Power System Control and Stability
Second Edition
P. M. Anderson
San Diego, California
A. A. Fouad
Fort Collins, Colorado
IEEE Power Engineering Society, Sponsor
IEEE Press Power Engineering Series Mohamed E. ElHawary, Series Editor
IEEE PRESS
A JOHN WlLEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION
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Contents
Preface Part I Introduction P. M. Anderson and A. A. Fouad
xi11
...
Chapter 1. Power System Stability
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
Introduction Requirements of a Reliable Electrical Power Service Statement of the Problem Effect of an Impact upon System Components Methods of Simulation Problems
3
3
4
8
10 11
Chapter 2. The Elementary Mathematical Model
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.1 1 2.12
Swing Equation Units Mechanical Torque Electrical Torque PowerAngle Curve of a Synchronous Machine Natural Frequencies of Oscillation of a Synchronous Machine System of One Machine against an Infinite BusThe Classical Model Equal Area Criterion Classical Model of a Multitnachine System Classical Stability Study of a NineBus System Shortcomings of the Classical Model Block Diagram of One Machine Problems References
13 15
16
20
21
24 26 31 35 37 45 47 48 52
Chapter 3. System Response to Small Disturbances
3.1 3.2
3.3
3.4 3.5
Introduction Types of Problems Studied The Unregulated Synchronous Machine Modes of Oscillation of an Unregulated Multimachine System Regulated Synchronous Machine
53 54 55 59
66
vi i
viii
Contents
3.6
Distribution of Power impacts Problems References
69 80 80
Part I1 The Electromagnetic Torque P. M. Anderson and A. A. Fouad
Chapter 4. The Synchronous Machine
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.1 1 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 Introduction Park’s Transformation Flux Linkage Equations Voltage Equations Formulation of StateSpace Equations Current Formulation Per Unit Conversion Normalizing the Voltage Equations Normalizing the Torque Equations Torque and Power Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Machine The Flux Linkage StateSpace Model Load Equations Subtransient and Transient Inductances and Time Constants Simplified Models of the Synchronous Machine Turbine Generator Dynamic Models Problems References 83 83 85 88 91 91 92 99 103 105 107 109 114 122 127 143 146 148
Chapter 5. The Simulation of Synchronous Machines
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4
Introduction SteadyState Equations and Phasor Diagrams Machine Connected to an Infinite Bus through a Transmission Line Machine Connected to an Infinite Bus with Local Load at Machine Terminal 5.5 Determining SteadyState Conditions 5.6 Examples 5.7 Initial Conditions for a Multimachine System 5.8 Determination of Machine Parameters from Manufacturers’ Data 5.9 Analog Computer Simulation of the Synchronous Machine 5.10 Digital Simulation of Synchronous Machines Problems References
150 150 153 154 157 159 165 166 170 184 206 206
Chapter 6. Linear Models of the Synchronous Machine
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Introduction Linearization of the Generator StateSpace Current Model Linearization of the Load Equation for the OneMachine Problem Linearization of the Flux Linkage Model Simplified Linear Model 208 209 213 217 222
Contents
IX
6.6 6.7
Block Diagrams StateSpace Representation of Simplified Model Problems References
23 1 23 1 232 232
Chapter 7. Excitation Systems
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.1 1
Simplified View of Excitation Control Control Configurations Typical Excitation Configurations Excitation Control System Definitions Voltage Regulator Exciter Buildup Excitation System Response StateSpace Description of the Excitation System Computer Representation of Excitation Systems Typical System Constants The Effect of Excitation on Generator Performance Problems References
233 235 236 243 250 254 268 285 292 299 304 304 307
Chapter 8. Effect of Excitation on Stability
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Introduction Effect of Excitation on Generator Power Limits Effect of the Excitation System on Transient Stability Effect of Excitation on Dynamic Stability RootLocus Analysis of a Regulated Machine Connected to an Infinite Bus 8.6 Approximate System Representation 8.7 Supplementary Stabilizing Signals 8.8 Linear Analysis of the Stabilized Generator 8.9 Analog Computer Studies 8.10 Digital Computer Transient Stability Studies 8.1 1 Some General Comments on the Effect of Excitation on Stability Problems References 309 311 315 321 327 333 338 344 347 353 363 365 366
Chapter 9. Multimachine S’wtems with Constant Impedance Loads
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.1 1 Introduction Statement of the Problem Matrix Representation of a Passive Network Converting Machine Coordinates to System Reference Relation Between Machine Currents and Voltages System Order Machines Represented by Classical Methods Linearized Model for the Network Hybrid Formulation Network Equations with Flux Linkage Model Total System Equations 368 368 369 313 374 317 378 381 386 388 390
X
Contents
392 396 397
9.12 Multimachine System Study Problems References
Part I11 The Mechanical Torque Power System Control and Stability P. M.Anderson
Chapter 10. Speed Governing
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6
The Flyball Governor The Isochronous Governor Incremental Equations of the Turbine The Speed Droop Governor The FloatingLever Speed Droop Governor The Compensated Governor Problems References
402 408 410 413 419 421 428 428
Chapter 11. Steam Turbine Prime Movers
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.10
Introduction Power Plant Control Modes Thermal Generation A Steam Power Plant Model Steam Turbines Steam Turbine Control Operations Steam Turbine Control Functions Steam Generator Control FossilFuel Boilers Nuclear Steam Supply Systems Problems References
430 432 435 436 437 444 446 458 46 1 476 480 48 1
Chapter 12. Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers
12.1 Introduction 12.2 The Impulse Turbine 12.3 The Reaction Turbine 12.4 PropellerType Turbines 12.5 The Deriaz Turbine 12.6 Conduits, Surge Tanks, and Penstocks 12.7 Hydraulic System Equations 12.8 Hydraulic System Transfer Function 12.9 Simplifylng Assumptions 12.10 Block Diagram for a Hydro System 12.1 1 Pumped Storage Hydro Systems Problems References 484 484 486 489 489 489 498 503 506 509 510 511 512
Contents
xi
Chapter 13. Combustion Turbine and CombinedCycle Power Plants
13.1 Introduction 13.2 The Combustion Turbine Prime Mover 13.3 The CombinedCycle Prime Mover 513 513 518 527 527 529 53 1 545 555 582 590 614 622 63 1 640 65 1
Problems References Appendix A. Appendix B. Appendix C. Appendix D . Appendix E. Appendix F. Appendix G. Appendix H. Appendix I. Appendix J. Index Trigonometric Identities for Threephase Systems Some Computer Methods for Solving Differential Equations Normalization Typical System Data Excitation Control System Definitions Control System Components Pressure Control Systems The Governor Equations Wave Equations for a Hydraulic Conduit Hydraulic Servomotors
Preface
It is well over thirty years since some of the early versions of this book were used in our classes, and it is more than a quarter of a century since the first edition appeared in print. Normally, one would have expected users of the book to almost give it up as oldfashioned. Yet, until very recently the questions the authors were frequently asked explained the rationale for the added material in this edition, especially by new users: When will the Second Edition be out? Over these past thirty years the size of the systems analyzed in stability studies, the scope of the studies (including the kind of answers sought), the duration of the transients analyzed, and the methods of solution may have varied, but central to all is that the proper system model must be used. Such a model must be based on description of the physical system and on its behavior during the transient being analyzed. This book has focused on modeling the power system components for analysis of the electromechanical transient, perhaps with emphasis on the inertial transient. The one possible exception reflects the concern of the time the book came into being, namely analysis of the linear system model for detection and mitigation of possible poorly damped operating conditions. Since the 1970s, several trends made stability of greater concern to power system engineers. Because of higher cost of money and delay of transmission construction because of environmental litigations, the bulk power system has experienced more congestion in transmission, more interdependence among networks, and so on. To maintain stability, there has been more dependence on discreet supplementary controls, greater need for studying larger systems, and analysis of longer transients. Since then, additional models were needed for inclusion in stability studies: turbine governors, power plants, discrete supplementary controls, etc. Thus, the need for modeling the power system components that make up mechanical torque has become more important than ever. The authors think it is time to meet this need, as was originally planned. Now that the electric utility industry is undergoing major restructuring, the question arises as to whether the trend that started in the 1970s is likely to continue, at least into the near future. Many power system analysts believe that the answer to this question is yes. Since the revised printing of this book appeared, the electric utility industry has undergone a significant restructuring, resulting in heavier use of the bulk power transmission for interregional transactions. It is expected that new engineering emphasis will be given to what engineers refer to as midterm or longterm analysis. We believe that in the restructured environment, this type of analysis will continue be needed because there will be greater emphasis on providing answers about system limitations to all parties involved in the various activities as well as in the interregional transactions. Modeling of mechanical torque will be important in conducting these studies. The material on the “mechanical torque” presented in Chapters 10 through 13 and in Appendices F through J are the work of author Paul Anderson and he should be contacted regarding any questions, corrections, or other information regarding these portions of the book. This material is a bit unusual to include in a book on power system stability and control, but we have recognized that a complete picture of stability and the supporting mathematical models cannot
Xlll
...
xiv
Preface
be considered complete without a discussion of these important system components. The models presented here can be described as “loworder” models that we consider appropriate additions to studies of power system stability. This limits the models to a short time span of a minute or so, and purposely avoids the modeling of power plant behavior for the long term, for example, in the study of economics or energy dispatch.
P. M. ANDERSON A. A. FOUAD Sun Diego, California Fort Collins, Colorado
Part I
Introduction
P. M. Anderson A. A. Fouad
chapter
1
Power System Stability
1.1
Introduction
Since the industrial revolution man’s demand for and consumption of energy has increased steadily. The invention of the induction motor by Nikola Tesla in 1888 signaled the growing importance of electrical energy in the industrial world as well as its use for artificial lighting. A major portion of the energy needs of a modern society is supplied in the form of electrical energy. Industrially developed societies need an everincreasing supply of electrical power, and the demand on the North American continent has been doubling every ten years. Very complex power systems have been built to satisfy this increasing demand. The trend in electric power production is toward an interconnected network of transmission lines linking generators and loads into large integrated systems, some of which span entire continents. Indeed, in the United States and Canada, generators located thousands of miles apart operate in parallel. This vast enterprise of supplying electrical energy presents many engineering problems that provide the engineer with a variety of challenges. The planning, construction, and operation of such systems become exceedingly complex. Some of the problems stimulate the engineer’s managerial talents; others tax his knowledge and experience in system design. The entire design must be predicated on automatic control and not on the slow response of human operators. T o be able to predict the performance of such complex systems, the engineer is forced to seek ever more powerful tools of analysis and synthesis. This book is concerned with some aspects of the design problem, particularly the dynamic performance, of interconnected power systems. Characteristics of the various components of a power system during normal operating conditions and during disturbances will be examined, and effects on t h e overall system performance will be analyzed. Emphasis will be given to the transient behavior in which the system is described mathematically by ordinary differential equations.
1.2
Requirements of a Reliable Electrical Power Service
Successful operation of a power system depends largely on the engineer’s ability to provide reliable and uninterrupted service t o the loads. The reliability of the power supply implies much more than merely being available. Ideally, the loads must be fed at constant voltage and frequency at all times. In practical terms this means that both voltage and frequency must be held within close tolerances so that the consumer’s
3
the power it was carrying must be obtainable from another source.” 1. Furthermore. or if a line is lost. successful operation of the system means that these lines must remain in service if firm power is to be exchanged between the areas of the system.e. If at any time a generator loses synchronism with the rest of the system. In any case all interconnected synchronous machines should remain in synchronism if the system is stable. if a generator is lost. For example. a drop in voltage of l015% or a reduction of the system frequency of only a few hertz may lead to stalling of the motor loads on the system. a new operating state is necessary. sudden application of a major load such as a steel mill. a fault on the network. If a machine tends to speed up or slow down. A second requirement of reliable electrical service is to maintain the integrity of the power network. Therefore.. For example. I f the perturbation does not involve any net change in power. synchronizing forces tend to keep it in step. The first requirement of reliable service is to keep the synchronous generators running in parallel and with adequate capacity to meet the load demand. assuming it has not been damaged and its prime mover has not been shut down due to the disturbance that caused the loss of synchronism. . A major shock to the system may also lead to a loss of synchronism for one or more machines. with subsequent adjustments of generation. however. eventually leading to its tripping. Synchronous machines do not easily fall out of step under normal conditions. Synchronism frequently may be lost in that transition period. This usually requires a study of large geographical areas since almost all power systems are interconnected with neighboring systems.” such a state never exists in the true sense. Random changes in load are taking place at all times. While it is frequently convenient to talk about the power system in the “steady state. failure in a piece of equipment. I t might be tempting to say that successful operation requires only that the new state be a “stable” state (whatever that means). e. Conditions do arise. I f an unbalance between the supply and demand is created by a change in load. the remaining connected generators must be capable of meeting the load demand. major changes do take place at times.4 Chapter 1 equipment may operate satisfactorily. I f a generator is separated from the system. the machines should return to their original state. this view is erroneous in one important aspect: it neglects the dynamics of the transition from one equilibrium state to another.. These problems must be studied by the power system engineer and fall under the heading “power system stability. Economic power as well as emergency power may flow over interconnecting tie lines to help maintain continuity of service. and small impacts in the system may cause these machines to lose synchronism. Interruptions in this network may hinder the flow of power to the load. it must be resynchronized and then loaded. Unfortunately. or growing oscillations may occur over a transmission line. they should all remain operating in parallel and at the same speed. i.g. significant voltage and current fluctuations may occur and transmission lines may be automatically tripped by their relays at undesired locations. in which operation is such that the synchronizing forces for one or more machines may not be adequate. or loss of a line or generating unit. We may look at any of these as a change from one equilibrium state to another. Thus it can be accurately stated that the power system operator must maintain a very high standard of continuous electrical service.3 Statement of the Problem The stability problem is concerned with the behavior of the synchronous machines after they have been perturbed. The highvoltage transmisssion system connects the generating stations and the load centers. in generation. or in network conditions.
These questions have become vitally important with the advent of largescale interconnections. If a certain line connecting two groups of machines undergoes excessive power fluctuations. we say the system is stable. causing the readjustment of the voltage angles of the synchronous machines. Hence the definition describes a practical specification for an acceptable operating condition. or a combination of such events. These oscillations. it results in the establishment of a new steadystate operating condition. Therefore. This condition is sometimes called asymptotic stability and means that the system contains inherent forces that tend to reduce oscillations. The main criterion for stability is that the synchronous machines maintain synchronism at the end of the transient period.1 Primitive definition of stability Having introduced the term “stability. This is a desirable feature in many systems and is considered necessary for power systems. .” we now propose a simple nonmathematical definition of the term that will be satisfactory for elementary problems. It could also be a small load or random load changes occurring under normal operating conditions. 1. This primitive definition of stability requires that the system oscillations be damped. I n fact. The definition also excludes continuous oscillation from the family of stable systems. The perturbation could be a major disturbance such as the loss of a generator. The problem of interest is one where a power system operating under a steady load condition is perturbed. Later. A statement declaring a power system to be “stable” is rather ambiguous unless the conditions under which this stability has been examined are clearly stated. we will provide a more rigorous mathematical definition. a severe (but improbable) disturbance can always be found that will cause instability. If such an occurrence creates an unbalance between the system generation and load. with the subsequent adjustment of the voltage angles. it is considered unstable.Power System Stability 5 The transient following a system perturbation is oscillatory in nature. This includes the operating conditions as well as the type of perturbation given to the system. The reason is practical since a continually oscillating system would be undesirable for both the supplier and the user of electric power. the disturbances for which the system should be designed to maintain stability must be deliberately selected. which is of concern in defining system stability. even though in reality it reflects the stability of the two groups of machines. Adjustment to the new operating condition is called the transient period. however. although oscillators are stable in a mathematical sense. it may be tripped out by its protective equipment thereby disconnecting the two groups of machines. This problem is termed the stability of the tie line. a fault or the loss of a line. including the line loading and the nature of the impacts to which it is subjected. Definition: If the oscillatory response of a power system during the transient period following a disturbance is damped and the system settles in a finite time to a new steady operating condition. are reflected as fluctuations in :he power flow over the transmission lines. If the system is not stable. but if the system is stable.3. The same thing can be said about tieline stability. Since we are concerned here with the tripping of the line. these oscillations will be damped toward a new quiescent operating condition. The system behavior during this time is called the dynamic system performance. the power fluctuation that can be tolerated depends on the initial operating condition of the system.
i. and smaller and more normal random impacts. Thus the transient stability study is a very specific one.6 1. Second. Here we would expect the system operator to have scheduled enough machine capacity to handle the load. This was simply a convenience to accommodate the different approximations and assumptions made in the mathematical treat I . . but rather a random occurrence of small changes in system loading.. to adjust for load changes. This attitude is adopted in spite of the fact that an artificial separation between the two problems has been made in the past. dynamic stability tends to be a property of the state of the system. including the powerangle curve. to avoid damage to equipment. We would also expect each synchronous machine to be operating on the stable portion of its powerangle curve.e. Some of these problems are discussed in Part 111. the ability of the system to survive a certain disturbance depends on its precise operating condition at the time of the occurrence. Transient stability and dynamic stability are both qoestions that must be answered to the satisfaction of the engineer for successful planning and operation of the system. First.2 Chapter 1 Other stability problems While the stability of synchronous machines and tie lines is the most important and common problem. since modern exciters will change the operating curve during the period under study. In such cases arrangements must be made to avoid excessive voltages during light load conditions. particularly in power systems having appreciable capacitances. A more recent and certainly more appropriate name is dynamic stability. A change in the system loading. these impacts have a finite probability of occurring. Without detailed discussion. I n contrast to transient stability. and to prevent selfexcitation of machines. I f one of these large impacts occurs. This problem is referred to in the literature as the transient stability problem. 133 . generation schedule. Those that the system should be designed to withstand must therefore be selected a priori. from which the engineer concludes that under given system conditions and for a given impact the synchronous machines will or will not remain in synchronism. Stability depends strongly upon the magnitude and location of the disturbance and to a lesser extent upon the initial state or operating condition of the system. determined by many factors. or type of circuit protection may give completely different results in a stability study for the same disturbance.. the synchronous machines may lose synchronism. network interconnections. some general comments are in order.3. Let us now consider a situation where there are no major shocks or impacts. Stability of synchronous machines Distinction should be made between sudden and major changes. while others are beyond the scope of this book. I t is sometimes incorrect to consider a single powerangle curve. The problem of studying the stability of synchronous machines under the condition of small load changes has been called “steadystate” stability. I n the United States the regional committees of the National Electric Reliability Council ( N E R C ) specify the contingenciesagainst which the system must be proven stable. which we shall call large impacts. A fault on the highvoltage transmission network or the loss of a major generating unit are examples of large impacts. other stability problems may exist. the stability of the machines will be. the portion in which the power increases with increased angle. In the dynamics of the transition from one operating point to another.
Second. Thus different parts of the interconnected system will respond to localized disturbances at different times. I n this case the smallest oscillatory adjustments in the large systems are reflected as sizable power oscillations in the tie line. governor characteristics. Thus the tie line under study may in effect be connecting two huge systems. Thus questionable simplifications or assumptions are no longer needed and are often not justified. Each machine is in continuous oscillation with respect to the others due to the effect of these random stimuli. The electrical strength (admittance) or capacity of the tie cannot be divorced from this problem.Power System Stability 7 ments of the two problems. and this is reflected in the power flow over the tie line. To what degree can these oscillations be tolerated? The above problem is entirely different from that of maintaining a scheduled power interchange over the tie line. For example. First. As these conditions spread. The machines therefore are never truly at steady state except when at standstill. These controllers are usually too slow to interfere with the dynamic oscillations mentioned above. these oscillations are not large and hence not objectionable. To alter these oscillations. the effect of an impact must be studied over a relatively long period. and other factors. usually several seconds and in some cases a few minutes.3. The portion supplied by the different generators under different conditions depends upon electrical proximity to the position of impact. this added power must be supplied by the generators. energy stored in the rotating masses. The situation in a tie line is different in one sense since it connects one group of machines to another. However. The problem is not only in the tie line itself but also in the two systems it connects and in the sensitivity of control in these systems. periodic oscillations are observed to be superimposed on the steady flow. Normally. . in a large interconnected system the full effect of a disturbance is felt at the remote parts some time after its occurrence. Performance of dynamic stability studies for such long periods will require the simulation of system components often neglected in the socalled transient stability studies.4 Tieline oscillations As random power impacts occur during the normal operation of a system. The question then becomes. The situation may be further complicated by the fact that each machine group in turn is connected to other groups. The oscillation frequency has an effect on the damping characteristics of prime movers. I f the power in any line is monitored. and perhaps more important. The problem is aggravated if the initial disturbance causes other disturbances in neighboring areas due to power swings. perhaps a few seconds. the availability o f highspeed digital computers and modern modeling techniques makes it possible to represent any component of the power system in almost any degree of complexity required or desired. These oscillations are reflected in the flow of power in the transmission lines. These two groups are in continuous oscillation with respect to each other. a 40MW oscillation on a 400MW tie is a much less serious problem than the same oscillation on a 100MW tie. the dynamic response of the components of the overall interconnected system must be considered. control equipment can be provided to perform this function. I n support of this viewpoint the following points are pertinent. in a large interconnected system. 1. a chain reaction may result and largescale interruptions of service may occur. Whether they will act to aid stability is difficult to predict beforehand.
may be felt. Fig. until the input power is adjusted by the machine governors. Response of a fourmachine system during a transient: (a) stable system. s ) . The network bus voltages will be affected to a lesser degree unless the change in power is accompanied by a change in reactive power. etc. The change in frequency will affect the loads. A convenient starting point is to relate an impact to a change in power somewhere in the network. the power change will go to or come from the energy in the rotating masses. and we will use the point of impact as our reference point. I Time. load regulation is 100%. 1.. in whole or in part.1. . especially the motor loads. 1. Therefore. The system frequency will change because.4 Effect of an Impact upon System Components In this section a survey of the effect of impacts is made to estimate the elements that should be considered in a stability study.8 Chapter 1 exciters. i. The following effects. Our "test" stimulus will be a change in power. (b) unstable system. there is a minimum size of tie that can be effectively made from the viewpoint of stability. A common rule of thumb used among power system engineers is that a decrease in frequency results in a load decrease of equal percentage.e.
I n case (b) it is evident that the machines are separated into two groups where the rotor angles continue to drift apart. where the rotor angle is measured with respect to a synchronously rotating reference. they are usually neglected and only the transient effects are considered important. if the initial transient causes an electrical link in the transmission network to be interrupted during the swing. The fieldwinding voltage will be affected by: I . Let us now consider a severe impact initiated by a sizable generation unbalance. However. The time constants for this transient are on the order of seconds and are referred to as “transient” effects. A lesser part will be consumed in the loads and through various losses in the system. which when superimposed on the first may cause synchronism to be lost. To assure stability. a new equilibrium state must be reached before any of the machines experience this condition. Both subtransient and transient effects are observed. The major portion of the excess energy will be converted into kinetic energy. This creates another transient. which is twice the stored kinetic energy per MVA.Power System Stability 9 1. However. 3. This system is unstable. The important parameters here are the kinetic energy in M W . Induced currents in the field winding due to sudden changes in armature currents. the change in the output power will come from the stored energy in the rotating masses. I in which the rotor angles of the machines in a hypothetical fourmachine system are plotted against time during a transient.s per u n i t MVA (usually called H) or the machine mechanical time constant rj. The impedance seen “looking into” the network at the machine terminal also may change. 1. until the speed changes to the point where it is sensed and corrected by the governor. rotor angle. Loss of synchronism can also happen in stages. an appreciable increase in machine speeds may not necessarily mean that synchronism will be lost. . In case (a) all the rotor angles increase beyond K radians but all the angle differences are small.4. Note also that the behavior discussed above depends upon the network impedance as well as the machine parameters. and frequency to change.4.1 Loss of synchronism Any unbalance between the generation and load initiates a transient that causes the rotors of the synchronous machines to “swing” because net accelerating (or decelerating) torques are exerted on these rotors.2 Synchronous machine during a transient During a transient the system seen by a synchronous machine causes the machine terminal voltage.. Since the subtransient effects decay very rapidly. The important factor here is the angle diference between machines. Induced currents in the damper windings (or rotor iron) due to sudden changes in armature currents. This is illustrated in Figure I . 2.g. say excess generation. Thus most of the machine rotor angular velocities will increase. and the system will be stable if it eventually settles to a new angle. The machine output power will be affected by the change in the rotorwinding EMF and the rotor position in addition to any changes in the impedance “seen” by the machine terminals. Change in rotor voltage due to change in exciter voltage if activated by changes at the machine terminal. The time constants for these currents are usually on the order of less than 0.” synchronism is lost. e. If these net torques are sufficiently large to cause some of the rotors to swing far enough so that one or more machines “slip a pole.1 s and are often referred to as “subtransient” effects.
The key parameters are the governor dynamic characteristics. Supplementary controls are provided to these machines. The most common method is to . 2. 5 . 3. differential equations are used to describe the various components. and after the transient. The elements included in the model are those affecting the acceleration (or deceleration) of the machine rotors. lines. The network before. Generally. the speeds of all machines change so that they are sensed by their speed governors. allowing concentration on the key elements affecting the transient and the area under study. the techniques of linear system analysis are used to study dynamic behavior. 7. Thus some machines are assigned the requirement of maintaining scheduled flow in the ties. Fortunately. The mechanical turbine and speed governor. 6. 4. we may tend to think it is hopeless to attempt analysis. The dynamics of the transition period.10 Chapter 1 When the impact is large. The responses of these controls are relatively slow and their time constants are on the order of seconds. the components of the power system that influence the electrical and mechanical torques of the machines should be included in the model. are important. The excitation systems of the synchronous machines. each machine's share will depend on its regulation or droop characteristic. The first step in a stability study is to make a mathematical model of the system during the transient. such as tieline controls. deemed necessary in the mathematical description of the system.5 Methods of Simulation I f we look at a large power system with its numerous machines. The complexity of the model depends upon the type of transient and system being investigated. Thus the controlled machines are the ones responsible for maintaining the system frequency. Other supplementary controls. and loads and consider the complexity of the consequences of any impact. the flow of the tie lines may be altered slightly. Study of the dynamic behavior of the system depends upon the nature of these differential equations. 1. 1 linearized system equations If the system equations are linear (or have been linearized). 1S . Thus the basic ingredients for solution are the knowledge of the initial conditions of the power system prior to the start of the transient and the mathematical description of the main components of the system that affect the transient behavior of the synchronous machines. I n general. the time constants of the phenomena may be appreciably different. The number of power system components included in the study and the complexity of their mathematical description will depend upon many factors. however. These components are: 1 . The loads and their characteristics. however. The parameters of the synchronous machines. Machines under load frequency control will correct for the power change. however. This is appropriate since the scheduled economic loading of machines is secondary in importance to stability. during. Until this correction is made. Other important components of the power plant that influence the mechanical torque. I n addition. the basic functions of which are to permit each control area to supply a given load.
Both linear and nonlinear equations will be developed in following chapters. modern theories of stability of nonlinear systems have been applied to the study of power system transients to determine the stability of synchronous machines without obtaining time solutions. The type of disturbance. b.2) is a more difficult task than that of the linearized system of ( 1 . The nature of the detining equations.5.U.1) where x is an n vector denoting the states of the system and A is a coefficient matrix. and this is the method usually used in power system stability studies.1. Power system security. 1. Such efforts.2 I . while they seem to offer considerable promise.3 I .I I . The above methods have been frequently used in studies pertaining to small systems or a small number of machines.5 where a mass M is pulled by a driving force f ( f )and is restrained by a linear spring K and an ideal dashpot B. as discussed in Section I . Usually rirrre sohrions of the nonlinear differential equations are obtained by numerical methods with the aid of digital computers. are still in the research stage and not in common use. More recently. b. . where A is detined by the equation %=Ax+Bu (1.2 large system with nonlinear equations The system equations for a transient stability study are usually nonlinear.f) ( 1 .5 Suggest detinitions for the following terms: a. Stability of synchronous machines is usually decided by behavior of their rotor angles. Stability characteristics may be determined by examining the eigenvalues of the A matrix. The system performance may then be analyzed by such methods as rootlocus plots. What is a tie line'! Is every line a tie line'! What is an impact insofar as power system stability is concerned! Consider the system shown in Figure P1.4 1.Power System Stability 11 simulate each component by its transfer function. and these inputs are related mathematically to differential equations by an n x r matrix B. The various transfer function blocks are connected to represent the system under study.2) where f is an n vector of nonlinear functions. Determining the dynamic behavior of the system described by (1. c. This description has the advantage that A may be time varying and u may be used to represent several inputs if necessary. For larger systems the statespace model has been used more frequently in connection with system studies described by linear differential equations. Here the system is described by a large set of coupled nonlinear differential equations of the form 2 = f(X. Power system reliability. and Routh's criterion. The system inputs are represented by the r vector u. frequency domain analysis (Nyquist criteria).4. 1 ) . Distinguish between steadystate (dynamic) and transient stability according to a . Power system stability. Problems I .
6 Repeat Problem I . I . P1. I ).5. hf(t Fig.12 Chapter 1 Write the diferential equation for the system in terms of the displacement variable x and determine the relative values of B and K to provide critical damping when J(r) is a unit step function.5 but convert the equations to the statespace form of ( I . .
2) which establishes a useful sign convention. (See Kimbark [ l ] for an excellent discussion of units and a dimensional analysis of this equation. namely. Thus x= . the driving torque T. when perturbed. The angular reference may be chosen relative to a synchronously rotating reference frame moving with I . the system is unstable. If the difference in angle between any two machines increases indefinitely or if the oscillatory transient is not suficiently damped.1 Swing Equation The swing equation governs the motion of the machine rotor relating the inertia torque to the resultant of the mechanical and electrical torques on the rotor.m (2. Le.T.' To N . preferably electrical. The principal subject of this chapter is the study of stability based largely on machineangle behavior. Thus we write = J8 T.etc. but if the system is stable. is electrical.1) whereJ is the moment of inertia in kg.m) acting on the shaft. The question then arises. dx d2x . will either return to their original state if there is no net change of power or will acquire a new state asymptotically without losing synchronism. dr 13 .m (2. whereas a positive T. accelerates the shaft. The dot notation is used to signify derivatives with respect to time.) Since the machine is a generator.. that in which a positive T. = T.. 8 is the mechanical angle of the shaft in radians with respect to a fixed reference. . is mechanical and the retarding or load torque T. is a decelerating torque. the oscillations will be damped.  . would enable us to test for stability? One convenient quantity is the machine rotor angle measured with respect to a synchronously rotating reference. is the accelerating torque in newton meters (N. 2. and T.chapter 2 The Elementary Mathematical Model A stable power system is one in which the synchronous machines. x = dl .m2 of all rotating masses attached to the shaft. What quantity or signal. N . Usually the perturbation causes a transient that is oscillatory in nature.
77 rad. Hence W R = W I in every case.m (2. m. and ‘ is the accelerating torque in N. for example. = P. In relating the machine inertial performance to the network. ~ . = Jk. and a 1% change in w.7) in terms of an electrical angle that can be conveniently related to the position of the rotor. wherep is the number of poles. is called the inertia constant and is denoted by M. w. gives a = 1r/2 and 6 = W R f we see that 8may be replaced by&.l). Recalling that the product of torque T and angular velocity w is the shaft power P in watts. is related to the rotor mechanical angle 6. 33640 for excellent discussions of the inertia constant.4) or in terms of power.14 Chapter 2 constant angular velocity wR.’ 0 = (wRr + a) + 6.P. which certainly varies during a transient.) (2. Mi. which is the angle between the field MMF and the resultant MMF in the air gap.6. = 377 rad/s. The subscript R is used to mean “rated” for all quantities including speed. is equal to 3.4) that is sometimes useful is obtained by multiplying both sides the by urn. is the shaft & angular velocity in rad/s.w.m2. is the mechanical (subscript r n ) torque angle in rad with respect to a synchronously rotating reference frame.5) The quantity Jw. (measured:from a synchronously rotating frame) by 6 = 6. From (2. 2227 and Stevenson [2]. with the result + J6. rad (2.5. w. Then M is computed as Angular Momentum = M = J o . Another form of (2.7) where M is in Js. where p is WI 2. we have J w . in Chapter 4 a particular choice of the 7r/2 + 6. A constant slip of 1% of the value of w. = ( p / 2 ) 6 . shaft angular velocity in rad/s. which is the same as the electrical angle 6. = 2 Wk/o.3) reference for the rotor angle 6. is in rad. = M. The angle a is needed if 6. the number of polepairs. 1968. for one second will change the angle of the rotor by 3. 6. both rotating at synchronous speed. = (1 /2) J w i joules. (See Kimbark [ I ] pp. (In Europe the practice is to write 6. . . Certainly. .6) It may seem rather strange to call M a constant since it depends upon w .. where W.) It is related to the kinetic energy of the rotating masses W . and P is in W. . To illustrate: for 60 Hz. It is also the electrical angle between the generated EMF and the resultant stator voltage phasors.77 rad/s.4) where J is the moment of inertia in kg. The equation of motion of the rotor is called the swing equarion.. On the other hand the angular frequency does not change by a large percentage before stability is lost.8) = pb. this would lead to loss of synchronism. in (2. = To N. . It is given in the literature in the form of (2. 6.P. w (2. Js (2. pp. which is designated as in ANSI standards ANSI Y 10. The torque angle 6. is measured from an axis different from the angular reference frame. is in rad/s. Such an angle is the torque angle . = P. it would be more useful to write (2..3) where a is a constant. W (2.
14) The coefficient of 6 can be clarified if we recall the definition of the kinetic energy Of a . practice has been to supply J .9) which relates the accelerating power to the electrical angle 6 and to the angular velocity of the revolving magnetic field w .13) where we have Substituted the base system radian frequency wR = 2 T f R for the base . 7 )and (2. but P is now in pu (noted by the subscript u ) . The consistent English unit for J is slugft' o r W R 2 / g where g is the acceleration of gravity (32. one for each generator shaft (and motor shaft too if the motor is large enough to warrant detailed representation).8). Note that w in (2.given in units of Ibm./TB To. We compute the corresponding M KS quantity as Substituting into (2. We begin with the swing equation in N . In most problems of interest there will be a large number of equations like (2. 2. and w are in the same units as before.1 I ) by (2. 6. The form of the swing equation we use must be in M K S units (or pu) but the coefficients.9).10) where M .13). 9 )becomes a per unit (pu) equation (2M/pSB])i= (ZM/pSB.R = 60S~3/2Tn~ (2. we write (2. N .T'= ( 2 M / p ) k = Po w (2.)k pa/sB3 = pan pu (2.p .ft2. will usually be derived from a mixture of M K S and English quantities.12) and substituting 120fR/nR furp.1 I ) NOWnormalize this equation by dividing by a base quantity equal to the rated torque at rated speed: TB = SB~/W. frequency. = T. The machine nameplate usually gives the rated shaft speed in revolutions per minute (r/min).m (2J/p)$ = (2J/p). P U (2.13) is in rad/s and T is in pu. the moment of inertia.12) where SB] is the threephase V A rating and nR is the rated shaft speed in r/mind Dividing (2. From ( 2 . Then ( 2 . as a quantity usually called W R 2 .The Elementary Mathematical Model 15 For simplicity we drop the subscript e and write simply 6.S.2 Units It has been the practice in the United States to provide inertial data for rotating machines in English units. particularly the moments of inertia. we compute (J*2ni/900wRSB3)b T.17398 ft/s2). The U. In such large systems problems we find it convenient to normalize the power equations by dividing all equations by a common threephase voltampere base quantity SB]. which is always understood to be the electrical angle defined by (2.8) we write (2Mlp).m (2.
Another form of the swing equation. 1. involves some approximation.. 27. Note also that the final form of the swing equation has been adapted for machines with any number of poles.17) where H is in s.3 Mechanical Torque The mechanical torques of the prime movers for large generators. w is in rad/s.19) The value of Hmaeh usually in the range of 15 s. are functions of speed. (See Venikov [6].16) where Sg3= rated threephase MVA of the system Wk = (2.. Recognizing that the angular speed w is nearly constant. Note that w is the angular velocity of the revolving magnetic field and is thus related directly to the network voltages and currents. which we can write as Then (2. Vol. since all machines on the same system synchronize to the same w R . This is convenient since these machinenormalized H quantities are usually predictable in size and can be estimated for machines that do not physically exist. and Crary [71.1 and 2. S (2. Thus we compute Hsys = Hmich (SB3mach /SB3sys) s (2. Curves for estimating H are given in Figures 2.3.14) may be written as ( ~ W ~ I S B ~ W Tau ) P R ~ U We now define the important quantity (2. the pu accelerating power Pa is numerically nearly equal to the accelerating torque T. A modified (and approximate) form of the swing equation becomes ( 2 H / w ~ ) bZ Pa ! PU (2. both steam and waterwheel turbines. The quantities taken from these curves must be modified for use in system studies by converting from the machine base VA to the system base VA.) However we should carefully distinguish between the case of the unregulated machine (not under active governor control) and the regulated (governed) case. Sec. Typical values of J (in MJ) are given in Appendix D. and T is in pu.18) The quantity H is often given for a particular machine normalized to the base VA rating for that machine. . For this reason it is common to give the units of w as electrical rad/s. 2.16 Chapter 2 rotating body wk. Sec. pu (2.311525 x IO'O)(WR*)n~ MJ Then we write the swing equation in the form most useful in practice: ( 2 H / w ~ ) b= T . 11.2.15) H2 wk/s. With SB38ya = 100 M V A values of Hays from a few tenths of a second (for small generators) to 2530 s (for large generators) will often be used in the same study. Values for Hays is vary over a much wider range. It is particularly used with the classical model of the synchronous machine. sometimes quoted in the literature.
I Inertia constants for large steam turbogenerators:(a) turbogenerators rated 500 M V A and below 13.3(a).1 Unregulated machines For a fixed gate or valve position (Le. This can be verified as follows. 56. Feb. (a IEEE.0 J 3606 r/min fossil G e n a a b r Rating. Reprinted from E/ecrr Eng. Nov. 1937)./Dec.. vol.3(a) shows that the primemover speed of a machine operating at a fixed gate or valve position will drop in response to an increase in load. Reprinted from IEEE Truns.. 2. No distinction seems to be made in the literature between steadystate and transient characteristics in this respect. p. PAS90.. as shown in Figure 2. vol.3. (b) expected future large turbogenerators.the fundamental relationship between the mechanical torque 4.2 Inertia constants of large verticaltype waterwheel generators. The value of the turbine torque coefficient suggested by Crary [7] is equal to the loading of the machine in pu. Figure 2.The Elementary Maihematical Model 17 i 0  I 100 I 200 (0 ) 1 300 1 400 500 Generator Rating. . From . MVA '"C 4. 1201. MVA 60 80 120 140 Fig. MV A (b) Fig. 2. (o IEEE.) 2. including allowance of 15% for waterwheels. 1971 .5r 11 I I I I I I 1 0 20 40 100 Genemtor Rating. when the machine is not under active governor control) the torque speed characteristic is nearly linear over a limited range at rated speed.
22) (2. In regulated machines the speed control mechanism is responsible for controlling the throttle valves to the steam turbine or the gate position in hydroturbines.18 Chapter 2 't . = . = P. (2.20) (2. 2.3(a). and the . / u .. and power P.2 1 ) becomes dT. = (I/WR)dPm. dP. (b) regulated machine. 2 3 2 Regulated machines . using the definition of the differential..R/W:)dW N . T. 0 and dT. This relationship is shown in Figure 2. L . (b) Fig.( P m R / w : ) d w N.m This equation is normalized by dividing through by TmR = P . with the result dT. * 0 WR w d mds e .(P../w N .24) where all values are in pu. T.3 Turbine torque speed characteristic: (a) unregulated machine.m = (2.23) If we assume constant mechanical power input. .21) Near rated load (2. = dw PU (2.m we compute.
. We also note that the “effective” regulation in a power system could be appreciably different from the value 0. R .05 in the United States... This means that a load pickup from no load (power) to full load (power) would correspond to a speed drop of 5% if the speed load characteristic is assumed to be linear. A typical “droop” or “speed regulation” characteristic is 5% in the United States(4x in Europe).. Such a characteristic is shown in Figure 2.The Elementary Mathematical Model 19 mechanical torque is adjusted accordingly. B ) (2. and is CS..we can write Let P. . T. . given by is PmAsu = (SBwAu/ssBRu) Pu (2..A = .w A / R .is the sum of the ratings of all machines.30) Similarly.29) As previously mentioned. Thus T.3(b). and T. = T. = pu mechanical power on machine VA base or Since PmA = P.3(b).28) where the pu regulation Ru is derived from (2...w k w A . The droop (regulation) equation is derived as follows: from Figure 2.28) or (2.31) is shown in Figure 2. then the effective pu regulation is given by RucR = R u ( C S B / C S . = Tm0+ T m A . if a system base other than that of the machine is used in a stability study.. It will be shown in Part I11 that without feedback the speed control mechanism is unstable. . Finally.05 if some of the machines are not under active governor control.25) by w R . = . Le. a drop in turbine speed should accompany an increase in load. where R is the regulation in rad/ Nmes.3(b) is obtained in the speed control system with the help of feedback. / S B R = wA.4 where K = SB/SSB The droop characteristic shown in Figure 2.28) and (2..31) A block diagram representing (2. is usually set at 0.25) Multiplying (2../Ru PU Ru 9 S B R / W : PU (2. This occurs under normal operating conditions and during disturbances. we should point out that the steadystate regulation characteristic determines the ultimate contribution of each machine to a change in load in the power system and fixes the resulting system frequency error..Pm0. IfCSB the sum of the ratings of the machines under governor control..A. P. the torque speed characteristic of the turbine speed control system should have a “droop characteristic”. the change in mechanical power in pu on the system base PmA.(w  wR)/R Nm (2. To be stable under normal conditions.
This subject will be dealt with in greater detail in Part 111.4 Block diagram representation of the droop equation.4 Electrical Torque In general. therefore. Expressions for the electrical quantities such as power and torque are developed in terms of the direct and quadrature axis voltages (or flux linkages) and currents.a Fig. time lags are introduced by the various delays in the feedback elements of the speed control system and in the steam paths. discussion of the electrical torque can become rather involved. As the rotor moves. the correct instantaneous value of the electrical torque may be determined. The flux linking each circuit in the machine depends upon the exciter output voltage. Under this transformation both currents and flux linkages (and hence voltages) are transformed into two fictitious windings located on axes that are 90’ apart and fixed with respect to the rotor. and the current in the different windings. If all the circuits of the machine are taken into account. Two points can be made here: 1. Whether the machine is operating at synchronous speed or asynchronously affects all the above factors. the electrical torque is produced by the interaction between the three stator circuits. and other circuits such as the damper windings. For the present we simply note that the electrical torque depends upon the flux linking the stator windings and the currents in these windings. In attempting to adjust the mechanical torque to correspond to the speed change.20 Chapter 2 w I K = S$S. the loading of the magnetic circuit (saturation). and the loads. 2. 2. During transients the discrepancy between the mechanical and electrical torques for the various machines results in speed changes. the terminal voltage is determined in part by the external network. the dynamic response of the turbine could be appreciably different from that indicated by the steadystate regulation characteristics. These flux linkage relations are often simplified by using Park’s transformation. 2. For a particular machine the regulation characteristic for a small (and sudden) change in speed may be considerably different in magnitude from its overall average regulation. the other machines. The speed control mechanism for each machine under active governor control will attempt to adjust its output according to its regulation characteristic. Such a detailed discussion will be deferred to Chapter 4. . A modified form of Park’s transformation will be used here (see Chapter 4). Thus a comprehensive discussion of the electrical torque depends upon the synchronous machine representation. Since the three stator circuits are connected to the rest of the system. The other axis lies along the magnetic neutral axis and is called the quadrature axis. One axis coincides with the center of the magnetic poles of the rotor and is called the direct axis. the field circuit. If the instantaneous values of these flux linkages and currents are known. the flux linking each stator winding changes since the inductances between that winding and the rotor circuits are functions of the rotor position.
the machine reactances. Their interaction produces a torque that is always retarding to the rotor.5(a). the synchronous torque and a second component that includes all other electrical torques. The most important component is associated with the damper windings. Here we usually make an estimate of the components of the torque other than the synchronous torque. which is nearly the case for small slips. Consider two sources = V e and E = Ekconnected through a reactance x as shown in Figure 2. / is the current phasor. their effect on stability may not be negligible. It is dependent upon the machine terminal voltage.(le'').ut e)].4. While these asynchronous torques are usually small in magnitude. especially after the first swing. the torque is always retarding to the rotor. The most important effects are the following. A phasor is indic_ated with a bar above the symbol for the rms quantity. which may be used for stability studies.2 Other electrical torques During a transient. It is produced by the interaction of the stator windings with the fundamental component of the air gap flux.s.The Elementary Mathematical Model 21 A simpler mathematical model. A phasor is q complex number related to the ? + corresponding time quantity i ( t ) by i ( t ) (Re (\/I le'"') = cos ( W I + 0) = 6 '. divides the electrical torque into two main components. the network configuration affects the value of the terminal voltage. Its magnitude is significant only when the rotor damper winding resistance is high. this effect is beneficial since it tends to reduce the magnitude of the machine oscillations.' Note that the source V i s chosen as the reference. 2. The dc braking is produced by the dc component of the armature current during faults. It should be emphasized that if the correct expression for the instantaneous electrical torque is used. 3 . Since the negativesequence slip is 2 .4. By dejnirion the phasor f is given by the transformation 6 where 7 /e9 = /(cos B + j sin e) = 6 [ v f / cos (.1 Synchronous torque The synchronous torque is the most important component of the electrical torque. Also.g. 2. which induces currents in t h e rotor winding of fundamental frequency. In general. particularly the damper wihdings. all the abovementioned components of the electrical torque will be included. It is usually assumed to be proportional to the slip frequency. we return momentarily to synchronous power to discuss a simplified but very useful expression for the relation between the power output of the machine and the angle of its rotor. For example if / is 'the rms value of the current. other extraneous electrical torques are developed in a synchronous machine. Negativesequence braking results from the interaction between the negativesequence air gap flux during asymmetrical faults and the damper windings. We explore this concept briefly as an aid to understanding the generator behavior during transients.. e. Positivesequence damping results from the interaction between the positivesequence air gap flux and the rotor windings. 1. and the socalled quadrature axis EMF.  . A current 3. In some studies approximate expressions for the torque are used. 2. the rotor angle.5 PowerAngle Curve of Q Synchronous Machine Before we leave the subject of electrical torque (or power). which may be thought of as an effective rotor E M F that is dependent on the armature and rotor currents and is a function of the exciter response. when considering quasisteadystate conditions. 2.
V ..32) indicates that if E. . which is the infinite bus voltage. At steady state the machine can be represented approximately by the above circuit if V is the terminal voltage of the machine. The latter can change instantaneously because it corresponds to currents. but the former (which corresponds to flux linkage) cannot change instantly. but then the appropriate x and 6 must be defined accordingly. T = IEf l ow s between the two sources. not necessarily the excitation voltage. x is the direct axis synchronous reactance: and E is the machine excitation voltage. 2. which is the E M F along the quadrature axis. EV/x is a .5.32) is essentially correct for a round rotor machine at steady state.32) Since E. Consider a round rotor machine connected to an infinite bus. Note that E can be chosen to be any convenient EMF. and x are constant.5(b). and the power output of the machine is a function only of the angle 6 associated with E. (b) powerangle curve. V . as shown in Figure 2. We can show that the power P i s given by P = (EV/x)sin6 (2. and x are constant.22 Chapter 2 't (a) Fig.5 A simple twomachine system: (a) schematic representation.1 Classical representation of a synchronous machine in stability studies The EMF of the machine (i. the voltage corresponding to the current in the main field winding) can be considered as having two components: a component E' that corresponds to the flux linking the main field winding and a component that counteracts the armature reaction. 2. We note that the same power is delivered by the source E and received by the source since the network is purely reactive. the relation between P and 6 is a sine curve.e. constant that we may designate as P to write P = P. We say approximately because such factors as magnetic circuit saturation and the difference between direct and quadrature axis reluctances are overlooked in this simple representation. sin 6. But (2. Equation (2.
During the transient the magnitude E is held constant. while the angle 6 is considered as the angle between the rotor position and the terminal voltage V .8 PF. Both the armature and rotor currents will usually have ac and dc components as required to match the ampereturns of various coupled coils. .6. pretransient conditions. called 6 is 8.0 + j0. From the above we can see that for a period of less than a second the natural characteristic of the field winding of the synchronous machine tends to maintain constant flux linkage and hence constant E ' .8 pu at 0. and the machine initially Solution Using Vas reference. while under load it is reduced considerably but still on the order of one second or higher. is the direct axis transient reactance. Thus in some stability studies the assumption is commonly made that the main field flux linkage of a machine is constant.j0. . The model used for the synchronous machine is shown in Figure 2.6 let V operating at P = 0.1314/8.2 pu. but currents will be produced in the armature. x.9" = 0.12 + j0.8 = = 1. ~~ Fig.The Elementary M a t h e m a t i c a l M o d e l 23 When a change in the network occurs suddenly.16 1. . Furthermore.1314. The flux will decay according to the effective time constant of the field circuit.. Exciters of the conventional type do not usually respond fast enough and their ceilings are not high enough to appreciably alter .1 For the circuit of Figure 2.8 & E . it has been observed that during a disturbance the combined effect of the armature reaction and the excitation system is to help maintain constant flux linkage for a period of a second or two.6) E@ = 1.j0.13". where x. = 1 . the flux linkage (and hence E') will not change.6 Representation of a synchronous machine by a constant voltage behind transient reactance.O& 1. V = = = I. = 0. This period is often considered adequate for determining the stability of the machine.2(0. hence other currents will be induced in the various rotor circuits to keep this flux linkage constant.13" The magnitude of E is 1.6 . This will be held constant during the transient. Le.this picture. The initial value of 6. although 6 may vary. The main fieldwinding flux is almost the same as a fictitious flux that would create an EMF behind the machine direct axis transient reactance. The constant voltage source E f i is determined from the initial conditions.O pu. At no load this time constant is o n the order of several seconds.0/36. Example 2. 2.
= + (P.) I n the above analysis the appropriate values of x and E should be used to obtain P.35) is sometimes written in one of the forms PA = P$i. system frequencies.e.6 Natural Frequencies of Oscillation of a Synchronous Machine A synchronous machine. or (2.2.)6..2 = (EV/x.cos6. This is the same as having a positive synchronizing power coefficient. In dynamic studies x. I .) 6. Let us assume that 6 changes from its .. has several modes of oscillation with respect to the rest of the system. the machine power as a function of the angle 6 is also given by a powerangle curve.)sinb = P. 1 and sin 6.35) PA = (P. There are also cases where coherent groups of machines oscillate with respect to other coherent groups of machines. and tieline power flows. Let the initial power delivered by the machine be Po. approximately. + cos 6.t = P.2 = 5. cos 6.(sin bo COS 6. These oscillations cause fluctuations in bus voltages.’’ 2.34) If 6 is small then. it is important that the machine be operating such that 0 I 6 5 7r/2 for the operating point to be stable in the static or steadystate sense. which corresponds to a rotor angle 6.sin6 (2. sin 6 . as shown in Figure 2.. a6 (2. 6 = 6. If the control equipment of the machine is slow or inoperative.6. This is the case when the machine is connected to a very large power system (infinite bus). 2.35) is defined to be the synchronizing power coeficient and is sometimes designated p.35) we also observe that A P. assuming that Vis held constant. This criterion was used in the past to indicate the socalled “steadystate stability limit.657. and the voltage E’ are used. (which is the same as the angle of the EMF E ) . cos 6. while in steadystate stability analysis a saturated steadystate reactance x. when perturbed.1314/0. sin (6. From (2. i.32) P also changes to P = Po + PA. Synchronizing power coefficients Consider a synchronous machine the terminal voltage of which is constant. The power is given by (2.36) Equation (2.Then we may write Po + PA = P.. = (2. + 6.) = P..32).33) = 1. From (2.. It is important that these oscillations should be small in magnitude and should be damped if the system is to be stable in the sense of the definition of stability given in Section 1.5.37) (Compare this result with dP. COS &)aA (2. The quantity in parentheses in (2. initial value 6 by a small amount 6. + 6. . Po + PAe P. Thus P For theexamplegiven above P. . = ap 6 . is used.. and since Po P. sin So. the differential of P. sin 6. Let us assume that the machine can be represented by a constant voltage magnitude behind a constant reactance..24 Chapter 2 During the transient period.
S. Let the resulting angle change be aA. Example 2.of the synchronous machine.6) and (2../2H where P./M = P.. + J 2 ) and the angle is al.. i.where from (2.  .38) Equation (2. is the synchronizing power coefficient in pu (on a base of the machine threephase rating). 8 5 / 2 ~= 1. is the synchronizing power coefficient.5(a).&) = E 6d3ssB3/M sin (2. = Pto + Ped. have different inertia constants. The equivalent inertia is J l J 2 / ( J . a system having P. is in rad/s.. This frequency is usually referred to as the natural frequency. The voltage E remains constant. We must also be careful with the units. w = wo Solut ion From (2. P. Then the swing equation may be written as + /B s 3 + Ps6A = 0 c elect rad which has the solution of the form a.09 HZ If MKS units are used. is a function of the operating point on the powerangle characteristic. where u ( t ) is a unit step function. = 2 pu.10) we write M8/SB3+ Pr = P... and a small change in speed is given to the machine (the rotor is given a small twist). or P. we write hsc = ( I /2*) drf(p s / s B 3 H. .85 rad/s f. Let the damping be negligible. Now P.2 A twopole synchronous machine is connected to an infinite bus with voltage through a reactance x as in Figure 2. = 6 . H = 8 . But we let 6 = 6.. w. Compute the change in angle as a function of time and determine its frequency of oscillation. (2. + r u ( t ) . For example. especially different machine types.38) indicates that the angular frequency of oscillation of the synchronous machine with respect to the rest of the power system is given by d P s S . From (2.37) for small aA we write PrA = PSdA. is in pu. is constant.. . Therefore.. is approximately equal to the amplitude of the powerangle curve..16) we write MIS. and H is in s. = 4 2 x 377)/(2 x 8 ) = 6. the different machines in a power system may have somewhat different natural frequencies. Then ~Uii'~/Ssj P r A = P. we should point out that a system of two finite machines can be reduced to a single equivalent finite machine against an infinite bus./S. + 6. P. w. I f the initial operating angle 6 is small.Pro = 0 since io= 0.e.w.The Elementary Mathematical Model 25 In this section we will illustrate the inherent oscillatory nature of a synchronous machine by the following example.. system frequency in Hz threephase machine rating in M V A inertia constant in s synchronizing power coefficient in MW/rad Next. H = = = = P.. We now estimate the order of magnitude of this frequency. Different machines. I t should be noted that P..39) where f S. such that $ = iA and P. = 2 H / w .36) P. / M . From (2.
it can be represented by a constant impedance (or admittance) to neutral. (If damping is present the amplitude will decrease with time. I). 2. 5 .7(a). requires the following assumptions: 1. A schematic representation of this system is shown in Figure 2. The frequencies of oscillations depend on the synchronizing power coefficients and on the inertia constants. Fig. each coherent group of machines oscillates with respect to other groups of machines. and assuming that the impact initiating the transient creates a positive accelerating power on the machine rotor.10). Damping or asynchronous power is negligible. If the rotor angle increases indefinitely. which will be referred to as the classical model. At the start of the transient.) . If it reaches a maximum and then starts to decrease. The mechanical angle of the synchronous machine rotor coincides with the electrical phase angle of the voltage behind transient reactance. If a local load is fed at the terminal voltage of the machine. The period of interest is the first swing of the rotor angle 6 and is usually on the order of one second or less. The mechanical power input remains constant during the period of the transient. we need to develop expressions for the mechanical and the electrical powers. stability is decided in the first swing.5. and so on. To obtain a time solution for the rotor angle. bus through a transmission line: (a) oneline diagram. the machine loses synchronism and stability is lost. 2. The synchronous machine can be represented (electrically) by a constant voltage source behind a transient reactance (see Section 2.7 System of One Machine against an Infinite BusThe Classical Model A n infinite bus is a source of invariable frequency and voltage (both in magnitude and angle). Thus according to this model and the assumptions used.26 Chapter 2 Thus we conclude that each machine oscillates with respect to other machines. The inertia of the machines in a large system will make the bus voltage of many highvoltage buses essentially constant for transients occurring outside that system. 3. 4. Consider a power system consisting of one machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line.7 O n e m a c h i n e connected t o a n infinite (b) equivalent circuit. the resulting motion will be oscillatory and with constant amplitude. but in the classical model there is very little damping.7) or (2. The equation of motion of the rotor of the finite machine is given by the swing equation (2.2. A major bus of a power system of very large capacity compared to the rating of the machine under consideration is approximately an infinite bus. This model. the rotor angle increases. In this section the simplest mathematical model is used.
. ' 0 EA 0 Fig. = x.7(b).41) The relation between PI and 6 in (2. the node representing the terminal voltage E in Figure 2. The nodes to be retained (in addition to the reference node) are the internal voltage behind the transient reactance node and the infinite bus. In this case the powerangle curve becomes identical to that given in (2. 2.7 we define V = V.33).9. . 2) or F12 Y12/812 = yi2. These are shown in Figure 2.8 are the admittances obtained by the network reduction. and y OI2 . which is determined by the real component of the transfer admittance F2.H/2.9. V&)  = = z. = z. The equivalent electrical circuit for the system is given in Figure 2. y z o omitted since it is not needed is in the analysis. Also shown in Figure 2. y I 2 . which is used as reference direct axis transient reactance of the machine series impedance of the transmission network (including transformers) equivalent shunt impedance at the machine terminal. In the special case where the shunt load at the machine terminal is open and where the transmission network is reactive. I n Figure 2.co seII EVYl2cos(eI2 6) + = Now define G I I = YII cosB.and y z o ) .8 is conveniently described by the equation The driving point admittance at node 1 is given by K l = Yil /811 = plz + jjlo where we use lower case y's to indicate actual admittances and capital Y's for matrix elements.7 can be eliminated. we note that the powerangle curve of a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus is a sine curve displaced from the origin vertically by an amount Pc. including local loads if any By using a YA transformation.The Elementary M a t h e m a t i c a l M o d e l 27 . Note that while three admittance elements are obtained (viz. which represents the power dissipation in the equivalent network. The negative of the transfer admittance vlz between nodes I and 2 defines the admittance = matrix element ( I . = terminal voltage of the synchronous machine voltage of the infinite bus. From elementary network theory we can show that the power at node 1 is given by PI = &eEi:or P.8 Equivalent circuit for a system o f one machine against an infinite bus.y ) = Pc + PMsin(6 .y) (2.. then Pi = E2Gll + EVYI2sin(6 . b = EZYl.ylo. we can easily prove that Pc = 0 and y = 0. The twoport network of Figure 2.8 as nodes I and 2 respectively. and horizontally by the angle y. Examining Figure 2.41) is shown in Figure 2.
3 A synchronous machine is connected to an infinite bus through a transformer and a double circuit transmission line.3.05 pu.5 = j2. O L Fig. o== +=E ELL j T l 2 = l/j0. and the reactance of each of the transmission lines is 0.1 1. The direct axis transient reactance of the machine is 0.0 Y I I= j2. Fig. All resistances are neglected.40 pu.28 Chapter 2 Fig.1 = a/2 */2 eI2 = therefore. as shown in Figure 2.0 YlO = V = I . Example 2. The infinite bus voltage V = 1. .1 I initial equivalent circuit of the system of Example 2.20 pu. Initially. . the machine is delivering 0. then E sin 6. The equation of motion of the machine rotor is to be determined.10 System of Example 2. For this system:  0 Y12= j2. Pc = 0 and y = 0. = Pc + E V Y I 2sin (6 .0 e.10 pu. Solution The equivalent circuit of the system is shown in Figure 2. the transformer reactance is 0.8 pu power with a terminal voltage of 1.8 pu. 2. all to a base of the rating of the synchronous machine. 2.9 Power output of a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus.4.3.y) = EVY12 6 = 2Esin sin = 6 Since the initial power is Pco= 0.0 pu. The electrical power is given by P = PI . 0. The inertia constant H = 5 MJ/MVA. 2.10.
we write. We now extend the example to consider a fault on the system.8 = ( V V .909 and since Y..160 1. Example 2.09" pu Thus E = 1.50] sin 6 = 2.o = 13. = is now . The electrical power output = of the machine P.12.0)/0.803/5.0148 + j0. / x )sin OrO = (1.O. we solve the network of Figure 2.1 I I is a constant that will be unchanged during the transient.21" The current is found from = = zi + v.05/13.OOO)/j0. since resistance is zero.803/5. = 0. For simplicity we will consider a threephase fault that presents a balanced impedance of j .333]= j0.21"+ (0.O/o PU V.010sin6 .1 1.29" Then the internal machine voltage is EE= l.2/90") = = 1.V ) / z = (l. We also may write P.367 rad.8 PU To find the angle of F.240 .05/0.or T = ( q . and the initial angel is 6o = 21.222sin 6 Then the swing equation is given by or = d26 dt2 377 (0.1 I 1 /21.022 + j0. then K2 = j0.O5/13.2l0 I.j0.I.5 = 0. We have the terminal condition  V = I.909 x 1.lII)sin6 = 1.8 . = 0.3 (1.074 = 0.. (0. = (( 1.909. to neutral. The network 0l now is as shown in Figure 2.333 x 5)/18.4 Develop the equation of motion of the system of Figure 21 1 where a fault is applied . Pro = 0.OSF.where admittances are used for convenience. PU P.3= 0.222sin6) 1 0 rad/s2 From this simple example we observe that the resulting swing equation is nonlinear and will be difficult to solve except by numerical methods.J I 2 .09" = 0.8/3.30) Bf0 sin sinB.400 = 1.29")(0.&l)/j0.2286 e. at the sending end (node 4) of the transmission line.The Elementary Mathematical Model 29 To find the initial conditions.1 1 1 x 1.240 + 0. = I.2.800 .022 + j0.037 + j0. Solution By YA transformation we compute pI2= j[(3.
Assume that the fault is cleared in nine cycles (0.5 Calculate the angle d as a function of time for the system of Examples 2.45 rad/s2 Now let us assume that after some time the circuit breaker at the sending end of the faulted line clears the fault by opening that line. Le.7(0. at time t + At. w ( t ) .P e ( f ) ] (2.429 pu.7(0. and the initial rotor acceleration is given by = dtz = 37. This method is outlined in Appendix B.7[0.010 x 0.368)] 16. From Example 2. From Example 2.4 in terms of admittances. At the end of this repeated prediction and correction a final value of S(t + A t ) and w(t + A t ) is obtained. values of the derivatives at t + A t are calculated. time solutions will be obtained by numerical methods. From the calculated values of 6 ( t + A t ) and w(t + At). The network now will have a series reactance ofj0.15 s ) .4 for the faulted network and for the system with the fault cleared. and the equation . and the new network (with fault cleared) will have a new value of transfer admittance.8 .(1.4.587 sin 6) rad/s2 Example 2. an estimate is made of the values of these variables at the end of an interval of time A t . 2. First. To illustrate the procedure used in numerical integration. These equations are nonlinear.. A partial survey of these methods is given in Appendix B.3 and 2. The procedure is outlined in detail in Chapter IO of [8]. The process is then repeated for the next interval. These are called the predicted values of the variables and are based only on the values of 6 ( t ) . the modified Euler method is used in this example.36. Tl2= j 1. The new swing equation will be d26 = dt 37. I2 Faulted network for Example 2. Solution The equations for 6 were obtained in Example 2.3 the equation of motion of the rotor is dt = 37.368. With the values of 6 and w and their derivatives known at some time t .1.42) The time domain is divided into increments called At.70 pu. therefore.OIOsin6) rad/s2 = At the start of the transient sin 6o 0.1.wR & = (wR/2H)[Pm . The process can be repeated until a desired precision is achieved. the swing equation is replaced by the two firstorder differential equations: 8 E o(t) . and their derivatives.8 .30 Chapter 2 4 Fig.4 the initial value of 6 is sin’0.8 . A corrected value of 6 ( t + A t ) and w(t + A t ) is obtained using the mean derivative over the interval.
P .800 .8 Equal Area Criterion Consider the swing equation for a machine connected to an infinite bus derived previously in the form 2 .P.. are shown in Figure 2.43) d'6 = dt2 wR 2H (2. synchronism is not lost (since the angle 6 does not increase indefinitely) and the synchronous machine is stable.5. 2.82 s.4 0.2" at t = 0. I 1. I3 Angletime curve for Example 2.15 The results of the numerical integration of the system equations. performed with the aid of a digital computer.2 I I I I I 0. and the oscillation of the rotor angle 6 continues.1.The Elementary Mathematical M o d e l n 31 I 0 II 0. 2.7(0. WR dt' .6 0.7(0.43) where Pa is the accelerating power.13.d26 H . From (2. For the system under study and for the given impact.010sin6) = 37.38 s.587sin6) 0 =( t < 0.8 Time.2 1 7 Fig. for w is given by w = 37.15 t 2 0. = p* P U (2.2" is reached at t = 0.44) p a . after which 6 is decreased until it reaches a minimum value of about 13.0 1. The first peak of 48.800 . The time solution is carried o u t for two successive peaks of the angle 6.1.
Thus for a rotor that is accelerating. the condition of stability is that a value .49) gives the relative speed of the machine with respect to a reference frame moving at constant speed (by the definition of the angle 6 ) .32 Chapter 2 Multiplying each side by 2 ( d s / d t ) .47) Integrating both sides. This is shown in Fig pa t Pa (t = O+) b) Fig. (b) for an unstable system . equation (2.45) (2. .. preted as the area under that curve between & and &.50) If the accelerating power is plotted as a function of 6.a exists such that Pa(&.49) Equation (2.. and = 0 (2. (2.50) can be inter. 2..46) (2.) 5 0. (2. ..48) or d6 = dt 66 Padb Pad6)'" (2.. For stability this speed must be zero when the acceleration is either zero or is opposing the rotor motion.14 Equal area criteria: (a) for stability for a stable system.
The former is the powerangle curve discussed in Section 2. and the like. = A . is the maximum rotor angle reached during the swing. a more severe fault is used with the same system and switching arrangement. The angle at t = 0 is 21.42.13) and is about 31. The limit of stability occurs when the angle 6. coincides with the angle 6 on the powerangle curve with the fault cleared such that P = P . = sin' P. The stable system of Examples 2. .6". The accelerating power curve could have discontinuities due to switching of the network..15. and A. and hence the rotor acceleration.. and A ./r2PM > */2 = A. The clearing angle 6. on the faultcleared powerangle curve.8. is negative.7. To illustrate the critical clearing angle.. The conditions for A. For this case. the area A. Note that the accelerating power need not be plotted as a function of 6.2 Application to a onemachine system The equal area criterion is applied to the power network of Examples 2. .5 is illustrated in Figure 2. This situation is shown in Figure 2.. and . I f the accelerating power reverses sign before the two areas A ..09" and is indicated by the intersection of P. Conditions for critical clearing are now obtained (see [ I ] and [2])..r1cosbOl) (2.8. < */2 6..80) + r2cOs8. is a constant. correspond to . is smaller than A . The prefault and . are equal.14(a) where the net area under the Pa versus 6 curve adds to zero at the angle since the two areas A I and A ./P. are equal and opposite... and as 6 increases beyond the value where Pa reverses sign again. Therefore.a . 6. is obtained from the time solution (see Figure 2. Also at. synchronism is lost. 6 > */2.The Elementary Mathematical Model 33 ure 2. We can obtain the same information if the electrical and mechanical powers are plotted as a function of 6. the system is stable and 6.51) Note that the corresponding clearing time must be obtained from a time solution of the swing equation. A threephase fault is applied to the same bus with zero impedance. The maximum angle b.15.5.13. Then for A .42. is added to A . and the results are shown in Figure 2. the critical clearing angle is that switching angle for which the system is at the edge of instability (we will also show that this applies to any twomachine system). This corresponds to the maximum angle obtained in the time solution z shown in Figure 2. initiation of faults. with the prefault curve. = sin' P. The faulted powerangle curve has zero amplitude. = ratio of the peak of the powerangle curve of the faulted network to PM r.1 Critical clearing angle For a system of one machine connected to an infinite bus and for a given fault and switching arrangement. are equal. and for critical clearing. Let P M = peak of the prefault powerangle curve r.a the accelerating power. and in many studies P. = ratio of the peak of the powerangle curve of the network with the fault cleared to PM 6. corresponds to the angle 6. The area A . . 2. 2.14(b).a z 48"..rl)I[(Pm/PM)(& .. = cOs'{[1/(r2 . is such that = 0 and the areas A .
43" 8 This situation is illustrated in Figure 2.16 Application of the equal area criterion to a critically cleared system. using (2.714 6.73" Calculation of the critical clearing angle.15 Application of the equal area criterion to a stable system.58712.16. 2. For this system r. = = 0 1.222 = 0.09" 149. 21. ' A b Fig. . 2 6 8 4= 74. postfault networks are the same as before.5I ) . r. . 6 .34 Chapter 2 Fig. gives = ~ 0 ~ . 2.' 0 . = = a.
= H IH 2 / ( H . both mechanical and electrical. 131. Passive impedances connect the various nodes and connect the nodes to the reference at load . .6. up to 25 pu. . Constantvoltagebehindtransientreactance model for the synchronous machines is valid.14). Assumption 2 is improved upon somewhat by assuming a linear damping characteristic..52) where a. (2. + H 2 ) . termined from the pretransient conditions. 1 I . is made for convenience in many classical studies.17. . Mechanical power input is constant.dSI2= I Ho 6120 0 where 2. are reported in the literature due to generator damping alone [7. or the buses to which the voltages behind transient reactances are applied. Load representation can have a marked effect on stability results.8.The Elementary Mathematical Model 35 2. E . Nodes 1. and the damping effect of electrical loads. Values of the damping coefficient usually used in stability studies are in the range of 13 pu [9.n are the internal machine buses. 5. generator electrical damping.52) becomes . This represents turbine damping. Thus a loadflow study for pretransient . I n the special case where the resistance is neglected.. As in the onemachine system. . which is usually not precisely known and varies from constant impedance to constant MVA. 121. The electrical network obtained for an nmachine system is as shown in Figure 2. the major point of agreement being that constant impedance is an inadequate representation. However. 2. Classical Model of a Multimachine System The same assumptions used for a system of one machine connected to an infinite bus are often assumed valid for a multimachine system: I .. A damping torque (or power) Dw is frequently added to the inertial torque (or power) in the swing equation. Node 0 is the reference node (neutral). The damping coefficient D includes the various damping torque components. are debuses. This model is useful for stability analysis but is limited to the study of transients for only the “first swing” or for periods on the order of one second. = 6.9 H. suggesting load representation by a constant impedance. 4. . This is a subject of considerable speculation. The mechanical rotor angle of a machine coincides with the angle of the voltage behind the transient reactance. Damping or asynchronous power is negligible.. Loads are represented by passive impedances. much larger damping coefficients. .2. 3. Loads have their own dynamic behavior. . .3 Equal area criterion for a twomachine system It can be shown that the equal area criterion applies to any twomachine system since a twomachine system can be reduced to an equivalent system of one machine connected to an infinite bus (see Problem 2. We can show that the expression for the equal area criterion in this case is given by (2. Assumption 5 . the initial values of E.J b 1 2 P. IO.
+ = . The passive electrical network described above has n nodes with active sources.~ ~ ~ co s(o . 2. Y . .1 Transmission system r constunt impedance loads . which is the electrical power output of machine i . + j B.. + EiEj(B.. Y i i b = negative of the transfer admittance between nodes i and j = = G.I j#i  13.. The admittance matrix of the nport network.aj)] i = 1..n (2.sin(6. E ~ G .. . + j B.. is given by = (Re. yii = yi. = = driving point admittance for node i G.53) E. 13. 2.+ .!?. n = EfG. + 1 3 ~ ) j. j.I j#i N i = 1 . i = I . n are held constant during the transient in classical stability studies. 0 Representation of a multimachine system (classical model). is defined by where y has the diagonal elements I=VE (2.54) The power into the network at node i...36 Chapter 2 n machine system n generators . The magnitudes E....55) .and the offdiagonal elements qj... E. r ..By definition.2. 0 L I I I I n d n +jx' ' I Fig. (2. conditions is needed.) + GVcos(bi. looking into the network from the terminals of the generators. P. C E . I 7 Node.p e. .... 2 .
2.56) I t should be noted that prior to the disturbance ( t n 0) Pmio P..10. These can be written in the form x = f(x. For many power systems this time is on the order of one second or less. The prefault normal loadflow solution is given in Figure 2. hence. these studies can provide useful information. This applies to all machine rotor angles and also to the network parameters. The classical model is the simplest model used in studies of power system dynamics and requires a minimum amount of data. they may be used as preliminary studies to identify problem areas that require further study with more detailed modeling.10 Classical Stability Study of a Ninebus System The classical model of a synchronous machine may be used to study the stability of a power system for a period of time during which the system dynamic response is dependent largely on the stored kinetic energy in the rotating masses.xo. Generator data for the three machines are given in Table 2. = .E. the following data are needed: I .I j#i + ). since the network changes due to switching during the fault. while small.56) is a set of ncoupled nonlinear secondorder differential equations.. 2 . For example..~ i = aj) l ....1. A classical study will be presented here on a small ninebus power system that has three generators and three loads.. Si. such studies can be conducted in a relatively short time and at minimum cost. Pmio= E: G. .t) (2.58) where x is a vector of dimension (2n x I ) . + €. of the generators and to calculate the values of Ei&for all the generators. . E ~ K ~ C O S ( 6. Yijocos (eijo j. The equivalent impedances of the loads are obtained from the load bus data.n = 1 (2.57) The subscript 0 is used to indicate the pretransient conditions.a (2. The set of equations (2. is large enough to be nontrivial and thus permits the illustration of a number of stability concepts and results.The Elementary Mathematical Model 37 The equations of motion are then given by 2Hi dwi wR di j#i E .1 Data preparation In the performance of a transient stability study.19. and f is a set of nonlinear functions of the elements of the state vector x. This system. A oneline impedance diagram for the system is given in Figure 2. Thus a large number of cases for which the system exhibits a definitely stable dynamic response to the disturbances under study are eliminated from further consideration. 2.18. Furthermore. A loadflow study of the pretransient network to determine the mechanical power P. + .
+ ? 11 56 230 kV 9 7 % LaadB I 8 OS " 2 16.8 kV 230 kV 24.70 1.026 0 /4.8 kV c @ s/2 = j0.2 850 $85.0) (15.38 Chapter 2 18 kV 230 kV 0.9) 1.0119 + jO.18 Ninebus system impedance diagram: all impedances are in pu on a 100MVAbase.1008 13. 2.70? ? .19 Ninebus system loadflow diagram showing prefault conditions.025 13.032 m1.0)$ I 85.5 k V@ E Q Fig.9 24. 2.0085 ij0.0)Load C 75.1645 L 2 II :s h d A 2s 4 3 @ $ 8 0. . U Y 1.0 (10.013 Fig.0 13.0745 23OkV 0.3) 100. 18kV 230kV (35.072 v 2 = j0. all flows are in M W and MVAR.01 (3.1 (10.7) (24.
If we define 7 = I.61) The initial generator angle So is then obtained by adding the pretransient voltage .0 13. + jSL. then P. power P.@ YL = V L ( C ( G L . These quantities are derived and justified in Chapter 4 but are given here to provide complete data for the sample system. 2. Transmission network impedances for the initial network conditions and the subsequent switchings such as fault clearing and breaker reclosings.o 192. System data as follows: a. I969 0.)] = VZ(G.25 0.5 1 . 3.1460 0..jS.00 0. + jI. (Several quantities are tabulated that are as yet undefined in this book.j(QL/W (2.8645 0. as shown in Figure 2.20. + jQ.535 640 M W . These internal angles may be computed from the pretransient terminal voltages V k as follows.89 0. All time constants are in s.. The loads are converted to equivalent impedances or admittances.0608 0.8 0. Thus if a certain load bus has a voltage F. = v. jf?.96 0 3600 r/min 0.3125 0.0 0. The internal voltages of the generators E.s 3600 r/min 1. But since E E = jxjK we compute r+ vr* E@' = (V + Qxj/V) + j ( P x i / V ) (2. then from the relation P + j Q = we have I. 2. = ( P . the following preliminary calculations are made: 1. The type and location of disturbance. 4I X xt(leakage) 140 Stored energy at rated speed 710 hydro 180 r/min 0. reactive power Q.s 31 MWS 0 Note: Reactance values are in pu on a 100MVA base.1813 1..0742 5. and the maximum time for which a solution is to be obtained.10.& are calculated from the loadflow data.600 2364 M W . All system data are converted to a common base. The inertia constant H and direct axis transient reactance x j for all generators.85 steam 128. 0.jQ)/V.5 16.0969 0. + jI..0969 0.0336 8.8958 0 1198 .85 steam x.2578 0. b. Let the terminal voltage be used temporarily as a reference.) 2. and current & flowing into a load admittance FL = G. Generator Rated M V A kV Power factor Type Speed xd 39 Generator Data 1 2 3 247.) The equivalent shunt admittance at that bus is given by = PL/VZ .1.0521 6. a system base of 100 M V A is frequently used.The Elementary Mathematical Model Table 2.2 Preliminary calculations To prepare the system data for a stability study.0 18. time of switchings. The needed data for this step are obtained from the loadflow study.60) 3. .
[ (2. + Y.V. .. 2. = Y. This property is used to obtain the network reduction as shown below. All impedance elements are converted to admittances. 5 .17. b. Finally. additional nodes are provided for the internal generator voltages (nodes 1. 4.40 Chapter 2 + E& Fig. simulation of the fault impedance is added as required.V.63) = I. 0 = Y. and node i and node j.17) and the appropriate values of x i are connected between these nodes and the generator terminal nodes. 2. V. Thus for the network in Figure 2. The following steps are usually needed: a .64) Now the matrices Y and V are partitioned accordingly to get where the subscript n is used to denote generator nodes and the subscript r is used for the remaining nodes. . c. The equivalent load impedances (or admittances) are connected between the load buses and the reference node.62) V matrix for each network condition is calculated.64). Elements of the matrix are identified as follows: ITi is the sum of all the adis the negative of the admittance between mittances connected to node i. Also.20 Generator representation for computing 60. or 6 = 6' . . + Y. n in Figure 2. Expanding (2. The + ff (2. I. has the dimension ( r x 1). .V. angle CY to d'. and the admittance matrix is determined for each switching condition.V. The reduction can be achieved by matrix operation if we recall that all the nodes have zero injection currents except for the internal generator nodes. we eliminate all the nodes except for the internal generator nodes and obtain the k matrix for the reduced network. has the dimension (n x 1) and V.. . v xj Let I where 1 = YV (2.
The network reduction illustrated by (2..65) is a convenient analytical technique that can be used only when the loads are treated as constant impedances.' Y.3391 The generator internal voltages and their initial angles are given in pu by E l k o = 1.. The equivalent shunt admittances for the loads are given in pu as load A: j j L s = 1.2.n) is the desired reduced matrix Y.j0.'Yrn)Vn (2. The damping torques are neglected. the identity of the load buses must be retained. For example.56) are known. step 4. If the loads are not considered to be constant impedances.9690 . It has the dimensions (n x n) where n is the number of the generators.7315" E3/6.2717" E2& = 1. denoted by adding the subscript 0.0502/19.1. The fault is cleared in five cycles (0. obtained from (2. to find I n = (Ynn .O170/13. are given by & = 0 and 6.10.1752" The matrix is obtained as outlined in Section 2.j0. and 3 are used to denote the generator internal buses rather than the generator lowvoltage terminal buses.19 and Table 2.j0.63)(2. The initial conditions. the reactance between . = l. All impedance data are given to this base.YnrY.083 s) by opening line 57.10. Solution The objective of the study is to obtain time solutions for the rotor angles of the generators after the transient is introduced.2610 . the data for which is given in Figures 2.56).8777 . for generator 2 bus 2 will be the internal bus for the voltage behind transient reactance. we are to obtain a solution for the set of equations (2.The Elementary Mathematical Model 41 from which we eliminate V. Values for the generator x i are added to the reactance of the generator transformers.6 The technique of solving a classical transient stability problem is illustrated by conducting a study of the ninebus system. Y. For convenience bus numbers I . . These time solutions are called "swing curves. The system base is 100 M V A . Example 2.65) The matrix (Ynm Y.57).18 and 2. For the purpose of this study the generators are to be represented by the classical model and the loads by constant impedances. The disturbance initiating the transient is a threephase fault occurring near bus 7 at the end of line 57." In the classical model the angles of the generator internal voltages behind transient reactances are assumed to correspond to the rotor angles. Therefore. 2.0566/2. Network reduction can be applied only to those nodes that have zero injection current. Preliminary calculations (following the steps outlined in Section 2.2926 load C: pLB = 0. mathematically.5044 load B: pL6= 0.2) are: The system base is chosen to be 100 M V A . Make all the preliminary calculations needed for a transient stability study so that all coefficients in (2.
18.6.2835 S h u n t admittancest Load A Load B Load C 50 60 80 40 70 90 ~ ~~  ~ *For each generator the transformer reactance is added to the generator x i .4459 5.0720 0.1610 0.1876 I .0625).. Elimination of the network nodes other than the generator internal nodes by network reduction as outlined in step 5 is done by digital computer. bus 2 and bus 7 is the sum of the generator and transformer reactances (0. Plot the angles a. Chapter 2 Prefault Network impedance Admittance Bus no.0320 0.2610 0. and ti3 are obtained by numerical integration.0346 0.9422 1.2634 0. and the corresponding k matrix is given in Table 2. We now have the values of the constant voltages behind transient reactances for all three generators and the reduced Y matrix for each network.3652 I .2. The resulting reduced Y matrices are shown in Table 2.1 184 G B Generators* No. I700 0.0920 0.5 respectively.0390 0. 5.56) are available.2399 0.42 Table 2.I I .1823 0. S o ht ion The problem is to solve the set of equations (2. tThe line shunt susceptances are added to the loads.9690 .1008 0 0 0 8. the faulted network. A brief survey of numerical integration of differential equations is given in Appendix B. Since the set (2. All the coefficients for the faulted network and the network with the fault cleared have been determined in Example 2. Thus all coefficients of (2.5882 .6980 9..0100 0.6171 1.56) for n = 3 and D = 0.2275 0. The results are shown in Tables 2. and 4 and their difference versus time.2820 1.0085 0. R X 0. Example 2.1 198 + 0. 3 Transmission lines 14 27 39 45 46 57 69 78 89 0 0 0 0. The prefault network admittances including the load equivalents are given in Table 2.56) is nonlinear.1684 0. 1 No. and the network with the fault cleared respectively.0 170 0.8777 0.2.7843 0.604 I .6 for the prefault network.1670 0.5107 5.1601 0.9751 5. 2 No. a2.3. (For hand calculations see [ I ] for an excellent discussion of a numerical integration method of the swing equa .7 For the system and the transient of Example 2.01 19 1. the desired time solutions for 6..10.13.4 and 2.1551 1.0850 0. The P matrix for the faulted network and for the network with the fault cleared are similarly obtained. The fault is cleared in five cycles by opening line 57 of Figure 2. 6.4855 4.6 calculate the rotor angles versus time.
1335 1.6041 3.6171 +j13.1019 .6424 1.6980 1.I .jl6.3652 + jl1.1019 30.2574 6 7 j5.3652 + j I I .6424 1.6171 + j13.4371 .9422 4.6041 0.5.7843 2.1.2820 + j5.j18.6262 .4855 8 9 9 1.3937 1.5882 2.5882 Table 2.I .1019 .6980 1.2820 + j5.8675 1.6171 + j13.1335 . I684 .j16.2820 + j5.7843 .9422 + j10.7412 .j23.5107 4.9311 .2820 + j5.2574 .8426 .1.7412 .7843 4.1.2820 + j5.j23.2574 Table 2.3937 1.5107 .7843 2.6980 3.8426 .j19.1.3.j23.1551 +j9. Y Matrix of Prefault Network 5 6 j5.1551 + j9.5882 1.j24.1335 3.2820 + j5.9422 + j 10. I684 .5107 + jl0.6980 3.j16.4371 .7843 2.Table 2. Y Matrix of Faulted Network 5 6 7 8 9 0.5882 1.6041 10.j I I .1551 + j9.6041 0.I .1876 j4.975 I .8138 j17. Y Matrix of Network with Fault Cleared 5 .9751 .6041 2.8047 .5882 .1.1.5107 j4.1684 + j5. 1876 + j5.3937 1.6171 .j19.1.7412 .I .4855 7 8 9 9 0.6424 1.4371 .3652 + jl1.8138j17.1551 + j9.1551 + j9.I .j19.1551 + j9.4.5107 .604I 3.7843 j4.6171 + j13.1.1.5882 .9559 1.5 107 .
21 Plot of 61..988 0.513 0.389 .44 Chapter 2 Table 2.j2.2 10 + j I . Numerical integration of the swing equations for the threegenerator.079 0.724 0.726 0. Type of network Reduced Y Matrices I Node 2 3 Prefault Faulted Fault cleared I 2 3 I 2 3 1 2 3 0.342 tion.j2.229 0.000 + jO.000 .726 0.213 + jl.j3. = 6. .0 s of simulated real time. and b.513 0.000 0. .199 + j1. ninebus system is made by digital computer for 2.6. I 1 2. = 6.0 1.088 O.62.000 + jO.000 0.070 + j0.213 + j1.174 . is shown 0 L cycln I I I 0.5 1 . A plot ofd.277 .o TIrne.631 0.287 + j1.191 + j1.OO0 + jO.846 .000 0.420 .5 Fig.226 0.816 0.j1. Figure 2..079 0.657 .j5.229 0.181 .631 1. 2.486 0.6.j2.953 0.191 + j1.796 0.070 + j0.273 . .229 0.138 + j0.j2.138 + j0.088 0.and 63 versus time.21 shows the rotor angles of the three machines.6.210 + j1.368 0.) The socalled transient stability digital computer programs available at many computer centers include subroutines for solving nonlinear differential equations.226 0.j2.000 + jO.j2.199 + j1. Also see Chapter IO of [8] for a more detailed discussion of several numerical schemes for solving the swing equation.000 0. Discussion of these programs is beyond the scope of this book.287 + j1.
To determine whether the system is stable or unstable for the pareither ticular transient under study.The Elementary Mathematical Model 45 0 I ’ I 1 I 20 I 40 0. Generator control systems. it is sufficient to carry out the time solution for one swing only. This is the value of 6 . The maximum angle difference is about 8 5 ” . It is therefore .. on the supplementary control equipment installed. Thus the classical model was adequate.5 Fig. in Figure 2.1 1 Shortcomings of the Classical Model System stability depends on the characteristics of all the components of the power system. the system is unstable because at least one machine will lose synchronism. and on the type and settings of protective equipment used. the equipment used for excitation controls was relatively slow and simple. on the dynamic characteristics of the loads. The machine dynamic response to any impact in the system is oscillatory. Note that the solution is carried . This includes the response characteristics of the control equipment on the turbogenerators. If any of the angle differences increase indefinitely. 2.o nm4 1.22 where we can see that the system is stable.22 Plot of 6 differences versus time. Furthermore. the system is stable’.43 s. Today large system interconnections with the greater system inertias and relatively weaker ties result in longer periods of oscillations during transients. at t = 0.0 1 . If the rotor angles (or the angle differences) reach maximum values and then decrease. out for two “swings” to show that the second swing is not greater than the first for or &. are extremely fast. 2.5 60 cyclr I eo I I 1 100 120 I 1 0 I 2.. particularly modern excitation systems. In the past the sizes of the power systems involved were such that the period of these oscillations was not much greater than one second.
Constant mechanical power. 3.) 4. A large system will have relatively weak ties. This view is well stated by Ray and Shipley [ 14): We have reached a time when it is appropriate that we appraise the state of the Art of Dynamic Stability Analysis. 2 . generator regulators. 4. Reformulate our analytical techniques to adequately simulate the time variation of all of the foregoing factors in system response and accurately determine dynamic system response. In conjunction with this we must: 1. Representing loads by constant passive impedance. It is important to account for the various components of the system damping to obtain a correct model that will accurately predict its dynamic performance. It is therefore necessary in many cases to study the transient for a period longer than one second. resulting in loss of synchronism after the system machines had undergone several oscillations. especially in loss of generation studies [8]. reactors. Negfecting the damping powers. Furthermore. This has made many engineers realize it is time to reexamine the assumptions made in stability studies. Constant generator mainfieldwindingflux linkage. As this situation has developed. etc. In the springmass analogy used above. Let the load be represented by the static ad + . field excitation. We conclude from this discussion that the constant voltage behind transient reactance could be very inaccurate. This assumption is suspect on two counts. it has also become increasingly important to ensure the security of the bulk power supply. The capacities of most of the tie lines are comparatively small. Consider a bus having a voltage Y to which a load PL j Q L is connected. means that the change in the main fieldwinding flux may be appreciable and should be accounted for so that a correct representation of the system voltage is realized. turbine governors. The turbinegovernor characteristics. the longer period that must now be considered and the speed of many modern voltage regulators. 2. where growing oscillations have occurred on tie lines connecting different power pools or systems. A large system having many machines will have numerous natural frequencies of oscillations. Let us illustrate in a qualitative manner the effect of such representation.46 Chapter 2 questionable whether the effect of the control equipment can be neglected during these longer periods. If periods on the order of a few seconds or greater are of interest. Indeed there have been recorded transients caused by large impacts. Reexamine old concepts and develop new ideas on changes in system networks to improve system stability. It is quite possible that the worst swing may occur at an instant in time when the peaks of some of these nodes coincide. Another aspect is the dynamic instability problem. The longer period. with the result that some of these frequencies are quite low (frequencies of periods in the order of 56 s are not uncommon). Let us now make a critical appraisal of some of the assumptions made in the classical model: 1. this is a rather poorly damped system. 3. Expand our knowledge of the characteristictime response of our system loads to changes in voltage and frequencydevelop new dynamic models of system loads. 5 . the voltage regulator response could have a significant effect on the fieldwinding flux. Update our knowledge of the response characteristics of the various components of energy systems and their controls (boilers. which may be comparable to the fieldwinding time constant. and perhaps boiler characteristics should be included in the analysis. it is unrealistic to assume that the mechanical power will not change. Transient stability is decided in thefirst swing.
Some excess generation results.1 2 Block Diagram of One Machine Block diagrams are useful for helping the control engineer visualize a problem. At the same time. this model assumes PL m V z . where this assumption can lead to optimistic results. TjW = P. let us assume that the transient has been initiated by a fault in the transmission network.and that both are frequency independent.) To illustrate this. and J has been replaced by a time constant rj. (There are situations. In real systems the decrease in power is not likely to be proportional to Y 2 but rather less than this.17 the change in voltage is reflected in the power and reactive power of the load.66) where has been replaced by G... Such a block diagram is shown in Figure 2.23. In other words. This assumption is often on the pessimistic side. From the foregoing discussion we conclude that the classical model is inadequate for system representation beyond the first swing. the numerical value of which depends on the rotating inertia and the system of units. P. a fault causes a reduction of the output power of most of the synchronous generators. We will be considering the control system for synchronous generators and will do so by analyzing each control function in turn. In the model used in Figure 2. Three separate control systems are associated with the generator of Figure 2. . The first is the excitation system that controls the terminal voltage..and the increase in frequency does not cause an increase in load power.24. Thus the model used gives a load power lower than expected during the fault and higher than normal after fault removal. Since the first swing is largely an inertial response to a given accelerating torque. while the change in the bus frequency is not reflected at all in the load power.24 is (2. 2. however. Then as we proceed to analyze each system. 2.The Elementary Mathematical Model 47 Fig. since it affects the electrical power.e.24 [ 15). The basic equation of the dynamic system of Figure 2.23 A load represented by passive admittance.P. Note that the excitation system also plays an important role in the machine’s mechanical oscillations. In the passive impedance model the load power decreases considerably (since PL a V2). the classical model does provide useful information as to system response during this brief period. QL= V 2 . = Pa pu (2. a transmission network fault usually causes a reduction of the bus voltages near the fault location. The second control system is the speed control or governor that monitors the shaft speed and controls the mechanical power P. Initially. mittances CL = P L / V 2 and B L = Q L / V as shown in Figure 2. . we can fill in the blocks with the appropriate equations or transfer functions. causing the machines to accelerate. This discussion is intended to illustrate the errors implied. It may be helpful to present a general block diagram of the entire system without worrying about mathematical details as to what makes up the various blocks. During a transient the voltage magnitude V and the frequency will change.18). and the area frequency tends to increase. i. A n increase in system frequency will result in an increase in the load power.
. I 2.. = TFL. we recognize immediately that the shaft speed w must be accurately controlled since this machine must operate at precisely the same frequency as all others in the system. In an isolated system the speed reference is the desired system speed and is set mechanically in the governor mechanism. but they are smaller than those in the governor loop. . three transfer functions are of vital importance.. Finally.. This to sends a unit dispatch signal (UDS) each generator and adjusts this signal to meet the load demand or the scheduled tieline power. Let r. the pu inertia constant. Le. Then show that r. time system and specify the units of each quantity (see Kimbark [I]). wR. In addition to the three control systems. To visualize the stability problem in terms of Figure 2. be the accelerating time constant. It is designed to be quite slow so that it is usually not involved in a consideration of mechanical dynamics of the shaft. The generator equations are nonlinear and the transfer function is a linearized approximation of the behavior of the generator terminal voltage C: near a quiescent operating point or equilibrium state. 2.. can also be related to H . length. = 0 and is supplied a constant full load accelerating torque. and TFL. Time delays are involved here too. but does so through some rather long time constants. The load equations are also nonlinear and reflect changes in the electrical output quantities due to changes in terminal voltage ?. A second controlled response acts through the excitation system to control the electrical power P. the energy source equations are a description of the boiler and steam turbine or of the penstock and hydraulic turbine behavior as the governor output calls for changes in the energy input.24.2 Analyze (2. If a sudden change in w occurs. Hence much effort has been devoted to refinements in excitation control. Thus in most of our work we can consider the speed reference or governor speed changer (GSC) position to be a constant.48 Chapter 2 Fig. we have two ways of providing controlled responses to this change. as will be shown later. The first of these is the generator transfer function.. Solve the swing equation to find r. T. Le..24 Block diagram of a synchronous generator control system. Problems 2. These equations are very nonlinear and have several long time constants. in terms of the moment of inertia J .. in an interconnected system there is a master controller for each system. A rotating shaft has zero retarding torque T. the time required to accelerate the machine from rest to rated speed wR. Finally. One is through the governor that controls the mechanical power P. I ) dimensionally using a mass.
1 I and angle SI. . I4 Derive an expression similar to that of (2.S connected to an infinite bus. 2.. What factor must be used to make the units consistent? 2. a .O pu power. .7) for an interconnection of two finite machines that have inertia constants M . What are the units of R ? 2. deg.e. = M = M. 6 is in elec. 4. Find the natural frequency of oscillation for this machine..M*I(M.4 Solve the swing equation to find the time to reach full load speed wR starting from any initial speed uo with constant accelerating torque as in Problem 2. 2. . I 1 and is connected to an infinite bus. i. State any necessary assumptions.8 A 60MVA twopole generator and a 600MVA fourpole generator are to operate in parallel with other U.3 2.8 if the constant K is to be computed in MKS units rather than pu. Show that the equations for . = mechanical power in pu on SsB Pmo initial mechanical power in pu on SSB = J = system base frequency in Hz R . b. Compute the regulation R of this machine. assuming small perturbations from the operating point. and 6.7) assume that Pis in W and M in J s/rad.6 I n (2. 2. 2.. Find the natural frequency of oscillation and the damping coefficient. rad/s Verify the expressions in (a) and (b). let P = PMsin6 + ksin2S.S. systems and are to share in system governing.33) is written for a salient pole machine to include a reluctance torque term.9 Repeat problem 2. = steadystate speed regulation in pu on a system base = RuSsB/SB s = generatorslip = (uR  w)/2rHz (b) Pm . . Will this system have a steadystate operating point? Is the system linear? 2.10 In computer simulations it is common to see regulation expressed in two different ways as described below: where P. where in the region of interest the generator torque is proportional to the shaft angle and the motor torque decreases linearly with increased speed. = d2 where a. where P.. What are the units of 6? 2.5 In(2.S.Pmo KIAw PU... machines. T . and c are constants.* .deg. Compute the pu constant K that must be used with these machines in their governor simulations if the system base is 100 MVA.ft2. (b) An electric motor driving a fan.4) assume that Tis in Nm. where in the region of interest the torques are given by T.1 A 500MVA twopole machine is to operate in parallel with other U. For this condition find the expression for Pa and for the synchronizing power coefficient... such a case are exactly equivalent to that of a single finite machine of inertia 2.bB .2.12 A solidrotor synchronous generator is driven by an unregulated turbine with a torque speed characteristic similar to that of Figure 2.. and angles 6 . The machine has the same characteristics and operating conditions as given in Problem 2.The Elementary Mathematical Model 49 2. assuming small perturbations from the operating point. = turbine power in pu on SsB fmo = initial turbine power in pu on SsB Kl = SB/RuuRSsB = Au speed deviation. and delivering I .andJis in Ibm.3(a).0 MJ/MVA is initially operated in A synchronous machine having inertia constant H steady state against an infinite bus with angular displacement of 30 elec.13 Suppose that (2. Write the equation of motion of the shaft for the following systems: (a) An electric generator driven by a dc motor. and M. + M2) 6. 2.. Relate this time to rr and the slip at speed u .
convert the loads to equivalent passive impedances. Generator and transmission line data are given below. 2.18 The system shown in Figure P2. The result of a loadflow study is also given..17 comprises four synchronous machines.18 has two generators and three nodes.2) that describe an interconnection of three finite machines with inertia constants M I . I6 2. Convert the system to a common 100MVA base. P2. the mechanical input power. (b) Calculate the Y matrices for prefault. and 6. faulted.while machines C and D are 50 Hz. each represented by a constant voltage behind reactance and connected by a pure reactance.E and C are a motorgenerator set (frequency changer).16 The system shown in Figure P2. Fig. 2. M2. Machines A and E are 60 Hz. (c) Obtain (numerically)time solutions for the internal general angles and determine if the system is stable. Assume that the transmission networks are reactive. . Fig. Give the inertia constant for the equivalent machine.17 The system shown in Figure P2. P2. I8 (a) Perform all preliminary calculations for a stability study. Is there a simple expression for the natural frequency of oscillation in this case? Designate synchronizing power between machines I and 2 as P S l 2etc. The reactance x includes the transmission line and the machine reactances. . and angles 6.16 has two finite synchronous machines. and calculate the generator internal voltages and initial angles. Write the equations of motion for this system. and M. d2. . and postfault conditions. Write the swing equation for each machine. The inertia constants of the two machines are HI and H2s. and show that this system can be reduced to an equivalent one machine against an infinite bus. and the amplitude of its powerangle curve. I5 Derive linearized expressions (similar to Example 2.50 Chapter 2 2. A threephase fault occurs near node 2 and is cleared in 0.1 s by removing line 5 .
20 Repeat the calculations of Example 2.5.5. 2.5% gives a damping torque of 50% of full load torque.8 2.18 to an equivalent one machine connected to an infinite. Consider the effect of adding a “local” unity power factor load R L D at bus 3 for the following conditions: Case 1: PLD = 0. .4 j0.0 0.4 pu.18. . bus. . + jQ.018 I .25 0. Y (c) Devise a method of introducing additional damping on the analog computer by adding a term K d b in the swing equation. Estimate the value of Kd by assuming that a slip of 2.0 20. Apply the equal area criterion to the fault discussed in Problem 2.95.2 pu P. = 0. and the potentiometer settings.0 1.The Elementary Mathematical Model 51 Generator Data (in pu to generator MVA base) Generator number I 3 tX.21 using a line impedance of0. Repeat the analog simulation and determine the critical clearing time to the nearest cycle.0 50. + jQ. Implementation will require computation of Y.07 I20 generator transformer reactance Transmission Line Data (resistance neglected) Line number: 3 4 5 6 x p u to 100MVA base 0.8. This is more typical of the arcing re0 sistance commonly found in a fault.2 + j0. let H = 2. What is the critical clearing angle? 2. For example.0 0. To measure the damping. This can be accomplished by logical control on some analog computers or by careful hand switching where logical control is not available..4 pu P..08 0.19 Reduce the system in Problem 2. = 0. Voltage Load Angle“ MW MVAR Generator MW MVAR Magnitude pu I 2 3 1. Write the swing equation for the faulted network and for the network after the fault is cleared. I I .8.2.21 Repeat Problem 2. I 0. 2. prepare an analog comp_uter simulation for the system.0 80. the initial conditions. + jQ.01 + j pu. (a) Use a fault impedance of 2.5 0. = 0. where R L = 0.06 0. = xi (PU) xTt (PU) H ( M Ws/MVA) 5 4 Rating (MVA) 0.0 0. (b) Study the damping effect of adding a resistance to the transmission lines of R L in each line where R L = 0.06 0. This will require a means of systematically changing from the fault condition to the postfault (one line open) condition after a measured time lapse. but with the following changes in the system of Figure 2.030 1.08 50 0. (d) Make a parametric study of changes in the analog simulation for various values of H. 0. 5.0 40.20 but with transmission line impedance for each line of R L + j0.4 r j0.0 30. . 0.0 37.0 100.5 s. Let Y.. = 0 + j0 pu Case3: PLD = 1.28 0.1 and 0.20 pu Case 2: P L D = value to give the same generated power as Case 1 P.0.0 23.020 0. = 0.4.2 pu (a) Compute the values of R L D and E and find the initial condition for 6 for each case.22 Repeat Problem 2.8 pu.13 LoadFlow Data Bus no. 7.
C. Stevenson. Vol. 14:1723. Ray.. B. New York. J. 5 . Economic Control of’lnrerronnected Systels. G. 2nd ed. References I . Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems. R. P.. I . A n analysis and comparison of certain loworder boiler models. S. Power System Stability. w. 1962. E. Pergamon Press. Cottipurer Me1hod. make a phaseplane plot of w. Power Con/: 29: 112639. Am.. 4. Elements qfPower System Analysis. I E E E Trans. B. = 0. Crary. K. 3.C. . New York. Kirchmayer. A. 6. Electr. PAS902427. 6. y12 the prefault. New York. 56261 82. Sherman. 1971. Erect of steam turbine reheat on speedgovernor performance. 1964. USGPO. C. R. 9.. Dynamic system performance.. A I E E Trans.. W. New York. S . P. Rept. Eng. 70:73 137. (c) Compute the analog computer settings for the simulation. L. 0. Also. e. J.. Anderson. 1975. and ElAbiad. A. R. Lokay. 1964. IO.. Use the computer for this. AIEE Subcommittee on Interconnection and Stability Factors. 2. (Rev. Young. Eng. and for if the fault impedance is Z .. Compare these results with similar plots with no local load present.6. Federal Power Commission.. 12... H. .52 Chapter 2 (b) Compute the values of I. 2 . and Shipley. Narional Power Survey. T. A new stability program for predicting the dynamic performance of electric power systems. McGrawHill. 14. Wiley. Synchronous machine damping and synchronizing torques. Stagg. T. Vol. Proc. A S M E J . Washington. Pt. M . and Webler. Paper 66 CP 709PWR. 1 1 . 1951. versus 6. 1959. 1967. Dec. E. 1959. Byerly. D. 15. Power System Stability. and Nanakorn. V..31. (e) Use the computer simulation to determine the critical clearing angle. 7. M. Effects of future turbinegenerator characteristics on transient stability. Wiley. Westinghouse Electric Corp.. New York. ISA Trans. E. T. and postfault condition. McGrawHill. and Shortley.. Concordia. H.. 8. 1948. 1968. P. D. and Thoits. (d) Perform the analog computer simulation and plot the following variables: T. presented at the IEEE Winter Power Meeting. New York. 2. Concordia. First report of power system stability. Venikov. writing the admittance matrices by inspection and reducing to find the twoport admittances. faulted. W. Power 81:201 6.. 1968. Kimbark. W. Wiley. Stability program data preparation manual. 8.01 + j0. 1937. C. Macmillan. 1947.) 13. 70736. C. D. 1971.s in Power System Analysis. New York. 1970.
Here a brief account is given of the various phenomena experienced in a power system subjected to small impacts. it was shown that for small perturbations the change in power is approximately proportional to the change in angle (2. If the system is stable. If on the other hand the oscillations grow in magnitude or are sustained indefinitely. A n example of this linearization procedure was given in Section 2. Typical examples of small disturbances are a small change in the scheduled generation of one machine. Under normal operating conditions a power system is subjected to small disturbances at random. It is important that synchronism not be lost under these conditions. This small disturbance may be temporary or permanent. While the powerangle relationship for a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus obeys a sine law (2. The criterion is simply that the perturbed system can be linearized about a quiescent operating state. which results in a small change in its rotor angle 6. We now define what is meant by a small disturbance.1 Introduction This chapter reviews the behavior of an electric power system when subjected to small disturbances.chapter 3 System Response to Small Disturbances 3. the system is unstable. we would expect that for a temporary disturbance the system would return to its initial state. the system is stable. For a linear system.35). The mathematical models for the various components of a power network will be developed in greater detail in later chapters. or a small load added to the network (say 1/100 of system capacity or less). It is assumed the system under study has been perturbed from a steadystate condition that prevailed prior to the application of the disturbance. with emphasis on the qualitative description of the system behavior.33). so that after sufficient time has elapsed the deviation or the change in the state of the system due to the small impact is small (or less than some prescribed finite amount). while a permanent disturbance would cause the system to acquire a new operating state after a transient period. modern linear systems theory provides a means of evaluation of its dynamic response once a good mathematical model is developed. In general. Thus system behavior is a measure of dynamic stability as the system adjusts to small perturbations.5. In either case synchronism should not be lost. If the oscillations are damped. the response of a power system to impacts is oscillatory. 53 .
3. which are determined by the steadystate droop characteristics of the various governors [5. it is often convenient to assume that the disturbances causing the changes disappear. During the transient period. In examining the dynamic performance of the system. These power swings appear as power oscil .. Thus the operation is in the neighborhood of a certain quiescent state xo. u. i. sometimes called the perturbation method [ 1. Such behavior can be determined in a linear system by examining the characteristic equation of the system. The method of analysis used to linearize the differential equations describing the system behavior is to assume small changes in system quantities such as b.. As explained above.1) the free response of the system can be determined from the eigenvalues of the A matrix. PA (change in angle. an unbalance between the power input to the system and the power output takes place. it is important to ascertain not only that growing oscillations do not result during normal operations but also that the oscillatory response to small impacts is well damped. This is advantageous. Under normal operating conditions a power system is subjected to numerous random power impacts from sudden application or removal of loads. The behavior or the motion of these changes is then examined. each impact is followed by oscillatory power swings among groups of machines to reflect the transition from the initial sharing of the impact to the final adjustment reached at steady state. If the mathematical description of the system is in statespace form. I n other words.54 Chapter 3 3. (3. the power impact is shared by the machines according to different criteria.1 System response to small impacts If the power system is perturbed. If these criteria differ appreciably among groups of machines. The motion of the system is then free.e. voltage. it will acquire a new operating state. and power respectively). Stability is then assured if the system returns to its original state. if the system is described by a set of firstorder differential equations. since linear systems are more convenient to work with.2. the state variables or the system parameters will usually not change appreciably. If the stability of the system is being investigated.2. In this limited range of operation a nonlinear system can be described mathematically by linearized equations. the power impact is “shared” by the various synchronous machines according to their steadystate characteristics. = 2 AX + BU 3. the new operating state will not be appreciably different from the initial one.5. resulting in a transient. Equations for these variables are found by making a Taylor series expansion about xo and neglecting higher order terms [4.2 Distribution of power impacts When a power impact occurs at some bus in the network. each impact will be followed by power swings among groups of machines that respond to the impact differently at different times. however. is very useful in studying two types of problems: system response to small impacts and the distribution of impacts.7]. If the perturbation is small.. When this transient subsides and a steadystate condition is reached. This procedure is particularly useful if the system contains control elements.6].31.2.2 Types of Problems Studied The method of small changes.
Its response is oscillatory with the frequency of oscillation obtained from the roots of the characteristic equation (2H/wR)s2+ P.6) If the electrical torque is assumed to have a component proportional to the speed change.o (3.) sin(& .. This gives rise to the term “tieline oscillations.” In large interconnected power systems tieline oscillations can become objectionable if their magnitude reaches a significant fraction of the tieline loading. Such a discussion is offered here.wR/2H (3. Furthermore.2) becomes (3.e.8) .7) where D is the damping power coefficient in pu.2) 60 +6 sin(6 + P A .y) + cos(6o ~ Pe . = Pm0and using the relationship .2..1..y ) = sin(& . This problem is similar to that discussed in Section 3. the constantvoltagebehindtransientreactance model. conditions may exist in which these oscillations grow in amplitude. The roots of (3. i. = 0 (3.18) and (2. It can be analyzed if an adequate mathematical model of the various components of the system is developed and the dynamic response of this model is examined. > 0.4) and the new characteristic equation becomes (2H/wR)s2 + (D/wR)s + P. The equation of motion of a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus and the electrical power output are given by (2.y + 6. Letting 6 = = Pc + PMsin(6.3) the linearized version of (3.7) are given by (3. = 0. oscillatory) for P.. P.3 The Unregulated Synchronous Machine We start with the simplest model possible.System Response to Small Disturbances 55 lations on the tie lines connecting these groups of machines.4) is marginally stable (Le. causing instability. however. which has the roots s = &jdP. a damping term is added to (3. = P. If we are interested in seeking an approximate answer for the magnitude of the tieline oscillations.4) where The system described by (3.y) (3. 3. such an answer can be reached by a qualitative discussion of the distribution of power impacts.41) respectively or P. since they are superimposed upon the normal flow of power in the line.
3.negative. Venikov [4] reports that a situation may occur where the machine described by (3. 3. Mathematically.16~0 = K3 = final value of unit step u. The transformer voltage terms in the stator voltage equations are considered negligible compared to the speed voltage terms. and the roots are complex. For a machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission network./o. This would be the case where there is appreciable series resistance (see [4]. and the initial conditions. A negative value of P leads to . equations for the direct and quadrature axis quantities are derived (see Chapter 4). as this will be accomplished in Chapter 6. among them the demagnetizing influence of a change in the rotor angle 6. To account for this effect. and K4 depend on the parameters of the machine. K 2 is the change in electrical power for a change in the direct axis flux linkages with constant rotor angle. ri0 is the direct axis open circuit time constant of the machine.6).4) can be unstable under light load conditions if the network is such that tJo < y.. and K4 is the demagnetizing effect of a change in the rotor angle (at steady state). .1 1) aAU(I) v~10 . Rather. Pea = K16A + &EA (3. unstable operation. These results are found in de Mello and Concordia [8] and are based on a model previously used by Heffron and Phillips (91. The system described by (3.2). is similar to the synchronizing power coefficient P.7) is stable for P > 0 and for D > 0. is the change in electrical power for a change in rotor angle with constant flux linkage in the direct axis. Le. Sec. and the damper windings. the following s domain relations are obtained. K 2 .3. Note that K . From Chapter 2 we know that the synchronizing power coefficient P is negative if the spontaneous change in the angle 6 is . stator resistance. we write Kt = PeA/6AlEb=0 K2 = peA/E. the rotor angle . K 3 is an impedance factor. If either one of these quantities is negative.lim K3 1m EA(r) The constants K I . another model of the synchronous machine is used. the external network.56 Chapter 3 Usually ( D / w R ) 2< 8HP. the system is unstable. (3. used in the simpler machine model of constant voltage behind 1 (3. we will state the assumptions made in such a model and give some of the pertinent results applicable to this discussion. Linearized relations are then obtained between small changes in the electrical power Pea. It is not our concern in this introductory discussion to develop the model or even discuss it in detail.9) (3.1 Demagnetizing effect of armature reaction The model of constant main fieldwinding flux linkage neglects some important effects..10) where K . To account for the field conditions.a the fieldwinding voltage uFArand the voltage proportional to the main fieldwinding flux EA. Major simplifications are then made by neglecting saturation. the response is oscillatory with an angular frequency of oscillation essentially the same as that given by . response lim Ek(t)]6Ao I K4 =  1 .
and K4 are positive.1 1) are usually positive. may be represented by the incremental block diagram of Figure 3.2). 2H K3Td0 Note that all the constants (3.  or we have the thirdorder system (3.K2K3K4)= 0 (K. The change in power due to .14) +wR I . The second criterion is satisfied if the constants K2.K2K3K4 > 0 and K2K3 K4 > 0. it is possible that instability may occur. we obtain the new characteristic equation. would become negative.13) where we can clearly identify both the synchronizing and the demagnetizing components.2 Effect of small changes of speed In the linearized version of (3.2) we are interested in terms involving changes of power due to changes of the angle 6 and its derivative.3. 3. This would happen because the impedance factor producing the constant K. (3.12) For the case where V . K3. (3. with the initial equation (3.1.9) and (3.$ K6 3 0 2H 3. transient reactance.4). = 0. s3 1 + s2 + !Q!K. The first of the above criteria states that the synchronizing power coefficient K. must be greater than the demagnetizing component of electrical power.10). . Venikov [4] points out that if the transmission network has an appreciable series capacitive reactance. Equations (3. Substituting in the linearized swing equation (3. I Primitive linearized block diagram representation of a generator model.System Response to Small Disturbances 57 Fig. Thus from Routh's criterion [IO] this system is stable if K.(with D = 0) [ Z s ' + (K.
The change in speed.7) the change in electrical power due to small changes in speed is in the form of PL = (D/WR)WA (3. = dsA/dl. L Fig.o s 1 + (Ki . The characteristic equation of the system now becomes (3.3 the change in mechanical power due to small changes in speed is also linear PmA = a p m / a w l w ~ W A (3. was discussed above and was found to include a synchronizing power component and a demagnetizing component due the change in EL with 6.2 Block diagram representation of the linearized model with speed regulation added. W. 3.18) which is the equation of an ideal speed droop governor. can be obtained from a relation such as the one given in Figure 2. In this case the new differential equation becomes (3.20) .15) As in (3.17) where i3Pm/dw]. I. The system block diagram with speed regulation added is shown in Figure 3. causes a change in both electrical and mechanical power.19) or + R :[ (D + . .+ KiK37.( ~ / W W A / W R ) PU (3.2. we may write in pu to the machine base PmA = .3..58 Chapter 3 6..KZK3K4) = 0 (3. If a transient droop or regulation R is assumed.16) From Section 2.
Thus the concept of the synchronizing power coefficients can be extended to mean “the change in the electrical power of a given machine due to the change in the angle between its internal EMF and . We also note that since (3.22) and (3.Gij sin 6ijo) (3..5. sin 6. 3. n .. = + bijA. 6 cos Sij0 .a sin 6 . Ei = constant voltage behind transient reactance for machine i .21) applies to any number of nodes where the voltages are known. the linearized equations (3. and the term in parentheses in (3. P.I j+i n Ei Ej Yij cos (eij . for PciA.. Finally. Its units are W/rad or pu power/rad.I j+i + Gijcos aii) (3.6.24) dijo is the change in the electrical power of machine i due to a change in the angle between machines i and j .= y.2).jo sin SijA Y sin tiijo + 6ijA cos Sij0 = .Gij sin 6ijo) 6 i j A (3..System Response t Small Disturbances o 59 Again Routh’s criterion may be applied to determine the conditions for stability.22) For a given initial condition sin Sijo and cos bij0 are known. COS a.4 Modes of Oscillation of an Unregulated Multimachine System The electrical power output of machine i in an nmachine system is n Pei = E:Gii + + j. G.(Bijsin 6.I jzi C (3. with all other angles held constant.2 for one machine connected to an infinite bus. j. This is left as an exercise (see Problem 3.4 . . It is a synchronizing power coefficient between nodes i and j and is identical to the coefficient discussed in Section 2. cos 6.i + jBii is a diagonal element of the network short circuit admittance matrix Y y. = Gu + jBu is an offdiagonal element of the network short circuit admittance matrix Y Using the incremental model so that 6. = E:Gii EiE. .j) . j.I j4i C E.2 I ) where 6 = Si .(B. Thus we write n peiA = j.23) can be derived for a given machine in terms of the voltages at those nodes and their angles. we compute = sin Sij0 cos SijA + cos S.E.22) is a constant.23) where Psij s] 8% = Ei Ej(Bijcos 6 .
.I c n.6.. n = 0. . n (3.. we get the set of linearized differential equations.G..30) dt2 + j. . .x n .1 jti (3.0)6.c$.n (3. .i. .27) Subtracting the n t h equation from the ith equation.31) represents a set of n . From (3. .A = 0 i = 1. Using the inertial model of the synchronous machines. Thus (3.31) where the coefficients aiidepend on the machine inertias and synchronizing power coefficients.28) can be put in the form Since 6. .. Let x l .ajnA = o i = 1. x ~ . since Z b . .26) for machine i..I a. PS.~ respectively.I (3.26) jti The set (3.. 2Hi d26iA WR dt2 + 2 j1 EiEj(B. . n . IJA (3.26) comprises a set of (n . . jti = 0 i = 1. .sin6. . .2.2. ..).I be th e angles aInA. .I 2Hn j ...2..I)independent equations.26) is not a set of nindependent secondorder equations. we compute n.1) firstorder differential equations. ..~os6.. &..1 linear secondorder differential equations or a set of 2(n . We will use the latter formulation to examine the free response of this system.6.” (An implied assumption is that the voltage at the remote bus is also held constant. with all other bus angles held constant.25) jti or (3.~ the time derivatives of these angles. Equation (3.60 Chapter 3 any bus. The system equations are of the be form .. and let x. .A.29) can be further modified as = 6inA  (3.) This expanded definition of the synchronizing power coefficient will be used in Section 3.28) Equation (3. x 2 ..
1 complex conjugate pairs. we compute the determinant of M as IM I = = .1 I X2U ... as follows: XU I U det _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A ....(1/X)”IA I I XU I I (XU) = (See Lefschetz [ 121... 133..34) where X is the eigenvalue. Thus the system has n . ... I _______ I O I I I I I I I I I .1 vector of the speed changes db. . This is obtained from the characteristic equation derived from equating the determinant of the matrix to zero..35) or I X2U .. the system equations are given by *See the addendum on page 650. The machines are unregulated and classical model representation is used.System Response io Small Disturbances 0 .. 0 . Find the modes of oscillation of a threemachine system.X u ]= d e t M = O [ (3./dt To obtain the free response of the system. A .A I (3.. .. X2n .. Since the matrix XU is nonsingular. which occur in n ...A I = 0. . A 12 22 + 0 4 1 .I! 0 * ’ a 1 . 121..) The system described by I M I = 0.. 2 ‘ or : XI x2 61 (3. Solution For an unregulated threemachine system....1) imaginary roots.. we examine the eigenvalues of the characteristic matrix [ l l . Example 3. 010 1 ... p.1 vector of the angle changes 6. I 1 I 0 1. .33) where U XI X2 = = the n = the n the identity matrix . has 2(n ...1 frequencies of oscillations.2 (3..A(XU)’U I (l)”’X“’ I XU .32)* xn %+I ..
/2H. . we get (noting that 6 = aji) and subtracting the third equation I f we eliminate are obtained: by noting that + + = 0. the following two equations or The statespace representation of the above system is To obtain the eigenvalues of this system. the characteristic equation is given by det all =o a12 a22 a21 Now by using ( 3 .62 Chapter 3 Multiplying the above three equations by w. 3 9 . from the first two. det [+ h2 a21 all .
Solution First we compute the frequencies of oscillation. Synchronizing Power Coefficients of the Network of Example 2.System Response to Small Disturbances 63 Examining the coefficients aii. Observe the system response for about two seconds. For loads that are essentially constant impedance.OS02 1.2 Consider the threemachine. Assume that the system load after t = 0 is constant and consists of the original load plus the IO pu shunt resistance at bus 8. and & are constants. however.1 as follows: a12 (WR/2)(Ps12/HI + P s 1 3 / H .01 for i = I .524 a21= (0R/2)(Ps3& .555. . 2.1. C.G sin). 6.226 .0170 I . Assume there are no governors active on any of the three turbines.0170 1. Since these . Compute the frequencies of oscillation that will result from this small disturbance.5563 10. Example 3. + (1/2)[257. cos (Br + &) + Cz cos ( y t + c$~). are rotor angles.0566 Bij 4jti psi.17. The free response will be in the form 6.. %(Si/cos . 3. + Ps31/H3) = 104.at~l)] f (66336 .6 we find the data needed to compute Psij with the results shown in Table 3. Also from Example 2. Then compare these computed frequencies against those actually observed in a digital computer solution.0566 I .096 (%/2)(Ps3z/H3 . X = f j y .088 1.513 1.0502 1.a .6 for Ei/66.Psz1/H2) = 33. 6 .6015 1.1.. A small IOMW load (about 3% of the total system load of 315 MW) is suddenly added at bus 8 by adding a threephase fault to the bus through a 10. Thus we can compute the values of aijfrom Example 3. From Example 2. Let these given values be X = i ja.18 (load flow) and the computed initial values given in Example 2. Table3. 3 respectively.we can see that both values of Xz are negative real quantities. The system base is 100 MVA.6. 5Bi.6 Ij v i vi I .2936 Note that the 6. where C.64. operating initially in the steady state with system conditions given by Figure 2.. ninebus system of Example 2.6 we know H i = 23.Psiz/Hi) = 59. 180 . From (3. This is also true of angles at load buses to which appreciable inertia is connected. 2 .4598 6.0 pu impedance.841 = E a22= (oR/2)(Ps2. = C . are the values of the relative rotor angles at I = 0. the voltage zngle will exhibit a step change.9035 1.40.55841)”*] = 77. and 3. cos 6. they will not change at the time of impact. V.24) Psij = V./H2 + Pa3/H2 + Ps32/H3) = 4(alIa22 153.1544 I .556 a2z) da 1 + azz)’ (1 .460 Then = = (1/2)[+1. i = I . so these are also the correct values for t = O+. 12 23 31 I .
3(b).402 0. should be observed in the intermachine oscillations of the system.468 Thus two frequencies.3(a) and angle differences relative to 6.4 Hz and 2. s 2. . As might be expected.416 2.2 can be transformed to a new frame of reference called the Jordan canonical form. a NineBus System Quantity Eigenvalue I 2j8.000 1.7 s.807 Eigenvalue 2 x o rad/s f Hz Ts 8.500 Time.000 2.3.500 8..1 Hz. A rough measurement of the peaktopeak periods in Figure 3. (b) angles relative to 6 1 . neither of the computed frequencies is clearly observed since the response is a combination of the two frequencies. The results of such a solution are shown in Figure 3..3 Unregulated response of the ninebus system to a sudden load application at bus 8: (a) absolute angles.500 (b) Fig.500 Time. the variables 6. In the form of equations normally used.64 Chapter 3 Now we can compute the frequencies and periods shown in Table 3. (or other angle differences) contain ""CI I 24.000 2.0 I 1 I I I 0. This can be approximately verified by an actual solution of the system by digital computer. Methods have been devised [3.500 1. (a ) I 2..2. are given in Figure 3.0 0.807 1. 3. about 1.1I ] by which a system such as the one in Example 3.3(b) gives periods in the neighborhood of 0.0 97. In Jordan form the different frequencies of oscillation are clearly separated. and a.000 1. Table 3 2 Frequencies of Oscillation of .01 0.416 13.713 kj13.135 0.0 I I I 1 I 1 0. where absolute angles are given in Figure 3.500 1.
E E E41 2 .2659 j I .OOOOO j 1.2659 0. = j j0..3 Transform the system of Example 3.1.0 1 D = EIAE = j13.0 0.0 j6.5245 j3.X. We now define the transformation x = E y to compute 2 = E i = A x = A E y j.83069 .X.06266 i E = [E.oooOO 0.0 0.. Solution The system equations for the threemachine problem are given by ..13831 ! 0. Example 3.X.7008 0.2792 0. = E’ A E y = D y whereD = diag(X.5967 0.9221 j1..95234 I 0. E. Hence we have difficulty observing these frequencies in measured physical variables. and E4. We then use these eigenvectors to define a matrix E.0 0.23 19 0. 0.9221 rj13.o .95234 where the numerical values are found by a suitable computer library routine. using any method [ I .. E..13831 0.2 into the Jordan canonical form and show that in this form the system frequencies of oscillation are clearly distinguishable.2.2792 0. where x is defined by and the a coefficients are computed in Example 3.0 00 .0 0.8854 0. j0.7008 j 1 S967 j1.2312 j3.2571 0.  0 or i = A x.2792 0. 3. Performing the indicated numerical work. 0. we compute 1 or E’= I L j3.8854 0.System Response to Small Disturbances 65 “harmonic” terms generally involving all fundamental frequencies of oscillation.0 0.OoooO I i 0. We now compute the eigenvectors of A.0 j6.2792 0.07543 1 1.14523 I 0.00000 1.0 0.2571 0.14523 .5245 j3. 1 1 1 and call these vectors E.).
y A = KS6.. a rather simple model of the voltage regulator and excitation system is assumed. If we assume that V. For very large systems this may not be practical. and E: is needed.1EA = VIA/E6la.. = K6 change in terminal voltage with change in rotor angle for constant E' change in terminal voltage with change in E' for constant 6 The system block diagram with voltage regulation added is shown in Figure 3. Such a relation is developed in reference [8] and is in the form v. These relations are given in (3. 7. however. the oscillatory response given above is usually damped.5 Regulated Synchronous Machine In this section we examine the effect of voltage and speed control equipment on the dynamic performance of the synchronous machine. we compute .36) where K.iKc/(l + 7ts)1 yA (3.37) where K5 = = y. To simplify the analysis.4 where Ci depends on the initial conditions. 3. This gives the following s domain relation between the change in the exciter voltage u. is such that the frequencies of oscillation given by the above equations are not appreciably affected.3 for a machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission network. In physical systems damping is usually present..1 Voltage regulator with one time lag Referring to Figure 2. has no time lags..2. This method of computing the distinct frequencies of oscillation is quite general and may be applied to systems of any size. we return to the model discussed in Section 3. therefore. however.36).38) Substituting in (3. The magnitude of the damping. uFA depends only upon K modified by the transfer function of the excitation system.: 'A F = .5. Analysis of such a system is discussed in Chapter 7. Again we are interested in the free response of the system.10). = 0 and the transducer . is proor duced by changes in either VREF y .3./6. we note that a change in the field voltage uF.37) UFA = [Kt/(l + 7es)l(KS6A + (3. + &E: (3.. Finally.9) and (3. since the eigenvector computation may be too costly.4. and the change in the synchronous machine terminal voltage y. a relation between 6.we can compute the uncoupled solution yi = Ciexi' i = 1.66 Chapter 3 = Substituting into Dy..10). We will consider two simple cases of regulation: a simple voltage regulator with one time lag and a simple governor with one time lag. we note that the simple model used here assumes that no damping exists.36) and (3. To use (3.24. From (3. 3. = = regulatorgain regulator time constant To examine the effect of the voltage regulator on the system response.
.4 System block diagram with voltage regulation.7).39) and (3. we obtain the following characteristic equation: Equation (3. 3.42) Analysis of this fourthorder system for stability is left as an exercise (see Problem 3.9) peA = Substituting in the s domain swing equation and rearranging. = 0 (3. rearranging. (3.39) From (3.System Response to Small Disturbances 67 'mb REF Fig.41) is of the form s4 + 03S3 + O*S2 + q s + cr.
The amount of change in T.5.. as shown in Figure 3. > 0.5. we note that a change in the speed w or in the load or speed reference [governor speed changer (GSC)] produces a change in the mechanical torque T.68 Chapter 3 3. 3. Information on stability can be obtained from the roots of the characteristic equation or from examining the eigenvalues of its characteristic matrix.d Fig.Ped($ (3. Its dynamic response will change.. = O (3. Then the linearized swing equation in the s domain is in the form (with wR in rad/s) SSA(S) ( ~ W W R ) ~ ' ~ A[&/(I + 7sI = S) g) . For the model under consideration it is assumed that GSCA = 0 and that the combined effect of the turbine and speed governor systems are such that the change in the mechanical power in per unit is in the form (3.46) The system is now of third order.24.. .9) and (3. the system becomes of fourth order.45) or S3(2HTg/W~) s2(2H/WR) + (Kg + + PsTg)S + P.43) where Kg = gain constant = I / R r g = governor time constant The system block diagram with governor regulation is shown in Figure 3.such as the model given by (3. depends upon the speed droop and upon the transfer functions of the governor and the energy source.44) The order of this equation will depend upon the expression used for PeA(s).5 Block diagram of a system with governor speed regulation. the system is stable if Kg > 0 and P.10). Applying Routh's criterion. characteristic equation of the the system is given by (2H/wR)s2 + [Kg/(I+ T~s)]S+ Ps = O (3. Ifanother model is used for PeA(s).2 Governor with one time lag Referring to Figure 2... If we assume the simplest model possible. *p.5. PeA(s)= PSGA(s).
7 and the equations of Sections 2. c o s s ~ . These oscillations are reflected in power flow in the tie lines.6. sin ~ + cik cossik) jti. yet they are quite instructive.+ ) v ~ ( B ~ai.4. (See also [7. B~~ sii + sin V. Referring to the (n + I)port network in Figure 3.System Response to Small Disturbances 69 1 GSCA Fig. Since the sudden change in load PLAcreates an unbalance between generation and load.(B.) To simplify the analysis. This kind of impact is continuously occurring during normal operation of power systems.k For the case of nearly zero conductance pi C j .k .I n E.7.21) by adding node k. the power into node i is obtained from (3. as is usually the case. Note that the estimates made by the methods outlined below are only approximate. We formulate the problem mathematically using the network configuration of Figure 3. The oscillatory transient is in fact a “spectrum” of oscillations resulting from the random change in loads. 0  pi = E ~ G ~ ~ + E. 3. the system becomes fifth order.5]. 3. If both speed governor and voltage regulation are added simultaneously.47) jti. Our concern here is to make an estimate of the magnitude of these power oscillations.6 Block diagram of a system with a governor and voltage regulator. we also assume that the load has a negligible reactive component.6 Distributionof Power Impacts In this section we consider the effect of the sudden application of a small load PLA at some point in the network.E. Thus the scheduled tieline flows will have “random” power oscillations superimposed upon them.* n + ~ .9 and 3. sin 6. jl . B~~ ail sin (3. as shown in Figure 3. an oscillatory transient results before the system settles to a new steadystate condition.
Since we are concerned only with a small impact P L A . 6.that the power network has a very high X/R ratio such that the conductances are negligible.50) I1 jl These equations are valid for any time t following the application of the impact. . We also assume that the network has been reduced to the internal machine nodes (nodes I .7 Network with power impact at node k. . ..(sin6kjO)6kjA (3.48) Here we assume. . 3.47) and (3. Note that the order k j must be carefully observed since & j = .17) and the node k. v k /6ko + &A.47) and (3.48) are nonlinear because of the transcendental functions. Substituting (3. J2. 2. and the power into node k (the load bus) is (3.49) into (3. n of Figure 2.70 Chapter 3 n L  1 (n + I)port network Fig. 3. do not change instantly because of the rotor inertia. or V &becomes .1 Linearization The equations for injected power (3.49) for any k. The immediate effect (assuming the network response to be fast) of the application of P L A is that the angle of bus k is changed while the magnitude of its voltage v k is unchanged.k (3. . The machines are represented by the classical model of constant voltage behind transient reactance. we linearize these equations to find Pi = P0 i + Pia P k = PkO + PkA and determine only the change variables Pia and P k A .48) and eliminating the initial values. we compute the linear equations jl j6i. Note also that the internal angles of the machine nodes d l . The transcendental functions are linearized by the relations sinbkj cos6kj = = sin(6kjo + 6kjA) cos(6kjO 6kjA) + sin6kj0 + (cos6kjO)6kjA cos6kjO .6 j k .6. where the impact P L A is applied. .j .
which depends upon the reactance between generator i and node k . Equations (3.51). Pia depends upon Psi&or Bik.we note that at node k (3. At the instant r = O+ we know that a. Later on when the rotor angles change. the source of energy supplied by the generators is the energy stored in their magnetic fields and is distributed according to the synchronizing power coefficients between i and k. In particular.. Thus we can compute (with both i a n d j indicating generator subscripts) 6”A IJ = 0 6i&A = 6 i A .e.55) indicate that the load impact PLA at a network bus k is immediately shared by the synchronous generators according to their synchronizing power coefficients with respect to the bus k.2..51) 0+. as shown below.53) we conclude that (3.(o+) ~ 6&jA = 6&A  6jA = 6&A(o+) Thus (3..the greater the share of the impact “picked up” by machine i. the higher the transfer susceptance Bik and the lower the initial angle 6iko. hence the energy supplied by the generators cannot come instantly from the energy stored in the rotating masses.. Let us consider next the deceleration of machine i due to the sudden increase in its output power Pia.52) This is to be expected since we are assuming a nearly reactive network.. The incremental differential equation governing the motion of machine i is given by .n.6 & = 6&. Thus the machines electrically close to the point of impact will pick up the greater share of the load regardless of their size. We also note that at node i Pia depends upon Bikcos6p. so the foregoing equations can be written in terms of the load impact as From (3. In other words. inertias.52) and (3.50) becomes n piA(o+) = psik6&A(o+) Comparing the above two equations at r = p&A(o+) = /I Ps&j6&A(O+) (3. Note that the generator rotor angles cannot move instantly. The instant immediately following the impact is of interest.54) It is interesting that at the instant of the load impact (i. i = 1.System Response to Small Disturbances 71 3 6 2 A special case: r = 0’ . Note also that PkA = PLA. This isalso evident from the first equation of (3..52) and (3.. = 0 for all generators because of rotor . we would like to determine exactly how much of the impact PLA is supplied by each generator P i A . the stored energy in the rotating masses becomes important. at r = O?.
let us define an “inertial center” that has angle 8 and angular velocity a. t ~ (3. The pu deceleration of machine i.57) for all values of i. we refer to time as t l . the shaft decelerates for a positive load P L A . each according to its size H i and its “electrical location” given by P. where t.72 Chapter 3 2Hi d W i A + PiA(t) = 0 W R dt and using (3. Each machine follows an oscillatory motion governed by its swing equation.60). Looking at the system as a whole. > to.H. To obtain the mean deceleration. In other words.ik.57). there will be an overall deceleration of the machines during this period. although there is no specific instant under consideration but a brief time period of no more than a few seconds. Substituting this value of dwiA/dt in (3. This deceleration will be constant until the governor action begins. given by (3.57) Obviously. . ) . which is defined here as the acceleration of a fictitious inertial center. To designate this period simply. is the time at which governor action begins.60). Note that after the initial impact the various synchronous machines will be retarded at different rates.56) Then if PLA is constant for all t .. dwiA/dt will be the same as dGA/dt as given by (3.. is dependent on the synchronizing power coefficient Psik and inertia H i . is chosen large enough .2.60).56).)CG.59) (3. the individual machines are retarding at different rates. Note that while the system as a whole is retarding at the rate given by (3.55) i = 1. We now investigate the way in which the impact PLa will be shared by the various machines. where by definition. we compute (3. 3 6 3 Average behavior prior to governor action ( t = 1. at t = t .61) Thus at the end of a brief transient the various machines will share the increase in load as a function only of their inertia constants. The time t . . when the transient decays. (3. We now estimate the system behavior during the period 0 < t < t. s (l/CH. Synchronizing forces tend to pull them toward the mean system retardation.60) Equation (3.60) gives the mean acceleration of all the machines in the system. .58) Summing the set (3. ij A (1/CHi)CWiH1 (3. we compute the acceleration in pu to be (3. and after the initial transient decays they will acquire the same retardation as given by (3. .
= .61).56) and (3. retaining only nodes 1.1 pu) load is added to bus 8 by applying a threephase fault through a 10 pu resistance.19 we determine that V = 1.System Response to Small Disturbances 73 so that all the machines will have acquired the mean system retardation. Examining (3.7". 3. Solution A nominal IOMW(0. we note that immediately after the impact PLA(i. After a brief transient period the same machines share the same impact according to entirely different criteria.4 Consider the ninebus. 2 1 Fig. threemachine system of Example 2. A matrix reduction of the ninebus system.e. 0. 3. The resulting power oscillations P. and 8.at t = 0+) the machines share the impact according to their electrical proximity to the point of the impact as expressed by the synchronizing power coefficients. i = 1.8 for the system operating without governor action. The prefault conditions at the generators are given in Table 3. according to their inertias. . Equation (3. the correct powers are obwhere SBs the machine rating and S. gives the system data shown on Table 3. namely. is the is tained if H is replaced by HSB3/SsB. is not so large as to allow other effects such as governor action to take place.6. From the prefault load flow of Figure 2. are shown in Figure 3. using a library transient stability program. 3.2. If they are given for each machine on its own base. Compare computed results against theoretical values of Section 3.6.3.. chosen system base. 2.6 with a small IOMW resistive load added to bus 8 as in Example 3.1 and in Example 2. Example 3.61) implies that the H constants for all the machines are given to a common base.016 and a. At the same time t . 2..A. Solve the system differential equations and plot PtA and wid as functions of time..8 PrAversus t following application of a 10 M W resistive load at bus 8.
03530 0.923 I 2.OOO 10.000 Note that the actual load pickup is only 9 1 M W instead of the desired IO MW. k cos 6 i k O .4. the results agree quite well with values measured from the are computer study.51242 3.690 9. The results of these calculations and the actual values determined from the stability study are shown in Table 3. the voltage drops slightly) and to the assumed linearity of the system.5 M W .91.2.100 1O.03 15 12.1 9.6392 8.8 3.3 Transfer Admittances and Initial Angles of a NineBus System ij Gii Bii b o 1.5. averages about 9. Table 3. These oscillations have frequencies that are combinations of the eigenvalues computed in Example 3.5878 2.02 1 4.028 2. .6414 8.61601 From (3.956 2. This is due in part to the assumption of constant voltage v k at bus 8 (actually. The total. If the computed PIA scaled down by 0.7 9.4. Initial Power Change at Generators Due to IOMWLoad Added to Bus 8 I 2 3 3.8 at time t = O+ and are due only to the synchronizing power coefficients of the generators with respect to bus 8.745 3. . Synchronizing Power Coefficients ik 18 28 38 psik psik psik (neglecting G j k ) (with Gik term) c The values of piA(o+) 2.24) we compute the synchronizing power coefficients psik = 6 v k ( B .4752 18 28 38 0.5.016 4.Gi sin 6 i k O ) k These values are tabulated in Table 3. These values are also shown on the plot of Figure 3.8 show the oscillatory nature of the power exchange between generators following the impact. Table 3.5717 19.0 M W nominally.01826 0.6961 3.749 3.02 1 2.6 2.958 3.6955 3.9370 are computed from (3. Note that the error in neglecting the Gik term is small.00965 2.665 2.692 2.55) as where PLA(O+)= 10.74 Chapter 3 Table 3.100 2.55697 2.659 2. The plots of P i a versus time in Figure 3. labeled Z P i A .6001 2.
08.09 Hz/s is plotted in Figure 3.8 as dashed lines.01) I = 7. .4 1.I 6.System Response to Small Disturbances 75 lime.5 0.15 MW i = 1 = 1.6 0.40 + 3.0 1..4 0.2 0.9 Speed deviation following application of a 10 MW resistive load at bus 8.8 1:9 2:O %. but the same phenomenon would be present to some extent on any system. IO 2(23. 3. the speed would then continue at the reduced value as .3 0.570 rad/s2 = 0.A' % r .16 0. The mean deceleration of about 0.7 0.18 .40 .6 1:7 1.s 1.91 M W i = 3 = lOHi/33. shown in Figure 3.A(tl).8 is the computed values of PiA(t1) that depend entirely on the machine inertia.9. Note the steady deceleration with all units oscillating about the mean or inertial center. 0.513 x 0.10 a 0. Since the governors have a drooping characteristic.9 and show graphically the intermachine oscillations that occur as the system slowly retards in frequency.1 1. These calculations are made from PiA(tl) = (Hi/CHi)PLA = IOHi/(23.9. It is also apparent that the system has little damping and the oscillations are likely to persist for some time. Another point of interest in Figure 3.12 . I 01 0"'t 0.3 1. 0. .8 0. This is computed as &A I =PLA  dr = 2 C Hi .1 0.04 0. This is partly due to the inherent nature of this particular system.01) pu/s = 0.05 and the results are plotted in Figure 3.9 1. It is fairly obvious that the PiA(t) oscillate about these values of P. the speed deviation would level off after a few seconds to a constant value and the oscillations would eventually decay.0908 Hz/s The individual machine speed deviations wiA are plotted in Figure 3.1. The computer program provides speed deviation data in Hz and these units are used in Figure 3.94MW i = 2 = 0.14 0.9 as a straight line.64 .0.64 + 6.2 1.3. ' t Fig.. If the governors were active. The second plot of interest is the speed deviation or slip as a function of time.
while 1/3 or 3. I f the speed deviation is great. ) after the initial transients have subsided. The two areas are of comparable size.10 Two areas connected with a tie line. 3.7 . say 1000 MW each.3 MW will appear as a reduction in tieline flow. 3. z 80. = Psz. Consider a power network composed of two areas connected with a tie line.1 I Tieline power. . as shown in Figure 3. The tie line is carrying a steady power flow of 80 MW from area I to area 2 as shown in Figure 3.76 Chapter 3 long as the additional load was present. at that instant the tieline flow becomes 76. their synchronizing power coefficients are larger than those of the groups of machines = PSI. 9Q 80MW  PM = 10 M W Fig.. signifying a substantial load increase on the generators. Because of the proximity of the groups of machines in area 1 to the point of impact. and determine the distribution of this added load immediately after its application ( I = 0 + )and a short time later ( t = t .0 t 0 t=O tl Time. Now let a load impact PLA = IO MW (1% of the capacity of one area) take place at some point in area I . Let us assume that the machines of area 1 are 2 76. Solution Since PSI= 2Ps2. If we define CPSikJareaI CPsiklarca2 then let us assume that P. = 2ps2. the governors would need to be readjusted to the new load level so that additional primemover torque could be provided. Example 3.3 MW will be supplied by the groups of machines in area 2. In other words.oscillations due to the load impact in area I . They are connected with a tie line having a capacity of 100 MW.5 Let us examine the effect of the above on the power flow in tie lines. I Fig. At the end of the initial transient the load power impact PLA will be shared by the machines according to their inertias. in area 2.10. Thus 3. the instant of the impact 2/3 of the IOMW load will be supat plied by the groups of machines in area 1.7 MW toward area 2.10.
If this load is 200 MW (1. at bus 4. The system data are given in Figure 3.000 MW. The tieline flow will now become 73. Ara 1 eguivalent Tie litm Area 2 equivalent Fig.12 in pu on a 1000MVA base. find the distribution of this load at f = O+ and t = f l .128 .3 MW (toward area 2).820 = = = Ylz GI1 plz = = = 712 1.j0. (b) Find the operating condition when PI = 100 MW.7 MW contributed from area 2 and 3.3 MW from area I . Solution Consider the system as a twoport network between nodes 1 and 2.7 MW. The transition from 76.3M W flow is oscillatory.128 . This would correspond approximately to a 100MW tieline flow from area 1 to area 2.I where all H's are on a comlarger inertia constants such that CHIJarea2 mon base. Example 3.875 /76. and after a brief transient by 6.112" = 0. The capacity of area I is 20. mentioned above is smaller than the time needed by the various controllers to adjust the system generation to match the load and the tieline flow to meet the scheduled flow.3 MW. (a) Find the equations of power for PI and Pz.43% of the capacity of area 2). while the units of area 2 are of = 2CHi]. The sharing of the load among the groups of machines will now become 6. Then we compute Z12 = 0.533/103.6 We now consider a slightly more complex and more realistic case wherein the area equivalents in Figure 3.112" pu 0.12 Two areas connected by a tie line.1 I .e.518 pu 0..000 MW and that of area 2 is 14. The inertia constants of the machines in the two areas are about equal.450 I/f12 + j1.System Response to Small Disturbances 77 predominantly hydro units (with relatively small H).7MW flow to 73. (c) Find the synchronizing power coefficients. This situation is illustrated in Figure 3. and power swings of as much as twice the difference between these two values may be encountered.. (d) Consider a sudden load addition to area 2.533/76. represented by the resistive load P4. From the above we can see that in the situation discussed in this example a sudden application of a IOMW load caused the tieline flow to drop almost instantly by 3.888" g l o = go = 0 z 0.10 are represented by their Thevenin equivalents and the tieline impedance is given. The time t . 3.
) + 0.128 + 0.784") + 0. is while the inertia of area 1 is greater than that of area 2.252' 6 4 = 610 .0~)/1.2 = l/Fz4 y4 0..548 Vz V4(B24 COS 6240 .K)/Z.2) = 0.000H)I 0.08235 pu = I In this example the synchronizing power coefficientsPSI.677)(0.183~0~(0.100/19. To complete the problem.2[14.533sir1(6~ 13. smaller than PSz4.485 = (d) Now add the 200MW load at bus 4.0646 PU Pz~(o+) Ps24(0.I28c0s6~ .000H/(20.858 + j0.252" 0.O(O. B12 = 0.0.?.10.640 = 0.62 = 6.518cos 10.1 pu 0.100 + j0.784" (4 Pr12 = = PS21 = K W B I Z 6 1 2 0 .G2I sin 6210) 1.Gl2 sin d120) cos l.000H)J = 0.128sin(.2)/(Ps14+ P S z 4 ) = (0.000ff/(20.518cos(.796") P2 = V:gzo + VI V 2 ( G 1 2 ~ ~+ 6 2 1 ~ BI2sin .1 4 0 6 G14sin6140) = (1.533sin(6.128 .103 9.l28co~6~ 0 .009)(0.784") = 0.533 + j1.1 1765 pu 14.533 cos 10.009/0.784")] = 0.G24 sin 6240) = 1. Thus.2[20.640 = 10.533 = K VZ(B2I cos 6210 .2) = 0.252" 6240 = 620 .000ff PzA(fl) = 0.796") (b) Given that PI = 0.V:GzI = 0 + I. V 2 ( G 1 2 ~ ~ + 6B12sin612) V:GI2 ~ 12 = 0 + I.183 we compute the synchronizing power coefficients P1 s4 = VI Y 4 ( B 1 4 ~ ~ ~.784" .2 pu.2)/(Psi4 + Ps24) = (0.l.518 PI = V:glo + V.280" + (0.100 = 0. P 4 A 200/1000 = 0. while initially area 1 picks up only about .009 + j0. we must know the voltage pute f12(0) = p4at t = 0.0. Thus we com (K K(O) = 60 = 4 (1.103 sin 10.796") 6 1 = 10.252")] = 1.O(O.784" + 0.10.532' Ps24 == + 0.518sin6.O(O.128 612 = 61 .128 + + = 0.0[0.112" = 0.533sin(dl  13.1/114 = = = . 5 1 8 ~ i n 6 ~ ) 0.52") 9.128sin 10.z = From the admittance matrix elements  Y14 Y24 = 1 = y4 .532') = 0.012)&2 = 1.0/10.150 + P4A Then the initial distribution of PIA(^+) is PS14(o.009(1.875/76.Chapter 3 GI2 = 0.532" 10 .128 + 0.1354 pu = The power distribution according to inertias is computed as PlA(fl) = 0. + 13.858sin(0.128 = 0.323)(0.000H + + 14.004 = 1.
In the above discussion many factors have been neglected. the speed governor droop characteristic. The swing equation for machine i becomes. then after a brief period according to their inertias. 23). For a given machine (or a group of machines) the frequency of oscillation in the first transient is the natural frequency with respect to the point of impact. namely. is the servomotor time constant. From Section 3. The analysis given above could be extended to include governor actions. Usually these two frequencies are appreciably different.62) where R is the regulation and 7. they share the impacts differently under different conditions. It is interesting to note the order of magnitude of the frequency of oscillation in the two different transients discussed in this section. The power flow in the connecting ties will reflect these oscillations. The speed change will be sensed by the primemover governors. The transition from the second to the final stage is oscillatory (see Rudenberg [7). Problem 3. The characteristic equation of the system is given by s2 + (1/7si)s + 1 / 2 H i R i ~ . Ch. Following an impact the synchronous machines will share the change first according to their synchronizing power coefficients. i= 0 (3. The angular frequency of these oscillations can be estimated as follows. In general. 2 picks up the remaining 41%. the effect of the reactive component of the load impact. where U is the unit matrix and A is defined by ( 3 . e.10 gives another example where the point of impact is in area I (bus 3).. Hence they will oscillate with respect to each other during the transient period following the impact. If the system is made up of groups of machines separated by tie lines.XU) = 0. the initial distribution of a load impact depends on the point of impact. the effect of the network transfer conductances. and others..5. the frequency of oscillation is given by Y : ~% 1/2HiRf7. the change in the mechanical power PmAis of the form (3.. which occurs during the transition from sharing according to inertia to sharing according to governor characteristic. neglecting PIA. These frequencies are determined by finding the eigenvalues X of the A matrix by solving det (A . Thus the conclusions reached above should be considered qualitative and as rough approximations. at a later time t = t . Yet these conclusions are basically sound and give a good "feel" for what happens to the machines and to the tieline flows under the influence of small routine load changes.2. For the second transient.g. it picks up about 59% of the load and area . the fast primary controllers such as some of the modern exciters.System Response to Small Disturbances 79 one third of the load P. which will act to make the load sharing according to an entirely different criterion. the load frequency and voltage characteristics.63) from which the natural frequency of oscillation can be estimated. I). ..h thes domain.
1965.80 Chapter 3 Problems 3. Crary. PAS88:31629.3 Compute the characteristic equation for the system of Figure 3. Rabins.10 and for the given operating conditions.4 Using 1 3 ~ the output variable in Figure 3. 3. 3. McGrawHill. (Adams Prize Essay. and (b) Obtain the natural frequencies of oscillation for the angles 6 1 2 ~ 6 1 3 ~ .10 Repeat Example 3. 2 . M.. Academic Press. 5.. as 3. G .60 pu. R. AlEE Trans. Effect of a modern amplidyne voltage regulator on underexcited operation of large turbine generators.8 Write the system described by (3. P. 1966.7. Heffron. 1964. Adkins and D. 12. 1968. Nonlinear Oscillations in Physical Systems. T. de Mello. 3.6. McGrawHill. C. New York. 4. J . New York. K I = 4.41) has the following data: H = 4.P S I ) .. The infinite bus voltage is 1. Advanced Studies in Electrical Power System Design. McGrawHill. The internal voltages and angles of the generators are given in Example 2. E.0. and determine the conditions for stability using Routh’s criterion. Calculate the minimum and maximum steadystate load delivered at the infinite bus (for stability).20). KS = 0. Lefschetz. New York.9 The equivalent prefuulr network is given in Table 2. Pergamon Press. Routh. V. London. 1950. 3. Y.. Apply Routh’s criterion to (3. Korn.3. and Concordia. The direct axis transient reactance x i = 0. and Korn..20.10. M. = 3.26.0 pu.) f 11. A.1. Venikov.. 71 (Pt. 3):69297. 6. R. A. 1970. Trans. S.14).6 with the impact point shifted to area I and let P L = 100 MW as ~ before. F. 1877. 1945. ria = 5. Repeat for K5 = 0.. (MIT Press. R.30. 1952. B. 3. StateSpace Analysis of Control Systems. Mass.8.. and the corresponding coefficientsaij[see(3. and Auslander.) 8. including the damping term. Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers. 1947.1. AddisonWesley. Wiley. Then determine the system behavior by sketching the root loci for variations in K. K. Cambridge. S. 1969. . Compare with the periods of the nonlinear oscillations of Example 2. I A synchronous machine is connected to a large system (an infinite bus) through a long transmission line. Stability of Nonlinear Control Systems.5 Use block diagram algebra to reduce the system described by (3. 3. The transmission line impedance is Zlinc= 0.3 I)]for small perturbations about the given operating point. Transient Performance of Electric Power Systems: Phenomena in Lumped Networks. Control and Dynamic Systems. 10. IEEE Trans. 1964. T . J..20 pu.5. Repeat when there is a local load of unity power factor = having Itload 8. 1 .6 for the threemachine system discussed in Section 2. Hayashi. and Phillips. M. Ogata. Dynamics o f a System o Rigid Bodies. and K b = 0. Macmillan.46) in statespace form. N. Transient Phenomena in Electric Power Systems.1 A system described by (3. London. New York. Mass. References I .Kz = 2. I . D. 3.2 Use Routh’s criterion to determine the conditions of stability for the system where the characteristic equation is given by (3.0 pu. for stability.46). Then determine the system stability and possible system behavior patterns by sketching an approximate rootlocus diagram. New York. PrenticeHall.45). 1967. Englewood Cliffs. Takahashi. (a) Obtain the synchronizing power coefficients PSlz. The synchronous machine is to be represented by constant voltage behind transient reactance with E ’ = 1. 7.6.PSz3. Reading. = 0.1 I Repeat Problem 3.1967. K. A. Chapman and Hall. C. 2. Rudenberg. G. Concepts of synchronous machine stability as affected by excitation control. Vols. Find the maximum and minimum values of K.J. Hore. by B. Rutenberg. New York. A.10 for an initial condition of PLA = 300 MW. 3.2.K3 = 0. 3. London. use block diagram algebra to reduce the system block diagram to forward and feedback transfer functions.10 pu. 9. Compare the results with those of Section 3. 3.20 + j0.6 Give the conditions for stability of the system described by (3. Power System Stability. W.
Anderson A.Part II The Electromagnetic Torque P. A. Fouad . M.
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1 Introduction In this chapter we develop a mathematical model for a synchronous machine for use in stability computations. The interested reader should consult one of the many excellent references on this subject (see [ 1][9]). The transformation used is usually called Park's transformation [ 10. u = icri A ci. The notation indicates the summation of all appropriate terms with due regard to signs. This chapter is not intended to provide an exhaustive treatment of synchronous machine theory. with certain other features suggested by Concordia (discussion to [12]) and Krause and Thomas [13].1) where X is the flux linkage. The synchronous machine under consideration is assumed to have three stator windings. (4. The instantaneous terminal voltage u of any winding is in the form. called the direct axis. *x 4. called the quadrature axis. which are often used for stability studies. Statespace formulation of the machine equations is used. and two amortisseur or damper windings. Park's transformation is developed mathematically as follows. I I]. The new quantities are obtained from the projection of the actual variables on three axes. or flux linkages in terms of the actual winding variables. It defines a new set of stator variables such as currents.' I .2 Park's Transformation A great simplification in the mathematical description of the synchronous machine is obtained if a certain transformation of variables is performed. r is the winding resistance. 83 . one along the direct axis of the rotor field winding. one field winding. one using the currents as state variables and another using the flux linkages. voltages. Simplified models. Two models are developed.chapter 4 The Synchronous Machine 4. These six windings are magnetically coupled. a second along the neutral axis of the field winding. The transformation developed and used in this book is not exactly that used by Park [IO. and the third on a stationary axis. The expressions for the winding voltages are complicated because of the variation of X with the rotor position. and i is the current. Thus the flux linking each winding is also a function of the rotor position.I I ] but is more nearly that suggested by Lewis 1121. The magnetic coupling between the windings is a function of the rotor position. with positive directions of stator currents flowing out of the generator terminals. are discussed.
a4 Chapter 4 a axis 4 b axis Fig. I Pictorial representation of a synchronous machine. that if we have three variables i. It produces an E M F that lags this flux by 90”.4) and where the Park’s transformation P is defined as (4. A multiplier is used to simplify the numerical calculations. i6.3) where we define the current vectors (4.cos(B + 2r/3)1 (4. we get the relations iqpxis (2/3)[i. We define the d axis of the rotor at some instant of time to be at angle B rad with respect to a fixed reference position. We should remember. we need three new variables. Therefore the machine EMF E is primarily along the rotor q axis. 4. The third variable is a stationary current. For generator .. 6 .2) We note that for convenience the axis of phase a was chosen to be the reference position. Let the stator phase currents ia. The effect of Park’s transformation is simply to transform all stator quantities from phases a.2r/3) + i.cosB = + ibsin(B .sinB = idaxis (2/3)[i.sin (e + 2 ~ / 3 ) ] + i6cos(B . which is proportional to the zerosequence current.1. Thus by definirion iOdq = Pi& (4. and i. be the currents leaving the generator terminals. otherwise some angle of displacement between phase a and the arbitrary reference will appear in all the above terms. Park’s transformation uses two of the new variables as the d and q axis components. If we “project” these and currents along the d and q axes of the rotor.5) The main fieldwinding flux is along the direction of the d axis of the rotor. as shown in Figure 4. and c into new variables the frame of reference of which moves with the rotor..2r/3) + i. however. Consider a machine having a constant terminal voltage V.. ibr i.
The d axis of the rotor is therefore located at v.i. vhdqiodq = uoio + udid + uqiq (4. Le. the field winding FF’..2 r / 3 ) [/G cos(e + 243) + 2*/3) and we note that P . sbfb. . Thus 1 (4. Phasewinding designations s and f refer to “start” and “finish” of these coils.’ ~ . and scfc.The Synchronous Machine 85 action the phasor gshould be leading the phasor The angle between E and is the machine torque angle 6 if the phasor V is in the direction of the reference phase (phase a ) .1.10) 4. At t > 0.1 1) .8) e sin 8 sin(8 PI = fl l / & cos(8 . Having P orthogonal also means that the transformation P is power invariant. at the reference axis in Figure 4. We prefer the shorter notation used here.’ = P‘.. e. the reference axis is located at an angle uRt with respect to the axis of phase a. an inverse transformation also exists wherein we may write iabc = P’iodq The inverse of (4.)‘(P’iwq) vhdq(P’)‘PIiwq = v & + ~ P P .) We write the flux linkage equation for these six circuits as stator rotor i 1 Wb turns (4. At f = 0 the phasor Vis located at the axis of phase a. These are the three phase windings safa.g.1 is that of a network consisting of six mutually coupled coils.5) is unique. (The damper windings are often designated by the symbols kd and kq.7) If the transformation (4. v B = WRt +6+~ / rad 2 (4.5) may be computed to be 1/dT COS (4.6) where wR is the rated (synchronous) angular frequency in rad/s and 6 is the synchronous torque angle in electrical radians. and the d axis is located at 8 = 6 + u/2. U. Expressions similar to (4. and the two damper windings DD‘ and QQ’.3 Flux linkage Equations The situation depicted in Figure 4. The q axis is located at an angle 6.2 ~ / 3 ) sin(t9 .9) p = = = uaia + +. which means that the transformation P is orthogonal. and we should expect to use the same power expression in either the abc or the 0dq frame of reference.3) may also be written for voltages or flux linkages. VOdq = pvabc AOdq = pxabc (4. = V:briabc = (P’VOd.
C O ~ H + L. Prentice [ 141 shows that most of the inductances in (4. These inductances may be written as follows 4.15) Statortorotor mutual inductances Finally. I I ) are functions of the rotor position angle 8.14) where I M.COS2(8 + * / 6 ) H . Lb. = = = . COS2(8 . Lab = L.12) where L.3. and all pairs of windings with 90" displacement have zero mutual inductance..3. .11) where lowercase subscripts are used for stator quantities and uppercase subscripts are used for rotor quantities. = L. D = 0 H (4. Lbb L. from phase windings to damper winding D we have . = LQF = 0 H LDQ = L . with single subscripts are constants in our notation. we consider the mutual inductances between stator and rotor windings.L.2 ~ / 3 )H + L ..3.. 4. . according to our subscript convention.*/2) H . . COS 2(8 . all rotor selfinductances are constants and.) 4. (All inductance quantities such as L. or M . 4.16) Similarly. and both L. LbF = LFb L. Note the subscript convention in (4.86 Chapter 4 = = where Ljk selfinductance when j = k mutual inductance when j # k and where Ljk = Lkjin all cases. are constants.M .3.. = LF. = LFc = = = MFCOS8 H hfFcos(8 . > L.13) Stator mutual inductances The phasetophase mutual inductances are functions of 8 but are symmetric.M .2 ~ / 3 ) H MFCOS(8 + 2 ~ / 3 )H (4.3 = LF H LD D = LD H LQQ= LQ H (4. and L.3. The coefficient of coupling between the d and q axes is zero.5 = LDF = MR H L.. L. Le. From the phase windings to the field winding we write La.~ . L. all of which are functions of the rotor angle 8.L.M. = Lcb L. I > L.2 Rotor selfinductances Since saturation and slot effect are neglected. we may use a single subscript notation. L. 4. Note that signs of mutual inductance terms depend upon assumed current directions and coil orientations. Thus L. C O S ~ (+ 2*/3) H ~ (4. +L .4 Rotor mutual inductances The mutual inductance between windings F and D is constant and does not vary with 8.1 Stator selfinductances The ph asew i n di ng selfinductances are given by L. C o q e+ 5*/6) H (4. = = = L.
I I).2M. as noted in equation (4. Ld = Lo L. + M.6 Transformation of inductances Knowing all inductances in the inductance matrix (4. = MQsinB H LbQ = LQb = MQsin(8 .' ".17) and finally. . we observe that nearly all terms in the matrix are time varying. Thus in voltage equations i such as (4.2*/3) H LcQ = LQc = MQsin(B + 2*/3) H (4. we compute [.3.18) The signs on mutual terms depend upon assumed current directions and coil orientation. + (3/2)Lm H L.L. I ) the h term is not a simple Li' but must be computed as = L i + i . k = L. Only four of the offdiagonal terms vanish. We compute where L . H L.1 I ) by where P is Park's transformation and U3 is the 3 x 3 unit matrix.(3/2)Lm q H (4.20) where we have defined the following new constants.The Synchronous Machine 87 (4. . 4. We now observe that (4. since B is a function of time. = statorstator inductances La=. =.21) .1 I ) with its timevarying inductances can be simplified by referring all quantities to a rotor frame of reference through a Park's transformation (4.19).3 Performing the Wb turns (4. operation indicated in (4.5) applied to the a6c partition.LRa = statorrotor inductances LRR rotorrotor inductances = Equation (4.15). from phase windings to damper winding Q we have La.19) is obtained by premultiplying (4. = + M.
20) Ad is the flux linkage in a circuit moving with the rotor and centered on the d axis. The transformation (4. Note that the stator currents are assumed to have a positive direction flowing out of the machine terminals. 1 I]. thus conforming with our notation for constant inductances.4 Voltage Equations The generator v.3. The power of Park's transformation is that it removes the timevarying coefficients from this equation. Flux linkage A. This is very important.2 Schematic diagram of a synchronous machine.22) is not a powerinvariant transformation and does not result in a reciprocal (symmetric) inductance matrix.22) Other transformations are found in the literature. Mutual inductances are omitted from the schematic for clarity but are assumed present with the values given in Section 4. is centered on the q axis. is completely uncoupled from the other circuits.20) is symmetric and therefore is physically realizable by an equivalent circuit.2. This leads to unnecessary complication when the equations are normalized. where coils are identified exactly the same as in Figure 4. For the conditions indicated we may write the matrix equation v . Similarly.1). This is apparent since all quantities have only one subscript. 4. i L F ' o r Fig. A. as the first row and column have only a diagonal term.88 Chapter 4 In (4. We also note that the transformed matrix (4. Schematically.20) is a matrix of constants.1 and with coil terminations shown as well. 4. It is important also to observe that the inductance matrix of (4. This was not true of the transformation used by Park [ 10.= ri X + v. since the machine is a generator. .oltage equations are in the form of (4. the circuits are shown in Figure 4. where he let vodq = Qvabr with Q defined as (4.
26) is complicated by the presence of timevarying coefficients in the term.=r. but these terms can be eliminated by applying a Park's transformation to the stator partition..XFDQ (4..L . r.25) If r.The Synchronous Machine 89 or +I.27) (4. This requires that both sides of (4. For the resistance voltage drop term we compute + VFDQ 'vabc] . 1 1 1 (4.28) . we may also define Robc = rU3 where U.J I ib ib . 1 [: I lo [: 1I. as is usually the case.23) in partitioned form as follows: where Thus (4.26).23) v. is the 3 x 3 unit matrix.26) (4. RFDQ 0 ] p] [k] k] ~FDQ .] v where we define the neutral voltage contribution to vabc as (4. and we may rewrite (4.26) be premultiplied by By definition for the left side of (4.24) (4. = rb = rc = r.
To simplify the notation. as it should. For balanced conditions the zerosequence voltage is zero. RFDQ ] [?] [ ~FDQ .26) transforms as follows: (4.26) is transformed as (4.32) Finally.33) into (4. Using (4.3 1) and (4. The resistance matrix is diagonal.3 1) 0= wAd V (4. the third term on the right side of (4.90 Chapter 4 The second term on the right side of (4. Summarizing. from which we com V (4. Aodq = PA&.33) where by definition nodq is the voltage drop from neutral to ground in the 0dq coordinate system.AFDQ k ] q ["':"Odj ]: n [ v (4.30) We evaluate by.24).71. let + + ['1 VFDQ   1.35) .28)(4.recalling the definition (4. we compute (4.34) and observe that this voltage drop occurs only in the zero sequence.26) to write Note that all terms in this equation are known. we substitute (4.
4. which we rearrange in partitioned form. we can see that it represents a set of firstorder differential equations. Here we will use the formulation x' = [ A d A.35). where the particular set to be chosen depends upon how conveniently they can be expressed in terms of the machine currents and stator voltages. we can replace the terms in X and iby terms in i and . The term has been simplified so that we can compute its value from (4. that (4.35) may be written without the zerosequence equation as 4. numerous possibilities for the choice of the state variables are available. Le. so we may write h = Li V. But the inductance matrix here is a constant matrix. Note. Since these two sets of variables are mutually dependent. and rearranging.r) (4.35) in terms of one set of variables only.35) contains flux linkages and currents as variables. .35).37) is of the wellknown form = AX + BU (4. however. the set (4. Actually. x' = ( i d i q i F i D i Qwhich has the ]. i. and the state variables (through the power network connected to the machine terminals) and (2) a set based onflux linkages as the state variables. in statespace form. where L& is the transpose of L. and the iterm behaves exactly like that of a passive inductance.5 Formulation of StateSpace Equations ["I v (4.as follows. We will mention only two that are common: ( I ) a set based on the currenrs as state variables.20). Substituting this result into (4..The Synchronous Machine 91 Then for balanced conditions (4. expanding to full 6 x 6 notation.u.e.39. We may now put this set in the form of (4.37) or (4.37) x = a vector of the state variables u = the system driving functions f = a set of nonlinear functions If the equations describing the synchronous machine are linear... we can eliminate one set to express (4. Let x .36) XFDQ Recall that our objective is to derive a set of equations describing the synchronous machine in the form x where = f(x. advantage of offering simple relations between the voltages u d and u.38) Examining (4.38). X F X D XQ].6 Current Formulation Starting with (4.
I n any event. They are similar to those of a passive network except for the presence of the speed voltage terms. where all dimensions are expressed in terms of a uii (voltage. i d .. iqand i. First. the nonlinearity is never great. current. Note that the speed voltage terms in the d axis equation are due only to q axis currents. These terms. [These dimensions are convenient here.39) where k = m a s before. viz. (See Appendix C. time) system. the q axis speed voltages are due to d axis currents.23) in the abc frame of reference since nearly all inductances in that equation were time varying.. the angular velocity. Since w is a variable. If the speed is assumed constant.92 Chapter 4 (4. then (4. This equation can be solved separately from the others once the initial conditions on io are given.) An examination of the voltage equations reveals the dimensional character shown in Table 4. this causes (4. A great deal of information is contained in (4. appear unsymmetrically and distinguish this equation from that of a passive network. iF. Also observe that all the terms in the coefficient matrices are constants except w. as w is usually nearly constant.39). Other possible systems are . Similarly. The remaining five equations are all coupled in a most interesting way. we note that the zerosequence voltage is dependent only upon io and io. The price we have paid to get rid of the timevarying coefficients is the introduction of speed voltage terms in the resistance matrix. and iD. consisting of WX or wLi products. This problem can be solved by normalizing the equations to a convenient base value and expressing all voltages in pu (or percent) of base.39) is linear. This is a considerable improvement over the description given in (4. 4.39) to be nonlinear. One difficulty is the numerically awkward values with stator voltages in the kilovolt range and field voltage at a much lower level.1.7 Per Unit Conversion The voltage equations of the preceding section are not in a convenient form for engineering use. which is usually a good approximation.
2 ~ / 3 ) V u. First note that the threephast power in pu is three times the pu power per phase (for balanced conditions). charge) and MLtp (mass. i. u. length.) Using the subscript B to indicate “base” and R to indicate “rated.1 amperes (A) watts (W) voltamperes (VA) weber turns (Wb turns) ohm (a) henry (H) second (s) [vi1 [v/il [il p = vi ri. To prove this. by combining these quantities according to column 4 of Table 4. and base time. vodq = PvObc or . Li v = x [vrlil [ 1 /I1 v v = = [I1 radians per second radian (rad) (Ws) Bord dimensionless Choosing a base for stator quantities The variables udr u. The pu power P3* is given by Pj+ (~VI/VBI. and Dimensions Units uii Symbol Dimensions [VI Relationship Voltage Current Power or voltamperes Flux linkage v i volts (V) p or S x r Lor M I 0 Resistance Inductance Time Angular velocity Angle 4. are stator quantities because they relate directly to the a6c phase quantities through Park’s transformation. u. Thus if we choose three base quantities that involve all three dimensions. i.1. we will assume that u. Ad. To obtain the d and q axis quantities. if we choose the base voltage.40) Before proceeding further.The Synchronous Machine 93 FLtQ (force. we may compute base quantities for all other entries.39) involve only three dimensions.. elec rad/s (4. VA rms V. = VR = stator rated linetoneutral voltage.COS((Y 7 )  (4. we first write the instantaneous phase voltage and currents.4 1 ) where the subscript u is used to indicate pu quantities. Table 4. permeability). length. For example. base current. all bases are fixed for all quantities. Note that exactly three base quantities must be chosen and that these three must involve all three dimensions. To simplify the expression without any loss of generality. id.1. 9 . let us examine the effect of this choice on the d and q axis quantities. and A.] Observe that all quantities appearing in (4.)COS((Y 7)  = ~V. Quantity Electrical Quantities..” we choose the following stator base quantities. V rms wB = w R = generator rated speed. (Also see Rankin [ 151. Let SB= SR = stator rated VA/phase.y) W. The threephase power is 3 VIcos(a .sin(O + (Y) = d V s i n ( 8 ub = d V s i n ( O + (Y . time.42) Then from ( 4 .7.(t) is in the form. Units. = V.I. [9] for a discussion of this topic. let the rms phase quantities be V b V and I& A. time. Lewis [ 121 and Harris et al. and t . = d V s i n ( O + (Y + 2 ~ / 3 ) V + a) v (4.
47) and the pu currents are given by id.cosy (4. Wb turn = R. K(sin a sin y = 3f.. values for all quantities of interest. Pj6 = i#dU = + iquuqu 3 I. 1. Similarly. this subscript is omitted./f. the pu d and q axis voltages are numerically equal to fl times the pu phase voltages. then u: + u& = 3Vt’ The above results are significant. we can compute base . L.48) To check the validity of the above.50) Thus by choosing the three base quantities S. For example. (4. we can show that if the rms phase current is fly A. = VR/wR = LBf.46) Similarly. uqU= d 3 V U c o s a Obviously.94 Chapter 4 (4. = V. . = i(A)/f. s i n ~ iF = fii.r.40) and Table 4 1 we compute the following: .KcOS(a . = VR/IRWR A. V. = d 3 1 . the power in the d and q circuits must be the same as the power in the three stator phases.y) P U + cos C Y cosy) (4. = VB/IB VR/IR Q H (4.)sincu = 6 Ksincu (4.43) In pu udu = ud/VB = &(V/V. it is divided by the base quantity of the same dimension. From (4. They indicate that with this particular choice of the base voltage. .(A) pu (4. Later. To normalize any quantity. and re.45) (4.44) (4.51) where we use the subscript u to indicate pu. since P is a powerinvariant transformation. when there is no danger of ambiguity in the notation. = SB/VB = SR/VR A rms r. the corresponding d and q axis currents are given by..r. = l/wB = 1/wR s V. for currents we write i.49) We now develop the relations for the various base quantities..
18.) The choice of equal time base throughout all parts of a circuit with mutual coupling is the important constraint. There is a choice of quantities. since all other rotor base quantities will then be automatically determined. MI. that the stator VA base is much larger than the VA rating of the rotor (field) circuits. care should be exercised in the choice of the remaining free rotor base term. which are to be normalized.000 V.. (See Appendix C for a more detailed treatment of this subject.) is For the synchronous machine the choice of SB based on the rating of the stator. It would seem desirable to choose some base quantity in the rotor to give the correct base quantity in the stator. For example. Therefore. it is essential to select the same voltampere and time base in each part of the circuit. through the magnetic coupling. we choose I R B = 1000 A. Then we can show that .000 A. Even then there is some latitude in the choice of the base rotor current. Hence some rotor base quantities are bound to be very large. = (LlBL2B)”’. consider a machine having a stator rating of 100 x lo6 V A / phase.52) and equate the mutual flux linkages in each winding. the correct base stator flux linkage or open circuit voltage.20) let id = I. iF = IFB. These base quantities must be the same for the rotor circuits as well. (See Problem 4. Referring to the flux linkage equations (4. i. Is one choice more convenient than the other? Are there other more desirable choices? The answer lies in the nature of the coupling between the rotor and the stator circuits. we can choose the base rotor current to give.e. It should be remembered. depending on the condition of the magnetic circuit. making the corresponding pu rotor quantities appear numerically small. VRB will then be 100. Assume that its exciter has a rating of 250 V and lo00 A.The Synchronous Machine 95 4. but the question is.2 Choosing a base for rotor quantities Lewis [ 121 showed that in circuits coupled electromagnetically. forces the VA base to be equal in all circuit parts and also forces the base mutual inductance to be the geometric mean of the base selfinductances if equal pu mutuals are to result. then I R B will be 400. for example. and the time base is fixed by the rated radian frequency.. Which is more convenient? To illustrate the above. and if we choose VRB = 250 V. The choice made here for the free rotor base quantity is based on the concept of equal mutualflux linkages. This means that base field current or base d axis amortisseur current will produce the same space fundamental of air gap flux as produced by base stator current acting in the fictitious d winding. however.. It can be shown that the choice of a common time base t. If we denote the magnetizing inductances ( 4 = leakage inductances) as (4. and io = I D B be applied one by one with other currents set to zero.7. If.
I8). 1. i.96 Chapter 4   . the mutual coupling between the field and the stator d axis is not reciprocal. the pu system is chosen carefully to overcome this difficulty. Part of the problem lies in the nature of the original Park's transformation Q given in (4. = 1. the threephase power in watts is given byp. This leads to the relations fl(Lmd/MF)lB vFB = (3/fl)(MF/Ln1d)~B This choice of base quantities. When the Q transformation is used. The pu mutual inductances differ by a factor of Therefore.5 (idud + lquq). While the use of pu quantities is common in the literature.54) and this is the fundamental constraint among base currents. which is commonly used. From (4.e. (4.7.57) 4. This transformation is not power invariant. it is not always clear which base quantities are used by the authors.5) was chosen specifically to overcome these problems. MFB = kFLB H MDB= kDLB H MQB= kQLB H MRB= kFkDLB H (4.54) and the requirement for equal S.. Therefore it is important to understand any major difference in the pu systems adopted. one pu cur rent and voltage gives three pu power in the system used here and gives one pu power in the other system. the terms kMF used in this book are numerically equal to M F in pu as found in the literature. . synchronous machine data is usually furnished by the manufacturer in pu..3 Comparison with other per unit systems The subject of the pu system used with synchronous machines has been controversial over the years.22). The system most commonly used in the literature is based on the following base quantities: SB = threephase rated V A VB = peak rated voltage to neutral I B = peak rated current and with rotor base quantities chosen to give equal pu mutual inductances. These basic constraints permit us to compute and since the base mutuals must be the geometric mean of the base selfinductances (see Problem 4. Since the power in the d and q stator circuits is the threephase power. The major differences lie in the following: IFB = a. Note that the modijied Park's transformation P defined by (4. Furthermore. Also. we compute .. gives the same numerical values in pu for synchronous machine stator and rotor impedances and selfinductances as the system used in this book.
57).01 x H Then k.765 kW. At open circuit the mutual inductance La.d = Ld .1 Find the pu values of the parameters of the synchronous machine for which the following data are given (values are for an actual machine with some quantities.3333 MVAIphase VB = lSOOO/fl = 8660. the value of field current corresponding to the rated voltage on the air gap line is 365 A. I.854 x 3. being estimated for academic study): L Q = 1.d = 18.006 x kM.40 A kMQ = 2.5595 x lo.779 x IO' H* Fieldcurrent = 926 A r(125"C) = 1.989 x H* Inertia constant = 1.421 x ioT3 Q* LF = 2. (4.s/hp L . = x 89.542 x 52 Power factor = 0.189 H rQ = 18. However..341 X w3 H rD 18. 121.25 V 1. From the air gap line of the noload saturation curve. Therefore.' H Excitation voltage = 375 V kMD = 5.854 = 326. and the flux linkage in phase a are given by A. the value of the field current at rated voltage is 365 A.11).where Vuis the pu terminal voltage.118 x H .ed E From the noload magnetization curve. = 160/3 = 53. there is merit in studying both.65 x = 22.329 x lo' H .64 A MFB= 18. = 6.006 x = 109. = i+.0.371 52 Ld 6. since the manufacturers' base system is so common. we use (4.(unsaturated) = 0. = 2.16). Solution: Stator Base Quantities: S.23).sin 8.423 x H* RatedMVA = 160 MVA Rated voltage = 15 kV. = 8660..79 x io' H T o obtain M.73 x IO' = 70. H MF = 8 6 6 0 d / ( 3 7 7 x 365) = 89. denoted by an asterisk.406 52 H L. = iFMF cos 8 LaF = MF cos 8 The instantaneous voltage of phase a is u. from (4.40 = 1. while in the other system Vt.25/6158.85 rF(125"C) = 0. = kMF/L. = 6158. = 8660 x 2.854. In the system used here uk + u& = 3 V t .782 X w3 H* Statorcurrent = 6158. where wR is the rated synchronous speed.730 x L. Then we compute.M.4/18. viu + u& = The system used here is more appealing to some engineers than that used by the manufacturers [9. Y connected = t.2 d = (6.The Synchronous Machine 97 2.341 . and (4.972 Wb turn/phase R. Thus the peak phase voltage corresponds to the product iFwRMF.969 x 52* LO = 5. = 8660/(377 x 6158) = 3.6526 x s A.40 A t. Example 4. = 6158.55)(4.5595)103 = 5.
765( I .000742 0.gives pu values of d and q axis stator currents and voltages that are d’3times the rms values.68 V F RFB = LFB = 163280.70 .89 s2 (18.782 = 0 5 .\/ZE and i F W R kM. the contribution to the d axis stator flux linkage Ad due to the field current iF is kM& and so on. If the rms value of this EMF is E.730 = 1.49 0. in a discussion of [17]. A 4.559513.33 x 106)/326. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) uses the symbol € [ 16). favors E4 for this vokage.. A new proposed standard uses Ea 1171.0 LB H 2.d MDB= kMQ/L. The International .3413..73 = 1.969 x 10’/0.933 = 1. = r = rF = r = D rQ = 6. In synchronous machine equations it is often desirable to convert a rotor current. LB/4 = 0.651 5.64 = 499. = LQB = Inertia Constant: 5. = LQ = LD = A LA.526 kMD = kMF = M R = 1.64 = 163280.15 kMQ 1.18911.70 2. 0.0/0.7.845)2 x 3.326 = 1. The basis for converting a field quantity to an equivalent stator EMF is that at open circuit a field current iF A corresponds to an EMF of i F W R M F V peak. For example.4 The correspondence of per unit stator EMF to rotor quantities We have seen that the particular choice of base quantities used here.605 4.78115.018/1.64 1. These expressions are developed in this section..55 The quantities L D and LA.933 x IO’ H 2.0131 18.42310. Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).11813.781 10 ..0540 = 1. 2.15 6.73 0.406 = 0.1 1. = d E in MKS units? m.352 Q Amortisseur Base Quantities (estimated for this example): kMD/L.98 Chapter 4 V B = (53.0.3711499. flux linkage.0.64 . The choice of symbol for the E M F due to iF is not clearly decided.37 kW *s/kVA H Ld LF LD {d = 1. We also note that the coupling between the d axis rotor and stator involves the factor k = and similarly for the q axis.001096 0.406 0.73 = 1.746) = The pu parameters are thus given by: = = = L.326 H L B = LB H D R B = RB s2 D RQB = RBI4 = 0. are defined in Section 4.681326.15 1. .77915.73 x = 1.. The authors leave this voltage unsubscripted until a new standard is adopted.9 = 0.351 = 0.98913.001542/1. then i F o R M F = . or voltage to an equivalent stator EMF.
= LFiF.and this value of field current iF. Having done this. gives a peak stator voltage the rms value of which is denoted by E:.we have ./rF)wRkMF 4.60) 0 kMF Lq 0 LF MR 0 0 0 kMQ kMD LD 0 0 ‘Q where the first three equations are on a stator base and the last three are on a rotor base. as all values of voltage and current will normally be in the neighborhood of unity.39) to give 0 0 r 0 0 0 rD WkMQl O 0 0 rF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 kM. For the following computations we add the subscript u to all pu quantities to emphasize their dimensionless character. to a corresponding stator EMF. the d axis stator EMF corresponds to a field voltage U. (4. This in turn corresponds to a peak stator EMF (Uf/rF)wRMF.. when multiplied by w . M F . the field current corresponds to a given EMF by a simple scaling factor.The Synchronous Machine 99 Since M .59) Normalizing the Voltage Equations Having chosen appropriate base values. corresponds (at steady state) to a field current UF/rF. Thus E is the stator air gap rms voltage in pu corresponding to the field current iF in pu. and setting w = u u w R . At steadystate open circuit conditions A. If the rms value of this EMF is denoted by E. We can also convert a field flux linkage A.58) By the same reasoning a field voltage U. Examine the second equation more closely. we may normalize the voltage equations (4. 0 kMF 0 O kM. The normalization process is based on (4. which may be substituted into (4. or (v. We can show that the d axis stator EMF corresponding to the field flux linkage A.39).8 = ~ E F D (4. Later this subscript will be omitted when all values have been normalized. is given by AF(WRk MF/LF) = flE: (4. Dividing through by V. the stator equations should be numerically easier to deal with.51) and a similar relation for the rotor. and wR are known constants for a given machine.
(r 1 + 3rn). it is easy to show that this equation vanishes.63) Incorporating (4.. i ~ pu . "R WR WR * (4. RB .65) where all pu coefficients have been previously defined.. + &+.id.id.50). . r.....kMD.r. .. The third equation of (4.w.kMF. RB r + 3r. WR WR P U (4..67) We now incorporate the base rotor inductance to normalize the last two terms as The normalized field circuit equation becomes uF..0. (4. If the currents are balanced.iqu. .iO.62) may be rewritten with all values except time in pu. = rF.iD. .iF.70) . L i.. the d axis equation (4. = w. .62) We now recognize the following pu quantities.  (4.61) Incorporating base values from (4.  Lo + 3Ln 10. + U..60) may be analyzed in a similar way to write U .. kMFu' LFu + . w l VB kMQi.Ld.+ iF. i.+ i D ~ id. WR ( L .ip.1 00 Chapter 4 (4.. : (4.66) "RLB = .e.. L.i. The fourth equation is normalized on a rotor basis and may be written from (4. The first equation is uncoupled from the others and may be written as uou =  lo.63). + 3 ~ . = r / R B Lqu Ldu = Ld/LB Mu = F MQu E MFWRIFBIVB MQwRIQB/vB = Lq/LB MDu = MDwRIDB/VB (4..60) as (4.69) The The damper winding equations can be normalized by a similar procedure. ) . we rewrite (4.. .k * Mw * i.61) as UdU =  r . following equations are then obtained.
It does not express the entire system behavior. we write (4..L’v pu (4. so we have additional equations to write. It is important to notice that (4. that accompanies every term containing a time derivative.74) as v = (R + oN)i  L i pu (4..74) is identical in notation to (4.7 I ) These normalized equations are in a form suitable for solution in the time domain with time in seconds. and have rearranged the equations to show the d and q coupling more clearly. as the same equation symbolically serves both as a pu and a “system quantity” equation. Using matrix notation. Incorporating all normalized equations in a matrix expression and dropping the subscript u since all values are in pu. This is always possible if base quantities are carefully chosen and is highly desirable. N is the matrix of speed voltage inductance coefficients.I (R + wN)i .The Synchronous Machine 101 (4. since we are interested in balanced system conditions in stability studies. equation.72) (4. We do this by setting 1 d _ .74) where we have omitted the u.75) where R is the resistance matrix and is a diagonal matrix of constants. and L is a symmetric matrix of constant inductances. Equation (4.76) This equation has the desired statespace form.d OR dt d7 (4. we write =  Ld kMF kMD 0 pu (4.73) is the normalized time in rad. some engineers prefer to rid the equations of the awkward 1 / 0 .39). If we assume that the inverse of the inductance matrix exists. we may write i = L. This may be done by normalizing time. However..76) may be depicted schematically by the equivalent circuit shown in . however.
in pu. These symbols are quite common in the literature in reference to the damper windings. These are due to speed voltage terms in the equations. Table 4. = 0.64 1. This is sometimes confusing to one learning synchronous machine theory because a term XI that appears to be a voltage may be a flux linkage.001096 r F 0. it is a state variable in our equations.37s t d = t q .15 H = 2.000742 r. in a linearized model we will let w be approximated as a constant and will simplify other terms in the equations as well. Comparison of Per Unit Inductance Symbols LF Lfl xfl Xkdd Chapter 4 Kimbark [2] Concordia [ I ] Ld Ld xd Lq Lq LD LQ L88 kMF MF MR xJld kMD xakd ~ M Q M8 xakq xq Xkgq xo/ Example 4. For convenience of those acquainted with other references we list a comparison of these inductances in Table 4. and pu quantities are implied for all quantities.0540 = 1.526 kMQ = 1. However.0131 rQ = 0.55 M R = kMD = 0.65 1. The use of X for L or M is based on the rationale that w is nearly constant at 1.3 differ from similar equations found in the literature in two important ways.3.2. Note that all self and mutual inductances in the equivalent circuit are constants.605 1. w is certainly not a constant. as we shall indicate in the sections to follow.74) and the circuit in Figure 4. Later.0 pu so that. Note also the presence of controlled sources in the equivalent. Equation (4. and we must treat it as a variable.3 Synchronous generator dq equivalent circuit. including time. X = w L L . I n this chapter we use the symbols L and M for self an'd mutual inductances respectively.2.70 Lq = LF = L = D LQ = kMF = 1. Here the subscript notation k d and kq for D and Q respectively is seen.49 r = 0. 4.102 Chapter 4 vQ = r~$ykMQ+J+ r : + ad  Fig. Figure 4.2 Consider a 60Hz synchronous machine with the following pu parameters: L d = 1. Some authors and most manufacturers refer to these same quantities by the symbol x or X .
