Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09

CULTURAL HERITAGE OF INDIA
Travels, by Marco Polo, the 13th-century trade mission of a Venetian noble to the Chinese realm of Mongol emperor Kublai Khan. Mixing acute social observation, authentic history, and fantastic legend—such as Polo's account of men with tails and dogs' faces—the Travels provided its most up-to-date information on the Far East and Chinese society. It helped reawaken European interest in travel and was one of the inspirations for the transatlantic journeys of Christopher Columbus and his own search for China's celebrated wealth.

Tourist Industry
I INTRODUCTION

Tourist Industry, multi sectoral activity that requires inputs from many industries— agriculture, construction, and manufacturing—and from both the public and private sectors to provide the goods and services used by tourists. It has no clearly determined boundaries and no physical output; it is a provider of services, which in range will vary between countries; for example, in Singapore shopping is a major tourist activity but not entertainment; in London, both shopping and entertainment are important inputs to the tourism sector. II TOURIST STATISTICS

On March 4, 1993, the United Nations Statistical Commission adopted the recommendations of the World Tourism Organization (WTO) on tourism statistics. The officially accepted definition is: “Tourism comprises the activities of people traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environments for more than one consecutive day for leisure, business, and other purposes”. The recommendations distinguish the following categories of tourism: (1) domestic tourism involving residents of a country visiting within that country, for example, a resident of Sheffield visiting London; (2) inbound tourism, involving non-residents of a country “A”, visiting country “A”, for example, Japanese tourists coming to England; (3) outbound tourism, involving residents of a country visiting other countries, as in a resident of Rome, Italy, visiting Brussels, Belgium. The three basic classifications can be further combined to derive the following categories of tourism: (4) internal tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and inbounds tourism; (5) national tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and outbound tourism; and (6) international tourism, which comprises inbound and outbound tourism. III THE TOURIST

All types of traveler engaged in tourism are described as visitors, a term that constitutes the basic concept for the whole system of tourism statistics; the term 1

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 visitor may be further subdivided into same-day visitors and tourists as follows: (1) visitors are defined as those people who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence but outside their usual environment for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited; (2) same-day visitors are visitors who do not spend the night in a collective or private accommodation in the country visited; while (3) tourists are visitors who stay in the country visited for at least one night. These new definitions will, when used by countries, greatly improve the current quality of tourism statistics, which are not easy to analyze due to the inconsistencies in definitions and classifications used. With these limitations in mind tourism is still acknowledged to be an activity of global economic importance. IV GLOBAL SCALE OF TOURISM

In 1994 the WTO estimated that there were 528.4 million tourist arrivals which generated US$321,466 million in receipts; it further predicted that by the year 2000 tourism would become the major global economic activity, surpassing even the trade in oil and manufactured goods. For developed and developing countries alike, it has become a major source of foreign exchange earnings, a generator of personal and corporate incomes, a creator of employment, and a contributor to government revenues. The volume of tourist activity on a global basis is unevenly distributed, with the WTO estimating in 1992 that 62 per cent of tourism arrivals were between developed countries. This statistic illustrates the fact that tourism is enjoyed essentially by the residents of developed countries who have the necessary disposable incomes, available leisure time, and the motivation to travel. V HISTORY OF TOURISM

Tourism can be recognized as long as people have traveled; the narrative of Marco Polo in the 13th century; the “grand tour” of the British aristocracy to Europe in the 18th century; and the journeys of David Livingstone through Africa in the 19th century are all examples of early tourism. Thomas Cook is popularly regarded as the founder of inclusive tours with his use of a chartered train in 1841 to transport tourists from Loughborough to Leicester. Before the 1950s, tourism in Europe was mainly a domestic activity with some international travel between countries, mainly within continental Europe. In the period of recovery following World War II, a combination of circumstances provided an impetus to international travel. Among the important contributing factors were the growing number of people in employment, the increase in real disposable incomes and available leisure time, and changing social attitudes towards leisure and work. These factors combined to stimulate the latent demand for foreign travel and holidays. The emergence of specialist tour operators who organized inclusive holidays by purchasing transport, accommodation, and related services and selling these at a single price, brought foreign holidays within the price-range of a new and growing group of consumers.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The “package” or “inclusive” tour democratized travel in Europe; foreign holidays were no longer the preserve of the affluent and socially elite classes. VI MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

The economies of scale which made foreign travel possible for so many people also broadened the travel horizon. As technological developments in the airline business produced bigger and faster aeroplanes, it also had the effect of shrinking distances in terms of journey times. Today, a 400-passenger aeroplane can fly non-stop from London to Johannesburg in 11 hours; or from London to Bangkok in 14 hours. Long-haul holiday destinations are now realistic in relation to journey times and attractive in terms of price as air fares are, relatively, much cheaper than they were 15 years ago. Long-haul holiday travel is becoming a growing sector in international tourism demand. In addition to holiday-based tourism there is also an important business tourism market. Business travelers use transport, accommodation, and services in similar fashion to holiday-travelers. However, as their expenditure is usually a business rather than a personal expense, they have a shorter length of stay than holidaymakers but tend to have a much higher expenditure per visit. A specialist submarket, the Meetings, Incentives, Convention, and Exhibition (MICE) sector has developed and is represented in many countries of the world. Quality convention and exhibition centre can be found in virtually every major city in the world. Asian cities, for example, Jakarta, Hong Kong, and Singapore, has recently developed state-of-the-art facilities, competing favorably with established centre in Europe and North America. Conventions and exhibitions attract visitors from different parts of the world who often would not normally visit a given destination. In 1994 this market was estimated to generate US$97 billion in revenue globally. The rapid growth of international tourism is reflected in the growth in membership of the WTO, which in 1995 had 125 country members and 250 affiliate members. With few exceptions most countries will have established a National Tourism Organization (NTO), usually funded directly by government, for example, the British Tourist Authority, Australian Tourist Commission, and South African Tourist Board. These NTOs are the focus of government and private sector activity to represent abroad the tourist assets of the country. Government support for NTOs is based on the need to secure the economic benefits that tourism can generate. The importance of tourism as an earner of foreign exchange is seen in India and Thailand where tourism is the prime source of foreign exchange revenue. In labour terms it is probably the major source of employment in the United Kingdom. As a stimulus to regional development it has been a major factor in the Gold Coast area in Queensland, Australia, and in places such as KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. The growth of tourism on an international scale has brought with it problems, however, particularly related to its impact on societies and the natural environment. The uncritical acceptance of the benefits of tourism prevalent in the 1970s began to

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 give way to a more balanced approach to the role of tourism in development, particularly related to its non-economic impacts. Tourism planners began to include socio-economic and environmental factors in their work; concerns about overdevelopment of coastal regions in parts of the Mediterranean, poor resort planning, and links between tourism and prostitution in some Asian cities were all issues that were seen as negative features. By the 1990s economic advantages were no longer the only criteria to support the development of tourism; increasingly, development is linked to the concept of sustainability. Sustainable tourism can be defined as “a process which allows development to take place without degrading or depleting the resources which made the development possible”. Sustainability in tourism as a concept is often referred to as “ecotourism”, “green tourism”, or “responsible tourism”. Whatever its description it is seen as a means of recognizing that the Earth has finite resources and in tourism as in other sectors, there are limits to development, particularly in site-specific locations. Current concerns are to be found in tourist usage of game parks in Kenya, deterioration of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and damage caused by irresponsible trekking in mountain areas of Nepal. The interdependence between tourism, culture, and the environment, has become a critical consideration in the formulation of tourism policies. Sustainability applies not only to small-scale tourism projects; it is equally, if not more important in areas where there is highvolume tourism, as in the Mediterranean basin countries where environmental pollution is of major concern. There is no reason to believe that tourism will decline as an international activity in the future. All the indications are that it will increase to become a significant feature of economic and social development in many countries. The challenge, then, is to ensure that such growth can be accommodated within a sustainable framework.

ECOTOURISM
INTRODUCTION Tourism is no longer identified solely with historical monuments or art facts or with majestic & breath taking hills & waterfalls. Things have definitely altered in tourism domain with the new interested focused on adventure & eco-tourism. Through the world it has become a new trend to enjoy the various aspects of ecotourism given its socio-cultural economic adventure & other dimensions. The global trend has its impact on India & trying to reap the multi-dimensional ecotourism with the years 2002 being declared the international year of eco-tourism, the fever has well caught in or policy, plan & programs. Its right time & India in the right place to implement the strategy for eco-tourism to reap its benefits, i.e., nature-tourism. CONCEPT

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Eco-tourism has widened the scope of overall tourism with universal acceptance. The concept has cut across the state forest departments. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. State Tourism Development Company. State Industrial Development Company. Tour Operation. Hospitality Industry. Big Business House NGO’s. Non governmental organizations Local Communities.

Eco-tourism has a magic word that can provide the piece of cake. Eco-tourism has qualified as tourism in ecologically sensitive areas like forests & the coasts. It is also referred as nature tourism. This terminology found wide adherence because whenever tourism is practiced each has proved to be detrimental to the environmental & social fabric of social community. The situation has been found not in changing the on-going movements but only in the naming the concept of tourism as eco-tourism. Protecting the environment from pollution, hazardous material or man-made wastage especially at tourist places or the place having the natural beauty & ultimate promoting the tourism in India. By now the wave of eco-tourism has sweeped through wild & natural India. Capitalizing the natural & heritage. The trend has been there to capitalize the protected areas. The central & various state Government embarks upon ambitions project to invite domestic & foreign tourism to explore the rich ecological sensitive spots i.e., coast wildlife areas & natural heritage. Across the length & breath of the country from Maharastra to West Bengal & Karala to Uttarpradesh the eco-tourism is on the role. Particularly on those areas that are being protected & particularly for wildlife & tourism particularly under this banner is ‘eco-tourism”. The role of government is significant here. The on going national Biodiversity strategy & action plan (NBSAP) include definite strategy to conserve the biodiversity with commercialization of the tourist places. State wise tourism act corporation & Forest Corporation has been set-up as major player for eco-tourism.

Need to give state wise description
In Andhra Pradesh tourism projects are being framed for zoological park in the state.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 In Karnataka a 100 core of night safari project with 300 rooms, luxury international resort is being planned in Banner Ghat National Park with help of Singapore zoological garden. In Kerala, the God’s own country the concept of eco-tourism has been given new thrust with sandy beaches black waters & ayurvedic healing touch. In tourism, kerala has become the wonder child of India. By passing the majestic Rajasthan desert a windy Goa beaches. In Maharastra the schemes are to promote eco-tourism the forest across the state by identifying the tourist spots. In West Bengal an rs.900 crores mammoth projects has been proposed by Industrial conglomerate9Sahara Group) to develop eco-tourism in mangrouves of Sunderban. This will include Kata maragh luxury launches, houseboat, helicopters & exclusive fetti on the Hoogly of Kolkata for estimated eco-tourism. In Andaman Nickobar island the forest department in trying hard to reinvent itself through the eco-tourism. In Assam, projects being launched recently to develop Manes, the world famous Kanjiranga national park, famous for one horn rhinoceros.

Culture & tourism
Eco-tourism is on an effect to reduce pollution caused by industries, tourism & spread off information technology all over the world. This pollution has created an imbalance in nature & human relationship. Keep in all these in view eco-tourism has been very great significance. The UN thus, has declared in the year 2002 as an international year of mountains to save human civilization & nature heritage. To establish the better balance between racism & ecology eco-tourism is a good means to protect natural resources. On one hand it will protect the interest of local population & on the other hand it will protect cultural heritage, local living customs, traditions, folk, tales & dance. In India, these areas have been identifying for eco-tourism purpose. Prayag, Agna, Almora, Nainital, Kosooni, Musouri, Deradoon, Chambea, Clhail, Dalhousy, Dhara

ECONOMIC IMPACT
Economic impacts of eco-tourism are as follows:

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 1. Eco-tourism will bring change in sales. Sales mean to not only tourism related but also other goods & services like food items, mineral water, transport & communication, internet, etc. 2. Eco-tourism will enhance the income. Income includes hotel, food lodging, transport, travel & tourism department & travel agency, etc. 3. Creation of new job opportunities in travel & tourism industry. Ecotourism, Government of India identified several areas, these areas can be destination for a tourist. Obviously, infrastructure improvements will be there at the same time the local people will get job. 4. Eco-tourism goal is to generate economic benefits. Whether they make it profit for the companies, job for communities or revenues for parks. 5. Eco-tourism plays a particular role important role because it can create jobs remote regions that historically have benefited less from economic development. Even a small number of jobs may be significant in communities where populations are low & alternatives are few. 6. This economic impact can increase political & financial support for conservation. Protected areas & nature conservation. It provide many benefits to society: a. Preseservatim of biodiversity. b. Maintenance of water heads. Issues at stake 1. The promotion of eco-tourism requires relevant structure at institutional level to make appropriate arrangement at financial, infrastructural, community & policy making level. 2. Adequate funds at relevant time period under relevant circumstances are primary. 3. The lack of fund with wild life being of forest department will hamper the prospects of eco-tourism in India. 4. Issues of local communities centering on tourism spots are equally important. India’s 4% protected areas are homeland top thousands of trivial of rural communities. As per conservative estimate around 3-5 million are residing in protected areas. Generations of local people has depended upon local produce from these protected areas. 5. Promoting eco-tourism & putting life & livelihood of local people at stake is a great economic error. 6. Promotion of eco-tourism an environmental security goes together. The harm has already been inflicted by marketing eco-tourism as a holly cow to generate funds. The recent National Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP) too clearly says that tourism demand must be subtenant to & inconsonance with conservation interest of protected areas & wildlife that maximization of income must never become the main goal of eco-tourism & that eco-tourism must primarily involve a benefit to local community.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09

Eco-tourism is a socially & ecologically sensitive issue. The importance of involving local people in such drives stands tall from many aspects. The sociocultural analysis of eco-tourism, projects are important before deciding upon opening any protected areas for visitors. The negative experimental impact lead to eco-tourism is true. The bitter experience with the visitors is equally a sensitive issue. Any plants & policy involving eco-tourism should be sustainable. It should be able to balance top-down & bottom of development strategies. Marketing & promotion of eco-tourism has turn to be the main plank to boast this factor. The main thrust should be on product development at regular intervals in fine tune with changing venture of tourist. Cost benefit analysis of eco-tourism project is what makes an economic sense in rapping benefits from these sectors. Pursuing projects without proper analysis of relevant issues can turn many projects white elephant. Issue of involving local people in pursuing tourism with a difference. As local inhabitants are well aware of social ecological & other issues involving areas that are being converted into eco-tourist sports. ECO-TOURISM & INDIGENOUS PEOPLE: Culture Culture, in sociology and social anthropology, the beliefs, behaviour, language, and entire way of life of a particular group of people at a particular time. Culture includes customs, ceremonies, works of art, inventions, technology, and traditions. As such, culture distinguishes human beings from other animals, in that humans are able to construct patterns of behaviour for themselves, and are able to transmit these from person to person and through generations (although Jane Goodall and other primatologists have suggested, from extensive studies, that chimpanzee groups also display examples of wide cultural variation). Given this, the study of culture is a key component of sociology, along with the associated notion of socialization, and of social anthropology. Sociologists and social anthropologists are interested in how cultures emerge and develop, enquiring into the social conditions behind different cultures, and in doing so they examine the way norms and values operate as guides to behaviour. Additionally, they have distinguished between 'high' and low' cultures, and identified, for example, mass culture as a significant form where behaviour is

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 standardized within a population, and goods and services are similarly homogeneous. Important theorists of culture in the 20th century came from the Frankfurt School, including Herbert Marcuse; they were critical of the effect of capitalistic mass media on culture and supported radical democratic solutions. Alternatively, Ortega y Gasset championed the effect of intellectual elites on the development of a culture through their educative effect on the mass of people. The term also may have a more specific aesthetic interpretation, and can describe the intellectual and artistic achievements of a society. Eco-tourism is often defined as sustainable nature based tourism. However, ecotourism also incorporates social & cultural dimensions. Where, visitors interact with local visitors. Native lands in developed countries, area also a growing focus for indigenous eco-tourism. Social, cultural impacts of eco-tourism are to be considered especially given a big stake lie around indigenous responses to achieve sustainable eco-tourism. To benefit local communities & be socially sustainable eco-tourism must foster environmental & cultural understanding, appreciation & conservation. Eco-tourism projects if developed in consultation with host community there are mutual benefits. The benefits for rural & indigenous community include:a. Preservation of cultural tradition b. Conservation of social tradition. c. Maintenance of social, cultural & religious value. In remote areas with limited development eco-tourism venture can improve quantity of life, self-esteem & well being of local & indigenous communities. Eco-tourism can assist with sustaining tradition culture in natural setting. The social & cultural inspect of eco-tourism include changes in local value system. Individual behavior & Family relations, belief collective life styles, community organization & structures, traditional werewolves & way of life. More rural, remote & indigenous communities are most affected by impact of tourism with limited exposure of foreign tourist, consumer goods & on cash economy. Like, aboriginal groups in Australia are also developing eco-tourism & other reasons of continuing cultural significance. This issue holds special relevant with million of tribal & indigenous communities. Residing in India 4% of protected areas. The concern has to build around protecting economic, cultural, religious, social 7 other interest of these millions of native people while pursuing the agenda of ecotourism in environmentally sustainable manner.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 FUTURE OF ECO-TOURISM The economic gains associated with eco-tourism are being well realized by now. However, this can not be the sole motive which case this new trend of tourism will loose its true essence. The erutial issue then is to execute an eco-tourism policy in the country that is well regulated to avoid the adverse impact as well as harvest the number of gains of nature tourism .the overall responsibility lie on the shoulder of forest departments & tourists. On the one hand forest department will have to keep the present status of the tourist place is as it is or improvisation of nature, build, tutorial & heritage resources. On the other hand the tourist has to pay attention rules & regulation enforced by government. Tourists will have to obey the rules regulation & disciplinary measures taken by forest departments of that specific tourist spot. Ultimately, tourists are responsible for our resources along with government. There are three types of resources, which can be categorized as follows:  

Natural resource Built resource Cultural /heritage

Natural resource This type of resource we get from nature. This help in eco-tourism event. In the world there is various type of natural resource in various places in various shapes. Human being makes them or arranges them according to the need. Resources Generally, resources can be identified in three categories. 1. Natural resources, 2. Built resource & 3. Cultural/heritage resources.

Whenever we talk about resources, the ultimate source of resources is nature. Later on we classify the resources into three categories as stated above. But the ultimate source of any resource is nature. But from the point of view of eco-tourism we classify the resources in three broad categories:1. Natural Resources

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Biosphere, hydrosphere & lithosphere The various forest of the world we can divide into:a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Tundrabio Temperate coniferous forest Temperate deciduous forest Temperate grass land forest Tropical savanna bio. Desert bio. Tropical rain forest.

Higher plants & animals have developed on land. A major environmental component is land considered to the most variable in terms of age, topography & structure. Land (Terristerial) eco-systems have lastly determined by the climate i.e., temperature, moisture & light & soil. There includes the seeds plants, insects that are dominant on the land today. A growing human population takes as a gerent impact on terrestrial eco-system. Microcovenism belong into the lower groups from the evolutionary also plays a significant role. The large rooted growing plants on the land, these green plant manufacture fruit provide shelter for other organisms & play a vital role in holding & modifying the earth surface. These are the basic producers of the land & are autotrops regulate only light & inorganic nutrients. The major terrestrial communicates include several life forms, plants the grass & woody trees. The variety in a of insects & animals & another important feature of terrestrial communicates. Birds of the various species found in the land community. We also get wet land forest like mangroves forest i.e., forest between and land & sea. The Gang ---------- - delta---------the Bay of Bengal. Sundarban is the typical example of that. It is also found in Western India, Kerala & Mumbai & in South India the bangs & crees of Grodabori . The mangroves forest is highly developed in Andaman & Niccoban Island. Apart from forest areas we get desert as inseparable part of lithosphere. Plato is also an essential part of lithosphere. As per as eco-tourism is concern in natural resources we include hydrosphere as well. Hydrosphere is an important natural resource. As we know water is most essential for all living being. The requirement of water for animals including man, water for all plants including that for crop production, water for industries & many other essential usage. At present 40% of the world food-crops demand irrigated water

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 apart form natural precipitate & most industry require large quantity of water for production of utility goods. Civilization flourished in the ravine, food-plains where water was easily an adequately available for human requirement specially, civilization. In the civilization Mesopotamia, Chinese civilization all grows along major below & rich to the development. Even today, all forms of settlement near found the source of water ---- river, lake etc. for the last few decades uncontrolled draw the population supplemented by rapid organization & industrialization. In many parts of the world has better increased the demand of matter. The demand of water could rich 70% of surface water by 2025 A.D. This wills necessary depletes. Moreover, water on earth surface is being increasing polluted. Such act of human may seriously disturbed t5he sea aquatic eco-system in the near future. The aquatic eco-system is essential for supporting life. Ocean covers three fourth portion of the earth surface. Variety of plants, animals like plankton, fishes, reptiles, birds & mammals. This system also receives a huge quantity of run-off materials & wastages from terrestrial system. Directly from cost to reasons & indirectly by river from in land distant region. Air is an important natural source of earth. The cover of air that surrounds the earth a crucial to or existence. All terrestrial organism flora & fauna including the human being live in the sea of air like the aquatic animals do in the seas & ocean. Our existence depends on this unique balanced mixture of gasses & any change in disturb composition of wonderful natural resources would adversely effect not only the humankind but also bio-sphere as a whole. An average human being requires for breathing about 14 kg air everyday. An average healthy person can survive without food for three weeks, without water for five days but not five minutes without air pollution or loss of cleanliness an ingrate of such a useful resources would therefore have most serious consequences. Age is actually becoming unclean & polluted primarily by human activities & detrimental effects have started to shown up in a big way. The situation has become a matter of serious concern for international community. The danger of steadily increasing air pollution according to many environmentalists will be not less than that of a nuclear war- fair. Unless the remedial steps taken up at most seriousness a catastrophe of great magnitude in the present bio-sphere is always certain. All the about three discussed that lithosphere sources varying water & hydrosphere resources & air resources are basically the natural resources. Built Resources

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Indian art has always being considered part of realization of ultimate reality. It is spiritually it its outlook are realistic in its expression & sub line interpreted. It is not merely on matter of enjoyment not a luxury to enjoy by the rich class of people. God is considered to be the fountain of all beauty as he was considered to be the source of whole knowledge, power & wisdom. Just as people try to rich god head through the path of knowledge/devotion. So, through art some people attend to sense divinity. Good is not only omniscient & omnipotent he has also all beautiful. In ancient India art went hand-in-hand with religion. In one sense we may say art turn inward is religion & religion turn outward is art. Temples have been of all arts. Indian art is idealistic & symbolic rather than realistic to the Indian artist it is creator & interpreter, so, called realism in art is foreign to Indian expression. A work of art is to theme an expression of one’s experience. It must express tome of the great realties of life & must express be a symbols of some of everlasting principles, which sustain the world. This we shall see when we take Indian pointing or Indian art. The Indian painter gives only second place to reliability reproduction. If he point to a person he points not only that person but also the type to which the person belongs & he attempts to express through the painting that what God wants to express through the individual. The many of the status we find in Hindu temples have been constructed on this principle. The great artist who made them tried to construct typical synthetics figures. They took whatever was in their opinion ideally beautiful in nature & made a synthesis of it in such figures. Those may not confirm to our ordinary conception of realistic beauty but they have a perfect rhythm about them. A certain suggestiveness, which makes a deep impression on us. In their attempt to include all kind of beauty they did not even live out animals. Some of the figures show a admixtures of human & animal dements. When we come to music we rich the perfection of all the ideals of art. All other arts tend towards the condition of music. The two leading school of Indian music art southern & northern, the kernative & Hindustan. The art of dance had flourished in the country for time in. It existed in viaduct age & in the Vedas & Brahman’s. We have preference in dance, art & artist. The principles of dance, art are based on the study of relationship between inner expression & outer expression of that experience. Our mind suggests the emotion & it becomes the outer expression. In ancient India dance was considered as gift from God Shiva we are told that Shiva & Parvati gave us two branches of dance. One is Tandave & another is Lasya.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09

Indus valley civilization (3000—1500 B.C.) Stone & clay statutory, bronze cashing, ornament of gold & silver, beads of semiprecious stone, wearing bronze, dancing girl, wild buffalo in bronze, terracotta in man & animal seads with animal fig. Like bull. Mauryn period (321---184 B.C) Yaksha images as matter of fact offering of flowers, music, land, sweets, etc was on adaptation of Yaksha worshipped by new religion. Beginning of stone, monolithic stones pillars, 42—50 ft high with animal capitals of striving lowest capital in Sarnath Charged with deep cymbidium belongs to the period of Ashok Stupas. Sunga period (185---72 B.C) The stupas of Bharhup & Sanchi stone railing & four gate ways added to this Sanchi Sutapas 120ft in diameter. Remains of bharamp taken to the Kolkata Musium. Andra dymasti (25 B.C—300 A.D) The stnpas of Amarabati & Nagarjuna Konda in the valley of krishna. The Budhist remains of Amarabati move to Budhist musium & Chnnai Musium. While marble & Nagajuna Kanda preserves at site. The Kushan (100—600 A.D) Mathura the main centers of art the images of Budfha & the Bodhisattava created yaksha & yakashanis influence the Greeck art scene. Image of jains, Trithakaras in Brahmarica God like ---- Saraswati, Vishu, Sarya, Shiva, Kartika formulated for the first time. The striking pictures of Goddes Laxmi in the middle of lohus. The Gandhar school of Archila erea in the North West images of Budha & bodhisattava. THE GUPTAS(320----650 A.D) Period mark bythe culture accompanised b y economic property. The Bhagabata movement gave rise to new temples, images, painting, clay, bronzes all visual sysbols of religious inspiration fell in the art. Kalidas gave expression to preeminent of the age narupam Papavirttaya. Beauty without sin is our aim Gupta art moment the temple withg garva graha & shikhara that is Deogharh, Budha image, Vishnu, naga, king in cave 19 art Ajanta & beidhas Parinirvana in cave 26. Beauty & virtue serued as the ideal of the age.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 THE CHALUKYAS(550----750A.D)RASHTRAKUTAS(750----975A.D) The group of temples atbadani & Aihore at Karnataka, ------------------ temple at Pattadakal near bedani. Ramaswar cave at Alora(7th centure), the kelsha temple at Ellora. Meheswar image (trimurti) at elephanta of mumbai. THE PALLAVAS (6850A.D)CHOLAS(850---1150) Mahandra Bardhan & narsingha Barman (rock-cut caves at mahavallipuram. Five speciemen rock cut temples art ---tirthan, kailasanath temples at kandhi, the temples of Tanjavavour & also at Mahurai Ramesswaram Srirangam & chidambaram. THE HOYSAHAS(1110---1130 A.D) Karnataka temples is of unique architecture, style with a pillared hole bid THE PALS’ & SENAS (730---1250A.D) Nalanda was the main center of palas & sena The Ganga stynesty of Orrissa are attributed the temples were Orissa,Bhubeneswmar,puri, Karnataka. The most outstanding----------------------------------------drawn by 7 hanses & pet of in the middle. THE CHANDELLAS (950---1335A.D) The most important centers of Chandellars are artist of Khajurah in M.P. about 30 temples. Vishnu & the jaina.the temples of kandriya mahadew at khajunrahs. OTHER HINDU MOVEMENTS Ttemples are scattered all in Eastern & Western India army important speciemen of meaddial art. These areas are sun temples at udaygiri at udaypur near goalien in M.P.. The temples mount Abu in Rajasthan the impressed gate of dabhoya, the Jayastamuva at Chilor raising a ramakumba at Chittor in 15 th centure & goddess saraswati from palu in bikaneer. In the south cvolossal image of ganaswara. INDO-ISLAMIK ARCHITECTURE(1526—1857A.D)

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The muslim movement comprise mask,pales & cities. The special feture include dome arch, jaliwork, kutusminar near Delhi 240ft high. Belong to have synestic guha. Future scence build by akbar in 1569 about 37km for from Agra. Red fort in Delhi. Tajmahal(1639—98) Tomal Sen sa suri at saram in bihar. Golkunda of sultan Md. Adil Ali saha of bijapur(1626---1660) INDIAN SITES/ANCIENT MONUMENTS 1.BHASHUP This is situated between Alhabad & Janalpur. It represents nature artistic. The stup are of the Budha himself is surround by rellings.the budha stupa saws yaksha & Denas & the inciecnt from the life of Budha & jataka story. ------------------- From Budha life one any spicted by sysbols much as-------- through on aamonget the historical sceme the --------of Ajanta---------& proenjet on their visit to Budha. Yalsiha yakshani, demohen, mycas, kubera king of yaksha etc. similarly we find their achienment confind to Dewas & najars. 2.SANCHI STUPAS These are among almost Dones & four lofty gate ways at the entrances. It was rich ever major structure of three Arch. Stone-Bones. The capital of the pillers contains mansile figure of yaksha elephant & lokun. The lotus the symbols birth of Budha appear in all the railing, which was later adopted the role of Maya Dewi the monther of mental Budha. He is sitted. 3.NAGARJUNA KOND It is Buddhists place ruling house of Ishvaku was hindu. Belonging to 3rd century A.D. & figures are more slim than those of Satasthan period. Sri-Lanka influences on nagar-juna konda is of evident. 4.BELUR The Hoshilwas greatest local builders of Hindu & jain temples. At chanakesh temple at Belur, Karnataka,. Episodes from mahabharata, images Shiva, Vishnu, Krishna, hanuman, Kuber, Garur, lakshni-narajana are found in this temple.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 5. AJANTA aurangabad, maharastra among the most beautiful temples in the world. AjantaEllora paintings are reflecting of continuing evolution from 2nd centuryB.C. to 5th centuryA.D.. The Ajanta caves were executed during the times of Satavahanas, guptas, Chalukyas. There are 26 caves [continution on backsite]. INDIAN MEDICIN The basic conception of Indian medicin like that of Ancient & mediacval Europe. Most authorities thought that health was maintained through that even balance of three vital fluids of body wind, gall & mucus to which some added blood has a forth humans. The three primary humours were connectedwith the scheme of three Gunasha or universal quantities & associated with virtue, passion & dullness respectively. The physician highly respectable member of society & thevaidyas rank high in the cast hierarchy.to this day. The rules of professional behavior laid down in medical text remind us of those of hippoerats & are not unworthy. Vernary medicines as also practiced. The doctorine of non-voilence encouraged the indorment of homes for sick & aged animals & such charties are still maintained in many cities in India. The horse & elephant doetons wre mambered skill & respected profession much in demand at court on venetary science survive from the middle ages. MUSLIM Monuments 1. DELHI-KUTUB MINAR kutubbudin Aibak build kM outside Delhi. Generally it is said that it was a Hindu building but converted to Muslim building. Some changes were done in the minar by KA but it was danayed & subsequently renovated by Md.Tughlaq in 1332A.D. & Firoj Tughlag scedor Lodi also carried out some dues noticed near in KM related with hindu monuments. Height 277fts. 2. IRON PILLAR It is called Delhi Shivalika pillar. One if the Chandra Gupta 2 of Gupta dynasty dated V.E.12th 20. It was later on brought here by Tughlog Sultan of Delhi. It was build from iron which is so carefully arranged that no harm was done to it by rust. 3.QUWATULIA---ISLAM MASJID Like Adhai din ka jhopra at Ajmir, it was a beautiful Hindu building. Having several pillars Kutubbudin Aibok destroyed the Hindu & jain temples of the area. It

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 is recorded in the inscription engraved by Sultan himself. The building is in front of iron PILLAR. 4.JAMA MASJID It is about 500 meters west of the red-fort. The largest masks of Indian. It was enstructured by Sahajahan in 1650.it was completed in 10 years. It casts Rs.20 lakhs. After fighting some states from East, North & South, countier is approached through double stored gate-way, the main entrato being in West. 5.LAL-KELHA Made by Sahajahan in 1639 A.D. which is completed in the year 1648. he is spent 1 crore on this project. It is called red-fort as the stone of red colour were mostly used. The main entrance –“Lahoro gate”. It was build by thamid & Ahmed. It has naubal Khana, Dewaneam, Mumtaj Mehal, rang Mehal, Khas mehal, Dewane Khas, Hamam, Moti masjid etc. 6.AGRA The fort of Agra was build by Akbar in 1565 A.D. the work was assigned to Quasim Khan the chief engineer. The found Tim was very deep & outer wall were raised 3 yard. Broad & 60ft high with four gates. It has about 500 building within the walls to recide for royal family & other officers. 7.TAJ-MAHAL It is most magnificent building, it was build by Mughal. It is believed that during the last day of his life, he used to sip from samemburs of the fort. It was build from marbels obtain from Makrana. It attracts the toutist all over the country abroad. 8.FATEPUR SCERE Akbar was build fatepur secre, three side wall,one sidelake. The walls are 32ft highhaving 11 gates. The important buildings are naybal Khana, Dewane Khas, Dewane Aam, Astrdoge sit, khas mahal, Khanb gark, Panch Mhal, mariyan, who use Jolha Bai place. The place was aboandant by Akbar after few years. 9.MASK OF AHMEDABAD Several mask was build in Ahmedabad by Sultan of Gujrat. Among them rani Sipart most important architecture of India. The Sultan also build the masks.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Dome of Golgumbas & ser Saha Suri’s place in Sasaran in Bihar are also considered Muslim monumenys.

WILD LIFE MANAGEMENT
Environmental Ethics
I INTRODUCTION

Environmental Ethics, field of applied ethics concerned with those issues that arise when human beings interact with the natural environment. It not only seeks to evaluate past and present attitudes and practices, but aims to offer guidance as to how people ought to think about, and conduct, their relationship with the natural environment; for example, environmental ethicists debate whether the natural environment is simply an exploitable resource for human interests, or whether it has significance independent of any use that might be made of it, a value that ought to constrain certain practices. II HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

While there is little doubt that environmental matters occupy an important place in present-day public concern, historically this was not always the case. Some commentators have suggested that the historical roots of current environmental problems are to be found in the Judaeo-Christian tradition, which, as in Genesis, appears to confer upon humanity dominion over nature. In repudiating this interpretation of biblical scriptures, however, others have found in the JudaeoChristian tradition of stewardship the basis of a new ethic of caring for nature. It is only since the late 1800s that there has been a developing interest in the conservation of the natural environment. The Romantic Movement, for example, was influential in petitioning for the creation of wilderness preserves (such as Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, in the United States) as areas of spiritual refuge from expansionist industrialism. III TWENTIETH-CENTURY CONCERNS

The common ancestry of all life explained by the Darwinian theory of evolution offered scientific encouragement to the view of life as an interdependent whole. It was only in the 20th century, however, that calls, such as that formulated by one of the founders of the Wilderness Society, Aldo Leopold, in his influential work A Sand County Almanac (1949), were made for the extension of ethical concern to include all life on Earth. Studies in the 1960s and 1970s of the destruction of the natural environment resulting from pollution, logging and clearance of the rainforests, and the excessive use of pesticides, and fears that natural resources, such as fossil fuels, 19

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 were being rapidly depleted, intensified calls for a re-evaluation of human attitudes towards, and interactions with, the natural environment. Occasionally, apocalyptic visions of humanity acting as its own executioner by creating a world inhospitable to life gave impetus and urgency to the field of environmental ethics. Among environmental ethicists there is debate about what should be the object of moral concern. In an article of 1973, the Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess sought to distinguish between “deep” and “shallow” ecologies; whereas “shallow” approaches to environmental problems are anthropocentric, in that they are concerned only with the detrimental impact of the problems on human well-being, and promote conservation only with a view to securing the maintenance of natural resources for continued human consumption, “deep” environmental ethicists propose that the natural environment, or at least parts of it, are worthy of protection because they have an independent value regardless of their usefulness to humanity. Environmental ethicists have sought to show that moral standing is not restricted to human beings by arguing, for example, as Peter Singer and Tom Regan do, that non-human sentient animals have a morally significant interest in not suffering, comparable with that of human beings. The British philosopher Robin Attfield finds independent value in the capacity of all life to thrive in its own fashion; while others argue that it is not individual animals but species, or ecosystems that are deserving of moral attention. It is worth noting that the nature of many of the concerns of environmental ethics— for example, nuclear energy generation, the consequences of which may extend far into the future—means that the temporal extent of its reasoning goes far beyond that of traditional concerns, making it necessary to theorize about not only the interests of the present generation but also those of future generations of both human beings and non-human species. In recent years environmental ethicists have increasingly recognized the need to combine concern for the natural environment with concern for economic and social justice, particularly in developing countries. National Parks and Nature Reserves I INTRODUCTION

National Parks and Nature Reserves, areas selected by governments or private organizations for special protection against damage or degradation. They are chosen for their outstanding natural beauty, as areas of scientific interest, or as forming part of a country's cultural heritage, and often also to provide facilities for public recreation. II ORIGINS

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The concept of creating national parks and nature reserves developed in the early 19th century in response to increasing industrialization which had begun to cause large scale damage or destruction to natural environments in Western Europe and North America. Many heavily populated countries already had urban parks and public gardens, while some rural areas had long been reserved as hunting grounds or private estates by monarchs and nobles. In most parts of the world, however, human activity had had little impact on enormous areas which were sparsely inhabited or untouched wildernesses, such as the Great Plains of North America, the Amazon Basin, the forests of sub-Saharan Africa, or the Australian bush. These did not seem to need special protection, since most of them were still inaccessible or inhospitable to human beings. The modern idea of deliberately conserving special areas of the countryside and opening them to the general public rather than reserving them for the wealthy and privileged, originated in the 19th century. For example, in 1832 the American artist George Catlin called for the protection of wildernesses in the western United States in order to preserve the landscapes which he had painted; and in 1835 the English poet William Wordsworth suggested in a guidebook to his native region, the Lake District, that it should become “a sort of national property” (although, unlike most later campaigners for national parks, he was opposed to large numbers of people being allowed to visit it). Yellowstone National Park, covering parts of Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho, is regarded as the first national park in the world. It was designated by the United States Congress in 1872. The term “national park”, however, was first used for the Royal National Park established in New South Wales, Australia, in 1879. The concept of national parks then spread to Canada and New Zealand during the 1880s and several more parks had been established in all four countries by 1909, when the first national park in Europe was designated in Sweden. Similar parks were created in Japan, Mexico, the former Soviet Union, and several British colonies during the 1930s and in Britain, France, and elsewhere in Europe during the 1950s. (Some of these incorporate former royal hunting grounds.) Since then many more have been created, notably in India, Brazil, Australia, and New Zealand. Today the term “national parks” is also applied to other, usually smaller and often less protected areas set aside for conservation, such as the forest parks of Scotland and Ireland, the National Wilderness Areas and National Monuments managed by the United States National Parks Service, the provincial parks in Canadian provinces, or the state parks in the United States and Australia. III NATIONAL PARKS TODAY

In addition to the original purposes of landscape conservation and public recreation many parks have been established to protect endangered species of animals or plants and to promote scientific research. They may therefore be seen as nature reserves, a term which refers to a variety of areas in which rare animals, plants, or

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 whole environments are protected and studied. Hunting and other disruptive activities are limited or banned and public access is often strictly controlled or even forbidden. These areas may be inside national parks—for example, the Kanha Tiger Reserve in Kanha National Park, northern India—and in general they are smaller than most national parks. National parks are usually owned and managed by national or state governments. In Britain the National Trust, a private charity founded in 1895, owns more than 2,700 sq km (1,047 sq mi) of countryside, and 853 km (530 mi) of coastline, as well as numerous historic houses. Similar organizations exist in Australia and elsewhere. In November 2000 the governments of South Africa, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe agreed to the creation of Africa’s biggest wildlife park, the Gaza-KrugerGonarezhou Transfrontier Park, to be jointly managed by all three nations. As for nature reserves, some, such as the National Nature Reserves in Britain and the National Seashores and National Preserves in the United States, are managed by government bodies, but many are owned by national trusts, animal protection charities, or other voluntary organizations. Many national parks and nature reserves are affected by a conflict between the needs of conservation and recreation; by their sheer numbers, visitors may unintentionally destroy the landscapes or interfere with the flora and fauna that the parks were created to protect. In response to this threat, parts of several American national parks have been closed to the public and a limit placed on the number of visitors permitted to enter certain fragile areas. Designated trails or roads have been created, as in several African national parks, and guided tours made compulsory, as in some national parks in India. The designation of national parks and nature reserves can also conflict with other possible uses for the land and resources, especially in the relatively remote, sparsely populated, and politically unimportant areas which tend to be most suitable for conservation. They may be attractive, for example, to military forces for training purposes, as, for example, inside four of the ten national parks in Britain. Some conservation areas may be threatened by commercial exploitation of their minerals or trees: for example, national parks in Tasmania and in the South Island, New Zealand, were extended in the 1980s to protect rainforests from logging. Electricity companies may develop hydroelectric schemes or build nuclear power stations. In many developing countries farmers, hunters, or mineral prospectors eager for uncultivated land or unexploited resources may intrude into protected areas. The elephants in African national parks, for example, were in serious danger from poaching during the 1970s and 1980s. In Amazonia National Park, Brazil, frequent confrontations occur between native groups and incoming farmers and prospectors. In parks where quarrying, mining, electricity generation or other large-scale activities are permitted, they are carefully and expensively monitored to minimize pollution and degradation of the landscape.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The conservation of such areas of natural beauty, cultural heritage, or scientific interest is especially problematic in developing countries where, in contrast to those industrialized nations which were the first to establish national parks and nature reserves, governments and pressure groups often find that proposals to impose limits on further development are too costly or unpopular. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) all support and sponsor national parks and nature reserves in developing countries; in addition UNESCO has placed many national parks and nature reserves, in both developed and developing countries, on its World Heritage List of unique environments. As economies and populations continue to grow the creation and maintenance of national parks and nature reserves seems likely to be both increasingly necessary and increasingly difficult.

