EUDEM2

The EU in Humanitarian DeminingState of the Art on HD Technologies, Products, Services and Practices in Europe
IST–2000-29220

EUDEM2 Technology Survey Electromagnetic methods in geophysics
Jerzy Wtorek, PhD., Anna Bujnowska, MSc Gdańsk University of Technology Version 1.0, 08.10.2004

http://www.eudem.info/

Project funded by the European Community and OFES (Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science) under the “Information Society Technologies” Programme (1998-2002)

Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, B

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology – Lausanne EPFL, CH

Gdansk University of Technology GUT, PL

Contents
Electromagnetic methods in geophysics 1. Technical principles of EM methods in geophysics 1.1. Electrical resistivity methods 1.2. The induced polarization technique 1.3. Electromagnetic surveys 1.4. Magnetic techniques 1.5. Multi-modal techniques 2. Inverse problems in geophysics 2.1. Introduction 2.2. The deterministic approach 2.3. The probabilistic approach 2.4. Simultaneous and joint inversion 2.5. Mutual constraint inversion 2.6. Discrete tomography 3. The applicability of geophysical prospecting methods to demining Appendices A. Linear least-square inversion B. Non-linear least-square inversion C. Quadratic programming D. Probabilistic methods References Equipment manufacturers and rental companies Collection of summaries of selected papers 3 5 5 16 17 33 39 40 40 43 56 67 72 74 77 85 85 86 88 89 92 96 97

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Electromagnetic methods in geophysics
This report is made up of three sections. Technical aspects of the electromagnetic methods used in geophysical studies, from DC to relatively high frequency, are presented in the first section. The most common methods are briefly introduced, namely electrical resistivity and induced polarization, both magnetic and electromagnetic. It is clear from this chapter that particular techniques, including electromagnetic ones, are already being utilized in mine detection. Metal detectors, for example, operate on similar principles. It would also appear, even from a restricted study of the literature, that more attention is now being paid to inverse problems. The results obtained when using these methods are more accurate, although the computation required is much greater. The inverse problems encountered in geophysics are briefly surveyed in the second section of the report. Among the wide variety of such problems are determination of earth structure, deconvolution of seismograms, location of earthquakes using the arrival times of waves, identification of trends and determination of sub-surface temperature distribution. These are presented in the report in relation to the types of tools used to solve them. As a result, the methods are categorized as “deterministic” or “probabilistic”. The difference between deterministic and probabilistic methods is that in the former the parameters are unknown but non-random, whereas in the latter they are treated as random variables and therefore have a probability distribution. Probabilistic methods can be used even though there is no strict probabilistic behaviour of the system. When probabilistic methods are applied, the problem is formulated on the basis of probability theory. The results obtained with this approach, using certain assumptions on the probabilities, coincide with the results obtained from the deterministic approach. From the presentation of selected papers many other important aspects of inverse problems can be also identified. Mathematically, the inverse problems are non-linear and ill-posed. That it is why many different approaches to solving them have already been put forward. One of the most common is the minimization of the squared norm of the difference between the measured and the calculated boundary values such as voltages. Because of the ill-posed nature of the problem, the minimization has to be modified in order to obtain a stable solution. This modification, known as regularization, is obtained by introducing an additional term into the minimization so that the problem becomes well-posed. The solution of this new problem approximates to the required solution of the ordinary problem and, in addition, is more satisfactory than the ordinary solution. When the problem is regularized by the introduction of the additional term, prior information about the solution is incorporated. Very often the prior assumption about the solution sought is that the computed solution should be smooth. The smoothness assumption is very often utilized in geophysical studies. It is, however, very general in nature and does not necessarily utilize the known properties of the solution. This has certain advantages because the same assumptions might be valid for a wide range of situations. However, if a certain problem is considered, it would seem reasonable to use prior information that is effectively tailored for this particular situation. Prior information that could be used in the reconstruction problem would be, for example, knowledge of the internal structure of an object, such as the layered structure, the limits of the resistivity values of the different interior structures, the correlation between resistivities and the geometric variability of the interior structures. The third section of the report contains a presentation of the papers published in recent issues of geophysical journals or in conference proceedings which describe the direct application of “geophysical” methods to mine detection or topics which are, in our opinion, essential from this perspective.

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The papers presented in the second and third sections have been selected with regard to their contents. We hope that this selection will be of interest to those involved in developing tools for demining. The authors of this report are convinced that future demining techniques will utilise a multi-modal approach and advanced computational methods. This view explains why a substantial part of this report is devoted to inverse problems. The appendices contain general information on inverse techniques. The information included there is not restricted to geophysics and is drawn on in other scientific disciplines. It is also known to demining “insiders”. Finally, apart from the usual reference section, a small “database” is included. This contains original summaries taken from some of the papers referenced. We hope that this will enable the reader to select, in an efficient manner, a paper containing information which is of use.

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1.
1.1.

Technical principles of EM methods in geophysics
Electrical resistivity methods

Resistivity measurements One of the parameters used to describe soil is soil complex permittivity. This depends on many factors such as soil structure, mineral content and water contamination. In the resistivity method current is injected into the formation and potential is measured from different points. There are many variations on the resistivity method depending on the type of current injected: • DC measurement • Single frequency excitation • Multi-frequency excitation • Time-domain techniques With respect to current injection and measurement, the resistivity methods are: • Surface-based • Well-logging. Electrical well-logging is a technique for measuring the impedance of the formation in depth. A hole is usually drilled down to the formation and, depending on the configuration, an electrode or electrode set-up is moved into it [Furche M. and Weller A., 2002, Sattel D. and Macnae J., 200, Keller G. V. and Frischknecht F. C., 1966]. There are different configurations of electrode sets: • Single-electrode resistance logs • Multi-electrode spacing logs • Focused current logs • Micro-spacing and pad device logs Single-electrode resistance logs
Ω B

A

Figure 1. Single-electrode resistance log configuration. This technique uses two electrodes, one of which in located in the hole, while the second, the reference electrode, is located on the ground surface (Figure 1). The resistance between the movable in-hole electrode and the reference electrode is measured as a function of the depth of the in-hole electrode. The measured resistance is a function of the electrical properties of 5

the material surrounding the electrode and electrode’s shape and dimensions. For successful measurement it is crucial that the in-hole electrode makes good contact with the formation. This is achieved by filling the hole with water or drilling mud. Another problem arises when using a two-electrode configuration. The measured resistance, particularly for DC surveys, contains electrode-contact impedance, which introduces measurement errors. An additional error stems from the variable length of the wire on which the in-hole electrode hangs. When the logging electrode is spherical in shape, fairly simple formulae can be used to calculate the grounding resistance. Such an idealized situation may be approached if the resistivity of a thick layer of rock is uniform and if the well bore is filled with drilling mud with about the same resistivity as the rock. In a completely uniform medium, current will spread out radially from an electrode, A, with a uniform current density in all directions, as shown in (Figure 2). The grounding resistance may be calculated by dividing the earth around the electrode into a series of thin concentric spherical shells. The total grounding resistance is found by summing the resistances through all such shells extending from the surface of the electrode to infinity. The resistance through a single shell is found using one of the defining equations for resistivity [Keller G. V. and Frischknecht F. C., 1966]:

Figure 2. Geometry of the electrode and the hole. (1.1) l dr =ρ 2 A 4πr The total resistance is determined by integrating this expression for the resistance of a single thin shell over a range in r extending from the surface of the electrode (radius a) to infinity: ∞ (1.2) ρ ρ ∞ ρ R=∫ dr = − 2 ∫ = 4πa 4πr a a 4πr
dR = ρ

A geometric factor, K, may be defined from this equation by combining the factors, which depend on the geometry of the electrode;

K = 4πa

(1.3)

Every electrode or array of electrodes can be characterized by a particular geometric factor. This is a parameter which, when multiplied by the measured resistance, will convert the resistance to the resistivity for a uniform medium.
Spacing logs

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For two-electrode resistance measurement the error from long wiring and from electrode contact phenomena can have a significant effect on the result obtained. In order to measure formation resistivity accurately a four-electrode configuration is widely used. The reference current and voltage electrodes are placed on the ground surface. In general. It is also possible to change the current and voltage electrodes in this configuration. In this configuration only the resistance contributed by the formation outside the equi-potential surface passing through this measuring electrode is measured. an increase in the distance between the electrodes can reduce this error significantly [Keller G. the hole should be filled with water or mud to achieve good electrical electrode-toformation contact. There are several techniques of electrode placement. It can be shown that this does not affect the value of the measured resistance. Spacing log configurations: a) normal array. 1966]. C. Moreover. the contrast between the measured resistances is less in measurement than in reality. V. Two electrodes are used for current excitation. The current reference electrode is placed on the soil surface. one is the current electrode and the other the voltage electrode. so the measured voltage value is not affected by the presence of parasite resistances. Such an approach minimises contact and wire impedance errors.. the measured resistance differs from the true one. To increase the resolution of the survey three electrodes are placed on the probe. while two others measure voltage. The remaining electrodes are placed on the ground surface.V K B V B L A a) b) K L A Figure 3. When two electrodes are placed on the probe. b) lateral array.b). as the measuring voltage device does not draw much current. This configuration is known as a lateral array or gradient array. and Frischknecht F. 7 . This configuration is referred to as a “normal” array or “potential” array. The most common are two electrodes on the probe (Figure 3. One is the current electrode and the other two are voltage electrodes. If the conductivity of the hole-filling medium differs from the conductivity of the formation. As before.a) or three electrodes on the probe (Figure 3.

These electrodes cause the current of the centre electrode to flow more to the rock.5) where L is the total length of the array (the length of the centre band) and d is the diameter of the electrode. Commercially available systems using this kind of configuration are Laterolog (Schlumberger) and Guard-Log (Welex and Birdwell) and the current-focused logs (Lane-Wells). the electrodes have to be placed as close as possible to the borehole wall (Figure 5). In this technique the single-electrode resistance measurement is improved by adding two guard electrodes (Kelvin guard electrodes) above and below the main electrode (Figure 4). a special spring-system is often used. The geometric factor for the guard electrode array is: 2π l K S = ⎡⎛ L ⎞ 2 ⎤ ⎢⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎢⎝ d ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡⎛ L ⎞ 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎢⎝ d ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ L ⎛ L ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ + d ⎝ d ⎠ (1. Even when the conductivity of the borehole filling solution (mud) is highly conductive. To achieve this. Any layer of mud or liquid between the electrode and the formation. the thickness of which is comparable to the electrode displacement. The area of investigation in this type of survey is very local and depends on electrode distance. Micro-logging For very high-resolution scans all the electrodes are placed at an extremely small distance from each other. Focused current log configuration. This configuration is very useful in the investigation of the formations within thin layers. Unlike the previous method. significantly modifies the measured resistance. the method gives good results.Focused current logs V K guard center guard Figure 4. 8 .

and van den Berg P. C. and Keller G. 2000. V...M. this technique can give a better spatial resolution between the holes owing to the presence of more measuring points and more hypothetical current-paths..V Figure 5.. and Frischknecht F. and Frischknecht F. et al..A. and Greenhalgh S. C. 1966]...D. One of the possible modifications of the cross-borehole technique is the addition of more electrodes to the system by placing them on the ground surface between the holes [Curtis A.. Cross-borehole set-up. Surface resistivity surveys 9 . Jackson P. Cross-borehole imaging The cross-borehole technique is a modification of borehole logging. Figure 6. Slater L. 1999. In this type of survey two or more boreholes are drilled and a multiple set of electrodes inserted in the holes (Figure 6). et al. Abubakar A.. In general.. 2000. Micro-logging configuration. The electrodes can usually work as current or voltage. Bing Z. V. 2001. which increases the electrode’s contact resistance [Keller G. allowing for different methods of excitation. 2000. Small displacement of the electrode also requires a small electrode area. 1966].

However. j is the current density and ρ is the resistivity of the medium.10) This equation may be integrated directly: r2 ∂u =C ∂r C u=− +D r (1. Ohm's law: (1. Measurement of the apparent resistivity of the surface is another technique. If the results are not satisfactory.9): ∂ ⎛ 2 ∂u ⎞ ⎜r ⎟=0 ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ (1. These two equations may be combined to obtain Laplace's equation: 1 1 ∇ ⋅ j = ∇ ⋅ E = ∆U ρ ρ 2. complete symmetry of current flow with respect to the Θ and ϕ directions may be assumed. (1. it gives good results.9) ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ r 2 sin θ ∂θ ⎝ ∂θ ⎠ r 2 + sin 2 θ ∂ϕ 2 If only a single point source of current is considered. An equation giving the potential about a single point source of current can be developed from two basic considerations: 1. surface resistivity surveys use a four-electrode technique for apparent resistance measurements. so that derivatives taken in these directions may be eliminated from (1.7) ∆⋅ j = 0 which states that the sum of the currents entering a chunk of material must be equal to the sum of the current leaving the chunk.6) E=ρ j where E is the potential gradient.8) where U is a scalar potential function defined such that E is its gradient. The divergence condition: (1. In polar co-ordinates.Electrical well-logging is quite an expensive and time-consuming method of soil prospecting. the Laplace equation is: 1 1 ∂ 2u ∂ ⎛ 2 ∂u ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂u ⎞ =0 ⎜r ⎟+ ⎜ sin θ ⎟+ (1.11) 10 . The divergence of the current density vector must be zero at all sites except at the current source. unless there is a source of current inside the chunk. which is much cheaper to apply than borehole resistivity imaging. and good depth-resolution. Basically. another borehole must be drilled and the survey has to be performed again. In the theoretical analysis the first step is to assume a completely homogeneous formation under the point electrodes. The main reason for the complexity of the method is the fact that the borehole has to be drilled.

14) where In is the current from the nth in a series of current electrodes and an is the distance from the nth source at which the potential is being observed. I. will be: UM = ρ 2π ⎡ I1 I1 In ⎤ ⎢ a + a + ⋅⋅⋅ + a ⎥ 1 n⎦ ⎣ 1 (1. flowing between two electrodes.15) There are several main configurations of the electrodes: • The Wenner array • The Schlumberger array • The dipole-dipole array • The pole-pole array • The pole-dipole array Apart from the basic configurations mentioned above. for n current sources distributed in a uniform medium. A U. D. there are a wide variety of modifications of them.12) This equation may be solved for the constant of integration. The physical quantities measured in a field determination of resistivity are the current. and the distances between the various electrodes. If there are several sources of current rather than the single source assumed so far. and this value substituted in (1. the following equation applies for the four ordinary terminal arrays used in measuring earth resistivity: ρ =⎜ 2π ∆U ⎛ U M −U N ⎞ =K ⎟ I I ⎝ ⎠ 1 − 1 − 1 + 1 AM BM AN BN (1. Thus. may be evaluated in terms of the total current. In view of the assumed symmetry of the current flow. M.13) Potential functions are scalars and so may be added arithmetically. the constant of integration. the difference in potential. from the source. The other constant of integration. Thus.11) for the potential function: UM = ρI 2π r (1. C. Equation (1. C. M and N. I. between two measuring points. Most of the measuring techniques use a similar basic four-electrode 11 . The total current may be expressed as the integral of the current density over the surface of the sphere: I = ∫ j ⋅ ds = ∫ S S E ρ ds = ∫ S C 2πC ds = − 2 ρ ρr (1.14) is of practical importance in the determination of earth resistivities. the potential at an observation point. the current density should be uniform throughout the surface of a small sphere with radius a drawn around the current source. must also be zero. the total potential at an observation point may be calculated by adding the potential contributions from each source considered independently.Defining the level of potential at a great distance from the current source as zero.

which states the current-to-voltage electrode separation in relation to the current or voltage electrode separation “a”. The spacing between the current electrode pair. 12 . For the Wenner configuration (Figure 7. These arrays can be used to measure the apparent resistivity of the soil. The main difference is the spacing between the electrodes. This extends the apparent resistivity to the amenability to evaluation of the parameters of the two halves under the array.configuration of two current electrodes and two voltage electrodes.17) where for the Schlumberger array (Figure 7. the spacing between them usually being considerably less than half the distance between the current electrodes. which is treated as homogenous within the area of investigation. I I V V a a) a a a b) b Figure 7. For the Wenner array (Figure 7.b): ⎛ a2 b ⎞ ⎟ K =π⎜ ⎜ b − 4⎟. I (1. ⎝ ⎠ (1. the “a” spacing is initially kept fixed and the “n” factor is increased from 1 to 2 to 3 and up to about 6 in order to increase the depth of the investigation.a) the distance between the voltage electrodes is equal to the corresponding distance between the voltage and current electrodes. Into this configuration factor “n” was introduced. For surveys with this array. C2-C1. For the Schlumberger configuration (Figure 7. In this configuration the current electrodes are placed at a specific distance. whereas the voltage electrodes are placed in line with them but at the side of the current pair.b) the voltage electrodes are placed symmetrically to the mid-point between the current electrodes. which is the same as the distance between the potential electrode pair P1-P2. The dipole-dipole array is used in resistivity/induced polarization (IP) surveys because of the low EM coupling between the current and potential circuits.16) where K is the geometry-dependent factor. The Lee modification of the Wenner array splits the voltage measurement into two parts by adding a central reference electrode. (1. is given as “a”. The Wenner a) and the Schlumberger b) electrode placement array. For both configurations the apparent resistivity can be written as: ρ=K ∆U .18) There are several modifications of the basic configurations.a) K can be defined as: K = 2πa .

One possible disadvantage of this array is the very small signal strength for large values of the “n” factor. This means that this array is most sensitive to resistivity changes between the electrodes in each dipole pair. However. The voltage is inversely proportional to the cube of the “n” factor. for 2-D surveys.b) is about 28 times stronger than the one with the larger “n” factor. are shown in Figure 9. The median depth of investigation of this array also depends on the “n” factor. this array has better horizontal data coverage than the Wenner. The signal strength of the array with the smaller “n” factor (Figure 9. with the same array length but with different “a” and “n” factors. The largest sensitivity values are located between the C2-C1 dipole pair. The sensitivity contour pattern is almost vertical. This means that for the same current. Thus the dipole-dipole array is very sensitive to horizontal changes in resistivity.I V C1 C2 P1 P2 a a n*a Figure 8. but relatively insensitive to vertical changes in the resistivity. One method of overcoming this problem is to increase the “a” spacing between the C1-C2 (and P1-P2) dipole pair to reduce the drop in potential when the overall length of the array is extended to increase the depth of the investigation. Figure 9 Two different arrangements for a dipole-dipole array measurement with the same array length but different “a” and “n” factors. This means that it is good at mapping vertical structures such as dykes and cavities but relatively poor at mapping horizontal structures such as sills or sedimentary layers. the voltage measured by the resistivity meter drops by about 200 times when “n” is increased from 1 to 6. The dipole-dipole configuration. In general. this array has a shallower depth of investigation compared to the Wenner array. as well as the “a” factor. resulting in very different signal strengths. 13 . Two different arrangements for the dipole-dipole array. as well as between the P1-P2 pair.

To use this array effectively. However. I I V V a) b) Figure 10. With the proper field equipment and survey techniques this array has successfully been used in many areas to detect structures such as cavities. where the pseudo-section point falls in an area with very low sensitivity values. where the sensitivity values are almost zero. 14 . This approach gives satisfactory results for the Wenner and Wenner-Schlumberger arrays. also known as poledipole and pole-pole configurations (Figure 10). also known as the pole-dipole and pole-pole configuration. For profiling large areas the electrode set-up is replaced and data are then collected and stored. where the pseudo-section point falls in an area with high sensitivity values. V. For the dipoledipole array. With the half-Schlumberger array. This is a much faster technique when large areas have to be inspected [Keller G. the dipole-dipole array gives minimal information about the resistivity of the region surrounding the plotting point.0 units (compared with 0. The half-Wenner a) and half-Schlumberger b) configuration. it is not suitable for arrays such as the dipoledipole and pole-dipole. In effect. and Frischknecht F. also be placed far away from each other. Loke and Barker (1996) used an inversion model where the arrangement of the model blocks directly follows the arrangement of the pseudo-section plotting points. For depth investigation the distance between the electrodes may vary too. Other modifications are half-Wenner and half-Schlumberger arrays. Note that if the datum point is plotted at the point of intersection of the two 45° angle lines drawn from the centres of the two dipoles. Note that the pseudo-section plotting point falls in an area with very low sensitivity values. and the distribution of the data points in the pseudo-section plot does not reflect the sub-surface area mapped by the apparent resistivity measurements. Data obtained in such research are more readily interpreted than data obtained with other configurations. the regions with the high sensitivity values are concentrated below the C1-C2 electrode pair and below the P1-P2 electrode pair.. With the half-Wenner array one current and one voltage electrode are placed at a great distance from the traverse.96 units given by the median depth of the investigation method). the resistivity meter should have a relatively high degree of sensitivity and very good noise rejection circuitry. The electrode set-up can be replaced manually but electrodes have also been known to be pulled behind a car and the data acquired with some time-step (Figure 11). They must. respectively. moreover. There should also be good contact between the electrodes and the ground in the survey. it would be located at a depth of 2. one of the current electrodes is placed at a great distance. allowing deeper current penetration with larger spacing of the current electrodes. where the good horizontal resolution of this array is a major advantage. 1966]. These configurations are useful for horizontal profiling for vertical structures. C.

One transmitter and one receiver are commonly used.. These are connected to the electrodes by an appropriate switching box. 2000]. and Laust B. 2000.Figure 11. Many electrodes are positioned. Szalai S. 2000.. This is an improved method of moving the electrodes in the Schlumberger or Wenner configurations. 15 ... Vickery A. Mauriello P. After a series of measurements data is collected. such its presentation in anisotropic terms [Yin C. 2000. Figure 12. Modern data analysis approaches have led to improved models of the earth. and Szarka L. van der Kruk J..I. Roy I.E. G. usually in line..T. Jackson P.. 1999. and Basokur A. and Yaramanci U. et al. A. et al. 2001.. 2001... Multi-electrode arrays and data inversion Modern electrical ground prospecting techniques have led to an increase in the spatial resolution of the survey by adding more electrodes and using advanced excitation patterns. A typical arrangement of electrodes for a 3-D survey. it is processed in such a way that it provides information about the resistivity or the conductivity distribution of the formation measured.-J. Yi M. Inverse problems in geophysics. techniques are available for introducing ground topology to improve data inversion... Panissod C. Electrode set-up pulled behind a car.A. and connected to a common multi-core wire. Dahlin T. 2000.. 2001. Storz H.D. 2001.C. 2002. When software is used for data analysis. al. Patella D.. et al.. 2000. This method is also known as geo-electrical tomography. Muiuane E.. 2001.. and Hobbs B. 1999. These issues are presented in more detail in the next section. Olayinka A. Candansayar M.. et. et al. A variety of systems and software are available for imaging conductivity distribution.

Io Current applied Ep Eo Ep Observed voltage Figure 13. although the permittivity of the soil cannot be measured by means of DC currents.20) where E0 is the amplitude of the voltage response in a stable state. As a result of the polarization effect. ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ∑ (1.. DC equipment is frequently used in measuring the electrical properties of soil. The induced polarization technique.2. in general. Time-domain excitation and response. the voltage response for the square current is not square. 16 .1. τ denotes the time constant of the surface polarization and α is an exponent characterising frequency-dependence (non-integer). It has been shown that. the soil has not only resistive but also capacitive electrical components.3. m denotes limited polarizability (chargeability). This is a valid method for obtaining soil resistivity. 2. In practice the excitation pattern is usually bipolar or referred to as on+ zero on-zero. This enables the electrode polarization effect to be dealt with better (Figure 14). A very popular representation of these electrical properties is the Cole-Cole equation. In the time domain a square current is applied between the current electrodes and voltage is observed at the voltage electrodes (Figure 13). Data for induced polarization methods can be acquired in both the frequency and time domains.19) where Z(0) denotes zero-frequency impedance.. The ratio of Ep/Eo is often no more than a few per cent. The voltage response for step-function excitation can be expressed as: ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ E (t ) ≅ E o ⎨1 − E pn e − β nt ⎬ ⎪ n =1. The Cole-Cole model is expressed as: ⎧ ⎡ 1 ⎪ Z ( jω ) = Z (0)⎨1 − m ⎢1 − α ⎪ ⎢ 1 + ( jωτ ) ⎣ ⎩ ⎤⎫ ⎪ ⎥⎬ ⎥⎪ ⎦⎭ (1.

There is also a modification of the frequency technique in which the excitation signal is the sum of two or more sinusoidal signals and the responding voltage has a separate demodulation unit for each signal frequency component. Consideration may thus be given to the use of stainless steel electrodes. In frequency domain-induced polarization the excitation is sine-waved in shape.. et al. In order to minimize contact impedance phenomena four-electrode impedance measurement is widely used. Electrodes for the electrical methods By using the two-electrode configuration measurement. or stainless steel for current electrodes. et al. By applying signal excitation at different frequencies a frequency response from the formation may be collected. 1999. recently. Another technique is to use AC measurements. 2000. the response signal being in the form of a sine wave. Bhattacharya B. lead-lead chloride for instance. which are used predominantly for mapping lateral changes in conductivity.3.I Im t -I m I Im t -I m Figure 14. which are mainly used for depth soundings and. in the four-electrode technique this can be avoided by using voltage non-polarizable electrodes. 1. A variety of improvements have been made to the matching of excitation signal patterns. Weller. This technique is referred to as impedance spectroscopy. Measurements can thus be made much simpler and faster than for electrical 17 .. Electromagnetic surveys Two types of electromagnetic survey are currently practised: • Time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveys. B. in some metal-detector type instruments • Frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys. 2000].S. The EM method generally uses coils and there is no need for the probes to be in contact with the ground. especially when performing DC measurements. et al. Typical current patterns for time domain-induced polarization. noise has been reduced and electrode phenomena minimized [Apparao G. electrode impedance can have a significant effect on the result. This is due to electrode-polarization phenomena and contact impedance. Whereas polarization of the electrode in DC measurement may introduce error. When measuring in the time domain the polarization effect can be neglected by using a current excitation of opposite amplitude.

Electromagnetic methods by means of horizontal TX and RX loops. the primary field. the secondary field. Frequency-domain (FDEM) methods are used to provide rapid and generally shallow coverage. Land-based targets do not respond well. These time-varying currents create magnetic fields that propagate in the earth and cause secondary electrical currents. Another modification of the EM technique is the high-frequency horizontal loop (HLEM).methods. High-frequency HLEM can be useful when mapping structure in resistive environments and can provide information on the geometry and conductance of potential targets. whereas the receiving coil receives a signal from the transmitting coil and from the environment. Electromagnetic techniques measure the conductivity of the ground by inducing an electrical field through the use of time-varying electrical currents in transmitter coils located above the surface of the ground. et al. where it is necessary to place metal electrodes on the ground surface. 2001]. At least two coils are generally necessary.. while time-domain methods (TDEM) are more commonly used on large deep targets [Mitsuhata Y. 18 . It is important to minimize the influence of the primary field induced in the receiving coil. Frequency-domain electromagnetics (FDEM) In frequency-domain electromagnetic surveys the transmitting coil generates sine wave electromagnetism. which can be measured either while the primary field is transmitting (FDEM) or after the primary field has been switched off (TDEM). These surveys are good for kimberlite exploration and for targets beneath lakes. The basis of this is the use of a moving loop configuration: RX Bs Bp TX Eddy currents Figure 15.

Coil configurations: There are several possible transmitting . The excitation signal is a short – long current pulse in the coil. In this type of survey it is possible to use one coil for both transmitting and receiving the data. i(t) H(t) t Toff H=(Hx. 2000]. Modern systems integrate GPS with FDEM to increase the rate of the surveys. There is a variety of techniques for TDEM data interpretation [Lee T.J. et al. the method can be applied to logging electromagnetic data in boreholes with nonmetallic casing. Typical results for FDEM surveys are contour maps of conductivity and 2-D geo-electrical sections showing differences in conductivity along a line profile. TDEM techniques produce 1-D and 2-D geo-electrical cross-sections in a similar manner to electrical cross-sections.Hy. Survey depths range from a few to hundreds of metres with high vertical and lateral resolution. A short time afterwards the pulse decay of the signal is measured. In addition.The technique is usually used to measure lateral conductivity variations along line profiles either as single lines or grids of data. Time-domain electromagnetics (TDEM) In TDEM it is possible to use one coil for transmitting and receiving signals.receiving coil configurations. The decay depends on the material properties surrounding the coil..Hz) Toff t i(t) Figure 16. The techniques do not yield a high resolution for shallow depths. These are: • Central loop (in-loop) • Coincident loop • Fixed loop • Moving loop 19 . Changes in conductivity are often associated with differences between lithological sequences and over widely distributed ground such as faulted or mineralized zones. Time-domain electromagnetic set-up.

• Coincident loop. • Central loop (in-loop). TX a) RX b) TX RX Figure 18. RX TX Figure 19. This array is mainly used for vertical sounding applications. 20 . and Macnae J. TX – transmitting coil. Coincident loops: a) functional diagram. The coil set-up consists of two coils. 2001]. Fixed loop configuration.• Large Offset TEM (LOTEM) Special precautions usually have to be taken to minimize the primary field from the transmitting coil. • Fixed loop. RX – receiving coil.. b) DD configuration. used for profiling and vertical sounding. Central loop configuration.. In most cases this includes special wiring of the coils or the use of a gradiometer [Sattel D. the transmitting loop outside and the receiving loop usually placed inside the transmitting loop in a fixed position. One transmitting loop is at a fixed position and there is an array or moving receiving loop. The double D (DD) configuration is very popular. Two partially overlapping loops are placed in such way that the primary field from the transmitting loop is minimal in the receiving loop. RX TX Figure 17.