55 I .55 0 0 0.9~ 5598.9269 2.804 I I 0 I 0 0 I I Then we may compute .110 5.90 I. 9 ~ I.55 1.0540 I I 1.55 I I I I 0 0 O 0 l 0 0 0 0 from which we compute by digital computer 5. 3 ~ 8183.80 284.70 .605 I I I _______ 0 PU 0 1.7564 8379.869 7.70~ .0 1.414 5. The result of this normalization was found to be .90 .534 + wN) = IO 3.2818 .7198 66.0498 LI(R 1.55 L = 1. 5 5 ~ 0.4~ 5086. 4.5.001 1 0 0 0 0 I I I I 1.9279 I 8975.5.3290 I I ______________________LL______________ P U 8 3 7 9 .77) is normalized by dividing both sides of the equation by a shaft torque that corresponds to the rated threephase power at rated speed (base threephase torque). 8864.1 15.060 3.3878 5.7888  and the coefficient matrix is seen to contain w in 12 of its 25 terms.3~ I 5.405 1.The SynchronousMachine 103 Solution From (4.2~ .65 1.7433 9 190.8 1 8 3 .640 0 0 1. U  3065. This gives some idea of the complexity of the equations.75) we have numerically  0.9~ 2785.1 .9~ 44.060 8.857 313.55 1.00074 R+wN= 0 0 I .2785 3.49~ 0. I 8504. 5 5 ~ 0.001 1 0 1.9 Normalizing the Torque Equations In Chapter 2 the swing equation Jii = (2J/p). = To N .m (4..0131 I I 1.
viz. . Equation (4.. I.78) is normalized to a threephase base torque and our chosen generator V A base is a per phase basis..78) is the swing equation used to determine the speed of the stator revolving M M F wave as a function of time.85) . Thus for a fully loaded machine at rated speed.81) transforms this pu torque to the new value T. We compute the generator electromagnetic torque in N .) The procedure that must be used is clear.. are in pu.m . = 3.. which is the pu torque on a threephase basis. 4.83) we have for the normalized swing equation (4. to give T.#.)k where w T. This torque is normalized along with other generator quantities .79) T..81) Te = TtJ3 ~ ~ ( 3 4 ) ( A similar definition could be used for the mechanical torque. we must use care in combining the pu swing equation and the pu generator torque equation.0. Ti = 2HwB (4. to the form of (4. = 3T. Suppose we define (4.is normalized on a threephase basis.. Rewriting (4.. This normalization takes into account the change in angular measurements from mechanical to electrical radians and divides the equations by the base threephase torque.104 Chapter 4 (2H/w. T.79) and substituting tu = w.1 The normalized swing equation In (4. pU(34) = the expression used for T.T.78). must be in pu on a threephase V A base. Thus the equation is not completely normalized.66) (4...80) (4.82) where all the terms in the swing equation. on a basis of S.78) angular velocity of the revolving magnetic field in elec rad/s accelerating torque in pu on a threephase base H = wR/SB)s and the derivative is with respect to time in seconds. We need to couple the electromagnetic torque T. = = = T ~ ~ ( 3 6 ) o (4.. including time and angular speed. Since (4. when time is in pu. Tm. = w / w .79).78) as ( ~ H / U B ) & T. the angular speed w and the time are given in M K S units. and t . Usually.84) thus.. Then = = pu generator electromagnetic torque defined on a per phase V A base Te(N'm)/(SB/wB) Pu (4.t w. while the torque is normalized. (4.9. Equation (4. V. The normalized swing equation is of the form given in (2. Beginning with (4. determined by the generator equations.. we would expect to compute T.
. This could indeed be done with the result that all values in the swing equation would be multiplied by three.79). the phasetoneutral voltage.91) becomes iOk = PO". = dt.10 Torque and Power The total threephase power output of a synchronous machine is given by pou.90) To. it is considered wise to convert the generator terminal power and torque to a threephase base S. P U It would be tempting to normalize the swing equation on a per phase basis such that all terms in (4. do.g. a summary of the different forms of the swing equation is given in this section. are in pu (and w in rad/s). in loadflow studies). in pu on a threephase base. P U (4.79) are in pu based on S.91) where the superscript t indicates the transpose of vob. and To are all in pu. Therefore.. pu dt.= dw 90 dt. and T.79) and (4. (4.88) If w is given in elec deg/s.Toll P uH .2 Forms of the swing equation There are many forms of the swing equation appearing in the literature of power system dynamics. T.9. While the torque is almost always given in pu.. dt 2 H dw = To. by substituting tu = w.The Synchronous Machine 105 4.. If We begin with w in rad/s and f in s.. we find that . T0._ = 2H dw 0 . . is a convenient base to use in normalizing the generator circuits. rather than SB3. (4.)h = TO. = uoio + ubib + uric = Vtbciobc pu (4. Note there is not a similar problem with the voltage being based on V. w. 4.. even though S . This is not done here because it is common to express both T... (2H/w. t and T.= ' dt. to match the basis normally used in computing the machine terminal conditions from the viewpoint of the network (e. Then (4. it is often not clear which units of w and f are being used. (4.86) are modified as follows: H dw U 180& dt .86) If w and To are in pu (and t in s). But from (4.t in (4. . 2HwB dw.87) If I . To avoid confusion.79). by substituting in (4. since a phase voltage of k pu means that the linetoline voltage is also k pu on a linetoline basis.8) we may write with a similar expression for the voltage vector. = vbq(P'Y P'bq Performing the indicated operation and recalling that P is orthogonal.89) (4. (4.
idxq PU (4.81) and (4. T. and Td is the damping torque./ae = aPRd/aW= a/aw [(iqxd .106 Chapter 4 the power output of a synchronous generator is invariant under the transformation P. poul= udid + uqiq + uoio (4.e. Then using T = a WRd/a8 and simplifying. = aw. (balanced condition) (4.92) For simplicity we will assume balanced but not necessarily steadystate conditions.95) The same result can be obtained from a more rigorous derivation.99) where T. and the stator ohmic losses respectively.36). the swing equation may be written as . Then by using (4. Suppose we express the total accelerating torque in the swing equation as (4. The machine torque is obtained from the second term. i. we write from (4. the energy in the field is given by 6 wfid = &I j.95) can be written as (4. recalling that the flux linkages can be expressed in terms of the currents. = io = Oand poul= udid + u. Thusu. the power transferred across the air gap.94) Concordia [ I ] observes that the three terms are identifiable as the rate of change of stator magnetic field energy. Now. is the mechanical torque.. (4.. It is often convenient to write the damping torque as T d = DW pu (4.idxq)W]= iqxd .I I 5 Cik4 Lkj) (4.20). is the electrical torque.97) Then (4.100) where D is a damping constant.i. T.98) which we recognize to be a bilinear term. expressed in pu. Starting with the three armature circuits and the three rotor circuits.98).96) which is a function of 8.. = Ldid + kMFiF + kMDiD xq = Lqiq + kh!fQiQ (4.93) Substituting for u d and uq from (4. we can obtain the above relation (see Appendix B of [ I ] ) .
.t) as given by (4. t d 0 kMF kMD 0 0 LF 0 kM< (4.104) M U LD kMQ We may rewrite the d axis flux linkages as 0 ‘Q. we obtain I I I L’(R + wN) ____kh!fQid I I I I I I I I I I I + I 37.20) with the row for A. . Finally.85) and depends on the units used for w and following relation between 6 and w may be derived from (4.76).u. 4. t.6). I I (4. omitted. the (4.103) This matrix equation is in the desired statespace form x v and T. Note that the “inputs” are For balanced conditions the normalized flux linkage equations are obtained from (4.The Synchronous Machine 107 where r j is defined by (4.101) that the system is nonlinear.1 1 Equivalent Circuit of o Synchronous Machine = f(x.102) 6=wI Incorporating (4.102) into (4.37). It is clear from (4.101) and (4.
we Fig. and kMD are equal.q = kMD P U (4. and AD must be equal.. to give equal mutual flux. = kMFid..108 Chapter 4 where and are the leakage inductances of the d. in pu.59. the pu q axis mutual flux linkage is given by Following the procedure used in developing the equivalent circuit of transformers. The flux linkages in the F and D circuits.4 Flux linkage inductances of a synchronous machine.4. d axis circuits is then L. Thus Ad  x d i d = XF  x F i F = AD  xDiD = A A. and the flux linkage that will be mutually coupled to the other circuits is Ad . = L.107) 4. for the q axis we define L . As stated in Section 4. A.did. the pu values of Lmd. = kMDid.106) . we usually call this quantity LAD. Ld is the magnetizing inductance Lmd.&id. LQ  XQ = kMQ P U (4. kMF. T o complete the equivalent circuit. Let iF = i. . L D L Ld A We can also prove that. Therefore.108) Similarly.57) and (4. where we note that the currents add in the mutual branch. we can represent the above relations by the circuits shown in Figure 4. F. AF and AD. 4.2. I IO) where Similarly. i. This can be verified by using (4. the remaining flux linkage is the same as for all other circuits coupled to it. From the choice of the base rotor current. or (Ld . A A 4. . (4.e.e.. = LF  x~ = Ld = x d = kMF = kMD = hf~ (4. = 0. LAD LD x d = kM.109) If in each circuit the pu leakage flux linkage is subtracted. and D circuits respectively. xD In pu. we can see that the pu values of &did. The flux linkage mutually coupled to the othe.7.eF. and A..xa)id. are given in this particular case by A.. pu (4.
. 4.  xAD) (4*118) v .118) to get =0 L~~ iF = (l/xF)(AF  xAD) = (l/xD)(x. Similarly. with the polarity as shown. = (l/‘f!d)(Ad We now develop an alternate statespace model where the state variables chosen are From (4.5 Direct axis equivalent circuit. which carries the sum of the currents id. and A. F. XFiF (4. The d axis circuit contains a controlled voltage source wA. LAQ(iq WAd (4.1 13) Similarly. and D ) are coupled through the common magnetizing inductance L A D .1 16) (4.6.1 17) + iQ) These two equations are satisfied by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4. we can show that rFiF   LA.X. .iF. 4.L.iD) wx. . . + iF + i.11 1) A.. for the q axis circuits ui = ri. [(Ld . + iQ) + .XQiQ .1 IO)  AAD) but from (4.The Synchronous Machine 109 Fig.(id VD = o = rDi. ..115) The above voltage equations are satisfied by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4. .5.. which we can incorporate into (4. consider the voltage equations Vd = = rid rid  Ad  WA.(i.(id L.X.  + + + iF i.xdid uF =  4d)id + kMFiF + kM.6 Quadrature axis equivalent circuit.1 14) (4. UQ = 0 = .) + iD) (4..i.Xdid . . The three d axis circuits (d.) . = (id Fz Jk + iF + i D )LAD. and io. Note the presence of the controlled source in the statorqcircuit. AD.1 2 Ad.oxq or ud = rid LAD(id . A. 4.. id The Flux linkage StateSpace Model A.i.. + i +i q Q t  u* d Fig.
1 The voltage equations The voltage equations are derived as follows from (4.127) Substituting for iF b or = .36). we can show that where we define and the 9 axis currents are given by Writing (4.wAq  vd or id = (r/'i!d)Ad + (r/td)AAD = rFiF OAq  vd (4. (4.123) in matrix form.128) b = . Ad = r(Ad/td  AAD/td> .124) 0 4. For the dequation ud = rid  Ad  wX.125) Using (4.110 Chapter 4 N o w define then Similarly.126) Also from (4.A A D / t F > + UF (4. I 1/td I I I (4.( ~ F / ~ F ) X F +(rF/tF)h  .12.118) and (4.r F ( b / t F .124) and rearranging.36) uF  XF (4.
120). A.102) are in statespace form.126)(4. and 6. w .102). and A. For the uq equations we compute iq = <r/tq)Aq + ( r / t q ) A A Q + wAd + (rQ/tQ)AAQ uq (4. Equations (4.133) Finally the equation for 6 IS given by (4... A. A.129) The procedure is repeated for the q axis circuits.3).. we substitute for the currents to compute = We may also take advantage of the relation t q The new electromechanical equation is given by t d (called t.130) and from the (I axis damperwinding equation. and A. Using (4. A. This form of the equations is particularly convenient for solution where saturation is required. and A.. in (4. are also constant.121) are needed to relate A.and T. are constant.12. LA. We can therefore eliminate A. only inductances that saturate.121). The magnetizing flux linkages A.134) . Therefore. XD = (ro/tD)~D + (rD/tD)hAD (4.1 2.12..idAq. 4.The Synchronous Machine 111 Repeating the procedure for the D circuit. and A.124).in many references). L M D and L M . The auxiliary equations (4.... since saturation affects only A. Substituting for AAD.+.3 Machine equations with saturation neglected I f saturation is neglected. If saturation can be neglected the A.. = (rQ/tQ)AQ (4.95) q. from the machine equations. and (4. and A terms can be eliminated (see Section 4.. 4. This form is convenient if saturation is to be included in the model since the mutual inductances L A D and LA. L/Tj &= (AAD/td3Tj)Aq + (AAQ/tq3Tj)Ad.2 The torque equation From (4... = iqAd . are the .. as given in (4.131) Note that AAD or A.120) and (4. appears in the above equations. and LA. uq.( D / 7 j ) + ~ (4. The forcing functions..13 I). (4. to the state variables.. I33).1 18) and rearranging. The state variables are A..120) and (4. will have constant relationships to the state variables as given by (4. (4. are ud.uF.
The 7 x 7 matrix on the right side of (4.36) to get (4. Solution From the data of Example 4.112 Chapter 4 These currents are substituted in the d axis voltage equations of (4.2 for the flux linkage model.138) contains state variables in several terms.3 Repeat Example 4. Again the description of the system is not complete since u d and uq are functions of the currents and will depend on the external load connections. however.138) The system described by (4. the q axis equations are (4.t). Example 4.136) and the equation for the electrical torque is given by The statespace model now becomes + (4. serve to illustrate the nonlinear nature of the system.138) is in the form k = f(x. I: . It does. and this matrix form of the equation is not an appropriate form for solution.u.135) Similarly.
550 = 0.000642 = 0. either by digital or analog computer.1 15.%) 5..000235 LMQ 37j 4 : and we get for the statespace equation for the first six variables.1.235Ad 0.115330 .101 += 0. 2 X F X F (I .003756 IF LMD .330 o~1030 0 5. 8 0 = 103 44..I LMQ 0.854 313.e.055 35.101 PU 1.044720 .005927 MD L37j.2) (I .002049 0.1 L.0.001387 0.005278 1 1.605 .0.eq = 0.000980 LMQ 7j 2 .2381 pu .282 0 0 59 : .036 “ LnQ .e: LMD 37j&XF LMD .12.. =o A.0.D pu 1.0.028378 PU 1 1 .651 . and only these terms need to be corrected for saturation.050 3.530 O 0.0.15 +0.743 3.028378 PU ++ 1 0. (I ..349Aq 0.133) are linear except for the .036 PU .642hq 0.0.980Ad 1.The Synchronous Machine x d X F 113 = = = .D = 0.4 Treatment of saturation The flux linkage statespace model is convenient for considering the effect of saturation because all the terms in the state equations (4.550 = 0.235Aq 0.526 .066282 = 3 & ‘& XQ = 0.490 = 0.%) X F X D 0.928 ~0x10~ o 0 0 0 284.278 66. with D 2.49 0.003743 .000349 _= LuD Xd 0.286058 X Q ‘h I_ X d (I .308485 = 0.055 PU 1. + 0  4. These are affected by saturation of the mutual inductances L A D and LA. this can be accom .005928 .1. A.927 1.=LMD t d ID L M D XD Xd ID LMD “!D X F ..1.126)(4.388 0.756 .000235 = 0.005789 L... = XQ= 1 =L.%)= X D 0.720 0 0 5.. magnetizing flux linkages A and AAQ.55 1 1 + 0.=LMD X F X d 0.e.15 = 35.Q = 0.Q 1. In the simulation of the machine.150 4.2381 PU L.
( X A D ) = LAD& is satisfied. F o r a roundrotor machine. For flux linkages greater than XADT the current i M A increases monotonically in an almost exponential way.138) we have a set of equations for each machine in the form (4. and hence K. according to [ 161 LD A = KsLADO L Q = KsLAQO A K. The computations for saturated values of these inductances follow.103) and (4.7 Saturation curve for X A D . the q axis inductance LA. the value of iMs is calculated. we compute. The relation between X A D and i M is given by the saturation curve shown in Figure 4.exp[Bs(XAD  XADT)] XAD > k4DT (4. The solution is obtained by an iterative process so that the relation h A D K .142) . Let the magnetizing current.121) at all times to reflect the state of the mutual inductances. for the d axis in (4. Knowing iMa for a given value of XAD. is determined. Thus we may write approximately jMA = A. corresponding to L A D O . so it is usually necessary to adjust only XAD for saturation.140) To determine K. is a function of this magnetizing current. = f(M + L2p )112 (4. As a practical matter. seldom saturates. For a given value of the unsaturated magnetizing current is iMo. is a saturation factor determined from the magnetization curve of the machine. 4. are constants to be determined from the actual saturation curve.the current increment needed to satisfy saturation. For salient pole machines. To calculate the saturated magnetizing current iMs.139). The saturation function K.iMo.120) and (4. i M A = iMs .114 Chapter 4 / / h T iO M ‘MS i Fig.139) where K. which in turn is a function of X A D .141) where A. Let the unsaturated values of the magnetizing inductances be LADOand LAQO. be iM. Note that saturation begins at the threshold value corresponding to a magnetizing current iMT. the following procedure is suggested. is first calculated.v. LAD= UADO = L Q LAQ A O Ks = f(AAD) (4. and B. 7J From (4. plished by computing a saturation function to adjust (4. which is the sum of id + iF + io.1 3 Load Equations x = f(x. The procedure for including the magnetic circuit saturation is given below [ 18). while the saturated value is iMs.7. 4.
in terms of the state variables.Next Page The Synchronous Machine 115 where x is a vector of order seven (five currents. appearing in the equations. constant current. and up.. + L e P i a b c v or pu (4.8 we can write u.1 Synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus Consider the system of Figure 4.13. the load constraint is satisfied by the simple one machineinfinite bus problem illustrated below. There are a number of ways of representing the electrical load on a synchronous generator. we could consider the load to be constant impedance. and v is a vector of voltages that includes u d . equations describing the load are required. These are auxiliary equations.143) In matrix notation (4. or five flux linkages. Leia or phases.odq and may determine its value by assuming that vmabc is a set of balanced threephase voltages. are known. which may or may not increase the order of the system depending upon whether the relations obtained are algebraic equations or differential equations and whether new variables are introduced. These constraints are found by solving the network. For example. By inspection of Figure 4.142) does not completely describe the synchronous machine since there are two additional variables ud and u. or I I Fig. assuming no mutual coupling between Rei. To obtain equations for U d and u.144) which we transform to the 0dq frame of reference by Park's transformation: VOdq = pvabc = Pvm& + Rei. The voltages and current for phase a only are shown. constant power. = u. In other words. For illustrative purposes here. u. 4. the set (4. Assuming that uF and T. the terminal conditions of the machine must be known. to the state variables. currents. including loads.143) becomes vabc = vmabc + ReULc+ L U L (4. and angular velocity. Therefore two additional equations are needed to relate ud and u. + + (4. 4...8 Synchronous generator loaded by an infinite bus.145) The first term on the right side we may call v.8 where a synchronous machine is connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line having resistance Re and inductance L e . For the present we require a load representation that will illustrate the constraints between the generator voltages. given the machine terminal voltages. . or some composite of all three. w and 6 for the flux linkage model). w and 6 for the current model.
151) .Previous Page 116 Chapter 4 (4.149). Note also that there are two nonlinearities in (4. There is also a nonlinearity in the trigonometric functions of the first term.148) 0 vodq = V . we may write Li = (R + wN)i + (4. Using the identities in Appendix A and using B = W R t + 6 + uf2.. Current model Incorporating (4. the wLei product. Thus (4. The first is due to the speed voltage term.32).150) Thus even this simple load representation introduces new nonlinearities. 4.1 3 2 .PP'iodq where the quantity PP'is known from (4. (4.Piobc= io.146) cos(wRt + + (Y 120") where V. in radians. we compute the derivative iodq = Piobr+ Piobe.79.f i Sin (6 [cos(6  . I:[ iq v Or PU (4.145) may be computed as follows. From the definition of Park's transformation &dq = Piohr.145) may be written as (4.J CY) + Rei.147) The last term on the right side of (4. for a given torque angle 6. we can show that (4. but the order of the system remains at seven. . is the magnitude of the rms phase voltage..  WL. + Lei.149) which gives the constraint between the generator terminal voltage vodq and the generator current io.149) into system (4. The angle 6 is related to the speed by 6 = w . Note that (4.Thus Pinbe = iodq .1 pu or.149) is exactly the same whether in M K S units or pu due to our choice of P and base quantities.
154) The system described by (4. f ) . where x' = (idiFiDiqiQwS].. and N by Thus Ksiny ii = (ii + w h ) i + [ : j K cos y 0 k.37).. u. L. Because the system (4. (4. and (4. but rather nonlinear functions of the state variable 6. R. which areAuFAand sion line is incorporated in the matrices R. namely. Now let i d = R = r + Re Ld + Le i q = Lq + Le (4. determination of its stability depends upon finding a suitable Liapunov function or some equivalent method. The loading effect of the transmisthe system driving functions.. Ld. and u contains T. This is explored in greater depth in Part I l l .3).149) and substituting for id and iq in terms of flux linkages (see Section 4. and I I I I I I I I I Ksin? OF + I I W i ) 1 I I I I I I O I 0 K cos y 0 . to Using (4. and fi.The Synchronous Machine 117 where K = &V. The infinite bus voltage V .13.152) iq obtain the new matrices Lan d (R + w i ) . = f(x. j .3 The flux linkage model From (4. 4. we may replac? the r .12. 1 I 1 0 T"  I o 1 .153) Premultiplying by i' adding the equations for & and i. i d .154) is now in the form of (4..155) . appears in the terms K sin y and K cos y._  I .. The function f is a nonlinear function of the state variables and f .1  (4. aild y = 6 . and Lq terms in L. Note also that these latter terms are not driving functions..0 .152).154) is nonlinear.
139.156) with (4.136) to get (4.157) Similarly. The resulting equation is of the form Ti wherex‘ = [ A d AF AD = CX + D (4.118 Chapter 4 (4. . (4. A.157) and (4.155) with (4.158) replace the first and fourth rows in (4.156) Combining (4.159) A. w a]. we combine (4.138) to give the complete statespace model.158) Equations (4.
163) is in the desired form. .04 . I o] (4.162) If Tl exists..10 d i q = L q + Le = 2..2 and 4..' to get X = TICX + TID (4. . f ) and completely describes the system. premultiply (4.. Le = 0. u. Example 4.161) D = (4. L and 0 0 0 I I 0 0 .163) Equation (4.001096 i d = L + Le = 2. = 0.4 pu. It contains two types of nonlinearities.159) by T . The line constants are Re = 0.3 to include the effect of the transmission line and torque equations.The Synchronous Machine 119 and the matrix C is given by I 0 0 I l I I I I I o o o 0 I i I I I 1. I I O 0 0 0 . 7j = 2HoR = 1786. . .94 rad. . product nonlinearities and trigonometric functions.4 Extend Examples 4. i.e. in the form of x = f(x. Solution R r 4 R. . The infinite bus voltage constant K and the damping torque coefficient D are left unspecified.
09007 .054oJ I I 0 0 0 0 I I 1.4870 I I 2.0769 I 3.5470 0.87 1.5900 2.040 1.00044 0.591 v.710 1.2060 iyR + .6500 2.0131 I I 2.591 1.0960 I 2.08 + 0.6500 0.669 1..550 1.605 0 0 ______________~_I 0 0 0 2.67 vF = .490 0 I I 0 0 0 II I L o 1. I 0 By digital computer we find 1.709 0 0 I 1.12332 i .040 1.3.867 7.0141 0.1.00436 0. VF 0.71 K s i n y 1.88 I w .526 0.00074 0 0 0.6.6090 _______________________I 3.490 .651 0 1.330 I I I I I 1.550 1.001 18 0.669 2.1.00187 0.1.080 I I I 0 5.A) = 0.00065 0.120 Chapter 4 Then 0.591 K sin y .67Kcosy Therefore the statespace current model is given by .5880 I I 0.:Y.550 1.l [Ki:j 7z: ] [ Ksin y .00495 0.00187 0.5880 2.506~ and we compute 2.2020 .001 1 0 0.550 0 1 I 0 0.490 1.286 0 Then  I I 0.00183 0.
1 0. + D.59 uF . C.0.00031id 0.00436 2.0 .71 K + 6.0901 0. I 1.6500 2.87 vF 1.159)(4.0 I 1 I I I I I I o 0 0 1 0 I .4319 0 0 I .5.0019 0. are modified.08 K sin y .0005590 0 I I I I 0 I 0 0 0 I I 1 0 + i 1 1 7 K sin y .. where T.000280id 0.o 0 1.Substituting..00183 I I 0 0 0 0 0 0.3162 0.The Synchronous Machine +O..59 K sin y 1.0769 0.6500 2.67Kcosy 1 0..0. and D are given T = 0 0 0 0 I 0 .000559 T.00495 1.547~ 0. 1 The flux linkage model is of the form Tf.2020 0.5880 O.00029iq 0 1.67 UP COS y 1.6678 O I 1 I 1.2365 0. = C X by (4.5880 3.0141 0.6090 0.162).O0044 121 0.0960 2.8810 I I I 0.4810 2. 0 L  The matrix C is mostly the same as that given in Example 4 3 except that the w terms .0 I I I I I I O 0 0 0.00029iq 0.12332 I I 0 0 I I 0 0 _________________1. .o _ r0.3162 0.2060 2..
..910A9 I 0.164) 4.17.._ .388 44..8~ 0 I I 1 0 0 0 ~ 667..766 1..236 0 .954Ad  0 0 I I O 0 K siny VF + 0.733 3.388 44. Let the phase voltages suddenly applied to the stator be given by where u(t) is a unit step function and V is the rms phase voltage..705Ad O 2.316 1 2...._I.337 207. 0.529 .050 5...756 115......705Ad 0 p..14 Subtransient and Transient Inductances and l i m e Constants If all the rotor circuits are short circuited and balanced threephase voltages are suddenly impressed upon the stator terminals...024 5.....927 1.720 2.8~ I I I 0 0 0 O 1 I 0 I I __________________L_ 10000 0 j 188.046Aq .530 I . the flux linking the d axis circuit will depend initially on the subtransient inductances...706Aq 1284..7~ I 0 I I 5...046A9 1.530 0 I ___________1I I 1I I 0 103 0.Chapter 4 ...854 313..I 3162~ 747.7058A9 1.789 0 0 1284.756 115._ _ _ ..282 236._ ..720 47.55960 1 0 0 0 0 28.330 431.743 3..954Ad I 0.910A9 I 0.5. and after a few cycles on the transient inductances.282 3.278 66.40 0 I I 0 1 01 I .7) we ..928 0 1 5..1.278 66..854 313. Then from (4..1 .. 1 (4.330 13660 I 1 I 13162~ 2 1 1 2 ~ I 0 O I I 0 I 1 I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ....
L:D/L..169) = Ld  LD + LF .M i (4. A If the balanced voltages described by (4. Thus at f = O+ = 0 = kMFid + LFiF + MRiD id = = 0 = kM& + MRiF + LDiD id (4.169) where L: is the d axis subtransient inductance.kMDMR LFLD . some clarification of the circuits that may exist in the q axis is needed. with all the rotor circuits shorted (and previously unenergized). . Li L.171) (L. (4.The Synchronous Machine 123 can show that (4. i.LD/L:D) where L D is defined in (4. From (4.164) are suddenly applied to a machine with no damper winding.167) Substituting in (4. the same procedure will yield (at r = 0+) (4.172) (4.108).164) is changed by 90” (ud = fiY sin e).e.165) Immediately after the voltage is applied.174) I n a machine with damper windings.168) The subtransient inductance is defined as the initial stator flux linkage per unit of stator current. after a few cycles from the start of the transient described in this section. If the phase of the impressed voltages in (4.2LAD 1 (4. For such a machine the stator flux linkage after the initial subtransient dies out is determined by es . Before we examine the q axis inductances. For a salient pole machine with amortisseur windings a q axis damper circuit exists.20) for Ad.2khfFkMDM~ (4.M i kZM$D io =  kM&F . Thus by definition Ad ’ L : i d (4. we get (at t 0) ’ LFLD . ud becomes zero and us will have a magnitude of flV. since they cannot change instantly.168) and (4.173) where L j is the d axis transient inductance.M i id + LFk2Mi . the damper winding current decays rapidly to zero and the effective stator inductance is the transient inductance. the flux linkages XF and AD are still zero. but there is no other q axis rotor winding.166) Therefore iF =  kMFLD .(kMF)’/LF Ld .kMFMR LFLD .
L:p/LQ (4. ..181). < L.. = L.183) Substituting for the flux linkages using (4..179) We can also see that when i . Thus for such a machine it is important to recognize that a q axis transient inductance (much smaller in magnitude than L . or iQ = . . = Lqiq k kM& A (4. which act as equivalent windings during both transient and subtransient periods. = 0 (4.. This procedure has not been followed in this book but could be developed in a straightforward way [21. the 9 axis effective inductance in the “transient period” is the same as L. Consider a step change in the field voltage.( k M p / L p ) i .The voltage equations are given by rFiF k = vF/F(f) = rDiD + A. Thus for a salient pole machine it is customary to consider the q axis transient inductance to be the same as the q axis synchronous inductance. (4.182) in (4.178) where L: is the q axis subtransient inductance L : = L. the subtransient and transient reactances are numerically equal to the corresponding values of inductances in pu.176) Substituting in the equation for A. which gives for that instant i. To identify these inductances would require that two q axis rotor windings be defined. U. = (LD/MR)iD (4. < L. = [L.1 80) Since the reactance is the product of the rated angular speed and the inductance and since in pu oR = 1. Thus for this type of machine L. .182) 0+..AD = 0 . = V F u ( t ) . decays to zero after a few cycles.22]. A.( k M p ) 2 / L p ] i . Repeating the previous procedure for the q axis circuits of a salient pole machine. L:iq = (4. ) exists. Le. .1 Time constants We start with the stator circuits open circuited. We should again point out that for a round rotor machine L. 4. .(kMQ)’/LQ = L.177) or A. The situation for a round rotor machine is different.14.124 Chapter 4 sentially the same circuit as that of the steadystate q axis flux linkage. Such a machine will have efleclive q axis rotor circuits that will determine the (I axis transient and subtransient inductances. Here the solid iron rotor provides multiple paths for circulating eddy currents. (4.181) and the flux linkages are given by (note that id 0) = AD Again at t = = LDiD k MRiF LFiF k MRiD (4.
5.e./Ld (4.)/2 (4. + L. when the machine is subjected to a threephase short circuit.194) where L2is the negativesequence inductance. r. we can show that the field current is affected only by the parameters of the field circuit. and is given by (see [8].&L.o = L D . Therefore we can (4. = L 2 / r (4.189) Kimbark (21 and Anderson (81 show that when the stator is short circuited. This time constant is r . . i. where = LF/rF (4.190) (4.191) = A similar analysis of the transient in the q axis circuits of a salient pole machine shows that the time constants are given by (4. rFiF + LFiF Ti0 = vFu(t) (4. 4.193) For a round rotor machine both transient and subtransient time constants are present.188) The time constant of this transient is the d axis transient open circuit time constant r&.oL.192) (4.186) shows that iD decays with a time constant r. Ch. = 1. It is denoted open circuit because by definition the stator circuits are open. 6) r. Another time constant is associated with the rate of change of direct current in the stator or with the envelope of alternating currents in the field winding.186) Equation (4.3. L D and L F are of similar magnitude./L.M:/LF TD (4.4.while > write. r. which is given by L* = (L. When the damper winding is not available or after the decay of the subtransient current.The Synchronous Machine 125 (4. the corresponding d axis time constants are given by r.187) This is the d axis open circuit subtransient time constant.195) Typical values for the synchronous machine constants are shown in Tables 4. and 4..185) Usually in pu rD > r F . approximately.
08... I 040 0.035 0. 80100 2040 1530 . Inertia constant H.04 0... High Synchronous condensers Low Avg.. 2335 Subtransient reactance x : 1523 Quadrature axis synchronous reactance x q 150.4.3 0.95* 70200 3.0 ..5 5.1000 M W Power factor 0.o2. U S G M..o2. Typical Hydrogenerator Characteristics Parameter Small units Large units Nominal rating (MVA) Power factor SDeed (r/min) .. Table 4. stepup transformers. USGPO.IkWs) I IkVA) .0 Inertia constant H.160 1820 Negativesequence reactance x t Zerosequence reactance xo 1214 Short circuit ratio 0.180 Transient reactance x. 3. Table 4.350. 220 55 170270 25 4565 20 3545 55 100130 19 3545 13 1525 0..S. 2045 1035 I .0 901 IO 40200 0.5 3.15 1.8 0. Typical Synchronous Machine Time Constants in Seconds Time constant Ti0 7. . Source: Reprinted by permission from Power System Stability.35 0. since generating plants are generally rated on a net power output basis and losses vary widely dependent on the generator plant design.95* 70350 1. Federal Power Commission.6 0.8 9.95 Direct axis synchronous reactance xd 140.0 T: Ta 0.50 . Source: From the 1964 National Power Survey made by the U. 6. Note: All reactances in percent on rated voltage and kVA base.035 0. No attempt has been made to show kW losses associated with generators.30 1956.. Turbogenerators Low Avg.72 3. Note: All reactances in percent on rated voltage and kVA base.2 0..03 0.2l...5..S.65 4.5 2.800..3. 5. .8 0. Federal Power Commission. +These power factors cocdf conditions for generators installed either close to or remote from load centers.0 0.05 0...035 0.17 11.. are in the order of 1. @ Wiley..0 . No attempt has been made to show kW losses associated with generators.05.W.05. Typical Turbogenerator and Synchronous Condenser Characteristics ~~ ~~ Generators Parameter Range Recommended average Synchronous condensers Range Recommended average Nominal rating 300.05 1.16 0.5 Direct axis synchronous reactance xd Transient reactance x i Subtransient reactance x: Quadrature axis synchronous reactance x q Negativesequence reactance x 2 Zerosequence reactance x o Short circuit ratio 2545 2035 . Kimbark.800.8 0.01 1.126 Chapter 4 Table 4. High Waterwheel generators Low Avg.0 Souree: From the 1964 National Power Survey made by the U. kW losses for typical synchronous condensers in the range of sizes shown.800.0 2035 1025 I .' 5.. .02 0. High 2.4 = T. 0. by E.25 9.6 1. vol.54...500.5 0.2 1.0 2..0 . excluding losses associated with. .02 0.S% on rated kVA base.10 0.90 60 50100MVA .64 0.05 6.1 9. 40 115 40 20 0. since generating plants are generally rated on a net power output basis and losses vary widely dependent on the generator plant design.
For example. This assumption assumes that the effect of the damper windings on the transient under study is small enough to be negligible. Some of the more commonly used simplified models are given in this section. [j= (4. by increasing the damping coefficient D in the torque equa. the excitation system.10 and 4. In general.12 assume the presence of three rotor circuits.10 and 4. i.138) the third row and column are omitted. when the saturation is neglected as tacitly assumed in the current model. The solid round rotor acts as a q axis damper winding. (4.The Synchronous Machine 4. in (4. both field effects and damperwinding effects.1 5 Simplified Models of the Synchronous Machine 127 In previous sections we have dealt with a mathematical model of the synchronous machine. In this case the effect of the amortisseur windings may be included in the damping torque. The complete mathematical description of the system would therefore be very complicated unless some simplifications were used. Thus the complete mathematical description of a large power system is exceedingly complex. and (4..196) . (4. other equations describing the load (or network) constraints. they are presented in the order of their complexity. An excellent reference on simplified models is Young [ 191.138).. Some simplified models have already been presented. Another model using familiar machine parameters is given below. Situations arise in which some of these circuits or their effects can be neglected. The model includes seven nonlinear differential equations for each machine. 4. The simplifications adopted depend upon the location of the machine with respect to the disturbance causing the transient and upon the type of disturbance being investigated. usually those nearest the disturbance.121) with the D and Q circuits omitted. in (4. The underlying assumptions as well as the justifications for their use are briefly outlined.1 Neglecting damper windingsthe F i model The mathematical models given in Sections 4. In addition to these.120). and the mechanical torque must be included in the mathematical model.e.e. Amortisseur efects neglecred. From (4.103) and (4. taking into account the various effects introduced by different rotor circuits. Machine with solid round rotor [2]. while others are described by simpler models. i. The mathematical model for this type of machine will be the same as given in Sections 4. and simplifications are often used in modeling the system.103) or AD and A.1 18). the model is also somewhat simplified. Neglecting the amortisseur windings can be simulated by omitting iD and t g in (4. tion. Often only a few machines are modeled in detail. This is particularly true in system studies where the damping between closely coupled machines is not of interest.123).15. In this chapter.12 with io or AD omitted. In a stability study the response of a large number of synchronous machines to a given disturbance is investigated. even with the d axis damper winding omitted. In Chapter 2 the classical representation was introduced.
UF = r F [ . ) A d 4. For the field voltage.58) we define 6 E . and substituting for i F from (4. pu (4.200) or from (4.199) and (4.205) all quantities.206) Now from (4. from (4. WR(kMF/LF)AF v (4.199) 0 0 The above equations may be in pu or in M K S units. ) f i E i  Ox. from (4.59) we define ~ ~ E F RDk M F / r F ) v F W ( v (4.204) In a similar way we compute A.36) and rearranging.202) and converting to pu f l E & V B = WR(k M F u M F B / L F u L F B ) ( A . substituting for i.LF)AFI + i f l E i / L A D F pu (4. This follows.LF Ld/L.:iLF I[] IIL. including lime. From the stator equation (4.207) Also from (4.198) (4.)Ad + (rLAD/L. I J PU ~ (4.204) and (4.)X.201) and (4. i d = rid  WAq  Vd (4. + OX.  Ud P U (4.197) Therefore. LFBF B I / f i E & = (k M F u AFu / L Fu ) [WR ( M F B I F B / VB )1 or in pu LADAF/LF = dTE6 P U (4. are in pu.201) From (4.208) .199). pu.203) we compute i d = . since the choice of the rotor base quantities is based upon equal flux linkages for base rotor and stator currents.203) Now.( r / L .36). the currents are given by LAD/L.128 Chapter 4 or (4.199) to write Aq = (r/L.Lf E]= L [L::.LF)AF  WAq vd pu (4.203) AF/LF = P U (4.( r / L .205) Note that in (4. from (4.( L A D / L i L F ) A d + (Ld/L.36) uF = rFiF + A. from (4.200) Ad = (r/L.
212) Then (4.222) .UAq  vd P U (4.2 14) (4.Li and ri0 = LF/rF. id and i q .1 pu T.. (4. LAD L + 62 E.22 I ) Similarly. \ / ~ E F D u vB ~ E F D = = u WR[(kMFuMFB/rFuRFB)UFu vFBl (k M F u UFu l r F u )(OR pu MFB UFB / vB RFB d E F D = LADUF/rF (4. in the s domain. Pu Substituting for (4. LAD pu (4. From (4.218) describe the E. It is a fifthorder system with “free” inputs EFD and T.205).( I / L i  I/Lq)Addq (4. and (4.2 15) 8. (4.207).204). from (4.( r / L q ) A q Note that in the above equations all the variables (including time) and all the parameters are in pu. + (r/L.209)..2 18) ~ j b = T.213) we write.The Synchronous Machine 129 and converting to pu .214) (r/Lq)[l + (Lq/r)sIAq= WAd  v q Pu (4.f/fi d dq = A q / G vd U d / d vq = vd V q / 6 (4. . model.2 13)(4.215).199) we get Tct$ iqXd .2 19) (4. from (4.210) Rearranging and using L:D/LF = L d .)E. The signals v and Vq depend upon the external network. Thus the time constants must be in radians. = WAd . From the swing equation = E. or rPu= tsecwR rad (4. and (4.2 16) = Now we derive the torque equation.219). T. . .2 1 1) become Ad = (r/L:)A.2‘1 I ) We now define rms stator equivalent flux linkages and voltages A = A. From (4.209) From (4.  PU (4. d Block diagrams of the system equations are found as follows.DW 6 = 0 .95) T. (4.203) and (4.217) = (hd/Lq  + (LADAF/LiLF)Aq and by using (4.21 2).. .A. ( r / L i ) [ I t (L.220) along with the torque equation (4.206) we compute 4 * L*D EFD =  L. 2 Ad + LF Ld r L d 2f l E .W A q 5 P U P U (4.idXq./r)S]Ad = (r/Li)E./L.220) Equations (4.2 13) (4. and (4. (4.
d Note that T. depend upon the load.o Fig.215) (Ld/L.220).and T.199). = & L i / L d . = EFD + [(Ld .218)(4. The model developed to this point is for an unsaturated machine. model. I O Block diagram representation of (4.9. 1 .. i A = L q / r . The above equations are repreq sented by the block diagram shown in Figure 4.10.10 can be combined to give the block diagram of the complete model./Ld)SlE.223) Now define r i d 4 L. The block diagrams in Figures 4.)( 1 + 7.130 Chapter 4 I I Fig. 4. and E F D are assumed to be known and v and V.9 and 4..0(L.i)r. The remaining system equations can be represented by the block diagrams of Figure 4.L i ) / L i ] A d pu (4. . The effect of saturation may be added by computing the additional field current required under saturated operating conditions. and from (4.9 Block diagram representation of the E. From Ad = tdid + L A D i F substituting for id from and (4. 4.
It is also given that L: = 0.215 ) . Equations (4.228) For the treatment of saturation.7. We note that if saturation is to be taken into account.12. Le. then Also.The Synchronous Machine Ld 131 . the portion of Figure 4.L.4 we can show that iFLAD d E P U (4. This leads to a solution for E.2 12). Solution From the given data we compute the time constants required for the model. ) E i .IAd Substituting (4. amounting to a negative feedback term and provides a useful insight as to the effect of saturation (see [20] and Problem 4. with saturation.[(Ld . should be modified according to the Figure 4. This additional current is a function of the saturation index and can be determined by a procedure similar to that of Section 4. from W R M F i F = &E in Section 4.2. Young [ 191 suggests the modification of (4.229) and (4.L. Example 4. let EA = f A ( E i ) .229) where EA corresponds to the additional field current needed to obtain the same EMF on the noload saturation curve.228) can be represented by the block diagram shown in Figure 4..227) to the form E = ( L d / L . (4.227) into (4.)/L.[(Ld .. Another method of treating saturation is to consider a saturation function that depends upon E.225) E ( L d / L .9 and 4. (4.1 and 4. and (4. model of Figures 4.203). I I .1 I Block diagram for generating E . I I .L> Fig.10.5 Determine the numerical constants of the E. T ~ O E .9 that produces the signal E.226).226) (4.]Ad + EA (4.245 pu. ) E i .185 pu and Li = 0. .4.= EFD E (4. using the data of Examples 4.)/L.33). 4.227) Now from (4.
73 x 10~)/1. in the equations for v d and v.245)(3. 4. Stator subtransient flux linkages are defined by the equations &' = Ad .iqx" V. are computed as L.245 = 3..1 14 (1. the terms icd and i are neglected since they are numerically small com.232). under the assumptions stated above.231) (See [8] for a complete derivation. + e$ vg = .023 s T ~ . = 7 i 0 L.1/1.245)/0.542 x = 3.671 rad The fictitious time constants 7 i d and TAd = T ~ = .179) respectively. Note that while some simplifying assumptions are used in this model. which represents a special case of zero inirial flux linkage. vd = rid . and L&' = Li.) From (4.1 18 x 10'/1. A = wR Ad " ed I1 = A = .170) and (4. will respond relatively slowly to a change in terminal conditions.542x = 0.718 rad This large time constant indicates that A. ri.233). = ~A(0. = ri.939 1/0.wRX.36) the stator voltage equations.230) and (4.185/0. I n other words. Note that (4.132 Chapter 4 From this we may also compute the short circuit subtransient time constant as 7. pared to the terms wX. + id%" + e : (4./r L.230) represents the more general case of (4. These flux linkages produce EMF'S that lag 90" behind them. = (4. vd = rid .15. and respectively.446 rad 6.00447 Note the wide range of gain constants required./L.08 110. In addition. + uRXd + wRidL: + wRX.wRiqLi . = 8.7 .967 s = 1495.2 Voltage behind rubtransient reactancethe E" model I n this model the transformer voltage terms in the stator voltage equations are neglected compared to the speed voltage terms [ 19). are given by vd = rid .64 = 3.593 W R = 0.7 = 0.233) (4.231) and (4. it is assumed in the stator voltage equations that w E wR.245 . V. The various gains needed in the model are as follows: 0.473 4.245)= 0. These EM F's are defined by e.&id A" = 9 ./r = = (0.593 s = 223.wRX.0.w R AO " (4.L"j9 4 (4. the field effects and the effects of the damper circuits are included in the machine representation.riq .234) Now from (4.169).245/1.230) where L i and L: are defined by (4.232) Combining (4.
13. under the assumptions used in this model.234) may be represented by the phasor diagram shown in Figure 4.13 Phasor diagram for the quasistatic subtransient case. We now develop the dynamic model for the subtransient case. For example the voltage E” is represented by the phasor ? shown. the voltage E“ can be determined. In this diagram the q and d axes represent the real and imaginary axes respectively. Equations (4.230). :c E“ X’I R where. 4.The Synchronous Machine 133 Fig. “Projections” of the different phasors on these axes give the q and d components of these phasors. the relations expressed in (4. we compute We can show that (4. . the d and q axis components of which are given by (4. This EMF is called the volrage behind rhe subtransient reucrance. Substituting (4. If quasisteadystate conditions are assumed to apply at any instant. E” can be calculated. the terminal voltage can be determined.134). L” d = R L“ q (4.12 Voltage behind subtransient reactance equivalent.12. Its components are E: and E: respectively.230) into (4.234) when transformed to the abc frame of reference may be represented by the equivalent circuit of Figure 4. 4. Also if E: and E: are known. and if the current is also known. the above we can see that if at any instant the terminal voltage and current of the machine are known. From ! .235) The voltages e: and e: are the d and q axis components of the E MF errproduced by the subtransient flux linkage.237) q axis “t ri Fig.
L M D /X ~ )~h .)i.246) (4. = = (L.L i ) / ( L .251) Eliminating if from (4. L.(xd  Xj)(id +iD)/lA (4. .L. : A = (L. LMDL. = AD) + AD (4. d We can also show that = LiD/LF (4. . = LADid + LFiF+ L A D i D (4. .Lii.245) where we define the voltage e d We can also show that A . .x i .1 74) we can show that L .231).248) From the definition of L.251).203). we compute in pu e: = [(x:  X~ 11 ( d 3 .231) to compute (x.i.X d . = (LAQ/LQ)AQ Now from the field flux linkage equation (4.243) (4. as (L.i.LMD/?dxF)AF + (LiM D / t d 4 D ) A D L (4.E . = L. .252) . = 4dtD L: L.244) Similarly from (4.x4 (4.D) (4..236) as Ai A .L. we incorporate (4. = = WRLAQiQ (4.104) in pu AD = Xd)’ = LF/(LFLD L.L.e.239) Using (4. + LA.G L M D L F 1 .~4 ‘ (4.203) and (4.DLF/xdxFLAD)flE.240) Now we can compute the constants K .230) and (4. Then from (4.242) Substituting in (4.x.249) (L. (4.xx )/(xi . = tdd?FLAD K 2 = L. we can rewrite in terms of E. e: = ( L .241) I .238) Therefore we may write (4. = 4dtFLAD x.104). D (4.x : ) i .L.104) in pu.xd x. .134 Chapter 4 since by definition (4.240) and using (4. (4. .iQ which can be substituted into (4. + ( L .226) to compute E = E.x = I .250) LADid L A D i F L D i D + + A. . (4.247) A. . .K . + LAQiQ).
99. and (4. (4..36) V.260) give the time rate of change AD.260) where E is given by (4. jD . which in turn depend upon the load configuration. (4.. The voltage e.257) we get the differential equation ed / T I90 1 The voltage equation for the field circuit cames from (4.261) (4. (xi .245)..263) .231). To complete the model. (4.203).257) (4. = L.254) relate these quantities to id and iq.id A" d q and if w in pu is approximately equal to the synchronous speed. the torque equation is needed.256) + AQ = 0 (4.: E.249).192). e. (4.idA9 = By using (4. (4.258) (4.187) and (4.228) E. (4. e and . (4.248).259) which may be written as [WRrQ(LAQ/LQ)liQ + [(wR g .248).X $ ) * .252).(xi . From (4. (4.36) we have 'QiQ (4. the following differential equations are obtained. From (4.246).250) into (4. (4.261) becomes T.256). ' E which can be put in the same form as (4.)T.253) which can be put in the form (4..262) Te4 = i9 A" . = e. T. i. and (4. and (4. is calculated from (4. Equations (4.243).255).258). and (4.254) In addition to the above auxiliary equations. and E.230) and recalling that in this model it is assumed that L. from (4. in terms of i D .247).250) in (4. = i9 Ad .255) Substituting (4. LC. The auxiliary equations (4.The Synchronous Machine 135 Now substituting (4. the system equations can be reduced to the following: (4.36) we write rDiD + AD = 0 (4.o Similarly. (4. = E.4Q)/LQliQ = Now from (4.x. = rFiF + x. + e$id If saturation is neglected.
ide:/3ri S=wl The currents id and iq are determined from the load equations.241) and (4.264) Now from (4.268) To complete the description of the system. we eliminate the d f r o m all equations by using the rms equivalents. E.242) respectively. 4.x") 9 Fig. . similar to (4.. we may write e = d T K . / d Then (4. ( X i .267) (4. we add the inertial equations & = (l/Tj)T.243) and using K . AD Tj0.x.e:i.270) E'b = +K2A~ + (x 9 ... : + KZXD Dw/Ti (4. as defined in (4.2 12)./3fi .xt)ld E. The block diagrams for the system may be obtained by rearranging the above equations.S) E.263)(4.269) (I (1 + + E: O) :S . AD = X . E: = (xq = ..266) (4.136 Chapter 4 (4.266) become (1 E" = e r ' / d = E: + jEj (4. and K. + Xxdfd KIEi + (4.)fq E.14 Block diagram for the E" model. In doing so.
90s = 2224.The Synchronous Machine 137 1 D+ 7.1 (4. .271) The block diagram for (4.5. From (4.371 = 5.270) is shown in Figure 4. It is computed from (4. We also need the d axis transient open circuit time constant. Also the block diagram of the complete system can be obtained by combining Figures 4. If saturation is to be included.149 rad is already known from Example 4.189/0.6 + E.272) is given in Figure 4. E = E: Example 4.(xd .15.  + E:/.969 x = 0. For the E" model we also need the following additional time constants.279 rad which is about twice the d axis subtransient open circuit time constant.15.14 and 4.03046 s = 72. is to be added to (4. corresponding to the increase in the field current due to saturation.423 x 103/18.) Sb = w . 4.272) The block diagram for equation (4.15 Block diagram for computation of torque and speed in the E" model.248). Solution The time constant T : ~ = 0.25 rad Note that this time constant is about 30 times the subtransient time constant in the d . a voltage increment E..14.5 to derive the time constants and gains for the E" model.27 3) Use the machine data from Examples 4.075s = 28.xi)(id + i D ) / f i (4. s ) ~= T.14. where we have defined (4. Ti0 = LF/rF = 2.5 U J 1 Fig..192) the q axis subtransient open circuit time constant is 7Y0 = L p / r Q = 1.189). The remaining equations are given by (D + 7 .
(4.j0.138 Chapter 4 axis. + URLjid + e. or e.536 ) 0.)i. (4.7) 414: .185 pu Then. which are the field circuit in the d axis and an equivalent circuit in the q axis formed by the solid rotor.x.49)’/1.2.64 . .x:) = (1.)i.245 . The stator transient flux linkages are defined by A. = 1.r i . twoaxis model Ad and 4 for a cylindrical rotor machinethe In the twoaxis model the transient effects are accounted for. The machine will thus have two stator circuits and two rotor circuits.L:. A n additional assumption made in this model is that in the stator . To compute the gains.632 (xd .xiid e .55)2/l. r vd + rid + x.)(x: ~. + rid + xii. 2 A. compute the gain./L. the number of diflerentiul equations describing these circuits is reduced by two since i d and k are neglected in the stator voltage equations (the stator voltage equations are now .274) and the corresponding stator voltages are defined by e.245 . while the subtransient effects are neglected [18]. 9 . Li i. . . algebraic equations).wRL.275) (4. = 0. e.)(x. vd = rid . = Ld K. or Li is needed.iq .x. = wRx. approximately. e . The transient effects are dominated by the rotor circuits.185) = 9.245 .64 .iq + e.LiD/LF 1.185 .(1.150)’ ( x i .x[ = 1.0.185 = 1.id A A.271) L. .279) Following a procedure similar to that used in Section 4. we can write.(1.x4 E 1  From (4.J (xd . This means that the integration associated with T : ~ will be accomplished very fast compared to that associated with . Since the term (xi .70 . x.150 x..(l.277) (4. + (xi .526 = 0. I = Aq WA.70.245)(0.15.245 P = U We can now compute from (4. Neglecting .x.0.70. It is computed from (.0. voltage equations the terms i d and i are negligible compared to the speed voltage terms and that w Y wR = 1 pu. we 4. = uq + r i .245)(0.1 5 3 .276) (4.673 (0.278) (4. = .0.L. .0.0.x. Kd xxd = = = K. is usually small. from (4.179)we compute Lc = L.455 pu.0. = wRh.x.150) o.w ~ . the constant x.4 .270).651= 0. = vd u. However.
278) indicate that during the transient the machine can be represented by the circuit diagram shown in Figure 4. in this model the voltage e’.279) and (4. = L:id P U and by using (4. The voltages e.The Synchronous Machine 139 Fig. 4.284) and (4.287) E + xdzd + XAZd = .281) + LAQiQ pu (LAQ/LQ)xQ XQ = LAQiq + LhiQ pu Pu (4.282) Eliminating iQ. We now develop the differential equations for the voltages e and e. it will change due to the changes in the flux linkage of the d and q axis rotor circuits.275).16.X i Zq From the Q circuit voltage equation rQiQ + d X Q / d r (4.275) we get e : ’ fif?.203). Rather.280) By eliminating iF and using (4. For example. pu (4.282) with &E: E: . we adopt the notation .6 E . we can verify that e.. e. = 0.286) (4.203).(xq  X6)fq (4. Equations (4. = eq = LmiF pu = EA fiE d Ed = ed . for the (I axis X q = Lqiq = a E . Also.XqZq = EA .283) (4. It is interesting to note that since e: and e.174) and (4.286). The d axis : flux linkage equations for this model are Ad = L d i d + LADiF Ad pu XF = LAOid k L F i F pu (4. they represent d T tirn e s the equivalent stator rms voltages. = d E . .L A Q ~pu Q (4. is not a constant.we compute = (Lq  LiQ/LQ)iq (4. as given by (4.288) where. . which corresponds to the transient flux linkages in the machine. = (LAQ/LQ)XQ pu = (4.285) We also define fiE We can show that [8]. for uniformity.16 Transient equivalent circuit of a generator. Similarly. and by using (4.284) and by using (4. are d and q axis stator voltages. and e: are the 9 and d components of a voltage e’ behind transient reactance.
15.14.17. (4.287) can be represented by the block diagram shown in Figure 4.x .7 Determine the time constants and gains for the twoaxis model of Figure 4.[EiId 6=wI + EiIq .18. ) I + E.380 = 1.289) Similarly.288).64  0. = Xdi.17 and 4.6.Jq] (4. T.17 Block diagram representation of the twoaxis model.  ( ~ d . = EiId + EiIq . In addition we obtain from the manufacturer's data the constant xi = 0...which is combined with (4. based on the machine data of Examples 4.0. 4. the block diagram for the complete model is obtained.455 pu The remaining system equations are given by ~ j h = T. ~ (4. and (4. the electrical torque is obtained from (4.290) Equations (4.17.Xqid. . The gains are simply the pu reactances xq Xi 1.Li) i d l q (4. Solution Both time constants are known from Example 4. The procedure for incorporating this modification in the block diagram is similar to that discussed in Section 4. Again saturation can be accounted for by modifying (4. E = E.140 Chanter A 5 X d  xi 1+7bd 1 E' 9 Fig.228) (4..2.DW .290). .380 pu. To complete the description of the system. .260 pu Xd  xi = 1.18.292) The block diagram for (4.7. from the field voltage equation we get a relation similar to (4..274) and (4. is a voltage increment that corresponds to the increase in the field current due to saturation (see Young [ 191).70 .291) Example 4.LJ)I.(Li . By combining Figures 4.292) is shown in Figure 4.(Li .93.293) where E.245 = 1. Ti0 = TJO = LQ/rQ (4.275) to compute T.287).
. 9 ) .99.tq + r t d = Xdiq The torque equation is derived from (4. PU E: = 5 + X.id.290) and (4. .15.294) (4.293).  (Xd  x:)td PU (4. and using (4.4 Neglecting amortisseur effects and and iq termsthe oneaxis model This model is sometimes referred to in the literature as the oneaxis model. The voltage behind transient reactance e' shown in Figure 4. is obtained from (4. (which is a function of the current i a ) .36) with i d = = E. or e.o 1 * u) Fig.  &. Substituting (4.oEi = E.o Fig. 4 1 Block diagram representation of the oneaxis model. the system equations are E 7. It is similar to the model presented in the previous section except that the absence of the Q circuit eliminates the differential equation for E.274) and 1. 4 1 Block diagram representation of ( . . changing by the field effects according to (4. T. 4..275).16 has only the component e. The component e: is completely determined from the currents and u d .The Synchronous Machine 141 b b E' 9 K 1 1 .295) 0.9 .274) and (4.E P U The voltage E.8 422. Thus.
I f E.266) expresses e l as a linear combination o f t h e variables E. equations for id and iq in terms of the state variables are needed. the system equations are given by (4.) remains constant during the transient can be justified.L i ) I d I q ] P U 6 = w . and A. Le.2 (voltage behind subtransient reactance) is to be used in the system of one machine coiinected to an infinite bus through a transmission line discussed previously in Section 4.20 Network representation of the system in Example 4.142 Chapter 4 = noting that.. w . Under these assumptions E' is considered constant. The system equation to be solved is (4.. (or e.296) with the network constraints (to determine the currents) and the condition that E. For the mathematical description of the system to be complete.5 Assuming constant flux linkage in the main field winding From (4..15... The next step in simplifying the mathematical model of the machine is to assume ' that E. .. in the absence of the Q circuit.. and Aq in the stator voltage equations (compared to the speed voltage terms) and also by as I  Fig. From the assumptions used in the model. by neglecting the terms in h.i. Under this assumption the voltage behind transient reactance E' or e' has a q axis component E. A. and E are approximately equal in magnitude and that their angles with respect to the reference voltage are approximately equal (or differ by a small angle that is constant).Dw = E. Equation (4.15. changes at a rate that depends upon .268). which corresponds to the d axis field flux linkage. This time constant is on the order of several seconds. The system equations neglecting saturation are to be developed. A. Solution For the case where saturation is neglected.8 The simplified model used in Section 4. Example 4.228) we note that the voltage E..19. does not change very fast and if the impact initiating the transient is short. . The voltage E. .(Lq . L.13..1 PU (4. 4. that is always constant. This set of differential equations is a function of the state variables e.296) Thus the remaining system equations are  [EiI. PU T p rj& = T. E..263)(4. These equations are obtained from the load constraints.8. 4. or e. depends on the excitation system characteristics.io. This is the constant voltage behind transient reactance representation used in the classical model of the synchronous machine. and 6 and the currents id and iq.297) The block diagram representation of the system is given in Figure 4..Iq  (Lq  fi)ldiq (4. in some cases the assumption that the voltage E. is constant.
211= V .15. are based on a classical machine with discrete physical windings on the stator and rotor. T ~ and T. It is now suspected that the reason for these discrepancies is the inadequate definition of machine inductances in the frequency ranges encountered in stability studies. 4.298) where k and = r + R. which are in common use by power system engineers.) used in dynamic studies are derived from data obtained from ANSI Standard C42. it is found that two rotor circuits (on each axis) are sometimes adequate but the inductances and time constants are not exactly the same as those defined in IEEE Standard No. Studies have been made to ascertain the accuracy of available dynamic models and data for turbine generators (21251. sin (6 .14. These studies show that a detailed representation of the rotor circuits can be more accurately simulated by up to three discrete rotor circuits on the d axis and three on the q axis. and L: and time constants T&. As mentioned in Section 4. The procedure for determining the constants for these circuits is to assume equivaI .1 6 Turbine Generator Dynamic Models The synchronous machine models used in this chapter.E. L i .a) . I n some stability studies.. (4. The representation of these paths by one discrete circuit on each axis has been questioned for some time. one d axis amortisseur.k f q + i f t I .301) Equations (4.268) complete the mathematical description of the system. It 7&.The Synchronous Machine 143 suming that w wR.263)(4..301) along with the set (4. L.234) are given by Vod = .. By following a procedure similar to that in Section 4. .V.. all of which are intended to define fault current magnitudes and decre.300) From (4. cos (6 . Data for these circuits can be obtained from frequency tests conducted with the machine at standstill. L. + E: + X. L. and two q axis amortisseurs.298) I d and Iq are determined Id = (R)2 [+ (P)’ R(V. Another source of concern to the power engineer is that the value of the machine constants (such as L. the solid iron rotor used in large steam turbine generators provides multiple paths for circulating eddy currents that act as equivalent damper windings under dynamic conditions.. . This in turn implies the existence of inductances Ld. 115.“)] (4.20. discrepancies between computer simulation and field data have been observed. the system reduces to the equivalent network shown in Figure 4.E2 = (4. + P(Vwq (4.147) and (4. etc. equations (4.k f d  ittIq E: Vmq= .299) Ve = . ments.2. T o fit the “conventional” view of rotor circuits that influence the socalled subtransient and transient dynamic behavior of the machine.10 [16].Li. This implicitly assumes two rotor circuits in each axisthe field..a) 1 V.
Thus for the d axis we write Ld(s) = Ld (1 (I + a. are determined from the frequency domain response. Machine data thus obtained differ from standard data previously obtained by the manufacturer from short circuit tests. for the d axis.304) The time constants in (4.1 0. 115.303) and the constants Ld.s) + a..s)(l + b . This comparison is given in Table 4.0  '**I 0. &(s) becomes (4.06 I I 111111 0. Reprinted from IEEE Trans.s)(l + c2s) (4. pu 2.) (G IEEE. and c. s ) ( l + c. Hz I I 1 1 1 1 111111 6 111 l ~ l ~ l d 60 Fig. A n example of the data obtained by standstill frequency tests is given in [24] and is reproduced in Figure 4. e. The transfer function for each is called an operational inductance of the form Us) = [N(s)/W)lL (4. May/June 1974. b .s)(l + b.6 Frequency. vol.2 1. the constants can be identified approximately with the transient and subtransient parameters.. PAS93.144 Chapter 4 lent circuits on each axis made up of a number of circuits in parallel. and N ( s ) and D ( s ) are polynomials in s. hence the discrepancy with lEEE Standard No...0006 I Frequency response plots 555.302) where L is the synchronous reactance. Both thirdorder and secondorder polynomial representations are given. a .5 MVA unit Test resulk Adjusted resulk for simulation of hvo rotor windings i n each axis I I11111 0. a. .0 c _p 1. If the operational inductance is to be approximated by quadratic polynomials.21 Frequency response plot for a 555MVA turboalternator.006 I I IIlIlll ! 0. b. Thus. 4.6. Reference (241 gives a comparison between the two sets of data for a 555MVA turbogenerator. Speed. . .304) are different from those associated with the exponential decay of d or 4 axis open circuit voltages.
A study conducted by the Northeast Power Coordinating Council [26] concludes that.21 can be approximated by the superposition of multiple firstorder asymptotic approximations.16 7.305) The break point that gives a better fit of the experimental data corresponds to a frequency of 0.90 0.867 0. the break frequencies should give the constants of (4. Since the amplitude at this frequency is the reciprocal of the d axis transient time constant.022 0. Finally.473 0. Li L. this corresponds to an adjusted value. denoted by r.061 1.97 0. the approximated curve does not provide a good fit to the experimental data.03 1 0. of the machine. in general.the computed break frequency is = 1/4.6.1282 rad/s or 0.175 I . The transfer functions plotted in Figure 4. s Ld L. The full model presented here is one of the models investigated in the NPCC study [26] for solid rotor machines. as obtained by standard methods. the accuracy of any dynamic machine model is greatly improved when the socalled standard machine data are modified to match the results of a frequency analysis of the solid iron rotor equivalent circuit. however. vol.27 0. If.074 Source: o IEEE.306) Reference (241 notes that the proper ajustment of ?.00062 pu (4. L.16 4. ?io. Reprinted from IEEE Trans. If this is done. the d axis time constant ?&. a comparison of these results and the machine models presented in this chapter are in order.2 17 1.2326 rad/s = 0.21 is nothing more than the amplitude portion of the familiar Bode plot with the amplitude given in pu rather than in decibels.A larly important in stability studies. The inductance versus frequency plot given in Figure 4.61 0. 145 Comparison of Standard Data with Data Obtained from Frequency Tests for a 555MVA turboalternator Standard data Adjusted data Constants Pu P U pu P U P U pu 4 PU 7. It was found to be inferior to the more .00034 pu. PAS93.81 0. For example.3 s.213 0.3 0.8 0. If this is used to obtain the first break frequency for log [ 1 /( 1 + T .56 0. given by 7. The machine constants thus obtained are given in the third column of Table 4. L.254 0.: = 1/0.304).o s ?o l s Ti0 s 7. the machine constants obtained from the standard data are used to obtain the breakpoints for the straightline approximation of the amplitudefrequency plots.6. ~ S ) ] . Also. At the time of this writing no extensive studies have been reported in the literature to support or dispute these results. 1974.1282 = 7.and Li are all particu. is 4.:..76 0.3 = 0.30 0.8 s (4. it is more important in stability studies to use accurate machine data than to use more elaborate machine models.The Synchronous Machine Table 4. I .
2 4.1 and the field winding F.14 4. as related to the rms voltage V. and Q windings provided practically no improvement over a simpler model with only F and Q windings.9) by finding the inverse of (4. But. Can you explain why these inductances are constant? (b) Equation (4.146 Chapter 4 elaborate model based on two rotor windings in each axis.(t) = V.. (Y .14). Use the transformation Q to find voltage equations similar to (4.24) for the neutral voltage drop. Explain the signs on these equations by referring to the currents given on Figures 4. Verify the following equations: (a) Equation (4. Do this by two methods and compare your results. Repeat for an FLfQ system. Substitute these quantities into (4.13 4.12 4. Check the computation of PP'given in (4..5).2 r / 3 ) + 2r/3) v. Why is the term negative? Consider a machine consisting only of the phase winding sa/a shown in Figure 4.20). Why is the sign of M..39). Check your result against (4. Furthermore.15) in terms of the coefficient of coupling of these coils.5 4.3 4.1 and observing how the inductance changes with rotor position.32) and compute the speed voltage terms.4 4. Verify (4. in pu. ( t ) = V.20).12) by sketching the stator coils as in Figure 4.34) and explain its meaning. Verify (4. Sketch a new physical arrangement where the field flux is stationary and coil su/a turns clockwise. This is not to imply that the work of the past is without merit.1 4. Verify (4. This is not surprising since the added detail due to the extra q axis amortisseur should result in an improved simulation. Problems 4. (b) Compute the Blv or speed voltage and the transformerinduced voltage. are given in (4.5) is an orthogonal transformation. As a general conclusion it is apparent that additional studies are needed to identify the best machine data for stability studies and the proper means for testing or estimating these data. as in many technical areas. Let ~ . ~ . Verify (4. as done in this chapter. (a) Use the rate of change of flux linkages &.2. are often acceptable. Extend Table 4.negative? Why is I M.18).22) and is not orthogonal.8 4. 1 I] is that given by (4. Verify (4.16)(4. For the new physical machine proposed in Problem 4. larger digital integration time steps are possible than with models that use the much shorter time constants 7& and 7t0. Explain the signs on all terms of (4..1 and 4. D. Are these two physical arrangements equivalent? Explain. Why? But the transformation Q suggested originally by Park [IO.COS(w. I 4.. The quantities Ad and A.io and T .. Do the results agree? They should! Verify (4.15 Park's transformation P as defined by (4.13).39).1 by including the actual dimensions of the voltage equations in an MLffi system.? (c) Explain (4. 1 > L.t + a .1 I 4. improvements can and are constantly being made to provide mathematical formulations that better describe the physical apparatus. including those developed in this chapter.10 4.23).cos(wRf + (a) For the pu system used in this book find the pu voltages ud and u. (c) For part (b) find the pu power in the d and q circuits and id and i. The traditional models.8 we wish to compute the induced EMF in coil safa.6 4. COS (WRI + a) V b ( t ) = V. including the polarity of the induced voltage. Perhaps more surprising is the fact that the model developed here with F. (b) Repeat part (a) using a pu system based on the following base quantities: SB = threephase voltampere and Vs = linetoline voltage.9 4. with the FQ model based on time constants .32).
Is it radially outward along d or q? 4.2 I Develop the voltage equations for a cylindrical rotor machine. as forcing functions.19  Plot the MMF as positive when radially outward +in enters sa.8 but where the equations are those found from the Q transformation of Problem 4.17 Normalize the voltage equations as in Section 4.18).r at A. Le.18 Show that the choice of a common time base in any coupled circuit automatically forces the equality of VA base in all circuit parts and requires that the base mutual inductance be the geometric mean of the selfinductance bases of the coupled windings. 4. = 1. Now assume the machine is operating at 1.e. 4. where at to 4.8.28 4.22) (originally used by Park) and the MKS system of units (volt. Incorporate the load equations for the system of one machine against an infinite bus (shown in Figure 4.2iM0)/ 1..27 using the flux linkage model Derive the statespace model for a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus with a local load at the machine terminal. coil I beginning in slot I (0”) and coil 2 beginning in slot 7 (180”). The load has a reactive component. etc. Show the position of N and S salient poles and indicate the direction of pole motion. 6 slots/pole.1.2 . = fl and i t s is the saturated current at A. 1.20 Show that the I /wR factors may be eliminated from (4.138).27 4....8) in the simplified models given in Section 4.25 Compute the saturation function parameters A . 4.62) by choosing a pu time T = w R t rad.0 PF (internal PF) and note by + and notation.1. and B.13 1.22 Consider a synchronous generator for which the following data are given: 2 poles. ) and coil 2 sa2Ju2. = 1.3 I 4. given two different values ofthe variables A. = = &.rgiven that when A. the direction of currents at time t o . 2 slots/pole/phase. and iMs.24 Derive formulas for computing the saturation function parameters A. I 2 slots. A.. (start a.0 pu. entersfc. Show that the constraint among base currents (4.2iMO = 0. Hint: Add two state variables related to the voltage (or charge) across the capacitance.2 ~. defined in (4. Repeat Problem 4. (iMs . Compute the saturation function K. i.. using the data and results of the previous problem. ampere. a machine in which the inductances are not a function of rotor angle except for rotorstator inductances that are as given in (4.16 147 Using the transformation Q of (4. ( i b .. 3 phases. Repeat Problem 4.29 4. wherei.The Synchronous Machine 4. and finish a . 4.23 Verify (4.iMO)/iMO = 0. find: (a) The d and q axis voltages and currents in relation to the rms quantities. Use the current model.\/5.26 4.. and B.54) based upon equal mutual flux linkages is the same as equal MMF’s in each winding.40 4. looking i n at the coil ends.8 m .. Sketch the slots and show two coils of the phase a winding. but +i. The synchronous machine described in Examples 4. = fi. 4. and +ib enters sb. (b) The d and q axis circuit power in relation to the threephase power..15: (a) Neglecting damper effects.. inductance.). and capacitance. Label coil I sal/a. 5/6 pitch.141).3 is connected to a resistive load of R.29 for a local load simulated by a passive impedance. Assume the MMF changes abruptly at the center line of the slot. Obtain the statespace model for a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus through a series resistance.32 and i M O correspond to A. 4.16)(4. The load is to be simulated by a passive resistance. iyo. The M M F wave should be a stepwise sine wave..2 and 4. 4. Let A r = 0. Derive the equations for the statespace current model using uF and T.30 4.
Wiley. Kimbark. Synchronous Machines.148 Chapter 4 (b) Neglecting i d and A. .21.34 using the secondorder transfer functions for Ld(s) and L. 4.35 Repeat Problem 4. P4. 1956. Concordia. 4. 4. London. Vols.304)and substitutini the standard data rather than the adjusted data. Power System Stability. Adkins.  X'b .33 4.35 using the secondorder transfer functions of (4. Wiley. New York. Chapman and Hall. 3.xi x. The General Theory ofElecrrical Machines. 2. Xi I I I I I . C. New York.(s) given in Figure 4.36 Repeat Problem 4. I . B. 1964. if the rotor has two circuits on the qaxis. 3. 1951. W . References I .34 Using the thirdorder transfer functions for Ld(s) and L. E. for a machine with sdid ropnd rotor.1 Fig.sketd Bode diagrams by making straightline asymptotic approximations and compare with thi given test results. (c) Neglecting damper erects and the terms Ad and A..14 can be rearranged to give the model of Schulz [20] given in Figure P4.(s).33 Show that the voltagebehindsubtransientreactancemodel of Figure 4.33.
and Ewart. 18. Crary. C. P. Harris. and Thomas. R. Fundamental concepts of synchronous machine reactances. Taylor. AI€€ Trans. 1958. H. M . 19. Park. 22. 16.PAS87:7380. Power System Stability. 5 .Digital comparisons with system operating tests. T. R . I E E E Trans. and Janischewskyj. London. D. R. Per unit impedances ofsynchronous machines. Ames. 12. 24. R. 1973. and Manchur. H. and Walshaw. L. 2. lEEE Trans. B. J. H. B. 1962. Schulz. Prentice. 1973. R. 1973. Lynn. Pa. R. R. Pt. I . D. Park. IEEE. 75 CH 0970PWR. 20. 1970. D. IEEE Trm. .20. Two reaction theory of'synchronous machines. Synchronous machine modeling.. PAS84:103852. N. 1969. Press. M. 7. A I E E Trans. PAS88: 112136. 13. 115. Cambridge Univ. and Dandeno.. A basic analysis of synchronous machines. Synchronous machine operational impedances from low voltage measurements at the stator terminals. and Stephenson. M. G. PAS88:1593. Press. Kundur. Test procedures for synchronous machines. IEEE Trans. Equipment and system modeling for largescale stability studies. Simulation ofsymmetrical induction machinery. Jones. B. 48:71630. K. H. 1933. P. 17.c of a Synchronous TwoMachine System.76. Stability performance of 555 M V A turboalternators.c. P. Pi. Erects of synchronous machine modeling in largescale syStern studies. 1968. PAS91:99. Schulz. P. G. Electrical Transmission and Di. 9. New York. I I . 2.. 1945. A I E E Trans. Lewis. Anderson. R. 6456972. Prabhashankar. 8 . Rankin. C. Pittsburgh. M. Analysis of Synchronous Machines Connected to Power Network. 1971. W.. 1972. C. I): 716. A I E E Trans. 1974.. P. W.. I 26. PAS93:777 44. Etfects of synchronous machine modeling in largeTrans. IEEE Trans. IS. Cambridge Univ.. 14. P. 1975. 1965.. Task Force on System Studies. Watson. London. J. Dynamic models of turbinc generators derived from solid rotor equivalent circuits. Recommended phasor diagram tor synchronous machines.The Synchronous Machine 149 4. L. W. Final Report. Standard No. Iowa State Univ. Hauth. IEE (British) Monograph.vsi. PAS77:43655.. 23. PAS92:92633. 56 (Suppl. 1965. IEEE Publ. I . Dandeno. / € € E Tran. 1950. 1929. W. and Winchester. P.A. 1945. Digital simulation of multimachine power systems for stability studies. I . IEE (British) Monograph. W. Cambridge Univ. IEEE Committee Report. L. 1961. W. and Schulz. Two reaction theory of synchronous machines. lEEE Trans. PAS93:767. Northeast Power Coordinating Council. P. 52:35255. Jackson.83941. NPCCIO. L. R. Vols. Press. Wiley. PAS92:574 82. 1974.109. IEE (British) Monograph. Westinghouse Electric Corp. scale system studies. Young.. 1929.. 21. Direct and quadrature axis equivalent circuits for solidrotor turbine generators. A I E E Trans. IEEE Trans. W.. Tensor Ana1. Per Unit Systems: With Special Reference IO Electrical Machines. Press. 6. System Dynamic Simulation Techniques Working Group.. Analysis of Faulted Power Systems. A. Pt. Lawrenson. Krause. London. March. Symposium on Adequacy and Philosophy of Modeling: System Dynamic Performance.1610. C. 1969. S. 1947.stribution Keference Book. P. IO. 25.
chapter 5 The Simulation of Synchronous Machines 5. The number of these circuits depends upon the model of the machine adopted for the study. For this situation phasor equations are appropriate. Both analog and digital simulation<are discussed. When the machine operates in a steadystate condition. Among these considerations are the determination of initial conditions. mathematically. The soGalled “stability study” examines the system behavior following the disturbance. This is a necessary part of any stability investigation. This includes all the currents. id = iF = iD = iq = i. In all dynamic studies the initial conditions of the system are required. It is common to tacitly assume all machines to be in a steadystate condition prior to a disturbance. and construction of simulation models for the machine. and these will be derived. The initial position of the rotor with respect to the system reference axis must also be known. = 0 Then from (4. The remainder of the chapter is devoted to the construction of simulation models for the synchronous machine.1 Introduction This chapter covers some practical considerations in the use of the mathematical models of synchronous machines in stability studies. From (4. These quantities will be determined from the data available at the terminals of the machine. The machine models used in Chapter 4 require some data not usually supplied by the manufacturer. differential equations are not necessary since all variables are either constants or sinusoidal variations with time. and EMF’S for the different machine circuits. 5.74) 0 = iDrD 150 0 = iQrQ . Here we show how to obtain the required machine parameters from typical manufacturer’s data. flux linkages. The phasor equations derived here permit the solution of the initial conditions that exist prior to the application of the disturbance.2 SteadyState Equations and Phasor Diagrams The equations of the synchronous machine derived in Chapter 4 are differential equations that describe machine behavior as a function of time. determination of the parameters of the machine from available data.74) at steady state all currents are constant or.
3) Using (5. .12) I .\/Z multiplier of (5.5) with balanced conditions.5) u.4) and (5.1 1) The stator current i.Simulation of Synchronous Machines 151 or at steady state iD = i. Therefore. + wLdid + kMpwiF)sin(wRt + 6 + */2)] = [(rid + oL. By using the relation j = 1 @in (5.4) From (4. The choice of this particular transformation introduced the factor l / d in the equation.' the . uo = 0.iq)cos(wRt + 6 + r / 2 ) + (riq + WLdid f kMFfdiF)cos(wRf + A)] WRt At steady state the angular speed is constant. Using phasor notation. To simplify the notation we define the rms equivalent d and q axis currents as Id ii d / d I.)ejs (5. expressed as a phasor will have the two rectangular components 1. = m [ . and wL products may be de wLd = xd (5. and I d . = (1..\/ZE (5. Then from (5.7) From (4.  I ./G (5.6) wR.226) we also identify WRhfFiF = . (5. Thus if the phasor reference is the q axis.8) where E is the stator equivalent E M F corresponding to iF. and E are stator rms phase voltages in pu.9).10) Note that in this equation V. from (4.sin8) (5.9) we may compute u.1) we may write the stator voltage equation from (4. = 0 (5. We define the phasor d = Aej" as a complcx number that is related to the corresponding time domain quantity a ( r ) by the relation a ( r ) = @ ( t / Z A e J w ' ) = a A cos(wr + a).6) is conveniently used to define the rms voltage phasor (5.5) where by definition 8 = + b + u/2.. + jI.( r i d + wLqi. or wLq = x q = (5. while id and i. i.9) where the superior bar indicates a total phasor quantity in magnitude and angle (a complex number). i q vq = riq + WLdid + kMFUiF + u. = m ( v d c o s 8 (5.)cos(wRt + 6 + ~ / 2 ) +(ri. w noted as reactances..74) as ud = rid  d . are dc currents obtained from the modified Park transformation.
13) I.0 152 Chapter 5 7 d axis I.2 Location of the q axis from a known terminal current and voltage.1 Phasor diagram representing (5.14). If the position of the q axis is not known but the terminal conditions of the machine q axis Fig. = (5.@.. we compute the rms stator equivalent voltages d Note that V. makes a 90" angle with the negative d axis since I d is numerically negative for the case illustrated in Figure 5 . I .12) and (5. + r c + jXqIq@ . Also note that in the phasor diagram in Figure 5. / Fig.Xdld@ id jld@. Note that the phasor jx. The phasorjxdT. This situation is shown in Figure 5.10) and rearranging.& leads the q axis by 90".4). and E = E + rTa + jxqTq + j x d L (5.1 both V and Id are illustrated as d negative quantities. we note that if the angle 8 is known the phasor diagram can be constructed quite readily. Substituting (5.1 I ) in (5. along the q and d axes respectively. . 5. from (5. 5. and V are the projection of V .14) The phasor diagram representing (5.14) is shown in Figure 5. 7 = . Thus the magnitude of d d is subtracted from x q l q to obtain the magnitude of V.1 [l]. EB= and by using E = ED.1 and (5.1 since lagging current (negative Id) is commonly encountered in practice.15). To obtain ud and u. Examining Figure 5.
this simple problem helps us concentrate on concepts without becoming engulfed in details..7) and (5.16) Substituting for v d and u.3. Again remember that in Figure 5. construction of the phasor diagram requires some manipulation of (5. an alternate procedure for locating the position of the q axis is illustrated in Figure 5.(xd + xe)fd (5. sin(6 . are also applicable here.a) + Reid + u L e i q WLdid + kMFuiF = v'3VmC0S(6. The phasor diagram described by these equations is shown in Figure 5. = .2 can be combined since the same q and d axes. = V. are applicable to both. = V .uL.a) (5. here as reference) the voltage drop rT. + X . the same EMF E.f.2) is located on the q axis. . However.3.I. with the q axis as reference. is given by  V. + jV.149) becomes u d = u.. and the angle between them are known).16)..e. + rid . The end of that phasor (Eqa in Figure 5.2. can be obtained using (5.Simulation of Synchronous Machines 153 are given (i. from (5. I.id E VmC0S(6. we add the phasor (xd .Id + X. and the power factor angle are known.sin(6 . . which is different from that shown in Figure 5.3 * Machine Connected to an Infinite Bus through a Transmission line To illustrate more fully the procedure for finding the machine steadystate conditions. . if V.jV.a ) + ( r By using (5. we compute = = Re)fq 0 + Re)[. Under balanced steadystate conditions with zero derivatives.v3 V . Its q axis component however is xq&.i. + j u R L r is given by (4.1.. and the same current I.wL.a ) + Reid + u L e i q ' d V .wL. = .17) where X e = w L e .d V .17) represent the components of the voltages along the q and d axes respectively. Starting with E (used . which is similar to that shown in Figure 5. Then the voltage . An alternate procedure would be to start with the phasor V. is drawn parallel to 7 drop j x . where the phasor representing the infinite bus voltage V. As we shall see later. Thus in Figure 5. Equations (5. in Figure 5.149). where it is assumed that Vu.iq . The remarks concerning the location of the q axis starting from V . The differential equations for one machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line with impedance 2.2.d are shown as negative quantities. then add the voltage drop R.xq)& to the phasor q 4 5. c o s ( b .. we solve the simple problem of one machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line.. ) f . cos(6 .. sin (6 . I d in the g axis direction and the voltage drop R.15). This can be verified by noting that the d axis component of the phasor j x q z is x q < . = R .11) and rearranging the above equations. (4..a) .a ) + Reiq . Although this onemachine problem is far simpler than actual systems. ri.a) ( r .x . sin(6 .15). it serves well to illustrate the procedure of finding initial conditions for any machine. L is added (this is a phasor perpendicular to E ) . and f. in the d axis direction to obtain the phasor E. I.1 and 5.1. Thus to locate the phasor E in Figure 5.3 both I d and V..id (5.V .4) into (5. + ( x .3 the machine terminal voltage components Vd and V.18) Note that Figures 5.a ) + R.
+ j l . l49). and currents are the same as given by (5. r... Equations (4. = i. are still applicable except that the currents id and i. as shown in Figure 5. the steadystate equations for the machine voltages. and (5.3 Phasor diagram of(5. /‘ v3 Ild = i. we seek a solution in which V and V. (5. should be replaced by the currents iIdand i. Since the terminal voltage is a quantity of considerable d interest. I n other words. 5./& (5.. Note that this form of the equations does not give the machine terminal voltage explicitly. to the stator equivalent EMF E are given by (5. which at steadystate conditions are the same as (5..12) respectively..154 Chapter 5 q axis Fig. .19) I.4 Machine Connected to an Infinite Bus with local load at Machine Terminal The equations that relate the infinite bus voltage V. are given explicitly.20) The transmission line equations are then given by Fig.17).13. 5. 5.14). For the system shown in Figure 5. = I.4. EMF’S.17).. These are the d and q axis components of the transmission line current i.16).4. where we define (5. .4 One machine with a local load connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line. with the q axis as a reference. One convenient method is to add a local load at the machine terminals.
25).vd/RL) + xc(fq V. 5. + j X L ) = v. . Substituting (5.27) (I + 2 ) ~. By inspection we (5..22). zl = Rl + i0 f.28) .CY) ./RL) v.)(R.24) we can solve for I. IS)./RL) = v.Sin(6 .) + Vq(Xe/RL)= ..(ld .V. + jvd Separating the real and imaginary components.a) + R./R./RL) .23) iL To .26) into (5.4.(Y) + R e ( f q.22) To obtain a relation between can write the phasor relations 5 and T . COS(b .(I + R. Sin (6 .15) into (5./RL (5.vd/RL) Vd(I R. ( x e / R L ) + v.T.25) The equations for the q and d axis voltage drops can then be obtained from (5.T.V.24) From (5. we refer to Figure 5.22).f. and t l d r (5. + + + X.v .a) + Re].Simulation of Synchronous Machines 155 which can be stated in the form (5.26) Substituting (5.4. (5. (L .1 Special case: the resistive load.d =: I d  vd/RL f.27) and rearranging.a)  RL Now define (5. = where we define 2. (5. xcfd (5.V. and (5. vd = vq = or v.25) I. COS(b .xe(Id . . c o s ( ~ v = . From (5. = RL + jXL. = For this case X L = 0.
a (5.~ ./RL) ?d = xe(I + r / R L ) t X d ( 1 + R . .VdX2 where XI Xi) vqX2 = .30) + RL)] (5.34) Combining (5./(R.CY) + + R.33) (RLR. Substituting (5.33) and (5. + XLXe)/Zt A2 = ( R L X .22) and rearranging. sin(6  CY) z: z: + Reid + X e I .2 The general case: arbitrary For ZL arbitrary the equations are more complicated.15). : ( I + Re/RL)E + j(Xe/RL)E where the phasor E .ld + xelq XeId + V.29)(5. . / R L ) ddId A (X. + R./RL)E El = v. (5.28) can be written as 4 R.V .32) or Vd(1 . s i n ( 6 .31)is shown in Figure 5.(I + r / R L ) + X. (5.4.5 Phasor diagram of a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus with local resistive load./RL)E (1 = = .?. Sin (6  CY) + R. makes an angle y with the 9 axis y = arctan[X. = x.29) Let us define a phasor E .(I + XI) V.31) The phasor diagram for (5. 5. k. COS(6  CY)  XdId + . COS(6  CY) + ReIq (5.I.XLRe)/ZZ (5.156 Chapter 5 Fig.5.(l Then (5. 5. vd(I + RLRe + xLxe) + V q ( R L x e XLRe = .25) into (5.v.I+.
I.29). .43) The above relations are illustrated in Figure 5.x.. (5.36) we may write (5. = I. V.XZ r ( l + X l ) ] I q + Again. (5. = (5.) + j ( x .x d ( l Xl)]Id + [ R .xqX2 + X.) (5. is the component of I. (I + XI)E = El 5 (1 sin(6 . can then be determined from their relationship to Vd and V. X.. = I. + x d ( l + A .Simulation of Synchronous Machines 157 X2E = .V. + R. lugs V. I .I.xdX2lId [ X . Then I. and the power factor Fp or the generated power P and the reactive power Q (per phase).40) The phasor E.. can be determined from (5.P ) and ud and u.2) is given by 6  E P = = tan'[(x.6.44) The remaining and the rotor quantities id and i.B in The angle between the q axis and the terminal voltage Figures 5. .V. ) ( r rl.cos(6 . ) ..I. The currents are obtained from Id = l.P + 4) I.41) (Le. . + d x ) / ( V a+ rlr % = .. . 5 = E + (r + jx. where I. as a reference. given by (5. we write Resolving 7 into components with is the quadrature component (which carries its o w n sign).a) + &Id (I V.38) Fp = COS@ (5. ( l + XI) + rXzll. i d Re + r(l + A . in phase with E. I and 5.)E (V.sin(6 . Then we compute Vd . it can be represented by the same phasor diagram in Figure 5. sin(6 .2 is given by E.P + 4) (5. and either the current I.lX)l (5.5.5 Determining SteadyState Conditions The most common' boundary conditions are the terminal voltage V .P ) V.37) Since (5.cos$ I.sin(6 . + rl.)E = h= R .sin 4 where 4 is the angle by which I .cos(6 .) = + jx.42) (5.xdXZ 5 td X . 5. + r(l + XI) . I n either case V. and I.cos(6 .a) + [ . and 4 (the power factor angle) are assumed to be known. = I.COS(~ a)  fdld (5.. by defining + + + + (5.V ..35) + X I ) E + &E.35) in the form X 2 E = .l. ) + rA2 5 + X.15).rXz . + (I.37) is of the same form as (5.a) [Re + r ( l + XI) . .(I + X I ) + rx2 + R.X .xqlx + V .11). x .x. 5 X. I . in Figure 5.39) I. the angle 6 . + j I . We also define the power factor Fpas + jf. .
5.. From I.. can be found. and power factor are known. 5.42). The threephase power of the machine can be determined from the relation P3+ = 3(VdId + V . parallel to the d axis and R . is determined from (5. Case 2: Machine terminal conditions V. The machined and q axis currents and voltages and the machine terminal voltage can then be determined.. The infinite bus voltage can then be determined by drawing R d I d + f .37)the phasor E. and knowing V . Vd.f d I d parallel to the q axis. I. Also E can be calculated from (5. V.2).158 Chapter 5 ' q axis Fig. Then from (5.25). . and V. ) .15) we can determine V. f . I .7. Case 3: Conditions at infinite bus are known. as shown in Figure 5. . I and 5. and V. is calculated. E.36) and (5. The voltage of the infinite bus is then determined by subtracting the appropriate voltage drops to the machine terminal voltage E. In this case Id and I.I. Then from ' F and Z L we can determine &.2. can be determined directly from (5.a are known. the machine terminal voltage V. The current I. From this information I d .. and Z . .41) and (5. Now the conditions at the terminals of the machine are known and the complete phasor diagram can be const ructed . From (5. and the power factor the position of the quadrature axis is determined (see Figure 5. can be constructed. r. Thus and the angle 6 . From TL and &. from which we can determine Vmdand V.37).1 Machine connected to an infinite bus with local load Case 1: V .. is + determined from (5.a are found.6 Phasor diagram illustrating (5.).. In the case of a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus the same procedure is followed if the conditions at the machine terminals are given. and the power at the infinite bus is given by 3( VmdIId Vm4f. the position of the q axis is determined by a procedure similar to the above. currents and flux linkages can readily be determined once these basic quantities are known. If the terminal conditions at the infinite bus are given as the boundary conditions. 5.13).. is found. I . r. This is illustrated in Examples 5. From K.. The terminal current I. and the machine load angle 6 . we can also determine the power and power factor at the infinite bus.25)..
and voltage we compute f.64 + 1.64 . 5.02 + j0. I f this machine is connected by a transmission line of 0.40 pu impedance to a large system. 5.884" = angle by which 1.850 1.096" arctan and 6 .00 x 0.85 f.44) + 39. = 1.788". power factor.6 (6 .85 = = 1.4 pu 0. = = = xq = r = F.1.00 x 1.8126 = 39. = Re Le Z.000 + 0.2.000 pu 0.138" From the given power. I The machine described in Examples 4. lags the q axis.. Calculate the steadystate operating conditions. The terminal voltage is 1.4005/87.3 is to be examined at rated power and 0. Then from (5.788 Then from (5.700 PU y.620 From (5. . and 4. = I.40) I.7 Construction of the phasor diagram for Case 2.620 x 1.cosd = 1.6 Examples The procedures described are illustrated by several examples where different initial conditions are given.0/0.0 pu.02 PU 0.j3) = = 1.001096 x 0.001096 arctan 0.42) and Figure 5. 4.620 1.0. = 1. Solution From previous examples and the prescribed boundary conditions the following data are available: x.000 fasin@= 0. Example 5. as 4 f.B + 4 = 31.640 PU 0. find the infinite bus voltage.176 PU The angle I$ is computed from F.Simulation of Synchronous Machines 159 Fig.001096 pu COS^ = 0.85 PF lagging conditions (nameplate loading). = cos'0. = = 31.096 = 70.
cos(6 .979) = 1.345 + 1.1.828 pu.l76//3 . As a check we calculate the electrical torque T. = 0.667 = 0. from Example 4. I76 /@ 3 1.43) V. = 0.001 pu. iF = &E/L.788') 1.925) + (1.995" . T..(0. = 1. = = i Ad .979 PU The currents io and i. .70 x 1.B) + (..667 = 1. = 0.925 x 1.634 = A.096 + 27.994 kMFid + LfiF = 1.B + 4) = 0. Let V . We can write V. .092 d pu From Figure 5.094 kMQi.= E .349" = 0.925)(1.OLp..979 .828 127.(Y = 27.634 Lqiq = 1.899" = the angle by which The angle between the infinite bus and the 4 axis is computed as = V.09" = V . and ld = t.O . I f we subtract the threephase t 2 r losses.55(2.B  CY) = 39..001096 x = EFD 0. 0 9 " 0.rti = 1.1 12 at steady state [from (4.776 PU = U.64 x 0.49 x 0.385 pu i.4005 /87. are both zero.651)(2.776 2.1 60 Chapter 5 t.55)(2.. The flux linkages are given in pu by Ad = A.925 pu From (5.55) = 1.Ze<. (fl 2..899 = 66.8)] where. AD A. .4712 155. = = = A.667 pu = t.8) in pu. = t./@ = l.094 = 3.1. I38")( I . = LAD = Now using (5. /a .925) + (1.979 ..000. and @ .p v.666)/1. we confirm the generated power to be exactly P = T.Csin39.1.209) and (5..55(1.sin(6 @ + 4) = 1.935 kMDid M R i F = I.666 + rIq . = 6= ..112 pu id = 1.994 = A.788" I . A.667 x 1. E leads 6  (Y = (6 . Then iF = 1. .1. A.004 Then T. 0. ~ 0 ~ 3 4 .55 x 2.1 by inspection E = = = V.0 . = & I.979) = 1.0. We also calculate the infinite bus voltage for this operating condition.55 pu.. kM. = 1. Then = V. which should be numerically equal to the threephase power in pu. = 1.i.344 PU 0.@ = 1.70(.899" or PU Thus we have V.idA.31.631 pu u = 1.345 (id + iF)kMF = (2. 0.X d t d + 0.385 + 1. = = = Ldid + kMFiF = 1.925) = 1.
0 pu at 0.788" (Y These angles are shown in Figure 5. with V. / 'd q axis REF Fig.Simulation of Synchronous Machines 161 Example 5. = 0 .00)2(0. 5. + Ref./1. The power factor angle at the machine terminal @ is given by 4 = p +e = COS'0. 4 ~ ~ . Using the identity tan @ = (tanp we compute 0. = 0 .020 .41.0.392 + 0. between and V. infinite bus voltage is 1.020 = 0.e.85 = 31.O pu current). the voltage is known at one point (the infinite bus). Let 13 Re = (I. Then + tan8)/(1  tanptane) .021. is I.980 .XJ. . = 0 . .1 be connected to an infinite ~. A slight modification of the procedure of Example 5. The boundary conditions given in this example are "mixed". while the power and reactive power are known at a different point (the machine terminal). The bus through a transmission line having R. used as reference. The machine loading remains the same as before ( P = 1.8. tan p = .)1.41.021.021.020) = 0 . = 1. + RJX V. 9 8 0 ~ ~The angle 6 . 0 2 ~ and Le = X.42)..0201.217 pu. Solution A good approximation is to assume that the power at the infinite bus is the same as at the machine terminals by neglecting the ohmic power loss in the transmission line (since R. .41.)/(l. A better approximation is to assume a power loss in the transmission line based on some estimate of current (say 1 .620 from which we get 1. is given by tan0 = 1. The angle p between and 7 is given by an equation similar to (5.85 PF).. pu and the component of the current in phase with V.e. i. .2 Let the same synchronous machine as in Example 5.0.0 pu.1.1 is needed.) I + [ 1.020(0.392 + 0.020 .85) = 0. 1.0201.. tan 4 = tan (cos' 0.8 Phasor diagram of V . X J . i. and V .392 + 0.]/( I . 0 2 ~ ~Then the power at the infinite bus is 0. is small).620. viz.) + (0.0. = = 0.0.
I.676 A.) (5 4 ) ..020 + 0.082) Also 1 = 1.388 = 1. is given by E = = ( V . representing the transmission line susceptance.46) .1 105 .310 + 12. The results are given below in pu: id = i.213/0..) In studies of large systems these boundary conditions are satisfied by iterative techniques.5 The apparent power injected at node I may be computed as f.7 Ad = 1. T.001 I n steadystate system studies (often called loadflow studies) it is common to specify the generator boundary conditions in terms of generated power and terminal voltage are commonly used for the terminal voltmagnitude. and line may be conveniently described as a twoport network (Figure 5 9 for which we write.483 = 31.162 Chapter 5 From the known value of I.217 = I . T.591 0.150 = A .003 /. and flux linkages can then be calculated as in Example 5. = = 3. 1 .106 + j0. = A . local load. The system of generator.X.= P. We now consider the bus consisting one machineinfinite bus problem with a local load connected to the of a shunt resistance RL and a shunt capacitance CL. with 7.OOO I pu (on a threephase basis).793" which is a good check (see above). The currents. voltages. and age and both are used in this book.004 1. = 1.980)= 1 .4 = 1. The position of the q axis can be determined from an equation similar to ( . (Both V . . = iF = E = ud = U. P and q.172/19.) + 1.392 . .0. + &Ir)+ j(Xcfr &I..826 2.31" pu 0.48" pu The generator phasor current is = and P = %I.004) (1.529 1..701 2.1. using a digital computer.148 165 . The terminal voltage V . = 194 .980 . + jQI= Frf = ViFE + ~~~~~ (5. For the one machineinfinite bus problem the system may be solved explicitly.12. we can now determine 8. 54) With a = 0. 8 ' 243 4 = 19.1o 93o 8 = tan'(0. Le. A. as reference (a! = 0).j0. 0.cos 4 = 1 . A.
sinP) (5.V~)/Y12V. In (5.4938 = 2.862 . GI. 5.1247 + j2.074' Then 7P = COS' F = 73. as the cosine function is bounded in (5.8) = (PI . Thus the admittance from L node I to reference is ylo= 0.47) we define (5.. I/Ze = YI2/y 0.V..V. = 1.47) where we define F. there are limits on the magnitude of PI that can be specified in any physical situation.48) F = COS(? ..01 Solution For the numerical data and boundary conditions given.48) as (PI . Obviously..G1.9 Onemachine system as a twoport network Then we may compute PI = GllV: + V.48). we compute Z. We then compute or y  Yll = ylo+ jj12 GI.1347 .02 + j0. = Re q. and B.4969/92.4838 pu We now compute the quantity F defined in (5.862" We are also given that RL = IOOpu and B = 0. and V. + jBkm for all k and m.138" pu pu yl. Thus we may solve (5.2.3 Compute the steadystate conditions for the system of Examples 5. Example 5. where the given boundary conditions in pu are P = 1.1 and 5.01 pu.01 + jO..OO and where the local load is given in pu as RL = 100 B L = CL = 0.862" = 92.0 (on a threephase basis) V. . are known or computed system parameters. = = + jX. Then from (5.lV:)/Y12V. it is convenient to define a constant angle y related to the admittance element = YI2/y.j2. . = F = + jBll = 0. =  = 0.G.(G.47) PI.01 pu.074". are specified.cosB + B. In doing so. = 1 .4005/87.17 V.47) for the angle P.Simulation of Synchronous Machines 163 Fig..4 = 0.788 = 19.788" or = l.73. from which P can be found.l7/19.2792 /3 = 92. = G. V. while G .Vm = 0.. .
. Find the conditions at the infinite bus.570 Ad = 1..)] = 0.2 may be computed as a means of finding 6.024".709 ~d = A.9 that = + &.1 has a local load of 0.Ksin8] + j[R.@ +4 = 65. = 0. It is connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line having Re = 0.595 PU 0. noting that lies at an angle B from V . The quantity Eqa of Figure 5. 2.6' or .4 pu power at 0. pu = & +& + 90" (T .V. A.j0. Solution The internal machine currents.164/30.2161 pu = 0. = 1.2012 = 0. = 2.0072 + j0.161 2. (Figure 5.1.2199 radians Then. flux linkages.897 1.9667 .4 pu.sinP z 3 /12.024" PU and 6 = 54.4 The same machine at the same loading as in Example 5. I . as in Figure 5.661 E if = = Xf T.8 PF. Thus with a = 0 we compute.000 + j0.0. = cos 30.163 = = = uq = 1. voltages.859 = 1. P + jQ = ci. XQ = 1.1. XAQ = X .746' = .746" 6 .j0. we compute dq currents.V.)/Z [R.) + X.000 Example 5. as a check. > / @ 0. and voltages are the same as in Example 5.V.950" 4 B +@ = 30. in pu.746" The power factor is F .(V. = IaD= 0.Xe(Kcos@.1 pu and X. Now 6 We also write = = = = (V:/RL)E+ ( q / X .180 = 3.500 2. < = + I'. Thus..V. Then we compute 60 = 34. P.9945 1.696" With all the above quantities known.662 iq = 0. we note from Figure 5.794 = 1.0149.1 1.cos@ . and flux linkages in pu as in Example 5.6. with the result i d = .8).446/54.672" PU We may now compute.056 1.9739 .164 Chapter 5 To find the currents.99056 .003 = 1.
385)(0.1 12)(2.001096 x 1. 0.4 .3pu.d = + 1.Simulation of Synchronous Machines Id 165 = = = I.631 x 1 2 .6 x 0.34) X I = (1.1197) .666) = 0.001096 X 1 1 .4 .13 X 1.64 = 0.119 .673)(0. a loadflow study is run to determine them.)(.385 39. the conditions prior to the start of the transient must be known.839 = From (5.119) + (1.1.776 x I..CY) = (.2639 4 0. XL = 1. 6  p 1. 1.6268) + 0.1197 . .6268 . terminal voltage. = .j0. Assume that a reference frame is adopted for the power system.631 x 1 6 = o.4 + 0.16 .7 Initial Conditions for a Multimachine System To initialize the system for a dynamic performance study.673)2+ (0.385  + 0. and current are known for each machine.0. 5. in pu.14pu.303 .501 = The power delivered to the local load is PL = 0. = 1. = f d = 2 = .O x V.4/(1.501 v.13)(2. sin ( 8 .385)(2.554 PU The power delivered to the infinite bus is P . = V .112 0.16 + 0.2 ZL = 2.501)2]1’2 0.13 = 2.4 pu.6 0. = (0. This reference can .666) = 0.631 2.776 0.V.372 .4 + V .096” 0.64 x 1 1 + 0.112 0.(0.16 .13 = 2.37) 01 + .666 From the local load information I IL I = 0.001096 X 0.) 0.2 x 0.4)/(2.3 1 7 X 1.001096 x 0.8) = 0 5 .16)(2.0 1 x 1.25) I.0.0 Thus we compute from (5. PU Therefore IL = 0. Then the transmission losses are 0. which is verified by computing RJ.7 = 0. = vd = E = 0.a) = (1.13 .2639 x 0..0)2= 0. power factor. From (5. 01 + . We can also determine that.6 Then Rd = R.112)(0. If they are not specifically known. . From the knowledge of these conditions we can assume that the power output.6 x 0 1 + 1. .303) (0.1 2 x 0 1 / 2 0 ’ = 0. COS (6 .(0. 4 16 .372).2 + 0.776 x 0. RL = 16 . These are the steadystate conditions that exist before the impact. A2 = (1.673 V . = [(0. = 0.
Note that pi is determined from the loadflow study data. we can determine I. can also be calculated once the d and q components of I are known. The flux linkages .. The following data are commonly supplied. They are usually given in pu to the base of the machine threephase rating. however. we can determine the angle Si . = xi = xi = xi’ Subtransient q axis = x. It was noted in Section 4. and with the base rotor quantities chosen to force reciprocity in the nonreciprocal Park’s transformed equations. which indicates the rotor . Consider the ith machine.7. From the loadflow data we can determine for each machine the component I.166 Chapter 5 be chosen quite arbitrarily. but the mutual inductances between rotor and We shall attempt to clarify these matters in stator circuits differ by a factor of this section..14) From or (5.’ Negativesequence = x2 Zerosequence = xo Armatureleakage = xt ..8 Determination of Machine Parameters from Manufacturers‘ Data The machine models given in Chapter 4 are based upon some parameters that are very seldom supplied by the manufacturer. the values of primary interest here are the socalled unsaturated reactances. Then from (5. it should not be changed during the course of the study. can be determined. Reactances (in pu I: Synchronous d axis Synchronous q axis Transientdaxis Transient q axis Subtransient d axis = Xd = x.15) to determine Ei. and 6.3 that the pu selfinductances of the stator and rotor circuits are numerically equal to the values based on a manufacturer’s system.Pi for this machine. This is necessary because of the choice of Park transformation Q (4. Typical generator data supplied by the manufacturer would include the following. . and let the q axis be at an angle 6. vaj 5. with respect to the same reference.. vdj.Pi) is the load angle or the position. during the study it will be assumed that this reference frame is maintained at synchronous speed. peakrated stator current. of the terminal current in phase with the terminal voltage and the quadrature component I. Furthermore.42). peakrated stator voltage to neutral. For a more detailed discussion see Appendix C. the pu system used here is somewhat different from the manufacturer’s pu system. By using an equation similar to (5. which is the initial rotor angle of machine i. The difference between these two angles angle between the q axis and the terminal voltage. I d j .22) traditionally used by the manufacturers. Once it is chosen. Threephase MVA Frequency and speed Stator line voltage Stator line current Power factor Parameters: Of the several reactances supplied. Then by adding the angle & we get the angle d. Let its terminal voltage phasor Vaj at an angle Pi be with respect to the arbitrary reference frame. Ratings: m. I n addition. which can be used in (5. and Vqi. while di is the desired initial angle of the machine q axis.7) i.
L ~L. . The fieldwinding leakage is calculated from Figure S.. L.55) and (4.56).. the corresponding value of LA. L. The mutual fieldtostator inductance MF in H is determined from the air gap line on the noload saturation curve as d V B = WBhfFiF.and& are known.eF Li which can be put in the form = 4 d + LADXF/(LAD + XF) PU (5. .Simulation of Synchronous Machines 167 Time constants (in s): Field open circuit Subtransient of amortisseur ( d axis) Subtransient of amortisseur ( q axis) = . L.‘ = 7.io = T.49) (5. Rotor per unit quantities: Calculation of the rotor circuit leakage inductances is made with the aid of the equivalent circuits in Figure 5. Thus L d .’ Resistances (in Q): Stator resistance at 25°C Field circuit resistance at 25°C Other data: Moment of inertia in Ibm. The base rotor quantities are then determined from (4..X d . where iF is the field current that gives the rated voltage in the air gap line... LO.ftZor WRz (sometimes separate data for generator and turbine are given) Noload saturation curve (at rated speed) Rated load saturation curve (at rated speed) Calculations: The base quantities for the stator are readily calculated from the rating data: SB = V A rating/phase V A VB = statorrated linetoneutral voltage V f B = statorrated current A wB = 27r x rated frequency rad/s The remaining stator quantities follow: Also the stator pu inductances are known from the corresponding reactance values. in H is then calculated. Rotor base quantities: I f & in pu is known.50) . the base mutual inductance M F B is calculated from (4..10.IO(a) by inspection: inductance . then L A D in pu is determined from L A D = L.57). L.
55) from which we can obtain . 5.tq>/<Lq L:)I (5. and the winding resistance Fig.52) The selfinductances of the field winding L and of the amortisseur LD are then calcuF lated from L F = . (5.10(b).51) from which we can obtain e.)] (5. by inspection of Figure 5.& .1 I by inspection: L: 44 (5. + LAD LA. IO Equivalent circuit ford axis inductances: (a) transient inductance. (b) subtransient inductance. = LD 4 .LF(Li .td)/[L. . 5.e.ed and 4 . = LADeAL: . + = LAQ[(L. a temperature rise of 80100°C is usually assumed.54) 4.53) = Lq  where .56) and the selfinductance of the q axis amortisseur is given by Resisrances: The value used for the stator winding resistance should be that which corresponds to the generator operating temperature at the rated load. If this data is not available. + LAD (5.e. Similarly. . is determined from Figure 5.168 Chapter 5 6) Fig.1 I Equivalent circuit of the 9 axis subtransient inductance.eq = . .eQLAQ/(&Q + LAQ) (5.eF The same procedure is repeated for the q axis circuits.
70 . can be determined. However.187) and (4.075 s 7. . From (4.380 PU = 0. Thus for copper winding the stator resistance for I00"C temperature rise is given by r125 = '25[(234. from = (L.61) Again note that T$ and 7.70 pu xt = k d = 4.245 PU = 0. are given in pu.0.189) we compute r~ = W 7 i 0 PU (5. L A L.Simulation of Synchronous Machines 169 is calculated accordingly.58) The same procedure can be used to estimate the field resistance at an assumed operating temperature.185 = L: PU = Ti0 = 5. This may also explain apparent inconsistencies that may be found in a given set of data.190) the d axis subtransient time constant is given by T : = [(LDLF  LiD)/rDLFl(L$/Li) rD pu (5.and MR. kMD. xd xq X : X : = = X.1 are given below. (4.192) and (4.o l = 0.55 This is also the same as kMF.15 = 1.15 pu 1. The machine parameters are to be calculated and compared to those obtained in Example 4. data supplied by the manufacturer may not be available in the complete form given in this section. When some of the data is not available.193) rQcan be found. LI = 1.9 S T$ = 0.WQ/rQ) P U (5. Example 5. The latter are usually estimated for a machine of given size and type. Finally.64 PU = 0.023 s .Similarly. This section illustrates the procedure that can be used to determine the parameters of the machine.24 s Solution We begin by calculating the pu d axis mutual inductance LAD = 1. We should also differentiate between data obtained from verified tests and those obtained from manufacturers' quotations. = 0. other information is available to estimate the field resistance.5 + 125)/(234. Similarly.5 The data given by the manufacturer for the machine of Example 4.5 + 25)] Q (5.60) are known. The damper winding resistances may be estimated from the subtransient time constants./L. I . We should always ascertain that the parameters thus calculated are selfconsistent. 7. From (4.59) where ~i~ is given in pu time. = = = Ld L. the engineer may find it convenient to assign values for this data from typical data available in the literature for machines of the same size and type. Actual values for several existing machines are given in Appendix D.60) Since all the inductances in (5. = 0. often long before the machine is fabricated.
l85/l.055 = 1.61) rp = (1.49 PU 0. 5.170 Chapter 5 LA.605 x 1.55[(0.55)(0.eF = L . .490 = 0.163) have two types of nonlinearities.55)(0.70 .0.245)j 0. = (L.245) 0.055 PU Also.56) &Q= L.651/2224.023 x 377)(0.l85)] 1.15 = 1./L. We begin with the analog simulation.550 + 0.52) .65 1)(0.(1. A brief description of analog computers is given in Appendix B.64 .101 = PU + 1.0. Also.651 .036 70 = A = 1.O.0.60) rD= = (1.651 PU From (5. from (5.185 . Note that the equations describing the machine are nonlinear.eD = LD = (1.15)/( I .15) 1.0. from (5.154) and (4. I . For example (4.55 = 1. These types of nonlinearities can be conveniently represented by special analog computer components.054 pu Then from (5.185 .185) (1.526 PU From the open circuit time constant 5.59) r. the analog computer can be very useful in representing other nonlinearities such as limiters (in excitation systems) and saturation (in the magnetic circuit).9 s = 2224.50) = kMQ = 1. = 1.185 .19 rad 0.036 PU + 0. = 1.1.640 .651)(0. = 1.150)/(1.9 Analog Computer Simulation of the Synchronous Machine The mathematical models describing the dynamic behavior of the synchronous machine were developed in Chapter 4.25 rad We compute from (5.075 s we compute T.25 = 7.64) = These values are the same as those calculated in Example 4.0131 PU From T$ = 0.46 ms = 3. Thus in many ways the analog computer is very well suited for studying synchronous machine problems.101)(0.15) (1.55)(0.0.526/3.101) . a product nonlinearity of the form xixj (where xi and xi are state variables) and the trigonometric nonlinearities cos y and sin y. Now.49[(0.101 .55 x 1.245 .0.605 PU = 0.19)(0. The remainder of this chapter will be devoted to the simulation of these models by both analog and digital computers.423 x pu and from (5.)?$ = 8.
128) 1 dt + X. For example the statespace equation of the variable xi is ii= J ( x . are the driv (5.A”.X. are the state variables.) and the mechanical torque (for T. . u . 3.4. I 18) the d axis and field currents are given by = (l/&.126) A..) are also added.2.. . For analog computer simulation (5.)  wx. recall that the statespace model of a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus is a set of seven firstorder.2. . The differential equations will be modified. j = 1.12. t ) where xi. nonlinear differential equations. it is usually limited to problems involving one or two machines with full representation or to a small number of machines represented by simplified models (2. ..62) 1.  Ud From (4.. Thus the equations developed in Section 4. k ing functions. . to avoid differentiation. and u. is computed from (4.69) = (l/tF)(AF  The analog representation of the d axis equations is shown in Figure 5.(O) (5.1 Direct axis equalions From (4.129) A. When the equations for the excitation system (for u.65) and from (4. Note that all integrand terms are multiplied by wB to compute time in seconds and divided by the time scaling factor a.9.A.)dt + A.62) is written as = (5. Complete representation of only one synchronous machine with its controls would occupy the major part of a largesize analog computer. Thus while the analog computer is well adapted for the study of synchronous machine dynamics. 5.12 are used for the analog simulation.(O) (5.) (5. The model most suited for analog computer representation is the flux linkage model.63) wherea is the computer time scale factor and wB is required if time is to be in seconds (see Appendix B). ..68) (5.n.)(x. = 4 l’ [ (A”. . .120) Then from (4. .64) (5. however. r .66) & I The mutual flux linkage A. the system is typically described by 14 differential equations.5].Simulation of Synchronous Machines 171 To place the matter in the proper perspective. = >l‘ id iF ‘D (A”.
5.130) (5.72) (5. I3 I ) XQ = ( A ~ Q XQ)df  + XQ(O) (5. I23).XAQ) The analog simulation of the q axis equations is shown in Figure 5. .70) and from (4.9.2 Quadrature axis equations From (4. from (4.73) Then the q axis current is given by. 5.13 Analog sirnulation of the q axis equations. L ‘ AQ ‘ Q Q ‘AQ “^Itt 9 Fig.172 Chapter 5 a A ‘AD A Fig.13.71) The mutual flux linkage is computed from = LQ(hq/&q + hQ/&Q) (5. jq = (I/&q)<Xq .12 Analog representation of the daxis equations. 5.
ever. is used. 5. This load is represented by a large resistance R . which should be avoided in analog computer simulation. 5. differentiation of id and i will be required.75) are useful in generating the voltages u and uq..Simulation of Synchronous Machines 173 Fig.id]dt + i.149) a 0 will be used for convenience. . if they are used directly.  Rei. + wL. Howd . = (i..74) and (5. . is the phase a current to the infinite bus.3 load equations = In (4.14 the machine terminal voltage and current for phase a are given by u. L Fig. cos 6 + u. The machine is assumed to have a very small resistive load located at its terminal. suggested by Krause [2].9.) R (5.if. the following scheme. To generate Vd and u. From Figure 5.74) i.(O) (5.\/5 V .76) where if. (5.14. Therefore.15 Analog simulation of the load equations. as shown in Figure 5.14 One machineinfinite bus system with local resistive load. 5.75) Equations (5. = 2 lo ' [ .
and iqf given by (5. The currents id and i.78) where T = (i. 5. (5.80) The analog computer simulation of (5.14.80) is shown in Figures 5. with subscript t . Most analog computers require that 6 be expressed in degrees to find sin 6 and cos 6 [6]. added as required by Figure 5.74) and (5.?!% Aa wA dt + . with hA = h in pu and = 2HwB. are given by (5.)R (5.a and 6 is shown in Figure 5. the current if can be resolved into d and q axis components id.we can write (5. From (4.o Fig.idXq)/3. since d = wB(w.17. The analog repre &A ” I 1 1 . Therefore.78)(5.9.17 Simulation ofwA.68) and (5.77) where i and if. .99).75) respectively.Xd . with zero initial conditions and with a time scale factor of a.I ) = W B O A pu. are obtained from (5..73). The analog computer simulation of the load equations is shown in Figure 5. The ud and uq signals are obtained from Figure 5. compute. requiring appropriate values of D .w. 5.14 by inspection.. .74) and (5.6(0) 180 A elec deg (5. The generation of the signals . Following a procedure similar to that used in Section 5.4. we compute 6 = !.i.17.4 Equations for w and 6 T. Equation (5.)R u.15.174 Chapter 5 Fig.i.75). I6 Simulation of the electrical torque T. Vd = (id .16 and 5.and b . = (iq .78) is integrated with time in seconds to .90) and (4. 5.79) Note that the load damping signal used is proportional to wA (pu slip).
and whd shown in Figures 5.Next Page Simulation of Synchronous Machines 175 sentations shown in Figures 5.17 generate the basic signals needed to simulate a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line.155.18. 5.12. and 5.13.13. . additional multipliers are needed. cos 6. It is important to  100 SW 1017 r Fig. 5. To produce the signals V. For example to produce the signals wX.12 and 5. other auxiliary signals are needed. an electronic resolver is needed. However.18 Analog computer patching for a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line. sin 6 and V. The complete analog representation of the system is shown in Figure 5.
= 0. The basic connection diagrams for the analog simulation are given in Figures 5. The operating conditions as stated in Example 5.g. is then applied with the speed integrator in operation.e 0.Previous Page 176 Chapter 5 note that signals are added by using the appropriate setting for the potentiometers associated with the various amplifiers and integrators scaled to operate within the analog computer rating. 5.101 0.490 1. Example 5.5. The time scaling used is 20. Then T. This value of E F D with the proper scaling is introduced into the integrator for A.666.6 the scaling is given in detail for the simulation of the synchronous machine. In that figure the analog unit numbers and the scaling factors for the various signals are given. To initialize the system for analog computation.02 0.651 = = LA. which is given in parentheses. = 0 and w = w R = constant.0 4d &F = = = 0.0540 L F R = 100. e. The steadystate conditions thus reached correspond to initialization of the system for transient studies. = 1.001096 rF = rD Le LAD 0.036 Le = 0.3). = 2. This scaling is best illustrated by an example..2 is to be simulated on an analog computer. and T. H T:.12 5. is to be examined.6 The synchronous machine discussed in Examples 4. This builds the flux linkages to values corresponding to the noload conditions. .605 = 1.02838 = L. is switched on with all integrators.550 1. rQ = 0.14. including the w integrator. at zero. = 0. and in Example 5. Note that EFD = E in the steady state.00 pu and E F D 2. maintaining the speed constant. the scaling factor for A. The overall connection diagram is shown in Figure 5.15. Solution The data for the synchronous machine and transmission line in pu is given by: L. and 5. The settings of the various potentiometers and the scaling are listed in Table 5 .1 represent the steadystate conditions. The load T.90 s s V.18. = 0...3. I.0131 1. The initial conditions may be calculated from the steadystate equations (as in Examples 5.150 R. I .00074 0.526 = = = r = 0.17. The integrators for the flux linkages are allowed to operate with the torque T. However.055 4.640 LD . L. and these values may be used to initialize the integrators. The system response to changes in U. the analog computer may be used to compute these initial conditions.700 1.9. The integrator for the speed is kept at hold position.828 E The additional data needed is T.37 &Q= 0. the analog computer is made to initialize itself by allowing the integrators to reach the steadystate conditions in two steps. is 10. As explained in Section 5. in operation.400 = 5. LD = = 1. In the first step E F D is applied with T.02836 = 1. the following procedure is used.
00 r0 0 0 00 r 2 0 w $4 J Q s 2 I 2 I Q 2 w r w w 0 2 rw  R 3 2 w q 0 I I I 2 I 2 \ 2 I  9 m  9 9 z z 2 8 z z z Q Q Q rn a .
0 0 00 “ $ N N II I I 1 I I$ “4 1 01 01 2 I 2 2 2 I 4 e 0 m 0 % 4 4 Ei  .
VI 0 0 X 8 2 'c! m 8 "/f 8 II 9 1 rr: 4  ro 0 0 00  9 ' c ! c ? c ? 00 VI 22  0 0  g o E 3 * o F: F: I= 2 m SI2 B R R a a a a 5s 2 2N 2 N 8 d 8 d g g a SI d .v .
1 is used as a base for the computer runs.1. corresponds to a terminal voltage V. . 5.195.3 pu. The results of the simulation are . zero V. = 1 .2666. of 6 p u (or V..O). Figures 5.19 Response of a machine initially at 90% load and 90% excitation to a 20% step change in excitation.+.. the terminal voltage error V.. 10% T is 0.21 show the following analog computer outputs: the change in the exciter voltage E F D . shown in Figures 5.. the field flux linkage A.1. the stator d axis current id. Similarly.23. the electromagnetic torque T. and the rotor angle 6 .2. Example 5. the angular velocity error a. The steadystate conditions reached by the analog computer are listed in Table 5.195.. and . Thus a 10% change in EFDis 0. the mechanical torque T.180 Chapter 5 Fig. They are compared with the values computed in Example 5. which is 10% of the nominal value computed in Example 5.. where all plotted quantities are given in pu.
The system is initially in exactly the condition calculated in Example 5.9 s).7). Figure 5.is the first disturbance.20 Response of a machine initially at lOOu/. The generator is initially loaded at 90% of rated load (T'+ = 2. Fig. particularly in T. this . and E F D .19 shows the response of the loaded machine to a 20% change in E F D ..20 shows the system response to 10% step changes in both T. A good degree of damping is evident. w ..2. Figure 5. welldamped oscillation in ob.. The terminal voltage responds nearly as a firstorder system with a time constant of about 4 s (.1 with computer voltages given in Table 5.Simulation of Synchronous Machines 181 . load (Example 5. id.1 conditions) to a 10% increase in T followed by a 10% increase in EFD to assure stable operation.io = 5. However.. Note that the response to this change in E F D does not excite an oscillatory response except for a small. 5. A 10% increase in T.. and 6 (as well as other variables that are not plotted). This excites a welldamped oscillatory response.. V.
21 Response of a machine initially at 90% load to a 20% increase in T.399). than the initial value. This quickly restores the system to a stable operating state at about the same angle 6 as the initial angle.. A 20% increase in EFD is . 5.is applied. The corrective action chosen was a 10% increase in EFD.. Repeated runs of the system have indicated that corrective action is required before 6 reaches about 95".182 Chapter 5 Fig. and EFD are each 20%. The result is a fast movement toward instability.666 = 2.20 except that the increments of T.9 x 2. overload on the system results in a gradual increase in 6 with time.. followed by a 20% increase in EFDto restore stability. but at a higher A. Figure 5. Then a 20% step increase in T..21 is similar to 5. which if not arrested will cause the machine to fall out of step. The system is initially at 9U% load and 90% EFD(0. as evidenced by the rapid increase in 6 and the drop in terminal voltage.
344 .a.78 .49 33.10 1.22 shows a plot in the phase plane. Finally.925 0. Initial conditions of Example 5. Just prior to loss of synchronism a Fig..10 .20).66 44. following the 10% increase in T.10 39.094 I .717 .22 Phaseplane plot U A versus 6 for a 10% step increase in’T.10 19.04 29.2.997 67. the excess load and excitation are removed.732 .1. 5. followed by a 10% step increase in EFD(see Figure 5.I03 1.1 2. Figure 5.17 applied at about the time 6 reaches IOO”.I . 1.103 I .935 3.904 2.004 66.I2 52.995 *Angle between q axis and infinite bus = 68.89 8 .092 1.634 0.920 0.42 48..94 2.13 0.345 I ..12 30.63 38.604 1.60 0. I.003 1.667 2. .I .I .and the system is quickly restored to a stable operating state.29 0.316 0.85 .979 1.10 0. or uAversus 6.Simulation of Synchronous Machines Table 5.20.67I 1.90 .316 1.84 0. Variable 183 Comparison of Digital and Analog Computed Variables Analog computed values V L W Computed value pu Percent error I .97 33.60 . The system “spirals” to the right.994 1.39 13.1. for exactly the same disturbances as shown in Figure 5.I . first very fast and later very slowly.
15. A 10% increase in T.10 Digital Simulation of Synchronous Machines Early efforts in solving synchronous machine behavior by digital computer were simply digital applications of the constantvoltagebehindtransientreactance model. the time domain is broken up into discrete segments of length the equations solved for each segment. Figure 5. The system is initially at 90% load but with 100% of the Example 5.23 Phaseplane plot EFD = 2.. increase in EFDcauses the system to return to about the original 6.23 shows the more rapid convergence to the target value of 6 in the stable case. A comparison of Figures 5. 5.666. or 2. engineers quickly realized that the digital computer was a powerful tool for handling very large system of differential equations. 04 versus 6 for a 10% step increase in T.1 computed value of E F D .9. usually in the form of one of the simplified models of Section 4. I t also introduced more detailed synchronous machine models into many cornputer programs. Le. All digital computer simulations must solve the differential equations in a discrete and manner. causes the system to oscillate and to seek a new stable value of 6. = 0. More recent research [8. This caused an expansion in power plant modeling to include exciters. with initial conditions T. 5. and turbines. following along the lower trajectory. A simple flow chart of the process is shown .9]has been aimed at finding the best machine model for system dynamic studies. governors. As larger and faster computers became available.666. IO?.23 shows a n example of a stable phaseplane trajectory.184 Chapter 5 Fig. using a stepbystep solution method similar to that of Kimbark [7].22 and 5.
5. which flows in the magnetizing inductance L A D . Usually it is assumed there is no saturation at 0. as shown clearly in the analog computer representation of Figure 5. A. 5.Simulation of Synchronous Machines 185 nonlinearities + t= t c t results Fig. This is difficult because saturation is an implicit function. by a polynomial approximation. Our concern in this book is not with numerical methods... some of which are presented in Appendix E.i iMD we estimate saturation. shown in Figure 5. It is based upon computing the offset from the air gap line in pu based on the field current required to produce rated open circuit voltage. The first requirement in computing saturation is to devise some means of determining the amount of saturation corresponding to any given operating point on the saturation curve.1 Digital computation of saturation One of the problems in digital calculation of synchronous machine behavior is the determination of saturation. From these A’s we compute . Each integra. is a function ofi.. and so on.But the currents id. = f ( A A D ) .10. which gives a new AAD. For this procedure the saturation curve is represented by a table of data of stator EMF corresponding to given field current. A number of models are given in Chapter 4. and this gives new currents. The exponential estimate is often used since exponentials are easy to compute. = id + iF + i.12. We shall use the flux linkage model of Section 4.25 as iFO.. iF.8 pu . and i. Actually. From tion step gives us new A’s by integration.. depend upon AAo.12 to illustrate a digital program for calculating synchronous machine behavior in a numerical exercise. A.e. There are several proven methods for performing the actual numerical integration. Our principal concern is the mathematical model used in the simulation. although this is important. in Figure 5. i.24 Flow chart of digital integration. or by an exponential estimate.24.
81 This is appealing since X A D = (id + iF + iD)LAD LAD the only inductance that and is saturates appreciably.86) This result may be substituted into (5.87) Appendix D shows a plot of SGas a function of V. Although we define saturation to be zero for V.186 Chapter 5 Field Current.2iFo 1.82) where V.2s~~ = Ace 0.2iFO (5.25 Estimating saturation as an exponential function. IF. 5. The function SGis always positive and satisfies the defined values SG.81) Then any saturation may be estimated as an exponential function of the form SG = AGf?8GvA (5.8 pu. From (5.85) to compute BG = 5 In (1.82) to solve for the and saturation parameters A G and BG. (5. .8. these values can be substituted into (5.82) we write S G ~ Ace = 0. < 0. We then compute the normalized quantities SGI = iFI im iF0 sG2 = iF3 .2B~ I ~ ( ~ . = V.4BG = In( I . voltage. / A G ) In(SG. Since at open circuit X A D tion in terms of X A D .0. and s G 2 at r/. /AG)’ = = 0. ~ S G ~ /0. can also compute saturaV we . = d .1. If sGI S G 2 are given.286 1.84) Rearranging.85) or AG = s l/I a . A 01 pu Fig.4BG) = A G (5.O and 1.iF2 iF2 iF3 ..2SG2 (5.0.48 G (5. we compute In(SGI/AG) Then 0. actually SGassumes a very small posi .2sG2 /AsGI) (5.2 respectively. = 1 .83) SG = A c e x p [ ( X A ~ / d ). ~ S G .81) and (5.
Le.81) s ~ ( 5 = (RiF ..0 on the air gap line is iFo = 365 A. we usually assume that saturation has a similar effect under load.08219)2/1.88) where iF is the field current required to produce an open circuit voltage V.. including the effect of saturation. From (5.K s ~ ( 4 ) (5.2 P U SGZ= 120 A The field current corresponding to V. from (5. = 1.Simulation of Synchronous Machines 187 tive value in this voltage range. = RkiFo. given the following data from the saturation curve. it reduces the terminal voltage by an amount V.2 Updating the integrands After computing the new value of saturation for each new time step.SGfrom the unsaturated value. V. = 1. Solution From (5. However.kiFO)/kiFO (5. we are ready to update the integrands in preparation for numerical integration. This process is illustrated by an example.86) AG (0. Example 5.2(0.08219] = 6.89) where Rip is the voltage on the air gap line corresponding to field current i F .9315 5.08219 = S G = 120/1. The exponential function thus gives a reasonably accurate estimate of saturation for any voltage.K)/K ) from which we may write the nonlinear equation = Rip . If the air gap line has a slope (resistance) R we have V.27397 Then from (5. Example 5.27397/0.0205 and from (5.0 PU S G l = 30 A V. SG = (iF . Equation (5.8 Prepare a FORTRAN computer program to compute the integrands of the flux linkage model for one machine against an infinite bus using the machine data of the Chapter 4 examples. = 1.81) we compute in pu S G ~ 30/365 = 0.7 Determine the constants A G and B G needed to compute saturation by means of the exponential definition. the actual terminal voltage is not Rip but is reduced by an amount V. Include in the program a treatment of saturation that can be .SG where SG is a function of V.10..81) we can write for any voltage level.89) describes only the noload condition. Because of saturation.87) BG = 5 In [1. Then.27397) = 0.2(365) ~ = 0.2(0.RkiFo)/RkiFo = (Rip .
26 CSMP program for computing initial conditions. 5.26 CSMP program for computing initial conditions.188 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 C C N NUGUS S Y S T E M M O D E N G PROGRAM * * * * C C N T I T I N U G U S S Y S T E M MODELLIIN 6 P R O G R A M * * * * VERSION 1. . 5. Fig.3 0 Fig.
Machines Simulation of Synchronous Machines 189 189 Fig.26 (continued) . 5.
5.1 90 Chapter 5 Fig.26 (continued) .
we compute the saturation function SGD= f ( X A D ) in the Fig. Compute the new currents.00 (PGEN). problems with different boundary conditions but of the same type can be solved with ease.27 coincide. 5. Thus iMD computed by (5.OO(VINF)..26give P = 1. = I. or until points A and B of Figure 5.3. 3.3. 2. P and at the generator terminals. I . whereas the flux linkages Ad.27. The boundary conditions chosen for this example are those of Example 5. but to some new point B.XAD>/‘?!d (AD .and V .X A D ) / ~ F = id + + iF iD (5.91) we compute an estimate of the new currents.91) does not correspond to point A of Figure 5. Use the Continuous System Modeling Program (CSMP) [IO] for solving the equations and plotting the results.X A D ) / { D i~ iMD = (XF . and AD are the integrated new values. X F . This is one of the advantages of a. As noted in Examples 5. W being used for X and S meaning “saturated”).27 Saturation curve for the magnetizing inductance L A D . The FORTRAN coding for this section of the program is included in the portion of the program listing in Figure 5. = 1. this computation depends upon the boundary conditions that are specified. Solution An essential part of the computer program is a routine to compute the initial conditions.15. . The boundary conditions specified in Figure 5. computer program: once it is written and verified.26 called INITIAL.91) is the value computed at the start of the last A t . Include a local load on the generator bus in the computation. viz. Note that the statement of the problem does not give any explicit numerical boundary condition. This estimate is not exact because the value of X A D used in (5. We do this by changing our estimated XAD slightly until iMDagrees with X A D on the saturation curve. Make a preliminary estimate of XAD (AAD is named WADS in the program. V. Since X A D is a function of the currents and of saturation. we must find the correct new X A D iteratively.Simulation of Synchronous Machines 191 executed prior to integration at each time step.17(VT). From the equations id = ( A d iD = . To estimate the new XAD.
28 CSMP program for updating integrands. 5.192 Chapter 5 Fig. .
defined in Figure 5.D = FAD = If the test fails. finding new currents. The computer program for updating the integrands is shown in Figure 5.28.AAD) where h is chosen to be a number small enough to prevent overshoot. the step input is applied at t = TSTART = 0. Now the entire procedure is repeated. The second part of the program computes the integrands of all equations in preparation for integration (integration is indicated in the program by the macro INTGTL).27.3. etc.A. typically. GAD = 4.Ao)/(I + S G D )= I GAD A L A D ~ M D / ( + SGD) ~ to see if it is significantly different from A A D .. Computer mnemonics are given in Table 5. . As the process converges. In both cases. and A N . and the error mea + SGD) Now define a new A. we will know both the new current and the new saturated value of A A D . using (5. such as mate a new A A D from neWA. we compute AAD I < ? f where E is any convenient precision index. h = 0.2 s.. A0 = AAD(1 + SGD) AN = L A D i M D Then the error measured on the air gap line is X E sured on the saturation curve is approximately AA = = AN .83).295. we esti AAD .. Then we compute + ( A N .01. Then we compute A.. The computed output of several variables to a step change in T. returning to step 1 with the XAD = F A D . and E F D is shown in Figures 5. Le.40.h ( G A D .Simulation of Synchronous Machines 193 usual way. Now we test GAD AAD to be GAD. defined as G A D = XAD + AA..
0 2. . s 1.5999 . I I I I I I I I I I 0 Time. .6406 1. ..I I I 1 l I I l I l ! I 1 I I I 1 I I I l 1 1 l 1 l I l l I l l ccI l l I l l I l l I I .o Time. I l l 1 1 I I I I l . I I l I l I l I I I I I I I 1 I l l l l l l l l 1 l l l l l l l l 1 L.ma Response to a 10% step increase in T. l l .6629 .5735 I I I I l I l l l l l I ..I . l l I l l l l l l .5 2.6826A  I . I I I I I I I I I I I I I l I l I l l l I l I l l l l 1 1 l l . a 18 2.6182 2 A % 1.29 d axis flux linkages Ad.5 1. 1 1 . I  . 5.I 1.0 2. l l l l l l l  l l I l l I l l I I I I I I I I l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l I l l I l l I l l I l l I l l I l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l . il % 1..5 1... I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Response to a 57.  I l l I I I I l l I l l I l l I l l .I I I I I I I I I I l l I l l l I l l l l I l l l I 0 0.. step increase in EFD 1.. .5 Fig.I I I I . . .
I l I .I... I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .3 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .2026L L L2 L I I I 1 I I I 1 I I I 1 I I I 1 I I I 1 I I I 1 . I : I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2.e I I 1 I I I c c c c c  I I I I I I I I I I I I I . ..a L I I I I I I I I I I I I I L 1 1 I I I I I 1 6 I I . I I I l I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I t .2.5 2.1750: I . . ~2. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I t I I ... 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I i i l+ l . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I ..I .. 0:s Fig.+ I I ...C C l .2..1 1 1 I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I 1 I I I 1 I 1 l I l I I I 1 I 1 l I 1 I I I 1 I 1 l I 1 I I I 1 I 1 l I 1 I I I 1 I 1 l I 1 I I I 1 I 1 l I 1 I I I 1 I 1 l I l I I I 1 I 1 l I 1 I I I 1 I 1 . . IOOOL I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l I I I I I I 1 I I 1 1 i 1 1 .. . I ...2287' 2... .o The. I .1000 1 I I I 1 . I 1 I I I 1 I l *. . 1 I 1 1 I 1 I I I 1 I 1 1 I 1 I I I 1 I 1 1 I 1 I I I 1 I 1 1 I 1 I I I 1 I l 1 I 1 I I I 1 I 1 1 I 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 l I I I I : l I I I I I I I I I I I I I 2.5 2. .1 .2026 . .#. r.r*LI I I I I I I I I I 1 1 2. .. I I I 1 I I I I 1 I I I 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I 1 I I 0 0. . .* c I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I cc4.... .. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I 1 .. 2.. I . ~.0 2.:I I I I . .. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I 1 ..2548 a d i L 2.I I I i i i i i i + 1 1 1 1 1 1 l . .1473! I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I . s 1..5 I . a d I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I L C C .16117 777. .. I I I I I 1 1 I C .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 25 .0 The. I 1. 1. e . s 30 Field flux linkages XI.1)88. 1 .. * * . 1.5 Response to'a .
r ! ! .!. .II 1 I .89827 .I l I I I I I 1 1 1 1 * I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I l l 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1.!.5 210 2 . 1 I I I I 1 l l I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I.. . 1 i I 1 1 I I I I I 1 l 1 1 1 l I 1 1 I 1 l I 1 1 I 1 l I 1 1 I I 1 0 I 0. 8 0 0 . ?! f!f !! ! ! !! ! !! ! ! ! . I I 1 I 1 I I I I I I 1 I 1 I I I l I I 1 I 1 I I I l I I 1 I 1 I I I 1 I I 1 I I I I I 1 e . . !! !! . . P 1 I I I I 1 I I I 1 I l l I 1 l I I I I 1 1 I I 1 I I . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 I .o lime. I 1.5 Fig.. . ! ! ! * * . I . .1 .. 5.. 1 I 1 I I ccccc.5 I 2. + . . I 1 I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I I I 1 I  c .8375.c 1 .0 I s 2. .. .5 I 1 .8679j iiii 1 I l l I 1 l I I 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 I I I I I I I M . I I 1 I I I I I 1 e .* * .. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Response to a 5':d step increase in EFD I .5 I 1. I I I I I I 1 I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I 1 I I I 1 I 1 I I I 1 :.. .1 a d . 1 1 1 1 l I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I 1 l 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I 1 . I . ..31 daxis amortisseur flux linkages AD. I .. ..I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I 1 :o lime.. + I + I 1 * I l l + * l l l I 1 1 1 l I I 3 1. 3 .c . . c c c c c I I I 1 I 1 i i i i i I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I 1 I I I l I 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I !!!:! i i i i i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . 1 . 1 I I I 1 I I I 1 1 8 1 I I I I I I I I I t I . I I 1 I I + 1 1 .. s 1. I .. . 1.. . 196 .. .. . I + + i i i i i i i ! ! 1 1 1 .e .@tJ&.
e .. .  b k . 1. a . . I I I I I l l 1 1 1 1 1 * c c c c .. 111 *I 1. I I I I 1 l l I I I I 1 l l I I I I 1 1 1 I t I I .5 Fig.o 2. 4 1..5 1 .Response to a 10% step increase in T.o lime.8oooL L L L l l 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I I I 1 I I I 1 I I I 1 0 0.s 1 Io Time. 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1. 197 . I I I I 1 .8374: w e .8679: n I I I I I I I I I l l 1 I I C I I I I 1 : : I l l I 1 I I I I 1 1 1 I 1 I I I I 1 I l I l 1 I l I l 1 I 1 I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 l I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1 . I 1. . 8 0 ~ ~ 0. l l I l l .5 2. I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 I I I 1 l I I 1 l I I .. 5.9404  b b 1.. I I I I 1 I I I .9193 < I I I r I I I I I I I I I ..5 1.32 Saturated d axis mutual flux linkages A A ~ s . r i i i i i r .8982.. s 2. l l 1 I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I . I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1 l l I 1 I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I l I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I l I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I 1 + I I .0 2. I I I I 1 I I .
1m :I  I 0 :A A . v) 3 0.15546! I I I I I 0. I 0.. I I I I l I I I l I I I .17446 .0 I 2.21119 Response to a lax step increase in T. I I Response to a 5'2. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 ..2O 0.. I l 1 .5 I 2. I I .C e  I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I l I 1 1 I I I I l I 1 1 I I I I l I 1 1 I I .e 0.0. s 2:o 215 *.I 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I I I I 1 1 I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 I 1 I I I I 1 l I 1 I 1 I I I I 1 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I . step increase in EFD L .19283  .5 I 1.C C e .. 198 .0 Time. L: ! 015 1 io Time.13245f I I I 01Oo: . I l .33 d axis saturation function SGD.. 5. t I 1.L. L.. 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I 1 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I 1 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I 1 1 I 111 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.+ + + + + i i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r .5 I Fig.
o Time.I . .. C C .0355 0. a M i . .5 Response to a 5% step increase in EFD 1..... .5945 0.L C c ...0 2. I 1 1 I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I  1. s 2. 1 1 1 1 c c i i I .I I I c + 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 I I i i I 1 1 I 1 I! * !!!!!: 1 I I I i i i i 1 l I l 1 l I l 1 1 I 1 !!!:! 1 I I I 1 l I I 1 l I I I I I I I I 1 l 1 1 I I l I I I 1. 199 . ..0766 .o Fig. 5. I I l l + a 1. 1 1 I ..5 1 .1 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I I ! I 1 I 1 1 I I 1 I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . I1 I ..Response to a 10% step increase in T.5945 0. I C C C ..I c .9800 0 0. c .W14 0. s 1.9800 0 015 1 Time.I I I l l . 1 .34 Line current i.5 2.1 I 6 7 I .” C L C .
..0322  3. .! L I 0 0 I 1 :o llme.3. s 15 . . 3. 5. E 2.oooo!.0 I 2:s Fig. . 2:o Response to a 5% step increase in EFD I I 3.0616 0 0 1 :o lime.35 200 Field current if. 3.1W3 Response to a 10% step increase in T.00757 .
.. ..... I....... . * I * I I I 1 * I I I 1 ...""'A'.c . I 1 1 1 l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 0 l I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I l I I I I I I I l I ... ..5 I 1 ..... I I I I l . * * .01762! 0.5 2. ... 1 1 I 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 111 I I I I I I I I I I I I c I I I I l I I I 1 I 0*02000 L!.......03075  1 .. i i I t I 1 I I I . .. I I 1.l I l + I l l I a . I I I I I 1 + i i + I I I I I I l l l l 1 1 1 ... 1 1 1 ...36 d axis amortisseur current iD...o The. I I l + ... I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I 1 I I I 1 I I l 1 I I l 1 I i i I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 0... . 1 1 I 1 I I 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 l I I I I 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 I l I 1 l I I I l I I l I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I l I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I l I I I 1 1 . i m I I I .......!.L I I I I I 1 I l I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I * I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I 1 0 I !.......! 0.00657CI I l l * I l l I I I I I l l 1 I I I 1 I 1 I I I 1 I I I 1 I I n I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I ... .......!..01866c i ...5 t Response to a 5% step increase in .!.5 I Fig. s 1.. c.... . 8 4....... .....EFD 0...0..... ..5 I 1 ..00687 1 I ii ... .c t .5 t 2....... I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I ... .. 5...... . ..... * * I I I I I I 1 I I I I _I I I l I I 1 l I l I I I l I I 1 l I l 1 .... 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 l I 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 l I 1 I 1 1 I 1 l 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 F.. 0..... ..C C  ..... .!. ........c b .* I I I I I 1 I I l l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I e. .. ... n 0.. I I 1 1 I 1 I I I I I I ..00343. 20 1 ...... . c e c Response to a 10% step increase in T....... .. l l * I l l I l l I l l I l l I l l I l l I l l * 1 1 I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 I I I 1 I 1 l 1 I 1 1 I I I 1 I 1 l 1 I 1 1 I I I 1 I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I . . . I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 2.......!....... c * * .LL....... . .02000 I I 0 I 0. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r I .. I I I I I 1 I I l l c w I ......o Time... I I I 1 * I I I 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 1 I *1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I l 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I l 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I l l l l l 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I l l l l I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 l 1 I I 1 I I 1 I 1 1 l I ..
 411 1.. l I I l l 1 l 1 1 I l l 1 I l l I I I I I I I l l I I I I I I I l l I I l I l l 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I l I I 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 I I I I . .5 I 2.I ..I I I 0 05 : 1 :o "I he .* I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . . : I I I I I I I O I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .... 1....5 rime..16421I I I I I I I I I L eoI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ._ J I I I I I I I I I I r I I  I *. ._ I I I I I . I I I 1 I I l l 1 I I I I I I I I l l 1 I I I I I I I I I I I l l l l 4. ..I l l 1 I I I I I I I l l 1 1 I l l 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I l l l I l l l l I l l l l l l I l l l l I l l l l I l l l l l l I l I I I I I . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I c MI I 2. 1708 1....... 1.I I I I I I I I I I . I I I l l I l l I l l I  .. i i i I * .I I I I I I I I O I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I  . I826 .17631 .I ..Response to a 10% step increase in T. a .. I I I I I I I > a ....e .. I I I I I l l 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l l 1 . .. 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I .I. 5.r .. & .o Time. .I I I 1 I I I I 1 I I I l 1 l I I I I I I l l I I I I l l I I l l I I I l l I 1 I l l I I I l l I I I l l 1 l ..1 . _ I 1 I I I I 1. A L A ! .1500L ! .C e C . I I I l I 1 I I I I l l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l l I I I I I I I I I l l 1 I l l I I I I I I I I I I I I I l l I I I I I I I I l I I I l l I I I l 1 I I I 1 I I I I I l l l l l l l l l l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I $ I l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l l 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 I . . I I l l I l l I I I l l . . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I e I I I I . 1 . ...I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . I  > I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I e 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I ) I t 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l I I I I I I l I I 11 6: .e ..5 I Fig. step increase in EFD I I I I I *. I I I I I I . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .. I I I .. I I I I I I r I I I I I l l l l l l l I 1 I I I I L l 1700. .e  I l l I l I I I I I l 1 1 I I I I l l l l l l l l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 l I I 1 l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l l I l l I l l I l l c I I I I I I I I I I . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 ' 1 I I I 1 .0 I 2... . . 3 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I c I I n I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 .. I I I I I I I I I I I l l IiiI I I I 1 1 1 I I I 1500A I I I 1 I I I I 1 I l l I l l I l l I l l I l l 1 I I I I 0  .. 1 I I 1 I I I I I I ... * * . l . t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Response to a 57. ... ..0 I .37 Terminal voltage V.! .. .. I I I I l l I l l I l l I l l . I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I. I .nI I I I I I I I l I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I :::::::. 1. . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ..! ! ! ! .. s I l l I I I I l l I l l 1 ..
5 Time. 0 1 .5 2. 5. s Fig.0 2.5 1 . s 1.o Time.38 Torque angle 6 in degrees.5 2.o 0 0. .o 1.Response to a 10% step increase in T.
5 ub 2..0 Fig. 5.. I 1 .Response to a 10% step increase in T. . . .00160 . s 0.00064 0. . P 0.00102 ! I .. 0 t 1l o Time.39 Speed deviation in pu.00019 0.00185  I Response to a Sg step increase in EFD I 1 8 0.O Time.. . .00147 4. . 3 n . .
+. 3. .8000 I . step increase in T. I I I I I I I I I I I . ..... I@ I 1 I I I I I l I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I l l 1 I I I I I 1 I l l l l l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I l I . .. 0. ... 25 . 2. Response to a S?. . ! . * * * * I l l 1 +... step increase in EFD 3..1432e I I I 1 I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I 1 2.1 3  2.W)oO’ I I I ~ 1 1 1 I I I I I I ~ I I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 I I l l 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I l l l l l I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l I l I 1 1 l I l I 1 1 I 0 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 I I l l I I 1 l . I I I I I 1 l 1 * * ..^II l l l I l l I l l 1 I I I I I l l 1 I .. I 20 .3JoOo’ I I I 1 I 1 + I I 1 1 . 2.4236  ..o Time.5 Fig.*+**. l Response to a loo/. lime. 5. 1 .**. .+ I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 1 1 I I.40 Electromagnetic torque Tcb . i 0:5 1 . ..5 20 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I a 2._. ..o I .:.9000. f I I l 1 I I I 1 I I I t + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 l 1 l 1 l l l l .*. s 1... .2834..I I I I I I 1 I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I l l 1 l I 1 1 1 1 l I I I 1 l 1 1 1 l l 1 l I 1 1 1 1 l I I I 1 l 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I l l I I 1 l 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I1 I I I l 1 I 1 I I I I I I I e . 1 1 l 1 1 1 l 1 I 1 1 l 1 1 1 l 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1 I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 15 .. I 3. . . . .5638 . I 3.5 I 1 .1 d . .
1.2 is operating at rated terminal voltage.1 and 5. Recommended phasor diagram for synchronous machines.2 with the machine output power being 0.6 5. P. 3. has a local load of unity power factor.80 pu. AI&& Trans. identify the potentiometer and amplifier settings that need adjustment. 1967. Iowa State Univ. identify the amplifiers and potentiometers in Table 5. Analogue computer representations of synchronous generators in voltage regulator studies. thesis. 2. C . I f the level of this signal is reduced by a factor of 2 while the level of all the other signals are maintained. Schroder. Analog computer representation of a synchronous machine. Find the operating condition ofthe machine. The angle between the q axis and the terminal voltage is 45". Inc. = 0. Unpubl. Buckley. and the angle 4. the potentiometer settings. The infinite bus voltage is 1.15. Ames. as i n Examples 5. Mimeo notes. v.. and the amplifier gains.39 5. IEEE Trans. Riaz. which is represented by a resistance R = 10 pu.4 5. P. M..32 5. the amplitude and time scaling. PAS88:15931610.30 5.3 I 5. 1968.1. C. I n Figure 5. 5. M. B. Princeton.15. Handbook of Analog Compurarion. D. Purdue Univ. D . Krause. Canada. Dept.33 5. Publ.. currents. presented at the IEEE Summer Power Meeting. 5. The power at the infinite bus is 0. Repeat Problem 5. 1973. Simulation of a single machineinfinite bus system.13 the signal to the resolver represents the infinite bus voltage. References I . flux linkages. and Anderson.37 5. 1967. Vancouver. Note: In the load equations. N.. IEEE Committee Report.9 pu at 0.J.34 5. I n the system of one synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line (discussed in Examples 5.2.C. Paper C 73 3134. 1956.1 and 5. assume that ~ . Indicate the signal levels for the operating conditions of Example 5.4 using the voltagebehindsubtransientreactance model of Section 4.8 The synchronous machine discussed in Examples 5. The same synchronous machine connected to the same transmission line. Find the steadystate operating condition: the d and q axis voltages..00013. and 5..29 5. Electr. West Lafayette.1.206 Table 5.4 using the twoaxis model of Section 4.2. 15.. 2nd ed. Eng. 6.5 5. PAS75: I I7884. i = lei. the time scaling is (20).36 5. and its output power is 0. I that will be affected. F. Prepare a complete analog computer simulation of this system.38 5. .3 5. Figure Chapter 5 Computer Mnenomics of Output Variables Variable Ad AF Computer mnemonic 5.40 WD WF WKD WADS SG D IA AD XADS SCD ia iF iD IFF IKD 6 (in degrees) W A (in pu) Tt.9 PF lagging.13 and Table 5. In the analog computer simulation shown in Figure 5. Repeat Problem 5.35 5. M .9 pu at 0. If the time scaling is changed to (lo). .2 5.0 pu.6) the synchronous machine is to be represented by the simplified model known as the oneaxis model given in Section 4. 00800..S.3.9 PF lagging. I 5. VT DLD DOMU TE Problems 5.7 5. Ind. 4. Repeat Problem 5. 1969. Compensation of synchronous machines for stability. Electronic Associates.
IEEE Trans. and Schulz.. GH2O03674. 1973. Schulz.. . P. Dandeno. 1948. R . I . W. E. Power System Stahiliry. 9. 1967. International Business Machines. Dynamic models of turbine generators derived from solid rotor equivalent circuits. P. P. ElTects of synchronous machine modeling in largesale system studies. lEEE Trans.. W. L. and Ewart. R . System/360 Continuous System Modeling Program Users Manual. New York. 8. PAS92:574... Kimbark. L. D. IBM Corp. Hauth. PAS92:92633. IO. Jones. R . N. Vol. Wiley.82. D.Simulation of Synchronous Machines 207 7. 1973.
e. Let the changes in these variables be x i Aand x j A . The new linear equations thus derived are assumed to be valid in a region near the quiescent condition.1) We note that xjo and xio are known quantities and are treated here as coefficients. Both the forced response and the free response are decided by the roots of this equation. During the transition between the initial state and the new state the system behavior is oscillatory. The initial state may be considered as a quiescent operating condition for the system. the variable x i changes from xio to xio + x i Awhere x i A is a small change in x i ) . The firstorder approximations for these have been illustrated in previous chapters and are outlined below. As an example of product nonlinearities. If it is stable. I f the two states are such that all the state variables change only slightly (i. It is shown that when the system is subjected to a small load change. Thus for a firstorder approximation.chapter 6 Linear Models of the Synchronous Machine 6. The synchronous machine models developed in Chapter 4 have two types of nonlinearities: product nonlinearities and trigonometric functions. The new value becomes (xi0 + XiA)(xjO + x j A ) = XjOXjO + XjOXjA + xjoxjA + XjAxjA The last term is a secondorder term. Let the state variables x i and x j have the initial values xio and x j o . By this we mean that firstorder approximations are made for the system equations. Initially their product is given by x i o x j o . The dynamic response of a linear system is determined by its characteristic equation (or equivalent information). which is assumed to be negligibly small. the change in the product x i x j is given by (xi0 + xiA)(xjO + XjA)  XiOXjO = x j O x j A + XiOxjA (6.1 Introduction A brief review of the response of a power system to small impacts is given in Chapter 3. To examine the behavior of the system when it is perturbed such that the new and old equilibrium states are nearly equal. it tends to acquire a new operating state. consider the product x i x i .. the system equations are linearized about the quiescent operating condition. 208 . while x i Aand x j Aare “incremental” variables. any bounded input will give a bounded and therefore a stable output. From a point of view of stability the free response gives the needed information. the system is operating near the initial state.
with dx % xA .the incremental variable is bA and its coefficient is sin J0. terms of the form x i A x j 4are assumed to be negligibly small. The quiescent operating point xo and the functions A(xo) and B(x.. Similarly.5).e. For a specific dynamic study it is considered constant. We may also compute the A(xo) by finding the total differential d x at xo with respect to all variables.cos60 EZ (6. i.) = C O S ~ ~ C OA 6S .6) which.)  sin 6 0 (COS~O)~~ (6. i.f) (6.r) (6.e.7) In expanding (6.9) are determined from the nature of the eigenvalues of the A matrix.t) + A(xO)XA + B ( x ~ ) u + B(XO)U (6. with COS bA E I and sin 6A % J A .) are different for every new initial condition.7) all secondorder terms are neglected.) . i.4) XA = [boi F o io0 iqo ieo wo 601 t = At the occurrence of a small disturbance.2 + 6. the surface is not flat.. the states will change (6..7) becomes Xo + *A f(X0.9) The elements of the A matrix depend upon the initial values of the state vector xo. reduces to i o k XA = f(x0 + xA. The state space may be thought of as an ndimensional space. The dynamic properties of the system described by (6.l i n e a r Models of the Synchronous Machine 209 The trigonometric nonlinearities are treated in a similar manner as COS ( 6 0 + 6. The system (6.e.sin 6 0 sin 6 A (sin60)6. after slightly from their previous positions or values. COS(^^ + 6.3) linearization of the Generator StateSpace Current Model = t o .5) + XA Note that xo need not be constant. Being nonlinear.g. The statespace model is in the form x = f(x. and the operating conditions constrain the operation to a particular surface in this n space. Thus x = X O to". e. Therefore.. but we do require that it be known. Let the statespace vector x have an initial state xo at time t rent model is used.8) from which we obtain the linearized statespace equation XA = A(xO)XA (6. if the cur(6..2) The incremental change in cos 6 is then (sin 60)6A. we can show that the incremental change in the term sin 6 is given by sin ( 6 0 6. although we would expect it to be continuous and relatively smooth. by using (6.
(6.101) the linearized torque equation may be established as (6.210 Chapter 6 where the quantity in brackets defines A(xo).13) For the field winding we compute (6.16) From (4.10) which is equal to (6. proceeding one row at a time. The quantity in parenthesis on the right side is exactly equal to udo.1 1) Similarly.15) (6.74).14) The linearized damperwinding equations are given by (6. for the q axis voltage change we write \ (6. For the first equation (of the d circuit) we write Expanding the product terms and dropping the secondorder terms. Rearranging the remaining quantities.12) which is equal to (6. We begin by linearizing (4.17) .
20) or in matrix form v = .18) Finally.19) are the linearized system equations for a synchronous machine (not including the load equation).11)(6.102) may be written as 8. If we drop the A subscript.MX PU (6.oiDA  XqO)idA  (Ad0  Lqid0)iqA  kMFiqoiFA t k M ~ i d o i ~ ~D]W b  (6. = (&A (6. the state equation for the synchronous generator.( 1 / 3 ) [ ( L d i q o = kh!fgi.linear Models of the SynchronousMachine 21 1 which can be put in the form 7 j h ~ TmA .M' . the torque angle equation given by (4. not including the load equations.21) Note that the matrix M is related to the matrix L of equation (4.M'v pu (6.' exists.K x .19) Equations (6. we may write these equations in the following matrix form: (6. is = .74) by Assuming that M . since all variables are now small displacements.22) .
r I The matrix K is defined by (6.550 1.2 as follows Then we write b..23) Example 6. certain terms in these matrices change from the numeric values given to reflect the impedance of the connecting system..20) 0.0 0 0 I I I I I 1...550 1.640 1.o 0. and L.550 1.506 ._ _ _o _ _ ..3. change ..64 0 1.49 I I X.550 1. For example. determine the matrices M and K for the generator described in Examples 4..0007 0 K = L o 0 0 I I 0 0 I I 1 01 When the machine is loaded._ _ . when loaded through a transmission line to a large system. I I 0 1.21 2 Chapter 6 which is the same form as X = AX + BU (6...1 As a preparation for later examples involving a loaded machine.550 I I I I I I I I I 1 0 M = lI . Solution The matrix M is related to the matrix L of Example 4. Ld.490 1. r . Let rj = 2HwR = 1786.700 1.0011 1 I I I I I .526 I I .94 rad.550 I 1.14..490 I I 1.651 1._ _ .
24) where K = V .linear Models of the Synchronous Machine 213 to 8 .149) is repeated here for convenience: (6. with the result (6..27) we get.25) into (6.19).28) with (6. as the currents and flux linkages) and must be determined from the initial conditions..14)(6. (6. I8). The same procedure followed previously is used to linearize this equation.25) Substituting (6.13. and (6.16). after dropping the subscript A. and iq noted in Section 4.26) Rearranging (6.. and LY is the angle of V.28) Combining (6. L d . we get for the linearized sys(6. Equation (4. i.12). 6 3 linearization of the load Equation for the OneMachine Problem .11) and (6. Other terms are load dependent (such as L. (6.26) and making the substitution (6. tem equations .
I L_ I I I 0 1 I Equation (6.M i . In matrix form (6.1 for the operating conditions described in Example 5. Let Then (6. Find the new expanded A matrix. X = . Assume D = 0. and assuming that M' exists.2.30) where A = M'K.214 Chapter 6 I 0 I 0 I I I AI I LI I I I I I (6. taking into account the load equation.. . A change in either uF or T.MI K X  MIv = AX + BU (6. Note that the new matrices M and K are now expanded to include the transmission line constants and the infinite bus voltage.29) I 1 . will cause the system to seek a new operating point. the machine is spinning at synchronous speed and is delivering some known power to the infinite bus.29) are the field voltage uFA and the mechanical torque T m A . Initially.29) is a linearized set of seven firstorder differential equations with constant coefficients.2 Complete Example 6. and this change is usually accompanied by damped oscillations of the variables.29) becomes v = Kx . I t is convenient to compute A as follows. Example 6.31) Note that the only driving functions in the system (6..
490 1. in pu.(Ado 1 = = 1.701)(0. 7 3= " ) 5 1.CU) = ~ T ( ~ 0 ~ 5 3 .735") = 1.100 = i d = Lq = 1.001 1 + 0.550 1.040 1.(kMDi@) 3 1 .550 0.4) = 1. .70 x 0.430 3 KCOS(&.150 .025 K sin (6.550 1.701 = 0.591)(0.55 X 3 0.362 X 3 + L&o) (1.400 = 2.640 + 0.100 1.4) = 1.676 1.676 + 1.150 + (1.490 1.2 we compute ff The matrix M is given by 2.014 (XqO  LdiqO) = .700 + 0.400 = 2.605 0 I I I I I I I 0 M = 0 1 I I I I I I 2.397 1 1.021 I 1.039 + (0.64 1.Linear Models of the Synchronous Machine 215 Solution From Example 5.591) 3 = 1. id0 X40 I I 0 I o = = 1.040 1.550 1.550 I I I I I I I I 1.550 1.526 j I I I I I 0 1786. .1.a) = v'T(sin 53.701 3 = 0.020 = 0.428 The matrix K is given by K = The new A matrix is given by A = M'K.9 0 1 0 We also compute. or with D = 0.651 1.
 0. 123.1217 All the eigenvalues are given in rad/rad.86 1206.37  ..60 ..4 Repeat the above example for the system conditions stated in Example 5....017 2547...0 1000 L 0._ .3505. This is the 60Hz component injected into the rotor circuits to balance the M M F caused by the stator dc currents..0359 .72 2587.1929 0.0359 + j0. I I 0.. Examine the stability of the system.950 4. 0..2204.0  0. namely small perturbation about a quiescent operating condition.0078 0.0 .. they are damped with a time constant of 1/(0..1929 0..2..01 880. which is damped at a much faster rate.0075 0.0 0.0289 = 0...123....064 2587..95 .j0.2027 0.72 2649. which means that the system is stable under the conditions assumed in the development of this model.072 I I I I I .472 22.5351 0.0 I I 0.8399 00 .01 . Note that there are two pairs of complex eigenvalues... A.1735..356 2649.439 4.. The results are given below.66 2257.320 I959.776  L_____L____ 11I I I 1206.7I ..0 I I 1000 0. = Example 6.2 and 6.. .54 .01 2202.2331. Generator loading is that of Example 5.I I I I I 3487.0 0. Solution A procedure similar to that followed in Examples 6.95 2649.43 fI ..9983 A6 = 0..36...36.950 4..439 4..2027 I 0. .18 76..72 .72 I 36..017 I I I I I I I . A = 3589.218 0.776 ..54 331..01 880. I  ..3 Find the eigenvalues of the A matrix of the linearized system of Example 6..1106.70  2649..98 .0 0.071 f 2327..142 13487. Note also that the real parts of all the eigenvalues are negative....86 1608.54 0.01 804..2.....0 f I I 982..0 .73 Hz.43 90.320 0.857 96.78 1469..63 1751.4422 I I I .. dominate the transient response of the system.0016 + j0....0. _ I_ . This complex pair and the real pole due to A.54 2587.... Ll  0.. .0I 1608. a digital computer program is used.54 0.50 605.40 103 I .0 0._ I_ .7993 .33 845..218 I I I I I 1776. A2 A..66 s..68 1543.0016 ..0991 A 7 = 0..... The pair A s and A6 correspond to frequencies of approximately I ..39  12.j0. .062 0.0016 x 377) or 1.0 0.J.72 3505.36.605.. I . 0.3 gives the following results: ...9983 A s = 0.064 35..472 22.062 12.70 IO’ 35.216  Chapter 6 .2444.18 2547..356 14... Solution To perform the computation of the eigenvalues for the A matrix obtained in Example 6.0289 = 0.69 958..0 Example 6..2.63 2202._ ..10 A = 3589. The other complex pair corresponds to a very fast transient of about 60 Hz.63 90.0 0...142 76.70 2581...0007 A4 = 0..0 14.857 96.46 I I . 2387.
0359 + j0. = = = = 0.36) The torque equation (4. A.34) Similarly the q axis equation (4. From (4.0359 .137) becomes (6.0248 0.9983 0.0005 Note that this new operating condition has a slightly reduced natural frequency ( I .A .136) can be linearized to give (6.0009 + j0. 6. following a procedure similar to that used above for the current model.1230 A.9983 0.33) .0248 0.37) Similarly.d . = rD .4 Linearization of the Flux Linkage Model We now linearize the flux linkage model of a synchronous machine. A.135) we can compute the linear equations (6.49 Hz) and a greatly increased time constant (2.j0. A.0009 . the swing equation becomes .95 s) compared to the previous example. A.0991 0.Linear Models of the Synchronous Machine 217 and the eigenvalues are given by A. 4 F rD F A.35) (6. A.( I &D 2) ADA (6. = = = 0.32) (6. Thus damping is substantially reduced by the change in operating point.j0.. LMD A 4 D t d + rDAL h 4.
3 for the nonlinear model. (6. and (6.. The linearized equations of the system are (6. where and d = r + Re and K = 2/? V . I62).41) where the matrices T. The matrix C is similar. (6. but not exactly the same as (4. I59)(4. = uA.34).13.218 Chapter 6 (6.In matrix form we write TA = CX +D (6. the load equations are given by (4. These are then linearized to give [I + 2 I)" (I  4 4 A.157) and (4.161).33). and D are similar to those defined in Section 4. we can show that the matrix T is exactly the same as (4.42) .41) and compared with the nonlinear equations (4. C.36). If the state equations are written out in the form of (6. .37)(6.38) For a system of one machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line.40) and 8. If we write C as dFD qQ wb (6.160).158). First. several interesting observations can be made.
C.161). = '[ L 3..' &V.a) 1 (6.COS(6. The order of the system does not change. Submatrices C... Solution Machine and line data are taken from previous examples in pu as: .' to obtain = T'CX + TID (6./7j Assuming that the inverse of T exists. is the initial angle of the q axis. c.... however. which are dependent upon the quiescent operating conditions.r 0 0 : O J (6...42) by T . C. Finally.161) if w is replaced by w..I ' . as C.46) which is of the form k = AX + BU (6.47) The matrices A and B will have constant coefficients. and C. Submatrices C. are exactly as in (4. we can premultiply both sides of (6. Note that the matrices A and B will not be the same here as in the current model. We may write matrices C. however. Since the choice of the state variables is arbitrary. and there are still seven degrees of freedom in the solution. and C. are considerably changed. the new D matrix to be respectively.l i n e a r Models of the Synchronous Machine 219 with partitioning as in (4. we note 01' (6. now become [ f . C. which were formerly zero matrices. are exactly the same as in the nonlinear equation. Example 6. each measured from and the arbitrary reference.j(. there are many other equations that could be written.. C. and C. = 0 0 .43) L where a is the angle of vm 6..5 Obtain the matrices T. and C. we can observe that C. and A of the flux linkage model for the operating conditions discussed in the previous examples. and C.44) I where X A D o and A A Q o are the initial values of AAD and A.d I _____ ("" I I 7) iLMDAqO I LMDAqO I 1..45) D = [0 UFA O O O Tm. and C.
.o O 1.200 1. 1.7478 1 .397 The matrix C corresponding to Example 5.914 d T V .025 a) = 1. COS($ sin(6.0 I 0 I  r0.43 I8 1 I I I I .2 loading is then calculated to be . the following data is obtained from the initial operating conditions as given in Example 5.2364 0. 1.1.3656 I I I I 0 O 0 0 0 2.1625 0 0 0 0 I o I I I I I 0 0 0 0 I O 0 0  0 I o .150 1.0 0 1.2: A.0 O I 0 0 0 0 I I I I o I I I ____Il 0 0 3.0 0 0 I I I Io 0 L I I j I 0 1  I I 0 I I O To calculate the matrix C.  a) = 1.045 1.220 Chapter 6  3.1622 0 0 T = 0 0.3 162 0.1118 1. AQo Ado AFO = = = = = A.676 2.o .0 I O I I 0 0 0 0 0 0 1..
.756 . A = 1.58 0 I I I 3162.634.022 3.1365.63 441.53 2111.76 0 72. .035 1._ .994.1 is given by  114.854 .530 0 0 115.278 66.0285 0. . I o o 0 0 0 0 103 _.59 0 0 313.115. ADO = 1.  0 0 0 0 0 and the matrix A is given by . For this operating condition the initial conditions in pu are given by A = 1.1 we obtain the same matrix T. . .330 1365. The matrix C for the operating conditions of Example 5.388 44. .378 313.854 1. .1430.1. Kcos(6.388 44.a) = 0.114. .935. . .6503 I I 0 0 .7155 111. .142 1 I 328.6503 0 __________________l______________l_____I I 1.2.438 5.58 I I 0 0 1 I 0 ______________L__ ______I____________ 3162.a) = 1. ._ 0.44 0 3.. For the operating condition of Example 5.854 .756 I ._ _ . .68 103 C = 3162.120 A = 5.16 0 0. .756 I 3162. .6969 I I I I j . .53 0 2 I I I .4 since the resistance is not the same in both examples.1 1 1024. = 1..75 0 0 I I o O 0 0 1320.1.80 0 j I 154.9867 I 1 I .7322 0 1  0 0 0 I 1000 0  The eigenvalues of this matrix are the same as those obtained in Example 6.035 1. in this example are somewhat different from those in Example 4. . .____ 999.345. The A matrix is given by 1.9790 0 0.330 . . .530 1.30 560.3816 I I I 114.530 ) 1. .4009 0 0.3207. = 0. .282 236..I_ .055 284.720 39. . . A.388 44. .78 0 0 1361.88 0 431.3246 I I I 574. .55 0 0 1 I 313.055 284.48 0 0 1000 0 0 0 0.0285 I I ..76 72.1.437 5.3 and correspond to the loading condition of Example 5.530 1.330 I I 0 0 0 0 I .094.147 284.. and K sin ( 6 .282 747.022 3.378 )I 1039._ _ _ _ _ .. . A. .78 0 1 I .720 C = 39.4009 0. .7322 0 I I I 0 1000 0 1 0 0 0  Note that some of the elements of the matrices C.115.Linear Models of the Synchronous Machine 114. ..282 747.16 0 .278 66.9867 174.32 1396.. ..__________L______________1_____~_. and C.278 66.5607. .I.
1 The E' equation From (4.3816 0.. .io defined by (4. 6..104) the field equations are given by VF = rFif + AF + AF = LFiF + kMFid (6. be the stator EMF proportional to the main winding flux linking the stator. = &E.33 .720 A = 115.48) to give E.74) and (4..9790 0.848 26.422 I ...._ .60 103 0 0 I .278 66.53 . 6.88 0 . 0.. ~ E F =D R k M F v F / r F O Using the above definitions and main EFD . _. we can arrange the second equation in (6.7155 0 .14 313..4 and correspon to the loading condition of Example 5. The terms w X in the stator and load voltage equations are assumed to.50) where I d = i d / G and s is the Laplace transform variable.15 284. Stator winding resistance is neglected..) can be developed (see references [ I ] and (21).5. 0 __ .. . ..388 39... i s .5 Simplified linear Model A simplified linear model for a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line having resistance R ..76 417. Amortisseur effects are neglected. 1.330 ..... = @RkkfFiF/d + (xd  xj)ld = E + (xd  xi)ld (6.44 431.756 I 1000. 5. .141 3. . 3... 1...49) in (1 Ti0S)E. The i d and A.. 2. .12 667.49) Now let e... be approximately equal to w R X .   0 0 I I I j __ 0 lo00 0 0  0 The eigenvalues obtained are the same as those given in Example 6..6969 I 0 0 .189)... we get UF = (rF/LF)XF  (rF/LF)kMFid (6. ....83 I l I 430._ ..282 ~ 0  o 0 o o 0 0 44.5. . Under the assumptions stated above the equations describing the system are given below in pu.. ..50 177. f i E 6 = U R k M F X F / L F .1. 4. . Also using the above definition for E. .51) . we get from (6..L . and inductance Le (or a reactance X. _ .3246 ~ 181.  I I 0 154._.. and ox. Let the following assumptions be made: 1 . the s do =  (Xd  xi)ld (6._ 999.80 174. _ _ . Le.._ .222 Chapter 6  16.. I .85 1.. Also let E F D be the stator EMF that is produced by the field current and corresponds to the field voltage v. Balanced conditions are assumed and saturation effects are neglected. terms in the stator and load voltage equations are neglected compared to the speed voltage terms wX. 236.48) Eliminating i.
~.W R L .61) where under the assumptions used in this model.59) we can identify that Kl is an impedance factor that takes into account the loading effect of the external impedance.74) and from the assumptions made in the simplified model. .( Y ) ] 6 A + + x e ) I d A + R. .2 ]SA + 1 EbA = constant (6.R . C O S ( 6 0 (6. and K4 is related to the demagnetizing effect of a change in the rotor angle.~.)sin(6.X.4.cos(6..)cos(6.57) where we define (in agreement with [2]) I/K.) K4 = VK/(Xd .58) Then from (6. Therefore. + Xe)sin(6.) From (6. is the infinite bus voltage to neutral.53). d we compute v and uq for infinite bus loading to be u = .) R. Sin (6 .54) for I d A and IqA. and V. d v .j . is numerically equal to the threephase power.a)] (6.a) . + + .5.59) differs from (3.52).59) [Note that (6. we compute [t.54) + xc>rqA [ vm cos Solving (6.53) where K = f i V .51) are linear.IqA + (xq  a)]6A (6.a) + R. Le. Rearranging (6.7. (xi a) K' + X. .a) . ) [ ( X .4 d u. 0 0 = RciqA = Reid& + (xd + x e ) i d A + URkkfFiFA + [Ksin(6.a) (6.56) We now substitute I d into an incremental version of (6.linear Models of the Synchronous Machine 223 where E is as defined in Section 4.(xq + x e ) i q ~(Kcos(60 .50) to compute EFDA = ('l/K3 r& s ) E b A + + K4 6 .( x q + X.+ R e i d + wRL.)(X. = .52) Linearizing (6.58) and (6.X . X. rather than uF.149) and (4. cos ( 6 . .57) we get the followings domain relation (6.a ) + Reiq .wRL. Note that (6.10) because of the introduction here of E. = .60) Electrical torque equation The pu electrical torque T. From (4. = (I/j)(UJd Uqiq) = (&Id + PU (6.5 1) and (6.] [ = (xq + X.& = + [ v. sin(& .sin(6. ) ] S A (6.( .. T. = WRLdid W R kMFiF = + v. = 1 K/(X. i d CY) (6.50) and (6. . R. K4 = K 3 6. (xi = E.55) where K/ 1/[Rf + (xq + Xe)(xi+Xe)I (6.
64).)Id]f9 (6.x. ) C O S ( .51) in the second equation of (6. E6 will also be constant and K .63) and (6. + xq) sin (6.)]I + Iq0(x.67) and the synchronizing power coefficient discussed in Chapter 2 and given by (2.[R.  a) + ( x i + X .)[(x.  (6. + vi .55) and (6.)IdO = E~o (xd  xi)IdO + (xd  xq)IdO = . .65).61) T. + + ( x q + X~)zl + EqaORe)E6A K.68) v. K. (6.a) .x.41) the synchronous machine terminal voltage is given by v: or in rms equivalent variables = (l/3)(u. = K / V .. we compute the incremental torque to be T. The model is reduced to the classical model of Chapter 2.67) Where K .66) Substituting (6. 6.36)..62).E. c o s ( ~.{Eqa. b = x919 From (6.(x.V.65) where we have used the q axis voltage E. . the synchronizing torque coefficient = K. = v. IEqa0[R..)'qO'dA (6.a) . . .2 as Eqa = E with E taken from (6. = v9 = xd' ld + E i (6.5.56) into (6.e.224 Chapter 6 Using (6.R. we compute T ~ A= IqOE6A + EqaO'qA (xq (xq xi)IdOIIqA  (xq  xi)lqO1dA = 19JiA +   x.a) (xi Xe)cos(6.3 Terminal voltage equation From (4.sin(6. = 0. cos(6. . is the change in electrical torque for small change in the d axis flux linkage at constant rotor angle We should point out the similarity between the constant K .(x. is the change in electrical torque for a small change in rotor angle at constant d axis flux linkage. in (6. + X. If the field flux linkage is constant.6..63) [ E : .x . + u:) (6.R .a)] + Iq0(x. . i.)sin(6.sin(6. defined in Figure 5.~a)] ~ . . ) [ ( X .a ) l ) a A ~ + + + K/irqOIR: K..51) t o write the initial condition = + (xd  xq)Id EO (xd  xq)IdO x.64) Linearizing (6.
.90) is used. from (6. and 7j = 2Hw. and K6 depend upon the network parameters. (6. and the infinite bus voltage.72) We note that the constants K.linear Models of the Synchronous Machine 225 This equation is linearized to obtain (6.A . (6. (6. Le. or for a small change in the d axis flux 6.1 as follows. (6.63) in (6. or and K6 is the change in the terminal voltage linkage at constant rotor angle.. the linearized swing equation from (4.7 1) are the basic equations for the simplified linear model.69) Substituting (6.69) (6.4 Summary of equations Equations (6. through K6 of the simplified model for the system and conditions stated in Example 5. K4. K. Solution We can tabulate the data from Example 5. and (6.. . I n the above equations the time is in pu to a base quantity of 1/377 s.59). the quiescent operating conditions.55). but with the. for a small change in rotor angle at constant d axis flux linkage. Example 6.70) and Substituting for lqA I. T is the total torque to a base quantity of the threephase machine power. in radians is obtained by integrating on cbA twice.67).TeA (6. is the change in the terminal voltage V.7 I ) where K...69).6 Find the constants K .1..70) (6. K.73) The angle 6. K. To complete the model.. armature resistance set to zero. 7jLjA = T.5.
04 x 0.385[(0..1 iFo = 2.. + X e ) sin (6. .000 %o = 0. &. K.02)(0. Synchronous machine data: 0.3908) . .a) .55 x 2.) = 1.02)(0.[(1.9205)] = 0.828[2. = v.5995 I/K.66) we compute = 1.04 x 0.0. cos (6.640 pu 1.64) = 2.a) = 0.395(2.V.3908)] 1.04))1 = 0. .1.1.828)(0.700 pu x.a) = 0.0.02) 1. cos(6.9205.02 x 0.(x.X.)cos (6. Then sin (6. = (K.3908) + (0. and K2 from (6.7598)(0.[Re sin (6. from Example 5.979 Id0 = f.3072 0.55)2/1.631 1.3908) + 0. 1.112 0.979/dT .776 We can calculate the angle between the infinite bus and the q axis to be 6.995". 0.a)] 6 .7598 x 1. = = 1. .(K.02 x 0.04)2] + 2. K. K4 = = Rt + (x.02 X.71): K..455(2.700 .64)(0.Z + (xq + X 1 1 + EqaoRe1 e2 0.9205 . .%.776/ 1.40 PU = V.58) = = [ l + (1/1.5995(0.3162 Then we compute from (6.2578 K2 = = = K5 and K6 are calculated from (6.645 x 0.5995 x 0.a) + ReSin(60 .) [(x.02)2 + (2. = = = K..a)] = [(0. .04)(0.9205)] .a = 66. = 1.1 12(1.455)(2. = 0. . .3908. cos(d.9205 + 0.(2.828)(1.7598{0. K.a)] + I@(xq .V.385 0.3908) = 1.)(X.245)(0.226 Transmission line data: Chapter 6 Re Infinite bus voltage: = 0. + X.7598)(0. + X.631/1.a) + (x: + X. From (6. Also.R.245 PU Also.0)[(0.a) .) sin (.70 .(0.7124 We then calculate K .. .651] = 0. = V.645)(0.3162)(1. .VdO/C/rO)[(X~+ Xe)cOs(60 .0409 .67).7598 + X.9205 . = E.a)]) 0.0755 K/{Iqo[R.7598 x 0.02 x 0.X.3853 x 1.828 xd X .828 x 0.Vmx.0)][(0./ qo)[R.
455)' 1. From this data we calculate E.O) ((2. The greater value in this example is indicative of a lower loading condition or a greater ability in this case to transmit synchronizing power.245)(2. Example 6 .6628 1. .474)(0. .77611 .1925 Then K3= (I + 2.805 The effective fieldwinding time constant under this loading is given by K37i0 = 0.02)) = 1.(0. + A'.9670 PU v.7598 (0.59 15)] + (0.90 s (2.316 = o.2 .3072/(1 + I.000 pu 60  LY = 53. = 0. K 2 = 0. y b = = = [0. The constant K .3072 x 5.8063) + (0.172 Z9.A [0. i 5 0 = Id0 = = Yo = 2.a) = 0.8259 0.4738 l / K l = R f + ( x .1.8 2 6 /d % .4047 PU KO= 0.64)(0. = 1. is greater in magnitude than in Example 6.)(x.1925 . 7 Repeat Example 6. corresponds to the synchronizing power coefficient discussed in Chapter 2.04)] + (0.02)(0.7598)(0.63 1)(0.9185 Eqno= 1.a) = 0.736" and sin(6.7598)( 1 .9 K.3174 . = 1.3162 Kl = 0. Solution From Example 5.8063) .02)2 + (2.5261/(1 1. A + 1.6.395)[(2.5915.02 x 0.395(0.( Go/ Yo)K. + A'.8063.1..) = 1.04 x 1.55 x 2 .3072 = K4 T.645)(0. + 0.6 for the operating conditions given in Example 5.Linear Models of the Synchronous Machine 227 K6 = = Yo)[1 .8125 s (0.02)(0. = = 1.497 1 E .813~)]6.02) = 0.8063 .2.455 x 0.5915)]) = 1.4479 = We note that for this example the constant K .3162 5.7598 E60 = = 1.7598)( 1.9185 0.4047)( 1.04 x 0..0755 6.474)[(0.04)(0.xqRe 0.497 1 ( %o/ Therefore at this operating condition the linearized model of the system is given by EiA T.2578 E d A 0. + 1. cos(6.5915) 1.K1xXx9 + Xt)l . and Eqno 1.~I~S)]EF.(0.9185) = 2.0.4047[(0..04)2] + (2.0409 6.
 K2K3K4/(1 The bracketed term is the synchronizing torque coefficient taking into account the effect of the armature reaction..813 s)]EFnA . + 1.8063)] (1.75) and substituting in the expression for TeA get.04)(0.228 Chapter 6 K. the coefficient K . + K37A0s)16A (6.245)(2. substituting in the expression for K A = IK. then E6A = [K3K4/(1 + K37iOs)18A + K37hls)16A (6.5257 ( o‘6628 (0.74) (6.67).. and in the less severe loading condition of Example 6. The constants K .5.6 and 6.and K6 are comparable in magnitude in both cases.0294 K6 = (Xb 0.7598)(1. has a value of 0.172 ) The linearized model of the system at the given operating point is given in pu by E.58) we note that K3 is an impedance factor and hence is independent of the machine loading.6.5 Effect of loading Examining the values of the constants K . through Kb for the loading conditions of Examples 6. + 0.  K3K4K6/(I KA. = (0..64)(0. This is usually compensated for by the use of supplementary signals to produce artificial damping. In the heavier loading condition of Example 6.:i8)[(0.245) 0’9670 [(0.(2.77) . Initially. the voltage regulator decreases the natural damping of the system (at that operating condition). If this constant is negative. we TeA = iK.57) and (6.. K.7.813~)]6A 6.04 1 )] 0. we note the following: I .02) 1.7598)( 1.02)(0. (6.3072/(1 + 1. The cases studied in the above examples represent heavy load conditions. 2.O)( 1.8063)] = = 0. Certain effects are clearly demonstrated.02946. This is rather significant.6 and 6.3174 E:.71) we note that these constants depend on the initial machine loading.5257 EA .58).9670   (0. From (6. let EFDA 0.A dependence is quite significant.5915) . 0.64) (t.02)(0.76) The second term is usually much larger in magnitude than K. K4.0409.7 its value is 0.172)  (0.7 we note that the demagnetizing effect of the armature reaction as manifested by the E. + I .645)(0. and (6. while K. is reduced by a factor K2K4/ TiO.5915) + (0..7598)(I .0294.7598)(0.. = To illustrate the demagnetizing effect of the armature reaction. Similarly. and in Chapter 8 it will be pointed out that in machines with voltage regulators. and inifially the change in the terminal voltage is given by ‘.4479 6 .0)(0.5546/(1 1. From Examples 6.o = (K4K6/7h)6A (6. . K.[0. From (6. has reversed sign. This effect is more pronounced in relation to the change in the terminal voltage. the system damping is affected by the constant K. TeA K A = = = [0. The constant K 3 is the same in both cases.A].
72) the classical model will have K6 = 0.o Fig.5. . except for the variation in the main fieldwinding flux.8 1 .6 08 .o 1 Real Paver. power) as parameter.6 Comparison with classical model The machine model discussed in this section is almost as simple as the classical model discussed in Chapter 2.4 06 .. P 0. . Thus (6.8 1 . 01 0 2 . (d) K5 versus P and Q . . Z constant. 06 .0 xe = 0.7 0. 6. 1 1 1 0. . (b) K2 versus P and Q . 1 ..K6 with loading: (a) K I versus P (real power) and Q (reactive . 1 1 1 04 . I n (6. (c) K4 versus P and Q . 0m21 01 . .59) the effective time constant is assumed to be very large so that E.21. R e a l Power.8 1 .K4.o 0. I t is interesting to compare the two models.5 011 I 0 1 02 . (o IEEE. The results are shown in Figure 6.1 Variation of parameters K . 06 .. PAS92. (e) K 6 versus P and Q .o . Reprinted from IEEE Trans.80.4 0. 0./Oct. 0.8 06 . and K6 are studied in reference [3] for a one machineinfinite bus system very similar to the system in the above examples except for zero external resistance. K2. P .0 r e = 0. P 0. .linear Models of the Synchronous Machine 229 1. Also in (6.4 R e a l Power. vol. P 02 . o 01 0 2 . . 6.1. .4 Q = 0. Rml Power.) The effects of the machine loading on the constants K . manifested as a change in E:. Z .4 06 .0y" 0. K.0 1. . P xe = 0.1 I 01 0 2 . . The classical model does not account for the demagnetizing effect of the armature reaction. 1973.1 re0.9 0. Sept.67) in the classical model would have K2 = 0. 0.4 00 .o 1 Real Power.
7.3798 + 0.3186 “I = EV.00) + j1.1.(0.826 X 1. we get for the magnitude of V. Note that the angle 6 here is not the same as the rotor angle 6 discussed previously. solve the system of Example 6.)] 0. Solution The network used in the classical model is shown in Figure 6.217) The synchronizing power coefficient is given by P.40 Substituting.02 x To compare with the value of K. = 660 . Thus the classical model gives a larger value of the synchronizing power coefficient than that obtained when the demagnetizing effect of the armature reaction is taken into account. The phasors 7 and 7. we get fa  = VI = 1 . Therefore.cos6.) 6 .645 X 0.+ X . = .. E = = E & = 1 + jO.645 + jO.2.43” + (0.1.(B.3186cos6 . based on the threephase power.0 + j0. The phasor E = E Lis the constant voltage behind transient reactance.0 I .230 Chapter 6 To illustrate the difference between the two models. + (0.1261 6 .3186sin6]/j0.62 sin 6. = 1.7 we note the difference in the pu system.8177)’ sin’ 6 or V I A= . X’ d e ‘ Re Fig.neglecting R .8 Using the classical model discussed in Chapter 2. K.8794 + 0. .980 .3 I86 /28. it is the angle of the fictitious voltage E.0.sin6. To obtain the linearized equation for VI.. Vf = (0..645)(0. .sin6. For convenience we will use the pu system used (or implied) in Chapter 2.8177 cos 6)’ 2 VI.7 is solved by the classical model.2 Network of Example 6.G.V I .0 0.448. ) C O S + ~ ~ R. Example 6.j0.7.4164 (0.020 + j0.OOO [(1.4761) = 1.are the machine terminal voltage and the infinite bus voltage respectively. in Example 6. Le. the same system in Example 6.) = ( E V . / Z 2 ) [ ( x . 6.
K 6 / ~ .4 is similar to Figure 3..12526.. and T. such as E:.. Other significant quantities are identified in the diagram. .. w .73) and the equation for 6. from the above equations. = = = = v.73).5 the system equations are given by K3Thktj6~+ E:. K... E. . is shown in Figure 6. Note that Figure 6.T. The output is the terminal voltage change V ... In both diagrams the subscript A is omitted for convenience.aA K~E:A T.78) Eliminating V. . 6 .7 StateSpace Representation of Simplified Model From Section 6.. (6.EFDA .6 Block Diagrams  ( K . and Fig 6. T.7 is given by KA].. T.~+ = 6.67). The diagram and its equations show that the simplified model of the synchronous machine is a thirdorder system.EiA K. K.Linear Models of the Synchronous Machine 231 The corresponding initial value in Example 6.. namely.4 Block diagram of the simplified linear model of a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus. and (6. = 0.4 has two inputs or forcing functions.. + = @A (“ 5 (6.K3K4 6 .72) the resulting block diagram is shown in Figure 6. and T. 0 ) 6 . When combined with (6. K. The block diagram representation of (6.6 . 7 s  ~ 6 elec rod Fig...59). Figure 6. This block diagram “generates” the rotor angle 6. I . By designating the state variables as and and the input signals as E. 6.3..4. 6. and 6.3 Block diagram of (6.
I .79) and write the equation for the eigenvalues of this system. Compute the current model A matrix for these three power factors. 6. Concepts of synchronous machine stability as affected by excitation control. Phillips. The former will be discussed in Chapter 7 while the latter is discussed in Part 111. 1973. and T.1.4 Repeat Problem 6. de Mello. through K6 for the simplified linear model. 6..7 Make an analog computer study using the linearized model summarized in Section 6. The excitation is then varied from 90% PF lagging to unity and finally to 90% leading.. PAS92:153846.. M. ElSherbiny.80) (6. I References I .8 for the system of Example 6. What conclusions.3 using the flux linkage model.232 Chapter 6 T.G.1 at 90%PF lagging.2 Problem 6.5.2 using the flux linkage model. 6. 6. IEEE Trans. the above equation is in the desired statespace form k ! = AX + BU where (6. Problems The generator of Example 5. P. W. and 3. 2. Dynamic system stability. can you draw from the results? Let D = 0. are determined from the detailed description of the voltage regulatorexcitation systems and the mechanical turbinespeed governor systems respectively. I using the flux linkage model 6.. . 2. A. 1969.. Find the synchronizing power coefficient and V. N E E Trans.. calculate the constants K. 71:69297. 6. 6. for the classical model and compare with the corresponding values obtained by the simplified linear model. and Mehta. Pt. 3. Find the characteristic equation and see if you can identify any system constraints for stability using Routh’s criterion. 6.6.6 Repeat Problem 6. M.rated terminal voltage and with constant turbine output. and Concordia. K..5 Repeat Problem 6. Find the sensitivity of the eigenvalues to this parameter..8 Examine the linear system (6. as a function of 6 . IEEE Trans. R.1.2 is loaded to 75% of nameplate rating at. Heffron..10 Repeat Example 6. F.4. C. if any. Effect of a modern voltage regulator on underexcited operation of large and turbine generators. D .9 For the generator and loading conditions of Problem 6.3 Using the data of Problem 6. Note in particular the system damping as compared to the analog computer results of Chapter 5 .81) In the above equations the driving functions E. How many elements of the A matrix vary as the power factor is changed? How sensitive are these elements to change in power factor? Use a digital computer to compute the eigenvalues of the three A matrices determined in 6. 1952. Determine a value of D that will make the linear model respond with damping similar to the nonlinear model. PAS88:31629. 6. compute the eigenvalues of the A matrix with the damping D = I .
which serves to orient our thinking from the problems of represenlalion of the machine to the problems of confrol. 7. 7.1 Principal controls of a generating unit. Under this assumption all power received as steam must leave the generator terminals as electric power. The excitation system controls the generated EMF of the generator and therefore controls not only the output voltage but'the power factor and current magnitude as well. This is not a bad assumption when total losses of turbine and generator are compared to total output. The amount of steam power admitted to the turbine is controlled by the governor. V Turbine Generator +. In this chapter we shall deal exclusively with the excitation system. P Enthalpy.2 where.1 is nothing more than an energy conversion device that changes heat energy of steam into electrical energy at the machine terminals. Assume that the generating unit is lossless. Thus the unit pictured in Figure 7. I . Here 233 . REF v Fig.e at pressure. This simplified view is expressed diagramatically in Figure 7. leaving the consideration of governors and boiler control for Part 111.I+ Power setpoint +PI+p3. A n example will illustrate this point further.1. and exciter. for convenience.1 Simplified View of Excitation Control Referring again to Figure 7. Refer to the schematic representation of a synchronous machine shown in Figure 7.P Firing control Governor Excitation RE. h Power at voltage. the stator is represented in its simplest form. namely.chapter 7 Excitation Systems Three principal control systems directly affect a synchronous generator: the boiler control. let us examine briefly the function of each control element. governor. by an EMF behind a synchronous reactance as for round rotor machines at steady state. Sa t m .
234
I&+, \
E
9
Chapter 7
I
'
+
Excitation
Fig. 7.2 Equivalent circuit of a synchronous machine.
the governor c n rols the torque or the shaft power input and the excitation system controls E,, the internally generated EMF.
Example 7.1 Consider the generator of Figure 7.2 to be operating at a lagging power factor with a current I, internal voltage E,, and terminal voltage V. Assume that the input power is held constant by the governor. Having established this initial operating condition, assume that the excitation is increased to a new value E;. Assume that the bus voltage is held constant by other machines operating in parallel with this machine, and find the new value of current I ' , the new power factor cos 0: and the new torque angle 6:
Solution This problem without numbers may be solved by sketching a phasor diagram. Indeed, considerable insight into learning how the control system functions is gained by this experience. The initial operating condition is shown in the phasor diagram of Figure 7.3. Under the operating conditions specified, the output power per phase may be expressed in two ways: first in terms of the generator terminal conditions
P = v~cose (7.1) and second in terms of the power angle, with saliency effects and stator resistance neglected,
P
=
(E, VIA') sin 6
(7.2) (7.3)
( 7.4)
In our problem P and V are constants. Therefore, from (7.1) ICOS~, = k where k, is a constant. Also from (7.2)
E, sin 6
=
k,
where k, is a constant.
Fig. 7.3 Phasor diagram of the initial condition.
Excitation Systems
235
p + II
I
I
A
E
Fig. 7.4 Phasor diagram showing control constraints.
Figure 7.4 shows the phasor diagram of Figure 7.3, but with k, and k, shown graphically. Thus as the excitation is increased, the tip of Eg is constrained to follow the dashed line of Figure 7.4, and the tip of I is similarly constrained to follow the vertical I dashed line. We also must observe the physical law that requires that phasor T and phasor Tlie at right angles. Thus we construct the phasor diagram of Figure 7.5, which shows the “before and after” situation. We observe that the new equilibrium condition requires that ( I ) the torque angle is decreased, (2) the current is increased, and (3) the power factor is more lagging; but the output power and voltage are the same. By similar reasoning we can evaluate the results of decreasing the excitation and of changing the governor setting. These mental exercises are recommended to the student as both interesting and enlightening.
I‘
Fig. 7.5 Solution for increasing .Ep at constant P and V
Note that in Example 7.1 we have studied the effect of going from one stable operating condition to another. We have ignored the transient period necessary to accomplish this change, with its associated problemsthe speed of response, the nature of the transient (overdamped, underdamped, or critically damped), and the possibility of saturation at the higher value of E,. These will be topics of concern in this chapter.
7.2
Control Configurations
We now consider the physical configuration of components used for excitation systems. Figure 7.6 shows in block form the arrangement of the physical components in
236
Input torque Drime mover
Chapter 7
rd
Generator
I
Output voltage
d
I
current
I I
Auwi I iary
Fig. 7.6 Arrangement of excitation components
any system. I n many presentday systems the exciter is a dc generator driven by either the steam turbine (on the same shaft as the generator) or an induction motor. An increasing number are solidstate systems consisting of some form of rectifier or thyristor system supplied from the ac bus or from an alternatorexciter. The voltage regulator is the intelligence of the system and controls the output of the exciter so that the generated voltage and reactive power change in the desired way. I n earlier systems the “voltage regulator” was entirely manual. Thus the operator observed the terminal voltage and adjusted the field rheostat (the voltage regulator) until the desired output conditions were observed. In most modern systems the voltage regulator is a controller that senses the generator output voltage (and sometimes the current) then initiates corrective action by changing the exciter control in the desired direction. The speed of this device is of great interest in studying stability. Because of the high inductance in the generator field winding, it is difficult to make rapid changes in field current. This introduces considerable ‘‘lag’’ in the control function and is one of the major obstacles to be overcome in designing a regulating system. The auxiliary control illustrated in Figure 7.6 may include several added features. For example, damping is sometimes introduced to prevent overshoot. A comparator may be used to set a lower limit on excitation, especially at leading power factor operation, for prevention of instability due to very weak coupling across the air gap. Other auxiliary controls are sometimes desirable for feedback of speed, frequency, acceleration, or other data [I].
7.3 Typical Excitation Configurations
To further clarify the arrangement of components in typical excitation systems, we consider here several possible designs without detailed discussion.
7.3.1
Primitive systems
First we consider systems that can be classified in a general way as “slow response” systems. Figure 7.7 shows one arrangement consisting of a main exciter with manual or automatic control of the field. The “regulator” in this case detects the voltage level and includes a mechanical device to change the control rheostat resistance. One such directacting rheostatic device (the “Silverstat” regulator) is described in reference [2] and consists of a regulating coil that operates a plunger, which in turn acts on a row of spaced silver buttons to systematically short out sections of the rheostat. In application, the device is installed as shown in Figure 7.8. In operation, an increase in generator output voltage will cause an increase in dc voltage from the rectifier. This will cause an increase in current through the regulator coil that mechanically operates a solenoid to insert exciter field resistance elements. This reduces excitation field flux and voltage, thereby lowering the field current in the generator field, hence lowering the generator
Excitation Systems
Commutator Exciter
237
I
Field
I
Exciter field rhecntat
I
* T
PT‘s
Manual control
Fig. 7.7
Main exciter with rheostat control.
voltage. Two additional features of the system in Figure 7.8 are the damping transformer and current compensator. The damping transformer is an electrical “dashpot” or antihunting device to damp out excessive action of the moving plunger. The current compensator feature is used to control the division of reactive power among parallel generators operating under this type of control. The current transformer and compensator resistance introduce a voltage drop in the potential circuit proportional to the line current. The phase relationship is such that for lagging current (positive generated reactive power) the voltage drop across the compensating resistance adds to the voltage from the potential transformer. This causes the regulator to lower the excitation voltage for an increase in lagging current (increase in reactive power output) and provides a drooping characteristic to assure that the load reactive power is equally divided among the parallel machines. The next level of complication in excitation systems is the main exciter and pilot
Generator
Fig. 7.8
Selfexcited main exciter with Silverstat regulator. (Used with permission from Efecrricul Trammission
and Distribution Reference Book, 1950, ABB Power T & D Company Inc., 1992.)
238
&& ’ e?
Chapter 7
Main exciter
Canmutator
Commutator
Slip
T
I
breaker
I
I
JI
T
Fig. 7.9 Main exciter and pilot exciter system.
exciter system shown in Figure 7.9. This system has a much faster response than the selfexcited main exciter, since the exciter field control is independent of the exciter output voltage. Control is achieved in much the same way as for the selfexcited case. Because the rheostat positioner is electromechanical, the response may be slow compared to more modern systems, although it is faster than the selfexcited arrangement. The two systems just described are examples of older systems and represent direct, straightforward means of effecting excitation control. I n terms of present technology in control systems they are primitive and offer little promise for really fast system response because of inherent friction, backlash, and lack of sensitivity. The first step in sophistication of the primitive systems was to include in the feedback path an amplifier that would be fast acting and could magnify the voltage error and induce faster excitation changes. Gradually, as generators have become larger and interconnected system operation more common, the excitation control systems have become more and more complex. The following sections group these modern systems according to the type of exciter 131.
o Fig. 7.10 Excitation control system with dc generatorcommutator exciter. ( IEEE. Reprinted from l E E E Trans., vol. PAS88, Aug. 1969.) Example: General Electric type NA143 amplidyne system 141.
Excitation Systems
239
I
I'
Fig. 7.1 I
Excitation control system with dc generatorcommutator exciter. (w IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Trans.. vol. PAS88, Aug. 1969.) Example: Westinghouse type W M A MagAStat system [ 6 ] .
7.3.2
Excitation control systems with dc generatorcommutator exciters
Two systems of U S . manufacture have dc generatorcommutator exciters. Both have amplifiers in the feedback path; one a rotating amplifier, the other a magnetic amplifier. Figure 7.10 [3) shows one such system that incorporates a rotating amplifier or amplidyne [5] in the exciter field circuit. This amplifier is used to force the exciter field in the desired direction and results in much faster response than with a selfexcited machine acting unassisted. Another system with a similar exciter is that of Figure 7. I I where the amplifier is a static magnetic amplifier deriving its power supply from a permanentmagnet generatormotor set. Often the frequency of this supply is increased to 420 Hz to increase the amplifier response. Note that the exciter in this system has two control fields, one for boost and one for buck corrections. A third field provides for selfexcited manual operation when the amplifier is out of service.
7.3.3
Excitation control systems with alternatorrectifier exciters
With the advent of solidstate technology and availability of reliable highcurrent rectifiers, another type of system became feasible. I n this system the exciter is an ac generator, the output of which is rectified to provide the dc current required by the generator field. The control circuitry for these units is also solidstate in most cases, and the overall response is quite fast [3]. An example of alternatorrectifier systems is shown in Figure 7.12. In this system the alternator output is rectified and connected to the generator field by means of slip rings. The alternatorexciter itself is shunt excited and is controlled by electronically adjusting the firing angle of thyristors (SCR's). This means of control can be very FdSt
240
Exciter
Chapter 7
power
Fig. 7. I 2
Excitation control system with alternatorrectifier exciter using stationary noncontrolled rectifiers. (G IEEE. Reprinted from I E E E Trans.. vol. PAS88, Aug. 1969.) Example: General Electric Alterrex excitation system 171.
since the firing angle can be adjusted very quickly compared to the other time constants involved. Another example of an alternatorrectifier system is shown in Figure 7.13. This system is unique in that it is brushless; i.e., there is no need for slip rings since the alternatorexciter and diode rectifiers are rotating with the shaft. The system incorporates a pilot permanent magnet generator (labeled PMG in Figure 7.13) with a permanent magnet field to supply the (stationary) field for the (rotating) alternatorexciter. Thus all coupling between stationary and rotating components is electromagnetic. Note, however, that it is impossible to meter any of the generator field quantities directly since these components are all moving with the rotor and no slip rings are used.
Rotating elemenk
Other inputs
Fig. 7. I3 Excitation control system with alternatorrectifier exciter employing rotating rectifiers. (o IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Trans., vol. PAS88, Aug. 1969.) Example: Westinghouse type WTA Brushless excitation system 18.91.
Excitation Systems
IConhollebl
24 1
Fig. 7.14 Excitation control system with alternatorSCR exciter system. ((c> IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Trans., vol. PAS88, Aug. 1969.) Example: General Electric Althyrex excitation system I 1 11.
The response of systems with alternatorrectifier exciters is improved by designing the alternator for operation at frequencies higher than that of the main generator. Recent systems have used 420Hz and 300Hz alternators for this reason and report excellent response characteristics [S, IO].
7.3.4 Excitation control systems with alternatorSCR exciter systems
Another important development in excitation systems has been the alternatorSCR design shown in Figure 7.14 [3]. In this system the alternator excitation is supplied diLinear reactor
Fig. 7. I5 Excitation control system with compoundrectifier exciter. (o IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Trans., vol. PAS88, Aug. 1969.) Example: General Electric SCTP static excitation system
[12,13].
242
Chapter 7
rectly from an SCR system with an alternator source. Hence it is only necessary to adjust the SCR firing angle to change the excitation level, and this involves essentially no time delay. This requires a somewhat larger alternatorexciter than would otherwise be necessary since it must have a rating capable of continuous operation at ceiling voltage. I n slower systems, ceiling voltage is reached after a delay, and sustained operation at that level is unlikely.
7.3.5 Excitation control systems with compoundrectifier exciter systems
The next classification of exciter systems is referred to as a “compoundrectifier’’ exciter, of which the system shown in Figure 7.15 is an example [3]. This system can be viewed as a form of selfexcitation of the main ac generator. Note that the exciter input comes from the generator: electrical output terminals, not from the shaft as in previous examples. This electrical feedback is controlled by saturable reactors, the control for which is arranged to use both ac output and exciter values as intelligence sources. The system is entirely static, and this feature is important. Although originally designed for use on smaller units [ 12, 131, this same principle may be applied to large units as well. Selfexcited units have the inherent disadvantage that the ac output voltage is low at the same time the exciter is attempting to correct the low voltage. This may be partially compensated for by using output current as well as voltage in the control scheme so that (during faults, for example) feedback is still sufficient to effect adequate control. Such is the case in the u n i t shown in Figure 7.15.
7.3.6 Excitation control system with compoundrectifier exciter plus potentialsourcerectifier exciter
A variation of the compoundrectifier scheme is one in which a second rectified outp u t is added to the selfexcited feedback to achieve additional control of excitation.
Auxi I iory power input far startup
Fig. 7. 16 Excitation control system with compoundrectifier exciter plus potentialsourcerectifier exciter. (@ IEEE. Reprinted from lEEE Trans., vol. PAS88, Aug. 1969.) Example: Westinghouse type WTAPCV static excitation system [ 14).
Excitation Systems
243
This scheme is depicted in Figure 7.16 [3]. Again the basic selfexcited main generator scheme is evident. Here, however, the voltage regulator controls a second rectifier system (called the “Trinistat power amplifier” in Figure 7.16) to achieve the desired excitation control. Note that the system is entirely static and can be inherently very fast, the only time constants being those of the reactor and the regulator.
7.3.7
Excitation control systems with potentialsourcerectifier exciter
The final category of excitation systems is the selfexcited main generator where the rectification is done by means of SCR’s rather than diodes. Two such systems are shown in Figure 7.17 and Figure 7.18 (3). Both circuits have static voltage regulators that use potential, current, and excitation levels to generate a control signal by which the SCR gating may be controlled. This type of control is very fast since there is no time delay in shifting the firing angle of the SCR’s.
7.4
Excitation Control System Definitions
Most of the foregoing excitation system configurations are described in reference [3], which also gives definitions of the control system quantities of interest in this application. Only the most important of these are reviewed here. Other definitions, including those referred to by number here, are stated in Appendix E. All excitation control systems may be visualized as automatic control systems with feed forward and feedback elements as shown in Figure 7.19. Viewed in this way, the excitation control systems discussed in the preceding section may be arranged in a general way, as indicated in Figure 7.20 and further described in Table 7.1. Note that the synchronous machine is considered a. part of the “excitation control system,” but the control elements themselves are referred to simply as the “excitation system.” The type of transfer function belonging in each block of Figure 7.20 is discussed in reference [ 151. The reference to systems of Type 1, Type 3, etc., in the last column of Table 7. I also refers to system types defined in that reference. This will be discussed in greater detail in Section 7.9. Our present concern is to learn the general configuration
Auxiliary power UII u inputfor stortup&Te&
Fo[$jField breaker
power potential transfanner
’
CT
PT’S
regulator
_I
Fig. 7. I7
Excitation control system with potentialsourcerectifier exciter. (@ IEEE. Reprinted from / € E € Trans., vol. PAS88. Aug. 1969.) Example: General Electric SCR static excitation system [14].
244
Auxiliary Rawer itput tor startur, Slia
Chapter 7
:
L5lment5 I
.
buildup
!__
~
\
J PT's
rm
Trinistat power amplifier
I
II
Exci t a t im power potential transfoner
I
1 I
Excitation power
~
Regulator power
control)
1
I
rifol;ag7 t
I
.
current
I
Reguloting system
Fig. 7.1 8
Excitation control system with potentialsourcerectifier exciter. (c: IEEE. Reprinted from / L E E Trans.. vol. PAS88. Aug. 1969.) Example: Westinghouse type WTATrinistat excitation system.
of modern excitation control systems and to become familiar with the language used in describing them.
7.4.1
Voltage response ratio
A n important definition used in describing excitation control systems is that of the defined in Appendix E, Def. 3.153.19. This is a rough measure of how fast the exciter open circuit voltage will rise in 0 . 5 s if the excitation control is adjusted suddenly in the maximum increase direction. I n other words, the voltage reference in Figure 7.20 is a step input of sufficient magnitude to drive the exciter voltage to its ceiling (Def. 3.03) value with the exciter operating under noload conditions. Figure 7.2 I shows a typical response of such a system where the voltage u, starts at the rated load field voltage (Def. 3.21) that is the value of u,, which will produce rated
response ratio
Reference Directly control led
Feedback signal (Def 3.30)
I
(Def 2.05)
Fig. 7.19 Essential elements of an automatic feedback control system (Def. 1.02). (E. IEEE. Reprinted from / € E € Truns.. vol. PAS88. Aug. 1969.) Note: In excitation control system usage the actuating signal is commonly called the error signal (Del. 3.29). (See Appendix E for definitions.)
Table 7.1.
I
Components Commonly Used in Excitation Control System
7
Type of exciter
mplifierl
2
Pre
Power amplifier
Power sources
1
Manual control Signal modifiers
1
See note
6
dc Generatorcommutator exciter Alternatorrectifier exciter
;ee note Rotating, magnetic. 3 thyristor Rotating. thyristor
Selfexcited or separately excited exciter Compensated input to power amplifier. Selfexcited field voltage regulator Exciter output voltage regulator Selfexcited
MG set
MG set. synchronous machine shaf
Synchronous Synchronous machine machine shaf shaft. MG set. alternator output
Alternatorrectifier (controlled) exciter Compoundrectifier exciter Compoundrectifier exciter plus potentialsoun:e rectifier exciter Potentialsource rectifier (controlled) exciter
V
Thyristor
Alternator output
Synchronous machine shaf
Magnetic, thyristor Thyristor
Synchronous machine terminals Synchronous machine terminals
Synchronous machine terminals machine terminals
Compensated input to power amplifier
Thyristor
Synchronous machine terminals
Synchronous machine terminals
Exciter output voltage regulator. Compensated input to power amplifier
7
I
Source: c IEEE. Reprinted from / € E € Truns.. vol. PAS88. Aug. 1969. 2. Primary detecting element and reference input: can consist of many types of circuits on any system including dil son. intersecting impedance. and bridge circuits. 3. Preamplifier: Cons.ists of all types but on newer systems is usually a solidstate amplilier. 6. Signal modifiers: (A) Auxiliary inputsreactive and active current compensators: system stabilizing signals pro (B)Limitersmaximum excitation. minimum excitation. maximum V/Hz. 8. Excitation control system stabilizers: can consist of all types from series leadlag to rate feedback around any ele *IEEE committee report [15].
246
Chapter 7
Power source [regulator)
( regulator
(exciter)
power source
**
Synchronous machine

