sequence of formal ballroom dances. their place being taken by another slow-quick pair. The whole might be introduced Bourrte. based on dances. the idea of the form was that the composer could 'follow the dictates of his fancy'. or. followed perhaps by other dances such as the Gavotte. a Prelude. This art is dealt with in Christopher Sympson's Division Violist of 1659- development of instrumental forms yth century. the Allemande* and the Cowrante or Coranto.

It was in the lyth century that the great French school of clavednists (=harpsichordists) arose. into the character of the instrument in particular and its possibilities. with or without 'fancy' titles. harpsichordist to Louis XIV. In England the outstanding figure is once again Purcell. The dance movements were and their form into a straightforward rapidly became conventionalised The old three-section plan. Buxtehude. includ- ing not only dances. often giving them The Frenchmen tended fanciful titles suggesting their moods. Georg Muffat (c. The founder was Jacques Champion de Chambonnieres (c. In Germany the first important name in connection with the suite is that of Johann Jacob Froberger (1616 to 1667). He achieved a delicacy and economy of means which have for long been charac- of the best of French music. Couperin's first Ordre (1713) contains no fewer than eighteen movements. of whom the greatest was Frangois (1668 to 1733). of which only eight are dances.122 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC stylised. century. having no connection with any dance. in some of Bach's dances. 1645 to 1 1 Q and others. His suites generally begin with a prelude. but after that. often in rondo form. so common in the i6th binary. all of whom were more or less influenced by anything . and like Couperin he retains the orthodox allemande and courante. but also a number of programmatic pieces. produced a multitude of delightful Couperin and ingenious pieces which he grouped into Ordres ( =suites) . He was followed by Johann Adam Reinken (1623 to 1722). known as Couperin The works of this school show a keen insight le Grand. whose style was to some extent modelled on that of die French school. to write very lengthy suites. whose harpsichord 'Lessons' exhibit his natural tunefulness and his strong grasp of a true keyboard style. teristic may happen. though faint traces of it linger even into the i8th century. His most important successors various were Jean Frangois Dandrieu (1684 to 1740) and members of the Gouperin family. 1597 to 1672). was discarded.

as distinct from the sonata da chiesa or church sonata. as it were.f published in 1637. the distinction between church and chamber had become more strongly marked. those of Tarquinio Merula. .g. which remained the standard in Germany until the suite died out in the middle of the i8th century. at first The church no sonata. was fully established. with a part for continue to be realised on the harpsichord. as opposed to cantata.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY With Buxtehude we find 123 strict adherence the French style. to sound. were not restricted to dances. The chamber sonatas of these and men were written generally for two violins da gamba (or 'cello). ^ t Not to be confused with the organist Merulo. The 'trio sonata'. the continuo being. and in this respect are associated with him the names of Giovanni Battista Vitali (1644 to 1692) and G. courante.e. sarabande and gigue. from the verb sonare. In Italy the suite went by the name of sonata da camera* or chamber sonata. was part of the staple fare of this period. whether chamber or church. The student may be warned to disabuse^ his mind of any idea that sonata necessarily means a work with that title in the Sonata. i. originally associated with the noun canzona. Corelli was one of the founders of the great school of violin playing in Bologna. Twenty years later. the past participle. but were merely suitable for secular rather than for sacred (church) use. a cawyma sonata (or can&na da sonare) being a 'played canzona*. By the time of Arcangelo Gorelli (1653 to 1713) the regular basis of allemande and courante. introduced by a preludial movement sonatas and followed by one or more other dances. to the 'textbook' order of allemande. like its brother of the chamber. is something played. The earliest chamber sonatas. e. however. Such sonatas were deviola signated a fre. taken for granted. Mozart or Beethoven. and was so used in the lyth century. was style of. something sung. B. it was simply of a character serious * The literal meaning of sonata. say. Bassani (1657 to 1716). in that the latter were conceived primarily as dance suites. for three instruments. to be dealt with later. had fixed form. In this sense it may cover a large range of instrumental music.

Until about the middle of the century the terms 'sonata and 'canzona' are practically interchangeable.g. 2 of 1667. sometimes in the style of a gigue. remained variable. grave. By his time (his op. and the work concludes with another quick movement. contrasts of soft and loud are deliberately used for the first time. e. consisting of church sonatas. This is followed by a melodious largo. for example in the works of Giovanni Battista Fontana (d. 3. and The Purcell to Italian style of sonata reached England in time for show that in it his genius was not less than that . though it gradually became customary for one of them to be fugal in style.g. Merula produced similar works under the title of canzone. a monuservice. of Corelli's chamber sonatas could equally well serve as movements for church sonatas. 1630). however.124 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC for use during enough a sacred the 16th-century known Sonata pian* canzona sonata. as did many others. The plan and order of the movements. i and op. respectively in 1681 his last ones gigues. mental piece for two brass choirs (except that the highest part in the second choir is for violin). A slow introductory section. Massimiliano Neri. This crossing of the two styles ultimately obliterated the original distinction. e. those of his op. too. His slow third movements are often of the sarabande type. precedes a quick movement in fugal style. Sonatas a tre appear quite early in the i7th century. In this. we fin(l fairly strongly suggested the basis of what was later to become the normal plan until well into the 1 8th century. but the latter title gradually dropped out of use. as do also solo* sonatas for e a single violin and continue. In some of the sonatas of Vitali. were published and 1689) the distinction between church and chamber styles was tending to break down. This was 9 established as the standard plan by Corelli. though he does not always adhere strictly to it. e forte and derived from Such a work is the wellof Giovanni Gabrieli. They are of no fixed plan. The preludes. but consist of a series of short sections in contrasting styles and speeds.

the playing off against The each other of two contrasted groups.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 125 was no mean of his continental contemporaries. and still more in one of his canzonas. the . This is seen in essence in Gabrieli's Sonata piarf e forte. who pro- duced what is known as the Concerto Grosso. virtuoso. whose works have been described as 'the first German violin music of any artistic worth at all* (Grove) Like Purcell. were first fully worked out by Corelli and Torelli (d. he shows Italian influence. instrumental concerto was based on the same fundamental principles as the vocal one. quick.e. as they are found in the greatest examples of the form. The contrast lay between the concertino or solo group. and the ripieni fall or *tutti* strings. The essential principles of the style. more than Corelli. 1708). everything depends the contrasting of the two groups of performers. His two sets of Sonatas of III Parts are fully equal to other similar publications. the former being for use before. In Germany the one really great name in the line of sonatists is that of Heinrich Biber (1644 to 1704). Neri and Francesco Usper. Like his sonatas. Torelli quick. both members of the Bolognese school. in which the idea of contrast is still more strongly marked. i. e. but exhibits also considerable individuality and grave sincerity. Formally there on sign of any conventional layout. Corelli's concertos church and chamber. Similar methods are found in the canzonas of other Venetians of the time. those of Handel and Bach.g. established plan what was to remain the normal three-movement He exhibits. in Corelli's case consisting of a string trio (two violins and 'cello). slow. and he admits in his preface to the first set (1683) t^t he has 'faithfully endeavour'd a just imitation of the most fam'd Italian Masters'. into two types. where a small body of instruments contrasts with a larger one. Rather later we find sonatas for trumpet accompanied by string orchestra by such writers as Stradella and Vitali. His compositions prove that he . during or after is little High Mass.

for a single violin with accompaniment by the string orchestra. but the emphasis remains primarily on contrast between solo and tutti. pounding metrical pulsation and the general feeling of 'busyness 9 .is6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC allegros. This led to the writing of 'solo 9 concertos.) Other composers of solo concertos were Tomasso Albinoni (? 1674 9 the to Z 745) an d Giuseppe Jacchini. 'concerto style' in the the vigorous. Among Vivaldi's Venetian contemporaries who emulated his style are Francesco Gasparini (1668 to 1727). Benedetto Marcello (1686 to position of the concertino.f and in the strength and character of his themes he often anticipates Bach. In the period with which we are dealing the technical ability demanded of the soloist was generally little greater than that required of the orchestra. Morris's The Structure of Music for a simple explanation of it. learned much from the study of his works. indeed. (The 'display concerto. 1676 who also made considerable advances In his concerti grossi he varied the comsometimes using a group of wind instruments. designed to allow the soloist to show off his technical ability. made by Antonio Vivaldi (c. was a product of the late i8th and i gth centuries. The Introduction to Vol. 3 of Tovey's Essays in Musical Analysis contains a most illuminating discussion of the form. As far as is known. t Bukofzer. In them the solo part begins to demand a certain amount of virtuosity. More than Torelli he exploits what has been called the 'relentless mechanical beat of the concerto style'. O. and the reader is referred to R. * . who wrote the first 'cello Further progress was to 1741) of Venice.* In some of the later concerti grossi of Corelli there is a tendency for the first violin to take the lead over the other members of the concertino. The same applies to the concertino in a concerto grosso. concerto. Music in the Baroque Era. though they were not published until a year after his death. the first such works were by Torelli. The form used for the allegros is generally known as Ritornello form. in violin technique. who. Lack of space forbids any consideration of the structural principles of the movements.

} The earliest sonatas will be considered in the next chapter. was spent in England (he died in Dublin). which duty it shares with a flute and a violin. His toccatas show a great advance on those of the Gabrielis and Merulo in their careful planning of contrasted sections and their truly dramatic effect. as mere subordinate accompaniment. After him the emphasis shifts to Rome. but at least five of these are transcriptions of works originally for violin and orchestra. and Of the former. the vaguely rambling scales of the earlier . entitled The Art of Playing Rather younger than Geminiani was Pietro in demand them we Locatelli (1693 to 1764). with first among equals. there arose two great schools. based on the Netherlands and Germany. and see the it form. (There are also seven concertos by Bach for solo harpsichord burg Concerto that and orchestra. the northern. where Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583 to 1643). Much of his the Violin. concertino^ life He used a string quartet for adding the viola to the usual trio. In music for the organ. His solo concertos technical ability of a truly virtuoso standard. was renowned as one of the most brilliant performers of his day. and he was the author of the first 'method' for the violin. the orchestra now begins to recede into the background. the southern. They also exhibit much greater coherence in the more brilliant passages. He was a pupil of Corelli and Scarlatti and was rather conservative in his outlook. It may be noted that at this time no concertos were written for harpsichord. In the next generation comes Francesco Geminiani (1674 to 1762). They are later in date than the $th Brandenburg. This instrument was used for the continue. as a background. 1680).INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 127 1739) and Giuseppe Valentin! (b. we have already noted the Venetian Merulo as one of the founders. organist of St. It is not until Bach's $th Brandenlonger is it No coming of a new conception of the were the we find the harpsichord used as a solo instrument. the soloist as primarily a matter of contrast. c. Peter's. a vastly important branch. based on Italy.



composers being organised into shapely and logically designed figuration. In passing, it may be mentioned that Frescobaldi seems to have had an adequate appreciation of the technical difficulty of some of his compositions. At
the end of one toccata he writes, 'non senzafatiga
si giunge

alfm\ which

through this Of equal importance to Frescobaldi's toccatas are his organ ricercares. At the beginning of the century the ricercare, derived from the vocal motet, occurred commonly in two guises. In one the same principle was used as in the fantasia, i.e. it consisted of a series of fugal sections, each based on a new theme. In the other, the ricercare sopra un e soggetto ( on a subject'), only one basic theme was used for treatment. This type had two possibilities. There fugal might be a series of fugal expositions on various modifications of the theme, or alternatively the theme itself might be kept more or less unchanged, but used in a series of expositions with a new countersubject for each. The ricercare 'on a subject

be freely translated without feeling tired*.




you won't get



developed gradually into the fugue as we know it in the hands of Bach. Like the fancy, the ricercare had the structural weakness of being so highly sectionalised, though 5 in the examples 'on a subject this is not so noticeable as
in the other type, since at least one basic theme ran through the whole piece. But even so, it was inevitably chopped up in effect, and composers gradually realised that it was
effective and satisfactory to work out the possibilities of a single unvaried theme to the limit, rather than to piece together a series of more or less brief snippets. Possibly the most distinguished pupil of Frescobaldi was Froberger, a Catholic Saxon, whose work shows increased facility in the methods of organisation initiated by his teacher, and possibly an even greater appreciation of the characteristics of the organ. With him may be associated another Saxon, Johann Kasper Kerll (1627 to ^93)> w^ maY ak have studied with Frescobaldi.

by Frescobaldi, and




of the German Catholic organists of any real importHis most notable work is the Apparatus MusicoOrganisticus of 1690, which contains, among other things, twelve toccatas. Structurally they are variable, but the principle of brilliant bravura sections contrasting with steadylast

The purely Italian school soon declined in importance, the initiative passing to southern Germany. Besides the two Saxons just mentioned, we may note Georg Muffat, the

moving passages designed to exploit the sustaining power of the organ, as well as the inclusion of sections in fugal The toccata had not begun to style, still holds good. degenerate into a mere show-piece. In Muffat's work, still more than in that of his predecessors, there is an increased power of organisation of runs into coherent patterns; the feeling for design becomes continually stronger. In the north-west of Europe a school of organists flourished whose work was based on the requirements of the reformed faith. The father of this school was Jan PieterszoonSweelinck (1562 to 1621) of Amsterdam. The organs of the Netherlands and northern Germany had already a well-developed pedal department, unlike those of Italy, and Sweelinck provides some of the earliest examples of independent pedal He is most notable for his development of the parts. ricercare into the fully worked-out fugue, at a time when the Italians were still content with the ricercare sopra un

Through his pupils Sweelinck's influence spread throughout northern Germany, among the most important being Samuel Scheidt and Heinrich Scheidemann (1596 to 1663). Their contemporary Herman Schein (1586 to 1630) was of the same school, though not a pupil of its founder. In the next generation appears Reinken, who followed Scheide-

mann at St. Catherine's Church, Hamburg, and whose fame
so great that the

young Bach walked long distances to With these men must be mentioned two of Bach's uncles Johann Christoph (1642 to 1703) and Johann Michael (1648 to 1694), and Johann Pachdbd of
hear and play to him.



to 1706),

Nuremburg (1653


serves as

a link between

the southern and northern schools. He was a pupil of Kerll, and so came to some extent under the influence of little earlier, and perhaps the greatest of Frescobaldi. all organists before Bach, was Buxtehude, born in 1637.



Swede, he was for long the chief musician in Liibeck, and Bach was willing to walk 200 miles to sit at his feet. These are only an important few of a great galaxy of Lutheran organists on whose work was founded Bach's
colossal superstructure.

The most important types of composition evolved by the north Germans for use in the reformed services were those based on the chorale. Luther's introduction of the chorale into the church service was eagerly welcomed, and we cannot do better than to quote Sir Hubert Parry, in the Oxford History of Musk, on the subject: 'The influence which the German chorales exerted upon the German Protestant organists was of the utmost importance, and the seriousness and deep feeling, which were engendered in their attempts to set them and adorn them, were answerable for a great deal of the nobility in their organ music. . . . The chorales . . . were a kind of religious folk-songs. They came spontaneously from the hearts of the people, and had their roots in the deepest sentiments of the race. . . . Upon these tunes the organist-composers of the I7th century expended all the best of their artistic powers. The tunes became symbols, which were enshrined in all the richest devices of expressive ornament and contrapuntal skill, woven fugal artifice, and melodic sweetness, which the devotion
of the composers could achieve. Although the term 'chorale prelude' is used loosely to describe all kinds of pieces based thematically on chorales, there were actually four different types. The chorale prelude proper, used in the service to introduce the congregational singing of the hymn (much as the present-day organist
'gives out* the first line or two)

was generally fairly terse, the melody, decorated or otherwise, being usually in the

top part.


In many cases, ceded by a more or less free fugal exposition This procedure was used by the early writers as far it. back as Scheidt, and many fine examples were written
line of the tune


was prebased on



of treatment,


Although perhaps the commonest method was but one among many, Kipling's

'There are nine-and-sixty ways


Of constructing

tribal lays,

every single one of them



might well apply to chorale preludes. Other types of chorale composition were (a) the chorale fugue, in which the first line of the tune served as the subject of an extended fugue* also found in Pachelbd's work; or variations on a chorale (V) the chorale partita, Bohm and Buxtehude are important here; and Pachelbel, the chorale fantasia, which might be of considerable (c) and the length, designed to show off both the instrument
ability of the performer.

on chorales, toccatas were popular, and Buxtehude being the most notable. those of Reinken Both men had first-rate instruments at their disposal, and both possessed consummate technique which they were not unwilling to display. The prelude and fugue, too, graduBesides works based
ally took shape,

but as yet lacked the intense concentration of thought and economy of material which characterises the greatest of those by Bach, By the time of Buxtehude, and especially noticeable in his work, a purely instrumental the organ had been evolved, free style of writing for

from the influence of the old vocal




tie effective possibilities of the instrument to the highest

Summing up, we may say that during the lyth-century instrumental music underwent as great a revolution as did that for voices. In all branches the influence of the old
* Bach's so-called 'Giant Fugue*

an example.

but so slightly as to be imperceptible to all but the keenest of ears. mi. John Bull must have understood the system. for example. la ranges through every major key.e. The supersession of the modal system by the major and minor scales involved new methods of tuning. would nevertheless be unbearable on anything but a 'tempered' instrument. chord-progression. Buxtehude. A suite by Andreas Werckmeister (1645 to 1706) uses seventeen of them. became an essential foundation over which the inter- play of contrapuntal parts could be carried out. sol. the effect became more and more unpleasant. extreme keys such as B and F sharp being excruciatingly out of tune. And a number of works appeared containing pieces in most of the twenty-four possible keys. Purely instrumental forms and a purely instrumental style of writing were evolved. By the use of equal tempera- ment able. The ultimate solution was found in 'equal temperament' in which every one of the semitones is of the chromatic octave slightly out of tune by strict acoustic theory. and a modification called 'mean tone' temperament was first worked out. instead of arising chiefly from the interweaving of separate melodic lines. As long as music remained modal. 'just temperament'. moveto another. re. ment from one key and especially in minor keys.132 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC vocal polyphony was shaken off. In the course of the ryth century more keys and all modulations became equally avail- and more works appear in which equal temperament is. at least by implication. taken for granted. since his Fantasia on Ut. and it is also dealt with by the Italian theorist Zarlino (1517 to 1590). was adequate. while Johann . For a few keys around C major this was good enough. i. to allow for the possibility of modulation. tuning in accordance basically with the natural laws of Acoustics. although it does not modulate widely. but this was not by any means satisfactory in dealing with a 'key 9 system . all The first suggestion of this method of tuning appears in a work of the Spaniard Ramos de Pareja. fa. but beyond two or three sharps or flats. writes a toccata based on E major which. in 1482.

The works are played on the harpsichord by Wanda Landowska. Bach's Forty-eight. ('cello) Concerto Concerto harpsichords) Recorded by Rothwell/HO LSO Stocker HMV C354O HMV 063639/40 NLP PLP54O Col. and cover both harpsichord and clavichord. HMV i Toccata sopra pedali Sweelinck Scheldt Fantasia No. Videro -. sold in in the sets. 1738) in his Ariadne Musica adds two more. AK975/6 * Clavier literally means keyboard. G Videro HMV HMV HMV DB52I3 035248 Suite in 5 pieces (arr. (four Goossens NLP HLPi024 0X8367/8 Couperiu Frescobaldi Various records. Buxtehude Purcell Prelude and Fugue. 10 (echo)/ Variations on Da Jesus Videro an dem Kreuze stand \. not separately. min. The eventual outcome was. c. RECORDS Corelli Composer Title Oboe concerto Christmas concerto Sonata D min. of course. of which the full title was The Well-Tempered two preludes and fugues in each of the twentyClavier* four major and minor keys. (oboe) A min. Henry Wood) Wood/QHO is De. Vivaldi D min. JVb. are obtainable Society Edition. Cat.INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 133 Ferdinand Fischer (d. used in this period to .

many under the title of Exercises for Harpsichord. Despite writing for the harpsichord to the the advances made in keyboard technique since his day. The majority are short onemovement affairs in binary form. . published by Ricordi. many of his works remain quite difficult enough for any but the above-average player. with outstanding technique and an almost fantastic insight into the possibilities of his instrument. as Mozart's Rondo in Any A pianist knows that such a piece minor. sional handful of wrong notes (though hardly to be recommended) may be lost in the welter of sound. Scarlatti wrote over 500 sonatas. say. a Liszt Rhapsody. He was the great virtuoso of his time. most and important Domenico and Scarlatti (1685 to 1757). See. son of Alessandro. so deceptively simple. first JL There negligible Of these the composers who may are. though there are a number which subdivide into a series of movements. since in the latter there in a is no room way for error of any kind. Scarlatti is chiefly famous for his harpsichord sonatas. Scarlatti is com- parable to Mozart. In this. Arrangements of some of his pieces by such igth-century virtuosi as von Biilow are easier than the originals.CHAPTER TEN THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL Y | I 1HE half of the eighteenth century is overshadowed by the colossal genius of Bach and Handel.* in four example. certain striking lesser but by no means is first be briefly considered. cantatas Although he wrote a number of operas. the sonata in G * The standard edition is that of Longo. In these respects to Liszt. however. for minor (Longo 36). the more so since their texture is always so economical. other vocal works. is far more where the occatesting than. taking the art of playing and he is comparable ultimate limit.

one mood*. It may be fundamentally binary. and include by Johann Kuhnau (1660 Six Biblical Sonatas. changes in the emotional temperature take place only within narrow limits. Leipzig. But with Scarlatti we often find quite strong. An opening mood of vigour and cheerfulness is maintained throughout. as is. and so on. and ranging from a few bars to something quite extensive. In the greater contrasting part of instrumental music of all kinds up to about the middle of the i8th century we find the principle of 'one movement. it may be said. rhythmic first subject may be opposed by a melodious and strongly contrasted second group. But Scarlatti is far from being rigid or stereotyped in his handling of form. In his use of binary form Scarlatti shows some notable features. D major. remarkable instances of programme . generally in the dominant or relative major key. 9 minor-key continuation.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL contrasted sections. The first clavier sonatas. as distinct from suites. in whose sonata form movements a vigorous. The last section of the first part. after a bar's rest. Thomas's. similarly. in Longo No. For example. who was Bach's as Cantor at St. This is to some extent a foreshadowing of the 'second subject group which is a normal feature of the sonata form of the next generation. in both halves of the binary form there is a sudden change. is a fasEqually important is his frequent use of cinating study. from a bright and happy major-key start to a really mournful. Here again Scarlatti in a way looks forward to the practice of later generations. moods within a single movement. the most important being his frequent employment of 'corresponding cadence figures'. all 135 based on the same tonic key. is reproduced in the tonic at the end of the second part. Any concerto of the period furnishes an adequate example of this consistency. but the organisation of the internal details is infinitely variable and. 12. a sad mood or a reflective one. were written to 1722). almost capricious changes. immediate predecessor These sonatas are in three or more movements.