2000. Moving loop configuration. 2001]. Typically. a set of coils is mounted and carried behind a small aeroplane or helicopter. FDEM and TDEM. There are some configurations in which the surfaces of these loops are placed perpendicular to each other. • LOTEM (Large Offset TEM). RX TX Figure 21. A Geoterrex aircraft with the magnetometer (left) and the EM sensor (right) stowed against the rear deck-ramp of the aircraft. which results in a minimal primary field being induced in the receiving loop. Airborne EM systems are used for large-zone investigations. TX RX Figure 20.. Figure 22. Airborne EM systems. Siemon. 21 . In this configuration the current is transmitted via a long dipole connected at two ends to the ground and in this way closing the loop. In this configuration the transmitting and receiving loops are separated. are present. In airborne EM systems both techniques.• Moving loop (Offset-loop). LOTEM set-up. This method is used to investigate larger areas for spatial variation of electrical conductivity [Beard L P. The receiving coil is usually placed at greater distances from the transmitting dipole-loop.

Photograph of a Geoterrex aircraft in flight. Image of a conductivity-depth transform for one flight-line (source: http://volcanoes.gov/jwynn/7spedro. deploying the magnetometer and EM sensor detectors behind it on separate cables.usgs. When the vertical co-planar loop configuration is used. Figure 24. these are extremely sensitive slingram systems in which the real and imaginary parts of the mutual coupling are measured at a single frequency. which may range from 320 to 4000 Hz. coils with ferromagnetic cores are placed in pods attached to either wingtip.html ).Figure 23. Basically. Figure 25. the transmitting coil is attached to brackets on the nose of the aircraft and the receiving coil is 22 . vertical-loop configurations are more sensitive to steeply dipping conductors and less sensitive to flat lying conductors. For vertical co-axial loop arrangements.FLAIRTEM Airborne slingram A number of fixed-loop systems have been devised for use with helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. Vertical-loop arrangements are used in preference to horizontal-loop arrangements since when the ration of height to separation is large. Another airborne EM system .

In interpreting airborne electromagnetic results. For co-axial coil configurations mounted in a bird or on a boom the structure is designed and supported in such a fashion that the loops tend to remain parallel to each other during flexures of the structure. which is towed by the helicopter. fewer reference data are needed in the interpretation of airborne surveys. the geology of the survey area may be sufficiently well known that ambiguities in interpretation may be readily resolved. the phase shift of the electromagnetic 23 . Co-planar loops are suspended somewhat below the wing tips to minimize variations in the separation of the coils as the wings flex. When there is a correspondence between electromagnetic and magnetic anomaly curves. Shock mounting of the receiver coil eliminates much of the noise contributed by this last mechanism but tends to increase the amount of low-frequency noise caused by the changing orientation of the loops. while conductors of no economic interest. Proper mounting of the loops is essential. are non-magnetic. In such a system. Low pass filters placed between the demodulators and the recorder reject most of the noise which is of high enough frequency that it cannot be confused with lower-frequency earthreturn signals. in one system installed on a small helicopter. Variations in the intensity of the secondary field at the aircraft caused by the movement of control surfaces such as ailerons are sometimes a source of noise. Careful electrical bonding of the various portions of the airframe largely eliminates this source of noise. which is greater than the internal noise level of some of the more sensitive fixed-coil systems. In many cases. which are likely to be conductive. maximum use should be made of any other geological or geophysical information which may be available. Swamps and lakes. Such systems are responsive only to vertical conductors and the edges of horizontal conductors. The quadrature system One of the most widely used towed-bird systems is known as the quadrature system or the dual-frequency phase shift system. Magnetic field and natural gamma radiation measurements are usually made along with electromagnetic measurements in a typical airborne survey. Noise is additionally caused by vibration of the coils in the earth's magnetic field. Massive sulphide bodies will often be somewhat magnetic. additional information about the shape of the body can be derived from the magnetic survey data.placed in a boom or "stinger" extending from the tail. A change in separation of one part in a hundred thousand causes a change in the free-space mutual coupling of about 30 ppm. This type of response is acceptable for most prospecting but is not desirable if data are to be used in geological mapping. such as graphitic slate or water-filled shear zones. Because the resolution of airborne measurements is inferior to that of ground measurements. Variations in the contact resistance between various parts of the airframe can cause changes in the eddy current flow pattern and the associated secondary field at the aircraft. Vibrations and flexing of the airframe or coil mountings cause variations in the orientation and separation of the loops in relation to one another and in relation to the aircraft. In some cases. In other systems the coils are placed at either end of a large bird. the coils are placed at either end of a long light-weight detachable boom. introducing noise into the system. Vertical co-axial arrangements are used with helicopters as well as on fixed-wing aircraft. are observed as lows in natural radioactivity. Some systems also have high pass filters to eliminate very low-frequency noise and drift such as may be caused by variation in the coil properties with temperature. calculation of the anomaly curve for particular conductor geometry is easier for an airborne system than for a ground system.

The ratio of responses or the difference in response is observed and recorded. there is lesser tendency to discriminate against horizontal sheets and to accentuate vertical sheets. highly conductive near-surface conductive body is slight because out-of-phase currents flow between the body and the surrounding medium and because there is usually a halo of disseminated mineralization around highly conductive zones. 1958) uses two transmitting loops. The loop is powered with several hundred watts at two frequencies.field at two frequencies is observed at the receiver. Ideally. simulating a conductive host rock and overburden. In the case of horizontal sheets. is used to cancel the secondary field of the aircraft. There is a small out-of-phase secondary field at the receiving coil due to currents induced in the aircraft. Since the in-phase component of the secondary field is not measured. which are attached to the aircraft. At normal flying heights of 900 – 2000 m the coil configuration used with the phase shift system is sensitive to conductors of almost any shape or attitude. and two receiving loops. the possibility of missing a large. The rotating field method (Tornquist. typically 400 and 2300 Hz. in such a system the differences between free-space mutual couplings for each set of loops should be constant. the presence of the brine environment changes the shape of the anomaly curves and increases the peak amplitude by as much as a factor of three. Narrow-band circuits are used to measure and record the phase shift of the field at the receiving loop relative to the current in the transmitter loop. Similar results are observed for vertical sheets. as the bird moves relative to the aircraft. A similar arrangement of receiving loops is towed in a bird as nearly directly behind the aircraft as is possible or is towed at the end of a short cable by a second aircraft.05°. One of the transmitting loops is vertical with its plane passing through the centre line of the aircraft. The transmitting loop is a cable stretched around the aircraft between the wing tips and the tail in such a manner that the axis of the loop is nearly vertical. an auxiliary horizontal-axis loop. except that there is less change in the shape of the anomaly curve. 24 . in comparison with vertical slingram configurations. there is some possibility of not detecting highly conductive ore bodies which do not cause significant out-of-phase fields. the direction of the primary field is about 25° from the axis of the coil. Gaur (1963) conducted a series of model experiments for the dual-frequency phase shift system in which the models were placed in a tank full of brine. The rotating field method Another means for obtaining adequate sensitivity in an airborne EM system using a towed bird is the use of two or more sets of loops responding differently to a conductor. In practice. The inclinations of the two nominally horizontal loops are adjusted for the height of the bird so that the loops are as nearly co-planar as possible. At this location. the noise level is less than 0. which are placed in a bird. powered by a current 90° out of phase with respect to the current in the main transmitter loop. To reduce noise from this source. the second transmitter loop is orthogonal to the first and is approximately horizontal. In a typical installation in an amphibious aircraft the bird maintains a position about 130 m behind and 70 m below the aircraft. The motion of the bird in this field is a source of noise. or when there are nearby electrical storms. A horizontal-axis receiving coil is towed in a bird at the end of a long cable. Except under conditions of excessive turbulence.

The two signals from the receiving coils are amplified by selective circuits. rotary field results are very complicated inasmuch as they are essentially the combined results obtained with three different coil configurations. By using a third set of coils parallel to one of the other sets but operating at a substantially different frequency. When a conductive zone is present. The weight and power requirements for a system using a very low frequency as a reference are excessive. Vertical co-planar and vertical co-axial coil configurations are preferred in this method. although the horizontal coplanar arrangement could also be used for one of the coil pairs. independent of movements of the bird relative to the aircraft. which differ enough to permit separation of the signals in the receiver circuitry. conductors are detected because they generate unequal changes in the mutual coupling in the two coil systems. The transmitting coils are powered with two frequencies. even for large highly conductive bodies. despite changes in coil separation. When the geological environment is complex and the flight lines are not normal to all of the conductors. The error signal may also be used to actuate a servo-mechanism which rotates the transmitting coils to help compensate for misalignment between the transmitting and receiving coils as the bird moves about relative to the aircraft. the mutual coupling between coils changes more at the high frequency than at the low frequency and an anomaly is recorded. This technique has not proved to be very useful. The simplest of such techniques uses two parallel transmitting coils rigidly fastened together and a similar arrangement of receiving coils placed in a bird. so that the gain in each channel will be the same. In free space this difference will be zero.For simple conditions the interpretation of results obtained with the rotary field method is not too different from the interpretation of slingram results. Another technique (Slichter L. after which they are rectified and the difference recorded. variations in the amplitude of either of the transmitted signals or changes in the gains of either of the receiving channels cause drift or noise. orthogonal to the other two. rectified and the difference recorded. These error signals may be detected by means of a third receiving coil. The signal from each of the coils is filtered to remove the unwanted frequency and to eliminate noise. the difference between the two signals is zero or constant. amplified and recorded. In addition. 25 . A comparison of the amplitudes of the two signals provides an indication of the conductivity in a conductive zone. When no conductive zones are present. preferably low enough that the response is slight. Other dual transmitter systems A variety of other techniques have been proposed in which the ratio or difference between dual transmitter fields is measured. 1961). One such system. One coil system operates at a frequency suitable for detecting the conductive zones sought and the other operates at a very low frequency. The amplitudes of the transmitted signals are made the same by electronic regulators. After amplification the two signals are again separated. Rotation of the bird about one of its axes causes an error signal. B. After filtering.. which has been used extensively (Pemberton. the signals are mixed and amplified by a common amplifier. which varies as the cosine of the angle. As in the rotating field method. 1955) uses a set of orthogonal transmitting coils attached to the aircraft and a set of orthogonal receiving coils carried in a towed bird in such a fashion that one coil is co-planar and the other is co-axial with respect to its counterpart on the aircraft. employs a combination of coils and frequencies such that three differences and one error signal are recorded. a second difference signal can be obtained.

The signal seen by the receiving coil is blocked from the amplifiers during the primary pulse. Transient response systems Fundamentally. which sample the signal at four different times. In most cases only a small part of the energy in the secondary field remains after the end of the energizing pulse. A large horizontal transmitting loop is stretched around the aircraft. so that channel four is sensitive only to conductors with a large value for the response parameter. 1963). The primary purpose for using a long cable is to remove the receiving coil as far as possible from secondary fields induced in the aircraft. including conductive overburden. Because the coil configurations are much the same. During the interval between pulses the received signal is amplified and fed to a series of electronic gates. model experiments in which the coil configuration is simulated and in which continuous waves are used can be employed to obtain the shapes for INPUT anomaly curves.The response of a difference system may be calculated by taking the differences between the responses for each coil configuration separately. so that the recorded parameters will be essentially continuous. The delay of the gate for the first channel is selected so that this channel will be responsive to poor conductors. There is no coupling between the various coil configurations. It is more difficult to design circuitry for transient signals than for sinusoidal signals. These pulse series are integrated using circuits with appropriate time constants and recorded on four separate channels. Inasmuch as many of the circuit elements must have a wide band pass. This problem may be avoided by using a pulsed primary field and by measuring the transient secondary field from the earth while the primary field is zero. The only airborne transient system which has been reported to date is the INPUT system (Barringer. the shapes of the anomaly curves obtained with the INPUT system are similar to the shapes of the anomaly curves observed with the dual frequency phase shift system. there is greater difficulty in rejecting atmospheric and other noise. The exact shape and amplitude of INPUT anomalies can be determined from 26 . The signal from each gate consists of a series of pulses with constant width and with an amplitude which is a function of the amplitude of the secondary field during the time the gate was open. To be practical an airborne transient system must use a repetitive primary field. the problem in achieving adequate sensitivity in an airborne electromagnetic system is that of detecting very small secondary fields from the earth in the presence of a large primary field. While one serious problem in making airborne measurements is eliminated by using transient response measurements. which uses a half-sine wave primary pulse with alternating polarity. The results obtained with this method are likely to be more complicated than those obtained with a slingram system but they are less complicated than the results obtained with the rotary field method. a more intense primary field must be used in a transient method than in a continuous-wave method in order to measure a secondary response of the same magnitude. As a result. To the extent that the shape of the anomaly curve is independent of frequency. A vertical receiving coil with its axis aligned with the flight direction is towed in a bird at the end of a long cable. such as can occur in the rotary field method. Delays in the other channels are successively longer. A comparison of the anomalies recorded on the fourth channel serves to indicate the conductivity of the body in the same way that a comparison of measurements made at several frequencies with continuous-wave methods does. other problems become more acute and new problems arise.

The signals from the two coils are compared in such a fashion that the output is approximately proportional to the tilt angle (Ward. as is done in making ground surveys. As pointed out in the discussion on ground AFMAG surveys. Inasmuch as it is not possible to determine the mean azimuth of the field and then measure the tilt angle in that direction. The field strength must be somewhat higher for airborne measurements. In some airborne systems the phase difference is measured between signals from the two coils. RX TX Figure 26. The coils are suspended so that their axes are at 45° from the horizontal and aligned with the flight direction. a continuous record of the signal strength at each frequency is made to help evaluate the quality of the data.model experiments in which airborne circuitry is simulated or by calculation from the continuous-wave response as discussed in previous sections. so in many parts of the world AFMAG methods can be used only rarely. the natural field tends to become aligned perpendicular to the regional strike. For large targets the AFMAG method provides a greater depth of penetration than any of the other airborne electromagnetic methods. The length of the tow cable is determined by the magnitude of the secondary fields induced in the airframe and the electrical noise generated by the aircraft. measurements are made at two frequencies. 1959). A semi-airborne EM survey. The concept of semi-airborne systems has been put forward in the literature: 27 . The semi-airborne EM technique In this technique a large fixed transmitting loop is laid on the ground while a small aeroplane or helicopter carries the detector system. Two orthogonal receiving coils of equal sensitivity are towed in a bird behind a fixed-wing aircraft or helicopter. In addition. As with a ground system. The AFMAG system Instrumentation for the AFMAG method can be adapted to airborne measurements. flight lines are laid out perpendicular to the regional strike.

59 5000 2.25 3.83 50.13 1.59 50.18 1000 5.96 11.59 2. 28 .92 25. Table 1: Approximate skin depth δ [m] for materials of different conductivity for different frequencies 0.51 35. which is defined as the distance in which the amplitude of a plane EM wave decays to e-1 ≈ 0.54 159. In the induction the EM set-up is inserted into the borehole.5 1 2 5 10 F[Hz]\ρ[Ω m] 100 15.03 7. Lubricating oil generates oil-based muds.92 20000 1.12 11. Currents are induced in the formation using a transmitting coil.03 7. When a borehole is drilled. 1996) The useful frequency range for induction methods is about 100 Hz to 100 kHz.12 10.92 22.92 22. the current flows around the borehole in circular loops. 1979.1 0.07 15. 1997.12 10. (1.25 15.03 7.37 of its initial value: δ = 2 σµω ≈ 0.12 11.71 1.25 50000 0.25 3.33 71. oil is often used for lubrication.25 15.59 2.03 Induction logging Induction logging is a technique for EM surveys in a borehole.51 10000 1. When measurements are performed at different frequencies and for different separations between transmitter and receiver.16 200 11.07 15. An array of the receiving coil measures the magnetic field from the transmitter and the secondary currents induced in components of the formation.18 112.96 11.71 1.56 5.92 25.52 3. If the formation is symmetrical around the borehole axis.51 35.54 500 7.503m ρ f .59 2.03 7.51 31. Seigel.13 1.03 7.25 15.50 0.25 3.59 50.• • • The TURAIR system is operated in the frequency domain and uses two spatially displaced receivers to define an amplitude ratio and phase difference (Bosschart.17 35.33 79. Becker.18 5. 1972. This range is determined by strong attenuation of the time-varying EM waves in the conductive soil structure.56 5.25 15.21) where ω = 2πf is the angular frequency of the plane EM wave and µ = 4π 10 −7 [ H / m] was used in the approximate formula.59 50. 1998) The GEOTEM airborne EM system (Annan et al.33 71.58 112.92 22.03 7.17 35. which are insulators and prevent the flow of DC electrical current from the electrodes to the formation. data can be converted into a 2-D image of the electrical conductivity near the borehole. An assumption has to be made of the symmetry of the formation around the borehole axis. 1979) FLAIRTEM is a time-domain system with data stacking and windowing (Elliott.59 2.92 22.01 1.18 5.56 5.25 3. Siegel.2 0. The measure of the attenuation is skin depth δ.56 5.33 2000 3.12 100000 0.

N Ri . Vi = λ 2 + vi2 . The expression for the mutual impedance ratio for the horizontal co-planar coil system can be written as: Z = 1 − r 3 ∫ λ2 R (λ )J 0 (λ )dλ Z0 0 ∞ (1.1). Vi ..22) where r is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver.N (λ).26) (1.25) (1.. Filter sets for computing EM sounding curves have been designed for various dipole-dipole configurations.N-1. The forward problem for the EM sounding was used following the digital linear filter approach to computing the resistivity sounding curves. J0 is the Bessel function of zero order and the complex EM function is denoted by R(λ) or R3. EM borehole logging.23) (1. N (λ )e −2 hiVi 1 + Vi −1..27) (1. 29 . Vi + Vk (1. This can be computed using the following relationship for a given frequency: Ri −1. (1.28) ω = 2πf .. N = Vi −1.RX array TX Figure 27. N (λ ) = 0. vi = iωµ 0σ i . N (λ )e −2 hiVi .24) with R N . (i=N.k = Vi − Vk . N + Ri .

et al. In the following the phase ϕ of the mutual impedance obtained from ϕ = arctan⎜ ⎜ ⎛ Im(Z / Z 0 ) ⎞ ⎟.. 30 .29) is a convolution integral with the input in the first. which is reflected from buried objects or layer borders.. 2000.30) is considered as a representation of the EM response.5 m. Radio Wave Methods The electromagnetic waves transmitted from radio broadcast stations may be used as an energy source in determining the electrical properties of the earth. High-frequency electromagnetic methods use a transmitter and receiver. and Gomez-Trevino E. High-frequency EM methods For high-frequency EM waves the dielectric properties of the formation become important.where f denotes the frequency of excitation [Hz]. with a change in the variables x = ln(r ) and y = ln(1 / λ ) . For frequencies higher than 1 MHz an electromagnetic wave propagates as a strongly attenuated one. The use of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields can be considered an essentially different method from the inductive methods discussed in the preceding chapter. These techniques yield a high resolution but. 2000]. inasmuch as the instrumental methods used are very different. The ratio of mutual impedances can easily be computed with the help of the filter coefficients developed by Koefoed et al. and the filter function in the second bracket. The technique known as ground penetrating radar (GPR) involves the collection of data from surface or borehole radar. N denotes the number of layers. The frequency range that can be used varies from 1 MHz to several GHz [Lazaro-Mancilla O. in accordance with the nature of high-frequency EM waves in the soil.29) Note that the integral (1. σi denotes the electrical conductivity of the ith layer (S/m) and hi denotes the thickness of the ith layer ([m]). ⎟ ⎝ Re( Z / Z 0 ) ⎠ (1. AlNuaimy W. only allow rather shallow environmental studies. Skin depth for 1 Ωm formation at 1MHz is about 0. 2000]. EM Diffraction In some cases it can be useful to measure electromagnetic field diffraction since some problems can be solved analytically [Weidelt P. (1972).. can be rewritten for computation as: Z = 1 − r 3 ∫ {e − 2 y R( y )}{e x − y J 0 e x − y }dy Z0 −∞ ∞ ( ) (1. when the survey is performed in the borehole. µo denotes the magnetic permeability of free space (4πx10-7 H/m).22). Equation (1. where the measured value is usually the traveltime of the EM wave emitted.

The various paths which may be followed are: 1. only limited ranges in frequency are available. the bedrock geology. A great many commercial and amateur stations (SW) have broadcast frequencies from 1640 kHz to 30 MHz and above. such as mountains. in areas where the soil is reasonably thin. 3. but it must be distinguished from the other varieties of wave which may arrive at the receiver. since the travel distances along the two paths are almost equal. Ordinarily. 4. 2. at distances of about 15 or 40 km. If both the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna are close to the surface of the earth (with antenna heights of less than 5 % of the antenna separation). and since the phase of the reflected wave is inverted with respect to the phase of the direct-arriving wave as a result of the reflection. A direct line-of-sight path from the transmitter to the receiver. Therefore. A path (or many paths) in which the ray is reflected from the lower surface of the ionosphere. Paths which may be followed by a radio wave in travelling from a transmitting antenna to a receiving antenna include direct transmission.The frequencies used in radio-wave transmission are generally much higher than those used in the inductive methods. so that the antenna can be treated as a current dipole source. The transmitting antenna normally used in radio stations consists of a vertical wire supplied with an oscillatory current. but for the most part. the skin depth (the depth at which the signal strength is reduced by the ratio 1/e) ranges from tens of metres in normally conductive rock to hundreds of metres in resistive rock. The propagation from a transmitter to a receiver location can take place along a multiplicity of paths. radio-wave measurements using standard broadcast stations as an energy source are best used for studying the electrical properties of the soil cover and overburden and. In addition. the ionosphere-reflected waves are important only at distances greater than several tens of kilometres from the transmitter. The electrical properties of the earth may be computed from the rate at which the amplitude of the ground wave decreases with distance from the transmitting antenna. the wave reflected from the earth's surface almost exactly cancels the direct arriving wave. transmissions are intermittent and many of these stations cannot be considered a reliable source. There are also a few stations operating in the frequency range from 100 to 540 kHz (LW). A path in which energy is continually re-radiated by currents induced in the ground (the surface wave). It would be possible to conduct a depth sounding using radio-wave field-strength profiles for a variety of frequencies but such a technique is not used in practice for several reasons: 31 . This means that the total signal strength will consist only of the ground wave and ionosphere reflections. and a very few stations broadcasting in the range 10 to 100 kHz (VLF). it is usually preferable that measurements be made at as low a frequency as is possible. Considering that the depth to which radio waves can penetrate into a conductive material such as the earth is very limited. energy may follow reflected ray paths from irregularities on the earth's surface. For this reason. If existing radio transmission stations are used as a signal source. A path in which the ray is reflected from the surface of the earth. Standard MW broadcast stations cover the frequency range from 540 to 1640 kHz (in the USA). the only signal observed at the earth's surface is the ground wave. and a surface wave. For the frequencies used by the standard broadcast stations. reflection from the earth and ionosphere.

the layering must be assumed to be uniform over such a lateral distance. such as fault traces or shallow ore bodies. 3. Instrumentally. The use of a distant transmitter to detect the presence of conductive zones is attractive in that a survey may be conducted rapidly. The intensity of the radio-wave field will normally tend to decrease less rapidly than normal over a small conductive area. there may be a zone of anomalously low intensity on the side of the conductive zone away from the transmitter. Such permission cannot be obtained readily for a range of frequencies covering several decades. The calculation of earth resistivity from radio-wave decay rates is not as accurate as determinations made by other methods. this might be a distance of 10 km. The advantage of the method is that the effective resistivity is determined over a relatively large area. In so doing. 32 . The certainty of detecting a conductive zone is increased when radio waves arriving from several directions are observed. It has often been suggested in the literature that local variations in radio-wave field intensity which occur within a distance of a few metres or tens of metres may be used to locate locally conductive areas. This field can be measured at and above the ground surface. The VLF method The very low frequency (VLF) technique relies on several electromagnetic wave transmitters located at various places on the earth’s surface. As transmitted. The anomaly in field strength may commonly depend on the orientation of the conductive zone relative to the direction of transmission of the radio waves. Broadcast stations normally have a power variation of between 10 and 20 %. Local variations in field strength may be studied. as is desirable if a sounding is to be made.1. unless an existing transmitter can be used as a power source. providing that some corrections may be made for variations in the level of power transmitted. and the anomalies associated with such things as pipes and fences. Frequently. using a distant radio station as a source. However. it is difficult to transmit the range of frequencies required. unless very low radiation power is used. In order to determine a value for the effective resistivity with reasonable certainty. Also. though this averages out if the signal level is observed and averaged over a period of several minutes. the EM waves spread throughout the earth and the interaction between them and conducting planes in the earth can be measured. nor is it as convenient. It is usually easier to determine the resistivity as a function of depth using the galvanic method at the depths normally reached by radio waves. it is necessary to make field strength measurements over a range of distances corresponding to ten wavelengths at the lowest frequency used. permission must be obtained for each frequency used. and may actually increase locally. Each frequency requires a different antenna length to obtain good radiation efficiency. and this is rarely the case for the depths to which radio waves normally penetrate. 2. It is also desirable to measure radio wave intensities from several stations operating at about the same frequency but for which the signals arrive in the survey area from different directions. VLF EM waves interacting with buried conductors generate a secondary field. The electromagnetic wave frequency range is between 3 and 30 kHz. In practice. precautions are necessary to discriminate between local anomalies in field intensity caused by conductive zones in the earth.

it is possible to specify the magnetic field. A proton magnetometer makes use of the phenomenon by which protons from atoms in earth components display precession in the constant magnetic field. for example. The VLF-R technique is a modification of VLF data interpretation with the aim of providing resistivity profiling.iprimus. for instance. 33 . a simple relationship can be shown to exist between the amplitude of the magnetic field changes. If we can measure the frequency of precession. it tends to be used in parallel with. and well suited to hard-rock prospecting. Magnetic techniques Magnetic techniques measure the remnant magnetic field associated with a material or the change in the Earth’s magnetic field associated with a geological structure or man-made object. it enables very large metal objects buried in the ground to be sought. Proton magnetometry is a technique of precise measurement of the value of the Earth’s magnetic field. Groundwater studies have been of little noticeable use. The results of magnetic surveys are usually presented as line profiles or magnetic anomaly maps. The frequency of the precession depends on the external magnetic field. geophysics. However. The VLF method is seldom used alone. They have been used for regional surveys since the early twentieth century in the hydrocarbon industry and for longer in mineral prospecting. Furthermore. VLF EM data are usually presented as profile or contour maps.htm. Instead. The Earth’s magnetic field is a vector dependent on the position of a site on the Earth’s surface. The measurements of the magnetic field are performed mainly in proton magnetometers. This method is useful for the investigation of mineral resources like ferrum.4.Low-frequency EM waves have deep a penetration range into the ground and the sea. If the time variations in the magnetic field can be treated as a magnetic component of a plane electromagnetic wave. It is possible to measure a magnetic field in the sea by means of a waterproof measuring coil. The accuracy of the method is about 0. the voltage gradients induced in the earth and the resistivity of the earth. the range of these waves is global. The magnetic field of the earth varies from 49000 nT to 70000 nT. The VLF method is inexpensive. These devices can be hand-held for local magnetic field investigation and airborne for larger area investigations. This is a useful military aspect of VLF. DC resistivity techniques. A list of worldwide VLF stations compiled by William Hepburn LWCA can be found at the following address: http://www. Conductive media like wet clays effectively mask anything lying beneath them.ca/~hepburnw/dx/time-vlf. 1. which makes it possible to use them in.1 nT. oil and hidden objects. very fast. Porous unconsolidated media such as sand are not suitable for this method. as they are used for submarine communication. The magnetotelluric resistivity method Electrical currents induced in rocks by fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field may be used to measure resistivity.

The depth to which an electromagnetic wave penetrates in a conductor depends both on the frequency and on the resistivity of the conductor. Therefore, resistivity may be computed as a function of depth within the earth, if the amplitudes of the magnetic and electrical field changes can be measured at several frequencies. The advantages of the method are: • The feasibility of detecting resistivity beneath a highly resistant bed, which is difficult in the galvanic method. • The opportunity to study resistivities to great depths within the earth. The disadvantage is: • The instrumental difficulty encountered in trying to measure the amplitude of small rapid changes in the magnetic field.
The magnetotelluric field

The unit of measurement for the electric field is the [V/m]. In practice, the multiple unit [mV/km] is commonly used, since the electrical component of the magnetotelluric field is measured with a pair of electrodes with spacing of the order of a kilometre and the voltages recorded over such a separation are in tens or hundreds of millivolts. The millivolt per kilometre is identical with [µV/m], a unit which is commonly used in radio-wave fieldintensity measurements. Magnetic field intensity is defined as the force exerted on a magnetic pole of unit strength by a magnetic field. It is usually represented by the symbol F when the Earth's field is under consideration. In the CGS system of units, which is almost invariably used by geophysicists, the unit of intensity is the oersted. The intensity of the earth's magnetic field, except for areas of anomalous local magnetization, ranges from about 0.25 to 0.70 oersted. For describing small changes in the Earth's magnetic field, geophysicists have defined the gamma, which is 10-s oersted. In the MKS system of units, intensity is measured in [N/Wb]. Experiments by Biot and Savart (1820) have led to the realization that the magnetic field about a long and straight wire with current flowing through it is proportional to the amount of current and inversely proportional to the distance from the wire. In MKS units, the relationship is:
F = I 2πa

(1.31)

where a is the distance from the wire at which the magnetic field is measured. This relationship between magnetic field strength and current permits the definition of another MKS unit of intensity, the ampere per metre. One ampere of current flowing through a long straight wire will generate a magnetic field intensity of one ampere per metre at a distance of one metre from the wire. The ampere per metre is more widely used than the newton per weber, but the quantity measured is numerically the same, whichever name is used for the unit. The newton per weber (or ampere per metre) is a much smaller unit than the oersted: 1 [N/Wb] = 1 [A/m] = 4π x 10-3 oersted, or 1 oersted = 79.7 [N/Wb] = 79.7 [A/m].