i t"
I Power
I
I
I
stcbi lizer
I
(Def 2.14) (Def 2.11) (Def 2.03) (Def 2.13)
lnpuh
i i
I

I
Fig. 7.20 Excitation control systems. (,q IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Trans., vol. PAS88. Aug. 1969.) Note: The numerals on this diagram refer to the columns in Table 7.1. (See Appendix E for definitions.)
generator voltage under nameplate loading. Then, responding to a step change in the reference, the opencircuited field is forced at the maximum rate to ceiling along the curve ab. Since the response is nonlinear, the response ratio is defined in terms of the area under the curve ab for exactly 0.5s. We can easily approximate this area by a straight line ac and compute Response ratio = cd/(Oa)(0.5) pu V/s (7.5) Kirnbark [I61 points out that since the exciter feeds a highly inductive load (the generator field), the voltage across the load is approximately u = k d $ / d t . Then in a short time A t the total flux change is
Ac$ =
1 JA' = area under buildup curve udt k
(7.6)
0
Time, s
0.5
Fig. 7.21
Delinition of a voltage response ratio.
exciters are usually rated at 125 V for small generators. It has been recognized for some time. 1969. 7. such as t h e one shown in Figure 7.5 was chosen because this is about the time interval of older “quickresponse” regulators between the recognition of a step change in the output voltage and the shorting of field rheostat elements.22 [3] and shows how close the 0. Aug.5) is an adequate definition if the voltage response is rather slow. 3. PAS88. it may be helpful to state certain numerical values of exciter ratings offered by the manufacturers (see [2] for a discussion of exciter ratings).1 s for “systems having an excitation voltage response time of 0.16) is the time required to reach 95% of ceiling].21. however. say 10 MVA and below. each attaining 95% ceiling voltage in 0.5s interval Oe in Figure 7. vol.1 s.18) 4 5 6 7 8 Fig. or 500V exciters. A comparison of three systems. It is reasonable that an exciter with a high ceiling voltage will build up to a particular volt .22 Exciter ceiling voltage as a function of response ratio for a high initial response excitation system.) The time A t = 0. which shows the improved response for higher ceiling voltage ratings (and the lower ceiling voltage for solidstate exciters). 7.2 Exciter voltage ratings Some additional comments are in order concerning certain of the excitation voltage definitions.2. In dynamic operation where the interest is in small. and extending the triangle acd out to 0.21) .Excitation Systems 247 Syl t m otfoining 95% ceiling in 0. Reprinted from /&E€ Trans.1 s or less. Reference [ I ] tabulates the pattern of ceiling voltages for various response characteristics in Table 7. (z IEEE.21 by an interval Oe = 0.. such as a fault condition. This is discussed in reference [3]. I .1s response is to the ideal system. fast changes. a step function. is given in Figure 7. First.1 I d hoving on expomntiol response Synchronous machine mted Imd field voltoge (Lkf 3.1 s or less” [the voltage response time (Def. 1. that modern fast systems may reach ceiling in 0.05) that replaces the 0. with still larger machines being equipped with 350V. Equation (7. Larger units usually have 250V exciters. . 375V. Briefly. say up to l00MVA. 0 1 2 3 9 101112 Response Rotio (Def 3. The voltage rating and the ceiling voltage are both important in considering the speed of response [ I . .4.5 s is almost meaningless. builddown may be equally important. and a new definition is introduced (Def. 171. Buildup rather than builddown is used because there is usually more interest in the response to a drop in terminal voltage.
2.. overshoots. IO *Based on rated exciter voltage. often used in control system specification. delays. is that based on the . an exciter rated at 250V. I n adopting a pu system for the exciter.I .0 .23 and is seldom used.o 1. System B is often used.40 1.35 1. (B) rated load field voltage.. there is no obvious choice as to what base voltage to use. The pu system A pu System Fig.2.19]. 7. System D is not illustrated in Figure 7.I .20 1. System C is often convenient since. Typical Ceiling Voltages for Various Exciter Response Ratios Response ratio Per unit ceiling voltage conventional exciters* SCR exciters 0. damping. For this rating some typical values of other defined voltages are given in Figure 7.I . Some possibilities are (also see [2]): (A) exciter rated voltage. I .55 2.248 Chapter 7 age level faster than a similar exciter with a lower ceiling voltage simply because it saturates at a higher value.20.65 I . Table 7.1 .4.25. One useful description. Consider. of Figure 7.3 Other specifications Excitation control system response should be compared against a suitable criterion of performance if the system is to be judged or graded.5 I .45.SO 4.25 1. and pu synchronous internal voltage are all equal under steadystate conditions with no saturation. pu exciter voltage.I .I . System performance could be measured under any number of forcing conditions. 7. and the like.002.23 Per unit voltages for a 250V exciter.5 2 .55.40. It is generally agreed that the quantity of primary interest is the exciter voltagetime characteristic in response to a step change in the generated voltage of from 10 to 20% [18. The problem is how to state in words the various possible slopes.23.23 has little merit and is seldom used.30. as an example.o I . and (D) noload field voltage. This is an important consideration in comparing types and ratings of both conventional and solid state exciters as shown in Table 7. pu field current. with rated air gap voltage as a base.I . the rated load field voltage.70. (C) rated airgap voltage (the voltage necessary to produce rated voltage on the air gap line of the main machine in the case of a dc generator exciter).50 I . The IEEE [3] recommends the use of system 9.
The natural resonantfrequency w.. In the case of the secondorder system (7. .t + [{/(I f2)”Z .7. such as the terminal voltage. I Fig. fast systems reference [3] suggests simulation of the excitation as preferable to actual testing since on some systems certain parameters are unavailable for measurement [8. w:) (7. when f = 0. and the settling time. i. Reference (191 suggests testing an excitation system to determine the response.9]. the response to a step change of a driving variable is c(r) where = 1  ef**. such as in Figure 7.7) and is related to the values a . pu.” as shown in Figure 7. The settling time is the time required for the response to a step function to stay within a certain percentage of its final value.. the system is oscillatory. The damping ratio is that value for a secondorder system defined by f in the expression G(s) = K/(s’ +2 f ~+~ .e. This response. it has very little overshoot (about 5%). cu’rve shown in Figure 7. Three quantities describe this response: the overshoot. Here the curve is the response to a step change in one of the system variables.8) w. (I  (7.7). the settling time is T.5 s and use this as a specification of response in the time domain. the system is often “overdamped”.24. The overshoot is the amount that the response exceeds the steadystate responsein Figure 7. (i. and the rise time is TR. the time for the response to settle within k of its final value). In this case the voltage rise is more “sluggish.25.f2)]sinw. based on that of a secondorder system. For newer. 7. The rise time is the time for the response to rise from IO to 90% of the steadystate response.tI (7.Excitation Systems 249 time Tim..O. the rise time. Critical damping is said to occur when { = 1 . In dealing with an exciter being forced to ceiling due to a step change in the voltage regulator control.24 Time domain specifications 1221. = w. a . The first definition is preferred.21].24. is a reasonable one on which to base time domain specifications since many systems tend to exhibit two “leastdamped” poles that give a response of this general shape at some value of gain [20. Sometimes it is given as the time required to arrive at the final value after first overshooting this value. Then determine the area under this curve for 0.9) When f = 0.e.‘{cosw.25. Here the overshoot is zero. is also of interest and may be given as a specification. f > I . and a2 of two successive overshoots [23].
electronic and static.5 Time.5. I f the regulator is slow.9.) 7. as in the directacting device. however.25]. 2. such as the Silverstat [2] and the Tirrell(241. no matter how small the deviation.250 Chapter 7 1 k L V e . while maintaining essentially the same form. Thus we need to be very critical of this important system component.12). have been in use for many years. the directacting and the indirectacting. This is the device that senses changes in the output voltage (and current) and causes corrective action to take place.5 Voltage Regulator In several respects the heart of the excitation system is the voltage regulator (Def. it is necessary that the voltage regulator be a continuously acting proportional system. This means that any corrective action should be proportional to the deviation in ac terminal voltage from the desired value. Once the relay closes. has deadband or backlash. stiction. beginning with application to synchronous condensers. and finally. and large errors are to receive stronger corrective measures than small errors. 7. the system will be a poor one. This type of system was therefore studied intensively and widely applied during the 1940s and 1950s. Fig.4 0. Such devices were widely used and steadily improved. then to turbine generators. This relay operates to control a motoroperated rheostat.3 I 0. These tests indicated that continuously acting proportional control “increased the generator steadystate stability limits well beyond the limits offered by the rheostatic regulator” [24. These devices use a relay as the voltagesensitive element [24].1 & 0.25 Response of an excitation system 7. As machines of larger size became more common in the 1930s the indirecracring rheostatic regulators began to appear. (Reference [24] gives an interesting tabulation of the progress of these developments. and loosely fitting parts. in the early 1950s. In such a system the voltage reference is the spring tension against which the solenoid must react.1 Electromechanical regulators The rather primitive directacting regulator shown in Figure 7. This regulator is limited in its speed of response by various mechanical delays. It is reliable and independent of auxiliaries of any kind. In addition to high reliability and availability for maintenance.26]. thus the reference is essentially a spring. to . Two types of electromechanical regulators are often recognized.8 is an example of an electromechanical regulator. to hydrogenerators. some dating back to about 1900. N o matter what the exciter speed of the response. 0 0. were developed and tested extensively [24. usually connected between the pilot exciter and the main exciter.2 0. The response. Directacting regulators. or is otherwise insensitive. is sluggish and includes deadband and backlash due to mechanical friction. it will not alter its response until instructed to do so by the voltage regulator. Thus no deadband is to be tolerated. as in Figure 7. In the late 1930s and early 1940s several types of regulators.
and electronic pilot exciters used in conjunction with a conventional main exciter (24. The development of rotating amplifiers in the late 1930s and the application of these devices to generator excitation systems (28. I n such a device the output torque is proportional to the average threephase voltage. Usually. 7. The . The generator is excited by a selfexcited shunt exciter.5. highspeed relays are used to permit faster excitation changes. coupled with mechanical backlash. Here we take the view that the rotating amplifier is the final.10. it is not altogether clear whether the rotating amplifier is a part of the “voltage regulator” or is a kind of pilot exciter.Excitation Systems 25 1 short out a rheostat section. The electronic exciters or pilot exciters were highpower dc sources usually employing thyratron or ignitron tubes as rectifying elements. these early electronic devices provided “better voltage regulation as well as smoother and faster generation excitation control” (241 than the competitive indirectacting systems. The response of this type of regulator is fairly fast. electronic exciters. They never gained wide acceptance because of anticipated high maintenance cost due to limited tube life and reliability. and this was at least partly justified in later analyses [25]. highgain stage in the voltage regulator. This scheme has the feature that the rotating amplifier can be bypassed for maintenance and the generator can continue to operate normally by manual regulation through a field rheostat. and nearly all large units installed between about 1930 and 1945 had this type of control. such static circuits were designed to exclude any electronic active components so that the reliability of the device would be more independent of component aging. 291 have been accompanied by the development of entirely “static” voltage sensing circuitry to replace the electromechanical devices used earlier. Generally speaking. The contact type of control. devices employing saturable reactors and selenium rectifiers showed considerable promise. Another type of indirectacting regulator that has seen considerable use employs a polyphase torque motor as a voltagesensitive element [27].2 Early electronic regulators About 1930 work was begun on electronic voltage regulators.10. Many are still in service. In some cases. 7. Such circuits supplied the field windings of the rotating amplifiers. and much larger field currents can be controlled than with the directacting regulator. as in Figure 7. has inherent deadband and this. as in Figure 7. These devices were considered quite successful. A contact assembly attached to the rotor responds by closing contacts in the rheostat as the shaft position changes. however. In general.5. The operation of a typical rotating amplifier regulating system can be analyzed by reference to Figure 7. This connection is often called a “boostbuck” connection since. the rotating amplifier is in a position to aid or oppose the exciter field. the response is quite fast. This is due to the additional current “gain” introduced by the pilot excitermain exciter scheme. depending on polarity. This torque is balanced against a spring in torsion so that each value of voltage corresponds to a different angular position of the rotor. which were connected in series with the main exciter field.3 Rotating amplifier regulators In systems using a rotating amplifier to change the field of a main exciter. A special set of contacts closes very fast with rapid rotor accelerations that permit faster than normal response due to sudden system voltage changes. For example. electronic voltage regulators were of two types and used either to control electronic pilot exciters or electronic main exciters [25]. 251. constitutes a serious handicap.10.
The voltage rating of the rotating amplifier in systems of this type is often comparable to the main exciter voltage rating. It is essentially an amplifying device with the advantages of no rotating parts. Magamp of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation and Amplistat of the General Electric Company. a static amplifying device [32.. Magnetic amplifier regulators Another regulatoramplifier scheme capable of zero deadband proportional control is the magnetic amplifier system [6.. i. which in turn reduces if. Thus the shaded area above the set point in Figure 7. Usually. Under this condition the rotating amplifier voltage is zero.g.U Exciter Shunt Field Current Fig.4 .252 Chapter 7 Field > u Y e 0 V m > u . i.26.26 is called the buck voltage region. which is much greater than the amplidyne time constant. often quoted as about 0. but this is no drawback in power applications. This reduces the exciter voltage. 30. and sturdy construction. field circuit can be controlled either manually by energizing a relay whose contacts bypass the rotating amplifier or automatically. 7. 311. see Appendix D). A similar reasoning defines the area below the set point to be the boost voltage region. the exciter voltage required to hold the generated voltage at rated value with full load. Rotating amplifier systems have a moderate response ratio.e. exciters with higher ceilings having much faster response than exciters of similar design but with lower ceiling voltage (see [ 171 for a discussion of this topic). The speed of response is due largely to the main exciter time constant.e. e. with the amplifier providing a feedback of the error voltage to increase or decrease the field current. 331. The ceiling voltage is an important factor too.5. the magnetic amplifier consists of a saturable core reactor and a rectifier. The field rheostat is set to intersect the saturation curve at a point corresponding to rated terminal voltage. long life..) I n this system a magnetic amplifier.. the generator field current.26 Vl characteristic defining boost and buck regions. The control characteristic may be better understood by examining Figure 7. (We use the generic term “magnetic amplifier’’ although those accustomed to equipment of a particular manufacturer use trade names. replaces the rotating amplifier. 7. Now suppose the generator load is reduced and the generator terminal voltage begins to rise. The voltage sensing circuit (described later) detects this rise and causes the rotating amplifier to reduce the field current in the exciter field. It is restricted to low or moderate frequencies. zero warmup time.g. and the voltage swings of the amplifier change rapidly in attempting to regulate the system [24].5 (e.
Another application of magnetic amplifiers in voltage regulating systems. Note. however. that the exciter must have two field windings for boost or buck corrections since magnetic amplifiers are not reversible in polarity. The fact that this amplifier is very nonlinear is of little concern. The rotating amplifier is located in series with the exciter field in the usual boostbuck connection. This feature. (The figure of merit of an amplifier has been defined as the ratio of the power amplification to the time constant. of controlling a large output current by means of a small control current. By applying a small (lowpower) signal to the control winding. and hence the average load current. shown in Figure 7.1 I consists of a twostage pushpull input amplifier that. however. It is shown in [34] that for static magnetic amplifiers it is equal to onehalf the ratio of power output to stored magnetic energy. since . only two units of which are regulated.10 [4].1 1 (61. the current jumps to a large value limited only by the load resistance. The power amplifier supplies the main exciter directly in this system. One type of regulator that uses a magnetic amplifier is shown in block diagram form in Figure 7. The second stage is driven to maximum output when the input stage is at halfmaximum.01 s. with 1mW input signals. The magnetic amplifier in the system of Figure 7. Basically.Excitation Systems 253 u Supply oc Sotwoble core Laad Fig. The power amplifier has a figure of merit of 1500/cycle with an overall delay of less than 0. 7. Here the magnetic amplifier is used to amplify a voltage error signal to a power level satisfactory for supplying the field of a rotating amplifier. is the essence of any amplifier. The current Rowing through the load is basically limited by the very large inductance in the saturable core main windings. has several features to distinguish it from the previous example. rheostatcontrolled field and can continue to operate with the magnetic amplifiers out of service. can respond to maximum output in three cycles of the 420Hz supply. The main exciter also has a selfexcited. As the core becomes saturated.27 Magnetic amplifier. This compares with about 500/s for a conventional pilot exciter. the magnetic amplifier is similar to that shown in Figure 7. The figures of merit (341 are about 200/cycle for the input stage and 500/cycle for the output stage. and its transient response is also about three cycles. One important feature of this system is that the magnetic amplifier is relatively insensitive to variations in line voltage and frequency.) Reference [6] reviews the operating experience of a magnetic amplifier regulator installation on one 50MW machine in a plant consisting of seven units totaling over 300 MW. making this type of regulator favorable to remote (especially hydro) locations. we control the firing point on each voltage (or current) cycle. First. the magnetic amplifiers and reference are usually supplied from a 420Hz system supplied by a permanentmagnet motorgenerator set for maximum security and reliability. The experience indicates that.27 [33].
. we have A. A pilot exciter voltage. This serves to satisfy the terms of the response ratio definition and also simplifies the computation or test procedure. Various configurations are used depending on the manufacturer. a “builddown’’ curve can also be recorded. R = k Ri = vp (7. we compute the response under noload conditions. Def. it causes the machine on which it is installed to absorb much of the swing in load. 7.15). because the equations describing them are different. The exciter is operated at rated speed (assuming it is a rotating machine) and with no load. This is to be expected since the regulation of machine terminal voltage to a nearly constant level makes this machine appear to have a lower reactance.19). but all have generally fast operation with no appreciable time delay compared to other system time constants. particularly reactive load. (Portions of this analysis parallel that of Kimbark [16]. and boostbuck) are of interest. We now turn our attention to this problem. Rudenberg [20].10) = i = up = flux linkages of the main exciter field. This is called a “buildup curve. selfexcited. 7. ease of maintenance.5 Solidstate regulators Some of the amplification and comparison functions in modern regulators consist of solidstate active circuits (31. V . They must be analyzed independently. when operating with an arc furnace load. and Dah1 [35] to which the reader is referred for additional study.whereas a i 1% variation was observed with the regulator disconnected [ 6 ] .) Consider the separately excited exciter shown in Figure 7.6 Exciter Buildup Exciter response has been defined as the rate of increase or decrease of exciter voltage when a change is demanded (see Appendix E.28.” In a similar way. The future will undoubtedly bring more applications of solidstate technology in these systems because of the inherent reliability. 0 current. 3.6. separately excited. Curves thus recorded do not differ a great deal from those obtained under loaded conditions. hence it absorbs changes faster than its neighbors. Since the exciter response ratio is defined in terms of an unloaded exciter (Def. If it is impractical to stage a test on the exciter. close observation of operating oscillograms. such as the complete shorting of the field resistance. In the case under study. The best way to determine the exciter response is by actual test where this is possible. the machine terminal voltage was regulated to i0. Summing voltage drops around the pilot exciter terminal connection..25:(. Then a step change in a reference variable is made. Wb turns main exciter field resistance. In fact. where A. reveals that both exciter voltage and line currents undergo rapid fluctuations when regulated but are nearly constant when unregulated. and low initial cost of these devices. driving the exciter voltage to ceiling while the voltage is recorded as a function of time. the voltage buildup must be computed. 3.5.254 Chapter 7 the magnetic amplifier regulator is so much faster than the primitive rheostatic regulator. Usually we interpret this demand to be the greatest possible control effort. however. 7.1 The dc generator exciter I n dealing with conventional dc exciters three configurations (Le.
traverses a highreluctance path through the air space between poles. Therefore. as shown in Figure 7.13) (7.) . (7. Kimbark. I t does not link all N turns of the pole on the average and is usually treated either as proportional to or proportional to i . The problem is that i deequation in terms of i and pends on the exact location of the operating point on the saturation curve and is not linearly related to u. The field flux has two components. Le.14) = 4a + 44 Fig. I I ) The voltage of the pilot exciter up may be treated as a constant [ 161.. compares with &. (see [I61 for a more detailed discussion). 3 . in Since magnetization curves are plotted in terms of U . (Reprinted by per.29 Armature of air gap flux &. Furthermore. 7.28 Separately excited exciter. by E. The leakage component. its voltage U . 0 . since @E = c4. o Wiley. we have N& + Ri = up (7. comprising 1020% of the total. = (7.12) The problem is to determine how 4. 7.1 1) by a term involving the voltage ordinate u. Thus we have an with all other terms constant. leakage flux 44.29. and field flux @ E = 9 + 4 4 . Also. mission from Power Sysiem Siabiliry.. 1956. Let us assume that r$4 is proportional to 4. we replace (7. then 44 where C is a constant..Excitation Systems iF 0 = . vol.. If we assume the field flux links N turns. W.c i 255 a Pi lot exciter Ypcmbcbr Main exciter Fig. versus i. Assuming the main exciter to be running at constant speed.1 1) is nonlinear. It is helpful to think in terms of the field flux & rather than the field flux linkages. (7. the flux & has two components. leakage flux and armature flux. with relative magnitudes also depending on saturation. is proportional to the air gap flux 4.
(3) stepbystep integration (manual). and where we usually assume u to be a constant.256 Chapter 7 we have 4E = (1 + C)4 = r J 4 (7.3 I Selfexcited exciter with a rotating amplifier (boostbuck). as U.15) into (7. Substituting (7. and i. usually expressed graphically by means of the magnetization curve.16)(7. or N& + Ri = vF (7.1 I ) . we may write the nonlinear equation rEbF + Ri = V.2. Formal integration requires that the relationship between v. where we have hE + Ri = U.19). These are (1) formal integration. 7. I to 1. be known explicitly. Following the same logic regarding the fluxes as before. We usually assume up to be a constant.16) where r E = ( N a / k ) s. 7. In a similar way we establish the equation for the selfexcited exciter with boostbuck rotating amplification as shown in Figure 7. is not a linear function of i.15) where u is called the coefficient of dispersion and takes on values of about 1 . . (7. An empirical relation. rECF+ Ri = U. This equation is still nonlinear.30. rECF + Ri = up (7. (2) graphical integration (area summation).17) i =O P Fig. In a similar way we may develop the differential equation for the selfexcited exciter shown in Figure 7. + V. Writing the voltage equation with the usual assumptions.30 Selfexcited exciter. (7.16).19) Kimbark [I61 suggests four methods of solution for (7.31.18) for the selfexcited case where rEis the same as in (7. the Frohlich equation [35] y+ R Fig. however. and (4) analog or digital computer solution.
) Method 3. we select two known points on the saturation curve. Solution By examination of Figure 7. It is unlikely.32. the time derivatives are assumed constant over a small interval of time.32 we make the several voltage and current observations given in Table 7. a nonlinear equation is necessary to represent the saturation curve. This method. that anyone except the most intensely interested engineer would choose to work many of these problems because of the labor involved. graphical integration.) (7.2 A typical saturation curve for a separately excited generator is given in Figure 7. . (See Kimbark [ 161. in general. Method 4 is probably t h e method of greatest interest because digital and analog computers are readily available. To use formal integration. Example 7.20) or (7.22).22) by an example.. One experienced in the selection process may be quite successful in obtaining a good match.Excitation Systems 257 V.20). However.3. b.22) We illustrate the application of (7.v. I n this method. we will select two pairs of points and obtain two different solutions. and accurate.22). the equations can be integrated by separation of variables. Approximate this curve by the Frohlich equation (7. is a manual method similar to the familiar solution of the swing equation by a stepwise procedure [36].21) can be tried. the stepbystep method (called the pointbypoint method by some authors [ 16. The actual methods of computation are many but. I n either case the constants a.35]). Rudenberg [20]. with the value during the interval being dependent on the value at the middle of the interval. For convenience we shall use the Frohlich equation (7. and c must be found by cutandtry techniques. or the socalled modified Frohlich equation vF = d/(b + i ) + ci (7. and solve for a and b. If this is reasonably successful. I n this chapter the buildup of a dc generator will be computed by the formal integration method only. Table 7 3 Exciter Generated Voltages and Field Currents . nonlinear functions can be handled with relative ease and with considerable speed compared to methods 2 and 3. = ai/(b + i) (7. easy to use. makes use of the saturation curve to integrate the equations. an analog computer solution and a digital computer technique are outlined in Appendix B. however. substitute into (7. although somewhat cumbersome. To illustrate this. is quite instructive. i UF A V O 0 1 30 2 60 3 90 4 116 5 134 6 147 7 156 8 164 9 172 IO 179 Since there are two unknowns in the Frohlich equation.20) may be used. Method 2. and Dah1 [35] for a discussion of this method. which may be solved f or i to write i = buF/(a .
32 Saturation curve of a separately excited exciter. = 315.vF = 172 Then the equations to solve are 90 172 = = 3a/(3 9a/(9 + b) + b) 116 164 = = 4 ~ / ( 4+ b) 8 ~ / ( 8+ b) for which the solutions are a. 7. = 7.258 181 Chapter 7 16 14 12 c P i i p . i.uF = 90 i = Solution #2 9.53 A b2 = 5.9 V a2 = 279.9 V b. Solution # I Select i = 3.d e 0 c u' 10 6 4 i 1 I I I 8 2 1 1c 6 Exciter Field Current.65 A . . enperer 4 Fig.
27).21.4 Using the result of formal integration for the separately excited case (7.53 + i) + i) or i or i = 7.23) and for solution 2 U. For solution 1 U.22). (7. = 279. let the saturation curve be represented by the Frohlich equation (7.2.) (7. Then.28) . and c.) (7.32.25) is not plotted on Figure 7.)/(UUp . h (1 to)/TE = up + bR. = 359i/(i . / ( a . u = 359 b = 21.53~.65~.000 UFO = .uF)  = up (7.9 . = (I/h)(uF  UFO) Example 7.95) + 48i (7.25) Equation (7. Separately excited buildup by integration.9i/(7. so we leave it in this form./(315.u. b.Excitation Systems 259 Both solutions are plotted on Figure 7. solution 2. TEOF + b R ~ .hU~)]du~ (7.(abR/h’)In[(aU. For simplicity..9 .2 up = 125 V R = 34 S? 90 V k = 12.24) Example 7. 5.65 = 5. Select values of i = 2 .hu. and IO. Rearranging algebraically.26) This equation may be solved by separation of variables. compute the U.32 but is a better fit than either of the other two solutions./(279. Assume that the following constants apply and that the saturation curve is the one found in Example 7. we write dI = [TE(U U.91/(5.27) where we have defined for convenience.u. N u = = 2500 turns 1. Integrating (7. versus t relationship for values of I from 0 to Is and find the voltage response ratio by graphical integration of the area under the curve.hUFO)] This equation cannot be solved explicitly for u.28). I ) 6. = 315. substituting for the current in (7.32 by a modified Frohlich equation. .)/(avp .95 48. Solution i = 2 i = 5 i = IO 60 = 2 ~ / ( 2 6) 134 179 = 5a/(5 = + + 2~ + b) + 5c 10a/(10 + 6) + 1Oc c = Solving simultaneously for a.0 This gives us the modified formula U.3 Approximate the saturation curve of Figure 7.
by graphical construction we find the triangle acd.4.28 110.35 0.30 0. 2 2 ) we compute io = 5.22).79 109.260 Chapter 7 S o h I ion First we compute the various constants involved. 9 V . from Example 7. Selfexcited buildup by integration.94 108.9 280 b = 5. the initial voltage uFois 90 V .9/90(0.80 0.25 110.08 110. from the Frohlich equation the ceiling voltage is uF.70 0.85 0. = 12512.15 0.4 and illustrated in Figure 7.675 A 110.2)/12.19 0.65 0.7 D of which all but 34 52 is in the field rheostat.90) = 2.18 105.55 0.16) rE = Na/k = (2500)(1.00 0.16 110. Then from (7.12 103. IO 0. changing the resistance from 46.675 A This means that there is initially a total resistance of R. Since up is 125 V.45 0. Then from the Frohlich equation ( 7 . = v p / R = 125134 = 3. Assume that we completely short out the field rheostat.30 From Figure 7. From (7.675 = 46.62. Table 7.675)/(5.3 V Then.000 0./(b + i.65 Now.60 0.5) = 0. which has the same area as that under the uF curve abd.20 0.85 100. the response ratio = 27. from the given data.75 0. Buildup of Separately Excited uF for Example 7.675) = Using the above constants we compute the uF versus I relationship shown in Table 7.25 s = Also. as shown in the figure.50 0. From the field circuit.29) .40 109.05 0.4 90. = ai.96 1 10. i.35 106.00 95.55 109.21 110.7 to 34 0 at t = 0. we compute the final values of the system variables.25 0.33.65(90)/(280 .33.we have T&F + bRUF/(a  uF) = UF (7.2 a = 279.87 107. For a selfexcited machine whose saturation curve is represented by the Frohlich approximation (7.5) with cd = 2 7 .68 109.65 + 3.) = 280(3.
33 Buildup of the separately excited exciter for Example 7.5) = 0.5 Compute the selfexcited buildup for the same exciter studied in Example 7.1 0.3/3. at which point the current in the field is 3. Again we rearrange the equation to separate the variables as dt = vF)dvF (a . 0.4/90(0. Solution The ceiling voltage is to be 110.31) with this value of R and using Frohlich parameters from Example 7.bR)VF . we have the results in Table 7. instead of up.5 and the solution curve of Figure 7. Solving (7.4.3 0.4. Compare the two buildup curves by plotting the results on the same graph and by comparing the computed response ratios.30) This equation can be integrated from with the result (7.68 = 30 9. Example 7.bR. . I Fig. The response ratio = 15.4.2 0.31) whereK = a .7 Time.Excitation Systems 26 1 I4 2 c C A 0 0.4 ( 06 .342 for the selfexcited case. This is recognized to be identical to the previous case except that the term on the right side is U.34. Change the final resistance (field resistance) so that the selfexcited machine will achieve the same ceiling voltage as the separately excited machine.3 V. Then the resistance must be R = 110.V k to to t (7.68 A (from the Frohlich equations). 7.
61 95..75 0.33). or T&. + U.45 90.34) whereQ = d4A + M2.uX) (7.  (7. Buildup of Selfexcited up for Example 7.262 Chapter 7 0 0.1 0.u:) + MU..5. .03 106. + bRu.35 0.65 0.05 0.32) Rearranging.I5 104.90 .34 Buildup of the selfexcited exciter for Example 7.10 0. 7./(A + Mu.73 98. I 0.10 99.. Boostbuck buildup by integration. Table 7./(a  OF) = U.uR .52 0.52 101.71 .50 0.7 0.)du.40 0.96 107.85 105.25 0..~UFO) + ~UFO)(M Q .6 0.15 0. The equation for the boostbuck case is the same as the selfexcited case except the amplifier voltage is added to the right side.5 0.57 102.5 I VF I VF 0.80 0. Integrating (7.85 0.37 100.00 91.5.38 104.33) where A = auR and M = a .60 0. 0.2 03 .30 0.55 0. . we may separate variables to write dt = TE(a .87 93. 103. we compute = t TE to 2a .47 106. .u.~ U F ) 1 + In 2 (A (A + MU.20 0.52 106.8 0 Fig. ui) (7.b R .4 Time.00 0.36 107.23 96.M In ( M Q ( M  QQ 2u~)(M Q .70 0.
where . in which R = 57. = 50) = 2cd/Oa = 2(24.47 109. One method that looks attractive because of its simplicity is to assume a linear magnetization curve as shown in Figure 7.70 100.19 109.20 I 10.12 110. from 50 to 100 V gives a result that closely resembles the separately excited case. In this case changing U.05 0.17 90.55 0.6 Compute the boostbuck buildup for the exciter of Example 7.80 0.14 109.30 110.34) results in the tabulated values given in Table 7.15)/90 = 0. again be equal to 3.32 100.05 110.3 V .3/3.00 0.3 V .82 109. Using this R in (7.2 Q.20 0.84 106. This equation applies as long as U.50 0.96 I10.56 108.35.00 110. = 160.30 0.6.3.84 103. This value of R will insure that the ceiling voltage will again be 110.00 96.00 94.23 97. also tabulated.85 0.75 0. we compute with 6. value of 50 V.537 R R ( u . Repeat for an amplifier voltage of 100 V.72 104.90 107. I Buildup of BoostBuck UF for Example 7.83 110.68 109. Solution With a ceiling voltage of 110.68 = 43. Note that increasing he amplifier voltage has the effect of increasing the response ratio.40 0.12 107. = 100) = 2c'd/Oa = 2(29)/90 = 0.72 108.6.32 110.645 7.2 Linear approximations for dc generator exciters Since the Frohlich approximation fails to provide a simple uF versus t relationship.60 0. = uF + U. = 100 V gives a second set of data.47 105. Table 7.35 0.3 V and an amplifier voltage of 50V.6 Q. = 0 Ri.27 110.65 0.24 110. I n each case the response ratio (RR)may be calculated as follows: RR(u.15 0.56 109. Repeating with U. Compare with previous results by adjusting the resistance until the ceiling voltage is again 110. other possibilities may be worth investigating.36.31 110.Excitation Systems 263 Example 7.12 110.90 90. This requires that i . maintains its .98 106.6 VR = U F for 50 UF for U R = I00 0.34 108.70 0.25 0.84 109.4 where the amplifier voltage is assumed to be a step function at I = to with a magnitude of 50V.45 0.5 I 109.50 102. IO 0.33 Th e r ults re plotted in Figure 7.68 A so that R may be computed as R = 160.6.
6. selfexcited uF + vR boostbuckexcited Exciter Field Current.35) into the excitation equation we have the linear ordinary differential equation TEi)F = v .36 Linear approximation to a magnetization curve. amperes Fig.(f?/m)(vF . i.264 Chapter 7 Fig.35 Buildup of boostbuck exciters for Example 7.36) where v = = = up separately excited v.35) Substituting (7. .n) (7. 7. vF = mi +n (7. 7.
and k. or even fun. Having adjusted k.Excitation Systems 265 This equation may be solved by conventional techniques.38 Analog computer comparison of linear and Frohlich models of the separately excited buildup.(f) = (k. Adjusting potentiometers k.36) for each case and then systematically trying various values of m and n to find the best “fit.37 Solution of the linear equation.38) is solved by the analog computer connection shown in Figure 7.” This extremely laborious process becomes much less painful. for the best fit.36) becomes 6 = k.ekZ’u(f) (7. I n a similar way linear approximations can be found for the selfexcited and boostbuck connections. = ( I / T ~ ) ( u ~ + n R / m ) Solution of (7.37) u. both the linear and nonlinear problems are solved simultaneously and the solutions compared on an oscilloscope.37) gives k2 = (7. k. will give solutions close to the actual nonlinear solutions? This can be resolved by solving (7.26) given in Appendix B. if any. one controlling the slope and one controlling the intercept. “FO L4J Fig. s Fig. The procedure will be illustrated for the separately excited case. the potentiometer settings are read and the factors m and n computed. I n this process. The question of interest is./k2)(l  ek2‘)u(t) + u. . if the comparison is made by analog computer. In the separately excited case R/r. 7. lime.38) Equation (7. quickly provides the “best fit” solution shown in Figure 7. What values of m and n. . Linear approximation of the separately excited case.k2uFwhere .37 and compared with the solution of (7.9. . which is a graph made directly by the computer. 7.m we set u = up so that (7. will quickly and easily permit an optimum choice of these parameters.38. shown in Figure B. A simple manipulation of two potentiometers. and k.
I n this case the field current in the exciter changes according to the “directaxis transient open circuit time constant” .14.3 The ae generator exciters Chapter 7 As we observed in Chapter 4. using the response ratio definition (see Def. with a load impedance connected to the stator.T s (7.39) we write. 7.6. Appendix E) we may assume that the ac exciter is open circuited. 3. We therefore seek a reasonable approximation for the ac exciter voltage. amounting to . ) where uF(s)is the Laplace transform of the open circuit field voltage and u ~ ( s is the transform of the regulator voltage.e. 7. I f the regulator output experiences a step change of magnitude D at t = to. will change approximately as fast as its field current changes. can go to ceiling without any appreciable delay. where t d may be very small. the load current will affect the terminal voltage of the exciter U.39) This will give the most conservative (pessimistic) result since.266 7. An ac exciter designed for operation at a few hundred Hz could have a very reasonablei&.40) to be This linearized result does not include saturation or other nonlinearities. Kimbark [ 161 has observed that the current in the dc field winding changes much more slowly than the corresponding change in the ac stator winding. changes linearly to ceiling in a given time delay of t d s. Including all the detail of Chapter 4 in the analysis of the exciter would be extremely tedious and would not be warranted in most cases. Therefore. This is nearly the same as per. the ac exciter voltage . but does include the major time delay in the system. The field voltage may then be assumed to depend only on this delay.io where Ti0 = LF/r. mitting a step change in u. the effective inductance seen by the field current is smaller and the time constant is smaller. the field voltage may be computed from (7.. there is no simple relationship between the terminal voltage and the field voltage of a synchronous generator.5 Buildup of a loaded dc exciter Up to this point we have considered the response characteristics of unloaded exciters. in the Laplace domain. taking into account the major time constants and ignoring other effects. since the terminal voltage is proportional to i (neglecting saturation).19. with i. For such fast systems the time constants are so much smaller than others involved in the system that assuming a step change in U. = 0. One way to solve this system is to assume that U. such as the SCR exciter of Figure 7. i.4 Solidstate exciters Modern solidstate exciters. Using relation (7. by an amount depending upon the internal impedance of the exciter. should be fairly accurate. If the exciter is loaded. But.6. much lower than that of the large 60Hz generator that is being controlled. I n systems of this type a small delay may be required for the amplifiers and other circuits involved. The rate of change of field current depends a great deal on the external impedance of the stator circuit or on the load impedance.6. In modern solidstate circuits this effect will usually be small.
e. Thus at no load and with no saturation.6. W. E.O pu corresponds to V. This means the i.23. We will ignore the loading effect in our analysis in the interest of finding a reasonable solution that is a fair representation of the physical device. has a constant value. 9 Wiley. Thus. vol. 7. .R drop.) saturation curve is added the resistance drop to obtain a fictitious curve designated "distortion curve.Excitation Systems 267 essentially a small series i. if the machine has interpoles.6 Normalization of Exciter Equations The exciter equations in this book are normalized on the basis of rated air gap voltage. the net effect of load is in the resistance drop (including brush drop) and in the decrease in flux due to crossmagnetizing armature reaction. I n rotating dc machines the effect is greater. which causes a net decrease in the air gap flux. The magnitude of this difference is greatest near the knee of the curve. Furthermore.0 pu. (Reprinted by permission from Power System Stability. i. 1956. certain complications must be ignored if the solution is to be manageable. by E. we do have to estimate the effect of crossmagnetizing armature reaction. we recognize that the armature inductance is small. and the drop due to armature inductance. we assume the load current i. and at the relatively slow rate of buildup to be experienced this voltage drop is negligible.. 3.) We can analyze the effect of load current in a dc machine as follows. = I .R drop is constant. However. a typical result of which is shown in Figure 7.. The combined effect is determined most easily by test. This is the pu system designated as C in Figure 7. designated i in our notation. and it differs from the noload saturation curve by an amount due to armature reaction. As in all engineering problems. we may neglect demagnetizing armature reaction. as a function of i. First. Kimbark [ 161 treats this subject thoroughly and is recommended to the interested reader." This curve shows the voltage generated by air gap flux at this value of i . 7.39. exciter voltage that produces rated noload terminal voltage with no saturation. amperes Fig. and the armature reaction effect depends on the value of current in the field. = 1. the drop due to armature reaction. Kimbark. To facilitate analysis. i. (Dah1 [35]provides an exhaustive treatment of this subject and Kimbark [I61 also has an excellent analysis. since in addition to the i F R drop there is also the brush drop. To the load ~~ Exciter Field Current.39 Noload and load saturation curves.
depending on the reference screw setting..1 Noncontinuously regulated systems Early designs of voltage regulating schemes. . D / f l r F to convert to an equation in EFD. I t is necessary. Mathematically..7 Excitation System Response The response of the exciter alone does not determine the overall excitation system response. used an electromechanical means of changing the exciter field rheostat to cause the desired change in excitation. the exciter base voltage and the synchronous machine base for the field voltage differ. of course. Now imagine a gradual increase in V. The required relationship is given by (4. Thus. A typical scheme is shown in Figure 7. Note that there is n o corrective action at all until a contact is closed. Note that the reference is the mechanical setting of the reference screw. Simply stated.1. This. including the voltage regulators...7. which may be explained as follows. many of which are still in service. across the regulating coil and a given coil current i. closing the rheostat motor contact and moving the rheostat in the direction to increase R.16) we have. result in a given voltage u. This constitutes an intentional dead zone in which no control action is taken. From (4. after rectification. the excitation system includes not only the exciter but the voltage regulator as well. we can describe this action as follows. This causes current to flow in the coil L. Dividing through by VFB we have the pu equation ~ ~ = f (f u F Ui ) .55) we have VFB= VB~B/]FB = SB/lFB V This base voltage is usually a very large number (163 k V in Example 4. 7. for example). will increase the coil voltage u. the arm attached to the plunger will find a new position x for each voltage V. as we have seen. . reducing x. on the other hand. This current flowing in the regulating coil exerts a pull on the plunger that works against the spring K and dashpot B. reducing x until the lower contact L is made. that pulls the arm slowly to the right. For example. and a change of base between the two quantities is required.. Once control action is begun. for the separately excited arrangement. Multiplying by ~ ~ L A D / d r fwe write the exciter equation 7 E E F D u = f ( E F D u ) . This constant is the change of base needed to connect the pu equations of the two machines. which can be written as EFD = (LAD/firF) UF pu EFD = (WBkMf/flrF) ' F (7. The purpose of this section is to compute the response of typical systems. and pull the arm to the right.0 pu E F D is not the same base voltage as that chosen for the field circuit in normalizing the synchronous machine.42) Thus any exciter equation may be divided through by VfB to obtain an equation in u. From (7. will reduce V. 7. for the dc generator exciter we have an equation of the form T E f i . would be on the order of 100 V or so. = f(uF) V. High values of V. and then multiplied by L . The base voltage for E F D .20. etc. to always maintain the "gain constant" & r F / L A D between the exciter E F D output and the up input to the synchronous machine. A n y given level of terminal voltage will.. As noted in Figure 7.268 Chapter 7 The slip ring voltage corresponding to 1. the rheostat setting will change at an assumed constant rate until the maximum or minimum setting is reached.40.59). This will give us a feel for the equations that describe these systems and will illustrate the way a mathematical model is constructed.
A block diagram of this control action is shown in Figure 7. 4 is the unstressed length of the spring. s ” Fig. This condition is shown in Figure 7. This control action is designated the “raiselower mode” of operation. damping. Note that any change in x from the equilibrium position is a measure of the error in the terminal voltage magnitude. 7.42. and K are the mass. I f the beam mass is negligible.Ri (7. large enough to exceed the threshold K. the right side of (7. In operation the beam position x is changed continuously in response to variations C .4 I RH versus f for the condition 1 x 1 > K.. .44) can be simplified. and M. = K(x~ +. is the plunger force.F. The balanced beam responds to an accelerating force F.41 where the choice of curve depends on the rnagnitude of x being greater than the dead zone f K. rECF = up .Next Page Excitation Systems 269 Quick raise 6 lower COntock .e) .t s a a c RH t lime. responding to a change in V. But R changes as a function of time whenever the arm position x is greater than some threshold value K. B . It results in a slow excitation change. F. = MR + B i + KX (7.43) and in this case the regulating is accomplished by a change in R. Time delayed raise d lower contack 0pemting coils Fig. > 0.. 7. The scheme illustrated is a simplified sketch similar to the Westinghouse type BJ system (21.40 A noncontinuous regulator for a separately excited system..44) where xo is the reference position. and spring constants respectively. where the rheostat motor steadily changes the rheostat setting.
or RQR are switched into or out of the field respectively. with the resulting action described by KL I Balanced beom Raise.45) last integration... H At any instant the total resistance R is given by R = RQR + R . The quick raiselower mode is initiated whenever I x 1 > K.a second possible mode of operation is recognized. the fixed field resistors R.Previous Page 270 Chapter 7 Plunger PT & r u t Fig. the position x returns to the threshold region 1 x 1 < K. This control scheme is shown in Figure 7. leaving R at the value finally reached. This value is constrained by the physical size of the rheostat so that for any time t .t (raise) R.43 Block diagram of the combined raiselower and quickraiselower control modes.45) Thus the exact R depends on the integration time and on the direction of rotation of the and Figure 7.R.. R. 7.40..41.lower threshold Plunger PT 6 rect Fig.. = = RQR + Ro .. . I n (7. Referring again to Figure 7.43 as an added quick control mode to the original controller. large enough to cause 1 x 1 2 K.. and the motor stops.. retained following the rheostat motor. results in the rheostat motor changing the setting of R H . 7. Any change in V.lower threshold Rheostat motor 1 Fc 1  R I 'min Quick raise. initiating a quick response in the exciter. + Ro + K M t (lower) (7. < ( R .42 Block diagram of the raiselower control mode.z) < R. The foregoing discussion pertains to the raiselower mode only. f K. is the value of R . If the x deflection is largeenough to make the QL or Q R contacts.K. in V. As the rheostat is reset.
48) The function S E is nonlinear and can be approximated by any convenient nonlinear function throughout the operating range (See Appendix D). If the air gap line has slope l / G . we can write the total (saturated) current as i = GuF(I + S.44. it will probably not have time to move appreciably before x returns to the deadband.43) the exciter equation is ~ E i ) p= up . Saturation is often treated as shown in Figure 7. Thus.7.46) If we set K. Le. The complete excitation system is the combination of Figures 7. proportional system. the control signal is always present and exerts an effort proportional .. where we define the saturation function Fig.Excitation Systems 27 1 R = R. we can describe the complete control action by combining (7.RGvF . > K. + GuFSE (7.45.. where the exciter voltage is converted to the normalized exciter voltage EFD..45. (quick raise) = + R.46). this control mode will be initiated only for large changes in V. 7.47) Then we can show that = (I + SE)fB E = (1 A + SE)EB (7. x < K.) = Gu.50) Substituting (7. Mathematically.49) into (7. sE = ('A  'B)/'B (7. (quick lower) (7.49) (7. R. 7.44 Exciter saturation curve. The resulting change in R affects the solution for uF in the exciter equation (7.45)(7. The controller of Figure 7.Ri = up . although the raiselower mode will also be operational when 1 x I > K. x > K . a more realistic solution results.RGvFSE A block diagram for use in computer simulation of this equation is shown in Figure 7.43 operates to adjust the total field resistance R to the desired value.. I f saturation is added.2 Continuously regulated systems Usually it is preferable for a control system to be a continuously acting.43 and 7. and will provide a fast response.43).
Thus the output voltage GCis proportional to the sum or average of the rms values of the three phase voltages.1).10 where the feedback signal is applied to the rotating amplifier in the exciter field circuit. this is shown in Figure 7.we may write (7. to using active circuits containing vacuum tubes. which is proportional to the difference. 2. since it is typical of this kind of excitation system.. Most of the excitation control systems in use today are of this type. the familiar boostbuck system.46. (7. where the time constant of the electronic amplifier is usually negligible compared to other time delays in the system. transistors. called the error voltage.52) This can be accomplished in several ways. Reduced to its fundamental components.272 Chapter 7 Fig.47. where the potential transformer secondaries are connected to bridged rectifiers connected in series. . We analyze each block separately.46 Simplified diagram of a boostbuck system. and we may assume that 0 < T R < 0. One way is to providk an electronic difference amplifier as shown in Figure 7. Here we shall analyze one system. against a fixed reference and supplies an output voltage K. and the associated electronic power supplies because of reliability and the need for replace Fig. The second block compares the voltage V. One possible connection for this block is that shown in Figure 7. however. 7.45 Exciter block diagram. Voltage regulator and reference (comparator).06 s. Consider the system shown in Figure 7.48. If we let the average rms voltage be represented by the symbol I(. Le. There is often an objection. 7.5 I ) where KR is a proportionality constant and 7 R is the time constant due to the filtering or firstorder smoothing in the transformerrectifier assembly. Potential transformer and rectifier. to the system error (see Def. The actual delay in this system is small.12.
a deviation U. V.u. seen by io and ib is also given. = . Combining (7. = u.54) where k. = (kL .. and u. (7.48 Electronic difference amplifier as a comparator: (a) circuit connection. This difficulty could be overcome by having a spare amplifier with automatic switching upon the detection of faulty operation. in the total current. + kLU.49. (7. where we set 7 = 0 for the passive circuit.53).47 Potential transformer and rectifier connection. Note that the nonlinear resistance shown is quite linear in this critical region. 7.. Thus we may write for a voltage deviation u. + R ... (7. Fig. Since ia = ibrthe sum of volt.53) The operation of the bridge is better understood by examination of Figure 7.i + ib. Le.54) and (7. + kNUA V L = V.k U . which is also displaced equally above and below i R E F . If we choose the nonlinear elements carefully.55) = VREF + u.. But since the output is connected to an amplifier. is V. U N = U.50 where the ui characteristics of each resistance are given and the characteristic for the total resistance R. or i. the operation in the neighborhood of VREF is essentially linear.48(b). . (b) block diagram. = which may be incorporated into (7.Excitation Systems 273 t I 'de Fig. 7. we assume that the voltage gain is large and that the input current is negligible. V. = 0. But for a deviation u. . Another solution to the problem is to make the error comparison by an entirely passive network such as the nonlinear bridge circuit in Figure 7.56) We note that (7. > k. we compute V. above or below VREF results in a change i. Under this condition the currents ia and ib are equal. Here the input current idc sees parallel paths io and ib or id. is always equal to & the applied voltage.56) has the same block diagram representation as the difference amplifier shown in Figure 7. age drops u. Then the output voltage V .55) to write k(V&  &c) (7. ment of aging components.kN)UA = .
The exciter output voltage is a function of the regulator voltage as derived in (7.1 (7.57) V = KAK/(l + AS) R As with any amplifier a saturation value must be specified. 7.59) The generator.45. The nonlinear bridge circuit has the obvious advantage of being simple and entirely passive. The generator voltage response to a change in uF was examined in 'dc / R ~ + R ~ 'REF vc "REF 'REF v A V Fig.50) and with block diagram representation as shown in Figure 7.58) where KE=RG. we can write the normalized equation EFD = (VR  EFDsE)/(KE + TES) (7. I n any case we will assume linear voltage amplification K A with time constant T ~or . is a convenient reference and that two identical gangoperated potentiometers in the bridge circuit would provide a convenient means of setting the reference voltage.274 Chapter 7 Input to amplifier Fig. such as VRmin< VR < VRmax. These conditions are both shown in the block diagram of Figure 7.49 Nonlinear bridge comparison circuit. Since the exciter is a boostbuck system.50 will reveal that the linear resistance R . or conceivably an electronic amplifier.5 1 . What circuit element constitutes the voltage reference? Note that no external reference voltage is applied. I f nonlinear resistances of appropriate curvature are readily available. The amplifier. a magnetic amplifier. . The exciter. A natural question to ask at this point is. this circuit makes an inexpensive comparator that should have long life without component aging. The amplifier portion of the excitation system may be a rotating amplifier. 7. The major difference between that case and this is in the definition of the constant KE. (7.50 The u versus i characteristics for the nonlinear bridge. A closer study of Figure 7.
52 KR v.05 = 40 KG = 1.7. would be defined as in Figure 7. Find the openloop transfer function for the case where 7" = = 0. we have t+rRI= Fig. with the actual time constant being load dependent and between these two extremes.1 and compute the system transfer function.51 Block diagram of the regulator amplifier. Chapter 5. it could be done by employing the same technique as used for the exciter. Sketch a root locus for this system and discuss the problem of making the system stable. neglecting saturation and limiting.0 3. we would expect the generator to j 0 respond nearly as a linear amplifier with time constant .7 1 . If we designate the feedforward gain and transfer function as K G and the feedback transfer function as H. Construct the block diagram of the system described in Section 7. neglecting . 7. 7. I n the region where linear operation may be assumed. Solution 1 The block diagram for the system is shown in Figure 7. .1 0.Excitation Systems 275 Fig.5 TG = 10 . Looking at the problem heuristically. 2. when unloaded and ~jwhen shorted. where a saturation function S. I f saturation must be included.52. Block diagram of the excitation control system. Let us designate this value as 7 and the gain as Kc to write. 0. Example 7. the system transfer function is 1231 Y/%F = KG(s)/[I + KG(s)H(s)l where. there is no need to consider saturation of the generator since its output is not undergoing large changes. saturation.44.05 rR = KE KA = 0.
75 left breakaway at .0. where we compute [22] crossing 10 origin Fig. ( I ) Center of gravity = ( C P .# Z ) (2) Breakaway points (by trial and error): = (30.52.4 + 1/16. . we have the rootlocus plot shown in Figure 7.91 1.6 = 1/6.89 (3) Gain at j w axis crossing: From the closedloop transfer function we compute the characteristic equation +(s) = S4 where K' = + 30.C Z ) / ( # P .57 = 1/0.281 1/19.4 + 1/15.53 Root locus for the system of Figure 7.57 + 1/9.9s' + = 177s + K' 400K . or KGH = KAKGKR ( 1 k 7.)S KGH = (s + IO)@  + (pen) I)(s + 20) (reg) (amp) (ex4 Solution 3 Using the openloop transfer function computed in Solution 2.20 and K KAKRKG = 40KR. 7.5 0.53 1. 4 ~ ) ( K+ € 7S( €)I + TcS)(I + T R S ) + KAKGKR and the system is observed to be fourth order.16.9s' + 226.$)(1 k 7~S)(l k 7 ~ s ) Using the values specified and setting K 400 KAKRKG.  KAKG(l f TRs) VREF ( 1 f 7 .v.4: right breakaway at 0. we have K Ol( .0)/4 = 7.57 + 1/0.278 E 0. Solution 2 The openloop transfer function is KGH.43: 1/3.53.4TAS)(K€f = 7.276 Chapter 7 or .9 .
Example 7.9 I77 221.4 An examination of the root locus reveals several important system characteristics.05 K' = 400K .14) = 1266 K < 3. 7.54 Block diagram of a typical compensated system. Thus the response is governed largely by the generator and exciter poles that are very close to the origin.14K' 0 K' 1 K' For the first column we have: From row so K' From row s ' = 400K . We note that for any reasonable gain the roots due to the regulator and amplifier excite response modes that die out very fast and will probably be overdamped.73 s = +j2.59) have a greater value.7 illustrates the need for compensation in the excitation control system. or 2 2 1 .0. 2 ~ ~1266 + = 0 s2 = 5.S Fig. This can be improved by (a) moving the exciter pole into the left half of the s plane. Even modest values of gain are likely to excite unstable modes in the solution. which would need to be done as part of the generator design rather than afterwards. which requires that R in (7.2 K' 177 . Excitation system compensation. .Excitation Systems 277 Then by Routh's criterion w e have s4 s3 s2 s' so 226.21 We may also compute the point of j o axis crossing from the auxiliary polynomial in s2 with K' = 1266. (It is Olhcr KG I+rGs I  "t KR 1 +Tp. This can take many forms but usually involves some sort of rate or derivative feedback and lead or leadlag compensation. and (c) adding some kind of compensation that will bend the locus to a more favorable shape in the neighborhood of the j o axis.20 < (177/0.9 30. (b) moving the generator pole to the left.20 > 0 K > 0. Of these options only (c) is of practical interest.
3.8 I . Repeat part 2 using an analog computer solution.. Also notice that provision is made for the introduction of other compensating signals if they should be necessary or desirable.55 Excitation system with rate feedback neglecting S.) This can be accomplished by adding the rate feedback loop shown in Figure 7.7 for the system shown in Figure 7. and limiter: (a) original block diagram. The effect of compensation will be demonstrated by an example. (c) with combined feedback. 7. 7F and KF to mini KA 1 b KG T I 1 I Vt KF’ 1 + T G I K K (1 + ~ K ~ T ~ S ) ”. T ~ s ) ( K ~<)(1 + + z K+ (1 +lG4 + KR KG (1 + T+)  Fig.278 Chapter 7 interesting to note that Gabriel Kron recognized the need for this kind of compensation as early as 1954 when he patented an excitation system incorporating these features [37]. Repeat Example 7.54. where time constant T~ and gain KF are introduced.54. Such a compensation scheme can be adapted to bend the root locus near the j w axis crossing to improve stability substantially. Use a digital computer solution to obtain the “best” values for mize the rise time and settling time with minimum overshoot. (b) with rate feedback takeoff point moved to V. 2. . Example 7.
5<m<10 CaseII: l < a < 2 0 l O c m < 0. This means that (7. I)(S = 0.61) would have a zero on the real axis near the origin. as shown in Figure 7.1.1. the takeoff point for the rate feedback signal is moved to V. KG = 1. which is between the origin and .a . value of a = 1 / ~ ~ There are three cases of interest (note that a > 0): Case I. 5 ~m Fig.61). The locus of the roots of (7.)(s ss ( I( )s + + 20) 1/7F) = + ss ( K ( s + a) + I)(s + 20) (7. and Case 111. = 1. 7.62) where we let K = 20(rF/KF)and a = 1 / ~ ~ . = 0 and with limiting .Excitation Systems 279 Solution 1 The system transfer function can be easily computed for S. Case I is sketched in Figure 7. ignored.5.m is the location of the asymptote. which gives the zeros of (7.56 Locus o f zeros for the open loop transfer function o f (7.l)(s 4 20(7~/K~)(s I / l p ) + + l)(s + 1/7p)(s + 20) (7. Figure 7. Thus the open loop transfer function of (7. The forward loop has a transfer function KG(s) given by KG(s) = K A KG ‘ATETG (s I ~/TA)(S K E / ~ E ) ( ~ 1/76) and the feedback transfer function H ( s ) is given by H(s) = (KF7G/KG7F>s<s + + 1/7R) + (KR/7R)(s (s + 1 / 7 F ) ( s + 1 / 7 R ) 1/7G)(s + 1/7F) The open loop transfer function is thus given by KGH = KAKF . By using block diagram reduction./K.62).05.O. 7.61) A given T~ fixes all poles of (7.a . then the two feedback signals are combined in Figure 7.0 KE = 0.0. T~ = 0. a > 20. Thus we examine the zeros of (7.s(s + TA7€TF 1/7G)(s + 1/7R) + (KRKGTF/7RTGKF)(S l/TF) (s 1/7~)(s = + KE/TE)(S + 71 1 1/7~)(S 4. The locus of the roots for this system will have a branch on the real CaseI: 0 < a < 1 10.a . Case 11.0.1 and a zero on the real axis at . T~ S(S 0.5  case 111 : a > 20 .I / ~ F ) ( S + 1/7~) Substituting the values and KR = 1.05. These cases are shown in Figure 7. where a zero falls on the negative real axis at . 0 < a < 1.61).55(b).55(a) shows a block diagram of the system with S = 0 and without the limiter.61) will have a pole at 0. depends upon the . The locus therefore falls between the origin and .$6(a). From the numerator we write S(S + I)(s + 20) + 20(7. . 1 < a < 20.0 .62). Then the shape of the locus depends on the location of the zeros.56 where .61)./KF)(s + + 1 / ~ ~= ) 0 o= I + 20(7.55(c). KGH = KF 20KA TF (s + 20) 1O)(s ..
these are the zeros for the system described by (7.) From (7. two may appear as a complex pair.56(b) and (c). Futthermore.o l ( . and of these two. Thus we will concentrate on Case IIB for further study. In all but two cases the system response is dominated by a root very near the origin. . Cases I1 and I11 are shown in Figures 7. in Case I1 the loci approach the asymptotes to the left of the imaginary axis. Only in Cases I I B and IIIB is there any hope of pulling this dominant root away from the origin.63) where 1 < I / T ~< 20.)S + T ~ / K ~+) s 0 / K F 2 + l)(S + 20)(S + l / r F ) (7.I)(s + a ) axis near the origin. Its dynamic response will be sluggish.62) have branches that. while for Case 111 the loci approach the asymptotes to the right of the origin. Again. However. give a pair of complex roots near the imaginary axis.61). Figure 7.61)the open loop transfer function is given by KGH = KF s3 + 21s2 + 20(1 20KAT F (S + lO)(S . I n both cases.56 reveals that for the three zeros. the rootlocus plots of (7.57 Root loci of KGH = 20K" ( K F / 7 F ) [ ~ ( I)(s + ~ (s + 20) + 20(s + a)] + 20)(s + IO)(s + I)(s . Case IIB is clearly the better choice. 7.57 provides a pictorial summary of all six possibilities. and the system dynamic performance will be dominated by this root. A further examination of the possible loci of zeros in Figure 7.O. both conditions can appear in all cases. with the proper choice of the ratio K. are more likely to be located further to the left of the imaginary axis in Case I1 than in Case 111. The position of the roots of (7.62) and hence the zeros of (7.61).280 Chapter 7 Case 1 A Case 1 B Case I1 A Case I1 B xx X 1 X Case 111 A Case Ill B Fig. Thus there are two situations of interest: (A) all zeros real and (B) one real zero and a complex pair of zeros. (Also see (381 for a further study of this subject.
0 0 I 20 r = 06 K = 0 0 F . I n Figure 7. and 0. Two sample runs to illustrate the effect of rF and KF are shown in Figure 7. 0. 0 1 F 15. and a timeresponse program.7.Excitation Systems 281 20 ’ T F =0.0. The rootlocus plots and the timeresponse for the system are repeated. Type I excitation system.01 and 0.01. F .40. I 2c r = 0.IO E E C 0 5 0 20 15 Reo1 10 5 Fig.03 F 15 x a a . KF is held constant at 0.6. K ~ 0 . The most obvious effect of reducing KF is to reduce the settling time.€ : .02 while T F is varied between 0. along with the timeresponse for the “rated” value of KA. The effect of increasing r F is to reduce the overshoot. 00.W 0.58. \ P 7 0. .63). a rootlocus program.20.5 and 0. .03. Solution 2 The above system is studied for different values of rF and K F with the aid of special digital computer programs.58(b).0 0.IO.03 respectively. E f 5..02.. In Figure 7. 2 15 1.00 oh0 1:M) 2140 3:a lime. .58(a) ElTect of variation of K F on dynamic response: T F = 0.58(a) r F is held constant at 0. KF = 0. . 0 io is io Real r 5 ’ 00 .6 while K.. 7.6. The programs used are a rootfinding subroutine for polynomials to obtain the zeros of equation (7.6. is varied between 0. Plots of the loci of the roots are shown for the three cases.2 8 lo E 5 2 . K F = 0.40.
60 I 2. = 0.7 respectively. K =0.5.6. = 0.80 1.20 Time.5.02 F 0.58(b) Effect of variation O f T F on dynamic response: K F = 0. There is.6 and K.02 F 15. 7 F =0. and we shall consider this technique as an alternate design procedure. 0. K 0. T . which gives a reasonably good dynamic response. and 0.02 F I T F =0. From Figures 7. a variety of choices of K..58(a) and 7. and KF significantly influence the dynamic performance of the system. 7.60 I 2. that will give satisfactory results.7. K =0. the analog computer can be a great help in speeding up the design procedure.00 0. K =0. 0 20 15 10 1 Real 1 T F = 0. Type I excitation system. TF = 0.02 F 15 .80 Time. Fig. 1.6.282 Chapter 7 20 7 F =0.40 3. and T.E E  : IC : 5 0 Real 0.02 F I qF 0.5. however.02 seem to give the best results. K =0.6. For this particular system.20 m.02. = 0. From Figure 7. with V. For most engineers.40 3.54 we write.00 0. . Solution 3 An engineer with experience in s plane design may be able to guess a workable location for the zero and estimate the value of K .58(b) we can see that the values of T .
59.20 .64) For the amplifier block of Figure 7.7.30 0.65) = (l/S)[(KA/TA) v.0 22.2 090% rise time.16 50 ISO I . and the equation may then be factored.75 0.16 50 very long 0.35 1.(I/TpT)Vj (7.65). s 0. in a qualitative sense.8 42.0 70. can be rewritten as 4 = (KF/7F)EFD . I f the roots are known. All other blocks except the derivative feedback term are similar to (7.25 0.64)(7. Run 00 = Summary of Analog Computer Studies for Example 7.54 we have VR = K A V e / ( 1 rearranged as ‘R + T ~ s ) which . For the derivative feedback we have 4 = sKFEFD/(I+ 7 F ~ )which .7 shows the results of several typical runs of this kind. In each case both the forward loop gain and feedback gains may be o ptim ized .Excitation Systems 283 Fig. Then we may systematically move the zero from s = 0 to the left and check the response.75 0. In all cases KR has been adjusted to unity.59 Analog computer diagram for a linear excitation system with derivative feedback.05 2. (7.62).0 5 0.25 1 .05 8.16 0. we may construct the analog computer diagram shown in Figure 7.66) Using (7. a root locus Table 7.37 0. The constants in these studies may be used to compute the cubic coefficients (7. and other gains have been chosen to optimize V.16 0.16 50 50 50 I . s Percent overshoot 9.8 KF TC I KA Settling time. may be (7.64) may be represented on the analog computer by a summer and (7.  ‘R1 Equation (7. Table 7.65) by an integrator with feedback.215 I 2 3 4 1. 7.05 I .66).oo 0.
. The actual analog computer outputs for run 2 are shown in Figure 7. Solution 2. A study of the eigenvalues of a synchronous machine indicates that a firstorder approximation to the generator voltage response is only approximately true. making this simplification helps us to concentrate on the characteristics of the excitation system without becoming confused by the added complexity of thegenerator. v. Examples 7.8.7 and 7. Note. This system is tuned to optimize the output which responds with little overshoot and displays good damping. .Chapter 7 Fig. Onesecond timing pulses are shown on the chart. Nevertheless. Visualizing the root locus of the control is helpful and shows clearly how the compensated system can be operated at much greater gain while still holding a suitable damping ratio. 7. The plot is made so that 20 such pulses correspond to 1 s of real time. however. Inclusion of saturation is a practical necessity.60. but this is left as an exercise for the interested reader. which in physical systems would both be limited by saturation. even in linear simulation. These studies also suggest how further improvements could be realized by adding series compensation.8 are intended to give us some feeling for the derivative feedback of Figure 7.60 Analog computer results for Example 7.54. may be plotted and a comparison made between this and the previous uncompensated solution. that this requires excessive overshoot of EFDand v.
Suppose we arbitrarily assign a state to each integrator associated with the excitation. when per unit time must be divided by wR for the system of units to the consistent. EFD = = (KA/7A)ve 'R (1/7A)vR < VRmax.67) to eliminate E F D in the second equation we observe that. and the change in the d and q axis volt .. V3. thus (7. is used. + u:) (7..59. Arbitrarily. are functions of the state variables.Vl2 and E F D . ( E F D ) is a nonlinear function of point to write we linearize at the operating where we define the coefficient SL to describe saturation in the vicinity of the initial operating point. x.= VREF+ V.. t'.8 StateSpace Description of the Excitation System Refer again to the analog computer diagram of Figure 7. V. = (KR/TR)y  (1/7R)6 (l/TF) = ( K F / T F ) iFD  V. a linear relation between the change in the terminal voltage y.Excitation Systems 285 7.and xll to correspond to the variables VI.69) is nonlinear. Since S. xlo. vR r'.68) In equation (7.67) EFD. = S .46) or (6. In rewriting (7.69) where u.68) the term ( K R / 7 R ) is a function of the state variables. By inspection we write the following equations (including saturation) in per unit with time in seconds. the product (rFrE) The preliminary equations are obtained: O 1 + O I 0 (7.V. vR > VRmin  [(sE + KE)/7ElEFD (7. we set x8. If the system equations are linearized about a quiescent operating state. 6 .69) V: = (I/~)(u. From (4. and u.
71) T.76).. . From (7.( K ~ / T . is obtained. Such a relation is given in (6.75) V.286 Chapter 7 ages U d A and u. 6 = W (7..0) E.73) and (7. E F D ] .20) and by setting u. .( D / T ~ ) ) w and from the definition of q. The linearized equations for the synchronous machine are given by (the A subscripts are dropped for convenience) (7.73) (7. E: t = (l/K37.68) and (7.72)(7.1 Simplified linear model A simplified linear model can be constructed based on the linear model discussed in Section 6. assuming that V.77) .E.. V..72) = T. = K .68) is zero. = ( f l r . The state variables are V. .76) The system is now described by (7..70) The linear model is completed by substituting for U d A and UqA in terms of the state variables and from (6. / L A D ) EFD.8. 7. 6 I K2E: = KS6 (7.(K1/7. and T.72) (7. V.69) and repeated here: (7..71) + KbE. in (7.5. The complete statespace description of the system is given by x' = [Eiwd (7.) 6 ./T.74) (7.. The driving functions are V.(K4/?:0) 6 + (1/d0) EFD From the torque equation (6.
20) to obtain the complete mathematical description..Mk.80) the state variable for the field voltage is E F D and not u. In this equation the term uF is changed to ( & r F //L A D ) ) EFD. These are repeated here (with the A subscript omitted). U.2 Complete linear model By using the linearized model for a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus developed in Chapter 6. the equation for the field current is adjusted accordingly. fore.Excitation Systems 287 7. Thereu.68). M'K.79) Substituting in the first equation in (7. The remaining equations in (7. where id iF iD i. Before this is done. the excitation system equations are added to the system of (6. V3 VR E. must be expressed in terms of the state variables. V. using (6. M is given by .78) and using we get (7.8. w d V. = 0) will thus become This set of equations is incorporated in the set (6. rF LAD The matrices M and K are thus given by the defining equation v = Kx .M’K.78) From (7. (7. Note that in (7. The new A matrix for the system is given by A = .70).25) and (7. . i. The equations introduced by the exciter (for V.20).68) will be unchanged.
.. .... .i. . ..... 'R 0 0 O 0 I I I I  KRf ... . . . l o r. .r' 0 I 0 0 . ..L. I O I 0 i o 0 I _ 76 + Kr 78 (7... 1 1 R 0 0 ... 4 0 P wokMF wokMD l ..... .iqo) ....... . I 0 0 0 I I O 0 0 rD .... .2 doL... I 0 0 0 0 O I I I I I I I rn V....1 kM& 3 3  1kMDiVoI 3 O I I + kMQido j D j o I O I I I 1 0 &I 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 O l I I WJ...........) 1 3 I 0 K4 8 I o I o ! 0 0 I ........I . ... 0 0 I I 71 .... 0 0 . k M.... . . ... K  . ....82) . 1 I I I I I Lf M R I l I o ! I I I I 0 I I I I I I I I 0 i" kM. 1(Aqo ...... .. ..... ... l o . 0 I I I I I L I 0 0 K I I I . V" 0 0 0 0 0 . o TR 0 1 I I I I I t 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 I 1 I 0 0 O I 0 0 : I o 0 0 I ] (7.. . ........288 Chapter 7 i.81) And the matrix K becomes :I : id iF iD 4 0 r.. 0 .. I K........:... .. (Ado L.... . ..... 1 I 0 . I 0 0 0 I O I I 0 I O I 7f 1 I 1 I o I 0 S. ...A. ... .. 0 ... ..I 1 rQ v3vwo 0 0 0 K.. ... .. ..
000742)/ 1.55 P U 0.025 EFDO = do 40 = (l/3)(Ud0/vro) = = 0.77)(0. The linear saturation coefficient at the initial operating point is SEI = .967 x X 0. / W R kMF = C3(0.172 (I/3)(uqo/v..04 Let the exciter saturation be represented by the nonlinear function Solution From the initial conditions UdO = ug0 = 5 0 = 1.053 1 / =~ 0.9 Expand Example 6.326 x 0.5 x 188.05 0.0523 (1.000796 S E C 3 r 1 .397) = 0.326 x 0.02 .4 = 0.967 X K A / ~ = 40/18.476 x 0.5) = 2.Excitation Systems 289 Example 7.148 1.5 PU 0.326 x 1.675/1.0/3.. Assume that the machine is operating initially at the load specified in Example 6.77)(0.1. The new terms in the K matrix are (1.77 P U 18.85 PU 78 = K R = 1.1.0053 ~ ( A + K E ) / ~ = 0.04 X 377/(269.0.025 + 0.dO = = .172) = 0.80).0751 I / T ~ 0.0/3.77)(0..476 x 1.3095 The exciter time constants should be given in pu time (radians).85 = 0.05 s K A = 40 KE KF = 7.0/3. = 1 I= 0.4762 i. 1. 2.555 [0.265 = 1/71.675 1. = 0.85 = 2.59 &v.715 = 269.26 = 7.0 TA = 0.476 x 1.3264 (1/3)(1.4) = 0.59)0.0561 (1.70 + 0. A l / r A = 1/18.326 x 0.5 s = 188.555 x 2.2 to include the excitation system using the mathematical description of (7.0321 (1.172) = 0.70 & V.529)] = 0.397 1.15 X 0..0/3.0039 exp (1.= aE . The excitation system parameters are given by TR = 00 S ..o) = id0 = = .476 x 0.2.148/1.4 + 0.55 = 0.02) = 0.0037 O&F/TFTE = 0.1 = 3.7 X lo+ wRKF(SA K E ) / T F T E = 2.000829 + The new K matrix is given by .77)(0.0053 = 0.122 = K.529 (1/3)(1.
...040 1.2027 0.3052 53.361 134.7 0 0 0 ~ 0.. .550 1. .3 605.2967 5. ..._...550 1..605 0 I I O I I I I I I I I O I I I 0 I I I 2.019 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 . .4 0.02 108.. .65'1 265. .6 I 1751.9503 1 1206. .....0235 0. .. . I I 845....J .. 12.._ . .062 22.290 Chapter 7 K  The new M matrix is given by 2.2027 t 0.86 1608.857 I 2547. ..7993 3505.5 2587.4904 5.7 I 36._ .0 1106.651 1.4 I t 0 0 A _ _ _ _ _ _ . .. ..5 1 35...4 2649.6 . _ __ __ _ _ _ I. _ .15 211...1 0 . .3557 96._ I 4. ..26 56.490 1.5317 4.7 2649.._ _ _ _ _ _ 4 I 0.550 I I 1._ _ _ _ _ ..052 0 0 1 I 0 0 0 0 0 ' 0 I o 0 1 ...8673 0 0 ..472 4..017 1 2202..550 1.526 I I O I M = 0 I I I I 0 I I O . _ * _ . _ .550 1....142 13487...077 0..79581 0 3.1 2122.. ..776 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0..7099 0 0.... .0 2331..072 I 2387.. 2122.1735.46 I _ _ _ _ _ _ ... _ _ _ ...0 90..100 1. _ _ .I..0 2444..218 .50 124.32 I . .0 0 o ! 0 O I io o o 1 I I iJ The A matrix is given by L ... _ _ I 0 0 25.064 1544.123.4388 14. ....394 55..0 880.0078 0.4422 I I 1 0 0 1 I 0 0 0 o i o 0 0 0 0 0 0 I loo0 I .490 I I I O I I I 1...7 3590.1 1776._ .2 76.7 2587. . lo' 1! 0 0 0 0 1 I 0 0 1 0 O 0 0 i 0. _ _ _ .550 1.36.
j0. we note that two pairs of complex eigenvalues and two real eigenvalues are essentially present in all the results.03594 0.00076 0. depending upon the available data or importance of a particular exciter in a large system problem.00447 + j0. For this exciter a frequency of approximately 50 Hz is obtained. I2299 0.2 and for the same exciters.03594 0. the IEEE formed a working group in the early 1960s to study standardization.jO.1) Exciter type W Brushless W low rE Brushless W TRA 0. Then each manufacturer can specify the constants for the model that will best represent his systems.12302 0.12315 0.j0.16664 0.03594 0.9 Computer Representation of Excitation Systems Most of the problems in which the transient behavior of the excitation system is being studied will require the use of computers.03594 0.02444 .00340 + j0.00340 0. This pair is one of the two complex pairs associated with the machine parameters.j0. the differences in these representations was more in the form of the data than in the accuracy of the representation. which might be introduced by the extremely low exciter time constant.07300 0. Comparing the results of Examples 6. We can conclude that these eigenvalues are identified with the parameters of the machine and are not dependent on the exciter parameters.4 and 7.99827 x j0. The same example was repeated for the loading of Example 5. As the use of computers has increased and programs have been developed that represent excitation systems. Eigenvalues for System of Example 7. The additional eigenvalues obtained in Example 7.j0. IO (Loading of Example 5.99826 IO2 .02536 0.00249  j0.02444 + j0.10.00353 .99826  j0. This group.j0.00082 0. We describe the four IEEE models below.16664 0. I t is therefore recognized that the solution of systems can be greatly simplified if a standard set of mathematical models can be chosen.00082 0.02468 .00076 0.9 are for the same machine and loading condition as used in Example 6.99826 + J0.03912 .03594 0.09804 0.00177 + j0.02468 + j0.02139 + j0.265 x .00071 0.99826 IO2 + j0. The eigenvalues associated with the exciter parameters did not change significantly with the machine loading.99827 IO2 + j0.00249 0.10 and not previously present are comparable in magnitude except for one complex pair associated with the W Low rE Brushless exciter. anything from a very simple linear model to a more complex nonlinear model may be formulated by following these generalized descriptions.86637  j0. Actually. several models have evolved for such systems. The results obtained indicate that only one pair of complex eigenvalues change with the machine loading.265 x 0.07870 0.00447 0. standardized the representation of excitation systems in four different types and identified specific commercial systems with each type. which presented its final report in 1967 [15].02444 .4 except for the addition of the exciter models.00177 0.03912 + j0.292 Chapter 7 Table 7.03594 0.j0.0.OOl85  0.9. Recognizing this fact.02536 0.OOl85 .26525 0.07870 0. 7.00071 0.02444 + jO. Thus. .86637 + j0.09763 0.02139 j0. These models allow for several degrees of complexity.00353 The results tabulated in Table 7. and the data acquisition problem will be simplified for the user.
Usually rR is very small and is often approximated as zero..Note that if we have no filter and the rate feedback is zero (KF = 0). PAS87. 0 ~ ~ . Table 7. This means that at no load and neglecting saturation. Fig. KF K. acting regulator and exciter 7.) The amplifier has time constant T. and gain K.. Note that provision is made for firstorder smoothing or filtering of the terminal voltage V.10. Reprinted from IEEE Trans.61 Type I excitation system representation for a continuously acting regulator and exciter.83) .10 gives a list of symbols used in the four I E E E models.. K. = generator terminal current K. 3. v. and its output is limited by VRmax and VRmin.0 pu exciter voltage is that voltage required to produce rated generator voltage on the generator air gap line (see Def. = s. = = = = K. (c IEEE.Excitation Systems 293 The excitation system models described use a pu system wherein 1 . = K. Symbol Excitation System Model Symbols Symbol Description Description exciter output voltage IF = generator field current v. 0 ~ ~ gives exactly = 1 . Type 4 regulator output voltage maximum value of VR minimum value of VR VRH = generator terminal voltage regulator gain exciter constant related to selfexcited field regulator stabilizing circuit gain current circuit gain in Type 3 system potential circuit gain in Type IS or Type 3 system fast raise/lower constant setting.= regulator amplifier time constant exciter time constant regulator stabilizing circuit time constant same as T~ for rotating rectifier system regulator input filter time constant rheostat time constant. with a filter time constant of r R . vol. 7. = VREF  r: (7.20 in Appendix E). Table 7.61.= = regulator reference voltage setting field rheostat setting  Note: Voltages and currents a r e s domain quantities. the input to the rotating amplifier is the error voltage v. 1968. changed slightly to conform to the notation used throughout this chapter. EFD = 1 . Type 4 system exciter saturation function auxiliary (stabilizing) input signal I.1 Type 1 systemcontinuously The block diagram for the Type 1 system is shown in Figure 7.O pu generator voltage is the rated generator voltage and 1.9.
and substituting (7. domain to TEEFD = KEEFD Equation (7. T. = 0)..viz.. Reprinted from l E E E Trans.87) corresponds in the time + VR . that is nonlinear. V R = V .S E E F D bRVF/(U (7. The saturation function is defined as shown in Figure 7..) IEEE. The exciter itself is represented as a firstorder linear system with time constant T..VF) with the nonlinearity approximated by a Frohlich equation.294 Chapter 7 .85) This altered value is operated upon linearly by the exciter transfer function. Note also that the exciter transfer function contains a constant K. + TES) (7. we can observe the obvious similarity.SEE.32). (7. vol.85) for we have c. However. and this voltage is small.62 Exciter saturation curves showing procedure for calculating the saturation function S . a provision is made to include the effect of saturation in the exciter by the saturation function S. Note the that for sufficiently small EFD system is nearly linear (S. Fig. to give a new effective value of pR. = (A . PAS87. This transfer function vR G(s) = l/(K.87) which includes the nonlinear function SEE.B)/B (7.s). Reference [IS] suggests taking . but finite in the steady state. 7.. R (7..86) is not in the usual form for a linear transfer function for a firstorder system (usually stated as 1/(1 + T S ) . From the block diagram we write EFD = f R / ( K ... where we computed TECF = VF + VR  .. + TEsEFD = KEEFD + VR .84) and is thus a function of E.88) Comparing with (7. for example.. 1968. This alters the amplifier voltage VR by an amount SEE.SEE.62 by the relation s .
Under steadystate conditions we compute are VR = KEEFD + (7.. Some engineers approximate the saturation function by an exponential function. 'Rmax = KP< (7.91) where K. Le.93) (KE + SEmar)EFDmax Thus there exists a constraint between the maximum (or minimum) values of EfDmax and 'Rmax tEFDmm and R n ' mi ).. 7.Excitation Systems KE 295 = S E I E ~ ~ ( 0= ) f lEFD(0)I (7.67) (written for the Type 1 system). and K. Reference [ 151 points out that the regulator ceiling VRmar and the exciter ceiling EFDmax interrelated through S.%'EfD) (7..63. with . and E F D are specified at two points. +" * E ~ ~ I r j Fig. setting V = E F D and eliminating (7.90) is easy to compute and provides a simple way to represent exciter saturation with reasonable accuracy.2 Type 1S systemcontrolled rectifier system with terminal potential supply only This is a special case of continuously acting systems where excitation is obtained through rectification of the terminal voltage as in Figures 7. Finally we examine the feedback transfer function of Figure 7. and S.89) which corresponds to the resistance in the exciter field circuit at t = 0. sE = ft E f D ) = exp (BE. Reprinted from IEEE Trans. usually the exciter ceiling voltage and 75% of ceiling.e. I n this case the maximum regulator voltage is not a constant but is proportional to V . i.18. The function (7. 'Rrnax = 7. and BE. where S. = 0.9. vol.. Note that (7. then (7. 7. and 7 F are respectively the gain constant and the time constant of the regulator stabilizing circuit. PAS87. See Appendix D.91) introduces both a derivative feedback and a firstorder lag. 1968. This time constant introduces a zero on the negative real axis.61 H(s) = K..S/(l + TFS) (7. = 1 .61 K.92) with the constraint VRmin< VR < VRmax.) e . (! IEEE. A statespace representation of the Type IS system can be derived by referring to (7. This system is shown in Figure 7.63 Type IS system.90) The coefficients A.94) Such systems have almost instantaneous response of their main excitation components such that in Figure 7. = 0.17 and 7. .65). are computed from saturation data.
we can express as a function of the state variables..9. Note that two time constants one of which approximates appear in the damping loop of this new system. 7. The IEEE description of this system is shown in Figure 7. . being brushless.. the excitation voltage is not available to feed back.64 Type 2 excitation system representationrotating printed from IEEE Trans.4/TA) < v 3 'Rrnaxr > vRrnin v.v. (m IEEE.13. vol. 7.64.97) where 7 Note that only three states are needed in this case.96) where the f coefficients are constants.296 Chapter 7 the result pi = (KR/~R) v.3 Type 2 systemrotating rectifier system Another type of system. and rF2. Re .79) and substituting for id and iq. we write 1 .. 1968.  (7. function 'REF V. iD iq iQ w 61 = [xI x3x4x5x6x.) rectifier system before 1967. incorporates damping loops that originate from the regulator output rather than from the excitation voltage [39] since. 1 Fig. the rotating rectifier system of Figure 7. = ( K F / ~ F ) ~ F D (1/7F)  E F D = (K. Rearranging. + v.61.0 TR 0 + K 0 0 F TF 0 0 1 (7. = v.( ~ / T R ) vi 6 (l/TA) f.] x2 1 we can show that <= 0 hEFD k kI h x k (7. PAS87. For the linearized system discussed in Chapter 6 where the state variables x' = r: [idi.95) By using (7.. where the damping feedback loop is seen to be different from that of Figure 7. r F .
.
298 Chapter 7 If: A > 1 .102) where for brevity we let u. Multiplying V . .101)(7. vol.. = Mdid + Mqi. we reduce (7. + K21.103) to the following form: (7. 7. are all linear functions of xIx. = MdXl 4 MqXq (7. systems of this type are nonlinear.104) Note that u. due to potential and current information. for the terminal current we may write i..100) Then we write for the entire system VB = 4 = v. Vc KFE.) Vc represents the selfexcitation from the generator terminals. Constants K. (a IEEE. V B ' o Fig. + K. we may write the selfexcitation components as Vc = Kl V. which accounts for variation of selfexcitation with change in the angular relation of field current (IF) and selfexcitation voltage ( V T H[)151. PAS87.101) TRS) But we m a y write the terminal voltage in the time domain as 1 (7.s/(I + + 7p~) EFD= VB/(K. (7..E 7 . Also. .103) If we define the states as in (7. To formulate a linearized statespace representation. are proportionality factors indicating the proportion of the "Thevenin voltage.66 Type 3 excitation system representationstatic with terminal potential and current supplies.68).IF (7. and i . Reprinted from I € € € Trans. and K. be the term on the right. .." V . 1968.. Obviously. i. ~ ~ 1 VR + = KRy/(I + = [KA/(1 + TAs)] V. is a signal proportional to I.
. a great many systems are of an earlier design similar to the rheostatic system of Section 7. is below this limiting value of K.e. although common. that controls the fastchange mechanism on the rheostat.1 1 are unity in column I Note that the values of VRmax and higher values in columns 2 and 3. in addition to the system representations. Because the Type 4 system is so nonlinear. Type 4 systems (e. 7.5 Type 4 systemnoncontinuous acting The previous systems are similar in the sense that they are all continuous acting with relatively high gain and are usually fast acting. The computer representation of a system is illustrated in Figure 7. This difference is due to the different choice of base voltage for V . The RR of modern fast systems are often in the range of 2. Thus a largeerror voltage may cause several rheostat segments to be shorted out. typically set at 5%. If V.~” VRH limited 7. a table of typical constants of physical systems.1 and are noncontinuous acting. they are generally characterized as slow due to friction and inertia of moving parts.Excitation Systems 299 I I Fig. Note: and VRmax.7.time constant of rheostat travel = T R H . Westinghouse BJ30 or General Electric GFA4 regulated systems) often have two speeds of operation depending upon the magnitude of the voltage error. is the raiselower contact setting. Therebase voltage of V . A comparison of these two systems is recommended.9.5. An “auctioneer” circuit sets the output V .. the rheostat setting is changed by motor action with an integrating time constant of 7 R H .10 Typical System Constants Reference [ 151 gives.5 which. to VRmal . Also note that the values in Table 7.g. while a smallerror voltage will cause the segments to be shorted one at a time. where K .. they have dead zones in which the system operates essentially open loop. between VR.03..67 Type 4 excitation system representationnoncontinuously setting regulator. to the higher of the two input quantities. These data are given in Table 7.1 1 are for a system with a response ratio of 0.67. I I and. The equations for the Type 4 system are similar to those derived for the electromechanical system of Section 7. there is no advantage in representing it in state variable form. In addition to this. and VRmin given in Table 7. do not necessarily represent any physical system accurately.. Changing the affects all the other constants in the forward loop.7. is certainly not fast by today’s standards. 7. However. by the different exciter manufacturers and does not necessarily imply any marked difference in the regulator ceilings or performance.1. For any real system all quantities should be obtained from the manufacturer. i. although typical.
... .9 I .35..I 4.0 400 0.95 0.12. .80 0.lSmax 7E (s) 3. caution must be used in comparing gains.3 3.22 0.05 'mx Ra 'm Rm KF TF KE TE SErnax S E 75max 0 0 0. .127. 0.o 1 . 8. 4 I I 1 0.95 0.I7 0. 3600 r/min I800 r/min 'a Rx m 'i Rn m sErnax SE. commutator.50 3..17 .060....08 .22 0.2 11 ..05 0.22 0.95 1. (Pu)* (Pu)* 1 .95 0.0 (s) KA TA (s) (Pu)* (Pu)* EFDrnax EFDmin KE KF T F (SI 0. As experience has accumulated in excitation system modeling.5 0.50 0.95 0. *Values given assume up (full load) = 3. 4.00.0 400 0. Chapter 7 Typical Constants of Excitation Systems in Operation on 3600 r/min Steam Turbine Generators (excitation system voltage response ratio = 0. Symbol Westinghouse Excitation System Constants for System Studies (excitation system voltage response ratio = 0.0.28 4..04 1 .. 0.267 0. If not..0 pu.I7 0..95 0.. fore.5) MagAStat Rotatingrectifier BJ30 Rototrol Silverstat TRA Excitation system type TR I I 0.1.5 0.04 400 0.3 7.50 1.5 0.0 0.I 7 0.3 0.03 1 .0 400 0.05 400 0.1 0.02 7.5 0.3 0.0 0.. 8 ABB Power T & D Company Inc.3 0.074 3. Since these constants are specified on a normalized basis.5 0.. . multiply * values by ud3.2 0.O I 0.. 1992.5 0. time constants.5 3.3 0.76 0.o 0 K" TRH . Dec.05 200 0.86 0.105 .0 0.o 0....95 0.06 25SO* 0.5) Selfexcited exciters.0 .o .o 0.5 4..o 0..70 4.03 I .25 0.50 Source: Used with permission from Stability Program Data Preparation Manual. 1972... I5 give examples of excitation system parameters that can be used for estimating new systems or for cases where exact data is unavailable.25 4.02 200 0.50 *For generators with open circuit field time constants greater than 4 s.17 0.3 7..5 0. 0.11. ....2 8.o .05 4. they can often be used with reasonable confidence on other simulations where data is unavailable. . 20 .86 0.028 0..5 . the manufacturer and utility engineers have determined excitation system parameters for many existing units..5 1 7 3.5 0.5 3. 70736.22 0. Since the formation of the National Electric Reliability Council (NERC) a set of deTable 7.5 0.2 0..8 8.22 0.22 0.20 1 . .028 0.95 0.5 1.5 1.30 3. or silicon diode with amplidyne voltage regulators (1) Symbol Selfexcited commutator exciter with MagAStat voltage regulator (2) Rotating rectifier exciter with static voltage regulator (3) TR KA TA 0.05 . 1.. Advanced Systems Technology Rept. Tables 7. and limits for systems of different manufacture.85 .300 Table 7.02 3.5 .
Thus it is becoming common for the manufacturer to specify the exciter model to be used in system studies and to provide accurate gains and time constants for the system purchased. and loads.05 0.17 0.25 0.85 0.2 3. *Data obtained from curves supplied by manufacturer.555 0 1. .o 1 .5 0. permission from Power System Stability Program User’s Guide.95 0.45 1 .14.555 1.2 0.056 0. .05 0 0 0.00105 0.o * * 400 400 0.06 0. Philadelphia Electric Co. exciters. “Rmin KF/TF TF 301 MagAStat (Type 1) SCPT (Type 3) BJ30 (Type4) Rototrol (Type I ) Silverstat (Type I) TRA (Type I ) G FA4 (Type4) NAlOl (Type I ) Amplidyne N A 108 (Type 1 ) Amplidyne N A 143 (Type 1) Amplidyne < 5 k W NA143 (Type I ) Amplidyne > 5 kW Brushless (Type 2) 3600 r/rnin 0 0 20.~SE/KA rE/ KA 4TE/ K A 87E/KA * * 0 0 0 0 0 I .2 0.0039 0.0 0 1.05 0.0 0.05lt 1 .0 0.o I .19 K.1.06 400 120 0.0039 0. This has caused an enlarged interest and concern in the accuracy of modeling all system components. For typical values see Appendix D and Table 7..17 0.2 0.0052 0.25 0.o Brushless (Type 2) 1800 r / m i n 0.o I .~EFDFL 1 ?Highspeed contact setting.19 sin(cos’Fp) “Emax = [ + ap] [ study M V A base generator MVA base ~.555 1.03 Source: Used bv .13.Excitation Systems Table 7.35 0 0.1 Source: Used by permission from Power System Stability Program User’s Guide.o 1.5 0.084 0.o 1 .ost 0 0. Table 7.8 3.059 1. * K p = 1.0 1.o I.5 0. governors. 1971.0039 0 0.2 1.056 0 I I .05 200 200 400 20 0.10 o.8 1.3 3.0 7.15.o I .3 8.8 8.21 T&& I .0039 0.= 1.03 I .05t 0.15 0 0.o rj0/ 10.02 0.17 0.855 Brushless (Type 2) 1800 r / m i n I .o I .555 I .04 0 1.5 0.o 0. particularly the generators. Typical Excitation System Constants Type of regulator KE 0. if known.2 8.2 1.5 I .17 A EX BEX MagAStat (Type I SCPT* (Type 3) BJ30 (Type 4) Rototrol (Type I ) Silverstat (Type I ) T R A (Type 1) GFA4 (Type 4) Brushless (Type 2) 3600 r/min I . Philadelphia Electric Co.o 0.5 3.555 1. sign criteria has been established specifying the conditions under which power systems must be proven stable.04 0.465 0.ma..3 0. .5 1.0 . 1971.o 3. tHighspeed contact setting.12 0. Typical Excitation System Constants Type of regulator TR KA TA “.o 0.5 0. if known.o 7.5 3.02 I .05 0.5 I .76 0.
P . C a2 0 C L L Fig. 7. and 0 e 0 0 &FD.302 Chapter 7 .. step increase in T. x E . with no exciter and no generator saturation.68 Full model generator response of lo"(.. Initial loading of Example 5.1.
no gen.8.t "/\ .93. V. KF = 0.3... = 3. K E = 1.3. eratm o exciter saturation. TE = 0. TF = 1.69 Full model generator response to 10% step increase in T.0.0. sA = 0.. KR = 1..03. and 5% step increase in V R E Fwith initial loading of Example 5.02.1. 7. r .0.. T R = 0. Fig.400. = 7. V R = ~ ~ ~ 7. Exciter parameters (Westinghouse Brushless): KA .0.
0058 0.0/22 25 25 50 50 17~. Typical Excitation System Constants for Exciters with Amplidyne Voltage Regulators ( N A I O I . nearly constant when T. Philadelphia Electric Co.0445 0.1.304 Chapter 7 Table 7. Assume. a Type 1 excitation system similar to Figure 7. * F o r a l l N A l O l .68 for constant EFDand Figure 7. N A 1 0 8 .0833 25~.90).1 but assume that the machine is located at a remote location so that the terminal voltage 4 increases roughly in proportion to Eg. Following the increase in torque the system is subjected to an increase in EFD. both in the transient and dynamic modes of operation. 7. and V. Repeat Example 7.18. 1971.. the exciter has a stabilizing influence due to its ability to hold the flux linkages and voltage nearly constant.0/3 0.0240 0.0 0.69.o 0.0093 0. $See (7.2 as analyzed in Example 7. tFor NA143 over 5 k W . ./l3 25~.v Program User's Guide.68 and 7. as shown in Figure 7. however.15. Appropriate switching is arranged so the simulation can be operated with the exciter active or with constant EFD.0333 0..79 Source: Used by permission from Power Sysrem Sra6ilir.06 0. The results of this simulation are interesting and instructive and demonstrate clearly the effect of excitation on system perform ance. NA143) 0.1 Consider thegenerator of Figure 7. this torque increase causes a monotone decay in both A. and an increase in 6 that will eventually cause the generator to pull out of step. This is accomplished by switching the unregulated machine E F D from 100% to 110% of the Example 5.1. NA108..5 1. improves the system response dramatically. Both Figures 7. This causes the change in 6 to be more stable.898 0.1 1 The Effect of Excitation on Generator Performance Using the models of excitation systems presented in this chapter and the full model of the generator developed in Chapters 4 and 5. a n d N A 1 4 3 5 k W orless.1428 20~. is changed. Note that the exciter holds AF and V. This increase in 6 is most clearly shown in the phase plane plot. and with a decrease in 6 to just below the initial value. we can construct a computer simulation of a generator with an excitation system.0171 0.465 1. Problems 7.0108 1.25 0. We conclude that for the load change observed.0/3 IO~io/3 25 25 2OT. The exciter modeled for this illustration is similar to the Westinghouse Brushless exciter.69 show the response of the system to a 10% step increase in T.61. In Chapter 8 we will consider further the effects of excitation on stability. The results are shown in Figure 7. The phase plane plot shows a stable focus at the new 6. that the output power is held constant by the governor.5 2. As a result.o 10~20 0. and V. Adding the excitation system. For the generator with no exciter. 6 is increased to its new operating level in a damped oscillatory manner. The results are roughly the same with increases noted in A.69 with the exciter operative. beginning with the fullload condition of Example 5. I n the regulated machine a 5% step increase in VREFis made.0016 0. For the purpose of illustration. has been added to the generator analog simulation of Figure 5.1 level..5 I .~0/3 50 50 10~.
1 Consider the generator of Example 7. What assumptions must be made for the above relation to be approximately valid? Compute the current i2 due to a step change in the pilot exciter voltage.7 1. L f / r F is 7. for up = u ( t ) . can you make any general statement regarding the sensitivity of 6 and 8 to changes in P and ER? Establish a line of reasoning to show that a heavily cumulative compounded exciter is not desirable.3 7. The initial current in the generator field is p when the exciter voltage uF = ko.1 connected in parallel with an infinite bus and operating with constant excitation. in particular. and in what amount. + k . The system is shown in Figure P7.9 A solenoid is to be used as the sensing and amplification mechanism for a crude voltage regulator.2 305 7.8.17. u(f .e. P7. to restore the power factor to its original value? Repeat Example 7. and 8 when the governor setting is changed to increase the power output by 20%. Plot the current function i n the s plane.2.4 7. At time t = a a step function in the voltage uF is introduced.a). Assume linear variations where necessary to establish your arguments. +pLqLF Fig. P7. uF = k . Following the change described in Problem 7. the change i n 6 and 8. Consider the separately excited exciter E shown in Figure P7. By means of a phasor diagram analyze the change in 6. i.6 7. Discuss the operation of this device and comment on the feasibility of the proposed design. Comparing results of Example 7. Write the differential equations that describe the system.5 1..Excitation Systems 7.. Consider the exciter shown in Figure P7.9 .1 except that instead of increasing the excitation.4. where the main exciter M is excited by a pilot exciter P such that the relation uF = k'wc z ki. Observe the new values of 6 and 8 and. Fig. Sketch this result for the cases where the time constant both very large and Lery small. decrease Ex to a magnitude less than that of V.8 ComDute the current i F . what action would be required.9. Le. I. holds..7.1 and Problems 7. Note particularly the change in 6 in both direction and magnitude.
a degree of stabilization is achieved. Le.7. uF2 = 180 V. K.12 The separately excited exciter shown in Figure P7. instead of being driven from the turbinegenerator shaft. What are the initial and final values of resistance in the field circuit? (b) What is the main exciter response ratio? 7.01. consider a selfexcited connection with an amplidyne boostbuck regulation system that quickly goes to its saturation voltage of +IO0 V following a command from the voltage regulator. .306 7..10 Chapter 7 A n exciter for an ac generator. 0.14 Assume that the constants r A .1 I 7. Write the equations for this system and show that.12. and 0. I 2 (a) Determine the buildup curve beginning at rated voltage.000 uF = 120 V (rated) 6 +’+ 2 Fig. Assume no load on the exciter. Find the effect of rR on the branch of the root locus near the imaginary axis.3.13 Given the same exciter of Problem 7. is driven by a separate motor with a large flywheel... Consider the motor to have a constant output torque and write the equations for this system.001. with parameters carefully selected. Let r R take the values of 0. I2 has a magnetization curve as given in Table 7. K. particularly for large values of R. r E . uFI = 120 V. compute the buildup. Other constants of interest are N = 2500 UP = 125V u = 1. Analyze the system given in Figure P7.. and KA are the same as in Example 7. I f this forcing voltage is held constant..1. Assume uF1 = 40 V. P7. r. 7.1 I to determine the effectiveness of the damping transformer in stabilizing the system to sudden changes.2 R = 8 s2 in field winding k = 12. 7.
D a t a for the excitation system is given in Table 7.I. C. A I E E Trans. Rudenberg. Conv. 3. presented at the IEEE Summer Power Meeting. H. M. 14. Carlson. Mass. 1965.2. 1953. and Kedy. Westinghouse Electric Corp. 21.15 Repeat Problem 7. 1968. D. and Temoshok. Transienf Performance o/’ Electric Power Systems: Phenomena in Lumped Networks. 7. J. I E E E Int.. 2. Rubenstein. Repeat Example 7. Dandeno.. E. F. Also include the e r e c t of saturation in the simulation. 1966. W. Rabins..2 I 7. Chambers.9 for the operating condition of Example 6. E. Vol. M.. Excitation system response: A utility viewpoint. AddisonWesley. J.23 References Generator excitation systems and power system performance. Takahashi. Use a Type 1 exciter.v.. Alternatorrectifier exciter for Cardinal Plant.. 6. F. P. C. A new regulator and excitation system. A static excitation system for industrial and utility steam turbinegenerators. Presented at Association des IngCnieurs Electriciens de I’lnstitute Electrotechnique Montefiore. New York. PAS80: 106672. Pa.. 1959. P. K.1 I . Chicago. Reading. D. Rogers. J.63) for T~ = 0.9 and for the machine model and operating conditions described in Example 6. 18. Paper 3 I CP 67536. and Auslander.18 Complete the analog computer simulation of the system of one machine connected to a n infinite bus (given in Chapter 5) by adding the simulation of the excitation system. Lane.. Pittsburgh. 19. Whitney.. PAS88: 124858. C. Belgium. 125.22 7. I E E E Trans. R. L. 3. Rotating rectifier exciters for large turbinedriven ac generators. PAS80 107277. 1969. and Rothe. 9. . B. Mass. F. H.1961. Hoover. E. I E E E Trans. Cawson.05 and 7F = 0. L. Cambridge. and Cory. W..14. 16. S. PAS72:17583.. Control and Dynamic Svstems. IEEE Committee Report.3. McGrawHill. 15. S..19 for the conditions of Example 6. Repeat Example 7.16 Obtain the loci of the roots for the polynomial of (7. Am... H. 7. Liege. F.. 1952. A new excitation system and a method of analyzing voltage response. M. 27. Oliver. I E E E Trans. 1950.Edwards. 20. Kimbark. 4.17 Obtain (or sketch) a rootlocus plot for the system of Example 7.05 a n d 0. 1970. PAS76: 14971501.~85. C. 7. (MIT Press. PAS’II:18487. A I E E Trans. F. I I . Barnes.20 eigenvalues. IO. Portland. A. The amplidyne generatorA dynamoelectric amplifier for power control. A I E E Trans.sfein Stability. A. P. Experience with automatic voltage regulation on a 115megawatt turbogenerator.7.. 1950. New York. and Bobo. 1957. and Bowman. Oreg. 0. Bobo. 0. and Bobo. Myers. 17. M . T. General Electric Rev.. A . A. A. E. A I E E Trans.6. S.. A . A I E E Trans. obtain the A matrix of the system and find the 7. Repeat Problem 7. M .19 For the excitation system described in Example 7..02 a n d 0. 7. 1957. W. and Vance. Elecfrical Transniission and Distribution Re/erence Book. Design and tests of a static excitation system for indus1961. and Horton. J. A. Alexanderson. M. S. = 0. Cornelius. Rec. A n electric utility brushless excitation system. PAS76:149196. Recent developments in amplidyne regulator excitation systems for large generators. J. D. 0. H. A. S. 7.8 for K. PAS78:182124.. 1940.3 and for values of KF between 0... 1964.9 (with the same operating condition) using a Type 2 excitation system.M...1961 13. Proc. and Temoshok.14 with rR = 0. Rubenstein. M. PAS80 1077. W. 1968. PAS87:I 18998.1. Excitation voltage response definitions and significance in power systems. Southwest I E E E Con/: (SWIEEECO). IO. and Temoshok.. E. A I E E Trans. 12.. Brushless excitation system. 1956. trial and utility steam turbinegenerators. K. S. Myers. Rubenstein. A I E E Trans. Concordia. 5 . I. 1967). Proposed excitation system definitions for synchronous machines. Rubenstein. 43: 1046. Show how the choice of base voltage for the voltage regulator output VR affects other constants i n the forward loop. Lee. P. A. J . M .. I E E E Trans..05 a n d f a r values of 7” = 0. and McClymont.. H . and Temoshok. Power S. H. P. 1967. 8. F. M. W. 7. Power Con/:. 1966. Wiley. M . and Temoshok.. PAS87: 146064. Temoshok. K.Excitation Systems 307 7. Vol. L.. Assume the usual bases for a n d E. E_xcitationsystemsDesigFs and practices in the United States. G. IEEE Committee Report. R. Computer representation of excitation systems. Domeratzky. Proc.
1950. Vol. M. and Miller. C. E. Ferguson. Storm... J. A I E E Trans. 70736.. L. 36. New York. 1946. Lane. A I E E Trans. 1948. and Horton. Ewart.s. 8. Herbst. G.. Bobo. and Valentine. 1971. 1954. W. PAS65: 107027. M. and Temoshok. Paper CP 65208. Oyetunji. E. Patent Office. J. Pt. A. C. A static excitation system for steam turbine generators. 1938. 64: 601. U. W.. GET2980. 2. Power system stability program. L. G. F. Wiley. New York. 30. Regulating system for dynamoelectric machines. Concordia. 1945. A I E E Trun. and Todd..1954. A. Effect of boostbuck voltage regulator on steadystate power limit. A I E E Trans. 34. Westinghouse Electric Corp. 39.. A I E E Trans. Basic Feedback Control Sysrennl Design. Harder. and Nilsson. General Electric Co. Ames. 23. Power System Planning Div. Elentents of Srability Calculations. I . E. Oplinger. Recent developments in generator voltage regulation. 24. 41. N. 35. J. Bull. A. C. M.. Philadelphia Electric Co. Elerrric Power Circuits. Feb. 1952. Oct. Crenshaw. Genewl Electric Rev. 1966. PAS65:93945. 1972. Modern excitation systems for large synchronous machines. 40. The development of modern excitation systems for synchronous condensers and generators.: Pt. PAS78:181521. T. 1965. G .. A I E E Trans. S. Brown. C. Users Guide U60042. . H. Magamp regulator tests and operatand ing experience on West Penn Power System.. Pt. 29. The figure of merit of magnetic amplifiers. R. T. Aug. New York. 42. 28. 58:83844. I. Hand. F.1952. Power Sysreni Stability. J. J. 1946. Unpubl. E. Ogle. 37. M. M.. McClure. H. 33. Stability program data preparation manual. J .. J r .. 2.. 1950.S. New York.. New York. Inrroducrion to Linear Systents Analysis. A I E E Trans. H. thesis. McGrawHill. Iowa State Univ. ERI71130. Elecrr. Hanna. A I E E Trans.692. Mendel. Patent No. 0 .. A. C. Wiley. Ph. PAS7 1:2016. 32. J. Advanced Systems Technology Rept. F. P.. F. K. Eng. 3. Hunter. N. presented at the IEEE Winter Power Meeting. 31. and Valentine. 25. 1939.. Performance of new magnetic amplifier type voltage regulator for large hydroelectric generators. R . E. 1971.. .D. PAS71~23945. The amplistat and its applications. J. 27. and Kinghorn.. and Hartman. Kallenback. 1962. Dahl. K. PAS73:48691. L. Development of a modern amplidyne voltage regulator for large turbine generators. Research Rept. C.967. R. Rothe. Savant. 2. Whittlesley. L. Analytical studies of the brushless excitation system. Carleton. Carleton. 1959. W.. 1958. G. W. W. M. PAS71:894 900. 26. Effects of system nonlinearities on synchronous machine control. Kron. 1952. I. and Dandeno. Amplidyne regulator excitation systems for large generators. S.. 0. R. W. McClure. Theoryand Application. E. A I E E Trans. PAS69138084. Porter. J . E. Static voltage regulator for Rototrol exciter.. P... D. F. R. Kimbark. 38. W. Vol.308 Chapter 7 22. McGrawHill.
It was discovered that the inherently weak natural damping of large and weakly coupled systems was the main cause and that situations of negative damping were further aggravated by the regulator gain [ 13). The success of excitation control in improving power system dynamic performance in certain situations has led to greater expectations among power system engineers as to the capability of such control Because of the small effective time constants in the excitation system control loop. 309 . Engineers learned that the system damping could be enhanced by artificial signals introduced through the excitation system. Some authors call the dynamic stability problem by the ambiguous name of “steadystate stability. In the first few cycles these requirements may be significantly different from those needed over a few seconds. is to determine this limit. While basically sound. this control is limited in its effectiveness. In the 1960s large interconnected systems experienced growing oscillations that disrupted parallel operation of large systems [3121. and stabilizing feedback circuits came into common use (21. but usually the two problems are treated separately as noted. to find the exciter design and control parameters that can provide good performance at reasonable cost [ 141. the transient (shortterm) problem and the dynamic (longterm) problem.chapter 8 The Effect of Excitation on Stability 8.e. Early investigators realized that the socalled “steadystate” power limits of power networks could be increased by using the then available highgain continuousacting voltage regulators [ I ] . Furthermore. it was assumed that a large control effort could be expended through excitation control with a relatively small input of control energy. then. it has been shown that the best control effort in the shorter period may tend to cause instability later. i.. It should be noted that this terminology is not universally used. It was also recognized that the voltage regulator gain requirement was different at noload conditions from that needed for good performance under load.” Other variations are found in the literature. This suggests the separation of the excitation control studies into two distinct problems.1 Introduction Considerable attention has been given in the literature to the excitation system and its role in improving power system stability. This scheme has been very successful in combating growing oscillation problems experienced in the power systems of North America. The subject of excitation control is further complicated by a conflict in control requirements in the period following the initiation of a transient. A part of the engineer’s job. In the early 1950s engineers became aware of the instabilities introduced by the (then) modern voltage regulators.
with its share being dictated by the impedance it sees at its terminals (its Thevenin impedance) and the size of the unit. Now how will this load change manifest itself at the several machines in the control group? Since it is a load increase. is the machine terminal voltage and V . thus improving the chances of holding V . and electrical location with respect to the load. sets up all kinds of oscillatory responses and the system “rings” for a time with many frequencies present. is reduced. In this time period the changes in machine voltages. then somewhat later. these induced changes causing their own interaction with neighboring machines (see Section 3./x)sinb (8. Thus each unit responds by contributing its share of the load increase. Let us assume that at a given instant the load is changed by a small amount. Note that if V. is the infinite bus voltage. These violent changes affect the machine’s ability to release the power it is receiving from the turbine.310 Chapter 8 8. this increased power requirement will come first from stored energy in the control group of machines. Let us examine the behavior of the machines in the time interval prior to the governor action. Each unit has its own natural frequency of response and will oscillate for a time until damping forces can decay these oscillations. Since step changes in power to turbines are not possible. The dynamic stability problem is different from the transient problem in several ways. design. currents. usually a fault. and the requirements on the excitation system are also different. P is reduced by a corresponding amount. when the fault is removed and the reactance x of (8. Thus energy stored in the magnetic field of the machines is released. which is maintained for a short time and causes a significant reduction in the machine terminal voltage and the ability to transfer synchronizing power.6).1) is increased due to switching. and speeds will be different for each machine in the control group because of differences in unit size. Consider a multimachine system feeding a constant load (a condition never met in practice).1 Transient stability and dynamic stability considerations In transient stability the machine is subjected to a large impact. Also. and those farther away will experience smaller and smaller changes until the change is not perceptible at all beyond the boundary of the control group. at a reasonable value. at the needed level. Indeed. By dynamic stability we mean the ability of all machines in the system to adjust to small load changes or impacts. Thus the one change in load. These changes are effectively controlled by very fast excitation changes.1. the most beneficial attributes the voltage regulator can have for this situation is speed and a high ceiling voltage. Assume further that this change in load is just large enough to be recognized as such by a certain group of machines we will call the control group. rotating energy [( 1/2)mu2]is used to supply the load requirements until the governors have a chance to adjust the power input to the various generators. say by the energizing of a very large motor somewhere in the system. This interval may be on the order of 1 s. another fast change in excitation is required. Prevention of this reduction in P requires very fast action by the excitation system in forcing the field to ceiling and thereby holding V . there is an immediate increase in the output power requirements from each of the machines. a step change.1) where V.V. . The machines nearest the load electrically will see the largest change. the usual approximation for the power transfer is given by P = (V. If we consider the one machineinfinite bus problem.
1. This system lag then is a detriment to stable operation. although somewhat slowly. Example 8. the purpose of which is to show that the excitation system can have an effect upon stability. or both. the terminal voltage also changes.) The power output of the machine is given by P 6 = = [EIEz/(XI 6 + 62 1 + X2)] 6 sin Fig. This is a nonlinear problem. there is an unavoidable delay. . The machines closer to the load change would recognize a need for increased excitation and this would be accomplished. and the shape of the magnetization curve cannot be neglected. The excitation system has one major handicap to overcome in following these system oscillations: this is the effective time constant of the main exciter field which is on the order of a few seconds or so. In the older electromechanical systems there was a substantial deadband in the voltage regulator. and several investigators have shown examples wherein systems are less oscillatory with the voltage regulators turned off than with them operating [7. and we examine the response in building up from normal excitation to ceiling excitation. Newer excitation systems present a different kind of problem. Our approach to this problem must obviously depend upon the type of impact under consideration. the excitation of these machines would remain unchanged. since as the speed voltage changes. terminal current. either as a perceptible change in terminal voltage. During this delay time the state of the oscillating system will change.Effect of Excitation o n Stability 31 1 Now visualize the excitation system in this situation. in this way not only can we analyze but possibly compensate the system for better damping and perhaps faster response. and each action or reaction is accompanied by an excitation change. and linearization about this normal or “quiescent” point is possible and desirable. Having done this. These systems recognize the change in load immediately. Thus each oscillation of the unit causes the excitation system to t r y to correct accordingly. The small impact or dynamic stability problem is different. where we consider one machine against an infinite bus. we may study the response using the tools of linear systems analysis. 8. the oscillating control group machines react with one another. we are concerned with maximum forcing of the field. Thus from the time of recognition of a desired excitation change until its partial fulfillment. and unless the generator was relatively close to the load change. such as a fault.2 Effect of Excitation on Generator Power limits We begin with a simple example.1 Consider the twomachine system of Figure 8. Moreover. 121. as we have seen. 8.1 One machineinfinite bus system. For the large impact. causing a new excitation adjustment to be made. Here we are concerned with small excursions from normal operation. (This problem was introduced and analyzed by Concordia [ 11.
31 2
Chapter 8
Fig. 8.2 Phasor diagram for Example 8.1.
This equation applies whether or not there is a voltage regulator. Determine the effect of excitation on this equation. Solution We now establish the boundary conditions for the problem. First we assume that XI = X 2 = 1.0 pu and that V, = 1 .O pu. Then for any given load the voltages E , and E2must assume a certain value to hold at 1.0 pu. If the power factor is unity, E, and E2 have the same magnitude as shown in the phasor diagram of Figure 8.2. If E, and E2 are held constant at these values, the power transferred to the infinite bus varies sinusoidally according to (8.2) and has a maximum when 6 is 90". Now assume that E, and E2are both subject to perfect regulator action and that the key to this action is that V, is to be held at 1.0 pu and the power factor is to be held at unity. We write in phasor notation
E,
=
1
+ jf
=
dmej*/z
E2 = I  jf
= dmej6/2
Adding these equations we have
E,
+ E2 = 2 = 2
r n C O S 6 / 2
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I I I I
I
Angle 6, degrees
Fig. 8.3 Comparison of power transferred at unity power factor with and without excitation control.
Effect of Excitation on Stability
313
or
El
= E2 =
I cos 612
(8.3)
Substituting (8.3) into (8.2) and simplifying, we have for the perfect regulator, at unity power factor,
P
=
tan612
(8.4)
The result is plotted in Figure 8.3 along with the same result for the case of constant (unregulated) E l and E 2 . In deriving (8.4), we have tacitly assumed that the regulators acting upon E l and E 2 do so instantaneously and continuously. The result is interesting for several reasons. First, we observe that with this ideal regulation there is no stability limit. Second, it is indicated that operation in the region where d > 90" is possible. We should comment that the assumed physical system is not realizable since there is always a lag in the excitation response even if the voltage regulator is ideal. Also, excitation control of the infinite bus voltage is not a practical consideration, as this remote bus is probably not infinite and may not be closely regulated.
Example 8.2
Consider the more practical problem of holding the voltage E2 constant at I .O pu and letting the power factor vary, other things being the same. Solution Under this condition we have the phasor diagram of Figure 8.4 where we note that the locus of E2 is the dashed circular arc of radius 1.0. Note that the power factor is constrained by the relation
e,
=
a2/2
(8.5)
where 8, = IT  8 and 6 = 6, 6,. Writing phasor equations for the voltages, we have
+
e
Fig. 8.4 Phasor diagram for Example 8.2.
314
Chapter 8
Toque Angle,
4,
degrees
Fig. 8.5
System parameters as a function of 6 2 .
El = I + jT = I  [sine + j l c o s e = ~ , e ' " E2 = 1  j r = I + Isin6  jfc o s e = E2ejb2 (8.6) where 6, el, A I , and a2 are all measured positive as counterclockwise. Noting that E2 =
1, we can establish that
I
sin 6
= =
2sin0, 2sin6,
E , sin6
= =
2sinJ2 sinb2/(2  cos&)
0371 Thus once we establish J2. we also fix 0, I, 6, and 6 , , although the relationships among these variables are nonlinear. These results are plotted in Figure 8.5 where equations (8.7) are used to determine the plotted values. We also note that
tan6,
P
=
V,~COS~
=
(8.8) sin a2 or
(8.9)
but from the second of equations (8.6) we can establish that I cos 8
P
=
sin&
so 62 also establishes P. Thus P does have a maximum in this case, and this occurs when 62 = 90" (E' pointing straight down in Figure 8.4). In this case we have at
maximum power
E, e
=
2
+ jl
=
2.235/26.6"
I
=
1.414
= 450
6 = 116.6"
The important thing to note is that P is again limited, but we see that 6 may go
Effect of Excitation o n Stability
315
0
90
Torque Angle
180
b, degrees
Fig. 8.6
Variation of
P with 6.
beyond 90" to achieve maximum power and that this requires over 2 pu E , . The variation of P with 6 is shown in Figure 8.6. These simple examples show the effect of excitation under certain ideal situations. Obviously, these ideal conditions will not be realized in practice. However, they provide limiting values of the effect of excitation on changing the effective systey parameters. A power system is nearly a constant voltage system and is made so because of system component design and close voltage control. This means that the Thevenin impedance seen looking into the source is very small. Fast excitation helps keep this impedance small during disturbances and contributes to system stability by allowing the required transfer of power even during disturbances. Finally, it should be stated that while the ability of exciters to accomplish this task is limited, other considerations make it undesirable to achieve perfect control and zero Thevenin impedance. Among these is the faultinterrupting capability.
8 3 Effect of the Excitation System on Transient Stability . In the transient stability problem the performance of the power system when subjected to severe impacts is studied. The concern is whether the system is able to maintain synchronism during and following these disturbances. The period of interest is relatively short (at most a few seconds), with the first swing being of primary importance. In this period the generator is suddenly subjected to an appreciable change in its output power causing its rotor to accelerate (or decelerate) at a rate large enough to threaten loss of synchronism. The important factors influencing the outcome are the machine behavior and the power network dynamic relations. For the sake of this discussion it is assumed that the power supplied by the prime movers does not change in the period of interest. Therefore the effect of excitation control on this type of transient depends upon its ability to help the generator maintain its output power in the period of interest. To place the problem in the proper perspective, we should review the main factors that affect the performance during severe transients. These are:
1. The disturbing influence of the impact. This includes the type of disturbance, its location, and its duration. 2. The ability of the transmission system to maintain strong synchronizing forces during the transient initiated by a disturbance. 3. The turbinegenerator parameters.
The above have traditionally been the main factors affecting the socalled firstswing transients. The system parameters influencing these factors are:
316
Chapter 8
1. The synchronous machine parameters. Of these the most important are: (a) the inertia constant, (b) the direct axis transient reactance, (c) the direct axis open circuit time constant, and (d) the ability of the excitation system to hold the flux level of the synchronous machine and increase the output power during the transient. 2. The transmission system impedances under normal, faulted, and postfault conditions. Here the flexibility of switching out faulted sections is important so that large transfer admittances between synchronous machines are maintained when the fault is isolated. 3. The protective relaying scheme and equipment. The objective is to detect faults and isolate faulted sections of the transmission network very quickly with minimum disruption.
8.3.1
The role of the excitation system in classical model studies
In the classical model it is assumed that the flux linking the main field winding remains constant during the transient. If the transient is initiated by a fault, the armature reaction tends to decrease this flux linkage [15]. This is particularly true for the generators electrically close to the location of the fault. The voltage regulator tends to force the excitation system to boost the flux level. Thus while the fault is on, the effect of the armature reaction and the action of the voltage regulator tend to counteract each other. These effects, along with the relatively long effective time constant of the main field winding, result in an almost constant flux linkage during the first swing of 1 s or less. (For the examples in Chapter 6 this time constant K37j0is about 2.0 s.) It is important to recognize what the above reasoning implies. First, it implies the presence of a voltage regulator that tends to hold the flux linkage level constant. Second, it is significant to note that the armature reaction effects are particularly pronounced during a fault since the reactive power output of the generator is large. Therefore the duration of the fault is important in determining whether a particular type of voltage regulator would be adequate to maintain constant flux linkage. A study reported by Crary [2] and discussed by Young [ 151 illustrates the above. The system studied consists of one machine connected to a larger system through a 200mile double circuit transmission line. The excitation system for the generator is Type 1 (see Chapter 7) with provision to change the parameters such that the response ratio (RR)varies from 0.10 to 3.0 pu. The former corresponds to a nearly constant field voltage condition. The latter would approximate the response of a modern fast excitation system. Data of the system used in the study are shown in Figure 8.7. A transient stability study was made for a threephase fault near the generator. The sending end power limits versus the fault clearing time are shown in Figure 8.8 for different exciter responses (curves 15) and for the classical model (curve 6). From Figure 8.8 it appears that the classical model corresponds to a very slow and weak excitation system for very short fault clearing times, while for longer clearing times it approximates a rather fast excitation system. If the nature of the stability study is such that the fault clearing time is large, as in “stuck breaker” studies [IS], the actual power limits may be lower than those indicated when using the classical model. In another study of excitation system representation [ 161 the authors report (in a certain stability study they conducted) that a classical representation showed a certain generator to be stable, while detailed representation of the generator indicated that loss of synchronism resulted. The authors conclude that the dominant factor affecting loss
Effect of Excitation on Stability
Exciter
317
Fault
Generator: xd = 0.63 pu x = 0.42 P U Xd = 0.21 pu 7
T ~ O =
Regulating system:
Pz = 20
H = 5.0 s 5.0 s
P,,= 4 r, = 0.47 s E,,, = 2.25 PU E,i, = 0.30 PU
x, = 0.10 pu Line: x = 0.8 Il/mi/line r = 0.12 Q/mi/line y = 5.2 x mho/mi/line
System:
x = 0.2 pu , H = 50.0 s
System damping: Fault on
rdll Td12 Td21 rd22
Fault cleared
4
I
0 15
3 3 18
Fig. 8.7 Twomachine system with 200mile transmission lines.
of synchronism is the inability of the excitation system of that generator, with response f ratio o 0.5, to offset the effects of armature reaction. 8 3 2 Increased reliance on excitation control to improve stability .. Trends in the design of power system components have resulted in lower stability margins. Contributing to this trend are the following:
I . Increased rating of generating units with lower inertia constants and higher pu reactances. 2. Large interconnected system operating practices with increased dependence on the transmission system to carry greater loading.
These trends have led to the increased reliance on the use of excitation control as a
0
i*
.a a
::I\
1.05
Curve
r? e
RR
3.0 2.0
2
L 1.00 ?
. 50 9
I 2 3
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 Fault Clearing Time, I
0
0.10
4 5 6
0.042 s 0.17 s 0.68 s 2.70 s 11.0 s
I .o
0.25 0.10
Classical model
Fig. 8.8 Sendingend power versus fault clearing time for different excitation system responses.
318
Chapter 8
00 .
1.0
Time,
I
20 .
3.0
6)
lime, s
(C
1
Fig. 8.9 Results of excitation system studies on a western U.S. system: (a) Oneline diagram with fault location, (b) frequency deviation comparison for a fourcycle fault, (c) frequency deviation comparison for a 9.6cycle fault: A = 2.0 ANSI conventional excitation system; B = low time constant excitation system with rate feedback; C = low time constant excitation system without rate feedback. (@ IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Trans.. vol. PAS90, Sept./Oct. 1971.)
means of improving stability [ 17). This has prompted significant technological advances in excitation systems. As an aid to transient stability, the desirable excitation system characteristics are a fast speed of response and a high ceiling voltage. With the help of fast transient forcing of excitation and the boost of internal machine flux, the electrical output of the machine may be increased during the first swing compared to the results obtainable with a slow exciter. This reduces the accelerating power and results in improved transient performance.
Effect of Excitation on Stability
319
Modern excitation systems can be effective in two ways: in reducing the severity of machine swings when subjected to large impacts by reducing the magnitude of the first swing and by ensuring that the subsequent swings are smaller than the first. The latter is an important consideration in presentday large interconnected power systems. Situations may be encountered where various modes of oscillations reinforce each other during later swings, which along with the inherent weak system damping can cause transient instability after the first swing. With proper compensation a modern excitation system can be very effective in correcting this type of problem. However, except for transient stability studies involving faults with long clearing times (or stuck breakers), the effect of the excitation system on the severity of the first swing is relatively small. That is, a very fast, highresponse excitation system will usually reduce the first swing by only a few degrees or will increase the generator transient stability power limit (for a given fault) by a few percent. In a study reported by Perry et al. [I81 on part of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company system in northern California, the effect of the excitation system response on the system frequency deviation is studied when a threephase fault occurs in the network (at the Diablo Canyon site on the Midway circuit adjacent to a 500kV bus). Some of the results of that study are shown in Figure 8.9. A oneline diagram of the network is shown in Figure 8.9(a). The frequency deviations for 4cycle and 9.6cycle faults are shown in Figures 8.9(b) and 8.9(c) respectively. The comparison is made between a 2.0 response ratio excitation system (curve A ) , a modern, low time constant excitation with rate feedback (curve B) and without rate feedback (curve C). The results of this study support the points made above.
8.3.3 Parametric study Two recent studies [ 17,191 show the effect of the excitation system on “firstswing’’ transients. Figure 8.10 shows the system studied where one machine is connected to an infinite bus through a transformer and a transmission network. The synchronous machine data is given in Table 8. I . The transmission network has an equivalent transfer reactance A, as shown in ’
Table 8.1.
xd
Machine Data for the Studies of Reference [ 191
T;O T;O
= 1.72 pu
=
X; = = = = X : =
XE
0.45
0.33
PU
PU
= 7;o =
7p
6.3 s 0.033 s 0.43 S
0.033s
2
1.68 PU 0.59 pu 0.33 PU
=
=
H
4.0 s
Fig. 8.10 System representation used in a parametric study of the effect of excitation on transient stability. (e IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Trans.. vol. PAS89, July/Aug. 1970.)
320
Chapter 8
Figure 8.10. A transient is initiated by a threephase fault on the highvoltage side of the transformer. The fault is cleared in a specified time. After the fault is cleared, the transfer reactance X , is increased from x , b (the value before the fault) to X,, (its value after the fault is cleared). The machine initial operating conditions are summarized in Table 8.2.
Table 8.2. Prefault Operating Conditions, All Values in p u
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.94 0.90 0.91 0.97 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.39 0.45 0.44 0.44
With the machine operating at approximately rated load and power factor, a threephase fault is applied at the highvoltage side of the stepup transformer for a given length of time. When the fault is cleared, the transmission system reactance is changed to the postfault reactance X,, and the simulation is run until it can be determined if the run is stable or unstable. This is repeated for different values of X , until the maximum value of X,,, is found where the system is marginally stable. Two different excitation system representations were used in the study:
1. A 0.5 pu response alternatorfed diode system shown in Figure 8.1 1. 2. A 3.0 pu response alternatorfed SCR system with high initial response shown in Figure 8.12. This system has a steadystate gain of 200 pu and a transient gain of 20 pu. An external stabilizer using a signal V , derived from the shaft speed is also used (see Section 8.7).
“REF
I
1 0.0445 + 0 . 5
I I
‘FD