B.I 36 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC music. Rather younger was Joachim Quantz (1697 to 1773). In his sonatas for flute or oboe he often achieves really remarkable emotional intensity. . 5 the 'story programme was rare. have seen that in the i6th century a certain amount of illustrative music was written. took Old Testament stories and illustrated them step by step. in The Combat between David and from David's sling is Goliath. 20 Loeillet. Contemporary with Kuhnau was the Belgian J. 19 followed. with elucidatory comments above We separate the music. as the of Goliath: commenting text informs us. At times he indulges in rather naive attempts at realism. But apart from 'battle pieces. for example. by the fall Ex. and the principle was carried on in. and occasionally produces a movement quite worthy of Bach. in movements. the suites of the French 9 lutenists and clavednists. for example. as. who is less widely known than he deserves to be. however. Kuhnau. where the flight of the stone not altogether so naively) thus: expressed (perhaps Ex.

shows how composers of the time. nevertheless rarely falls below a high level of competence. The amazing thing is not so much that flute. ranging from important and extensive ones like that of Prussia. the Arts. worked freely and. F. The rulers of such states vied with each other in the size of their kapelle. serving a sympathetic master at the Dresden 6 court. Graun. and. was immense. what failed to please him was struck out.' In Germany alone there were over three hundred states.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL 137 a brilliant flautist and a sound musician. He refers to Bach as 'a man this is in connection with 1741 to his death. In his treatise on flute playing he has much of value to say about interpretation and musical aesthetics. they were able to do this. after the Louis XIV. who was for a time kapellmeister to Frederick the Great. From His output of works concertos. to others which were quite insignificant. the 'Age of Patronage*. . He points out that Hasse. The difficulties under which the 'tied' composer might labour are made clear in the Letters of an Attentive Traveller by J. etc. fashion set by especially Music. and in this position had the possibly uncomfortable privilege of teach- worthy of admiration'. were forced by the conditions of their appointments to go on turning out work after work to satisfy the demands of their employers. trios. as that the quality is often so Quantz. for example. but his organ playing. . even though it were the best piece in the opera. like Vivaldi's interminable list ofconcerti grossi. and in their efforts to obtain the services of the . solos. worked only according to the taste of his king [Frederick]. were cultivated. wrote as he felt and as he wished. unhampered by the taste or will of any person. ing that monarch to play the for his instrument high. . Writing in 1774. less generally known. he contrasts the operas of Hasse and Graun. But wherever (and however) the money could be found. Quantz was flautist and composer to Frederick the Great. on the other hand. Reichardt. the magnificence of their opera most houses. though by no means a composer of the first rank.

Johann Sebastian was his great-great-great grandson. was of a less strictly doctrinal character. Friedemann. on March aist (Old Style). it was not until 1703. Bach came of a long line of professional musicians. Handel was Space forbids the tracing of Bach's ancestry.f Bach was a devout Lutheran (his library at his death consisted largely of theological works). Handel was widely travelled. be a distinct handicap.138 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC famous musicians of the time. and although his father died in 1696. The founder of the was one Hans Bach. Bach remained within one narrow area in central Germany. and with the right land of employer might be able. Handel remained a bachelor all his life. to hear Buxtehude. 9 . fifty-three of them being musicians. who was living in 1561. He was intended for the Law. while doubtless equally sincere. Some sixty of the family have been identified by name. Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frederick Handel were born in the same year as Scarlatti. that he was free to follow his own inclinations. It would be a ridiculous overstatement to suggest that there any resemblance ceases. Handel at Halle in Saxony. Bach married twice and was the father of twenty children.* Handel's family tree seems to have provided him with no musical ancestors. all his life his longest journey being to Liibeck in 1 705. Back. like Hasse. a P: . to 'write as he felt and as he wished But a ruler like Frederick might. This system had its advantages. Handel's faith. Bach was trained to be a professional musician as a matter of course. Terry. t * line t His attitude to opera is attested by his remark to his eldest son: *WeU. from the point of view of musical progress. 1685. on February 23rd. Handel was a master of opera. Handel had to overcome paternal opposition. Bach at Eisenach in Thuringia. but there are sufficient fundamental differ- ences between the two series men and their work to warrant a of comparisons. S. when he had finished his course of study at the university of Halle. Bach never touched that form. shall we go over to Dresden to hear the pretty iL tunes?' See G. in that the musician might be assured of a reasonably safe livelihood.

whereas Bach wrote simply to satisfy his own conscience. 'Well. Bach was but little concerned with the effect of his music on his audience. his reply was to the effect of. you've got a deputy' and that seems to have been all he had to say. His only other comparable appoint- Handel went Handel's musical life dates from 1693. though on two occasions Bach endeavoured to get in personal touch with his great contemporary. Almira. to put it colloquially. though he never merely pandered to it. had an eye on the man in the back row of the gallery. which in Bach's case sometimes degenerated into what can only be called 'cussedness'. and it is worth noting that a number of turns of phrase which are generally labelled as 'typically Handelian' are to be found in the work of the older man. where he learned all there was to be known about the Italian style of writing. Four years later he was in Italy. Zachau was a thoroughly sound musician. being employed at the opera house under Keiser. an attitude of contrasts could be extended almost indefinitely. In 1710 he became Kapellmeister to the Elector of Hanover. to Hamburg. Such Handel. among other works. Bach was always in the princely court. When reproached by the Gongladly. when he began to study with Zachau. In one respect at least their characters were similar neither seems to have suffered fools Both seem to have had a certain streak of obstinacy. and where was produced. We can generally feel that list a which at times drew the censure of his employers. from 1717 to 1720. who was later to become George I of England. the two men never met. Here. in 1705. and perhaps the most important of all is that Handel always tended to bear in mind the taste of his public. for whose private chapel he wrote the .THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL for 139 much of his life service of either the Church or some a freelance. sistorium of Arnstadt for having prolonged four weeks' leave of absence to four months. the opera Agrippina (1709). In 1703 ment was in the same capacity to the Duke of Chandos. Unfortunately for posterity. was produced his first opera.

quick-moving and * It may variety. an operatic venture begun in 1719 with the support of the king. or on his own. There were no long da capo arias. but his second. Instead. Ballad opera was a live. and like all of its kind was in the vernacular. and this influence persists. The subjects of ballad operas were not mythological or historical. e. of the *Royal Academy of Music'. Agrippina leans to the methods of the Venetian school of Legrenzi and Caldara.140 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC twelve Chandos anthems. in 1710. as were those of the Italian type. and in the next few years Handel produced operas either in conjunction with the impresario Heidegger. Almira and Rodrigo. designed chiefly for the singers to display their ability. Later works. with spoken dialogue. This was partly due to the production in 1728 of The Beggar's Opera. with much of its conFrom this time he ventionality. . Court intrigue the king was at loggerheads with the Prince of Wales and rivalries within the company itself caused the final bankruptcy and collapse of the Academy. Handel's first visit to London. but public taste was changing. was brief. many of the tunes were well-known contemporary songs. with Buononcini and Ariosto. This was a *ballad opera'. his first London opera. show the influence of his Neapolitan friend Alessandro Scarlatti. was the beginning of permanent residence in this country. with which he came in contact in the early part of his stay in Italy. in 1712. Until 1728 he was a director. In his earliest operas. In them he showed that he had nothing to learn of the art of choral writing for the English rite. Up to 1740 he was mainly concerned with the writing of opera. poser 1712 until his death in 1759 Handel's life as a cominto two periods. Handel shows the influence of Keiser. until Orlando of 1732.g.* falls From began to show less regard for convention. and the purely Italian style was no longer so favoured as formerly. Rinaldo (1711). be noted that although Handel's operas were of the Italian he quite often opens with a 'French* overture. but were taken from everyday life. and thereafter with oratorio.

The Resurrection and The Triumph of Time and Truth. Deidamia. no fewer than twenty-eight are choral. in his * 5 version in Messiah. much expanded. on the whole he lacks the intense concentration of Bach. appeared in 1757.g.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL 141 easily understood kind of work. e. and may well suffice here. though an English version of The Triumph of Time and Truth. As early as 1708 Handel had written two Italian oratorios. every variety of aria is to be found. Of its thirty-nine numbers. when he wrote his operatic swan- song. In 1741 followed the best known of all oratorios. From the simplicity and fervour of / know that my Redeemer liveth to the brilliant coloratura of Rejoice Greatly. he realised that his day as a composer of operas was ended. Besides these. Messiah. which year also saw the composition of Saul. Others had appeared at intervals before the final group of master works of his later years. followed by on earth*. the first and second versions of Esther (1720 and 1732). in 1716. which made an immediate appeal to a public which had grown tired of the grandiose artificiality of the Italian style. Handel struggled against the current. Both were first performed in 1739. Bach. Of the few oratorios which are now performed with any frequency. and the last to be written was Jephtha of 1751. which is unfortunately too little known. while in Israel in Egypt the chorus for the first time becomes the protagonist. an initial hammer-blow with a sudden hush at and peace an effect calculated to make an immediate appeal e to the non-musician. in the Christmas Oratorio. In all these works Handel shows his mastery of all kinds of vocal writing. two years before the composer's death. Deborah and Athalia (1733). in which the influence of the Roman Carissimi is evident. but by 1740. gives . mention must be made of a setting of the Passion text of Brockes. gives us c 9 Glory to God . Although Handel was as capable a contrapuntist as any composer of his time. the first was Israel in Egypt of 1738. A comparison is sometimes drawn between their respective settings of the words Glory to God in the highest . Handel.

bringing back impressions which for long showed in his compositions. as do also the various sonatas. where he encountered music in the French style. younger brother of the reigning Duke of Weimar. he came under the influence of Buxtehude. at Ohrdruf. At this time. there are various suites for harpsichord. as organist at the Church at Arnstadt. at the other lies the setting of the one of the greatest 'Comfort ye first two words of Messiah strokes of genius in the whole of music.143 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC us page after page of magnificent rolling counterpoint which appeals more to the trained musician. In 1707 he moved to become organist of his life has Church in Mulhaiisen. thanks to his willingness to undertake long walks. far south of Lizneburg. 2. coming under the influence of Bohm. studying and copying the music of both Italy and France. While there. No. too. and he received his musical education at first from his elder brother Johann Christoph. Such movements as 'Glory to God'. or the 'Alleluia' chorus stand at 9 one end of Handel's scale. adopted what he thought best from both and incorporated it into the essential German style to which he had St. for example. Bach's father died when the boy was but ten years old. After a short period in the service of Duke Johann Ernst. which show that Handel was by no means hidebound in his attitude to that form. Bach obtained his first independent appointment. where he remained for three years. who was himself a pupil of Reinken. The remainder of been briefly outlined in Chapter i. It was during this period that Bach for the first time walked the thirty miles to Hamburg to hear that great old man. The concerti grossi follow the tradition of Vivaldi. In 1700 he was admitted to the Michaelisschiile at Liineburg. but only a New few miles from his birthplace. contains no dances at all. Handd may be said to have summed up the Italian style of writing which had evolved during the I7th century. Apart from his operas and oratorios. a pupil of Pachelbel. and again returned with impressions that remained. Blasius's . he trudged sixty miles to Celle. Bach.

and the work done by Mendelssohn (who arranged.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL 143 been brought up. led to a revival of interest in his works which has lasted to the present day and shows no signs of diminishing. In all other branches of music. the wellknown Toccata and Fugue in D minor. Reinken and Buxtehude. the publication of ForkeFs monograph in 1802. a model of succinctness. and adding always the intangible something which was the fruit of his own genius. for example. in which the models of Gorelli and Vivaldi are raised to the highest power. From his Weimar days comes the Little Organ Book) unfortunately never completed. Their brilliant style and somewhat loose construction are in the Buxtehude tradition. as. With increasing age and experience we find greater concentration and oratorio to a point not hitherto attained. The in of the Leipzig period. for orchestra. 1717). and they reveal. incidentally. the young organist with a fine technique which he was not unwilling to display. for example. This tendency reaches its climax in the works C intensified. more Cothen saw the composition of the Brandenburg Concertos (so called from their dedication to the ruler of that state). Bach wrote Chorale Preludes. The subject-matter becomes increasingly terse and the treatment of it more and tautness of texture. Bach was supreme. a string of musical pearls. opera and early organ works. and the great Prelude and Fugue in D major. In them Bach varies the composition . of the Weimar period (1708 to show much of the influence of the northern school. Throughout his life. except during his time at Gothen (1717 to 1723). in 1829. and which he raised to the highest perIt was for Handel to develop Italian fection. and forgotten after his death. Hardly acknowledged in his lifetime as anything more than a composer of competent kapellmeister status. Such are. a centenary performance of the St. harpsichord and organ. in cantatas and Passions. employing every possible method of treatment. Matthew Passion) and others. such as the 'Great* B minor prelude and fugue and that in G major. in the great Passacaglia minor.

and shows that was possible than had been achieved by Vivaldi. and proceeds to treat it in a truly royal manner. The great event in Bach's later life was his visit to Frederick the Great at Potsdam. Towards the end of his life Bach began work on what he intended to be a complete exposition of everything fugal. at Leipzig). The great six-part ricercare in it is a masterpiece among masterIn his dedication Bach refers to the king's 'truly pieces. Matthew Passions and the Mass in B Minor. a series of pieces based on a subject given by Frederick. belong most of the cantatas (though some date from his appointment as kon&rtmeister at Weimar in 1714). from 1723. the latest and greatest of the organ works. the first of the great 'concert' masses. which coveted title he hoped might improve his standing with the authorities in Leipzig. Terry as 'his conclusive contribution to the controversy raging round the tuning of the clavichord'. the violin concertos and sonatas. but died before finishing it. This was arranged by his son Carl Philipp Emanud. in 1747. as well as many other purely instrumental works. This last. It was at Cothen that the first book of The Well-Tempered Clavier was completed (the second book dates from 1744. This has been aptly described by C. To the Leipzig period. Technically it is stupendous. After the Forty-eight there was nothing more to be said on the matter. We may of the note also the four Overtures (suites) for orchestra. and resulted in the composition of the Musical Offering.144 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC concertino to a far greater degree than had any of his even greater rhythmic drive predecessors. the Art of Fugue. was written (and partly compiled by adaptations from cantatas) to enable Bach to obtain the post of court composer to die Elector of Saxony. His rather prickly temper often involved him in difficulties with them. including the six 'Schiibler' chorale preludes and those in the Clavierubung. royal subject'. the St. John and St. at that time in the king's service. S. musically it stands almost alone. .

60. 8 Essercizi for Gravicembalo 8 Sonatas (piano) AP. Vol. structure becomes more and more tightly knit. 3006 . way is The occasional straggliness of the early works gives to the concentration of the later ones. is used simply to serve expressive ends. but the latter. in a rather derogatory sense. See also: Composer Scarlatti (D. 2540. With the death of Bach in 1750 and Handel in 1759 an era comes to an end. 4541 Handel Two Goncerti Grossi minor Oboe Concerto. as with 145 most of the great composers. Harpsichord Suite Messiah Recital of Arias G LX. Technical ability. No. Nos. 2757 33 OCX. 3029. 9150 LX. RECORDS H. LXA. The complexities of the contrapuntal style were no longer acceptable. 59.THE AGE OF BACH AND HANDEL With Bach. Matthew of 1729. 13001 LM. LXT. Cat. but by their later years tastes were changing. The difference a few years.M. 516 LXT. 61. 33 KLC. for example. is almost unbearable in its despair.S. The development of the new style will be the subject of our next chapter. only half as long. 1171 1146/8 Bach Mass in B Minor Brandenburg Concertos Concerto for two violins Cantata "Praise our God" OCX. 66.) Title 6. 3081 DA. the treatment of the 9 bitterly in Peter's denial in the St. nai/3 LXTA. we see maturity in age bringing an increase of intensity and economy as to in his compositions. words 'wept noticeable even in works which are separated by only Compare. The former is moving. APL. John Passion of 1723 with that in the St. Between them they summed up all the tendencies of music since 1600. 2501. so great be almost superhuman. and such music became known as 'learned'.

No. 532 .I 46 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Title Bach Composer (contd. Cantata "Jesu. Joy of Man's Toccata and Fugue in Desiring" Fantasia and Fugue in D Minor FAP G Minor LX.) Cat. 3007 i 8236 (orchestral arrangement) KL.C.

essentially non-contrapuntal. Anticipations of the new style are numerous. at the beginning of the lyth century.CHAPTER ELEVEN THE RISE OF CLASSICISM the second quarter of the i8th century. of course. is. as in the clavecin pieces of Couperin and his successor Jean Philippe Rameau (1683 to 1764). in Music in the Baroque Era. lighter. say. usually known as the style galant. Besides this. Bukofzer. From about 1 730 onwards there was a rather similar swing away from the contrapuntal style* to music in which the stress was on the vertical aspect rather than on the horizontal. Pietro Locatelli (1693 to 1764) and puntaLT to 1767) which * It must be pointed out that this chapter will not deal with opera. We have seen how. suggests that in Scarlatti's 'the nearing classic style manifests itself openly'. there was a IN and Handel were producing swing away from polyphony (at least in certain cases) to homophony. e. while Bach their greatest works. a Bach concerto.g. it required but little of the mental concentration which was needed for the appreciation of. work t Dr. Broadly speaking. as does the work of some of the successors of Vivaldi. a serious style evolved. less generally such music was of a kind to be heard rather than carefully listened to. there arose changes of taste which involved corresponding changes in the style of music. which aimed chiefly at grace and elegance. while Domenico Scarlatti's sonatas show a complete lack of interest in anything truly contra- The cantatas of Georg Philipp Telemann (1681 and Christoph Graupner (1683 to 1760) show leanings to the style galant. .

allegro ment of the sonata drops takes first and the place. and even indulging in experiments in recitative. The initial slow move- movement and becoming homophonic. It is at this time that the foundations of the clavier sonata. He movements Using the 'corresponding cadence mentioned in connection with Scarlatti. His to first 1788). which were figures' also much employed by his father in suite movements. Silbermann. thus pointing the way to the true second subject group of the later.148 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Francesco Veracini (c. the Cantor . By the end of the century the harpsichord was obsolescent. This gave the player control by the fingers over gradations of tone. he shows a considerable advance on the practice of the older composers. being distinguished from the older instrument by the fact that its strings were struck by hammers. though as late as 1802 some of Beethoven's sonatas were as 'for I published sichord or pianoforte*. the normal plan becomes that of the out. its place being taken by the solo sonata. the most important composer being Bach's third son. not plucked. and to * The ousting of the harpsichord by the piano took place in the second half of the century. Thus. The new invention was exploited in Germany by who found Bach critical of his early efforts. In his slow movements. 1683 to 1750). Later. His important book The True Manner of Keyboard Performance remains a mine of information on the musical practice of his time. grauicembalo (=harpsichord) col piano e forte. Possibly more than any of his predecessors except Scarlatti. Despite his professed admiration for the works of his father. slow. preferred his clavichord. using a wide range of keys and styles. The piano was invented about 1709 by Cristofori in Florence. It is noticeable that the traditional trio sonata now falls into disuse. were laid. Carl Philipp Emanuel (1714 worked on the three movement plan. fully-developed form.* which reached its climax in the pianoforte sonatas of Beethoven. hence the name originally used by the inventor. he gradually increased their contrast with the opening material. more developed examples. quick. he found more satisfactory. losing its fugal character Italian overture quick. are basically binary. he achieved a true keyboard style. which Bach was able to try when he visited Potsdam. he seems to have held a poor opinion of 'learned music'.

a carry-over from the divertimento type of work. and still are. their structural development following that of the solo sonata for clavier or violin. viola and bass viol by Gregorio Allegri. The symphony began to develop contemporaneously with the sonata. deriving from the Italian overture. There was always a basis of strings ist and and violins. There exists one of 1629 for two violins and bass by Bartolomeo Mont'-Albano. As an independent form. plus one or two bassoons. an overture for two clarinets and corno da caccia. as in the Italian overture. and another of 1650 for two violins.* Orchestration in the modern sense of the term . and its rise was at least partly due to the establishment of public concerts. Later it became customary to employ a pair of both flutes and oboes. and composers found it desirable to write them apart from any operatic connection. Works under the title of symphony. The normal plan was of three movements. 'cellos and basses (whose parts were normally identical) with harpsichord continuo. apart from the sinfonia avanti Vopera. * The clarinet was invented by Johann Denner of 1694. and their composition was variable. the symphony really dates from around 1740. Clarinets do not appear until the end of the century. had been written well back in the 1 7th century. and at first was naturally of a very crude nature. sonatas for orchestra. The term 'symphony' was also sometimes used for introductory movements (apart from opera). the last two being omitted in the quiet slow movements. Nuremburg in Handel wrote . The early orchestras were small. violas. as in the case of that to Bach's G minor Partita (=suite) for clavier. The demand for symphonies became very great. But these are really canzonas under another name. To this was often added a minuet between the last two movements.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM 149 have considered lack of contrapuntal ability no great matter. two trumpets and two kettledrums. which might run to a large number of movements. including various dances. Such symphonies were. Above these might be a pair of flutes or oboes. and two horns.

% The 'hunting oboe*. Scarlatti was a pioneer. with some considerable differences compared with the pre- A passage first stated on the entirely suited to them. Lord. on me. in its own way. Bach's handling of the orchestra was.I 5o A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC to develop. 1 7th- much as the voice does it express Peter's utter indefinitely. Less simple. but possibly more instructive. t For a simple example of the early iSth-century style of orchestra^ tion the reader may refer to one of the oboe concertos of Handel. But the whole method and approach were different. In Bach and Handel we find. Matthew Passion by a flute and two oboi da cacda>% we can only feel that the colour is entirely 'right'. as has been pointed out. Similarly with the solo violin which is added to the quartet in the aria Have mercy. are the first and third movements of Bach's 2nd Brandenburg Concerto. that little distinction is made in the style of writing for the various instruments. The student should realise that although he lived before the rise of orchestration in the present-day sense of the term. As long e as the principle of one movement.* now begins in the use of the instruments as ceding generation. Quite as despair. predecessor of the cor anglais. and Where may later appear transthese composers show their appreciation of tone colour is in their choice of instruments for particular movements. . * Space has forbidden any consideration of Bach's use of the orchestra in the preceding chapter. when Bach accompanies the aria For love of us my Saviour suffered in the St. rather naturally in view of their fundamentally contrapuntal texture.! This is especially noticeable in the accompaniments to vocal pieces. Examples could be multiplied early 18th-century orchestration was naturally largely conditioned by the doctrine of 'affections'. being bound up with the generally contrapuntal style of writing. ferred literally to flutes or oboes. For example. One of the most important changes which came over music in the second half of the i8th century was the tendency to strong contrasts of emotional temperature within a single movement. as masterly as that of any later composer. In this. and which became normal in anything approaching the kaleidoscopic changes of colour later ages was obviously out of the question. violins. one mood' held good.

charge of the orchestra at the electoral court reached a height of expressiveness where his renderings hitherto almost unknown. in London. for which reason composers of the galant period rarely gave the viola a truly independent or important part. Karl Friedrich who. we must realise style of writing was based. with Bach's youngest son Johann Christian 1787). Johann was in of Mannheim. provided a background. developed so did the use and individualisation of the instruments.THE. The violas cling tightly to the 'cellos and spend much of their time doubling the parts of their larger brothers. The list of early symphonists is lengthy. All these were Karl Ditters concerned with the gradual evolution of the symphony as we know it. the wind. on a melody (in the broadest sense of the term) and a bass. We must assume that Bach and Handel took not inconsiderable risks in their writing for this instrument. even Haydn. plus the contimto. The standard of viola playing was generally low. But in the new galant style the wind are largely relegated to holding notes. aginary) toccata Browning wrote his poem. roughly speaking. as the new style after all life that he had done to develop the new style. with non-contrapuntal inner parts. Georg Christoph Abel (1725 to Wagenseil (1715 to 1777). changed use of wood wind. their parts often being almost devoid of melodic interest. Among the more to important are Giovanni Battista Sammartini (c. The upper strings did most of the melodic work. and (1735 to 1782) was active for many years von Dittersdorf (i 739 to 1 799). Specially important are Johann Stamitz (1717 to 1757) and his son Karl (1746 to 1801). said late in it was a pity he had to die just as he was learning how to use the wood wind. on whose (im1775). But this must not be taken too liter- As to the that the new ally. RISE OF CLASSICISM find that the 151 In Bach and Handel we wood wind and the violas are expected to work as hard as the violins. He was one of the first to make . Mozart made perhaps more progress in this direction than anybody. 1700 Baldassare Galuppi (1706 to 1785).

as is sometimes implied. and until 1 756 was miserably poor. and the 'Mannheim crescendo was famous through- out musical Europe. From 1761 to 1790 he was in the service of the enormously wealthy Esterhazys. He was now thrown on his own resources. The two greatest figures of the second half of the i8th century are Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. As a composer he must have been able to shut himself up in a mental world of his own. The pretext for his dismissal. . In 1759 he obtained an appointment with Count Morzin. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. It is extraordinary that Haydn. with a small but secure 20 a year plus board and lodging. the son of a wheelwright. and salary of about proceeded to marry the daughter of a wigmaker who was a perpetual cross to him until she died in 1800. was born at Rohrau in Austria on March 3ist. of the preceding 9 period. he seems to have had no notable musical ancestry. was a practical joke which he had perpetrated on one of his fellows.* Mozart was greatly influenced by the performances he heard at Mannheim.i 52 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC full use. of a gradual increase or decrease of tone as opposed to the 'terrace' dynamics. could write so much music of a happy and carefree nature. Le. was one of the greatest benefactors of music in the whole of invention. The second of these. in orchestral performance. but from a very early age gave signs of talent. 'block' contrasts of degrees of tone. to obtain and study the important theoretical works of the time and so gradually built up his technique as a composer. 'cared not a straw whether he was an artist or a shoemaker'. Haydn. Stamitz's They had been in use in opera since the time of Caccini. 1732. saddled with a vixen of a wife who. however. where he remained until 1748. who succeeded to the title in 1762. Italian musicians in the early part of the i8th century used swelling and diminishing of tone in all kinds of music. At the age of eight he was admitted as a chorister at St. and Geminiani employed them in instrumental music. as he himself said. * Crescendo and diminuendo were not. Like Handel. He managed. Prince Nicholas 'the Magnificent'. his voice having broken.

they wanted They (the audiences) appear to have cared very little. but . is notable for his adventurousness in key plan. with a comfortable pension. famous all over 5 In Haydn we see the work of the early sonatists and symphonists developed to a point from which Beethoven was able to take his departure. Haydn to allow a second subject to grow from on the whole went Haydn the only real difference being that of key. 82. the slow is in the very distant key of E major. character of thematic material within a movement. beyond anything that Emanuel Bach ever attempted. like Hasse at Dresden. but hardly the whole distance. From Bach's more or less tentative development of binary form he gradually evolved the settled outline of the full Europe. It re- mained for Beethoven to develop real differentiation in the was often content the first. and he was given every livery like encouragement. since in his early days the symphony was not considered a very important branch of art. far the E flat sonata. honoured by all. his relations with his employer were easy. the orchestra small and its treatment relatively undeveloped. This was natural enough. In movement The early symphonies (Haydn wrote altogether over & hundred) are mostly in the galant style. and the purposes of composers in those days were consequently not exalted to any high pitch. Although Haydn had to wear a any other servant. his salary generous. After 1790 he was free of any appointment. Then followed his two visits to London under the aegis of the impresario Salomon. to 'write as he felt and as he wished . refinement.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM the 153 Age of Patronage. As Sir Hubert Parry says in the article Symphony in Grove. for example. He died in Vienna on May 3ist. sonata form. to be healthily pleased and entertained. not stirred with deep emotion. or originality. 1809. to whose work Haydn admitted he owed much. Mozart farther. op. poetical intention. Performances must have been often rough and ready. 'with regard to deep meaning. The clavier sonatas are built on the foundations laid by Emanuel Bach.