34

Magnetic induction is a measure of the force exerted on a moving charge by a magnetic field, whereas magnetic intensity is a measure of the force exerted on a magnetic pole by a magnetic field, whether the pole is moving or not. Magnetic induction is related to magnetic intensity as:
B = µF

(1.32)

where µ is the magnetic permeability of the space in which the induction is being measured. Usually no distinction is made between magnetic induction and magnetic intensity when they are measured in CGS units because the permeability of most rocks is unity, or nearly so, when so measured. Therefore, the two quantities, intensity and induction, are numerically equal. In the MKS system of units care must be taken to distinguish between the two quantities, since permeability, µ, has the value 12.56 x 10-7, or very nearly so, for most rocks. The quantity which is measured in practice depends on the type of magnetometer used. Some magnetometers measure the force on a magnetic pole by balancing this force against a gravitational force; such magnetometers measure the magnetic intensity ([N/Wb]). Other magnetometers operate on the principle that time variations in the magnetic induction induce voltage in a coil. The MKS unit of magnetic induction is defined in terms of Ampere's Law:
F = ρ v× B

(1.33)

where F is the force felt by a charge v moving with a velocity q in a field of magnetic induction strength B. If the charge is measured in coulombs, the force in newtons and the velocity in metres per second, the unit for magnetic induction is the [Wb/m2]. In the CGS system (dynes for force, statcoulombs for charge and centimetres per second for velocity) the unit for induction strength is the gauss. The weber per square metre is a much larger quantity than the gauss: 1 weber/m2 = 10,000 gauss. The ranges for each of these units which may be used in describing the Earth's magnetic field are as follows: CGS system magnetic induction in gauss magnetic intensity in oersteds magnetic intensity in gammas MKS system magnetic induction in webers/m magnetic intensity in newtons/weber

0.25 to 0.70 0.25 to 0.70 25,000 to 70,000

0.000025 to 0.000070 20 to 56

Instrumentation used in measuring the magnetotelluric field

Determination of earth resistivity using the magnetotelluric field as a source of power requires that wave impedances be measured over a frequency spectrum several decades in width. In designing field equipment it is necessary to know what frequency intervals must be observed.

35

It is a fairly simple matter to measure the electrical field in the earth with the necessary precision. The commonest technique uses three electrodes, or ground contacts, in the form of an L, with the lengths of the arms ranging from several tenths of a kilometre to several kilometres. If measurements are being made over resistant rock, such as igneous or metamorphic rocks, the electrical field strengths will be large and the shorter electrode separations will be adequate. If measurements are being made over very conductive rock, electrode separations of several kilometres may be required to obtain a large enough voltage to measure accurately. With the L-spread, the corner electrode is used as a common ground for two recording channels (Figure 28). It is essential that no current flows through the recording system since if it does, current from one arm of the L-spread may return to the ground through the other arm of the L-spread. When this happens, a voltage appearing along one arm of the spread will also be recorded, but with reduced amplitude, on the recording channel connected to the other arm of the spread. This cross-sensitivity leads to errors in relating the proper component of electrical field variation with the component of magnetic field variation measured at the same time. If the recording system in use has a relatively low resistance, a four-terminal cross array of electrodes, such as that shown in (Figure 29), should be used. With a four-terminal system, neither recording circuit has a common ground. Almost any type of electrode may be used to make contact with the ground if variations only with periods shorter than hundreds of seconds are to be measured. A lead plate buried in a shallow trench and moistened with salt water is a good simple electrode.

Figure 28. L-spread configuration.

Figure 29. Four-electrode realization of the spread configuration. However, if variations with periods ranging up to a day are to be measured, some precautions should be taken to avoid variations in electrode potential due to temperature changes.

36

If broad-band signals are recorded. it is unreasonable to expect. The static potential difference between a pair of electrodes spaced at one kilometre apart is ordinarily of the order of some hundreds of millivolts. or rejected with a capacitive input to the recorder system. In practice. some form of amplification is required. electrodes which consist of a metal immersed in a saturated solution of one of its salts. when the electrodes are widely spaced. If measurements are to be made as soon as the electrodes are emplaced. If both electrodes used in measuring an earth voltage are identical in behaviour. since it may be performed more effectively when the tapes are replayed at an analysis centre. and if both electrodes vary in temperature in the same way. usually only a single frequency. so that diurnal temperature changes. if the static level is to exceed the dynamic range of the amplifier and recording system. wind velocity and similar factors will not penetrate to the electrode. it is necessary to exclude these dominant frequencies with filters. there is some advantage in using non-polarizing electrodes. Long-term drift is not a problem unless variations are to be recorded over a long period. In such amplifiers the low-frequency voltages appearing at the input are converted to higher-frequency voltages using either a mechanical or an electronic alternator (a device that alternates the polarity of the input at rates ranging from 60 to 400 times per second). since the short-term drift at these higher frequencies is not usually a problem. In view of the small changes in voltage which are to be measured. in view of the low frequencies being measured. or perhaps just a few are readily apparent since they are far larger than signals on other frequency bands. generally as little filtering as possible is done. the changes in electrode potential at each electrode will cancel out. which is the potential drop between an electrode and the electrolyte in contact with it.000 may be readily obtained using chopper-stabilized amplifiers to avoid drift problems. The static potential may be cancelled with a potentiometric circuit. This may be accomplished with a direct-current amplifier. The voltages from the electrode arrays may be filtered before amplification in some cases. In addition to filtering. If data are recorded on paper. Amplification is then accomplished in the same manner as in AC amplifiers and the output is converted back to DC (or low frequency) using an alternator operating synchronously with the input alternator. If data are recorded on magnetic tape. conventional AC amplifiers may be used. 37 . it is usually necessary to record only a narrow band of frequencies on a single record.Electrode potential. Voltage amplification ratios up to 3. the time constant must be much longer than the longest period to be recorded. In order to see variations in the magnetotelluric field on frequency bands outside the dominant frequencies. This level must be removed before the voltage between the electrodes can be amplified. Combinations commonly used are copper electrodes in solutions of copper sulphate and zinc electrodes in solutions of zinc sulphate. it is usually necessary to remove a static self-potential level which ordinarily exists between a widely spaced pair of electrodes. that they will both be subjected to the same changes in temperature. depends on temperature. This may be done by burying the electrodes several metres in the ground. The extent of the filtering carried out before the data are recorded depends on the type of data analysis which is planned. changes in temperature caused by variation in cloud cover. unless some provision is made to ensure that this is so. Such amplifiers may be used for frequencies up to several cycles per second. It is important that the short-term drift of the amplifier be considerably smaller than the voltage variations to be measured in order for the drift not to be confused with true voltage variations. At higher frequencies. If a capacitive input system is used.

The measurement of magnetic field micropulsations is considerably more difficult than the measurement of electrical field oscillations and only in recent years has equipment become available which makes it possible to detect such micropulsations of normal amplitude. as well as the large mass of the magnet system. as compared with some other types. Induction magnetometers differ from the other three types used in measuring magnetotelluric field variations in that they measure the rate of change of field strength. The natural period of sensitive magnetic balances is of the order of several hundred seconds. For the low-field strengths and low frequencies which are of interest in magnetotelluric measurements. Optical pumping magnetometers take advantage of a rather complicated internal 38 . The chief advantage of a magnetic balance is its simplicity. and the difficulty of obtaining a precise calibration. The last is the most sensitive for long-term magnetic field variations. The advantages of flux-gate magnetometers for magnetotelluric measurements are that they measure only that component of the field parallel with the core and that they are readily available and reliable. inductance and capacitance. the sensitivity to coil movement (seismic disturbances). although these can be compensated for to a large extent. The maximum sensitivity which may be obtained with a flux-gate magnetometer depends on noise generated within the core material and in the associated electronic circuits. and long-term drifts in the DC bias current and electronic circuitry. The sensitivity to temperature arises from changes in the magnetic moment and the position of the centre of gravity. The principal disadvantages are the low output at low frequencies. Disadvantages include its sensitivity to temperature changes. Noise can. the flux-gate magnetometer. The long period is a result of the small forces being balanced. The sensitivity of an induction coil may be increased or its resistance decreased by winding the coil onto a core of high-permeability material. The sensitivity to seismic accelerations comes about since the value of g is apparently changed when seismic accelerations are added to the normal gravitational acceleration. The disadvantages are the high noise level. the EMF induced in a coil of wire is proportional to the oscillation frequency of the magnetic field. a very large number of turns must be used to provide a measurable voltage output from a coil. be reduced to about 0-02 gammas or less. seismic accelerations and lack of sensitivity to short-term variations in the magnetic field. As long as the coil can be assumed to have negligible resistance. so only magnetic variations with periods longer than this can be measured. Magnetic balances are commonly sensitive enough to provide record deflections of one millimetre for magnetic field changes of 2. Of the four methods mentioned for measuring magnetic field.50 gammas. These are the magnetic balance. In the flux-gate magnetometer the fact that the magnetic permeability of a ferromagnetic material depends on the magnetic field strength is used in measuring the latter. the induction coil and the optical pumping magnetometer. the magnetic balance is the oldest and the simplest. Magnetometers have been constructed using a wide variety of physical phenomena for detecting magnetic field changes but only four have been used extensively up to the present time in studying the magnetotelluric field. with careful design. The principle advantage of the induction coil is its high output at high frequencies. A bar magnet is suspended in such a way that torque due to the magnetic field is balanced against gravity. rather than the field itself. Optical pumping magnetometers are the newest type of sensitive magnetometer to become available and provide the best means for measuring long-period variations in magnetic field strength.

More details on this subject are given in the following section. Telluric Current Methods The magnetotelluric method for measuring earth resistivity is very demanding in the measurements required. 1. 39 . The telluric method was first applied in exploration geophysics during the 1930s by Conrad and Marcel Schlumberger and has been used extensively in Europe and Africa. Xiang J. One major disadvantage is the complexity and cost of the equipment required to obtain an accurate measurement. used to best effect in areas where the geology is poorly known. This reflects the fact that the telluric method is primarily a reconnaissance method.5. The telluric method can logically be thought of as a special application of the more general magnetotelluric method. 1960). 1962). The introduction of more information about formation structure into data visualization has resulted in better data reconstruction [e. Between the years 1941 and 1955. the telluric method was developed prior to the development of the theory for the magnetotelluric method.R. et al. Multi-modal techniques Modern geophysical techniques have led to improved data analysis by bringing together different technologies.. Sharma S.g.transfer phenomenon in atoms which depends on the ambient magnetic field strength. The telluric method may be used to study ratios of resistivities between locations. The telluric current method was first used in routine exploration in the U. but cannot be used to determine the absolute value of resistivity at any one location without auxiliary information. and Kaikkonen P. 1999.S. covering an area of 120. P. 565 crew months of effort were devoted to telluric current surveys by the Compagnie Generale de Geophysique of Paris. In fact. those of magnetic field variations with amplitudes as small as a hundredth of a gamma. 2002]. The telluric method for studying changes in earth resistivity utilizes the same natural magnetotelluric field as a source of power but requires only that the electrical field component of the field be measured simultaneously at several locations. particularly since 1946. In this way the need to measure small changes in magnetic field strength is avoided but in simplifying the measurement technique the possibility of determining earth resistivities in absolute terms is also surrendered.. France (d'Erceville and Kunetz. in 1954 and by 1959 its use had extended to the point where 24 exploration teams were in the field. however. Optical pumping magnetometers may be used to measure long-term field changes without concern for drift problems. Optical pumping magnetometers have great advantages over other types of magnetometers in that the measurement of field strength is absolute and not subject to the many uncertainties of maintaining calibration that other types of magnetometers are subjected to.000 km2 per year (Birdichevskiy. Use of the method in the United States has been limited to the 23 crew months of work reported by the Compagnie Generale de Geophysique to have been carried out there.S.

Geomagnetism. in which the properties are drawn from the data and known as the Inverse Problem. Lithosphere response to loading. • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). there is the means of modelling them in conjunction with the corresponding properties of the earth. • positron emission tomography (PET). and J. In turn.2. 3. 1992. which means that they have a unique solution. In general. • single photon emission tomography (SPECT). 1998 and Snieder R and J Trampert. Inverse problems do not necessarily have a unique and stable solution. W. which 40 . Pump test analysis in hydrogeology. 5. these properties are very often measured and then analysed. an essential step in the whole process of calculating the distribution of properties on the basis of experimental data. 8.. Curve fitting.. Trampert. Determination of earthquake location. 1992). such as electromagnetic wave propagation through the earth and current or fluid flow in porous rocks or in soil. As they are obtained from measurement. 9. Data having been collected. they are referred to as experimental or sometimes observational data. 10. including Snieder R. 1999).. The process of modelling the relationship between observed data and properties is known as the Forward Problem. measurement of DC resistivity is performed using different electrode arrays.. Groetsch C. Impedance tomography. The earth (soil) may be described in terms of its physical property distributions (Engl H. 1999. 7. 6. Inverse problems in geophysics 2. A classical forward problem is to find a unique effect of a given cause by using an appropriate physical model. 1993). As a result. Engl H. For example. sets of data are obtained. More convenient and detailed descriptions of the application of the inverse theory in geophysics can be found in many publications. Introduction This brief outline indicates only some of the issues in the theory of inverse problems in geophysics. 4. W. 11. Image enhancement. Medicine. given a model. 12. Temperature distribution within Earth. 2. The way the model is constructed is. 1998. Thus the relationship between the properties of the model studied and the experimental data can be understood. Inverse problems are not only encountered in geophysics and a few examples are given here of inverse problems in other applications: 1. Density distribution within the Earth. An inverse problem is a set of consecutive steps (algorithms) leading to the discovery of the cause of a given effect (Groetsh C. of course.. To achieve this specially constructed experiments are conducted. Radioactive elements distribution within Earth. not complete. • computed tomography (CT). An important aspect of the physical sciences is to make inferences about physical parameters from data (Snieder R. which is insensitive to small changes in data. Only in geophysics may other inverse problems be considered. the laws of physics provide the means for computing the data values. The above list of inverse problems is. Factor analysis in geology.1. therefore. in contrast to the opposite one. These problems are usually well-posed.

Inverse problems in 41 . It can be solved using techniques and methods which lead to a best fit of data. it is possible to use methods originally developed for over-determined problems in underdetermined ones in order to obtain so called “smooth” models from “under-determined” data. while in a realistic experiment the quantity of data that can be used for the determination of the model is usually finite. is infinite. However. an exact theory exists that prescribes how the data should be transformed in order to reproduce the model (Snieder R and J Trampert. A simple count of variables shows that the data cannot carry sufficient information to determine the model uniquely. The inverse problem viewed as a combination of an estimation problem plus an appraisal problem (source: Snieder R. 1999). This implies that for realistic problems. in the sense that there are many models that explain the data equally well. and J Trampert. The model obtained from the inversion of the data is therefore not necessarily equal to the true model that one seeks. In the opposite situation. the inverse problem is described as “under-determined”. This is the case for some selected examples. inversion really consists of two steps (Figure 30). when the number of parameters estimated is greater than the data. In this case the number of solutions. There are many methods of solving inverse problems. the exact inversion techniques are often very unstable. then the inverse problem is said to be “over-determined”. The fact that in realistic experiments a finite quantity of data is available to reconstruct a model with infinitely many degrees of freedom necessarily means that the inverse problem is not unique. When the number of model parameters corresponds to a small number of data the problem is said to be “evenly determined”. If the model being determined consists of fewer parameters than the number of data. assuming the required infinite and noise-free data sets to be available. In the ideal case. This means that the model has infinitely many degrees of freedom. These can be categorised as “statistical” or “deterministic”. they are of limited applicability for a number of reasons. This issue is also relevant for non-linear inverse problems. Firstly. in other words the number of models that are in agreement with the measured data. Figure 30.means that small variations in the data can involve large changes in the parameters obtained. However. 1999. Secondly. However. In many inverse problems the model to be determined is a continuous function of the space variables. the exact inversion techniques are usually only applicable for idealistic situations that may not hold in practice. This is why the inverse problems are often considered to be ill-posed. the third reason is the most fundamental.

the issue of linear inversion and non-linear inversion is also treated independently. Model estimation and model appraisal are fundamentally different for discrete models with a finite number of degrees of freedom and for continuous models with infinitely many degrees of freedom. physical theories) are always contaminated with errors and the estimated model is therefore affected by these errors too. this model null-space exists as a result of inadequate sampling of the model space. the methods for solving inverse problems are categorized here as deterministic and statistical methods and both these categories are briefly presented in the appendices. two aspects. The first reason is the non-uniqueness of the inverse problem that causes several (usually infinitely many) models to fit the data. The second reason is that real data (and. A more detailed description of the deterministic methods is given by Meju M A. more often than we would like. 2002. 1999. then. ed. In the appraisal problem the properties of the true model recovered by the estimated model are determined as well as the errors attached to it. In general. 42 . namely evaluation of non-uniqueness and error propagation. Tulsa. From the data d one reconstructs an ~ ~ estimated model m .geophysics [in] “Wavefield inversion”. It does not make much sense to make a physical interpretation of a model without acknowledging the fact of errors and limited resolution in the model (Snieder). 2001. pp. The problem of model appraisal is only well-solved for linear inverse problems. SEG. [in] Handbook of earthquake and engineering seismology. Geophysical data analysis. A. 119-190) The true model is denoted by m and the data by d. The essence of this discussion is that inversion = estimation + appraisal. Snieder R and J Trampert. Oklahoma. Tarantola. Springer Verlag. New York. Academic Press. In general there are two reasons why the estimated model differs from the true model. For this reason the inversion of discrete models and continuous models is treated separately in the bibliography. Model appraisal has. Similarly. Technically. Apart from estimating a model m ~ that is consistent with the data. this is called the estimation problem. Wirgin. Probabilistic approach to inverse problems. the relation between the estimated model m and the true model m also needs to be investigated. while statistical methods are rigorously treated by Mosegaard K and A. More detailed discussion on these problems can be found in Snieder R. 1998.

2.2. The deterministic approach

General remarks on the deterministic and probabilistic approaches to inverse problems are given in the appendices. Here the different approaches are illustrated by a more detailed presentation of selected papers.
2.2.1. Linear and non-linear least-square inversion

Inversion of geo-electrical data is an ill-posed problem. This and the ensuing sub-optimality restrict the initial model to one that closely approaches the true model. The problem may be reduced by introducing damping into the system of equations. It has been shown that an appropriate choice of damping parameter obtained adaptively and the use of a conjugategradient algorithm to solve the normal equations make the 1-D inversion scheme efficient and robust [Roy I. G., 1999]. In fact, this work belongs to the simultaneous inversion category, as two different types of data are utilized. The changes in the damping and relative residual error with iteration number are illustrated in the paper of Roy I. G., 1999. A comparative evaluation is made of its efficacy over the conventional Marquardt and simulated annealing methods, tested on Inman’s model. Inversion of induced polarization (IP) sounding is obtained by inverting twice (true and modified) DC apparent resistivity data. The inversion of IP data presented here is generic and can be applied to any of the IP observables such as chargeability, frequency effect and phase, as long as these observables are explicitly related to DC apparent resistivity. The scheme is used successfully in inverting noise-free and noisy synthetic data and field data taken from the published literature. A layered model of the earth is considered. The forward problem is formed by the following three following equations. The IP effect in the medium is viewed as the apparent chargeability of an inhomogeneous polarizable earth given by

ηa =

∗ ρ a ( ρ i + η i ρ i ) − ρ a (ρ i ) ρ a (ρ i )

(2.1)

∗ where ρ a and ρ a are the apparent resistivities for DC and time-varying electrical field measurements, and ρi and ηi are the true resistivity and chargeability of the ith layer. IP forward modelling is realized by carrying out twofold DC forward modelling, once with the true DC resistivity, ρi , distribution of the medium and the other time with a modified

resistivity, ρi∗ = ρi + ηi ρi , distribution. The apparent resistivity, ρ a , over layered earth is related to the kernel function through the Hankel integral

ρ a = s 2 ∫ T (λ )J1 (λs )λdλ
0

(2.2)

where s is half the electrode spacing in a Schlumberger electrode configuration, λ is an integration parameter and J1(λs) is a first-order Bessel function. T(λ), the resistivity transform function, is obtained by recurrence relationship (Koefoed, 1979)
Ti (λ ) = Ti +1 (λ ) + ρi tanh (λhi ) 1 + Ti +1 (λ ) tanh (λhi ) / ρi

(2.3)

43

with T(λ)=ρ0, where n denotes the number of layers, and ρi and hi are the resistivity and thickness of the ith layer, respectively. The computation of Frechet derivatives is an essential step for any successively linearized non-linear inversion scheme. To lower the computational burden analytical (strictly speaking semi-analytical as the Hankel transform is computed numerically) computation is considered of the Frechet derivatives of the apparent resistivity data. The Frechet derivative of the resistivity data is obtained by differentiating both sides of (2.2) with respect to the kth parameter. The inverse was solved and the minimum norm least-square evaluation of the solution x, such that 2 min Jx − d = εT ε (2.4)
x

where d and x are the data difference and the parameter correction vectors, respectively, J is the Jacobian matrix of the Frechet derivatives of the apparent resistivity data and ε is the noise associated with the data. The matrix J is over-determined (the number of measurements is greater than number of model parameters) and non-self-adjoint. Since J is not a square matrix and ill-conditioned in general, the solution is given by normal equation

(J J + µI )x = J d
T T

(2.5)

where µ is the damping parameter and I is the identity matrix. The optimal damping parameter is obtained by differentiating the above equation with respect to the damping factor and rearranging it to the form

(J J + µI )y = J (Jx
T T

µ

− d ) = JT ε

(2.6)

where x µ indicates that x depends on µ.

Figure 31. Inversion results of synthetic apparent resistivity ρ a and chargeability ηa sounding data over a three-layered earth model. Bullets represent the synthetic

44

data and the solid line is the best- fit curve after inversion. The true model is inset. (source: Roy I. G., An efficient non-linear least-square 1-D inversion scheme for resistivity and IP sounding data, Geophys. Prosp., 1999, vol. 47, pp. 527-550) The paper has demonstrated that a dramatic improvement in robustness and efficiency can be obtained by adaptively choosing the damping parameter which depends on the noise level of the data. The adaptive damping NLSI scheme presented has been applied successfully in inverting IP/resistivity sounding data. The novelty of such an approach lies in the simplicity of the algorithmic structure, although, as reported earlier, such a technique does not demonstrate the required robustness in estimating IP parameters for noisy data. However, it has been shown here, with synthetic and field examples, that the presented scheme works well with moderately noisy data, even for estimates far removed from the true model. The scheme is efficient and converges rapidly to the minimum possible residual data error. It is also demonstrated here that for synthetic noise-free data, the required damping at the final stage is either very small or zero. The objective of the paper presented is to seek an efficient iterative scheme with adaptive damping, leading to a robust inversion of IP/resistivity data. An algebraic formulation of the inverse problem is presented in the paper of Vasco D.W., 2000. According to the author, many geophysical inverse problems derive from governing partial differential equations with unknown coefficients. Alternatively, inverse problems often arise from integral equations associated with a Green’s function solution to a governing differential equation. In their discrete form such equations reduce to systems of polynomial equations, known as algebraic equations (Vasco D. W., 2000). Such equations are associated with many deep results in mathematics. The proposed approach is illustrated by synthetic magnetotelluric values generated by conductivity variations within the layer (Figure 32).

Figure. 32. 2-D conductivity structure used to generate synthetic field components (source: Vasco D. W., 2000, An algebraic formulation of geophysical inverse problems, Geophys. J. Int., 142, pp. 970 – 990). The conductivity variations in the layer are estimated using a generalized inverse scheme (Figure 33). The estimates are quite close to the conductivity values used to generate the synthetic field values. However, they contain some scatter due to the added noise. A Born approach was also adopted for the same data. It is emphasized in the paper that, in their discrete form, two large classes of non-linear inverse problems reduce to polynomial or

45

. Cross-well electrical measurement as known in the oil industry is a method for determining the electrical conductivity distribution between boreholes from the electrostatic field measurements in the boreholes (Abubakar A and P M van den Berg. located in the domain. This integral equation is taken as the starting point for developing a non-linear inversion method. 2000). W. (a) Solution obtained by the proposed method. 46 . concepts and methods from computational algebra and algebraic geometry may be used to address questions of the existence and uniqueness of the problem being considered. the so-called contrast source inversion (CSI) method. A theoretical model of the cross-well configuration is shown in Figure 34. A reconstruction of the conductivity distribution of a 3-D domain is based on measurements of the secondary electrical potential field. Even non-linear differential equations. An inhomogeneous domain. The source is a small spherical electrode emitting a DC current. are measured at the various electrode locations in domain S.algebraic equations. An algebraic formulation of geophysical inverse problems. pp. (b) Solution obtained by Born approximation. S. However. with conductivity σ(x) in an unbounded homogeneous background medium with conductivity σ0 is defined. are polynomial upon discretization. The algebraic approach is more computational than methods used to solve the linear inverse problems. The CSI method considers the inverse scattering problem as an inverse source problem in which the unknown contrast source (the product of the total electrical field and the conductivity contrast) in the object domain is reconstructed by minimizing the object and data error using a conjugategradient method. Int. I. These two classes encompass the most commonly encountered differential equations with unknown coefficients and many associated integral equations and functionals. 2000. 142. (source: Vasco D. The secondary electrical potential fields.. in which the terms are products of field variables and their derivatives. 970 – 990) Moreover. D. the applications indicate that the calculations are robust in the presence of both discretization and observational errors. which is represented in terms of an integral equation for the vector electrical field. Geophys. Figure 33. Vs. J.

7) (2. σ ( x ) = σ 0 ).10) where Vp and Ep are respectively defined as the primary electrical potential field and the primary electrical field arising from DC current I injected to the domain by a small spherical electrode. This point source solution {VG. σ is the electrical conductivity and qext is the external source. The small spherical electrode is modelled as a point source. E is the electrical field. (source: Abubakar A and P M van den Berg. The simplest medium in this category is the unbounded and homogeneous one with the conductivity σ0 −1 V p (x ) = σ 0 IG x − x s ( ) ) (2. Object domain D with conductivity σ(x) in the unbounded homogeneous background of conductivity σ0. Non-linear 3-D inversion of cross-well electrical measurements. The governing equations originating from Maxwell’s equations at zero frequency are of the form: ∇V + E = 0 (2.9) and −1 E p (x ) = −σ 0 I∇G x − x s ( (2. 48. Here an integral form of potential V and electrical field E has been obtained under the assumption that they are described analytically for the point source. 2000.Figure 34. Geophysical Prospecting. i. 109–134) The aim of the study is to determine the conductivity distribution σ (x) inside the domain D from the secondary electrical potential field Vs measurements made in the domain S.e.e.11) 47 . q ext = Iδ x − x s . EG} is also known as Green’s State. The primary fields are those arising for domain D with conductivity equal to that of the background medium (i.8) ∇ ⋅ (σE ) = q ext where V is the electric potential field. the integral equation for the scalar electrical potential field is obtained V (x ) = V p (x ) + ∇ ⋅ ( ) x '∈D ∫ G(x − x )χ (x')∇'V (x')dv s (2. Using the spatial Fourier transform.

13) where E is the total electrical field in D. relates the conductivity contrast χ to the secondary electrical potential field Vs (measurement data).where V is the total electrical potential field in D. fast Fourier transform (FFT) routines have been applied. This is to minimize a cost functional consisting of two terms. Hence there is no unique solution to the problem of inverting the data equation by itself. it supplies the basis for the solution to the inverse problem. In the electrical logging problem the secondary electrical potential field Vs in data domain S at xR is considered. which allows easy implementation of the positivity constraint for the conductivity. V s = V − V p : V s x R = −∇ ⋅ ( ) x '∈D ∫ G(x − x )χ (x')∇'V (x')dv s (2. Therefore the adjoint operator has been used to set up the conjugate-gradient scheme. rewritten in terms of the conductivity contrast and the contrast sources rather than the electrical fields. 48 . The CSI method attempts to overcome this difficulty by recasting the problem as an optimization in which we seek not only the contrast sources but also the conductivity contrast itself. The secondary electrical potential field is the difference between the total electrical potential field and the primary electrical potential field as a result of the presence of the object. the L2 errors in the data equation in the object equation. The problem has been solved with the conjugate-gradient method. The data equation contains both the unknown total electrical field and the unknown conductivity contrast. and χ(x) is the conductivity contrast given by χ (x ) = σ (x ) − σ 0 σ0 (2.12) Thus the integral equation for the vector electrical field is then given by E(x ) = E p (x ) + ∇∇ ⋅ x '∈D ∫ G(x − x')χ (x')E(x')dv (2. In forward modelling. Since the matrix operator consists of spatial convolutions. the conductivity contrast χ is known and the secondary electrical potential field Vs can be calculated. weighted so as to minimize the cost functional. Furthermore.14).14) The integral equation (2. This is because outside the object domain D the conductivity contrast χ is zero. the matrix describing this linear system of equations is non-symmetrical. and then the conductivity contrast is updated to minimize the error in the object equation using the updated sources. However. Note that either the potential or electrical field change involves integration over the object domain D. With this so-called conjugate-gradient FFT technique complex 3-D problems can be solved efficiently. This latter minimization can be carried out analytically. but they occur as a product which can be considered as a contrast source that produces the secondary electrical potential field at the measurement points. An alternative method of solving this optimization problem iteratively is proposed in which first the contrast sources are updated in the conjugate-gradient step.