I
1
0.16s
+ I
U
Fig. 8.1 I
Excitation block diagram for a 0.5 R R alternatorfed diode system. (c IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Trans.,VOI. PAS89, July/Aug. 1970.)
From the data presented in [ 191, the effect of excitation on the “firstswing” transients is shown in Figure 8.13, where the critical clearing time is plotted against the , transmission line reactance for the case where X = X , b and for the two different types of excitation system used. The critical clearing time is used as a measure of relative stability for the system under the impact of the given fault. Figure 8.13 shows that for the conditions considered in this study a change in exciter response ratio from 0.5 to 3.0 resulted in a gain of approximately one cycle in critical clearing time.
Effect of Excitation on Stability
"REF
321
t . pu 49
I
Fig. 8.12 Excitation block diagram for a 3.0 RR alternatorfed SCR excitation system. printed from IEEE Trans., vol. PAS89, July/Aug. 1970.)
(@
IEEE. Re
8.3.4
Reactive power demand during system emergencies
A situation frequently encountered during system emergencies is a high reactive power demand. The capability of modern generators to meet this demand is reduced by the tendency toward the use of higher generator reactances. Modern exciters with high ceiling voltage improve the generator capability to meet this demand. It should be recognized that excitation systems are not usually designed for continuous operation at ceiling voltage and are usually limited to a few seconds of operation at that level. Concordia and Brown [ I71 recommend that the reactivepower requirement during system emergencies should be determined for a time of from a few minutes to a quarteror halfhour and that these requirements should be met by the proper selection of the generator rating.
8.4
Effect of Excitation on Dynamic Stability
Modern fast excitation systems are usually acknowledged to be beneficial to transient stability following large impacts by driving the field to ceiling without delay. However, these fast excitation changes are not necessarily beneficial in damping the oscillations that follow the first swing, and they sometimes contribute growing oscillations several seconds after the occurrence of a large disturbance. With proper design and compensation, however, a fast exciter can be an effective means of enhancing stability in the dynamic range as well as in the first few cycles after a disturbance. Since dynamic stability involves the system response to small disturbances, analysis as a linear system is possible, using the linear generator model derived previously [ 1 I]. For simplicity we analyze the problem of one machine connected to an infinite bus
E 6
0
2 L
0.2
0.4
06 .
0.8
xeo = Xeb,
PU
Fig. 8.13 Transient stability studies resulting from studies of [19]: A = 0.5 RR diode excitation system; E = 3.0 pu RR SCR excitation system. (Q IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Trans., vol. PAS89, July/Aug. 1970.)
322
Chapter 8
through a transmission line. The synchronous machine equations, for small perturbations about a quiescent operating condition, are given by (the subscript A is omitted for convenience)
T, E; V,
=
=
=
T ~ W S=
Kl6 K2E; [K,/(I K~T;oS)]EFD [ K i K 4 / ( 1 K56 + K6E; T,,,  T,
+
K~T;oS)]~
(8.10) (8.1 1)
(8.12)
(8.13)
where is the direct axis open circuit time constant and the constants K , through K6 depend on the system parameters and on the initial operating condition as defined in Chapter 6. In previous chapters it was pointed out that this model is a substantial improvement over the classical model since it accounts for the demagnetizing effects of the armature reaction through the change in E; due to change in 6. We now add to the generator model a regulatorexcitation system that is represented as a firstorder lag. Thus the change in EFD is related to the change in V, (again the subscript A is dropped) by
E F D / V ,= Kc/(I
where K , is the regulator gain and
8.4.1
T,
+ 7,s)
(8.14)
is the exciterregulator time constant.
Examination of dynamic stability by Routh’s criterion
To obtain the characteristic equation for the system described by (8. l0)(8.14), a procedure similar to that used in Section 3.5 is followed. First, we obtain
r