Mozart's great minor. and the wealth of delightful ideas shows that increasing age brought no diminution of inventiveness and. While there is not the emotional depth of. dating from the middle 1 760*8. 9 find the true quartet style firmly established. Haydn is sometimes called the Father of the Symphony. but those of op. and op. in particular. consisting of an indefinite number of movements. are more truly quartets in the accepted sense. is now exsix quartets pected to pull his weight with greater independence. The latter derived mainly from the sonata for strings and continue. and designed primarily for open-air performafter Vivaldi. The inclusion of this movement. . equally he was the Father of the String Quartet. We have by now moved a long . for his visits to London. say. These ance. written *in an entirely new and special manner'. the two 'Salomon* sets. are a landmark in their mastery of thematic development. contimo. 17 (1769 and 1771 respectively) we With op. The of op. not the composer). the former master of the galant style has now become the great classic. 33 (1781). They are in four movements. were limited to a simple and unpretentious supply. via such works as the quadri of Sam-martini and his fellow-countryman Giuseppe Tartini (1692 to 1770). the mature hand of the great master is evident. 3 (the opus number is that of a publisher. as in the symphony. Haydn was composed influenced by these considerations till the last/ In the latest symphonies. Haydn's are of the divertimento type. spontaneity. which often contained two or more. an outstanding violinist of the generation G men occasionally dispensed with the the strings to stand on their own feet. was a relic of the divertithis For earliest quartets mento. and the viola. . reason they lacked a continuo part.154 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC . cassations and serenades. In his young days there was but little distinction between symphony and quartet. The part-writing is of greater interest. the third being a minuet. the craftsis superb and the orchestration manship impeccable. however. leaving Besides such works were a multitude of divertimenti.

even in the barest outline. The writer^has even heard the opinion expressed. Rome.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM way from the 155 slightly developed binary form of Emanuel Bach. (His still Method for the Violin was for long a standard work and is to be studied with profit. allowing for the inevitable differences in idiom. also musically gifted. composers' training was and largely based on contrapuntal practice. if not 'born fully armed . Paris. including mastery of counterpoint. achieved his mastery by struggle and hard work over a period of years. Mozart. with much of Haydn's other work. where he had attended various performances of Handel's oratorios. in The Seasons they were merely peasants. Leopold.) At the age of six. etc. and had been overwhelmed by their power. Milan.* It is impossible to deal. and both Haydn Mozart were brilliant contrapuntists. his father. Haydn was in poor health and did private orchestra of the Prince Archbishop of that city. . who was a musician of considerable attainments. Wolfgang and his sister Marianne. The not find the libretto really attractive. that Mozart was a greater contrapuntist than Bach. apart from his natural ability. is the true successor of the oraThe Seasons. Despite public distaste for learned* music. Mozart travelled widely throughout his life Mannheim. by a musician of great erudition and experience. may be considered possibly the most naturally gifted musician who has ever lived. He remarked that whereas the characters in The Creation were angels. written in 1800. whole less successful. From his earliest years the young Mozart's great talent was evident. was on the torios of Handel. being a violinist (later vice-kapellmeister) in the 9 3 Creation was written in 1797 and. Haydn. The later quartets show increasing mastery in all directions. Unlike Haydn. were dragged round Europe and to England as infant prodigies. The former was the outcome of his experiences in London. and he received careful instruction from his father. The Creation and The Seasons. He was born in Salzburg on January 27th 1756. have much preferred him * still to though his father would remain in a settled post. but reference must be made to his two great choral works.

His to a steady income and the economical composer who son. each learned from the other. Although Haydn was the elder by four years. Not that the emotional side is eliminated. the emotion is strictly controlled. in whose later works. showed increasing fecklessness as he grew older. having previously an affaire with her elder sister Aloysia. make pitiable reading). a richer harmonisation. in Paris. an encounter which turned out to be mutually Haydn. while from Mozart Haydn learned 'a rounder phrase. He was at first strongly influenced by the style of Christian Bach. was buried in a pauper's grave outside Vienna. so strongly characteristic of the Romantics of the igth century. From Haydn Mozart learned much of the possibilities of form and expression. and when away from home was perpetually chased by his father. dying December 5th. proportion and pure beauty are unsurpassed. some twentyprofitable. It is from this time that the clever young exponent of the style galant develops into the great classic. is not the G . minor symphony to realise has only to think of the great this. as in those of his elder contemporary. possibly the most tidy and ever lived.i5 6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC with an eye Leopold was of a careful disposition. there One is much more than mere well-balanced 'patterning'. Mozart's early works are naturally enough in the style from those of his contemporgalant. at In 1781 he first met the age of twenty-two. always favour of his employer. As time went on he became his friend and fellow deeply in debt (his begging letters to Freemason Michael Puchberg. 1791. but are distinguished aries by their superior craftsmanship and elegance. whom he met as a child in London. always with promises of on speedy repayment. thereby adding to his difficulties with Leopold. and. In cautionary letters and admonitions from had 1782 he married Gonstanze Weber. and again. its free expression. and a fuller command of the orchestra' (Grove). the elements of structural balance. with comparatively rare exceptions. But.

he concertos. no. put from minor into major key (a mechanical procedure if ever there was one). Mozart understood the art of concealing art. in the context of complete with such strokes of performance. quoted. from the gdanthe sheer terie of the first. to No sketch of Mozart's Brilliant . the quintessential Mozart. For a single. Haydn. the reader may turn to the second movement of the minor string quintet. progressed and possibly farther. wrote equally well for both instruments. In his symphonies and chamber music Mozart followed Both. written at the age of seventeen. Passion. superb instance. and of obtaining the maximum effectiveness by the Pages of examples could be simplest of means. Above all composers. as in symmetry of form. nical mastery of the medium. and there is never a note too many.THE RISE OF CLASSICISM prime it 157 wells up Occasionally object. of course. Mozart. work can omit reference to his both as a clavierist and a violinist. 488) or that of the Sinfonia Concertante for violin. becomes the opening of the The incredible effect of this transformation can only trio. greater techprogressed. Everything is vital to the total effect. we find. as in the later symphonies concertos for piano that and chamber music. Even more than is the case with much the same line of development as Haydn. the slow movement of the major piano concerto (K. but whereas the last complete concerto for violin was written in 1777. noting how the cadence figure of the G minuet. but it is never allowed to override perfect balance A irresistibly. the It is in the last for piano was in the year of his death. viola and orchesand tra. Matthew in 'Truly. his craftsmanship is pure delight. and greater depth of meanmore rapidly ing. or Bach's ultimate affirmation of faith this was the Son of God' in the St. be realised fully. as they achieved greater mastery of form. It is comparable only as the first entry of the fugue subject in Beethoven's genius sonata op. did space permit. In them he exhibits the complete range of his style. as the shorter-lived.

On the purely technical side. the continuo during the century. begun the piano came into their own as individuals in concerted music. Haydn wrote a small number of piano concertos. Mozart means every At this stage we may pause to note the gradual speedingup of the tempo of musical change. and the frequent statement that they are in exposition* is 'sonata Essays in Musical Analysis. for See Tovey. but the first of real importance are those of Mozart. not . 3. the concertos show the 9 This element. (We do not use the word 'progress* here. note to say something to the point. the harpsichord and Torelli. especially in the orchestral introduction which serves as an 'opening ritornello . beginnings Then another 150 before Ars Nova appeared. Another 300 to the climax of the polyphonic style.) about 300 years for music to evolve from the of the old organum up to measurable music. 'slow'. the day of handfuls of notes. sometimes of distinctly complex internal 9 construction. it may be pointed out. and about 150 to It took the masterpieces of Bach and Handel. was as yet far distant. in the works of such composers decline in importance of With the gradual Tartini. and Hutchings. means *going*. All are in three movements. lacking the minuet. In his passage-work. not a full discussion. * There is But now we find a good deal of misunderstanding regarding the form of form with a double these movements. splashed liberally all over the keyboard. introduction to Vol. as it is apt to lead to misunderstanding.e. Companion to Mozart's Pianoforte Concertos. moving.i 58 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC beauty of the famous the great C year.* The second movement is most frequently an andante^ and the finale often a rondo. strictly correct. t Which term. rise and development of the 'display to creep into works for the violin as early had A major of 1786 and the tragedy of minor of the same as and the tendency was intensified as time as Veracini and passed. as in everything else. In the first movements there are traces of the old concerto form of the preceding period. and of limpid clarity. The display element is strictly controlled. i.

LPM. Symphony in Symphony in D and C G Minor C Major LXT. at least according to some contemporary musicians. 4005 LXT. 2 in D Major (London) ALP. Mozart J. 14084 ABR. (Jupiter) String Quintet. 1088 OALP. 1061 - 18397 cx Quartet in E Flat. 6 With Verdure Clad (Creation) Mozart Symphonies in G. 3022 LX. is purely a matter of personal opinion. 1316 PL. C. 3010 OBLP. and we shall see later how further changes. this. both in outlook and technical method. JVb. Cat. 2680 DX. 10140 Overtures Piano Concerto. 2515 1 178 .THE RISE OF CLASSICISM 159 a new style reaching a climax in three-quarters of a century. 1052 LX. Op. followed in comparatively rapid succession. It took over 600 years for the modal system to be played out. of course. reaching the end of its tether. Bach Boccherini Composer Title Divertimento and Serenade Sinfonias in E fiat and String Quartet in Symphony in F sharp minor D D APM. But after less than 300. is already. 64 No. RECORDS L. 2680 Haydn (Farewell) Symphony No. but the major and minor scale system. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik A Major G Minor LXT. 33 OCX.

In Italy. and in ternary form. the arias. or led away to the torture chamber. jects for libretti were number arias were an occasional duet. her captors awaiting the end of her outburst with exemplary patience. for example. expressing ensemble numbers. many of the arias. The action of the story was carried along by recitative with the barest of accompaniment. outside the action and serving largely as media dungeon. her feelings on her predicament. finding herself about to be cast into the deepest the action while she expresses at length. but an opera as a whole was.* 'just a concert in costume'. Johnson defined opera. The orchestra was small. The heroine. there was a set mythology of characters. by the early years of the i8th century. . No wonder Dr. as Prof. True. to or ancient history. opera was bogged down in a mass of conventions. were almost unheard-of.CHAPTER TWELVE DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA WE classical must now retrace our steps to follow the course pursued by opera from the point at which we left it in Chapter 8. continue. and the overture was often of few if any of the audience Opera (Pdican Books). In any * case. holds up an exotic and irrational entertainment' The irrationality was in no way diminished by the employment of male e ! sopranos for heroic parts. had considerable musical value. mostly strings with harpsichord negligible value. as which they found themselves. as separate pieces. except for the characters' re- actions to the situations in being really for the singers to exhibit their vocal talents. Subrestricted almost. especially in the Neapolitan school of Scarlatti and his successors. in his dictionary. if not entirely. Dent puts it. the number and order of whose strictly regulated.

were discountenanced. and with the development of opera a similar practice obtained. This independence was largely the work of Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710 to 1736). From very early times it had been customary to provide it light relief between the acts of a tragedy. as in the aria di bravura of Italy. was sometimes used. choral movements were a regular constituent. for example. by Intermezzi. By the beginning of the i8th century they had become little two-act affairs. Separated from the opera seria> the 'serious opera*. mere vocal pyrotechnics. an individual form.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA 161 bothered to listen to it. In France the Lullian tradition was carried on by Rameau. 'to cheer and repose the spirit of the spectator. judging by the applause. whose La Serva Padrona is the most famous of all such works. at least by Rameau. saddened by thoughts of the tragic and strained by its attention to matters of gravity*. a possibility entirely overlooked by the Italians. A travelling company of entertainers whom he saw alternated the acts of an historical drama with low comedy turns.* In became separated from the opera. too. the Intermezzo became known as opera buffd comic due course the Intermezzi achieving independence as * The writer was interested to find a similar procedure occurring in India as recently as 1943. which were interlocked with the three acts of the opera proper. was used with greater ingenuity than was common in Italy. Instead of merely providing a subordinate accompaniment. In the period before 1600. Though. and served to cover up the shuffling of feet and the conversation of the audience who were awaiting the appearance of their pet singers. Besides this. The idea seems to have been similar to that of the Intermezzi as explained by Rousseau in his Dictionary of Music (1767). with which they had no connection either in plot or music. as was ballet. the comedy turns did little to "repose* the spirits of the sepoys who formed the bulk of the audience! . The orchestra. The subjects of the French operas were similar to those of the Italian. for descriptive purposes. Gradually the Intermezzi achieved character and coherence of their own. It had rarely any recognisable connection with the opera itself. but in the musical setting there was more insistence on declamation as opposed to pure singing. madrigals would be sung.

or that if they ever 9 have. or the dramatic side. * . many being F. was to be considered the more important. use of chorus. in his Letter on French Music. who preferred the traditional much French style deriving from Lully. Joseph Addison ( 1 672 witty things to say of the traditional while in Italy itself Benedetto Marcdlo satirised the native opera and the vanity of the singers. as in the French. that French singing is continual squalling. and so on. dancing. With the arrival of Les Bouffons warfare flared up violently. Finally. Among the more prominent pam* phleteers were the Abbe Frangois Raguenet (b. W. Argument went back and forth on the importance or otherwise of stage machinery. arrived in Paris perform their Intermezzi. etc. von Grimm (1723 to 1807) and Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712 to 1778). more conservative. concluding c that there is melody in French music. writers Pamphleteering was rife. neither measure nor A . In 1752 an Italian troupe. In England. that its harmony is crude and devoid of expression*. was bound by no conventions and so achieved real vitality. generally lauds the Italians and their performances as compared with the French. two of the most important supporters of opera buffa to 1719) had Italian style. 1660) and Le Gerf de La Vieville. Les Bouffons. because the not capable of them.162 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC It opera. The pro-French complained that all the Italians thought of was singing. The latter. and almost immediately arose the Guerre des Bouffons between those who supported the to Italians and those. it will be so much the worse for them somewhat startling condemnation of the national art from one who language is . Throughout of the lyth and i8th centuries Paris was an operatic battleground the Parisians took their opera very seriously the grounds of contention being mainly whether the purely musical side. 'that the French have no music and cannot have any. the Italian faction retorted to the effect that the French had no good singers anyway. . often conducted in a remarkably virulent manner.. as in Italian opera.

and that brilliant passages in the arias should be introduced only He demanded. In this work he showed considerable originality. who possessed a remarkable flair for writing works which appealed Like ing facility in composition was amazing. He was not the only one to feel that it had reached a ridiculous pitch of irrationality. eventually made its into favour. famous also as a chess player. and a rather unexpected ability to handle the grand manner. many to the least musically educated audience. I' other things. stemming from opera buffa. Its last great representative was Daniel Auber (1786 to 1871). was built up by such composers as Francois Philidor (1726 to 1795). among opera in musica (1755)9 was . Paris was almost immediately plunged into another operatic struggle. Paris at way on French La Serva Padrona. like opera buffa. his operas numberincluding the 'grand' opera Masaniello. of his contemporaries and predecessors. called Le Devin Italian. It is from this time that the tradition of the French opera-comique. was far removed from the formality and heaviness of the Lully-Rameau style. After Pergolesi. and had ultimately considerable influence Pergolesi's its first opera. Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714 to 1787) began by writing successfully in the forty-six. famous especially for The Secret Marriage.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA only three years earlier 163 had written strongly supporting French opera against Intermezzo. Pierre Monsigny (1729 to 1817) and Andre Gr6try (1741 to 1813). du Village. his A visit to Paris in 1746 enabled him to hear works by Rameau. The Guerre des Bouffbns having died down. that highly the recitative should be given greater importance. poorly received in presentation in 1746. the Italian Francesco conventional Italian manner. in his Saggio sopra critical. Rousseau himself wrote an in French. that of the Gluckists versus the Piccinnists. in the Italian style. Opera comique had spoken dialogue and. which gave him cause to reflect on the possible weaknesses of the Italian style. Algarotti. the great name in Italian opera buffa is Domenico Cimarosa (1749 to 1801).

a century later. to return to the methods and aims of the Camerata. the originator of this idea. the most famous musicians. however. 9 The results of Gluck's reflections Orfeo of 1762. he ex. . its argument In this he anticipates Wagner. but the general tone of his complaint is that the true aims of the founders of opera. insisted that an opera begins not with the rise of the curtain. Further. and it was not until 1767.* We may mention that 9 . He admits that occasional move1 64 ments by such composers as Jommelli (1714 to 1774) and Hasse (1699 to 1783) are worthy of praise. whom he found in Raniero da CalzabigL Orfeo was. so to speak. In the dedication of this work he begins by saying: 'When I undertook to write the music for Alceste. . in the Preface to Alce$te> that Gluck first fully expounded his ideas on what opera should and should not be. a hundred and fifty years earlier. are c 9 be represented and to form. His aims. As a 'concert in costume it might be effective enough.A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC when really appropriate. even to thematic material being taken from that in the main scenes of the opera. but for his new ideas he needed a writer of sympathy and originality. of the time. I resolved to divest it entirely of all those abuses which have so long disfigured Italian opera. but with the first note of the overture. The most popular appeared librettist first in his whose works were set by all was Metastasio. without interrupting the action or stifling it with a useless superfluity of ornaments . His libretti were designed exactly to suit the conventions of opera seria. In essence it found in many overtures to Venetian operas of the mid-iyth century. 9 to restrict music to its true office of serving poetry by means of expression and by following the situations of the story. is * Gluck was not. as a dramatic unity it did not exist. who. only a halfway house. In other words. 'the overture ought to apprise the spectators of the nature of the action that is to plains. however. had been completely forgotten. . He deplores the undramatic formality of the da capo aria and insists that the action of the plot must not be held up 'un9 reasonably or wantonly . Gluck had set some of his libretti.

Singspiels were often based on everyday stories. In Germany a type of opera known as the singspiel grew up during the i8th century. and was followed by the presentation of Orphee et Eurydice (adapted from Orfeo) and Alceste. Except for Etienne M&iul (1763 to 1817) the French composers remained unaffected directly by Gluck's reforms. Iphigtnie en Aulide. The Italian conventions. Gluck's version. and his Roland was to be produced four months after Gluck's Armide. however. Nor were there any conventions in the form. produced in 1779. instead of the traditional Such theories. which city had by this time become the chief centre of Italian opera. and although in Italian opera the accent remained primarily on the singing. and their application in practice. the mythological-historical subjects of opera seria being excluded. In 1772 Gluck wrote. The war of the Gluckists and the Piccinnists broke out in 1777. to a French libretto. 'reformed operas used the orchestra to the recitatives. two years later. Largely due to the support of Marie Antoinette. IphigSnie m Tauride.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA Gluck in his 9 165 accompany harpsichord. the argument was carried on after Gluck had returned to Vienna. without recitative. gradually broke down. the complete unreality and formality of opera seria eventually passed away. was a great success. The initial impulse seems to have come from the performance of a German version of the ballad opera The Devil to Pay by . it was a success. his former singing pupil. The contest was waged with great violence. Even so. Mehul's greatest work was the sacred opera Joseph. and eventually the two composers were invited to set the same libretto. was a comparative failure. Originally it was related to the English ballad opera spoken dialogue in the verna- cular with interpolated songs but by degrees evolved into something more approaching true opera. produced in Paris in 1774. did not please the opera public of Vienna. Piccinni was the protege of the Italian faction. Piccinni's.

Idomeneo and La Clemenza di Of the others. from a comedy by Beaumarchais which at the time was banned by the authorities. F. too. while The Flight from the Seraglio and the less-known Theatre Director are of the same class. They lie. as . of the general run of opere buffe. sible to achieve greater . is his power of characterisation. Weisse. for example. nor the trivial music. opere serie. and are the ancestors of such works as Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier. are opere bujfe. though or Dittersdorf. based on a story of considerable antiquity. which had a great success in Leipzig in 1764. The former is in essence a social satire. by Lorenzo da Ponte. Don Giovanni. This the composer describes as a 'comedy with music'. Dittersdorf s Doctor and Apothecary is one of the most famous of all such works. its libretto being arranged. a 'humorous But neither Figaro nor Don Giovanni is comedy drama pure and simple. Especially notable. described on the title- page as a singspiel. between serious and comic opera. and led to the composition of a number of similar pieces by Johann Adam Hiller (1728 to 1804) in conjunction with the poet C. much more developed in every way than the works of Hiller Mozart wrote two Tito. but again there is much more under the surface than mere comedy. while Don Giovanni is described as a Dramma Giocoso. Figaro and Cosifan 5 . always with the greatest simplicity and ease. Hiller is often called the father of the singspiel. he simply does everything better than any of his contemporaries. may almost be considered as a 'cautionary tale'. whether it would be pos- beauty with a most elementary harmonic progression and an almost static voice part than Mozart does in the opening of the aria Dove sow in Figaro. Of Mozart's operas. referred to as The Magic Flute (which the composer is 'my German opera'). There is no particular virtue in trying to decide which of Mozart's operas is the greatest. Neither has the often trivial plot. As with so many of his works. apart from those already tutte mentioned. It is doubtful.166 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Charles Coffey.it were.

had disintegrated. and so on. and Parsifal.} In the overtures to both Don Giovanni and The Magic Flute there are brief references to music which will be heard This is an important anticipation of later in the opera. was for many years director of the Paris Conservatory of Music. on fairy tales. Musically there was gradually greater freedom. and we may note his Lodoiska and Les Deux Journees. Weber. with the greatest As with Gluck. for example. Hatevy's La Juive.g. and reaches height in the operas of Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791 to the Devil. Robert All such works spectacular . and were full of brilliant solos. rather than to confine the movement of the plot to recitative or spoken dialogue. the practice of later composers. in accordance with prevailing taste. From the beginning of the igth century Parisian grand opera became more and more of a spectacle. but 'grand opera' continued. (Gluck does the same in Iphigenie en Tauride. Mastersingers some of Wagner's introductory movements. he defines each of clarity. are entirely based on themes be heard later. on the chivalry of the Middle Ages. The Huguenots and UAfricaine* demanded a large cast and orchestra.DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA With only the minimum his characters 167 of resources. and a tendency to carry on the action continuously. The style is well exemplified in Spontini's its La Vestale (1807). dating back to Lulli. the overture is an integral part of the work. while spectacular and melodramatic elements came more to the fore. e. however reformed. while e. Cherubini. Italian born. scenic effects. used material from the body of the opera for much of his overtures.g. In all these directions Luigi Cherubim ( 1 760 to 1 842) excelled. Plots became less stereotyped as literary romanticism began to have its effect. and was a learned writer to of technical treatises. By the end of the i8th century the old French tradition of opera. that of Don Giovanni leads without break into the first scene. Concerted numbers became longer and more important. Stories were based on Oriental romance. 1864).