Source–receiver set-up with 42 sources and receivers located in two boreholes. (source: Abubakar A and P M van den Berg. 2000. 2000. Figure 36. Conductivity distribution (σ) in the (x1. (a) The original profile. (b) the reconstructions after 512 iterations (source: Abubakar A and P M van den Berg. Non-linear 3-D inversion of cross-well electrical measurements. Non-linear 3-D 49 .Figure 35.x2)-plane for different x3-levels of a 3-D homogeneous anomaly. 48. Geophysical Prospecting. 109–134) A numerical experiment based on synthetic data is performed (Figures 35 and 36).

48. the numerical tests indicate that this inversion algorithm using synthetic data with 20% noise still gives reasonably good reconstruction results. S. (a) (b) Figure 37. The main advantage of the non-linear inversion method presented is reduction of computation as a result of the fact that a full forward problem does not have to be solved in each iteration. Field and “noisy” synthetic measurements of electrical field components can be inverted into 3-D resistivities by smoothness-constrained inversion. (b) Top view of electrode array placement and conductive body localization (source: Jackson P. Use of both the X and Y components of the electrical field as measurements resulted in faster convergence of the smoothness-constrained inversion when compared with the use of one component alone. The authors claim that the algorithm presented is capable of reconstructing the unknown conductivity contrast up to an acceptable level of accuracy. Geophysical Prospecting. the method does not need any regularization technique. comparable published examples based on traditional measurement types. or better than. Moreover. D.inversion of cross-well electrical measurements. 109–134) It is demonstrated that the inversion algorithm developed can reconstruct a 3-D electrode logging problem over a wide range of conductivity contrasts using moderate computer power. Furthermore. The only a priori information used is the natural assumption that the conductivity is a positive quantity. 2001). (a) Electrode configuration used in the study.. However. adequate configuration of the wells is crucial for correct reconstructions. J. Geological structure and resistivity were reconstructed as well as. as has been done by Jackson et al. Earl and 50 . The values of the electrical field can incorporate changes in the polarity of the measured potential differences seen when 2-D electrode arrays are used with heterogeneous “geology” without utilizing negative apparent resistivities or singular geometrical factors.

respectively. Agreement of 2±3% has been achieved between the analytical and numerical values for the fine grid. The reconstruction scheme reduces to the well-known equation (A A + λR R )x = A b T T T (2. resulting in 27 times more nodes per unit volume than the coarse grid. J. Figure 38. 2001. 26-39) The method of choice today for inverting electrical resistivity survey data. whereas larger errors are evident near the extremities of the coarse grid. for instance) and only 7% of the electrodes (those used as current sources) being susceptible to recently reported electrode charge-up effects.J. S J Earl and G. 49.G. Other practical advantages accrue from the closely spaced potential dipoles being insensitive to common-mode noise (telluric. this resulted in 366 measurements being made for each current-electrode configuration. in common with other forms of geophysical tomography. Geophysical Prospecting. is to apply a smoothness constraint to a least-square minimization. The apparent resistivities were calculated for 5 m dipoles situated on the straight line intersecting C1 and C2.15) 51 . 2001. Consequently. when using this array for practical field surveys. The fine grid is three times smaller than the coarse grid in each of the three dimensions. A coarse grid is used to calculate the boundary conditions for a smaller. A 2-D electrode grid (20×10) incorporating 12 current-source electrodes was used for both the practical and numerical experiments. 3-D resistivity inversion using 2-D measurements of the electrical field. 2-D measurements of Ex and Ey showing different responses to a conductive 3-D body compared with the homogeneous case (source: Jackson P D. 2001. making the upper limit on the speed of acquisition an order of magnitude faster than a comparable conventional pole-dipole survey. 3-D resistivity inversion using 2-D measurements of the electrical field. Geophysical Prospecting. 26-39). A dual-grid approach has been adopted to improve resolution without incurring significant time penalties. 2001. finer grid on which the potentials are calculated. This approach has been extended to both 2-D and 3-D inversions of resistivity survey data. 366 measurements could be acquired simultaneously. Reece. The current electrodes C1 and C2 were situated at X=70 m and +70 m. Reece. 49.

3-D resistivity inversion using 2-D measurements of the electrical field. The roughness of x is defined as hTh. 2001. 2001. For larger numbers of unknowns (>1000). S J Earl and G. 49. and Jij is the element of the Jacobian matrix which is the partial derivative of the ith simulated measurement m(i) with respect to jth resistivity parameter. For smaller numbers of unknowns (<112). while at shallower depths it is 52 . Figure 39.J. Geophysical Prospecting. 2001. The inversions reported here used electrical field components directly as measurements and the logarithms of resistivity as unknown parameters. Reece. Geophysical Prospecting.g.where R is a matrix which defines the “roughness” of the model. where h=Rx and Aij=Jij/σ(i) and σ(i) is the standard deviation of the “field” measurement. 40). A 3-D resistivity model: orthoparallel piped anomaly set in a background of 100 Ωm (source: Jackson P D. Field measurements were also performed and are presented in the paper. b is a vector of weighted function of the data mismatch (r (i ) − m(i )) σ (i ) . 3-D resistivity inversion using 2-D measurements of the electrical field. the spatial smearing seen in our results is similar to comparable published examples. Results of the inversion (source: Jackson P D. the inversions are more accurate than has generally been reported in the literature (e. Reece. 26-39). Olayinka and Yaramanci 2000). x is the unknown resistivity vector. 26-39). 49. Figure 40. 2001.J. Numerical experiments on synthetic data have been performed (Figures 39. λ is the Lagrange multiplier controlling the balance between misfit and roughness. S J Earl and G.

The field case study presented in the paper demonstrates the necessity of using 3-D tomographic methods in typical geological settings that can rarely be considered to be 2-D in nature.2. A layered earth model whose three electromagnetic properties vary from layer to layer. The numerical algorithm for the inversion is iterative and requires the solution of several forward problems..2. 2000. In the iterative process the Levenberg–Mardquardt method is used to speed up convergence. The plane wave propagates downward in the positive z-direction (source: Lazaro-Mancilla O and E Gomez-Trevino. The inverse problem is solved by minimizing the quadratic norm of the residuals using quadratic programming optimization. Consideration is given to a special type of linearization of the damped E-field wave equation to solve the inverse problem. Quadratic programming This approach for a layered model was developed and presented by Lazaro-Mancilla O. Analytical expressions for the derivatives with respect to physical properties are obtained using the self-adjoint Green’s function method. and Gomez-Trevino E. the solutions are too smooth and the use of alternative approaches is suggested. namely dielectrical permittivity. At greater depths. 2. for larger numbers of unknowns. Figure 41. Three physical properties of materials are considered. dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability). A plane wave at normal incidence upon an n-layer earth model as illustrated in Figure cc is considered.significantly less. magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity. The three electromagnetic properties vary from layer to 53 . The inverted resistivities are consistent with geological mapping and trenching across a fault in a carboniferous sand-shale sequence that had been reactivated by mining activity. this data set is sensitive to the changes in sub-surface resistivity for which inversion is sought. Their paper presents a method for inverting ground-penetrating radargrams in terms of 1-D profiles. The ground is modelled using thin horizontal layers to approximate to general variations in the physical properties. The use of two orthogonal components of the electrical field provides an additional data set. which are evaluated using the matrix propagation approach. The use of a 2-D electrode array enabled the X and Y components of the electrical field (Ex and Ey) to be utilized independently. Ground-penetrating radar inversion in 1-D: an approach for the estimation of electrical conductivity. while using both components together resulted in faster convergence. Compared with the one component that is typically measured. It is concluded that 3-D resistivity tomography using electrical field measurements is suitable for assessing typically heterogeneous geological settings.

17) γ i = ( jµiσ iω − µiε iω 2 ) 12 is the propagation constant of the layer. Finally. GE . ε and σ.18) where GE . The purpose is to illustrate the applicability of the present approach to the quantitative interpretation of radargrams.ε and GE . It is further assumed that the physical properties do not depend on frequency. The fields in the successive layer are found by applying continuity of the fields and using standard propagation matrices. where t is time and v is angular frequency.layer. The experiments demonstrate that there is an intrinsic ambiguity in the interpretation of radargrams in the sense that variations of one property can be genuinely mistaken for variations in the other two. µ µ (r ')d 3r ' − GE . one must take into consideration that the approach to the problem is perhaps the simplest possible. The authors claim. The quantities µi . that before drawing this conclusion. however. and to show that it represents a viable alternative to existing inversion methods.ε ε (r ')d 3r ' V' ∫ V' ∫ V' ∫ (2. each layer is linear. It is of particular interest that a reflection produced by a discontinuity in electrical permittivity can be reproduced by a double discontinuity in electrical conductivity. A dependence of the form ei vt is assumed for the fields. The solution is obtained in the standard form of a boundary value problem with 2n boundary conditions and the same number of unknowns. dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity.19) Variations of each property have been considered separately and invert the corresponding radargrams in terms of the property used for their generation. respectively. µ . The possibility of differentiation must come from a further complication of the physical 54 . homogeneous and isotropic.σ represent the functional or Frechet derivatives of E with respect to µ. ε i and σ i represent magnetic permeability. the electrical field for the layered structure can be described as E= ∑ ⎜ ∂µ ⎜ ⎝ i =1 N ⎛ ∂E i µi − ∂E ∂E ⎞ εi − σi ⎟ ∂ε i ∂σ i ⎟ ⎠ (2.16) (2. It follows from the paper that it is impossible to recover the three electromagnetic properties jointly from GPR data.σ σ (r ')d 3r ' − GE . The governing differential equations for the electrical Ex(z) and magnetic Hy(z) fields propagating in z-direction for the i-th layer are d2 Ex ( z ) − γ i2 Ex (z ) = 0 2 dz d2 H y ( z ) − γ i2 H y ( z ) = 0 2 dz where (2. The radargram is computed by applying the inverse Fourier transform to the product of the electrical field and Ricker’s pulse spectrum. The inverse problem is based on integral equations for the electrical and magnetic fields E = GE .

for instance by including frequency-dependent properties on the one hand or by considering vertical electrical fields on the other.model. As they stand. This may change the picture drastically. 55 . the present results should be seen as an ideal limit case that directly points to the impossibility of differentiation.

1×10-9 s-2 has been added to the gravity gradient data. The gravitational edge effect inverse problem is to infer ∆ρ (z ) from a finite set of inaccurate measurements of ∆g ' ( x ) .. 2000.21) 56 . by assimilating three kinds of information: physical theories (data modelling)... The inverse problem used in Malinverno’s paper (Malinverno A. Geophys.. (source: Malinverno A. These N measurements can be listed in a data vector ' d = ∆g1' . ∆g N [ ] (2. observations (data measurements) and prior information on models.. 267-285) The horizontal gravity gradient ∆g ' ( x ) measured at the surface (z=0) at a distance x from the vertical discontinuity is related to ∆ρ (z ) by ∆g ' ( x ) = ∫z 0 ∞ 2 2γz ∆ρ ( z )dz + x2 (2. for example. J. 140.2. To simulate measurement noise. Gaussian white noise with a standard deviation of 0. The horizontal gravity gradient depends on the density contrast between the two quarter-spaces (bottom right). is illustrated in Figure 42. Figure 42. pp.. The densities of the two quarter-spaces separated by a vertical discontinuity are functions of the depth z only and the density contrast is ∆ρ (z ) . Int.3.. The probabilistic approach The Bayesian approach focuses on obtaining a probability distribution (the posterior distribution)..20) where γ is the gravitational constant. A Bayesian criterion for simplicity in inverse problem parameterisations. 2000). Measurements of the horizontal gradient of gravity (top) as a function of distance from a vertical interface between two quarter-spaces where density is a function of depth only (bottom left).

25) A linear case where m is related to θ by a matrix equation is considered in the paper m = Aθ (2.where ∆g i' = ∆g ' (xi ) and the symbol T denotes the transpose. and to the general case where the relationship between the model parameters and measurements is not linear.26) Thus the relation describing the forward problem can be written as d = GAθ + e (2. ( j −1 ∆z ∫) ⎡ j 2 ∆z 2 + x 2 ⎤ z dz = γ log ⎢ 2 2 2⎥ z 2 + xi2 ⎣ ( j − 1) ∆z + xi ⎦ (2. the Bayesian criterion prefers parametrizations that better fit the data.27) To illustrate the Bayesian parameter estimation (see appendix D) and model selection.. 57 .22) We can then write the forward problem as a matrix equation.24) Rather than inverting directly for the M>>N elements of m that approximate a continuous ∆ρ (z ) .. The model selection criterion uses Bayes' rule to compute the probabilities of different parametrization hypotheses a posteriori. Beyond the simple linear example presented here. d = Gm + e (2. This probability is computed from the evidence... given the information contained in the geophysical measurements. the Bayesian criterion can be applied when the magnitude of the measurement errors is not known a priori.. that is.23) where each element of N×M matrix G is the contribution of the jth layer to the ith measurement j∆z Gij = 2γ and the vector e contains measurement errors.. The density contrasts in these layers form a model vector m = [∆ρ1 . θ H ] T (2.. The density contrast *o(z) can be represented by a stack of M layers of thickness *z. which is the integral of the product prior pdf likelihood function. a common approach is to estimate a relatively small number H<<M of the parameters that make up a parameter vector θ = [θ1 . As shown by application to the gravitational edge effect inverse problem... an example known from the literature is considered and is shown in Figure 43. ∆ρ M ] T (2. contain fewer free parameters and result in a posterior pdf of the parameters that is more similar to what is expected a priori. This paper applied Bayesian model selection to the ranking of different parametrizations of geophysical inverse problems.. which can be as small as desired to approximate a continuous function.

Figure 43. The posterior can be written as p(m d. 267-285). In particular. 58 . J ) = s (m J )l (m d ) (2. J. An approximation which permits a reduction in dimensionality is proposed in the basis of this hypothesis.. 5 and 7 orthogonal functions are used. All functions in the above equation have the same dimensionality of the parameter vector. A Bayesian formulation for the discrete geophysical inverse problem that can significantly reduce the cost of the computations is considered in the paper by Moraes and Scales (Moraes F S and J. Scales. A Bayesian criterion for simplicity in inverse problem parameterisations. pp. and the grey line is the actual density contrast profile. 2000). m1 and m2. To apply this approach the first step is to divide the parameter vector into parts. which is usually high in most geophysical applications. the parameter m2 is eliminated from the problem in order to have a solution expressed only in terms of m1. The formulation proposed was developed on the basis of a working hypothesis that the local (sub-surface) prior information on model parameters supersedes any additional information from other parts of the model. all prior information is introduced to marginal (local) prior distributions for single parameters. respectively. The thin black lines are the ±1 posterior standard deviation bounds.. Posterior mean (thick black line) in the spectral parametrization when k~3. (source: Malinverno A. This is done by treating m2 as nuisance parameters. Int.28) where s and l are. Next. Geophys. 2000. the necessity of having the multi-dimensional prior distribution is obviated. the prior and the likelihood function. 140. Instead. A. An alternative Bayesian formulation avoids solving the full multi-variate problem.

. 713-723). For the prior information the true correlation and two well logs measure density contrasts through the cells. Simple earth model consisting of six rectangular cells. Eliminating parameters m2 involves finding a marginal distribution for m1 from the posterior. numbered 1-6. with centre co-ordinates (x. J. 2000. Int. vol. The problem is to estimate the density contrast in each cell from the gravity field and prior information. J. The well logs are built from pseudo-random numbers from six different probability density distributions. The grey box above the cells is used to simulate modelling errors. (source: Moraes F S and J. Geoph. 59 . The parameter can then be integrated out of the problem for a proper choice of likelihood function l.Figure 44. At the intermediate level the prior is approximated by the product of three functions t. Analytical examples are also presented in the paper. z). Geoph. A. width d and height h. Int. 2000. 141. (source: Moraes F S and J. 1/q and f. 713-723) Figure 45. Scales. pp. so that each cell density contrast has its own underlying process. A.. pp. 141. Schematic representation of the local Bayesian inversion. At the top level is the original multi-dimensional Bayesian problem involving functions of a full vector of parameters m. leaving a 1-D version of the Bayesian theorem. where f and q are normal distributions and t is the marginal prior distribution for parameter m1. Local Bayesian inversion: theoretical developments. Local Bayesian inversion: theoretical developments. as indicated in the figure. A nuisance parameter is a term usually employed in Bayesian inference to denote a parameter which one is obligated to infer but which is of no immediate interest. Scales. vol.

Int. 713-723). 2002). In addition. Geoph. the main difficulties in Bayesian inference are automatically addressed. S. Of earth models that fit the data equally well.. there is no need for regularization beyond what is dictated by scant prior information. Local Bayesian inversion: theoretical developments. These methods allow sub-surface data to be processed into marginal distributions. the models that have fewer degrees of freedom (fewer layers) have higher posterior probabilities.. 141. Scales. This example uses 10 % of the maximum gravity value as the standard deviation for the noise. 2000. When this is done. To implement this approach in practice. The density axis corresponds to values for density contrast of the corresponding cell indicated by numbers 1-6. A. The purpose of this paper is to describe an extension of the commonly used Bayesian parameter estimation approach to account for the posterior probabilities of different parametrizations of the earth model.Figure 46. a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is applied to the non-linear problem of inverting DC resistivity sounding data to infer the characteristics of 60 . a generic layered medium is used. pp. If the posterior probabilities of different parametrizations (that is. the depths to the interfaces between layers (or layer thicknesses) and the layer properties are free parameters. the determination of posterior uncertainty does not depend on a particular choice of parametrization (such as a fixed number of layers) and gives a more comprehensive quantification of the non-uniqueness of the solution. and J. The basic properties of Bayesian estimation have been examined by Malverno (Malinverno A. Specifically. vol. This is because the posterior probability of model parametrizations obeys a principle of parsimony or simplicity. (source: Moraes F. different numbers of layers) are considered. Appropriate methods are proposed for the construction of prior distributions. by broadening the space of the parametrizations possible a priori. The 95 % inter-quantile regions are represented by the shaded areas and the true values for the parameter are given by solid circles. J. Inversion results depicted by the posterior marginal for each parameter. The net effect is that the data determine how complex the model parametrization ought to be. The most important contribution of this research is that it offers an alternative strategy for treating complex multi-dimensional problems by reducing the dimensionality of the problem before the final solution is found. where the number of layers.

d. ρ k . Geophys. . For different spacings between the electrodes. which represents prior knowledge of the parametrization of the earth model. J. the logarithm of resistivity covers the broad range of resistivities encountered in nature. . I ) = p(k d. Figure 47. Parsimonious Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion in a nonlinear geophysical problem. I ) (2. The filter method described is used with the 11-point filter for g(m). In Bayesian inference the posterior pdf of m measures how well a generic layered medium agrees with prior information and data. while avoiding numerical difficulties. 2002. . (source: Malinverno A. and the measured apparent resistivities (the resistivities that would be measured if the medium were homogeneous) vary accordingly. 151. It is helpful to write this posterior using the definition of a conditional pdf as p(m d. The earth model is parameterized as a layered medium.30) where d=(d1. A generic layered medium with k layers. realistic values of factors such as the parameters. where the number of layers and their resistivities and thicknesses are poorly known a priori. Int.a 1-D earth model. . the current lines sample different depth ranges in the sub-surface. dN) are the measured log-apparent resistivities and I denotes prior information. pp. The layer interfaces are at depths between a minimum zmin and a maximum zmax. I ) p(z. Solving the forward problem requires specification of a forward modelling function g(m) that returns a vector of apparent resistivity data predicted by the generic layered medium in m. In short. and no layer can be thinner than hmin..29) The illustrative data used are log-apparent resistivities measured at the surface using a Schlumberger array. 675-688) The logarithm of depths applies because the resolving power of the resistivity sounding data decreases with increasing depth. d2. ρ ) (2. z . In Bayesian inference all probabilities are conditional at least on I. the earth model can be written as a vector m = (k . 61 . the geometry of the sub-surface and the forward model.

pp. While Bayesian inference has many desirable qualities.. the prior hypothesis should allow for a variety of possible models and for a broad range of parameters in these models. 151. Int. 675-688) The formulation presented in the paper addresses two basic problems in solving the nonuniqueness half of inverse problems: the difficulty of setting a prior distribution when little is known a priori and the dependence of the posterior uncertainty on the parametrization of a particular earth model. J. Int. Geophys. (source: Malinverno A.. To solve the problem in practice it seems that one must choose a particular parametrization (for instance by fixing the number of layers) and impose a regularization factor that goes well beyond prior knowledge. Parsimonious Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion in a nonlinear geophysical problem. note that the prior pdf is uniform. 151. 675-688) Figure 49. Geophys. pp.Figure 48. 62 . however. 2002. J. This histogram approximates the posterior pdf of the number of layers. Parsimonious Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion in a nonlinear geophysical problem. Generally. If little is known a priori. (source: Malinverno A. Setting the prior distribution is equivalent to formulating an initial hypothesis that should then be modified by the data as needed. Three-layer earth model (a) and data (b) used in the synthetic example. Histogram of the number of layers sampled by the MCMC algorithm for the synthetic data in Figure 48. this is not feasible. 2002. setting the prior pdf on the basis of available knowledge is often problematic.

675-688) The Bayesian approach is also present in a paper by Saccarotti and Del Pezzo (Saccorotti G. 2000). J. Int. and D. allowing for a complete definition of the uncertainties and correlations of the parameters. Geophys. A volume of medium contributing to the measured apparent 63 . and E. ρ a (l . although the approach is not Bayesian. the problem of determining the slowness vector of a signal is reduced to a search for the maximum likelihood solution in a joint probability density function of data and model parameters.. Del Pezzo. inhomogeneous. 2002. Image obtained by superimposing the values of resistivity in the layered media sampled by the MCMC algorithm for the synthetic data in Figure 48. The rationale of the new procedure is based on the fact that a measurable anomalous field representing the response of a buried feature to physical stimulation can be approximated by a set of partial anomaly source contributions. Mauriello and Patella (Mauriello P. This image is an estimated display of the posterior marginal pdf of resistivity at different depths. 1999) proposed a probability-based tomography. In this method. The Bayesian formulation is used to map the probability of a signal propagating across the array with a given slowness vector. Probability tomography is a concept reflecting the inherently uncertain nature of any geophysical interpretation. A set of apparent resistivity data is considered. n ) measured by any electrode device along a straight-line profile. The aim of the study was to develop a method in which the estimate of the slowness vector is obtained through a probabilistic approach. 151. 2000). and E. Del Pezzo. Patella. The examined medium is assumed to be resistive. where data and model parameters are represented by array-averaged cross correlations as functions of slowness. (source: Malinverno A.. pp. Array techniques are particularly well suited for detecting and quantifying the complex seismic wave fields associated with volcanic activity such as volcanic tremor and long-period events (Saccorotti G. The dotted white line shows the range of resistivity and thickness of the middle layer that is consistent with the data of Figure 48. and isotropic.Figure 50. Parsimonious Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion in a nonlinear geophysical problem.

47. Patella. . . n ) in a Taylor series) then leads to the relation L N ηq = Cq ∑∑ ∆ρ a (l . 1999. This can be measured by any electrode device (for instance. the ρ a (l . . pp. vol. 2. pole–pole. and D. . L. n ) l =1 n =1 (2. n)] ⎥ n =1 ⎦ N 2 2 (2. The dipole–dipole pseudo-section profiling method. . 2 . 2 . n )J (l . Figure 51. (l=1. Using the standard rules for pseudo-section tracing. positive downwards (Figure kk). (source: Mauriello P.. Geophysical Prosp.31) where ⎡ L Cq = ⎢ ⎣ l =1 −1 ∑∑ [∆ρa (l . n ) . n ) values are assigned to the nodes of a vertical 2-D grid across the profile. each identified by a true resistivity ρ q (q= 1.resistivity is divided into Q elementary cells of small volume ∆V and described by a true resistivity ρ q . Positive and negative values 64 . pole– dipole or dipole–dipole) along a straight-line profile located on the free surface of an inhomogeneous. A set of apparent resistivity data ρ a (l . isotropic resistivity structure. .32) It is shown that ηq satisfies the following condition: − 1 ≤ ηq ≤ 1 (2. . n)] ∑∑ 2 n =1 l =1 N L ⎤ [J (l . At each node l is the position along the x-axis. defining the profile. 411-429) The whole piece of ground contributing to the measured ρ a (l . Mathematical manipulation (for example expansion of ρ a (l . Resistivity anomaly imaging by probability tomography. and n is the pseudo-depth along the vertical z-axis.33) Each value is then heuristically interpreted as the probability that a resistivity of anomaly located in the qth cell deviating from the reference model is responsible for the whole set of measured apparent resistivities within the first order expansion.N) is considered. n ) data is assumed be composed of Q elementary cells with a sufficiently small volume ∆V. Q). n= 1.

and D. 411-429) Field measurements and reconstructions are also provided in the paper. vol. Geophysical Prosp. Figure 52. Synthetic examples are included in the paper (Figure 52). For location and size of the prisms refer to Figure 52. Figure 2 shows the plan and cross-section of the three-prism model. (source: Mauriello P. 65 . (source: Mauriello P. and D.of ηq result from increments and decrements of resistivity in the qth cell with respect to the reference model. 1999. The purpose of Mauriello and Patella’s study was to provide a simple tool for image reconstruction of the most probable location of resistivity anomalies underground in the most objective way. This is quite a new concept in geophysics. 47. pp. pp. 47. 411-429) The model consists of three prismatic blocks with resistivities of 5. 1999. Resistivity anomaly imaging by probability tomography. The important aspect of the analysis developed above is that the resistivity signatures are considered only from a probabilistic viewpoint. Patella. Resistivity anomaly imaging by probability tomography.. Patella. Geophysical Prosp. Tomography images of the resistivity anomaly occurrence probability for the combined three-prism model.. (b) cross-sectional view. 10 and 500 Ωm buried in a uniform half-space of resistivity 100 Ωm. Figure 53. A synthetic three-prism resistivity model: (a) plan view. vol.

Thus the statistical basis consists of many models providing.which conforms to the inherently uncertain nature of the geophysical interpretation process. equivalent responses that can in no way be distinguished from one another. 66 . It is much more. within the accuracy of measurement. it is the consequence of the intrinsic non-uniqueness of the geophysical solution. To this end it is worthwhile pointing out that the probability concept introduced here is not the direct consequence of statistics performed on a set of repeated measurements representing the different responses of a simulated buried system in the presence of varying sources of error.