Conservation
I INTRODUCTION

Conservation, sustainable use of natural resources, such as soils, water, plants, animals, and minerals. In economic terms, the natural resources of any area constitute its basic capital, and wasteful use of those resources constitutes an economic loss. From the aesthetic and moral viewpoint, conservation also includes the maintenance of national parks, wilderness areas, historic sites, and wildlife. In certain cases, conservation may imply the protection of a natural environment from any human economic activity. Natural resources are of two main types, renewable and non-renewable. Renewable resources include wildlife and natural vegetation of all kinds. The soil itself can be considered a renewable resource, although severe damage is difficult to repair because of the slow rate of soil-forming processes. The natural drainage of waters from the watershed of a region can be maintained indefinitely by careful management of vegetation and soils, and the quality of water can be controlled through pollution control. See Air Pollution; Environment; Reclamation; Sewage Disposal; Water Pollution; Energy Conservation. Non-renewable resources are those that cannot be replaced or that can be replaced only over extremely long periods of time. Such resources include the fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and natural gas) and the metallic and other ores. For discussions of conservation problems in this area, see individual entries on the substances concerned. II HISTORY

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Although the conservation of natural resources has been recognized as desirable by many peoples since ancient times, frequently the basic principles of sound land use have been ignored, with disastrous results. Major losses—for example, the silting of rivers and the flooding of lowlands—resulted from the destruction of the forests and grasslands that protected watersheds in northern China and the Tigris-Euphrates area. Large areas in North Africa and the Middle East were rendered barren by centuries of uncontrolled livestock grazing, unwise cultivation, and excessive cutting of woody plants for fuel. Similar damage has also occurred in most of the more recently developed regions of the world, sometimes through the unwise introduction of species into new environments. The increasing industrialization of nations around the world continues to present severe conservation problems although international cooperation efforts have also evolved in certain areas, such as the protection of some endangered species. Some basic conservation principles in major areas of concern are discussed below. III FOREST CONSERVATION

In forests more than any other ecosystem, demand is increasingly being made that conservation should involve preservation from any destructive commercial use, particularly the cutting of trees for timber, which in a virgin forest is known to have harmful consequences far beyond the loss of the actual trees (for example the loss of animal habitats, and soil erosion). Where tracts of virgin forest are given over to timber production, principles of management have evolved in order to minimize the destructiveness of the process and to make it as sustainable as possible. The management of forest trees for timber production involves three fundamental principles. The first is protection of the growing trees from fire, insects, and disease. However, fire, once regarded as a destroyer of forests, is now recognized as a management tool when carefully employed. Some important timber trees actually require fire for successful regeneration. Insects, such as the gypsy moth, spruce budworm, and pine sawfly, and disease, still take a heavy toll. However, biological control measures and some aerial spraying, proper cutting cycles, and slash disposal are increasingly effective. The second principle concerns proper harvesting methods, ranging from removal of all trees (clear-cutting) to removal of selected mature trees (selection cutting), and provision for reproduction, either naturally from seed trees or artificially by planting. The rate and frequency of any cutting should aim for sustained production over an indefinite period. The third principle of timber management is complete use of all trees harvested. Technological advances, such as particleboard and gluing, have created uses for branches, defective logs, trees too small to be milled into boards, and so-called inferior trees. As demand for wilderness areas and recreational use of forests increases, management of commercial forests will become more intense. See Forest; Forest Fires; Forest Conservation and Management. IV CONSERVATION OF GRAZING LANDS

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 One of the principles of range conservation is the use of only a portion (usually about a half) of the annual forage-plant production of a particular range in order to maintain healthy plant growth and reproduction. In addition, each range is stocked with the number of animals that can be nourished properly on the available usable forage and are permitted to graze only during the season suitable for that type of range. The conservation of ranges is based on a programme of grazing designed to keep them productive indefinitely and to improve depleted areas by natural reproduction or by artificial seeding with appropriate forage species. Although these principles are well established, many hundreds of thousands of acres of public grazing lands are still overgrazed. V WILDLIFE CONSERVATION

One of the basic principles of wildlife conservation involves providing adequate natural food and shelter to maintain populations of each species in a given habitat. A major threat facing wildlife is both the destruction of habitat, through drainage, agriculture and urban expansion, and the fragmentation of habitat into parcels too small for wildlife populations to use. Illegal trade in feathers, horns, ivory, hides, and organs has brought many endangered species to the verge of extinction. Wildlife is an important biological, economic, and recreational resource that can be maintained through careful management. Hunting regulations allow the culling of many species without affecting overall population levels, and can even help control species that have grown too abundant for the region they inhabit. VI SOIL CONSERVATION

Among the basic measures for soil conservation currently in use is the zoning of land by capability classes. In this system the more level and stable soils are designated as suitable for annual crops, and other areas are designated for perennials, such as grass and legumes, or for use as grazing or forest lands. Another conservation method involves the use of soil-building plants in crop rotations. Such crops hold and protect the soil during growth and, when ploughed under, supply much-needed organic matter to the soil. Cultivation methods that leave a layer of vegetable waste on the surface of the soil represent a major advance in land use. In many areas these techniques have supplanted the use of the mouldboard plough, associated with the practice known as clean cultivation, which left the soil surface exposed to all the natural erosive forces. Special methods for erosion control include contour farming, in which cultivation follows the contours of sloping lands, and ditches and terraces are constructed to diminish the run-off of water. Another soilconservation method is the use of strip-cropping—that is, alternating strips of crop and fallow land. This method is valuable for control of wind erosion on semi-arid lands that need to lie fallow for efficient crop production. In addition, the maintenance of soil fertility at the maximum level of production often involves the use of inorganic (chemical) fertilizers. See Erosion; Soil; Soil Management. VII CONSERVATION OF DRAINAGE BASINS

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Recent studies have confirmed that extremely dense vegetation prevents the collection of the maximum amount of water in a given drainage basin. Greater yields of water have been obtained from some mountain-forest regions by thinning the natural tree stands, but not so much as to increase soil erosion or flood danger. A forest or shrub cover containing numerous small openings has been found to be more effective for capturing water than a dense, continuous cover that intercepts much snow and rain and permits the moisture to be lost by evaporation. Highly important in drainage basin conservation is the preservation of wetlands, which function as filtration systems that stabilize water tables by holding rainfall and discharging the water slowly, and as natural flood-control reservoirs

It remains chiefly concerned with protect, preservatim, perpetuatim & judicious control over rare species of plants & animals in their natural habitants. In fact population of many animal species has been changing since, prehistoric time. Over the post 2000 years about 106 species of animals & 139 species of birds have become extinct due to climate & geographical changes & also by over hunting by man for food or other reasons. According Red data book of ecologists about 600more species of animals & birds are going to be extinct if not protected by wild life management includes following fundamental approaches:i. Enact of wild life acts to prevent the hunting of certain pair species of the wild life. For e.g., certain Indian animal species marsh crocodiles, Gharial, peafoul, Black duck, Elephant in eastern part, some leopard are protected by law. Species preservative, nature resources are usually in order to give protection to a species of plant or animals, which is rare. In certain sea birds, wild birds & plants species are protected. In the Northern Alberta & Northern west territories of Canada, wood buffalo. National park preserve a wild & almost roadlers.panailam in western jara preserve 25 to 40 javas shinas

ii.

Century assala shelter one horn shivassorrar. Gir forest Gujrat preserves Gir loin. iii. Assamblage protection most commonly an assenblage of species in protected the assemblage may have some liked. High mountain preserves often protected a vary divers suild of alpine plants. Somethong with attended founa in India Delhi zoo & bhatpur birds Sanctuary are specially managed for mirating birds. The management assenslage protection in desing to provide man cover in food supply for migrating birds & privide refuse hunting.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09

iv.

HABITAL PRESERVATION

Reserve which are large & diverse enough to protect whole set of eco system which are either rare on national basis or bird basis. Often stated as national parks. Indian sub-continent has more than so sanctuaries & few national parks. Protected arteas & reserves Indian sanctuary passes unique land scape, broadleaved forests, mountain forest & delta of big river. The idea of wild life manamment is not new to India. The vedhas contains birds in the prays of animals. Sanatan dharma has so light the best way conservation of wild life by linking with anyone with specific God & Goddes. For e.g., pythan associated with God Vishnu, Snake with God Shiva, peacpock with god kartica. Lord Krishna with cow, owl with Goddes laksmi, loin with Goddes durga. Mahabharata contain many differences indicateing how Rishis Munis conserve wildlife fauna (mostly deer & birds). Chanakya had imposed seva penalties for killing entrapping deer, birds, & fish in protected areas. Certain other indigenous religions of India like jain & Buddhist are strongly advocate the eye of non-violence. The Ashoka’s fifth pillar the game of Mughal exhibited deep interest in wild life India for protection & preservation of game animals like they created hunting resorts call Sikargaha. British rulers & certain Indian rulers ruthlessly destroyed Indian wild life during 18th & 19th century, hunting treated as a game. Man’s cultural evolution & growth of civilization for recreation, food, height, musk, whole & deforestation act building of roads & dam’s human dwelling have caused grown destruction of wild life. About 200 species of wild animals of Indian about being enticed & 250 species are on the urge of extinction if not eared. WILD LIFE OF INDIA India is unique in having immence natural beauty in it’s different biomes & also in process rich & diverse wild life fauna. It includes about 123 families of terrestrial vertebrates. According to an estimate there are 400 species of mammals 200 specis of birds, 350 species of reptiles & more than 29,700 species of insects. The animals like black buck, Nelgai, golden languor, lion tail are unique to India. The other typical wild in India are elephant(musk), barking deer (chetal), deer, mouse deer, swam deer, dancing deer(samblar), thanes & kasumi stag, black buck, show shanghais, chinkan & bulbul, wild buffalos & wild goat, wild ass, big cats like 9lion, tiger & leopard) , wolf, bears, like black bears. Monkey like lion tails monkey, hanuman monkey, squirrel, birds like quail, duck, pigeon, owl, reptiles such as crocodile, lizard, gari & enormous type of snacks (about 216 species) wild life

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 management requires autecological information about game animals & same basic facts of DEER THE deer belong to the family carbide of mammalian order. They are herbivorous & from significant component of brazing food chain of forest vegetation. Due to limited shelter & food supply, deforestation urbansation, mass haunting here have a great reduction in the number of deer population in India. Sanghi of Manipur is at the urge of extinction. The musk deer is found at the height of 2500-4000 mt in Himalayan areas. The deer is hunted out mainly for musk, the valuable product used as perfume & even as medicine in ayurved & homeopathic. Himachal Predesh Government has established conservation of musk deer, national park of 1000 km at Manali in Kulu valley. Buck living deers in small families graze in morning & evening. The charming deer of Sangha is large sized (150-160 cm height) chital is (76-90 cm height) living in herd of 20-30. It is mostly found in the forest of Indian plains but is not found in Assam, Punjab & Rajas than. ANTILOPES & OTHER HERBIVOROUS In India there are four species of antelopes:• • • •

India gazelle or Chinkar Nilgai. Black buck. Chousing a.

The Sin Kara is mostly found throughout desert of southeastern part of uttarpredesh & rajasthan. It prefers to live in open grasslet with thick bush cover. They feed on a variety of grasses. The Nilgai & the blue bull occur in plains & Rajas than desert but not in Assam & West Bengal. It prefers to stay near cultivated land but it is also found in desert grasslands. Nilgai damages crops. Black buck is a graceful & fast running animal, which occurs in grassland & plains of India & wild forest. All most all the species of black buck have been hunted out from most part of India & now they occur in appreciable number. Only in certain pockets of Rajas than, especially around the village of Bishoi east 9cast in rajas than who protect from hunting).

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 For deers or chousingha has two pains of horn & found in Himalayan & Bundelkhend region. WILD BUFFALO It is large sized robust. It prefers tall grassy forest clear to marshy area of rivers & lakes. Assam Easter India’s Godavari River is specific place for it. Greek hunting of it only restricted to Assam (manas & kanjiranga sanctuary, Nepal Tribe & buster in Chattisagarh). There are 1485 wild buffalos in India. BYSON Methuen, bull found in Andhra Predesh, Orissa, M.P & Bihar. Due to certain epidemic disease & viral disease wipped out these bulls some years ago now a few byson are mainly confined to Bondipur in Karnataka. WILD GOAT & SHIP In India wild goat & ship are restricted to North, also Himalaya & Nilgiri in South. It grass the speciesd is gradually in danger due to habitat disturbance by wild dogs, black panthers & hunting poachers only 450 Thar present today. ELEPHANT The Indian elephant alphas maxims is largest territorial mammals & is confide tatai & the foot hills because of it’s dependence on grass, bamboo & plenty of water search for new feeding ground its population is hunted out mainly for tusk. Perigee century in Tamilnadu has some elephant apart from it in West Bengal at ban Kuna, midnapur & in Assam. RHINOSORE The Indian Rhinosores found in grass land & the jungle are of foothills & Himalaya( central Nepal, certain plain pockets of West Bengal & Assam). A full growth Rhinosor is 1.8 mt in height & 3.9 mt in length. It has a singlehorn on their nose. The horn is made of skin & matted hair. It is sake to have medical values & large sums are paid for it. It is shooted for this reason. It is near extinction in India. It is strictly territorial. WILD ASS It has a fairly white distribution in the dry reasons of North West(jaisalmeer & Bikaneer in Rajas than) but there are distribution now because restricted to little rann in southern part of thar. In past the population of wild ass reduced due to hunting, catching, sure disease & African horse sickness disease. However, people around the little ram are arthodon &vegetarian. The importance should be given to

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 wild ass because it is only true wild ass in world. So, it needs protection & preservation. BIG CATS & OTHER CARNIVOROUS India has variety of world norm large size cat & other carnivorous. The Asiatic Lion, Panther persica was found in thar desert arid plain of sind & rajas than & Punjab. It is on record that the last lion was at Andra & jashantpur in Rajas than in about 1876. In India lions are now preserved only in Gir century on Gujarat in the south west of Thar Desert. The Cheetha was found in certral India. Deccan region in Thar Desert inpto jaipur & Rajas than. It disappears from rajas than & central India in 1920. Now the Cheetha is the most beautiful Israil regarded to be extinct. The Tiger – tigress tigress is distributed in u.p from Himalaya to Bindhya forest of south. In Himilaya is it found to be about 2000 mt. It lives in a variety of havitats to dence terai forest. According 0----------- tiger population was (20-25) but in 1958 it about 4000. In 1970 less then 3000 . To save the tiger in India ,tiger project was launched in India that it project Tiger in1972.The Project plan to reserve tiger in selected area of India. Due to this effort conciderable inprovement was observed tiger population in 1973. Increase in tiger population due to Tiger Project Tiger Reserve tiger population In 1972 1.Manas 31 41 30 50 55 Tiger Population

In 1973

2. Palamous 22 3. Simpli Park 17

4. corbet National Park 44 5. Ranathambore 14 6. Kanah Nation Park 43 7. Melghat 8.Bandipur 27 10 32 19 20

48

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The Leo Pard is similar smaller spotents cause in Tiger which can live in all tipe os forests.Once it was found all over India but now drastically reduced. The leo-pard is in fulllprotection in Mount-Abu sanctuary . However, can be hunted under lisence from Indian wild life Act. The snow Leo-pard is found in high Himalaya in Kashmir to Sikim near snow line. It has a crearcy with large black ring.It is greatly hunted for species is in danger. The other important cats are leop-pard,cat polas,cat etc. SLOTHBEAR It is Carnivorous; it is live mostly on honey, fruit and insects. It is rapidly vanished due to hunding . The black Himalayan bear is larger then sloth bear found in large number but in totally it is urging of extinction. DOLPHIN In the Indus river in the North west and in rivers cannel and Jhelum,Surlej in north of Thar desert, the fresh water Gangetic dolphin was once found in good number but now it is totally extinct. BIRDS The important wild bird Fauna of India include following species:- Grey jungle fowl, duck,pegion, quails, certain bird like grate Indian bustards mountain qual, horned owl, duck are on the verge of extinction if not saved. The grate Indian bustards in large. Indian game bird having a heavy body, long neck, long bare running legs found in Rajas than and Punjab. it is ruthlessly hunted for its delictions flesh & almost on the verge of extinction. In 1980 an international conference was held at jaipur to iii> JALDAPARA WILD LIFE SANCTURY: it is situated in jaldapara, West Bengal & is 60 sq km of grass land. It is wild life fauna includes animals like Rhinosores, tiger. iv> PALAMA NATIONAL PARK: It is situated in Jharknand. 345 sq km. its flora is thick topical forest, fauna includes Samver, Nilgai, Tiger, Beer, Leo-pard etc. mause, Deer, Chiltal, and Elephant. v. vi. HAJARI BAG NATIONAL PARK: 1954 in Bihar presently known as Jharkhand 84 sq km area thick topical forest save from flora fauna palama. SIMLIPAL: Mayurbhanj in Orissa 2750 sq km covered dange shai forest – chosen for project tiger fauna include tiger, deer, chital, samear, elephant, and beer. vii. CHILKA LAKE: Largest inland lake 1000sq km in area very attractive 100 km far from Bhubeneswar Duck, fish etc.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. KALAMERU BIRD SANCTURY: small bird sanctuary near tadepalladum in A.P.—Pillikan & merine birds VEDANTHANGOLE SANCTURY: small size old in the south of chennai. Many migratory birds regularly visit this temporary lake. GUINDY PARK: Near Chennai having Chittal & black ducks. POINT CALIMERA SANCTURY: Southern point of Tanjavour district of Tamilnadu its back pelicans & wild boars. MUNDANTHURAI SANCTURY: 1962 in Tamilnadu area of 520 sq km ever grass forest –Tamraparni river crossed to this sanctuary panther, tiger, smear , chital. PERIYAR WILD LIFE SANCTURY: Situated in Kerala area 777 sq km established 1940 arround artificial lake which arose behind the dam build across the periyar river in 1900 fauna- elephant, ass, leopard, samver, barking deer, wild dog, black Nilgiri languor etc. MUNDUMALI WILD LIFE SANCTURY: established in 1940- north western part of Nilgiri of Tamilnadu rich forest diversity of fauna wild elephant, chital, samver, tiger, panther, monkey, barking deer, squirrel, wild dog, jackal, wild cat, sloth bear, flying lizard, monitor lizard, rat snake, python & various others. RANGAM THTITTO W.L. S.: 166 sq km include a series of island in the Kaveri river 15 km of Bangalore – Mahisure road near Srirangapatham – fauna duck, elephant, cat, rat, wild dog, lizard etc. BANDIPUR WILD LIFE SANCTURY: 1941-80 km south of Mahisure city area 874 sq km attitude 1454.4mt thick forest plenty of rainfall animals like leopard, elephant, sloth, bear, chital, panther, barking deer & languor. CATOGAO WILD LIFE SANCTURY: Located in south Goa 105 sq km evergreen forest support rich fauns samver, chital, deer, barking deer, panther, leopard, jackal, kingfisher. BHAGABAN MAHADEV WILD LIFE SANCTURY: Located north goa are 240 sq km fauna same as cotigao. SESANGIR WILD LIFE SANCTURY: Famous for Asiatic lion situated in Gujrat 468 km from Ahmedabad-43 km from Veravelarea 1295 sq km deciduous forest fauna include Asiatic lion, spotted deer, chin Kara, languor, python, crocodile & birds like green pigeon. KNAHA NATIONAL PARK: Established in 1955 in Madhya-predesh area 9399 sq km willi jerrain 175 km far from Jawalpur shall trees forest fauna include tiger, chital, black duck & Barasingha. TANDONA NATIONAL PARK: Situated in Chandrapur dist. Maharastrs 116 sq km fauna include tiger, panther, samver, chital, chin Kara, blue bull, barking deer, four horn deer, jungle cat, languor & few crocodile. SARISHKA WILD LIFE SANCTURY: situated in A hoar Rajas than 800 sq km dense solar forest fauna include tiger, leopard, languor etc. BHARATPUR BIRD SANCTURY / KOEL DEO GHANA: Situated at bharatpur Rajas than area 29 sq km harvous all type of indegenious

xiv.

xv. xvi.

xvii. xviii. xix.

xx. xxi.

xxii. xxiii.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 water bird, water sight birds more than 328 varities of birds. Like Indian durtur ibis, great black week stock, migrated tree birds like duck geese & Siberian cranes regularly visit this sanctuary. SULTANPUR LAKE BIRD SANCTURY: Small size 2 sq km Hariyana – Gurgaon 30 km far from Delhi crane, sarus etc. SHIKARI DEVI WILD LIFE SANCTURY; Situated in Mandi district of himachal pradesh area 213 sq km snow leopard, flying fox, black bear, barking deer, mask deer, chaker. BIR MOTIBAG SANCTURY; Located in patiyaha in Punjab have black duck, blue bull, deer, jackal, pigeon, dog, cat etc. DACHIGAN WILD LIFE SANCTURY: Established in 1951, kashmir 26 km away from srinagar - 89sq km area upper & lower levelsupper dachigan- 36923 mt, lower dachigan – 1846.2 mt, animals like black bear, mask deer, leopard & brown bear. CORBET NATIONAL PARK: Established 1935 situated between nainital & garawal in uttaranchal area 525 sq km on the bend ramganga fauna tiger, panther, blue bull, reptile, python, crocodile etc. SHIVPURI WILD LIFE SANCTURY: situated in M.P tigers. ANNAMALI SANCTURY: situated in koyembator district of tamil nadu area 958 sq km, established in 1972. fauna elephant, nilgiri, samver, tiger, panther, languor etc.

xxiv. xxv. xxvi. xxvii.

xxviii.

xxix. xxx.

OTHER CONSERVATION MEASURES Other important steps needed preserve wild life including the following: i. ii. iii. iv. For the preservation of species wild life management staff should have a correct idea about the enact habitat which that species under consideration needs. Natural habitat of wild life animals should be carefully protected. Habitats of wild life should be improved by constructing water hole by plantation & noursering of better folder grass & trees. Effective means of census operation should be adopted to measure the various sizes of various wild animals.

Sustainable Development
I INTRODUCTION

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Sustainable Development, a term commonly defined as “economic and social development that meets the needs of the current generation without undermining the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), otherwise known as the Brundtland Commission (after its Chairwoman, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway), produced this almost universally quoted definition in 1987. II BUILDING HIGH-LEVEL COMMITMENT

Since the mid 1970s, sustainable development has emerged as the preferred way of dealing with the rapid degradation of the natural environment. The first global meeting on this issue, the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment in 1972, focused mainly on the environmental issues, such as pollution and waste, that were most evident in the wealthy nations, and associated with industrial development and a rapid growth in consumption. Much less attention was given to the needs of lower income countries of the developing world (commonly referred to as the South, because of their geographical position) for stronger and more stable economies, as well as environmental improvement. Although the need to combine development and environment goals was becoming evident, more emphasis was placed on the “limits to growth” arising from shortages in resources such as metals and fossil fuels. The new concern for what later became labelled “sustainable development” is evident in the Cocoyoc Declaration of 1974, which addressed the issue of how to respect the “inner limit” of satisfying fundamental human needs within the “outer limits” of the Earth’s carrying capacity. But it was the World Conservation Strategy of 1980 that launched sustainable development into the international policy arena, stressing the importance of integrating environmental protection and conservation values into the development process. The Brundtland Commission then paved the way for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), otherwise known as the Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. This conference approved a set of five agreements: 1) Agenda 21—a global plan of action for sustainable development, containing over 100 programme areas, ranging from trade and environment, through agriculture and desertification, to capacity building and technology transfer. 2) The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development—a statement of 27 key principles to guide the integration of environment and development policies (including the polluter pays, prevention, and precautionary and participation principles). 3) The Statement of Principles on Forests—the first global consensus on the management, conservation, and sustainable development of the world’s forests.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 4) The Framework Convention on Climate Change—a legally binding agreement to stabilize greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at levels that will not upset the global climate. 5) The Convention on Biological Diversity—a legally binding agreement to conserve the world’s genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity and share the benefits of its use in a fair and equitable way. III IMPLEMENTING THE IDEA

Now that high-level legal and political commitments have been made to sustainable development, attention is focusing on what the concept actually means and how to put it into practice, for example, by preparing policies for sustainable agriculture, directing support at sustainable forestry, or developing national sustainability strategies. The Brundtland Commission’s definition, while widely used, provides little guidance of how to implement sustainable development. The absence of a clear definition has allowed some to claim that they are practising sustainable development, while essentially retaining their earlier approaches. Part of the problem lies in the confusion that surrounds what is actually “sustained” by “sustainable development”. Although the term “sustainable” is most widely used to refer to the maintenance of ecological systems and resources, it has also been applied to the economic, social, and even cultural spheres. This broad application of “sustainability” is perhaps not surprising, since sustainable development is by nature an interdisciplinary concept, drawing on the social and physical sciences as well as law, management, and politics. It is also a dynamic approach which, according to the Brundtland Commission, is “a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development, and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations”. What the Earth Summit did make clear is that meeting human needs forms the bedrock of sustainable development. Thus, according to the World Health Organization, “the most immediate environmental problems in the world are the illhealth and premature death caused by biological agents in the human environment in water, food, air or soil”. IV MEETING THE GOALS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

A commitment to meet the needs of present and future generations has various implications. “Meeting the needs of the present” means satisfying:

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 1) Economic needs—including access to an adequate livelihood or productive assets; also economic security when unemployed, ill, disabled or otherwise unable to secure a livelihood. 2) Social, cultural, and health needs—including a shelter which is healthy, safe, affordable, and secure, within a neighbourhood with provision for piped water, drainage, transport, health care, education, child development, and protection from environmental hazards. Services must meet the specific needs of children and of adults responsible for children (mostly women). Achieving this implies a more equitable distribution of income between nations and, in most cases, within nations. 3) Political needs—including freedom to participate in national and local politics and in decisions regarding the management and development of one’s home and neighbourhood, within a broader framework that ensures respect for civil and political rights and the implementation of environmental legislation. Meeting such needs “without undermining the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” means: 1) Minimizing use or waste of non-renewable resources—including minimizing the consumption of fossil fuels and substituting with renewable sources where feasible. Also, minimizing the waste of scarce mineral resources (by reducing use, reusing, recycling, and reclaiming). 2) Sustainable use of renewable resources—including using freshwater, soils, and forests in ways that ensure a natural rate of recharge. 3) Keeping within the absorptive capacity of local and global sinks for wastes— including the capacity of rivers to break down biodegradable wastes as well as the capacity of global environmental systems, such as climate, to absorb greenhouse gases. V DRIFTING TOWARDS UNSUSTAINABILITY

At present, these “preconditions” are rarely being met. As a result, the world appears to be locked into a number of downward trends, which are moving away from, rather than towards, sustainability. The roots of this decline are many, but can be clustered into two broad groups: market failures, where economic transactions fail to take account of social or environmental costs; and policy failures, where governments inadvertently encourage environmental degradation, for example by subsidizing energy and water use. The issue is therefore not one of whether governments should intervene to steer development towards sustainability, but how. VI BALANCING OBJECTIVES

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Sustainable development aims to reverse these downward trends. There is a growing consensus that sustainable development means achieving a quality of life that can be maintained for many generations because it is: 1) Socially desirable—fulfilling people’s cultural, material, and spiritual needs in equitable ways. 2) Economically viable—paying for itself, with costs not exceeding income. 3) Ecologically sustainable—maintaining the long-term viability of supporting ecosystems. Sustainable development will entail integration of these three objectives where possible, and making hard choices and negotiating trade-offs between objectives where integration is not possible. These negotiations will be greatly influenced by factors such as peace and security, prevailing economic interests, political systems, institutional arrangements, and cultural norms. For example, the role of women in shaping policies and actions may be more restricted in Islamic countries, and the ability of the public to participate in this process may be more limited under authoritarian systems. There is no blueprint for sustainable development. It needs to be defined to meet and respect the particular needs and circumstances of individual countries, societies, and cultures. Traditionally, societies have attempted to set social, economic, and environmental goals, but often in isolation from one another. Thus, for instance, nature conservation targets have been set without regard to the goals for economic growth or poverty reduction. The result has been the creation of short-lived “green islands” in a sea of unsustainability. Decision-makers are now becoming aware that environmental goals can only be achieved by integrating them into mainstream social and economic policy-making. VII MAKING TRADE-OFFS

A pragmatic way of tackling the question “how best to achieve sustainable development?” is to start with the premise that development intrinsically involves trade-offs between potentially opposing goals, such as between economic growth and resource conservation, or between modern technology and indigenous practices. These conflicts are often real, but vary according to circumstances. Poverty is frequently cited as a cause of environmental degradation, but there are many examples of poor societies improving their environment. For example, in Karachi, Pakistan, a group of some 1,000 households known as the Welfare Colony has installed its own sanitation system. Similarly, it is often stated that population growth in developing countries is inevitably on a collision course with the resource base. However, there are cases where population growth has been associated with better management of existing levels of resources (e.g. in the Machakos area in Kenya). Equally, there is no necessary link between economic growth and

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 environmental damage: the policy challenge is to drive a wedge between rising incomes on the one hand, and resource use and pollution on the other, a task that has proved hard to realize in practice. The aim of sustainable development is thus to optimize the realization of a society’s many different social, environmental, and economic objectives at one and the same time. Preferably, this should be achieved through an adaptive process of integration, but more usually it will require bargains (trade-offs) struck amongst the different interest groups concerned. Critical to this process is the recognition that different perspectives on environment and development are both inevitable and legitimate. There could be, for example, very different environmental priorities between aid donors, recipient governments, and the poor of developing countries. One way of looking at these trade-offs is to take an economic approach and identify the human and natural “capital stocks” that are needed for development. Explicit policies are required to maintain and enhance our natural capital and the services it provides for development, such as raw materials, fresh water, and a stable climate. Within natural capital, distinctions will need to be made between critical stocks, which are irreplaceable and which should not be traded off against social and economic goals, and those which can be exchanged in return for building up technological capital, therefore maintaining constant levels of overall capital stocks. VIII THE PARTICIPATION PRINCIPLE

The question then arises, “who should make the decisions on trade-offs?” Here, Agenda 21 calls for the widest possible participation in international negotiations, such as UNCED, in national and local sustainable development strategy-making exercises and in project design and implementation. Participation is crucial not only for the effectiveness and legitimacy of actions, but also because of the relative lack of “scientific” tools and indicators which can give policy makers instant answers. Developing and using consensus-building and conflict-resolution techniques will therefore be an important element of sustainable development. Much effort is being put into defining indicators of sustainability, but it is very difficult to say what is sustainable; it is far easier to say what is unsustainable. New performance indicators are needed, such as improved “rates of change” environmental indicators, as well as “barometric” indicators of progress towards or away from sustainable development. National governments are responsible for providing the conditions which both permit and facilitate the necessary dialogue and negotiation between all sectors and interest groups in society. The development of national strategies for sustainable development, called for in Agenda 21, could lead to greater democracy, encourage an overhaul of institutional arrangements, administrative procedures, and legislative frameworks, as well as fostering consensus among different strata and groupings in society. Aid donors can support such home-driven processes in recipient countries by coordinating their activities, by not imposing external models,

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 and by refocusing existing investments to bring them in line with national goals for sustainable development.

Question: - Identify the ways in which community could be involved in developing eco-tourism. Point out the areas in which community can be involved?

Eco-tourism has qualified as tourism in sensitive areas like forest & coasts. It is also referred as nature tourism. This terminology has found the wide adhere because whenever tourism is practiced each has proved to be detrimental to the environmental & social fabric of social community. Community involvement is one of the important factors in case of ecotourism. Eco-tourism & community involvement is viz- a-viz related with each other. Because when a spot is selected for eco-tourism then not only the surrounding environment, economic & business aspects but also social as well as the local community means a lot in eco-tourism. Their support & their wholehearted co-operation is the most important thing in case of ecotourism. Now, the ways in which community can be involved in developing ecotourism products are as follows:-

1. Policy making: - In eco-tourism, there should be certain policy for both tourism – indigenous & foreign, local people etc. such type of policy will be viable when the local community will agree with this. So, in case of policy making community involved is the one of the major part. Local community will have a clear idea & programme procedure about policy making, which is promoted to the eco-tourism place. 2. Developing partnership: - The base of partnership business is manpower. There may be a partnership business between two and among many. For this, local people can helps a lot. In eco-tourism, there are various opportunity for self-employment. Partnership business is one of those. Community can develop through involvement partnership business nationally & internationally. Overall, it will help as economically, socially & in business aspect with Government, private sector effectively & efficiently. 3. Local knowledge: - Every tourist is eger to know about that spot which they are going to visit. They want to know that place’s culture, language, any historical memory etc. in this aspect there are only local community who can help them & guide them just correctly. For get any detail about the locality, local community is the right line or right box where tourist can click rightly through eco-tourism. 4. Concept: - without local community concept an eco-tourism spot cannot be set up. Before making a place as a tourist spot, the free concept of the local

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 community through local club or municipality is most necessary otherwise it will be void. So, as the very beginning of eco-tourism community involvement is the one of the most important factor. 5. Providing entertainment: - Tourists enjoys to the culture part of the visited place. It seems to them entertainment. So, local community can make up an entertainment package for tourists by their cultural heritage, folk songs, folk dance etc. Through eco-tourism local community also able to provide entertainment to the tourism indigenous as well as foreigners. 6. Handicrafts: - through eco-tourism local community able to express & show their handicrafts. Tourist will buy these & country will get the foreign currency. Not only this, handicrafts get the more importance to them & by this the local people can earn more money. It will affect their life style & living standards. Not only from their side, but also the buyers are came to know about handicrafts dressing style, tourist are help to spread it all over the world nationally & internationally. 7. Education: - By education the local community about eco-tourism, they can get job as well as they can involved in development of the places & spots. It helps to move local community towards light. By this they can upgrade their selves as well as their life style & living. Standard are also changed. We have discussed the all above aspects about community involvement through eco-tourism. The above stated aspects are not enough for community involvement. There are a number of aspects where community can be involved through eco-tourism. It will help not only the local community life style living standard but also it will help in economically, socially & also is business aspects as nationally & internationally. Minorities, Term commonly defined as smaller groups of people who live in the midst of larger groups. However, social scientists, international lawyers, consciousness-raising organizations, and human rights observers tend to use the term to refer to cohesive groups of disadvantaged people. Minorities are enduring groups that may be differentiated from others in the same society by race, ethnicity, language, gender, religion, or sexual orientation. They are groups that are usually weaker in society. They may regard themselves (or be regarded) as stigmatized, and there are numerous instances where they have been regarded as inferior by majority communities. They may also be groups that control power in society, especially in those countries based on colonial rule, such as South Africa and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe Every society has its culture, and therefore its own cultural biases. The tendency to make judgements by reference to the values shared in the subject's own ethnic group, as if it were the centre of everything, is known as ethnocentrism. Individuals

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 share their own society's preferences for particular skin colours, and this may be a basis for the less favourable treatment of outsiders. On occasion, a group within a society is singled out for such treatment: the ethnic majority in, for example, Japan avoids contact with the Burakumin, an ethnic minority descended from an occupational caste created in the feudal period who are not physically distinguishable from other Japanese. The European vocabulary of race has been exported to other regions and employed there despite differences in attitudes. The practices of the Hindu caste system and the relations between ethnic groups in some black African societies can be discriminatory in ways that appear racist to outsiders. Though doctrines of racial superiority have been widely condemned, the concept of race has continued to be used in the English-speaking world as a social construct. Physical differences are used as markers for the delineation of social groups in ways that do not reflect biological inheritance. For example, in the United States a person of partly African genetic inheritance may consider himself or herself, and be considered by others, to be a member of the African-American For most social groups, music can serve as a powerful symbol. Members of most societies share keen feelings as to what kind of music “belongs”. Indeed, some minorities (for instance in the United States, black Americans and Euro-American ethnic groups) use music as a major symbol of group identity. Subculture Subculture, group of people with beliefs, attitudes, customs, and other forms of behaviour differing from those of the dominant society, while at the same time being related to it. The concept refers to minority groups such as ethnic minorities, drug users, or even religious groups or gay communities. It has been argued that the subculture created by such groups serves to provide recompense for the fact that their members are viewed as outsiders by mainstream society. Hence a drug user with a low social status within conventional society may command great respect from other drug users because of his or her group's individual hierarchy and values. Members of a subculture are bound closely together if they are at odds with the values and behaviour of the dominant society. Characteristics of these subcultures, such as forms of language or dress, are emphasized to create and maintain a distinction from the dominant culture. This distinction may, however, also represent a pride of identity while at the same time seeking to belong in society. Although a subculture may be a minority group, it may also emerge within a minority group—such as punk within youth; separatist feminists within feminism. A problem with the concept of subculture is its presupposition of the existence of a concrete, mainstream culture. Many Western communities today are composed of a number of ethnic and social groups; boundaries between groupings based on class,

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 sexuality, age, ethnicity, religion, and place of origin are increasingly blurred, and mobility between these groups is more frequent. While the concept of subculture is not flawless, the concept can be a useful tool for analyzing the structure and custom of minority social groups. Education, Multicultural, educational approach that celebrates the cultural diversity of contemporary society. Its basic premise is that by exposing all children to the social and cultural customs of ethnic minority communities living in their country, they will have a greater understanding and tolerance of people from different backgrounds This article deals only with multicultural education in Britain.

INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE
Built culture resources have a variety, which is the mixture of industrial heritage, ancient monuments & religious building. While discussing tourism generally we take into account ancient monument & religious buildings. But pay less attention to industrial heritage. We have passed three stages of civi9lization ---- hunting at gathering era---unorganized societies remain being basically depended on full filling needs that is food, shelter & cloth. The second stage Agricultural Era – man started to remain a number of tools to make his working life easily. At the same time money came into resistance. The third stage Industrial Era to still prevailing. Industrialization of various nations with the help of science & technology. Various industries started to produce number of items. These items utilize for the purpose of agriculture & hunting even. Eco-tourism which has opened new horizons for development of industrial heritage places as a place of eco-tourism. As far as India is concerned, the first textile mill has started in Ghusuri, Litua, and West Bengal. The technology which utilize in this company which has started to produced crops. But now we have the latest technology in textiles sectors. Machines are operated by least number of workers & even computerized one.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 So, the between to make the same products is the point of curiosity among the general mass specially technologist or scientist. Rapid development in the field of transportation & automobile technology. The same change of technology including shape, size & comfort of the automobiles. Every year especially in Kolkata, the Statesman houses arrange a car rally name Vintage car rally of absolute technological vehicles & winner is awarded to. In the international scenario the same sort of car rallies are organized in Indonesia, Europe, France, other where. These rallies are attended by a number of tourist come from through out the world. In the same field of transportation railway plays a major role. From 16 th August of 2003 at 11.30 am a railway steam engine which used to run 150 years back will run on the track to Bandel. This train will carry the latest compartment of Indian railway alike Satabdi Express as well as the compartment which was used 150 years back. So, from a tourist paint of view what a change of technology old to modern. It is also containing the overall history of Indian railway developed over 150 years. Palace on wheels is also one of the attractive media of transport for the tourist, which runs all around the Rajas than. Recently government of India has taken a step to promote a ship hold place on waters, which will allow a tourist to visit four parts of India including Mumbai. It is a journey of two months costing around 2.5 lakes per tourist. Industrial heritage site attractive tourist & student having the background of science & technology. General public do have the curiosity or eagerness to know the up gradation stages of technology. Before 1500 B.C: Mahanjodara-Haroppa in Pakistan Kalipanga, rajasthan Lothal Gulf of Comba. Indian valley finds position of great civilization houses build of brike public link place of worship. Before 1000 B.C.: Vaidik hynes are Before 1000 B.C – 600 B.C : Vaidik times Upanishads concept Brahmin consequences of good act or bad act introduction of iron. 600 B.C to 320 B.C: The emergence of Budhism as reaction of Vaidik ritualism. 320 B.C to 185 B.C: Moureen empire Arthsash by Koutillya – Asoka pillar at Sarnath – Buddhist stupas.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 120 B.C to 320 A.D: Period f moureen & gupta Mahabharata & Ramayana were ----- shiva & Vishnu were as great---. A.d320 647: Period between rise of Gupta & death of Harshabardhana. Kalidash Ajanta. 647 A.D to 1200A.D: Period of Bhakti school philosophical system of Sonkaracharya and Ramanuja . 1526 A.D: Muslim Rules. 1562 A.D – 1707: Tajmohol Sikim belongs to this period dominating English. Language: Sanskrit in the word of learning in ancient time. The universal …. English does not present. It is like river Ganga in language shated by M. Gandhi. Literature: Rikveda-Samveda-Jajuveda Arthaba Veda. Rikeveda – Samhina …… Samveda – Brahmains-searificial rates-spectifie duties rules of conduct. Jajuveda – Anayayaks writes in ceremonies supplimentry the Brahmanas . Atharbaveda – Upanishads Vedanta is the basic of Indian philosophy. Rikeveda is the first veda probably the earliest book at …….process. Poetry in Vedas.: T….Vedas speak of gracious s….. women and human evoluation. Epies.: Mahabharata, Ramayana Dance and Drama: Nritkya soshtma Philoshophy: Rta, Satya and Samarpana Nastik Astwik

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Rekuguib : INDIAN region: 1) Hindus – Bhagabat Geeta, Natre of Hinduism-Moksha-third eye wisedom 2) Jainism – Ardhama Mahabir s…. B C –5 kinds of knowledge Moti(cognitim) shruti (knowledge) Abohi (distance of time) Kebala (Perfect knowledge) Non-violence-rule of life. 3) Buddhisim : Goutam Budha-Mahajan and Hinayan. 4) Siknisilm : Sadhu Guru Najak was born in Talbnandi in Pakishan on 1469. Kara, Kripan, Kesh Kangi,Katek Fiver Ks. Gurugnanth shaheb – branches- Total 6894 ….. guru sim…Gurunahak Tegbahadur,Govind Anardas,Ramdas ……….Gobibd Singh. Non-Indian Relegion : Isham Belelif in unity powser merey-supreme love of creater Insa Allhakukran in two duced by Pof. Md. Ishamimeans peacegreeting safety and …… Mokka Christianity: Jesus Christ. QUESTION: 1.Eco-tourism & importance of eco-tourism. 2.Describe the problem related with eco-tourism & also suggest some solution.

Eco-tourism is a socially & ecologically sensitive issue. The importance of involving local people in such drives stand tall from many aspects. The socio cultural analysis of eco-tourism, projects are important before deciding upon opening any protected areas for visitors.

1. Economic problems: a> five years planning of government of India & planning commission. b> budget. c> per capital income low. d> organizational problem. f> poor level of standard living. 2. Social problem : a> community involvement .

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 b> lack of socially identified areas. c>lack of social interaction. d>local interference in developing eco-tourism. e> lack of local concept. f> wastage. g> protection of wild life. 3. Cultural problem: a> lack of mobility of culture inside the country. b> lack of cultural interaction at national & international level. c> lack of cultural events. d> protection of local culture. 4. Political problem: a> government policy –central level. b> state government policy. c> local administration – participation ( M.P & MLA & DO). 5. Technology problem: a> lak of upgrated technology. b> science & research. 6. Infrastructure problem: a> marketing problem. b> basic infrastructure
• • • •

rail. Road. Air. Water. c> basic amenities.

QUESTION: Describe the policy of government of India & state government of India in eco-tourism.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09

The central & various state government embrak on ambitious project to invite domestic & foreign tourism to explore the rich ecological sensitive spots that is coast wild life areas & national heritage. In this context in 2002 has been declared as the international year of ecotourism by UNO. Firstly government has decided about the landscape of geographical structure to utilize their policy. Across the length & breath of the country from Maharastra to West Bengal & Kerala to uttaranchal the eco-tourism rolls. Particularly on those areas that are being protected & conserved for wild life & tourism particularly under this banner is “ ecotourism”.---------------------------------------------------------------------------considering India’s wealth & rich culture heritage tourism can emerge as an important instrument for-------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

According to a record W.T.T.C (world travel & tourism company), India could general 25 million in this sector by 2010. Despite rich natural resources & biological cultural diversity India tourism turning up us $ 1.8 billion where Singapore, US 3.4 billion, Thailand us $ 6.8 billion. Then there is an urgent need to boast the tourism industry in our country, which is passport to the development. The key places in eco-tourism business are central & state level & local offices are developers & operators. On the part of government. 1. Mgt. Plan for each area may be prepared by professional landscape, architect & urban planners in consultation with local community as well as others those who directly concerned. 2. Integrative planning may be avoided for intersectral 7-crossesectral conflicts. 3. The architectural programme for eco-tourism enters may include control access paints & cabins, roads, self-guiding, natural, transport, science, absert tower, garbage dispersal facilities, if possible living------------------- for personnel. 4. Structure is creating visual pollution & unaesthetic values, non-compable ------------------------- may be controlled & temporary structures using local building material & local environment may be encounraged. 5. Exclude development in geologically unstable zones & -------------------------------after proper environment impact -----------------------. 6. Establish a standard, building codes & other regulation. 7. Specified environment, physical & social carrying capa to it developing act. 8. conti monitoring on advanced impact & on tourism activity & initiating suitable corrective measures. 9. Award to be given to the best tourism operators. 10. Provide visitor information & interpretation---

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09
• • • •

What to see? How to see? How to behave? Providing printing material on eco-tourism.

11. Widely distribute code of conducts. 12. Launch training programme for tour co-operator administrator on ecotourism.

QUESTION: What are the objectives of eco-tourism?

Eco-tourism is a sensitive issue in this cyber age. It leads to ecologically sensitive areas like forests & coasts. In India eco-tourism has been promoting rapidly. In account of this there are various objectives of eco-tourism. a. Environmental objectives. b. Economic objectives. c. Social objectives. d. Cultural objectives. e. Communicational objectives. f. National integrity objectives. g. Technological objectives.

a. ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES: The main objective of ecotourism is environmental objectives. This leads to keep the environment healthy. Not only this, but also it takes care about forest animals & preserve them in a healthy & safety place. By this human being can get a less pollution environment & they have the luck to see those animals who are being extinct. For this various national parks & sanctuary has opened & many of historical places are in account of caring. b. ECONOMIC OBJECTIVES: Economic aspect is one of the important aspects in case of eco-tourism. Through eco-tourism economic gains are also increasing by the following way: i. ii. Tourist purchases: by tourist purchases many governmental & non-governmental organizations profit. It reflects on economic scale. Direct & indirect employment: through direct indirect employment many unemployed of get & get

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 employment. Their living style will change. It will increase higher scale of economy. Foreign exchange: by the help of purchasing foreign currency will come in a huge amount. It will help economy. Business opportunity: For promoting eco-tourism many of business organization would be opened up. Thus many employed will get employment.

iii. iv.

QUESTION: Explain the term “ protected areas”. What is the role of protected areas in development of eco-tourism? QUESTION: Write short notes on: 1. Handicrafts. 2. Scientific research & eco-tourism. 3. Tour-operators. 4. Industrial heritage. 5. Wild life management. 6. Hindu monument. 7. Muslim monument. 8. Tourist industry. 9. Ancient monument. 10. Eco-games. 11. Beaches. 12. Flora & fauna. 13. National parks. 14. Utility of wild life. 15. Foreign exchange. 16. Reef.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09

Himalaya
I INTRODUCTION

Himalaya, also Himalayas (Sanskrit for “abode of snow”), mountain system in Asia, comprising a series of parallel and converging ranges and forming the highest mountain region in the world. More than 30 peaks of the Himalaya rise to heights of 7,620 m (25,000 ft) or more, and one of these, Mount Everest (8,850 m/29,035 ft), is the world's highest mountain. The vast Himalayan complex extends in an arc of about 2,400 km (1,500 mi) from the River Indus in northern Pakistan eastwards to the Brahmaputra River, across Kashmir in northern India, part of southern Tibet, most of Nepal, the Indian state of Sikkim, and Bhutan; the system covers an area of about 594,400 sq km (229,500 sq mi). The extreme climate and challenging landscape of the range have made it the goal of many mountaineers. II GEOLOGICAL FORMATION AND STRUCTURE

During the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras (65 million to 570 million years ago) the area that is now the Himalaya occupied the floor of the ancient Tethys Sea on the northern part of the Indian Plate of the Earth's crust. The mountains were formed by the action of plate tectonics as the Indian Plate, moving north, pressed against the stationary Asian land mass. The principal uplift occurred during the middle or late Tertiary period (12 million to 65 million years ago). The ranges of the Himalayan system developed from north to south in a series of stages. Even today the system has not reached a state of equilibrium, and earthquakes are frequent. The Himalaya consists primarily of metamorphic rocks; extensive areas of igneous rocks are in the south. Palaeozoic and Mesozoic marine sediments are found in several regions. III TOPOGRAPHY

The Himalaya can be divided into four parallel, longitudinal mountain belts of varying widths. From south to north these belts are the Outer Himalaya, or SubHimalaya; the Lesser Himalaya; the Great Himalaya; and the Tethys, or Tibetan Himalaya. The Outer Himalaya comprises the Siwalik Range, which rises steeply from the northern Indian plains and descends gently to flat-floored basins. To the north is the Lesser Himalaya, where the mountains rise to 4,572 m (15,000 ft) and the valleys lie at elevations of about 915 m (3,000 ft). The Great Himalaya, which forms the backbone of the Himalayan system, contains the main ranges and highest peaks and rises above the snow line to an average elevation of about 6,100 m (20,000 ft). The maximum height of these mountains is in Nepal, where 9 of the world's 14 highest peaks are found. Among these are Kanchenjunga, Dhaulagiri, and Annapurna in addition to Everest. The world's second highest mountain, K2, is in the Karakorum Range in the border area between Pakistan and China. To the north are the more complex Tibetan ranges and plateaux. 50

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The passes in the Himalaya, which often lie along or across glaciers, are the highest in the world, with an average height of about 3,050 m (10,000 ft). All passes above about 4,880 m (16,000 ft) are closed by snow from November to May. IV RIVERS, LAKES, AND GLACIERS

The Himalaya is drained by several major Asian rivers, including the Brahmaputra, Indus, and the Sutlej, as well as by many of their important tributaries. The headwaters of the River Ganges are also in the Himalaya. Numerous small glacial lakes are found at the heads of gorges, but the largest lakes lie at comparatively low elevations. Above the snow line, in all parts of the Himalayan system, small glaciers are found. Several glaciers are as much as 48 km (30 mi) long; the majority, however, are less than half that size. V CLIMATE

Three seasons are generally recognizable in the Himalaya: a cold period from October to February, a hot period from March to June, and the south-western monsoon season with heavy rains (particularly in the east) from June to September. The high main range of the Himalaya forms a vast screen that intercepts and condenses nearly all moisture carried by the monsoons. This moisture is deposited on the southern face of the mountains, which have a heavy annual rainfall; the northern slopes are semi-arid or arid. The elevation of the Himalaya also affects its temperature range. The climate on the southern side varies from subtropical at the base and valleys, through temperate at elevations of about 2,130 m (7,000 ft), to alpine, or tundra, at 3,660 m (12,000 ft). The line of permanent snow lies at about 5,030 m (16,500 ft). Strong winds prevail throughout the high-elevation areas. VI VEGETATION AND ANIMAL LIFE

Vegetation is generally more lush in the east, where rainfall is heaviest. At elevations up to 610 m (2,000 ft), a zone of grass is found in the west, and a dense, swampy subtropical forest known as the Tarai is found in the east. At higher elevations is a monsoon forest in which sal, a close-grained hardwood, is the most characteristic tree. Evergreen oak and rhododendron predominate at 1,520 to 2,740 m (5,000 to 9,000 ft); the deodar cedar is also found here. Above this level, to an elevation of about 3,660 m (12,000 ft) are coniferous forests, and at higher elevations, extending to the snowline, lies an alpine zone of low shrubs and grasses. During the second half of the 20th century, many regions of the Lesser Himalaya were deforested for firewood and to make room for agricultural development, resulting in severe erosion. In the Lesser Himalaya, only in Bhutan and parts of India are large regions still heavily forested.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Elephant, buffalo, and rhinoceros are restricted to certain areas of the forested Tarai. The Himalayan black bear, the clouded leopard, the langur monkey, and the goat antelope are widespread in the higher Himalayan forests. Above the tree line, the snow leopard, the brown bear, the red panda, and the Tibetan yak can occasionally be seen. The yak has been domesticated and is used as a beast of burden in the region. Tibetans also use the yak’s milk, meat, and hair. Bird life is particularly rich in the eastern regions. The Himalaya is supposed to be the home of the Abominable Snowman, or Yeti—a creature whose existence has yet to be proved. .

Folk Music and tourism
I INTRODUCTION

Folk Music, music that is transmitted orally (handed down through performance rather than with notation, and learned by hearing). It is composed by individuals who remain anonymous or, at any rate, are not remembered by name. Folk music is found in most of the world's societies, and it exists in different guises and under a variety of social and cultural conditions. Emphasis in this article is on the folk music of Western nations, but variety is so great that the statements giving locations and characterizations are illustrative rather than comprehensive. II RELATION TO THE COMMUNITY

Performed by members of the folk community who are not highly trained musical specialists, folk music is often closely associated with the calendrical cycle and with key events in a person's life as well as with such activities as ritual, work, and childrearing. Folk music is said to be the music of largely rural, untutored masses in societies where an educated, economic, political, as well as musical, elite also exists, the music of the latter, by contrast, being called “classical” or “art music”. When a folk song is passed from singer to singer, it tends to undergo change arising from creative impulses, faulty memory, the aesthetic values of those who learn and teach it, and the influence of the styles of other musics known to the singers. A folk song thus develops variants, gradually changing—perhaps beyond recognition—and existing in many forms. Since many people participate in determining the shape of a song, this process is called communal recreation. Folk music is normally affected by the art music of nearby cultural centres (for example, cities, courts, monasteries), and it frequently functions as a kind of cultural backwater that retains characteristics of older art music for long periods. Folk music may also be defined as the music with which an ethnic community most closely identifies itself. It is music that generally flourishes outside institutions such as school and church. 52

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Although this picture of folk music is basically correct, particularly for the rural cultures of Western Europe before the 20th century, many exceptions to this model must be noted. The boundaries between folk and other kinds of music are not clear. Songs from the realm of classical music are sometimes adapted by the folk community. Popular music, developed in urban cultures and transmitted through the mass media, bears some of the characteristics of folk music. Folk cultures sometimes develop musical specialists, particularly instrumentalists and singers of lengthy epics. The words of folk songs may be passed on through written or printed tradition, even if the music is oral. Although something like folk music exists in many cultures that also possess a learned musical tradition, for example, India, China, and the Middle East, its role in society and among other kinds of music varies. Thus, in India, a sharper line is drawn than in the West between classical and folk music, while in the Middle East, a musician is likely to participate in both folk and classical genres. In Iran, folk music is called “regional music”, and it is performed by musicians who are actually more specialized than those of the classical tradition. The term folk music is not accurately used to describe the music of cultures that have no musical stratification, that is, no classical music as a contrast. In general, folk music is known by the way it is taught and learned, by its relative simplicity, and by its association with an ethnic or national group. III MUSICAL STRUCTURE

Although the folk musics of European cultures vary enormously, they share some general characteristics. The music is relatively simple, usually consisting of songs with strophic forms; that is, a short stanza is repeated with different words, several or many times. The most common stanza type has four lines, sometimes all different (ABCD), but more frequently with some repetition (AABA, ABBA, and so on). The use of antiphony, or alternation between a leader and a chorus, each singing one line or stanza, is common throughout Europe. Much instrumental folk music presents successions of lines, each repeated or varied once (AABBCCDD or AA’BB’, and so on). Epic songs, with great emphasis on telling a complex story, may repeat a single musical line many times. Although the composers are unschooled, the ways of relating musical materials are often sophisticated. Thus, in Central and Eastern Europe, the technique of transposition (repeating a line at different pitch levels) is widespread, as in a typical Hungarian form in which the second half repeats the first a fifth lower (A5A5AA). The melodic material of European folk music is closely related to that of art music. Seven-tone scales, sometimes using tonalities and modes (like those of medieval church music), are widely used. The Dorian and Mixolydian modes are common in English folk song; the Phrygian, in Spanish. Especially common throughout Europe are pentatonic scales—five notes arranged like the black keys of the piano. More simple scales with three or four notes are found in children's ditties, counting-out rhymes, and songs of pre-Christian rituals.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Rhythm is sometimes related to versification (the metric structure of poetry). English folk song texts frequently use lines of four iambic feet and the accompanying melodies are often set in one of three rhythmic patterns:

In Eastern Europe, complex rhythms such as 2+2+2+3 beats, as well as measures of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen beats, may be found, particularly in the Balkan countries. Instrumental folk music tends to be rhythmically repetitive, a characteristic that may also be found in Central Europe, where complex structures —such as the irregular alternation of four and three beats in Bavarian dances—are used. Most folk music is monophonic, unaccompanied melody. Instrumental accompaniment may provide simple chords or, frequently, a drone (one note or chord repeated under a melody). Polyphonic singing, with two or three voices pursuing independent melodies, is found particularly in Germany and Austria, Italy, Spain, the Balkans, and other Central and Eastern European countries. Most frequently, singers relate the voices to one another by singing the same tune at different pitch levels—in thirds or sixths (Germany, Italy, Spain, the Western Slavic countries); fourths or fifths (Russia, Ukraine); or seconds (the Balkans). Drones (Italy), rounds or canons (universal), and more complex relationships (Russia, the Balkans) are also known. Polyphonic folk music is rare in Asia; in some countries such as Iran and Afghanistan, however, polyphony is more common in folk music than in classical music. A striking contrast between folk and art music is in the use of the voice and the tone colour of instruments. The bel canto style of lyrical, smoothly phased singing is rarely used. In each culture or area, a characteristic vocal sound has been developed and is favoured. In areas of Spain, Italy, and the Balkans, a tense, nasal sound and highly ornamented melodies are used. In Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and Russia, a more open-throated, clear sound and unembellished melodies are preferred. A mixed style lying between the two is found in industrialized regions, including parts of Britain and France. Similarly, folk fiddlers do not use the vibrato or the slurred method of bowing of concert violinists, but instead give each note a fresh stroke of the bow. In US folk music, singing style is the primary element that distinguishes among eastern, western, southern, and black American traditions. IV THE SONGS

The style traits described above characterize regions and countries. The folk tunes themselves, while developing variants, usually also remain in their homelands. Occasionally, however, they pass from one country to another, their style changing in the process. A song may be sung solo in one country, and its variant may be choral in another. It may be pentatonic in one and use the major scale in another. Indeed, very similar tunes are found in nations as far apart as Spain and Hungary,

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 but in each country the tune reflects the local style. This may be the result of the diffusion of tunes, or of the existence of a standardized way of composing that is bound to produce similar tunes sometimes. The relationship of similar tunes in farapart communities cannot be traced. Nevertheless, among the thousands of folk tunes known in one country, it is possible to identify those that appear to be related. They all seem to have come from a single parent tune through the process of oral tradition and communal recreation. A group of such related tunes is called a tune family. Although many folk tunes are centuries old, most of the versions now known come from records or printed collections rarely more than a hundred years old. Comparisons of these variants can reveal how a tune family may have developed. Tunes may be shortened; for example, when the four-line “Pretty Mohea” of Anglo-American tradition became “On Top of Old Smoky”, it seems to have lost its first two lines. A shortened version may then have new lines added. In the interior of a musical line, the second of two contrasting bits of melody may be forgotten and replaced by a repetition of the first. A tune may borrow a line from a completely unrelated family; thus, in Czech folk songs, which often use the form AABA, the line B may move to other tunes as an independent unit. The number of tune families in a given folk music repertory seems to vary greatly. Hungarian folk music seems to have hundreds. The American scholar Samuel Bayard stated in 1950 that Anglo-American folk music is dominated by some 40 or 50 families, of which 7 account for the vast majority. In Iran, each genre of text, such as songs about heroic warlords, or songs about the martyrdom of Muslim holy men, seems to be associated with one type of melody; thus, the total number of families is very small. A set of words such as a ballad, with its characteristic story, may be sung consistently with one tune and its variants. Typically, however, it will sometimes also be sung to tunes from several families, and the various members of a tune family will be sung to a variety of texts. Because these texts, such as ballad stories, diffuse, they are held in common by a number of countries in Europe and the Americas; the same is true of members of a tune family. The two do not, however, usually move together. The ballad “Lady Isabel and the Elf-Knight”, common in English folk music, is found all over Europe, but in each country it is sung to a distinct group of tunes. The large number of tunes in a typical folk music repertory is the basis for various systems of tune classification. Because oral tradition is so unpredictable, what remains constant when a tune is changed differs markedly from culture to culture. For these and other reasons, no satisfactory way has yet been developed to classify all the tunes that are generically related members of one family. In English folk song, for example, contour (the general outline of melodic movement) remains constant, whereas in Hungarian folk music, the consistent elements are the rhythm and the configuration of final notes of the several (usually four) phrases.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 V TYPES OF SONGS

One way to examine the function of folk songs is to define the uses in society of different types of folk song. Among the best-known kinds of folk music is the ballad, which can best be described as a song that, in a set of stanzas, tells a story involving one main incident. In the English-speaking world, “Barbara Allen” and “Lord Randall”, both sung in countless variants, are among the best known. The American scholar Francis James Child collected 305 of the oldest English and Scottish ballads, which he classified and numbered (because variants have no standard titles). These songs are thus called “Child Ballads”; “Barbara Allen” is Child 78, “Lord Randall” Child 12, and so on. Child ballads have been particularly well preserved in the United States and Canada, and they constitute an especially large proportion of the body of folk songs in Appalachia. Sung mostly to rather old tunes, which are frequently pentatonic, they show little influence from art or popular music. More recently composed ballads, often circulated in printed form on large sheets called broadsides and then passed on orally, frequently use tunes in major or minor. They are often sung with instrumental accompaniment and are closer to popular song and modern Protestant hymn styles. Their texts concern unhappy love, murders, events of war, and tragedies such as railway wrecks. In contrast to the Child ballads, broadside ballads are specific and consistent in giving names, places, and dates, at one time serving as a way of disseminating news. Although English ballads are best known in North America, the ballad as a type is found in all Western cultures. Another type of narrative folk song is the epic, a drawn-out account focusing on the exploits of a heroic figure in wars and other conflicts. Found mainly in the Balkans, Russia, Finland, and the Middle East, epics are usually organized in lines or couplets rather than stanzas. Best known are the Serbian epics telling about conflict between Christians and Muslims (c. 1200-1600). Sung by professional singers in cafés, and sometimes taking several hours to complete, they are partially improvised with the use of melodic formulas and are accompanied by the gusle (a fiddle with a skin belly and one string of horsehair). In Iran, epics concern pre-Islamic kings and the deeds of the early leaders of Islam. Epic folk traditions are found throughout Asia. Related to the narrative songs are genres of folk theatre, found throughout Asia and in parts of Europe. Similar to the medieval mystery plays, they can be illustrated by narrations of the Christmas story in dialogue form; in these genres, the style of the music is typically simple, involving repetitive melodies with short formulas and few tones. A large group of folk songs may be called calendric, that is, they accompany rituals that mark major events in life or in the year's various cycles. Included are songs sung at the birth of infants and at puberty, wedding songs, and funeral dirges. In the West the year is marked by songs of pre-Christian rituals such as those celebrating summer and winter solstice, planting and harvest; by music for Christian feasts such as Christmas, Easter, and Whitsun; and by combinations such as New Year's

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 (with winter solstice) and St John's (summer solstice). Calendric songs are frequently archaic, using short forms and restricted scales, and they are often associated with instruments such as rattles, one-tone wooden trumpets, and flutes without finger holes. Another category of folk music involves songs for crises such as war and illness. Although songs of this kind were probably common at one time, they are rare now; their existence, however, shows the relationship of folk music to the music of tribal cultures. Many work songs are found in Western cultures and, especially, in the folk music of African-derived cultures in the Americas. The purpose of some work songs is to increase the efficiency of work through rhythmic sound. Others, with texts that concern agricultural activities and other work, function to build the solidarity of the working group. Among this group are sea shanties, cowboy songs, and railway songs, many of them narrative and thus also ballads. Further types of folk songs include love songs, songs of general entertainment such as those sung by young people in the Balkans while taking walks on holidays, and marching songs sung in earlier centuries by soldiers on long marches. Children's songs include lullabies, game songs, and counting-out rhymes, as well as nursery rhyme songs that have an educational purpose. Another type is religious folk songs, that is, hymns sung in rural churches and existing mainly in oral tradition. The main purpose of instrumental folk music is to accompany dance and, secondarily, marching. Although special pieces for instruments only are found throughout Europe and the Americas, instrumentally performed songs are also common. Occasionally, dancing is accompanied by singing. In Scandinavia, narrative ballads were once used for dancing. VI INSTRUMENTS

Each folk culture has a large number of instruments. Some, such as bagpipes, are found throughout Europe; others, such as the Sardinian launeddas, a set of three reed pipes played by one musician, are used in limited areas. Western folk instruments can be classified by their origin and history. The folk cultures of Europe and Asia share their most archaic instruments with simple tribal societies; they include rattles, simple flutes, wooden trumpets, Jew's harps, and drums and are frequently used for archaic rituals or by children as toys. Another category is that of instruments brought to Europe from other cultures, particularly from the Middle East; examples include the hammered dulcimer, found in Western Europe as well as in Hungary (where it is known as the cimbalom), but probably originating in Iran. A third category is made up of instruments developed in the folk culture itself, such as fiddles made from wooden shoes in the Low Countries. The largest group of instruments comprises those taken from urban culture, such as the violin, clarinet, double bass, and accordion, which were adopted without much change. Some

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 instruments, once widely used in art music, were later relegated mostly to folk use; examples include guitars, mandolins and dulcimers, and the Norwegian Hardanger fiddle, a violin with sympathetic strings. The hurdy-gurdy, a fiddle using mechanical stops instead of fingers to change the pitches is sounded by a rosined wheel instead of a bow. The large, two-person type was once used in church and art music; it was later simplified for folk use. Folk music instruments are often played solo or to accompany singing. Ensembles of instruments of many kinds are also found. They include non-professional versions of art music ensembles such as brass bands and Scandinavian groups of fiddles. Particularly common in central Europe is a combination of two violins with double bass. Many other groups combine one melody-producing instrument with drums and other percussion. Ensembles of drums and wind instruments—particularly oboes—are also found in folk music of southern Asia and the Middle East. In some instances one person plays two instruments, as in the pipe-and-tabor (flute-anddrum) combination of Western Europe and South America and the violin and mouth organ in Hungary. The number of ensemble types is vast, but in general folk ensembles resemble chamber music ensembles rather than orchestras, in that no two instruments play precisely the same part. VII FOLK MUSIC IN THE MODERN WORLD

The picture presented thus far applies to folk music as it has existed in the past centuries and continues to exist in a few isolated valleys and village cultures. Most folk cultures, however, have changed greatly in the last hundred years. Printing and the mass media have given them access to urban culture. Members of folk communities have moved to cities and continued their traditions in changed form. Urban music has, likewise, been affected by folk music. Thus, many phenomena once on the border of folk music have taken on greater importance. Some examples: European ethnic groups now living in American cities keep up their traditions at festivals and parties to preserve their ethnic integrity (not the original functions of the songs). Dissenting political and social movements of the left and the right have made a practice of writing and performing songs in folk style with words supporting their causes. American folksingers of rural origin, such as the Carter family in the 1930s, or with academic backgrounds, such as Pete Seeger, have become major urban entertainers. This is true in Europe, Asia, and Africa as well. Popular music makes use of folk styles, and mixed styles such as country and western music, folkrock, soul, and gospel music have emerged. In Eastern Europe, talented rural folksingers have been given formal musical training in conservatories. The typical folk community has been exposed to many kinds of musical influences. In the former republics of the USSR, instruments once played solo were organized into orchestras that entertained in large cities. Contests, folk festivals, and tourism have all made inroads into the relative isolation of the folk community and its music. The character of folk music has changed greatly since World War II, and the lines separating it from other kinds of music have become blurred. Nevertheless, folk

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 music as a worldwide phenomenon, although changing, shows no sign of disappearing. Indian Sanskrit drama flourished in the 4th and 5th centuries. The complex, epic dramas are structured around nine rasas, or moods, rather than characters, because the plays are concerned primarily with spiritual matters. They use stories, however, drawn from the great Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. The stages were elaborately decorated, but no representational scenery was used. Movements of every part of the body, vocal delivery, and song were all strictly codified. Puppet, folk, and dance drama, especially the kathakali, have also been popular at various times in Indian history. See Indian Classical Dance; Indian Theatre. Elsewhere in South East Asia, puppet drama is dominant, notably the wayang kulit, or shadow puppets, of Java. In some places puppets are so highly regarded that actors study how to move like puppets.