The establishment of * name was Jacob Liebmann Meyerbeer came of a German-Jewish business family. The old conto learn Jew banker who composes Wagner referred to him as music'. finale'. especially the 'concerted began The greatest Italian of the early igth century was Gioachino Rossini (1792 to 1868). picture. *a and use some of his effective tricks of orchestration. Although many of his contemporaries had hard things to say of Meyerbeer. 9 subjects came into the Concerted numbers. then. In Italian opera the solo voice still remained the predominant factor.* but did not disdain ventions died out. In France opera branched out in a number of different directions. His most famous works are The Barber of Seville (1816) (of which the plot is actually the first part of Beaumarchais's story of Figaro. His real . Gaetano Donizetti (1797 to 1848) and Vincenzo Bellini (1801 to 1835) were chiefly concerned with carrying on the tradition of opera as a vehicle for vocal (solo) melody and technique. Of other Italians. Beer. the old insistence on the mythological-historical plot faded away. and he wrote no more. large-scale concerted in Berlin as well as in Paris. but. In the remaining thirty-nine years of his life he seems to have been more interested in gastronomy than in composition. also and 'romantic to appear. that We harmony or use of the orchestra. and to a wider range of subject-matter. he certainly understood public taste. In Italy. on the ality exploitation of pure singing.i68 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC numbers. as in France. and melodramatic incident. of the voice and of the orchestra. but neither showed any great ingenuity Tell (1829). despite the continued insistence see. convention and formgave way to greater freedom of design. and whatever the underlying vulgarity of much of his music. Both were accomplished melodists. in either from about the middle of the i8th as great changes came about in opera as in other century forms of writing. Mozart's work being the second part) and William after it This latter was his thirty-sixth opera. a master of melody.

DEVELOPMENTS IN OPERA helped in breaking down the old 169 rigidity. a more easily appreciated and melodious style of vocal writing evolved. together with the spectacular element. No. 6025 19053. 1069 LS. . Alceste JSurydice from Orpheus and Cat. 33 OCX.opira comique although good declamation remained of the utmost importance. and RECORDS Mozart Composer Selection Title Operatic arias Overture. Of German opera we shall speak later.1406 7 ERO. 5038 19041. LPEM LPEM Rossini Largo atfactotum (Barber of Seville) Una voce pocofa Overtures 0.

from 1 783. gradual. bound to provide became a freelance. and was granted. Hieronymous Colloredo. and thenceforward had to make his own way independently. In this year. 1770. well into the igth century. gave him his first musical instruction. instead of being the paid servant of 9 IN some wealthy amateur. old. The day of the 'tame musician' was nearing its end. had been ignominiously discharged by his employer. too easy. a tenor singer at the court of the Elector of Cologne. while still only twelve years Beethoven became the 'orchestral harpsichordist' . 1827. but it was no longer taken for granted that the musician would seek an assured livelihood in some salaried court or church post. by the time he was twenty-six. His father. died in Vienna on March 26th. After Mozart the first of the great freelances was Ludwig Many composers still had their patrons. Archbishop of Salzburg.CHAPTER THIRTEEN BEETHOVEN the latter part of the i8th century the 'Age of Patronage was drawing to a close. and the old system less The last of the really great kapellmeisters was Haydn. who. as they relied for encouragement and possibly some kind of periodical financial assistance. and he also received training from Christian Neefe. freedom to write what he wished and as he wished. born in Bonn on December i6th. survived. was director of music to the Elector. on whom a consequence finding life none van Beethoven. and the professional composer. more or music to The change suit his employer's taste. as in the case of Liszt's appointment as director of music at the court of Saxe-Weimar. the composer expected. dwindling. Even when such a post was held. Mozart. of course. was.

and still more in that of the D major sonata. and in 1792 he settled there permanently. i). as is evident from some of Mozart's letters. 3. a few lessons from Mozart. In the work of Beethoven three periods are usually distinguished. was but little concerned with what his auditors wanted. But the . 2. The dedications of many of his works show that he was in close touch with many wealthy and titled people. Beethoven the individualist is always there. an abrupt and forcefiil manner of expression (as in the first subject of the piano sonata. of many of the nobility in Vienna. In the first greatly impressed. and when they did. op. the obvious models for a young composer of the time. Beethoven nevertheless accepted At the age of about thirty Beethoven period we see the influence of Mozart and Haydn. too. Beethoven. Although a freelance. 2. op. No. For some years he lived in the house of Prince Karl Lichnowsky. It may be a turn of phrase. 2. like Bach. a dis- tinctly conservative contrapuntist. but he persevered with the theorist Albrechtsberger until 1 795. Composers of the preceding period rarely 'let themselves go* emotionally. it was with a certain amount of trepidation as to the reactions of their audience. is the great intensity of emotional power which at times comes to the surface. or any one of a dozen things. but rarely without something which is essentially Beethoven and nobody else. in the new sense. seems not to have been the patronage. who made him a yearly allowance. where he had sible position. Notable. No. 10. in which the second of the nine symphonies was written.BEETHOVEN and thus 171 early obtained experience of a responunpaid In 1787 he visited Vienna. ultimately becoming completely so. The first period takes us to about the year 1802. as in the brooding of the slow movement of op. Lessons in counterpoint with Haydn were not a success and soon ceased. they had to take what he gave them. a modification of the conventional form (as in the last movement of the same work). No. Albrechtsberger. though there is some overlapping. began to go deaf.

the Rassoumovsfy quartets. In these it is obvious that the real Beethoven. the violin piano concerto. for example. the concertos in major and E flat major. while perhaps only Bach had plumbed such depths as are found in its slow movement. and those of op. not the composer's of 1801. The fury of the first movement of the D minor sonata. 2. It was. But Beethoven. as is evident in the piano sonatas of opp. No. op. the first movement alone of Beethoven's Eroica takes eightyone. op. though it is to be noted that in many of them Beethoven was to some page more meaning than many other composers extent anticipated by Haydn and Mozart. the piano sonatas up to op. independent. In works of the sonata type he tends to employ a wider range of keys. In sonata form first movements there are instances of unusual keys for the second . 59. 26 and 27. is something which had never before been expressed in music. the Kreut&r sonata G for violin and piano. the miniature score of the whole of Mozart's Jupiter symphony runs to eighty-four pages. 31.172 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC move into the second period was already under way. This is not to suggest that greater length necessarily implies greater value. as compared with his predecessors. the string quartets up to op. 90. 95. and the one opera Fidelio. The compositions of the first and second periods show a number of important technical advances. In this second period are found a great body of works of all kinds the third to the eighth symphonies. which include the so-called 'Moonlight' sonata a publisher's title. In many of them we are impressed by the enormous scale on which the composer works. has emerged. For example. Mozart was capable of packing into a single could achieve in a dozen. distinctly unexpected of Beethoven to put the slow movement of his C minor piano concerto in the key of E major. was far from being hidebound. 31 of 1802. and entirely sure of himself. the overture to Coriolanus. forceful. to mention some of the chief. as we have seen. like Mozart. though Haydn. holds our attention from the first note to the last.

BEETHOVEN 173 subject group as. equally remote from the tonic. or Waldstein sonatas. 2. and compare with it that of. a comprehensive summing-up. and its character also. Beethoven realised the Mozart. Not that Beethoven invariably wrote long codas. for example. as it were. The range of modulaapt to be wider than had formerly been customary. 332. towards greater continuity within extended movements. as in the last movement of his Jupiter 2. The structure of the G second group becomes more consistently complex (though here he was anticipated by Mozart). at the development begins in F sharp minor. ball rolling. though again Mozart pointed the way. and reached by a really startling harmonic mote key of E minor. too. The first movement of the Eroica offers an example which is almost a second development. say. Even in ment of the sonata short cut. where it is in E major. this will be readily apparent. as it were. yet again. symphony. in the Waldstein sonata. op. major. and There . But in Mozart's one point finds itself in the extremely re- G minor symphony e. and shows the composer's genius for holding our attention while arguing a point. Often in the works of earlier composers we feel that the bridge passage is more or less mechanical padding. the various sections moving into each other almost imperceptibly. and that the second group is ushered in. K. had set the No. The development of the first movement of the Eroica symphony. with a flourish of trumpets. from the material selected for discussion. is for example. With Beethoven the bridge tends to become an integral part of the material. In development sections there is a tendency to greater length. If the reader will refer to the second group of Mozart's sonata in F. a link that has got to be there. the last move- potentialities of the coda. every possible deduction is made.g. where the coda is down to the last detail. too. it depended on whether he felt one to be appropriate. is a tendency. as it were. Beethoven's Appassionato. quite early works. tion.

This the instance of such thematic cross- referencing. but he was anticipated to some by Haydn. and in it we can trace the distance which Beethoven had travelled. The 5th symphony is a work of great importance in the development of symphonic writing. This leads without break into ihs finale another new departure and the finale itself is whole movement on the well-known rhythmic is interrupted by a is reference back to the first theme of the scherzo. while in most cases retaining the 3/4 time-signature.174 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the second group.. Beethoven simply hurls his subject-matter ancestry. 2. The relaxed in the slow movement. mechanically. a scherzo as four notes tically the at his audience. approach the style. etc. that he viewed the work as a unified whole. and secondly it shows. Not that he was the first and symphonies and quartets. some of whose minuets. No. however contrasted. in the Eroica. There is no concession to convention. 2. as in the quartets of op. 33. what is evident purely musically in so many of Beethoven's sonatas. to flow out of it. into something almost macabre. we find a scherzo in which there is but little trace of its In the 5th symphony the literal conception of a playful movement becomes metamorphosed. at least in the first and last sections. sonatas in this. rising to heights tension of almost shattering intensity. and proceeds to build prac- figure. Such works as Mozart's G minor or Jupiter symphonies. not even so much as the two introductory chords which. The scherzo in sonata or symphony is often assumed to extent be Beethoven's invention. or the G minor Qtiintet. one slow movement or finale would suit as well as another. The very opening is a revelation. it led to further such developments by later composers. are one and indivisible. As early as op. Firstly. But it cannot be denied that in many of the earlier . definitely changed the character of the movement. Beethoven. but returns in a different guise in the scherzo. are all that he uses to replace the frequent conventional slow introduction of the earlier symphonists. and is especially notable in two ways.

Beethoven begins to move away from strict adherence to the traditional forms. feels them inadequate In this. The entry of the statue in the last act of Don Giovanni is an example of the latter. with progeny including such works as Mendelssohn's Hymn of Praise. Comparison D less. From his first symphony (1800) Beethoven had used clarinets regularly. and each work the composer his thought. double bassoon and three trombones. In these latest works the conventional plans are modified or discarded if composers' outlook and approach were entirely different. and in the Eroica he employed three horns instead of the usual two. for the expression of Beethoven points the way to the . and trombones appear again only in the 'storm' movement of the Pastoral Symphony and in the second and last movements of the gth. ranks among the greatest stands on a peak with Bach's all. In the works of the third period. too. especially in connection with funeral music and the supernatural. movement brings in piccolo. As with all great composers.BEETHOVEN The 175 5th symphony shows. 101 onwards. even though the basic outlines were those customarily followed at the time. their is supreme in its own way. Mozart uses the double bassoon in his Masonic Funeral Music. Not until the gth Symphony does Beethoven employ four horns. i. his organisation of the internal details had always been conditioned by emotional intention. Fidelio. advances in the use of the orchestra. The use of voices (soloists and chorus) in the last movement of the gth was another forward-looking innovation.e. by the message which he wished to convey. while his Mass in of these two works would be fruitminor. which include the last quartets and the piano sonatas from op. but the last scherzo. obviously to allow for the notable horn passage which opens the trio of the In the 5th there are only two horns. of B Beethoven's one opera. the first time these had been used in such a work. Vaughan Williams's Sea Symphony and Hoist's Choral Symphony. but trombones were usually reserved for use in opera.

As Sir Donald Tovey so often pointed out. to name no other examples. withdrawn into himself by the of his later years. The use of variations. tends to As opposed to the subject which was so often melodic. His frequent adoption of fugue in later works shows this. The thematic material. the cell its e j being the theme. it is a 'texture*.176 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC 9 form was subservient to emotional some of his successors. so Beethoven gives us the fruits of his meditations in sound. since fugue. In his last in musical terms. is that in which the principle of continuous be of a new character. scale * total deafness But Beethoven. too. and however unorthodox 'Romantics . fugue and variations. he was expression. neither of them 'forms' in the conventional sense. are always perfect The relationship between form and content* is indivisible. and the variations exploring implications. No better summing up 9 express. his designs. 'Content^ implies 'meaning . by conventional or textbook standards. regardless of the form in t It is undesirable to think of fugue as a 'form'. that which the composer wishes to way. It is works Beethoven was preoccupied with thinking In the same way as a Bertrand Russell music not for 'entertainment9 . did so on a far greater than any earlier composer. offered possibilities beyond those of sonata and other traditional forms. unlike in themselves. the subject. or a de Madariaga expresses his philosophical deductions in an essay. For this purpose. but to give expression to thought. emotionally and in every other which he casts his music. . growth from a germinal cell. This is not to suggest that Beethoven was the first to 'think in sound 9 . in however high a sense we interpret the word. Bach had done so in the Art of Fugue (notwithstanding its pedagogical aim) and in the great Ricercare of the Musical Offering. or based on figuration. Beethoven used matter which can be best described as germinal a cell from which a movement grows. is basic. the great architect.f of all styles of composition. to whom But. whether for single always movements or for whole works. too. shows the same principle in operation.

1073 Overture. 3 Overture. and touches upon the domain of the seer and the prophet. 52/2 sionato) Op. No. Leonora. . Coriolan Song-Cycle: An die feme Geliebte Symphony No. C Major C Minor 1094 1319 33 OCX. in unison with all genuine mystics and ethical teachers. identification with the sufferings of all living creatures. 1168 33 OCX. JVb. 1236 KLC 564 33 OCX. 40 ALP. deprecation of sel negation of personality. he delivers a message of religious love and resignation. Piano Sonatas Piano Sonata Op. 5.BEETHOVEN e 177 of the works of the last period can be found than that of Edward Dannreuther: He passes beyond the horizon of a mere singer and poet. 13 and 33 OCX. 1077 LWA. release from the world. 1066 OALP.' RECORDS Beethoven Composer Title Cat. 27/2 Op. OALP. i. 18/1 and 2 Quartet Op. Symphony No. 47 (Kreut&r) Quartets Op. 5016 7 TCA. where. 57 (AppasViolin Sonata Op.

for a court or civic function. Thomas's Church. The utilitarian and the musician. It might be for the Church. taneously there came about a change in the composers' UNTIL all attitude to their art. for domestic or instructional use. Comparable tendencies are observable among The rather rigid formalism of the *Age of Reason' . of which the French Revolution and similar smaller movements were but the more violent manifestations. he would probably have replied. whose aim was at all costs to express himself. for the opera house. It has already been noted that the decline of the patronage system brought about changes in the conditions under which composers worked. 'art for art's sake' was unheardof. or what not. Even such a masterpiece as the St. Had someone commented to him on its greatness (a most unlikely happening at the time). Matthew Passion was written simply because Bach needed a new setting for use at St. without restrictions or inhibitions. but fundamentally it was Gebrauschmusik utility music. that anyone could do as well if he worked hard enough. but the old system of reguSimullarly composing to order no longer held good. as he did in another connection. Composing was looked upon largely as a 'job of work'. approach died out. became an 'artist'.CHAPTER FOURTEEN THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC the latter part of the i8th century practically music was written for a specific purpose or occasion. at least in his own estimation. the poets. Official posts in the Church and the opera house still remained. The new conditions and outlook were part and parcel of the general tendency towards greater freedom.

* is represented by such poets as Goethe. but these were mostly either propaganda or simply controversial. of course. what has been called 'the stiff couplets and clenched quatrains'f was replaced by greater flexibility and variety. To gave way the cool. selves not journalist than as a composer. while possibly the most verbose and controversial of all was Richard Wagner (1813 to 1883). In Germany the new movement. from Musica Enchiriadis onwards. In 1834 Robert Schumann (1810 to 1856) founded the New Journal for Music with the generation of composer-critics addressed themmerely to musicians or students. Of the musical litterateurs whose writings provided both i. had been of an instructional nature. The poet sang. . too. but to the musically educated public. In former times almost all books on music. There were. as well as of the musical literary man. as in the Dramatic and Musical Notices of Carl Maria von Weber (1786 to 1826). The almost rigid versification of 1 8th century. numerous writings on opera. the lyricism of a Shelley. this label is retained for f Louis Untermeyer in The Albatross Book of Living Verse. the rise of the 'literary' musician. thetics as composing The new had hardly been touched. and the musician. con- the began to consider himself as a poet in musical sound. and was followed by Hector Berlioz (1803 to 1869). whose writings were chiefly designed as propaganda for his own works. more appreciated in his lifetime as a musical avowed object of encouraging the poetic principle in music. a tone-poet.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC to 179 a more humanistic and natural approach. * Despite what was said in Chapter convenience. Weber was the first of the line. Aesversely. classical poise of an Alexander Pope succeeds the vision of a William Blake. Romanticism. Schiller and the brothers August and Friedrich Schlegel. rather naturally as long was regarded largely as a 'job to be done'. It is at this time that we find. Franz Liszt (1811 to 1886) wrote voluminously on a wide range of subjects.

usually known as Jean Paul. The musical results of these aims. new possibilities of colour and sonority are continually explored. freedom and self-expression. the Bach family. while Mendelssohn was on relatively easy terms with the British Royal Family. and E. With regard to (<z). notable exceptions Handel. There were. the vital factor is the development of the orchestra. Berlioz and Spohr were sons of physicians. In any case. But we may also think of the Gabrielis. Formerly the great composer had ground most frequently come of a family of musicians. too. who was in some ways the most romantic-minded of all romantic musicians. of course. very broadly speaking. With the coming of the romantics we find composers from a wider range of social strata.i8o A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC background and encouragement to the romantic movement. Mozart and Beethoven. Hoffmann (1776 to 1822). of the musician rose. (b) a relaxation and broadening of the attitude to the importance and function of We now form. son of a wheelwright. Mendelssohn came of a wealthy and cultured family of Jewish bankers. The basic aims of the Romantics were. (d) song. Under the patronage system he normally occupied a subordinate position. son of a surgeon. Schumann's father was a bookseller of considerable culture. Haydn. (c) free and unrestricted expression of personal emo- a tendency to ally music to some literary or other non-musical background. and bolt exerted a great influence on Schumann. were (a) a greater appreciation of sound as such. and so on. From Weber and Schubert onwards. They were the high priests of Romanticism. the Scarlattis. again in very general terms. see a change in the social and cultural backof the musician. the most important were Johann Paul Richter (1763 to 1825). We may note also the cultivation of small-scale works and concentration on the solo tion. The status. A. the musician was generally of humble origin. . now he was admitted to terms of something like equality with wealthy and titled people. T.

The early symphonists of the galant style often solved this problem by almost eliminating any worth-while meaning. demands huge forces. i. His Traite d Instrumentation (1844) is still a standard work. The interaction of form and content has always presented composers with a problem. But the introduction of new or extra instruments was not merely to achieve a greater volume of sound. The romantics' attitude to form is expressed in Berlioz's 9 statement that music must not be based on 'rule but on 'direct reaction to feeling*. The musical god of the romantic . or Schubert's visionary use of the trombones in his great C major symphony. in some of his works. within the accepted limits of classical form. both Berlioz and Wagner are sparing in their use of the full orchestra. as many as eight horns. Near the end of the period lies who could play only the flute and the guitar. in its melodic and harmonic aspects. 9 the orchestral virtuosity of Wagner. and so on. with the sensuous side. for example. stand at the beginning.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 181 composers are not concerned merely with the music as such. and Wagner's colossal music-dramas needed an orchestra of comparable size triple wood wind.e. The orchestra tended to increase in size. In between stands by in certain cases. taken still further Richard Strauss and Edward Elgar. Weber's magic horn which opens the overture to Oberon (the horn was considered a most romantic instrument). Much of their work is little more than well-ordered patterning with notes. ordy the bass clarinet could produce the exact psychological effect that Wagner intended Berlioz. Haydn and Mozart had the genius to combine structural stability with vital content. Berlioz. but with its actual sound-effect. Composers wanted a wider range of colour. Anyone who has heard the Ring will realise that. but whose orchestral imagination was unrivalled. Liszt says much the same: 'The artist may pursue the beautiful outside the rules of the 9 school. To Beethoven's standard requirements were added two more horns and three trombones.

) Liszt. the programme was written after the music. the traditional outlines. Examples from Les Preludes (of which. His forms can still stand as examples of structural 9 perfection. Beethoven was quite pator who 'broke the bonds of of a 'self-expressionist as any professed romantic. Liszt was also largely responsible for developing the system of thematic metamorphosis.i82 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC school was Beethoven. The principle is that a basic theme can be varied in character. would not necessarily fit into the con- classical form. to them he was the great emanciform'. the idee fixe. realised that the idea of programme music could only be carried out logically by breaking with formal tradition and allowing the form to be dictated by the programme in each individual case. The former has five movements instead of the usual four and uses a kind of motto theme. also. broadly. by some kind of modification. however. by the way. Hence his adoption of the title symphonic poem. not before In the opening 'Moods of Spring it) will make this clear. he was still the great architect. and Love* appears this theme: . though not necessarily. of a which acts as a psychological connecting thread. they are symphonies with a programme. but still sym(At least one writer has argued that Berlioz is phonies. still retain. whether an actual story or merely some more or less vaguely The formal problems of the romantics were intensified by their fondness for illustrative music. rhythmic. often. the varied forms of his works in this genre. Berlioz's programme symphonies. But there is no attempt at a complete break with tradition. actually more of a classic than a romantic. a 'programme*. since poetical background. fines the Fantastic and Harold in Italy. and consequently in meaning and significance. as much but they seem at times to have overlooked the fact that however far he may have departed from the classical forms of Haydn and Mozart. by which means ideas or characters can be shown in different lights or situations. however much he may have adapted form in order to express his meaning. and hence.