From (8.13) for T,,, = 0,
s26 =  ( W ; / T , ) T , =  ( w R / ~ H ) T ,
(8.16)
By combining (8.15) and (8.16) and rearranging, the following characteristic equation is obtained:
s4 + as’ + ps2
where
C Y
+ ys + 7
=
0
(8.17)
= = =
I/?, [(I
+
l/K3rAO
p
+ K3K6Kc)/K3T;OTr] + KI(WR/2H)
.=[
wR (Ki/Tr 2H
WR
+ Ki/&T;O
 K2&/Th)
K2K4
2H
KI(I + K3K6Kr) K3 4 0 Tf
Applying Routh’s criterion to the above system, we establish the array
Effect of Excitation on Stability
323
where
b2=O
c ~ = u ~ = v
(8.18)
According to Routh's criterion for stability, the number of changes in sign in the first column ( I , a, al , b l , and c I ) corresponds to the number of roots of (8.17) with positive real parts. Therefore, for stability the terms a,a l , l , and cI must all be greater than b zero. Thus the following conditions must be satisfied.
1. a
= 1/7,
+
l/K37;0 > 0, and since
7,
and ri0 are positive,
dO/T,
>
 1/K3
(8.19)
K3 is an impedance factor that is not likely to be negative unless there is an excessive series capacitance in the transmission network. Even then 72,)/T, is usually large enough to satisfy the above criterion. 2. 01 = p  y/a > 0
(1
+ K3K6Kt
K3 T;O 7 ,
+
K~ z) K3 4 2H K3T;O
0 1,
+
T,
2 k1 K ~ T ; o T ,)  q] (
Tt
+ K3dO
K2K4
, 0
or
(8.20)
This inequality is easily satisfied for all values of constants normally encountered in power system operation. Note that negative K , is not considered feasible. From (8.20) K , is limited to values greater than some negative number, a constraint that is always satisfied in the physical system.
We now recognize the first expression in parentheses in the last term of (8.21) to be the positive constant CY defined in (8.17). Making this substitution and rearranging
324
Chapter 8
to isolate K , terms, we have
(8.22)
The expressions in parentheses are positive for any load condition. Equation (8.22) places a maximum value on the gain K, for stable operation.
4. c
, = q > o
Since KIK6  K2K5 > 0 for all physical situations, we have This condition puts a lower limit on the value of K,.
Example 8.3 For the machine loading of Examples 5.1 and 5.2 and for the values of the constants K, through K6 calculated in Examples 6.6 and 6.7, compute the limitations on the gain constant K , , using the inequality expressions developed above. Do this for an exciter with time constant 7, = 0.5 s.
Solution In Table 8.3 the values of the constants K, through K6 are given together with the maximum value of K, from (8.22)and the minimum value of K, from (8.23). The regulator time constant 7, used is O S s , 7 j 0 = 5.9s, and H = 2.37s. Case I is discussed in Examples 5 . I and 6.6; Case 2, in Examples 5.2 and 6.5. From Table 8.3 it is apparent that the generator operating point plays a significant
Table 8.3. Computed Constants for the Linear Regulated Machine
Constants Case I (Ex. 5.1) Case 2 (Ex. 5.2)
Kl K2
K3
K4 K S
K6
a
K2 K3K47t
K372cl
+
Tt
K37207t,
K2K41aTdo K45
a KS7d0
K47237,
1/7,
Kt K. <
’
1.076 1.258 0.307 1.712 0.041 0.497 2.552 0.33 1 2.313 0.906 0.143 0.85 1 0.616 5.051 4.000  2.3 269.0
I .448 t.317 0.307 1.805 0.029 0.526 2.552 0.365 2.313 0.906 0. I58 0.949 0.442 5.325 4.000 3.2 1120.2
23) does not apply. we usually have T A ~ > T . V.) + ~ ( 7 + d o ) + do7.V* + 2{W. the heavier load condition of Case 1 allows a lower limit for K. by introducing a leadlag network with the proper choice of transfer function.’) (8.14.. = (8. For this condition we can easily show that the machine terminal voltage V. i. In [ 1 I ] de Mello and Concordia point out that the same dynamic performance can be obtained with higher values of K .14 Block diagram representing the machine terminal voltage at no load.10)(8. a reasonable value of { is I a For typical values of the gains and time constants in fast exciters / . Changes in this latter voltage follow the changes in EFD with a time lag equal to 7A0.K.3.Effect of Excitation o n Stability 325 role in system performance. See Problem 8. > I ) and low exciter time constant > ( 7 . K./l(1 + K. We can show then that for good performance > > T . is the same as the voltage E:. Fig.25) where K = K . This is left as an exercise (see Problem 8. performance. The analysis here has been simplified to omit the rate feedback loop that is normally ar! integral part of excitation systems.2 Furtfrer conridemtionr of the regulator gain and time constant At no load the angle 6 is zero. One special case of the foregoing analysis has been extensively studied [ I I]. ./~RW = K. This analysis assumes high regulator gain (K. ~ / ~ T .4. and K . This is usually lower than the value of gain required for steadystate . > 1. At heavier loads the values of these constants change such that in (8.S2] . for good damping characteristics. 211. = ( I / T * + 1/7i0). and the 6 dependence of (8. For good dynamic performance./VREF can be obtained by inspection. For the problem under study. As shown in Example 8. W: = ( 1 + K. .e. than that for the less severe Case 2. This change is in the direction to lower the permissible maximum value of exciterregulator gain K. but the resulting equations become complicated to the point that one is almost forced to find an alternate method of analysis.4. Routh’s criterion is a feasible tool to use to find the limits of stable operation in a physical system. 8. and K .22) the left side tends to decrease while the right side tends to increase. 2 { w .5). the results are dependent upon both the system parameters and the initial operating point.. more than the other constants.24) can be put in the standard form for secondorder systems as v /VREF K/(. < 8. From that figure the transfer function for V.)/T&T. Computer based methods are available to determine the behavior of such systems and are recommended for the more complex cases [20. A block diagram representing the machine terminal voltage at no load is shown in Figure 8.n this special case certain simplifications are possible.24) Equation (8.S + W. Rate feedback could be included in this analysis. < K 3 ~ j O )I.K. The loading seems to influence the values of K.. 0 7 . / 7 .
31) Note that the damping torque Td will have the same sign as K S . From (3. Using this simplification.326 8.27) In the unregulated machine there is positive damping introduced by the armature reaction. which is reduced by the demagnetizing effect of the armature reaction. . . EZ K I . The same relation for the regulated machine is given by (3. which is given by the imaginary part of (8.26) The real component in (8.26). This corresponds to the coefficient of the first power of s and is therefore a damping term.40) the change of the electrical torque with respect to the change in angle is given by _ K Te  9 .4.27). A t very low frequencies the synchronizing torque T. These components are given by (8.13) we compute the torque as a function of angular frequency to be TJ6 = K . This point is discussed in greater detail in [ I I]. In this case the regulator reduces the inherent system damping. is given by TsZZ Kl .6). At very low frequencies (8. From (3. and into an imaginary component that gives the damping torque Td. I n the regulated machine we may show the effect of the regulator on the electrical torque as follows. the electrical torque in pu is numerically equal to the threephase electrical power in pu.32) which is higher than the value obtained for the unregulated machine given by (8. Equation (3.13) gives the change in the electrical torque for the unregulated machine as a function of the angle 6.K2 K4 s + (]/re + K5K/K4Te) I t can be shown that the effect of the terms K 2 K 4 (1 + 7 .3 Chapter 8 Effect on the electrical torque The electrical torque for the linearized system under discussion was developed in Chapter 3. s ) in the numerator is very small compared to the term K 2 K S K . With use of the linear model.40). we write the expression for Tc/6as which at a frequency w can be separated into a real component that gives the synchronizing torque T.K2KJK4 (8.K 2 K s / K 6 (8.J w K 3 ~ i 0 ) 1 (8.26) is the synchronizing torque component. This latter quantity can be negative at some operating conditions (see Example 6.30) is approximately given by T. .[K2K3K4/(I+ w 2 K : ~ 2 ) ] ( .
15 Block diagram of a linearized excitation system model.54 except for the omission of the limiter and the saturation function S E .5 Rootlocus Analysis of a Regulated Machine Connected to an Infinite Bus We have used linear system analysis techniques to study the dynamic response of one regulated synchronous machine. The system to be studied is that of one machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line. a very simple model of the generator is used. In this figure the function G&) is the rate feedback signal.8. In Section 7. The excitation system model used here is similar to that in Figure 7. 8. In this section a more detailed representation of the exciter is adopted. Fig. a common condition for synchronous machines operated near rated load.17 (with the subscript A omitted for convenience).15.13). 8.16 Block diagram of the simplified linear model of a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus with damping added. In Section 8. while the exciter is represented in detail. is the stabilizing signal that can be derived from any convenient signal and processed through a power system stabilizer network to obtain the desired phase relations (see Section 8. The combined block diagram of the synchronous machine and the exciter is given in Figure 8. along with the simplified linear model of the synchronous machine that takes into account the field effects. it reduces the inherent system damping when K 5 is negative. Therefore.Effect of Excitation on Stability 327 I l c r r “1 Fig.7). a damping torque component . This model used for the synchronous machine is essentially that given in Figure 6.3 and is based on the linearized equations (8. To simulate the damping effect of the damper windings and other damping torques.10)(8.16.D w is added to the model as shown in Figure 8. This model is shown in Figure 8.4 the exciter model used is a very simple one. . 8. whereas the regulator improves the synchronizing forces in the machine at low frequencies of oscillation. The signal V .
17 Combined block diagram of a linear synchronous machine an .KR l + T S R Fig. 8.
17. This is done by standard techniques used in feedback control systems [22].5. KR = 1. and feedback loops to be studied are the regulator and the rate feedback GF(s).74 s. For a given operating point we can obtain the loci of roots of the open loop system and the frequency response to a sinusoidal input as well as the time response to a small step change in input. A number of computer programs are available that are capable of solving very complex linear systems and of displaying the results graphically in several convenient ways or in tabular forms [20.05. I n that figure the transfer function N ( s ) is given by N(s) = K3K6(2HS2 + DS + Kim) .8052 KS K6 = 0. 211.95.5257 Example 8. 3.4 Use a linear systems analysis program to determine the dynamic response of the system of Figure 8. The common takeoff point desired is the terminal voltage V .Effect of Excitation on Stability 329 KA ]1+T + A I ‘e) & % N(4 vt  I KR 1 + 7 s R  To study the effect of the different feedback loops.3072 K2 = 1.q K z K & f ~ + (8.7. we manipulate the block diagram so that all the feedback loops “originate” at the same takeoff point. 4. The system of Figure 8. Time response of VA to a step change in VREF. D = 2. . Bode diagram of the open loop transfer function. The machine = 0. constants are 2H = 4.9 s. Bode diagram of the closed loop transfer function. = 400. I8 is solved by linear system analysis techniques. are K. KE = 0. is omitted ( K . In the analysis given in this section. The constants K I through K6 in pu for the operating point to be analyzed are KI = : 1. 2. .18.mKzK3K5 (1 K ~ T A ~ s ) ( W S DS + Kim) . and 6 is analyzed for the loading condition of Example 6. The following graphical solutions are to be obtained for the above operating conditions: 1. using the digital computer.3174 K4 = 1. Rootlocus plot. The resulting block diagram is shown in Figure 8. The exciter data = 0. is usually very small at heavy load conditions).0294 = 0.33) Note that the expression for N ( s ) can be simplified if the damping D is neglected or if the term containing K.4479 KS = 0. the machine discussed in the examples of Chapters 4. The results of the linear computer analysis are best illustrated by some examples.18 with and without the rate feedback.0 and T~ = 0.0 pu and 7A0 = 5.
. .17: (a) without rate feedback.19 Root locus of the system of Figure 8. 8. (b) with rate feedback. Fig. (a) Fig. 8.20 Time response to a step change in V R E F : GF(s)= 0.21 Bode plots of the closed loop transfer function: (a) GF = 0 (b) GF z 0. Ib) GF(s)# 0. 8.Fig.
19724 + j0. and T~ = 1.j10.20.04. Compute these graphical displays for two conditions: (a) GI.4.0. The pair that causes instability is determined by the field Table 8.69170 .ooooo .1.22 Bode plots of the open loop transfer function: (a) GI.35020 + j10.04 . part (a) is for the result without the rate feedback and part (b) is with the rate feedback. Figures 8.20 show clearly that the system is unstable for this value of gain without the rate feedback.(S) = 0 (b) GAS) = sK.j10. with KF = 0.1. the system dynamic response is dominated by two pairs of complex roots near the imaginary axis.j0.35021 .72620 0.j10.17894 0.0.21097 + j10.69170 0.7. Condition RootLocus Poles and Zeros of Example 8. I7894 0.83244 0.22 for the different plots.27324 20.198.83244 .72620 .45130 0 21097 . I n each figure./(l + T#).j10.27324 0.45130 (b) K F = 0. Note the basic problem discussed in Example 7.40337 + j10. 8. With G&) = 0.35021 + j10.72620 .00000 0.19724 .40337 .35020 .4 Zeros Poles (a) K F = 0 0.72620 0. = 0 (b) G F + 0.198.Effect of Excitation on Stability 33 1 Fig.0 s Solution The results of the computer analysis are shown in Figures 8.I . .00000 .
72550 (instead of 0. (b) K S = 0.4479 x 377/4. The damping coefficient D primarily affects the roots caused by the torque angle loop at a frequency near the natural frequency w . = (1. The rate feedback modifies the rootlocus plot in such a way as to make the system stable even with high amplifier gains. (a) For the case of D = 0 it is found (from the computer output) that the poles and zeros affected are only those determined by the torque angle loop.5 Repeat part (b) of Example 8.238..2 18. The poles and zeros obtained from the computer results are given in Table 8.22. determined by the field circuit and exciter parameters.35021 i j10.332 Chapter 8 winding and exciter parameters. z K s / K ~ ) KK The computer output for K 5 = 0 is essentially the same as that of Example 8. The second pair of roots. . These roots occur near the natural frequency w. Example 8. (b) It has been shown that K 5 is numerically small. gives a somewhat lower fre Fig. A very significant point to note about the two pairs of complex roots that dominate the system dynamic response is the nature of the damping associated with them. Except for the situations where K 5 becomes negative.23 Root locus of the system of Example 8. w2n = ( w R / ~ H ) (.13910 + j10. The examples given i n this section substantiate the conclusions reached in Section 7.4 with (a) D Solution = 0 and (b) K 5 = 0. . The rootlocus plot and the time response to a step change in VREFfor the cases of D = 0 and K 5 = 0 are displayed in Figures 8. The effect of the pair caused by the torque angle loop is noticeable in the Bode plots of Figures 8.24.72620). These poles now become 0.5: (a) D = 0.4.74)'12 = 10.7 concerning the importance of the rate feedback for a stable operation at high values of gain. The net effect is to move the branch of the root locus determined by these poles and zeros to just slightly away from the imaginary axis. its main effect is to change 0 to the value .73 rad/s.4. 8.
(b) K S = 0. The feedback path through K4 provides a small positive damping component that is usually considered negligible [ 1 I].17 is such that 0) or near steady state (f a).6. 8.5: (a) D = 0. it can be neglected at low frequencies (s = j w We have already pointed out that K S is usually very small and is omitted in this approximate model.7).25 Approximate representation of the excitation system. These effects contribute the electrical torque components designated T. and T.Effect of Excitation o n Stability 333 for Fig..25 where the exciter and the generator have been approximated by simple firstorder lags [ 1 I]. This is an important consideration in the study of power system stabilizers. The resulting reduced system is composed of two subsystems: one representing the exciterfield effects and the other representing the inertial effects.6 Approximate System Representation I n the previous section it is shown that the dynamic system performance is dominated by two pairs of complex roots that are particularly significant at low frequencies. respectively.   8. 8. We recognize that the effect of the rate feedback G&) in Figure 8. Here we develop an approximate model for the excitation system that is valid for low frequencies. In this frequency range the system damping is inherently low.. and stabilizing signals are often needed to improve the system damping (Section 8. .1 Approximate excitation system representation The approximate system to be analyzed is shown in Figure 8. 8. quency and its damping is inherently poor. A straightforward analysis of this system gives 4 Gx 0)  Fig.24 Time response to a step change in VREF the system of Example 8.
the theoretical model based on the constants K I through K6 is not only load dependent but is also based on a one machineinfinite bus system. we must estimate the parameters of G.i at the generator terminal node i is known.334 Chapter 8 (8.. The resulting amplitude and phase (Bode) plot can be used to identify G. the gains and time constants may not be precisely known. First. The pro .36) We are particularly concerned about the system frequency of oscillation as compared to w .6.6. Second. A procedure based on deriving an equivalent infinite bus. is the undamped natural frequency and { is the damping ratio: .37) E. and the use of estimated values may give results that are suspect [IO. 2 5 ] .35). 12. = I / F i The equivalent infinite bus voltage vm calculated by is from the generator terminal voltage cedure is illustrated by an example. is given in Section 8. venin equivalent impedance as “seen” at the generator terminals. we assume that z. The function G. These constants can be used in (8. (8. 8. It should be emphasized that this procedure has some serious drawbacks.(s) must be determined either by calculation or by measurement on the physical system. The one machineinfinite bus system assumes that the generator under study is connected to an equivalent infinite bus of voltage Vm/cr through a transmission line of impedance z = Re + jX.(s). if the drivingpoint short circuit admittance E. requires that assumptions be made concerning the proximity of the machine under study with respect to the rest of the system.35) where W . This equivalent impedance is assumed to be the The. The damping f.2 Estimate of G.36) to calculate the approximate parameters for G.(s) is to monitor the terminal voltage while injecting a sinusoidal input signal at the voltage regulator summing junction [8. Lacking field test data. .(s) in (8. 2 4 . then. connected to the machine under study by a series impedance.2. (8. where & subtracting the drop &Ze is the generator current.(s) The purpose of this section is to develop an approximate method for estimating K Ithrough K6 that can be applied to any machine in the system.(s) by calculations derived from a given operating condition. A proven technique for measurement of the parameters of G. Therefore.241.. I 2 . 2 3 . is usually small and the system is poorly damped. The use of these constants.
634 12 = f 2 / .2450/77.)(X. = l/Fz2.025 /51.820 = 1.818 + 9. ~ ~ 2 1 4 2 = Xd21dz Eqoo = E20 = v42 5 2  = 1. can be obtained by using the approximate relation Z .8958 0. ) = 3. and the results might be expected to differ from those obtained by a more detailed simulation.789 P U From Table 2.1969 0.56) KI 1/K3 = = pu K3 = 1/[RZ (x.3177 + + = 2.029" Then we compute from (6.6 the drivingpoint admittance at the internal node of generator 2 is given by  Y2..592 /54.066)/1.420 .724 pu The terminal voltage node of generator 2 had been eliminated in the reduction process.592/2. ~ ~ .0550 + j0.818" 2 But from the load flow P2 = 9.8645 0.2388 = 0.jxi2.Effect of Excitation o n Stability 335 Example 8.X .156" = f 4 2 = + . ) ] = 1/0.749 PU 1. + X .4 We can establish the terminal conditions from the loadflow study of Figure 2. = 0.j Q z ) / h = (1. Note that the threemachine system is certainly not considered to have an infinite bus.0 X42 = H2 = 6.806 pu jZ.630 .156"and V2 = V2/& .P2 + &) = 1. through K6 for generator 2 of Example 2.272 .2 + J1.19: 1 2 k & = = 1.932 .5084 We can compute the infinite bus voltage .j2. ~ ( xV 2 f X 2= 1. = 620 51.290 pu Neglecting the armature resistance. = 0.j0.6 t a n ( ~ 5 ~P 2 ) = X . = 0.098" Then   P2 + d2 = 54.39925 1 + K . ) ( X .339" pu From Figure 5.1 198 Xq2 = xi2 = 0.6 the following data for the machine are known (in pu and s).~ / q~ ) 620 .818" = V.j1. = 0.1476 0. The exact reduction process gives z. Xd2 = = 0.0521 ~ i o 2= 6. Solution From Example 2.2 = (6. z.j0. ( X d . However.  + jV.( & 0 .6.280". using the equivalent infinite bus method outlined above. since it is connected to the internal node by xi2.6 Compute the constants K . X . r 0.280 = 61. + X.p = 51.025 1.
8 rad/s.o(x.280" . . and K2 should be divided by 1./a = v 2  0.012" K.siny (xi + X.0941 VmK.95 + 0.ag = tan' (0.I .5070 Summary: KJ = 0.318 x 6.35): 5.2226 = 0.0265 (K.0)/(2 x 5.(xd.(xq + XP)I .95) = 0.0443~ At the frequency of interest ( w = 8.~qo[ReCOSy .95 s.)siny .0 x 0.93) = 5.592 /6.132 and the excitation system is poorly damped. = 0.4750 K.36) we have w.9706 . The constants K.029")( I . This is not valid for low frequencies.x.967 x 0. This point is a source of some confusion in the literature.8 rad/s) we have d( jwosc) = . = 400 and r . At any frequency the characteristic equation of G.R.967 rad/s (0.)cosy] + I.027 K6 = 0. From Example 3.094 2 K4 = 2.318 x 6.9958 I.12.(s).3898 $.ZJ. I76 I ) = I6 1.I . For the system natural frequency (see Example 3.02519.E.661 .x q VdO[(x. = d(0.507 x 400)/(6.Vm(Eqao[R. erroneously.cosy] = 2.507 Note that these constants are in pu on 100MVA base whereas the machine is a 192MVA generator.[RZ + (x.. + X. + 2.Vm/V. (Here again we emphasize the need for actual measurement of the system parameters.O)Ix.cosyll K6 = (V. Lacking such measurement.. = = = .064 K1 = 2.o)K..0 x 0.4) calculate the excitation control system phase lag.o + I.)']l = 3. 1.O/KO)[I K. = = Kz = K4 = KS = .914) = 74.(0.)[(x.x.3898/. It is sometimes assumed.941") V.(VO/V.xqRe = 0. a judgment is made as to which parameters should be used.(xq + Xe)sinyI .CY = 61. Compute the parameters of G.318 KS = 0. that the regulator time constant is to be used when the excitation system is represented by one time constant.j0.(12. Example 8.)cosy + R.0.. = d( jw) = I .x.475 K = 3.914" The angle required in the computations to follow is y = 620 K.(s) is obtained by substituting s = j w in the denominator of the first expression in (8. I761 + j0.{R.0640 + X.Next Page 336 Chapter 8  v.4 Hz or w.R.4 the dominant frequency of oscillation is approximately 1.)siny .098 . We use the regulator gain and the exciter time constant.92 to convert to the machine base. z 8.7 The exciter for generator 2 of the threemachine system has the constants K.2450 /77.siny]l = 0.) Solution From (8. + X. It is judged that the latter is important at the low frequencies of interest.028 Iw2 + j0.)[(x. + X.
02 0.8/5. Many textbooks on control systems. give curves ofphase shift as a function of normalized frequency.7).. For the case where damping is present. such as [22]. 8.17. I 1 I I 3 6 I 1 0 I 30 I 60 !OO I U (b) Fig. u = w/w.967 = 1. For small damping the phase changes very fast in the neighborhood of w. The phase lag is large because oorc w.03 0. and phase compensa> tion is likely to be required (see Section 8.040.01 I 0. . .3 The inertial transfer function The inertial transfer function can be obtained by inspection from Figure 8.47 and 5 = 0. 8.l5 o 120 135 150 165 180 0.26(b) that the phase lag is great. (where ding = 90").26 Characteristics of a secondorder transfer function: (a) amplitude.060. (a) 0 4 06 . as shown in Figure 8.Bo ' 4 > f Q " 18 2 3 4 5 00 . U 02 .26.06 01 .Previous Page Effect of Excitation o n Stability 337 12 6 c = domping ratio .13.1 I I I 03 . 1 ' 0 1 5 ' 30 45 60 s 75 f = damping ratio j 90 . and rx is small. (b) phase shift. The excitation system phase lag in Example 8. In the above example. with u = 8..1 0. it is apparent from Figure 8.7 is rather large. I 06 .6.
3 that under heavy loading conditions K 5 can be negative. Solurion From the data of Examples 2. = 0. Example 8.0 .s+ u.4. the undamped natural frequency. in the excitation system shown in Figure 7. These are called “supplementary stabilizing signals” and the networks used to generate these signals have come to be known as “power system stabilizer” (PSS) networks.538 rad/s {. We have also shown in Section 8. For any generator in the system the behavior .3” 8. tan’ [0. artificial means of producing torques in phase with the speed are introduced.27. d ( j w ) = 1 . To offset this effect and to improve the system damping in general. is the damping factor. = + 0.. is processed through a suitable network to obtain the desired phase relationship.0222 . the signal usually obtained from speed or a related signal such as the frequency.7 Supplementary Stabilizing Signals Equation (8.39) The damping of the inertial system is usually very low.2 H 2H + ~J. 8.0604)] = 163. These are the situations in which dynamic stability is of concern. We noted in Section 8.8 Compute the characteristic equation.009 8. I/KIwR/ZH D/4Hwn = D / 2 d 2 H K I w R (8.894 = = 8.31 ) indicates that the voltage regulator introduces a damping torque component proportional to K 5 .975 x 377)”2] . 0 1 3 7 ~ ~J 0 . {.7.156s + 72.8 rad/s.= re2 Chapter 8 6 s2 + = = wR/2H = D K ~ w R s2 s + .6 and 8..338 . .38) Where onis the natural frequency of the rotating mass and 5.0183/(0.. 8 x 2.0..w.54 the stabilizing signal is indicated as the signal K .6. T o illustrate. Stabilizing signals are introduced in excitation systems at the summing junction where the reference voltage and the signal produced from the terminal voltage are added to obtain the error signal fed to the regulatorexciter system. 0 0 2 1 4 ~ + At the system frequency of oscillation w = = w. O. Such an arrangement is shown schematically in Figure 8. Thus it can often be assumed that the voltage regulator introduces negative damping. = 2 / [ 2 ( 1 2 ...2 that the excitation system introduces a large phase lag at low system frequencies just above the natural frequency of the excitation system. For example.6 we compute d ( s ) = s2 w.1 Block diagram of the linear system We have previously established the rationale for using linear systems analysis for the study of lowfrequency oscillations.6).‘ wR/2H (8. Use D = 2 pu. and the damping factor of the inertial system of generator 2 (Example 2.
7. with typical values of 4 s [ I I] to 20 or 30 s [ 121.29. Examining Figure 8.27 Schematic diagram of a stabilizing signal from speed deviation. This block diagram is shown in Figure 8. The parameters rx.6 for an approximate method to determine these constants) but may be considered constant for small deviations about the operating point. from the linear block diagram of that generator.2 Approximate model of the complete excitergenerator system Having established the complete forward transfer function of the excitation control system and inertia.40) is a reset term that is used to “wash out” the compensation effect after a time lag 7 0 . through K 6 are load dependent (see Section 8. 8. gains. w. We therefore take advantage of the simplified representation developed in Section 8. we may now sketch the complete block diagram as in Figure 8. The PSS is shown here as a feedback element from the shaft speed and is often given in the form [ I I ] (8. the power system stabilizer must compensate for much of the inherent forward loop phase lag. The second term in G. can be conveniently characterized and the unit performance determined. We also note that the output in Figure 8.39) respectively. The use of reset control will assure no permanent offset in the terminal voltage due to a prolonged error in frequency. such as might occur in an overload or islanding condition. This is difficult to show quantitatively in the complete system because of its complexity.0pu.29 we can see that to damp speed oscillations.28 due to the cascading of several phase lags in the forward loop. 8. we can recognize the existence of a potential control problem in the system of Figure 8. The damping constant D is usually in the range of 1.6 and the results obtained in that section.Effect of Excitation on Stability 339 Fig. at the power system frequency of oscillation. We note that a common takeoff point is used for the feedback loop. requiring a slight modification of the inertial transfer function using standard block diagram manipulation techniques.40) The first term in (8.36) and (8. Qualitatively.03. cn..(s) is a lead compensation pair that can be used to improve the phase lag through the system from VREF to u. are defined in (8.28. and w. The system time constants.29 is the negative of the speed deviation. The constants K . and inertia constants are obtained from the equipment manufacturers or by measurement. Thus the PSS network must provide lead compensation. In terms of a Bode or frequency analysis (see [22]. . for example) the system is likely to have inadequate phase margin.
L ”1 r 1 1 Fig. 8.28 Block diagram of a linear generator with an exciter and power syste .
30 Lead network: (a) passive network.Effect of Excitation on Stability Kz K/ Ten Pt2C x x u s t o = x  Kd r=t2fwrto= n n n w 341 AU Fig.3 I [26]..“ I: .7. < K z R C z = lag time constant R C .30(a). For this circuit we compute E= O I (1 E. 8.29 Block diagram of a simplified model of the complete system. + 7 ~ S ) [ 1+ ( T c + T D ) S ] + (?A + TB)S (8.41) The transfer function has the pole zero confguration of Figure 8.43) wherea = K l C I / K 2 C 2 1. . UL T GSk) 8.42) where T. Ei (0) (b) Fig. For this simple network the magnitude of the parameter a is usually limited to about 5 . then ( 1 t TAS)/(I + TCS) = (I + U T S ) / ( ~+ T S ) (8. = T~ T~ = = = = T~ Kl Kz = K I R C I = lead timeconstant R IC I = noise filter time constant < T. Another lead network not so restricted in the parameter range is that shown in Figure 8.3 Lead compensation One method o providing phase lead is with the passive circuit of Figure 8. the transfer function of this circuit is .= Ei (i/a)(i + aTSj 1 + 7s where (8..30(b). > . (b) pole zero configuration. 8. = stabilizing circuit time constant < rC < RB/(RA + RB) RD/(Rc + R D ) Eo/Ej = Approximately. f I f loaded into a high impedance. where the zero lies inside the pole to provide phase lead.
46) Therefore.o(l/T4i) Then w.32. visualizing a right triangle with base 2 f i .31 Active lead network. = I / T f i (8. 8.. i. 8. where the . I I I db I I I I/. ~ ) ]= = .46) in (8.e. asymptotic approximation is illustrated [22].45) tan+. (a .W.T(U (8.o(l/aT*) = log.1) and hypotenuse 6 . u ~ ) ( w .a7 . .a ~ . using (8.44) The magnitude of the maximum phase lead 4 is computed from .48) Now. = arg[(l + jw.32 Bode diagram for the lead network ( I + UTS)/( I + TS) where a > I . = (w.47) This expression can be simplified by using (8. 6 .44) to compute tan#.T tan (x .~’) (8.T)/[I + ( w . where w. The maximum phase lead 4 occurs at the median frequency w.y ) = = x A  y (8..342 Chapter 8 R Fig.1 ) / 2 f i (8. Fig. height (a . Ioglowm = (1/2)[loglo(l/a7) + Io ~ I o ( I /T ) I = (1/2)log.tanlw. ~ ) ] = tan lw.uT)/(l + j w .45) From trigonometric identities (tan x  tan y ) / ( I + tan x tan y ) W. occurs at the geometric mean of the corner frequencies.1)/(1 + aw. For any lead network the Bode diagram is that shown in Figure 8.
..T..1 < KO < 100. The procedure then is to determine the desired phase lead qjm. The natural frequency of oscillation of the system is w.50) = 161.037 UT = 0.3488 Thus G. = which is a reasonable ratio to achieve physically.8" = a = (1 + sin 80. Example 8. This fixes the parameter a from (8. Thus = I/w.Effect of Excitation on Stability 343 wecompute bZ = (a .349~)/(1+ 0.44) T 8. determines the time constant T from (8. and is usually field adjusted for good response. S o h ion Assume two cascaded lead stages.44).50) These last two expressions give the desired constraint between maximum phase lead and the parameter a.sin 80. and it would probably be preferable to design the compensator with three lead stages such that 4.9) = 9. The gain KO is usually modest [26]. It is also common to limit the output of the stabilizer. Prepare a table showing the phase lead and the compensator parameters as a function of a. Solurion As before. Then the phase lead per stage is $ .(s) = [K~T~s/(I + T O ~ ) l [ (+ a T s ) / ( ' l + i = T s ) ~ (8.8 rad/s. In many practical cases the phase lead required is greater than that obtainable from a single lead network.7. as shown in Figure 8. Knowing both a and the frequency w..49) This expression can be solved for a to compute a = (I + sin&)/(l .8) 154. Thus we often write (8. EJcample 8.. .10 Assume a twostage leadcompensated stabilizer. we assume that w..sin&) (8.9)/( I  sin 53.28.8 rad/s.I From (8. so that the stabilizer output will never dominate the terminal voltage feedback.G= 0.I)/@ + I) (8.. from (8...42 = w..50).037~)]' A suitable value for the reset time constant is r0 = IO s.51) where n is the number of lead stages (usually n 2 or 3).(s) = [K.9'. I n this case two or more cascaded lead stages are used. = 8.6"computed in Example 8.48 This is a very large ratio.. say 0.I)* + 4a = (a + = I)*or sin& (a . Then a = (I + sin 53. = 53.8)/( I .9 Compute the parameters of the power system stabilizer required to exactly compensate for the excitation control system lag of 161.6/2 = 80.40) as G.s/(~ + TOS)][(~ + 0.
32 and Problem 8.90 61. In this section the system of Figure 8. 8. The results of the linear computer analysis are best illustrated by an example. 3.08 39.0359 0. 8. (b) with the PSS having two lead stages with a = 25.0508 0. l / U r n 6 WHi = 117 a7 WLO = ]/a7 5 10 15 20 25 41.83 34.5082 0.81 54.8 .35 44.33 Root locus of the generator 2 system: (a) no PSS.0227 19.760 These results show that for a large a or large 4. See Figure 8. Example 8.3593 0.935 2.38 83.783 2.76 0.6 4 Rea I 2 7 Rea I (a 1 (b) Fig.5.28 is solved by linear system analysis techniques using the digital computer (see Section 8.5).0254 0. a Lead Compensator Parameters as a Function of a ?'= 9m 29 . Furthermore.80 122. 2.58 134..4401 0.344 Chapter 8 Table 8. .68 27.10 129.0293 0.00 0.5682 3. compute these graphical displays for two conditions.79 67.8 linear Analysis of the Stabilized Generator I n previous sections certain simplifying assumptions were made in order to give an approximate analysis of the stabilized generator. the corner frequencies wHi and wLo must be spread farther apart than for small 6.254 1 0.62 109.1 1.968 I . 4.272 I .05 64. I I Use a linear systems analysis program to determine the following graphical solutions for the system of Figure 8. (a) no power system stabilizer and (b) a twostage lead stabilizer with a = 25: 0 . Rootlocus plot Time response of wA to a step change in VREF Bode diagram of the closed loop transfer function Bode diagram of the open loop transfer function.28: 1.
28 except that the PSS limiter cannot be represented in a linear analysis program and is therefore ignored. thereby increasing the damping. (b) with the PSS having two lead stages with a = 25. In the rootlocus plot (Figure 8. 8. The results are shown in Figures 8. (b) with the PSS having two lead stages with : a = 25. The root locus shows clearly the effect of lead compensation and has been used as a basis for PSS parameter identification [27].34 Time response to a step change in V R E F(a) no PSS.Effect of Excitation on Stability i 345 I Fig. Solution The system to be solved is that of Figure 8.33) the major effect of the PSS is to separate the torqueangle zeros from the poles.7 and 8. 8. part (a) is the result without the PSS and part (b) is with the PSS. forcing the locus to loop to the left and downward. Note that \ 6) Fig.8.35 Frequency response (Bode diagram) of the closed loop transfer function: (a) no PSS.338. In each figure.0227~)]* The system constants are the same as Examples 8. G ~ ( s = [ IOS/( I ) + IOS)] [( I + 0 .36 for the four different plots. 5 6 8 S ) / ( I + 0. .
6. the locus near the origin is unaffected by the PSS.102 + jO.941 .3.452 . Condition Poles Zeros No PSS WithPSSa = 25 20.500 + jO.010 + jO.955 0. 8.533 0.1.36 Frequency response (Bode diagram) of the open loop transfer function: (a) no PSS..955 .000 + jO.346 Chapter 8 la) (b) Fig.000 0.j8.j8. From this table we note that the natural radian frequency of oscillation is controlled by the torqueangle poles with a frequency of 8. This agrees closely with w.467 0.289 . in Figure 3.j24.j7.289 .OOO + jO.34 shows the substantial improvement in damping introduced by the PSS network.452 + j8.467 rad/s.439 0.000 0. Table 8 6 RootLocus Poles and Zeros .959 0.500 .179 + jO.955 0.jO. (b) with the PSS having two lead stages with u = 25.j0.000 + j24.944 + j0.000 45. From the computer we also obtain the tabulation of poles and zeros given in Table 8.955 + j7.000 + jO. = 8.000 0.467 0.847 45.289 + j8.959 0. Note the slightly decreased frequency of oscillation in the stabilized response.538 rad/s computed in Example 8..000 + jO.941 + j0.8 using the approximate model and also checks well with the frequency of b.000 45.439 45.33(a)].000 20.000 0. Figure 8.533 .289 + j8. but the locus breaking away vertically from the negative real axis moves closer to the origin as compensation is added [this locus is off scale in 8.I79 + jO.533 0.j8..1 .000 0.000 0.100 + jO.000 0.000 0.944 .533 .j0.847 .000 0.000 .100 + jO.
This system is added to the machine simulation given in Figure 5.38.5 u VRmin = 3. . The analog computer representation of the excitation system is shown in Figure 8.. The uncompensated system has a very sharp drop in phase very near the frequency of oscillation. and the terminal marked u. .39 respectively.. The parameters for these exciters are given in Table 1. I8 connects with switch 4 2 1 in Figure 8.1) are used in this study: W TRA. comparative studies of the effectiveness of the various schemes of compensation can be conveniently made.7. I .5pu = 3. . 9 for the three excitation systems described in Table 7.. .36 show the frequency response of the closed loop and open loop transfer functions respectively. and W Low T & Brushless.Effect of Excitation on Stability 347 Figures 8.35 and 8.37... 8. V R m a x= 3.9. 8. . .37.. .69 and 8.8 and 8 .9 Analog Computer Studies The analog computer offers a valuable tool to arrive a t an optimum setting of the adjustable parameters of the excitation system..18. Example 5. The synchronous machine used is the same as in the examples of Chapter 4 with the loading condition of Example 5... Table 8. The new "free" inputs to the combined diagram are VREF and T. the response due to a increase in T. .9.. Three IEEE Type I exciters (see Section 7.. Saturation is represented by an analog limiter on VR in this simulation. ..18... . Potentiometer Calculations for a Type 1 Representation of a W TRA Exciter ( a = 20) 0. 8.1 are shown in Figure 8.1 Effect of the rate feedback loop in Type 1 exciter As a case study.8. in Figure 5 .5L' . in Figure 5. .. . The results with W Brushless and W Low T~ Brushless exciters are shown in Figures 7.. this can be done using the complete nonlinear model of the synchronous machine. IO00 lim 800 . thus improving gain and phase margins.4994 0. .. Furthermore. Note that the output of amplifier 614 (Figure 8. Lead compensation improves the phase substantially in this region. The potentiometer settings for the analog computer units are given in Tables 8. With a variety of compensating schemes available to the designer and with each having many adjustable components and parameters.37) connects to the terminal marked E. 800 . W Brushless...5 pu = 3.7.and 5% change in VREFand the phase plane plot of wA versus aA for the initial loading condition of Example 5.8O00 0.8.. With the generator equipped with a W TRA exciter..8 is extended to include the effect of the excitation system.
37 Analog computer representation of a Type I excitation syste .Fig. 8.
out potentiometer Calculations for a Type I Representation of a W Brushless Exciter ( a = 20) Int..50 C = constant cap.5033 0. and 8.0 0. set.00 0.02 1.00 VR EFD I 10 IO K A / a r A= 400/(20)(0. At the same time.1 0.OfP6Ol I + 2.5000 0.6671400 = = 1..0625 I/TF= 1/1. . From Figures 8. v.1000 0.5773 0.5 I I 100 0.50 0.25 0.. and 8.5033 0.0 KF/+F = 0. a 10% increase in the reference torque is made. in a given transient.00 10. The dynamic response comparison is based on observing the rise time.8) = 0.5 = 0.96 U ~ ~ ~ = 6.1 0. R ' 50 I 0.96 PU = 6.03/1. 100 EFD V.02) = 2. and the change in electrical power output PeA is observed.08 I / u 7 1/20 = 0. .1000 0. the response is more oscillatory. we note that without the exciter the slow transient is dominated by the field winding effective time constant.3333 0.10 . 40 2. .00 1. Amp.015) 3.4000 I 1 0. 7. . .2000 0.0 2. .. v.2500 0.0 I / u = 1/20 = 0.. The machine data and loading are essentially those given in the Examples 8. .72 I 7 . .38.20. Pot. I I 1.00 I / a r A = I/(20)(0. 0. 803 v.38.6250 0.3333 0. 600 601 800 701 601 601 800 800 801 801 50 50 I REF REF 100 100 0..7217 Comparing the responses shown in Figures 8. I no.4 and 8. 0.. V.02) 1000 X00 VR EFD EFD V.00 KE/arE 1/(20)(0. The terminal voltage.25 0.. and percent overshoot of either PeA or V. I out VREF VREF VR constant 1. .8. . .50 5".50 0... 0 1 P60 I I + 2. 8. .00 10.0 2.333 = 3. (L~'Li)C no. IO 50 I/sF= 1/0. 601 601 800 701 800 L~ 50 I I IO In REF L~ 100 L ~ / L ~ 0. V. Potentiometer Calculations for a Type 1 Representation of a w Low 7 E Brushless Exciter ( a = 20) C' = I I Amp.1000 0.50 5.Effect of Excitation on Stability 349 Table 8.39 we can see that the steadystate conditions are reached sooner with the exciter present. . vR VR EFD 0. v. . ..1500 .15 0.. settling time. the field flux linkage.02) = 2..0066 0. . 7. 50 50 V.2000 0..50 5.E ~ D 1. by comparing the dynamic response due to changes in the mechanical torque T.7217 0.5 I / a r E = 1/(20)(0.. no.03 .5033 20.667/400 = I v.0 EFD V.6250 0.9. KF/rF= 0.0252 0.5. 1.0625 0.. set. vv V.00 1. . .69.8) = 0. .02 KA/arA= 400/(20)(0. VREF vREF VR so REF io0 50 5'!.05 I / Y 3 = 0. gain I I 100 Pot. .2500 0.0066 Pot. . .1 IO IO0 801 VR EFD I IO 1/(20)(0.0 = 1.015) 33. . . .5 = 2.96 . For example. Table 8.96 PU = 6.2 Effectiveness of compensation A detailed study of the effectiveness of four methods of compensation is given in (281. and the rotor angle are slow in reaching their new steadystate values. Amp.5773 V VRmin 100 50 40 2.V.0625 KE/arE= 1/(20)(0. and the reference excitation voltage VREF at various machine loadings.0625 0.00 1.69. R = 6.05 l / V T = 0.1 1.. . .0252 0.3333 802 802 810 803 800 v.00 0.5 \/(IT€ = I ::EI ::: I 20.50 0.9..39 with that of Figure 5. ..3333 = = 703 802 810 812 803 lim 800 .0252 0.0 = IO I I I I I I 801 801 IO 50 50 100 50 IO 100 10 50 802 802 810 V.5 0.7217 LJ .0 1.02) = 1000 I / a s A = I/(20)(0.04/0.
and V R ~ ~ . 8. .h E Fig. generator equipped with U m C .38 System response to a step change in 7.
.. 8.Fig..39 System response t o a step change in T. and VRE. generator equipped with a .
Other valuable information that can be obtained from analog computer studies is the response of the machine to oscillations originating in the system to which the machine is connected.0 0.06 0. Table 8. This can be simulated on the analog representation of one machine connected to an infinite bus by modulating the infinite bus voltage with a signal of the desired frequency.) w.05 0.0 SE27Smin K.42 10.20 0. s + w.015 s KF = 0.2 I 0.with other frequencies superimposed upon them.352 Chapter 8 However.20.2 I 86.28 0.60 4.2 s r2 = 0.56 0. The data of the exciter are: KA 7E = TA = 400 PU 0.10.0 pu at 0. When growing oscillations occur in large interconnected systems.3).86 = 7p = 7R = K R = = 0.0 5 .0 = 0.9. Thus it is important to know the dynamic response of the synchronous machine under these conditions. = = 21 rad/s 2 r = 0.02 s 0.26 = EFDmax = 4. Case Rise time Comparison of Compensation Schemes Settling time Overshoot ”/.2 I 0.6 80.26 = VRmin= 8.04 0. 1.50 VRmax 8. Rise time Settling time Overshoot ”/.04 SEmax 0.98 0.0 s 7. the frequencies of these oscillations are usually on the order of 0.6 0.0 60.3 Hz.37 0. = 0.0 0.4 82.05 s A sample of data given in reference [28] is shown in Table 8.10 for the initial operating condition of Tm0 = 3.05 73. This is particularly valuable in studies to improve the system damping.85 PF lagging. The excitation system used is Type 2. .O 100.0 33.0 1.45 The methods of compensation used are: 7Fs) Rate feedback: sKF/(1 BridgeT filter with transfer function: + C/R n = (s2 + m w .05 s 0.06 0. a rotating rectifier system (see Section 7.1 Power system stabilizer: C 7 = 3. Uncompensated Excitation rate feedback BridgedT only BridgedT.20 0.)/(s2 + nons + u.22 0.22 0. the machine is fully represented on the analog computer. twostage leadlag and speed Power system stabilizer 0.23 0.23 510 Source: Schroder and Anderson (281.
1 0 Digital Computer Transient Stability Studies To illustrate the effect of the excitation system on transient stability. The impedance diagram of the system (to 100MVA base) and the prefault conditions are shown in Figures 2. and C are represented by . is shown here. The generator data are given in Table 2. has its bus voltage modulated by a frequency of onetenth the natural frequency. At time A the modulating signal of 2. 8. The modulating signal varies the infinite bus voltage between 1. A sample of this type of study.40 Synchronous machine with PSS operating against an infinite bus whose voltage is being modulated at onetenth the natural frequency of the machine.40 shows the effect of the PSS under these conditions. At point D the modulation is removed. taken from [28]. B. The transient is initiated by a threephase fault near bus 7 and is cleared by opening the line between bus 5 and bus 7. In this study the loads A . The same machine discussed above.98 peak.02 and 0..1 rad/s is added. which would simulate tieline oscillations. causing growing oscillations to build up especially on P.19 respectively. but operating under the heavy loading condition of Example 5.10.18 and 2. When the stabilizer is reinstated at point C . Note also that the frequency of these oscillations is near the natural frequency of the machine. 8.. Figure 8. transient stability studies are made on the ninebus system used in Section 2. The PSS is removed at B.1.Effect of Excitation o n Stability 353 Fig. the oscillations are quickly damped out.1.
Jdf 7  1 constant impedances..0805 25 .044 0. the model used for the synchronous machine is the socalled "oneaxis model" (see Section 4.. 0 Note: See Figure 8.05 0.62 1. .2 . .o 1.4) with provision for representing saturation. constant voltage behind transient reactance. 3. with modifications to include the required new features.02 1 .50 0... I .o ... generators I and 3 are represented by classical models..41 for BBC exciter parameters.1.35 0.20 0.11.15 0. ..04 I .78 0. For generator 2..555 .19 2.05 0. A modified transient stability program was used in this study. Le..95 0.00I6 I ...o 0.o 120 1 .465 1 .o 0 0.17 0.. Excitation Systems Data Parameter Amplidyne MagAStat SCPT 0.o 400 0. When the machine EMF E (corresponding to the field current) is calculated.0 I .2 2.60 1.. provision is made for the excitation system representation.06 0.) When the excitation system is represented in detail. (It is based on a program developed by the Philadelphia Electric Co. .354 Chapter 8 (1 + TA1)(l t ?$) (1 t O  K..5 .0039 0..15..5 3.. . Kz 7 A I)(1 t K? Kzo T I ) + + F e . 1. an additional value EA is added due to saturation Table 8.
10. but for different fault durations.141)]. 2. and BEare provided for several exciters [see (4.3 Time.5 RR 80 P  MagAStat BBC exciter 2 .0 pu response. The breaker clearing times used were three cycles and six cycles. IEEE Type 1.0 pu response (see Figure 7. Classical model. I I 0. 8. The types of field representation used with generator 2 are: 1. IEEE Type I . 2.3 v d w B d 90 // 1   BBC exciter constant E Type 1 . Brown Boveri Company (BBC) alternator diode exciter (see Figure 8. 8.0.8)] (8.0. 4. 5. 2. This is given by EA = A.1 I 0.100t .Effect of Excitation on Stability 355 l 120.428. 0 RR Classical model  I 0 I 0.1 Effect of fault duration Two sets of runs were made for the same fault location and removal.0.478.66). amplidyne NAlOl exciter (see Figure 7. 3 O C 110 . SCPT fast exciter.5 pu response. For a threecycle fault.U al f . IEEE Type 3.61). the results of generator 2 data are shown in Figures 8. 3. .(El .52) The constants A.4 I 0.5 Fig. Similar results for a sixcycle fault are shown in Figures 8. MagAStat exciter (see Figure 7.41). effect and based on the voltage behind the leakage reactance E l .61).1 1.50.2 821 0.46.exp[B. The excitation system data are given in Table 8.42 for various exciters with a threecycle fault.
2. since the magnitude of the first swing is on the order of 60". and E. Again it can be seen that the different models give essentially the same power swing for this generator.8 = 2z <_ .6 Fig. however.46 seem to indicate that for this fault the system is well below the stability limit. a large swing was obtained. is plotted for a period of 2.0 0.0. while all the others give the position of the 9 axis.4 / / I 0 1 0. 0 response..2 Chapter 8 1.3 Time. and a relatively fast exciter with 2 . is hardly affected by the value of E.5RR Type1 / I >* 0. We conclude from the results shown in Figure 8. The effect of the armature reaction is dominant in this period. 8.. All generator . From Figure 8. Figure 8.E$ 2 0..0 s for the classical ~ ~ model.6ium 0 0 . for most of the duration of the first swing after the fault is cleared./ e . A run with constant E F D is also added.5 0.45 shows a time plot of P2 for this transient.356 1. that the minimum swing is obtained with the slow exciter while the maximum swing is obtained with the classical model.43 V.42 shows a plot of the first swing of the angle d.46 the rotor angle d2..BBC exciter . however. Figure 8.. Figures 8.2 I 0. When the exciter model was adjusted to give constant E F D .1 I 0. for the first swing as the different exciter representations.43 we conclude that the slow exciter gives the nearest simulation of a constant flux linkage in the main field winding (and hence constant E. Note that the classical run gives the angle of the voltage behind transient reactance. with the subsequent swings slightly reduced in magnitude.0 RR MagAStat _. as seen by the EMF E. We note. for various exciters with a threecycle fault. The action of the exciter and the armature reaction effects are clearly displayed in Figure 8.428. I I 0. It is interesting to note that the actual field current. Results with threecycle fault clearing.44.42 that for a threecycle clearing time the classical model gives approximately the same magnitude of a.) and minimum variation of the terminal voltage after fault clearing. for different field representations. In Figure 8. a slow IEEE Type 1 exciter.4 I 0. The plot shows that the first swing is the largest.
4 I 0.46 and 8. is shown in Figure 8.Effect of Excitation on Stability 357 4 3 Q Y W a n Lu B 2 1.0pu response exciter is pronounced after the first swing. For the case of a sixcycle clearing time. Comparing Figures 8. The effect of the power system stabilizer on the response is hardly noticeable until the second swing. and the system is perhaps close to the transient stability limit. The magnitude of the first swing for the cases where the excitation system is represented in detail is significantly larger than for the case of the classical representation. The swing curves indicate that this is a much more severe fault than the previous one. The Type 1 exciter gives the highest swing. Results with sixcycle fault clearing.5 0 .47.47 for the classical model and for two different types of exciter models. I 0. we note that for this severe fault the rotor oscillation of generator 2 depends a great deal on the type of excitation system used on the generator. the plot of the angle d2.2 Time.3 1 0. 2 models give approximately the same magnitude of rotor angle and power swing and period of oscillation. We also note that the classical model does not accurately represent the generator response for this case. I I 0. . 8. Here the swing curves for the generator with different field representations are quite different in both the magnitude of swings and periods of oscillation.44 EFD and E for various exciters with a threecycle fault.1 I 0. The effect of the 2. Fig.
0.1 02 .5 Fig.46 Rotor angle 621 for various exciters with a threecycle fault. Fig. I 03 . Time. .0 RR MagASa t Type 1 0. 8.5 RR  \  t B im 80 0 0.4 0.358 Chapter 8 C h i c a l model BBC exciter 2.45 Output power P2 for various exciters with a threecycle fault. 8.
We also note that the excitation system introduces additional frequencies of oscillation. This effect is not noticed in the classical model. which appear in the V. respocse. The generator acceleration will thus decrease.0 pu exciter.8 2. While the general shape of these curves is the same.6 1.8 lime. .50 show plots of the various voltages and EMF’S of generator 2 for the case of the 2.4 06 .4 I 1. Figures 8. some significant differences are noted. The first swing after the fault seems to be dominated by the inertial swing of the rotor. the swings in V.49 and 8. follow the changes in the field voltage EFDwith a slight time lag.48 for different exciter representations. The faster recovery occurs with the 2.0pu exciter and the Type 1 exciter respectively. The excitation system increases the output power of the generator after the first swing.0 Fig. Again the recovery of the terminal voltage is faster with the 2. 0.2 0. Thus after the first voltage dip. The output power of generator 2 is shown in Figure 8.2 I 1. with the action of the exciter dominating the subsequent swings in y .47 Rotor angle 621 for various exciters with a sixcycle fault. For the Type 1 exciter E. the flux linkage in the main field winding (reflected in the value of E:) drops only slightly (by about 5%). and for the duration of the first swing it is fairly constant. 1 s and stays fairly constant thereafter. 8.0 I 1. and E. It would appear that for slightly more severe faults the classical model may predict different results concerning stability than those predicted using the detailed representation of the exciter. recovers slowly and continues to increase steadily.Effect of Excitation on Stability 359 I 0 I I 1 I 0.0 pu exciter than with the Type 1 exciter. are somewhat complex. The oscillations of terminal voltage V. I I 1. causing the rotor swing to decrease appreciably. reaches a plateau at about I . The curves for E: show that although the fault is near the generator terminal.
and the armature reaction. for a more severe fault or for studies involving long transient periods.360 Chapter 8 The plots of E clearly show the effect of the armature reaction.2 Effect of the power system stabilizer For large disturbances the assumption of linear analysis is not valid. the changes in E . The component of E due to the armature reaction seems to be dominant because the field circuit time constant is long. From the data presented in this study we conclude that for a less severe fault or for fast fault clearing. the PSS is helpful in damping oscillations caused by large disturbances and can be effective in restoring normal steadystate conditions. is due to the effects of both E . In the first 0.10.7s. are reflected only in a minor way in the total internal EMF E. The general shape of the EMF plot. the excitation representation is not critical in predicting the system dynamic responses. however. However. 8. However. it is important to represent the excitation system accurately to obtain the correct system dynamic response. for example. Since the initial rotor swing is largely an .
Fig. Y b W I a e m u 1.10 P 10 . 2 1.0   : a Llw 0. 8. 4 3 Y B Y 2 a e  s.50 Voltages of generator 2 with Type I 0.w e 0.7 .9 i P 3.49 Voltages of generator 2 with BBC exciter. >i.8 . I Fig.10 $ 2.5 R R exciter. 3. 8. .8 I Time. 0. 1.I.9 d P 0.Effect of Excitation on Stability 361 4.
1 Fig.0167 s ( 1 cycle) and cleared by opening line 57 0 0.362 Chapter 8 I5 2 I Ii 0 I I!II I I I I 0.75 1 .25 15 .5 20 .25 I 05 . 8. To illustrate the effect of the PSS. however.0 I 1. the stabilizer has little effect on this first swing. inertial response to the accelerating torque in the rotor. some transient stability runs are made for a threephase fault near bus 7 applied at t = 0.5 1 .oo Time.0 17 .0 07 .25 05 .75 I 2 . = Fig.0 I 0.5 15 . 8. s I I 1. On subsequent oscillations. I 12 . PSS with a = 25. the effect of the stabilizer is quite pronounced.52 Exciter voltage EFD with and without a PSS. wOEC 8.9 rad/s.oo Time. .51 Torque angle 621 for a threephase Fault near generator 2.
6. Stability runs were made with and without the PSS.10s (6 cycles). both in the socalled transient stability problems and the dynamic stability problems. Table8. of Second Swing a 25 16 Limit = +0.51 note that while the change in the first peak (due to the PSS) is very small.OS 4. A comparison of several runs is shown in Table 8. In the first place... Another way to look at the same problem is to note that fast excitation systems allow operation with higher system reactances.12 (a = 25) with a limiter included such that the PSS output is limited to *O. they need high gain. ramp as 6 swings downward. = a. warns that “we cannot expect to continue indefinitely to compensate for increases in reactance by more and more powerful excitation systems. investigated for different PSS parameters. The PSS constants are the same as in Example 8.lOpu. (no pss) . the effect of modern fast excitation systems on first swing transients is marginal. The discussion in Section 8..6” 3. the improvement in the peak of the second swing is significant. and the response tends to be a ramp up and then down. and the voltage E. shown in Figure 8. The results are displayed in Figures 8. The improvemew in the angle A..8” 5..52. The above summarizes the situation regarding the socalled steadystate stability or power limits. Concordia [ 171. is interesting. The phase of E. For exciters to perform this function. I t is found that this angle improvement is sensitive to both the amount of lead compensation and to the cutoff level of the PSS limiter. If the excitation system is slow and has a low response ratio. an accurate representation of the field flux in the machine is needed. Generator 2 is equipped with a Type 1 MagAStat exciter with constants similar to those given in Table 8.” A limit may soon be reached when further increases in system reactance should be compensated for by means other than excitation control. From the plot of d.10 Limit = *O. Also.1 1. these modern exciters can have a more pronounced effect. has been . changes when the PSS is applied to produce a field voltage that is almost 180” out of phase with &. . Regarding the dynamic performance. for more severe transients or for transients initiated by faults of longer duration.. are taken with and without the PSS. data for the angle 6. This results in a delayed E.. However.52... This is felt to be important in view of the trends toward higher capacity generating units with higher reactances. in Figure 8.12. The comparison in E.pss).5 1 and 8. which tends to limit the downward 6 excursion by retarding the building in T. Note that this exciter is not particularly fast (RR = O S ) .4” 8.7” 5. Series compensation makes it possible to have a high dc gain and at the same time have lower “transient gain” for stable performance. . defined as 6 . .10 seem to indicate that for less severe transients.. for faults near the generator terminals it is important that the synchronous machine be modeled accurately.. if the transient study extends beyond the first swing.Effect of Excitation o n Stability 363 at t = 0. modern excitation systems play an important part in the overall response of large systems to various impacts. Modern exciters are faster and more powerful and hence allow for operation with higher series system reactance. however. Improvement at Peak ..3 and the studies of Section 8. 6 .12. From the stability runs.1 1 Some General Comments on the Effect of Excitation on Stability In the 1940s it was recognized that excitation control can increase the stability limits of synchronous generators. optimistic results .
1 3 = 0.41. Large interconnected power systems experience negative damping at very low frequencies of oscillations.KQz = I. 1 5 = 0. I t should be mentioned that several transients have been encountered in the systems of North America where subsequent swings were of greater magnitudes than the first. 13. 1 2 = 0. Transient studies are frequently run for a few swings to check on situations where circuit breakers may fail to operate properly and where backup protection is used. This is not too surprising in large interconnected systems with numerous modes of oscillations.05 pu.05. while the effect on the magnitude of the first swing was hardly noticeable. the effect of the PSS on damping the subsequent swings was found to be quite pronounced. may be obtained if the classical machine representation is used. I t is not unlikely that some of the modes may be superimposed at some time after the start of the transient in such a way as to cause increased angle deviation. Usually the PSS parameters are optimized over a range of frequencies between the natural mode of oscillation of the machine and the dominant frequency of oscillation of the interconnected power system.5. 30. This has been repeatedly demonstrated in computer simulation studies and by field tests reported upon in the literature [8. For example.53. Ked = 0. to obtain these characteristics.10. 14 = 0. Supplementary signals to introduce artificial damping torques and to reduce intermachine and intersystem oscillations have been used with great success.0 RR: KQI = Kp3 T . I f such measurements are not possible. Their effect on damping torques are small. 23. 8. .54. 9.6. The excitation system used is the Brown Boveri exciter shown in Figure 8. The parameters of the PSS for a particular generator must be adjusted after careful study of the power system dynamic performance and the generatorexciter dynamic response characteristics. As shown in Section 8.05. the voltage regulator usually aggravates the situation by increasing the negative damping. in a stability study conducted by engineers of the Nebraska Public Power District. The PSS used is shown schematically in Figure 8.364 Chapter 8 Shaft speed Terminal volta +=@a = Fig. These signals must be introduced with the proper phase relations to compensate for the excessive phase lag (and hence improve the system damping) at the desired frequencies [ 321. Voltage regulators can and do improve the synchronizing torques. field measurements are preferred. approximate methods of analysis can be used to obtain preliminary design data. limit = j~0. 311. with provision for the adjustment of the PSS parameters to be made on the site after installation.53 Block diagram of the PSS for the BBC exciter with a 2. causing eventual loss of synchronism. As indicated in Section 8. and the swing curves obtained with and without the PSS (for the same fault) are shown in Figure 8. = IO.5. the effect of excitation system compensation on subsequent swings (in large transients) is very pronounced. 29. but in the cases where the system exhibits negative damping characteristics.
2 8. This index is minimized by a control law described by a set of equations. in a large interconnected system it is possible to have a variety of potential problems that can be helped by excitation control. It would seem likely that the principle of “optimal control” theory is applicable to this problem. Whether the stabilizing signal derived from speed provides the best answer is an open question. This subject is under active investigation by many researchers [40441.4 Construct a block diagram for the regulated generator given by (8. (Obtained by private communication and used with permission.19.54 Effect of the PSS on transient stability.1. However.) Recently many studies have been made on the use of various types of compensating networks to meet different situations and stimuli. 24. 30. cycles Fig. 3339]. 13. Most of these studies concentrate on the use of a signal derived from speed or frequency deviation processed through a PSS network to give the proper phase relation to obtain the desired damping characteristic. using the numerical data given in Example 8.3 8.1 to a feedforward transfer function KG(s) and a feedback transfer function H ( s ) .14). arranged as in Figure 7. Find the upper and lower limits of the gain K. This approach seems to concentrate on alleviating the problem of growing oscillations o n tie lines [ 1 I . Repeat the determination of stable operating constraints developed in Section 8.1 8. 8. Determine the open loop transfer function for the system of Problem 8. This optimization is accomplished by assigning a performance index.4.10)(8. Here signals derived from the various “states” of the system are fed back with different gains to optimize the system dynamic performance. with the following assumptions (see [ I I]): .Effect of Excitation on Stability 165 365 . for (a) Case 1 and (b) Case 2. Problems 8.3.2. 14.Without PSS i n operation d 0 With PSS in operation Time. What is the order of the system? Use block diagram algebra to reduce the system of Problem 8. 26. These equations are solved for the gain constants.
Plot E and a s functions of time and comment on these results. 5. 1968. A. Dynamic stability of the Peace River transmission system. Schleif.44. and Dandeno.6... 4. L. E. Power ConJ 29:lOll1022. I E E E Trans.3. E. and a Bode plot for Example 8.. 8. It is stated in Section 8. 3. E. 12. 1950. and Skooglund. I E E E Trans. Explain why the curve for constant EFD in Figure 8. Perform a transient stability run. Skooglund. PAS85:586600. Schleif.1 I = (s2 + mw. Excitation control to improve power line stability. 1968. Hattan. Control of generator excitation for improved power system stability. >> I/K3... IO Gs 8. W. Blythe. J. and Gish. + References I . 1969. (b) A triple lead compensator with Q = IO. Schleif.. Section 8. Hunkins. C o m p u t e the constants K . PAS87:1306. and Keay.28 both with and without the stabilizer.s + w:)/(s2 + nuns + w i ) . In (8. L. L. using a computer library program to verify the results of . F. Crary S. A. D. 0. N. W. J. R. Field tests of dynamic stability using a stabilizing signal and computer program verification. R. Concordia. Use a linear systems analysis program (if o n e is available) t o compute root locus.3. R. R. I E E E Trans. and & > 7 . Ellis. 1967. discuss the plots of EFD. E. F. H. J.. R. R. IEEE Trans. B.13 8. PAS88: 125966. PAS85: 123947. E. R. C. If the transfer function of such a network is (1 such that the value of the gain can be increased eight times. Martin. can be used if a suitable leadlag network is chorls)/(l q s ) . 69. ( a ) A dual lead compensator with a = 15. H. 1966.. F. 2):83444. choose 71 a n d sen. M. using the numerical constants K . 6. I E E E Trans... A I E E Trans.05 s.. Modify the block diagram of Figure 5 .. Damping for the northwestsouthwest tieline oscillationsAn analog study.43 and 8. T h e s domain equation for y / VREFis given by (8. and Concordia. 8.366 Chapter 8 Recompute the gain limitations. M. 1968. plot T. C o m p u t e the open loop transfer function of the system of Figure 8. and White. IEEE Trans.. Damping of system oscillations with a hydrogenating unit. Steadystate stability of synchronous machines as affected by voltage regulator characteristics. E. W. F.1. PAS86:43842.. C. I E E E Trans.24). McClymont. W.8 8. = 400 and 7.15 8. Control of rotating exciters for power system damping: Pilot applications and experience. PAS87:3 1522.13. Byerly. through K6 given in Table 8. A I E E Trans. time response t o a step change in V.1 I with . and Td a s functions of w between w = 0. PAS63:21520. PAS87: 142634.. Sketch root loci o f e a c h case. E. J. F.14 represents the machine terminal voltage a t n o load.30) and (8. 1944. F o r each of the cases > in Example 8. Proc. I8 showing the analog computer simulation of the synchronous machine to allow modulating the infinite bus voltage.5 + + 8. R. Concepts of synchronous machine stability as affected by excitation control. / K 3 . G. G..7 if a low time constant exciter is used where K. Influence of excitation and speed control parameters in stabilizing intersystem oscillations. is the natural frequency of the machine. shown in Figures 8. R. K. a n d E. PAS88:31629. H. 11. Effect of highspeed rectifier excitation systems on generator stability limits. Determine the excitation control system phase lag of Example 8. J.4. through K6 for generator 3 of Example 2. Martin. C. Dandeno.29 for a stabilizing signal processed through a bridged Tfilter: 8. I E E E Trans.6 8.14 8. 1969. and Hattan. P. IO. PAS87: 190201. 7. 1966..16 where w.7 8. Hardy. 1968. 1967. T. 2.. Shier. T h e block diagram shown in Figure 8.42 shows a larger swing than the other field representation.31) assume that K6K.. Am... 6. Karas.2 that a higher value of regulator gain K. de Mello.9 8. Goodwin. Sketch Bode diagrams of the several lead compensators described in Example 8. (Pt. Hanson. W. and Angell. 9. A. L.10. With the help of the field voltage equation (vF = rFiF AF). Long distance power transmission.. and Watson. Schleif. F. n = 2 a n d r = 0. . Analyze the system in Figure 8. E. H..1 rad/s and w = 10 rad/s (use semilog graph paper). Hunkins. P. = 0. W. I E E E Trans. D. and Blythe. P.12 8.10.
Effect of Excitation o n Stability
13. Klopfenstein. A.
367
14.
15.
16. 17. 18. 19.
20.
21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.
30.
31.
32. 33. 34.
35.
36. 37.
38.
39. 40.
41.
42. 43. 44.
Experience with system stabilizing controls on the generation of the Southern California Edison c o . /€€€ Trans. PAS90:698706, 1971. de Mello. F. P. The effects of control. Modern concepts of power system dynamics. IEEE tutorial course. IEEE Power Group Course Text 70 M 62PWR. 1970. Young. C. C. The art and science of dynamic stability analysis. IEEE paper 68 CP702PWR, presented at the ASMEIEEE Joint Power Generation Conference, San Francisco, Calif., 1968. Ramey, D. G.. Byerly, R. T., and Sherman, D. E. The application of transfer admittances to the analysis of power systems stability studies. / E € € Trans. PASW.993Ip00, 1971. Concordia, C.. and Brown, P. G. Effects of trends in large steam turbine generator parameters on power system stability. / € € E Trans. PAS90221 118. 1971. Perry. H. R.. Luini. J. F.. and Coulter, J. C. Improved stability with low time constant rotating exciter. /€€€ Trans. PAS90208489. 197 I . Brown. P. G.. de Mello. F. P., Lenfest. E. H., and Mills. R. J. Effects of excitation. turbine energy control and transmission on transient stability. / E € € Trans. PAS89 124753. 1970. Melsa, J. L. Cottipurer Progranis for Cottiputatiowl Assistance in the Studr of' Linear Control Theory. McGrawHill. New York, 1970. Duven. D. J. Data instructions for program LSAP. Unpublished notes, Electrical Engineering Dept., Iowa State University. Ames. 1973. Kuo. Benjamin C. Autonraric Control Systettrs. PrenticeHall. Englewood Cliffs. N .J., 1962. . Gerhart. A. D., Hillesland. T.. Jr.. Luini. J. F.. and Rocktield, M. L . Jr. Power system stabilizer: Field testing and digital simulation. / € € E Trans. PAS9020952101, 1971. Warchol, E. J., Schleif. F. K., Gish, W. B. and Church, J. R. Alignment and modeling of Hanford excitation control for system damping. / E € € Trans. PAS9071425, 1971. Eilts. L. E. Power system stabilizers: Theoretical basis and practical experience. Paper presented at the panel discussion "Dynamic stability in the western interconnected power systems" for the IEEE Summer Power Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 1974. Keay. F. W.. and South, W. H. Design of a power system stabilizer sensing frequency deviation. / € E € Trans. PAS9070714. 1971. Bolinger. K.. Laha. A.. Hamilton. R., and Harras. T. Power stabilizer design using rootlocus methods. / E € € Trans. PAS94: 148488. 1975. Schroder. D. C.. and Anderson, P. M. Compensation of synchronous machines for stability. IEEE paper C 733 134, presented at the Summer Power Meeting, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. 1973. Bobo. P. 0.. Skooglund, J. W., and Wagner, C. L. Performance of excitation systems under abnormal conditions. I€€€Trans. PAS8754753, 1968. Byerly. R. T. Damping of power oscillations in salientpole machines with static exciters. / E € € Trans. PAS89:100921. 1970. McClymont. K . R., Manchur. G.. Ross, R. J., and Wilson, R. J. Experience with highspeed rectitier excitation systems. /€€€ Trans. PAS87: 146470. 1968. Jones. G. A. Phasor interpretation of generator supplementary excitation control. Paper A754374, presented at the IEEE Summer Power Meeting. San Francisco, Calif.. 1975. ElSherbiny. M . K.. and Fouad. A. A. Digital analysis ofexcitation control for interconnected power systems. / E € € Trans. PAS90441 48. 1971. Watson. W.. and Manchur. G. Experience with supplementary damping signals for generator static excitation systems. /€€E Trans. PAS92: 199203. 1973. Hayes. D. R.. and Craythorn. G. E. Modeling and testing of Valley Steam Plant supplemental excitation control system. /€€€ Trans. PAS92:46470, 1973. Marshall. W. K.. and Smolinski. W. J. Dynamic stability determination by synchronizing and damping torque analysis. Paper T 730072. presented at the IEEE Winter Power Meeting, New York. 1973. ElSherbiny. M. K., and Huah. JennShi. A general analysis of developing a universal stabilizing signal for different excitation controls, which is applicable to all possible loadings for both lagging and lerding operation. Paper C741061. presented at the IEEE Winter Power Meeting, New York. 1974. Bayne. J. P.. Kundur, P.. and Watson. W. Static exciter control to improve transient stability. Paper T745211, presented at the IEEEASME Power Generation Technical Conference, Miami Beach, Fla.. 1974. Arcidiacono. V.. Ferrari. E., Marconato. R.. Brkic,T., Niksic, M.. and Kajari. M. Studies and experimental results about electromechanical oscillation damping in Yugoslav power system. Paper F754606 presented at the IEEE Summer Meeting. San Francisco, Calif., 1975. Fosha. C., E.. and Elgerd. 0 . I. The megawattfrequency control problem: A new approach via optimal control theory. / E € € Trans. PAS8956377. 1970. Anderson, T H.The control of a synchronous machine using optimalcontrol theory.Proc. IEEE592535, . 1971. Moussa, H. A. M., and Yu. Yaonan. Optimal power system stabilization through excitation and/or governor control. / E € € Trans. PAS91: 116674. 1972. Humpage, W. D., Smith, J. R . and Rogers, G . T. Application of dynamic optimization to synchro. nous generator excitation controllers. Proc. /€€(British) 120:8793. 1973. Elmetwally, M. M.. Rao. N. D. and Malik. 0 . P. Experimental results on the implementation of an optimal control for synchronous machines. / € € E Trans. PAS94: I 1921200. 1974.
chapter
9
Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance Loads
9.1
Introduction
In this chapter we develop the equations for the load constraints in a multimachine system in the special case where the loads are to be represented by constant impedances. The objective is to give a mathematical description of the multimachine system with the load constraints included. Representing loads by constant impedance is not usually considered accurate. It has been shown in Section 2.1 1 that this type of load representation could lead to some error. A more accurate representation of the loads will be discussed in Part I11 of this work. Our main concern here is to apply the load constraints to the equations of the machines. We choose the constant impedance load case because of its relative simplicity and because with this choice all the nodes other than the generator nodes can be eliminated by network reduction (See Section 2.10.2).
9.2
Statement of the Problem
In previous chapters, mathematical models describing the dynamic behavior.of the synchronous machine are discussed in some detail. In Chapter 4 [see (4.103) and (4.138)] it is shown that each machine is described mathematically by a set of equations of the form
ir = ~ ( X , V T,,t) , (9.1) where x is a vector of state variables, v is a vector of voltages, and T, is the mechanical torque. The dimension of the vector x depends on the model used. The order of x ranges from seventh order for the full model (with three rotor circuits) to second order for the classical model where only w and d are retained as the state variables. The vector v is a vector of voltages that includes u d , uq, and up If the excitation system is not represented in detail, uF is assumed known; but if the excitation system is modeled mathematically, additional state variables, including up, are added to the vector x (see Chapter 7) with a reference quantity such as V, known. In this chapter ,, we will assume without loss of generality that uF is known. Consider the set of equations (9. I). In the current model developed in Chapter 4, it represents a set of seven firstorder differential equationsfor each machine. The number of the variables, however, is nine: five currents, w and 6, and the voltages ud and uq. Assuming that there are n synchronous machines in the system, we have a set of 7n differential equations with 90 unknowns. Therefore, 2n additional equations are
368
Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance Loads
369
needed to complete the description of the system. These equations are obtained from the load constraints. The objective here is to derive relations between udi and uqi,i = 1, 2, . . . , n, and the state variables. This will be obtained in the form of a relation between these voltages, the machine currents i9i and i d i , and the angles d i , i = I , 2, . . .,n. In the case of the flux linkage model the currents are linear combinations of the flux linkages, as given in (4.124). For convenience we will use a complex notation defined as follows. For machine i we define the phasors and 5 as