India
I INTRODUCTION

India (in Hindi, Bharat), officially Republic of India, federal democracy in southern Asia and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, comprising, with Pakistan and Bangladesh, the subcontinent of India. India is the seventh-largest country in the world and the second most populous, after China. It geographically consists of the entire Indian peninsula and portions of the Asian mainland. India is bordered on the north by Afghanistan, Tibet, Nepal, China, and Bhutan; on the south by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar, which separate it from Sri Lanka, and the Indian 59

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Ocean; on the west by the Arabian Sea and Pakistan; on the east by Myanmar (Burma), the Bay of Bengal and Bangladesh, which almost cuts off north-east India from the rest of the country. With Jammu and Kashmir (the definitive status of which has not been determined), India has an area of 3,165,596 sq km (1,222,243 sq mi). The capital of India is New Delhi, and the country’s largest city is Mumbai (formerly Bombay). II LAND AND RESOURCES

India may be divided into four main regions: the Himalaya, the northern riverplains, the Deccan Plateau, and the Eastern and Western Ghats. The Himalaya mountain system is about 160 to 320 km (100 to 200 mi) wide and extends about 2,410 km (1,498 mi) along the northern and eastern margins of the Indian subcontinent, separating it from the rest of Asia. It is the highest, youngest, and one of the most active mountain systems in the world. Notable peaks wholly or partly within India include Kanchenjunga (8,598 m/28,208 ft), the third-highest peak in the world, after Mount Everest and K2 (Mount Godwin-Austen), Nanga Parbat (8,126 m/26,660 ft), Nanda Devi (7,817 m/25,645 ft), Rakaposhi (7,788 m/25,550 ft), and Kamet (7,756 m/25,447 ft). Lying south of and parallel to the Himalaya is the northern plains region, a vast belt of flat lands about 280 to 400 km (175 to 250 mi) in width. The region is the world’s largest alluvial plain and comprises the major part of the area watered by the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra rivers. Because of the abundance of water and the rich alluvial soil, the northern plains are the most fertile and densely populated part of India and were the cradle of its civilization. They extend west-east from the Pakistan border to the Bangladesh border, continuing east into north-east India via the narrow corridor of land near Darjiling. The central and western portions of the Indian plains region are watered by the River Ganges and its tributaries, which drain the southern slopes of the Himalaya; the region is known consequently as the Gangetic plain. The north-eastern states of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh are watered by the River Brahmaputra and its affluents, which rise in the northern ranges of the Himalaya. The Brahmaputra crosses into Bangladesh north of the Khasi Hills. The River Indus rises in Tibet, flows west through Jammu and Kashmir State, and crosses into Pakistan. On the south-western border with Pakistan the plains give way to the Great Indian Desert and the salt marshes known as the Rann of Kachchh. South of the plains lies the Deccan Plateau, a vast, triangular tableland occupying most of peninsular India. Generally rocky, the Deccan is an uneven plateau divided into natural regions by low mountain ranges and deep valleys. Elevations range from about 305 to 915 m (1,000 to 3,000 ft), although outcroppings as high as 1,220 m (4,000 ft) occur. The Deccan is bordered by the mountain systems known as the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The Western Ghats, a steep escarpment overlooking the Arabian Sea, have a general elevation of about 915 m (3,000 ft). The fertile Malabar Coast lies between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The Eastern Ghats average about 460 m (1,500 ft) in height. Between them and the Bay of Bengal is a narrow coastal plain, the Coromandel Coast. The two ranges meet at the southernmost point of the Deccan (near Bangalore) in the Nilgiri Hills. A Climate

Because of the peninsularity, unusual topography, and geographical position of India, climatic conditions are widely diversified, on both a seasonal and regional basis. The diversity ranges from tropical to temperate zonal extremes; the temperature extremes are confined largely to the slopes of the Himalaya. Except in the more mountainous regions, most of the rest of India has a uniformly tropical climate. Seasonal variations, resulting from the south-western and north-eastern monsoons, profoundly influence temperature, humidity, and precipitation throughout the subcontinent. For general purposes, the seasons of India may be classified as rainy and dry. The rainy season, which generally extends from June to November, is the season of the south-western monsoon, a moisture-laden wind blowing off the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea. Beginning early in June on the western coast of the peninsula, the monsoon gradually affects almost the entire country. During this season, rainfall can be very heavy—along the slopes of the Western Ghats it often reaches more than 3,175 mm (125 in). At Cherrapunji in the Khasi Hills of north-eastern India, the yearly rainfall is about 10,920 mm (430 in). Mean annual precipitation along the southern slopes of the Himalaya is about 1,525 mm (60 in). The south-western monsoon fails at times, causing droughts and occasionally famine. However, the rains are a mixed blessing. They lead to the proliferation of malaria-carrying mosquitoes, while the contrast between day- and night-time temperatures encourages respiratory disorders. Normally, the power of the monsoon diminishes in September. The cool season of the north-eastern monsoon, extending from early December until after the end of February, is usually accompanied by extremely dry weather— although severe storms, attended by slight precipitation on the northern plains and heavy snowfalls in the Himalaya, sometimes cross the country. The hot season, beginning about the middle of March and extending until the onset of the southwestern monsoon, is most oppressive during May, when temperatures as high as 51.7° C (125° F) are not uncommon in central India. In the vicinity of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), the mean annual temperature is about 26.1° C (79° F). The mean annual temperature in the west-central coastal region of the peninsula is about 27.8° C (82° F). Around Chennai (formerly Madras) temperatures range between about 24.4° and 33.3° C (76° to 92° F), with an annual mean of about 28.9° C (84° F). B Natural Resources

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 India contains more than two thirds of the entire area of the Indian subcontinent, including most of the highly fertile Gangetic plain. In addition to extensive cultivable regions, a comprehensive irrigation network, and valuable stands of timber, India has most of the known mineral deposits of the subcontinent. However, though it has rich resources, in many areas these have not yet been fully exploited. C Plants and Animals

In the arid areas that adjoin Pakistan, the flora is sparse and largely herbaceous. Thorny species, including representatives of the genera Capparis (caper) and Zizyphus (jujube), are common. Bamboo occurs in some areas, and the palm is among the few varieties of trees. The wetter Gangetic plain supports many plant species. Vegetation is especially luxuriant in the south-eastern plains, where the mangrove and the sal, a hardwood, flourish. Many varieties of arctic flora are found on the higher slopes of the Himalaya. The densely forested lower ranges of the Himalaya support numerous species of subtropical plants, notably the orchidaceae. Coniferous species, including cedar and pine, predominate in the north-western Himalaya. To the east, the Himalayan slopes abound with tropical and subtropical vegetation, notably the rhododendron. The oak and magnolia are among the predominant trees. The Malabar Coast of the south-western peninsula and the slopes of the Western Ghats, areas of high rainfall, are thickly wooded. Evergreens, bamboo, and valuable timber varieties, including teak, predominate in this region. Extensive tracts of impenetrable jungle occur in the swampy lowlands and along the lower slopes of the Western Ghats. The vegetation of the Deccan is less luxuriant, but thickets of bamboo, palm, and deciduous trees are found throughout the peninsula. The forests, plains, hills, and mountains of India are inhabited by a wide variety of animal life. The cat family is well represented, with the tiger and panther, snow and clouded leopard, jungle cat, and, in the Deccan, the cheetah. Lions are also found, though now limited to the Gir National Park in Gujarat. Strenuous national and international efforts to protect the tiger, which was once on the verge of extinction, have resulted in a healthy build-up of populations to several thousand, protected in reserves such as that at Ranthambore, in Rajasthan. The Asian elephant is found along the north-eastern slopes of the Himalaya and in the remote forests of the Deccan. The rhinoceros, guar, black bear, wolf, jackal, dhole, wild buffalo, wild pig, and several species of ape, antelope, and deer are also indigenous to India. Various species of wild goat and sheep as well as the ibex and the serow (related to the chamois) are found in the Himalaya and other mountainous areas. The pygmy pig, bandicoot rat, and tree mouse are typical of the smaller mammals. India has many different kinds of snake. Venomous species include the cobra, the daboia, and salt-water snakes. Among non-venomous species, pythons usefully

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 consume destructive rodents. Indigenous reptiles also include the crocodile. India’s birdlife includes parrots, peacocks, kingfishers, and herons. The rivers and coastal waters of India teem with fish, including many edible varieties. D Conservation

India has a strong conservation and environmental protection movement, which has campaigned and lobbied with considerable success against the destruction of habitats through the demands of continuing and rapid industrialization, and population pressures. Examples of campaigns include the “tree huggers” who have fought deforestation in the Himalaya, the prevention of the Silent Valley project in Kerala (a major hydroelectric scheme that would have destroyed the habitat of species unique to the region), and most recently, the long, drawn out, and bitter battle to stop the massive Narmada Dam Project in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. On another front, environmentalist groups have delayed the Tehri project, involving the construction of dams in a highly seismic region of the Himalaya. Among the current environmental concerns in India are deforestation, desertification, lack of access to water, air and water pollution, and the strain placed on natural resources by a huge and growing population. III POPULATION

The diverse racial and cultural origins of the people of India are bound intricately with those of the other peoples of the Indian subcontinent, including the inhabitants of Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka, as well as those further afield. The exact origins of most Indian people are impossible to determine because of the large variety of races and cultures that have invaded and been assimiliated into the subcontinent. However, elements of three major racial groups—the Caucasoid, the Australoid, and the Mongoloid—may be found in present-day India. At times, geography and environment have encouraged successive waves of migrants to mingle with the indigenous peoples. However, environmental and historical factors have also favoured the coexistence in India of many different peoples with distinct physical and cultural characteristics. This is reflected in India’s linguistic diversity; the country has 18 major languages and more than 1,000 minor ones (see Indian Languages). Approximately 8 per cent of the total population belongs to more than 300 so-called scheduled tribes. These tribal or aboriginal groups are racially and culturally distinct from the majority Indian population and also tend to vary considerably among themselves. Broadly speaking, the majority of non-tribal Indian peoples are predominantly Caucasoid in features, showing considerable variation in skin colour. Mongoloid features are seen in the hill tribes of the very north, such as the Nagas. Australoid features are also seen among the tribal groups, such as the Santal of Bangla.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The majority of people in the north and east speak Indo-Aryan languages such as Assamese, Punjabi, Urdu, Hindi, and Bengali. The influence of close contact with Persia and the Mughal period are apparent in the language as well as the architecture, clothing, and other aspects of life in the north. These languages derive from Sanskrit, now essentially a dead language, but still used in the reading of sacred texts and other religious ceremonies. In contrast, the Dravidian languages of the south, such as Kannada, Telugu, and Malayalam, derive primarily from Tamil, although Malayalam contains a considerable number of Sanskrit words. All these languages boast substantial and rich literatures. Of the 18 languages recognized in the constitution, one, Manipuri, the language of the far northern state of Manipur, is Sino-Tibetan in origin. Among the tribal peoples, often living in relatively isolated hilly regions, a number have maintained their unique cultures and customs, although the encroaching of the mainstream population has caused considerable assimilation and erosion of traditional ways of life. A Caste

The Indian constitution sets out the resolve to eradicate the age-old system of caste, which has denied for centuries the opportunity of social advancement to the lowest stratum of the system, the Dalits (formerly “Untouchables” or Harijans, “children of God”, as Gandhi named them). Considerable steps were taken after independence actively to promote the education and welfare of these depressed classes, most notably through a system of positive discrimination—by assigning a quota of up to 50 per cent of places in universities and professional institutions to the “scheduled” castes. Old traditions die hard, however, and despite these efforts and those of individuals such as Gandhi, Ambedkar, and others, prejudice, mainly in the social sphere, remains. Nevertheless, individuals from scheduled-caste backgrounds are now found in all walks of life and include eminent scientists, judges, and politicians. In recent years, as a business-led, consumer culture evolves, with status counted more by material wealth than family and tradition, the hold of caste is declining, with many inter-caste marriages, especially among the urban middle classes. In the political sphere, parties and organizations based on caste lines have often been vociferous in the demanding of rights and the protection of the interests of their communities. Politicians and parties frequently seek to secure the votes of particular jatis (sub-castes). Allegiances, however, tend to be fluid and often based on expediency. The continuation of the system of positive discrimination in university entrance has caused friction with non-scheduled-caste students, who claim it has resulted in intolerably high entrance requirements for other castes and lowered standards. B Population Characteristics

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 India has about 16 per cent of the world’s population. Its population was 1,029,991,100 in 2001. The overall population density was about 325 people per sq km (843 per sq mi). Many births and deaths are unregistered, but official data suggest that the birth rate in 2001 was about 24 per 1,000. Life expectancy averaged 63 years. Approximately 72 per cent of India’s population lives in rural areas. Though living conditions in many areas have improved—for example through the provision of clean water—most people are still poor. About one third of the population lives on or below the UN poverty line; less than 3 per cent of Indian households have an income of more than US$2,500 a year. C Political Divisions

India is divided into 28 states—Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, and Uttar Pradesh; 6 Union Territories— Andaman and Nicobar, Chandīgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Lakshadweep, and Pondicherry; and the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The Jammu and Kashmir region is disputed with Pakistan, and India claims Aksai Chin, administered by China since the Sino-Indian War of 1962, as part of Jammu and Kashmir State. The north-eastern border of Arunachal Pradesh is disputed between India and China. D Principal Cities

India’s largest city is Mumbai (Bombay), with a population of 9,925,891 (1991). Other cities with populations of more than 1 million include: Ahmadabad, and Bangalore, which are major rail junctions; Kolkata; Delhi; Hyderabad, which is famous for its handicrafts; the leather manufacturing city of Kanpur; the port of Chennai (Madras); Pune; Nagpur; Lucknow; and Jaipur. E Religion

The major religious groups (followed by their approximate portion of the total population; 1991 census) are Hindus (82 per cent), Muslims (12.1 per cent), Christians (2.3 per cent), and Sikhs (1.94 per cent). Other important religious minorities are Buddhists, Jains, and Parsis. The rise of religious nationalism and fundamentalism in India from the 1980s onwards has increased political and social tensions in some areas, and at times— such as the 1992 and 1993 riots in Punjab and elsewhere—has erupted into violence. The Hindutva movement, demanding a Hindu India, has grown significantly in strength. It is represented by the group of organizations collectively known as the Sangh Parivar, including the staunchly Hindu nationalist Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) and the ultra-extremist Shiv Sena.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The rise to power of the parliamentary wing of the movement, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in recent years, albeit as leader of fragile and wide-ranging coalitions, has increased the influence of Hindutva ideology. The rise of Hindutva has raised serious concerns regarding the future of the secular India established under Nehru. F Language

More than 1,600 languages or dialects are spoken in India, comprising 18 officially recognized languages; 16 are considered major languages, including Telugu, Bengali, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, and Gujarati. The constitution provides that Hindi —spoken by about 39 per cent of the population—is the official language of the country, with English an associate language for many official purposes. However, the official dominance of Hindi is unacceptable to states such as Tamil Nadu in the south, and the full implementation of the provision has had to be postponed. See Indian Languages. G Education

Ancient India was a society of considerable educational development. Its universities attracted many students from elsewhere in Asia—especially Chinese, who came to study the teachings of Buddha in some of the first universities in the world, notably Nalanda, which was established by the 6th century bc. India also extended its educational influence by sending its university graduates to other parts of Asia to teach. From the 13th century onwards, however, first under Muslim control and later under British rule, the original contribution of Indians to education waned, and application of newer educational methods was curtailed. In the 20th century Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Mohandas Gandhi, and Rabindranath Tagore received international recognition for educational contributions to their country. Gokhale was one of the early nationalist leaders and in 1911 he introduced a bill in parliament aimed at the provision of free and compulsory primary education. Gandhi, who was influenced by Gokhale, instituted basic literacy and communityimprovement programmes. In 1901 Tagore, one of the greatest poets of modern India, founded an experimental school at Santiniketan, 160 km (99 mi) from Kolkata, modelled on the ancient Indian tapovana (“forest hermitage”). Aimed at combining the best of Western and Indian culture, the school in 1921 became the Visva-Bharati University and attracted students from all over the world. Since gaining its independence from Britain in 1947, India has sought to develop a modern, comprehensive school system; the reports of the All-Indian commissions of 1953 and 1964 advocating educational reform provided impetus for improvement. The education of India’s large and youthful population, with its social and religious complexities, has not been easy, however. Funds that might have been used for education have had to be utilized to combat poverty, food shortages, and

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 overpopulation. The relics of the caste system, inadequate vocational placement, and religious diversity have contributed to the difficulty of educational reform. Nevertheless, sweeping structural changes have been undertaken and largely carried through, and the number of schools and of pupils has risen greatly since independence. The school systems of the 28 states are under the direct control of the state governments; the federal Ministry of Education assists the state systems, directs education in the seven centrally administered union territories, provides financial help for India’s institutions of higher learning, and discharges various other responsibilities. Primary education is free, but not compulsory. In the 1970s the predominant pattern of available schooling included eight years of primary and middle school education, three years of secondary education including a vocational element (so that pupils’ completion might qualify for entry into a trade or profession), and three years of university education leading to a degree. Then, as now, however, only a minority of pupils went past the primary level. In 1996 there were 581,305 primary schools. Implementation of a slightly modified pattern, consisting of ten years of primary, middle, and secondary school education, two of higher secondary education, and three of university, began in the 1980s. There is also a nationwide adult literacy programme. According to the 1991 census, about 52 per cent of the adult population was literate, compared with just over 43 per cent a decade earlier; in 2001 was 73.3 per cent of adults were literate. Literacy varies considerably from state to state. Kerala, in South India, has achieved a remarkable literacy level of over 90 per cent, possibly related to the importance given to the education of women and their relatively high status in society. In 1996 India spent 3.2 per cent of the gross national product and 2.7 of the total government expenditure on education. G1 Schools, Universities, and Colleges

In 1996, 110 million pupils were enrolled in primary schools and 68.9 million in secondary schools. India had 164 universities, 11 institutions of national importance, 38 institutions with university status, and more than 8,600 technical, arts, and science colleges in the mid-1990s. The total enrolment in universities and colleges in 1996 was 6.06 million students. Large institutions included Agra University (founded 1927), the University of Bihar (1952), the University of Mumbai (1857), the University of Calcutta (1857), the University of Delhi (1922), Gauhati University (1948), Gujarat University (1950; in Ahmadabad), the University of Kerala (1937; in Thiruvananthapuram), the University of Madras (1857), the University of Mysore (1916), the University of Pune (1949), and the University of Rajasthan (1947; in Jaipur). Outstanding centres of study and research include the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore and the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai. H Culture

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 India is a secular country that has traditionally absorbed and given birth to a variety of religions and religious sects. The majority of present-day Indians are Hindu, however, and this is reflected in many aspects of the shared culture across the country. Hinduism itself has, over centuries, absorbed and evolved a number of different philosophies and approaches, from the philosophical Advaita of Shankara to the devotion of the Bhakti movement. The coexistence of significant minority faiths with the majority faith of Hinduism has by no means always been peaceable; Hindu-Muslim and Hindu-Sikh tensions (often fanned by motives other than religious ones) have, in the past, resulted in many deaths. The Ramajanmabhoomi movement, whose demands to build a Hindu temple on what they claim to be the birthplace of Rama in Ayodhya resulted in the destruction by a mob of the Babri Masjid (a mosque which they declared to have been built after the destruction of a previous temple) in 1992, has clearly been able to generate considerable popular support. Such developments pose a serious threat to the future of secularism in India. It could be argued that this recent so-called Hindu “fundamentalism” (a contradiction in terms, as Hinduism has no defined fundaments) is an effort to forge a singular national culture on religious lines from rich and diverse traditions. The inculcation of such ideas has been facilitated by the widespread access to television, latterly satellite television, and its powerful cultural messages. The same media have also spread another value-set which to some extent has served to dissipate the call of religion—that of a Western-style consumer society. Many languages are spoken across India. Eighteen of the major ones are recognized in the constitution, but many other relatively minor ones are also spoken regionally. Sanskrit, the ancient language of the Hindu scriptures, is an Indo-European language related to Greek and Latin. It was the medium for the vast body of religious and secular writing (see Sanskrit Literature) that constitutes the core of classical Indian literature. Tamil is also a very ancient language, with a rich literature and, unlike Sanskrit, it is still thriving today. Tamil is a Dravidian language, with a completely different script to Sanskrit, and forms one of several Dravidian languages spoken in the south of India. Large bodies of literature also exist in all the other major languages of India, notably Hindi, Bengali, Urdu, Telugu, Kannada, and Malayalam. Early classical painting and sculpture was inspired by Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, all influenced by one another. The art of Madhura, Gandhara (with its blending of Hellenistic and Indian elements), the refinement of Gupta art, the frescoes at Ajanta, the rock-cut reliefs at Mahabalipuram (Mamallapuram) and the Nataraja at Chidambaram, all form part of the splendid heritage of early India. Perhaps the world’s first extant treatise on the theory of drama, music and dance, the Natya Shastra, by Bharata, written by about ad 300, formed the basis of a sophisticated tradition in the performing arts (see Indian Dance; Indian Theatre).

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 A relative decline in classical Hindu arts and culture followed the end of the reign of Harsha in the 7th century in northern India as new socio-political forms began to evolve, although the south, under kingdoms such as the Pallava, and later the Chola, was reaching its apex in art and architecture. In this period of uncertainty and change, a major dislocation in cultural development occurred in northern India, with the waves of conquerors from Central Asia in the 11th and 12th century, who brought with them a quite different faith, Islam. Some of the ancient centres of learning, such as the magnificent Buddhist university at Nalanda, were totally destroyed by Turks in the 11th century. After several centuries of warfare, disruption, and repression under Turkish and Mongol rulers, by the mid-16th century, the Mughal dynasty founded by Babur, a descendant of the Mongol Tamerlane, had conquered all of northern India. Islam, with its linear Western cosmogony, and revulsion against any form of idol-worship, was fundamentally different from Hinduism and other eastern faiths, and some of the early conquerors, in particular, ransacked temples and shrines, such as the Jagannath temple in Puri, and showed scant respect for ancient learning. Others, however, became interested in Sanskrit, and key works, such as the mathematical treatise of Bhaskara, the Lilavati, were translated into Persian and became very popular during the Mughal period. Under the great Mughal emperors such as Akbar, the country experienced a new period of flourishing of the arts, with fresh impetus arising from Persian influence culminating in a distinct style of art, music, and architecture in northern India. The Mughal period provided India with some of its most impressive architecture, best known through the world-renowned Taj Mahal in Agra. It also brought outstanding work in manuscript illustration, miniature painting, and the decorative arts, as well as the evolution of Hindustani music in the north. The south evolved its own style, known as Carnatic music. Both classical forms have produced composers and musicians of the highest calibre, including Tansen, Tyagaraja, and in recent years, Allauddin Khan, Ravi Shankar, M. S. Subbulakshmi, and many others. A strong, regional folk tradition of all the performing arts has continued throughout. Under British rule, much of this creative cultural momentum became dissipated, but at the same time, a number of individuals such as William Carey and Max Müller, became interested in ancient and medieval Indian culture and, by their translations and commentaries, provided Western readers with access to key works. Some art forms, such as styles of classical Indian dance, however, declined through lack of patronage or fell into disrepute under Victorian values. A revival in aspects of Indian thought and culture accompanied the rising nationalist feeling, and the 20th century has seen efforts not only to revive dying arts such as Kathakali, but to reconstitute early forms. In dance, for example, Chandralekha has explored the early forms of Bharatanatyam, and the erotic style of Orissi, depicted in many ancient sculptures, has become well known.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 See also Indian Art and Architecture; Indian Music.

Crafts Crafts (also handicrafts), the practice of making decorative or functional objects, wholly or partly by hand, and requiring both manual and artistic skill. The term crafts also refers to objects made in this way. Crafts today predominantly comprise weaving, basketmaking, embroidery, quilting, pottery, woodworking, and jewellery making. They are made both by amateur craftsmen at home, as a hobby with a minimum of equipment, and by professionals with a regular outlet for their products. Crafts are also used in occupational therapy. For example, patients may be taught crafts to strengthen weakened muscles or to help in gaining the use of an artificial limb. Emotionally disturbed people are also taught crafts as an outlet for feelings. Crafts also provide the disabled with an occupation that diverts attention from their handicaps. Prisoners-of-war have been known to produce crafts of high quality; a notable example of this is the straw-work marquetry executed by Napoleonic prisoners-of-war in England during the early years of the 19th century. Crafts are as old as human history. Originally fulfilling utilitarian purposes, they are now a means of producing aesthetically appealing handmade objects in a world dominated by mechanization and standardization. Among the earliest basic crafts are basketry, weaving, straw-work, and pottery. Nearly every craft now practised can be traced back many hundreds or even thousands of years. Craftwork formed the basis of town and city economies throughout Europe until the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. Once items could be mass-produced, however, individual artisans were no longer needed. In reaction to the effects of industrialization, the Arts and Crafts Movement began in England in the late 19th century, led by the designer and social reformer William Morris. The strong interest in crafts throughout the Western world today grew in large part from this movement. In many parts of the world crafts are still produced as they have been for centuries; Chinese basketry and Indonesian batik are examples. In the southern Appalachian highlands of the United States, basketry and woven goods are made today by much the same methods used by the original settlers of the region. Ethnographic collections in museums throughout the world include examples of indigenous crafts and artisanry to document the development of various cultures; art museums with archaeological collections frequently supplement their displays of

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 formal art objects by showing examples of related folk crafts. In addition, special museums of folk art and of crafts have been established to preserve and display examples of traditional crafts. Contemporary craft workers can learn much from studying earlier techniques and designs, as well as the work of their peers. Many other sources are available to those interested in learning crafts. Books and magazines on history, techniques, and innovations can be found in great number for every craft. Courses are offered by schools and colleges, art schools, craft groups, and other organizations. Membership of a craft association is another source of instruction and inspiration. Such associations often sponsor lectures and demonstrations, and they offer the opportunity to share ideas with other members through publications, meetings, and crafts fairs H1 Libraries and Museums

India has more than 60,000 libraries, including more than 1,000 specialized ones attached to various government departments. The National Library, in Kolkata, is one of three copyright libraries that receive copies of all books and magazines published in India. Outstanding among several hundred public libraries is that in Delhi. India’s more than 350 museums include a number containing important historical and archaeological collections, such as the Government Museum and National Art Gallery, Chennai; the National Museum, New Delhi; Sarnath Museum, Vārānasi; and the Indian Museum, Kolkata. Vadodra, Chennai, Kozhikode, and New Delhi have museums containing outstanding collections of medieval and modern art. IV ECONOMY

India has a mixed economy in which both the central and state governments pay a leading role—as regulators, planners, and through ownership of public enterprises. Large-scale government involvement in the economy began in the 1950s as a reflection of nationalism and of the socialism of the first post-independence government led by Jawaharlal Nehru—and with the aim of speeding up economic development and growth to meet the needs of India’s rapidly growing population. The first of India’s five-year economic plans was launched in 1951. During the decades that followed the state took over certain key sectors and invested heavily in others, while the private sector was subject to wide-ranging controls. Tariff, and other, barriers were erected to protect domestic industries, and various agrarian reform programmes were initiated. The results were generally positive, especially when compared with many other developing countries. Economic growth, except during times of severe drought such as 1979 and 1987, was steady; it averaged 3.6 per cent a year in real terms (that is,

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 after taking into account population growth) between 1965 and 1980, and more than 5 per cent a year during the 1980s. Inflation and the national debt were generally kept low. Agricultural output rose significantly and the spectre of mass famine was eliminated. The basis of a modern industrial state was laid. However, growth levels were still too low to have more than a marginal impact on the income of the majority of Indians. In 1999 India’s gross national product (GNP) was about US$441,834 million, giving an income per head of just US$440. In addition, more than 60 per cent of under-fives were malnourished, while access to clean water and sanitation was still available only to a minority of the population. In 1991 P. V. Narasimha Rao became Prime Minister and instituted a significant change in economic policy. Many of the controls over the private sector have been abolished and the state monopoly in certain areas, such as air transport, was loosened. The economy generally was opened up by the reduction of tariff controls and by the encouragement of foreign investment. These changes were partly brought about by the need to sustain higher growth rates. However, the government also needed to cut public spending and to reduce inflation, debt repayments, and the balance of payments deficit—which had all risen sharply as a result of problems created by the Gulf War and by government borrowing in the late 1980s. In 1991 and 1992 real economic growth dropped to 1.1 per cent; by 1996 it was above 6.5 per cent. Changes at national level have also been reflected at state level. The states have significant control over internal policy and interpret national policy in different ways. Some, like West Bengal, have far greater government control of the economy than average; others, like Maharashtra, have traditionally been more marketoriented. Since 1991, however, almost all the states have opened their doors to foreign investment, reduced controls over the private sector, and allowed some privatization of state companies. In 1999 some 2.48 million tourists visited India, and spent an estimated US$1,713 million. A Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

In terms of land uses, 54 per cent of India’s land is used for arable agriculture, 3 per cent for crops, and 4 per cent for pasture. About two thirds of India’s population depends on the land to make a living. Agriculture generates an estimated 28 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). Most farms are very small—the average size of holdings nationally is 2.63 hectares (6.5 acres), but more than one third of holdings are considered too small for the subsistence needs of a farming family. In terms of area sown the leading crop is rice, the staple food of a large section of the Indian population. Wheat ranks next in importance to rice, and India is also among the leading producers in the world of sugar cane, tea, cotton, and jute. Annual production of these commodities in 2000 was sugar cane, 315 million tonnes; rice, 135 million tonnes; wheat, 70.1 million tonnes; cotton, 6.17 million tonnes; and jute, 2 million tonnes; and tea, 749,400 tonnes. Other important crops are sorghum,

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 millet, maize, barley, chickpeas, bananas, mangoes, rubber, coffee, linseed, peanuts, and various seeds and spices. The raising of livestock, particularly horned cattle, buffalo, horses, and mules, is a central feature of the agricultural economy. In 2000 India had about 219 million cattle, substantially more than any other country in the world. These animals, like buffaloes, horses, and mules, are utilized primarily as beasts of burden, although the vegetarianism associated with Hindu custom is followed by few, especially in north India. Lack of pasture and water supplies means most Indian cattle are of poor quality. The country’s 93.8 million buffalo are largely raised in the delta regions. In the dry regions of Punjab and Rajasthan camels (1.03 million) are the principal beasts of burden. Sheep (57.9 million) and goats (123 million) are raised mainly for wool. Although much farming is still by traditional methods, there has been a significant change in the technologies available since independence. The area under canal irrigation systems financed by the government has expanded enormously; there has been an even greater expansion in the area watered by well-based systems. By 1998 about 590,000 sq km (227,800 sq mi) was irrigated. The demand for chemical fertilizers and high-yielding seed varieties has increased markedly, particularly since the much-publicized “Green Revolution” of the 1960s and early 1970s—which particularly benefited richer farmers in wheat-growing areas like Uttar Pradesh and Punjab states. The forestlands in India cover about 22 per cent of the total land area. Commercial forestry is not highly developed and is largely restricted to the northern highlands, Assam, and the regions bordering on the Himalaya. However, forests are used to provide fuelwood and charcoal, the main energy source for most Indians, as well as valuable fruits and nuts, fibres, oils, gums, and resins. The annual timber harvest was about 298 million cu m (10.5 billion cu ft) in 1999. Although largely undeveloped commercially, fishing remains vital in certain regions, such as the Ganges delta in Bengal and along the south-western coast. In recent years the government has been encouraging deep-sea fishing by constructing processing plants and underwriting ocean-going fleets and vessels. In 1997 the country’s annual catch totalled more than 5.38 million tonnes, of which 5.38 million tonnes was the marine catch. Kerala, Tamil, Nadu, and Maharashtra are the main fishing states, accounting for about half of the national catch. Overfishing is becoming a problem in some areas. B Mining

India ranks among the world leaders in the mining of iron ore and coal, and produces significant amounts of bauxite, manganese, mica, ilmenite, copper, petroleum, asbestos, chromium, graphite, phosphate rock, zinc, gold, and silver. This varied mineral base was a key factor in India’s economic development

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 following independence—underpinning the establishment of a diversified manufacturing sector. Nationalization during the 1950s has given the government a dominant role in the sector. Annual production figures in 1999 included coal (298 million tonnes), iron ore (43.5 million tonnes), bauxite (6.20 million tonnes), manganese (570,000 tonnes), aluminium (550,000 tonnes), zinc concentrates (145,000 tonnes), copper ore (32,100 tonnes), silver (54 tonnes), and gold (2,400 kg). Oil production is concentrated in Gujarat and Assam states, and offshore in the Khambhāt (Gulf of Khambhāt). In 1997 output amounted to about 273 million barrels, or about 60 per cent of India’s needs; output of natural gas was 21.2 billion cu m (750 billion cu ft). C Manufacturing

India has a very diversified manufacturing sector that contributes about 16 per cent of GDP. The modern sector, which has some very large concerns—particularly in the iron and steel sector—dominates in terms of output. However, small-scale, family-owned craft-based concerns are most important in terms of employment. Textile manufacturing—especially cotton textiles—is one of the longest established and still one of the most important sectors. Most cities have at least one cotton mill; output of cotton cloth in the mid-1990s was more than 17.0 billion m (55.8 billion ft). The iron and steel industry expanded greatly after the 1950s; in the mid-1990s output of finished steel products was more than 17.8 million tonnes. Other important industries include the processing of tea, grains, oil seeds, sugar, tobacco, and other agricultural products, printing and publishing, oil-refining, and the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment, motor vehicles, paper, footwear, chemicals, tiles and bricks, leather and metal goods, and railway equipment. The computer industry, in particular the development of software, has expanded considerably in recent years. Bangalore, in southern India, has been termed “India’s Silicon Valley”. D Energy

About 80 per cent of India’s electricity is produced in thermal facilities using coal or oil products. Another 17 per cent is generated by hydroelectric facilities, and 2 per cent is produced in nuclear power plants, including ones at Kota and near Mumbai. In 1999 India generated a total of 454.6 billion kWh. Although capacity is continuously being expanded, output is unable to keep up with demand and power shortages are a problem—particularly to the manufacturing sector. E Currency and Banking

The basic monetary unit is the Indian rupee, divided into 100 paise (46.780 Indian rupees equal US$1; 2001). The Reserve Bank of India, founded in 1934 and nationalized in 1949, operates as the central bank and sole bank of issue. A series of nationalizations brought the

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 majority of commercial banking into the public sector. Although there were 300 scheduled commercial banks in the early 1990s, more than 85 per cent of deposits and credits were accounted for by the 27 public-sector banks. Moneylending practices in rural India have led to problems of widespread indebtedness. Credit societies and cooperative banks have been set up to try to overcome these problems and have become increasingly important—particularly in the provision of credit to farmers to enable them to purchase seeds, fertilizers, and other agricultural inputs. F Commerce and Trade

Because of the high level, until recently, of protectionism, the volume of foreign trade relative to the size and diversity of the Indian economy has been low. In addition, there has been a persistent trade deficit, caused by imports of oil, raw materials, consumer goods, jewels, chemicals and fertilizers, and aggravated by a high level of smuggling. In 1999 India’s annual imports cost some US$44.6 billion, and its yearly exports earned about US$36.6 billion. The export trade is very varied, and is dominated by textiles, garments, jewellery and gemstones, leather goods, tea, engineering goods, and basic chemicals. The United States, in the mid-1990s, received about 19 per cent of India’s yearly exports and supplied about 10 per cent of its imports. Other leading trading partners are Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Belgium, the Commonwealth of Independent States, France, Australia, the Netherlands, and Iran. G Transport

At independence in 1947, India had one of the best-developed transport networks of any colony—particularly its railway system, which had been established during British rule. Since then it has built on this base, increasing the length of roads and establishing a comprehensive internal air transport network. However, the country’s broad network of state-owned railway lines continues to carry the bulk of goods traffic. The total length of operated railway track was 62,809 km (39,028 mi) in 1998 of which 17 per cent was electrified. Three different gauges (widths) of track are in use. There were more than 3.3 million km (2.1 million mi) of roads of which about half were surfaced. In 1995 there were an estimated 3.8 million cars in India; in 1996 there was a ratio of approximately 5 cars for every 1,000 people. The major Indian ports, including Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, and Vishakhapatnam, are reached by cargo carriers and passenger liners operating to all parts of the world. The civil aviation network was nationalized in 1953, with Air India operating the long-haul international routes and Indian Airlines domestic and regional routes. Since 1991 some domestic routes have been opened to the private sector. The networks and volume of traffic is expanding rapidly and air routes now connect not only the major cities and towns but also remote areas in the Himalaya and northeast India. There are an estimated 290 airports in India.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 H Communications

Despite the poverty of much of the population, limiting the development of the communication system, India’s telephone network has expanded significantly in recent years, gaining from the liberalization of the economy. By 2000, there were some 19 million telephone lines registered with the state-owned Telecommunications Department. The state-owned All India Radio broadcasts to about 116 million radio sets. Programmes are broadcast in 24 principal languages and many dialects. Television serves some 63 million receivers, many of them owned communally. Since the late 1980s the state-owned terrestrial service has been augmented by a variety of satellite services, which have exposed many ordinary Indians to television programmes from the West for the first time. The printed media is still very important. In the mid-1990s there were more than 33,612 newspapers and periodicals with a total circulation of more than 67.6 million. The 3,740 daily newspapers had a combined circulation in excess of 18.8 million. The press is free and often very critical of the government and politicians. The Times of India and the Indian Express are among the influential English-language dailies. I Health and Welfare

Since independence, the government has paid particular attention to India’s endemic health problems. But despite vigorous efforts in areas of preventive medicine, sanitation, and nutrition, health conditions remain marginal among the poor—although epidemics of cholera, dysentery, and elephantiasis are no longer common. Much of the population, however, continues to suffer from malnutrition. Progress has been made in combating malaria and plague and in controlling tuberculosis. Overall life expectancy at birth was about 62.9 years in 2001, compared with 32 years in 1941. The infant mortality rate declined from 151 to 91 per 1,000 live births between 1965 and 1989. In 2001 the infant mortality rate was 63 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 1993 some 410,875 doctors were practising in government hospitals and private clinics, providing an approximate ratio of one doctor for every 2,459 people. The country was served by over 642,100 hospital beds, in approximately 15,000 hospitals. Much of the rural population lacks ready access to professional services. In 1998, 2 per cent of government expenditure was spent on health care. Social-welfare programmes have been particularly in evidence in such areas as family-planning, various kinds of emergency relief, and care for the Dalits, who are protected by law but still subject to much harassment. Workers’ compensation is provided by law. V GOVERNMENT

The Republic of India is governed according to the provisions of a constitution adopted in 1949 and amended frequently since. It incorporates various features of

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 the constitutional systems of the United Kingdom, the United States, and other Western democracies. By the terms of the constitution, India is a sovereign democratic republic within the Commonwealth of Nations. The government is federal in its structure and India is a union of states and centrally administered union territories. There are 28 states and 7 Union Territories. A Executive and Legislature

The chief executive and head of state of India is the president. The role of president in government is largely nominal and ceremonial, however, for actual executive power resides in a council of ministers responsible to the parliament, which is composed of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States or upper house) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People or lower house). The president is elected for a five-year term by an electoral college consisting of the elected members of the national and state legislatures and is eligible for successive terms. Balloting in the electoral college is a highly complicated process. The council of ministers, or Cabinet, is headed by a prime minister, who is formally appointed by the president. Each of its members is the head of an administrative department of the central government. In most important respects, the Indian Cabinet system is identical to that of the United Kingdom. The constitution vests national legislative power in India in a bicameral parliament consisting of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The Lok Sabha consists of up to 550 members directly elected by universal adult suffrage (545 in 1999), and up to two members who may be appointed by the president to represent the Anglo-Indian community. Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes are specifically allocated 79 and 41 seats respectively in the Lok Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha normally serve for five years, the statutory limit for the duration of the house. However, the house may be dissolved upon defeat of major legislation proposed by the executive branch of the government. The Rajya Sabha has up to 250 members (245 in 2001). All are elected by the elected members of the state legislative assemblies except for 12 who are appointed by the president. The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body; the terms of one third of the members of the council expire biennially. B Political Parties

The Indian National Congress, founded in 1885, led India in the struggle for independence and in various incarnations has provided most of the country’s prime ministers. In 1969 a group of Congress members left the party to form the small Indian National Congress-Organization (or O). Another party that has had influence across the nation, but particularly in West Bengal and Kerala, is the Communist Party of India (CPI), formed in 1925, which later split in 1964, the breakaway faction founding the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI-M). In early 1977 Congress (O) joined with three other parties, Bharatiya Jana Sangh,

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Bharatiya Lok Dal, and the Socialist Party, to form the Janata Party, which won about half of the seats in the Lok Sabha in elections in March 1977. In May the Janata Party achieved a solid majority by merging with the Congress for Democracy. In 1978 the Congress Party split again, as Indira Gandhi founded the Indian National Congress-Indira (or I), which in 1981 was confirmed by the Supreme Court as the official Congress Party. Congress (I) swept to victory in parliamentary elections in 1980 and 1984, but lost its majority in 1989. In 1988 Janata Dal (People’s Party) was formed by a merger of the Janata Party, Lok Dal, and Jan Morcha. The major competitors for Congress in the 1989 elections included Janata Dal and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a right-wing Hindu nationalist group, formed by breakaway members of the Janata Party in 1980. C Judiciary

Judicial authority in India is exercised through a system of national courts administering the laws of the republic and the states. All judges are appointees of the executive branch of the government, but their independence is guaranteed by a variety of safeguards. Noteworthy among the latter is a provision requiring a twothirds vote of the national legislature to effect removal from office. At the apex of the judicial system is the Supreme Court, consisting of up to 17 members. Next in authority are the high courts and subordinate courts in each state. D State Government

The form of the state governments of India is generally modelled on that of the central government. Each state is headed by a governor who is appointed to a fiveyear term by the national president. Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh states elect bicameral legislative assemblies and legislative councils; the remainder, unicameral legislative assemblies. Of the 4,072 seats allotted to the legislative assemblies, 557 are reserved for the scheduled castes and 527 for the scheduled tribes. In India legislative responsibilities are divided into three groups, or lists. List One comprises 97 subjects—including defence, foreign affairs, communications, the currency, banking, and customs—which are under the exclusive jurisdiction of the national, or Union, parliament. List Two comprises 66 subjects over which the states’ parliaments have exclusive legislative powers, including police and public order, education, public health, agriculture, and local government. The 47 subjects on List Three are common to both the Union and state parliaments, and include economic and social planning, and labour and price controls. E Local Government

Urban areas are the responsibility of a variety of municipal bodies which take care, among other things, of the roads, water supply, drainage and sanitation, vaccination

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 programmes, and education. They are directly elected and raise revenue through property, vehicle, and other taxes. In rural areas there is the panchayati raj, a three-tier system of councils of ancient origin operating at village, block and district level. Elected directly by and from among villagers, the panchayats are responsible for agricultural production, rural industry, medical relief, mother and child welfare, grazing grounds, local roads, and water tanks and wells. F Defence

All branches of the armed services of India are made up only of volunteers. In 1999 the strength of the army was 1,100,000. The navy comprised 53,000 personnel and the air force 150,000 personnel, with more than 600 combat aircraft. Combined, they comprise one of the world’s largest armed forces, numbering 1.3 million. The Indian military has a tradition of non-involvement in domestic politics and there has never been a coup d’état. G International Organizations

India is a member of the UN, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Colombo Plan. VI HISTORY