9 it becomes: Ex. 22 little later to: Andante maestoso In the next Ex. 23 section. it did not replace it. it is modified to: Allegro ma non troppo and later to: Ex. in 'Strife and Victory . 25 Allegro marziale animate Although the symphonic poem originated from the symto phony. the two forms have tended run parallel. 21 183 Andante changed a Ex.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC Ex. 24 Allegro tempestoso Finally. 'Storms of Life'. each developing on its own lines. The first .

and next to Mozart he was possibly the most naturally gifted of all composers. but in his Wanderer Fantaste for piano.e. relatively brief and essentially tuneful. of the thematic material of later movements from that stated initially. the homogeneity of a work as a whole. Then comes Mendelssohn (1809 to 1847)4 He has been described as a romantic-classicist romantic in his attitude to musical sound and in his lyricism. This involves the derivation. classic in his attitude to form. though its results may be musical enough of ensuring. by metamorphosis. those in which material such as a plainsong tune is used thematically for the various movements. yet without losing anything of his essential tunefulness.i84 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC important symphonist of the romantic era was Franz Schubert (1797 to 1828). either in an introduction or in the exposition of the first movement. t His full name was Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. or endeavto ensure. He The effected a fusion of the dramatic and the lyrical. 58 regarding his use of a basic motive. whose methods have already been briefly considered. * The principle is seen as far back as the i6th century in the 'cyclic* masses. i. Chronologically the next important symphonist is Berlioz. he looked forward to later developments in his use of the 'cyclic' principle. G major may seem to some to be diffuse and repetitive Schumann remarked on the 'heavenly length' of its second movement but not a bar can be cut without marring the symmetry and balance. Schubert died before the romantic attitude to form was fully defined. It may even be traced as far back as Machaut see the remark on p. His early symphonies are in the Mozart tradition. Schubert was. if not all. the great C major and the Unfinished.* ouring a homogeneity which the great classics achieved superbly without any such adventitious aid. unexcelled as a melodist. In hi last two symphonies. In the Wanderer the opening subject is the basis of the principal material of each of the three succeeding movements. and remains. The cyclic idea is a method mechanical. of some. . he showed himself capable of thinking in a really extended and dramatic manner.

He lacks the fire of a Berlioz. which are really extended symphonic poems with a non-musical background. 4 (originally No. which are a delight both to the amateur and to the trained musician. Beethoven was not the breaker of the bonds of form. Their titles are Symphony on . and A Faust Symphony. for instance. Structurally the most interesting is No. From Weber to Strauss. His ability symphony. The two flutes wandering about at the top of the score in the slow movement. and while he never indulged in orchestral virtuosity. there is. in so far as they were applicable to his own rather limited style. for example. Dante's Divine Comedy This same principle was used by Liszt in his two symphonies. he was rather the perfector of it. are marred by his lack of ability as an orchestrator. Both make use of thematic metamorphosis. the histrionic (and weakness) of a Liszt. there was little he did not know about the orchestra and its possibilities. 26 Schumann's four symphonies. Mendelssohn rarely touches great depths. he understood 'economy of means'. and the 'horns of elfland faintly blowing in the trio of the minuet* even though two of them are bassoons: Italian 9 Ex. 2). Like his great predecessor. is full of the deftest touches. the earnestness of a Schumann. none could resist its allure.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 185 To him. while containing much delightful music. a not infrequent tendency to shallowness in his work. and both include great choral parts. But of all the romantics he was perhaps the finest craftsman and in this may be compared with Mozart. Perhaps the most outstanding example of * A volume could be written on the romantics* fondness for the horn. which makes some use of the cyclic principle. in fact.

Although many such works overture (1830. Practhematic material is derived from three terse subjects announced in the introduction. or for special occasions. retaining the essential outlines of sonata form. But for quartet and allied were not in many ways he had the most of the romantics the string forms were too purely abstract. some fine works and Schumann also produced a few. poem. classically minded. at first usually based on signification sonata form. Chamber music did not attract the romantics as it did their predecessors. chamber music was priQpintet in E flat. describing it as a 'Characteristic Overture* most have a more or less programmatic they are a kind of miniature symphonic background. after is resumed in fugal style. etc. which development tically all the Apart from their function as introductions to operas or oratorios. they really suitable media for the expression of 'direct reaction to feeling'. of which the best-known and possibly the finest is the Piano In any case. numerous overtures had been written to plays. develop from those of Mozart classic outlook. From being mainly a concerted affair. not introducing anything and not even necessarily used to 'open' a concert. for instance. written for the opening of the Josephstadt Theatre in Vienna. The igth century saw the rise of the concert overture.g. or at least was originally conceived marily as such. as Mendelssohn. domestic music. revised 1832) the have been written as abstract musicBeethoven. his Consecration of the House.. e. Schubert's quartets.i86 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC formal experiment on cyclic lines was Liszt's piano sonata in B minor. It is in one huge movement. The Hebrides was inspired by a visit to those islands. Wagner's Faust Overture. The working out is interrupted by an intermezzo which serves as a slow movement. Beethoven's Coriolanus. e. wrote one about 1807. originally intended as the first movement of a symphony. and domestic music-making now began to change its character. wrote . and Beethoven.g. With Mendelssohn's title Hebrides appears with a new a single movement. is another great example.

was also the era of the greatest virtuosity. and achieved his aim. as Weber. astounding all Europe by his amazing brilliance. In his compositions for piano he discovered and exploited hitherto unheard-of effects and . Herz and Hunten. his thoughts could not be expressed otherwise. as is evident in those of Beethoven. What Paganini could do as a violinist. But with him the difficulties are a matter of necessity. in contrast to the expansiveness of their more extended works. and who took the art of violin-playing to a stage never yet exceeded. Thalberg. the composers could express themselves in a concentrated and intimate manner. with such composers as Mendelssohn. but the intensive cultivation of the short. however. it is simply a means to a purely musical end. with his numerous small-scale pieces (Fantasiestucke. works. We have noted how the Italian violinists tended gradually to exalt the soloist in their concertos. had pointed the way. to supply the literature. There is no suggestion of difficulty for difficulty's sake. and Schumann. increased continually. with his Songs without Words.). it became more a matter for a solo performer. Scenes of Childhood. who. etc. possibly miniature composition is an outcome of romanticism. was famed as a pianist. while stressing for the first time the small-scale tone picture. But the virtuosity of these With such composers paled before that of the violinist Nicol6 Paganini (1782 to 1840). Liszt decided to emulate at the piano. terse mood-pictures. and mention has been made of the rise of the display concerto in the latter part of the 1 8th century. we find a strong tendency to brilliance for its own sake Showing off'. whose technique was such that many believed him to be in league with the Devil. In his early life he spent many years as a touring virtuoso.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 187 it had been since the days of the sonata a tre. It is a rather odd contradiction that the romantic era. in his early years. The purely technical difficulty of concert whether concertos or sonatas. the domestic supremacy of the piano now begins. In their little tone pictures. Waldscenen. Such works as Beethoven's Bagatelles.

A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC and his influence still persists. It is not the same as the 18th-century Nottwrno meaning literally 'night-music'. op.) Chopin's Preludes and many of his Mazurkas show him to be unexcelled as a miniaturist. Hunten and Thalberg. but in this instance he did not err. while Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg (1760 to 1802) was a pioneer of the dramatic and narrative ballad. an art which comes to the fore for the first time since the days of the Elizabethan lutenists. of a melody with arpeggio accompaniment. Both Mozart and Beethoven wrote a certain number of songs. and died in Paris in 1849. There great originality and a strong poetic impulse in everything he wrote. were revelatory. however. Chopin was a pianist pure and simple. The aim of this form is the description of an event. gentlemen. and while his handling of form is at times distinctly unorthodox. 286. in 1810. a genius'. but his interpretations of Beethoven. . * The nocturac which 3 Chopin raised to the highest pitch of perfection. while such works as the Polonaises and the Ballades. We come now to some consideration of song writing. and his compositions in other media are negligible. for example. was not merely a purveyor of pianistic fireworks. 9 d darem la mano. was given its character. while Chopin once wrote I should c : like to steal from him the way to play What Liszt achieved in brilliance. by the Irishman John Field (1782-1837). was rather apt to confuse geese and swans. Not that it had ever been entirely neglected. prove his mastery of the larger scale. (Admittedly Schumann. Schumann's famous remark. 2. especially perhaps the latter. Liszt.!88 sonorities. The Nocturnes* show that as a melodist he stands in the is same class as Schubert. as were Herz. in his eagerness to encourage young composers. Admittedly he was not averse to playing to the gallery. is evidence enough of the impression made by his work as early as the variations on La my own Etudes. it is fundamentally logical. while in the Etudes he proved that the study of advanced technique need not involve the dullness of a Czerny. He was born. near Warsaw. Chopin matched in poetry. as used by Mozart in K. 'Hats off.

The In Zumsteeg's ballads. covers every style. over 600. In his treatment of the vocal part. whose ballads often achieve considerable vividness and dramatic power. the piano part is at least half the making of the song. it could almost be dispensed with. Heidenroslein might almost be a folk-song. ex- that natural element. that is. not so much a mere accompaniment as a commentary on the words. both of whom helped to found and develop the German lied or 'art song . in which the instrumental part is as important as that for the voice. the settings themselves always show the maximum . the terrified child. for each of several 9 verses. the frenzied galloping ofthe horse. and the instrumental part voice part is fundamentally a tune. is a subordinate accompaniment. many the greatest. since his amazing facility he once wrote eight songs in a single day led him at times to set verses of poor quality. some- words. Zumsteeg was followed by the much greater Carl Loewe (1796 to 1869). in the latter. are all typical. An die Musik gives us sophisticated melody of extraordinary beauty. But whatever the value of the poems was wide and varied. the same music is used.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 189 or chain of events. the instrumental part is often of greater importance. and in the opinion of ponent of the true lied was Schubert. Songs of their time are normally strophic. Schubert's choice of times perhaps too much so. The first. ErlkSnig is almost a complete exposiThe storm. basically. while in Erlkonig we have dramatic recitative of awesome intensity. however. and it is in this that we see the beginnings of the fully developed lied. a duet for voice and piano. We may also note Mendelssohn's teacher. Schubert covers an enormous range. Carl Zdter (1765 to 1832) and Johann Reichardt (1752 to 1814). and the final tragic climax *In his arms the child lay dead' with the vivid characterisation. the supertion of Romanticism in itself. from the simplicity of the well-known Heidenroslein to the intense drama of In the former the accompaniment is so slender Erlkonig. His enormous output of songs.

9 Beethoven's An die feme Geliebte ('To the Distant Beloved') of 1816 antedates Schubert's Maid of the Mill by seven years. In these. in which the voice part predominates. After Liszt the line passes through Brahms and Hugo Wolf. Brahms will be considered later. he was born to be a song writer. notably Schumann's Frauenliebe undLeben ('Woman's Love and Life') and Dichterliebe ('A Poet's Love'). Schumann proves himself the true inheritor of the tradition established by Schubert. Like his predecessor. so that the whole series constitutes an entity. Apart from separate songs. although hardly comparable in value to those of Schubert and Schumann. the year of his marriage to Clara WiecL This victory after a long struggle against the opposition of his prospective father-inlaw unlocked the floodgates of song. Mendelssohn looks back rather to the strophic style of Zelter and Reichardt. The idea was not new. his treatment of the vocal part is infinitely varied. are in the true lied tradition. the words of both being by the poet Wilhelm Muller. and no songwriter has ever created a juster balance between words and by a . and had he written nothing eke. The first known example dates from the early years of the I7th century. Unlike Schubert. many of which. Schumann rarely if ever set words which lacked some literary distinction. Schumann wrote no songs until 1840. Schubert wrote the song-cycles Die SckSne Mullmn (The Beautiful Maid of the Mill ) and Lie Winteneise ('Winter Journey'). Wolf (1860 to 1903) developed the 'duet' principle of the lied to the limit. and in the one year he wrote over one hundred. Liszt is represented collection of fifty-five songs (1860). numbers of such cycles have been written. Under the German title of Liederkreis (song-rircfe). his fame would be assured. of insight. Of Schumann's contemporaries. Since Schubert's time. The idea of a song-cycle is a group of songs with a continuous underlying theme or story. as is his inventiveness on the instrumental side.igo A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Schubert was not only born to be a musician. as in all his songs.

his sets on a theme of Handel. He was. Johannes Brahms (1833 to 1897) may k e described as a classic romanticist. he was a master of variation-writing. the three piano sonatas. and in his article 'New Paths .THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC nusic. as he developed. of an unknown youngster of twenty. like His early works. Schumann took him to his heart. Although Brahms was far from making consistent use of . controlled his essential romanticism by a classic regard for form. Seated at the piano. even though he had not quite the same complete mastery of form. an . one man who would bring us mastery. Like Beethoven. in fact. but a fusion of the two. what he did not know about the writing of songs was not worth the knowing. referred to him as 'one man who would be singled out to make articulate in an ideal way the highest expression of our time. igi him was poetry absorbed and recreated n terms of something which was neither melody by itself jrove: 'A song to lor He may best be summed up by a quotation from mere declamation. Like Beethoven.g. Anthony Chorale and on the theme of Paganini ranking with those of the older master and of altogether inspired style of playing which made of the 9 piano an orchestra of lamenting and exultant voices. E flat minor. the discarding of 'rule' advocated by Berlioz. Hairnot he was the greatest 9 we may say that. . songs were his life. iplitting arguments as to whether or rf all song-writers are immaterial. the true successor of Beethoven. Schubert.. with as much intensity as any belligerent romantic. But. written in 1853. If Mendelssohn was a romantic classicist. unlike Schubert. on the St. e. But Brahms. the Scherzo in are very clearly the production of a whole9 hearted romantic outlook. This Bach. Not for him were the structural experiments of a Liszt.. without disregarding the vital necessity of structural stability and without the continual need for some literary or programmatic impulse. he knew little else. too. he found it possible to express himself to the full. etc.. he at once discovered to us wondrous regions . .

29 Sir Edward Elgar made the penetrating remark that the latter is the 'tragic outcome* of the former. op. in which the three movements are related persistence of a rhythmic motive: by the . 28 the same work. i. metamorphosed in significance. The subtlety that lies in the art of concealing art is often evident in Brahms. the first subject of the last movement is clearly derived from that of the first. cyclic In the There are occasional instances of thematic cross-referencing. The second MM mh gives rise in the latter to: i | i i |i Ex. as in the third symphony where the first subject of the opening movement round returns.i 92 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC methods. there are occasional instances in his work. A and fourth movements of subject of the former: Ex. We may instance the major violin G sonata. first piano sonata. to more subtle case occurs in the second off the last.

where the basic motive is melodic: Ex.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 193 III This kind of thing is far from being obvious. where the basic idea of a threenote anacrusis to an accent is quite clear in the first. It is seen in Beethoven's sth Symphony. in the second symphony. third and last movements: . though it clearly opened up a path which has been followed by many later composers. and it is not until the work has been carefully studied that its significance is realised. being inverted in the third. 31 The essential fall and rise of a step occurs in the thematic material of all the movements. 9 This kind of 'germinal procedure was not invented by Brahms. Similarly.

rather It it is the music itself which he forces on our attention. Such well arise without the cominterrelationships may quite of them.34 Wf" first. though he had as keen an appreciation of tone-colour as most of his contemporaries.I94 A SHORT HISTORY OF MUSIC extent this is arguable. his in G minor. But he rarely insists on sound as such. ^His use of the orchestra. as is his chamber music. Matthew . is an integral part of his style. in the piano the of the fugue: sonata. A Brahms symphony rescored would cease to be Brahms. His handling of the instruments is irreproachable. which contains some of * It may be well to point out that this game of tracing thematic relationships can be carried to idiotic extremes. St. Similarly. has sometimes been suggested that Brahms 'could not score . only to be pointed out after poser being aware event by the keen-eyed analyst. being produced when he was forty-three years old. however far removed from that of a Berlioz or a Wagner. where the subject To what was intentional if may first r if r if first f f\r subject of the (or may not) be derived from the movement:* Ex. Jjrair 1 f ir r Brahms approached the symphony with diffidence. op. but this is a misstatement. He was no orchestral virtuoso. no. If taken far enough it can lead to such fatuity as suggesting that the fugue subject in Brahms' E minor 'cello Passion! The sonata is derived from the opening of the reader may care to work this out for himself. 9 Brahms' classic^tendencies are seen in his output of his finest work.

not mere flashy display. but here again the classic outlook appears. The Masses of Schubert. Unlike some later comtries to make a quartet sound like a string posers. the Bach cantatas. and in many of its the songs there are influences from the German Volkslied or folksong. lack the It while St. In his songs Brahms relies more on melody than on declamation. to biblical words. In his later years Brahms produced a number of short but intensely concentrated Intermezzi and Capricci. As a orchestra. while not by any means reducing the piano part to a mere subordinate accompaniment. tradition. many by other composers. . Even in the two concertos Brahms does not indulge in virtuosity for own sake. true liturgical appropriateness of. while not perhaps greatly interested in the niceties of ecclesiastical dogma. which form a fitting apotheosis to the work of one who. and each is in a perfectly balanced form. No song-writer surpassed him in emotional intensity or intimacy of expression. The same applies to the far from easy violin concerto. remains to deal briefly with choral works of the romantic period. he tends on the whole to tip the balance in favour of the voice. The strophic plan of treatment is most usual. e. it is natural that many of his works for the instrument are of considerable technical difficulty. Liszt and Schumann. His last published compositions were the Four Serious Songs. the most difficult or brilliant passages are an integral part of the work. The church music is rarely of any great value. despite fine moments. In his oratorios Paul and Elijah Mendelssohn developed the Handel in his own idiom. with some admixture of Bach. were conceived chiefly as 'concert Masses*. the Intermezzi being in steady tempo and the Capricci Each is a complete little tone-poem.THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC 195 feeling for the appropriate style. first-rate pianist himself. say. They are in varied styles. was one of the most sincere and earnest-minded of all the great musicians. a mood with singular clarity and distinction. pin-pointing less so.g. he never nor does he 'stunt' with the instruments.

In it. F Minor Sonata. Song Cycle. 2. 5025 Brahms D LXT. ALP. 1006 OCX. 1039 Mendelssohn Overtures Symphony Berlioz A major (Italian) LXTA. Symphony No. OALP. but rather a meditation on death a forerunner of the Four Serious Songs. 133 A Flat 33 33 Liszt Les Preludes (orchestra) Hungarian Rhapsodies Piano Concertos Violin Concerto. C major Song Recital Quintet in No.196 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC and St. the Song of Destiny and the Alto Rhapsody Brahms proved that his mastery of choral writing was no less than of any other branch of music. CX. B Minor Chopin Recital Polonaise in CX. B flat Symphony No. 1001 LX. Camaval (piano) A Minor D Minor und Leben LXTA. as in his other choral works the Triumph Song. 8 (Unfinished) Symphony No. 1061 33 C major LXT. for which the impulse came primarily from the death of his mother in 1865. 2566 2723 . It is not a requiem Mass. 3074 2556 2j Chopin Two Etudes Concerto. Piano Concerto. 1066 LX. RECORDS Schubert Composer Title Cat. 1203 33 OCX. 9. Possibly the greatest sacred choral work of the period is Brahms's German Requiem. Major Piano Concerto. Elizabeth Liszt's Christus are effective and highly characteristic of their composer. 2719 33 CX. 1013 OSX. 33 OC. 33 Frauenliebe LXTA. B Flat OSX. 33 2961 1325 Fantastic Symphony 4. 1040 CLP. 1206 2887 Schumann Symphony No. 1014 LXT. LXT.

THE ROMANTICS AND THEIR MUSIC Brahms (contd. 1152 2843 2935 2850 . Cat. F Major C Minor OALP. LXTA. LXTA. LXTA. i.) 197 Composer Title Piano recital Four Songs Symphony No. Symphony No. No. 3.

and is the direct successor of Wranitzky's work of the same name. Euryantke. * Mozart's Seraglio is an example. . the supernatural (one of the characters has sold his soul to the Devil) . completed in 1820. in Italy. new tendencies IN appear in the latter part of the i8th century. and so on. of which the best known example is perhaps Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel of 1893. as it was of opera buffa and opera comique. In Germany similar changes came about. it is a full-dress 'grand' opera. we find also the fondness for the fantastic and the Oriental. France and Germany. while the plot contains all the ingredients which were so dear to the romantics magic. raised the singspiel to a new level (it has spoken dialogue). leading to the style which is usually known as Romantic Opera. k based on a medieval plot. which followed in 1823. Especially notable are the vividness of the orchestration and the general effectiveness of both solo and choral writing. and discards the spoken dialogue. 'Turkish' opera was a distinct fashion from about 1770 onwards. His Der Freischiitt.* while Wranitzky's Oberon.CHAPTER FIFTEEN ROMANTIC OPERA Chapter 12 a brief sketch was given of the way in which the character of opera changed in France and Italy in the period around 1800. Opera'. As in France. As well as the lack of conventions which was typical of the singspiel. King of the Fairies may be considered the prototype of the 'fairy-tale opera'. Weber is usually regarded as the real founder of German romantic opera. the first use 9 of the term 'romantic being in the subtitle of Gotthilf von Baumgarten's setting of a libretto based on that of Gretry's It is 'described as a 'Romantic-Comic Zfmire et Azor. Oberon (1826) returns to spoken dialogue.