Vi
=
Vqi + j Vdi
Ii

=
Iqi
+ jIdi
(9.2)
where
(9.3) and where the axis qi is taken as the phasor reference in each case. Then we define the complex vectors and f by
v
(9.4) Note carefully that the voltage and the current 8 are referred to the q and d axes of machine i . I n other words the different voltages and currents are expressed in terms of different reference frames. The desired relation is that which relates the vectors andT. When obtained, it will represent a set of n complex algebraic equations, or 2n real equations. These are the additional equations needed to complete the mathematical description of the system.
v
9.3
Matrix Representation of a Passive Network
Consider the multimachine system shown in Figure 9.1. The network has n machines and r loads. It is similar to the system shown in Figure 2.17 except that the machines are not represented by the classical model. Thus, the terminal voltages y., i = I , 2, . . . , n, are shown in Figure 9.1 instead of the internal EMF’S in Figure 2.17. Since the loads are represented by constant impedances, the network has only n active sources. Note also that the impedance equivalents of the loads are obtained from the pretransient conditions in the system. By network reduction the network shown in Figure 9.1 can be reduced to the nnode network shown in Figure 9.2 (see Section 2.10.2). For this network the node currents and voltages expressed in phasor notation are 4, &, . . . , and V,, 6 , . . . , Vn respectively. Again we emphasize that these phasors are expressed in terms of reference frames that are different for each node. At steady slate these currents and voltages can be represented by phasors to a com
<
370
Chapter 9
rn
c
IFig. 9.1. Multimachine system with constant impedance loads.
mon reference frame. To distinguish these phasors from those defined by (9.2). we will use the symbols ii and vi, i = 1. 2, . . . , n, to designate the use of a common (network) frame of reference. Similarly, we can form the matrices i and 6. From the network steadystate equations we write (9'3) where
and
is the short circuit admittance matrix of the network in Figure 9.2.
9.3.1
Network in the transient state
"I
... V"
(9.6)
Consider a branch in the reduced network of Figure 9.2. Let this branch, located between any two nodes in the network, be identified by the subscript k. Let the branch
+n
la
*
', 1
t
2 1
+
va
' n
*O _____I,
Multimachine Systems with Constant impedance Loads
371
resistance be rk, its inductance be t k , and its impedance be T,. The branch voltage drop and current are vk and i,. I n the transient state the relation between these quantities is given by
v k
= tk;k
+ rkik
k
=
1,2, ..., b
(9.7)
where b is the number of branches. Using subscripts abc to denote the phases abc, (9.7) can be written as
vablk
=
kiahrk
+ rkiabck
k
=
1, 2, . . ,b
(9.8)
This branch equation could be written with respect to any of the n qaxis references by using the appropriate transformation P. Premultiplying (9.8) by the transformation P as defined by (4.5),
Vabrk
= t k p iobrk
+
rkp
iabr&
(9.9)
Then from (4.3I ) and (4.32)
jabr
=
;Odq

[:I
(9. IO)
Substituting (9.10) in (9.9) and using (4.7).
(9.1 I )
which in the case of balanced conditions becomes
(9.12)
I t is customary to make the following assumptions: (1) the system angular speed wR and (2) the terms 4; are does not depart appreciably from the rated speed, or w negligible compared to the terms u t i . The first assumption makes the term @&(& approximately equal to x k i k ,and the second assumption suggests that the terms in ik are to be neglected. Under the above assumptions (9.12) becomes
(9.13)
Equation (9.13) gives a relation between the voltage drop and the current in one branch of the network in the transient state. These quantities are expressed in the qd frame of reference of any machine. Let the machine associated with this transformation be i. The rotor angle Oi of this machine is given by
ei
=
oRt + 7r/2
+ ai
(9.14)
where ai is the angle between this rotor and a synchronously rotating reference frame.
372
Chapter 9
Reference frame at synchronous speed)
Fig. 9.3. Position of axes of rotor k with respect to reference frame
From (9.13) multiply both sides by l / d ; and using (9.3),
v ki q ()
rktqk(iJ

xktdk(ij
Vdk(i)
=
rktdk/iJ
+ xktqk(iJ
(9.15)
where the subscript i is added to indicate that the rotor of machine i is used as reference. Expressing (9.15) in phasor notation,

‘kliJ
= =
‘qk(iJ
+j

‘dk(il Xktdk(iJ)
(rktqk(iJ
+ ‘j(rktdkliJ + XktqkliJ)
=
(rk
+ jxk)([qk
k
jtdk)
or
(9.16) Equation (9.16) expresses, in complex phasor notation, the relation between the voltage drop in branch k and the current in that branch. The reference is the q axis of some (hypothetical) rotor i located at angle bi with respect to a synchronously rotating system reference, as shown in Figure 9.3.
9.3.2
Converting to a common reference frame
To obtain general network relationships, it is desirable to express the various branch quantities to the same reference. Let us assume that we want to convert the phasor = Vqi + j Vdito the common reference frame (moving at synchronous speed). Let the same voltage, expressed in the new notation, be = VQi + jVDi as shown in Figure 9.4. From Figure 9.4 by inspection we can show that
<
VQi
+ j VDi = (VqiCOS bi

vdi
sin S i )
+ j( Vqisin bi +
Vdi
COS
Si)
or
pi
=
vejai
(9.17)
Now convert the network branch voltage drop equation (9.16) to the system reference frame by using (9.17).
pkej*i
= 2
k k
i ejai
1.2. ..., b (9.18)
or
pk
=
zkjk
k
=
where b is the number of branches and 2, is calculated based on rated angular speed. Comparing (9.18) and (9.5) under the assumptions stated above, the network in the transient state can be described by equations similar to those describing its steadystate
Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance loads
373
Vdi
 
4
Fig. 9.4. T w o frames of reference for phasor quantities for a voltage Vi.
behavior. The network (branch) equations are in terms of quantities expressed to the same frame of reference, conveniently chosen to be moving at synchronous speed (it is also the system reference frame). Equation (9.18) can be expressed in matrix form
v b =
?.bib
(9.19)
where the subscript b is used to indicate a branch matrix. The inverse of the primitive branch matrix 4 exists and is denoted sib, thus
ib = y b v b
(9.20)
Equation (9.20) is expressed in terms of the primitive admittance matrix of a passive network. From network theory we learn to construct the node incidence matrix A which is used to convert (9.20) into a nodal admittance equation
i
where
A
=
=
(A'ybA)v
yv
(9.21)
v is the matrix of short circuit driving point and transfer admittances and
[a,,]
=
1 if current in branch p leaves node q
= 1 =
if current in branch p enters node 9 0 if branch p is not connected to node 9
(9.22)
withp = 1,2, . . . . b a n d q Since V' Z exists,
=
1 ,2,..., n.
v
=
vlj
2
zi
(9.23)
where z is the matrix of the open circuit driving point and transfer impedances of the network. (For the derivation of (9.21)(9.23), including a discussion of the properties of the and matrices, see reference [ I ] , Chapter I I .)
v
z
9.4
Converting Machine Coordinates to System Reference
Consider a voltage V,bei at node i. We can apply Park's transformation to this voltage to obtain vdqi. From (9.2) this voltage can be expressed in phasor notation as y , using the rotor of machine i as reference. I t can also be expressed to the system reference as vi,using the transformation (9.17).
374
Chapter 9
Equation (9.17) can be generalized to include all the nodes. Let
eJ6I
=
;e.:; 1'
0
...
::: ...
(9.24)
(9.25)
Then from (9.2), (9.14), (9.17), and (9.25)
V
=
TV
(9.26)
Thus T is a transformation that transforms the d and q quantities of all machines to the system frame, which is a common frame moving at synchronous speed. We can easily show that the transformation T is orthogonal, Le.,
T1
Therefore, from (9.26) and (9.27) Similarly for the node currents we get
=
T*
(9.27)
V
=
T*3
(9.28)
i
9.5
= Tf
I
=
T*P
(9.29)
Relation between Machine Currents and Voltages
From (9.22) f = YV. By using (9.29) in (9.22),
T f = VTV
Premultiplying (9.30) oy T  '
(9.30)
I
where
=
(TIYT)V & FiV
M 2 (TIYT)
(9.31)
(9.32)
and if
Rl exists,
 = (TlvT)'i = (T'ZT)i V
(9.33)
Equation (9.33) is the desired relation needed between the terminal voltages and currents of the machines. It is given here in an equivalent phasor notation for convenience and compactness. It is, however, a set of algebraic equations between 2n real Id17 Id,,. voltages VqI, v d l , . . . , V n , Vdn, and 2n real currents IqI, . . . ,Iqnr
Example 9. I Derive the expression for the matrix
for an nmachine system.
Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance Loads
375
Solution
The matrix
of the network is of the form
(9.34)
and from (9.24)
(9.35)
From (9.34) and (9.35)
y , ,,J(@ll+ a , )
YI2,J(@12+62)
...
y
In
eJ(@in+6n) eJ(82n+6n) 2n
VT
=
y2,,;(e21
+61)
22
eJVz~+6~i
...
...
yn l e J ( @ n i + 6 ~ ) yn2e J(un2+62)
... ... . . . Y,, e J ( U , + ~ , )
1
...
y
and premultiplying by T  ' , we get the desired result
To simplify (9.36), we note that
yikeJ(@ik6ik)
=
(Gi, cos 6 ,
+ Biksin 6 , ) + j(Bikcos 6,
Gik COS aik

Giksin d i k )
Now define
FG+B(dik)
FBG(Bik)
= FG+B =
= FBG
+ Biksin 6,
(9.37) (9.38)
=
Bikcos dik  Gi, sin
Then the matrix %Tis given by

M = H + j S
where H and S are real matrices of dimensions ( n x n ) . Their diagonal and offdiagonal terms are given by
hii
Example 9.2
=
Gji
hik
=
FG+B(6jk)
=
Bii
sik
=
FBG(6i&)
(9.39)
Derive the relations between the d and q machine voltages and currents for a twomachine system.
376
Chapter 9
Solution From (9.3 I ) and (9.38)
=
( H V ,  SVd)
+ j ( S V , + HVd)
(9.40)
For a twomachine system the q axis currents are given by
and the d axis currents are given by
We note that a relation between the voltages and currents based upon (9.33) (i.e.. giving V , , . V,,, Vdl, and Vd2in terms of I q l .I,,, Idl. and I d , ) can be easily derived. I t would be analogous to (9.40) except that the admittance parameters are replaced with the parameters'of the matrix of the network.
z
Example 9.3. Derive the complete system equations for a twomachine system. The machines are to be represented by the twoaxis model (see Section 4.15.3), and the loads are to be represented by constant impedances.
Solution The transient equivalent circuit of each synchronous machine is given in Figure 4.16. A further approximation, commonly used with this model, is that x i x i 2 x'. The network is now shown in Figure 9.5. The representation is similar to that of the are not constant. classical model except that in Figure 9.5 the voltages E; and The first step is to reduce the network to the "internal" generator nodes 1 and 2. Thus the transient generator impedances rl + j x ; and r, + j x ; are included in the net= ESI j E j l and E; = Ei2 jEj2, worky ( or Z ) matrix. The voltages at the nodes are and the currents are 6 = IqI + j I d l and & = I,, + j f d z . The relation between them is
+
+
+
Fig. 9.5. Network of Example 9.3.
Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance Loads Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance Loads
377 377
given equation similar The equations for each given by an equation similar to (9.40). The equations for each machine, under the assumption that x x the two equations sumption that x ii zz x;,i , are the two axis equations of Section 4.15.3.
(9.41) (9.41) and (9.41) completely describe the replaced with Equations (9.40). with system. Each machine represents a fourthorder system, with state variables E& Eii, wi. and 6,. The complete system equations are given by
z',
(9.42) The system given by (9.42) is nor an eighthorder system since the equations are not independent. This system is actually a seventhorder system with state variables E i , , E ; , , Ei2, Ei2. w , , w 2 , and 6,2. The reduction of the order is obtained from the last two equations
a,,
= WI

w2
Furthermore, , 7 = D2/rj2 D / T (or Furthermore, if damping is uniform; i.e.. if D 1 / r jj,l = D2/rj2 = D/7i ~ if damping is not present) then the system is further reduced in order by one, and the two torque equations equations can be combined in the form
9.6
System Order
In Example 9.3 it was shown that with damping present the order of the system was reduced by one if the angle of one machine is chosen as reference. It was also pointed system out that if damping is uniform, a further reduction of the system order is achieved. We now seek to generalize these conclusions. We consider first the classical model with zero transfer conductances. We can show that the system equations are given by
378
Chapter 9
TJlbr D,w, =
+
2
I
El~Bll(sin6; sin6,) 
I
Jfl
6,=w,
i = 1 , 2 ,..., n
(9.43)
where the superscript s indicates the stable equilibrium angle. Defining the state vector x, the vector I J , and the function f by
x' = Iw,, (Jz,
&(ak) =
. . . % ( 6 ,  a;),(&  6 % . . . ,(a"  691 k = l , 2 , ...,m E,,E,B,,,(sin(u, + 6iq)  sin6;J
3
m
=
n(n

1)/2
and u = C x where C is a constant matrix. The system (9.43) may then be written in the form
i
=
A X  Bf(a)
(9.44)
where A and B are constant matrices. The order of the system (9.44) is determined by examining the transfer function of the linear part (with s the Laplace variable)
W(S)
=
C(s1
 A)' B
(9.45)
This has been done in the literature [2, 3). Expanding (9.45) in partial fractions and examining the ranks of the coefficientsobtained, the minimal order of the system is obtained. It is shown that the minimal order for this system is 2n  I . For the uniform damping case, i.e., for constant D,/T,,, the order of the system becomes 2n  2 (see also (41). The conclusions summarized above for the classical model can be generalized as follows. If the order of the mathematical model describing the synchronous machine i is k,, i = I , 2 , . . . ,n , and if damping terms are nonuniform damping, the order of the system is (E?=ki  1). However, if the damping coefficients are uniform or if the damping terms are not present, a further reduction of the order is obtained by referring all the speeds to the speed of the reference machine. The system order then becomes (2?=1  2). kj The above rule should be kept in mind, especially in situations where eigenvalues are obtained such as in the linearized models used in Chapter 6. Unless angle differences are used, the sum of the column of 6's will be zero and a zero eigenvalue will be obtained (see Section 9.12.4).
9.7 Machines Represented By Classical Methods
In the discussion presented above, it is assumed that all the nodes are connected to controlled sources, with all other nodes eliminated by Kron reduction (see Chapter 2, Section 2.10.2). The procedure used to obtain (9.31) assumes that all the machines are represented in detail using Park's transformation. For these machines we seek a relation, such as (9.3 I). between the currents y and the voltages 9 . The former are either among the state variables if the current model is used, or are derived from the state variables if the flux linkage model is used (see [5]). If some machines are represented by the classical model, the magnitudes of their internal voltages are known. If machine r is represented by the classical model, the angle 6, for this machine is the angle between this internal voltage and the system reference axis. In phasor notation the voltage of that node, expressed to the system refer
Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance Loads
379
ence, is given by
V,
=
VQ, + j VD, = E, cos 6,
+ j E , sin 6,
(9.46)
At any instant if 6, is known, VQrand V,,, are also known. Since the voltage E, is considered to be along the q axis of the machine represented by the classical model, we can also express the voltage of this machine in phasor notation as
V,
=
E,
+ j0
r
=
1,2, ..., c
(9.47) Also from
where c is the number of machines represented by the classical model. (4.93) on a per phase base
Pe*
=
V,id
+ uqiq pu
Dividing both sides by three changes the base power to a threephase base and converting to stator rms equivalent quantities. divides each voltage and current by fl, Thus we have
pe
= bfd
+
pu(3d)
and using (9.47),
Per
=
IqJr
~ ~ ( 3 4 )
(9.48)
Note that E, is in per unit to a base of rated voltage to neutral. Assuming that the speed does not deviate appreciably from the synchronous speed, P, and from the swing equation (4.90) on a threephase base then T,
h = r
(I/~jr)(Tm,

EJqr)

(Dr/Tjr)wr
8,
=
wr
 1
(9.49)
A machine r represented by the classical model will have only w, and 6, as state variables. I n (9.49) E, is known, while I,, is a variable that should be eliminated. To do this we should obtain a relation between I,, and the currents of the machines represented in detail. Similarly the voltages Vgi and bi of the machines represented in detail should be expressed in terms of the currents f q i and fdj of these machines and the voltages E, of the machines represented classically. To obtain the above desired relations, the following procedure is suggested. Let m be the number of machines represented in detail. and c the number of machines represented by the classical model; Le.,
A m + c = n
Let the vectorsTand
v be partitioned as
A =