The following account of India’s history is necessarily limited in scope; only the highlights and major turning points are stressed. For supplementary information regarding Indian history and civilization, see Buddhism; Caste; Dravidian; East India Company; Hinduism; Indian Art and Architecture; Indian Dance; Indian Languages; Indian Literature; Indian Nationalist Movement; Indian Philosophy; Indus Valley; Islam; Jainism; Parsis; Sanskrit Language; Sanskrit Literature; Sikhism. For additional information on historical figures, see the biographies on the individuals mentioned. A Prehistory

Because the Indians of remote antiquity left no written records of their social, cultural, and political activities, historians are obliged to rely almost exclusively on archaeological discoveries for an understanding of the earliest civilizations on the subcontinent. Evidence indicates that, possibly during the Neolithic period of the Stone Age, the inhabitants of the subcontinent were dispersed and partially assimilated by invading Dravidian tribes, who probably came from the west. On the basis of archaeological discoveries in the Indus Valley, the civilization subsequently developed by the Dravidians equalled and possibly surpassed in splendour the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 About the middle of the 3rd millennium bc, Dravidian India appears to have experienced an influx, perhaps in successive waves, of migrant tribes of the IndoEuropean linguistic stock. These tribes, probably originating from Central Asia and usually referred to as Indo-Aryans, entered the subcontinent through the mountain passes along the north-western frontier and gradually settled in most of the territory north of the Vindhya Range and west of the River Yamuna. There is no evidence that these population changes were in the form of invasions. The influence of the migrants would seem to have been limited in southern parts of the peninsula, where Dravidian languages continue to dominate, but assimilation, including, in the view of some authorities, absorption of various aspects of existing Dravidian culture, occurred in the north-west. B Vedic Period

Obscurity surrounds India’s political history for many centuries after the arrival of the waves of migrants from Central Asia, but the Veda, a collection of sacred writings dating from about 1200 bc, contains considerable information on social practices, religious beliefs, and cultural attainments. As depicted in some Vedic hymns, the civilization that emerged during the early centuries after the intermingling of Indo-Aryan and Dravidian cultures on the subcontinent was notable in several respects. Tribal political organs functioned according to democratic principles, the social status of women compared favourably with that of men, and marriage was regarded as sacred. The Indo-Aryans had advanced skills in various arts and sciences, including livestock-raising, metal handicrafts, carpentry, boatbuilding, and military science. The Vedic hymns composed during this and later periods also depict the emergence and crystallization of key features of the socio-religious system known as Hinduism. Virtually all that is known with certainty of the political situation is that in the course of the 1st millennium bc, 16 autonomous states were established in the region bounded by the Himalaya, the southern reaches of the Ganges, the Vindhya Range, and the Indus Valley. Of these states, comprising both republics and kingdoms, the most important was Kosala, a kingdom situated in the region occupied by modern Oudh. Other important kingdoms were Avanti, Vamsas, and Magadha. The lastnamed kingdom occupied the territory of modern Bihar, and in about the middle of the 6th century bc it became the dominant state of India. During the reign of its first great King Bimbisara (reigned about 543-491 bc), Buddha and Vardhamana Jnatiputra or Nataputta Mahavira, the respective founders of Buddhism and Jainism, preached and taught in Magadha. In 326 bc Alexander the Great led an expedition across the Hindu Kush into northern India. He won several victories during his march into India, climaxing in the Battle of Hydaspes which ended in the defeat of King Poros near the River Hydaspes (now the Jhelum). However, Alexander did not stay in India long, and the political and cultural effects of the invasion were insignificant, except in the

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 opportunity provided for the Mauryan King Chandragupta to expand his empire westwards utilizing the political vacuum. C Maurya Dynasty

In 321 bc Chandragupta, known to the Greeks as Sandrocottos, seized control of Magadha. Within the next decade Chandragupta, founder of the Maurya dynasty of Indian kings, extended his sovereignty over most of the subcontinent. He was assisted by Kautilya (or Chanakya), a Brahmin chief minister who may have been the main contributor to the Arthashastra, a textbook on politics akin to The Prince by the Italian historian Niccolò Machiavelli. The military power of the Indian Empire caused Seleucus I, one of Alexander’s generals and the founder of the Seleucid Empire, to arrange an alliance with the Maurya ruler. Concluded in 305 bc, the treaty was consolidated by a marriage arrangement between Chandragupta and a daughter of the Seleucid ruler. As one result of the close relations between the two empires, Greek cultural influence was widespread in northern India. The Maurya dynasty endured until about 185 bc. During the reign (c. 273-232 bc) of Ashoka, the greatest Maurya sovereign, Buddhism became the dominant religion of the empire. India was, by now, a great centre of learning with universities such as those at Nalanda, and Takshasila attracting scholars from China and South East Asia. Of the dynasties that appeared in the period immediately following the downfall of the Mauryas, the Sunga endured longest, lasting more than a century. The chief event of this period (c. 184-72 bc) was the persecution and decline of Buddhism in India and the triumph of Brahmanism. In consequence of the victory of the Hindu Brahman (priests), the caste system became deeply ingrained in the Indian social structure, creating great obstacles to national unification. An extensive section of western India was occupied in about 100 bc by invading Shakas (Scythians), then in retreat before the Yueh-chi of central Asia. Pushing southwards, the Yueh-chi subsequently settled in north-western India, where Kadphises, one of their kings, founded the Kushan dynasty in about ad 40. A large part of northern India shortly fell under the sway of the Kushan kings. One of the early Kushan monarchs established diplomatic and commercial relations with the Roman Empire. Buddhism thrived under the Kushans, and especially under the rule of Emperor Kanishka, who was a patron of learning and the arts. Mathematics and science flourished and the medical texts of Charaka were written at this time. The rulers of the indigenous Andhra dynasty, which came to control the former Sunga dominions in about 27 bc and endured for about 460 years, made repeated attempts to expel the Shakas. These attempts ended in failure and in about ad 236 the Shakas attained complete sovereignty over western India. A decade earlier, shortly before the fall of the Andhra dynasty, the Kushan realm also disintegrated. The ensuing century was a period of political confusion throughout most of India.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 D Gupta Empire

In 320 a Magadha raja named Chandragupta I (reigned 320-330), who had conquered the neighbouring territories, founded a new imperial regime and the Gupta dynasty. His grandson Chandragupta II (reigned 375-413) vastly expanded the realm, subjugating all of the subcontinent north of the River Narmada. Under the Gupta dynasty, which lasted for 160 years, Indian culture reached new heights. The period was one of sustained peace, steady economic advance, and intellectual accomplishment, particularly in art, music, and literature. Equally importantly, Hinduism, which had long been in decline, experienced a robust renaissance through absorption of some features of Buddhism. Towards the close of the 5th century, Hunnish invaders, often referred to as the White Huns, pushed into India from central Asia. The Gupta Empire broke up under the attacks of these invaders, whose supremacy went unchallenged for nearly a century. Foreign military reverses, notably at the hands of the Turks in about 565, finally undermined the power of the Huns in India. Among the contemporary descendants of the Huns who remained in India are certain tribal groups of Rajasthan state. Another powerful kingdom was founded in northern India in 606 by Harsha, the last Buddhist monarch of consequence in Indian history. Harsha’s reign emulated the Gupta period in its patronage of the arts, and the cultural achievements of this period can be seen in the chronicles of the great Chinese pilgrim, Xuangzang (Hsuan-tsang or Tripitaka). During his reign, Harsha secured control of almost the entire mainland and attempted, without success, to conquer the Deccan. After Harsha’s death, his realm disintegrated into a multiplicity of warring petty states and principalities. This anarchic state of affairs, which was also generally characteristic of the situation on the peninsula, prevailed throughout India until the beginning of the 11th century. E Muslim and Mongol Invasions

The prolonged period of internal strife drew to a close as a new power, solidly united under Islam, arose in western Asia. This new power was Khurasan, previously a Samanid province which had been transformed into an independent kingdom by Mahmud of Ghaznī (reigned 999-1030). A capable warrior whose sovereignty over Khurasan had been recognized by the caliph of Baghdad, Mahmud in 1000 launched the first of 17 consecutive expeditions across the Afghan frontier into India. These incursions were marked by victories over the disunited Indians. By 1025 Mahmud had sacked many western Indian cities, including the fabulously wealthy port of Somnath, and had annexed the region of Punjab to his empire. The most successful of the Muslim rulers after Mahmud was Muhammad of Ghur, whose reign began in 1173. Regarded by most historians as the real founder of Muslim power in India, he initiated his campaigns of conquest in 1175. In the course of the next three decades, he subjugated all of the Indo-Gangetic plain west of Benares (now Varanasi). On the death of Muhammad of Ghur, Qutb-ud-Din Aybak,

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 his viceroy in Delhi and a former slave, proclaimed himself Sultan. The so-called Slave dynasty founded by Qutb-ud-Din, its only outstanding ruler, endured until 1288. Another capable Muslim, Ala-ud-Din (reigned 1296-1316), was the second ruler of the succeeding Khalji dynasty. He consolidated the Indian realm by conquering the Deccan. However, before the end of his reign, the Mongols began to infiltrate the northern frontiers of his dominions. Muhammad Tughluq, the last Delhi sultan of importance, completely alienated both Muslims and subject Hindus by his cruelty and religious fanaticism. The empire was torn by revolutionary strife and some provinces, notably Bengal, seceded. The turmoil increased after Tughluq’s death. In 1398, when the Mongol conqueror Tamerlane led his armies into India, he met little organized resistance. Tamerlane completed his victorious invasion by sacking and destroying Delhi, and massacring its inhabitants. He withdrew from India shortly after the sack of Delhi, leaving the remnants of the empire to Mahmud (reigned 1399-1413), the last of the Tughluqs. Mahmud was succeeded in 1414 by the first of the Sayyids, a dynasty that was later driven from power by Bahlol (reigned 1451-1489), founder of the Lodi line of kings. The Lodi dynasty, generally weak and ineffectual, ended in 1526. In that year Babur, a descendant of Tamerlane and the founder of the great Mughal dynasty, carried out a series of raids into India which ended with the defeat of the Lodi army. Babur occupied Agra, the Lodi capital, and proclaimed himself emperor of the Muslim dominions. Within four years of his initial victory, Babur controlled a large part of the Indian mainland. F Mughal Empire

Akbar, Babur’s grandson, was the greatest Mughal sovereign. During his reign (1556-1605), he subdued rebellious princes in various regions, including the Punjab, Rajputana (modern Rajasthan State), and Gujarat. He added Bengal to his realm in 1576, conquered Kashmir between 1586 and 1592, and annexed Sind in 1592. Between 1598 and 1601 he subjugated a number of the Deccan Muslim kingdoms. In the administration of his vast dominions, Akbar revealed remarkable organizational abilities. He secured the allegiance of hundreds of feudal rulers, promoted trade, introduced an equitable system of taxation, and encouraged religious tolerance. The Mughal Empire reached its cultural peak under Shah Jahan, Akbar’s grandson. Shah Jahan’s reign (1628-1658) coincided with the golden age of Indian Saracenic architecture, best exemplified by the Taj Mahal. He was driven from the throne in 1658 by his son, Aurangzeb, who took the title of Alamgir (“Conqueror of the World”). Treacherous and aggressive, Aurangzeb murdered his three brothers and waged a series of wars against the autonomous kingdoms of India, sapping the moral and material strength of the empire. During his campaigns in the Deccan, the Marathas, a Scytho-Dravidian people, inflicted numerous defeats on the imperial armies. The stability of Aurangzeb’s regime was

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 further undermined as a result of popular antagonism to the religious bigotry he fostered. During his reign, which ended in 1707 with his death in exile, the Sikh faith gained a strong foothold in India. In the half-century following Aurangzeb’s death, the Mughal Empire ceased to exist as an effective state. The political chaos of the period was marked by the rapid decline of centralized authority. Numerous petty kingdoms and principalities were created by Muslim and Hindu adventurers, and large independent states were formed by the governors of the imperial provinces. Among the first of the large independent states to emerge was Hyderabad, established in 1712. The tottering Mughal regime suffered a disastrous blow in 1739 when the Persian king Nadir Shah led an army into India and plundered Delhi. Among the loot seized by the invaders, the sixth Muslim force to overrun India, was the mammoth Koh-i-noor diamond and the fabulous Peacock Throne, made of solid gold inlaid with precious stones. The Persian king soon withdrew from India, But in 1756 Delhi was again captured—this time by Ahmad Shah, Emir of Afghanistan, who had previously seized the Punjab. In 1760 the Marathas and the Sikhs joined forces against the armies of Ahmad Shah. The ensuing battle, fought at Panipat on January 7, 1761, resulted in complete victory for the invaders. In 1764, following the withdrawal of the invaders from India, the Mughal Emperor regained his throne. His authority, like that of his successors, was purely nominal, however. With the defeat of the Marathas and the Sikhs, the possibility of the reunification of India into a strong, single state had vanished—and the country, long the arena of bitter colonial rivalry among the maritime powers of Europe, fell increasingly under British domination. G Portuguese and Dutch Colonialism

Muslim control of the trade arteries between the Mediterranean and India, led various European powers to dream of a new route to the Far East long before Babur founded the Mughal Empire. The Portuguese devoted remarkable zeal and initiative to the search for such a route. In 1497 and 1498 Vasco da Gama, one of the royal navigators, led an expedition around the Cape of Good Hope and across the Indian Ocean. On May 19, 1498, da Gama sailed into the harbour of Kozhikode (Calicut), on the Malabar Coast, opening a new era of Indian history. Establishing friendly relations with the dominant Deccan kingdom, the Portuguese secured a monopoly of Indian maritime trade and maintained it for a century. The Portuguese monopoly was broken early in the 17th century by the Dutch East India Company, an amalgamation of private Dutch merchant traders set up in 1602 under the auspices of the Dutch government. Two years earlier, the English monarch Elizabeth I had granted a charter to a similar merchant organization, the first English East India Company. Company negotiations with the Mughal ruler, Emperor Jahangir, were successful, and in December 1612 the English founded their first trading post at Surat, on the Gulf of Khambhāt. On November 29 a Portuguese fleet had attacked a number of English vessels in the Gulf of Khambhāt and the English had triumphed in the ensuing battle.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 During the next decade the Portuguese were defeated in several more naval engagements with the English, who thereafter encountered little opposition in India from that quarter. The Dutch, already entrenched in the Malay Archipelago, also endeavoured to drive the English out of India, but were themselves eliminated as a serious competitive force before the end of the 17th century. Meanwhile the English East India Company steadily expanded its sphere of influence and operations. It secured a foothold in Orissa in 1633, founded the city of Madras in 1639, obtained trading privileges in Bengal in 1651, acquired Bombay from Portugal in 1661, and arranged a commercial treaty with the Maratha ruler Shivaji Bhonsle in 1674; in 1690 it established Kolkata after forcibly suppressing local opposition to the move. H Growing French and British Rivalry

During the first half of the 18th century the French, who had begun to operate in India about 1675, emerged as a serious threat to the growing power and prosperity of the English East India Company. The friction between France and the newly formed Great Britain reached an acute stage in 1746, when a French fleet seized Madras. This action, a phase of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748), and the subsequent fighting in India ended in a stalemate; in 1748 the French returned Madras to the British. Within three years the smouldering feud between the European rivals again flared into armed conflict. Robert Clive, a British East India Company employee, won distinction and victory in the fight for control of Hyderābād and the Carnatic. The final stage of the contest between the French and British for dominance in India developed as an extension of the Seven Years’ War in Europe. In the course of the hostilities which lasted from 1756 to 1763, and involved large contingents of Indian partisans, the British won several decisive victories and effectively ended French plans for political control of the subcontinent. The most important event of the war was Clive’s victory at Plassey, which made the British virtual masters of Bengal. By the terms of the general peace settlement following the Seven Years’ War, French territory in India was reduced to a few trading posts. See also Carnatic Wars. I East India Company

As a result of its victories, the East India Company had acquired strategic political and territorial positions in Bengal, the most populous Indian province, and in important areas of the Deccan. Consolidation and extension of these gains characterized the company’s subsequent policy, which retained its status as a private commercial firm until 1773. In that year the East India Company was made by parliament a semi-official agency of the British government. The application of British policy in India was facilitated by the power vacuum that followed the Battle of Panipat (1761), when neither the Mughal Empire nor the Maratha Confederacy was strong enough to exercise authority. I1 Armed Resistance

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 In the pursuit of their objectives, the British relied primarily on superior military power, but bribery, extortion, and the political manipulation of Indian leaders were frequently and successfully employed. Disunity among the various Indian kingdoms and principalities paved the way for eventual British subjugation of the entire subcontinent and contiguous regions, notably Burma. At sporadic intervals, individual Indian states and groups of states fiercely, but vainly, resisted exploitation and territorial seizures by the company. The chief centres of armed resistance to British rule included, at various times, the Maratha Confederacy, Mysore, Sind, and Punjab. In 1845, hostilities broke out between the Sikhs of Punjab and the British, starting a war that proved costly to both sides. The Sikhs were defeated in 1846 but two years later they again engaged the British. In one battle, fought at Chilianwala, the Sikhs inflicted nearly 2,500 casualties on the British. The latter won a decisive victory on February 21, 1849, however, forcing the Sikhs to capitulate. I2 Dalhousie’s Impact

Annexation of Punjab by the East India Company followed. During the next few years James Andrew Broun Ramsay, 10th Earl of Dalhousie, then governor-general of the company in India, annexed the kingdoms of Satara, Jaipur, Sambalpur, Jhansi, and Nagpur on the death of their rulers. Dalhousie’s policy of annexation engendered profound hostility among the Indian nobility and peoples. India benefited materially, however, from various improvements and reforms introduced by Dalhousie’s administration. Railways, bridges, roads, and irrigation systems were built; telegraph and postal services were established; and restrictions were imposed on suttee (the immolation of wives on the funeral pyres of their husbands), slave trading, and other ancient practices. These innovations and reforms, however, aroused little enthusiasm among the Indian people, many of whom regarded the modernization of their country with fear and distrust. In 1856 Dalhousie annexed Oudh, an act that added immeasurably to popular discontent. Dalhousie’s apparent attitude of contempt for the learning and culture of India caused particular resentment. I3 Indian Mutiny

As the unrest in India mounted, a large-scale conspiratorial movement spread among the sepoys, the Indian troops employed by the British East India Company. A general uprising, known as the Indian or Sepoy Mutiny, began at Meerut, a town near Delhi, on May 10, 1857. Sparked off by a spontaneous reaction of Hindu and Muslim troops offended at the use of cow and pig fat, respectively, in a new type of cartridge, it became a more general expression of opposition to British rule, rallied around the banner of Bahadur Shah II, titular emperor of the moribund Mughal Empire. The mutineers quickly occupied Delhi and other strategic centres, massacred hundreds of Europeans, and, on June 30, laid siege to the British residency at Lucknow. The city was relieved in November and reinforcements of British troops and loyal sepoys were rushed to the disaffected areas. Fighting continued into 1859, but by June 1858 the chief rebel strongholds had fallen.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 A period of brutal reprisals by the British troops followed, especially in Delhi, where thousands were killed, many without trial. In the same year, the judicial authorities of the East India Company convicted Bahadur Shah II on charges of rebellion and sentenced him to life imprisonment, thus closing the final chapter of Mughal history. As one major result of the Indian Mutiny, the British Parliament in 1858 passed the Act for the Better Government of India, which transferred the administration of India from the East India Company to the British Crown. J British India and Rising Nationalism

Many of the abuses prevalent in India during the rule of the East India Company were eradicated or modified after the British government assumed control of Indian affairs. Important fiscal, governmental, judicial, educational, and social reforms were instituted, and the system of public works inaugurated by Dalhousie was vastly extended. The British government had inherited numerous difficult problems, including the impoverished condition of the majority of Indian people, popular resentment over the country’s colonial status, and a growing spirit of nationalism. Frequent disastrous famines, beginning with the 1866 Orissa famine, which took the lives of 1.5 million people—contributed substantially to political unrest. In 1876 the British government, then headed by Benjamin Disraeli, proclaimed Queen Victoria Empress of India. J1 Political Ferment

In the closing years of the 19th century and during the first decade of the 20th century, social and political ferment in India spread widely. Aspects of Western and Eastern ideas and cultures were effectively combined by the Indian intellectual elite, some of whom had studied and travelled in the West. Under the stimulus of vigorous propaganda campaigns in the local press, mass meetings, and secret political organizations, Indian nationalism began to seriously threaten Britain’s position in India. A number of associations dedicated to the struggle against British rule had been created in the decades following the Indian Mutiny. Of these, the most influential was the Indian National Congress, founded in 1885. This organization, which enlisted the support of many prominent Hindus and Muslims, gradually heightened the political consciousness of the masses and accelerated the trend towards national unification. On the cultural level, the celebrated poet and educator Rabindranath Tagore made enduring contributions to the cause of Indian unity. The Indian National Congress drew inspiration and encouragement from the Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 and 1905, a practical demonstration of the latent power of the Asian peoples. Hostile manifestations against British rule became more and more frequent, particularly in Bengal. The more radical nationalists resorted to assassination, bombings, and other acts of terrorism. Retaliatory measures by the colonial authorities were countered by a popular boycott of British goods.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 J2 Repressive Measures

Condemning most of the nationalist activities as seditious, the British government adopted a special criminal code to deal with the situation. Among other measures, this code provided for trial without jury for those accused of treason, and for deportation or summary imprisonment for agitators. These repressive steps were followed in 1909 by the India Councils Act, which introduced a limited degree of self-government in India. Dissatisfied with this concession to Indian demands for independence, the nationalist movement continued to gain headway. A new and disruptive current had, meanwhile, been introduced into the movement for national unification with the formation in 1906 of the Muslim League. It was established with the encouragement of the British government and supported primarily by those Muslims who, for reasons of self-interest, loyalty to Britain, or Muslim nationalism, were hostile to the objectives of the Indian National Congress. The league succeeded in diverting significant numbers of young Indian Muslims and of the intelligentsia from the independence struggle. Many outstanding Muslims, however, including the influential journalist Abul Kalam Azad, registered disapproval of league policy, resigned from the organization, and joined the Indian National Congress. J3 Joint Campaign

Following the outbreak of World War I, many Indians, both Hindu and Muslim, rallied to the British cause. More than 1.2 million participated in the British war effort, giving valiant and loyal service in all theatres of the conflict. The nationalist movement, generally quiescent during the first two years of the war, resumed the campaign for fundamental political reforms in the autumn of 1916. The campaign was initiated by a joint declaration of minimum demands by the Indian National Congress and by the Muslim League, which had been forced to abandon its proBritish policy after Turkey, a Muslim country, entered the war on the side of the Central Powers. There followed a policy pronouncement from the British government in August 1917, promising an increase of “...the association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the gradual development of selfgoverning institutions” in India. K Gandhi’s Protest Movement

Political strife increased after World War I. In reply to the upsurge of nationalist activity, the British parliament passed the Rowlatt Acts, which suspended civil rights and provided for martial law in areas disturbed by riots and uprisings. Passage of the Rowlatt Acts precipitated a wave of violence and disorder in many parts of India. In this period of turmoil, Mohandas K. Gandhi, a Hindu social and religious reformer, called on the Indian people to meet British repression with passive resistance (Satyagraha). The protest movement reached insurrectionary proportions on April 13, 1919, proclaimed by Gandhi as a day of national mourning.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 In Amritsar, in the Punjab, an unarmed crowd of men, women, and children, staging a peaceful protest in a confined square, were massacred by British troops under the orders of General Dyer. In consequence of the Amritsar massacre, the anti-British movement in India reached new levels of intensity. The outstanding feature of this stage of the struggle was Gandhi’s policy of non-cooperation, instituted in 1920. Among other things, the policy called for the boycott of British goods, courts, and educational institutions; for non-cooperation in political life; and for the renunciation of British titles held by Indians. The non-cooperation movement was sometimes attended by violence, despite admonitions by Gandhi against the use of force. Combined with parliamentary methods of struggle, the movement proved to be a remarkably effective weapon in the fight for Indian independence. In the view of British officialdom, the activities engaged in by Gandhi constituted sedition, and the Indian leader, along with other outstanding activists such as Sarojini Naidu, was periodically imprisoned or interned during the 1920s and 1930s. Gandhi, known among his admirers as Mahatma (Sanskrit for “great soul”), figured decisively in Indian political history. L Increasing Internal Dissension

Between 1922, the year of the initial imprisonment of Gandhi for sedition, and 1942, when he was placed in custody for the last time, the fight for Indian independence was marked by serious setbacks, including the renewal of dissension between Muslims and Hindus, and by many victories. L1 Civil Disobedience

The tide of Indian nationalism, having acquired momentum steadily since Gandhi was first arrested, attained a climactic stage in the spring of 1930. On March 12 of that year, following British rejection of demands for dominion status for India, Gandhi announced that he would lead a mass violation of the government salt monopoly. This was accomplished, after a long march to the Gulf of Khambhāt, by boiling sea-water to produce salt. Similar actions occurred throughout India. This simple act, of making salt, proved profoundly symbolic and effective, and on May 5 Gandhi was again jailed by the British authorities. Riots and demonstrations immediately followed in Calcutta, Delhi, and other centres. Trains were stoned, telegraph wires were cut, and several government officials were assassinated. Striving to cope with these and later disorders, the government carried out wholesale arrests; by November about 27,000 Indian nationalists had been sentenced to prison terms. L2 Hindu-Muslim Schism

Finally, in March 1931, the British government arranged a truce with Gandhi, who had been released in January along with other political prisoners, including

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Jawaharlal Nehru, his closest associate and the secretary of the Indian National Congress. Meanwhile the Muslim League, professing fears of Hindu domination, had advanced demands for special privileges in the proposed dominion government. In the course of the resulting controversy, bitter Hindu-Muslim rioting ravaged many communities of India. Adding to the misery and suffering occasioned by these outbursts, the world economic crisis, which had begun in 1929, completely disrupted the economy of India during the early 1930s. L3 Government of India Act

In 1935, following a series of conferences in London between British and Indian leaders, the Government of India Act was approved by the British parliament. The act provided for the establishment of autonomous legislative bodies in the provinces of British India, for the creation of a central government representative of the provinces and princely states, and for the protection of Muslim minorities. In addition, the act provided for a bicameral national legislature and an executive arm under the control of the British government. Largely influenced by Gandhi, the Indian people approved the measures, which became effective on April 1, 1937. Many members of the Indian National Congress, however, continued to insist on full independence for India. On the provincial level, few difficulties developed in the application of the Government of India Act. However, the plan for federation proved unworkable for a variety of reasons, including mutual suspicion and antagonism between the Indian princes and the radicals of the Indian National Congress, and Muslim claims that the Hindus would have excessive influence in the national legislature. As an alternative, the Muslim League, then headed by Mohammed Ali Jinnah, advocated the creation of an independent Muslim state (Pakistan). This proposal met violent Hindu opposition. Further complicating the Indian political situation, Subhas Chandra Bose, an extreme nationalist, was elected President of the Indian National Congress early in 1939. Within a few months, however, Congress rejected his policies and he resigned. M Wartime Agitation

On the outbreak of World War II the Viceroy of India, Victor Alexander John Hope, Marquess of Linlithgow, declared war on Germany in the name of India. This step, taken in accordance with the constitution of 1937 but without consulting Indian leaders, alienated Gandhi and important sections of the Indian National Congress. Influential groups within Congress, supporting Gandhi’s position, intensified the campaign for immediate self-government, naming it as their price for cooperation in the war effort. At the end of October 1939 the ministries of eight provinces resigned in protest against the adamant attitude of the British. The civil disobedience campaign was resumed by the Indian National Congress in October 1940. Meanwhile the Muslim League, many of the princely states, and certain members of the Indian National Congress had endorsed the British war effort. The subsequent

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 contributions of India to the struggle against the Axis powers were extensive. About 1.5 million Indian troops were serving at home and on the fronts by the end of the war, while India’s financial contribution totalled approximately US$12 billion. In December 1941 the British authorities in India released the Congress leaders who had been placed under arrest in 1940. A new wave of anti-British agitation followed, and in March 1942 the British government dispatched Sir Stafford Cripps, then Lord Privy Seal, to India with proposals designed to satisfy nationalist demands. These proposals contained the promise of full independence for India after the end of the war and called for the establishment of an interim Indian government responsible for all matters except national defence and foreign affairs. Because the leaders of both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League had basic objections to various sections of the proposals, the Cripps mission ended in failure. The civil disobedience movement was resumed in August 1942. Gandhi, Nehru, and thousands of their supporters were rounded up and imprisoned, and the Indian National Congress was outlawed. Encouraged by Indian disunity and with the help of Bose, who had organized a “provisional Indian government” in Burma, the Japanese promptly intensified military operations along the Burmese-Indian frontier. The Japanese invasion of India began along a 322-km (200-mi) front in March 1944. After initial successes, the Japanese were gradually forced back into Burma by Anglo-Indian troops. The British government released Gandhi from jail on May 6, 1944. During his internment Gandhi had modified most of his views regarding the nature of the war and the Cripps programme, and in September 1944 he and the Muslim leader Jinnah began discussions on mutual differences. Primarily because of Jinnah’s insistence on the demarcation of the frontiers of Pakistan prior to the formation of an interim government, the discussions ended in failure. N Interim Government

In June 1945 India became a charter member of the UN. In the same month Nehru was released from jail, and shortly thereafter the British government issued a white paper on the Indian question. The proposals closely resembled those of the Cripps programme. Another deadlock developed and during the second half of 1945 a new wave of anti-British riots and demonstrations swept India. Three representatives of the British government, including Cripps, made another attempt to negotiate an agreement with Indian leaders in the spring of 1946. Although the Muslim League temporarily withdrew its demands for the partition of India along religious lines, insuperable differences developed with respect to the character of an interim government. The negotiations were fruitless, and in June the British viceroy Archibald Wavell announced the formation of an emergency “caretaker” government. An interim executive council, headed by Nehru and including representatives of all major political groups except the Muslim League, replaced this government in September. The following month, the Muslim League agreed to

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 participate in the new government. Nonetheless, communal strife between Muslims and Hindus increased in various parts of India. By the end of 1946 the Indian political situation verged on anarchy. The British prime minister Clement R. Attlee announced in February 1947 that his government would relinquish power in India not later than June 30, 1948. According to the announcement, the move would be made whether or not the political factions of India had agreed on a constitution. Political tension mounted in India following the announcement, creating grave possibilities of a disastrous Hindu-Muslim civil war. After consultations with Indian leaders, Louis Mountbatten, who succeeded Wavell as Viceroy in March 1947, recommended immediate partition of India to the British government as the only means of averting catastrophe. A bill incorporating Mountbatten’s recommendations was introduced into the British parliament on July 4; it obtained speedy and unanimous approval in both houses of parliament. O Indian Independence Act

Under the provisions of the Indian Independence Act, which became effective on August 15, 1947, India and Pakistan were established as independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations, with the right to withdraw from or remain within the Commonwealth. The Indian government, by the terms of a declaration issued jointly by the then eight members of the Commonwealth on April 28, 1949, elected to retain its membership. For the subsequent history of Pakistan, see Pakistan: History. The new states of India and Pakistan were created along religious lines. Areas inhabited predominantly by Hindus were allocated to India, those with a predominantly Muslim population were allocated to Pakistan. Because the overwhelming majority of people on the Indian subcontinent are Hindus, partition resulted in the inclusion within the Union of India, as the country was then named, of most of the 562 princely states in existence prior to August 15, 1947, as well as the majority of the British provinces. By the terms of the Indian Independence Act, governmental authority in the Union was vested in the Constituent Assembly, originally an all-India body created for the purpose of drafting a constitution for the entire nation. The All-India Constituent Assembly, which held its first session in December 1946, was boycotted by the delegates of the Muslim League. The remaining delegates, who were chiefly representative of the Indian National Congress, formed the Constituent Assembly of the Indian Union. After the transfer of power from the British government, the Constituent Assembly assigned executive responsibility to a Cabinet, with Nehru as Prime Minister. Mountbatten became governor-general of the new country. P Continued Hindu-Muslim-Sikh Antagonisms

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The termination of British rule in India was greeted enthusiastically by Indians of every religious faith and political persuasion. On August 15, 1947, officially designated Indian Independence Day, celebration ceremonies were held in all parts of the subcontinent and in Indian communities abroad. These ceremonies took place, however, against an ominous background of Hindu-Muslim and Sikh-Muslim antagonism, which were particularly acute in regions equally or almost equally shared by members of the different faiths. P1 Population Shifts

In anticipation of border disputes in such regions, notably Bengal and Punjab, a boundary commission with a neutral (British) chair was established prior to partition. The recommendations of this commission occasioned little active disagreement with respect to the division of Bengal. In that region, largely because of Gandhi’s moderating influence, little communal strife developed. In the Punjab, however, the demarcation line brought nearly 2 million Sikhs under the jurisdiction of Pakistan. The boundary commission’s decisions precipitated bitter fighting. A mass exodus of Muslims from Union territory into Pakistan and of Sikhs and Hindus from Pakistan into Union territory took place. In the course of the initial migrations, which involved more than 4 million people in September 1947 alone, refugee convoys were frequently attacked and massacred by fanatical partisans. Coreligionists of the victims resorted to reprisals against minorities in other sections of the Union and Pakistan. The Indian and Pakistani authorities brought the strife under control during October, but the shift of populations in the Punjab and other border areas continued until the end of the year. Relations between the two states grew worse in October, when the Indian armed forces surrounded Junagadh, a princely state on the Kathiawar Peninsula. This action was taken because the nawab (ruler) of the state, which had a large Hindu majority, had previously announced that he would affiliate with Pakistan. The Indian military authorities subsequently assumed control of Junagadh, pending a plebiscite. P2 War in Kashmir

Kashmir, a princely state inhabited predominantly by Muslims but ruled by a Hindu, became the next major source of friction between India and Pakistan. On October 24, 1947, Muslim insurgents, supported by invading co-religionists from the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, proclaimed the establishment of a “Provisional Government of Kashmir”. Three days later Hari Singh, the Hindu Maharaja of Kashmir, announced the accession of Kashmir to the Union of India. Approving the maharaja’s decision and promising a plebiscite after the restoration of peace, the Indian government immediately dispatched troops to Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir and the major objective of the insurgents. Political agitation in Kashmir was led by Sheikh Abdullah, the leader of the region’s largest secular party, who favoured Kashmir’s accession to India. Hostilities quickly attained serious proportions, and at New Year 1948 the Indian government filed a formal

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 complaint with the UN Security Council, accusing Pakistan of giving help to the Muslim insurgents. Despite repeated attempts by the Security Council to obtain a truce in the troubled area, fighting continued throughout 1948. The peacemaking efforts of the Security Council finally met with success in January 1949, when both India and Pakistan accepted proposals for a plebiscite on the political future of Kashmir, held under the auspices of the UN. Ceasefire orders were issued by the two governments on the same day. Among other things, the UN plan provided for the withdrawal of combat troops from the state, for the return of refugees desirous of participating in the plebiscite, and for a free and impartial vote under the direction of a “personality of high international standing”. In March 1949 UN Secretary-General Trygve Lie appointed the American Admiral Chester W. Nimitz administrator of the Kashmir plebiscite, scheduled for later in the year. Meanwhile both the Union of India and Pakistan had suffered the loss of outstanding leaders, and the Indian government had become embroiled in a dispute with the nizam of Hyderābād, Mir Osman Ali Khan Bahadur. Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic on January 30, 1948, and Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, died the following September. The tension between the Indian government and Hyderābād, inhabited preponderantly by Hindus, resulted from the reluctance of the nizam, a Muslim, to bring his state into the Union. Protracted negotiations for a peaceful solution of the dispute ended in failure; on September 17 Indian forces occupied Hyderābād, the capital city, ending the nizam’s resistance. He subsequently signed instruments of accession making Hyderābād part of the Union of India. Although India and Pakistan agreed, in July 1949, on a line demarcating their respective zones of occupation in Kashmir, the two nations were unable to reconcile basic differences on the terms of the proposed plebiscite. The deadlock was primarily due to Indian insistence that Pakistani troops be withdrawn from the disputed territory before the plebiscite and to Pakistan’s refusal to withdraw its troops unless the Indians also withdrew theirs. Q First Years as a Republic

The Indian Constituent Assembly approved a republican constitution for the Union on November 26, 1949. Comprising a preamble, 395 articles, and 8 schedules, the document proved to be more voluminous than any other body of organic law in existence. One of the constitution’s features is a clause outlawing untouchability, the ancient practice of caste that condemned about 40 million Hindus to social and economic degradation. The Gandhi disciple and All-India Congress leader Rajendra Prasad was elected first President of the republic in January 1950. As provided by the constitution, the republic was formally proclaimed on January 26. The Constituent Assembly then reconstituted itself as a provisional parliament and Jawaharlal Nehru was elected Prime Minister.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Q1 Non-Alignment

During its first year as a republic, India figured increasingly in international affairs, especially in UN deliberations and activities. Nehru’s government, adhering to policies developed in the pre-republican period, maintained a generally neutral position with respect to the Cold War between the Soviet bloc and the Western democracies. Indian determination to avoid entanglement with either side became increasingly apparent following the outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950. Subsequently the Indian government approved the UN Security Council resolution invoking military sanctions against North Korea; no Indian troops were committed to the UN cause, however. Beginning in July, when Nehru despatched notes on the Korean situation to the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), India sought repeatedly to restore peace in the Far East. In its initial attempts at mediation, the Indian government suggested that admission of the Chinese People’s Republic to the UN was a prerequisite of a solution of the Far Eastern crisis. Even after the Chinese intervention in the Korean War, and despite Indian-Chinese differences over Tibet, India adhered to this view but it was rejected by a majority of the Security Council. In October 1950, after a Chinese army invaded Tibet, the Indian government dispatched a note to China expressing “surprise and regret”. Q2 Foreign Aid

Outstanding among domestic events during the first year of republican rule was a series of natural disasters, notably an extended drought in southern India and severe earthquakes and floods in Assam. About 6 million tonnes of grain and other foodstuffs were lost, according to an official estimate made in November 1950. During the resulting famine, large sections of the population were forced to subsist on a daily ration of 57 g (2 oz) of rice. India appealed to the United States in December 1950 for US$200 million worth of food. In February 1951 US President Harry S. Truman asked Congress to enact legislation providing 2 million tonnes of grain for Indian relief. Considerable opposition to the request developed in Congress, primarily because of Indian policy on the Korean War. Indian restrictions on the export of certain strategic materials also provoked congressional opposition to the relief measure. Nehru declared that India would refuse to accept relief “with political strings attached”, and in June 1951 Congress finally approved a US$190 million relief loan to be repaid on terms acceptable to the Indian government. Q3 Domestic Policies

