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BSC 1020 The Biology of Humans EXAM 1 Study Guide Exam Instructions
1 is scheduled for Saturday, February 11th from 11:00-12:15
- It will be held on the Tampa campus in two lecture halls ISA 1051: For students whose last names start with A-L ISA 1061: For students whose last names start with M-Z - If you cannot come to USF that day, it is your responsibility to arrange for an alternate site. (Refer to the syllabus for more details)
● Please bring ● The exam ● It
your student ID and a pencil. I will provide you with the scantron sheet
covers Chapters 1 to 7.
will consist of 50 multiple-choice questions, including 10 that are True/False.
and law? A theory is much broader in scope than a hypothesis (small conclusion) it is a comprehensive explanation supported by abundant evidence. populations. What are the steps of the scientific method? Observation Question Hypothesis (conclusion based on observations) Prediction Experiment 9. What is the difference between EUKARYOTES and PROKARYOTES? Classify each of the following organisms as eukaryotic or prokaryotic: bacteria. fungi. Verifiable observations and measurements are the data of discovery science that seeks natural causes for natural phenomena. regulation. What are Darwin‟s two main observations and his inescapable conclusion? -Observation 1= overproduction and competition -Observation 2= Individual variation -Conclusion= Unequal reproductive success 6. most modern scientific investigations 8. Compare and contrast discovery science and hypothesis-driven science. most other forms of life like plants and animals are composed of eukaryotes. What are the three domains of life? Which organisms belong to each domain? -Bacteria. reproduction. 7. Cells. -Order. Archaea. plants.BSC 1020 EXAM 1 Study Guide -2- Chapter 1: Introduction: Biology Today 1. Compare and contrast natural and artificial selection. and animals. . Bacteria are prokaryotic. theory. List the seven characteristics of life as it is known on Earth. evolution 2. theory explains compared to law which describes . What is the difference between a scientific hypothesis. Response to the environment. growth and development. -prokaryotic cell is much simpler and usually much smaller than eukaryotic. protists. Eukarya 5. organisms. ecosystems. Rank the levels of life from atoms and molecules to the biosphere. Tissues. 4. Energy utilization. communities. Archaea. Organ Systems and Organs. Artificial selection is the result of humans modifying the species to adapt to personal beneficial usage whereas natural selection occurs over hundreds or thousands of years. using a proposed explanation for a set of observations to discover the answer.Biosphere. Organelles. Molecules and Atoms 3.
while the two region around the two hydrogen atoms is slightly positive 9. .reactants and products 10. If given these. at higher pH‟s there are more/less (circle one) _H+_ present in the solution. What are covalent bonds? What are hydrogen bonds? -occurs when two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell elections.Cohesion is when molecules of same stick together -a measure of how difficult it s to stretch or break the surface of a liquid 11. _hydroxide_ ions) present in the solution. their charge.k. 8. -the oxygen end of the molecule has a slightly negative charge.a. What is matter? What are its three physical states? Matter is anything that occupies space and mass.solution= a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances -solute= a dissolved substance -solvent =the dissolving agent 12. Why do water molecules stick to other water molecules? What is surface tension? . Liquid.electrically charged atoms -ionic bond. gas. What are compounds? -substance that contain two or more elements in a fixed ratio 4. there are more/less (circle one) _OH-_ (a. and their location in the atom.” .BSC 1020 EXAM 1 Study Guide -3- Chapter 2: Essential Chemistry for Biology 1. compound that accepts and removes H+ from a solution “At lower pH‟s. What is the relationship between solution. List the 3 main subatomic particles. What are the two components of a chemical reaction? . solute and solvent? . What are ions? What are ionic bonds? . Number of protons in atom. What is an acid? a base? Complete the following sentence by circling the correct choice or filling in the blank with the correct term: chemical compound that releases H+ to a solution. is attraction between oppositely charged ions 7. -proton (+) electron (-) neutron (none) 5. Explain why the covalent bonds in H2O are polar covalent bonds. Define the atomic number and the mass number of an atom. be able to calculate the number of each subatomic particle.type of non covalent interaction between molecules. sum of protons and neutrons (=to protons) in nucleus 6. solid 3.