Anisotropic resistivity tomogram. 2002) for the interpretation of geo-electrical and seismic data. Figure 54. (J T WJ + C−1 + νM ∆m = −J T W d obs − d pre (m old ) − C−1m old ) ( ) (2. Figure 55. Simultaneous and joint inversions The simultaneous inversion is implemented such that the same numerical kernel is used for inversion in different physical domains and different data types. In the left image average seismic In the left image average velocity is shown. In order to solve large-scale problems. The number of data is approximately 8. M.V. while on image displays seismic the right electrical anisotropy is anisotropy ε. shown. et al.5-D inversion). Simultaneous and joint SE inversions have also been applied by other authors (such as Herwanger J. Gyulai and Ormos (1997 and 1999) developed a simultaneous Series Expansion (SE) inversion of DC sounding curves with power and periodical basis functions (referred to as 1. Anisotropic velocity tomogram.34) where ∆m denotes model updates. parallel computer and domain decomposition techniques were used.4. Kis (1998) applied simultaneous and joint SE inversion for the interpretation of DC geo-electrical and seismic refraction data with examination of the possibility of improvement to the approximate 1-D forward modelling applied in SE inversion methods and introduction of the integral mean concept to the SE inversion. Finite elements are used to discretize the anisotropic Laplace equation governing the forward problem. with additional terms for smoothness. The inverse problem is solved using a variant of the popular Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm. W is the data covariance matrix. J is the Jacobian.2. Both the electrical and the seismic experiments scan a depth interval of 20–115 metres between two wells spaced at 25 metres. 67 . structural and anisotropy constraints.000 for each survey and the sub-surface in the inter-well region is discretized in elements of approximately 1. while the right resistivity is displayed.5 metres in both x and z directions. although with the use of a different approach. Their approach is also interesting because they consider an anisotropic and inhomogeneous media. Matrix C contains the structure and anisotropy penalty. Data from an electrical tomographic study between boreholes at a hydrological test–site were compared to the results with an anisotropic seismic tomography study carried out at the same location. C is the model covariance matrix and M is the matrix controlling step length.

damping and joint inversion. For example. It follows from the paper of Musil et al (2003) that jointly inverting data sets that are sensitive to different physical properties is a more difficult problem. Musil et al applied a joint inversion in order to overcome the limits of typical 1-D geoelectrical inversion (Musil et al. This is because source and receiver arrays are usually restricted to the surface or a small number of shallow boreholes and critical parts of the target media may be only sparsely sampled. the common elements may be layer thicknesses. This has led to the concept of joint inversions. If this type of information can be included in an inversion algorithm. A necessary requirement for a joint inversion is to have a factor that is common to the two data sets. 2003). Originally. This concept can be extended to 2 and 3-D data sets. In 1-D applications. Besides smoothing. can be significantly reduced relative to standard least-square inversions that allow the model space to be continuous and unlimited. it is much better to minimize the ambiguities by applying appropriate data constraints. This may be implemented using an inversion algorithm that minimizes the curvature of the model space. Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shearwave velocity contrasts and vertical traveltimes and surface-wave dispersion measurements 68 . Coupling of the two data sets must involve common structural elements. a comparison of anisotropic seismic velocity distribution and electrical conductivity distribution shows an extraordinary correlation between the two tomograms (Figures 54 and 55). resulting in ambiguities in the tomographic inversions. whereby different types of data are inverted simultaneously (Vozoff & Jupp 1975). B. 2003). Zones of fractured rock and zones of highly layered sedimentary rock both result in electrical and seismic anisotropy. Although smoothing and damping are powerful mathematical tools. Both methods clearly delineate an anisotropic body of highly layered and fractured siltstones underlain by an isotropic sandstone body. To compensate for the limitations of the recorded data. A potential disadvantage of such a procedure is that the resultant images may be blurred and important small scale features may remain unresolved. which means the integration of various groups of data records (arising from physically or geometrically different methods and surveys) into a single inversion algorithm (Musil et al. model parameters are not allowed to deviate greatly from a given starting model. They found that it often has internal non-uniqueness and ambiguity problems. In this approach. An efficient way to overcome internal ambiguities is the use of the joint inversion.According to the authors. the model space and thus the ambiguities. Herrman R. A variety of studies have demonstrated the substantial reduction in ambiguity that may result from joint inversions (Vozoff & Jupp 1975). as long as the targets can be represented by different physical models with common geometries. These difficulties can also be reduced be by various regularization procedures. a further option is open for reducing model ambiguity: a priori knowledge may enable the model parameters to be restricted to a few narrow ranges of values. the joint inversion algorithm was introduced by Vozoff and Jupp for magnetotelluric (MT) and DC resistivity data. et al have shown that teleseismic P-wave receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion measurements can be employed to infer simultaneously the shear-wave velocity distribution with depth in the lithosphere. Another way of compensating for sparse data is to introduce a priori information in the form of damping. this requires that the starting model should be a close representation of the true sub-surface structure. additional constraints are generally required. The most straightforward approach is to invert data sets that are sensitive to the same physical property. Clearly. One option is to assume that spatial variations of the subsurface physical properties are smooth. direct-current electrical resistivity and electromagnetic data are both sensitive to electrical resistivity.

The results of applying this technique to data from different tectonic environments in the Arabian Plate and North America are presented in the paper. is considered in many papers. such as PREM. Kaikkonen. The authors found that a priori knowledge of upper mantle velocities are required to predict the dispersion up to a 50second period and that stability constraints are required. The jumping scheme allows smoothness constraint to be implemented in the inversion by minimizing a model roughness norm that trades off with the goodness of fit. yielding models which are more consistent with expectations than those resulting from unconstrained inversions. The inversions are performed using a joint. Sharma and Kaikkonen (Sharma S. One possibility is to require the deepest layers in the model to be similar to predetermined values. A "jumping" algorithm is employed to jointly invert receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion observations for shear-wave velocity. When dispersion is limited to periods greater than 15 seconds a priori information on the upper crustal velocities may also be required. The system of equations to be inverted is given by ⎡ pDs ⎤ ⎡rs ⎤ ⎡Ds ⎤ ⎢ qD ⎥ x = ⎢r ⎥ + ⎢D ⎥ x ⎢ r⎥ ⎢ r⎥ ⎢ r⎥ 0 ⎢ sA ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (2. Finally.35) where Dr and Ds are partial derivative matrices for the dispersion measurements and the receiver function estimates respectively. This can be achieved by adding the following set of equations to the original system Wx = Wx a (2.36) where W is a diagonal matrix of weights and the vector xa contains the a priori predefined velocity values. In particular. Additional constraints on mantle structure are also incorporated during the inversion procedure since requiring the data to blend smoothly into an appropriate deep structure affects the estimate of the lower crust velocities. Additional a priori information is required to stabilize the results of the models in the upper mantle. 2002). 1999) discuss the problem of appraisal of equivalence and suppression problems in 1-D EM and DC measurements using global 69 . P. Moreover. The goodness-of-fit criterion takes into account the different units. The problem of solution appraisal. et al. noise and number of observations of the data and enables an influence parameter 'p' to be set before inversion to balance the relative importance of each data set of observations. so that their combination bridges resolution gaps associated with each individual data set.are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages. magnitudes. including that by van Wijk et al (van Wijk K. the authors conclude that the combination of surface wave dispersion data and receiver functions provides constraints on the shear velocity of the propagating medium that improve those provided by either of the data sets considered separately and helps to avoid over-interpretation of single data sets. mentioned in the Introduction. and P.. rs and rr are the corresponding vectors of residuals. x0 is the starting model. linearized inversion scheme which accounts for the relative influence of each set of observations and allows a trade-off between fitting the observations and the smoothness of the model. and A is a matrix that constructs the second order difference of the model x. a value of p=0 only uses the receiver function data and a value of p=1 only uses the dispersion data. The factor q equals 1-p and the factor s balances the trade-off between data fitting and model smoothness. x is the vector of S-wave velocity.

the convolution form of the relationship has been developed for the apparent resistivity measured using the Schlumberger array ρ a (x ) = ∫ T ( y )[e2( x − y ) J1 (e x − y )]dy −∞ ∞ (2. individual inversion of the EM data set can resolve a conducting layer reasonably well but it fails when the layer is either thin or resistive with respect to the surroundings. respectively.optimization and joint inversion. Joint inversion is carried out using the following objective function. when a thin conducting layer is encountered. the phase ϕ of the mutual impedance obtained from ϕ = arctan⎜ ⎜ ⎛ Im(Z Z 0 ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ Re(Z Z 0 ) ⎠ (2. In general. then the presence of such layers is suppressed in the data. The resistivity transform is the input of the filter and the second term in the above integral is the filter function.40) 70 . filter sets have been designed to compute EM sounding curves for various dipole-dipole configurations. In the following. (1972). The expression for the mutual impedance ratio for a horizontal co-planar coil system can be written as a convolution integral Z = 1− r2 Z0 ∫ (e ∞ −∞ −2 y R( y ) e x − y J 0 e x − y dy ) ( ) (2.38) is considered as a representation of the EM response. Following the digital linear filtering approach to the computation of resistivity sounding curves. According to these authors. Similarly. combining the EM phase data and DC apparent resistivity data ⎡ 1 ε =⎢ ⎢ NF ⎣ ∑ ⎛ ϕi0 − ϕic ⎞ 1 ⎜ ⎜ abs ϕ 0 + C ⎟ + NS ⎟ i =1 ⎝ i ⎠ NF 2 ( ) ∑ ⎛ ρi0 − ρic ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ρ0 ⎟ ⎟ i =1 ⎝ i ⎠ NS 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (2. when a middle layer has values for the physical parameters between those of the overlying and underlying layers.39) where T(y) is the resistivity transform and J1 is the Bessel function (further details of the original relationship are given in the sub-section entitled The deterministic approach). Further. On the other hand. Various researchers have provided a theory for the computation of forward responses of the horizontal co-planar coil system over stratified earth.37) where r is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver. The two integrals complete a forward problem. J0 is the Bessel function of zero order and R() is the complex EM kernel function. rather than the exact values of conductivity and thickness separately. the individual inversion of the DC resistivity data suffers from an inherent equivalence problem. The ratio of mutual impedances can be computed easily with the help of filter coefficients developed by Koefoed et al. The input and filter functions are given in the first and second brackets. inversion results resolve the product conductivity × thickness or resistivity × thickness.

1999. resistivity versus depth sections and inverted h2 versus ρ2 results. Appraisal of equivalence and suppression problems in 1-D EM and DC measurements using global optimization and joint inversion. Figure 56. while ρi0 ρic are the observed and computed apparent resistivities respectively. pp. The H-type model. (h). and P. arising from ten very fast simulated annealing runs after inversion of the following: phase (a). (e). a suppression problem cannot be solved even after the combination of data sets. 71 . cannot solve inherent equivalence or suppression problems.where ϕi0 .. Prosp. the study reveals that global optimization of individual data sets. Geophys. (b). (f). Joint inversion of EM and DC measurements can overcome the problem of equivalence very well. both data sets together (g). From left to right: comparison between observed and computed responses. 47. Kaikkonen. apparent resistivity (d). However. (c). 219 –249) According to the authors. (i). Similar studies concerning 2-D and 3-D structures for genetically-related and non-related observations would be necessary to understand the circumstances in which the joint inversion is really meaningful in reducing ambiguities of interpretation. the phase or apparent resistivity. ϕic are the observed and computed phases. It is also concluded that the equivalence associated with a thin resistive layer can be solved better by joint inversion than that for a thin conducting layer. P. NF and NS are the numbers of frequencies and observation points in the EM and DC measurements respectively. (source: Sharma S.

the resistivity method is sensitive to conductivity-thickness and resistivity-thickness products or conductance and is incapable of resolving a series of thin layers of high contrast. they sample different volumes and have different sensitivities. Although both methods measure the electrical conductivity or resistivity of the sub-surface. it is evident in the constraint residual. small easy-to-deploy electrode arrays for resistivity systems and transmitter moments. The TEM method is sensitive to conductive units and relatively insensitive to resistive ones. The methods are complementary in many ways. 72 .D central-loop TEM sounding for a 40 by 40 m square. In practice. In this case the forward problems are that of 1-D electrical sounding using the Schlumberger array and 1. Poorly resolved parameters are enhanced and invisible layers can be seen. resistivity. The regularized inversion is an iterative damped leastsquare routine. time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) and electrical resistivity are two methods that measure the same fundamental property.41) where G is the Jacobian at the ith iteration. The concept of co-operative inversion. Inversion is thought of as a recipe for data processing with the ingredients being the forward problem. MCI uses concurrent inversion of two datasets mutually constrained through the parameter resolution matrix. at the ith+1 iteration is given by: − − − mi +1 = mi + G T Cd1G i + BT Cc 1B + Cm1 + λI i {[ ] [G C −1 T i −1 d − (do − g (mi )) − BT Cc−1Bmi + Cm1 (m0 − mi )]} (2. least-square solution for the model parameters. The resistivity method is a galvanic technique that samples a more linear portion of the ground as defined by the area of current flow. 1975).2. TEM systems can be used to sample very shallow depths and a large electrode array can be used for deep electrical soundings. typically 40 m by 40 m or greater. the electrical resistivity method gives a relative measure of this quantity. has an area of investigation that is a function of the descending and expanding image of the transmitted current. making them ideal partners for MCI. however. Historically. is an iterative procedure alternating between two datasets and eventually arriving at a common model. Mutually constrained inversion (MCI) is a process in which two distinct data sets are inverted to produce two closely related models (Auken E. pioneered by Lines et al. The TEM method gives an absolute measurement of sub-surface resistivity. Cc the co-variance matrix of the constraint between the model parameters. TEM. m.4. an inductive technique. The TEM and electrical resistivity methods are well known in exploration geophysics. the inversion method and the regularization. MCI has many of the properties of joint inversion. According to them. B the roughness matrix. a situation often known as the equivalence problem.. the two resulting models can be evaluated independently and the best resolved parameters used in the interpretation. In principle. The damped. The best resolved parameters in the two models resulting from the MCI can be used in the interpretation. In contrast. (1988) with gravity and seismic datasets. The method is capable of detecting a thick resistive layer but is unable to resolve the resistivity. the opposite is used. 2001). Cd the data error co-variance matrix. constrained inversion has meant using a concept of a priori data to constrain the inversion. The innovation in this scheme lies in the mutual constraints between the two inversions. the process where two datasets are inverted to produce one model. Mutual constraints Joint inversion generally implies that two related datasets are used in the same objective function and one model is produced through the optimization process (Vozoff and Jupp. but have different degrees of sensitivity and will not necessarily respond to the earth in the same manner. Although MCI is more robust. The authors have chosen time-domain electromagnetic and electrical resistivity techniques for MCI. et al. If the MCI is not appropriate.

the resistivity inversion results would be different from a TEM inversion over the same site. MCI is used to resolve incompatibilities produced when the resistivity sounding is distorted by near-surface inhomogeneities. without the need of a special parameter that cannot be measured. I the identity matrix. while the MCI is robust and gives reasonably accurate results.. joint inversion results of the TEM and shifted resistivity data. 73 . Figure 57. Expanded Abstracts) The MCI procedure is first demonstrated on the classic problem of resolving a resistive layer (Vozoff an Jupp. Figure 57a shows the true model. and MCI. A field study demonstrates how a resistive layer. The term BT C B operates as a band to tie the inverse models together. (source: Auken E. The models can be independently evaluated and the best resolved parameters used in the interpretation. which is encountered in the field example in Skaro. (a) The true (also MCI) model and corresponding TEM and electrical resistivity inverted model results for the Skaro model. if one dataset is distorted. resulting in conflicting models. are threefold: 1. is well delineated with the MCI.λ the damping parameter. Sorensen. mo. Pellerin and K. which is either inconsistently detected or unresolved in the separate time-domain and resistivity datasets. SEG/San Antonio. I. L.2. An anisotropic earth influences TEM data differently from electrical resistivity data. and g(m) the model response. Mutually Constrained Inversion (MCI) of Electrical and Electromagnetic Data. important in aquifer characterization. (b) The inverted model from electrical resistivity data shifted by a factor of 1. The advantages of MCI over joint inversion. 2001. 2. do the observed data. Cm the model parameter co-variance matrix for the a priori model. The term in the first square bracket is referred to by the authors as a “generalized co-variance” while that in the second one is “generalized data”. and the inverse model for the separate electrical resistivity and TEM datasets. such as with an electrical static shift. The MCI enables the interpreter to allow for the difference between the sensitivities and resolving capabilities of two methods. 1975). and a joint inversion can give misleading results. For example. Joint inversion and MCI both successfully solved this problem. static shift. Multiple datasets are not necessarily compatible. according to the authors. which is the same as the joint and MCI results.

In these latter examples they deal with very high-velocity contrasts that generally 74 . the approach is quite robust and can be used in a generic approach. It allows all options for reducing ambiguities (smoothing. Tomographic inversions of geophysical data generally include an undetermined component.5. 2. In a second suite of examples they simulate realistic full-wave-form seismograms and radargrams for typical cavity detection problems. as opposed to specifically designed problems. Discrete tomography techniques allow such information to be included as constraints on the inversions. damping. The authors then introduce a discrete tomography developed and based on mixed-integer linear programming. For inconsistent data sets. The possibilities and limitations of their approach are demonstrated on synthetic traveltime data generated from simple models with relatively high velocity contrasts. A static shift parameter or coefficient of anisotropy is not explicitly required for a convergent solution as in a joint inversion. The physical properties of the host rock are either known to within a narrow band of values or can be established from simple experiments. this is how the complementary nature of seismic and georadar data can be exploited to locate air or water-filled cavities. The MCI is a robust method for processing distinct datasets. reconstruct the shapes and dimensions of industrial parts and determine approximate binary images from discrete X-rays. An important advantage of the MILP formulation is that it lends itself naturally to the concept of joint inversion. An important feature of the method is the ability to invert jointly different types of data. such as static shifted resistivity data interpreted with undistorted TEM data or data containing significant anisotropy. A typical example of an undetermined component in inversion is cavity detection or the delineation of isolated ore bodies in the sub-surface. Discrete tomography The problem of joint inversion for loosely connected or unconnected physical properties has been discussed in the paper of Musil et al (2003). This tomographic method has been used to map molecules in discrete lattices. assumptions or a priori knowledge need to be incorporated into the inversion process. The performance of a new algorithm is demonstrated on several synthetic data sets. In contrast to other methods that result in a single model. A new discrete tomography algorithm based on mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is presented in this paper. In cavity detection the physical properties of the cavity can be narrowed down to those of air and/or water. Discrete tomography is a possible option for tackling problems characterized by variables that can only assume values within very limited ranges. Because of the soft bonds between the two models. To compensate for this shortcoming. the MCI method will recover a useable model without explicitly allowing for the distortion with a specific parameter in the inversion. A possible option for a broad class of problems is to restrict the range of values within which the unknown model parameters must lie. the necessary theoretical background for these concepts is also outlined.3. The authors briefly review traveltime tomography and the commonly employed least-square L2-norm minimization procedure (the conventional approach). In particular. joint inversion and discrete parameter intervals) to be considered simultaneously. the MCI approach recovers models for each data set that are not exact but interpretationally the same. Since the MILP algorithm used is based on linear programming and L1 .norm minimization. for which the key physical properties are only loosely connected or unconnected.

The slowness field u(r) is represented by M cells.42) where u(r) is the slowness (the reciprocal of velocity) field and r(x. through a 2-D isotropic medium is written as t= ∫ u (r(x.45) to be overdetermined. so the ith traveltime can be written as ti = ∑l u ij j =1 M j = Liu (2. The traveltime.43) where lij denotes the portion of the ith ray path in the jth cell.44) where A is a smoothing matrix.. Algorithms that employ “L2-norm minimization” attempt to minimize the squared sum of the prediction error ∑∑ (G N M i =1 j =1 ij − di ) 2 (2. The above equation describes a linear relationship between the traveltimes and the 2-D slowness field. of a seismic or georadar wave travelling along a ray path. calculation of ray paths in 2-D media is required..45) The smoothing and damping constraints cause the system of equations (2. S.. M). t. each having a constant slowness uj (j = 1.46) where N is the number of traveltimes plus the additional constraints (see equation 4). Algorithms that employ “L1-norm minimization” attempt to minimize the absolute difference of the prediction error 75 . z) is the position vector. Because the values of L depend on the unknown slowness field u. There are several options for solving the classical least-square problem. This equation can be written in a more compact form as d = Gu (2. u0 is a vector of damping constraints and I is the identity matrix. In principle. the slowness vector u may be obtained by inverting the system of equations (2. the inversion problem is non-linear and consequently the problem must be solved iteratively. it is generally not possible to determine u unambiguously without introducing a priori information in the form of smoothing and/or damping constraints: ⎡ t ⎤ ⎡L ⎤ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ A ⎥u ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢u 0 ⎥ ⎢ I ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (2. z ))dr S (2.cause difficulties in conventional tomographic inversions. In practice. To determine the matrix L.43).. Popular choices include accumulation of the normal equations and inverting the resultant Hessian matrix.

the joint discrete inversions were found to be more robust than the individual discrete inversions. Musil et al (2003) conclude that they have introduced a discrete tomography technique for individually or jointly inverting seismic and georadar cross-hole data. 76 . of determining unequivocally whether the output model is the result of an insignificant local minimum in the model space or whether it is one of a number of very similar solutions distributed about the global minimum. Green. Geophys. equivalently.47) Linear programming is typically used for this purpose. the output models of all multiple runs were found to be very close to each other. pp. It has been demonstrated that the technique works well when the average velocities are known to within ±5 per cent.∑∑ G i =1 j =1 N M ij − di (2. 389 -402 Apart from presenting many examples of the proposed algorithm. Under a variety of conditions. Unlike conventional least-square inversion methods. The new technique is unlikely to produce meaningful results if the average velocities fall outside the chosen velocity ranges. J. The technique is applicable to a broad class of problems for which the propagation velocities are restricted to a few relatively narrow ranges of values. (source: Musil M. The over-determined system of equations must be converted into an appropriate form for L1-norm minimization. Figure 58. 2003. including many not shown here. H. To address this issue each data set should be inverted independently several times and the resultant models compared. Other tests indicate that convergence to correct velocities also occurs when velocity uncertainties are as large as ±10 per cent. If sufficient a priori velocity information exists. For all of the tests that we have performed. the discrete tomography technique does not provide a formal means of estimating ambiguity or. Int.. Maurer and A.. Discrete tomography and joint inversion for loosely connected or unconnected physical properties: application to cross-hole seismic and georadar data sets. Flow diagram describing the discrete inversion procedure used in the paper. the tomographic inversions should be reliable. The complementary nature of the jointly inverted data sets enabled less ambiguous tomographic reconstructions to be achieved. R. 153. G.

The results of preliminary field evaluations are presented. Performance Assessment of an Electrical Impedance Tomography Detector for Mine-Like Objects.. et al. The array is made of 64 stainless steel stimulating and recording electrodes arranged in an 8x8 grid. In the course of this work an EIT instrument was built and field evaluated. The measurements are then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity perturbations underneath the array. To this end mine-like objects representative of some AT mines were used. Proc. It is a linearized reconstruction based on the following relation: δZ ∝ Sδσ (2. Amongst these is an attempt to apply impedance tomography to the detection of mines. 2001]. A specialized electronics system was constructed to control the electrode current stimulations and potential measurements. et al. 2001.. The paper of Church et al reports the results of the performance assessment of an electrical impedance tomography detector (EIT) for mine-like objects in soils. The applicability of geophysical prospecting methods to demining Further study of the literature on visualisation methods based on the electromagnetic principle reveals several papers which deal more or less directly with the issue of demining. The basic algorithm developed for the reconstruction of the electrical conductivity distribution is described in detail in Church’s paper [Church P. Orlando. 16-20 April) The data processing application comprises the software required for the data acquisition and the target detection algorithm. 1999). P. P Wort.3.48) 77 . FL. The EIT detector was originally designed with a view of evaluating its potential as a confirmatory detector of AT mines. et al. The detection algorithm is tuned to objects of a given size and shape in order to reduce the false alarm rate. The EIT uses an array of electrodes to inject low-frequency currents into the soil and measure the resulting electrical potentials. 4394. S Gagnon and J E McFee. Figure 59. The first results have been presented in publications by Wort et al (Wort P. Vol. These are presented briefly in this section. and Church et al (Church. electronic and algorithm components of the detector will be presented. The main mechanical. EIT Detector System (source: Church. 2001. A laptop computer (IBM ThinkPad) is the host computer. USA. P. SPIE Conference on Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Mine-like Targets VI. The detection capabilities and limitations of mine-like objects are discussed.

5 electrode spacing (7 cm). The solution of the problem requires the inverse of S. δσ : The elements of this vector represent the conductivity perturbation (with respect to the uniform conductivity. Its form arises from a linear approximation and its elements are evaluated by averaging over a grid cell the scalar product of the electrical field caused by the stimulating electrodes with the electrical field that would result if the recording pair was stimulated. Vol. This is the solution that is referred to as the “conductivity distribution reconstruction”. The position that yields the largest correlation value is identified as the most likely position for the mine. Orlando. This resolution is equivalent to a 0. USA. For every node i of that grid. semi-infinite model for the same configuration. Performance Assessment of an Electrical Impedance Tomography Detector for Mine-Like Objects. The 78 . For an AT mine with a diameter of 28 cm this results in a detection range of about 15-20 cm in depth. The size of the vector is determined by the number of independent measurements used by the system.. The matrix is ill-conditioned and requires a regularization procedure in order to calculate its inverse. 16-20 April) The authors conclude that when using mine-like objects with a size of the order of two electrode-spacings (ES). y and z. An example of a reconstruction is shown in Figure 60. reliable detections were obtained down to a range of 1.The terms are defined as follows: δZ : The elements of this vector represent the difference between the transfer impedance measurement for a given configuration of pairs of stimulators and recorders and the transfer impedance predicted by a homogeneous.5 ES. A grid with a resolution of 15x15x3 nodes is used for the calculations. Figure 60. 4394. The detector response for a given replica is calculated by assigning zero conductivity to the nodes of the calculation grid that represent the size and shape of the replica. FL. the correlation operation is defined. S: This is defined as the sensitivity matrix. SPIE Conference on Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Mine-like Targets VI. It consists of calculating the detector response for a replica of the size and shape of the object of interest for a number of grid locations underneath the detector. 2001. Proc. et al. in x. The detection of targets down to a depth of 17 cm has been successful in all cases. A correlation is then performed between the detector response for the replica and the actual detector response obtained from the measurements for all the replica positions considered. semi-infinite model) over a regular grid covering the region of interest. Detector response for a mine-like object buried at a depth of 7 cm (source: Church P. The mine detection algorithm is based on a matched filter approach.0-1.

However. This performance is consistent with the whole set of experiments that have been performed in various soils. The results presented unexpected anomalies. The hard soil crust. The results from experiments point to the presence of a double layer of soil with different electrical conductivities. although no large force is required to achieve contact. indicating that the resolution power of the detector decreases rapidly with the depth of burial. Electrical contact cannot be assured in all types of environment and the deployment of electrodes in the close proximity of explosives is a potential operational issue. AT mines (TMA3. The detector is also capable of resolving a typical AT size mine buried at depths of up to 16 cm and separated by distances as small as 7 cm.5 ES and separated by 1 ES was not successful. it should be pointed out that the detector also faces limitations because an electrode-soil contact is required. M15. ocean littorals and other wet areas where EIT works at its best. as a mine detection application. The same behaviour had been observed for the metal mine TM46 during the trials at CDC. as long as the sand holds some moisture. The EIT detector performed unexpectedly well in the DRES Mine Pen facility. Another set of experiments was conducted along an alley of surrogate AT mines set up at DRES. PTMiBAIII) were clearly detected down to depth of 16 cm. Results from the trials at CDC and DRES have also indicated that the detector is capable of reliably detecting AT type mines at depths of 15 to 20 cm. EIT technology.5 ES. It appears that the ground environment is likely to be responsible for the problems encountered. even if it is poorly conductive. The trials performed at DRES have also shown that the soil environment may have a significant impact on the detector’s performance if this is not accounted for in the reconstruction model. As a very general conclusion. either with the small scale lab model used in the initial phase of investigation [3] or with the current 64 electrode instrument. presumably because of its coat of paint. For two AT mines with a 28 cm diameter and buried at a depth of 14 cm. These anomalies may actually be related in the sense that the broad signal masks the features we were trying to detect. EIT may also have an application in locating intact 79 . This work concludes a two-phase study on the suitability of using EIT technology as the basis of a confirmatory detector for AT mines. The resolution of two mine-like objects buried at 1. This has been demonstrated through the experiments in the DRES Mine Pen facility. The current conductivity reconstruction algorithm assumes a conductivity perturbation in a semi-infinite homogeneous medium. covered with small pebbles was thought to be too difficult to achieve a good electrode-soil contact. the detector being at the limit of its detection capability for that depth level. The detector was found to be capable of resolving very well two mine-like objects buried at 1 ES and separated by 0.strength of the detection varies for targets buried at depths of 21 cm (1. The fluidity of the sand also provides an easy reliable contact with the electrodes. The detector’s response for the TMA4 buried at 19 cm was not as clear as for the other mines. this corresponds to a distance of 7 cm separating the edges of the two objects (35 cm centre-to-centre). in order to provide a balanced evaluation of the EIT detection technology. The signal from the surrogate AT mine was weaker than expected and the detector often showed a strong broad signal at the lower layers. appears to have a special niche in environments such as beaches.5 ES). EIT technology has proved to be useful in the role of a confirmatory detector for AT mines. A detection algorithm based on a replica of the object of interest has also proved to be efficient in reducing the false alarm rate of the detector. The metal AT mine M16 was detected as a non-conductive object. The detector has been shown to be unexpectedly efficient in sand. The algorithm requires revision in order to work properly in environments that present multi-layers of soils of very different conductivities.

although the issues discussed are very similar and are important in demining. The following paper does not touch directly on the problem of demining. size and depth of small-scale targets are examined in the light of the results obtained from 2-D inversions of apparent-resistivity data. reducing the likelihood of initiation when inserting the sensor head. 2001) discuss the problem of detecting small archaeological targets. 49. Basokur. T. however. size and depth of the target. Geophysical Prospecting. T. a religious temple area of the Hittite period. Candansayar and Basokur (Candansayar M. showing some advantage of the two-sided threeelectrode array.mines in the berms formed when mine clearing equipment neutralizes and removes mines. the EIT sensor head could be made cheaply enough to be disposable and inserted remotely to improve safety. four-electrode and two-sided three-electrode arrays are calculated for models that simulate buried tombs. Most mines in such berms are already inert. The validity of the interpretation has been checked against the results of subsequent archaeological excavations. and A. Basokur. The two-sided three-electrode apparent resistivity data are obtained by the application of left and right-hand pole-dipole arrays that also permit the computation of four-electrode and dipole-dipole apparent-resistivity values without actually measuring them. A field application was carried out in the archaeological site known as Alaca Hoyuk. Achievements in this area. Furthermore. Figure 61. The results of 2-D inversions are compared with regard resolution in detecting the exact location. (source: Candansayar M. (b) a view of the exposed room and kiln (area EA2). 2001. and A. E. Further. (a) A view of the exposed city wall from the southern side (area EA1). Synthetic apparent-resistivity data sets of the dipole-dipole. The 2-D inversion of the two-sided threeelectrode apparent-resistivity data led to the location of part of the city wall and a buried small room. 13 – 25) A comparison test has been applied to examine the resolution obtained with earth models derived from the 2-D inversions of three and four-electrode synthetic data. The detecting capabilities of some electrical arrays for the estimation of position. may also be of use in demining. Detecting small-scale targets by the 2-D inversion of two-sided three-electrode data: application to an archaeological survey. E. a computer program that handles two types of electrode array has been developed as an adaptation of the algorithm published by Uchida and Murakami (1990) and this includes the 80 .