The following month Nehru announced that the government must encourage birth control in order to cope with the problem of a rapid population growth and a food supply rendered inadequate by traditional agricultural methods and frequent natural disasters. Shortly afterwards, the government promulgated a five-year national development plan providing for expenditure of US$3.8 billion, largely on irrigation and hydroelectric projects.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The results of the first general elections in the Indian Republic were announced on March 1, 1952. Based on universal suffrage, the balloting had begun in October 1951 and ended in February 1952. The Indian National Congress, the ruling party, won 364 of 489 contested seats in the national legislature and was victorious in all but two of the constituent states. In May the newly constituted electoral college elected President Rajendra Prasad to the presidency for a full five-year term. R International Affairs

In June 1952 India, which had boycotted the 1951 Japanese peace conference, signed a bilateral peace treaty with Japan. Among the provisions was a waiver of all reparations claims. During September the Indian government accepted faminerelief food shipments from the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union, but only after both countries agreed to Indian stipulations against possible “political strings”. R1 Korea and Kashmir

India figured significantly in international developments during 1953. An Indian general was named to chair the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission provided for by the Korean armistice agreement of July 27. In this position, he perpetuated the Indian policy of neutrality, provoking accusations of partiality from both the UN and Communist commands. The issue of Indian participation in the projected Korean peace conference was decided in August when the UN General Assembly voted down a British-backed resolution inviting India to the conference. Subsequently, the US Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, termed Indian exclusion from the proposed peace talks the “price” of neutrality. Indian-Pakistani talks on plebiscite arrangements for Kashmir were terminated in December 1953 over disagreement on the number and composition of troops to be stationed there during the voting. The Kashmir Constituent Assembly unanimously approved accession to the Indian Republic early in February 1954. R2 Indochina

The prime ministers of India, Pakistan, Burma, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka conferred in Sri Lanka from April 28 to May 2, 1954. Among other actions, the leaders adopted a declaration of support for the Geneva Conference on Far Eastern Affairs, then about to convene. The conference was called, in the face of imminent French defeat, to discuss an end to the war in Indochina. Nehru held a series of meetings late in June with Premier Zhou Enlai of China, who was a delegate to the Geneva Conference; they issued a joint statement urging a political settlement. Under the provisions of the Indochinese ceasefire agreements in July of that year, India chaired the three-power International Commission established to supervise application of the agreements. R3 Bandung Conference 96

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 India participated in the Asian-African Conference, a meeting in April 1955 of 22 Asian and 7 African states, held in Bandung, Indonesia. In June, Nehru spent two weeks in the USSR. At the conclusion of the visit he and Soviet premier Nikolay A. Bulganin issued a joint statement appealing for a ban on nuclear weapons, for disarmament, for “wider application” of the principles of coexistence, and for recognition of the “legitimate rights” of Taiwan by the People’s Republic of China. Indian-Portuguese relations had worsened steadily in 1954 because of insistent demands by Indian nationalists that Portugal vacate Goa and the rest of Portuguese India. In August 1955 Portuguese security forces fired on a group of Indian demonstrators who crossed the Goan border. India then severed diplomatic ties with Portugal. R4 Suez and Hungary

In July 1956 Nehru conferred with President Tito of Yugoslavia and President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt. The three leaders later issued a joint communiqué affirming their opposition to colonialism and their belief in a worldwide system of collective security. During the crisis following Egypt’s seizure of the Suez Canal on July 26, and the subsequent invasion of Egypt by Israel, France, and Britain, India made numerous attempts to reconcile the various nations. Throughout the crisis the Indian minister without portfolio V. K. Krishna Menon conferred frequently with representatives of both sides. At the same time India was widely criticized for its failure to support a UN resolution of November 5, 1956, condemning the USSR for its use of force against anti-Soviet rebels in Hungary. Later that month, however, Nehru, who had initially characterized the anti-Soviet uprising as a civil war, denounced the Soviet occupation of Hungary. S Internal Affairs

On January 26, 1957, India declared the state of Kashmir to be an integral part of the Indian Republic, following decisions to that effect by the Kashmir Constituent Assembly. Protest riots and burnings of effigies of Nehru subsequently took place in Pakistan, which lodged a vigorous complaint in the UN. In national elections held in February and March 1957, the Congress Party won 366 of 494 seats in the lower house of parliament; the Communists won 29 seats to become the largest opposition party and also gained control of the state of Kerala. Prime Minister Nehru and President Prasad retained their positions. In March a decimal system of currency was introduced. In Kerala efforts to increase government control of private schools aroused mass opposition, manifested by frequent anti-government demonstrations during 1958. To uphold law and order, Prasad took over the functions of the Kerala government in July 1959. Legislative elections in the state in February 1960 resulted in substantial gains for the anti-Communist parties.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 In May 1960 the state of Bombay was divided along linguistic lines into the two states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. To placate rebellious Naga tribes, Nehru announced that a new state of Nagaland would be created out of the Assam State. Subsequently, elements of the Sikh population agitated for creation of a separate Sikh state out of part of the Punjab. The matter was settled in 1966 by the formation of the new state of Haryana. The third Indian five-year economic development plan was inaugurated in April 1961; its cost was estimated at US$24.36 billion and its objective was to increase the average annual per-capita income from US$69.30 to US$80.85. A long-range goal was to make India independent of foreign aid by 1976. T Clashes with Neighbours

During the Tibetan revolt of March 1959, some 9,000 Tibetan refugees sought political asylum in India. Thereafter several border clashes occurred between Chinese and Indian troops, and in August Indian territory was penetrated by Chinese troops. A conference to settle the dispute, in April 1960, attended by Nehru and Zhou Enlai, ended in a deadlock. Following charges of Portuguese aggression, Indian forces on December 18, 1961, invaded and annexed the remaining Portuguese enclaves on the subcontinent: Goa, Daman, and Diu. The next day a resolution was brought before the UN Security Council condemning India as an aggressor; it failed to be adopted because of a Soviet veto. During 1962 the border dispute between China and India grew increasingly tense. Early in the year both countries added outposts along the contested frontier territory in the high Himalaya, and in October the Chinese attacked and overran Indian outposts on both western and eastern parts of the border. The Indians, illprepared and particularly ill-equipped for high-elevation fighting, were unable to halt the Chinese advance, which only ended when Beijing announced a unilateral ceasefire in late November. The crisis precipitated a drastic overhaul of Indian defences, and Defence Minister V. K. Krishna Menon, a powerful neutralist, was ousted from the government at the end of October. On May 27, 1964, Nehru, who had served as prime minister since India attained its independence, died. He was succeeded by Lal Bahadur Shastri, formerly home affairs minister. Pakistan continued to challenge India’s claim to the predominantly Muslim state of Kashmir, where in August 1965 incidents involving Pakistani guerrillas and Indian troops precipitated an undeclared war between the two states. Hostilities continued despite a UN-arranged ceasefire and the situation remained tense until Soviet-mediated negotiations between Shastri and Pakistani president Muhammad Ayub Khan resulted, on January 10, 1966, in a troop-withdrawal agreement.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 U New Leadership

A few hours after signing the agreement in Tashkent, USSR, Shastri died of a heart attack. Nehru’s daughter Indira Gandhi, a former minister of information, was chosen to be the new prime minister. In 1969 Prime Minister Gandhi faced a revolt by the conservative wing of the Congress Party but won an impressive victory when, with her support, the former vice-president, Varahagiri Venkata Giri, defeated the official Congress candidate for president. Consolidating her strength, Gandhi and her faction, called the Ruling Congress Party or Congress (R), won a major victory in the elections of March 1971. Later that month, civil war erupted in Pakistan, as the national government, dominated by West Pakistanis, moved to suppress Bengali efforts to achieve autonomy for East Pakistan. As millions of Bengali refugees streamed across the border into India, relations between India and West Pakistan worsened. In December, India joined the war in support of East Pakistan, compelled the surrender of Pakistani forces there, and was the first to recognize the new nation of Bangladesh. Most Bengali refugees subsequently returned. Economic conditions in India worsened during the mid-1970s. As unemployment mounted, food riots broke out, and accusations of government corruption intensified. To world surprise, India exploded its first nuclear device on May 18, 1974. A parliamentary effort to topple the Gandhi government was defeated in July; in the following month a candidate backed by Gandhi, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, was elected National President. Early in 1975 India annexed Sikkim, which then became the 22nd state of the republic. Gandhi was convicted in June 1975 of corrupt practices during the 1971 election campaign. Faced with the loss of her parliamentary seat, she declared a national state of emergency. Centralizing power in her own hands, she implemented strong measures to foster economic development and lower the national birth rate. Increasingly, she relied on her younger son, Sanjay Gandhi. Political opposition was quelled by mass imprisonment and press censorship. Her methods, especially the censorship of the press and the harsh methods introduced in some areas to compel the sterilization of people as part of the drive for population control, caused widespread resentment. V Janata Government

In early 1977, however, Gandhi called a general election, hoping to be able to demonstrate popular support. Instead, she lost her seat in parliament and the Congress Party failed to win a majority in the legislature for the first time since 1952. The Janata Party, a coalition formed to oppose her regime, won about half the seats in parliament and its head, Morarji R. Desai, was named prime minister. The emergency was ended and the repressive actions of the Gandhi government were

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 reversed. In January 1978 Gandhi formed Congress-Indira (I) as a breakaway party from the Congress Party. Gandhi’s personal charisma remained strong despite the Emergency years, and Congress (I) soon won elections in the south and in Maharashtra; in April Congress (I) was named the main opposition party in the Lok Sabha (lower house). W Gandhi Returns

In 1979, after more than two years in power, the Janata government lost its parliamentary majority and Desai resigned. Elections in January 1980 resulted in a major victory for Gandhi and her Congress (I) party and she resumed the office of Prime Minister. On June 23 Sanjay, who had emerged from the elections as a major political force, was killed in a plane crash. His seat in parliament was taken by his older brother, Rajiv Gandhi, whom Indira Gandhi appeared to be grooming as her successor. To appease Sikhs demanding autonomy for Punjab, where they are a majority, Indira Gandhi supported the presidential candidacy of Zail Singh, who in July 1982 became India’s first Sikh chief of state. Autonomist agitation continued with a number of terrorist incidents, however, and in October 1983 Gandhi brought Punjab under president’s rule, giving the police emergency powers. The centre of Sikh resistance was the religion’s holiest shrine, the Golden Temple at Amritsar. On June 2, 1984, the temple was sealed off and occupied by Indian troops in a poorly judged and implemented operation, killing hundreds of Sikhs and seizing caches of ammunition. The troops withdrew by the end of the month, but outrage among Sikh nationalists persisted. On October 31, Indira Gandhi was shot and killed by Sikh members of her personal guard. In the rioting that followed, at least 1,000 Sikhs were killed by mobs. Rajiv Gandhi was sworn in as prime minister hours after his mother’s death. He faced a new crisis on December 3, when a leak of methyl isocyanate gas from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, central India, resulted in the deaths of at least 3,300 people and in the illness of more than 20,000 others. With his leadership reaffirmed in the December 1984 parliamentary elections, Gandhi responded to unrest among the Sikhs by agreeing to expand the boundaries of Punjab. Early in 1987 Indian troops were sent to Sri Lanka to help suppress a rebellion by Tamil guerrillas. A peace agreement was signed in July, but violent clashes continued. Also in July, the election of Ramaswami Venkataraman as president seemed to consolidate Gandhi’s position. Allegations of corruption and mismanagement weakened the Congress (I), however, as did Gandhi’s inability to deal effectively with demands for autonomy in Punjab and Kashmir. In the November 1989 elections, Congress (I) lost its parliamentary majority, and Vishwanath Pratap Singh, leader of the Janata Dal Party, became prime minister. In 1990, a split within Singh’s own party led to the collapse of his minority

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 government; he was succeeded by his chief rival, Chandra Shekhar, whose government stepped down in March 1991, paving the way for new elections. During the election campaign, Rajiv Gandhi was killed by a Tamil suicide bomber. Outraged voters gave Congress (I) a parliamentary majority, and P. V. Narasimha Rao, former foreign minister and a Gandhi supporter, became prime minister. X Rao Government

In January 1993 Rao’s authority was undermined by nationwide riots that followed the destruction of the 16th-century Babri Masjid mosque in Ayodhya by Hindu militants, who claimed the site originally belonged to a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Rama, who according to tradition, is believed to have been born in the city. Nearly 3,000 people throughout India died in the ensuing six weeks of sectarian violence. Fearing more riots, Rao prevented Hindu nationalists, who were demanding the resignation of him and his government, from holding a mass rally in the capital. In March, a series of unrelated bombs exploded in Mumbai and Kolkata. The wave of explosions in Mumbai killed more than 300 people in the city’s financial district. The Kolkata explosions were linked to a group of criminals who mishandled explosives when attempting to assemble bombs in an apartment building. During the early 1990s tensions between India and Pakistan over Kashmir increased (see Jammu and Kashmir). Since 1989 Jammu and Kashmir State in India has been the site of sporadic fighting between the Indian army and militant Muslim separatists, who either want to form an independent state, or unite with Muslim Pakistan. Pakistani prime minister Benazir Bhutto openly supported the Muslim rebels in Indian Kashmir. In January 1994, India and Pakistan held talks concerning the disputed region, but no real progress was made. Since Pakistan was pursuing a nuclear weapons development programme, many countries feared that the dispute over Kashmir could escalate into a nuclear conflict. In September 1993 a devastating earthquake shook central India about 320 km (200 mi) west of Hyderābād. It killed an estimated 10,000 people and destroyed dozens of villages. The problems faced by Rao and Congress (I) were underlined towards the end of 1994 when the party was heavily defeated in state elections in the south. Voter rejection of Congress (I) partly reflected the continuing effect of the 1993 riots and continuing inter-religion tension, but it was also a result of popular antipathy to the market-oriented economic reforms introduced by the Rao government after 1991. Although the opening up of the economy had helped to restore growth, it had also led to a sharp increase in inflation, higher prices, and cuts in jobs in certain areas. State elections in some of the northern states, including key Congress (I) strongholds, during early 1995 further underlined Congress (I)’s fall from favour, amid growing support for the right-wing Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Violence in Jammu and Kashmir continued, with claims of torture and murder made against government forces by respected international bodies like Amnesty International and the International Commission of Jurists.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 In March 1996 the Supreme Court freed the Central Bureau of Investigation from prime ministerial control to investigate political corruption, as widening scandals undermined public faith in established politicians. In lower house elections in April and May, Congress (I) was toppled from power, ending its post-independence domination of Indian politics. Since no party had won a clear majority in the elections, the struggle began to find successors to Congress rule. Y New Political Order

The Bharatiya Janata Party, which had won 194 seats in the elections, was first to form a government on May 16, 1996, but despite belated attempts to shed its Hindu fundamentalist image and woo other political groups, the BJP-led administration was unable to assemble the 273 members needed for a parliamentary majority, and on May 28 the BJP leader A. B. Vajpayee resigned as prime minister to avoid a vote of no confidence. The centre-left United Front coalition then formed a government under H. D. Deve Gowda, backed by a rump of Congress (I) MPs. The United Front government reflected a broader base of support among castes and interest groups than the Congress (I) and BJP, but also a danger of national fragmentation, as many of its members were purely regional parties. Underlining separatist tensions, violence erupted anew in Jammu and Kashmir on May 30 following polling in the region, with Muslim anti-government rebels pressing for boycott of the poll. The United Front coalition government, although holding only 128 seats in the 545member Lok Sabha, gained effective endorsement in June, when it won a vote of confidence. The plethora of corruption allegations that had dogged former Prime Minister Rao culminated in corruption and forgery charges in September. Additional indictments of bribery were brought against Rao in October and the former Communications Minister Sukh Ram was charged with corruption in the same month. The first state visit by a Chinese head of state was made by President Jiang Zemin in November. Rao resigned his position as Congress (I) parliamentary leader in December, and was replaced by the party president Sitaram Kesri in January 1997. The withdrawal of support for the government by Congress (I) resulted in a vote of confidence in the Lok Sabha in which the government was defeated, leading to the resignation of Deve Gowda as prime minister. A general election was prevented by negotiations between the United Front and Congress (I), resulting in the resumed support of Congress (I) with the appointment of a new leader of the coalition. The former Minister of External Affairs, Inder Kumar Gujral, a respected senior figure known for improving relations with Pakistan, became the new prime minister of India on April 22, 1997. Kesri was re-elected as the leader of Congress. India celebrated the 50th anniversary of its independence in August, but Prime Minister Gujral spoke of the “plague of corruption”. Y1 Elections of 1998 and 1999

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 In November the minority United Front government collapsed after Congress withdrew its support. The action was sparked by a report that implicated a regional party with representatives in the United Front coalition in the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi. On December 4 President Narayanan dissolved the Lok Sabha and announced general elections for February and March. Twenty-six people were sentenced to death in January 1998 for taking part in the murder of Rajiv Gandhi. His killers were believed to be connected to Sri Lanka's Tamil Tiger secessionist movement. The election period was marred by violence, bomb attacks, and voting irregularities. The Hindu nationalist BJP won the elections, but, in an indecisive result, fell short of the 272 seats needed for an absolute majority in the Lok Sabha. They therefore sought support among the smaller parties in order to form a government. The distribution of seats at the 11th Lok Sabha was 193 seats to the BJP and its allies, 177 to the United Front, 144 seats to the Congress and its allies, 28 to independents and others, and 18 seats to the Tamil regionalist Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. Atal Vajpayee headed the BJP coalition government. India officially became a nuclear power in May 1998, when it detonated five nuclear devices. In February, Vajpayee made a historic bus ride from New Delhi to the Pakistani city of Lahore, inaugurating a regular bus service between the two nations and reviving the stalled peace process. Vajpayee and his Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif met and signed a protocol designed to prevent nuclear war. Nevertheless, both countries continued the development of missiles. In April India tested a new long-range missile, the Agni II, capable of carrying nuclear weapons. Later that month the coalition was dissolved—Vajpayee's government had lasted 13 months and was India's fifth in under three years. Despite the earlier diplomatic moves, tensions with Pakistan rose to their most serious pitch in over two decades when Islamic guerrilla forces, widely believed to have been backed by Pakistan, encroached into the Indian-controlled Kargil sector of Kashmir in May 1999. India launched air strikes against the insurgents in an eight-week conflict in difficult terrain that resulted in over 1,000 deaths and hundreds of injured. The Indian military campaign was suspended in July, after Pakistan agreed to secure the withdrawal of the Islamic insurgents. India's billionth citizen was born in August—India has the fastest-growing population in the world with an annual increase of over 15.5 million people. Vajpayee was returned as prime minister, following the Lok Sabha elections of October 1999, leading a coalition government (the National Democratic Alliance) of over 20 parties, with a majority of more than 50 seats. Sonia Gandhi, the widow of Rajiv Gandhi, was selected leader of the parliamentary opposition. Tensions surrounding Kashmir were raised again at the end of 1999 when an Indian Airlines plane was hijacked by Islamic militants and diverted to Kandahār in Afghanistan. After eight days the Indian government agreed to the hijackers' demands and released three prisoners held for their involvement in the separatist

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 conflict in Kashmir. The issue of continuing violence in the Kashmir region was high on the agenda during the visit by United States president Bill Clinton to India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh in March 2000, but no diplomatic breakthrough was seriously expected or achieved. The map of India was reworked in November 2000, when three new Indian states, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Uttaranchal, were established, carved out of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh, respectively. The changes, which had been debated for some time, affect regions of high potential in terms of mineral resources and tourism. Just two months later, on Republic Day, January 26, 2001, the prosperous state of Gujarat was rocked by a devastating earthquake, with its epicentre in Bhuj, that may have left some 30,000 dead. The cost of reconstruction has been estimated at over US$3 billion and recovery is expected to take years. Politically, India was rocked by a new corruption scandal exposed by Indian Web journalists, resulting in the resignation of the long-serving politician George Fernandez from the post of defence minister and of the president of the ruling BJP, Bangaru Laxman, and nearly bringing down the governing coalition.

WETLAND
Hunting, birdwatching, observing nature, hiking, boating, camping, and photography bring many people to wetland areas. Wetlands are often tranquil areas away from intensive human activities. With increased tourism, the recreational value of wetlands has become more important than ever. Britain’s large number of wetland areas support sizeable populations of birds and many wetland nature reserves and wildlife sanctuaries are much visited, including the Slimbridge Wildfowl Trust on the estuary of the Severn, Rainham Marshes on the Thames estuary, and Minsmere reserve in Suffolk ; the Norfolk Broads are popular for family holidays. In some developing countries ecotourism is providing a means to attract tourists and yet protect the environment. In Botswana, for example, at the Okavango Delta, visitors can observe the wetlands wildlife, but are offered restricted access to some of the best sites. It is hoped that ecotourism will increase revenues without degrading valuable wetland resources. The “Nature Island” image is promoted to attract tourists to the island. Beaches are few, but tourists come for the ecotourism—the rainforest and the birdwatching— hiking, scuba-diving, and whale-watching. Numbers have increased steadily in recent years and in 1998 numbered 66,000, with income from tourists amounting to US$7 million. The government has invested in development of the Roseau seawall and bayfront area to increase facilities for cruise ships and high-speed ferries to the French-speaking islands, which will raise numbers of arrivals still further. New hotels have been built and many older ones are expanding to meet demand. Tourism, particularly ecotourism, has also become an important part of the economy. In 1999 Costa Rica had 1,027,000 visitors, bringing in US$428 million. Overall living conditions are high by Latin American standards, and the country

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 has a large middle class. In 1995 Costa Rica’s public debt stood at US$3,872 million. In 1999 the national income, or gross national product (GNP) totalled about US$12,828 million giving a per capita income of about US$3,570 (World Bank figure). In 1998 estimated annual budget figures showed revenues of US$2,876 million and expenditures of US$3,045 million Tourism, especially ecotourism, is seen as a growth sector of the future, exploiting Kalimantan's cultural and natural wealth ecotourism” could be encouraged in these areas as a way of both supporting local communities and conserving the rainforests Queenstown (New Zealand), town in the south-west of the South Island, New Zealand. It is about 285 km (177 mi) west of Dunedin in the Otago region. Located on the eastern shore of Lake Wakatipu, Queenstown is the South Island’s premier tourist resort. An alpine town, flanked by the Remarkables mountain range, it is famous for jet boating, skiing, bungee jumping, adventure sports, and spectacular scenery. In pre-European times, the Queenstown area was a stopover for Maori prospectors on the fabled greenstone (a type of jade, called pounamu by Maori) route to the West Coast. European sheep-farming settlers arrived in 1860, followed two years later by gold miners seeking nuggets and powdered gold in the Shotover River. The gold rush that ensued lasted only until 1865, but small gold-mining ventures still remain. Population (1996 estimate) 3,500.

Crafts
Crafts (also handicrafts), the practice of making decorative or functional objects, wholly or partly by hand, and requiring both manual and artistic skill. The term crafts also refers to objects made in this way. Crafts today predominantly comprise weaving, basketmaking, embroidery, quilting, pottery, woodworking, and jewellery making. They are made both by amateur craftsmen at home, as a hobby with a minimum of equipment, and by professionals with a regular outlet for their products. Crafts are also used in occupational therapy. For example, patients may be taught crafts to strengthen weakened muscles or to help in gaining the use of an artificial limb. Emotionally disturbed people are also taught crafts as an outlet for feelings. Crafts also provide the disabled with an occupation that diverts attention from their handicaps. Prisoners-of-war have been known to produce crafts of high quality; a notable example of this is the straw-work marquetry executed by Napoleonic prisoners-of-war in England during the early years of the 19th century. Crafts are as old as human history. Originally fulfilling utilitarian purposes, they are now a means of producing aesthetically appealing handmade objects in a world dominated by mechanization and standardization. Among the earliest basic crafts

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 are basketry, weaving, straw-work, and pottery. Nearly every craft now practised can be traced back many hundreds or even thousands of years. Craftwork formed the basis of town and city economies throughout Europe until the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. Once items could be mass-produced, however, individual artisans were no longer needed. In reaction to the effects of industrialization, the Arts and Crafts Movement began in England in the late 19th century, led by the designer and social reformer William Morris. The strong interest in crafts throughout the Western world today grew in large part from this movement. In many parts of the world crafts are still produced as they have been for centuries; Chinese basketry and Indonesian batik are examples. In the southern Appalachian highlands of the United States, basketry and woven goods are made today by much the same methods used by the original settlers of the region. Ethnographic collections in museums throughout the world include examples of indigenous crafts and artisanry to document the development of various cultures; art museums with archaeological collections frequently supplement their displays of formal art objects by showing examples of related folk crafts. In addition, special museums of folk art and of crafts have been established to preserve and display examples of traditional crafts. Contemporary craft workers can learn much from studying earlier techniques and designs, as well as the work of their peers. Many other sources are available to those interested in learning crafts. Books and magazines on history, techniques, and innovations can be found in great number for every craft. Courses are offered by schools and colleges, art schools, craft groups, and other organizations. Membership of a craft association is another source of instruction and inspiration. Such associations often sponsor lectures and demonstrations, and they offer the opportunity to share ideas with other members through publications, meetings, and crafts fairs.

Complementary Medicine
I INTRODUCTION

Complementary Medicine, sometimes called alternative medicine, unconventional approaches to healing and health, many of which are now thought to complement conventional Western medicine. Some of these techniques, such as acupuncture, have gained widespread acceptance and approval by both conventional doctors and the general public, but many others are still viewed with suspicion and occasionally outright hostility by the established medical profession. Shared care is only permitted if a registered practitioner remains in overall control; this is not always acceptable to practitioners of complementary medicine.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 II HOLISTIC MEDICINE

Traditionally, medicine as practised by a doctor has largely been mechanistic, with doctors picturing the body as a machine made of many parts, with the respective individual parts treated separately. The mechanistic approach stresses the role of doctors in the healing process as their intervention is active, and in general downplays the role of mental and emotional factors that may cause the disease or play a role in its natural evolution or treatment. While mechanistic medicine largely ignores the emotional or spiritual aspects of health and healing, holistic medicine (from the Greek holos,”whole”) treats the person as a whole. The philosophy of holism treats the person as an entire unit rather than as individual parts. In this, it attempts to bring emotional, social, physical, and spiritual dimensions of the person’s being into harmony and emphasizes the role of therapy or treatment which stimulates the person’s own healing process. Holistic medicine highlights the interaction between the living body and the spirit, which in holism is defined as giving the person direction in life and a sense of inner happiness. In addition, holistic medicine stresses the importance of the individual maintaining the individual’s own sense of well-being and health. It extends also to the prevention of disease, with emphasis on the maintenance of good health and active healing of disease processes. While traditional medicine stresses the importance of pathological factors (bacteria, viruses, environmental agents) in the causation of disease (aetiology), holistic medicine maintains that decreased resistance brought about by poor habits and physical and mental stress directly makes the body susceptible to disease. Disease, therefore, is seen as an imbalance between social, personal, and economic stresses as well as biological influences. Paavo Airola, a leading proponent of holistic medicine, defines these stresses as fears, worries, emotional stresses, exogenous poisons from air pollution, food, water, toxic drugs, excess alcohol intake, overeating, overindulgence in fats, and lack of sufficient exercise, rest, and relaxation. In terms of prevention, holistic medicine attempts to establish and maintain a balance between the individual and the environment. III ORIENTAL MEDICINE

Public interest in various aspects of Oriental medicine includingacupuncture, massage, macrobiotics, and herbal medicine has grown steadily in the Western world. The concepts of Oriental medicine have their basis in Daoism, a school of thought that dates from ancient times. Daoists claim that there is a constant movement between two poles, the “yin” and the “yang”, and that energy (vibration) between these two opposing poles is the activating force of all biological phenomena. They maintain that this constant flux, or movement, is easily observable in all living things—from a small molecule in a human being to a large planet. Yin can be defined as the tendency towards

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 expansion and yang the tendency towards contraction (examples of yin are negative, female, passive, Earth, Moon; examples of yang are positive, male, active, sky, Sun, splendid, warm). In essence, yin and yang are complementary forces that ideally must balance to create health and well-being, or to establish correct or optimal conditions in the universe. The dynamic energy in all things, essentially the vehicle through which yin and yang operate, is called “ki” in Japan, “ch’i” in China, and “prana” in India. Every living thing has ki, but this energy and the quality of that energy differs from one living thing to another. In simple terms, the food and drink we consume every day give us ki, and the goal of Oriental medicine is to regulate the intake of food and drink so as to maximize the harmonious flow of ki in the body. Proponents of the art of Oriental medicine divide the body into a yin organ (a hollow organ of absorption such as the gall bladder or small intestine) and a yang organ (a dense, blood-filled organ of regulation such as the heart, liver, or kidneys). The level of ki required by a yin or yang organ depends on its density and structure. IV ACUPUNCTURE

This is a well-known form of oriental medicine. It was actually discovered by the Chinese thousands of years ago by mistake. At that time it was noted that soldiers who were injured with arrows recovered from diseases that had plagued them for years. Today, acupuncture involves the insertion of needles at certain points of the body where vital energy is believed to flow. The use of acupuncture as anaesthesia (to relieve or block the sensation of pain) began in 1958 when it was first used to relieve post-operative pain. It was subsequently used as a general anaesthetic for some forms of surgery. The ancient Chinese identified 26 meridians, pathways, or channels in the body through which energy (ch’i) flows. The meridians link a series of points where energy and blood converge, of which there are some 360 in the body. Each point or set of points is associated with a specific organ or bodily function. Disease is believed to result where energy is blocked along one of these meridians, and for a healthy state, the ch’i must flow unobstructed. Locating the obstruction point or relaxing the point with acupuncture makes the pain or disease disappear and the balanced flow of energy is restored once again. Once the exact point needing treatment is located, the acupuncturist inserts a needle into the skin, the depth of insertion depending on the extent of the disease and the body system involved. Depending on the treatment required, the needle may be left in place for only a few seconds or several weeks. Most acupuncture in the Western world is used for the relief of pain. Shiatsu uses finger pressure instead of needles to apply firm pressure to various points of the skin know as pressure points. This alternative treatment is used to relieve pain and is said to revitalize patients.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 V HOMOEOPATHY

Homoeopathic diagnosis and therapy treats the whole body as a unified organism. Its origins lie in the late 18th century, when Samuel Hahnemann defined disease as “an aberration from the state of health” that cannot be mechanically removed from the body. In 1811 Hahnemann called for healing to be quick, reliable, and permanent and he believed that holistic medicine embraced all of these attributes. Disease was considered to be of two types: acute, which temporarily disabled the person but which could be overcome with time and treatment, and chronic conditions, a series of acute episodes that could with time seriously disable the patient. In treating acute illness, the homoeopath is charged with four responsibilities: a thorough knowledge of the disease, its aetiology, pathology, prognosis, and diagnosis; a thorough knowledge of the medicinal power of drugs; the ability to relate the power of drugs to the patient’s condition; and an ability to foresee barriers between the patient and good health and a knowledge of how to reduce such barriers. The treatment prescribed by the homoeopathic doctor is largely based on the idea that the body contains a vital natural force that has the power to affect recovery. The basis of homoeopathy adheres to four basic laws. The first, the law of similars, holds that “like cures like”: a drug that produces symptoms of a disease in a healthy person will cure a person who has the disease. Significantly, this does not have a sound basis in conventional pharmacology. The second law, the law of potentiation, maintains that high doses of medicine intensify disease symptomatology, whereas small doses tend to strengthen the body’s defence mechanisms. Therefore a cure does not lie in the quantity of medicine but in its quality, and invariably in subtle aspects of the curative treatment. This is why most homoeopathic remedies used today require elaborate prescription and formulation regimes. The third law, the law of cure, occurs from above downward; from within outward: from an important organ to a less important one; and in the reverse order of the symptoms. The fourth law, the single remedy medication, consists of one pure drug at a time, never in mixtures that could potentially contain harmful compounds. VI HERBAL MEDICINE

This is the science or art of plant remedies. This form of complementary medicine has been practised through the centuries, and probably from several thousands of years ago. The most comprehensive classification of herbal remedies was originally given in John Parkinson’s Theatrum Botanicum, published in 1640. Depending on the plant and the treatment, the whole plant or individual parts can be used in the remedy. Generally, practitioners used seeds, fruit flowers, leaves, stems, and barks of plants and herbs in preparing remedies. The commonest form of remedy is the infusion, the fresh herb or plant boiled and the water strained and sipped like tea. The tincture (one part of the herb or plant mixed with five parts of alcohol) is also a common form of therapy. Herbal practitioners also prescribe use of herbs in suppository, inhalant, lotion, tablet, and liquid forms. Many diseases can be treated

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 with herbal medicines. Some commonly treated conditions include colds and influenza (peppermint, ginger, yarrows); insomnia (passion flower, hops, lime flowers); and nausea and vomiting (camomile, peppermint). VII CHIROPRACTIC MEDICINE

This literally means manual medicine and was practised by doctors as early as the time of Hippocrates. Modern-day chiropractic medicine was introduced in 1895; today it is the largest healing profession that does not utilize drugs. In essence the treatment is non-medical and non-surgical. Chiropractic medicine concentrates on preventing and treating diseases through psychological counselling, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and the manipulation of the spine and other joints. The basis of the practice is essentially that the regimes instituted restore normal function to the joints of the body, which subsequently helps the patient regain health. Osteopathic medicine is largely similar to chiropractic medicine and they have both evolved from the same practice. Chiropractors utilize X-rays more frequently than osteopaths, and are believed by some to be better able to cure back pain and promote general good health. In general, osteopathy involves manipulation of the body and, more specifically, the spinal column, with rhythmic movements and massage to areas that may be causing constriction of nerves and blood vessels. Again, osteopaths claim to heal a number of injuries. VIII MASSAGE/SOMATOTHERAPY

This is one of the oldest forms of therapy known. Its origins are in the Orient, but it is now widely practiced in the West and may be included in a course of physiotherapy. Oriental massage is designed to give relief from fatigue, sluggishness, stiff shoulders, headaches, and so on. Western massage concerns itself with nerves, joints, muscles, and the endocrine system, and with treating disorders such as strokes, poliomyelitis, numbness and joint pains, chronic abdominal pain, and chronic constipation. The underlying principle of massage is that all information received by the individual must firstly be received by the body, and the way that the body receives it will ultimately affect the way the brain receives it. Therefore, the body affects the mind and conversely the mind affects the body. Massage attempts to unify, coordinate, and integrate body and mind by stimulating nerves and muscles, based on the theory that every part of the body is controlled by a spinal nerve. Gentle pressure from the fingertips is used to suppress nerve function and heavier pressure to stimulate. IX REFLEXOLOGY

Reflexology involves applying massage to certain points of the feet which advocates believe correspond to particular body functions and organs. Energy is believed to 110

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 flow through the body along meridians that have their terminal points in the feet. A healthy flow and balance of energy through these meridians is seen as being ultimately responsible for the health of the patient. It is believed that reflex points on the top and bottom of the feet correspond to 72,000 nerve endings that are in turn connected to body parts and internal organs within the major body cavities, and in the head and neck region of the body. Advocates of reflexology also claim that the techniques serve as a diagnostic tool. It is assumed that if an organ functions properly, the corresponding reflex point on the foot is similarly good. If the organ is diseased, then the reflex region of the foot will be hypersensitive to touch, thus allowing for a possible diagnostic adjunct. X MEDITATION

Meditation seeks to achieve self-awareness and awareness of one’s relationship with the environment. During meditation thinking is separated from perceiving, so that the individual can stand apart from the emotional self. According to proponents, meditation renders participants more conscious of God and more amenable to the godly qualities of life. It has been practised for centuries and is a vital part of many Oriental, Asian, and Indian religions; Buddhists use meditation to purify the mind and gain insight. Having the advantage that it can be practised at any time in any place, it is best practised in a comfortable position with eyes closed, with complete relaxation of all muscle groups. Most meditation programmes involve increased awareness by focusing on the internal environment—some aspect of feeling; a thought; a physical process; or a sound. In addition, external focusing can also be achieved, such as on an object or a physical activity. XI RELAXATION THERAPY

The purpose of relaxation is to do away with certain activities that place undue stress upon the body. Most of the techniques of relaxation therapy involve retraining the muscles of the body to get rid of hidden underlying tension. Relaxation therapy also teaches individuals to recognize slight tension in their everyday life and enables them to deal with this. When an individual is stressed, then the so-called “fight or flight response” is activated, with the person experiencing increased heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate. One of the major tools employed by relaxation therapists is deep breathing, as tension per se causes breathing changes. People under stress tend to breathe with relatively short, shallow breaths. Yoga is a form of relaxation that employs breathing and positioning of the body to improve agility, both mental and physical, and reduces tension by allowing the body to relax. Yoga promotes happiness in a state of inner tranquillity and balance, with inner peace and harmony at the root of the therapy. XII AROMATHERAPY

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Aromatherapy dates from the ancient Egyptians, who used scents of aromatic oils such as eucalyptus, lavender, and clove to treat skin disorders. It was not until 1930 that the French chemist René Maurice Gattefosse discovered that essential oils used for cosmetic purposes also had medicinal applications. Practitioners administer the oil in a variety of ways, usually by rubbing it into the skin. The oils are readily absorbed into the body and circulated through it. The fragrance of the oil also appears to be important in the therapy. Advocates of this type of complementary medicine claim that conditions as diverse as inflammation, oily skin, dry skin, influenza, and decreased physical immunity can be successfully treated with aromatherapy. Emotional disorders are also treated with aromatic oils: rose oil being thought good for jealousy, camomile for anger, and hyssop for grief. XIII VISUALIZATION

Visualization is the use of the imagination to create pictures of desired situations or conditions. With any visualization technique, the more powerful and complete the picture, the greater the response. Consciously using visualizations allows participants to use the imagination in a structured way, providing clear links with dreams and desires and thus allowing relaxation and the control of the physical symptoms of disease. Put simply, by thinking about feeling good, the patient will feel good. In addition, participants try to visualize how the body appears internally in an attempt to overcome some common physical illnesses such as hypertension (high blood pressure). Some people also believe that effective visualization focused on improving the efficacy of the immune system can slow down the rate of progression of cancer and AIDS, although this remains a topic of considerable debate. Visualizations allow exponents to reinforce feelings and thus combat stress and some of the physical manifestations of disease. XIV NATUROPATHY

This means “nature cure” and involves all therapeutic modalities that will guide the human organism back to an original state of “wholeness”. Much akin to Native American thought (see below), proponents believe that there is healing power present in all living things. The hypothesis stems from the fact that cells in the body work as a functional unit for the good of the body, and that the body in turn works for the good of the constituent cells and rejects waste products. Naturopathy uses nature’s resources, which proponents believe contain inherent healing powers. When disease is present, naturopaths say that the vital energy force and inherent healing powers are blocked. The naturopath does not use external remedies, such as drugs or surgery, but uses methods like fasting, hydrotherapy, massage, vitamin and mineral therapy, vegetarian diets, “health” foods, herbs, mud packs, and exercise. Naturopathy concentrates on disease aetiology (causes). The aim of the therapy is to reverse or eliminate the causes of disease by bringing the whole person into the treatment regime. Treatment combinations are usually the norm. Today, naturopathy is becoming widely accepted and indeed students at naturopathy

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 colleges are taught similar courses to students at conventional medical schools. The legal status of naturopathy differs widely from country to country, with total prohibition in some countries, while in others it is licensed and totally regulated. XV NATIVE AMERICAN HEALING

Most Native American peoples believe in the healing power of Mother Earth, that everything on Earth has a spirit, and that the Earth itself is a living, breathing organism that is intimately capable of sensation. In this type of alternative medicine, illness is believed to occur when an imbalance exists between human beings and their environment. Conversely, human beings are healthy when this balance is maintained or restored; there exists a respectful relationship between human beings and their environment—Mother Earth. Most Native American healing practices use music, dance, and prayer in order to integrate human beings with Mother Earth and to placate evil powers responsible for illness. A variety of techniques are utilized including purification (cleansing the patient of any evil), evocation (inviting good and healing spirits to help the sick person), identification (psychic union of the sick person with the powers that heal), transformation (freeing of the sick person from the illness), and release (disbursement of the healing powers that have made the person well). Many of the above rituals employ the use of a “medicine man”, believed to possess special electromagnetic vibrations that can bring about healing by balancing the various energies within the sick person. Many cultures besides the Native Americans employ medicine men with adoption of many of the techniques mentioned above. XVI ANTHROPOSOPHICAL MEDICINE

This was proposed by Rudolf Steiner, who intended the theory to be a natural extension of Western medicine. Steiner divided the body into two parts: sense perception and concept or thought. He believed that a person as a functioning being had to bring both of these attributes together by his or her own inner activity to get in touch with reality. The theory behind anthroposophical medicine embraces three elements: a system of nerves and senses that provides a physical basis for sense perception and the formulation of thought; a system of metabolism and limbs that provides a physiological basis for life and life of the will; and a rhythmic system of circulation and respiration that is the basis of life. In terms of disease processes, the body is defined as having two poles: a cold pole (the brain) and a warm pole symbolized by metabolically active cells. Consciousness is seen as deriving from the continuous death process of nerve cells and illness is a process through which the individual achieves greater freedom and wholeness. Proponents believe that doctors should not attempt to eliminate illness from the body, but merely guide it in a beneficial way for the body, as it is seen that illness ultimately brings the individual to fulfilment.