Audiences were as yet far from being trained to sit silent through the hour and a half (or more) which Wagner sometimes demands for a single act. We have seen how Gluck insisted that the overture should prepare the audience for the opera itself. thereby stressing still further their integral function. whose The Vampire (1823) an <l Templar and Jewess (1829. The romantic style was followed by Heinrich Marschner (1795 to 1861). The use of the term 'musical drama' is significant. entitled his later works 'music drama' rather than 'opera'. to quote the composer's own words. Schumann's one opera. it was hardly theatrical enough for the audiences of the time. It was criticised. Weber builds his overtures almost entirely from material which is to be used later. This style was taken farther by Louis Spohr in his The Crusaders (1845) . . This is notable for the plan of the prologue. Wagner. and complained that the possibility of the singers 'being accorded immediate applause is eliminated'. Although the value of much of the music was recognised by at least one of the critics. somewhat as a musical drama'. at the end of which they could receive their meed of clapping and bravos. With* Richard Wagner (1813 to 1883) we come to the . Genoveva. the biographer of Mozart. was a complete failure on its production in 1850. in Don Giovanni. based broadly on Scott's Ivanhoe) show it at its crudest and most violently melodramatic. and the singers still preferred the separate recitative and aria. It is 'through-composed'. and how Mozart. is 'throughcomposed . too. for its lack of separate 'numbers'.ROMANTIC OPERA 199 Weber's treatment of the overture shows a notable advance. at that time thirty-two years old. which. Otto Jahn. in which spoken dialogue and set 'numbers' are dispensed with. remarked on the great amount of effort it demanded of the listeners. His best work is Hans Heiling (1833). foreshadowing the continuity on which Wagner insisted in his later works. a continuous move- ment for solo and chorus. opens with a reference to the dramatic climax of the whole work.

it must be admitted. Both as a musician and a reformer. op. often. while the latter. is a grand opera in the manner of Meyerbeer. due to his tion for others. Wagner developed slowly. produced in 1834. was an utter failure. For the greater part of his lite he had to struggle against adversity. nor do his first two operas. The former had to wait until five years after his death for its first performance. Musically the Dutchman carries on the tendency to continuity which is seen in such works as Hans Heiling. achieved. Die Feen and Das Liebesverbot. in his approach. The ban on Saxony was lifted in 1862. when he received permission to re-enter any state except Saxony. In the Flying Dutchman (1841). Rienzi.zoo A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC great reformer of opera. his next work. thanks to the At Bayreuth was generosity of Ludwig II of Bavaria. The orchestra begins to occupy a more important position. The . settled in Zurich. A cardinal doctrine of the later Wagner was that plots for operas should be based on folk-lore. who. and here he was able to superintend the production of his works on the scale and in the manner which he had always intended but had rarely. we find strong pointers to what was to come. for example give no hint of the genius of the Ring or the Mastersingers. where his political activities had originally led to his exile. and after a short stay in Paris. own impetuosity and lack of considera- In 1849 he had to flee from Germany. tending to provide a commentary on the and as blatant action. and is notable also as being a northern legend. if ever. was the lineal descendant of Gluck. chased by a warrant for his arrest as a 'politically dangerous individual'. The story is in the best romantic tradition. however. as any work of that composer. In 1864 he at last achieved an assured position. i. He was banned from returning to Germany until 1861. His few early non-operatic works the piano sonata. develop use of the leit-motif principle also begins to the principle which is so vital in the thematic construction and the texture of the later works. erected the Festival Theatre.

or what not. staging. aims of its founders. in see that whatever Wagner may have thought of himself as he matters most as a musician. and be thought of as musical drama. in the overture. Of Tannhauser (produced 1845) and Lohengrin latter shows the greater advance in technique. generally short. it The action ber'. dramatist. The plot should be based on national legend.. Opera must go back to the original the (completed 1848). his conclusions may marised as follows. The will give orchestra. the orchestra. All the factors concerned libretto. scene. rhythmic. both based on Teutonic legends.ROMANTIC OPERA The leit-motif aoi or 'leading theme' is a passage. idea. according to the needs of the situation at any given moment. The vocal writing must vary betherefore be discarded. Their use in capacity. Wagner did a great deal of heavy thinkDuring his arguments ing on the problems of opera. are of equal importance. While there are still passages in Tamhauser. not an end in itself. and very broadly. harmonic. cast into alliterative . associated with some particular character. or a combination of them. singing. As used by Wagner in his later works. The and conclusions in his essays Art Work of the Future (1850) and Opera and Drama (1852). a continuous commentary on the action. etc. be sumBriefly. tween pure recitative and song-like melody. but the principle begins to emerge. it must be the means of expression of it. for example. utilising a texture of leading themes. by 'exciting our feeling from a general state must not be held up by the 'set num- The aria as such of tension to a special sensation of premonition'. expounding Art and Revolution (1849). It also shows the musical side of Wagner's nature rapidly developwhich look back to the ing. poet. acting. leading themes not only serve in an illustrative and unity. etc. The music must no longer be allowed to override the unfolding of the drama. but also give coherence the Flying Dutchman is undeveloped. It may be primarily melodic. must must unfold continuously. the prelude to Act i. and must begin. his exile. there are than style of Rmdt though fewer which we can others.

but nobody. Not that he ever dropped back to the 'melody opera' of former times. while that of The Mastersingers is in normal The *set piece' appears. of which Mr. The increasingly imlikely to cavil on that account. From the Dutchman onwards his ideas graduillustrative an idiom. It must be realised that Wagner. in which the whole action is held up while five people express their feelings and emotions is almost pure at all. Tristan and Isolda. it provides. the musician pure and simple cannot be restrained. We may note that Wagner always wrote his own In Rhinegold. * The of the Gods. tells the story in its own symphonic poem which runs concurrently with the action on the stage. Still more outside the strict theory of Opera and Drama is the quintet in the last act of The Mastersingers. The way 1 8th century. as Prof. as well as in his other works. The orchestra. The poem of Tristan is not entirely alliterative. although rightly called a reformer. others. libretti. without voices at all. .* Wagner carries out his theories with considerable strictness. Ernest Newman once remarked that it has no right to be there and yet is the emotional climax of the whole work. are The Valkyrie. as it were. But. portant role of the orchestra is evidenced by the fact that sections of the music dramas are sometimes performed as concert pieces.202 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC poetry. The Mastersingers ofNuremberg^ and Parsifal. so that the music itself tends to become the predominant factor. rhymed kyrie. but in the re- maining three. in the face of such sheer beauty. Siegfried. Gerald Abraham says. even in The Val- Siegmund's Spring Song is an example. verse. ally crystallised. the first of the huge tetralogy of music dramas known as The Ring of the Nibelungen. in order.f 'Wagner was no rigid doctrinaire*. in is fact. reaching their full expression in the Ring and later works. did not simply sit down and think out in cold blood a new way of writing opera. and The Twilight t In A Hundred Tears of Music.

His operatic career falls into four periods. opera was far from being a mere 'concert in costume'. In the second period are Rigoletto.ROMANTIC OPERA 203 Wagner was not only an operatic reformer. but with greater dramatic power and greater earnestness than the older man had ever achieved. in which vocal melody was all-important. talcing the style of Donizetti to a climax. despite his adherence to tradition in the importance of the voice and the relative unimportance of the orchestra. with whom he was for long on terms of intimacy. and whose daughter Gosima he married as his second wife. like some of his successors. Mention of . it was a serious matter. attempt to 'invent' a new his system. he simply expanded on the basis of tradition. thereby creating a system which was perfectly adapted to own expressive ends. M Trovatore and La Traviata. He was brought up in the Italian tradition. in a letter to Hans von Biilow. Liszt's harmonic innovations are at times quite startling. In this direction he was to some extent indebted to Liszt. was to the Wagnerians. Wagner was not eager to admit what he had learned from Liszt. At the other end of the operatic scale from Wagner stands contemporary Giuseppe Verdi (1813 to 1901). Cosima's first husband. Verdi was no reformer. He did not. such as Oberto and Ernani. during which he had more or less success with works which are now almost forgotten. first highest point. To the Wagnerians since he stood for all that they was a time of apprenticeship. and in some of his latest piano works he anticipates procedures which are customarily associated more with such a composer as Debussy. To Verdi. his harmony developed in the direction of intense use of chromaticism. or rather developer. though he did so once. Broadly speaking. who was not born until 1862. In these the style of Bellini and Donizetti is evident. in a somewhat secretive manner. he was also a harmonic innovator. and a loosening of the bonds of key. and his great raised the style to his its name was anathema. as it The despised in opera. In these he really found himself. up to 1850.

Wagner's Faust overture has already been mentioned. almost every writer of operas since his day. although it may appear superficially to be rather theatrical in conception and outlook. The Vespers. subtle use of the orchestra. Don Carlos. Without imitating Wagner. whose one really . found no difficulty in providing a really great work. for the opening of the Suez Canal in 1871. The Masked Ball and The Force of Destiny. there is always underlying sincerity. this is grand opera to the French It is followed by three purely Italian operas. and then another work for Paris. but in that year he produced both based on In them a transfigured style is seen. Until 1887 Verdi wrote no more operas. Even in his early operas his characters are alive. who took no small part in the shaping of the libretto. Verdi makes of Othello a music drama. with The Sicilian written for Paris. is nevertheless of the greatest power and sincerity.204 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC opera. of such beauty that we can only regret its lack of successors. taste. they are not mere stage puppets. Falstaff is the apotheosis of but at the same time employs the principle of music drama as seen through the eyes of its composer. from 1855. It was written to order. or art in general. and in 1893 Falstaff. opera buffa. Wagner's ideas have affected. In all of these there is increasing control of the medium and increasing importance is given to the orchestra. to a greater or less degree. Verdi's one great non-operatic work is the Requiem Mass which. Simon* Boccanegra. with highly expressive declamation and a rich and Othello. at a time when the practice of com- missioning operas had fallen into disuse. a grand opera in every sense of the word. as 'entertainment' infuriated him. But Verdi. third period begins. And however melodramatic he may seem at times. The climax of this period comes with Aida. the Shakespearian characters. including Englebert Humperdinck (1854 to 1921). though there is some use of the leit-motif principle. His only other notable work is the Siegfried Idyll. Neither Wagner nor Verdi wrote much of importance apart from their stage works.

Although his popularity rests Boheme. sometimes melodramatic effect.ROMANTIC OPERA successful work. while the orchestration is masterly. most important successors were Ruggiero Pietro Mascagni and Giacomo Puccini. The Leoncavallo. Rather later ( 1 877} is Saint-Sagns's well-known Samson and Delilah. 205 has been described as works. his harmony shows some originality. While not a 'modern' in the colloquial sense. too. Both comhad a more than adequate feeling for dramatic. at least. showing to some extent interest of his scenes Wagnerian influence in the musically sustained and in his modified use of the leit-motif. while Peter Cornelius's Barber of Baghdad (1858). though never a great success. with a complete lack of anything Wagnerian. Berlioz. it is typically French in its economy and deftness. Puccini was a greater musician. exhibits its In Italy. In France the style of Meyerbeer's grand opera was followed by Jacques Hatevy (1799 to 1862). unfinished work. Verdi's Pagliacci posers and Cavallena Rusticana respectively. first two of these are famous chiefly for one work each. Despite some use (1875) of a pseudo-Spanish idiom. Hansel and Gretel. he reached perhaps his greatest heights in his last. without being obviously obtrusive. and his orchestration is masterly. still holds its place in their work. and the aria. is Carmen Possibly the greatest French opera of the period by Georges Bizet (1838 to 1875). The more lyrical opera is represented by Gounod's Faust (1859) and Romeo and Juliet (1867). Otto Wives of Windsor (1849) *s a delightful example of German opera buffa. in all of which the accent is on lyrical melody. Of non-Wagnerian Nicolai's Merry composer's fine lyrical talent. Their use of the orchestra is approximately that of the late Verdi. is a greater work than the rarity of its performance would suggest. now known only by La Juive. 'Wagner for children'. Tosca and Madame mainly on such operas as La Butterfly. F&icien David's Lalla Rookh (1862) and Ambroise Thomas's Mignon (1866). Twrandot. produced Benoenuto Cellini and The Trojans9 of which the latter. .

1076 DIP. Oberm Overture. 1858 Prize T OALP. Bizet.6oi8 OALP.ioS DB. No. Operatic arias Excerpts from 700003 1204 33 OCX. Elsa's 5o3 8 Dream (kkngrk) Song (Mtutompr) JJ "Dl_* yRO. AK. RECORDS Cat. 1014 OALP. Carm SELO.so6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC some limitations. Leoncavallo Puccini Bizet 1284 GEPO. Ritnv OALP. and in Carmn he produced a masterpiece.3094 OALP. 1014 Brunnhilde's Immolation Siegfried IdyU 7EB0. 1086 Verdi CdtsUAih (AM) ts-/J A 6010 Pooa 30ii6EPL Tmaton Verdi Recital LXA. notwithstanding was possibly the most naturally gifted French musician of his time. 1069 1820/1 LWA. Weber Cavatlna from DerFreiscktz Overture. 1538 .

and we may. and to decide which tendencies are likely to have a lasting effect on the development of music. there has been. from about the middle of the igth century. We shall now deal briefly with some consideration of national movements. may be romantic in his outlook. must be realised that not every composer has been vitally affected by all or any of the newer ideas. A nationalist. these together with It in harmony and form. be thrown off our critical balance by the impact of new ideas. An instance of this is to 1915). we find the late romanticism of Elgar and Strauss running parallel with the 'advanced* modernity of Schonberg and Bart6k. but gradually developed his own advanced harmonic style. Our judgment of contemporary or near-contemporary art is almost inevitably coloured by personal preference. as has so often happened in earlier ages. contemporary with them. and idiom. As we draw nearer to our own times it becomes more and more difficult to assess the value and importance of the work of composers and schools of thought. In the past hundred years. In the present century.CHAPTER SIXTEEN AND NATIONALISTS Chapter 14 some reference was made to developments LATE ROMANTICS IN developments in the hands of a later generation. His later works had a highly personal to be seen in the case of Alexander Scriabin (18752 He began by writing in a kind of post-Chopin . as it were. for example. have been content to depart little if at all from traditional methods. while others. for instance. but not every Some composers have late romantic was a nationalist. pursued new lines of thought to a considerable degree. a good deal of overlapping of styles.

while if it is thin by nature. F. Cesar Franck (1822 to 1890). Properly to assess the work of a composer or the value of a trend of thought we need to be at a distance. so as to view things whole and to see them in perspective. t E. and we find wide differences between contemporaries.ao8 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC startling effect in the period around the First World War. time only reveals its weakness and age its acidity. The pioneers of harmonic development were. so as to give the audience a better chance of understanding it.' acts Henry Wood . His new path turned out to be a cul-de-sac. Dvofak (1841 to 1904). But he is now seen to have dealt merely in a sort of over-ripe romanticism.! Three and a half centuries ago Gesualdo was as startling as was Scriabin between 1910 and 1925. as has already been stated. Wagner and Liszt. the fuller savour of the sunshine in which the berries ripened. we can now see that his expert mentalism was sterile. on the other hand. we have to be able to look back over a period of time. maturing and bringing out. was content with a relatively limited harmonic vocabulary and a very moderate use of chromaticism. for example. The Wagnerian tendencies are ception of tonality (key) and discord and chromaticism. His vocabulary was more extensive and his use of it highly personal. Not every composer has been equally affected by their innovations. Benson puts the matter pointedly in his As We Were: 'Time on sound work much as it does on the vintages of the grape. if the juice be noble. It marked by a broader conan increasingly free use of is not merely an expansion of the range of keys used within a * movement late Sir as in the He was considered so 'advanced* that the performed his symphonic poem Prometheus twice at one concert. And it is worth recalling that in their own day Telemann was considered a much greater composer than Bach.* and in many quarters he was deemed to have opened up a new path of vital importance. We are now far enough from the second half of the igth century to be able to distinguish what is really important from what is less so. employed a great deal of high-powered chromaticism.

if not lies symphony and comparable instances. and one would merge into the other according to the expressive needs of the moment. juxtaposition of the chords and the resultant vagueness of key which are new. The 5 obscured. In this advanced chromaticism and the expansion of tonality we may see a parallel with what happened to the modal system during the late i6th and The early iyth centuries. even the combination at It is the (a) can be explained in purely academic terms.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS Eroica 209 ment an developin the use of chromaticism. Their vocabularies included both the old and the new. In Woteafs Farewell (the closing scene of the Valkyrie) the pass- age quoted above is immediately followed by a long stretch of almost undiluted diatonic writing. sometimes to such extent that the tonality becomes almost.35 There are no new chords here. It should not be thought that Wagner and his followers necessarily employed such methods to the c 9 exclusion of anything eke. use of musicajicta gradually destroyed the individuality of the modes and paved the way for the major-minor scale . Ex. This 'stretching of tonality may be illustrated 5 the 'Magic Sleep motive in Wagner's Valkyrie: by entirely.

became more and more integral in the structure of his music-dramas. A view of the processes as they arose in the work of one composer . together with the employment of the orchestra as something very much more than a mere accompanying instrument. his ideas have affected almost every writer of opera since his day. Directly or indirectly. The chromaticism of the late igth century created conditions under which new technical methods could .* In the opinion of some the day of the major-minor system is over. But the principle of continuity at least has been taken for granted. Not that all have made such consistent use of the leading-theme principle. nor has the orchestra necessarily been used to provide a kind of symphonic poem concurrent with the stage action. tending to the disintegration of classical tonality.2io A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC system. Tschaikovsky (1840 to 1893) provides obvious examples in his 4th and 5th symphonies. We have referred to Berlioz's use of the idetfixe as a method of binding together the movements of a symphony. We have seen how Wagner's We theories of opera led him to the virtual abolition of the set number and to the greatest possible continuity of dramatic action and musical have also noted how his use of the orchestra thought. In the former the motto reappears (in the first and last movements only) always in the * may be studied in Arnold Schonberg et son osuore by Rene* Leibowitz (libraire Janin). A few aspects of formal development must now be considered. It is not proposed to argue the point here. emerge. unfortunately not available in an English translation. In instrumental music the developments of the earlier romantics have followed a logical course. but it may perhaps be pointed out that there are still composers of international reputation who seem to find something vital to say without severing all links with tradition. This is paralleled among the later romantics a 'motto theme' practically another name for the same thing announced in an introduction and brought in at by the frequent introduction of dramatically appropriate points in the course of the work.

the motto tend to associate themselves with later material. in some cases whole-heartedly. though the extent to which they are deliberate is at times debatable. compare the first subject of the first movement with the theme of the variations in the finale: piano sonata has been widely adopted. The work of many composers of the last hundred years abounds in such thematic interrelationships. There is movements. no particular and is found. Ana and Finale for piano. A case which we may take as intentional occurs in the 4th symphony of Dvorak. The Brahmsian art of concealing art by the use of a germinal figure ist is undergoing some metamorphosis. in others only parFor the former we may turn to the piano concerto tially. though its effectiveness is undeniable. more subtle We may refer also to Sibelius's 4th symphony with its almost obsessive insistence on the interval of the augmented 4th. in Elgar's where the initial descending four notes of symphony. which copies the Liszt sonata even to the enunciation of three basic themes in an Wanderer Fantasie The cyclic principle exhibited in such works as Schubert's and Liszt's introduction. in Franck's violin sonata Partial application of the principle is seen and his Prelude. of Rimsky-Korsakov (1864 to 1908). among other works. In his one symphony Franck uses thematic cross-reference. for instance.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS same form and with the same stated. material from the first two . 211 significance as it is originally In the latter it recurs in all the later subtlety in this.

and among its offspring may be mentioned Franck's symphony. Elgar's two symphonies provide good examples. Possibly more than any of his contemporaries he achieved an integra* first An excellent movement of the little some example of such a 'concealed opening' occurs in the sonata. the Finn Jean Sibelius (1865 to 1957). op. in the ist. (c) triumph. Another development arising from the romantic outlook the frequent use of an 'emotional programme' in extended works.) There is generally something which. movement of (The way was pointed by Mozart in the last the Jupiter symphony. Sibelius's 2nd and Tschaikovsky's 4th and 5th. and perhaps the most common. light is (b) relaxation. The most obvious. In his 6th (Pathttique] the last-named composer effectively modified what looked like developing into the same programme. but it is. from its character and possibly its key. While the late romantics concerned themselves largely with problems of form. ending in the depths of despair. . in the last. The progenitor is Beethoven's 5th symphony. Dvorak takes the idea farther in his New World symphony. may be labelled as the beginning of the second group. ideas which occur in both first and second groups. Elgar's ist. incorporating themes from the first two movements into the show further development of Beethoven's attitude to the composition of subject-matter. metamorphosed. is a kind of ascent from darkness to (a] struggle. His treatment of the bridge-passage as part of the thematic material development of thej&wzfe. including.212 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC movements recurring. The reader may care to spend time deciding exactly where the second group begins. only the first among equals. so to speak. 1 10. The later romantics and his tendency to avoid any obvious indication of the beginning of the second group* has led composers to treat the exposition as one consolidated lump of subjectmatter. one composer stands out as the inheritor of the classical outlook and the truly architectural mind.

practically everything arises from a single short basic theme. is 'flutter-tonguing' on .Far more than Liszt he allowed form to be dictated by programme.* He employed in a masterly fashion. but it may be pointed out that the principle is merely an extension of that used in. via the tremendous compression of the first movement of No. so that no is possible without preof the literary background. 5. metamorphosis being real understanding of the music to the as the bleating of sheep in the second of the uncanny reproduction of non-musical sounds such Don Quixote Pastoral symphony. Nationalism has two aspects. each race has produced its own interpretation of the common stock of technique and style. as may be seen in his symphonic poem Tapiola. or of the precision and elegance of the French. and this applies also in some of his operatic writing. The reader referred to Sibelius. in scher& of No. the 'storm* variations-! approach of the Germans and their frequent tendency to complexity. of the movement of Beethoven's The question then arises whether such procedures are musically justifiable. for those t The method. to the entirely original one movement. for example. by Gerald Abraham (Lindsay Drummond). who are interested. 4 and the 'telescoping of first 9 movement and structure. We may think. From the rather angular sonata form basis of his ist symphony he progressed. Where Strauss goes knowledge farther than any of his predecessors. for example. the innate and the cultivated. 7. possibly the greatest masterpiece of musical architecture since Beethoven.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS tion of 313 form and content unsurpassed since Beethoven. even was a master of 'economy of means'. Development of the symphonic poem is associated largely with Richard Strauss (1864 to X 949). is in his use of realism. The point cannot be argued here. In this. of No. muted brass. The national or racial characteristics of composers have always tended to show in their music. No Frenchman could have written the earnest is * Discussion of Sibelius's architecture is impossible here.

and although the 'folk* influence in the for their is not so strong in them as it work of some of his successors. it was to become was sufficient music*. in the same way as have non-nationalists. There has been no question of new basic ideas on structure nor has it given rise to arising from a nationalist outlook. the first of the Russian His early works are in the Italian tradition. which up to his time had been considered the only acceptable style in musically educated Russia. in the Italian style. Such nationalism arose in the igth century as a revolt against the shackles of an alien style. it normally begins by deliberate cultivation. stories* The composer to be accused of writing 'coachmen's libretti are based on national (Russian) The importance of nationalism lies in the breaking away from alien influence. Nationalism in the commonly accepted meaning of the term implies the conscious basing of a composer's idiom on that of the folk-music of his country. This he did in his operas A Life for the Czar (1836) and Russian and Ludmilla (1842). Paisiello and Gimarosa holding court Russian musicians were sent to Italy for training and wrote positions.ai4 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC B Mass or the gth Symphony. as are minor the Englishness of Purcell or Elgar. according to personal inclination. or the Russianness of Tschaikovsky. Nationalist composers have followed the prevailing trends to a greater or less degree. was told to 'go home and write Russian music*. * . Although a national idiom may ultimately become instinctive. case of Michael Glinka (1804 to 1857).* Glinka. notable developments in the harmonic field. having remarked to his teacher Siegfried Dehn that he was tired of the Italian style. for example. Leaving aside France. such men as Galuppi. and its effects have been as it were local. nor could either have composed Aida. was for Italian opera. Music and musicians were largely imported. which has During the i8th and early igth centuries the prevailing taste. in the nationalists. no German could have written Carmen. Equally. But such distinctions of style are instinctive. This is seen. set by the court.

or Italian. all music from the beginning of the i8th century the greatest had emanated from Germany. of their own. initiated by German poets. they were no longer using the lingua franca of German. as it were. so that to whatever extent they were affected by the work of the outstanding figures of their generation. enabled their followers to forge a musical language.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS always tended to 315 be individualistic in matters of art. and so on. while in Russia it meant little but Italian opera. the chief propagandist curiously devoid of a national idiom. Mozart or Beethoven. Beethoven the seer was a German. 'music meant 'German music'. The German (or Italian) manner of thought and the technique bound up with it were taken for granted. whose own compositions are * In this sense Germany. the romantic movement. in their native 9 tongue. who deliberately adopted the thesis that music should be based on national or 'folk* idiom. The founder was Balakireff and Cui. Mfly Balakireff (1837 to 1910). led the way. Modeste Mussorgsky (1839 to 1881) and Nicholas Rimsky- Korsakov (1844 to 1908). time the Russian school. Wagner's operatic reforms were the work of a German. but wrote. and practically all the great developments in music had arisen there. .* No other country had produced composers of the calibre of Bach. headed by Glinka. and little more than a mere In point of list of the most important must suffice. The classical sonata and symphony were of German development. It may be said that as far as Central Europe and England were concerned. or idiom. He was followed by Alexander Dargomijsky (1813 to 1869) and the group known as the Tive'. began to think on his own lines. Handel. was furthered largely by German composers. of course. They were Alexander Borodin (1833 to 1887). in The work of the early nationalists his own language. includes Austria. however. C&ar Cui (1835 to 1918). The nationalist. Considerations of space forbid any detailed account of the work of individual composers.