V =
(9.50)
E,,
+ j0
M. Example 9.52) Equation (9. .31) where in (9.lmlz !. (9._ FiZIR...2 assuming that machine 1 is represented in detail by the twoaxis model and machine 2 by the classical model. R.. Solution From (9..51) the complex matrix 11. as functions of the current variables of the former machines and the known internal voltages of the latter group.5 1) M1 I 2 M*2 E]=[ R .380 Chapter 9 Then from (9. = 6..50) and (9.T is partitioned. are functions of and the angle differences as well as the admittance parameters. Now since Mrl1exists. (9. We note that the matrices Mil. MI.4 Repeat Example 9.52) is the desired relation between the voltages of the machines represented in detail along with the currents of the machines represented classically.lI R. I .51) can be rearranged with the aid of matrix algebra to obtain [.] MI1 a 1 2 (9.I= [z.53) by inspection (9.55) . and 4.z]E. R2.[] (9.37) and using Fl2 = Y2.iv21M~liv12 I.54) (9.53)  and from (9..
3..)[GllEjl + FBG(aIZ)EZI .5 Repeat Example 9. The equations needed to describe this system are (9.51).57) linearized Model for the Network From (9.w.8 . YI I ollj E.(xql . = 9.[Gll(Ej: + + FEG(a12)E~IE2 + FG+E(aIZ)EiIEZI .)[G.FEG(aZl)E:l + G22E21 . and v r.32).x.sin ( 2 4 . [I:: . 2 . For the twomachine system this is the same as (9. wI.E2[FG+E(621) 6. and an additional set of algebraic equations relating the node currents to the node voltages.iEil .cos(2e12 y:.  ell + cos(OI2 el.3 I ) . .26) V = TV. and the transient impedances of both generators are included in the network (or E) matrix. with machine 1 represented mathematically by the twoaxis model and machine 2 by the classical model. Also from (9. sin YI I ell)] E. Solution Again the nodes retained are the “internal” generator nodes.41) for generator I .. E:. and E: as state variables. it is convenient to use (9. The state variables w The complete system equations are given by for this system are E i l . %.49) for generator 2.17).D2w2 .56) 1 Yz: YZ2 e. (9. .xi) EFDl TmI d o l Eil = 7jl‘l ‘jZLjZ = = TmZ WI .4) and (9.xl) + (xdl .24) and 57 and V are defined by (9.Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance l o a d s 38 1 or + Id2 = [y.. 7601 % ‘ = IBii(xql . mv..IIE:I . Linearizing (9.c0se... Since the twoaxis model retains E. where T is defined by (9.FG+B(612)E21 + [Bll(xdl .sin(d1..31)T = where A is given by (9. Vdl. + j 0 replacing The system is now fifth order.x. + aI2) Id1 (9. Example 9.40)..2 . Note that the variables needed to solve for the swing equations are only and Iq2. (9. with replacing VI and = E.
. ~ J ( ~ I Z .. vkO Y n k e ... .. is evaluated at the initial angles ... and ...j Y i j e  j(e..2...a i = 1.63) ..382 Chapter 9 where a. I and the linearized equation (9. 1... j(s. .. ej(eij+6ij~) (9.. ) 'IA . sin biiA GijA..61) Thus MAhas offdiagonal terms only. . .58) becomes [ .e = IJ j(9.. of the vector V.6. (9..59) The general term mij of the matrix Rl is of the form Yije 8.thus z.... . Then the matrix R becomes YlIeJel1 ~ .a. . .. yn l e J ( e n l . with all the diagonal terms equal to zero.j&jA) ij  y.... ..60) Therefore the general term in M A given by is mijA Y ..... we get for the general term (1 . IJ IJo )ej6ijA Using the relation cos 6..Y...~ I ~ O . yn2 eJ(@n26n206nZJ) . .6 n l L l .~ I ~ L \ ) vois the initial value . IJ IJo (9... ) 'J0 6.* n I A ) . . . I (9. yIn .  MAVO = j k' I (9.. ..a. Let di = ai0 + ai. n.62) n ..
. The network elements involved in this case are elements of the open circuit impedance matrix Z. We now formulate (9. .. ..&. show. &A 1 = r 6 I A . . that (To)' = (T')o = No. and 6 i j A .66) From matrix algebra we get the following relations.'bAPTO . A similar equation analogous to (9.Ti1VT06.63) can be derived relating to 1. we let TI = jTo6. however.64) 2N No + NA to compute We can Note carefully that TI # Tcl + T i 1 and that (TA)' # (TI)A :NA.24) let T = To + T to A compute vA T A Similarly.. Also . Thus from % + MA we compute = Ho i Mo + MA = (No + NA)y (To+ TA).63) in a more compact form.Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance loads 383 The set of equations (9. From (9..  MA = J(T. = 68 diag(blA.) ('9..63) is that needed to complete the description of the system. Neglectingsecondorderterms.A) (9.. ..
To obtain a relation between and TA. (9.72) (9.70) and the network equation is given by  1.J]v0 (9.75) .53) we get for M o (9.o From (9.68) M A = j[6Amo .Qo6A)& Example 9.384 Chapter 9 * eJ*.69) (9.wecan either manipulate (9.l ~ (9.63).'TA .74) (9.67).70) to obtain  vA V A = mcl.1 y .mO6A] mO6A]vO (9.71) or follow a procedure similar to the above. for a twomachine system. Solution From (9.66). = M O T A .6 Derive the relations between 'iTA and 1. Define Q We can then show that m1 = ~ .73) VA = Q o L .j[6AMO Note that (9.j(aAQ0.j[6A  mc16Am.70) is the same as (9. and (9.
77). d i A .76) Substituting (9.(IdoEiA Iq0EiA  + + EioldA + E6oiqA) (9. I d l a . Iq2.70). These are given below: Example 9.x')IqA T ~ O E ~= E F D A A T~&A = EiA + (xd . By separating the real and the imaginary terms in equation (9.7 Linearize the twoaxis model of the synchronous machine as given by (9.= T m A .E i A .76). in (9.41) and the classical model as given by (9.78).DoA 8. we get four real equaV . V d 2 ~ and 6126.(x. Solution From (9.Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance Loads 385 (9.OE~A = . and I d z A and CIA.DwA .48) we get = h)A ~ j & . From (9.3. (9..80) 6. Vq2. .8 I ) .EIqA .48).x ' ) l d A TmA .41) we get T. = WA (9. tions between l q l A .
where (9. a hybrid formulation is convenient. 9. (9. One machine is represented by the twoaxis model. Stability analysis (such as discussed in Chapter 6) can be conducted. It is of the form Ax + Bu. Let rn machines be represented in detail. m + c = n.2 .6) that the order of the mathematical description of machine 1 is four. and (9. however.386 Chapter 9 Example 9. is 4 + 2 . which determine EAlo. and the second is represented classically.82) is a set of five firstorder linear differential equations.80).84) can be determined.9 Hybrid Formulation Where a combination of classical and detailed machine representations exists.E ~ I o .5. Then from (9. x = Equation (9. and b120and from the network V matrix all the coefficients of the A matrix of (9. the variables wI and w 2 can be combined in one variable w I 2 . and c machines represented classically.81) and dropping the A subscripts for convenience. The system order. We note again (as per the discussion in Section 9.8 Linearize the twomachine system of Example 9. l.84) E IAIo.1 = 5 .58).lo. From the initial conditions.79). . that of machine 2 is two. Solution From (9. If the damping terms are not present.
By comparing (9.Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance Loads 387 From (9.I e M Iz * 120) ________ (9.70) (9.86) (9.(SA) is a (C x I ) vector.. Solution From Example 9.85) and (9.63).85) where the subscript m indicates a vector of dimension m.86) where Rm(aA)is an (m x I ) vector and if.85) and (9.90) 21A .89) Example 9.8 120) a 1 2 j = 1 [""""""':.VI0 Y1ze j ( k + * n o )a .86) .78) and (9. e j(@ + * 120) yl yz2 "22 e Gnd from (9. From (9.9 Obtain the linearized hybrid formulation for the twomachine system in Example 9.88) from which we get (9.87) Therefore (9.2 yI1 ejell 12 y. (9.4.
9. and I... J = Qi (9.94) This is a complex equation of order n. If the flux linkage model is used. I.92) Equations (9.33) and (9. for the various machines are not state ..91) and (9. or 2n real equations.89) or and (9.72).10 Network Equations with Flux linkage Model The network equation for the flux linkage description is taken from (9.388 Chapter 9 Substituting in (9. These complex equations represent four real equations: TI. .92) are the desired relations giving K A and 72. in terms of and 8.
To simplify the notation.. 1qn + jbn c q i Aqi + . For machine i we have Equations (9.aril) XI I  ..96) The complex vector ithus becomes  I = uqn + UQn A Q n Now the matrix 0 in (9..95) are the desired network equations..94) and (9.. it is exceedingly complex to implement.. xnn aIn] [ ... While the above procedure appears to be conceptually simple. + + uDIADl udnAdn + uDnAD (9...&.97) into (9.97) XI1 Znls i n ( h .. .hnl) ... Rll .aril) .... .99) and substituting (9. ....sin(&. V q + jvd Rll . X"" ] (9. nl .95) is put in the form Iqi Idi F UqiAqi UdiAdi + UQiAQi + UFiAFi + U D i A D i i = 1.. auxiliary equations are needed to relate these currents to the flux linkages...98) .. (9. UQIA"] [ UdlAdl + UFIAFI .  + =[ [ ] Iql + jld. These equations are obtained from Section 4.n (9.. + uFIAFI dl Adl ..) sin  .. Therefore.. t ~ DIADI UdnAdn + UFnAFn + UDnADn I (9...414) + j(QIIq + ZlnCOS(flIn (9.  ..... .. (QR + jQI)(Iq (QRIq .94).. ..Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance Loads 389 variables..2. Z I n (eln .12. . Rnn = QR + jQI = = Expanding (9. Iq2 + jId2 ... This is illustrated below. .99)..94) is of the form .... z nl c os( e n.. . . ... Zn. ...... Rnn ZInsin(8.. .....100) a . Together with the machine equations they complete the description of the system..
v. .2. and Id0 are substituted for by the linear combinations of the flux linkages given by (9. [vdk vFk 0 vqk 0. The network is reduced to the generator internal nodes. and the vector v includes the stator voltages plus the rotor voltages (which are assumed to be known). is used. such as given in (4.15 are used. which is linear.Q ~ o J A ) I ~ (~AQRO Q R O ~ A ) ~ ~ O ] o + j [ Q d q p k QRoIdA .. This allows the direct use of a relation similar to (9.1 1 Total System Equations From (4.102)  The terms in I.'(Rk + WkNk)ik . = = VA q + jVdA = (QRO JQ/o)(IqA + [ Q R o l q A . I38). These equations are also nonlinear.100) and (9. and 91). 7..(QRO+ ~ Q / o ) ~ A k (Jho) o (aAQio . and (9.103) for each synchronous machine and hence for each node in Figure 9. the voltages Eli and E.are known.Q/o6a)Id0] (9.31) provides a constraint between all the stator voltages and currents (in phasor notation) as functions of the machine angles.I k = 1... Much of the labor is reduced when some of the simplified synchronous machine models of Section 4. . This has been illustrated in some of the examples used in this chapter.104) k (see [ 5 ..n.. if the constant voltage behind subtransient reactance is used.73) into real and imaginary terms as follows: 5 .' defined by (4. .Li'vk (l/3Tjk)(&kiqk Xqkidk .97).97).104) represents a set of 7n nonlinear differential equations.2. For example. Assuming that VFk and Tmk.iQfo) .T. 9.(~AQRo QRo8a)Iqo i ( ~ A Q I O . 8.31) to complete the mathematical description of the system model.. Iqo.73). the following relations apply ik = &k = dk = L. The whole system is of the form X = f(x.101) are needed to eliminate Ci and vdi in the statespace equations when the flux linkage model.IOl).101) Equations (9. become state variables.2. . Lk and Nk are where ik = [idki~ki~ki~ki~k]'. The linearized equations for the flux linkage model are obtained from (9.. The above illustrates the complexity of the use of the fullmachine flux linkage model together with the network equations. The set (9.QioIdA I ~~ J1dA) . The vector x includes all the staror and rotor currents of the machines.103) V& = and the matrices Rk.74). I.t) (9..3DkWk wk .100) and (9. we expand (9.J [ a A ( Q R o t .n + + 3Tmk) (9. (9.390 Chapter 9 (9. 6. = 1. Following a procedure similar to that used in deriving (9. .
and four algebraic equations for the network (or two complex equations). They are E. The voltagecurrent relationships (9. . Again the “interface problem” and the computational difficulties are encountered. six auxiliary machine equations. This problem will be discussed further in Part 111 of this work.15. the system equations will be (4.Aoi + (xi. The other phase is the solution of the differential equations of (9. if the flux linkage model is used (for the case where saturation is neglected).31) are functions of the angles of all machines.6. some differential equations can be eliminated by using 6 .Idi E” qi di + KdiADi gi = wi .138). and (9. i = I .6. Example 9.103) and (9.40). The nature of the system equations forces the solution methods to be performed in two different phases (or cycles). One phase deals with the state of the network. and w . Also in (9.. The solution alternates between these two phases. = KI& (9.i T&iEii T. and the machine equations are given in Section 4.w2 as state variables. 2. ) l . This problem is mentioned here to focus attention on the system and solution complexities. (9.&.2. . E. The auxiliary equations for bi and <i can be omitted.1 i = 1. 2.101). and E: should replace Vgi and Vdi. + KZiADi b = rildi . qi .40). The network equations would then give relations between the currents lqiand l&.E”.105) and T&E$ = E$ T&iA. i Xdifdi k Tmi. and the voltages E.Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance loads 39 1 By examining (9.270).2 (9.106) The network constraints are obtained from (9. . l ql = = = .10 Give the complete system equations for a twomachine system with the machines represented by the voltagebehindsubtransientreactance model and the loads represented by constant impedances. . .x&i)ldi EFDJ ( 1 + K d i ) E . rotor speeds.x Ql‘ .234) and (4.31) or in real variables in (9. 1: 1 (X .lqiA’y + E$ i Gi = rilqi + IdiiX: + E. As per the discussion in Section 9. and angles are given in terms of the individual machine parameters only. and E$. Solution The network constraints for this system are given in complex notation in (9.31) we note the following: The differential equations describing the changes in the machine currents.i = l .40). assuming “known” internal machine quantities.I pi.. The system has ten differential equations. Finally. The machine equations are obtained from (4. This creates difficulties in the solution of these equations and is referred to in the literature as “the interface problem” [IO]. Some of the computational labor can be reduced if the subtransient reactances of the generators are included in the network matrix (or Z matrix). in terms of node voltages and currents. IOO).103) only.
10. are used 0) to obtain the data in Table 9.0975" 3.6194 0. 9.561 5 0.p) = xqIr/(V . Linearized machine equations are to be used. From (9.I400 0. Generator 1 (classical) V / @ .1 (some of which are repeated below for convenience). At these nodes the voltages are and E.27 1' 7 1 ..jQ)/V % . + jV. The network is assumed to include the transient reactances of the generators.0361 0 0 8. A oneline impedance diagram is given in Figure 2.) (P .1312 I .S = V.9320 .2 linearized network equations e. and the q axis be located at angle 6. The system under study comprises three generators and three loads. Data for the three generators are given in Table 2.7679 0. derived in Section 5.0392 0.2902 0.1447 0.1 2.10 is to be examined for dynamic stability at the initial operating point given in Section 2. 9. = I ~ = E: = tan(S .6336 0.5350 201. ]/(a .1900 5.0100 2269.63) with B replaced with 6 and for a threemachine system (using = 631)..6940 0.1 2.1: (r I.18.I43 1" .7882 0. The initial operating system condition.xqI. 4 2 = 421.0765 0.7791 54.2872 I .4863 0. is given in Figure 2.6668 0.4865 1.0000 226 1.1.19.p + 4) = Iq + jI.6780 0.6900 6.I&: E: ZZ 6 + ZqX. and the twoaxis model for generators 2 and 3.8057 61.0852 0. The generator current lags the terminal voltage by the power factor angle 4.8404  elec deg 0.1 Preliminary calculations Let the generator terminal voltage be V @ .5.7760 0.6661 0.6400 17824. The synchronous machine models to be used are as follows: classical model for generator I .6000 226.4000 4825. The following relations.. All angles are measured from reference.4777 0.OS66 6.8900 2220.392 9. indicating the power flows and bus voltages.1 2 Multimachine System Study Chapter 9 The ninebus system discussed in Section 2. ThreeMachine System Data Quantity S PU PU PU S PU S PU PU PU PU PU PU PU bU Unit Generator 2 (twoaxis) 23. The loads are to be simulated by constant impedances based on the initial operating conditions. The network is reduced to the generator internal nodes.613 .1.9600 3377.0412 2. + j I.9467 0. Generator 3 (twoaxis) Table 9.
3 Generator equations From Example 9.eJ(d12 120) j~&. and 613.12. 1 Substituting in * j Yl.Iq.109) is the desired linearized network equation.109) Equation (9. . YI]eJ(# I3 + + Yl2eJ(@23 D O ) +* yl3eJ@33 Yz3eJ(@23 *ZM)] jEio Y23eJ(e23* B O ) + * 130) ] + y23eJ(e23+*2M)] "IA (9.. I IO) .Yl3eJ~@I3*IM) y23eJ(@23d230) j[El yzleJ(@12 +*120) jEio Y23eJ(*2362)o) j [ E..107) With generator 1 represented classically. EA. = Ut (9. EA3.4. .E.107) and using a = 6.108) Separating real and imaginary parts and dropping the subscript A for convenience. Y12eJ(@12120) 6 Y13eJ(B13 130)  ElA = 0 and Elo + j0 = * = E . ... (9.7 we obtain the following generator equations (again the subscript A is omitted): Generator I (classical) ~ j l h l= T. aI2. It relates the incremental currents to the incremental state variables Ei2.DIU. . A. 9. as the arbitrary reference node = E. E&. .Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance loads 393 (9. and with node E. (9. (a constant).
1058 .2434 /80.1.2434 /80.4 Development of the A matrix The V matrix of the network.30" 0.0288 . and I.Iqio E. to obtain an independent set.E i 3 .6104 x 105T.109) are calculated and given in Table 9.j2..1484 0.5399 f79.2770 .1. The main system equations are given below.0879 1.  wi i = 2.i (xdi . IO86 /78.2. I q 2 .*.8455 .1891 1..5129 1. The incremental currents Iqiand Idi are calculated from (9.11 1) Again we recall that.9279 . E.4200 .j2.9 I = 0.1 1 1 ) are combined to give a.6104 x 105D101 5.3 (9.7238 0.2133 + j1.8347 0.25" 0.2770 2.9859 (9.x.3 (9. = 5.Diwi .E.!)f. w 3 .1086/78.I .1. (9.1051q1  6 1 = w) .6 as the prefault repeated here in Table 9.4200 0.2256 1.Eii0Idi .2871 + j1.Jqi = (x.109).3681 0. and 6 . are eliminated from (9.oiE.9666 1..5.109).1. The state variables are E i 2 .Ebi.5399 /79.2.0265 0.I.3.9216 0.2770 2.368 1 0.6062 0.25" 0.2096 + j I . is given in Table 2. ) l d i ~ j i & .i Eii  a'. t d 2 .1 I 1) are then calculated.5805 0. = w.0288 0.w 2 .i .1 13) The generator differential equations are: Generator 1 (classical) (5.9216 0.91" 0.4200 2.2871 + j1.1.3434 1.3434 2.8305 .4414 1.394 Chapter 9 Generators 2 and 3 (twoaxis model) 7.1 1 1).j2.8347 I . The resulting system comprises nine linear firstorder differential equations.0541 . .2642 0.1058 0.wl.9883 = 2 3 = 0.1 2.oiE.2256 1.i ~ 7. the last equations in (9.1.1458 0.2133 + j1. Data for the terms in (9. Node Reduced 7 Matrix for a ThreeMachine System 2 = I 3 = I 0.0800 .2096 + j1.  1.3681 = The coefficients of (9.1 12) By using (9. 9. It is the generator transient reactance.110) and (9.x .7239 0.. Table 9.109) and (9. I q 1 .8160 0.0800 1. ~ . Iq3.i = E F D . = wi i = 2.jioE:i .4914 0. tS12.5129 1.i .30" 0. T. reduced to the internal generator nodes and including matrix.0541 0.I458 .E.0879 1. I d l .{ + .1 10) and .
loo00 0 0 0 0. .4409 .3..9552 .92 I6 28.9084 6.8349 5.56ior.2544 .2156 1. using the relation 6 = 6i .421OEFD2 2.6736 x 104E.1829 .6793 0. .0723 x 1 0 .a.3161 .9520 0.7592 x 10’tq3 4. (9. I458 Yijsin(Oij .5981 0 0 0 0 13..6..3434 I .4948 3.0935 0.2309 38.7247 0 0 .loo00  4..1666 0.2010 0 0 .Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance loads 395 Table 9.8259 aijo e. 0 0  . 0 0 0 .16.4.4592 4.9540 0.1714 0.5399 79.1.4238 I ..4210 X 1 0 .4285 eij + aijo 1.5375 I .4383 x 1041d2 .0 138.0288 20.21.4063 x 1 0 .3385 10.6923 x 1031q2 4. we obtain the linearized differential equations for the threemachine system.5675 .1 15) 4..5035 X 104E63 + 5.1781 38. I058 Generator 2 (twoaxis) E.2 . &2 = = = 4. €21 W2 E.1. E63 & 3 = = = 63 = 4.4063T.0723 x 104Tm2 2.91 I7 4.6238 0 0 .1 14).4 f d 3 .7494 3.4307 X 1041d2 2.4.4 E ~ ~ 24.1 170 68.4.5463 1. which is o f the form WI E.4023 5.4333 8.9545 7 I .2 + 1.9380 X 1 0 .3.4 D 3 ~ 3 2.2.5472 42. + aiio) 0. 01 612 611 0.4 D z ~ 2 1.4076 52...6099 1.0800 I .5035 X 1 0 . I554 0 0 0 0.0944 X 1041d3 4.5919 I ..4210 x 10’Ei3 .3 .6270 3.2952 5 I .9205 2.3 + .4210 X i04E62 + 3. 0 .4063 x 104T.6334 x 1041q2 62 = w2 Generator 3 (twoaxis) rj.8347 0.054 I 85.10.0802 1 1 1 1 yijc0~(eij aijo) .1 13).3836 X 1041q3 w3 (9.2434 80..1 14) By using (9.12.0723Tb2 + lo‘ 4.] E.. Combining terms and . the currents are then eliminated in (9.6163 0.3.7292 X 104Ed3 + 2.4741 x 104E.4431 Y ~ ~ c o+s 6(i j~ )~ ~ o Yij sin (e. I I5).8629 0.1.0723b1 2.87 I4 132.4 E ~ ~ 34.156. IO86 78. The results are shown in (9.71 16 .9581 x 103E.aij0) I .5035 E.58.9314 x 104Ei2 + 2.9766 0 2.4111 0 0 0 0 0.150. Nodes Yij eij Preliminary Calculations for ThreeMachine System 12 13 23 I .4063 D 0 10.
3 Repeat Example 9.022984 0.034636 Since this is a special case of uniform damping ( D / s j = 0).5. I&). we find that the dominant frequency is about 1. is such that 8.010373 0. The eigenvalues are XI A2 = = = = X3 A4 As = 0..] = E F DT~ 2 E F D Tm3I m ~ The eigenvalues of the A matrix are obtained for the case of D I = D2 1 .000455 0. i z j .4 Hz respectively.000622 . a. and I. Obtain the A matrix and examine the system eigenvalues for stability. obtain the real matrices for I. .000529 .1. neglecting the amortisseur effects for the synchronous machine represented in detail (Section 4.396 Chapter 9 i where x' = [wI Ed2 Ei2 w 2 Ed3Ei3 w3 U' = [ T m I ' = AX + BU a12a].1 If the 90".o. These frequencies are the rotor electromechanical oscillations and should be very similar to the frequencies obtained in Example 3. b. for each ma. VdO. while the long period frequency has disappeared.002664 k j0. and angles. = G 2 . Thus if we plot P I 2 from the data of Figure 3.15. 9.000129 All the eigenvalues have negative real parts. using the synchronous machine model called the oneaxis model (see Section 4. and the angles 6120 and 6130. From a loadRow study obtain the system Rows. I.000622 + j0. derive the general form of the matrixm. 9.5.034648 0.5 Linearize the voltagebehindsubtransientreactancemodel of the synchronous machine.4 Hz.40) for a twomachine system with G. 9. The dominant frequencies are about 2.1).8 For the ninebus system of Section 2.j0.. . E ~ oand E.89) for a threemachine system with zero transfer conductances. = 9.034648 0. chine. which checks with the data obtained here.000199 + j0.2 For the conditions of Problem 9.7 Develop (9.000529 j0. the system order is reduced by one.8. 9.j0.4. IO the dynamic stability of the postfault system (with line 57 open) is to be examined.j0. 9. using the results of Problem 9. 9.j0. reduced to the generator nodes.002664 .1 Hz and 1.022983 0.4).O. = 0.000281 0.010366 0.002459 .O pu.3.002459 + j0. V.034636 0.000199 .j0. The frequencies corresponding to the electromechanical oscillations are almost unchanged. .016644 = X7 X8 X9 = = = 0.000458 0. voltages.. using a library computer program. Calculate the initial position of the q axes. They are XI X2 X3 X4 = = = = = D3 = 0. Compare with (9. 9.4 Repeat Example 9.15. c. and the system is stable for the operating point under study. The generator powers are the same as those of prefault conditions.016659 0 = X7 As X9 = = = 0.8.022984 0. in terms of V and V. Problems matrix of the network.000129 0. A similar run was obtained for the same data except for D I = D2 = D3 = 0.6 Repeat Example9.022983 0.
J. IEEE Trans. Analysisof Faulted Power Sysiems. IEEE Trans. W. Laughton.. IEEE Power Engineering Society Tutorial. Ames. Int. .Multimachine Systems with Constant Impedance l o a d s 397 References I. Evaluation of concepts for studying transient stability. M. IEEE Paper C 74 3968. Proc. PAS87:83544. Formation of the coefficient matrix of a large dynamic system. F. J. 1973. Undrill. New Liapunov functions for power systems based on minimal realizations. presented at the Summer Power Meeting. W. 1972. Van Ness. Control 19:l14. PAS91:206477.. G. PAS87:8084. Pal. Paul M. pp. M. Anaheim. K. J. Int. M. Pai. Calif. Spec. 9. 2. PAS87:7380. 1966. 7. and Dandeno. 70 M62PWR. and Goddard. F.. Tinney. 3. 1968. A partial stability approach to the problem of transient power system stability. Willems. Prabhashankar. Dynamic stability calculations for an arbitrary number of interconnected synchronous machines. P. Janischewskyj. A. 5360. P. Prabhashankar. IEEE Trans. Conrrol 1940115. 4. 1970. 5. A. E. 1974. W. L. J . K. 1974. 1974. and Murthy. M. Matrix analysis of dynamic stability in synchronous multimachine systems. Iowa State University Press. K.. 1968. IEE (British) I13:32536. Anderson.and Janischewskyj. J . 6. 1968. W. Publ. 8. Simulation of the nonlinear dynamic response of interconnected synchronous machines (in two parts). IEEE Trans. IO.. Digital simulation of multimachine power systems for stability studies. Statespace representation of multimachine power systems.
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Part 111 The Mechanical Torque Power System Control and Stability P. M. Anderson .
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Mostly. Watt’s governor is extensively treated in the literature of that era and even some elementary quantitative analysis is evident in works prior to 1850 [2]. identified the instability of an early governor design as being due to a positive eigenvalue [6]. Thompson (Kelvin). and I. Stodola (1893/94). J. these works consisted of attempts to solve the differential equations by classical methods and did not present a generalized theory of feedback control. the control dynamic problems inherent in feedback systems were not recognized until the second half of the 19th century. was presented in textbooks and handbooks. The speed governor in the figure is a speed transducer. Many of the prominent engineers and scientists of that era made contributions to the description and analysis of governors. the governing is accomplished by a speed transducer. However. M.1 shows the system block diagram for a steam turbine generator. and one or more forcestroke amplifiers. By the end of the 19th century. Siemens. C. Hammond [5] notes that J. B. James Watt first applied a centrifugal governor to a steam engine in about 1788. but it is placed in a modern setting and is attacked with the tools of the control engineer developed in this century. J. Figure 10. Mayr [2] lists the earliest contributors to this quantitative theory as G. B. W. Lyapunov (1892). The mechanical flyball governor of Watt and Boulton came into wide use during the early 19th century and easily outstripped competing devices. L. Vyshnegradski. Over 100 references on the subject are given in the Royal Society of London Catalogue of Scientific Papers. and A. writing in 1868. During the 19th century interest in speed governing intensified and a number of scholarly papers were written on the subject. have been in use since the late 1700s. A. C. These include C. C. Hurwitz (1895). Maxwell. I. and was even the subject of historical studies [2]. Maxwell. A. Airy (1840/5l). The dynamic problems associated with speed governing almost certainly provided the incentive for establishing the mathematical theory underlying automatic control. J. Routh (1877). such as the float valve regulator of French design. E. the output of which is typically the position (stroke) of a rod that is therefore pro 401 . There is evidence that he considered a patent application for his governor and probably decided against it because of earlier patents for similar centrifugal devices used to regulate the speed of water wheels and windmills in the milling industry [l. 21. a comparator. Maxwell (1868). Foucault. Pontryagin [4] refers to the work of the Russian engineer Vishnegradski (published in 1876) as of “complete clarity and simplicity” and credits him as being the originator of automatic controls (in Russia). the dynamic speed control problem had been thoroughly documented in the technical literature. The treatment in this book is therefore the restatement of a very old problem. especially centrifugal flyball governors.chapter 10 Speed Governing Prime mover governors. J. 18001900 [3]. W. In a steam or hydraulic turbinegenerator system. Vyshnegradskii (1876). I.
Examples are given in Appendix F. including the penstock. This same figure also describes a hydraulic turbine control system if the valve position is changed to a gate position and the steam valve block is considered the wicket gate and hydro turbine system. similar equations can be derived for other types of governors.27 of Appendix A). Our motive is not to present any given system as being superior to others but to derive a typical mathematical model that will increase our understanding of the governor as a control system component and allow us to analyze systems similar to that of Figure 10. or voltage) for comparison against the reference.4 [4. This controls the pressure downstream from the orifice. This approach is used because mechanical devices are easy to understand and analyze. The analysis followed here is based largely on the mechanical flyball governor. The amount of governor oil flow is determined by the pressure produced by the governor oil pump. it will be convenient to use several of the control system component descriptions and formulas given in Appendix A. Speed sensing may also be done electromechanically by coupling a small generator to the shaft. 10. All three have the same essential components: the flying weights (flyballs). In writing the governor equations. 61. and because they are still widely used.2 shows three examples of flyball governors as conceived by different designers..3 (also see Figure A. or electrical device. portional to speed. then there are two forces acting . If we assume that the gravitational force is negligible compared to the centrifugal force F. the output pressure of which is only onefifth or so that of the main pump pressure. which is used to control the throttle setting through a hydraulic control system. and a mechanical linkage that changes a shaft or collar position as the speed changes. An example of a hydraulic governor is shown in Figure 10. and the subsequent amplification of the error. the restraining spring (speeder spring). However. These electrohydraulic systems have high sensitivityand fast response. In Figure 10. The force that controls this position error is small and must be amplified in both force and stroke. hydraulic. It must measure shaft speed and provide an output signal in an appropriate form (position. a main oil pump supplies highpressure hydraulic fluid that flows through an orifice to the governor oil pump.1 The Flyball Governor Consider the flyball governor shown in Figure 10. The centrifugal flyball governor has historically been used for this purpose. This is the purpose of the two amplifiers labeled speed relay and servomotor. Such devices are not widely used for central station speed governors. In most cases. pressure. Figure 10. The speed transducer is the heart of the governor system and may be a mechanical.3. the output voltage or frequency of which is speed dependent.402 Chapter 10 Load Reference Position Fig.1. This stroke is mechanically compared to a preset reference position to give a position error proportional to the speed error.1 Block diagram of steam turbine control system from [I I ] with permission. the governor pump pressure varies as the square of the speed. 10. The newest governor designs use highspeed electronic logic to control electrohydraulic forcestroke amplifiers.
.2 Examples of centrifugal flyball governors.Speed Governing 403 Arms Governor Travel Fig. 10.
404 Chapter 10 Turbine Shaft Main Oil Pump I Governor Fig. . The reference position r is adjusted to correspond to the desired speed.the peripheral velocity v. and a downward spring force Fsacting on the throttle rod. and the radial displacement R of the mass m: Fig. 10.4 A flyball governor. 10. on the flyballcrankann system: an outward centrifugal force Fc acting on the masses.3 A hydraulic governor. The total outward force Fc on the two flyballs depends on the mass m. the downward force of the spring.
. as follows: Fib sin a = Fsa sin a 1 2 1 2 (10.BXI . and R is in meters.6) mx. relating the governor speed to the turbine shaft speed through the gear ratio N.4) where Fc is in Newtons. we s u m the forces on the ballhead using Newton’s law: (10.C. = 2mN2(d. = Z Forces = .. actual spring force.1) as (10.. o is in radians per second.8) Fig. we can relate Fi to Fs. we can relate R to x1 and x as follows: xl = R .5. Then the ballhead force Fc may be written in terms of F.7) where Fi is the force due to the spring and BXl is the force required to overcome friction.Speed Governing 405 (10.5 Crank arm geometty and forces.2) *=No we can write (10.x x as (10. = bla is the lever ratio constant. By simple geometry.5) where C.FC Fi 2 2 (10. (10. 10.3) Fc = 2mMRo2 N (10. using Figure 10.1) Using the familiar relation between peripheral velocity v and shaft angular velocity JI we can write v=RJI Now. both the applied at the ballhead.d = x b a = C x R=dC. m is in kg.x)oZ NOW. Equating moments about the pivot.
5) on the total mass 2m.XO)OA 2mX~ 2 B x ~ (K. Equation (1 0.9) about a steadystate operating point (subscript 0 ) from which we will study small deviations (subscript A).14) which is a linear differential equation in the variables rA. which we shall call F.2mN2&)X~ = + + (10.15) Fib = K.11) where we define an effective spring constant K.x ) Cr = 2mN2(d .Upon linearization we can write (10. but the coefficients. direction (see Figure 10. there may be backlash in the gears and dead zones in the pivots or other mechanical connections.16) .5) x I = Crx and the entire equation can be written in terms of the variables x and w with the result 2mP K . and their derivatives. r .. The ballhead force Fc acts in the x .12) into the system equation (10.9) where K: is the spring constant of the speeder spring.12) At the quiescent points.x ) Cr Cr (10.xA + K. This force creates an equivalent force in the x direction. Thus.. from (10. + 2Bk.C r x ) d = 2mx + 2Bx + K? (d Cr (10. In order to gain a better grasp of governor behavior. with x. we linearize (10.406 and solve for F i with the result Chapter 10 a 1 F i = F s. and wA. which introduces nonlinearities that are not continuous functions of x. Fd is a function of both x and o. This is rm justified since the speed will deviate f o its rated value only by small amounts in normal operation. w.xA. Furthermore.11) and using (10. substituting (10. From Figure 10. can not be expected to be linear over a large range of x and x.1 1) must still be = satisfied..F s.9) into (10.13) to simplifl the result. This gives the qui (10. particularly K. and B. we write (10.1 1) shows clearly the nonlinearities of the system.  Kl(r . . we compute KJA  4mN2wo cr (d . (10.C.C r x ) d Clearly.6) and (10. Not only are the products and quadratic terms nonlinear. = KYCZ.7) we have 2mx.10) Now. escent condition = io 0.Ki(r . Substituting (10.5 we readily compute Fd = CrFc = 2mPCr(d .oA (10.C r x ) d (10.13) Now.
This equation is algebraic and specifies that a reduction in speed results in an immediate increase in x.18) will reach steady state much faster than the turbine shaft. is always positive. The assumption of linearity is justified since deviations from synchronous speed are small.K J x A (10.. we know that the solution of (10. applied first to a forcestroke amplifier that drives the throttle. < K. .17) Using these defined constants in (10.18).. is an important parameter in governor design. It determines the natural frequency of oscillation of the governor from (10.20) Furthermore. 1 2ms2+2Bs+(KsKx) Fig.K. more commonly. can be applied directly to the throttle valve or. it is obvious that the system is unstable when K.rA .Speed Governing 407 where we define the positive constants The Ballarm Scale K.. or a well"tuned" governor may respond in a critically damped mode. Since a reduction in speed would normally accompany an increase in load on the turbine.6 Block diagram of a linear speed governor.. 10. the increase in x. .19) which will be sufficiently accurate in the longer time span of interest. Since the governor is physically small and it controls a massive turbine. as an estimate.19) is commonly used to represent governor behavior in power system simulations. (10. The linear equation (10. Therefore. Therefore.= 4mN2Cr(d Crxo)o. the frequency of oscillation and the damping ratio are determined by the coefficients on the righthand side of (10. we will neglect the governor oscillatory behavior to write. The variable x. In any event..14) the system equation becomes K.18). We are interested primarily in the motion of the turbine shaft. from the block diagram of Figure 10. from which we compute (10.. We would expect a response that is probably oscillatory when a step change is made in or OJ.18) Taking the Laplace transform of this linear equation we can visualize the computation of x. = . should be in a direction to further open the throttle valve.  aFi dw 1 0 The Ballhead Scale (10.. which relates to the throttle rod motion. a minimum spring stiffness exists for satisfactory operation.. and K. even for large disturbances such as faults on the generator terminals. The spring constant K.6.wA = 2 m X ~ ~BXA (K. The linear equation of motion of the governor is a secondorder equation.
> 0. A simple manipulation of this position will cause a change in x and eventually.4 and (10. From (10.21) is given in Appendix F. must be added. Adding these forces to (IO. which is recommended for further reading. has two components. which consists of a flyball governor. we need to represent only the steadystate hydraulic reaction force. which is recommended for further reading on the subject. will cause o to seek a new steadystate value. a spool (pilot) valve.17) this means that d > Cp. Consider the system shown in Figure 10.19) except that a new force. and a piston that is capable of exerting a large linear force. which we write as simply Fh = KhXA (10. 10. but we see from Figure 10.408 Chapter 10 Also note that the system is designed for correct operation with K . is in fact the speed re$ erence. Since the valve transient period is very short compared to the turbine response time. or Bernoulli force. However.7 The isochronous governor. This is accomplished by means of a hydraulic amplifier or servomotor (see Appendix E). ...7..19).and may be either a stabilizing (closing) or a destabilizing (opening) force [7]. the governorplusspool valve equation can be written as Pilot J Valve 1 Flow Control Valve Fig. the force available to move a throttle mechanism in the x direction is small and the displacement is usually small as well. A detailed discussion of (10. This hydraulic reaction force. Therefore. Finally. and a transient component that is proportional to i. *Portions of the development here and in subsequent sections are similar to the treatment in Raven [7]. the hydraulic reaction force due to the spool valve. note carefully that rA. a steadystate component that is always proportional to x and acts in a direction to close the valve orifice.2 The IsochronousGovernor The flyball governors similar to those shown in Figure 10. what is needed is a forcestroke amplifier to magnify the stroke and exert a sufficient force to manipulate the valve.5) that this inequality always holds.2 are capable of sensing changes in speed and responding by making a small change in a displacement or stroke (x) according to Equation (10. 10. as the shaft responds.19).* The flyball governor equation is the same as (10.21) where the hydraulic reaction scale Kh depends on the orifice area gradient and the pressure drop across the orifice.acting through the spring constant K.
53).Speed Governing 409 KsrA .K. we have (10. we write K f l A = aIYA (10. To do this. This is designated hereafter by a subscripted capital R.27) (10.22) into (10. The coefficient of wAU = forming the following conceptual test.23) and solving for the piston displacement. The hydraulic piston moves in the +y direction as long as there is a positive x displacement of the spool valve.26) The leading coefficient is interpreted as the inverse of a time constant T~ in seconds (the may be simplified by perreader may wish to veri@ the dimensions).24) on the basis of the full load rating of the generator. . From Appendix J.24) and we see clearly the integrating effect of the hydraulic piston. It is convenient to normalize (10. Substituting (10.K. .25) Then (10.30) .28) Then the coefficient of oAU (10. causing a change in speed of *A= o . Equation (J.oA = (K.29) This is the same result as that discussed in Section 2.OR= RwR rads Substituting into (10. Thus (10.24) may be written in the Laplace domain as (10.7) since Fhproduces a reaction in the xA direction for an acceleration in the +xAdirection].23) where Kq is the spool valve volumetric flow per unit of valve displacement and a l is the piston area. with the result in (10. Assume the system is initially in the steady state QA 0) and at rated full load (reference) condition (rA= rR)when the load is suddenly dropped.22) where Kg = K.24) we compute (10.26) can be determined from (10.28). The new governor equation is basically the same as before except the xAcoefficient is largis er since the hydraulic reaction force is in opposition to the displacement [Fh subtracted from the righthand side of (10. with subscript u as follows.K.)xA + KhXA KgxA (1 0. we define the perunit (pu) quantities.3. Note that the spool valvepiston combination is in fact an integrator since the output y continues to increase as long as a positive x displacement exists.26) can be simplified to the normalized form (10. (10. + Kh.
9 General Block Diagram of a Control System [7. Note that the comparator is due to the flyball governor and the integration is due to the hydraulic servomotor. where 7. it is desirable to develop the incremental (linear) equations of the controlled plant. 1 (10. The control transfer function and feedback function are. It is not necessary here to provide a detailed analysis for large excursions since we are interested in the system behavior only in the neighborhood of the steadystate operating point.3 IncrementalEquations of the Turbine In order to study the performance of the governor.8.O in this problem.3 1) as noted in Figure 10. the turbinegenerator system.8 Block diagram of the isochronous governor. In the preceding section we developed the equations and the block diagram for the control section corresponding to an isochronous governor. The output of this control is the “manipulated variable” M(s) = yA(s).9 can be constructed [7. it will be useful to develop the system and control equations such that a block diagram similar to Figure 10. This variable would correspond to the steam valve stroke (or valve area) for a steam turbine or the wicket gate position (or gate area) for a hydro turbine. Command Signal 1 .9. 10. which corresponds to the valve position.1 Fig.30) is called an isochronous governor since it attempts to integrate the speed error until the error vanishes. so the command signal U(s)and the reference R(s) are identical. 10. respectively.9]. KgWR  10. 101. in this case. = KSKfR The integrating governor system described by (10. . As in many control system problems. Therefore.41 0 Chapter 10 Fig.8. A block diagram of the isochronous governor is shown in Figure 10. The input transfer function A(s) = 1. we can estimate the behavior by taking partial derivatives in this neighborhood.
.36) with the control equations of Figure 10. from Figure 10. Then. The flow control valve in Figure 10.9 can be evaluated in terms of the steadystate gain of each block [7]. = G.37) K = A(0) A that is. The term DwA is added to account for electrical load frequency damping and turbine mechanical damping. K1would be expected to have a normalized value of unity.35) and (10.36) which describes the inertial behavior due to any upset in torque.T. which in turn is a function of the valve stroke y.DoA P = U (10. . In a steam turbine. . but is approximately 0. we write the swing equation.. Finally.32) (10. The fluid flow rate W through the valve is proportional to the product of valve area A and fluid pressure P. W=k2P Then the incremental flow can be written as = kyP (10. The steadystate operation of the general control system block diagram of Figure 10.10. The relationship between Wand the developed mechanical torque ky is a direct one since all working fluid entering the turbine produces torque with no appreciable delay [lo121. For the purpose of this elementary model. Suppose we define for this purpose the steadystate gain functions K. in the steady state. from (5. we can construct the system block diagram shown in Figure 10.33) For the analysis in this chapter we will consider the pressure to be constant such that we may write wA = kyYA (10.6 in steam turbines due to valve nonlinearities [ 111.38) .78): 2 H h ~ TmA. Combining the plant equations (10. Usually. the valve is designed such that valve area is linearly related to stroke (see Appendix F. (10.34) where ky is a positive constant.7.8.7 admits steam (water for a hydro turbine or fuel mixture for a combustion turbine) as a function of valve area. There are also lags in hydro turbine systems (see Chapter 12). function generators). we determine the gain of each block with s replaced by zero. where the output speed C(s) = o is controlled by the governor.35) where we combine the two constants Kt and Ky into the single positive constant K .9 we can write. we include a simple firstorder lag T~for the turbine control servomotor system to write (10. there is a lag associated with the control valve steam chest storage and another greater lag associated with the reheater (see Chapter 11).Speed Governing 41 1 We now seek a general relationship for the plant transfer function Gp(s) the disturbance and function N(s) for a turbine.(O) Kp = Gp(0) K N = N(0) KH = H(0) (10.
is put o.39) Since K. but the transient response also needs to be considered. o . A I Fig. changes. = lim sa rls(l + 7.412 Chapter 10 Z. I Fig.. for the isochronous governor K.s) m  (10. c = D/2H.40) and the steadystate o is a constant for any T. The transient response of the isochronous governor can be evaluated by plotting the roots of the openloop transfer function or OLTF on the complex plane. following any deviation in speed.11 Steadystate operating characteristic of the isochronous governor. This is a desirable steadystate characteristic. The system is Tm . Another view of the steadystate operating characteristic of the isochronous governor is shown in Figure 10. Indeed. T i means that.is plotted against the controlled out. .For each setting of the reference. is infinite. the controller will drive the system until rAand CgwAare equal. For the isochronous system we can write OLTF= rls(l + rp)(D+ 2Hs) cg  K s(s + b)(s + c) (10. >r.1 1. constant from (10.12 for a typical small value of c and a larger value for b. even if the load torque T.41) The where we define the constants b = l/rs. where the manipulated variable T. 10. and K = K1Cg/2Hrlrs. For the system of Figure 10. the error E must be zero for steadystate operation.10. >r.10 System block diagram for the isochronous governor. the steadystate performance equation for zero error becomes wss rss = cg 1 = Rrss (10..T I r.40). or the steadystate speed is independent of load torque. Now.. this is the hs unique characteristic of any integral control system. 10. root locus plot is sketched in Figure 10.
+ Kh)XAk K. .Speed Governing 41 3 Fig. 10.K. for small displacements. we s u m forces in the x direction to write K. Using the notation of Section 10.44) where L =a + b. the system is unstable. Substituting into (10. . control.K. as (10. This governor is called a “speed droop governor” or a regulated governor. although having good steadystate characteristics.wA =0 (K. we can write the displacement equation. Using Kg = K. from (10. We conclude that the isochronous governor has a desirable steadystate operating characteristic.Wp (10.. and becomes unstable for low values of gain. we can again write.22).45) For the hydraulic piston. The mechanical feedback transforms the hydraulic integrator into an amplifier.” as shown in Figure 10. KqxA = alYA (10. A better control scheme for this application is to use proportional. which is used to increase the force and stroke of the governor throttle rod position. stable for small values of the gain K but will have a sluggish response since two roots are very near the origin.3 and (10..42) + K. Furthermore. This can be accomplished by using mechanical feedback in the form of a “summing beam.xA or k KhXA + K.XA = K. it the damping D is zero.46) .is very nearly unstable and with sluggish response for reasonable values of gain. 10.43) For the summing beam. rather than integral.43) we get (10. is sluggish in its transient response.K.(xA + X i ) .12 Root locus plot for the isochronous governor.4 The Speed Droop Governor The isochronous governor.13.23). this equation can be written as (10.
The first test is conducted at full (rated) load with the system operating at steadystate rated speed. in the steady state . Combining (10. in the s domain (1 0..49) Substituting (10.48) we perform two conceptual tests.47) we compute (10.e. we remove the load.45) and (10.48) To determine the normalized coefficients in Equation (1 0. (10. but with the reference held at the same position.47) This equation is normalized and rearranged to write.49) into (1 0. i.13 The speed droop governor.50) which means that the coefficient of rAu (10.41 4 Chapter IO Flow Control Valve Fig. 10.46) we have (10. allowing the speed to increase. in For the second test. The conditions for this test are.48) is unity.
48) is Cg= 1/R as in the isochronous case. the mechanical torque applied to the shaft. we write the perunit speed droop governor equation as (1 + T ~ S ) Y A = rA .14 Block diagram of the speed droop governor.56) Fig.. The result is the system of Figure 10. by definition. Note that r1can be adjusted by changing the ratio d L . The manipulated variable for this system is T. Comparing this diagram with Figure 10. is increased.54) Then (10.50). the steadystate speed is reduced.C G W ~ (10.14.37) using the factors (10.47) and using (10.Speed Governing 415 (10. IO.CguA (10.52) YR K ~ L R Thus. we can compute T. . In the steady state. we compute (10..51) where we recognize that the speed change in going from full load to no load is.14 with a single turbine representation using onetime lag. Clearly.15.aKs "R  where r1= alK&/aK&. Note that the integral control of the isochronous case has been replaced by an additional lag in the control system. The steadystate performance of the speed droop governor is analyzed from (10.. The governor block diagram is shown in Figure 10.53) _ .55) for the speed droop governor. Dropping the u subscript.. we interface the system of Figure 10. We will now examine the steadystate and transient performance of this system. Substituting (10. we see that the isochronous integrator l h l s has been transformed into the amplifier 1/(1 + 7. In order to analyze the performance of the speed droop governor. the coefficient of wAuin (10. to be Tmss = K1 ~ s= s K I(rss .s) by means of mechanical feedback through the summing beam. In particulary as T. RwR. together with the inertial torque equations derived in the previous section.8 for the isochronous case.5 1) into (10. the steadystate speed is now a function of both the reference setting rss and the generator load T.
. 10. and K = K. and c are exactly the same as for the isochronous case. I5 Typical system application block diagram. Note that. is the steadystate error. b. Note that the eigenvalues of the speed droop governor have much larger negative real parts than can be achieved for the isochronous governor. This means that the system can be satisfac Tm f I Fig.C. the steadystate operating characteristic may be visualized as the family of curves shown in Figure 10. . the steadystate speed is dependent on the shaft load T. c = D/2H. and that the higher loads cause a greater reduction in speed.41 6 I Chapter 10 Fig. IO.57) where a = llr. the root locus takes the form of Figure 10. we would expect to find r1< r. where E. The characteristic of Figure 10.56).. from (10. that the error E.16. Thus. This equation describes a family of parallel straight lines in the Tmoplane.Note that K. Also note.. each with Tmintercept K I and with slope K. = 27. for each setting of the reference. The transient response of the speed droop governor may be analyzed by plotting the root locus of the openloop transfer function (OLTfl: OLTF = K1 c g (1 + r1s)(1 + r$)(D + 2Hs)  K (s + a)(s + b)(s + c) (10. whereas it was always integrated or reset to zero for the isochronous governor.1 1 for the isochronous governor.11 for the isochronous governor.Cg/2Hrlrs. A positive steadystate error signal is characteristic of a proportional control system. b = llr.17.16 should be carefully compared with the operating characteristic shown in Figure 10. being about typical [l 11. In most physical systems. with r.16 Steadystate operating characteristic of the speed droop governor.. Thus. is always greater than zero. Compare this plot with that of Figure 10.
The improvement in transient response is accomplished by moving the pole which is well to the leR in at the origin. We can analyze the closedloop governor behavior by writing the closedloop transfer function for a given electromagnetic torque.Speed Governing 417 '\ \ Fig.17. Overall. torily operated at much higher values of gain and with improved damping and smaller settling time. the performance of the speed droop governor is preferred because of its better transient response. for the isochronous governor case.( U ~ C K ) + m= >O a+b+c The latter of these constraints may be simplified by converting into the form (10. T.17 Root locus for the speed droop governor.59) K < (a + b)[c2+ (a + b)c + ab] (10.60) . Figure 10. 10.58) s3 1 (a (ab + bc + ca) s2 S I + b + c) m (abc + K ) so (abc + K ) 0 0 Then the necessary conditions for stability are found to be a. to s = a = UT]. c > 0 K>O (a + b + c)(ab + bc + CU) . b.as (10.
In the root locus plot of Figure 10. wA = KJIs s3 + (a + b + c)s2 + (ab + bc + ca)s + (abc + K ) (10. the net error is usually small. although it may vary slightly with the opervary with the lever ratio alL since we define.13. (10. increasing a1L increases R and decreases which increases the stability margin. we compute the response of the system to a step increase in reference rA(or a step decrease in TeA).61) Since the damping D is always a stabilizing force. Frequency corrections can be made by adjusting the reference thumbscrew T.18 for two different values of the regulation R (ignoring any oscillatory behavior). we examine (10.50).62) Now T~and H are fixed positive constants.47) ating point. as a limiting case @A(w) = (10. Finally. From (10. we note that increasing the ratio alL moves the flyball connection with the summing beam to the right.7. but as the load cycles up and down. and reduces the governor time constant. if D = 0. This increases the negative feedback. The quantities R and r1 and (10.17.13.16. Because of the change in speed that takes place with changes in load. . This thumbscrew is usually driven by a governor speed changer (GSC) electric motor.65) or. this increase in alL moves the pole at s = a farther to the left.64) From the final value theorem we write (10. substituting gains and time constants and simplifying. The droop or slope of the locus is rarely changed in operation. increases the droop. with rA= A h .41 8 Chapter 10 or. Each new setting of the reference moves the torquespeed curve (labeled r l .66) The response to a step increase in the reference rAis shown in Figure 10. The gain K1 is a function of the control valve and turbine design and is fixed for a given system. from (10.61) for the case where D = 0 to compute 3 < 2 4 $ + +) R (10. From Figure 10.63) Thus. The speed droop governor is widely used for governing steam turbines and combustion turbines. we get (10. r2.or r3)to a new position in Figure 10. Hydro turbines often use a special kind of speed droop governor discussed in Section 10. the speed droop governor does not hold the frequency exactly constant.shown in Figure 10.58) we have.
)xA + bKh L (10. we write. b a Y b = F x A . Here.5 The FloatingLever Speed Droop Governor Another speed droop governor design is the floating lever governor shown in Figure 10.A positive R movement in y i produces an upward force F due to the hydraulic piston acting at R. KJA .68) or. However. with L = a + b. the mechanical feedback acts directly on the servomotor pilot valve rather than on the speeder spring. 10.K. 10.71) (10.70) we get (10.67) where P is the pressure of the hydraulic supply.K. The equations of motion of the floating lever governor are determined as follows. that is.69) and (10.wA = (Ks .13. the effect is the same as the design of Figure 10. substituting from (10. These forces are computed in the usual way to write (10.19(a).EYA Kqyb = a l L A Combining (10.Speed Governing 41 9 0 Fig. LFG + bFp = 0 (10. Summing moments about R in the clockwise sense. The force FG acting at point G on the walking beam is that produced by the governor and is positive for a drop in speed or an increase in the reference position.69) Now we can also write the summing beam displacement equation and the hydraulic servomotor equations in the usual way.18 Step response of the speed droop governor. This results in a positive change in y i with its associated hydraulic reaction force of the pilot valve acting on the point P.67).70) .
69) is normalized in the usual way to write rAu .72) . 10.420 Chapter 10 (a) Schematic diagram Flow Control Valve (b) Free body diagram of the walking beam Fig. where Equation (10.TIS)YAu (10.cgoAu = (l $.19 The floatinglever speed droop governor.
72) identical with ( 0 5 ) Note.3. fined differently for the two governor designs. is the compensated governor shown in Figure 10. 10.20 The compensated governor. Equation (10.This governor incorporates an added feedback that gives it a unique operating characteristic. We have observed that the speed regulation provided by proportional (drooping) control is important in providing good response and also contributes to the stability of the prime mover Increase ROW Decrease Wow\ \ Flow Control Valve Fig.6 The Compensated Governor Another important governor design that is widely used. 10. . particularly in the control of hydraulic turbines. that the time constant T~ is deis 1.Speed Governing 42 1 where and Cg= 1 R f. however.20.
it is helpful to break the system into subsystems and write the force and displacement equations for each subsystem. Still. the governing is a stable isochronous operation.20. As long as the piston location z remains at its steadystate equilibrium position. Thus. it causes transmitting piston u2 to be displaced downward. These objectives are met in the compensated governor design of Figure 10. Suppose that walking beam cd were disconnected. This is particularly important on isolated systems where only one. for which we write both a displacement and a force equation.” which is a governor with two values of regulation. the speed of entry or escape depending on the needle valve orifice area. without lever cd the compensated governor would act isochronously. In doing this. we can write equations for the forces acting at G and G’ as functions of the displacements x and X I . increasing the turbine power gradually and restoring the flyweights to their normal positions. Then. tending to close the pilot valve. the flyweights must also be in their equilibrium position if the pilot valve is held closed. The two values of droop are called the “temporary” and “permanent” droops and are both adjustable within certain limits. the ballhead would return to the same position when the receiving piston (z) returns to equilibrium. The time required to change from the temporary to the permanent droop is also adjustable. this will cause receiving piston u3 to move upward. which is held in its steadystate position by a spring.A22 Chapter IO system. or a very few. and y. if there were no permanent droop through lever cd. The first subsystem is the flyball governor system shown in Figure 10. the larger droop provides stability and the smaller droop provides good speed regulation in the long term.(xA + x i ) .21. As piston ul moves in the +y direction. The mechanical feedback provided by the summing beam cd provides a temporary droop exactly as in the design of Figure 10. machines control the frequency. but is isochronous in the long term. Using the methods developed in previous sections.13. the pilot valve (u). that the hydraulic chamber also contains a needle valve that will allow hydraulic fluid to move in or out of the chamber slowly. The resulting speed deviation is gradually removed by slowly correcting the speed back to a second (relatively low) value of droop. we can write (10. The added feedback involves a floating lever system ab connecting the speeder rod (x).74) F&= K. however. Thus. and of the speed o. The principle of operation is to provide a given (relatively large) droop in response to fast load changes.KJA + KmwA The second subsystem is the upper summing beam shown in Figure 10. This gives the governor both a permanent and a temporary droop characteristic. This need is satisfied by the “compensated governor. or (10. To analyze the compensated governor. it would be desirable to have the governor hold nearly constant speed (frequency) if possible. Since the hydraulic fluid in the chamber connecting pistons a2 and u3 is trapped. Thus. For incremental displacements. This means that.K.(xA G + x A) + KGA . but it would do this in a special way. pushing against its spring. it is essential that the defined positive directions of all variables be used in summing forces or moments.oA (10. If the smaller value of droop is zero. following a disturbance. and a receiving piston of area u3.22(a).Thus the force acting at G can be written as F = K. The compressed spring on piston u3 will slowly force this piston downward. each of which is adjustable. u.73) The force at G’ is equal and opposite to this force. the governor provides a temporary droop characteristic. an increase in load would cause the governor to respond to positive displacements in x.75) . Note.
Summing moments about R in the clockwise sense.Speed Governing 423 Fig.21 The flyball governor subsystem. 10.77) where L2= a + b.22 Mechanical beams of the compensated governor.78) (10.79) c G' h d S R Y F. for incremental displacements (10.oA + LlFS A (10.' (a) Upper Summing Beam 1' $ A 4 (b) Pilot Valve Summing Beam (c) Compensator Summing Beam Fig. 10. where LI= c + d.(xA + xA) .22(b) we can write. .C K ~+ cK. Then summing moments about G in the clockwise direction we have XMG = 0 = aFp + L2FB or (10. we compute 8MR= 0 = cF6 + LIFs = cK.76) For the pilot valve beam of Figure 10.
82) with the result (10. The final subsystem is the hydraulic piston or ram shown in Figure 10.84) for this subsystem.22(c) is nothing but a lever for which we can write the displacement equation e Yd = YA f (10. and other quantities are as previously defined.80) and.and the load mass is small compared to this force. If load force and mass are important considerations.81) where Psis the supply pressure behind the hydraulic ram and a l is the ram area. Here. we write the equations for the forces acting at B and E as (10.82) The equation for the volumetic discharge rate of fluid through the needle valve is C$'A =a3k . 10.86) Fig.23 on an enlarged scale.81) and (10.76) we compute (10. the complete equations for the piston should be written (see Appendix E). This completes the subsystem equations. . is the needle valve constant in ft5/slbf or in3/spsi.24. We now collect the equations necessary to describe the total system behavior.85) But F. may be calculated from (10.75) and (10. Since the available force Fs is usually much greater than the load FV. The compensator system is shown in Figure 10. summing moments in the clockwise sense about N.a3ZA (10. we write only the integrator equation KquA = aIYA (10. From (10.23 The compensator system.424 Chapter 10 The compensator beam of Figure 10. C.83) where P A is the incremental pressure change in the chamber in Ibf/ft2. (10.
79) we can write (10.90) from which we can find P A as a function of zAand yA.92) where we define r2= CdK r3= But r3may also be Written as (1 0. .80) we compute (10.84) we compute (10. Substitutinginto (10.91) which is the desired equation for the compensator.85) and rearranging.94) a 3 ea I a3L2Kq + afa 1c&h fa:L2CdK&q (10.82) and (10.83) and beam equation (10.93) where 6' is defined as the coefficientmultiplying r2.91) may be written in the form 7 y = ZA 3b + 72iA (10. 10.88) Also. from (10. Note that (10.Substituting this result into (10. we have From compensator equation (10.89) and using (10.Speed Governing 425 Fig.24 The hydraulic piston subsystem.88) and simplifyingwe have (10.
Now. if the load is removed and the reference is held at rR the speed will reach wA = RwR at steady state and (10.96) becomes (10. where 6' is given by (10. Now.) ea2L:Kz (10.100) Using (10.101) and the coefficients of wAu in the normalized equation (10. then we also have zA = ZA = 0 as well. we can write .100) we compute (10. if we arbitrarily let Z. In performing these tests.96) are determined from fullload and noload steadystate tests.87) and (10.102) Equation (10.94).426 Chapter 10 We may also define. and that this always holds in the steady state. coefficient of (10.99) in (10.87) bcKs 2fa3Ks Then the system equations (10.96) Equation (10.98) or (10. we note from (10.96) can be normalized in the usual way to write (10.99) YR and the ?&. equation (10.97) The coefficients of (10.K.then (10.103) If we multiply the compensator equation by K and define 6 = KS'. from (10. At full (rated) load and rated speed at steady state.96) that whenever y A = 0.97) becomes Cg = 1/R as before.95) 6 'r2$A =ZA + 72ZA (I 0.96) becomes (10. = yR.96) may be written as (10.97) is unity.102) may be written in a slightly improved form by defining a new variable vA = K?A rR _ _ (10.92) may be summarized as K= aLI(Ks.
12. Another form of the compensated governor derived by Ramey and Skoogland [ 13. The transient performance of the compensated governor is not easily analyzed using the manual root locus or Routh techniques because of the added compensation.104) Fig. The steadystate performance of the system shown in Figure 10. the system block diagram is that given in Figure 10. If (10. A computer root lo Fig.26 Alternate form of compensated governor representation [I 3.104) is written in the s domain. we again apply the governor as the controller in the system of Figure 10.Speed Governing 427 0.26 is analyzed using (10. This result was anticipated as the compensation signal vA goes to zero in the steady state. To analyze the performance of the compensated governor. .s I ( 10. 141 is shown in Figure 10.25 Block diagram of the compensated governor. Note that the signal vAwill always return to zero in the steady state and the system tends toward the speed droop governor similar to Figure 10.26.14 in the long term.105) This is exactly the same result obtained for the speed droop governor with no compensation. P IVA 1+z. The block diagram helps clarify the role of the compensation feedback and the derivative effect of the temporary droop 6.37) with the result (10.25. This form of representation is instructive as it directly parallels the permanent (R) and temporary (R6) droop factors and also shows the integrating effect of the servomotor in the absence of droop.15. 10.141. The result is the composite system shown in Figure 10. This is the desired system description.27.
speed droop. 1958.. one can use an analog computer or digital simulator to determine suitable values for all parameters and then examine the behavior in the s plane for further insight into the design optimization. Mechanics.. 136137. Boston. Prob1ems 10. .Opu S Cg=20pu Determine suitable settings for the gain K . References 1.26) is in inverse of a time constant in seconds. Plot the results. CataIog of Scientific Papers. pp. Use the following constants for all simulations. Cambridge. 1900.3 From Appendix E we find the mathematical statement in (C. ~ ~ = O . Pontryagin.27 Typical system application block diagram for the compensated governor. 2. MIT Press. cus method can be used for numerical results.2 Verify that the dimension of the leading coefficient on the righthand side of (10.4 Evaluate the function 1 . and 30 degrees. lrs = 0 .20. Give a physical explanation for the resulting effective spring constant of K. New York. in all governors and for the parameters S and r2in the compensated governor. 10. AddisonWesley. Subject Index. Otto.74s D=2. Hammond. Macmillan. 10. = K.L.'/C?. 1962. 10. Oxford. H. 1927. Feedback Theory and its Applications. The Origins of Feedback Control (translation of Zur FrGhgeschite der Technischen Regelungen). Cambridge. Ordinary Differential Equations. As an instructive alternative.1 Verify the development of equation (1 0. v. S. 4. and compensated governors. P. 10. but this requires a cut and try procedure to optimize the variable parameters in the system. W. Dickinson. James Watt and the Steam Engine. 3 s 2H=4. 1970. 10. find the expression for stability of the system.(sin 4Jsin 40)for values of C#J~ = 10. H. Mayr. Royal Society of London.32) that " m \ sin cpol Based on this premise. and for various positive values of +o between 0 and 75 degrees. 3. 5.5 Perform a computer simulation of the isochronous. 11.1 1).428 Chapter 10 Control ' I T A I Plant Fig.MA. and Rhys Jenkins. 18001900.
3439. November 27December 2. On Governors. and David M.Speed Governing 429 Maxwell. New York. G. G.. Wiley. Takahashi.1960. Ramey. 9. ASME Winter Annual Meeting. Auslander. Rabins. Herbert E. Project Report. Control andDynamic Systems. May 1969. C.M. W. . A. 12.. 8.pp. Boston. 16. 70M29PWR. Paper 60WA34. Pacific Gas and Electric Company. 1968. Proc. Royal Society of London. Introduction to the basic elements of control systems for large steam hrbinegenerators.M. Michael J. A. Hydraulic Control Systems. 1868... San Francisco. D. New York. P.Y. IEEE Tutorial Course. 14. J. Eggenberger. Hydro unit transfer functions. pp. N. IEEE pub. 11.. 490501. 1970. 13.. 6. Proc. Modeling Thermal Power Plants for Dynamic Stability Studies. 1970. Francis H. D. 10... 7. McGrawHill. GET3096B. Automatic Control Engineering.M. Skoogland. Raven. General Electric Co. 1967. 1970.. Ramey. 270283. 1972.. The Role of Prime Movers in System Stability. New York. AddisonWesley.Detailed hydro governor representation for system stability studies. pp. Merritt. Anderson. and J. A simplified analysis of the noload stability of mechanicalhydraulicspeed control systems for steam turbines. Sixth PICA Conf. v. Eggenberger. Yasundo.
The system dispatch computer sets the governor input signal to control the mechanical torque of the prime mover. = the mechanical torque output of the turbine in per unit Te = the electromagnetic torque or load of the generator in per unit Ta= the accelerating torque in per unit 430 . The servomotor output is a stroke or position YsM. The governor compares the speed reference or load control signal against the actual speed and drives the governor servo amplifiers in proportion to this difference.which indicates the position of the turbine control or throttle valves. and these flows are coordinated with neighboring utilities. Then. which are based on the economic dispatch of generation considering individual unit generation costs.chapter 11 Steam Turbine Prime Movers 1 1. as shown in Figure 11. The control center receives measurements of all generator outputs and compares these values with desired values. the control center can change the generation dispatch to economically meet the demand in the most efficient manner. Other types of prime movers are discussed in Chapters 12 and 13. which can be interpreted as a speed error. thereby assuring constant longterm system frequency. The fast dynamics of the generation of each unit is the solution of Newton’s law. computing a unit dispatch signal (UDS). The measurement of system frequency is used to assure adequate total generation to meet load and maintain rated speed.2. we concentrate on steam turbines and develop models that can be used to represent this type of machine in computer studies of the power system. which we write per unit as (11. where the governor input is set to hold constant speed or frequency. It compares the tie line flows with their scheduled values. Figure 11.1 Introduction We begin this chapter with some general considerations of prime movers and how they are controlled.1) where 7j = a time contant related to the unit moment of inertia in seconds w = shaft angular velocity in radians per second T. Note that this control is different on an isolated system. as the system load varies. Following this general overview of prime movers. The system control center measures the power produced by all generators and the interchange power with neighboring systems.1 shows on overview of a large power system and the generation control structure. Note that the control center does not measure the system loads. while still maintaining prudent reserves to assure adequate generation if unforeseen unit outages should occur.
the prime mover term in Figure 11. In general. In some modem thermal units. The governor compares the speed reference or governor speed changer (GSC) signal against the actual speed and drives the servomotor amplifiers in proportion to this difference.. as the output.. Finally.2 is a transfer function that relates the turbine control valve position to the mechanical (shafi) torque. the turbine should be represented in greater detail as an energy source transfer function. 1 Power system generationcontrol. . this block can be represented by a constant and in others it may be a simple firstorder lag. 1 I .Steam Turbine Prime Movers 431 rl SYSTEM TRANSMISSION NETWORK I I I 1 . which can be interpreted as a speed error. Loads System Tie Line Power Tie Line Frequency Reference Fig. The system dispatch computer determines the desired generator output and sets the governor input signal to control the mechanical torque of the prime mover..but this effect is secondary. which indicates the position of the turbine control or throttle valves. In some cases. to control simultaneously the turbine valve position. the boiler firing rate. if the system is to be studied over a long time period. singleoutput system with V. for example. and the condensate pumping rates. the energy source controller receives feedback signals from several points. The excitation system is used primarily as a voltage controller and acts much as a singleinput. including the generated power (or load control signal) and the turbine throttle pressure. The servo motor output is a stroke or position Y. There exists a crosscouplingto the torque output T. 1 Generator v Generation Unit Generated \ # ’ Syste.
such as a fan or pump outage. where the unit will respond only to changes in its own firing and pumping rates. 11. In this control mode. Then a backpressure control on the turbine changes to hold the throttle pressure constant. since limited energy storage is possible in the boilerturbine system. and very stable.3 is usually called the “turbinefollowing” control. even for a rapidly responding boiler. operate together to provide a given power output and.2 Block diagram of a generating unit. turbine following is seldom used because of its slow response and its failure to use the heat storage capability of the boiler in an optimal manner to aid in the transition from one generator load level to another. although it is sometimes referred to as “base boiler input” and “admission pressure control” systems (the latter mostly in Europe). In general. a load demand signal is used to adjust the boiler* firing rate and the fluid pumping rate. This backpressure control is very slow. Turbine following is also used in some modem complex systems when the boiler capability is limited for some reason. In this section.1 The turbinefollowing control mode The control system shown in Figure 11. Turbine following may be used on a baseload unit. *The term “boiler” used here should be taken in a general way to indicate a steam generator and that receives its thermal energy from either a fossil fuel or nuclear energy source. monotonic. the different control modes commonly used by the industry are presented and compared. As the boiler slowly changes its energy level to correspond to the demand signal. the pressure changes at the throttle (the turbine control valves).2 Power Plant Control Modes The controls of the steam generator and turbine in a power plant are nearly always considered to be a single control system. generator and turbine. 1 1.2.432 Chapter 1 1 PTs and VREF I + Tie Line Flqws xcitation System Fig. This is true because the two units. Thus the system response is very slow. 1 1. . It is often used in startup or initial stages of unit operation. the two subsystems must operate in unison under both steadystate and transient conditions.
4. If a change in demand exceeds the boiler stored energy. This control mode is shown in Figure 11. but even in these more complex controllers. This control mode is sometimes called the “conventional mode” or (in Europe) the combustion control mode. This control scheme divides the control function such that the governor responds directly to changes in load demand. the result may be an oscillation in steam flow and electric power output until the pressure reaches a final. The response is an immediate change in generator load due to a change in turbine valve position and the resulting steam flow rate. but also must account for the energy borrowed or stored in the boiler at the time the change was initiated. Many newer units employ a more complex control system in which all control functions are integrated into one master control.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 433 Fig. 11. boiler following is offered as an optional control mode that may be required if there are limitations in turbine operation. and is generally stable under constant load [ 11. pressure. 11. This type of system simultaneously adjusts firing rate. stable value. There also may be troublesome interactions between flow. . utilizes stored boiler energy effectively. The boiler “follows” this change and must not only “catch up” to the new load level.3 The coordinated control mode Most modern thermal generating units employ a control scheme that is usually called an integrated or coordinated control system. Throttle Pressure Fig. This type of control responds quickly. Boilerfollowing control is widely used as the normal control mode of many thermal generating units. Boilerfollowing control has the disadvantage that pressure restoration is slow and the control is nonlinear. 1 1.3 The turbinefollowingunit control system [I].2.2.2 The boilerfollowingcontrol mode A more conventional mode of boiler control is called “boilerfollowing” mode. particularly the older drumtype boiler units.4 The boilerfollowing unit control mode [I]. 1 1. and temperature variations.
. both pressure and generated output are fed back for the control of both boiler and turbine.____ e set Point COORDINATEDCONTROL SYSTEM d . In this type of control. e * . Such a coordinated control mode is shown in Figure 11. 1 1. pumping rate. A comparison of the three control methods described above is shown in Figure 11. and turbine throttling in order to follow changes in load demand. Both pumping and firing rates are made proportional to the generation error so that these efforts are stabilized as the load approaches the required value.5.. I I I I 1 3 4 Time in minutes 5 6 7 Fig.5 The coordinated control mode.6 i I 1 THROTTLE PRESSURE *e * .Sl Loaa IBoiler Fig. 9 .6 Comparison of the results of different control methods [2]. .. This is accomplished by making maximum use of the available thermal storage in the boiler. +. it is possible to achieve the stable and smooth load changes of the turbinefollowing mode and still enjoy the prompt response of the boilerfollowing mode. In this manner.."h. 11.434 rinng Chapter 1 1 Load P. Pressure deviation is controlled as a function of both the thermal storage and the generation error. 2 .
variations of the straight Rankine cycle are used. it is clear that coal is by far the largest energy source used in the United States. (5) A more complete designation of this source is hydro pumped storage. propane. sulfur. The steam used in electric production is produced in steam generators or boilers using either fossil or nuclear fuels as primary energy sources. and the most common machine for this production is the steam turbine. batteries. and lignite waste. this could change. diesel. A more descriptive way to compare these results is by plotting the numerical values. tires. wood liquors.644 358. kerosene. petroleum coke.27 2. We will not belabor these concepts here as our primary motive is to study the system operation and control.430 628.conventional Other (4) Pump storage (5) Other (6) (1) Includes coal.09 Percent 51. Department of Energy for the years 1997 and 1998. (2) Includes petroleum.831 92.040 3. The role of hydro generation is rather small taken on a national basis. but this may gradually change as the sources of fossil fuels are depleted or become more expensive to recover and process than nuclear fuels. chemicals. biomass (wood. municipal solid waste. (6) Includes hydrogen.61 9. (3) Includes natural gas. liquid butane.872. Nuclear generation uses fission reactors that operate by breakup of highmass atoms to yield a high energy release that is much greater than that produced from chemical reactions such as burning.727 497.Electric Power Industty by Energy Source in GWh Energy Source Coal (1) 1997. natural gas.S. agricultural byproducts. oil waste.949 73. but a thorough understanding of this important subject is available through many fine refer Table 11.72 3. wood waste. .11 0.57 15.905 1997. Fossil generation uses primarily coal. 1998.765 673. and photo voltaic. methane. culm. coke breeze. waste coal. and other gas. with the largest units now being over 1200 MW. This is true in many parts of the world.08 2. landfill gases. Here. and fish oils). U. The second largest in order of size is nuclear generation. and oil as fuels. bituminous gob. hydro is very important in certain regions. As coal becomes depleted or more costly to extract. however. By “thermal” generation we usually mean a system that operates on the physical principle of the vapor power cycle or Rankine cycle.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 435 1 1. liquid propane.3 Thermal Generation The most universal method of electric power generation is accomplished using thermal generation. GWh 1.1 Net Generation.S.76 2.763 4. butane.186 129.99 10. as shown in Figure 11. which is more dependent on this energy source. Percent 53. In the United States over 85% of all generation is by powered by steamturbinedriven generators [l].867 4. railroad ties. fine coal. at least for the time period represented. (4) Includes geothermal. such as the Pacific Northwest. wind. solar.137 1998. Usually. and tar oil. and purchased steam. pitch wood sludge.843. with two important innovations being the reheat cycle and the regenerative cycle.7.1. Fossil fueled plants generate the majority of the electrical energy. The size of these generating units has increased over time.581 72.65 14. which summarizes data compiled by the U.104 544.702 328.12 0. anthracite.12 0.01 0. The prevalence of thermal energy production in the generation mix of the United States is shown in Table 11. where the predominant energy generation depends on available local natural resources. waste heat.23 17. GWh 1. peat.08 Petroleum (2) Natural gas (3) Nuclear Hydro.05 18.478 2. waste gas. straw.
etc Pumped Storage Hydrogen.... in which the source of thermal energy is a steam generator Fig.7 Net generation by type of energy source....... 1998 (top line) and 1997..o 8 5 6 7 8 Petroleum NaturalGas Nuclear Hydro Geothermal... etc...... .. ences on the subject [251...5 .... Figure 11. 1 1..........436 Chapter 11 15x10 ... .. and those fueled by nuclear energy produced in a thermal reactor................. 1 1....8 The control system for a thermal generating unit.' 1 coal 3 6 8 1... as both types of plants must have a means of controlling the power output as well as the frequency.............. ...... Our objective here is to study the physical design of thermal power plants with the intention of understanding how these plants work and respond to controls.............. ............1 ' . k 0......... 2 i 3 i 4 .... .. i E: i. 0.........8 shows a block diagram of the controls for a thermal power plant.. 11..............4 A Steam Power Plant Model Steam power plants are of two general types: those fueled by fossil fuels such as natural gas or coal........... The overall unit control is largely independent of the source of energy..........0 I I I I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fig...
leaving the nozzle at high velocity as shown in Figure 11.9 (b). exciter. The term “boiler” is used here to designate any type of steam generator. impulse and reaction blading. Reaction blading operates on a different principle. The degree of detail required for computer simulation of the power system depends on the length of time required in the simulation. boiler following (adjusting firing rate to hold throttle pressure).8 would be applicable to these longerduration studies. network. The unit speed is used by the speed governor as a firstorder control on this parameter. and the speed or frequency (w). the type and arrangement of turbine blading is important in extracting all possible energy from the steam and converting this energy into the mechanical work of spinning the turbine rotor and attached electric generator. usually to a condenser. Internally. In that case. and may require some consideration of the dispatch system. The generated power of the unit is fed back to the control center so that any error in generated power can be corrected. giving the shaft a torque due to the unbalanced forces acting on the blade intake and exhaust surfaces. for example.10. The unit demand signal is set by the system dispatch computer based on the method of dispatch and on the level of load to be served. as illustrated in Figure 11. and the steam turbine and turbine controls. ease of maintenance. In transient stability studies of 110 seconds duration. Here the “nozzle” through which the steam expands is moving with the shaft. Two types of turbine blading are used. The speed governor acts as a continuous. it is seen that the longer the desired simulation. or a completely integrated or coordinated control that does both simultaneously. and speed governor. This is due to the many advantages of the steam turbine over reciprocating engines. This mechanism is much faster than the governor speed changer (GSC) adjustment of the boiler controller.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 437 that could utilize either fossil or nuclear fuel. automatic adjustments to unit speed in response to a speed error. the more system components that might enter into consideration. For very long periods of interest. Among these advantages are the balanced construction. Note also that the boiler controller can be turbine following (adjusting firing rate according to desired power). the U D S is hand set by the plant operator. the generated power (PGEN). at relatively low pressure and temperature. Studies of several minutes would usually require some consideration of the steam generator and steam system controls. the steam turbine consists of rows of blades designed to extract the heat and pressure energy of the steam. which is usually superheated. then it is probably necessary to add at least a simple boiler model to the simulation. Thus. relatively high efficiency. This kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy as the steam strikes the moving turbine blades and pushes them forward.5 Steam Turbines A large portion of the conversion of thermal to electrical energy occurs in steam turbines. Thus. it is common to consider the generator. and it may be necessary to consider the dispatch computer as well. and availability in large sizes. few moving parts. such as the generator. To accomplish this goal. proportional controller to make fast. 1 1. The input from the dispatch computer is optional and is not used when the unit is on local control. A somewhat more realistic picture of the combined impulsereaction blading is shown in Figure 11. need consider only those system components with response times of a few seconds. The boiler control inputs are the unit demand signal (UDS). Studies of system performance of a few seconds. the fastest responding components might be represented in a very simple manner and may not be required at all. and convert this energy into mechanical energy. highpressure steam is admitted through a set of control valves and allowed to expand as it passes through the turbine. In impulse blading. The two moving stages on . to be exhausted. If there is interest in extending the studies to several minutes.9 (a). The general block diagram of Figure 11. the steam expands and its pressure drops as it passes through a nozzle.
430
Chapter 11
Fig. 1 1.9 Two types of turbine blading.
the left of the figure are impulse stages, whereas those on the right are reaction stages. In many turbines, impulse stages are used at the highpressure, hightemperature end of the turbine and reaction blading at lower pressures. This is because there is no pressure drop across impulse stages and hence there is little tendency for the highpressure steam to leak past these stages without doing useful work. As the steam expands in passing through the turbine, its volume increases by hundreds of times. At the lower pressures, reaction blading is used. Here, the steam expands as it passes through the blading and its pressure drops. The steam velocity increases as it passes through fixed blading as shown in Figure 11.10, but it leaves the moving blades at a speed about equal to the blade speed. The impulse stage nozzle directs the steam into buckets mounted on the rim of the rotating disk and the steam flow changes to the axial direction as it moves through the rotating disk. In reaction blading, the stationary blades direct the steam into passages between the moving blades and the pressure drops across both the fixed and moving blades. In impulse blading, pressure drops only across the nozzle. In the velocity compound stages, steam is discharged into two reaction stages. The velocity stage uses a large pressure drop to develop a highspeed steam jet. Fixed blades then turn the partially slowed steam before it enters the second row of moving blades, where most of the remaining energy is absorbed. Because of the tremendous increase in the volume of steam as it passes through the turbine, the radius of the turbine is increased toward the lowpressure end. In many turbines, the steam flow is divided into two or more sets of lowpressure (reaction) turbines. Figure 10.1 1 shows several typical tandem compound configurations and Figure 11.12 shows several typical crosscompound designs. In some designs, the steam is reheated between stages to create a reheat cycle, as noted in the figures, which increases the overall efficiency. In other designs, a portion of the steam is exhausted from the various turbine pressure levels to preheat water that is entering the boiler, which is called a regenerative cycle system. The various valves that control the turbine operation are shown in Figure 11.12 and will be discussed in the order encountered by the steam as it moves through the system. Steam leaves the main steam reheater of the boiler at high pressure and is superheated, in most cases, to high superheat temperature. For example, a large fossil fuel unit uses superheated steam at 2400 psi and 1000°F for a 1.0 GW unit [15]. A modem 750 M W nuclear design uses 850 psi saturated (0.25 percent moisture) steam [16]. The steam heaters contain steam strainers
Steam Turbine Prime Movers
439
Steam Pressure
Fixed
t
Fixed
t t
Fixed
Fig. 1 1.10 Combined impulse and reaction blading [ 6 ] .
to catch any boiler scale that could damage the turbine. A typical steam generator and turbine system is shown in Figure 11.13 [7]. The main stop valve or throttle valve (#2 in Figure 11.13) is one means of controlling the steam admitted to the turbine. It is often used as a startup and shutdown controller. During startup, for example, other inlet valves may be opened and steam admitted gradually through the stop valve to slowly bring the turbine up to temperature and increase the turbine speed to nearly synchronous speed, at which point the governor can assume control of the unit. This mode of control is known as fullarc admission. The main stop valve is also used to shut off the steam supply if the unit overspeeds. The unit may be under automatic or manual control, but is usually controlled automatically through a hydraulic control system. A typical example of the several valves controlling a large steam unit is presented in Figure 11.13 [7]. This system is typical of many large steam power plants, having both superheater and reheater boiler sections and three separate turbines, representing high pressure (HP), intermediate pressure (IP), and low pressure (LP) units. The admission or governor valves, also known as control vaZves (#3 in the figure), are located in the turbine steam chest and these valves control the flow of steam to the highpressure turbine. In large units there are several of these valves, and the required valve position is determined by the governor (D in the figure). An overview of the turbine control for a typical steam power plant is shown in Figure 11.14. Steam is admitted through the main stop valves to a set of control valves and admission of steam into the high pressure turbine is regulated by a set of nozzles distributed around the periphery of the first stage of turbine blading. If only a few of the control valves are open, the
A40
Chapter 11
SingleCasing SingleFlow
t SingleCasing OpposedFlow
t
TwoCasing DoubleFlow Reheater TwoCasing DoubleFlowReheat
Reheater
ThreeCasing TrippleFlowReheat
Reheater
FourCasing QuadrupleFlowReheat
Fig. 1 1 . 1 I
Typical tandem compound steam turbine designs with single shaft [6].
steam is said to be admitted under partial arc of the first stage rather than through all 360 degrees of the circumference. This is called “partial arc admission.” Two types of overspeed protection are provided on most units. The first is the normal speed control system, which includes the control valves and the intercept valves. The second type of overspeed control closes the main and reheat stop valves, and if these valves are closed, the unit is shut down. Two types of control valve operation are used. In one type, the control valves are opened by a set of adjustable cum Zijlers, as shown in Figure 11.15. In this arrangement, the valves can be opened in a predetermined sequence as the cam shaft is rotated. In response to a load increase, the flow of steam to one input port may be increased and a closed port may simultaneouslybe cracked
Steam Turbine Prime Movers
44 1
Reheater
Reheater
t TwoCasing DoubleFlow TwoCasing DoubleFlowReheat
1
t
1
FourCasing QuadrupleFlowReheat
I
r""l
I
Reheater
FourCasing QuadrupleFlowReheat
FiveCasing SextupleFlowReheat
SixCasing SextupleFlowDoubleReheat
SixCasing OctupleFlowReheat
Fig. I 1.12 Typical crosscompound steam turbine designs with multiple shafts [ 6 ] .
442
Chapter 1 1
1rlll
Fig. 1 1.13
Example of a large boiler configurationshowing major system components and controls 171.
Steam Generator
I      I
Main stop Valve
Crossover
F
, , , ,I
Overspeed
Trin  _
'
I
I
High b Pressur
.
Intermediate Pressure
I I
I
Low PressureTurbines
n
Generator

Jr
! Valves L2&'