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World Heritage Site World Heritage Site, site officially considered to be important for the world’s cultural or natural heritage. These sites are selected by the World Heritage Convention, which was adopted by UNESCO in 1972 and came into force in 1975. The Convention states that a World Heritage Committee “will establish, keep up-todate, and publish” a World Heritage List of cultural and natural properties, submitted by member states and considered to be of universal value. By December 1996 there were 148 countries party to the Convention. The Convention attempts to promote cooperation among nations to protect the worldwide heritage that is recognized as being of such universal value that its conservation is a concern for all people. The Convention is legally binding on signatory countries that must help identify, protect, conserve, and transmit to future generations World Heritage properties. When a site is nominated, experts conduct a careful investigation into its merits. The World Heritage Fund helps give technical cooperation, and emergency assistance in the case of properties severely damaged by specific disasters or threatened with imminent destruction. In December 2000 there were 690 World Heritage Sites, including Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, India’s Taj Mahal, New Zealand’s Tongariro National Park, and the United States’ Grand Canyon. The first British World Heritage site was the Giant’s Causeway; others are St Kilda, Canterbury Cathedral, and Blenheim Palace. The ratio of cultural to natural sites is about three to one. The Convention’s headquarters is in Paris, under the umbrella of UNESCO. Industrial heritageRotherham (town) Rotherham (town), town, administrative centre of Rotherham borough, south Yorkshire, northern England. The town of Rotherham is at the junction of the Don and Rother rivers to the east of the Peak District National Park. It has ancient origins, with prehistoric and Roman remains having been discovered on the site. Rotherham’s industrial heritage, in particular as the birthplace of the UK steel industry, is celebrated in a new visitor centre due to open in 2001—the Magna Centre. Other places of interest include the 15th-century parish church of All Saints in the town centre, a fine example of perpendicular architecture, and the Chapel of Our Lady, a tiny but still functioning chapel erected in 1483 on Rotherham Bridge. The town also has two museums and an art gallery. Britain’s rich cultural heritage and traditions are the main reasons why it has more than 20 million overseas visitors each year. The attractions include the many theatres, museums, art galleries, and historical buildings to be found in all parts of

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 the United Kingdom, as well as the numerous annual arts festivals and the pageantry associated with the British royal family. The expansion of tourism, combined with the collapse of many traditional economic activities, has helped encourage the growth since the 1980s of the so-called “heritage” industry—seen in the explosion of “living” museums illustrating Britain’s rural and industrial past.

Indian Art and Architecture
I INTRODUCTION

Indian Art and Architecture, the art and architecture produced on the Indian subcontinent from about the 3rd millennium bc to modern times. To Western eyes, Indian art can appear strikingly ornate, exaggeratedly sensuous, and voluptuous. A strong sense of design is also characteristic of Indian art and can be observed in its modern as well as in its traditional forms. To be properly understood, the art of India must be placed in the ideological, aesthetic, and religious framework of Indian civilization. This framework was formed as early as the 1st century bc and has shown a remarkable continuity through the ages. The Hindu-Buddhist-Jain view of the world is largely concerned with the resolution of the central paradox of all existence, which is that change and perfection, time and eternity, immanence and transcendence, operate dichotomously and integrally as parts of a single process. In such a situation creation cannot be separated from the creator, and time can be comprehended only as eternity. This conceptual view, when expressed in art, divides the universe of aesthetic experience into three distinct, although interrelated, elements—the senses, the emotions, and the spirit. These elements dictate the norms for architecture as an instrument of enclosing and transforming space and for sculpture in its volume, plasticity, modelling, composition, and aesthetic values. Instead of depicting the dichotomy between the flesh and the spirit, Indian art, through a deliberate sensuousness and voluptuousness, fuses one with the other through a complex symbolism that, for example, attempts to transform the fleshiness of a feminine form into a perennial mystery of sex and creativity, wherein the momentary spouse stands revealed as the eternal mother. The Indian artist deftly uses certain primeval motifs, such as the feminine figure, the tree, water, the lion, and the elephant. In a given composition, although the result is sometimes conceptually unsettling, the qualities of sensuous vitality, earthiness, muscular energy, and rhythmic movement remain unmistakable. The form of the Hindu temple; the contours of the bodies of the Hindu gods and goddesses; and the light, shade, composition, and volume in Indian painting are all used to glorify the mystery that resolves the conflict between life and death, time and eternity.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The arts of India expressed in architecture, sculpture, painting, jewellery, pottery, metalwork, and textiles, were spread throughout the Far East with the diffusion of Buddhism and Hinduism and exercised a strong influence on the arts of China, Japan, Myanmar (formerly Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, and Java. These two religions with their various offshoots were dominant in India until Islam became powerful from the 13th to the 18th century. With Islam, which forbids the representation of the human figure in religious contexts, geometrical patterns became the most common form of decoration in art and architecture created under India's Muslim rulers. II ARCHITECTURE

The earliest surviving Indian architecture consists of brick buildings. While early wooden structures have generally not survived, later stone buildings, built in a similar style, are known. A Early Indian and Buddhist Styles

The oldest traces of architecture in India are the vestiges of buildings of burnt brick found at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa (now in Pakistan), dating from about 25001750 bc. The subsequent Vedic period, which precedes the beginning of historical styles, is represented by burial mounds at Lauriya Nandangarh, in Bihar State, and rock-cut tombs in Malabar, Kerala State. The establishment of historical styles began about 250 bc in the time of the Indian king Ashoka, who gave imperial patronage to Buddhism. Accordingly, the monuments of this time were built for Buddhist purposes. A characteristic Buddhist construction was the tope, or stupa, a hemispherical or bell-shaped masonry monument, typically surrounded by a railing, and with four entrances marked by gateways, and designed as a shrine or reliquary. The best example of these structures is the Great Stupa in Sanchi in the state of Madhya Pradesh, which commemorates the death of Buddha and his entrance into Nirvana. Other Buddhist structures are the dagoba, a relic shrine, said to be the ancestral form of the pagoda; the lat, a stone edict pillar, generally monumental; the chaitya, a hall of worship in basilican form; and the vihara, a monastery or temple. Chaityas and viharas were often hewn out of the living rock. Architectural details such as capitals and mouldings show influence from Middle Eastern and Greek sources. Notable examples of early rock-cut monuments in Maharashtra State are the Great Chaitya Hall at Karle (c. early 2nd century ad) with its elaborate sculptured façade and tunnel-vaulted nave, and various temples and monasteries at Ajanta and Ellora. B Jain and Hindu Styles

Buddhism waned after the 5th century as Hinduism and Jainism became dominant. The Jain and Hindu styles overlapped and produced the elaborate allover patterns 116

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 carved in bands that became the distinguishing feature of Indian architecture. The Jains often built on a gigantic scale, a marked feature of their architecture being pointed domes constructed of level courses of corbelled stones. Extensive remains have been discovered on hilltops in locations far removed from one another in three states, at Parasnath Hill in Jharkhand, Mount Abut at Abu in Rajasthan, and Satrunjaya in Gujarat. Small temples were built close together in great numbers on hilltops; one of the earlier groups is on Mount Abu. Typical of Jain commemorative towers is the richly ornamented, nine-storey Jaya Sthamba. The Hindu style is closely related to the Jain style. It is divided into three general categories: northern, from ad 600 to the present; central, from 1000 to 1300; and southern, or Dravidian, from 1350 to 1750. In all three periods the style is marked by great ornateness and the use of pyramidal roofs. Spire-like domes terminate in delicate finials. Other features include the elaborate, grand-scale gopuras, or gates, and the choultries, or ceremonial halls. Among the most famous examples of the style are the temples in the south at Belur, and at Halebid, Tiruvalur, Thanjavur, and Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu State; temples in the north at Barolli in Rajasthan, at Vārānasi in Uttar Pradesh, and the Sun Temple at Konarak in Orissa State. C Indo-Islamic Style

Islamic architecture in India dates from the 13th century to the present. Brought to India by the first Muslim conquerors, Islamic architecture soon lost its original purity and borrowed such elements from Indian architecture as courtyards surrounded by colonnades, balconies supported by brackets, and above all, decoration. Islam, on the other hand, introduced to India the dome, the true arch, geometric motifs, mosaics, and minarets. Despite fundamental conceptual differences, Indian and Islamic architecture achieved a harmonious fusion, especially in certain regional styles. Indo-Islamic style is usually divided into three phases: the Pashtun, the Provincial, and the Mughal. Examples of the earlier Pashtun style in stone are at Ahmadabad in Gujarat State, and in brick at Gaur-Pandua in West Bengal State. These structures are closely allied to Hindu models, but are simpler and lack sculptures of human figures. The dome, the arch, and the minaret are constant features of the style; a famous monument in this style is the mausoleum Gol Gumbaz (17th century) in Bijapur, Mysore State, which has a dome 43 m (142 ft) in diameter, almost as big as that of St Peter's Basilica in Rome. Another notable structure is the five-storey stone and marble tower called the Qutb Minar (12th century), near Delhi. The Provincial style reflected the continued rebellion of the provinces against the imperial style of Delhi. The best example of this phase is in Gujarat, where for almost two centuries until 1572, when Emperor Akbar finally conquered the region, the dynasties that succeeded one another erected many monuments in varying styles. The most notable structures in this phase are found in the capital, Ahmadabad. The Jami Masjid (1423) is unique in the whole of India; although

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Muslim in inspiration, the arrangement of 3 bays and almost 300 pillars, as well as the decoration, in this mosque is pure Hindu. The Mughal phase of the Indo-Islamic style, from the 16th to the 18th century, developed to a high degree the use of such luxurious materials as marble. The culminating example of the style is the Taj Mahal in Agra. This domed mausoleum of white marble inlaid with gemstones was built (1632-1648) by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan as a tomb for his beloved wife. It stands on a platform set off by four slender minarets and is reflected in a shallow pool. Other famous examples of the Mughal style are the Pearl Mosque at Agra, Uttar Pradesh State, the palace fortresses at Agra and Delhi, and the great mosques at Delhi and Lahore (now in Pakistan). D Modern Styles

Building in India since the 18th century has either carried on the indigenous historical forms or has been modelled after European models introduced by the British. Numerous examples of Western styles of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries may be seen in public buildings, factories, hotels, and houses. The most outstanding example of modern architecture in India is the city of Chandīgarh, the joint capital of Haryana and Punjab; the city was designed by the Swiss-born French architect Le Corbusier in collaboration with Indian architects. The broad layout of the city was completed in the early 1960s. Notable architectural features include the vaulted structure, topped by a huge, concrete dome, and the use of concrete grille and bright pastel colours in the Palace of Justice; the arrangement of concrete cubes topped by a concrete dome that is the Governor's Palace; and the use of projections, recesses, stair towers, and other contrasting elements to break the monotony of the long façades of the secretariat building, which are 244 m (800 ft) long. Modern Indian architecture has incorporated Western styles, adapting them to local traditions and needs—as in the design of the railway station at Alwar, Rajasthan State. III SCULPTURE

The earliest prehistoric sculpture in India was made of stone, clay, ivory, copper, and gold. A Early Period

Examples of the 3rd millennium bc from the Indus Valley Civilization, found among remains of burnt-brick buildings of Mohenjo-Daro, include alabaster and marble figures, terracotta figurines of naked goddesses, terracotta and faience representations of animals, a copper model of a cart, and numerous square seals of ivory and of faience showing animals and pictographs. In terms of their subject matter and stylization, the similarity between these objects and Mesopotamian work suggests an interrelationship between the two cultures and a possible common ancestry (see Mesopotamian Art and Architecture). In Vedic and later times, from

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 the 2nd millennium to the 3rd century bc, connections with Middle Eastern culture are not evident. An example of the earlier phase of this period is a 9th-century bc gold figurine of a goddess, found at Lauriya Nandangarh. Later, from 600 bc to historical times, common examples include finely polished and ornamented stone discs and coins representing many kinds of animals and religious symbols. B Buddhist Sculpture

With the rise of Buddhism in the 3rd century bc and the development of a monumental architecture in stone, stone sculpture both in relief and in the round became important architectural adjuncts. Buddha himself was not shown in early Indian art; he was represented by symbols and scenes from his life. Among other common subjects for representation were Buddhist deities and edifying legends. At this time and subsequently throughout the history of Indian sculpture, figures and ornamentation were arranged in intricately related compositions. Monuments of the period include the animal capitals of the sandstone edict pillars of King Ashoka, and the marble railings that surround the Buddhist stupas at Bharhut, near Satna in Madhya Pradesh, where the reliefs seem to be compressed between the surface plane and the background plane. Also outstanding are the gates of the Great Stupa at Sanchi, where the reliefs suggest the delicacy and detail of ivory carving. In north-west India, in a region that was called Gandhara in ancient times and now includes Afghanistan and part of the Punjab, a Graeco-Buddhist school of sculpture arose that combined the influence of Greek forms and Buddhist subject matter. It reached the peak of its production in the 2nd century ad. Although the Gandhara style greatly influenced sculptural work in Central Asia and even in China, Korea, and Japan, it did not have a major effect in the rest of India; it is probable, however, that the images as well as the symbols of Buddha developed at Gandhara later spread to Mathura, now in Uttar Pradesh, where an important school of sculpture developed from the 2nd century bc to the 6th century ad. Remains of the earlier work of this school also show a close relationship to the style of the sculpture at Bharhut. Later, in the 1st and 2nd centuries ad, the Mathura school discarded the old symbols of Buddha and represented him with actual figures. This innovation was carried on through subsequent phases of Indian sculpture. In the Gupta period, from ad 320 to about 600, images of Buddha were modelled with clearly defined lines and refined contours. The drapery of the figure was diaphanous and clung to the body as if wet. Often the figures were made on a great scale, as in the colossal copper sculpture, weighing some 1,000 kg (1 ton), from Sultanganj, Bihar State. C Hindu Sculpture

Hindu sculpture also developed during the Gupta period. Reliefs were carved in rock-cut sanctuaries in Udayagiri, Madhya Pradesh (400-600), and adorned temples at Garhwa, near Allahabad, and Deogarh. From the 7th to the 9th century a number

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 of schools flourished. They include the highly architectural style of the Pallavas, exemplified by the work at Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu; the Rastrakuta style, of which the best-preserved examples are a colossal temple relief and the three-headed bust of Shiva at Elephanta, near Mumbai; and the Kashmir style, which shows some Graeco-Buddhist influence in the remains at Vijrabror, and more indigenous forms in figures of Hindu gods found at Vantipor. From the 9th century to the consolidation of Muslim power at the beginning of the 13th century, Indian sculpture increasingly tended towards the linear, forms appearing to be sharply outlined rather than voluminous. More so than previously, sculpture was applied as decoration, subordinate to its architectural setting. It was intricate and elaborate in detail and was characterized by complicated, many-armed figures drawn from the pantheon of Hindu and Jain gods, which replaced the earlier simple figures of Buddhist gods. Emphasis on technical virtuosity also added to the multiplication of involved forms. At this time the three distinct areas of production in sculpture were (1) the north and east, (2) Rajputana (now part of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan states), and (3) the south-central and western regions. In the north and east, one of the main schools was centred in Bihar and Bengal under the Pala dynasty from 750 to 1200. A notable source for sculpture was the monastery and university at Nalanda in Bihar. Black slate was a common medium, and the themes, at first still Buddhist, gradually became more and more Hindu. Another north-eastern school, in Orissa, produced typically Hindu work, including the monumental elephants and horses and erotic friezes at the Sun Temple in Konarak. In Rajputana the local style was exemplified in the hard sandstone temple of Khajuraho, which was literally covered with Hindu sculptures. The south-central and western schools produced notable works at Mysore, Halebid, and Belur. The temples were embellished with carved friezes, pillars, and brackets in fine-grained dark stone. After the Muslims became dominant, they adopted many of native Indian patterns as ornament. These traditions persist to the present day, especially in the south, where art retains its indigenous purity. IV PAINTING

Remains of Indian painting before ad 100 have survived in two localities. The remarkable Buddhist murals in rock-cut shrines in Ajanta, in Maharashtra, cover the period from ad 50 to 642. The earlier paintings of the Ajanta caves represent figures of indigenous types, having noble bearing and depicted with strong sensuality. The painting in the Jogimara cave at Orissa belongs to two periods, 1st century bc and medieval; the later work is inferior, obscuring the earlier, more vigorous drawing. The Gupta period established the classical phase of Indian art, at once serene and energetic, spiritual and voluptuous. Art was the medium through which spiritual

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 concepts could be expressed. A special kind of painting, executed on scrolls, depicted the reward of good and evil deeds in the world. Painting of the Gupta period has been preserved in three of the Ajanta caves. Represented are numerous Buddhas, sleeping women, and love scenes. Another group of Buddhist wall paintings, found at Bamian, in Afghanistan, reveal that these artists could represent any human posture. The drawing is stated in firm outline, and the subjects vary from the sublime to the grotesque. The whole spirit is one of emphatic, passionate force. The paintings in the first and second Ajanta caves date from the early 7th century and can hardly be distinguished in style from those of the Gupta period. Represented are bacchanalian scenes of the type that recur in Buddhist art from the early Kusana period onwards. Also of great interest are the 7th-century Jain Palava paintings recently discovered in a cave shrine at Sittanāvasal, Tamil Nadu State. Remains of late 8th-century murals have been found at Ellora. Such subjects as a rider on a horned lion and many pairs of figures floating among clouds anticipate characteristic themes of the Indian medieval style. The only surviving documents of the Pala school (750-1200) are illustrations in two palm-leaf manuscripts (now in the University of Cambridge library, England), one dating from the beginning and the other from the middle of the 11th century, and containing, in all, 51 miniatures. The illustrations represent Buddhist divinities or scenes from the life of Buddha, evidently copies of traditional compositions. One example of an illustrated Kalpa Sutra, or manual of religious ceremonial, on palm leaf is known, dating from 1237 and now at Patan, Gujarat. The variety of scenes represented provides valuable information on the manners, customs, and dress of the Gujārāti culture. Gujārāti painting was a continuation of the early western Indian style; the frescoes of Ellora represent an intermediate stage of development. Rajput painting flourished in Rajputana, Bundelkhand (now part of Madhya Pradesh), and the Punjab Himalaya from the late 16th century into the 19th. It consisted of manuscript illumination in flat, decorative patterns and bright colours that resembled Persian and Mughal painting of the same period. Rajput painting, a refined and lyrical folk art, illustrates traditional Hindu epics, especially the life of the god Krishna. Mughal painting, derived from the sophisticated Persian tradition, was a court art sponsored by the emperors. Reflecting an exclusive interest in secular life, it is essentially an art of portraiture and of historical chronicle. Mughal painting, on manuscripts or as independent album leaves, is dramatic and precisely realistic in detail, showing Western influence. Painters signed their own work, and the names of at least 100 of them are known. By the end of the 19th century, traditional Indian painting had begun to die out, replaced by work merely imitative of Western styles; European influence had started to infiltrate with the establishment of British rule in India. After the turn of

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 the century there was a revival of interest in the older styles (stimulated by the archaeological study that had been going on in India since about the middle of the 19th century). Art centres arose in Bombay and, more importantly, in Bengal, where many of the artists were associated with the Calcutta School of Art and with VisvaBharati, the university founded in 1921 by the Indian poet and painter Rabindranath Tagore to reconcile Indian and Western traditions. Experiments were made in styles ranging from Ajanta, Rajput, and Mughal painting to Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, and Surrealism. Artists such as Nandolol Bose drew their inspiration primarily from Ajanta art; others, like Jamini Roy, found their inspiration in Bengali folk art. By the mid-20th century, Indian painting was international in flavour, and Indian artists were working in a number of different idioms. V JEWELLERY, POTTERY AND TEXTILES

Of all the decorative arts in India, jewellery is the most universally interesting and beautiful. The techniques of filigree and granular work, which disappeared in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire and were not used again until their introduction by the Moors in the 15th century, were never lost in India. The special qualities that distinguish the best Indian pottery are the strict subordination of colour and ornament to form, and the conventionalizing and repetition of natural forms in the decoration. Unglazed pottery has been made throughout India; decorative pottery for commercial purposes, painted, gilded, and glazed, is made in special varieties in different provinces. Exquisite colour tones and combinations are found in the glazed tiles that came into fashion with the Muslim conquest after the 11th century. Among the branches of artistic metalwork, that of the arms and equipment of the great chieftains is prominent. Kashmir is noted for its richly coloured woollen shawls; Surat, in Gujarat, is known for silk prints; and sumptuous brocades come from Ahmadabad and Vārānasi, and from Murshidabad in western Bengal. India has long been famous for its silk and cotton textiles, with decoration printed and embroidered as well as woven on the loom.

Temple
I INTRODUCTION

Temple, building dedicated to one or more divinities. The word temple is derived from templum, the Latin word for a sacred, ceremonial space. A temple almost always stands out clearly from its surroundings and has a pronounced architectural character. The type is common to most societies, being thought of as the dwelling place of the divine or as a sacred place where contact with a deity can be made. The broad concept includes the mosque, the synagogue, and the church, and the word is also used to refer to buildings for fraternal orders and religious organizations. 122

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The origin of the temple lies in the need for ancient peoples to make concrete their relationship with the forces of nature by means of substantial structures commanding attention. Around these the ceremonies of worship were elaborated, and in many societies the attendant priests became very powerful. Temples were often positioned in relation to some natural feature or phenomenon, such as a holy mountain or the apparent trajectory of the Sun, and they were often tall or placed on an elevated spot, in order to lessen the distance between mortals and the heavens. II TEMPLE FORMS

In form the temple ranges from a plain mound of heaped material to sophisticated complexes of numerous buildings, but a main, central structure for the temple proper is always found in these elaborate systems. Some have platforms for observing natural phenomena or for ritual fires, but most have a sanctuary, a special place reserved for the divinity, whose invisible presence is symbolized by a sculpted or painted image or some suitable relic. In order to show respect for the divinity, the sanctuary is usually set off from the rest of the temple by interposed doors, railings, or colonnades; the sanctuary is usually well inside the temple structure. Another common feature is an altar, a block of stone or tablelike feature where offerings to the divinity are placed and upon which the ceremony of worship focuses. The altars of the Classical temples of Greece and Rome were outside and in front of the temple proper; the internal sanctuary (cella) was not normally entered by the laity. Temples are usually set within a precinct, an enclosure (also sacred) extending well beyond the temple proper. Gateways, often of elaborate design, helped to control crowds of worshippers and pilgrims. Grand temple complexes might include priests' quarters, healing centres, monasteries, shops, and hostels. Often granaries were included as well, for the connection between religious cults and agriculture was close; priests became bankers through the loan of seed grain. In many societies the main temple and dependent structures were the most important buildings, although many smaller, often isolated, temples existed as well. Temples are divisible into two main types: the solid, hill-like type, such as the pyramid, or stepped mound; and the chambered type, with an interior sanctuary and exterior colonnades or other sophisticated architectural treatment. One is a monument reaching towards the sky, heavy with celestial symbolism; the other is a dignified house for a god. Both types are usually eminently visible, an unambiguous statement about the religious culture of the builders. III EGYPTIAN AND MESOPOTAMIAN TEMPLES

In ancient Egypt, temples were grandiose, built of huge blocks and columns of stone. They were often enlarged by successive rulers to form extended series of temple parts, as in the gigantic Temple of Amon (c. 1570-1070 bc) at Karnak. The Nile cliffs were used as settings for temples, such as the massive mortuary temple (c. 1478 bc)

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 of Hatshepsut at Dayr el-Bahri, the superhuman scale of which still inspires awe. A profusion of sculpture (both in the round and in incised relief) and painting told of the gods and their special connection with Egypt's rulers. In the Middle East the hill form called the ziggurat predominated for a long time; this was a huge tower, sometimes encircled by a walkway. The best-preserved is the ziggurat of Nanna at Ur (c. 2100 bc) in present-day Iraq. Smaller, plainer constructed mounds also appeared. In the last few centuries bc columned temples with cellas appeared. IV GREEK TEMPLES

Beginning about the 7th century bc, the Greeks created the temple with columns around all sides that support a plain, pitched roof—the image that comes most readily to the Western mind when the word temple is mentioned. This form, perfected in the Parthenon (c. 447-432 bc) on the Athenian Acropolis, has had a long life in the history of art. Often atop a city hill (acropolis) and built of fine-grained marble, the Greek temple is justly famous for its fine proportions and elegant clarity of form. It sits on a three-stepped stone platform upon which the columns and the walls of the cella are set; the gable ends of the roof, and other parts, were embellished with sculpture. As time passed, the kinds of columns used by the Greeks —Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian—became the touchstones of classically inspired buildings everywhere. V ROMAN TEMPLES

The Roman temple (4th century bc-3rd century ad) at first seems to be almost entirely derived from the Greek. Unlike the Greek examples, however, on one end it has a high staircase set between two projecting wall sections that form part of the high platform, or podium, on which it is built. Every Roman town had one or more temples of this kind, placed not upon an acropolis but amid the urban fabric; elevation on its podium helped give it distinction. A well-preserved example is the Maison Carrée (square house) in Nîmes, southern France. The Greek or Roman temple has been one of the most influential architectural prototypes in the western world; since the 18th century, countless public buildings, both secular and religious, have been designed in deliberate imitation of the form. Because of their historical associations, they have stood as architectural metaphors of civilization itself. VI INDIAN TEMPLES

The major Buddhist temple structures of India are the stupa, a hemispherical mound, sometimes of great size) and the cave-hall, or chaitya. Stupas are reliquaries and represent the heavens. Rising from bases that symbolize the Earth, they are the goals of pilgrims and are often set in groups within precincts. The Great Stupa (3rd century bc-early 1st century ad) at Sanchi is the most notable extant example. Encircling the base of the stupa is a fenced-off walkway for the ritual passage around it. The hemisphere proper is solid and is surmounted by a fenced enclosure symbolizing the peak of Mount Meru, the world-mountain. Within is often a

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 schematized tree of stone representing humanity. The cave-hall, on the other hand, is emphatically an interior space, usually cut out of the rock, as is the Great Chaitya Hall (dating from around the early 2nd century ad) at Karle. It has a stupa at its far end separated from the curving back wall by an ambulatory. Both the stupa and the chaitya are usually decorated with a profusion of high-relief sculpture. Free-standing Hindu temples are large, rectangular, symmetrical precincts containing a towering sanctuary and various subordinate structures. Typical is the Lingaraja Temple (c. ad 1000) at Bhubaneshwar. The sanctuary, placed at the intersection of the cardinal axes of the precinct, is very tall, resembling an immense fountain of stone with a domelike, small-scale top bearing a finial. Neighbouring structures echo this great form. This style is common to the north of India; in the south a main feature is the towering, intricately formed gateway, or gopura. All Hindu temples are highly articulated and are charged with symbolic carvings. The sanctuary proper is a kind of cave, dark and vaulted by cantilevered stones. Jain (heterodox Hindu) temples, such as the marble temples at Mount Abu (13th century) in western India, are placed in rectangular precincts lined on the inside with repeated cells. On the long axis are a dancing pavilion, a large gateway, a square vestibule, and then the shrine proper. Buddhist architecture also appears in other Asian countries, as at Borobudur (late 8th-early 9th century) in Java. There the central stupa is mounted on a huge stepped base and is surrounded by scores of lesser stupas, the whole representative of Buddhist beliefs. The famous Khmer monuments of Cambodia, such as Angkor Wat (early 12th century), are Indian-inspired. Angkor Wat has three vast rectangular terraces, each edged with passages, one higher than the other. The outermost, largest terrace wall is marked by low towers, the second by higher ones, and the innermost by still taller ones centred around the tallest of all—an awesome composition. The whole is covered with a profusion of religious relief sculpture. VII CHINESE AND JAPANESE TEMPLES

Chinese architecture is predominantly secular, halls or monuments serving as the focal point for ceremonies that were as much social as religious. When Buddhism arrived in China, it was the long, relatively low great hall of Chinese tradition that was first adapted to temple use. Later, more vertical structures were built to house the statue of the Buddha. Wood was the normal building material, assembled in an intricate system of posts carrying multiple horizontal brackets; the subtle manipulation of this technique produced the graceful roof shapes of traditional Chinese and Japanese architecture. Centralized buildings were constructed as well: The pagoda, often made of brick, is a tower of superimposed levels. The levels may diminish somewhat in breadth as the building rises, and each stage is normally accentuated by bold roof silhouettes that project beyond the mass. Circular buildings were not unknown; one of these, the Altar of Heaven (begun 1420; restored 1890) in Beijing, has a roof form that resembles a great conical hat. In Chinese wooden architecture extensive use is made of bright colours.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Japanese religious buildings, which are descended from the Chinese tradition, are often well preserved because of frequent, meticulous rebuilding of the original (impermanent) wood. Ise Shrine, for example, is a sanctuary that, although a modern work, faithfully represents the original building of the 3rd century ad. In Japan the relatively low, great-hall type of building is found; the pagoda form is also found in Japan. The ingenuity of the carpentry and of the woodcarving in some buildings is exceptional, and much attention was paid to the texture and to the patterning of roofs of thatch, shingles, and tile. The temple interiors can be brilliant, but on the whole the effect is one of an economical clarity of forms. VIII PRE-COLUMBIAN TEMPLES

In what is now Mexico and the countries immediately to the south, religious architecture predominated among monumental structures until the Europeans arrived. The Pyramid of the Sun and the Pyramid of the Moon at Teotihuacán (a city that flourished during the 1st millennium ad) show the development of this typical Mesoamerican form. The Pyramid of the Sun is a kind of step pyramid, composed of horizontal layers or sections of diminishing size; a small dwelling for the god was once at the top. The later Pyramid of the Moon is more fully articulated than that of the Sun, carrying a series of richly sculptured bands around its base; both pyramids could be ascended by monumental staircases. Mayan temples also used the pyramidal form, although usually as a base for a rectilinear, enclosed structure at the summit. At Chichén Itzá, the Temple of the Warriors was fronted by a sizeable colonnaded hall. All such structures were of stone or of earth fill faced with stone; some were encased in painted plaster in lieu of cut-stone sculpture. Pyramid temples were often oriented to the passage of the Sun; the Teotihuacán Pyramid of the Sun was oriented to the Sun's passage at the summer solstice. See Also American Art and Architecture; Chinese Art and Architecture; Egyptian Art and Architecture; Greek Art and Architecture; Indian Art and Architecture; Japanese Art and Architecture; Mesopotamian Art and Architecture; PreColumbian Art and Architecture; Roman Art and Architecture.

Climate
I INTRODUCTION

Climate, the long-term effect of the Sun's radiation on the rotating Earth's varied surface and atmosphere. It can be understood most easily in terms of annual or seasonal averages of temperature and precipitation. Land and sea areas, being so variable, react in many different ways to the atmosphere, which is constantly circulating in a state of dynamic activity. Day-byday variations in a given area constitute the weather, whereas climate is the longterm synthesis of such variations (both can be viewed as subdisciplines of meteorology). Weather is measured by thermometers, rain gauges, barometers, and 126

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 other instruments, but the study of climate relies on statistics. Today, such statistics are handled efficiently by computers. A simple, long-term summary of weather changes, however, is still not a true picture of climate. To obtain this requires the analysis of daily, monthly, and yearly patterns. Investigation of climate changes over geological time is the province of palaeoclimatology, which requires the tools and methods of geological research. The word climate comes from the Greek klima, referring to the inclination of the Sun. Besides the effects of solar radiation and its variations, climate is also influenced by the complex structure and composition of the atmosphere and by the ways in which it and the ocean transport heat. Thus, for any given area on Earth, not only the latitude (the Sun's inclination) must be considered but also the elevation, terrain, distance from the ocean, relation to mountain systems and lakes, and other such influences. Another consideration is scale: a macroclimate refers to a broad region, a mesoclimate to a small district, and a microclimate to a minute area. A microclimate, for example, can be specified that is good for growing plants in the deep shade beneath trees. Climate has profound effects on vegetation and animal life, including humans. It plays statistically significant roles in many physiological processes, from conception and growth to health and disease. Humans, in turn, can affect climate by changing their environment, both through the alteration of the Earth's surface and the introduction of pollutants and chemicals such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. II CLIMATIC ZONES

Climates are described by agreed-upon codes or by descriptive terms that are somewhat loosely defined but nevertheless useful. On a global scale, climate can be spoken of in terms of zones, or belts, that can be traced between the equator and the pole in each hemisphere. To understand them, the circulation of the upper atmosphere, or stratosphere, must be considered, as well as that of the lower atmosphere, or troposphere, where weather takes place. Upper atmospheric phenomena were little understood until the advent of such advanced technology as rocketry, high-altitude aircraft, and satellites. Ideally, hot air can be thought of as rising by convection along the equator and sinking near the poles. Thus, the equatorial belt tends to be a region of low pressure and calms, interrupted by thunderstorms associated with towering cumulus clouds. Because of the calms, this belt is known as the doldrums. It shifts somewhat north of the equator in the northern summer and south in the southern summer. By contrast, air sinks in the polar regions. This leads to high atmospheric pressure, and dry, icy winds that tend to radiate outward from the poles. Complicating this simplistic picture is the Earth's rotation, which deflects the northerly and southerly components of the atmosphere's circulation. Thus, the

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 tropical and polar winds both tend to be easterlies (winds from the east), and two intermediate belts develop in each hemisphere. Around latitude 30° north and south is a zone of high pressure, where the upper air sinks and divides, sending air streams towards the equator. Steady north-east trade winds blow in the northern hemisphere, and south-east trade winds in the southern hemisphere. These highpressure areas lead to arid areas on the continents but to moist air over the oceans, because of evaporation. If these trade winds meet an island or mainland coast, moist air is pushed up into cooler elevations, and heavy rainfall might occur. Around latitude 50° to 60° north and south is a belt of low pressure characterized by the prevailing westerlies, which are deflected to the south-west in the northern hemisphere and to the north-west in the southern hemisphere. These are relatively mild, moist winds that tend to bring frequent cyclonic precipitation to all elevations along the west-facing side of continents. The precipitation is characterized by polar fronts, where cold air from the polar easterlies drives in under the warm, moist air of the westerlies, which, on cooling, drop their moisture. In winter this is the cause of most snowfall on continents. III TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION SCALES

Temperature is an important aspect of climate and can be used to grade climatic zones on a scale of five: (1) Tropical, with annual and monthly averages above 20° C (68° F); (2) Subtropical, with 4 to 11 months above 20° C, and the balance between 10° and 20° C (50° to 68° F); (3) Temperate, with 4 to 12 months at 10° to 20° C, and the rest cooler; (4) Cold, with 1 to 4 months at 10° to 20° C, and the rest cooler; and (5) Polar, with 12 months below 10° C. Within each hemisphere, eight basic climatological zones can also be recognized in terms of precipitation: (1) Equatorial: rain in all seasons; (2) Tropical: summer rain with winters dry; (3) Semi-arid Tropical: slight summer rain; (4) Arid: dry in all seasons; (5) Dry Mediterranean: slight winter rain; (6) Mediterranean: winter rain, summers dry; (7) Temperate: precipitation in all seasons; (8) Polar: precipitation sparse in all seasons. IV VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION

Both of the above meteorological parameters fail to meet the need for a true and universal climatic description. Vegetation, however, offers a useful guide, particularly in special cases, such as the selva, or equatorial rainforest belt, hot with tropical rain much of the year; the savannah, warm-hot, with strong seasonality; and the tundra, cold, with strong seasonality. It is a particularly helpful system for a person who wants to know the nature of an area and what it is like to live there. Because temperature relates to precipitation in terms of potential evaporation, a classification based on the latter two provides an excellent guide, with four fundamental divisions: hot-dry (arid), cold-dry (polar or glacial), hot-wet (selva),

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 and moderate-warm to cool-humid (temperate).