Samuel Wesley (1766 to 1837) is notable for some fine Latin motets and for his championship of Bach at a time when his name was hardly known. and way any of whom contributed in any development of the main stream of music. Arthur Seymour Sullivan (1842 to 1900). Frederick Smetana (1824 to 1884). later are A generation Joaquin Turina (1882 to 1949) and Joaquin Nin Of Scandinavians the best-known nationalist is Edvard Grieg (1843 to *97)9 a Norwegian of Scottish descent. also Isaac Albeniz (1860 to 1909). which served him well in small-scale works. few to the if Samuel Sebastian (1810 to 1876) exerted an influence for good on music for the Anglican rite. In Spain. In England. despite a varied output of oratorios. never fulfilled his early promise. Gilbert. only by his light operas. apart from the work of Arne. orchestral works.. a national school was founded by Felipe Pedrdl (1841 to 1922). 1931) has a high reputation. friend of Mendelssohn and Schumann. Wesley's natural son of mediocrities. now lives S. largely owing to his professional appointments as Principal of the Royal Professor of Music at Cambridge University.2i6 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC Immediately after the Russians came the Bohemians. William Sterndale Bennett (1816 to 1875). with a predominantly lyrical talent (1879-1949). cantatas. with libretti by They contain a wealth of good tunes and . The latter's pupil Vitezslav Novak (1870 to 1949) shows nationalist leanings in his later works. Academy of Music and W. There is a long list In Denmark Carl Nielsen (1865 to training shows prominently. music suffered a rapid decline after the death of Purcell. Notable among his followers are his pupils Enrique Granados (1867 to I 9 I 6) and Manuel de Falla (1876 to 1946). In the larger forms his German he is less successful. followed by Antonin Dvorak (1841 to 1904). He was essentially a miniaturist. etc. lacking music of any particular distinction since the days of Morales and Victoria. whose influence was asserted mainly through his writings and teaching.

economical and sparkling
limits, is



satire is




Their social and but their continued popuits

larity is assured

by the music, which, within


of great attractiveness.* Three names herald the real revival of English music,

Alexander Mackenzie (1847 to 1935), Hubert Parry (1848
to 1918)

and Charles

While hardly of the
next generation,



to 1924). the way for the rank, they paved of whom were pupils of Parry and

Villiers Stanford

Stanford, of Irish birth, was perhaps the most spontaneously gifted. His work has at times an attractive

Irish-folky flavour, and some of his songs are perfect gems. Parry was at his best, perhaps, in choral works, where his fine contrapuntal technique, derived from his study of Bach

book on that composer remains a standard work), has


Born in 1857, the outstanding figure of his generation was Edward Elgar, who died in 1934. Unlike the three composers mentioned above, he had no academic training, but in natural gifts he excelled them all. His early works,
while often showing his great gift for melody, give little foretaste of the possibilities realised in the Enigma Variations of 1899 an(i t*16 l n Ik* f compositions which followed.

In the Dream of

Gerontius, the

two symphonies, the



'cello concertos,

and the symphonic study

name but a

few, Elgar proved his right to be of greatest English composer since Purcell. His mastery he rarely, if ever, the orchestra was consummate (though in Straussian 'stunting'), and Falstaff showed that

Fdstqff, to called the

indulged in the sphere of


music he had no need

to fear

second of the line of great Viennese waltz-kings. His best known 9 In operetta, Die Fledermaus (The Bat ), is a complete masterpiece. view of the ultra-serious view of music which is not uncommon among students and the tendency to look down on 'light* music, it may be worth while to point out that such great artists as Lotte Lehmann and Elisabeth Schumann were c[uite happy to turn from The Rxng or The Mastersingers and take part in The Bat,,

competition. * Mention must not be omitted of Johann

Strauss (1825 to 1899),



as of Parry, is of the instinctive, kind; there is no use of a 'folk' idiom. In the intangible work of Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872 to 1958) we find an idiom whose roots are largely in the folksong tradition, phonists.

The Englishncss of Elgar,

by his study of the works of the early polyDr. H. C. Colles put the matter succinctly when he remarked, in connection with Vaughan Williams's Pastoral symphony, that his 'creative power seems to have been set free by his converse with the folk singers. 9 He was

no way limited in his harmonic outlook; like Sibelius, he was prepared to use anything from the mildest consonance to the most astringent dissonance (as in his 4th symphony)
to give appropriate expression to his thoughts. Vaughan Williams had a great influence on the younger generation, and helped them by his example to find their own language.

In his long list of works, from the Fantasia on a Theme of Tallis onwards, there is none which does not bear the imprint of a strong and sincere personality. The work of Gustav Hoist (1874 to 1934), despite the frequent use of a markedly dissonant idiom, shows nationalist feeling, and so to some extent does that of Frederick Ddius (1862 to 1934), together with influences from Greig and Debussy (to be considered later). Nationalism in Hungary is represented by Zoltan Kodaly (b. 1882) and Bela Bart6k (1881 to 1945). Of the latter some mention will be made in the next chapter. Kodaly's studies of Hungarian folksong have given a distinctly national flavour to such works as his Psalmus Hungarian, one of the finest choral works of the present

have already referred briefly to Sibelius. It well to mention that he was not a nationalist in the


may be

accepted sense and made no use of a folk idiom. He has been described as a 'nationalist in sentiment9 ,* as was Elgar, but there is none of the deliberate nationalism of the Russian


9 .



by Gerald Abraham,


by David Cherniavsky.

might be called a nationalist in


Tschaikovsky, too, He did occasionally make use of a Russian folk as in the last movement of his 4th symphony, but tune, he never adopted the methods of the 'Five'. His work is outstanding in its free expression of emotion, sometimes

degenerating to sentimentality, and he was in the same line of superb orchestral craftsmen as Mozart and Mendelssohn.* In the next generation are Alexander Glazounov

I (1865 to 1936) and Serge Rachmaninov (1873 to 943) Neither was a deliberate nationalist, nor in the front rank of composers, but both produced much work with considerable appeal. Rachmaninov's songs rank with those of Mussorgsky, and he perhaps took the display concerto


The Germans,
volkslied in

piano to




Apart from Strauss there are the Austrian Anton Bruckner (1824 to 1896) and the Bohemian Gustav Mahler (1860 to 1911), Viennese by education and residence. Both are 'classic-romantic , both absorbed Wagnerian influences, and both tend to prolixity. Opinions vary as to the ultimate value of their compositions; all that can

Brahms's songs, have yet to show

despite the occasional influence of the interest in folk

be said objectively is that they continued the tendencies of Wagnerian romanticism. As in Germany, so in France there have been no signs of interest in folksong as a basis of style. The ballets of

Leo Delibes (1836 to 1891) and the operas ofJules Massenet to J 9*9)> Gustavo (1842 to 1912), Andrd Messager (1853 to 1956) and Emmanuel Ghabrier Charpentier (1860 in their elegance and (1841 to 1894) are typically French charm. Rather later was Paul Dukas (1865 to 1935), who is known chiefly by his vivid and amusing scherzo, Uapprenti

The most

was Franck, who, although of Belgian parentage, was so long
* An example occurs at the opening of the 5th symphony. another composer might have stated the motto theme on one effect. Tschaikovsky uses two in unison a quite unique

serious-minded composer of the century




is usually counted as a Frenchman. His somewhat weighty romanticism, with its highly personal melodic idioms and at times exotically chromatic harmony, was something new in French music. Notable among his pupils were Vincent d'Indy (1851 to 1931), Henri Duparc (1848 to 1933), famous for some fine songs,

resident in Paris that he

and Guy Ropartz (1864


to 1956). Standing apart from Gabriel Faure (1845 to 1924) exerted much group,

influence as a teacher, perhaps his most important pupil being Maurice Ravel (1875 to I 937)




Great Scenes from Boris Godounov Pictures at an Exhibition
Prince Igor


No. 323 1003

Polovtsian Dances



RimskyKorsakov Smetana

(from Ma Wast) Bartered Bride, Overture etc.

The Moldau
Symphony, Symphony,

N ooSaoR

33 SX. 1007


D Minor



World} Slavonic Dances


Piano Concerto, Lyric Suite

A Minor

LXT. 2608 OCLP. 1019



1003 1020



The Lady and

the Nightingale




The Three-Cornered Hat


Violin Sonata


D Minor


CX. 1049

Nutcracker Suite

Symphony No. 5 Symphony No. 6

LXTA. 2905 33 OCX. 1201 LPM. 18333 LPM. 18334


Mahler Wolf

Symphony No. 3 Symphony No. 4
Song Recital Song Recital

Don Juan

TU EuLertspiegel \

LXTA. 2969 LXT. 2718 LW. 5 i62 33 OCX. 1162



Extracts from Der Rosenkaoalier



i On hearing the first cuckoo 33 33 the river OOT b2QI 2 5 OALP. No. 1456 LXT. 1085 1122 1047 . 2871 * Summer night on Symphony No. Symphony No. 2787 LXTA. OCX. 2693 LXT. Symphony No.LATE ROMANTICS AND NATIONALISTS Composer Elgar Title Cat. 527 OALP. 2699 LXT. Vaughan Hoist Delius Sibelius Enigma Variations Violin Concerto Fantasia on a theme of Tallis Williams London Symphony Pastoral Symphony Planets KLC. CX.

JL as he died in 1918. Both painters and poets sought to suggest rather than to state. Claude Achille Debussy came early under the influence of the pictorial and poetical impressionists. since he brought to music a new outlook and new methods which are most logically treated in a section which is concerned with what is usually called 'modern' music.) We have noted the romantics' interest in sound as such. IMPRESSIONISM The principles of impressionism are seen in the work of such painters as Monet and Cezanne and such poets as Verlaine and Mallarme. to developments in the use of the orchestra. combinations of notes. leading. in their Born in 1862. consideration of his work has been deferred until now. among other things. Debussy's interest was in sounds as sounds. The poets were willing to discard prosody and even to neglect the normal rules of syntax. whether analysable as 'chords' in the traditional sense or not. and his style came to be based on an application to music of their underlying principles.CHAPTER SEVENTEEN AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE A LTHOUGH the composer who is regarded as the f-\ chief exponent of impressionism could chronologic\. . ally have been dealt with in the previous chapter. The painters concentrated on light and colour as the most important elements in a picture. calculated. (It is arguable that he was to some extent anticipated by Liszt in some of his latest piano works. concerning themselves with the purely sensuous effect of words words as sounds and symbols rather than as Hnfcg in a chain of thought. largely disregarding traditional methods of 'composition* and eschewing anything that savoured of photographic realism.

Despite the opinions held by many who have not closely studied his work. for instance. deceiving. like the painters and poets from of the orchestra inspiration. see the third and fourth bars from the end of the piano prelude Le Cathedrale Engloutie. to give an impres- Debussy's aim was the capturing of a sensation or a mood. retaining but expanding the traditional vocabulary. we recognise We have only to listen to the very opening of suggestion. it is a 'sound' to be used for its particular effect the impression in its context. not his object.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 223 context. In his use of the delicate tints whom economical to the last degree and in his highly personal the master of style of keyboard writing.) The traditional principle that a discord needs some kind of resolution is therefore often completely discarded. yet attractive ambiguity'. . much of Debussy's harmony is more straightforwardly diatonic than that of Wagner in Tristan or Parsifal. with the past or to found an entirely 'new' system Rather he indicated the possibility of a new attitude towards its functions. Not that he attempted to sever it conveys all links of harmony.* His The realism of a Strauss is is illustrative a new sense. * P. though it peeps through in such a piece as the prelude Feux d* artifice. to induce certain mental or psychological reactions. Anything contrapuntal was therefore alien to his style. music intriguing. though not to the extent which is sometimes imagined. and in this he showed himself the successor of such lythand 18th-century clavecinists as Couperin. we may add. Music in Western Civilisation. of a pictorial art) 'permeated with ambiguity- m he took his sion. and he was led to experiment with such possibilities as the whole-tone scale. since the traditional attitude ninth or thirteenth to discord no longer holds good. H. A chord. (For a simple example. rather than as links in a musical argument. Lang. and the use of clusters of notes which can hardly be classified as chords in the traditional manner. he aims to suggest. is not to Debussy a discord. He 'attempted to create the musical equivalent of a literature' (and.

Firstly. and lacked the finesse and elusiveness of the Frenchmen. As a preliminary to some consideration of the more recent trends in music three points must be mentioned. based on the play by Maurice Maeterlinck. The singing is entirely declamatory. is at the opposite pole from both Wagnerian music-drama and the Italian tradition. perhaps. and precision. Ravel learned the value of formal stability. It suggests the atmosphere in an entirely individual manner. clarity of outline. Debussy's one opera. the sonatas for piano 'cello and piano. approaching natural a mere accompanispeech. both harmonically and in their general outlook. Debussy entered a kind of neo-classic phase. the orchestra is used not as ment. and the influence of the 18th-century clavecinists is sometimes apparent. his musical characteristics developed on different lines from those of Debussy. PelUas et Melisande. latest compositions. nearer to traditional form and line though harmonically quite advanced less.g. the overlapping of styles referred to in Chapter 16. though the dividing line is by no means There are those who retain strong links clearly drawn. nor does it provide a Wagnerian symphonic poem. postromantics working concurrently with the more advanced composers.224 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC the famous Prilude d PAprh-midi fun Faune (1892) to realise his ability to create an atmosphere with. As a pupil of Faur6. Delius. and flute. in smaller works. the minimum strokes of the brush. viola and harp 6 (1915-17). cultivated a harmonic style which tends to be lush. but PelUas stands as an isolated phenomenon. With his and violin. e. however. Ravel and Delius were among those who came under his influence. J than his impressionist work. lacking both predecessors and successors. Debussy influenced many composers to a greater or less degree. as it were. at his best. and those in whose work the links are wearing Among contemporaries we may distinguish . two main classes. Neverthe- he was perhaps more of a whole-hearted impressionist than any other composer. with tradition.

which can still find fresh resource in diatonic melody. too. 1902) is to be noted. but to do so would be singularly uninformative. above. It is the music which matters most. All have carried on. His Bekhazzar's Feast generation William Walton (b. among other things. fertile imagination (especially stimulated in the setting of words) and his fluent technique. we must again stress the importance of the time factor. It is still fundamentally based on the major-minor scale system. Arnold Bax (1883 to 1953). but rather a continued development of the processes of the igth century. In the work of composers whose links with tradition are still firm their harmonic vocabulary is. In fifty years' time it may be possible an opinion as to their potential value. there is no violent break with the past. and Herbert Howells (b. without to distinguish the geese and to mention every single composer. an extension of that of Liszt and Wagner. no attempt can be made passing from the swans and to decide which composers are on the main road and which are merely exploring dead-ends. 1892). almost as many. the English tradition of choral music. At the present day many different lines of development are being pursued. Secondly. forceful may be coupled with still is the choral works mentioned (b. arising from this general rather than particular consideration of contemporary work.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 225 more or less thin or appear to have snapped. 1879). logically enough. as there are individual composers. in fact. 1913). enable him to achieve a wide Younger Benjamin Britten His . 1891) is more eclectic and rather less traditional in his outlook. Arthur Bliss (b. notable works including Bax's motet Mater ora Filium and Howells' Hyrnnus Paradisi. In many instances nationalist traits are evident to a greater or less extent. All that can be done at present is to indicate what appear to be the general trends. In matters of form. Of a younger and dynamic. often with some influence from Debussy. Thirdly. as in the case of such British writers as John Ireland (b. with a highly individualised style. It would be possible to give a comprehensive list of names.

Roy Harris and Virgil Thompson (b. the breaking down of the traditional distinction between concord and discord mentioned in Chapter 3.S. from a rather steely post-romanticism to the most advanced modernity. often markedly dissonant but with a traditional background.S.226 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC range of style. Many of the leading European musicians have made their home in the U. Among the more prominent of these are Samuel Barber Aaron Copland (b.S. (b. His music has often a rhapsodic tendency and shows racial characteristics. 1900). and a new attitude to form. 1896). and his style and idiom. and their influence is evidently strong in shaping at any rate the language of a number of American composers.. They cannot be regarded as a 'school' since their styles and aims vary widely. Of music in Russia it is difficult to give an opinion owing to the peculiar conditions (at least to the Western mind) under which artists are expected to work. but more recently there has been a tendency to considerable individuality and an eagerness to absorb the most advanced methods. Kodaly has been mentioned.R. His violin concerto is one of the finest recent works of its genre. 1898) . Apart from a completely free treatment of dissonance. 1910). He has a very original mind. born in Switzerland of Jewish parentage. We must now deal briefly with the work of the more advanced composers. In recent years a number of native-born composers have appeared in the United States of America. and we may refer also to Ernest Bloch (1880-1959). are highly individual and of great dynamic power. the notable feature (b. 1906) have had to conform to the canons promulgated by those who dictate artistic style in the U. The methods of the earlier writers were naturally based on the German tradition. Such composers as Serge Prokofieff (1891 to 1953) and Dmitri Shostakovich (b. Among Continental composers the late romantic attitude is perhaps less common. They are therefore not entirely at liberty to develop according to their natural inclinations.A.

of. even though the emotion may not always be universally palatable. of tonality. their music is Such a conception of an art is new. We see the possibilities of this taken to an advanced stage in the late Wagner and in the work of many of the contemporary post-romantics. unless we go back similar attitude It is to the early days of polyphony seems largely to have held good. chromaticism in the true sense of the word no longer exists. Chroma- of such work is ticism means by accidentals. Some. Most notably opposed to the romantic spirit of the music as a direct response to. still however emotional expression. indeed. regardless of euphony. whatever variations there have been in style and method. so that there is nothing left to be coloured unless we introduce intervals smaller than a semitone. The twelve notes of what is usually called the chromatic scale all become of equal importance. when a certainly in direct opposition to the aims of composers since the I5th century. interesting enough in theory. but a new attitude to the and meaning of music itself. also automatically discards chromaticism. But 'coloured' colouring. and expression igth century A reaction of some kind was to be expected.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 227 the disintegration. This implies that composition is more a matter of 'patterning' with sounds. as has been suggested by Alois Haba* (The result of this. according to a more startling his music looks upon it as a means of may seem harmonically. or less definite plan. is that to the normal Western ear the music merely sounds out of tune. To many contemporary composers the major-minor scale system is played out. Notes of the diatonic scale are the true 'modern'. The true 'modern' often tends to what is called 'cerebral' music. in discarding traditional tonality. 'key* is a thing of the past.) In the work of the more advanced composers we find not only function new technical methods. Thus. it is . seem to suggest that not intended to have any 'meaning' in the usual sense of the word. feeling. The traditionalist. it is rather a matter of an almost mathematical handling of sounds.

for example. of which we have noted signs but not more than signs in the late Debussy. while not to be considered seen also in . as it were. suite. attempt to follow their lead. Composers all kinds. On the fringe. The earliest neo-classicist was Ferruccio Busoni (1866 to 1924). Painters and sculptors produce 'abno emotional message and representconveying ing nothing except some kind of visual pattern. as well as the cultivation of chamber music. The revival of contrapuntal writing. though his popular fame rests on his prowess as a pianist. 1882) produced such works as his Octet for Wind Instruments (1923) and Piano Concerto (1924) that neo-classicism began to have any widespread is effect. The new outlook is expressed in 'neo-classicism'. tending to modify man's outlook on This is reflected in the work of at least a proportion life. Such a work as his Fantasia Contrappuntistica (1912) clearly looks back to Bach's Art of Fugue for its inspiration. etc. of artists of stractions'. however. and of the Forty-eight. which are associated especially with Bach. passacaglia. until Igor Stravinsky (b. 1895). It implies a complete turning away from the emotionalism of the late romantics and a return to many older forms concerto grosso. It was not. Non-musical factors also have influence. of neo-classicism lies the work of a number of composers who. together with the advent of the 'mechanical age'. as Debussy followed that of the impressionist painters and poets. We may recall the aversion of the Camerata to polyphony. fugue. alien to the true romantics. The characteristic impersonality many works by Paul Hindemith (b. and of the stricter contrapuntal forms. His Ludus Tonalis is another descendant of the Art of Fugue. alien to the impressionists.228 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC History shows us that when a style reaches its apogee a revulsion is sooner or later inevitable. in the case of the Camerata their pre- occupation with Greek drama. in which he pursues a highly developed contrapuntal style. is a notable feature of contemporary music. In the case of 20th-century music we have to allow for two world wars and a number of revolutions.

up in 4ths and other intervals His Mikrokosmos for piano is a simple but instructive exposi- tion of such experiments. Arthur Honegger (1892-1955. perhaps more than now. The desire to experiment. the use of new scales. too. 1892). Germaine Tailleferre (b. sometimes becoming merely flippant. a believer in harmony. and has produced works of considerable power and origin5 ality. Poulenc is an exponent of the 'witty in music. There is often a kind of light 'entertainment value'. lowing the leadership of Erik Satie. masterpiece of its kind. in various ways. too. led him to explore. from romanticism. Walton. 1899) and Francis Poulenc (b. Of composers who have made systematic attempts to enlarge the bounds of harmony Bela Bartok is noteworthy. With him may be mentioned the Englishman LordBerners (1883 to 1950) and Prokofieffinhis earlier years. Hindemith. They were Louis Durey (b. indulged in this witty approach in his satirical music to Edith Sitwcll's Fafadea. of Swiss parentage). Honegger seems to some extent to have modified his point of view of late years. The band of composers in France who called themselves Les Six and who had a not inconsiderable vogue immediately after the First World War. 1888).IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 229 as true exponents of this style. but in others it seems to have been largely empirical. but seldom any great depth of meaning. poly* sation. have nevertheless attempted to break away. among other things. though quite personal system of He was. Besides being anti-romantics they also placed themselves in opposition to the impressionism of Debussy. fol(b. GebroMchsmusik remarking that *a composer utility music should neverwrite unlesshe knows ofa demand for his work. has done much to elaborate a logical. 1 899) . In some cases such experiment has been systematic. are a case in point. to explore new technical methods and possibilities. chords built tonality (two or more keys simultaneously) and instead of the customary srds. . has led composers in many directions. 1892). His curiosity regarding new aspects of sounds and their organisupplementary to traditional methods. Darius Milhaud Georges Auric (b.

230 A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC not for his own satisfaction'. as in the case of Bartok. double-bass. In the case of * orchestra of a hundred-odd players can afford to pay them. In one respect. cornet and trombone. with eight percussion instru- ments. In some cases we can trace a clear and continuous line of development onwards from a post-romantic idiom to more or less advanced modernity. It is useless demand an nobody We have mentioned die wide variations of style to be found in the work of some contemporary composers. therefore. clarinet. too. but his Chamber Symphony of 1906 goes to the other extreme. a peak of modernity is followed by some relaxation. Experiment has not been confined to the harmonic side. is the tendency of some composers to discard the standard orchestral combination which has developed since the second half of the i8th century. Economic to factors have also to be considered. when Compare the remark on Schutz's Cantiones Sacrae in Chapter 8. . he looks back to the attitude of the 18th-century kapellmeister. Schonberg's works of his early post-Wagnerian phase the Gumlieder and Pelleas and Melisande utilise enormous forces. in attempts to break away from the regular metrical accentuation which has been the norm for some three hundred years. requiring only fifteen solo instruments. especially movement. orchestra in the works of such men as Strauss and Mahler. rather than to write automatically for a full normal orchestra. The 'tyranny of the barline' has come under fire. is epoch-making in this direction. The tendency generally is to employ only those instruments which are felt to be actually needed. In others. Notable. but the contemporary composer often prefers not merely to reduce the number of players but to use entirely new combinations of instruments. bassoon. Such a work in its final as Stravinsky's ballet Le Sacre du Printemps.* some return to a more 'human' style. The early years of the present century saw the apotheosis of the mammoth Stravinsky's Sacre du Printemps (1913) needs a huge orchestra. but his Histoire du Soldat (1918) is scored for one each of violin.

Beginning as a post-Wagnerian romantic. Possibly the most consistent line of development is found in the work of Arnold Schonberg (1874 to 1952). while latterly in the ballet Agon and the choral work Canticum Sacrum. whose influence on the younger generation has been not inconsiderable. among master's possibilities of his methods though he was by no means inflexible in his application of them. to the century. Stravinsky. has been described as a master of styles rather than of style. in patterns of pure sound. The question remains: Whither are they leading? It would seem that we are living in a period of transition. in structural method if not in harmony. to express an excessive degree of emotional tension. ultimately arriving at a highly organised system of atonality (absence of key) based on a scale of twelve semitones. artide in The Concerto. comparable in a way to the I7th century. He has never limited himself to a single style.* The system involves a use of dissonance which reaches the limit of intensity. the great expressive his violin concerto. by Ralph Hill (Pelican Books) too comexposition of Schonberg's final technical methods in Counterpoint by plex to be elucidated here will be found in Studies Ernst Kfenek (Schirmer). he has made use of Serial Technique developed from Schonberg's Twelve-note System. Another pupil.IMPRESSIONISM AND THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE Stravinsky there has been 231 work 1 8th to work. almost from opera The Rake's Progress. he made a return. he moved farther and farther towards intense use of discord and away from traditional tonality. Garner. . In his a kind of vacillation. The urge behind this development was a desire to increase the emotionally expressive power of music. but varies his mode of expression from work to work. With this we must conclude our all-too-brief discussion of 20th-century trends. A simple * Mosco . in which every note is of equal importance. at the same time following his emotions down to their deep-seated subconscious roots'. Anton Webern (1883 to 1945) has perhaps taken the purely cerebral aspect to its extreme. Schonberg's pupil Alban e Berg (1885 to 1935) proved in other works.

know is that music will not. new ideas are in the air. cannot say which ideas or experiments may be really All we fruitful or which may turn out to be valueless. experiment is widespread. and cannot. We RECORDS Composer Debussy Ravel Walton Britten Stravinsky Poulenc Bartok Prokofieff Schoenberg .23 s A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC As then. stand still.