proteins carbohydrates lipids. which contain only one carbon and hydrogen atom. Chapter 3: The Molecules of Life 1. What is a hydrocarbon? What is the simplest one? -simplest organic compound. and lipids 5. ring. water fearing 7. etc) 9.weak acid weak base. lipids store energy in reserves 8.water is 7 -buffer is a solution that can be used to maintain/control pH…. What is the range of the pH scale? What is the pH of pure water (a neutral solution)? What is a buffer? -0-14 . --Water loving. proteins. unsaturated – fewer than max. hydrolysis: opposite of dehydration add water break up polymers 4. disaccharide. What characteristic do all lipids share? What is a triglyceride? What is the function of lipids? --Lipids are hydrophobic. monosaccharides – glucose. 3. Define hydrophilic and hydrophobic.. What are organic compounds? Why is carbon such a versatile atom? -molecule with carbon carbon acts as an intersection from which an organic compound can branch off 2. What is a macromolecule? What are monomers and polymers? Which biological molecules form polymers? Contrast dehydration reactions and hydrolysis reactions? --Nucleic acids. What are the four categories of large molecules? --Nucleic acids. made of lipid compound . monomers are building blocks (smaller units) that make up polymers (larger units involved in macromolecules) Dehydration: remove water and links monomers together. amount of hydrogens attached (indicates present of double/triple bond. carbs. --Carbohydrates are sources of dietary energy. Give examples of each.BSC 1020 EXAM 1 Study Guide -4- 13. What roles do carbohydrates play in humans? Define the terms monosaccharide. What are steroids? Which compound are they made from? -Steroid – carbon skeleton bent into four fused rings. and polysaccharide. What is meant by saturated and unsaturated fats? --Saturated – only hydrogen molecules attached to carbon. glycogen 6.fructose disaccharide – lactose polysaccharide – starch. triglyceride – glycerol molecule with three fatty acids.
What three parts does every nucleotide have? What are the four bases in DNA? Phosphate base. What are the functions of proteins? Give specific examples. What happens when a protein is denatured? -It loses secondary and/or tertiary structure a. eggs). -Structural (hair/horns). Thymine. 5 or 6 carbon sugar.k. Unicellular Valonia ventricosa Syringammina fragilissima Thiomargarita namibiensis Multicellular . storage (seeds. RNA ribose) .RNA usually single stranded whereas DNA double stranded Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell 1. transport (hemoglobin) and enzymes (cleaning products)) 11. What basic structure do all amino acids have? How many amino acids are used to build proteins? What type of bond links amino acids to each other? --20 amino acids are used to make proteins. contractile (enable muscles to contract). and -Cytosine 17.Different bases (Instead of Thymine in RNA. nitrogenous bases connected by hydrogen bonds 18. Describe the four levels of protein structure.Different sugar (DNA deoxyribose. hydrogen bonds between polypeptides --Tertiary: 3D shape of polypeptide --Quaternary: two or more polypeptide chains 14. --Primary: order and number of amino acids --Secondary: alpha and beta sheets.BSC 1020 EXAM 1 Study Guide -5- 10. and a nitrogenous base. Describe the structure of the DNA double helix. List the three main differences between DNA and RNA. Adenine. What is a polypeptide? -Polypeptide is a polymer of the building blocks of proteins amino acids 12. What makes up the backbone? Which bases are bonded to each other? -Double helix. sugar-phosphate backbone. shape of protein 15. . Give examples of unicellular and multicellular organisms.a twisted ladder.a. What is the function of nucleic acids? -Contain directions for building proteins 16. Guanine. peptide bonds link amino acids together 13. Uracil is marche with Adenine) .