83. 13 – 25) The problem of water content variation in soil considered by Panissod (Panissod C.. 49. for the smaller pseudo-section and 7’.modelling of topography. Yellow dashed lines indicate the exposed wall and room. although they are still larger than mines.41±1. the variation in water content in the soil associated with vegetation is examined. the visualized geometries are relatively small. The excavation areas are outlined by black rectangles (EA1 and EA2).20.. E. 8’. respectively. T. et al. respectively. Firstly. This problem is significant when electromagnetic methods used for mine detection are considered as a whole. Geophysical Prospecting. Plan views of the final model inverted from the two-sided three-electrode apparentresistivity data measured at the Alaca Hoyuk archaeological site.83±3. (source: Candansayar M. Basokur. The green lines mark the geophysical interpretation. (b) 1. 9. The forward and inversion schemes utilize.. 2001) is also important from the perspective of demining.. Figure 62.11 and (c) 3.11±5. 8. The resistivity maps correspond to the depth ranges (a) 0. and A. Detecting small-scale targets by the 2-D inversion of two-sided three-electrode data: application to an archaeological survey. Location of the electrodes in relation to the corn plant rows (7. 9’. the finiteelement and damped least-square methods. The figure shows the variation of the intrinsic resistivity values inside the blocks within the same depth range. for the larger pseudo-section) and model 81 . Secondly. Figure 63. 2001.

This concept was investigated by cross-borehole electrical imaging of a controlled release in an experimental tank. Geophysical Prospecting. D. (source: Panissod C. The effectiveness of 2-D inversion results is demonstrated with a field example showing the evapotranspiration effect in relation to corn plant rows. 2001. Michot.. Benderitter and A. Tabbagh. Michot. Electrical imaging of tracer tests can provide valuable information on the spatial variability of solute transport processes. et al.. 570-576) The authors used electrical resistivity tomography in Beauce (France) to assess the water extraction by corn plants (evapotranspiration). Figure 64. 2001. A 2-D inversion of measurements led us to identify clear resistive features associated with the water losses under the corn plant rows. The transport of water in soil plays an important role in modifying the electrical properties of the soil. Geophysical Prospecting. 49.2 m for short length L=0.. 2-D inversion of calculated data (pseudo-section with a=0. D. The acquired pseudo-sections show conductive anomalies under the plants.25 m (perpendicular to the pseudo-section plane) of the corn plant rows). A saline tracer of conductivity 8=103 mS/m 82 . Benderitter and A. 49. New models have been calculated with two different 3-D algorithms (finite difference and moment method) to take into account the 3-D structure of the ground and to confirm that periodic resistive features may generate shifted apparent-resistivity anomalies.scheme used for 3-D modellings. show that 3-D effects are not significant and allow numerical artefacts to be excluded. Tabbagh. the 2-D inversion of pseudo-sections is very efficient and demonstrates well the effects of evapotranspiration. This problem has been studied by Slater et al (Slater L. Thus the phenomena involved may also be examined accurately using impedance techniques. The boundary between the 2-D and the 3-D cases can be defined by combining the use of 3-D modelling and 2-D inversion algorithms. 2000) and presented in their paper entitled “Cross-hole electrical imaging of a controlled saline tracer injection”. Y. Y. The increase in the electrical resistivity due to the water extraction corresponds to a typical 2-D structure of the ground with resistive features under the corn rows. On the effectiveness of 2-D electrical inversion results: an agricultural case study. On the effectiveness of 2-D electrical inversion results: an agricultural case study. In the present example. 570-576) The 3-D modellings (using both finite difference and moment method) confirm the reality of 2-D artefacts. (source: Panissod C.

Although surface conduction effects associated with the clay layers complicated interpretation. The ‘‘normal’’ transfer resistance measurement and its reciprocal.and volume 270 l was injected into a tank facility with dimensions 10 × 10 × 3 m and consisting of alternating sand and clay layers. as well as a qualitative assessment of spatial variability in advective-dispersive transport characteristics across the image plane. the plotting of pixel breakthroughs was considered a useful step in the hydrological interpretation of the tracer test. Injection was from 0. partly caused by the sand/clay sequence. Daily.M. 83 . Cross-hole electrical imaging of a controlled saline tracer injection. Circulating measurement configurations used in electrical imaging. The pixels that make up the electrical images were interpreted as a large number of breakthrough curves. W. although discrepancies arose when the response of individual pixels was analysed. R. Repeated imaging over a two-week period detected non-uniform tracer transport. Binley. The spatial coverage provided by the high density of pixels is the most encouraging factor in the approach. Johnson..3 m below the surface at a point where maximum interaction was expected between the tank structure and the tracer transport. 44. An additional unexpected flow pathway. 85–102) Pore water samples obtained following termination of electrical imaging generally supported the observed electrical response. Figure 65. probably caused by complications during array installation. 2000. (source: Slater L. Tracer accumulation on two clay layers was observed and a density-driven spill of the tracer over a clay shelf was imaged. A. The shape of the pixel breakthrough-recession curve allowed some quantitative interpretation of solute traveltime. Journal of Applied Geophysics. was identified close to the electrode array.

W. 2000. Images of the conductivity ratio obtained at nine intervals during tracer injection. R. 85–102) 84 . a) Between 8 and 47 h after the start of the tracer injection. Daily.Figure 66. b) Between 71 and 264 h after the start of the tracer injection. Binley. Cross-hole electrical imaging of a controlled saline tracer injection. A.M. Johnson.. 44. Journal of Applied Geophysics. (source: Slater L.

Linear least squares inversion a). This additional information can be incorporated in the inverse problem. and as result a set of equations is obtained. The best way to get unique solution is to minimise residuals. from previous investigations. we have: d = Gm + e (A. is known.Appendices A.5) We want Q to be the smallest. The solution is given in the form of so called normal equation G T Gm = G T d .3) where e stands for residuals because of experimental noise and errors.g. (A. Constrained case In some situations additional information. e. Solution given by (1. m – vector of parameters. b).7) The product G T G G T is often called the least squares Generalised Inverse. G model matrix.6) Thus least square solution is given as following: m = GT G GT d . The solution 85 ( ) −1 .4) can be written in matrix form: Q = (d − Gm ) (d − Gm ) T (A. it is known that DC resistivity is positive. This information can also be obtained from general laws. e.4) where Q is the number representing the misfit.7) is also described as unbiased estimator of m.1) where d – data vector. Unconstrained case It is considered a simple linear equation d = Gm (A. For the noiseless data we have m = G −1d (A.2) If the errors (noise) are assumed to be additive. thus: Q = eT e = ∑ N i =1 ⎛ ⎜d − ⎜ i ⎝ ∑ M j ⎞ Gij m j ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (A. Equation (1.g. thus minimisation is obtained by differentiating Q with respect to each model parameters mj. It can be done using least squares method. ˆ ( ) −1 (A.

13) reduces to the ordinary LS solution given by (A.9) has the form: (G G + β T 2 DT D m = G T d + β 2 DT h ) (A.12) is given by following relation mWLS = G T WG G T Wd ˆ ( ) −1 (A.13) In case W = I equation (A.7) B. Now. m 0 .9) where β is called undetermined multiplier. in general relation between data and model parameters can be described by relation: d = f (m ) (B. instead of equation (A. c). The constraining equations can be arranged in the following form: h = Dm (A.8) where D is a matrix which manipulates on the model parameters m in order to obtain the a priori values contained in vector h.4) is described as biased or constrained linear one.10) If. Non-linear least squares inversion Thus.is called as a constrained as the introduced additional information restrict the possible solution only to these which also fulfil the constraint. as it is often assumed.1) Most non-linear problems demand a starting point. Weighted linear LS The vector m is called the weighted least squares solution (WLS) if it solves the problem min Ld − LGm m 2 p (A.12) where LT L = W is so called weighting matrix. Solution to (A.11) The formula (2. This starting model may follow from the previous experiments (information a priori) or can be an intelligent guess. If the 86 . matrix D is identity one then solution is m = G T G + β 2I ˆ ( ) (G d + β h) −1 T 2 (A.5) the following one is minimised: Q = (d − Gm ) (d − Gm ) + β 2 (h − Dm ) (h − Dm ) T T (A. Normal equation following from the relationship (A.

The minimum of Q(m) is achieved for the m = m fulfilling the condition ˆ ∂r (m ) ∂Q m 0 ∂ 2Q m 0 = + m − m0 = 0 ˆ ∂m m = m ∂m ∂m 2 ˆ 2 ( ) ( )( ) (B.5) where ∂Q ∂m is the gradient of Q while ∂ 2Q ∂m is the Hessian.4) is expanded into Taylor truncated series ⎛ ∂Q m 0 Q(m ) ≈ Q m + ⎜ ⎜ ∂m ⎝ ( ) 0 ( ) ⎞ (m − m ) + (m − m ) ⎛ ∂ Q(m ) ⎞(m − m ) = r (m ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ∂m ⎟ T 0 0 T 2 0 0 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ (B.6) Calculating from () the m leads to the following relationship ˆ ⎛ ∂ 2Q m 0 m =m −⎜ ˆ ⎜ ∂m 2 ⎝ 0 ( )⎞ ⎟ ∂Q m 0 ⎟ ∂m ⎠ −1 ( ) (B.nonlinearity is assumed to be “weak” the model f (m ) can be linearised around initial value m0 d = f (m ) = f m 0 + ( ) ∂f m 0 m − m0 + O m − m0 ∂m ( )( ) ( ) (B. In this technique the objective function Q(m ) = Ld − Lf (m ) 2 (B.8) while Hessian 87 . O( • ) ∂m m = m 0 + JT WJ JT W d − f m 0 ˆ ( ) ( ) −1 ( ( )) (B.2) where ∂f m 0 is so called Jacobian of f (m ) at m = m 0 .7) where the gradient of Q(m) is given as ∂Q(m ) ⎛ ∂f (m ) ⎞ T = −2⎜ ⎟ L L(d − f (m )) ∂m ⎝ ∂m ⎠ T (B. Gauss-Newton algorithm One of the most popular deterministic method to solve non-linear is Gauss-Newton approach.3) a).

so the process is modified to minimize: ( ) F (x ) = 1 1 2 2 y − A ' x' + λ x ' 2 2 (C. that is: min F (x ) = 1 2 y − Ax 2 (C.1) (C. The inequality must be understood as applying to corresponding components of the vectors xl.9) into (B. with λ << 1 . Omission of the second term in Hessian and introducing the gradient (B.10) C. The algorithm finds a solution for x such as the square of the residuals is minimum.6) is the symmetric Hessian matrix. The function to minimize can be represented as: 1 T x Sx 2 subject to xl ≤ x ≤ xu F (x ) = cT x + (C. and x. Strictly speaking minimized function F(x) should include a term of the form yT y .8) (C.4) (C.5) where and cT = − AT y S = AT A ( ) T (C.7) (C. xu. Quadratic programming Quadratic programming consist of minimizing the quadratic norm of residuals subject to lower and upper bound in each parameter. xu is a corresponding upper limit. The process is stabilized by adding to the Hessian a term λI .9) The second term of the relationship is omitted in the Gauss-Newton algorithm. with the additional constraints that the parameters must fall within the upper and lower bounds previously established.3) (C.6) the final relation has the following form: mi +1 = m i + J T LT LJ i ˆ ˆ i ( ) (J L L(d − f (m ))) ˆ −1 T i T i (B.8) and Hessian (B. However inclusion of this term does not intervene in minimization.2) subject to xl ≤ x ≤ xu The vector xl represents a lower limit imposed on the properties of the layers.T ∂ 2Q(m ) ⎛ ∂f (m ) ⎞ T ⎛ ∂f (m ) ⎞ ⎛ = 2⎜ ⎟ L L⎜ ⎟ − 2⎜ ∂m 2 ⎝ ∂m ⎠ ⎝ ∂m ⎠ ⎜ ⎝ ∑ (d M j =1 j − f j m 0 LT L ( )) ∂f j ⎞ ⎟ ∂m 2 ⎟ ⎠ (B. The Hessian is calculated in a way that the diagonal is Unitarian.9) 88 A' = AV x' = V −1x .

D. a) Maximum Likelihood Estimation This approach is very popular way to obtain estimations in complicated estimation problems.vii = 1 ∑A n j =1 (C. method of moments while the latter one contains so called minimum mean square error estimation. ˆ if the following relation is fulfilled p(d m MLE ) ≥ p(d m ) ˆ ˆ It means that m MLE maximises the likelihood distribution p(d m ) for given data d. ˆ b) Minimum mean square estimation Methods is based on maximising the expectation of the squared norm of the estimation error E{m − m } ˆ (D. To improve convergence in the iterative process the Levenberg-Mardquardt method may be used. it is not possible to cover all methods and their modifications and to discuss them in such short report. when we have posed the problem and have the vectors and matrices in accordance with the last equation to get the x’ is obtained and x=Vx’ is considered. least squares approach. The former group contains maximum likelihood estimation. Probabilistic methods can be used even though there is not a strict probabilistic behaviour of the studied problem. e. least squares approach may be sequential. The m is the maximum likelihood estimation. classical and Bayesian. In maximum likelihood estimation the probability density function of the experimental data d given the unknown parameter m is assumed to be known.g. Thus. each method itself contains many variants. constrained or unconstrained. maximum a posteriori estimation or linear minimum square estimation. Finally. linear or nonlinear. MLE has the asymptotic properties of being unbiased. Moreover. Probabilistic methods The probabilistic methods are based on assumption that model parameters m are random variables described by probability distribution.1) Using Bayesian cost method it could be determined that the minimum mean square estimate m MMSE is conditional expectation of m given the observation d ˆ 89 . only some of the will be presented.10) 2 ji and vij=0. for given data d. The probability density of m is not required. The methods utilizing this approach can be divided into two groups.2) (D. i≠j. thus it is considered to be asymptotically.

Gaussian case is examined that is appropriate for a linear forward problem and for a prior pdf and a likelihood function that are multivariate Gaussian distributions. The linear.3) This is the MMSE that minimises E{(m − m )} = ˆ ∫ (m − m )2 p(d.6) where p(θ d. The natural choice for a priori pdf is the distribution that allows for the greatest uncertainty while obeying the 90 . likelihood function (the pdf of the data when the parameter vector equals θ).5 ∫ p(θ J )dθ = 0.5) where p(θi J ) is the probability density function of θi . In Bayesian approach. J ) is the posterior pdf of the parameters (the distribution of θ given d and J). there is a 95 per cent probability that parameter θi has a value between 0. m )dddm ˆ (D. The denominator in Bayes’ rule can be shown to be the integral of the numerator p(d J ) = p(θ J ) is the prior pdf (quantifying what is known about θ from J only). these probabilities are always conditional on something that is assumed true: these assumptions are prior information and are denoted J. The fundamental formula in Bayesian parameter estimation is Bayes’ rule.95 i i (D.3 0. is the solution of the inverse problem. J ) is the ∫ p(θ J )p(d θ. and p(d θ. J ) p (d J ) (D. what can be inferred about the parameter vector a posteriori is a combination of what is known a priori.4) c) Bayesian approach The description below is based on paper Malinverno A.5 and 1. it is typically ignored in parameter estimation. the conclusions that can be drawn from Bayesian analysis are of the type “from what we know. which for a vector of parameter θ and vector of data d is p (θ d. and of the information contained in the data.7) Therefore. 2000. J ) (D.3” It is important to stress at the outsets that these probabilities quantify uncertain knowledge.m MMSE = ˆ −∞ ∫ mp(m d)dm ∞ (D.. which quantifies the uncertainty of the parameter values once the information in the data is accounted for. The posterior pdf. In other words. As such. J ) = p (θ J ) p (d θ. independent of the data. p(d J ) is a normalizing factor that makes the integral of the posterior pdf equal unity: since it does not depend on θ. In the notation used here. In other words. the statement above on θi can be written as 1. inferences about the parameter vector θ and the parameterisation are made using probability density functions and probabilities.

θ is the posterior mean of the parameter vector. the pdf that has maximum entropy subject to these prior constraints is a Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a 2 variance equal to σ θ . For any single parameter. for example.8) Quantities assumed a priori are denoted with bar. but that their square value cannot be 2 too large and is expected to be σ θ .constraints imposed by the prior information. and it can be shown that this least informative pdf is the pdf that has maximum entropy. The likelihood function is the pdf of the measurement error vector e. it is easy to show ˆ that the posterior pdf is also Gaussian.14) 91 .11) σe (D.10) The probability of having observed the data d becomes smaller as the sum of squared errors eT e becomes larger. the maximum entropy prior pdf of θ is the product of the pdfs of ach parameter ⎛ θT θ ⎞ p (θ J ) = exp⎜ − 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2σ ⎟ 2 H 2 θ ⎠ ⎝ 2π σ θ ( 1 ) (D. If prior pdf and the likelihood function are as shown in (12) and (14). A posteriori quantities are denoted with hat. θ .9) If the errors are expected a priori to have a mean square deviation from zero equal to σ e and to be uncorrelated the likelihood function is again a Gaussian distribution p (d θ. and the likelihood quantifies the information about θ contained in the data. and has a posterior covariance matrix Cθ and a ˆ posterior mean vector θ that are as follows 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ˆ Cθ = ⎜ 2 I + 2 AT G T GA ⎟ σe ⎝σθ ⎠ ˆ 1 ˆ θ = 2 Cθ AT G T d −1 (D.12) ˆ where I is an H×H identity matrix.13) (D. Suppose all one knows about the parameters a priori is that they are as likely to be positive as negative. defined as the difference between the observed data d and the data predicted for a given value of the parameter vector e = d − Gm = d − GAθ 2 (D. If there is no a priori information on correlations amongst H parameters. J ) = ( ⎛ eT e ⎞ exp⎜ − 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2σ ⎟ 2 N 2 e ⎠ ⎝ 2π σ e 1 ) (D. If the posterior pdf of θ is Gaussian. is the prior mean of the parameter vector. the posterior pdf of m=Aθ is also Gaussian with aposterior covariance matrix and a posterior mean vector that are as follows ˆ ˆ Cm = ACθ AT ˆ m = Aθ ˆ (D.

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application to reconstruction. Finite difference method. Application of the technique to synthetic data with Gaussian noise and real TEM data. Ultrasonic array Probabilistic method to obtain estimate of slowness vector inversion of data from a seismic E. Electromagnetic Toshihiro Uchida. Importance of the imaginary (quadrature) component of the FEM response and the superiority of the TEM measurements in the near zone. Saccorotti. induction Yutaka Murakami and Hiroshi Amano 97 . inversion. layered structure. General data inversion using Bayesian approach application to gravity data Electromagnetic Exact solution – perfectly conducting half-plane embedded in diffraction uniformly conducting host energized by unit step impulse of an arbitrary oriented magnetic dipole A. non-linear least square Geoelectrical inversion for a one.Changchun Yin dimensional anisotropic model and inherent non-uniqueness A Bayesian criterion for simplicity in Alberto Malinverno inverse problem parametrization Electromagnetic edge diffraction revisited: the transient field of magnetic dipole sources Geoelectromagnetic induction in a heterogeneous sphere: a new three-dimensional forward solver using a conservative staggered-grid finite difference method The Fourier transform of controlledsource time-domain electromagnetic data by smooth spectrum inversion Peter Weidelt M. Simulated Anealing and genetic algorithms Searching a parameter space seismic data Geophysical inversion with a Malcolm Sambridge neighbourhood algorithm II. Uyeshima Schultz General inversion. Appraising the ensemble Optimal experiment design: cross. Description of the algorithm. General case study. which uses a smoothness constraint for the estimation dipole source (Tx) with a unit moment and a vertical magnetic receiver of the FEM response. Del Pezzo monitoring volcanic when using ultrasonic sensors array monitoring natural Yuji Mitsuhata.Andrew Curtis Cross-borehole A genetic algorithm approach to design optimal signal sources borehole tomographic examples tomography and receivers for cross borehole tomography is presented. Electromagnetic Second order in the magnetic field H differential equations induction derived from the integral form of Maxwell equations. Comparison of the FEM response with the TEM response in the near zone. Least-squares inversion A horizontally two-layered earth with a horizontal electric theory. comparison with Monte Carlo. free reconstruction algorithm for data Geophysical inversion with a Malcolm Sambridge General inversion.Collection of selected papers’ summaries Title Authors Method Electroimpedance Description Anisotropic media description. A probabilistic approach to the G. Derivative neighbourhood algorithm--I.

time volcanic sources. Direct using a quality-based truncated Laust B. domain M. Electrical resistivity. i.e. Velis. This consists of two terms: (i) the term associated with the variance of statistically significant principal components. inversion. Danilo R. a multilayered homogeneous half-space is used whose layer thicknesses increase logarithmically with depth to take into account the decrease of the resolution of the DC resistivity technique with depth. Muiuane. Sensitivity distribution in cylindrical coordinates for borehole Weller borehole electrical resistivity for different electrode configurations. Basokur archaeological survey 2D electrical resistivity data inversion. Noisy data are also inverted.P. Global optimization with very fast simulated annealing (VFSA) in association with joint inversion is performed for 1D earth structures. Synthetic phase data from multifrequency sounding using a horizontal coplanar coil system and synthetic apparent resistivity data from Schlumberger DC resistivity measurements are inverted individually and jointly over different types of layered earth structures. the standard model estimate variance. and (ii) the term associated with statistically insignificant principal components of the solution.Candansayar and electrode data: application to an Ahmet T. suppression problems in 1D EM Kaikkonen and DC measurements using global optimization and joint inversion1 Seismic ray-tracing. Ulrych Appraisal of equivalence and S. the variance of the bias term. Emin 2D inversion of two-sided three. Real data inversion. i. different electrode Simulated annealing has been applied to seismic ray tracing to determine the minimum traveltime ray path connecting two points in complex 3-D media.and right-hand pole-dipole arrays that also permit the computation 98 .Tadeusz J. electromagnetic and direct current data with noise current 1D inversion of DC resistivity data Elonio A. Furche and A. which adopts a truncation criterion based on the optimization of the total model variance. A inversion scheme is presented. simulated annealing Simulated annealing. The presented inversion scheme has been tested on synthetic and field data. The fact that the truncation level in the SVD is determined intrinsically in the course of inversion proves to be a major advantage over other inversion schemes where it is set by the user. comparison between three electrode configurations. As an initial model for the start of iterations. Sharma and P. truncated SVD Detecting small-scale targets by the M.array and its application to volcanic signals Sensitivity distributions of different borehole electrode configurations considering a model with a cylindrical coaxial boundary Simulated annealing ray tracing in complex three-dimensional media activity. The two-sided three-electrode apparentresistivity data are obtained by the application of left.e. The inherent problems of equivalence and suppression in electromagnetic (EM) and direct current (DC) resistivity methods are studied. Pedersen resistivity – vertical resistivity sounding. SVD inversion.

J. A 2D electrode grid (20 x10). The acquired pseudosections show Benderitter. after which the conductivity contrast is updated by minimizing only the error in the object. C. Synthetic apparent-resistivity data sets of the dipole-dipole. The CSI method considers the inverse scattering problem as an inverse source problem in which the unknown contrast source (the product of the total electric field and the conductivity contrast) in the object domain is reconstructed by minimizing the object and data error using a conjugate-gradient step.J. A. tomography components have been inverted into 3D resistivities by Reece smoothness-constrained inversion. 3D resistivity inversion using 2D P. Panissod.D. This integral equation is taken as the starting point to develop a non-linear inversion method. incorporating 12 current-source electrodes.difference and moment-method) to take into account 3D structure of the ground and to confirm that periodic resistive features may generate shifted apparentresistivity anomalies. tomograpgy. S. was used for both the practical and numerical experiments. The measured secondary electric potential field is represented in terms of an integral equation for the vector electric field. Electrical resistivity Field and `noisy' synthetic measurements of electric-field measurements of the electric field Earl and G. Jackson. four-electrode and two-sided three-electrode arrays are calculated for models that simulate buried tombs. New models have been calculated with two different 3D algorithms (finite. results to assess the water extraction by corn plants the (evapotranspiration). van den 3d inversion Berg measurements The reconstruction of the conductivity distribution of a threedimensional domain. this resulted in 99 . from conductive anomalies under the plants. Electrical Resistivity Electrical resistivity tomography was used in Beauce (France) Michot. Gualtiero Bohm Seismic Automatic regridding of the ROI Paolo Galuppo tomography Aldo Vesnaver combination Non-linear three-dimensional Aria Abubakar and Borehole resistivity inversion of cross-well electrical Peter M. D. the so-called contrast source inversion (CSI) method.On the effectiveness of electrical inversion results: agricultural case study 2D an 3D adaptive tomography using Delaunay triangles and Voronoi polygons of four-electrode and dipole-dipole apparent-resistivity values without actually measuring them. Y. A 2D inversion of experiment Tabbagh measurements led us to identify clear resistive features (res2dinv by Loki) associated with the water losses under the corn-plant rows.

when using this array for practical field surveys. Numerical verifications show that a correct earth image can be derived even when complicated topographic variation exists. because it represents the resistivity properties of the subsurface better than the raw data. Jung-Hee Suh An approximate analytical approach to compute geoelectric dipoledipole responses due to a small buried cube An apparent-resistivity concept for low-frequency electromagnetic sounding techniques Sanďor Szalai.Yi. incorporating complicated topography as well as arbitrary electrode arrays was developed. subsurface structures using Jung-Ho Yoonho Song. we have enhanced the resolving power of the inversion using the active constraint balancing method. so that the effect of topographic variation on the resistivity data is effectively evaluated and incorporated in the inversion. Three-dimensional imaging of Myeong-Jong Kim.A. A three-dimensional inverse scheme for carrying out DC FEM. Meekes.M.C. P. Laszlo Szarka J. This apparentresistivity concept was formerly used to interpret the electromagnetic transients that are associated with the turn-off of the transmitter current. An apparent-resistivity concept is applied beyond the low-induction zone. measured with a dipole-dipole array on the surface. 366 measurements could be acquired simultaneously. Apparent resistivity. Seung-Hwan Chung. 3D inversion ERT. topography resistivity surveys.T. Consequently. which correlates well with the surface geology and drill log data. frequency) combination. Fokkema 366 measurements being made for each current-electrode configuration. J. Analytical solution. J. making the upper limit on the speed of acquisition an order of magnitude faster than a comparable conventional poledipole survey. van den Berg. The concept uses both amplitude and phase information and can be applied for a wide range of frequencies and offsets. for which the use of different sourcereceiver configurations is not needed. van der Kruk. A simple analytical solution is presented for computing direct DC resistivity current (DC) electric field distortion due to a small cube in a homogeneous half-space. It is based on the projection of the electromagnetic field data on to the curve of the field of a magnetic dipole on a 100 . Furthermore. resistivity data Seong-Jun Cho. The algorithm is based on the finite-element approximation to the forward problem. resulting in a unique apparent resistivity for each individual (offset. we obtained a reasonable image of the subsurface structures. Apparent resistivity is a useful concept for initial quickscan multifrequency interpretation and quality checks in the field. By inverting the real field data acquired at a site for an underground sewage disposal plant.

In the area surrounding the German Continental Deep Drilling Project (KTB). This results in a fast and efficient estimation of apparent resistivity versusfrequency or offset for electromagnetic sounding. These effects can be some orders of magnitude larger than the induced signal and remain at signicant levels for tens of minutes. The scheme uses an optimal damping parameter that is dependent on the noise in the data. Storz. Alternatively it might be advantageous to 101 . Hobbs removal artefacts Short note on electrode charge-up Torleif Dahlin effects in DC resistivity data acquisition using multi-electrode arrays DC resistivity. A method is developed here for identifying. It is shown that an appropriate choice of the damping parameter obtained adaptively and the use of a conjugate-gradient algorithm to solve the normal equations make the 1D inversion scheme efficient and robust. ERT. locating and removing the effects of subsurface conducting pipes from imagedata. The inverse problem may be reduced by introducing damping into the system of equations. apparent-resistivity measurements Bruce A. we have used DC dipoledipole soundings to investigate the electrical conductivity distribution down to a depth of several kilometres. The quantities measured in transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys are usually either magnetic field components or their time derivatives. in each iterative step. An efficient non-linear least-squares Indrajit G. Transient gradiometer measurements James Macnae electromagnetic surveys homogeneous half-space and implemented using a non-linear optimization scheme. Even when using a plus-minus-plus type of measurement cycle. Roy 1D inversion scheme for resistivity and IP sounding data Induced polarisation. thus revealing the background resistivity structure. Their effect as a noise source in resistivity imaging can be so severe as to render the geophysical data uninterpretable.The effect of subsurface pipes on Anna C. and also gives a new perspective on electromagnetic profiling. The measurement sequence used in DC resistivity data using multi-electrode arrays should be carefully designed so as to minimize the effects of electrode charge-up effects. electrode effects Electrical resistivity tomography to H. It is important to have detailed knowledge of the electrical properties of the earth's crust in order to recognize geological structures and to understand tectonic processes. Subsurface conducting pipes can be either a target or a noise source in geophysical surveying. Jacobs report the earth's upper crust . one should avoid making potential measurements with an electrode that has just been used to inject current. as the decay immediately after current turn-off is clearly non-linear. W. apparent resistivity DC The feasibility of electromagnetic Daniel Sattel. Vickery. Storz ERT measurement investigate geological structures of and F.