Angkor National Park
Angkor National Park, in north-western Cambodia, established in 1925. The park, which covers 107 sq km (41 sq mi) of rainforest terrain, was created by the French colonial authorities to protect the remains of the former capital city of the Khmer Empire, the first Cambodian state. Between the late 9th century, when it was known as Yasodharapura, and the early 13th century, when it was known as Angkor Thom, the city was both a royal and religious centre. Its best-known buildings are Angkor Wat, a temple dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu which was constructed in the early 12th century, and Bayon, a Buddhist temple completed in about 1215. Each of these was the main structure within complexes of buildings, canals, and artificial lakes which represented the shape of the universe according to the religious beliefs of the kings who had them built, respectively Suryavarman II and Jayavarman VII. Angkor Thom was abandoned in 1431, but Angkor Wat continued to function, although as a Buddhist temple, through to the uncovering of the rest of the site by French archaeologists, from 1863 onwards. Angkor's buildings and waterways were damaged and neglected during the civil wars and genocide of the 1970s, but since 1993 conservation at the site has been supervised by an International Coordinating Committee, created within UNESCO to help the Cambodian authorities to raise funds and employ experts. . From Ramnagar, across the river, the city of Varanasi gives an impression of splendour that is dissipated on closer view. The narrow streets wind circuitously between painted and carved buildings, many of them with overhanging galleries. Among the best known of Varanasi’s more than 1,500 religious buildings are Kashi Vishvanath Temple (one of two in the city known as the Golden Temple), dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva; the mosque of Aurangzeb; and the observatory of Raja Jai Singh and the Durga Temple, both dating from the 17th century. Varanasi is also a seat of learning, especially for the study of Sanskrit, centred on Benares College (1791) and maintained by the government. Banaras Hindu University (1916) was the first denominational university in India under private control; it is now nonsectarian. Varanasi Sanskrit University was founded in 1958. During the 1950s, Le Corbusier and his associates created Chandigarh, a new capital city for the Punjab, in north-western India. Its three great government buildings, rising in a vast plaza, are among the most dramatic architectural gestures of the 20th century. Two French religious buildings crown Le Corbusier’s extraordinary career: the pilgrimage chapel of Nôtre Dame du Haut (1950-1955), in Ronchamp, Haute Saône, and the Dominican monastery of La Tourette (1956-1960), in Eveux, Rhône. The chapel is made of sweeping curved masses that envelop very

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 active although intimate space. The monastery, rectangular in conception, reverts to béton brut and contains highly complex spaces for community life. . The city’s main business district centres on Dalhousie Square, just east of the busy waterfront. To the south is an area of parkland and elegant Georgian mansions and Victorian office buildings, built during the long period of British control. Kolkata’s major landmark is the Maidan, a large park along the Hugli containing many fine drives, a racecourse, a cricket ground, and the historical Fort William (1696, rebuilt 1757). To the south-east is the domed marble Victoria Memorial (1921), built to commemorate the queen’s reign, and acting as a historical museum and pantheon to the British presence in the subcontinent. Other places of interest are Jawaharlal Nehru (formerly Chowringhee) Road, the city’s main thoroughfare; the Writers’ Building (1880), on Dalhousie Square, once the headquarters of the British East India Company; the Government House (now called Raj Bhavan), a vast building completed in 1805; the Indian Museum (1875), which has the world’s finest collection of Indian art; the Birla Industrial and Technological Museum; and botanical gardens. Religious buildings include St Paul’s Cathedral (completed 1847), the Hindu Kali Temple, the Muslim Nakhoda Mosque, and the Parasnath Jain Temple. The University of Calcutta (1857), Jadavpur University (1955), Rabindra Bharati University (1962), and the Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics (1949) are also based in the city. Kolkata has been home to many acclaimed writers, including Rabindranath Tagore. IV HISTORY

National Parks and Nature Reserves
I INTRODUCTION

National Parks and Nature Reserves, areas selected by governments or private organizations for special protection against damage or degradation. They are chosen for their outstanding natural beauty, as areas of scientific interest, or as forming part of a country's cultural heritage, and often also to provide facilities for public recreation. II ORIGINS

The concept of creating national parks and nature reserves developed in the early 19th century in response to increasing industrialization which had begun to cause large scale damage or destruction to natural environments in western Europe and North America. Many heavily populated countries already had urban parks and public gardens, while some rural areas had long been reserved as hunting grounds or private estates by monarchs and nobles. In most parts of the world, however, human activity had had little impact on enormous areas which were sparsely inhabited or untouched wildernesses, such as the Great Plains of North America, the Amazon Basin, the forests of sub-Saharan Africa, or the Australian bush. These did 130

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 not seem to need special protection, since most of them were still inaccessible or inhospitable to human beings. The modern idea of deliberately conserving special areas of the countryside and opening them to the general public rather than reserving them for the wealthy and privileged, originated in the 19th century. For example, in 1832 the American artist George Catlin called for the protection of wildernesses in the western United States in order to preserve the landscapes which he had painted; and in 1835 the English poet William Wordsworth suggested in a guidebook to his native region, the Lake District, that it should become “a sort of national property” (although, unlike most later campaigners for national parks, he was opposed to large numbers of people being allowed to visit it). Yellowstone National Park, covering parts of Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho, is regarded as the first national park in the world. It was designated by the United States Congress in 1872. The term “national park”, however, was first used for the Royal National Park established in New South Wales, Australia, in 1879. The concept of national parks then spread to Canada and New Zealand during the 1880s and several more parks had been established in all four countries by 1909, when the first national park in Europe was designated in Sweden. Similar parks were created in Japan, Mexico, the former Soviet Union, and several British colonies during the 1930s, and in Britain, France, and elsewhere in Europe during the 1950s. (Some of these incorporate former royal hunting grounds.) Since then many more have been created, notably in India, Brazil, Australia, and New Zealand. Today the term “national parks” is also applied to other, usually smaller and often less protected areas set aside for conservation, such as the forest parks of Scotland and Ireland, the National Wilderness Areas and National Monuments managed by the United States National Parks Service, the provincial parks in Canadian provinces, or the state parks in the United States and Australia. III NATIONAL PARKS TODAY

In addition to the original purposes of landscape conservation and public recreation many parks have been established to protect endangered species of animals or plants and to promote scientific research. They may therefore be seen as nature reserves, a term which refers to a variety of areas in which rare animals, plants, or whole environments are protected and studied. Hunting and other disruptive activities are limited or banned and public access is often strictly controlled or even forbidden. These areas may be inside national parks—for example, the Kanha Tiger Reserve in Kanha National Park, northern India—and in general they are smaller than most national parks. National parks are usually owned and managed by national or state governments. In Britain the National Trust, a private charity founded in 1895, owns more than 2,700 sq km (1,047 sq mi) of countryside, and 853 km (530 mi) of coastline, as well as

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 numerous historic houses. Similar organizations exist in Australia and elsewhere. In November 2000 the governments of South Africa, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe agreed to the creation of Africa’s biggest wildlife park, the Gaza-KrugerGonarezhou Transfrontier Park, to be jointly managed by all three nations. As for nature reserves, some, such as the National Nature Reserves in Britain and the National Seashores and National Preserves in the United States, are managed by government bodies, but many are owned by national trusts, animal protection charities, or other voluntary organizations. Many national parks and nature reserves are affected by a conflict between the needs of conservation and recreation; by their sheer numbers, visitors may unintentionally destroy the landscapes or interfere with the flora and fauna that the parks were created to protect. In response to this threat, parts of several American national parks have been closed to the public and a limit placed on the number of visitors permitted to enter certain fragile areas. Designated trails or roads have been created, as in several African national parks, and guided tours made compulsory, as in some national parks in India. The designation of national parks and nature reserves can also conflict with other possible uses for the land and resources, especially in the relatively remote, sparsely populated, and politically unimportant areas which tend to be most suitable for conservation. They may be attractive, for example, to military forces for training purposes, as, for example, inside four of the ten national parks in Britain. Some conservation areas may be threatened by commercial exploitation of their minerals or trees: for example, national parks in Tasmania and in the South Island, New Zealand, were extended in the 1980s to protect rainforests from logging. Electricity companies may develop hydroelectric schemes or build nuclear power stations. In many developing countries farmers, hunters, or mineral prospectors eager for uncultivated land or unexploited resources may intrude into protected areas. The elephants in African national parks, for example, were in serious danger from poaching during the 1970s and 1980s. In Amazonia National Park, Brazil, frequent confrontations occur between native groups and incoming farmers and prospectors. In parks where quarrying, mining, electricity generation, or other large-scale activities are permitted, they are carefully and expensively monitored to minimize pollution and degradation of the landscape. The conservation of such areas of natural beauty, cultural heritage, or scientific interest is especially problematic in developing countries where, in contrast to those industrialized nations which were the first to establish national parks and nature reserves, governments and pressure groups often find that proposals to impose limits on further development are too costly or unpopular. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) all support and sponsor national parks and nature reserves in developing countries; in addition UNESCO has placed many national parks and nature reserves, in both developed and developing countries, on its World Heritage List of

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 unique environments. As economies and populations continue to grow the creation and maintenance of national parks and nature reserves seems likely to be both increasingly necessary and increasingly difficult. .

Coral Reef
I INTRODUCTION

Coral Reef, ridge or elevated part of a relatively shallow area of the seafloor, approaching the sea's surface. It is formed by a rocklike accumulation of calcareous (calcium-containing) exoskeletons of coral animals, calcareous red algae, and molluscs. Built up layer by layer by living corals growing on top of the skeletons of past generations, coral reefs grow upwards at rates of 1 to 100 cm (0.4 to 40 in) per year. Coral reefs are tropical, extending to about 30° north and south of the equator and forming only where surface waters are never cooler than 16° C (61° F). II FORMS OF LIFE

Coral reefs are ecosystems with well-defined structures that involve both photosynthetic plants and consumers in the sense explained in the article on Ecology. The outer layer of a reef consists of living polyps of coral. Within the coral animals live single-celled, round algae called zooxanthellae. Below and surrounding the polyps is a calcareous skeleton, both living and dead, that contains filamentous green algae. Other species of algae, both fleshy and calcareous, grow in the surface of old skeletal deposits. These algae and other associated plants make up most of the primary producers. The photosynthetic zooxanthellae and filamentous green algae transfer some food energy directly to the coral polyps. Coral animals also feed at night on zooplankton, which they capture with their tentacles. Coral animals prey on zooplankton not so much for the calories but for scarce nutrients, especially phosphorus. Through digestion, coral animals release these nutrients to the algae. Coral and algae then apparently cycle these nutrients between them, reducing nutrient loss to the water. Herbivorous fish, such as the colourful butterfly fish, as well as sea urchins, sea cucumbers, brittle stars, and numerous species of mollusc, feed on algae. Hiding in the numerous caves and crevices of a reef are predatory animals such as small crabs, wrasses (long, spiny-finned fishes), moray eels, and sharks. The numerous microhabitats and the productivity of the reefs support a great diversity of marine life. III KINDS OF REEF

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 Coral reefs are of three types: fringing reef, barrier reef, and atoll. Fringing reefs extend outwards from the shore of an island or mainland, with no body of water between reef and land. Barrier reefs occur farther offshore, with a channel or lagoon between reef and shore. Atolls are coral islands, typically consisting of a narrow, horseshoe-shaped reef enclosing a shallow lagoon. IV CORAL BLEACHING

Coral reefs have recently been affected by bleaching, that is, the discoloration or loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae. In 1979 and 1980, several incidents of coral bleaching occurred at reefs around Okinawa, Easter Island, north-east Australia, and the Caribbean Sea. A more extensive outbreak of bleaching occurred in 1982 and 1983, including reefs off east Africa, Indonesia, and the west coast of Central and South America. Bleaching incidents even more widespread and damaging occurred over the three-year period from 1986 to 1988, including areas such as Taiwan, Hawaii, Fiji, Mayotte Island, and the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef. The cause of these widespread bleaching incidents is unknown; pollution, global warming, and ultraviolet radiation have been suggested as suspects. Although it has not been conclusively shown that any or all of these are the cause of these coral bleaching episodes, recent research indicates that the cause may be unusually warm waters. The optimum temperature for coral growth is between 26° C and 27° C (78.8° F and 80.6° F). Temperatures above 29° C (84.2° F) have been shown to cause stress in corals, and may boost the rate of photosynthesis by the symbiotic zooxanthellae, creating high concentrations of free-radical toxins in the coral tissue. These stressed coral polyps may actively expel zooxanthellae, causing the coral to appear bleached. Other recent research has suggested that the unusually warm water temperatures might actually impair the ability of the symbiotic zooxanthellae to photosynthesize, and that as temperatures rise a protein used by the zooxanthellae is seriously damaged. It has been suggested that once the ability to photosynthesize is degraded, the host coral expels the zooxanthellae. Bleached corals have difficulty recovering; a reef can take years to recover, and subsequent bleaching incidents may make it impossible. Without their symbiotic zooxanthellae, corals are unable to deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton that makes up the foundation of a coral reef. Not only corals, but all reef organisms could potentially lose their habitat because of bleaching incidents, as the calcium carbonate structure of the reef erodes away.

Beach
Beach, gently sloping strip of land bordering an ocean or other body of water. Beaches form by the action of rivers, waves, currents, tides, and wind, and they are usually covered with sand or gravel. The material that forms beaches is composed of 134

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 whatever type of sediment is brought to the shore. It may be sediment carried to the land by rivers, sediment eroded from coastal rocks, or offshore material brought by waves. Therefore, beaches may be made up of brown sand brought from distant mountains, black sand eroded from a volcano, or white sand from nearby coral reefs. Beaches change shape from day to day and season to season. Waves, tides, currents, and the wind sometimes broaden a beach by depositing sand and sometimes narrow a beach by carrying sand away. Beaches along the ocean are divided into a foreshore and a backshore. The foreshore extends from the place the ocean reaches at low tide to the place it reaches at high tide. The backshore consists of the remaining portion of the beach that is only submerged during unusually high tides and storms. The steepest part of the foreshore is called the beach face. The backshore may contain one or more berms, ridges of sand and debris running parallel to the beach and deposited by a storm at its high-water mark. The backshore may also contain sand dunes, piles of sand built by wind blowing across a sandy beach. Some beaches consist chiefly of materials derived from one kind of rock, which may give the beach a distinctive colour. Coral or limestone produces white sand, and quartz usually produces yellowish sand. Sands formed from volcanic rock are black. Wave action tends to carry away lighter minerals, leaving behind sand that is enriched in heavier minerals. These heavier minerals often contain valuable metals, such as titanium, zirconium, uranium, and gold, and many beaches are mined for them. Some of the world’s major recreational beaches are barrier beaches, which are formed when the action of waves and currents is not strong enough to wash sand fully to the shore. The sand is instead deposited in the water near the shore, forming a sandbar. The bar may grow outward until strong waves pile the sand high enough that it rises above water level, forming a barrier beach. Barrier beaches are generally elongated islands, but the beach may be joined to the mainland as sand and silt accumulates in the water between the two land areas. Well-known barrier beaches include those at Miami Beach, Florida, and Coney Island in New York. Loe Bar near Helston in south-western England is an example of a shingle barrier beach. In some cases a barrier beach may be the same as a spit. Other famous recreational beaches are located at Acapulco on the western coast of Mexico, at Cannes on the Mediterranean coast of France, and at Rio de Janeiro in Brazil with Copacabana Beach. Attractive beach areas are often developed into resorts that support substantial tourist industries—Waikiki Beach on Honolulu, the Costa Brava in eastern Spain, and Gold Coast in eastern Australia are all examples of beach-oriented tourist resorts. .

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The city, which is steadily growing due to the internal immigration of rural dwellers in search of a more prosperous life, is increasingly crowded on its narrow, peninsula-like site. The principal business district and residential sections are concentrated on the southern part of Mumbai Island. Several fine sandy beaches are located on the west coast along the Arabian Sea. In the east, on the harbour, is a district known as the Fort, which contains the main public buildings of Mumbai and many commercial establishments. Parks include Victoria Gardens, which has a zoo, and Hajiali Park, with a racecourse and a sports stadium. To the north on Salsette Island are industrial districts, suburbs, and shanty towns. Educational

Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari or Kanniyakumari, town in Tamil Nadu, India. Kanyakumari lies on Cape Cormorin, the most southerly tip of India. It is set in an agricultural region, and is a tourist destination and an important centre of Hindu pilgrimage. The Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean meet at Cape Cormorin. Each brings sand of a different colour, hence local beaches are red, black, and gold. The sunsets are reputed to be among the most beautiful in the world. Kanyakumari is named after the goddess Devi Kanya Kumari who came to Kanyakumari to marry Shiva. However, he was tricked by the king of demons, Banasura, into leaving before the wedding. The goddess later killed Banasura, and there is a temple to Shiva and to Devi Kanya in the town. There is also a memorial to Mohandas Gandhi, who was a regular visitor here. Gandhi's ashes were scattered into the ocean from Kanyakumari. Another centre of pilgrimage is the Vivekananda Memorial, honouring the eminent Hindu philosopher. Population (1991 preliminary) 17,206. .

Goa
Goa, state, western India, bordered on the north by Maharashtra, and on the east and south by Karnataka, formerly part of Portuguese India. Until May 1987, when it attained statehood, Goa was part of Goa, Daman, and Diu, a union territory named after the three districts it comprised. Daman and Diu retained separate status as union territories. Goa has an area of about 3,813 sq km (1,472 sq mi). The state capital is Panaji (Panjim). The population of the state is 1,343,998 (2000). There are three principal cities: Panaji (1991 urban agglomeration; 85,515), Mormugao, and Madgaon. The Goan mainland, on the Malabar Coast, is the largest and historically the most important part of the state. Agriculture is the main occupation, with rice, fruits, coconuts, pulses, and cashew nuts, the main crop. Fishing is also important, and there is some mining of manganese, iron ore, and bauxite. Tourism has expanded rapidly since the 1970s. The ancient Hindu city of Goa (in Sanskrit Gove, Govapuri, or Gomant) lies in ruins. Nearby, the city of Old Goa (in Portuguese, Velha Goa), founded about 1440 and conquered by the Portuguese in 1510, is also nearly 136

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 abandoned, although it contains several very old buildings, including the cathedral founded by the Portuguese conqueror Afonso de Albuquerque in 1511 and the convent of St Francis of Assisi (1517). Bom Jesus, a converted mosque dating from the same period, contains the tomb of the Spanish Jesuit missionary St Francis Xavier, who began his missionary work in Goa in 1542. At the height of its prosperity (c. 1575-1675), Old Goa had a population of 20,000. By the early 18th century, attacks by the natives and by rival Dutch traders had almost destroyed the city, and in 1759 the state capital was transferred to Nova Goa (later called Panjim, and now Panaji). .

Hotel and Catering Industry
I INTRODUCTION

Hotel and Catering Industry, provision of hospitality for the traveller, an important service whose origins may be traced back to ancient history. The inns and taverns of ancient Rome met the needs of a wide diversity of travellers and diners. However, the hotel and catering industry of today is vastly more diverse and complex than that of Rome or even that of the entrepreneurs who built the Savoy, the Ritz, and the great railway hotels a century ago. The hotel and catering industry today is essentially concerned with providing accommodation, food, and drink for those who are away from home. The industry is normally defined as consisting of those businesses whose principal activity is the commercial provision of hotel and catering services. A new definition, however, emerges from the United Kingdom Standard Industrial Classification 1992 (HMSO, 1992). This classification extends the definition of hotel and catering to include canteens serving factories, offices, schools, and colleges, as well as university dining halls and messes for members of the armed forces. The industry employs over two million people in the United Kingdom, that is, approximately 10 per cent of the workforce. A similar proportion of the workforce is employed in the industry in most developed countries in the world. The wideranging scope of the industry includes, as accommodation providers, hotels, motels, guesthouses, inns, farmhouses, holiday chalets, and other self-catering accommodation (such as caravan parks and camp sites). Among food and drink providers are restaurants, cafés, cafeterias, and fast-food outlets such as burger bars. Take-away food shops such as sandwich bars, fish and chip shops, and kebab shops are included. Licensed bars, public houses, and clubs ranging from sports clubs to nightclubs and the famous “gentlemen's” clubs of London are also all part of the industry. Catering for people at work is carried out either by specialist contractors or by people employed by the organization requiring the service. In addition, catering services are needed by hospitals, transport systems (such as 137

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 airlines and trains), shops, banquets and conferences, corporate hospitality, sporting venues, and social occasions such as weddings. Catering is so much a part of modern life that it is estimated that up to a quarter of all food is now consumed away from home or taken into the home in a form in which it is ready to eat. In spite of occasional setbacks there has been steady growth in the need for hotel and catering services in past decades. There is good evidence to indicate that this growth will continue. The industry is becoming increasingly international in its activity with many wellknown international brands, for example, McDonald's and Burger King in catering, and Holiday Inn, Hilton, and Inter-Continental in the hotel sector. Many companies compete on an international scale and the consumers of their services are frequently international travellers, who may be businesspeople or tourists, but may be influenced by the recognition of a brand. Companies owned by UK operators are now major global providers; these include Holiday Inn, Hilton, and Forte. The French company ACCOR owns international hotel brands such as Novotel and Sofitel with representative establishments in many countries. In spite of the growth of international brands, however, the typical hotel or restaurant is still likely to be owned by a national or regional company or to be an independent establishment. Frequently, independents form themselves into associations or consortia for the purpose of marketing their services. They may be assisted in their marketing efforts by local and regional tourist boards and other agencies disseminating tourist information. For some establishments, consumer guides may be an important means of reaching new clients, but for most hotels it is necessary to engage in some form of advertising and promotional expenditure. The future growth of the industry will depend upon its ability to attract consumer expenditure against competition from the goods and services supplied by other industries. A key factor in this will be the maintenance and growth of economic and efficient travel systems, especially air travel. Travel and tourism, including hotels and catering, are predicted to become the world's largest industry by the end of the century. In the United Kingdom one in every seven jobs will be in travel and tourism activity. A similar pattern is predicted for other developed countries, making it seem certain that travel and tourism will play an ever more vital role in the world's economy in the 21st century. II HISTORY

The ancient Romans had several kinds of establishment. On highways and in the towns, inns and taverns were set up to meet the needs of travellers and the local population. None of these survived the fall of the Roman Empire. By the 14th century, inns and taverns offering lodging and food and drink had become firmly established. Inns were usually small and the lodging provided, with stabling for horses, was fairly rudimentary. The taverns of this period were confined to serving food and drink, mainly to meet local requirements. They could not be used to put up

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 guests. Ale houses provided an alternative source of refreshments, but were mainly for beer drinking rather than dining. Laws were introduced to control prices charged by inns and taverns and to ensure reasonable quality in the services provided. By the mid-16th century, inns had grown in importance as a consequence of the growth of trade in Tudor England. Roads and waterways were still the primary means of travel, so inns developed at key riverside points and in towns and villages close to main highways. Inns became larger; some could take up to 100 guests and separate rooms were available, although it was quite common for travellers to share rooms with strangers. The inns would provide extensive stabling for horses and wagons, and the large courtyards might provide the scene for evening entertainments, perhaps even the performance of a play by Shakespeare or Marlowe. By the 17th century the stagecoach had emerged as a means of reasonably rapid travel. Inns could provide both hospitality and a change of horses for the next stage. Stagecoach services were established on main routes from the capital leading to provincial cities, some of which were operated by innkeepers. In the 18th century, the stagecoach became the main means of travel, while growth in trade brought about a considerable need to get around. But travel was relatively slow and necessitated several overnight stops on longer journeys. The 18th century saw the development of resorts such as Bath, which first made its name as a health resort, but also became popular as a social and pleasure resort. The standard of hospitality rose in response to the new demands from increasingly wealthy travellers. Travel was now undertaken for social and pleasurable purposes, as well as for reasons of trade and necessity. Seaside resorts developed in the latter part of the 18th century in response to a popular belief in the health-giving properties of sea bathing. Some of the earliest hotels and boarding houses were built during this period in the resorts. The introduction of the steam locomotive and the development of the railways in the 19th century revolutionized transport and produced phenomenal growth of seaside towns. Large resorts such as Blackpool and Bournemouth scarcely existed until they were reached by the railway. For the first time, the large working populations of the industrial towns could reach the resorts easily and cheaply. Workers in the north of England could reach Blackpool and Southport quickly, while Londoners could obtain ready access to resorts on the south coast. Hotels and boarding houses were built in their thousands. In the cities, and particularly at railway termini, large and sometimes palatial hotels were constructed. These were often built and owned by the railway companies themselves and offered prestigious accommodation to the well-heeled traveller. Some were large establishments with up to 500 rooms. Other entrepreneurs undertook the construction of large luxury hotels in the capital, such as the Savoy in 1889 and the Ritz at the turn of the century. Competition between hotels brought

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 about a considerable rise in standards of service and comfort. The new establishments offered fine dining, with meals prepared by French chefs, available for residents and occasional diners. Hotels became social centres for private dining and banqueting for groups. The rise of the motor car as a means of transport in the 20th century caused a new wave of development which did much to restore the traditional wayside inn, but also provided alternative access to the resorts and to the countryside where many hotels and guesthouses were to be found, for example, the Lake District. In the latter part of the 20th century, the motor car and the aeroplane have become the dominant modes of travel. This has led to new forms of demand for hotel and catering services. Resort and city hotels tend now to be larger, especially where they are designed to meet the needs of international travellers arriving by air. In general, such hotels are designed to meet the needs of particular sections of the consumer market. They will be classified according to the level of service offered and priced competitively to appeal to particular segments of the market and what they can afford. For the car traveller a great diversity of hotels is available, from the luxurious country house hotel with fine restaurant to the modern budget hotel or motel with simple accommodation and service. Grading systems provided by tourist boards and motoring associations provide consumers with information on hotel services and prices, which permits reasonably informed choice on what to expect. Competition between establishments and between branded groups keeps prices in check at the different levels of service. III MORE RECENT TRENDS

Patterns of catering have changed dramatically in the last half-century. Before World War II, eating out for pleasure was a regular pastime only for the well off. Since 1950 there has been tremendous growth in popular restaurants with meals available at reasonable prices. Mass travel has made dining out more democratic. Relatively cheap meals are now available in a diverse range of establishments from branded restaurants to public houses as well as ethnic and speciality restaurants. There was a remarkable boom in catering in the 1980s when consumer choice was considerably increased in variety and new services such as home delivery of meals were successfully introduced. As more women entered employment, eating out and home delivery became both more attractive and affordable. Future growth in catering is highly dependent on economic growth generally, but social factors, such as female employment, also play a role. It seems likely that such factors, coupled with increased travel, will drive the industry forwards to provide increased variety, quality, and value for the consumer as the industry pursues expansion.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 .

Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef, chain of coral reefs in the Coral Sea, off the north-eastern coast of Australia. The largest deposit of coral in the world, the reef extends about 2,010 km (1,250 mi) from a point near Mackay, Queensland, to the Torres Strait, which lies between Australia and New Guinea. The channel that separates the reef from the Australian coast varies in width. Certain northern parts of the reef are as close as 16 km (10 mi) to the coast. In the south, the channel reaches a width of about 240 km (150 mi). The reef protects the channel from the harsh wind and waves of the Coral Sea. Water in the channel is calm and shallow. Islets and rings of coral called atolls are scattered throughout the channel, making ship navigation difficult. The Great Barrier Reef is home to a remarkable number of organisms. The coral itself is made up of the skeletons of tiny, flower-like water animals called polyps (a kind of Hydra), held together by a limestone substance produced by a type of algae. Hundreds of species of polyps form coral in a beautiful range of colours and shapes. The reef also supports many larger water animals, including more than 1,000 species of fish. Since the early 1960s crown-of-thorns starfish have invaded parts of the reef. These animals feed on coral and can destroy large portions of a coral reef. The Australian government has made efforts to limit destruction of the coral.

Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal, Agra, the most famous of all India's ancient buildings and a prime monument of Mughal art. It was built as the mausoleum of Arjumand Banu Bagam, known as Mumtaz Mahal (the Elect of the Palace), wife of Shah Jahan. She died in 1631, while on a military campaign with her husband. The Taj Mahal took 20 years to construct: 20,000 men were said to have been involved in the project. The tomb itself, over 73 m (240 ft) high, is lavishly decorated with Koranic inscriptions and carved reliefs. It is raised on a square podium with a minaret at each corner. It is flanked by a mosque and the jawab, a building with no clear function other than the balancing of the composition. The great garden which prefaces the tomb is 300 m (1,000 ft) wide; it has a great pool at its centre and is entered through an imposing gate. Mosques and tombs of other, less-favoured wives cluster nearby. The cenotaphs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan, who died in 1666, standing in a central octagonal hall, are elaborately carved and surrounded by a perforated screen of marble and semi-precious stones. The identity of the architect

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 of the Taj Mahal is unknown, but some scholars have suggested that a Persian or Turkish designer may have been involved.

Tongariro National Park
Tongariro National Park, park in the central region of North Island, New Zealand, established in 1887, the oldest national park in New Zealand and the fourth to be created anywhere in the world. It comprises a mountainous area of about 765 sq km (300 sq mi) in the Tongariro and Wanganui districts. The park takes its name from the volcano Mount Tongariro (Maori, “fire carried away”), 1,967 m (6,453 ft) high, on which some craters are still occasionally active. There are two other large volcanoes in the park—Mount Ngauruhoe, 2,292 m (7,515 ft) high, which is the most active, and Mount Ruapehu, which at 2,797 m (9,176 ft) is the highest peak in North Island and is popular with skiers—as well as three smaller volcanoes. Many of the park's mountains are forested with hardwood trees and varieties of beech. The park also contains hot springs, beautiful lakes, and waterfalls. In summer, the park is popular with climbers and walkers, and fishing also takes place. Tongariro was the ancestral home of the people known as the Ngati Tuwharetoa, who are believed to have been the first Maori to arrive in New Zealand from Polynesia some time before the year 1300. In 1887 Te Heuheu Tukino, then chief of the Ngati Tuwharetoa, gave the three large volcanoes, long held to be sacred by his people, to the New Zealand government in order to ensure that they would be protected from development, the first example of an indigenous people seeking such protection from a modern state. The park was added to the World Heritage list of UNESCO in 1990. I INTRODUCTION

Grand Canyon, exceptionally deep, steep-walled canyon in north-western Arizona, United States. Formed by the eroding action of the Colorado River, the Grand Canyon is about 443 km (227 mi) long, 8 to 29 km (5 to 18 mi) wide, and more than 1.6 km (1 mi) deep. The entire canyon is extremely beautiful, containing towering buttes, mesas, and valleys within its main gorge. A spectacular section of the canyon, together with plateau areas on either side, are preserved as the Grand Canyon National Park, which receives about 4 million visitors a year. The Grand Canyon cuts steeply through an arid plateau region that lies between about 1,525 and 2,745 m (5,000 and 9,000 ft) above sea level. This region, although lacking year-round streams in recent years, is sharply eroded, showing such characteristic forms as buttes; it is interspersed with old lava flows, hills composed 142

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 of volcanic debris, and intrusions of igneous rock. The plateau area has a general downward slope to the south-west and in its upper reaches is sparsely covered with such evergreens as juniper and piñon. Parts of the northern rim of the canyon are forested. Vegetation in the depths of the valley consists principally of such desert plants as agave and Spanish bayonet. In general the entire canyon area has little soil. The climate of the plateau region above the canyon is severe, with extremes of both heat and cold. The canyon floor also becomes extremely hot in summer, sometimes reaching 46°C (115°), but seldom experiences frost in the winter. The Grand Canyon has been sculpted in general by the downward cutting of the Colorado River, which flows through the canyon's lowest portions. Other factors have also played a part. The Kaibab Plateau, which forms the northern rim of the canyon, is about 365 m (1,200 ft) higher than the Coconino Plateau, which forms the southern rim. Water from the northern side has flowed into the canyon, forming tributary valleys, while the streams of the southern plateau flow away in a southerly direction without carving valleys in the canyon walls. The underlying rock beds also have a south-western slant, with the result that groundwater from the north finds its way into the canyon, but water from the south does not. In the entire canyon region, the rocks have been broken by jointing and faulting, and fractures in the rocks resulting from these processes have contributed to the rapid erosion of the gorge. II GEOLOGY

The Grand Canyon is relatively young in geological terms; the river began its work of erosion about 10 million years ago. Coupled with the downward cutting of the river has been a general rising or upwarping of the Colorado Plateau, which has added its effect to the action of the river. Although the canyon itself is of comparatively recent origin, the rocks exposed in its walls are not. Most of the strata were originally deposited as marine sediment, indicating that for long periods of time the canyon area was the floor of a shallow sea. In a typical section of the canyon, towards its eastern end, nine separate rock layers can be seen, stacked vertically. The topmost layer is a limestone, the Kaibab limestone. Below this layer is a thick deposit of sandstone, called the Coconino sandstone, and below that a layer of soft, shaly rock known as the Hermit shale. Still lower is a series of shales and sandstones interbedded with each other, collectively termed the Supai formation. The fossils found in the Supai and the rocks above it suggest that these rocks were all deposited in the Permian Period, at the end of the Palaeozoic Era, from 225 million to 280 million years ago. However, the Supai may be slightly older still. Next comes a deposit of light grey-blue limestone, the Redwall limestone, which in many places has been coloured red by seepage from the Supai beds above. The Redwall is 152 m (500 ft) thick and is easily identified because of the prominent sheer cliffs that it forms in the canyon walls. This layer has been identified as belonging to the Mississippian Period and was laid down more than 280

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 million years ago. A thin layer of sandstone, the Temple Butte, beneath the Redwall, gives evidence of having originated in the Devonian Period, about 345 million to 395 million years ago. The next three rock layers, consisting of the brown Muav limestone, the green Bright Angel shale, and the Tapeats sandstone, all belong to the Cambrian Period, at the dawn of the Palaeozoic Era, from 500 million to 570 million years ago. Beneath these layers, at the bottom of the canyon, are the most ancient rocks of all, Precambrian schists and gneisses, from half a billion to a billion years old. III HISTORY

The first Europeans to see the canyon were a group of soldiers led by Garcia Lopez de Cordeñas. They were members of a party headed by the Spanish explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, which set out from New Spain (now Mexico) in February 1540. The sighting was made later that year. Because of the inaccessibility of the canyon, it was not until more than three centuries later that it was fully explored. Beginning about 1850, a series of expeditions commanded by officers of the United States Army surveyed the canyon and the surrounding area. The first passage of the canyon was accomplished in 1869 by the American geologist John Wesley Powell and ten companions, who made the difficult journey through the length of the gorge in four boats. The construction of the Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona in 1963 dramatically reduced the natural flow of sand and nutrients down the Colorado River and into the Grand Canyon. In March 1996 the federal government released more than 380 billion litres (100 billion gallons) of water from Glen Canyon Dam. This artificial flood added more than three feet to some beaches and cleared fish spawning grounds of debris and sediment.

Giant's Causeway
Giant's Causeway, rocky promontory on the northern coast of Northern Ireland. It consists of thousands of polygonal columns of basalt, a formation known as columnar jointing, ranging to more than 6 m (20 ft) in height, and each column reaching a maximum diameter of 50 cm (20 in). It is thought by geologists to have formed when an ancient lava flow rapidly cooled and solidified. Several hundred metres long, the causeway resembles a chequered pavement when viewed from above. Its name is derived from a local legend that the formation was built by giants as part of a roadway to Scotland. . St Kilda St Kilda or Hirta, island, Outer Hebrides, north-western Scotland, located 65 km (40 mi) west of North Uist, covering an area of 4.5 sq km (1.7 sq mi), and surrounded by smaller islands, the whole collective also being known as St Kilda. Remoteness has dictated these islands' history. From prehistoric times a self144

Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 sufficient community, racially augmented by Celtic and Viking invasions; the St Kilda Parliament administered it. Its survival was traditionally based on birdhunting, often done with great skill on the high cliffs. St Kilda houses the world's biggest gannet population as well as being an important breeding-ground for many other seabirds. From the 14th century until 1930 St Kilda was held by MacLeods, a representative of whom would visit annually. Following John MacDonald's 1822 visit, the community became the target of missionaries and later, of tourism, which brought economic dependence and irresistible diseases. The islands rapidly depopulated, especially in the 1920s, and were evacuated in 1930, whereupon their community dispersed. There are now only a few dozen research scientists living there. Canterbury Cathedral Canterbury Cathedral, one of the most splendid examples of Gothic architecture in England, and in the Middle Ages a place of pilgrimage to the shrine of Thomas à Becket, Chancellor of England and Archbishop of Canterbury, who in 1170 was murdered in the cathedral on the orders of Henry II. It is also the administrative centre of the Church of England, and its archbishop is Primate of All England. Canterbury Cathedral has been the seat of an archbishopric since it was founded in 597, the year that St Augustine, sent from Rome to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity, landed at Thanet, in Kent. St Augustine was its first archbishop. Of the original building, nothing remains; it was destroyed by fire in 1067 and rebuilt in Norman style. The present appearance of the interior is largely the work of William of Sens, who designed the choir and apse in 1174 (as well as the flying buttresses), and Henry Yevele, who designed the nave in 1374. The Bell Harry Tower, which rises over the crossing, was built by John Wastell in the late 15th century. A chapel in the Norman crypt was used by Huguenots in the 16th century. Some outstanding stained glass, made c. 1178-1200 and depicting the descent of Christ from Adam, fills the windows of the clerestory above the choir. The tomb of Edward, the Black Prince is located in Trinity Chapel, on the south side; that of Henry IV and his queen Joan of Navarre is found on the north side. The shrine of Thomas à Becket was destroyed on the orders of Henry VIII but the spot where he was murdered is marked by a plaque. To the north of the cathedral are cloisters, a chapter house, baptistery, library, and the King’s School, founded in 598. Blenheim Palace Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, the seat of the dukes of Marlborough and one of the most imposing country houses in England. It was presented to John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, by Queen Anne as a token of the nation’s gratitude after his crushing defeat of the French at the Battle of Blenheim in 1704.

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Created by rameshwar bhattacharjee (NIS Academy ) NEW DELHI –MBA-- -2007-09 The palace was constructed as a national monument as much as a private residence. The designs, a striking example of the Baroque style, were prepared by Sir John Vanbrugh, assisted by Nicholas Hawksmoor, and work began in 1705. The shell of the house was largely complete by 1712, when the duke and duchess, having fallen from royal favour, went into exile for two years. Work recommenced in 1716, although Vanbrugh was soon dismissed as architect. The palace is arranged around a great court, with stables and kitchen flanking the house itself. The most imposing interior is that of the great hall, with carvings by Grinling Gibbons. The saloon was magnificently decorated by Louis Laguerre in 1719-1720. The library (55 m/180 ft long) was decorated after 1722 by Hawksmoor. A grandiose chapel contains a huge monument to the 1st Duke of Marlborough. The park was recast by Capability Brown in 1764-1774 and contains the famous bridge designed by Vanbrugh.

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