refines. little organs 7. 8. and distributes . Prokaryotic cells DNA is the genetic material Has a cell membrane DNA floats freely around Eukaryotic cells DNA is the genetic material Has a cell membrane Have a nucleus and organelles 6. refers to fact that organelle lacks the ribosomes studded on the outside of rough ER. it receives. What are the three statements of the cell theory? All living things are composed of cells. The phospholipid bilayer structure has phospholipids with hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails in a double layer with the tails facing each other. What are the two types of electron microscopes? How is each of them used? Scanning electron microscope Used to study the detailed architecture of the cell surface Transmission electron microscope Used to explore the internal structure of a cell 5. Cells are the basic life process of a living thing or organism. and uses transport vesicles. glass lenses enlarge the image and project it into a human eye or a camera 3. organelle that works as a refinery. stores. What are the components of the cell membrane? How is the bilayer structure formed? Composed mostly of lipids and proteins. Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. refers to appearance of organelle studded by ribosomes on the membrane. Nucleolus. Rough ER. All cells REPRODUCE to make one of their own kind. Describe the structure and function of the following organelles/structures: Nucleus. prominent structure in nucleus. Visible light is projected through the specimen. and shipping center. performs lipid synthesis and builds enzymes. responsible for protein synthesis. genetic control center of eukaryotic cells. Smooth ER. produces new membrane proteins and secretary proteins. site where components of ribosomes are made.BSC 1020 EXAM 1 Study Guide -6- Dog Cat Fish Human 2. What are organelles? Membrane enclosed structures that perform specific functions. How are light microscopes used? Define magnification and resolving power. warehouse. Ribosomes. Golgi apparatus. 4.
What is the principle of conservation of energy? Not possible to destroy or create energy. substrate. skeleton and the muscles. Proteins that speed up chemical reactions. central vacuole which stores organic nutrients. usually occur singly Chapter 5: The Working Cell 1. only convert energy into different forms 3. the organelles that perform photosynthesis. Cytoskeleton. Mechanical. List the three types of energy-requiring work that go on in cells. phosphate 5. What is the ATP cycle? ATP creates ADP + P + energy. active site. heat. What are enzymes? How would an enzyme speed up a reaction occurring between two starting materials? Define the terms: induced fit. shorter and more numerous than flagella and promote movement by a coordinated back and forth motion. cell infrastructure built of a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. compartment where the cell can digest molecules safely. different sizes and functions.BSC 1020 EXAM 1 Study Guide -7- chemical products of the cell. Golgi or plasma membrane. Lysosomes. What is a calorie? What is a food calorie? Amount of energy that can raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree. develop from vesicles off the Golgi. sac of digestive enzymes found in animal cells. kinetic energy. the sites of cellular respiration. Flagella. food vacuole. entry of the substrate induces the enzyme to change shape slightly. type of kinetic energy contained in the random motion of atoms and molecules. potential energy. transport. actually measured as kCal cuz not practical to measure in so small units 4. enzymes reactant molecule 8. Define the following terms: energy. What does „ATP‟ stand for? What functional group is typically removed from ATP (often transferred to another molecule) when it is used? Adenosine triphosphate. What determines in which direction a substance dissolved in water diffuses? Osmosis . Cilia. the extra P can reattach to and ADP and recreate ATP to cycle 7. region of enzyme that has a shape and chemistry that fit the substrate molecule. Mitochondria. Chloroplasts. chemical 6. propel the cell by an undulating whiplike motion. process that harvest energy from sugars and other food molecules and converts it to chemical energy called ATP. energy that an object has because of its location or structure. energy of motion. entropy capacity to perform work. Vacuoles. measure of the amount of disorder or randomness in a system 2. sacs that bud from the ER.
plant cell: flaccid (wilts).5 Make a table in which you summarize the following information for each of these three stages: 1) the starting material and final product (for example. solutions of equal solute concentration. cell requires energy to move molecules across membrane 10. electron transport. Define autotroph and heterotroph. List the three stages of cellular respiration. MC=animals 3.BSC 1020 EXAM 1 Study Guide -8- 9. 2) whether electron carriers are produced. . mitochondria. Producer/Organisms that make their own organic matter. CP=plants. transport with an electron attached 6. What is the role of NAD+? How is it related to NADH? Food/energy electron transport. In what ways is cellular respiration similar to breathing? An aerobic process that means it requires oxygen which you get from breathing 4. Glucose+6Oxygen = 6Carbondioxide+6Water+Energy 5. hypotonic. What is osmosis? Define the terms: isotonic. shriveled. cytoplasm. low solute concentration. What are the three types of endocytosis? Secretary proteins exit the cell from transport vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane spilling the contents outside the cell. consumer/organisms that cannot make organic molecules from inorganic ones 2. glycolysis begins with glucose and ends with pyruvate). mitochondria=cellular respiration. In which organelles do photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur? In which organisms? Chloroplasts=photosynthesis. 3) whether CO2 is produced. How is facilitated diffusion different from regular diffusion? Molecules will not spread out like in regular diffusion they will be transported by specific transport proteins that act as selective corridors 11. What is the difference between passive transport and active transport? Cell does not expend energy for diffusion across membrane. lysing. reverse process takes material into the cell within the vesicles that bud inward from the plasma membrane. high solute concentration with low water concentration. turgid. mitochondria 6. and hypertonic medium. and 4) whether ATP is produced. phagocytosis pinocytosis receptormediated endocytosis Chapter 6: Cellular Respiration: Obtaining Energy from Food 1. What happens to an animal and a plant cell placed in each of these types of environments? Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Write the equation that summarizes the process of cellular respiration. animal cell: normal. Where in the cell does each stage occur? Glycolosis. Define exocytosis and endocytosis. shriveled 12. citric acid cycle.