Smith.B. Thomas.S. pole-bipole. conducting and volume polarizable Srinivas. eigenvalue decomposition is applied on synthetic data to derive the parameter uncertainties of layered-earth models. impulse response Christophe S. G.A. bipole-pole and bipole-bipole.S. V. Electromagnetic Using a non-integer moment of the Terry impulse response to estimate the Richard S. Synthetic data calculated for a vertical plate model confirm the limited depth of detection of vertical gradient data but also indicate some spatial derivatives. Subrahmanya targets using induced polarization Sarma. other collected data indicate that the effectiveness of noise reduction can be hampered by the spatial variability of noise such as that encountered in built-up areas. This high sensitivity to the near-surface conductivity structure suggests the application of EM gradiometers in areas such as environmental and archaeological mapping. Interpretation of the EM impulse data by using moments. Such gradiometer measurements are expected to have lower noise levels due to the negative interference of ambient noise recorded by the two receiver coils. P. We define the apparent frequency effect in induced polarization (IP) as the relative difference between apparent resistivities measured using DC excitation on the one hand and high-frequency excitation (when the IP effect vanishes) on the other. Halforder moments in estimation of the apparent ground conductivity DC electric surveying . To achieve this.J. P. Apparao.Depth of detection of highly A. S. For a fixedwingtowed-bird gradiometer system to be feasible. electrode configuration J. DC apparent resistivity.M. Rajendra Prasad Cross-hole resistivity tomography Zhou Bing. However. provided noise levels are 20-40 times smaller than those recorded by conventional EM instruments. This paper investigates the relative merits and effectiveness of cross-hole resistivity tomography using different electrode configurations for four popular electrode arrays: pole-pole. a noise reduction factor of at least 50-100 is required. Error propagation models are used to compare quantitatively the noise sensitivities of conventional and gradiometer TEM data. using different electrode Greenhalgh configurations Induced polarisation effect. Lee. One field test showed that noise reduction factors in excess of 60 are achievable with gradiometer measurements. which offer better lateral resolution than conventional EM data. half-space conductivity 102 . High frequency resistivity measure the spatial derivatives of these quantities. Joshi. The results indicate that near-surface gradient measurements give a superior definition of the shallow conductivity structure.

N.B. Invasion occurs in permeable formations Protazio when there is a radial differential pressure Z RDP between the borehole and formation. mobility. permeability and viscosity of fluids. J. Comparison of methods for estimating earth resistivity from airborne electromagnetic measurements Use of block inversion in the 2-D interpretation of apparent resistivity data and its comparison with smooth inversion A new look at multiphase invasion with applications to borehole resistivity interpretation Les P. Daizhan Cheng. least squares Geoelectric probability tomography. logs for invasion.Q. and mud cake can be neglected. The model predicts multiphase invasion in porous media when gravity. simulation of realistic invasion is not an easy task. Other factors on which invasion depend include saturation. Bhattacharya. electromagnetic method ERT DC Resistivity Induced polarisation. sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in 1D DC resistivity and IP inversion Milton J.S. ERT Yaramanci multielectrode resistivity array – Additional information introduced into inversion routine wchich is connecting more finite elements into one block of equal properties K.I. Thus. This work reviews the famous BuckleyLeverett mathematical model in cylindrical coordinates appropriate for borehole geometries.Hyde Robust inversion of vertical electrical sounding data using a multiple reweighted least-squares method A new method to discriminate between a valid IP response and EM coupling effects Resistivity anomaly imaging by probability tomography Use of VFSA for resolution. Niraldo problem. Sen Induced polarisation. A. imaging. One application is 103 . it is frequently necessary to correct Howard Jr. Cozzolino. Beard Comparison of three different methods for estimating earth resistivity from AEM measurements: 2x lookup table + linearised. Special finite IP-EM model . Schlindwein Paolo Mauriello. Apparent resistivity data. F. Borehole resistivity In well log interpretation. Mrinal K. vertical R. pressure Z RDP and capillary pressure. capillary pressure. Domenico Patella Bimalendu B. U. Ferreira electrical sounding Jianping Xiang.. and temperature transient effects associated with the mud filtrate injected into the formation. Jones. Olayinka . A. Results from the resolution and the sensitivity analysis od 1D DC resistivity and IP sounding. iterative inversion. Shalivahan. very fast simulated annealing vertical electrical sounding AEM – airborne Electromagnetic system Discrimination between valid IP and EM coupling effects. Porsani.S. Resistivity inverse Improved LS approach – multiple reweighted LS Sri Niwas.

Fang. pattern recognition W.Cross-hole electrical imaging of a controlled saline tracer injection Fast Imaging of TDEM data based on S-inversion Ground penetrating radar inversion in 1-D: an approach for the estimation of electrical conductivity. Linearisation of the damped E-field O. A case study Albouy. GPR Huang. feature analysis. dipole-dipole method. Al-Nuaimy. Slater. W. M. Ritz volcano. A. Cape Verde Islands Induced polarisation. A. E. R.C. M. Polarisation controlled experimental studies Frangos. Time Fast S. borehole Experimental tank – controlled saline injection in konown L.LWD and wireline resistivity logs for time-dependent invasion and formation temperature effects. Zhdanov. data Akira Saito. Ip DC induced polarization. dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability Automatic detection of buried utilities and solid objects with GPR using neural networks and pattern recognition to correct logging while drilling Z. electrical imaging Johnson domain Efthimios Tartaras. V. Michel resistivity in resistive rocks of the Fogo Tabbagh.T. M. Time interpretation in presence of Roger Guerin. image segmentation. Induced Mathematical models and A.Toshiaki Hara Inversion of GPR data. W. Nakhkash. Siemon electromagnetic profiles for helicopter data electromagnetic data domain Improvement in TDEM sounding Marc Descloitres. GomezTrevino Neural network. Eriksen Weller.M. electromagnetic Kazushige Wada. Solute transport.T. Lazaro-Mancilla GPR wave equation to silve the inverse problem. electric properties ) estimation . Daily. MichaelS.inversionof EM data using thin-sheet approach. Cross structure. Y. 3d SIRT imaging Treatment of the remamence filed technique Improved inversion of the HEM data using multifrequency methods Case study 104 . pixel breakthrough Binley. Three-dimensional inversion of Seichter induced polarization data from simulated waste A note on magnetic modelling with Peter Furness Magnetic method remanence Helicopter Improved and new resistivity-depth B. Yves electromagnetic Alain method. Nguyen.

together with the thickness. the proposed Bayesian criterion can be extended to the general non-linear case. The diffraction of electromagnetic waves at a perfectly conducting edge is one of the few vectorial diffraction problems that allows an exact treatment. the parameters are the coecients multiplying each of these functions. Bayesian model selection is illustrated for a gravitational edge eect inverse problem. Bayesian model selection allows one to decide how many free parameters should be used in either parametrization and which of the two parametrizations is preferred given the data. which is embedded in a uniformly conducting host and energized by a unit step impulse of an arbitrarily oriented magnetic dipole. This symmetric. the model has some relevance for geophysical applications (e. where the variation of density contrast with depth is to be inferred from gravity gradient measurements at the surface. can only be carried out for a given way of parametrizing the problem. whereas the transient eld in a lossy medium has 105 . resistivity tensor. and which result in a posterior pdf that departs the least from what is expected a priori. seven parameters for each layer of the earth have to be resolved. mineral exploration). The inverse model used in this paper is a layered earth with general anisotropy. While the illustration used here is for a simple linear problem. In a Bayesian approach. (For example. and has merits in validating numerical 2. In the past.Original summaries of papers on inverse problems in geophysics Geoelectrical inversion for a one-dimensional anisotropic model and inherent non-uniqueness Changchun Yin SUMMARY It has been shown that the inversion of geoelectrical sounding data from an anisotropic underground structure with an isotropic model can strongly distort the image of the resistivity distribution of the Earth. even if perfect data are assumed. only particular parameter combinations can be resolved uniquely. the continuous solution may be expressed as the linear combination of a number of orthogonal functions. inversion. Key words: anisotropy. this uncertainty is quantied by the posterior probability density function (pdf) of the parameters. where the parameters are the coecients of an orthogonal function expansion or the values at the nodes of a cubic spline interpolation. Key words: inverse problem. inherent non-uniqueness. Therefore. Despite its simplicity.g. These parameters in turn describe a continuous spatial distribution of physical properties.) As the solution is non-unique. however. attention has been conned to harmonic excitation in a lossless dielectric host. Electromagnetic edge diffraction revisited: the transient field of magnetic dipole sources Peter Weidelt SUMMARY A surprisingly simple exact solution is derived for the transient electromagnetic eld scattered by a perfectly conducting half-plane. rather than all parameters. A Bayesian criterion for simplicity in inverse problem parametrization Alberto Malinverno SUMMARY To solve a geophysical inverse problem in practice means using noisy measurements to estimate a nite number of parameters. Theoretical investigations support these conclusions and conrm that unlike the general non-uniqueness in geoelectrical inversion resulting from inaccurate. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a Bayesian model selection criterion that ranks dierent parametrizations from their posterior probability for the given set of geophysical measurements. the non-uniqueness of geoelectrical inversion for an anisotropic model is an inherent one. The Marquardt-Levenberg method is used to invert the Schlumberger resistivity sounding data with an anisotropic model. which are simple in that they have fewer free parameters. Because of this it is useful to extend the models to include an anisotropic earth. This posterior probability is computed using Bayes' rule and is higher for parametrizations that better t the data. This `parameter estimation'. such that a 3x3 resistivity tensor is assigned to each layer. provides insight into the physics of the transient scattering process.5-D or 3-D codes. Two parametrizations of the density contrast are examined. estimating the parameters of interest also requires a measure of their uncertainty for the given data. choosing a parametrization is the `model selection' problem. inversion. The inversion results using synthetic data show that for an anisotropic earth. which means that no unique solution can be obtained. insucient or inconsistent data. positive-denite resistivity tensor is parametrized by three principal resistivities and three Euler angles.

Schultz SUMMARY A conservative staggered-grid finite difference method is presented for computing the electromagnetic induction response of an arbitrary heterogeneous conducting sphere by external current excitation. However. electromagnetics. the real (in-phase) frequency-domain component is dominated by the primary field. However. Geoelectromagnetic induction in a heterogeneous sphere: a new three-dimensional forward solver using a conservative staggered-grid finite difference method M. mantle. In practice. Toshihiro Uchida. numerical techniques. and are derived from the integral form of Maxwell's equations on a staggered grid in spherical coordinates. which may be necessary when applying transient electromagnetic methods to environmental geophysics. electromagnetic diffusion. In contrast. The electric eld and the time derivative of the magnetic eld are given explicitly both in the quasi-static limit and with the inclusion of displacement currents. The Fourier transform of controlled-source time-domain electromagnetic data by smooth spectrum inversion Yuji Mitsuhata.escaped attention. smooth spectrum. transient electromagnetic elds. we estimate the frequency response by maximizing the a posteriori distribution based on Bayes' rule. This solution in spherical geometry is derived from that originally presented by Mackie et al. and against a quasianalytic solution for an azimuthally asymmetric configuration of eccentrically nested spheres (Martinec 1998). In implementing the smoothness constraint as a priori information. Geophysical inversion with a neighbourhood algorithm--I. Searching a parameter space 106 . To estimate the frequency-domain responses reliably from the time-domain data. electromagnetic induction. Tests of the algorithm on synthetic and field data for the long-offset transient electromagnetic method provide reasonable results. data acquired in the time domain are more sensitive to the deeper target owing to the absence of the primary field. Uyeshima and A. The difference equations that we solve are second order in the magnetic field H. The appendices briefly treat the quasi-static transient eld of a grounded electric dipole and sketch the formal solution for a perfectly conducting half-plane in a layered host. frequency domain. The adjustment of the weighting between the data mist and the smoothness constraint is accomplished by minimizing Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). Yutaka Murakami and Hiroshi Amano SUMMARY In controlled-source electromagnetic measurements in the near zone or at low frequencies. The system is solved using the minimum residual conjugate gradient method with preconditioning by incomplete Cholesky decomposition of the diagonal sub-blocks of the coefficient matrix. time domain. does not lead to complications. The resulting matrix system of equations is sparse. symmetric. In order to ensure there is zero H divergence in the solution. electromagnetic modelling. Key words: electrical conductivity. it is the imaginary (quadrature) component that contains the signal related to a target deeper than the sourcereceiver separation. it is difcult to measure the imaginary component because of the dominance of the primary field. the diffracted wave emerging from the edge decays only as t{2 and therefore dominates the eld geometry at late times. This method is appropriate as the forward solution for the problem of determining the electrical conductivity of the Earth's deep interior. buried thin spherical shell model (Kuvshinov & Pankratov 1994). corrections are made to the H field every few iterations. Key words: diffraction. and is effective for analysing noisy data Key words: Bayes. we compare our results against an integral equation solution for an azimuthally symmetric. least squares. In the quasi-static approximation in particular. we have developed a Fourier transform algorithm using a leastsquares inversion with a smoothness constraint (smooth spectrum inversion). In order to validate the code. electromagnetic induction. even the inclusion of displacement currents. this solution turns out to be simple compared to the explicit form of the eld using harmonic excitation. real everywhere except along the diagonal and ill-conditioned. (1994) for Cartesian geometry. The algorithm can handle time-domain data with a wide range of delay times. The late-time behaviour of the eld is remarkable: whereas the full-space parts of these elds show the well-known t{5a2 decay.

To our knowledge this is the rst time the general case has been addressed. requires just two `tuning parameters'. receiver functions. In this study. One of the new measures can be calculated extremely efficiently allowing experiments constraining large model spaces to be designed. and any combination of data fit criteria can be used. by intermittently replacing the forward modelling calculations with nearest neighbour calculations. Search techniques have been the subject of much study in geophysics. it measures anticipated model information post-experiment). The new ensemble inference algorithm is illustrated on a highly non-linear waveform inversion problem. which to our knowledge has not been demonstrated in any previous technique of this kind. receiver functions. In this way all difficulties associated with the scaling of a data misfit function are avoided. It is shown that the new algorithm produces a sophisticated type of `self-adaptive' search behaviour.) The new search algorithm makes use of the geometrical constructs known as Voronoi cells to derive the search in parameter space. It is shown how the computation time and memory requirements scale with the dimension of the parameter space and size of the ensemble. Often inferences are based on only a small subset of the ensemble. Key words: numerical techniques. simulated annealing. which are commonly used for global optimization problems. less attention is given to the appraisal of the ensemble. it may be applied to perform `error analysis' using the ensemble generated by a genetic algorithm. waveform inversion. The method is highly parallel. where linearized inversion techniques suffer from a strong dependence on the starting solution. Optimal experiment design: cross-borehole tomographic examples Andrew Curtis SUMMARY Experiment design optimization requires that the quality of any particular design can be both quantied and then maximized. Physical and financial constraints define the space of possible experimental designs. rather than seeking a single optimal model. Key words: numerical techniques. the technique is applicable to a wide variety of situations. waveform inversion. Two new measures of model information are introduced and compared to three previously known measures. but from the new `resampled' ensemble we are able to obtain measures of resolution and trade-o in the model parameters. The algorithm is conceptually simple. It is also shown how Voronoi cells can be used to enhance any existing direct search algorithm. making predictions of observables from an earth model. Appraising the ensemble Malcolm Sambridge SUMMARY Monte Carlo direct search methods. such as genetic algorithms. that is. The definitions used here require that the relationship between model parameters and data can be linearized without significant loss of information. Geophysical inversion with a neighbourhood algorithmII. This is known to be a non-linear problem. This paper presents a new approach to the appraisal problem. They require the solving of the forward problem many times. are often used to explore a nite-dimensional parameter space. previously generated by any search method.. The resulting ensemble of earth models represents all 'information' collected in the search process. experiment quality is defined to measure the constraints on a particular model oered by the anticipated experimental data (that is. For example. The new direct search algorithm is illustrated with an application to a synthetic problem involving the inversion of receiver functions for crustal seismic structure. and makes use of only the rank of a data fit criterion rather than the numerical value. that is. etc. or any combinations of them. how to infer information from a complete ensemble. It falls into the same class of method as simulated annealing and genetic algorithms.Malcolm Sambridge SUMMARY This paper presents a new derivative-free search method for finding models of acceptable data fit in a multidimensional parameter space. These are nearest neighbour regions defined under a suitable distance norm. Each measure is used independently to design a cross-borehole tomographic survey 107 . The essence of the new approach is to use the information in the available ensemble to guide a resampling of the parameter space. or any other direct search method. This requires no further solving of the forward problem. and may easily be distributed across several computers. Since little is assumed about the initial ensemble of earth models. This efficiency trades o with a lack of sensitivity to poorly constrained parts of the model. (A related paper deals with the quantitative appraisa of the ensemble. and sometimes a single member. The objective here is to find an ensemble of models that preferentially sample the good data-fitting regions of parameter space.

Sensitivity distributions of different borehole electrode configurations considering a model with a cylindrical coaxial boundary M. but can be found using the quantitative methods introduced and discussed herein. Furche and A. the timedomain methods. Weller SUMMARY The sensitivity distributions of different electrode configurations are computed for both a homogeneous resistivity distribution and a model consisting of two vertical zones of homogeneous resistivity. (4) average node density on the ground surface is lower than that down each well. Whereas the sensitivity in the case of the cylindrical coaxial boundary depends on the contrast between formation resistivity and mud resistivity. The method is based on the estimate of the theoretical frequency slowness power spectrum. inverse problem. The sensitivity of the homogeneous model is independent of resistivity. The methods based on the analysis of the signal in the frequency domain. based on the maximization of a multichannel coherence estimate. which allows for a complete definition of the uncertainties associated with the estimate of frequency slowness power spectra from measurement of the zero-lag cross-correlation. electrical resistivity. volcanic activity. but the current method is quantitative and hence may be applied in situations where intuition breaks down (for example. the a posteriori probability density function for signal slowness is expressed as the difference. Conversely. Features common to most or all optimal designs form robust design criteria`rules of thumb which can be applied to design future experiments. inversion for anisotropic model parameters). which is expressed as the convolution of the true signal slowness with the array response pattern. allow for the estimate of source location and extent of the explosive activity. In such cases the optimal design is usually not obvious.including surface sources and receivers (henceforth called nodes) which maximally constrains the interborehole velocity structure. Saccorotti and E. The boreholes are vertical and the background velocity is assumed to be approximately constant. survey. between the model spectrum and that derived from application of the zero-lag cross-correlation technique. information. The superiority of focused tools in comparison to normal logs can clearly be shown if the effect of variable bucking currents is included. experiment. the sensitivity distribution changes dramatically for all investigated electrode configurations. non-stationary signals. Such a definition become crucial once the slowness vector estimates are used to infer source location and extent. (3) surface node density is increased slightly around the central point between the wells. an exhaustive definition of the errors associated with the slowness vector estimate is not yet available. in the least-squares sense. for both the time and the frequency domain approaches. can be applied even for short-duration pulses. have the main advantages of both resolving closely spaced sources and reducing the necessary computer time. optimal design. These are: (1) surface nodes significantly improve designs. Three of these criteria are shown to be intuitively reasonable (the fourth is not). numerical techniques. Del Pezzo SUMMARY Array techniques are particularly well-suited for detecting and quantifying the complex seismic waveelds associated with volcanic activity such as volcanic tremor and long period events. The inner zone around the borehole axis represents a borehole filled with mud and the outer zone is the undisturbed formation. Key words: array. Key words: borehole geophysics. non-vertical wells with multilateral splays. Using a Bayesian formalism. or spectral methods. Key words: cross-borehole tomography. Examples of application to data from Stromboli volcano. 108 . The method is tested using synthetic waveforms resembling the quasi-monochromatic signals often associated with the volcanic activity. However. With increasing contrast. Italy. A probabilistic approach to the inversion of data from a seismic array and its application to volcanic signals G. (2) node density increases steadily down the length of each well. combining different data types. In this work we develop a method based on a probabilistic formalism. but may severely fail in the analysis of monochromatic. The sensitivity patterns are used to illustrate the ability of different electrode configurations to delineate thin layers.

Basokur ABSTRACT The detecting capabilities of some electrical arrays for the estimation of position. numerical techniques. As an initial model for the start of iterations. Emin Candansayar and Ahmet T. Noisy data are also inverted.Simulated annealing ray tracing in complex three-dimensional media Danilo R.P. Synthetic phase data from multifrequency sounding using a horizontal coplanar coil system and synthetic apparent resistivity data from Schlumberger DC resistivity measurements are inverted individually and jointly over different types of layered earth structures. Ulrych SUMMARY Simulated annealing has been applied to seismic ray tracing to determine the minimum traveltime ray path connecting two points in complex 3-D media. However. These include local convergence (that is. The fact that the truncation level in the SVD is determined intrinsically in the course of inversion proves to be a major advantage over the inversion schemes where it is set by the user. and (ii) the term associated with statistically insignificant principal components of the solution. Kaikkonen Abstract Global optimization with very fast simulated annealing (VFSA) in association with joint inversion is performed for 1D earth structures.e. shooting and bending methods may not provide reliable results in highly variable 3-D media. simulated annealing. Pedersen ABSTRACT Many DC resistivity inversion schemes use a combination of standard iterative least-squares and truncated singular value decomposition (SVD) to optimize the solution to the inverse problem. This study reveals that the K-type earth structure is easiest to resolve while the A-type is the most difficult. ray tracing. The present inversion scheme has been tested on synthetic and field data. Detecting small-scale targets by the 2D inversion of two-sided three-electrode data: application to an archaeological survey M.resistivity data are obtained by the application 109 . The results of the tests show that the procedure works well and the convergence process is stable even in the most complicated cases. i. failing to obtain the ray path with absolute minimum traveltime) and divergence of the take-off angle selection strategy. A flexible model representation is used to accommodate a large class of velocity models. the standard model estimate variance. The study reveals that global optimization of individual data sets cannot solve inherent equivalence or suppression problems. However. we use a multilayered homogeneous half-space whose layer thicknesses increase logarithmically with depth to take into account the decrease of the resolution of the DC resistivity technique with depth. i. a suppression problem cannot be solved even after combination of data sets. Muiuane and Laust B. In contrast to conventional ray tracing schemes such as shooting and bending. size and depth of small-scale targets were examined in view of the results obtained from 2D inversions of apparentresistivity data. The two-sided three-electrode apparent. We also conclude that the equivalence associated with a thin resistive layer can be resolved better than that for a thin conducting layer. The inherent problems of equivalence and suppression in electromagnetic (EM) and direct current (DC) resistivity methods are studied. Key words: block model. the variance of the bias term. This consists of two terms: (i) the term associated with the variance of statistically significant principal components. heterogeneous media. until quite recently. Velis and Tadeusz J. 1D inversion of DC resistivity data using a quality-based truncated SVD Elonio A. Under these circumstances. simulated annealing ray tracing (SART) overcomes some well-known difficulties regarding multipathing and take-off angle selection. Sharma and P.e. the truncation was done arbitrarily or by a trial-and-error procedure. due to the lack of workable guidance criteria for discarding small singular values. In this paper we present an inversion scheme which adopts a truncation criterion based on the optimization of the total model variance. Appraisal of equivalence and suppression problems in 1D EM and DC measurements using global optimization and joint inversion S. Joint inversion of EM and DC measurements can overcome the problem of equivalence very well.

we get a much more reliable estimate of the velocity field of seismic waves. Tabbagh ABSTRACT Electrical resistivity tomography was used in Beauce (France) to assess the water extraction by corn plants (evapotranspiration). The two-dimensional inversion of the two-sided three-electrode apparent-resistivity data has led to locating a part of the city wall and a buried small room. Panissod. 3D resistivity inversion using 2D measurements of the electric field P.J. able to fit the local resolution to the available raypaths. Synthetic apparent-resistivity data sets of the dipole-dipole. but is not affected by the ambiguities that occur when the grid resolution is not adequately supported by the available raypaths. A field application was carried out in the archaeological site known as Alaca Hoyuk. four-electrode and two-sided three-electrode arrays are calculated for models that simulate buried tombs. Consequently. The measured secondary electric potential field is represented in terms of an integral equation for the vector electric field.and right-hand pole-dipole arrays that also permit the computation of four-electrode and dipoledipole apparent-resistivity values without actually measuring them. On the effectiveness of 2D electrical inversion results: an agricultural case study C. 3D adaptive tomography using Delaunay trianglesand Voronoi polygons Gualtiero Bo�m. However. The results of two-dimensional inversions are compared with regard to the resolution in detecting the exact location. D. which is based on Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi tessellation. We discuss the reconstruction of the conductivity distribution of a three-dimensional domain.D. by means of a singular value analysis of the tomographic matrix. after which the conductivity contrast is updated by minimizing only the error in the object. van den Berg Abstract Cross-well electrical measurement as known in the oil industry is a method for determining the electrical conductivity distribution between boreholes from the electrostatic field measurements in the boreholes. size and depth of the target. and is fairly insensitive to added random noise. The acquired pseudosections show conductive anomalies under the plants. Reece Abstract 110 . Michot. S. It increases the local pixel density where the null space energy is low or the velocity gradient is large. Jackson. Benderitter and A. We describe an algorithm for an automatic regridding. the so-called contrast source inversion (CSI) method. Numerical tests indicate that the inversion method yields a reasonably good reconstruction result.J. by adapting the local resolution iteratively.Y. This integral equation is taken as the starting point to develop a non-linear inversion method. Earl and G.of left. Paolo Galuppo and Aldo Vesnaver Abstract The solutions of traveltime inversion problems are often not unique because of the poor match between the raypath distribution and the tomographic grid. A 2D inversion of measurements led us to identify clear resistive features associated with the water losses under the corn-plan rows. Non-linear three-dimensional inversion of cross-well electrical measurements Aria Abubakar and Peter M. the tomographic image can reveal the boundaries of complex objects. a religious temple area of the Hittite period. The CSI method considers the inverse scattering problem as an inverse source problem in which the unknown contrast source (the product of the total electric field and the conductivity contrast) in the object domain is reconstructed by minimizing the object and data error using a conjugate-gradient step. This method has been tested on a number of numerical examples using the synthetic `measured' data with and without noise. showing some advantage for the two-sided three-electrode array. we can reduce or eliminate the null space influence on our earth image: in this way. and reduces it elsewhere. New models have been calculated with two different 3D algorithms (finite-difference and moment-method) to take into account 3D structure of the ground and to confirm that periodic resistive features may generate shifted apparent-resistivity anomalies. The validity of the interpretation has been checked against the results of subsequent archaeological excavations.

or even determining some initial models for further inversions. without utilizing negative apparent resistivities or singular geometrical factors.e. Seong-Jun Cho. this resulted in 366 measurements being made for each current-electrode configuration. Yoonho Song.e. Numerical verifications show that a correct earth image can be derived even when complicated topographic variation exists. Other practical advantages accrue from the closely spaced potential dipoles being insensitive to common-mode noise (e. was used for both the practical and numerical experiments. Furthermore.C. Values of electrical field can incorporate changes in polarity of the measured potential differences seen when 2D electrode arrays are used with heterogeneous `geology'. J. although this results in a non-unique apparent resistivity. Using both the X. comparable published examples based on traditional measurement types.and Y-components of the electric field as measurements resulted in faster convergence of the smoothness-constrained inversion compared with using one component alone. making the upper limit on the speed of acquisition an order of magnitude faster than a comparable conventional poledipole survey. estimating parametersensitivities. which correlates well with the surface geology and drill log data. In spite of this first-order approximation. this approximate solution fits very well with true 3D numerical modelling results. a 111 . incorporating 12 current-source electrodes.T.A. when using this array for practical field surveys. van der Kruk. Another definition uses only the amplitude information of the total magnetic field. The algorithm is based on the finite-element approximation to the forward problem. in the case of realistic depths z zaR < 0X10X5Y where R is the transmitterreceiver distance). The approximation lies in the linearization of the problem: the secondary source (i. Seung-Hwan Chung and Jung-Hee Suh Abstract We have developed a three-dimensional inverse scheme for carrying out DC resistivity surveys. Due to its simplicity.g. the cube) is considered as a system of three perpendicular electric dipoles. measured with a dipoledipole array on the surface.Field and `noisy' synthetic measurements of electric-field components have been inverted into 3D resistivities by smoothness-constrained inversion. A 2D electrode grid (20 �10).* Jung-Ho Kim. or better than.M. incorporating complicated topography as well as arbitrary electrode arrays. P. Meekes. For frequency-domain soundings several apparent-resistivity definitions exist. van den Berg and J. One definition uses an asymptote for the field of a magnetic dipole in a homogeneous half-space and is useful only for low induction numbers. and with analogue modelling results if aaR # 0X1Y where a is the length of the side of the cube. Geological structure and resistivity were reconstructed as well as. so that the effect of topographic variation on the resistivity data is effectively evaluated and incorporated in the inversion. we have enhanced the resolving power of the inversion using the active constraint balancing method. telluric) and only 7% of the electrodes (i. Consequently. furthermore their position on the horizontal surface and the depth of the cube can be freely selected. Fokkema Abstract Apparent resistivity is a useful concept for initial quick-scan interpretation and quality checks in the field. Three-dimensional imaging of subsurface structures using resistivity data Myeong-Jong Yi. An approximate analytical approach to compute geoelectric dipoledipole responses due to a small buried cube Sandor Szalai and Laszlo Szarka Abstract A simple analytical solution is presented for computing direct current (DC) electric field distortion due to a small cube in a homogeneous half-space. Both the transmitter and the receiver may have any orientation. because it represents the resistivity properties of the subsurface better than the raw data. By inverting the real field data acquired at a site for an underground sewage disposal plant. we obtained a reasonable image of the subsurface structures. those used as current sources) being susceptible to recently reported electrode charge-up effects. this method could be used for computing DC field distortion effects. 366 measurements could be acquired simultaneously. An apparent-resistivity concept for low-frequency electromagnetic sounding techniques J. To overcome this non-uniqueness. It is shown that a simple approximate analytical method may replace more complicated 3D numerical modelling algorithms.