162 Ad Qrganum Faciendum. giff. 176 iSingr y* *<> the Lord. Christian. 216 Ars Antigua. 231 Atda. 37 Aeolian mode. t Aston. *75 _. 149 _. 34. 100. 187 Consecration of the House. 210 Binary form. I2 5 116. Sebastian. 127. 143 Christmas Oratorio. 163 AUegri. 125 Berlioz. 148 J. 33 47 Bars. 93 Auric. 187. 144. "8. Passion. 171 Alcuin. Augmentation. 104 Addison. 25 Ayre. i5 Balakireff. 90 Baumgarten. 42 Bartok. 120. J 7> i Benvenuto Celhm. 112. 229 Authentic mode. 82. 17. 100 Agnus Dei. Christoph. Anglican chant. 120 Axnbros.. 181. 91 Basso continuo. 168 Bembo. 77^. 138^. Michael. 141 Forty-eight Preludes and Fugues. 119. 1 19 J 22. 165 Ballade. Scherzo. 108. in Bellini. 43 Contrapuncti. 101 technical advances. 96. 92 Attaignant. 45w. 106. 79 i3 I9 117. 14. 144. 144* *?o 16. iziff. 106. 175 Belli. 182. i49 iSi. 99. 115 A cappetta. 112 Barber. 198 Bax. 226 Barber of Baghdad.INDEX ABEL. ijzff. 34 Agon. E. 102. use of orchestra. AmarilK. 107 *. 208 Art of Fugue. i?9 Affections. 102 Amati. 151 Abendmusiken.. 44. 55 no 31. 57 ssff. 101 Allemande. 15.. 15 Adam de la Hale. in Benedictus. 175 Mttwca/ Offering. 43 Anthem. 181. Little 'Organ Book. 175 Nova. 92. 13. 129 J.. iS7. 24 Algarotti. 175 Liederkreis. 75 BACH. 186. 123 Basse danse. 186 Fidelio. 135 . 52. 76 Aria. 13.. Bagatelles. 82 Anonymous MS. 215 Ballad opera. 58. 205 Berg. 117 Antiphonary. Anerio. 144. 15. 231 Berners. 191. 229 Biber. 61 Discantus. 129 J. 26. 229 Ars Ars Ars Ars Ars Cantus Mensurabths. 19. 127. 180. 151 J.. 25 Aesthetics. 150 Agazzari. JWm Ballett. 205. 158 Bassoon. 143 Marc. 26 Arcadelt. 24. 194 21.. 77^. Benedetti. 65 Brandenburg Concertos. 163 Ninth Symphony. 105 Arne. 144. 140. P. 61 Bassam. 154. 190 Mass in D. 60 Ballet. 65 Ballata. 225 Beethoven. Novae Musicae. 148. 67 Banister. 174 19. 81 Bennett. 204 Albeniz. 16. 216 Albinoni. 186 Coriolanus. 126 Albrechtsberger. 97 Auber. ISO. St. 212 170^. 100 Ambrose. 205 Bardi. 58. C. 157. 40j Bass. 144 Matthew Passion. 216 I4 39 69.

songs. 112 no Communion.. Cranmer. 63^. 115. 188 Chorale. 113 Conditor alme siderum. Cesti.. 131 prelude. 14971. 65. 60 Clarinet. 33 Conductus. 143 Cornelius. 73.. 49. 16 Clavecinists. 223 Chabrier. 131. 125. 45. 87. 15. 96. 93. 36.. 92. 121 Brahms. xpxjfc choral works. 80 Calzabigi. 231 Cantilena. de. 191 Cerone. Clemens non Papa. 112 196. 109 Cremona. no. 96 Cotton. 228 Buxtehude. 37 Couperin. 107 Camerata. von. 130 ChoraUs Constantinus. 98 Cosyn.. 123*1. 98 Byzantines. 93 Busnois. 24 Boheme. 68 Corsi. i23Jf. Cadence. 83. 96. 79. 63 Blake. 97 Bjnchois. 43 Britten. 120 . 80 Bounce. 34 Concertato.. iizff. 133*** Clavier. 97 Caccini. 130. 122 Clavichord. 205 Bohm. 148 Bruckner. Collegia Musica. 164 Campion. Canticum Sacrum. 116 Cornyshe.234 Bizet. 105 Cavazzoni. 18. 1 66 Coleman. ax. 95. 63. 47. 44. 122 Chanson. 135 ~~ grosso. 179 225 Bloch. 46 CAB&ON. 96. 45. 44. 99ff. 64. 116 Boethius. 132 Bulow. 120 Copland. 205 Cavalli. 219 Cherubini. 130 fantasia. 24 Coffey. 96. 71. 135. 90 124 Capella. 140 Calvin. 96 Canzona. 60 Bombard. 60. 205 Bliss. 83. 80 CasteUone. nijf. 99J^. 7271. 92. 112 Colonna. 15271. 95 Canon. 49. 123 Jacopo da. 226 Blow. 65 Busoni. 192. 49*1. H3ff. 18. 226 Coranto. 125^. 95. 2i4n. 105 Cezanne. 123. 46 Cooper. 120 Brevis.. 63. 195 variations. 70 Caldara. 162 Bourgeois. 90 Borodin. I33ft. 131 Byrd. da. 99 Burney. cyclic methods. 122 Courante. 140 Burgundian school. iz$ff Concerts Spirituels. 115. 167 Child. 219 Bull. 66 Cimarosa. 10511. La. 219 Chambonnieres. 97 Cavalieri. 131 fugue. INDEX Cavalleria Rusticana. 67 Cantata. Carisstmi. 215 BoufEbns. 96. 81 Charles II. 121^. 74. Branle.. a penna.. 225 Britton. 205 Cornett. 112. 163. 96. 77i 82. 46 Contrapunctus a mente. Concertino. 142 Bologna. 81. 116 Charpentier. 116 Chopin. 121 Corelli. 75. 65 Chapel Royal. 203 Buononcini. 91 Brescia. 164 Cambert. 95. 95 Classical style. Ciscia. 144 Concerto. 58. 58 Cantusfirmus.

Giovanni. 43. 121 Galuppi. 69. i88w. 82. Speculatione Musicae. 95. 64. 79. 229 Durum. 91 Duparc.. 77 e Eus Feste Burg. 69. 99 Dunstable. 128 Frottola. 73.INDEX Cristofori. 224 Mensurabths. 102 Galliard. 235 Crusaders. 79. 46 Durey. 122 Dargomijsky. 136 Flying Dutchman. Dukas. igg Cui.. 212. 44- 34 . 1 80 *53.. 53. 119. Gesuao. 120 Festa. 121. 46 Discord. 25 Fontana. 208. zion. Final. 220 Faust. 26 Dufay. 219 Franco of Cologne. 96 Flat. gar. 63. 97t "3. 6l Garsi. *54 Divisions on a ground. 82 Fayrfax. 127 Genevan psalter. 132 FitzzoiWam Virginal Book. 46 Frederick the Great. 200 d'Indy. 24 Dowland. 73. 102 Dittersdorf. 43 Diabolus in musica. W Florence. 218. 205 Davy. 214. 126 Gastoldi. "3. t Gavotte. 229 Geminiani. Feux Fetis. 208 Gibbons. 25 Fischer. 124 Gilbert. 216 Fdstaffy 204 ia8 Fancy. Garland. DE. 201 Folksong. 67. 223 Fiedel. 82. 219 Glinka. 108 David. 128 Giraldus Cambrensis. 14811. 96 Franck. 76 DANCES. 43 De Pres. 216 Ecclesiae MiKtantis. 91. 51. 218. 199 Evangelist. 35 Die Feen. GABRIELI. 48. 67. 204 Forster. 220 Duplum. 75 Fugue. 97. Faur6. tfff. Drink to me only. in. 18. 184 . 121 Gebrauchsmustk. 95 . 215 . I7 Don Carlos. 122. 200. 41. 98 Gasparim. Glareanus. 28 Delibes. 43. 178. 30 De Musica Des Delius. 199 Gestes. 51 Gesualdo. 22zff. 85 Field. 127. 30 . 208. 22 Dialogues. 149. De Ignoto Cantu. 124 Force of Destiny. 93. 137. Gaultier. 78*. 180 4. 215 Davenant. 80 Genoveva. i47i *5i Galilei. 25 Glazounov. 214^. 144 Freischute. Cyclic principle. 121 Dodecachordon. The. 85 Esterhazy. 211. 205 Fauxbourdon. 90^. 30 Dvofak. 7i. 219 32. 216 FALLA. 219 51. 68 Ferrabosco. ANDREA. 215 Gloria. Dandrieu. 220 Discantus Positio Vulgaris. 151 Divertimento. 199 Frescobaldi. 61 Estampie. 69. * 81 Galant style. Froberger. 95 64 Edwards. 99 Flute. 63^. 168 Dorian mode. 15* Euryanthe. 20 d'artifice. 46 Discantus supra tibrum. 151. 60^. Fantasia. i27Jf. 109 Diaphony. 81 Error terttt soni. 9$ Gigue. 204 Donizetti. 98. 68 Debussy. 93.

Gluck, 1 06, i63ff., 167, 199 Goethe, 179

Impressionism, 2,22$. Intermezzi, 161ff.

Gombert, 74 Goudixnel, 80 Gounod, 205

Graduate Romanum, 34 Granados, 216 Graun, 137 Graupner, 147 Great stave, 2971. Greeks, 22jf., 27, 30 Gregorian chant, 26

Ionian mode, 25 Ireland, 225



66, 69, 81, 93

Gregory the Great, 26, 31 Gretry, 163, 198 Grieg, 216

JACCHINI, 126 Jacob of Liege, 47, 57 Jahn, 199 Jannequin, 80, 98 Jenkins, 120 feu de Robin et Marion, 52
[ohn of Salisbury, 47 [ohnson, Dr., 160 "ommelli, 164
tongleurs, 22, 51,

Grimm, 162

Guarneri, 120 Guido d'Arezzo, 28, 36, 37, 43, 59

Guilmant, 97

fosquin " '

des Pres, 67, 69, 74 la, 167


HABA, 227
Hale'vy, 205 Handel, 13, 108, us, 115, i3&ff., 147, 150, 151, 180


Kapelle, 10572., 113 Kapellmeister, 14, iO5. Keiser, 108, 139




Messiah, 19, 141
operas, 140; oratorios, 141

KerU, 128 Key, 22 Kodaly, 218

Royal Academy of Music, 140 Hansel and Gretel, 205 Hans Helling, 199

Konzertmeister, 14 Kuhnau, 135 Kyrie Eleison, 34, 82

Hans Sachs, 54 Harmony, 32

Harpsichord, 87, 103, 142, Harris, 226 Hasse, 137, 153, 164



18, 19, 20, 151^., 170, 171; oratorios, 155; quartets, 154;

symphonies, 153 Heinrich von Meissen, 54 Herz, 187 Killer, 166 Hindemith, 229

LAI, 58, 62 Lalla Rookh, 205 Landini, 60, 63, 75 Laniere, 112 L'apres-midi d'un Faune, 224 Lassus, 73, 76, 99, 100 Loudest, 109 Laudi, 109


Hocket, 46
Hoist, 175, 218

Homophony, 147
Honegger, 229
Huxnfrey, 112, 116

Humperdinck, 198, 204 Hunten, 187
Idee fixe, 182

Lawes, Henry, 108, 1x2 William, 112, 120 Leading theme, 200, 205, 210 Le Franc, 62 Legrenzi, 106 Leit motif, 200, 205 Le Jeune, 80 Leoncavallo, 205 L^onin, 49 Les Six, 229 Uhomme arme, 64, 71 Lichnowsky, 171 Liebesverbot, Das, 200 Lied, 189^.
Liszt, 16, 187, 1 86, 190;

music, 98, 135, 182 Imitation, 59, 63, 66

39, 95, 98, 179., 181, 182, 190, 196, 203; piano sonata, 21 1; oratorios, 196; songs,

symphonies, 185


Locke, 108

LocateUi, 127, 147

LoeiUet, 136 Loewe, 189 Lohengrin, 201


Loms'xiV, 107, 116,137 Ludwig II, 200
Lulli, 107ff; 161 Lute, 86, 94

Meyerbeer, 167, 200 Micrologus, 28, 36 Mignon, 205 Milan, 94 Milhaud, 229
Milton, 21, 122
Minstrels, 22 Minuet, 121

Minima, 43
Minnesingers, 53

Lutenists, 93^., 130

Luther, 18, Luzzaschi, in


Lydian mode, 24

Missa parodia, 72 sine nomine, 72 Mixolydian mode, 24
99, 184*.

MACE, 120
Machaut, 58, 62, Mackenzie, 217

Mode, 56 Modernism, 17


103, 132


Butterfly, 205

Madriale, 5971. Madrigal, 59, 75^-, 99, xox, Maestro di capetta, 94, 105 Maeterlinck, 224 Magadizing, 30 Magnificat, 82 Magnus Liber Orgam, 49

m. 12

rhythmic, 41 Molinaro, 94, "3

Monet, 222

Monody, 102
Monsigny, 163

Mont* Albano, 149 Monte, de, 76

Mahler, 219 Mailly, 107 Mallarme, 222 Mandriale, sgn.


151 Marcello, 127, 162

Monteverdi, 39, 101, 105, in, 114 Morales, 74, 216 Morley, 79 Motet, 44, 58, 63, 69, 73, 82, 93, "5 Motto theme, 72, 182, 210 Mouton, 67 Mozart, Leopold, 155
\V. A., 13, 16, 32, 134, xsx, *S5J(r-i *75, 166, 168, 171, X 72 *73 180, 181, 182, 185, 188, 199 concertos, 157 Don Giovanni, 175

Marenzio, 77 Marschner, 199

Masked Ball, The, 204 Masque, 108
22, 33, 34*


Massenet, 219

21 Jupiter Symphony, operas, 166 Muffat, 122

Mastersingers of Nuremberg, 54, 167,

Mundy, 98
Musica EncMriadts, 35, *79 ficta, 61, 103, 209
mensurabilis, 41


Muris, de, 57


Maxima, 43
Mazarin, 107 Mazzocchi, no Measurable music, 32, 41 Mehul, 165 Meistersingers, 54

mensurata, 117
parlante, 102 reservata, 73, 100 Transalpina, 77

Mendelssohn, 180, 184, 187, 216
Hebrides Overture, 186 oratorios, 195 , Merry Wives of Windsor, 205 Merula, 123

Fs Booke, 96

chamber music, 186

NARRATOR, no Narvaez, 94


Merulo, 97 Messager, 219 . Messe de Tourrm t 58 Metastasio, 164

Nationalism, 2i3ffNatural, 30. Neo-classicism, 228 5 Neri, M., 124, St. Philip, 109

Netherlands school, 65 JJ-, 99


Neumeister, 115 Neumes, 27 New Music, 102 Nicolai, 205
Niedt, 86. Nielsen, 216
Parsifal, 53, 202 Passacaglia, 143

Nin, 216

Passamezzo, 95 Passion music, 68, 75, Patronage, 18 Pavane, 91, 121



Notation, 26^., 43

Nunc Dimittis, 82 Nuove Musiche, 102
Oberon, 198 , King of the Fairies, 198

Novak, 216

Peerson, 98 Pelleas et Melisande, 224 Pergolesi, 161

Pen, 99, 104
Perotin, 49, 50, 99 Perrin, 107 Petrus de Cruce, 43, 49, 50 Philidor, 163 Phonascus, 45, 52, 58

Oboe, 90 da caccia, 150
Obrecht, 65, 67, 92 Core, tou tt7* despatch me, 78


Phrygian mode, 24
Piano, 14872.
Piccinni, 165 Plagal mode, 24 Plainsong, 31, 45, 55, Point of perfection, 56 Polonaise, 91 Polyphony, 16, 99, 101, 131, 147 choral, 65 Polytextuality, 46, 58**. Polytonality, 229

Occursus, 36

Odes, 117 Odington, 43, 44, 46, 55, 60 Offertory, 34
Offices, church, 22, 8z


Okeghem, 65
ggff., itoff., ig&ff. buffa, i6iff., 198, 204

cormque, 52, 163, 169, 198 houses, 105
seria, ifaff.

Oratorio, 109

Ordinary of the Mass, 34 Ordres, 122 Organ, 32, 85, 96 hymns, 96

Pope, Alexander, 179 Poulenc, 229 Power, 62

and fugue, 131 Prima prattica, zoi

Prelude, 96, 121

Programme music,
Prokofieff, 226, Prolation, 56

98, 182

Organista, 4971.


Otger, 35

35ff., 44,


Proper of the Mass, 34 Ptolemy, 24

140?!., 144,

Overture, 106, 107, 117, 148, 199
concert, 186

Purcell, 39, 61, 79, 83, 109, 116, 117, 120, 122, 124, 216

Puritans, ioSn., 116

Dido and Aeneas, 109

PACHELBKL, 21, 129, 131, 142 Paganini, 187 Paglfacci, 205 Paisiellp, 214



Mtssa Papae Marcelh, 71 Missa Regina Coett, 71 O Bone jesu, 70 Stabat Mater, 70 Tu es PetniSf 70 Vern Sponsa Christ** 73 Papal bull, 19, 47, 58 Pareja, 132 Parry, 217
Parthenia, 95

Palestrma, 21, 63, 69, 71. 73. 77, 99


Raguenet, 162 Rake's Progress, The, 231 Rameau, 20, 145, 161
Ravel, 220, 224 Recitative, 102, 115

Recitative accompagnato, 106


stromentatot 106 Recorders, 87

Redford, 96 Reformation, 80
Reichardt, 137. 189, 190 Reinken, 122, 129, 142 Restoration style, 116 Rhinegold, The, 202 Ricercare, 93, 9 6 JI 9 J 28
sopra un soggetto, 128 Richard I, Richter, 180 Rienxi, 200 Rigoletto, 203
Schweitzer, 115
Scriabin, 207


Seconda prattica, 101 Semibrevis, 43 Serial Technique, 231
Service (reformed),


Sharp, 30 Shawm, 90 Shirley, 108 Shostakovich, 226

Sibelius, 20, 212, 218 Sicilian Vespers, 204

Rimsky-Korsakov, 211, 215 Ring, The, 202 Rinuccini, 99, 104
Ripieni, 125

Siegfried Idyll,


Silbermann, 148

Simone Boccanegra, 204
Sinfonia avanti Vopera, 106, 149 Singspiel, 165, 198

Ritomello form, i20. Robertsbridge Codex, 85 Romanticism, 16, i78jf.

Rondeau, rondel, 44 5 Rondo, 51, 122 Ropartz, 220 Rore, da, 73. 77
Rossini, 168


229 Smetana, 216 Solmisation, 28
Sonata, 97, 123 a tre, 123 da camera, 123 da ckiesa, 123 form, 92, 135

Rotundum, 30 Round, 44 f

Rousseau, 162 Rue, de la, 67

Songs, i88jy. Speculum Musicae, 47, 57

Spem in

alium, 70

Spinet, 87

SACKBUT, 90 Sacre du Printemps, Le, 230 Sacre Rappresentastioni, 109
Saint-Saens, 205 Salomon, 153

Spohr, 199 Spontini, 167
Stamitz, 151 Stanford, 217

05 Sammartini, 151, 154 Sampson, 68 Samson and Delilah, 205 Sanctus, 34. 7* Sarabande, 121, 123 Sartorio, 106
Scale, 22ff.
Scarlatti, A., 106,

Sternhold and Hopkins, 82
Stilo antico, 101

moderno, 101
rappresentativo, Stradella, 106 Stradivari, 120



112, 127, 140

D., 95, 134. 147. 148,150 Scheidemann, 129 Scheldt, 114, "9 *3* Schein, 114, 129 Schiller, i?9 Schlegel, 179 Schlick, 86, 96 SchSnberg, 40, 231 Schubert, 32, 180, 184, 186; quartets, 186; songs, 189; symphonies, 184; Wanderer Fantaste, 184 Schumann, i7,97 *79 l8 5J chamber music, 186; songs, 190 Schutz, 20, 108, in, 114 Schutz, Sympkoniae Sacrae, 114

Stravinsky, 228, 230 Strauss, J., 217 R., 80,98, 166 String quartet, 154

Strozzi, 106 Suite, 91, 121^., 14* Sullivan, 216 Sumer is icumen tn, 44. 59 &o

Sweelinck, 129

2 Symphonetes, 45, 5 > 5 219 Symphonia sacra, 115 Symphonic poem, 98*



Symphony, 106, Sympson, 121
TaiUeferre, 229



205 Turina. 216 Tannhauser. 216 Turkish opera. 198 Constanze. 16. 79 Willaert. 65 Toccata. 125.. 76 Wagenseil. 52 Thomas. 131 Tonality. 94 Thibaut. 74* Vielle. 113 Venite. 127 Valkyrie. 198 YONGE. 187 Theile. S. 126 o Viols. The. 108 Violin. 139 Zarlino. 212. 181. "9> Virginals.87. Vaughan. 179. 203 Tschaikovsky. 69. 16. 126 Tosca. 37 Wolf.240 Tallis. 158 Te Deum. 87 Virtuosity. 63. 143. 41. 219 Tunder. 201 Parsifal. 35 principaUs. 198 Tye. 35 124 WAELRANT. 227 Faust Overture. 87. s*ff*> 55 202 prose works. 204 Tristan and Isolda. 132 Wesley. INDEX 74 82 Victoria. 86 77 98. 204 leading themes. 85. 123. 205 Traviata. La. S3. 26 Torelli. 53. 77 You Gentlemen of England. 56^. The. II. 93 Williams. 137. 175. Tristan and Isolda. 14?. 198 Trwatore.. 154. 64 Ternary form. 179. 97. 59 Trouveres. 97 Wieck. 53 Wranitzky. 44. 56 Tinctoris. 201 role of orchestra. Tonic. 202 Vampire. 203 Verlaine. 186. 115. 102 Time. 2on. 26 ZACHAU. 106 Viadana. 190 Ziani. 90. 132 Zelter. 94. 223 Whyte. 62. 33 S. 53. 94 Valentini. 42. 115 Tunsted. 218 'Winchester Troper*. H9 Theorbo. 81 Veracini. 53. 45. 55. 46. 97 Vexilla Regis. 74 82 Euryanthe. 55 Triplum. 176. 175.. The. 70. 190 Wolfram von Eschenbach. 97. 216 Whole-tone scale. 53 164. 142. 190 Wilbye. 198 Oberon. 201 Siegfried Idyll. 113 Zumsteeg. 195 Vox organatis. 148 Triple time. 93. 81 Vie"ville. 73 76. 132 Tenor. 147 Volkslied. 205 Thompson. 56 signatures. 5 iff. Violoncello. 148 Verdelot. 189. 86. 106 Thalberg. 223. 28 Temperament. 203 Trio sonata. 105 St. 120 Telemann. 126. 198 Freischutz. 92. 67. 53. 125 VALDERRANO. 191 Vaughan Williams.. 103. 188 . 222 Versets. 205 Troubadours. 227 Vitry. Mark's. 20. 127. 231 Weelkes. 104 Venice. 225. 219. 199 Variations. 74 Widor. 87. I99J0M 208. 119. 7. de. 123. 201 Tartini. 151 Wagner. 226 Thorough bass. 218 Vecchi. 79 Werckmeister. 162 Viola da gamba. 86.. 76 Verdi. 202 Walton. 202 Trojans. 216 USPER. 187. 210. S. 187 Vitali. 156 Webern. 225 Weber. 57 Turandot. 78. 61 Vivaldi.

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