What molecule must be recycled for this process to continue for a period of time? What byproduct is also produced during this type of fermentation? Harvest of food energy without oxygen. which gives this pathway its name? What are the three different products that result from this pathway? Splits sugar molecule in half. What happens to sugar in glycolysis.) In what way is this pathway cyclical? 2 cycles. tiny pores 3. pyruvic acid. Write the equation that summarizes the process of photosynthesis. stomata. How many cycles of the citric acid cycle are required for the complete catabolism of one molecule of glucose? (Hint: it is important to understand how many products come out of glycolysis per glucose. Which food molecules. thick fluid within chloroplasts inner membrane. light absorbing pigment in chloroplasts. Chemical machine that uses the energy released by the fall of electrons to pump hydrogen ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ATP. 6Carbondioxide+6Water = Glucose+6Oxygen . Define the following terms: thylakoid. What is photosynthesis? Which organisms use it? Light energy transformed into chemical energy. stroma. other than glucose. What is the electron transport chain? What happens to the energy of electrons as they travel along the chain? To what form of energy do the chain molecules transfer the energy of the electrons? How does the chain depend on oxygen? Molecules of it are built into the membrane of mitochondria. ATP. turbine like structures in mitochondria 12. Up to how many ATP molecules can be generated via fermentation? 2 Chapter 7: Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food 1. capable of cellular respiration and fermentation. proteins. can be used in cellular respiration? Carbohydrates. plants and algae 2. NADH 9. chlorophyll. grana. NAD+. stacks of thylakoids. Up to how many ATP molecules can be generated via cellular respiration? 38 13. Define fermentation. fats 14. Interconnected membranous sacs suspended in the stroma. What is yeast? Which type of fermentation do they perform? Microscopic fungus. lactic acid 15. alcoholic fermentation 16. the products are nearly the same as the imports so the process can recommence 10. oxygen is used to pull the electrons down the transport chain 11.BSC 1020 EXAM 1 Study Guide -9- 8. What does ATP synthase do and how? Creates ATP.
one of the pigments electrons gains energy and releases heat energy 8. What are photosystems? List the two types involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis. List the two stages of photosynthesis. Describe the types of pigments found in chloroplasts. functions as a light-gathering antenna. water splitting photosystem in photosynthesis and NADPH photosystem in light reactions 9. Photons excite electrons in chlorophyll and then are replaced by extracting electrons from water. light reactions where chlorophyll absorbs light and converts solar energy to ATP. calvin cycle uses products of light reactions to power production of sugar from carbon dioxide 5.BSC 1020 EXAM 1 Study Guide . NADPH system transfers excited electrons creating NADPH 10. What are photons? What happens when chlorophyll molecules absorb these? Fixed quantity of light energy. chlorophyll b broadens the range of light the plant can use by conveying absorbed energy to chlorophyll a 7. Energy released by electron used to create ATP. What is the electromagnetic spectrum? Full range of radiation from gamma rays to radio signals 6. Cluster of a few hundred pigment molecules.10 - 4. Uses carbon dioxide to create G3P which can be used to make glucose . Chlorophyll a absorbs blue-violet and red light. Summarize how ATP and NADPH are produced during the light reactions. Summarize how glucose is produced during the Calvin cycle. energized electrons from water splitting photosystem to NADPH photosystem.
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