locating and removing the effects of subsurface conducting pipes from image data. Jacobs Abstract It is important to have detailed knowledge of the electrical properties of the earth's crust in order to recognize geological structures and to understand tectonic processes. where an electromagnetic survey had previously revealed a labyrinth of underground pipes. for which the use of different source-receiver configurations is not needed. Storz. as the decay immediately after current turn-off is clearly non-linear. size and orientation of the pipe with respect to the array. A method is developed here for identifying. Vickery and Bruce A. Storz and F. The success of the method is demonstrated by applications to synthetic data sets involving one or two pipes embedded in non-uniform half-spaces. Using the latter theory. We have 112 . In this paper. in practice. such as EM31 and EM34. thus revealing the background resistivity structure. Electrical resistivity tomography to investigate geological structures of the earth's upper crust H. especially about the vertical resistivity distribution of the subsurface. In each case study the results are found to be comparable with those from other existing exploration systems. frequency) combination. this means that a wide range of measurements have to be carried out. The method is shown to be successful in removing the effects of the pipes to reveal the underlying geology. In further examples. an apparent-resistivity concept is applied beyond the low-induction zone. The effect of subsurface pipes on apparent-resistivity measurements Anna C.complex derivation using two different source-receiver configurations and several magnetic field values for different frequencies or different offsets is derived in another definition. Pipe effects are then removed by multiplying each datum point in the measurements by the reciprocal of the corresponding value in the analytic solution. and also gives a new perspective on electromagnetic profiling. while commercial systems are not able to measure this wide range. In the area surrounding the German Continental Deep Drilling Project (KTB). They are obtained with a slight increase of effort in the field but contain more information. the method is applied to some measured resistivity images from an ex-industrial site (a former oil distribution terminal). It is based on the projection of the electromagnetic field data on to the curve of the field of a magnetic dipole on a homogeneous half-space and implemented using a non-linear optimization scheme. This results in a fast and efficient estimation of apparent resistivity versus frequency or offset for electromagnetic sounding. Even when using a plus-minus-plus type of measurement cycle. The concept uses both amplitude and phase information and can be applied for a wide range of frequencies and offsets. Their effect as a noise source in resistivity imaging can be so severe as to render the geophysical data uninterpretable. we have used DC dipole-dipole soundings to investigate the electrical conductivity distribution down to a depth of several kilometres. These effects can be some orders of magnitude larger than the induced signal and remain at significant levels for tens of minutes. A previously known analytic solution for the potential distribution produced by current injection in a uniform half-space containing an infinitely long conducting cylinder is used to calculate apparent resistivities corresponding to electrode arrays on the surface of the half-space. Numerical results and two case studies are presented. W. Hobbs Abstract Subsurface conducting pipes can be either a target or a noise source in geophysical surveying. Most results concern the Wenner array and an examination is made of the effects produced by varying the electrode spacing and the depth. resulting in a unique apparent resistivity for each individual (offset. A method is developed for locating pipes in resistivity image data by cross-correlation of the analytic solution with the measured field data. This apparent-resistivity concept was formerly used to interpret the electromagnetic transients that are associated with the turn-off of the transmitter current. Short note on electrode charge-up effects in DC resistivity data acquisition using multi-electrode arrays Torleif Dahlin Abstract The measurement sequence used in DC resistivity data using multi-electrode arrays should be carefully designed so as to minimize the effects of electrode charge-up effects. one should avoid making potential measurements with an electrode that has just been used to inject current.

the depth of detection of a target by IP can be defined as that depth below which the target response is lower than the threshold for a given electrode array. other collected data indicate that the effectiveness of noise reduction can be hampered by the spatial variability of noise such as that encountered in built-up areas. The problem may be reduced by introducing damping into the system of equations.S. 113 . The scheme uses an optimal damping parameter that is dependent on the noise in the data. Joshi and P. Apparao. a noise reduction factor of at least 50100 is required. is made. frequency effect. To achieve this. P. etc. such as chargeability. The changes in the damping and relative residual error with iteration number are illustrated. This and the ensuing suboptimality restrict the initial model to being in the near vicinity of the true model.adapted the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) technique. Independent transmitting and receiving units were used to realize the concept of simultaneous multichannel registration of the scalar electrical potential at 44 dipoles. It is shown that an appropriate choice of the damping parameter obtained adaptively and the use of a conjugate-gradient algorithm to solve the normal equations make the 1D inversion scheme efficient and robust. which offer better lateral resolution than conventional EM data. Subrahmanya Sarma. as long as these observables are explicitly related to the DC apparent resistivity. phase. An efficient non-linear least-squares 1D inversion scheme for resistivity and IP sounding data Indrajit G. The inversion of IP data presented here is generic and can be applied to any of the IP observables. Synthetic data calculated for a vertical plate model confirm the limited depth of detection of vertical gradient data but also indicate some spatial derivatives. The feasibility of electromagnetic gradiometer measurements Daniel Sattel and James Macnae Abstract The quantities measured in transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys are usually either magnetic field components or their time derivatives. Inversion of induced polarization (IP) sounding is obtained by inverting twice (true and modified) DC apparent resistivity data. provided noise levels are 2040 times smaller than those recorded by conventional EM instruments. This high sensitivity to the near-surface conductivity structure suggests the application of EM gradiometers in areas such as environmental and archaeological mapping. Roy Abstract Non-linear least-squares inversion operates iteratively by updating the model parameters in each step by a correction vector which is the solution of a set of normal equations. to large-scale experiments. Such gradiometer measurements are expected to have lower noise levels due to the negative interference of ambient noise recorded by the two receiver coils.J. a well-established near-surface method. The measured data yielded apparent resistivities which were inverted to a 2D resistivity model ranging from the surface down to a depth of 4 km. Rajendra Prasad Abstract We define the apparent frequency effect in induced polarization (IP) as the relative difference between apparent resistivities measured using DC excitation on the one hand and high-frequency excitation (when the IP effect vanishes) on the other.. Depth of detection of highly conducting and volume polarizable targets using induced polarization A. V. The results indicate that near-surface gradient measurements give a superior definition of the shallow conductivity structure. eigenvalue decomposition is applied on synthetic data to derive the parameter uncertainties of layered-earth models. The rather low resistivity (r < 10 Qm) can be explained by the existence of graphitic minerals and/or electrolytic uids. G. Srinivas. A comparison of its efficacy over the conventional Marquardt and simulated annealing methods. Two highly conductive structures with steep inclination were detected. One field test showed that noise reduction factors in excess of 60 are achievable with gradiometer measurements. The scheme is used successfully in inverting noise-free and noisy synthetic data and field data taken from the published literature. They are expected to be major fault zones embedded in a metamorphic body. M. Thomas. Error propagation models are used to compare quantitatively the noise sensitivities of conventional and gradiometer TEM data. However. Alternatively it might be advantageous to measure the spatial derivatives of these quantities. in each iterative step. Inversion of geoelectrical data is an ill-posed problem.S. For a fixedwingtowed-bird gradiometer system to be feasible. tested on Inman's model. Assuming a given threshold for the minimum detectable anomaly in the apparent frequency effect.

the half-order moment will be most sensitive to material in the top 2648 m. On the other hand. Sri Niwas and Niraldo R. along the strike direction). Smith and Christophe S. may reduce or eliminate the effect of remote electrodes (systematic error) and yield satisfactory images with 20% noisecontaminated data. the sensitivity matrix is weighted in multiple ways generating a set of systems of linear equations. the measured half-order moment can be used to estimate an apparent conductivity of the ground. The greatest depth of detection is obtained with a two-electrode array.e. A sensitivity analysis indicates that for an airborne EM configuration. Richard S. Lee. while the first-order moment will be sensitive to deeper material (down to depths between 66 and 127 m). while the smallest depth of detection is obtained with a Wenner array when the array spread is in-line (i. These configurations. This new approach is called the multiple reweighted LS method (MRLS). the depth of detection of a highly conducting and volume polarizable target agrees closely with the depth of detection of an infinitely conducting and non-polarized body of the same shape and size.and L1-norms. namely low readings of the potential or potential difference in cross-hole surveying. The problems encountered when using the L1. For a better appraisal the same initial model was used in all cases. Greenhalgh Abstract This paper investigates the relative merits and effectiveness of cross-hole resistivity tomography using different electrode configurations for four popular electrode arrays: pole-pole. By inverting this expression. perpendicular to the strike direction). even though blurred. i.e. so that the data are easily obscured by background noise and yield images inferior to those from other configurations. Porsani. bipole-pole ABM and bipolebipole ABMN. The depth of detection with a Wenner array improves considerably and is almost equal to that of a two-electrode array when the array spread is broadside (i. could only be obtained by using a heavy ridge regression parameter in L2.A. pole-bipole. As a consequence.Physical modelling shows that for the various arrays. the MRLS solution is stable without regression factors and is superior and clearer. pole-bipole AMN. such as pole-bipole AMN. 114 . Hyde Abstract The nth-order moments of the electromagnetic impulse response are useful for interpreting electromagnetic data. compared with the pole pole array. The data are randomly corrupted by noise and then inverted by using L2.e. By solving each system.B. L1 and the MRLS algorithm. several candidate models are obtained. bipole-pole and bipole-bipole. it is shown that besides the popular pole-pole array. Robust inversion of vertical electrical sounding data using a multiple reweighted least-squares method Milton J. To circumvent this problem a new LS approach has been investigated in this paper. The first-order moment can also be used to estimate the half-space conductivity. The stabilized solutions. followed by a three. By examination of two synthetic models (a dipping conductive strip and a dislocated fault). At each iteration. have a singularity problem in data acquisition. We have derived an analytic expression for the half. Ferreira Abstract The root cause of the instability problem of the least-squares (LS) solution of the resistivity inverse problem is the ill-conditioning of the sensitivity matrix.or L2-norm are discussed and the advantages of working with the MRLS method are highlighted. It is also shown that the configurations which have either both current electrodes or both potential electrodes in the same borehole.order moment of a conductive half-space. are useful for cross-hole resistivity tomography. A five-layer earth model which generates an ill-conditioned matrix due to equivalence is used to generate a synthetic data set for the Schlumberger configuration.electrode array.and four-electrode configurations. the space of models is explored in a more extensive and effective way resulting in a more robust and stable LS approach to solving the resistivity inverse problem. some specified three. Using a non-integer moment of the impulse response to estimate the half-space conductivity Terry J. bipolepole AMB and bipole-bipole AMBN with their multispacing cross-hole profiling and scanning surveys. Cross-hole resistivity tomography using different electrode configurations Zhou Bing and S. The MRLS algorithm is also demonstrated for a field data set: a stable solution is obtained.

(iii) separate RC-type terms and RL-type terms the first models the IP behaviour. The simulation results on experimental data support this conception. The interpretation of VES and IP sounding data by VFSA. From a circuitanalysis point of view.A new method to discriminate between a valid IP response and EM coupling effects Jianping Xiang. Next. Shalivahan and Mrinal K. Unlike conventional simulated annealing (SA). which fits the field data much better than the traditional Cole-Cole model. using the Frechet derivatives of the electric potential weighted by resistivity difference coefficients. These may be given a multiplicity of configurations to generate cumulative responses. would generally be more useful than the conventional best-fit techniques.B. Bhattacharya. Schlindwein Abstract The problem of discrimination between a valid induced polarization (IP) response and electromagnetic (EM) coupling effects is considered and an effective solution is provided. In geoelectrics. (ii) obtain the parameters for the model using a least-squares approach. Summarizing the analysis of the finite dimensional IP model.S. According to this observation. VFSA has recently been found to be computationally efficient in several geophysical parameter estimation problems. First. 115 . This results in an algorithm that converges much faster than a standard SA. The purpose of the new imaging procedure is the design of an occurrence probability space of elementary anomaly sources. The typical tomography is a diffuse image of the resistivity difference probability pattern. incorporating resolution. located anywhere inside an explored underground volume. N. Sen Abstract We present results from the resolution and sensitivity analysis of 1D DC resistivity and IP sounding data using a non-linear inversion. representing the response of a buried feature to a physical stimulation. Using this overvoltage-based structure. In the course of finding the optimal solution. in VFSA the perturbations are generated from the model parameters according to a Cauchy-like distribution whose shape changes with each iteration. Simulation on experimental data shows that the method is very simple and effective. The rationale of the new procedure is based on the fact that a measurable anomalous field. a specific finite dimensional approximation of the Cole-Cole model is proposed. that is quite different from the usual modelled geometry derived from standard inversion. The inversion scheme uses a theoretically correct MetropolisGibbs' sampling technique and an approximate method using numerous models sampled by a global optimization algorithm called very fast simulated annealing (VFSA). Jones. The resolution capability of the VFSA algorithm as seen from the sensitivity analysis is satisfactory. Using the least-squares approach. we carry out a VFSA-based sensitivity analysis with several synthetic and field sounding data sets for resistivity and IP. it is well known that an electromagnetic effect can be described by an RLcircuit. Here. Daizhan Cheng and F. can be approximated by a set of partial anomaly source contributions. based on the analysis of overvoltage. a finite dimensional structure of the IP model is produced. which are all compatible with the observed data within the accuracy of measurement. This method makes no assumptions about the shape of an a posteriori probability density function in the model space. VFSA samples several models from the search space. a finite dimensional approximation to the Cole-Cole model is investigated. sensitivity and uncertainty of layer parameters. Resistivity anomaly imaging by probability tomography Paolo Mauriello and Domenico Patella Abstract Probability tomography is a new concept reflecting the inherently uncertain nature of any geophysical interpretation. Use of VFSA for resolution. it is concluded that the proposed IP model. the parameters of the approximate model are obtained. is essentially an RC-circuit. All these models can be used to obtain estimates of uncertainty in the derived solution. the decomposition is made within a regular resistivity lattice. a new method to discriminate between a valid IP response and EM coupling effects is proposed as follows: (i) use a special finite dimensional model for IPEM systems. the latter represents the EM part. sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in 1D DC resistivity and IP inversion Bimalendu B.

they can only provide guides to the true resistivity because of the smearing effects. U.. Nigeria A new look at multiphase invasion with applications to borehole resistivity interpretation K. Invasion occurs in permeable formations when there is a radial differential pressure Z RDP between the borehole and formation. The study entailed the calculation Zby forward modelling of the synthetic data over 2-D geologic models and inversion of the data. The rules for handling negative in-phase measurements are particularly critical. Over very good conductors. Although resistivity maps produced from the different methods tend to be similar. graben and horst. simulation of realistic invasion is not an easy task. J. Howard Jr. and mud cake can be neglected.Q. calling into question the ability to make detailed interpretations based on half-space models. Modeling studies show these effects can be large enough to noticeably influence resistivity logs. it is possible to incorporate magnetic susceptibility into the inphasequadrature lookup table. q 2000 Elsevier Science B. in terms of both the geometry and the formation resistivity. mobility. particularly if the portion of the line over the topographic feature is not at a constant height above ground level. Field examples from a crystalline basement area of Nigeria are presented to demonstrate the versatility of the two resistivity inversion schemes. details can vary considerably. after correction. It is shown that the starting model for block inversion can be based on a plane layer earth model. it is frequently necessary to correct logs for invasion.Comparison of methods for estimating earth resistivity from airborne electromagnetic measurements Les P. pressure Z RDP and capillary pressure. but allow sensor height to be incorporated more directly. Wenner array. Lookup table Use of block inversion in the 2-D interpretation of apparent resistivity data and its comparison with smooth inversion A. the model from block inversion more adequately represents the true subsurface geology. Extreme topographic relief can affect estimates from each of the methods. permeability and viscosity of fluids.LWD and wireline resistivity logs for time-dependent invasion and formation temperature effects. resistivity discontinuities. All rights reserved.I. This work reviews the famous BuckleyLeverett mathematical model in cylindrical coordinates appropriate for borehole geometries. A. Keywords: Resistivity inversion. The other methods are also affected. Thus.S. Horst. however. This is important. A comparison has also been made between block inversion and smooth inversion. Keywords: Airborne electromagnetic survey. Other factors on which invasion depend include saturation. when there are possible large differences in formation and mud temperature. Quadraturesensor height lookup table estimates are generally too low over narrow valleys. Resistivity. The model predicts multiphase invasion in porous media when gravity. Lookup tables are fast methods for estimating half-space resistivities. rather than gradational. One application is to correct logging while drilling Z. Protazio Abstract In well log interpretation. whereas quadraturesensor height methods are unaffected. when coupled to a time-dependent heat 116 . Fault. The Wenner array was used. in which polygons are employed to define layers andror bodies of equal resistivity. Inverse methods are slower. Yaramanci Abstract The ability of a block inversion scheme. Beard Abstract Earth resistivity estimates from frequency domain airborne electromagnetic data can vary over more than two orders of magnitude depending on the half-space estimation method used. the latter being a cell-based scheme. or on quadrature and sensor height. Cozzolino. and can be based on in-phase and quadrature measurements for a specified frequency. In the presence of sharp. capillary pressure. for example. and temperature transient effects associated with the mud filtrate injected into the formation. However. The results show that the images obtained from smooth inversion are very useful in determining the geometry. quadraturesensor height tables can yield resistivity estimates that are too high. Inversion. Graben. the method.V. The 2-D structures modelled include vertical fault. In-phasequadrature tables and inverse methods yield resistivity estimates that are too high when the earth has high magnetic susceptibility. Olayinka. Thus. However. but behave less predictably. In-phasequadrature lookup tables can give different results according to whether the tables are ordered according to the in-phase component or the quadrature component. in determining the geometry and true resistivity of subsurface structures has been investigated and a simple strategy for deriving the starting model is proposed. difference in LWD and wireline logs arising from the timedependent heat process are explained.

Although surface conduction effects associated with the clay layers complicated interpretation. Solute transport. The second technique uses a regularized inversion scheme to fit the measured response with that of a thin sheet. Keywords: Resistivity. Transient methods. probably caused by complications during array installation. to determine the parameters of the thin sheet. at a point where maximum interaction between tank structure and tracer transport was expected. A. Binley. Repeated imaging over a two-week period detected non-uniform tracer transport. Gomez-Trevino Abstract This paper presents a method for inverting ground penetrating radargrams in terms of onedimensional profiles. the plotting of pixel breakthroughs was considered a useful step in the hydrological interpretation of the tracer test. An additional unexpected flow pathway. and depth. Zhdanov. of the equivalent thin sheet. We apply S-inversion to three-dimensional synthetic data and we successfully locate the local conductors. the electromagnetic Z. The shape of the pixel breakthrough-recession curve allowed some quantitative interpretation of solute travel time. yields new insight into the influence of thermal and electrical transients in log interpretation.TDEM sounding data using the thin sheet model approach. The pixels that make up the electrical images were interpreted as a large number of breakthrough curves. Michael S. although discrepancies arose when analysing the response of individual pixels. Pixel-breakthroughs Fast Imaging of TDEM data based on S-inversion Efthimios Tartaras. which we evaluate using the matrix propagation approach.EM response measured at the surface of the earth at every time delay is matched with that of a thin sheet model. Slater. R. Tomography. the differential S-transformation and the regularized S-inversion. partly caused by the sand-clay sequence. The inverse problem is 117 . This concept was investigated by cross-borehole electrical imaging of a controlled release in an experimental tank. Injection was from 0. W. Toshiaki Hara Abstract Fast S-inversion is a method of interpretation of time-domain electromagnetic Z. We analyze two different numerical techniques. It is fast and requires no iterations or starting model. Johnson Abstract Electrical imaging of tracer tests can provide valuable information on the spatial variability of solute transport processes.3 m below the surface. Inverse problem Ground penetrating radar inversion in 1-D: an approach for the estimation of electrical conductivity. The spatial coverage provided by the high density of pixels is the factor that most encourages the approach. Borehole resistivity. Pore water samples obtained following termination of electrical imaging generally supported the observed electrical response. BuckleyLeverett mathematical model Cross-hole electrical imaging of a controlled saline tracer injection L. Akira Saito. the retrieved conductance values are differentiated with respect to depth to obtain the conductivity change with depth. Kazushige Wada. We consider three physical properties of materials. dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability O. Lazaro-Mancilla. Keywords: Multiphase invasion. Daily.M. was identified close to an electrode array. as well as a qualitative assessment of spatial variability in advective-dispersive transport characteristics across the image plane. Analytical expressions for the derivatives with respect to physical properties are obtained using the self-adjoint Green's function method. The numerical algorithm for the inversion is iterative and requires the solution of several forward problems. A saline tracer Z3 conductivity 8 = 10 msrm volume 270 l was injected into a tank facility Z dimensions 10 = 10 = 3 m consisting of alternating sand and clay layers. Within the framework of this method. Tracer accumulation on two clay layers was observed and density-driven spill of tracer over a clay shelf was imaged. The first technique is a direct differential transformation of the observed data into conductance and depth values. E. We resort to a special type of linearization of the damped E-field wave equation to solve the inverse problem. We also demonstrate a case history by interpreting TDEM data obtained at the Nojima fault zone in Japan. Keywords: Electromagnetic methods. The results clearly indicate the location of the fault zone. and a response function formulation of resistivity.flow model. The conductivity change with depth is obtained using the conductance. namely dielectrical permittivity. magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity. Conductivity. d. S. In both techniques.

Weller. the intrinsic polarizability of the waste material is determined. electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity. However. there is an equivalence between the effects of these two causations that allows the remanence to be represented in terms of an equivalent primary magnetic H field. W. V.T. A. We show that standard synthetic radargrams due to dielectric permittivity contrasts can be matched using electrical conductivity or magnetic permeability variations. due to the linearity of the magnetic field in terms of its causations. All rights reserved. The special type of linearization is based on an integral equation that involves derivatives of the electric field with respect to magnetic permeability. and further processing is performed only on the former. in order to accurately identify the depth and position of the buried targets. The developed system comprises a neural network classifier. and additional pre-processing. A threedimensional Z . Hough transform. feature-extraction and image processing stages. Moreover. Nguyen. Parameter estimation. Eriksen Abstract The task of locating buried utilities using ground penetrating radar is addressed. An induced polarization Z. M. Since IP is a technique for detection of diffuse occurrences of metallic material. Inverse problem. q 2000 Elsevier Science B. This results in a classification of the radargram into useful and redundant sections. 118 . IP survey of the CTP shows a very strong polarization and a modest resistivity response associated with the simulated waste. Y. The Hough Transform is then applied to the edges of these reflections. Automatic selection of the areas of the radargram containing useful information results in a reduced data set and hence a reduction in computation time.solved minimizing the quadratic norm of the residuals using quadratic programming optimization. Huang. INEL Cold Test Pit Z.C.V. Keywords: Electrical resistivity. Frangos. The ground is modeled using thin horizontal layers to approximate general variations of the physical properties. Induced polarization. Fang. and a novel processing technique computationally suitable for on-site imaging is proposed. Inversion algorithm A note on magnetic modelling with remanence Abstract The general problem of magnetic modelling involves accounting for the effect of both remanent magnetization and the application of an external magnetic field. Keywords: Neural networks. Al-Nuaimy. A backpropagation neural network is employed to identify portions of the radar image corresponding to target reflections by training it to recognise the Welch power spectral density estimate of signal segments reflected from various types of buried target. Quadratic programming Automatic detection of buried utilities and solid objects with GPR using neural networks and pattern recognition W. Seichter Abstract The Idaho National Laboratory Z . Geoelectrical prospection. Ground-penetrating radar Mathematical models and controlled experimental studies Three-dimensional inversion of induced polarization data from simulated waste A. M. this method holds promise as a method to distinguish buried waste from conductive soil material. SIRT and finite difference forward modelling has been applied to generate a subsurface model of complex resistivity. a pattern recognition stage. this equation is the result of analyzing the implication of the scaling properties of the electromagnetic field. This allows a high resolution reconstruction of the subsurface with reduced computation time. and the results indicate that automatic and effective detection and mapping of such structures can be achieved in near real-time.T. but the bottom of the waste appears too deep. In the iterative process to speed up convergence we use the Levenberg-Mardquardt method. as far as the disturbing field of a magnetic body in a magnetic environment is concerned. cables and antipersonnel landmines. Pattern recognition. The results indicate that it is impossible to differentiate one property from the other using GPR data. Keywords: Ground penetrating radar. With a modelling experiment. CTP has been carefully constructed to simulate buried hazardous waste sites. Nakhkash. 3-D inversion algorithm based on the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique Z . M. Frechet derivatives. Limited depth extent is recognized. The lateral extents of the waste zone are well resolved. The system was tested on data containing pipes.

it is the basis for the a p enhanced methods.V. Sounding curves Improvement in TDEM sounding interpretation in presence of induced polarization. and with the a p differential parameter method. The negative transients are recorded in the early channels between 6. which are more sensitive to resistivity variations with respect to depth. 1D model is recovered when both central-loop and offset-loop data are jointly taken into account. 3D effects are evaluated and ruled out in this zone. survey results are not only displayed as apparent resistivity maps but also as cross-sections that require resistivity and depth information. the IP effect is called upon to explain the TDEM distortions. However. Michel Ritz Abstract A Time Domain Electromagnetic Z . Among all methods discussed. Since being robust and easy to calculate.02 ms for chargeability. Furthermore. DC sounding measurements. In the second step. Apparent resistivity. Cape Verde Islands. if they are p s displayed with respect to the elevation of the HEM sensor which should be given in m a. The other one. All rights reserved. D . published by Huang and Fraser. is commonly the first step in order to evaluate helicopter electromagnetic Z. It requires NB s multi-frequency data because the enhancing is achieved by differentiating the r Z f . with decreasing resistivity with depth. Resistivity-depth profiles. is computed from each frequency independently of the other d frequencies because no differentiation is involved. z ) and z ). improved HEM resistivity depth profiles are derived. Negative values in an early time transient is an unusual field observation. the centroid depth z). r Z D z . The corresponding depth a value. Integral equation Improved and new resistivity-depth profiles for helicopter electromagnetic data B. sounding curve is derived from the Niblett-Bostick algorithm. TDEM survey was carried out in and around the caldera of the Fogo volcano. A case study in resistive rocks of the Fogo volcano. IP phenomenon is observed using Direct Current Z .. q 2001 Elsevier Science B. a ColeCole dispersive conductivity is found to be adequate to fit the field data. frequency dependence and time constant. Keywords: Helicopter electromagnetic data. D 2001 Elsevier Science B. while an Induced Polarization Z . The r Z ) z . A sign reversal in the sounding curves was encountered in central-loop measurements for the soundings located in the centre of the caldera along three main radial profiles. After a brief description and discussion of the basic approaches. Besides. Only the first layer is polarizable and its ColeCole parameters are m s 0. Roger Guerin. are not distorted by the vegetation. Two of these enhanced resistivity depth profiles are based on algorithms used for the interpretation of MT data. Yves Albouy. only r and r are relatively independent of the measured sensor height h. sounding curve. Alain Tabbagh. In the third step. Cape Verde Islands Marc Descloitres. the more relevant one-dimensional Z . HEM data. The corresponding centroid depth values.the general modelling problem involving an applied magnetic field in the presence of remanence can be simply and more efficiently dealt with in terms of an equivalent primary field acting in the absence of any remanent magnetization. All rights reserved. The 1D electrical structure exhibits four layers. which is a serious problem in survey a NB areas with dense forests.l. based on the model of a homogeneous half-space. Siemon Abstract The calculation of apparent resistivities.method should be used for the standard calculation of resistivitydepth profiles. Due to the increase in frequencies used in HEM systems. which. are presented. All enhanced resistivitydepths profiles are compared with the improved standard sounding curve r Z ) z . thus indicating that an effect of dispersive conductivity is necessary to explain the field data.85. is newly defined as the sum of the apparent depth and the half of the apparent skin depth. to detect the low resistive structures that could be related to groundwater.8 and 37 ms. and consequently the first step was to check the data to ascertain their accuracy and quality. Keywords: Magnetic modelling. a p Several algorithms for deriving A enhanced B resistivity depth profiles. in addition. Magnetic remanence. sounding curve with respect to a )frequency. three-dimensional Z . It is similar to Schmucker's r )z ) scheme and it uses the apparent depth d to enhance the sensitivity of the apparent resistivity. 119 . Centroid depth. The p resulting profile is referred to hereafter as the improved standard sounding curve r Z ) z . The apparent resistivities r are calculated more accurately when better approximations are used. c s 0. can be used to derive more sensitive resistivity-depth profiles.8 and t s 0. the proved r Z ) z .s. the r Z ) z . both novel algorithms are able to increase the a depth of exploration.V.

this IP effect may be caused by the presence of small grains of magnetite andror by the granularity of effusive products Z . lapillis . q 2000 Elsevier Science B. All rights reserved. Negative transient. However.respectively. ColeCole modelling. Fogo volcano 120 . the ColeCole parameters deduced from TDEM forward modelling remain different from those deduced from DCrIP sounding. In this volcanic setting. it is shown that a modelling using different TDEM data sets is essential to recover the electrical structure of this area. As a conclusion. Keywords: Central-loop TDEM. Induced Polarization.V.

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