J .
Load
'
Intercept Valve Condenser Reheat

Reheater
Fig. 1 1 . I A reheat turbine flow diagram. 4
Steam Turbine Prime Movers
443
Fig. 1 1.15 Cam lift steam turbine control valve mechanism.
open. This distributes the steam around the periphery of the first stage, assuring a uniform temperature distribution and controlling the power input. The cam shaft is controlled by the governor acting through a power servomotor, as shown in Figures 11.13 and 11.14. The other type of steam admission control is called the “bar lift” mechanism. This type of valve control is shown in Figure 11.16; each valve in a line of valves is lifted using a bar, but each valve is a different length so that the valves open sequentially. As load is added to the turbine, the bar is raised and steam flow is not only increased to the firstopening valve, but additional valves are also opened. The separate valves feed steam to different input ports around the periphery of the firststage blading and thus increase the power input to the turbine. The bar lift is actuated by the governor servomotor through a lever arrangement.
Fig. I 1 .I6 Bar lift steam turbine control valve mechanism [2].
444
Chapter 1 1
The highpressure turbine receives steam at high pressure and high temperature, and converts a fractionfof the thermal energy into mechanical work. As the steam gives up its energy, it expands and is cooled. Steam is also bled from the turbine and piped tofeedwater heaters. This has proven economical in reducing the boiler size and also reducing the size required at the lowpressure end of the turbine. The turbine extraction points vary in number from one to about eight, the exact number being dictated by design and economy. In the reheat turbines, shown in Figure 11.14, the steam exhausted from the HP (highpressure) turbine is returned to the boiler in order to increase its thermal energy before it is introduced into the intermediatepressure (IP) turbine. This reheat steam is usually heated to its initial temperature, but at a pressure that is somewhat reduced from the HP steam condition. Following the reheater, the steam encounters two valves before it enters the IP turbine, as shown in Figures 1 1.13 and 11.14. One of these is the reheat stop valve and serves the function of shutting off the steam supply to the IP turbine in the event the unit experiences shutdown, such as in an overspeed trip operation. The second valve, the intercept valve, shuts off the steam to the IP turbine in case of loss of load, in order to prevent overspeeding. It is actuated by the governor, whereas the reheat stop valve is actuated by the overspeed trip mechanism. The IP turbine in Figure 1 1.13 is similar to the HP turbine except that it has longer blades to permit passage of a greater volume of steam. Extraction points are again provided to bleed off spent steam to feedwater heaters. The crossover, identified in Figure 1 1.14, is a large pipe into which the IP turbine exhausts its steam. It carries large volumes of lowpressure steam to the lowpressure (LP) turbine@). Usually, the LP turbine is double or triple flow as shown in Figures 11.11 and 11.12. Since a large volume of steam must be controlled at these low pressures, doubling or tripling the paths available reduces the necessary length of the turbine blades. The LP turbines extract the remaining heat from the steam before exhausting the spent steam to the vacuum of the condenser. It is desirable to limit condensation taking place within the turbine, as any water droplets that form there act like tiny steel balls when they collide with the turbine blades, which are traveling at nearly the speed of sound. We previously specified that the HP turbine extracts a fractionfof the thermal power from the steam. Then the IP and LP turbines extract the remaining 1  f of the available power to drive the shaft. Usually,fis on the order of 0.2 to 0.3. For example, in a certain modern 330 MW turbine,fis determined to be 0.24. This is a rather typical value.
1 1.6 Steam Turbine Control Operations
The controls for a steam turbine can be divided into those used for control of the turbine and those used for the protection of the turbine. It is difficult to sketch a “typical” control system for a steam turbine since these controls depend on the age of the unit and the type of controls available at the time of unit installation. Since power plants operate for many years, there are likely to be many different controls, using different technologies, on any given power system. However, we can summarize the most common controls as being either “traditional” or “modem,” with those terms also having a somewhat variable meaning due to the steady advance in control technology. The control operations that are usually considered to be “traditional” are listed in Table 11.2. These are controls that have been required for many years and that require only the very basic technologies for their operation. It is apparent that plant control systems become more complex due to the demands of interconnected operation and the availability of more modem methods of control. The newer controls provide many functions that were not considered necessary for older units, and some that were not available due to limitations of the available technology at the time of manufacture.
Steam Turbine Prime Movers
Table 11.2 Traditional and Modem Steam Turbine Generator Controls
445
Traditional Controls
Speed control, near rated speed Overspeed protection Load controlmanual or remote
Modem Controls All traditional controls and protections Longrange speed (zero to rated speed) Automatic line speed matching Load control; automatic load setback Admission mode selection Automatic safety and condition monitoring Online testing of all safety systems Fast or early valve actuation Interface to the plant computer Interface to area generation control system
Basic control and protection Initial pressure Vacuum Vibration Others, as needed
Many of the plant controls are hydraulic, using highpressure oil supplied by a shaftmounted main oil pump. These high pressures are practical for the operation of power servomotors for control purposes. For example, many control valves are actuated by hydraulic means. In modem plants, many systems also use electric controls as well. The control functions for the turbine include the servomotordriven control or governing valves and the intercept valves, which control the amount of steam admitted to the turbine. Positioning intelligence for these valves comes primarily from the speed governor, the throttle pressure regulator, or from an auxiliary governor. There is also an interlocking protection between the control and intercept valves so that the control valves cannot be operated open when the intercept valves are closed. The protective controls include the main stop valve (throttle valve) and the reheat stop valve. The reheat stop valve is always either fully open or fully closed, and is never operated partially open. The main stop valve may operate partially open when used as a startup control. Both valves are under control of a device that can rapidly close both valves, shutting down the turbine on the occurrence of emergency conditions such as overspeed trip, solenoid trip, lowvacuum trip, low bearing oil trip, thrust bearing trip, or manual trip. During normal operation, both of these stop valves are completely open. A primary function of the main stop valve is to shut off the steam flow if the unit speed exceeds some predetermined ceiling value, such as 110% of the rated value. Steam turbine blading experiences mechanical vibration or oscillation at certain frequencies. The turbine designer assures that such oscillations occur above or below synchronous speed, with a generous margin of safety. Also, with the longer blades traveling at nearly the speed of sound, destructive vibration levels may be reached if the speed is permitted to increase substantially beyond rated speed. Thus, speed control on loss of load is very important and is a carefully designed control function. [9]. The operation of a steam turbine on loss of load is approximately as shown in Figure 11.17. It is assumed that the generator breaker opens at t = 0 when the unit is fully loaded. On loss of load, the turbine speed rises to about 109% in about one second. As the speed increases, the control valves and intercept valves are closing at the maximum rate and should be completely closed by the time the speed reaches 109% of the rated value, at which time the turbine speed begins to drop. At about 106%, the intercept valves begin to reopen so that a noload speed of 105% might be achieved. If the speed changer is left at its previous setting, the unit will continue to run at 105% speed on steam stored in the reheater. There is usually sufficient steam for one to three minutes of such operation. Once the reheater steam supply is exhausted, the speed will drop to near 100% and the governor will reopen the control valves. The definition of what constitutes an emergency overspeed [IO] is a figure agreed upon by
446
Chapter 1 1
1101 lo! 11 0
Intercept Valve starts
iliary Load
I
lo 1012 1
\
Remaining on Generator
\
. 
on Generator
0
1 Time in minutes
2
rm Fig. I I . 17 Estimated speed versus time following sudden reduction f o a maximum load to the values noted.
turbine manufacturer and purchaser, but may be in the region of 1 10 to 120%of the rated value. If the speed reaches this range, an emergency overspeed trip device operates. Usually the overspeed trip mechanism depends on centrifugal force or other physical measurements that are not dependent on the retention of power supply. Some devices include an eccentric weight or bolt, mounted in the turbine shaft, with the weight being balanced by a spring. At a predetermined speed, such as 1 1 1%, the centrifugal force overcomes the spring force and the bolt moves out radially far enough to strike a tripper, which operates the overspeed trip valve.
1 1.7 Steam Turbine Control Functions
We now investigate the transfer functions that describe the operation and control of a typical steam turbine.* The system under investigation is the reheat steam turbine of Figure 1 1.13, with controls as described in the preceding sections. The block diagram for this system is shown in Figure 11.18 [lo], with controls as described in the preceding paragraphs. Our immediate concern is with the thermal system between the control valves, with input q2and turbine torque T. The symbols used in Figure 11.17 represent perunit changes in the variables, as defined in Table 11.3. For the present, we will accept the transfer functions of governor and servomotor and reserve these for later investigation. Let us examine the functions between qz and T in Figure 1 1.18 more carefully. The control valve transfer function is nearly a constant and would be exactly 1 .O were it not for nonlinear variations introduced by control valve action. This is due to a combination of nonlinearities. First of all, the steam flow is not a linear function of valve lift, or displacement, as shown by the righthand block of Figure 11.19. It is, in fact, quite nonlinear, exhibiting a definite saturation as the valve opening increases. One way to counteract this nonlinearity is to introduce a nonlinearity in the valve lifting mechanism, as shown in the left block of Figure 11.19. This is accomplished with a cam lift mechanism, as shown in Figure 11.20. Here, the cam acts as a function generator providing an output
*We follow closely here the excellent reference by the late M. A. Eggenberger [lo] who did significant work in this field. The authors are indebted to Mr. Eggneberger for having shared his work, some of which is unpublished.
Steam Turbine Prime Movers
447
.
Fig. 1 1.18 Block diagram of mechanical reheat turbine speed control [lo].
L
=f(v2, L)
(1 1.2)
in which the output L is a function not only of q2but also of L. In this way, the transfer function of the two blocks taken together are nearly linear for any given valve. Still, a small nonlinearity exists in the overall transfer function, as shown in Figure 11.18, due to “valve points,” as this phenomenon is known in the industry. This refers to the point at which one valve, or set of valves, approaches its rated flow and a new valve (or valves) begins to open.
Table 11.3 Definition of PerUnit Change Variables
Per Unit Change Variable Speed of rotation Developed torque Load torque Steam flow Servomotorstroke Speed relay stroke Speedlloadreference Speed governor stroke Speed error signal Valve steam flow HP turbine torque Reheat pressure IP + LP torque Accelerating torque
Defining Equation
(T=
Remarks
N R = Rated speed
NA NR
q=
TmA TmR
TmR = Rated full load torque
A=&
TeR
TeR = Rated electrical torque
QA
P=
Q R = Rated steam flow in Ib/sec
QR
172 = Y2R
Y2A
YzR= Servomotorposition for steady rated load Y I R Speed relay stroke for full load = RR= Reference position at rated load and rated speed
XR= Speed governor stroke for 5% speed change
711 =
Y,R RA RR
YIA
P= 
l =XA
XR
E
EL”
7HP
+R
qIP&LP 7,
Speed relay input Control valve output HP turbine output variable Reheater output variable IP + LP turbine torque
Chapter 1 1
,&{
lift
k
(11.3) (11.4) (11.5)
Fig. 1 1.19 Block diagram for camshaft and valve function generators [IO].
This causes the transfer function to consist of a series of small curved arcs, as shown in Figure 11.18. To compute the transfer knction of steam flow versus servomotor stroke, we write
K3=
Pv
If it were not for valve points, the curve expressing the function K3 would be a constant with value of unity, with the incremental regulation at the operating point the same as that of the governor (usually 5%). If we define incremental regulation Rias [ 101
du R.= ' dP
where u is the perunit speed, P is the perunit power, and Riis evaluated at the operating point. If we let Rs be the steadystate regulation or droop
L Valve Lift
Fig. 1 I .20 Mechanical function generator (camoperated control valve).
Steam Turbine Prime Movers
449
then we have K3=
RS
(11.6)
Eggenberger [lo] points out that Riis often between 0.02 and 0.12 over the range of valve strokes and may be taken as 0.08 as a good approximate value. Using this value, we would compute for a typical case 0.05 K3 = = 0.625 0.08 (11.7)
From Figure 11.8, we see that the steam is delayed in reaching the turbines by a bowl delay T3,expressed in terms of servo stroke and turbine flow parameters as (11.8) where T3 is the time it takes to fill the bowl volume VB(ft3) with steam at rated initial conditions, with specific volume initially of v (lbdsec), or [ 101 T3 = seconds
VQY
VB
(11.9)
Typical values of T3are given as 0.05 to 0.4 seconds. For a straight condensing turbine with no reheat, the torque versus servomotor stroke is given by (1 1.8). This situation is illustrated in Figure 11.21 and is accomplished mathematically by replacing p T in (1 1.8) by 7. This is equivalent to setting the fractionfof torque provided by the HP turbine to unity. For a reheat turbine, there is a large volume of steam between the HP exhaust and the IP inlet. This introduces an additional delay in the thermal system. From Figure 11.18 with elementary reduction, we have [ 101
( 11.10)
Fig. 1 1.21 Torque production as controlled by servomechanism stroke.
450
Chapter 1 1
wheref is the fraction of the total power that is developed in the highpressure unit and is usualR ly between 0.2 and 0.3. The parameter T is the time constant of the reheater and is defined in a manner similar to (1 1.9) or (11.11) where VR= volume of reheater and piping, ft3 QR,.= full load reheater steam flow, lbdsec v, = average specific volume of steam in the reheater, Et3/lbm
R Since the reheat temperature is not constant, computation of T involves taking averages, but it is usually in the neighborhood of 3 to 11 seconds. This long time constant in the reheater causes a considerable lag in output power change following a change in valve setting. In HP turbines, there may be a delay of up to 0.5 seconds, depending upon control valve location. A much larger delay occurs in the IP and LP sections, however. This is due to the large amount of steam downstream of the control valves, and this steam must be moved through the turbines and reheater before the new condition can be established. These delays are both shown in Figure 11.22, where the control valve is given a hypothetical step change and the power output change is plotted [lo]. A five second value for TRis assumed. The speedtorque transfer function is given in Figure 11.18 as [101
=.
0
r
1
T4s
(11.12)
The time constant T4 is the total time it would take to accelerate the rotor from standstill to rated speed if rated torque, T,, is applied as a step function at t = 0. At rated speed, the kinetic energy in the rotating mass is 1 Wk = J 2
w ~
(11.13)
70%
Control Valve Position
60%
0
1
2
3
4 5 Time, seconds
6
7
8
9
Fig. 1 1.22 Reheat turbine response to a control valve change.
.98 Jspseconds (1 1. These constants are shown in Table 1 1. as the turbine speed increases.3) through (1 l . T4 = 5.18 is given in [ 101 and is valuable for making comparisons of the various system lags under consideration. we may write the openloop transfer function as KG(s) = S(S K(s + llfT.)(s+ l/TR) + + (11.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 45 1 and the differential equation of motion is Jh = Ta = a constant where we take Ta = TmR (11. In terms of this constant.21) .) + ~/T. Referring to Figure 11.19) and this is convenient since it usually turns out to be nearly unity.18) (F)( &) WR2 N 2 x lbmft/MW (11. Eggenberger [101 shows that this can be accounted for by replacing the single block in Figure 1 1.16) and (1 1.)(s 1/T2)(~ ~/T.14) for constant torque gives (11. as the losses are very small.165 x 109)Pr so that T4 = where P.From (1 1. = rated power in MW WR2 = rotor inertia in lbmfi2 N = rated speed in rpm R Another useful constant is the socalled specific inertia of the turbinegenerator [lo]: JSP= (11.2 MWs 3600 x lo6 (WR2)N? seconds (2. We usually compute wk (11.83(WR2)N.18 that relates (T to T by a feedback system wherein a portion of the speed increase is fed back as a negative torque [ 101. However.14) (11. A set of typical constants for all values shown in Figure 1 1.14 and equations (1 l . this is usually neglected. the load torque increases and the loss torque varies as some power of the speed.13) we can compute m T4 = seconds Pr where the units must be consistent. Additional insight into the control of the steam turbine system is gained through an evaluation of system performance by the root locus method [12].20) Actually.4. Solving (1 1.15) the rated value of torque.17)  0. 12).16) since T R= Pr/wR.
05 to 0. The range of values shown in Table 11.05 to 0.3 5340 .00 0.091 0.33 2. and valve bowl are far enough from the origin to be offscale for the scale chosen for this figure. A similar plot for the reheat turbine is shown in Figure 11.67 20.00 Reheat Minimum 5. therefore. servomotor.333 MaximUln 12. Table 11.4 Typical Values of Constants Used in Steam Turbine Analysis Parameter C .55 3.15 to 0.27 Maximum 12.8 0.25 s 0. Here. Other component values affect the response as well. Two examples. since the system response depends on these pole locations.625 0.50 6. It is obvious that. 11T2 l/T3 1/TR 1JJTR K Nonreheat Minimum 7. as shown in Figure 11. A convenient method of analyzing steam turbine systems is to use the root locus technique [12].4.67 20.50 6.3 seconds [IO].50 0.452 Chapter 11 Table 11.3 5to12s where Considering the range possible for each variable as shown in Table 11. which may vary from 0. which may be quite close to the origin. this system may be designed with a wide range of response characteristics. especially the servomotor pole. even for small disturbances.3 s  0.15 4. we have a range of polezero locations and gains as shown in Table 11. have a great influence on the system dynamic response. Zeros.15 to 0.23. Nonreheat Turbine 20 Reheat Turbine 20 TI T2 K3 T3 TR f T4 Normalized speed governor constant (5% regulation) Speed relay time constant Servomotor time constant Valve gain at noload point Valve bowl time constant Reheater time constant Load on HP turbine per unit Turbine characteristictime 0. the problem is greatly complicated because the reheater should then be treated as a nonlinear model to account for the spatial distribution of flow and pressure in both reheater and piping. This is especially true for the valve bowl delay.24.5 Range of Values for Poles.14 s 0. speed relay.5 has some influence on system behavior. where poles of a nonreheat turbine are plotted as a band of values rather than as a point in the s plane. and Gains Item PoleIZero Pole Symbol 1/T.303 9. the four poles due to the inertia.33  Zero Gain   1. This means that the reheater pole and zero will always be relatively close to the origin and will.30 s 0.6 to 0. For large disturbances.667 1600 46.08 to 0.08 to 0. one for the straight condensing (nonreheat) turbine and one for the reheat turbine will illustrate the method.18 s 0.05 to 0.2 to 0.4 s 3tolls 6t012s 0.00 3.5.
we can compute the gain K as KG T.22) For the constants given in this example.1s I T = 0. Example 11.24 Pole and zero for the reheater.1 Prepare a rootlocus plot for a nonreheat turbine with the following constants: T = 0.5 (1 1.625 and C = 20.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 453 I P w I 8 z mzAw I s 0 (I .0.0 s 4 Determine the damping ratio and undamped natural frequency for the two least damped .T2T3T4 = 937.23) < I 1 Zero Range I F 1 I V I I 2 1. The openloop transfer function is KG(s) = K s(s + 5)(s + lO)(s + 15) K=  K s4+ 30s3 + 225s2 + 750s (1 1.25.5 llR ** U 0  M Range . 1 1. 11. roots if K3 = 0.0667 s 3 T = 10.5 Fig.2 s 2 T = 0.+5 fi .\I Ilr I U \)U n I AA M \ u 0 \ 20 15 10 valve bowl delay 5 “0  5 Fig.5 1 0. Solution The block diagram for this system is that shown in Figure 11.23 s Plane plot of poles for the nonreheat turbine. . .
= 4. The center of gravity is located at C. = (2’+ 1)”O0 = *450.26) In our case.Z = 4 .XZ = =7.25 Block diagram for the nonreheat turbine We also compute the following constants. we construct the Routh’s table [131to find the critical value of gain and the point of the waxis crossing: s4 s3 S2 S‘ SO 1 30 740 55500 . The excess of poles over zeros = P . The locus “breaks away” from the negative real axis at points kl and k2 defined by the equations . Write the polynomial XP .25) (1 1. 1 1. we require that K 5 6167 The auxiliary polynomial [131 is 740s2+ 3(6167) = 0 or s = *j5 (11.5 30 Pz 4 D(s) + KN(s) = 0 (1 1.0 = 4 2.454 Chapter 11 Fig.9K K 275 750 3K 0 K 0 For the first column in this array to be positive.27). which are required in order to construct the root locus plot: 1.G. *I350 Pz (1 1.27) From (1 1.24) 3. The asymptotes lie at angles of e. we have s(s + 5)(s + lO)(s + 15) + K = s4 + 30s3+ 275s2 + K (1 1.28) 5.
.1 10kl 1 kz10 1 15kl (1 1. E 1. the damping ratio is s = 0.31) 6. With this value of gain.26.91) and.91 = 13. (11.30) k2 = 15 .29) = 1 15k~ 1 1 +k25 + k2 We solve (1 1.29) by trial and error to find k. We can also locate the point corresponding to the assumed gain of 937.1.32) / \ \ / / Fig.91 (actually 1. we construct the root locus diagram shown in Figure 11. 1 I .24) to (1 1.26 Root locus for a nonreheat turbine system.7 (1 1. by symmetry.Next Page Steam Turbine Prime Movers 455 1 _ k l 1 5kl ++.3l). Incorporating information accumulated in equations (1 1.09 (11.
7 there is very little overshoot.33) These values are indicated in Figure 11. By comparison.5 in the negativereal direction.26.37) . this system could be operated at a higher gain.7. We would hope to have the damping factor 5 be fairly large for good damping and to prevent an overshoot or too long an oscillation. Note that.2 and 0.Previous Page 456 Chapter 1 1 and the undamped natural frequency is wn = 2. being located at approximately 13. what we would like.35) k where k= 4 = tan* k w. generally speaking.sin(w. there are actually four solutions. Certainly. Suppose we let f = 0.2 root locus plot that the poles are labeled to remind us of the reason for their existence. Also note in L. = 1. Two of these solutions correspond to responses that are very quickly damped out. corresponding to a gain of 937.2 If the system of Example 11.7 sponds to about 50% overshoot (actually 52.In our case.36) (1 1. but with 5 = 0.2 the overshoot is about 50% (actually 52. 4' 2 0. Figure 1 1.t + 4) (11. If some oscillation can be tolerated. our system will respond approximately as a secondorder response [ 141: ebnt a(t) = u(t) . We now recognize the significance of the solutionjust obtained.6%). Note that when 5 = 0.2 is desirable as this corre0.2 TR=5s Then the openloop transfer function becomes KG(s) = and the normal value of K is K(s + 1) s(s + 5)(s + lO)(s + 15)(s + 0.54 (1 1.2) (11.2 radiansls (11. this system could be operated at a higher gain. indicated by the dots on the locus. If some oscillation can be tolerated. Example 11. They can be moved by changing the appropriate design parameters.6%)and oscillationsring down for almost four seconds.1 is a reheat system. with l= there is practically no overshoot and the system is very well damped. the fractionf of power generated by the HP turbine and the reheater time constant T R must be specified. = kwn u(t) = unit step function 5 This response is a damped oscillatory response and this is. Thus. the least damped roots are located at 50.34) and we can neglect the quickly damped solutionswith very little error.27 shows a typical secondorder response for values of 5 of 0.
steam bowl.2 I  I I I I I Fig.28 Block diagram of a reheat turbine system. however. Thus the product &" 0.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 457 I I 1. 1 1.5 radians per second. The block diagram for this new system is shown in Figure 11. corresponding to an overshoot of about 25%.28.0. In normal operation. and lowpressure turbines on a single shaft. the intercept valve is fully open. and the undamped natural frequency is about 0.35).14.2 = (11. we observe that for a gain of about 187. From this plot. The principal dynamic components that effect the time lag of delivered mechanical power are the speed relay.and the feedwater heaters.38) is much less than for the straight condensing turbine. These dynamic components are connected in the system diagram of Figure 11.29. Note also. depending on the scheduled generation output of the unit. Fig. 11. control valves. . intermediatepressure.5 or 2. which would improve the product by a factor of three or four and the oscillations would decay much faster as we see from the exponent of (1 1. that the system gain could be increased substantially with practically no change in 5 up to a frequency of about 1. but the control valve may be only partially open.4. This more detailed model consists of highpressure.27 Step response of a secondordersystem. as shown in Figure 1 1.6 1 I I I I I 0. the drum. The root locus plot is shown in Figure 11.30 by solid lines. The block diagram of a more detailed dynamic model of a reheat steam turbine system is shown in Figure 11. driving a generator and excitation system.30. the damping ratio is about 0.
as with the control and damping of sustained oscillations over periods of several minutes duration. system components that are usually thought of as quite slow in response must be investigated for possible behavior that might be detrimental to system damping. measured by the generator current. The steam generator is such a component. 1 1. The recovery time of boiler pressure following a sudden change in turbine control valve setting is measured in minutes for systems of conventional design. The control logic operates by comparing the turbine power. The dashed lines in Figure 11. This protection will operate if the difference between these measured power values becomes greater than a preset value. During this period. This provides overspeed protection for the generating unit that might follow a loss of load. and the generated power. which is determined by measuring cold reheat pressure.30 show the connection of an overspeed protection system. This system will initiate fast turbine control and intercept valve closure in the event of a load rejection. and the rateofchange in generator current is also greater than a set point value. the boilerturbine system is operating with .29 Root locus for a reheat steam turbine system.8 Steam Generator Control The expansion of power system interconnections has necessitated more precise control in order to hold the fiequency stable and to control disturbances. Steam generators can be either fossil or nuclear fuel systems. Thus. It has also introduced a new class of stability problems that are not so much concerned with system recovery following major impacts. typically about 40% of full load. such as faults.4 \ b0 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ * 1 5 bowl delay speed relay \ \ \ /' servo / / / / / / K = 187  / / / / / / / / / / \ \ \ \I \ \ / / / /' Y' \ \ A Fig. but here we shall concentrate on fossilfueled boilers.458 \ Chapter 1 1 \ \ c= 0. 1 1.
Fig. 11.30 Typical turbine control dynamic for a reheat steam tur .
with the result that faster response and more precise control are being realized. Traditionally. Any response to such an error will. in most boilers. because of its thermal design. For example. Thus. In this kind of control. This kind of system model causes cross coupling between variables. This increased interest in boiler control has affected later designs for drumtype boilers too. as indicated in Figure 11. One alternative to this situation is the use of one multivariate controller [15. This type of boiler. which respond to an error in a single variable. 11. However. The size of the offdiagonal terms. How these lowfrequency oscillations will affect the overall system behavior is not always clear. requires a more sophisticated control. Repeating for other components of m determines G completely. a chain reaction of controlled responses follows the change in one error and may unbalance the system for several minutes while all systems readjust themselves. cause errors to appear in other variables. but they can hardly be considered to be beneficial. the control system for a boiler has been accomplished by using analog devices. a step change in any of the independent variable references or in load will cause a readjustment of all variables. the usual singlevariable controls are those shown in Table 11. The output x corresponding to this component of m determines one column of the transfer function G.is an indication of the cross coupling that exists in the system. as shown in Figure 11. the outputs x are related to all inputs m by a matrix G(s) in the equation x(s) = G(s)m(s) (11.3 1 Block diagram of a coupled twovariable process.31. With this type of system. each responding in its own way.3 1. i Zj. Such controllers should force the system toward the new steadystate position in a much more optimal manner.39) Each element of G(s) may be found by setting all inputs m to zero except one. The introduction of the oncethrough boiler in the late 1950s also focused attention on boiler control. so that several input variables can actuate a number of actuators simultaneously. 161.460 Chapter 1 1 Table 11. in most cases.6 Normal Boiler Single Variable Controls IndependentVariable Desuperheatingspray Firing rate Burner tilt Feedwater flow Controlled Variable Main steam temperature Output (drum) pressure Reheat temperature Drum level its openloop gain changing and possibly oscillating slowly. . the design of a multivariable controller requires the use of an accurate model of the Fig. G&).6 [151.
9 FossilFuel Boilers As the technology has evolved. . we can construct the system model as shown in Figures 1 1.33. as it is often called) design has no drum and the fluid passing through the system changes state into steam and then into su Fuel Air Tilts spray reedwater ' Process 'r. Applying this concept to a steam generator system.34. two distinct types of fossilfueled steam generators have been designed and are widely used. I 1 Pressure SP! Trottle Temp SP Including >. 11.  Boiler Main Steam Temperature Reheat Steam Temperature > Turbine' Drum Level > System Steam Flow Rate ~ 3 li > u 8 '53 Excess Air Fig. the drum boiler employs a large drum as a reservoir for fluid that is at an evaporation temperature. As suggested by its name.33 Multivariable control.32 A multivariable process. drumtype boilers and oncethrough boilers. 11. The oncethrough (or oncethru. 1 1. Actuators 1 I Controller Matrix k%' Fig.32 and 11.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 46 1 Throttle Pressure * I 4 VJ 0 5 8 P 8 A Tilt Feedwater Turbine Valve. A simple comparison of these two types of boilers is illustrated in Figure 1 1. controlled plant and this is not available for many problems.
a very elastic connection as the drum is not an “infinite bus” of thermal energy.1 Drumtype boilers A simplified sketch of the working fluid path in a drumtype boiler is given in Figure 11. A. New York. G . Vopat. 0: It I I I I I E FP I I I P DrumType Boiler T S OnceThru Boiler Legend . perheated steam. the drum serves as a reservoir of thermal energy that can supply limited amounts of steam to satisfy sudden increases in demand. and W. the drum serves as a buffer between the turbinegenerator system and the boilerfiring system. McGrawHill. Skrotski. Since the fuel firing and pumping systems lag behind the drum demand by several seconds.462 6 Chapter 11 I :o I .9. gas recirculation (d) Feedwater control (e) Superheater temperature controldesuperheating (f) Reheat temperature controlgas recirculation . Some of the major control systems for the drumtype boiler are the following [16]: (a) Combustion controlhe1 and air control (b) Burner and safety control (c) Boiler temperature controlburner tilt. It is. It also serves as a storage reservoir to receive energy following a sudden load rejection.Water Steam +Flue Gas + _ _ _ a _ Line Types Tube Waterwall Sections Superheater Section Evaporator Section E D Drum F F WC 0 Feedhmp Water Circulating Pump Steam Output to Turbine Fig.34 Drum and oncethrough boiler configurations.35. however. In such a system. 1960. Figures adapted from similar items in Power Station Engineering andEconomy. Bemhardt. 11. The oncethrough design contains less fluid than the drumtype design and generally has faster transient response.) . 1 1. A.
35 A drumtype boiler arrangement.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 463 Fig. 1 1. Some other control systems are: (a) Feedwater heating system control (b) Air heater temperature control (c) Fuel oil temperature control (in an oil fired boiler) (d) Turbine lubricating oil temperature control (e) Bearing cooling water temperature control (f) Mill temperature control (in a coal burning boiler) .
Still. which is actually a huge distributed parameter system.36 (b) Referring to the linear circuit of Figure 11.boiler pressure depends on steam flow. Such changes result from transient effects wherein the steam generated and the steam demanded by the turbine are unbalanced. Thus.36 (a) and is easily studied by means of an electric analog as shown in Figure 11.40) Drum Pressure I Throttle Pressure Superheaters Turbine Steam How (a) Schematic of BoilerTurbine System v (b) Electric Analog of Boiler Pressure Phenomenon Fig.464 Chapter 11 These controls are usually singlevariable control loops. . Such is the approach presented in [20]. A certain mass of steam is stored in the boiler and any change in this mass affects the boiler pressure. One boiler representation [20] considers the drum as a lumped storage element as shown in Figure 11. however. If we linearize about a quiescent operating point. It also ignores the geometry of the boiler. it should provide at least a rough idea of the system behavior and permit us to study various control arrangements without becoming burdened by system complexity. it is necessary to have an adequate mathematical model of the process.36 (b).36 (b). We also recognize that the pressure at the drum is not the same as pressure at the control valves because of the pressure drop across the superheater. the change in pressure drop is proportional to the change in flow rate and we are justified in using the linearized model of Figure 11. In order to apply advanced control concepts.= steam generated Z2= steam flow to turbine R = friction resistance of the superheater R = resistance of the turbine at a given valve opening T (1 1. 1 I . which vanes as the square of steam flow rate. This simplified model assumes that feedwater effects can be neglected and that the feedwater control satisfies the drum requirements. we define the following analogous quantities: VRT throttle pressure = V.36 A simplified boilerturbine representation [20]. Some valuable work [17191 has added to our knowledge of boiler behavior as an element in a dynamic system. = drum pressure Z.
as an estimate [20]. may be represented by the lumped parameter model shown in Figure 11. Q . we write the pressure drop from drum to throttle as PD(in lbmass) or. This gives the needed relationship between the net unbalance in boiler steam flow to the drum pressure. linearized about a quiescent operating point. (11. at constant firing rate: Po = KQz (1 1.44) R = 2KQo (1 1.46) (1 1.If we let Qw be the flow of steam from the boiler.38.41) and solving for I z A we get (1 1.37. Then.43) where K is the friction coefficient and Q is the steam flow rate in l b d s . The steam generated by the boiler is proportional to the heat released in the furnace. In the analog. The delay time constant TFis typically about 20 seconds and the dead time Td depends on the type of fuel system. for small perturbations. The steam flow to the turbine.42) will experience a drop proportional to RTA. and may be anything from zero to about 30 seconds [20].47) where K .Steam Turbine Prime Movers 465 In this model. With this configuration. The value of R is a function of the quiescent point of operation (the load level). the fuel system dynamics can be represented by a delay and dead time. then we can think of the generated steam as being delayed by a time constant Tw. is a function of load level. waterwall time constant. it is possible to investigate the nature of the control system and also to optimize the effect of both . PT. To study the control of the boiler dynamics. i. we can write PDA ( ~ K Q o ) Q A = where Qo is the steadystate flow rate and QA is the change in flow rate. but lags behind this heat release by 5 to 7 seconds. the system can be arranged as shown in Figure 11. Q = KVPT Linearizing.. In terms of system quantities. We may then write v c = H2 + R T I ~ V O + VCA = R(I20 + ZZA) + (RTO + RTA)(z20 + z2A) C (11. Finally.45) and is a function of Qo as noted. the The boiler storage effect is an integration with capacitance (or thermal inertia or time constant) C.e. a change in control valve opening is represented by a change in RT. is a function of the throttle pressure. the change in valve and the throttle pressure VTR opening. we write (1 1.and a coefficient Kv proportional to the valve opening. All of the above relationships.
Some effects. Thus. etc. Generation \ Generation Combustion Control output .. These are primary or dominant effects and their sign is always the same. will effect the response and its direction.....37 Block diagram of a lumped parameter drumtype boiler. .y C .. The configuration of Figure 11. in a boiler. Multivariable controllers have an additional problem not usually present in single variable controllersthe consistency of results [ 191. an increase in air flow will always decrease boiler pressure. Thus. 1 1.38 is recognized to be a “boilerfollowing’’ control arrangement.. are opposing.+ * Boiler Fig. and so on. the exact operating point plus conditions of soot...466 Chapter 1 1 I I I I I I Fuel I pBr Air .. I I pressure and flow changes..Control Desired steam 0 output Generator . an increase in firing rate will always produce an increase in pressure. Increased steam flow tends to decrease temperature. an increase in desuperheat spray will always decrease throttle temperature..B o i l e i System Fig..38 Typical control system configuration for a drumtype boiler. slag. whereas the increase in fuel input would ordinarily increase temperature. an increase in fuel increases steam pressure and this tends to increase steam flow. 1 I . Thus. on the other hand.
” The boilerturbine governor produces a “required output” set point that takes into account the capa Desired Unit Generation Actual Unit Generation V Direct Energy Balance Control System Y Combustion Control A 1 Governor Control Y * f Boiler Main Steam Pressure Generator Fig. The usual approach to the solution of these equations is to break the space continuum into a series of discrete elements and convert the partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations in the time domain [18.39 displays the major components of this type of system. Observe load limit capabilities of boiler. This kind of control is designed to perform the following operations: 1. the desired unit demand signal (from the automatic load control device). 3. as required by automatic or manual controls. and these equations are nonlinear partial differential equations in space and time. These equations may be solved by digital computer. This is especially difficult in boiler systems because of the difficulty in modeling a distributed parameter system and also because of the nonlinear character of steam properties. before leaving the subject of drumtype boiler control we note one type of multivariable control that has been used on both drumtype and oncethrough boilers. and generator. This system. Compare Figure 11.39 A multivariable control system [2 11.39 is shown in block diagram form in Figure 11. is called a “Direct Energy Balance Control System’’ [21] by its manufacturer. and desired steam pressure are all input quantities to the controller. The controller of Figure 11. but it does deal with the primary variables.19].39 with Figure 11. It consists of two components: the “boilerturbine governor” and the “unit coordinating assembly. actual unit generation. the system does not simultaneously adjust all possible variables. Reduce operating level (runback) to safe operating level upon loss of auxiliaries. Thus. 2. Figure 1 1.40. The references cited will be helpful to one who wishes to pursue the subject further. Computer outputs are generated to the combustion and governor controllers.38 to see the difference between the two types of controls.39. Finally. Referring to the figure. turbine. Adjust both boiler and turbinegenerator together.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 467 One of the problems in designing an appropriate controller is that of starting with a good mathematical model of the system. shown in Figure 1 1. 1 1. . The equations of the system are those of mass flow and heat transfer in superheater and reheater tubes. main steam pressure. Models of this kind have been studied but are beyond the scope of this book.
and the turbine follows the boiler.41. 1.7.* . taking limits into account as noted. The “unit coordinating assembly” is shown in greater detail in Figure 11. Generation I I I I Boiler Turbine Governor I I I I I I I I I I Frequency Bias (Rates of Change) I I I I I I I I I I I (Limits) (Runbacks) I I To Combustion Control .:sid Pressure 61 Miin Steam Pressure To Governor Control Fig._ * * . When not on automatic control. 2. a selector switch provides an input signal from a manual setting. In practice.. The unit coordinating assembly coordinates the combustion control with the turbinegovernor control. The operator selects the operating mode he wishes to use. the measured pressure is compared against a desired pressure set point and this produces a pressure error that is used to bias both the governor and fuelair action.. In this mode.. the operator adjusts the boiler inputs and the turbine governor manually. Base inputturbine follow.. This is because the governor (control) valves and fuelair systems have opposite effects on pressure. turbine. the unit automatically achieves the new setting at a preset maximum rate of change.40 Block diagram ofa controller [21]. The overall effect of the control is to take appropriate action for changes in both load and pressure as noted in Table 11. bilities of all componentsboiler. This fixes the desired generation for this unit.468 Chapter 1 1 Generation . This unit compares the required output for the unit against the actual unit generation and computes an error signal from which the governor and fuelair systems are controlled.. but in opposite directions. properly biased when system frequency is other than normal. the control just described may be operated in any one of the following four modes. In this mode. and auxiliaries. For any size step change in the manual output setter. It also fixes the rates of change according to a preselected setting and provides for emergency runbacks and limits..3. Both of these blocks are described in greater detail below. At the same time. as shown in Figure 11. The “boilerturbine governor” is shown in greater detail in Figure 11. The operator runs only the . a signal is received from the load control unit. an increase in governor setting tends to reduce the pressure but an increase in fuelair setting tends to increase it._ . the governor adjusts the pressure automatically. Base input control. 11. When operating under automatic load control.42.
such as providing frequency bias.4.43. This “automatic boilerfollow mode” is shown in Figure 1 1. Fuel Min. . 4. and superheater to reach the turbine. 3. This mode is the normal operating mode for this type of control and is the mode for which the system was designed. It also couples the governor and the fuelair controls to provide an anticipatory boiler signal to accompany governor changes due to a load change.9. which provides several advantages over conventional boilerfollow control. Air Limit Max. Automatic controlboiler follow. This mode is like the “conventional” mode as illustrated in Figure 11. except that use is made of the “required output” signal. water from the boiler feed pump passes through the economizer. down comers. Fuel Max.2 Oncethrough boilers Since the late 1950s. 11. and fixed rates of change. Instead of these features. This mode is often used during startup and certain unusual operating conditions. passing from liquid to vapor along the way. 1 1. boiler inputs. either automatically or manually. and waterwall risers. furnace walls. Feedwater Governor Open Limit High Deviation Required Output To Unit Coordinating Assembly Fig.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 469 Generation Setter Other I Runback Actions I I I of Change Setter Min.41 Boilerturbine governor control unit [19]. Air Max. It frees the operator from having to watch both the boiler and the turbine. See Figure 11. The striking difference between this type of boiler and the conventional drumtype boiler of Figure 11.35 is the absence of the drum. an increasing number of large boilers installed have been of the “oncethrough” design.34 for a simple description of the two types of boilers. In the oncethrough boiler. limiting and runback actions. Direct energy balance automatic control.
the pumping rate has a direct bearing on steam output as well as the firing rate and turbine governing. It does. since it contains much less fluid. heat is absorbed by the fluid at a constant rate and the steam temperature is a function of the boiler throughput (pumping rate).7 Net Control Action by the Unit Coordinating Assembly [I91 Steam Pressure High Low Low High Generator output High Action Applied To Governor Difference = Zero Difference= Decrease Difference= Zero Difference = Increase Action Applied To Fuel and Air Inputs Sum = Decrease Sum = Zero Sum = Increase Sum = Zero High Low Low .44 [221. In operation. A simplified flow diagram of a typical oncethrough boiler is shown in Figure 11. require a more intelligent control system. holding steam tem Table 11. The heat absorbed (Btu/hr) divided by throughput (lbm/hr) gives the enthalpy (Btu/lbm).the control must equate flow into and out of the tube. If the pressure is constant.470 Chapter 1 1 Required Unit Pressure Control System To Turbine Governor Fig. The oncethrough boiler has a significantly smaller heat storage capacity than a drumtype boiler of similar rating. because of the absence of the drum. A valve at the discharge end can be used to control the pressure. and has lower operating costs. however. for steadystateoperation. the oncethrough boiler is much like a single long tube with feedwater flowing in one end and superheated steam leaving at the outlet end. It also costs less.42 The unit coordinating assembly [21]. 11. Thus.
when load is increased.. and heat input must simultaneously be increased to match load and the increased storage level [23]... &Finishing Enclosures urbine Throttle Valve I I I I 0?Lower Furnace F 'd Air I Superheater aid Reheater D m e s apr Reheat r th Feedwater 1 Heating System I Boiler Feedpump Economizer . Thus. Transient conditions are difficult to control because of the limited heat storage in the fluid. .44 Fluid path for a oncethrough boiler [22]..Steam Turbine Prime Movers Desired Unit tieneration 471 * Boiler Turbine Governor Actual Unit tieneration Pressure Error Generation Error  v Combustion A A Governor Control Main Steam Pressure v 4 Turbine Generator  output perature at the desired value by maintaining the correct ratio of heat input (fuel and air) to throughput (flow rate).. the pumping rate must be increased to satisfy the increased load and provide greater energy storage. 1 1. L I Fig.
472 Chapter 1 1 Partly because of the lower storage of the oncethrough design. Heat Transfer Firing Rate 4Air Flow < ByPass Damper Position . pressuretemperaturedensity Spray Valve Position steam table relations. there is little of the “cushioning effect” that exists in drumtype boiler designs. the response to sudden load changes is much faster than that of the drumtype boiler. since the pumping rate is directly coupled to the steam produced. Also. and density profile from iterative solution of pressure drop. Having eliminated the spatial parameter by lumping. The solutions obtained by this process.d. like the drumtype boiler. Turbine Valve Position continuity. The time required for water to pass through the boiler and be converted to superheated steam is only two or three minutes compared to six to 10 minutes for the dnuntype designs [24]. Another approach to this problem has been pursued [22] in which the boiler is lumped into 30 or so sections and the nonlinear equations for each lump are solved iteratively by digital computer. but it is also more accurate for larger excursions from the quiescent point. Comparison of such results with field tests have generally been quite good [25. A flow diagram of the iterative process is shown in Figure 11.. Another report describes the use of 36 lumps to describe a large boiler used to supply a 900 MW generating unit [26]. is a difficult problem. give the boiler openloop re Iterated Pump Speed Presssure. Rigorous analysis of the oncethrough boiler. Convection. This method is more time consuming than the linearized model. temperature and f o relations as well as lw pump characteristics   Density Specific Heat Flow Rate Profile and Transport Delays Metal Heat Storage Heat Transfer Metal T. turbine pressure. Assuming operation in the neighborhood of a quiescent point results in a linearized system of equations that may be numerically integrated by known digital techniques.45. but such analysis is necessary if a control system is to be designed accurately. flow rate. the resulting ordinary differential equations are nonlinear. A common approach is to lump the spatial variation and waste heat transfer equations for each lump. This method has been used on a supercritical unit for a 191 M W unit in which the analysts divided the boiler into 14 sections or lumps [25]. I Gas to Metal Heat Flux Profile i Gas Path Energy Balance Radiation.26]...
46.3 Computer models of fossilfueled boilers From the foregoing discussion.46. Referring to Figure 11. I I .KVPA = KvPo (1 1.46 Coupling of turbine load controls with boiler controls [22]. we examine the significance of combining MW error into the control scheme. and KY a constant proportional to the valve opening. The control system of Figure 11.46 is basically the direct energy balance system of Figure 11. and heat flux. This scheme has been used for many oncethrough boiler installations. from [l 13 MW = KvP = Kp(f'0 or iPA) MW . 1 1. a few minutes. The authors of [22] present variations to the basic control scheme of Figure 11.39. Considering this control scheme. these large detailed models are not appropriate for use in power system stability analysis. we investigate various innovations that may improve response. but shown in block diagram form.9. However. . spray flow. a portion of which is described below.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 473 sponses to step changes in turbine valve position. then. These results have been used in the synthesis of a control philosophy and control hardware. nonlinear needs of the system at various load levels and to do this in the shortest possible time. PA the pressure error. Detailed mathematical models of these systems have been constructed and are used by system designers and control experts. MW the megawatt level. at most. Frequency Speed MW Position Control I I Demand For: Feedwater Firing Rate I Pressure Anticipatory Feed Forward Action From Desired MW I IBoif aria besy d y Etc Fig. it is clear that large fossilfuel boilers are large complex systems.48) This difference is proportional to the load level and is interpreted as the turbine valve opening. the problem is to design an adaptive control system that has the ability to alter its control parameters to satisfy the changing. If we let Po be the pressure set point. Our interest is simply in the ability of the boiler to maintain steam pressure and flow for a few seconds or. pump speed. Basically.
in turn. what is needed for stability analysis is a loworder model that will correctly represent the steamsupply system for up to 10 to 20 seconds. but they simply are far too detailed.37]. improved models of a steam turbine system. This variable is directly affected by the turbine control valve (CV) and intercept valve (ZV). affected by throttle pressure. including the effects of the intercept valve. There are several types of turbine systems of interest in a power system study.48. labeled PT in the figure. These large detailed models are too detailed and too cumbersome for power system stability analysis. The stability analyst is not concerned with the many control loops within the boiler.47 Elements of a prime mover system [37]. loss of generation or loads. The mechanical shaft power is the primary variable of interest as it drives the generator. not that they are incorrect. on the other hand. Figure 11. where the boilerturbine system is shown within the dashed lines. This diagram is instructive as it links the boilerturbine systems to the controlled turbinegenerator system and the external power system. Models of these system components are needed in order to provide an adequate dynamic model of the mechanical system.48. Their inclusion would greatly retard the solution time and the added complexity is unwarranted. . These reports focus especially on the dynamics of prime movers and energy supply systems in response to power system disturbances such as faults.474 Chapter 1 1 Boiler control.47 shows the elements of the prime mover control model that was developed by the IEEE working group. and system separations. The IEEE Power Engineering Society has been particularly active in documenting appropriate model structures and data for proper representation and two excellent reports have been issued as a result of these efforts [29. The prime mover energy supply system is shown inside the dashed box in Figure 11. These generic models are described in [37]. However. which shows how the boiler and turbine models are linked to other power system variables and controllers. but only the essential steam supply and pressure at the throttle valve. This problem has been investigated for many years and is well documented in the literature [26371. 1 1. Steam flow through these valves is. involves the analysis of system performance over many minutes and analysis of various subsystems within the control hierarchy.both of which admit steam to the turbine sections.48 [38]. have been developed and are shown in a general way in Figure 11. it is also not correct to assume that the boiler is an “infinite bus” of steam supply under all conditions. The relationship between the prime mover system and the complete power system are shown in Figure 11. We can see that the prime mover responds to commands Load Reference Load Demand LD L A Turbine L4L Speed Load IV ~ cv > Turbine Including Reheater Fig. This pressure is directly affected by the boiler performance. Clearly. Later. It is a complex nonlinear system.
The turbineboiler control also responds to changes in speed. The older units operated under a mechanicalhydraulic control system.50. This model is believed to be more accurate as it accounts for the valve limits. The resulting mechanical power responds to changes in main steam pressure and turbine valve positions. In some studies it is also desirable to provide a model of the boiler. The manufacturers of speedgoverning equipment have their own special models for speed governors of their design. A generic model of this type of control system is shown in Figure 11. these effects are modeled linearly as a firstorder lag.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 475 i InterchangePower Electric System Automatic I Generators Generation Frequency Control Network Loads v 1 Desired Unit Generation Angle Unit Electric Power 1 Turbine/ k I  I . This boiler model is shown in . This is true of studies that extend the simulation time for long periods where boiler pressure may not be considered constant. I I I I I I I I I I Main Steam Pressure I I I I I I I I I I I I i i I I i I i I i I Fig. In many cases. where the intercept valve opening or area is represented by the “IV” notation. for generation changes from the automatic generation control system. 1 I . or from manual commands issued by the control center. The output variable of primary interest is the unit mechanical power that acts on the turbine inertia to accelerate or decelerate the inertia in accordance with Newton’s law. The effect of intercept valve operation is that portion of the figure within the dashed box. An appropriate loworder boiler model has also been recommended by the IEEE committee responsible for the above speedgoverning system model.49. The control valve position is shown as “CV” in this figure. A more detailed model of a generic turbine model is shown in Figure 11. The steam turbine speed and load controls are of two types. These experts can also provide appropriate numerical data for the model parameters.48 Functional block diagram of prime mover controls [38]. and these manufacturers should be consulted to determine the best way to model their equipment.
This heat generates steam in the boiler waterwalls at a mass flow rate of rh. in a chain reaction. 1 1. In the socalled "thermal" reactors a moderator. C. and the superheater. The energy input to the boiler represents heat released by the furnace..10 Nuclear Steam Supply Systems Nuclear power plants generate steam by utilizing the heat released in the process of nuclear fission. rather than by a chemical reaction as in a fossilfuel boiler. the major storage is in the transition region. 1 1. The output of the model is the steam flow rate to the high pressure turbine. or a rate of mass flow). 11. In oncethru boilers. The nuclear reactor controls the initiation and maintenance of a controlled rate of fission. principally water. or the splitting of the heavy uranium atom by the absorption of a neutron. connected through an orifice representing the friction pressure drop through the superheater and piping.representing a derivative with respect to time. heavy water. in series with a superheater. (note carefully the dot over the m. and with steam leads and their associated friction pressure drops. Figure 11. is required to slow down the neutrons and thereby enhance the probability of fission. The steam generation process is a distributed one and this is approximated in the model by two lumped storage volumes for the drum. The major reservoir for energy storage is in the waterwalls and the drum.476 Chapter 1 1 Fig.50 Approximate representation of control valve position control in a mechanicalhydraulic speed governing system [38].both of which contain saturated steam and water. C.5 1 and features a lumped volume storage of steam at an internal pressure labeled here as drum pressure.49 Generic turbine model including intercept valve effects [38]. . Speed Relay Position 1 TSM Rate Limits Limits 1 S & 4 Servo Motor  Fig. or graphite.
Boiling water reactor (BWR) Pressurized water reactor (PWR) CANDU reactor Gascooled.51 A computer model of boiler pressure effects 1381.VULur and Steam Leads (a) The Physical System Turbine Valve Water Wall Lag (b) The S s e Model ytm Fig. In these reactors.the water coolant is permitted to boil and the resulting steam is sent directly to the turbine. the reactor is cooled by water under high pressure. the heat generated in fuel assemblies is removed by carbon dioxide. 3. In Europe. .Steam Turbine Prime Movers 477 Turbine Equivalent Orifice n Control VllVPc HP Turbine Drum and Water Walls vuyu. 11. Our treatment will focus on the BWR and PWR types.. 4. There are several distinct types of nuclear steam supply systems that have been designed and put into service in power systems. The highpressure water is piped to heat exchangers where steam is produced. In the BWR. 2. gascooled. which is used to produce steam that is carried to steam generators. . graphitemoderated reactors In the PWR. graphitemoderated reactors have been developed. The major systems in use are the following: 1. The CANDU reactors have been developed in Canada. These reactors use heavy water under pressure and utilize natural uranium as a fuel. since they are so common in the United States.
1 1 . 1 1. Note that the steam produced by the reactor is boiled off the water surface and fed directly to the turbines.S2 Major components of a BWR nuclear plant 1391.8. A block diagram for the boiling water reactor is shown in Figure 11.47% Chapter 1 1 Fig. 11. The variables noted in the figure are defined in Table 11.52 [39] and these components should be included in a dynamic model.10. This is a loworder model for such a complex sys Fig.1 Boiling water reactors The major components in a BWR nuclear reactor are shown in Figure 11.53 Block diagram of a reducedorder BWR reactor model.53 [40]. .
and lowpressure valve positions are unspecified or are unchanging.10. but is similar to other speed governor models. One model for the PWR is that shown in Figures 11. 11.55 and 11.2 Pressurized water reactors The major components in the pressurized water reactor are identified in Figure 11.56. . 11. The model of the P W R nuclear reactor and turbine are rather complex.55 Interaction of P W R subsystem models 1411. where the high. These positions are functions of the speed governor model. tern.54 Major components of a PWR nuclear reactor model [39]. where it is important to keep models reasonably simple. which is not specified here.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 479 1nput Signal Control Rod Fig. One can also LLlI Bypass Pw Rod Position Rod position Regulator ~   PRW Reactor Fig. and was constructed for use in power system stability analysis.55.54 and the major subsystem interactions are shown in Figure 11. 1 1.
Several other PWR models have been presented and these are recommended for study [4246]. What is the gain margin? The phase margin? Table 11.480 Total Chapter 1 1 PWR Reactor Model I 1 I . model the turbine bypass system [41].1. but that option is not pursued here and the total bypass flow is assumed to be a zero input in the reactor model.8 Variable Identification.2. s LR = Turbine load reference PR = Reactor Pressure MT = Turbine Steam flow MB = Bypass steam flow Ms= Total steam flow R. 11.56 PWR reactor and turbine model [41]. per Unit LD = Load demand PT = Throttle pressure Ks = Steam flow pressure drop factor T = Oscillation period. Turbine Model I + 9 Fig.25. Examine the stability of the openloop transfer h c t i o n of Example 11. = Speed regulation Ao = Speed error . s Tp = Power response TC. Repeat for a longer bowl delay using T3 = 0. 1 1. Problems 11. Verify the results of Example 11.1 by performing a Bode plot. = Oscillation rate TC.1 by working through each step of the problem and plotting the root locus diagram. s 5 = Oscillation damping factor T. Locate the points for which the gain is approximately 937.
. W. Ronald Press. B. C. Nye. Evans. M. McGrawHill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. A. 7th Edition. 4. then under “search EIA using” enter “power station” and hit GO. Power Test Codes 20. “Graphical analysis of control systems. Pmin ‘ IPower Governor steam System Dynamics A governor. Find the statespace model for the governor and boiler system shown in the following figure.” paper 83T12.. boiler. New York. Introduction to the Basic Elements of Control Systems for Large Steam Turbine Generators. A. Examine a turbine control system similar to that of Example 11. and B. 1959. ASME Power Test Codes. and W.” ASME. 1960. 1983. G. J. 1967. 1952 and the May 1952 Transactions o the f ASME.4. References 1. A. 547551. A. and reheat steam turbine system 11. PAS82. Brown. F.7. 1963. September 1952. Power Station web site. J. P. Power Station Engineering and Economy. Skrotzki. IEEE. (Associate Editor). Power Plants. Nilsson. H.. Philip J. 11. New York. 1962. 8. IEEE Report.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 48 1 1 1. Introduction to Linear Systems Analysis.7. H.. McGrawHill. 3. AZEE. Wiley. R. 1959.gov/. W. Jr. reprinted from Mechanical Engineering. Potter. A. International Textbook Co. Verify the results of Example 11. B..1 except that. KureJensen.1.” Trans.” from “Reheat Turbines and Boilers. deMello.’’ American Society of Mechanical Engineers Publication. New York. G. 1992. 1964.10 of Appendix B by root locus. 17. June 1961.1 and find the gain margin and phase margin. 1948. 11. General Electric Company publication GET 3096A. IEEE. 6.. Vopat. “Recent development of the reheat steam turbine. Skrotzki. General Electric Company. McGrawHill. 15. 14. P. Reynolds. and E. Locate the points for which the gain is about 187.6.2 by working through each step of the problem and plotting the root locus diagram.5. January and February. 13. “Control of large modem steam turbinegenerators.” IEEE Publication 600. Power Plant Theory and Design. “Plant dynamics of a drumtype boiler system. “Overspeed trip systems for steamturbine generator units. pp. 10. 9. Examine the pressure control systems of Figures B. . 12.. instead of the short bowl delay used in the example.8. B. use a long bowl delay of T3= 0. Compare these results with those of the previous problem.fmtgov. 11.. Sketch the root locus and find the normal operating point for K3and Cgas given in Example 11. a Power Magazine special report. New York. Zerban. Initial Power I m ‘a Auxiliary Signal ’r I I .3. Eggenberger. R. 11.9.. 2.25 s. for example: http://www. R. Prepare a Nyquist diagram for the system of Example 1 1. Scranton.2. using the values given for the various parameters. 1965. New York. 1958. 5. McGrawHill. 7.” Trans. PA. A. 67. “Recommended specification for speed governing of steam turbines intended to drive electric generators rated 500 MW and larger. pp. Savant. New York. and J. Steam Turbines. Basic Feedback Control System Design.
American Power Conference. Kundur. E.1986. 92.. 21. PAS85. PAS109.” EPRI Report RP907. PWRS 2. pp. July 1966. “A dynamicmodel of a drumtype boiler system. 1974.” IEEE Trans. January 1968and February 1968. deMello. “Update of bibliography of literature on steam turbinegenerator control systems. Turner.2. J. 9. E.” IEEE Trans. 3. Hirsch. May 1991.” IEEE Paper 80SM5983. C. K. 1963. 1..” IEEE Trans. 22. B. P. Federal Power Commission.. Beaulieu. 36. P. P.” IEEE Trans. L.. IEEE Committee Report. 19. Imad. 1973. Minneapolis.Nov. Louis..” ZEEE Trans. and R. 1988. February 2024. E. Concordia. 1963... on Power Apparatus and Systems. 17. P. PA.Instrument Societyof America.” IEEE Trans. P. and V. D. “Simulation of BullRun Supercritical Generating Unit. Ichikawa.. Florida. Novmec. 28. on Energy Conversion. Washington. T. PAS84. 29. PAS82. and F. “Mathematical modeling of oncethrough boiler dynamics.” IEEE Paper 94 WM 1875 PWRS. presented at the IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting. presented at the IEEE Power Engineering SocietyMeeting. E. v.482 Chapter 1 1 16. June 1974and v. D. T. C. presented at the IEEE Winter Power Meeting. 28. “Effect of primemover Response and Governing Characteristicson System Dynamic Performance. Schweppe.” Proc. Jan. IEEE Working Group on Power Plant Response to Load Changes. Ahner.” IEEE Trans. “Analysis and design of controls for a oncethrough boiler through digital simulation. and T.. IEEE Committee Report. August 1986. January 30February 3. P. and J. 1966. 30. PAS82. A. 1973. “Computer control of power plants.. 1983. 1994. Kirchmayer.” Proc. IEEE Task Force on Stability Terms and Definitions. July 1318. 33. on Power Apparatus & Systems.” paper presented at the Ninth Annual Power Instrumentation Symposium. R. 1959. Schulz. and F. and P. and D. 35.. D. “Dynamic models for steam and hydro turbines in power system studies. May 131 5 . N. L. IEEE Committee Report. J. P.” IEEE Trans. May 1618. 31. IEEE Trans. Thompson.. R. Starbuck.” paper presented at the Fourth Winter Institute on Advanced Control. 26. Clar. Gainesville. PAS92. “Nuclear plant models for medium to longterm power system stability studies. on Power Apparatus and Systems. IEEE Committee Report. 1967.University of Florida.New York. February 1965.” CanadianElectrical Association. Stanton. 1980. Detroit. 19041915. “Fast valving with reheat and straight condensing steam turbines. P. Philadelphia.C.6.. al. PWRS6. Jr. Schulz.. =I. “Boiler pressure control configurations.. N. . 1966. 23. Bachofer.” IEEE Trans. government Printing Ofice. R. T. deMello. “Oncethrough boiler control. F. “Dynamic models for steam and hydro turbines in power system studies. 34.. Munro. F. C. Kenny.. 24. American Power Conference. Littman. U. 32. C.” IEEE paper 31PP6712.” paper presented at the 6th National ISA Power Instrumentation Symposium. IEEE Committee Report. Adams.” IEEE Trans. et. 25. S. “Long Term Power System Dynamics. 37. 6. T.1967. F.. 39. deMello. 92. Inoue. 29Feb. “MW response of fossilfueled steam units. C. pp. Summer. F.S.mec. R.” IEEE Trans. D. F.” Power Engineering. New York.National Power Survey. Ewart. Morris. 2. “Conventions for block diagram representation. R. P. deMello. 3. and P. Spanbauer. “An integrated combustion control system for oncethrough boilers. D. 1963. L. R. Scutt. Chen. L. 7. “Bibliography of literature on steam turbinegenerator control systems. J. “Dynamic models for fossil fueled steam units in power system studies. C. May 1987.“A technique for developing low order models of power plants. A. 1973. March 2426. Oct. P.. Michigan. 38. “Plant dynamics and control analysis. Dyer. 1964. “The application of Direct Energy Balance Control to Unit 2 at Portland Station. 27. Whitten. on Power Apparatus and Systems. 2. 19041915. Kundur. 20. PositionPaper ST 267. 18. and D. Younkins.“Steam turbine fast valving: Benefits and technicalconsiderations. J. EC3. PWRS1.
41. D. 48. 46. T. Dar. presented at the IEEE Power Engineering SocietyMeeting.“Reduction of program size for longterm power system simulationwith pressurized water reactor. September 1976. P. and M. New York. IEEE Power Engineering Society. on Power Apparatus and Systems.. IEEE Power Engineering Society. 30.J. W. Ichikawa. January 30.. “Nuclear plant models for medium. Younkins. K t . 3. Kundur. IEEE Power Engineering Society. January 30. R. A. Strange. Hirsch. “Light water reactor plant modeling for power system dynamic simulation. February 1977. “Modeling of CANDU nuclear power plants for system performance stud 45. Jan. Principles o Energy Conversion. Thakkar. M. T. 43. May 1988. f Schulz. 42. January 30.” Nuclear Technology.to longterm power system stability studies. Inoue. T. 44.” IEEE Trans. 1994. G. “A reduced order dynamic model of a boiling water reactor. K. Turner. Kerlin. M. E. ies. PWRS3. phase I1 final report. and P. B.Steam Turbine Prime Movers 483 40. Kundur. New York.. P. Inoue. Culp. New York.. W. Electric Power Research Institute. Van de Meulebroeke. McGrawHill. “Long term power system dynamics.Winter Meeting. F. and A. Winter Meeting. New York. R. 1992. New York. Poloujadoff. March 1983. on Power Systems. Robinson nuclear plant. “Modelling of a PWR unit. 47. Di Lascio. T.. “Theoreticaland experimental dynamic az analysis of the H. Ichikawa. P. Winter Meeting.” IEEE Trans.. .” IEEE Paper 94 WM 1875 PWRS. PAS102. Moret. CA.” Project EL367. and T. E.” paper presented at the IEEE Symposium on Prime Mover Modeling.. T. 1992. A.” paper presented at the IEEE Symposium on Prime Mover Modeling. and J. pp. 30Feb 2.” paper presented at the IEEE Symposium on Prime Mover Modeling. E. 1979. 1992. and P. Jr.. 46371. Palo Alto.
Thus.2 The Impulse Turbine The impulse or Pelton wheel is generally used in plants with heads higher than 850 feet (260 meters). Figure 12. The type of turbine used at a given location is based on the site characteristics and on the head or elevation of the stored water above the turbine elevation. Some designs have two turbines on a shaft with a generator between them and are called “doubleoverhung” units. Occasionally.2 (a) and is seen to be similar to the familiar garden hose nozzle. although some installations have lower heads. it is not advisable to use the nozzle to cut off the water jet abruptly. at Bucks Creek in California. several nozzles are directed toward each wheel. Four types of turbines or water wheels are in common use. has a static head of 2575 feet (785 m) and another in Switzerland has a head of over 5800 feet (about 1800 m).1 shows a doubleoverhung unit with a single nozzle for each wheel. The three most common are the impulse or Pelton turbine. Impulse turbines are often installed on a horizontal shaft with the generator mounted beside the turbine. A fourth and more recent development is the Deriaz turbine. One plant. 12. and the propeller or Kaplan turbine. steady changes in water flow and power input. thereby increasing the efficiency of the unit. the reaction or Francis turbine. However. Water to power the turbines is directed to the turbine blading through a large pipe orpenstock and is then discharged into the stream or tailrace below the turbine. is used to clear water from the bucket as it moves upward. also shown in Figure 12.1.1 Inhuduction The generation of hydroelectric power is accomplished by means of hydraulic turbines that are directly connected to synchronous generators. One way this is accomplished is by mechanically deflecting the water stream by means of a jet deflector as . The turbine wheel is spun by directing water from nozzles against the wheel paddles and using the high momentum of the water to drive the wheel. A stripper. which combines some of the best features of the Kaplan and Francis designs. This arrangement is shown in Figure 12. All of these types make use of the energy stored in water that is elevated above the turbine. This needle adjustment is used to make small. another means must be found to divert the water stream away from the wheel while the nozzle is closed slowly. Speed regulation of the impulse turbine is accomplished by adjusting the flow of water through the nozzle by means of a needle that can be moved back and forth to change the size of the nozzle opening.chapter 12 Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 12. The reason for this is that a sharp cutoff in flow causes a pressure wave to travel back along the penstock causing possible damage due to water hammer. since the impulse wheel is used in plants having high heads and long penstocks.
2 Impulse wheel nozzle and deflector arrangements.2(b).1 A doubleoverhung impulse wheel. All of the energy input to the shaft is in the form of kinetic energy of the water. Ideally then. 12. the water veloc Fig. the governor of an impulse wheel will control the nozzle for normal changes. the total drop in pressure of the water occurs at the stationary nozzle and there is no change in pressure as the water strikes the bucket. In an impulse turbine. shown in Figure 12. 12. and this energy is transformed into the mechanical work of driving the shaft or is dissipated in fluid friction. .Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 485 Fig. but must recognize a load rejection by quickly moving the jet deflector. Thus.
A86 Chapter 12 ity is reduced to zero after it strikes the turbine buckets. f t Recall that 550 l b d s is equal to one horsepower.1) where P. Thus.. ft3/s H = static or total head. and a nozzle coefficient. hp W = weight of one cubic foot of water = 62.= hp 8. flows across this pressure drop. ft C = nozzle coefficient. the high pressure in the penstock at the nozzle is changed to momentum so that no pressure drop is experienced at the turbine. exert . ft2 V = jet velocity. however. Actually. the head.2) where the maximum efficiency is usually 80 to 90% [ 13. For a given design.2 ft/s2 h = net head at nozzle entrance. The water then falls through the runner. P. It is also restricted by the mean river or stream flow.5) 12.3) where A =jet area. usually 0. ft/s Then v=cv?@ft/s where g = 32.4 lbm/ft3 Q = quantity of water. water under pressure enters a spiral case surrounding the moving blades and flows through fixed vanes in a radial inward direction.H3I2 (12. The power available at the nozzle is given by the formula P . and transfers both pressure energy and kinetic energy to the runner blades. the diameter of the reaction turbine is smaller than an impulse turbine of similar rating. is the turbine efficiency. If 77. = power availble at the nozzle. we can compute Q =AVft3/s (12. who designed the first such water wheel in 1846.wHQ hp 550 (12. the remainder taking place in the rotating runner.98 If we assume that (12. In the reaction turbine. which is dictated by nature. Most reaction turbines in use today are of a radial inwardflow type known as the “Francis” turbine after James B.4) h=kH for a given situation. the shaft power may be written as HQT. Francis. In these turbine designs. water completely fills the cavity occupied by the runner. there is only a partial pressure drop at the nozzle. The quantity of water depends on the water velocity. a small kinetic energy remains and is lost as the deflected water is directed downward to the exit passageway. then we may write Ps= k. Since so much of the turbine blading is active in this energy transfer.8 (12.3 The Reaction Turbine In the impulse turbine.where k is a constant. = .
In axial flow the stationary vanes direct the water to flow parallel to the shaft. Positioning these vanes can cause the water to have a tangential velocity component as it enters the runner. Although the wicket gates are closefitting. the water flows perpendicular to the shaft. or mixed flow according to the direction of water flow. a portion of the energy is lost due to less efficient angling of the water streamline. It allows the turbine runner to be set above the tailwater level and it reduces the discharge velocity. they usually leak when fully closed and subject to full penstock pressure. this energy may be as high as 50% of the total available energy. For one such position. . The importance of the draft tube is evident when the energy of water leaving the runner is considered. Without the draft tube. however. Reaction turbines are installed either in a horizontal or vertical shaft arrangement. being applicable to installations with heads as high as 800 feet (244 m) and as low as about 20 feet ( G 6 m). The large tube with the 90" bend just below the runner in Figure 12.3 is the draft tube. (12. In some designs.6) Fig. Thus.Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 407 ing pressure against these movable vanes and causing the runner to turn. The draft tube is an integral and important part of the reaction turbine design. Reaction turbines are classed as radial flow. with the vertical turbines being the most common. This low pressure tends to increase the pressure drop across the turbine blading and increase the overall efficiency. The generator is usually directly connected to the runner shaft as shown in Figure 12.3 A typical vertical shaft reaction turbine arrangement. Mixed flow is a combination of radial and axial flow. thereby reducing the kinetic energy losses at discharge. The control for a reaction turbine is in the form of movable guide vanes called wicket gates through which the water flows before reaching the runner. the runner will operate at maximum efficiency. With the draft tube constructed airtight.3. At any other wicket gate setting. this kinetic energy would be lost. It is a versatile design. It serves two purposes. In radial flow. a large butterfly valve is often installed just ahead of the turbine case for use as a shutdown valve. axial flow. usually at 80 to 90% of wide open. a partial vacuum is formed due to the fastmoving water. 12. One of the important empirical formulas used in waterwheel design is the specific speed formula.
488 Chapter 12 Table 12.8 and this value usually decreases for turbines with higher values of Ns. Bureau of Reclamation. W. The force required to move this assembly is very large and two servomotors are often used to rotate the ring. as shown in Figure 12. R.1 are applicable. lowcapacity (in water volume) turbine and the reaction turbine is a highspeed. Avey.1) to (1 2. the value of C is about 0. USBR photo by C. It serves to classify turbines as to the type applicable for a certain location.6 to 0. . The control of a reaction turbine is through the movable wicket gates.4. Fig.5) used in conjunction with the impulse turbine also apply for the reaction turbine. we say that the specific speeds given in Table 12. Figure courtesy F.5 10 to 100 80 to 200 10 to 100 max Ns 10 150 250 where N = speed in rpm H = head in feet Ps= shaft power in hp This quantity is the speed at which a model turbine would operate with a runner designed for one horsepower and at a head of one foot. For (12.1 Typical Specific Speeds for Watenvheels Type of Wheel Impulse Reaction Propeller Deriaz N S 0 to 4. 12. an impulse turbine is a lowspeed. highcapacity turbine.S. Electric Power Branch. then. Department of the Interior. The same formulas (12.4). U. As a general guide. Under this classification.4 Wicket gate operating levers and position servomotors. Schleif. These are deflected simultaneously by rotating a large “shifting ring” to which each gate is attached.
A. Kaplan turbines are used at locations with heads of 20 to 200 feet (about 15 to 150 m). where the blades are identified by the letters A and the direction of water flow by the letter W. The blades are contoured similar to the Francis blading and are set at 45 degrees to the shaft axis rather than 90 degrees as in the Kaplan turbines. 12.4 PropellerType Turbines The propellertype turbine is really a reaction turbine since it uses a combination of water pressure and velocity to drive the shaft.1. Thus. in 1919.If load is rejected and the wicket gates are driven closed very quickly by the governor servomotor. leaving the runner with a fast swirling motion. The Deriaz turbine has the capability of operating at high turbine efficiency over a wide range of loadings. This design has the advantage of fairly high efficiency over a wide range of head and wicket gate settings. The fixed blade or Nagler type was developed in 1916 by F. That is to say. Thus. These differences are illustrated in Figure 12. as indicated in Table 12.8. Nagler.6. the water source is an infinite bus. Compared to the Francis turbines. The two rods are connected to power servomotors and operate to rotate the shifting ring. 12.6 Conduits. which is actuated by the shgting ring.4 is one of the generators at the Grand Coulee Dam Powerhouse in Washington State. It also has a higher specific speed. It operates at a high velocity and operates efficiently only for fixed head and constant flow applications. The selection of sites and construction of dams.5 The Deriaz Turbine The Deriaz turbine is a more recent development in reaction turbine design and incorporates the best features of the Kaplan and the mixedflow Francis designs. during periods of interest for control analysis. water is drawn from an area called the forebay into a couduit or large pipe. This permits optimization of turbine efficiency over a wide range of head and load conditions. Wicket gates are generally not used with a Deriaz turbine and control is maintained by blade adjustment only. the Kaplan units operate at higher speeds for a given head and the water velocity through the turbine is greater.7. Adjustments of wicket gate setting and blade angle can both be made with the unit running.5. Three types of propeller turbines can be discussed. This prevents the large momentum of penstock water from hammering against the closed wicket gates. Surge Tanks. A few years later. It is essentially a propeller turbine with adjustable blades. the draft tube design is important in Kaplan turbine applications. A second control device used in reaction turbines is a large bypass valve. a relatively level section . the head is constant. the pressure regulator is caused to open and does so very rapidly.000 horsepower turbine generator. From the reservoir. In some cases. Many excel1 lent references are available that discuss these important items [5. this design is well suited for situations requiring large variations in loading schedules.Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 489 The machine shown in Figure 12. spillways. and Penstocks It is assumed that any hydroelectric generation site has a supply of elevated water from which water may be drawn to power the turbine. It employs water velocity to a greater extent than the Francis turbine. and flows to the turbine as shown in Figure 12. but are beyond the scope of this text. Kaplan developed the adjustable blade propeller turbine shown in Figure 12. We will assume that a reservoir of water exists and is large enough in capacity that. It shows the wheel pit of a 165. as shown in Figure 12. and the like are important. thereby changing the wicket gate position of all gates. The pressure regulator then closes slowly to bring the water gradually to rest. 6 . 12.
As the water flows through this conduit and penstock at a steady rate.h L where hL= head loss.8 represents the approximate profile of the head. this head loss at the turbine is h =H . feet H = static head.7) . is necessary to move the water to a point where it begins a steep descent through the penstock to the turbine.490 Chapter 12 Fig. feet k = a constant corresponding to pipe resistance = kQ" (12. called the conduit. measured in feet. a head loss develops. 12. similar to the voltage drop in a nonlinear resistor. feet h = effective head at the turbine.5 The Kaplan propeller turbine. The hydraulic gradient in Figure 12. of pipe. Under steadyflow conditions. as a hnction of distance from forebay to turbine.
possibly subjecting the pipe walls to great stresses. Water hammer is defined as the change in pressure. One of the serious problems associated with penstock design and operation is that of water hammer. the governor will react by opening or closing the wicket gates. AD. to the positive waterhammer gradient. This supernormal pressure is not stable.Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 491 (a) The Francis Runner (b) The Kaplan Runner W (c) The D & e Runner Fig.6 Comparison of reaction turbine runners. ft3/s n = a constant. 12. as indicated in the figure. and once the wicket gate movement stops. because of the momentum built up by the penstock water.Thus. following a sudden change in load. . Suppose the load on the turbine is dropped suddenly. The turbinegovernor reacts to this change by quickly moving the wicket gates toward the closed position and. Creager [ 6 ] gives a graphic example of this phenomena as shown in Figure 12. Q = flow rate. the hydraulic gradient to changes from the normal full load gradient AC. above or below normal pressure. caused by sudden changes in the rate of water flow [ 6 ] .9. gradient AD swings to AE and oscillates back and forth until damped by fhction to a new steadystateposition. the head loss will be directly proportional to the length of pipe. when the flow is steady. where 1 5 n 5 2 Thus. This causes a pressure wave to travel along the penstock.
Thus. . upon reaching this “open circuit. reveals that it is much like the distributed parameter transmission line. accompanied by wicket gate opening has just the opposite effect. = 50 Francis N . 12. The (closing) wicket gate can be thought of as a series of small step changes in gate position. Each step change causes a positive pressure wave to travel up the penstock to the forebay and. A sudden increase in load. 12.7 Turbine efficiency as a hnction of load.8 A typical conduit and penstock arrangement. not only must the penstock be well reinforced near the turbine.” it is reflected back as a negative _ \ Static Hydraulic Gradient   Tailrace Fig. but it must be able to withstand these shock waves all along its length. = 100 Fixed Propeller 0 ‘ 0 I 1 I I I > 20 40 60 % of Full Load 80 100 Fig.492 100 Chapter 12 4 Denaz Impulse Kaplan Francis N. Examining this phenomenon more closely.
10 is the hdamental equation for water hammer studies.9) where d = pipe diameter.9 Hydraulic gradient following a loss of load. inches Pressure wave velocities of 2000 to 4000 feet per second are not uncommon.8) where L = length of penstock. ft/s For steep pipes. wlk. The change in head due to water hammer produced by a step change in velocity has been shown to be [6] (12.10) where hA= change in head.seconds 2L a (12.Ii I f ne _ i Tailrace pressure wave of almost the same magnitude. Equation 12. feet a = pressure wave velocity. vA must be . inches e = pipe wall thickness.Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 493 \\ Penstock Wicket Gates Fig. The time of one “round trip” of this wave is called the critical time. ft/s2 and a is the pressure wave velocity as previously defined. 12. the wave velocity is approximately a= 4675 ft/s 1 + (d100e) (12. feet vA = change in velocity. W S g = acceleration of gravity. Note that to keep water hammer to a low value.. which is defined as p = . p.
. From the above. In such a case. It may also cause violent pressure oscillations. a large tank usually located between the conduit and penstock. Usually. The introduction of time lags are particularly troublesome for interconnected operation as this contributes to tieline oscillation [7]. ft2 L = conduit length. 12. Letting y denote the maximum surge up or down in feet (measured from the reservoir level for starting. however. the surge tank should be as close to the turbine as possible but. it is often placed at the top of the steepdescent portion of the penstock.10.494 Chapter 12 kept small either by using a pressure regulator or by introducing intentional time lag in the governor. This is due to the general rule that the larger the tank area. It may require that penstocks be built with much greater strength than would ordinarily be necessary. Suppose. that the gate is opened by only a small amount. the smaller the pressure variation [6]. it is of no help in combating negative water hammer. A device often used to relieve the problems of both positive andnegative water hammer is the surge tank. such that it can be closed in a time p . the pressure rise can be greater than that due to closure from full gate to zero. Sometimes an “equalizing reservoir” is constructed to serve as a surge t n for large installations and may actually be cheaper and more beneficial. which can interfere with turbine operation. Forebay Tailrace Fig. we see that water hammer.8). The pressure regulator is helpful in controlling positive water hammer as it provides relief for the pressure buildup due to closing of the gates. The t n must be high enough so that in no case is air ak drawn into the penstock. as shown in Figure 12. since it must also be high enough to withstand positive water hammer gradients without overflowing. from a distance below this equal to the friction head for stopping) we have [ 5 ] y= (gA+ P y 2 aLv% (12. p is usually considered the critical governor time. as shown in the ak figure. Surge tank dimensions are important.10 Conduit and penstock with a surge tank.11) where a = conduit area. both positive and negative. can be a serious problem in penstock design. ft Surge Tank I . For this reason. the time for closure of the wicket gates of a hydraulic turbine is much greater than p of equation (12. To be most effective. However.
which acts like a simpler surge tank with small diameter.11. Since damping is desirable. These heads are determined by water in the riser tank. where the surge is compared for two types of tank design [6].___ Tailrace Fig. Because of this restriction.Note the relatively long period (about 300 seconds. The damping effect due to the added friction of the differential surge tank is shown in Figure 12.”The differential surge tank. the water level in the outer tank is independent of the accelerating head and the head acting on the turbine. which increases steadily for about 80 to 85 seconds. Ws g = 32. at which time the flow Surge A  Riser I I . The diameter of the differential surge tank is about onehalf that of a simple surge tank. ft2 Barrow [ 5 ] also gives a formula for the time interval that elapses between turbine load change and the occurrence of the maximum surge as (12.2 fus2 F = friction head.. = velocity change. shown in Figure 12. consists of two concentric tanks: an inside riser tank of about the same diameter as the penstock and an outer or surge tank of larger diameter with a restricted passage connecting it to the penstock. or five minutes) of the surge. 12. where the turbine wicket gates are opened at time t = 0. This surge would be due to a sudden increase in load. ft A = area of surge tank.Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 495 v. . it is sometimes advantaak geous to add hydraulic resistance at the surge t n opening to produce a choking effect. This is done in two ways: by placing a restricted orifice between the t n and the penstock. or by conak structing a “differential surge tank.12.12) where c = coefficient of fiction cv2 = q = flow in ft3/s The factor F in (12.10) is important since it represents the friction that eventually damps out oscillationsfollowing a sudden change. The riser diameter is usually the same as that of the penstock. Note that an accelerating head is created.1 1 The differential surge tank.
12 Comparison of surges in simple and differential surge tanks. In the differential tank. : 0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1 % 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Time in seconds Fig. of water from that tank ceases. the inertia of water in the penstock and conduit are represented by inductances L. G. and the turbine is represented by the variable conductance. 12. but not so fast as to prevent the governor from keeping up with the change.and L2. In the discussion of a technical paper [SI. including conduit. With water being considered incompressible. penstock. . respectively (series resistance could be added to represent hydraulic resistance). 12. surge tank.where a change in gate setting is under consideration.13 Electric analog of the hydraulic system. where head is analogous to voltage. (How could a differential surge tank be represented?) Conduit Penstock V I I I Fig. The surge tank behaves much like a capacitor as it tends to store water (charge) and release it when the head (voltage) at the turbine falls. and turbine [9]. the turbine can be simulated by G or GA. deMello suggests a lumped parameter electric analog of the hydraulic system. Figure 12.13 shows this analog. If the effect of water wheel speed on flow is neglected. volumetric flow is analogous to current.496 Chapter 12 5 Differential: v1 Q 5 15 20 25 .the accelerating head is established very fast.
20) Then (12.14) From the square root relationship between flow and head Q=GG we write il = G (12.18) When the surge tank is very large. we get ilA = 2(GA/GO)v10 2vo s(L.16) Combining. (12.18) reduces to the socalled waterhammer formula Po?( 1 +s where 1 ks) Jh 2O R (12.19) Ro= 7 10 VI0 (12. C is large and (12.Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 497 If linearized equations about a quiescent operating point are written we have.17) Now. assume a change in turbine power at constant efficiency or PA = vIOiIA + ilOVIA Po$(? s(L.1 3) where Also (12.)(1 + LCS2) i0 1 + L2C2S2 + (12. + L2) + ?L2CS2 10 .L2Cs3) vo + i0 +L2) +voL2cs2I L1L2cs3 2 2 10 (12.19) may be written as PA = 1 +s TW (12.21) 2 .L.15) G (12. + L. for the head at the reservoir described in the s domain.
= Young's modulus for the pipe Equation (12. This excellent description is based on a rigorous mathematical analysis and is supported by substantial experimental evidence to testify to its validity. For the uniform pipe. or L.v + GV ax dt (12.7 Hydraulic System Equations The hydraulic system and water turbine transfer functions have been thoroughly analyzed by Oldenburger and Donelson [8].dh dx at du dh .=gdx dt where u = water velocity. Ws x = distance along pipe.=cy. which can be written as follows: a d i= C.25) The similarity for the lossless case should be obvious. R cy (12. is large.24) =a constant = p g ( k + X) p = density of fluid g = acceleration of gravity K = bulk modulus of elasticity of fluid r = internal pipe radius f = pipe wall thickness E.23) These results are not greatly changed by considering the conduit and penstock as a distributed parameter system. the flow of water through a conduit is analogous to an electric transmission line in which head is analogous to voltage and volumetric flow rate is analogous to current. when the tunnel inertia is great. as pointed out by deMello [9].22) Furthermore.19) becomes (12. This is easily seen when the partial differential (wave) equations for a uniform pipe with negligible friction are examined.24) should be compared to the equations of the transmission line. ft h = head. . As shown in the previous section. then (12.490 where [9] Chapter 12 .'Z = water starting time = 1 second (12. we write du . 12.
let us define the following: H = H(s. sinh XI a a (12.29) where a= = wave velocity (12. x) = L[h(t. With this simplification. c cash .Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 499 Now.33) . dx dH .6 g H .31) or U = CI cosh . C2.+ C4sinh a sx (12.28) This result can be written in hyperbolic form as U = C.14.K. ~ .+ C2 sinh a a a sx sx sx H = C3cosh . = U. This helps in evaluating the constants C. or i) to indicate the particular section under study.31) or (12.27) The solution of (12. cosh X.32) we may subscript all x's with a numeral (I.30) These results may be simplified by eliminating of the arbitrary constants subscripted by 3 and 4.we have [8] .C2sinh a a sx sx H= G i sx c.. cosh . 11. For example.U. Thus.32) 6sinh~ sx Note we may apply (12.x ) = L[u(t.32) to any cross section of pipe such as I or I1 of Figure 12.x ) ] (12.x)] u = U(S. we may write C.27) may be shown to be u = K esx/a + K2e+sda I H = K3esda + K4e+..26) We may write the Laplace transform of (12. and K2 as they depend on boundary conditions..s x +a~ ~ ~ + s x / a y / (12.= _ 1 su h g (12.Sda (12. assuming zero initial conditions. = ~ .. in (12. or any arbitrary cross section i. cosh XI a S + S sinh 4 a S S C2= .1 a (12.31) and (12..24) with the result.
14 A view of an arbitrary pipe section selected for study. We may then write (12.37) as . sinh XI. Then. sinh X. U.sinh a S S S X.U.34) Now.sinh Tp + HI cosh Tp (12. a a a (12. sinh Tp U I HI. cosh Tp . since q=AU (12. sinh X.= elastic time a (12.36) and Ulr= U. cosh XI cosh &. R3/s A = pipe cross sectional area. a a S S S S + *HI a cosh X.500 Chapter 12 Fig.= u.35) c.33) and (12. a S . simply Q=AU (12. = .40) (12.38) Now. let x. (12.32) as. Thus. cosh XI . 12.42) and this applies at any section such as I or 11.34) become (12. ft2 then we may write or.37) where L T.6 g H .=o X = L = length of pipe . = U. = ..39) where q = volumemetric flow rate. we convert the U equation to a Q equation and rewrite (12.agH. C2= HI (12. for the section at 11.
Tep)hI .49) and subsequently (12.43) z O A 6 the “characteristic” impedance (12. From these relations. t ) = hI.49) (12.51) 1 = (sech .(si& TeP)h.p)f(t)] for T > 0 andf(t) . we rearrange (12.(L.(L. we conclude that the second item in (12. t) = 0 for t > T.47) forf(t) = 0 when t < T.46) t < Te and where we use the notationp = d/dt.46) can be rearranged and hyperbolic identities used to write QI= QIIcosh Tes + HIIsinh T.s Z O HI = ZoQIIsinh T.p)hI 411 = (cash 1 (12. write = 0 when = F(s) sinh Tes (12.p)f(t)] = F(s) cosh Tes (12. we also L[(cosh T..(O.50) where qI.sinh Tp Z O HII= ZoQI sinh Tp + HI cosh Tp where 1 = (12.s + HIfcosh Tes and in the time domain this equation pair becomes 1 (12..44) From the timedomain translation theorem of Laplace transform theory we write ebsF(s)= L[u(t .Z~(tanh TePkll (12. We can see that (12. Similarly..b)] (12.48) where 4x0. t) = 0 for t < T. Now.p)qI + (cosh T.45) We readily conclude that the Laplace transform of the following differential equation may be written: L[(sinh T.43) is the Laplace transform forf(t) when t < T.(sinh Tep)hI ZO hII = Zo(sinh T.Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 501 I QII= QI cosh Tp . Now note that (12.bMt .43) is the Laplace transform of the equations TeP)qI .50) to write the hybrid equation pair 41 = (cash TeP)q/I + Z. t ) = h.
4110 2 (12. the head equarm tion is.502 Chapter 12 Equations (12.56) This nonlinearity is removed by the approximation (12. f o (12.57) k = 2k. In a similar way. or hIIA = (sech Tep)h. the new equations will be identically the same as (12.Thus.51) becomes 41 = (cash TeP)qII + (si& 1 Z O Tep)hll (12.55) and write new equations in terms of the Aquantities. The head loss due to friction has been shown to be proportional to q2.5 1) are linear in both q and h such that.k2q11A (12.57) in perunit terms by dividing through by a base quantity.Tep)f(t) (12.A.z o ( d TeP)qIl. if more accuracy is require.zO(tanh where TeP)qIIA.52) and if this series converges rapidly.51) and (12. Let Base q = qo Base h = ho Then. we may write approximately e'ft &() = (1 . if we define (12. we may write for the first of equations (12.59) .51) and including a frictionlossterm 2 (sech TeP)hI .51).51) may be evaluated by expanding the hyperbolic differential operators in an infinite series. we may add more terms.53) or.55).58) We may also write (12. in perunit terms. (12. qk (12.54) We also note that equations (12.5 1) = Tep converge rapidly. We recall that (12. we may expand the hyperbolic terms by the expansions If these sequences in u (12.k.
but we will avoid using the A subscript for brevity. = surge t n head. We will not dwell on this technique except to acknowledge that experimental verification has been checked by others. when the frequency of oscillation is high. All flows and heads are deviations from the steady state. = zo40 h0 (12. It has been observed in physical situations that when the wicket gates are oscillated at low frequencies. 12. All values are per unit. From (12. = riser tank head. per unit Experimental runs verify this assumption [8]. we are interested in dynamic oscillations about some quiescent operating point. Verification was checked by the frequencyresponse method [8. the levels in both tanks are practically constant as the water inertia prevents it from responding to rapid changes.60) We need not use any special symbol to indicate whether these are perunit or system quantities as the equations are identical (except for Zoand Z. Partial derivatives of nonlinear relationships are assumed to be derived at the quiescent point or Qpoint. the levels in the riser tank and surge tank are practically the same. or h.57) applied to the conduit (from forebay to surge t n ) we have ak (12. wherein the wicket gates are oscillated at a range of frequencies and measurements taken to determine the system Bode diagram. we assume that the levels in riser and surge tanks are identical. In so doing. where h. The results of this section and the assumptions made have been verified for at least one physical case as recorded in [8]. = ho 41 per unit q1= 40 per unit qII= 40 41 1 per unit Zo= Z . 2. we will assume: 1.62) where T.8 Hydraulic System Transfer Function We now apply the equations of Section 12. Thus. 101. per unit . per unit ak h.. = elastic time for the conduit hw = forebay head.7 to typical hypothetical situations and derive transfer functions for the hydraulic system.).61) (12. = h. Also.Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 503 where we define h I per unit hI = h0 hII per unit h. In what follows.
63) since there will be no change in head at the forebay. In other words. we may write hw= 0 (12.67) This equation is especially interesting since it indicates that the relationship between surge tank head. 12. + 4r + 4 p (12.15. Combining (12.normalized conduit impedance 4 =zocqO h0 qc = conduit flow rate near surge tank.504 Chapter 12 . .65) where T. per unit 4Jc = friction coefficient for conduit If we assume that the reservoir is large. we have (12.62) and (12. qp. We now observe that.66). that the perunit flow rate at the surgetank end of the conduit is 4c = 4. = surge tank riser time. and penstock flow rate.66) where (12..64) We can further describe the flow into the two tanks by the differential equation Ttht = 4 + 4 r 1 (12. I  Tailrace Fig.depends only on the conduit and surgeriser tank characteristics and not on the characteristics of any component following the surge tank. the hydraulic system up to the penstock is completely described by (12. h. from Figure 12.15 Notation for changes in flow and head (all values are considered deviations from the quiescent values).64) and taking the Laplace transform with zero initial conditions.
. and not on the turbine characteristicsas determined by partial derivatives in (12.63) and (12.p)h (12. we have J. we may write the following equation [8]: q where n = perunit turbine speed z = perunit gate position Also.n + zdz dn = aZlh + aZ2n+ a2. = turbine starting time dn dt = T.68) where qp = friction coefficient of penstock Te= elastic time of penstock zp== normalized impedance of penstock ‘Oq0 h0 and all h’s and q’s are defined in Figure 12. we apply equations (12.69) and (12. T.70) where T.= h dh dT.zp(bh TePh .69) dT. Combining equations (12.65) we can write (12.4pq 1 qp = (cosh Tep)q+ (sinh ZP T.70) are not constants but are nearly constant for any operating quiescent point. nor on the turbine inertia as given by (1 2.7 1). T.15. We note that it depends only on the characteristicsof the penstock. For the turbine.z (12.where J = perunit mechanical inertia . surgeriser tanks.64).73) which gives a relation between the perunit turbine flow rate and the turbine head.71) Here we assume no electrical torque as we are interested only in the relationship between the variables. is the per unit turbine mechanical driving torque.51) and (12. Also from Newton’s Law. All values defined as a’s in (12.72) where (12. These values will be read from curves of turbine characteristics. and conduit.63) and (12. (12. we can write = h dh dq 34 + n + z dn aZ = allh + aI2n+ a132 (12.57) to write h = (sech TeP)ht . + aT.Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 505 For the penstock. not in the way the turbine acceleration is restrained by shaft load.
77) where F6= "23 (12. Now. 12. I6 Hydraulic System (b) Hydraulic System Block diagrams of a hydraulic system. This is a purely mathematical approach and is quite acceptable as long as the deleted terms are small. and (12.76) and (12.69). and (12.72) we get (12.9 Simplifying Assumptions It is quite apparent that the transfer functions (12.72). 12. lump these characteristics and use only (12. We may. drawing generously from the recorded thoughts of Old . Our approach is this latter method. and (12. a complex hyperbolic function is represented by an infinite series and then higherorder terms can be deleted as an approximation.75) and (12. This requires a certain amount of experience and intuition.78) are very difficult to work with and that some simplification would be helpful. Combining (12.78) Finally. and should be verified by staged tests on a physical system.77). combining (12.74).79) In block diagram notation.16.69). we can write (12.79). (12.506 Chapter 12 . One approach is suggested at the end of Section 12. In this approach. however. Using equations (12. between (12.p 1p Hydraulic Supply Water Turbine (a) Hydraulic Components Fig.76) and (12.16(b). .16 (a). (12. we have the representation of Figure 12. (12.74) Equation (12.74) is not yet in the desired form. (12. Another approach to simplification is through a combination of mathematical manipulation and physical reasoning.76). we can express the hydraulic system as shown in Figure 12.8.70).78) we deduce that (12.78) and Figure 12.70).75) where (12.
This says that the water flow in the conduit does not change and the conduit is essentially closed. but note that little error would result from doing + so. 1. in equation (12. we compute (12. Under this condition.e. and all other factors (note +c and +p). One possible simplificationis that of neglecting the conduit portion of the hydraulic system and assume that the surge tank isolates the conduit from the penstock. the resistance headloss term we so carefully added in equation (12. although present in F. We now examine certain approximations suggested by Oldenburger and Donelson [8]. + Zp tanh T p ZP =  1 Zp tanh T p (12. In the simplified expression for F3(s)from (12.56) is not needed in the smalldisturbance case. These approximations are not only those devised by experienced engineers.82) Both this assumption and the assumption on the isolation of the conduit (12.84) Using this approximation. We will not bother to remove the term in all expressions. Thus. Thus.80) or 1 Fl = Tts (12.83) with the result (12. tanh T p 2 T p (12. the error in neglecting the hydraulic resistance term is negligible. i.82) we can set. It is noted that.65) we have qc = 0 = (41+ qr) + qp Ttht = qr + qr = qp (12. as presented in [8]..62) we set the conduit flow to zero. We write Fl l+hnhTp F3(s)= +p + F . as an approximation. from (12.85) . The first approximation noted is that concerning the hydraulic resistance..81) and the surge tank acts as an integrator. but tested extensively to prove their validity. which provide several degrees of simplification. F3.64) and (12. +c = 0.Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 507 enburger and Donelson. A second simplification involving F3 is possible from experience with physical systems.79) have been validated by experiment.
Simplify F . 3. such detail is not necessary.h.62) becomes [8] h. for all except the most careful experiments. All of the above should be compared to the classical waterhammer formula based on a lumped system: (12.88) (12.508 Chapter 12  d2s2+ dIs + d o e3s3+ e2s2+ e.87) 2. If the water in the conduit is assumed to be rigid. by letting F1= ZCT2 and F by 3 1 (12.az2(b1s b0)(e3s3 e2s2+ els + eo) + + + + a23(e3s3 e2s2+ els + e0)(c2s2 CIS + cg) + + (12. then equation (12.91) FI = T 2 + (6.89) and. TcTp2+ 4cTp + 1 (12.92) and the other transfer functions also become higher order. Experiments have indicated that. 4.s + eo a2&i2s2+ dls + d0)(c2s2 cIs + co) .=Tc4c+4Ac In this case. F1 becomes a second order function: (12.93) . with (12. finally.90) This results in a more complex model that is undoubtedly more accurate.86) F6 = (e3s3 e2s2+ els+ eo)(c2s2 + c1s+ co) +  5th Order Polynomial 5th Order Polynomial (12. In this case. the function F4is F4= 5th degree polynomial 6th degree polynomial and is much more detailed than the previous case.
which depends on the design of the servomotor. which is compared (usually mechanically) against a reference position p.1 Turbine Head I Shaft Speed Speed Governor ~ Fig. This operation also usually introduces a delay or lag. *It is common to represent the torque by the symbols Tor M. proportional to E. 12. Oldenburger and Donalson conclude that the hydraulic system consisting of conduit. This means that the servo amplifier must also be very large and capable of exerting large driving forces for moving such a large gate in a timely manner. The servomotor stroke Y repositions the wicket gates to produce a new gate position 2.We use the There. surge tank. riser tank.Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 509 Load Torque Te Penstock Error Ref Signals Servo Stroke Position Gate .10 Block Diagram for a Hydro System In considering the problem of controlling a hydro station.71). and draft tube can indeed be represented by a single transfer function relating Q to H a s in (1 1. but recognize that this symbol is also used for time constants. it may be represented adequately for control purposes by a linear model in which all transfer functions are ratios of polynomials. the speed is governed by the prevailing system frequency and the setting of the reference p determines the load that will be assumed by this machine. This would be the case in an isolated system. They verified that hydraulic resistance may be neglected without serious error. . Any change in speed is changed by the speed governor into a change in position or displacement x. penstock. They note that a secondorder representation of F4 is adequate unless very accurate studies are to be performed. Thus.I7 Block diagram of a hydro turbine speed control system. In an interconnected system. it is convenient to think of the system block diagram. In many hydro installations. 12. but having a much greater mechanical force to drive the wicket gates. In verifLing these approximations experimentally. although the hydraulic system is quite complicated. the wicket gates are very large and massive.. where Tw is the socalled “water starting time” (about one second). the electrical torque* is a constant and the speed N will be that set by the speed reference p. Any difference in these positions produces an error signal cl. For a given steady load on the turbine T. We can analyze the hydro system operation in a general way as follows. the gate position is fed back mechanically as a means of adjusting the droop or speed regulation. This gives a secondorder representation for F4. scroll case.17. In hydro turbines. which is shown in Figure 12. which is amplified by a control or servo amplifier to produce a servo stoke Y. The assumption that the surge tank isolates conduit and penstock systems is also verified.
18 The two operating modes of a pumped storage power plant. The operating modes of a pumped storage system are shown in Figure 12. Aside from this physical restriction. usually at times of high system loading. even if the generators are unavailable for some reason. Thus. This type of system is also used for a runofriver system.18. and the generation provided by the pumpedstorage plant is of high value. there is an interesting economic tradeoff between the cost of providing the pumped storage facility and the availability of offpeak capacity to operate the pumps. some portion of which might be directed through hydro turbines to produce electric energy. This is accomplished using a design of generator that can be operated efficiently as a motor and utilizing a turbine that can be operated as a pump. confined behind a dam. Thus. the economic parameters must be carefully evaluated in considering the construction of a pumpedstorage facility.510 Chapter 12 12. This requires the ability to pump power at a reasonably modest cost and a higher energy value during the generating cycle. A pumped storage hydro power plant is different from the runofriver system. where there is a continual flow of water past the dam. . at which time it is used to power hydro turbine generators. but must be created by forcing the water into the elevated storage reservoir. If the pumping energy is available at a reasonable cost. 12.1 1 Pumped Storage Hydro Systems The hydro systems described above assume a storage reservoir of water that is elevated in a configuration that will permit the water to be directed through a system of penstocks to hydro turbines that are situated at a lower elevation. There is a cost associated with providing the pumping power. In some cases. The confined water is held in storage until power output from the station is needed. where an elevated pool can be built above the plant site. Fig. Obviously. This is true of stations that use a storage system fed by highaltitude streams. Pumped storage plants require a suitable topology. then the overall economics of constructing such a facility may be quite attractive. In the pumpedstorage system there are two reservoirs. since peaking load usually requires the scheduling of peaking generation with higher operating costs. there must be generation available for pumping that can be obtained at a cost differential that will make the entire facility operation an economic success. which must be performed at offpeak times when excess generation is available. one at a high elevation into which water is pumped for release later. a minimum river flow might be necessary to support navigation or other uses of the water downstream. the elevated water is not provided by nature. Such a variation of energy value on a daily basis is not uncommon.
Find the transfer function of the hydraulic system shown in Figure 12..5.35 A23 = 1. respectively.5 Use approximation (1 2.(F.Hydraulic Turbine Prime Movers 51 1 Problems 12.13 A.001 s =4 z =z . how the addition of extra terms in the series changes the system response.009 s 4 . = 0.16 (b).4.75) and (12. F. 12. Use the data from problem 3. the installed capacity. 40 MW at 225 rpm 8 inches (at 80% of servomotor stroke) 225rpm 428 feet (headwatertailwater) 1600 fi3/s The turbine constants per unit are: All = 0.2. etc. the head.79). and F6 by using the approximation (a) tanh(Ts) = TS (b) tanh( Ts) = TS . Prepare a list of at least 10 hydroelectric sites.+ 3 15 and finding the transfer functions for each F.. F3. The system under study in [8] has the following constants: Tec= 13 s Te = 0.57 A21 = 0. Document the sources of your research and prepare a brief report on your findings. including a wide range of heads and physical features. (Ta3 3 ( a 2(TQ5 T 3 (c) tanh(Ts) = TS. . Use an approximating technique to factor the truncated polynomials of (a). Select a hydroelectric site of interest to you and record the physical features of the plant including the type of turbine. by polezero plots..= 0.3. where the hydraulic supply and water turbine transfer functions are given by (12. . = 1.70) and compute the following: Fl ="us) F3 =f. 12. Examine the effect of nonlinearity on the transfer functions F.. and (c) and determine.25 s Jm=8s The base quantities are: Torque: Gate: Speed: Head: Flow rate: f4. 12. T2) tanh F =h(F3) 4 12. (b).18 A22= 0.1.10 A21 = 1.
1964. Schleif. D. H. Barrows. Knowlton.. Standard Handbookfor Electrical Engineers. F. Nuclear Energy and the US. K. Oct. AZEE.51 2 Chapter 12 References 1. 2. Craeger. Wiley. July 1966. Section 10. Justin.. National Planning Association. 81. PAS85. F. . 4. Water Power Engineering. 10. Tietelbaum. A. McGrawHill. U. and J. R.. 1956. P. n. p. v. pp. 7. McGrawHill. R. D. Hydroelectric Handbook. Wilbor. “Dynamic response of a hydroelectricplant. pp. Washington. Macmillan. 418419. Oct.R. Frequency Response. National Power Survey. 3. Prime Movers. 1950. Part ZZI. D. GovernmentPrinting Office. 1962. E.. Washington. P. 7.. New York. Part ZZZ. The Coordinationof Hydraulic Turbine Governors for Power System Operation. Donelson. Trans. 403419. 750758.C.” Trans. Oldenburger. B. 5. 8. Fuel Economy. Discussion of reference 8. P. 19551980..New York. and A. 1941.IEEE Trans.. New York. 6. 81. 1943. 9. D. Private Communication.C.S. New York. AZEE. and J. deMello. 1964 Notes on Hydraulic Turbines. Oldenburger.W. 1964 Federal Power Commission. Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. 1962.
A more recent addition to the available types of generating units is the combinedcycle power plant. with each turbine powering its own generator. 13. compared to steam turbines. often called gas turbines.2 The Combustion Turbine Prime Mover Combustion turbines. They are also subjected to fewer environmental controls than other types of prime movers [I]. Combustion turbines are quickly started. which makes combustion turbines undesirable as baseload generating units. and have a low cost per unit of output. in some cases. may be considered a reasonable alternative to steam turbine generating units. The early units were not large. 513 . but later units have become available in larger sizes and. and electric generators. perhaps most notably in powering jet aircraft. Combustion turbines have many advantages as a part of the generation mix of an electric utility. the combustion turbine is widely used as faststartuppeaking units. being dependent on the Brayton cycle. The dynamic response of combinedcycle power plants is different from that of conventional steam turbine units and they must be studied carefully in order to understand the dynamic performance of these generatingunits. compressors. in a short time. even by remote control.chapter 13 Combustion Turbine and CombinedCycle Power Plants 13. They are relatively small in size. limited to about 10 MVA. Another disadvantage is their incompatibilitywith solid fuels. In utility applications. are used in a wide variety of applications.1 Introduction Two additional types of generating unit prime movers that are growing in importance are the combustion turbine and combinedcycle units. Moreover. Combustion turbine units were once considered as generating additions that could be constructed quickly and were reliable units for rapid start duty. they can operate on a rather wide range of liquid or gaseous fuels. in which the prime mover duty is divided between a gas or combustion turbine and a heat recovery steam turbine. The major disadvantage of combustion turbines is their relatively low cycle efficiency. and can come up to synchronous speed. The combination of low capital cost and low efficiency dictates that combustion turbines are used primarily as peaking units. This makes these units desirable as peaking generating units. They are also widely used in industrial plants for driving pumps. ready to accept load. They can be delivered new in a relatively short time and are quickly installed compared to the complex installations for large steam turbine units.
1 shows a simple schematic diagram of a singleshaft combustion turbinegenerator system with its controls and significant auxiliaries [2]. The combustion turbine model presented here represents the power response of a singleshaft combustion turbine generating unit [2]. ( \ # EXHAUST TEMPERATURE A SPEED REFERENCE AIR 2 BURNER 3  Fig. Hot gases enter the turbine at point 3 and are exhausted to the atmosphere at point 4. in some cases connected to the turbine shaft through a gear train. The model is a rather simple one. Figure 13. the timestep of the model might be one second or longer.regulates fuel flow to the burner. based on the unit set point. Auxiliaries that could reduce unit power capability are the AUXILIARY ATOMIZING AIR SYSTEM FUEL DEMAND AUXILIARY FUEL HANDLING SYSTEM \ # > MAIN FUEL SYSTEM I\ # CONTROL SYSTEM . but it should be adequate for most studies since the combustion turbine responds rapidly for most disturbances. The axialflow compressor (C) and the generator are driven by a turbine (T). to obtain economical computer execution times. It is assumed that the model is to be used in a computer simulation in which.1 Combustion turbine schematic diagram [2] . in practice the singleshaft design is the most common [ 11. However. the second shaft drives a lowpressure turbine that requires a lower speed. The model is intended to be valid over a frequency range of about 57 to 63 Hz and for voltage deviations from 50 to 120% of rated voltage. which in turn.or twoshaft designs. In the twoshaft design. The generator may be on a separate shaft. 13. The model is intended for the study of power system disturbances lasting up to a few minutes.514 Chapter 13 Combustion turbines can be provided in either one. These ranges are considered to be typical of frequency and voltage deviations likely to occur during a major system disturbance. Air enters the compressor at point 1 and the combustion system at point 2. and exhaust temperature inputs. the speed. load.The control system develops and sends a fuel demand signal to the main turbine fuel system.
The output of this model is the mechanical power output of the turbine.1) where A = (the perunit change in power output per perunit change in ambient temperature) T = ambient temperature in “C T.1 [2]. The auxiliary fuel handling system transfers fuel oil from a storage tank to the gas turbine at the required pressure.2 shows a block diagram of a singleshaft combustion turbinegenerator control system.1 1( 1  ). Typical data for the parameters shown in Figure 13.2 as GSCP.2 Combustion turbine model block diagram [2]. = reference temperature in “C Linear or Nonlinear Frequency Governing Characteristics ~ ‘1’“ S OffNominal Voltage and Power out > 1+&s 0 AGCPS Limit Effects on Power Output Nonwindup Load Nonwindup Magnitude Demand Magnitude Limit Limit Governor Speed Changer Position (GSCP) Fig. in perunit power per second. The power is expressed in the system MVA base [2].Combustion Turbine and CombinedCycle Power Plants 515 atomizing air and fuel handling systems shown in the figure.2. The frequency governing characteristic is often characterized as a normal linear governor “droop” characteristic. and flow rate. temperature. 13. 13. is the integral of the AGC input. . noted in Figure 13. The load demand upper power limit varies with ambient temperature according to the relation Pr. = 1 +A( 1  6) = 1 + 0. The governor speed changer position variable. (13. A nonlinear droop characteristic may be used in some cases. The atomizing air system provides compressed air through supplementary orifices in the fuel nozzles where the fuel is dispersed into a fine mist.2 are provided in Table 13. AGCPS. The input signal. Then the frequency error is divided by the perunit regulation to determine the input demand. An alternative input KM represents a manual input that is used if the generator is not under automatic generation control. is the power signal from the automatic generation control (AGC) system. The load demand signal shown in the diagram is the difference between the governor speed changer position and the frequency governing characteristic.1 Combustion turbine control Figure 13.
4 4 UL 0. The analytical model used to compute this response included the effects of the controls. There are three different offnominal voltage and frequency effects.04 R1 R2 0. heat soak effect of turbine components in the hot gas path. These are defined in the next section. 0 ' 0 I I I I I > 0. This limit is necessary to prevent the blowing out of the flame and corresponds to zero electric power generated.O perunit power at a reference ambient temperature of 15 "C.25 0. perunit MW/s on given base Conversion. perunit fieq/puMVA Alternate regulation.01 According to (13.1 0. l). The power limit is increased for temperatures below the reference and is decreased for ambient temperatures above the reference. . and the thermocouple time constants. using liquid fuel [3].Model N.00278  Table 13. the turbine will provide 1.4 0. Figure 13.3 CT response to a step change in setpoint from no load to rated load [3]. The lower power limit corresponds approximately to the minimum fuel flow limit. 13. s Normal regulation. singleshaft combustion turbine in response to a step change in setpoint from no load to full load. The turbine response will vary by several tenths of a second for other models or when using other fuels.2 0. Notice the fast response characteristicof the unit to its new power level.11 Tc 0.3 shows the approximate computed response of a General Electric FS5. the transport times. see Figure 13.1 Typical Combustion Turbine Model Parameters [2] Constant KM Description Manual rate.516 Chapter 13 Value 0.5 Fig.unit basekystem base GSCP upper position temperature Combustion turbine time constant.3 Time in seconds 0.
01 where DPV = perunit change in unit output per unit change in voltage VBp voltage level above which there is no reduction in unit output = VT= generator terminal voltage (13. therefore.2. This is shown in equation (13.Combustion Turbine and CombinedCycle Power Plants 517 13. the particular installation limitations. the utility practice.max[DPV( VBp . the combustion turbine power output capability decreases as the frequency drops.~) = Reduced power frequency effect multiplier where (13. A basic characteristic of the combustion turbine is that the air flow decreases with shaft speed and the fuel flow must also be decreased to maintain the firing temperature limit. such as the fuel system. which represents the limiting multiplier on power demand when the unit is running on an exhaust temperature limitation.2 The invocation of this limitation depends on the initial power level of the generating unit and the change in frequency during the transient.B 1(DPF)(0 B p .o~. For example.. Offnominal voltage and frequency both have an effect on the system auxiliaries. This represents another limiting function that is referred to in the literature as the auxiliary equipment voltage effect. unaffected by the voltage and frequency of the ac power system [3].VT). or AEVE [2]: AEVE = 1 . A unit operating initially at full load would reach the power limit immediately and the output of the unit would be decreased by 10%.3) Another unit limitation is based on a reduction in system frequency. =( 01 when power demand < power limit when power demand > power limit DPF = perunit change in unit output perunit change in frequency = 0 if data not available. then the power capability of the unit will be reduced by 2% for each 1% reduction in speed after the power limit is exceeded. RPFE = 1 . if the frequency declines 3 Hz or 5% on a 60 Hz system.2 Offnominal frequency and voltage effects The power supply for the governor system is usually provided by the station battery that can provide power for at least 20 minutes and is. 01 (13. The shaftdriven main fuel and lubrication oil systems can be considered as unaffected by ac system voltage deviations. and air handling equipment.2) B. bypasses the multiplier effect osYssystem frequency = wBP= system frequency when unit exceeds its power limit The RPFE is one of the possible limiting effects noted by the limitation block on the righthand side of Figure 13. This limit in defined as 121 AEFE = Auxiliary equipment frequency effect = 1 . The amount of the air flow decrease is on the order of 2% in output capability for each 1% drop in frequency. and the site variables.max[DPA(oBp.4) where DPA is the perunit change in unit output due to a perunit change in frequency from the base point frequency oBP . If the power demand exceeds the power limit.osYs). heaters.2). These effects vary depending on the unit design.
and power plants that use a combination of power cycles can have higher efficiencies that those dependent on a single power cycle.51 8 Chapter 13 f f I R1 c \ I I I I JCAlJFig. An example of a nonlinear droop characteristicis shown in Figure 13.and %. nor is it clear that the center frequency in the R1 range should be exactly at the center between o. One typical combinedcycle turbine model is shown in Figure 13. This might be necessary. This is only one type of droop characteristicthat might be examined.and lowfrequency ranges. This system utilizes a combination of a gas turbine Brayton cycle and a steam turbine using a Rankine cycle. 13. Some studies are not intended to accurately represent the power system under such extreme conditions. it is desirable to include in simulations a nonlinear governor droop characteristic rather than the simple 4% or 5% linear droop characteristic often assumed. in which case the single droop Characteristic may be adequate. Given adequate data. in providing an accurate model of the speed governor characteristic.2. but tends to saturate for large excursions in speed or power. 13. Finally.4 Nonlinear governor droop characteristic [l]. lacking better data. However.3]. 13.3 The CombinedCycle Prime Mover There are a number of ways in which a combination of power cycles can be used in the generation of electricity. the droop characteristic of Figure 13. one might devise a continuous nonlinear curve to represent a range of frequencies and power responses.3 Nonlinear governor droop characteristic In some cases. which is not linear over a wide range.which create large upsets in power plants as well as loads. I I I I 0 AP * All of the foregoing limiting functions apply to the limiter block on the righthand side of Figure 13. it is not entirely clear that the slopes labeled R2 need to be equal in the high. it should be noted that the nonlinear droop characteristic was suggested as one device for improving the system response to very large disturbances.2.4 probably represents an improvement over the single droop characteristic so often used. The gas exhausted from the gas tur . For example.5. for example.4 [ 1.
and identifies the input and output variables of each subsystem and the coupling among these submodels. In some largesystem designs. hN. The output is the fuel demand signal. which may cause the steam turbine to achieve a rating greater than that of the gas turbine. which could significantly increase the steam supply and therefore the power production of the steam subsystem. The speed and load controls are described in block diagram form in Figure 13.5. the steam turbine may have a lower rating than the gas turbine.5 A typical combinedcycle power plant arrangement [3]. FD. V. which in turn provides the working fluid for the steam turbine. and the speed deviation. In some designs.8 shows the interactions among the subsystems of the combinedcycle system [6]. The inputs are the load = \demand. .6 shows the schematic diagram for a combinedcycle power plant with a heat recovery boiler (HRG) [ 11. Many combinedcycle power plants are more complex than that shown in Figure 13.9.Combustion Turbine and CombinedCycle Power Plants 519 Fig. More practical systems are described below. 13. bine contains a significant amount of sensible heat and a portion of this heat is recovered in a steam generator.. supplementary firing is used. there may be more than one HRG.7. which shows only the basic components. but all systems can be conceptually reduced to the configuration of Figure 13. Their detailed model of the combinedcycle unit is shown in Figure 13. Figure 13. A descriptive technical paper on combinedcycle power plants has been prepared by the IEEE Working Group on Prime Mover and Energy Supply Models for System Dynamic Performance Studies [6]. which is described in greater detail below. Moreover.5. Figure 13. This structure is convenient for mathematical modeling of the combinedcycle power plant.
520 Chapter 13 Combustion Chamber Air Compressor Gas Turbine = Generator 1 Air Fuel Optional * Supplementary Firing System i Steam SU = Superheater B = Boiler EC = Economizer I i   Steam Turbine Generator 2 \/ \/ Condenser Deaerating Heater Boiler Feed Feedwater Heater I Fig.6 Schematic flow diagram of a combinedcycle heatrecovery boiler [l]. 13. .
8 Subsystems of the combinedcycle power plant [ 6 ] . 13.Combustion Turbine and CombinedCycle Power Plants 52 1 Stack Steam Turbine Generation Cooling Water J Condensate Pump Gas Turbine Generation ITreatmentl Fig. 13.7 Twopressure nonreheat recovery feedwater heating steam cycle generating unit (HRSGwith internal deaerator evaporator) [ 6 ] . . FueL Gas Turbine ~ ~ z Power ~ Exhaust Temperature Gas Turbine Flow Rate Steam Turbine b Steam Turbine Mechanical Power Fig. + Deviation I SpeedLoad Control Controls + .
13. and are active over a limited range.10 [6].522 Chapter 13 MAX f AN MIN Fig. The fuel and guide vanes are controlled over the load range to maintain constant gas turbine inlet temperature. This is accomplished by scheduling air flow with the load demand FD and setting the turbine exhaust temperature reference TRto a value that is calculated to result in the desired load with the scheduled air flow at constant turbine inlet temperature.10 Gas turbine fuel and air flow controls [6]. . The exhaust temperature reference is calculated from the following basic gas turbine thermodynamic relations (taken from reference [6]).9 Combinedcycle speed and control [ 6 ] . This allows maintaining high turbine exhaust temperatures.5) T R FD Fig.In this control scheme.3.1 Fuel and Air Controls The gas turbine fuel and air controls are show in block diagram form in Figure 13. the inlet guide vanes are modulated to vary the air flow. 13. improving the steam cycle efficiency at reduced load. 13. (13.
10 represents the computation of the desired air flow WD and the reference exhaust temperature over the design range of air flow variation by means R of vane control.7) where kW is the design output in per unit.8) determine the air flow Wand pressure ratio parameter Xfor a given perunit generated power in kW. Also KO= 3413 kWo WO f QCP gT + (13.7) and (13. range.6) with T. The reference exhaust temperature T is given by (13.Combustion Turbine and CombinedCycle Power Plants 523 where T = reference exhaust temperature per unit of the absolute firing temperature at rated condiR tions Also x=(pR)(rWY= ( p R o j q p l Y Y where PRO design cycle pressure ratio = PR PROW isentropic cycle pressure ratio = = y = ratio of specific heats = cJcv We also define the following W = design air flow per unit q3 = turbine efficiency T = turbine inlet temperature per unit of design absolute firing temperature f (13. The block identified as A in Figure 13. The vane control response is modeled with a time constant T and with nonwindup limits corresponding to the vane control R . Desired values of WD and T are functions of FD (the desired values of turbine output from speed/load controls) and ambient temperature T. These are determined by the solution of (13. and at a specified perunit ambient temperature Tp The . R .8) with appropriate limits on WD and TR. These performance effects have been incorporated into equivalent compressor and turbine efficiency values [61. specific heat changes. The actual air flow W is shown as a product of desired air flow and shaft speed.set equal to unity. and the detailed treatment of cooling flows have been deleted for purposes of illustration of the general unit behavior.0. reference exhaust temperature T is given by (13..6) Then the perunit flow required to produce a specified power generation at the given gas turbine inlet temperature T is given by the turbine power balance equation f (13.6) by setting T= 1.7) and (13. Equations (13. The air flow must be R subject to the control range limits.8) and where we define kWo = base net output per unit WgO =base net flow per unit Tfo = turbine inlet temperature per unit of design absolute firing temperature Cp= average specific heat = compressor inlet temperature per unit of design absolute firing temperature qc = compressor efficiency The combustor pressure drop.
13. T is less than TR.as another input to the gas turbine model. .1 1 Gas turbine mechanical power and exhaust temperature model [6]. 13. the controller will come off limit and integrate to the point where the its output takes over as the demand signal for fuel V.which causes the temperature E controller to be at the maximum limit of about 1. The gas turbine output is a function of the computed turbine inlet temperature Tf..= design air flow per unit The gas turbine exhaust temperature T is determined by equation (13.which is a function of the turbine air flow Wj.6). If T should exceed TR. giving a fuel flow signal W. The equations used in the development of the gas turbine mechanical power PMG shown are 31 in Figure 1 .1 per unit. (13.3. through the lowselect (LS) block. The mechanical power PMG a function of the R is turbine inlet temperature and the flow rate of combustion products W. K2= . 1. + Wr.2 The gas turbine power generation A block diagram of the computation of gas turbine mechanical power PMG the exhaust and E temperature T is shown in Figure 13.1 1. Normally.524 Chapter 13 The measured exhaust temperature T is compared with the limiting value TR and the error E E acts on the temperature controller.7)for the computation of X. The fuel valve positioner and the fuel control are represented as given in [7].9) where Tfo TcD = compressor discharge temperature per unit of absolute firing temperature W.substituting T E E for T and using (1 3.= perunit combustor temperature rise AT Fig.
14) (13.13) (13. which can be approximated.Tml) + (Qeconl + Q'econl) (1 3.and lowpressure steam generation sections can be approximated using the relations for constant gas side effectiveness.3 The steam tvrbine power generation The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) system responds to changes in the exhaust flow from the gas turbine Wand its exhaust temperature TE. and Q'econl the HP and IP economizer heat fluxes.3.Tml rlg2 T Tm2 where T' and T" are the gas pinch points shown in Figure 13. respectively.12. 13.12 Steam energy exhaust gas temperature versus heat absorption [6].This heat is delivered to the high.and are computed as follows [6]. The gas heat absorption by the HRSG section can be computed as follows [ 6 ] .11) = Wqgl(Tex . The exhaust gas and steam absorption temperatures through the HRSG are indicated in Figure 13.12) (13.T / n ) and where Qeconl.and lowpressure steam generators. QgHp QgLp = T' . Temperatures Tmland Tm2are the average metal temperatures in the HP and IP evaporators.Combustion Turbine and CombinedCycle Power Plants 525 13.TI' (13. are I Heat Absorption. The transient heat flux to the high.15) = w ~ g 2 ( T '.T m 2 ) + (Qecon2 + Qeconl) where &icon I = ~ e c ~ ( 7 "' tecon2 = TW~HP 9~ + 77ec2(Tt' . 100 .T' Tex (13. Qecon2.12.10) . rlgl = Tex. % Fig.
13 Steam system model.16) Then equations (13.h L p m L P + h/wmLpJw (1 3.17) are solved to find the temperature and heat flux profiles. = M H P * AEHP ' mLP ' AELP 3413 (13. as follows [6]: (1 3. The steam turbine power in kilowatts is computed as kW. The steam flows.17) where K T = throttle valve flow coefficient K' = admission point flow coefficient Steam pressures PHpand PLpare found by integrating the transient energy equations..526 Chapter 13 The economizer heat absorption is approximated using the constant effectiveness expressions.h h p m H P + hJWmHP + hJWmHPJW =Qgw .19) Fig.1 1) through (13.13.1 8) The HP and LP metal temperatures T. and Tm2are determined by integration of the gas and steam side heat flux as shown in Figure 13. which are given as DIIPPHP DLPPLP = QgHP . . mHpand mLpare computed by the pressurehlow relationship at the throttle and admission points as follows: ~ H = KTPHP P mHP+ mIp= K'PIp (13. 13.
Explore this cycle using appropriate references on thermodynamic cycles and sketch both the PV and the TS diagrams for this cycle.Combustion Turbine and CombinedCycle Power Plants 527 Fig. The detailed model should be considered for studies of disturbances in the vicinity of the combinedcycle plant. Palo Alto. The gain between the gas turbine exhaust energy and the steam turbine output will. Final Report. P. New York. From [6] the values of the time constants for this simplified model are given as TM= 5s T5=20~ Problems 13. Research Project 7642. 13. Other combustion turbines are designed to employ two different shafts. E.and the IP evaporator metal temperature Tm. Long Term Power System Dynamics. Powerplant Technology.3 It has been noted that the ideal cycle for the gas turbine is the Brayton cycle. be a nonlinear function that can be derived from steadystate measurements through the load range.1 The combustion turbine presented in Figure 13. April 1978. . 13.1 is a singleshaft design. especially studies in which the major disturbance of interest is far removed from the combined cycle power plant. Electric Power Research Institute.14 [6].is a function of the exhaust gas temperature TE. where AErip and AE. These simplificationswill result in a loworder model as shown in Figure 13. CA.McGrawHill.. ElWakil. New York. A.1 is called a “direct open cycle” design since it exhausts its hot exhaust to the atmosphere.. Such a loworder model would be very simple to implement in a computer simulation. . are the steam actual available energies [6]. The dynamic relations for the HRSG and steam turbine are shown in Figure 13. User’s Guide to the LOTDYS Program. which recycles the exhaust back to the air input port.14 A simplified steam power response model [6].2 The singleshaft combustion turbine shown in Figure 13. 2. Moreover. A different design is called a “closedcycle” system. 13. or from design heat balance calculations for rated and partial load conditions. if needed. Note that the heat transferred from the high pressure boiler QG. Sketch how such a twoshaft unit might be configured and compare with the singleshaft design.13. It is noted in reference [6] that the total contribution to mechanical power from the two pressure boilers can be approximated with a simple twotime constant model. in general. M.13. Schulz. and may be quite satisfactory for may types of studies. References 1. M. this simple model could be “tuned” by comparing it against the more detailed model of Figure 13. Make a sketch of how such a closedcycle system might be configured. Turner..the HP evaporator metal temperature T. What are the advantages of a twoshaft design? Hint: Consult the references at the end of the chapter. and R. 1984.
Pier.Chapter 13 3. 72EU2099. B. “A simplified single shaft gas turbine model for use in transient system analysis. 1972. A.” ZEEE Transactions Power Systems. Series A. E. IEEE Working Group on Prime Mover and Energy Supply Models for System Dynamic Performance. Reading. 865869.. 3 . C. R.” Trans. 105 (l). Journal of Engineeringfor Power. Bednarski. volume 1. AddisonWesley. and S. Schulz. MA. F. deMello. Ewart. N. R. Rowen. October 1983. 1978. and D.. 1698. 4. ASME. 6. 9. . P. Bailie. EPRI Report 9070 Final Report. Turner. 1983. “Simplified mathematical representations of heavyduty gas turbines. I. pp. p. June 1974. Summary and Technical Report. 5. P. Long Term Power System Dynamics. August 1994. Chairman.. W. J.“Dynamic models for combined cycle plants in power system studies.” General ElectricCompany Report. Energy Conversion Engineering. 7.
1/4 + 1/4 cos 28 f 4 / 4 sin 28 e cos(B f 120) 120) = = .120) = 1/4sin28 . it is always implied.I / ~ C O S 'F ~ v'3/2sin8 ( A .1/2cos28 .8) (A.1 / 2 s i n e c o s e .6) I /4 sin2e + 3/4 cos2e r d 3 / 2 sin e cos e 1/2 + I / ~ C O SF ~v'3/4sin28 = ~ I /4 cos2e + 3/4 sin2e i v T / 2 sin e COS e I /2 .11) .12) (A.1) 120) = .v?/4 = 1/2sin28 .13) 529 + 120)sin(e .12O)cos(8 = = sinecost9 .1/4 sin 28 . the engineer encounters a large number of trigonometric functions involving the angles f 120".120) sin(t9 = = + G / 4 = 1/2sin28 + f l / 4 (A.lO) e sin (e + I 20) = = = . sin(@f 120) = 1/2sinB f ~ ' 3 / 2 c o s 8 cos(8 sin2(e f 120) cos2(e f i = = (A.120) cos(e .2) (A.1/4 COS 28 'F v T / 4 sin 28 1/2sinBcosB =F v'3/2sinZ8 .1/4 COS 28 i &/4 sin 28 = 120) = = sinesin(e f 120) COS = 1/2sin2e f t/S/2sin8cose .1/4 .1/2 COS' 0 =F ~ ' 3 1 2sin e COS e .1 / 2 sin e cos e + d / 4 cosze .9) (A.3) (A.&/4 cos 28 + vT/4sin2e sin(@+ 12O)cos(B .v'3/4cos2e .120) sin(@.1 /4 sin 20 + f l / 4 COS 28 (A. Although the symbol (") has been omitted from angles i 120".1/4 sin 28 f d / 4 cos 20 =F d 3 / 4 sin8cos(e COS = = (A.7) (A. Some of these are listed here to save the time and effort of computing these same quantities over and over.v 3 / 4 sin8cosB + 120) sin (e .4) (A.5) (A.v'3/4 sinZe .I / 2 sin e cos e 1/4sin 28 f d 3 / 2 cos2e f + fl/4cos28 fl/4 sin(e + 120)cos(e + 120) = .3/4cos28 = 1/4 .appendix A Trigonometric Identities for Threephase Systems I n solving problems involving threephase systems.
17) COS(^^ f 120) = . the following commonly used identities are often required: .19) ( A .21) In addition to the above.120) cos(8 .sin28 = cos28 = sinZ8= I 1/2sin28 cos28 ( I + cos2e)/2 (1 .1/2 1/4 + I / ~ C O S ~ (~ ~ .~ = .20) (A.530 cOs(8 Appendix A + I ~ O ) C O SB120) ( = I / ~ C O S ~3/4sin2B = .16) (A.20) + sin2(8 + 120) = 3/2 cosze + cos2(e . 15) (A.l4) sin (28 f 120) sin 28 f .~ 0 ~ 2 8 ) / 2 (A.1/2 cos 28 4 / 2 sin 28 + sin(8 .120) + cos(e + 120) = o sin28 + sin2(8 .18) (A.120) + sin(8 + 120) = 0 case + cos(e .120) + cos2(e + 120) = 3/2 sin 8 cos 8 + sin ( 0 .120) + sin (8 + 120) cos (8 + 120) = 0 sin8 sinZ8+ cos28 = sinBcos8 = cos28 ./rl2 cos 28 7 (A.
It should be used as a supplement to the many excellent books on the subject.1 Analog computer components Here we consider the most important analog computer components. Hand computation of such large systems of equations is exceedingly cumbersome. are described by a large number of differential equations. On most computers ki may have values of I or IO. the engineer who attempts an actual simulation will surely need the instruction manual for the computer actually used. We discuss these components using the common symbolic language of analog computation and omit entirely the electronic means of accomplishing these ends. and computer solutions are usually called for. The summer. A short bibliography of references on analog and digital solutions is included at the end of this appendix.1. Note that the amplifier inverts (changes the sign) of the input sum and multiplies each input voltage by a gain constant k.1 Analog Computer Fundamentals The analog computer is a device designed to solve differential equations. These include summation. As such it may be a valuable aid to the understanding of some of the text material and may be helpful in attempting an actual analog simulation. Some physical systems. such as power systems.1. 6. with hybrid systems as a combination of the two. I n particular. This material is divided into two parts: analog computer fundamentals and digital computer solutions of ordinary differential equations. This is done by means of electronic components that perform the functions usually required in such problems. The purpose of this appendix is to reinforce the material of the text by providing some of the fundamentals of computer solutions. 53 1 . multiplication. and other special functions. integration. The first important component is the summer or summing amplifier shown in Figure B. analog and digital. where both the analog symbol and the mathematical operation are indicated. 6. division. we will connect several components to solve a simple differential equation.appendix B Some Computer Methods for Solving Differential Equations The solution of dynamic systems of any kind involves the integration of differential equations. Usually V4 is limited to 100 V (IO V on some computers). Later. The purpose of this appendix is to acquaint the beginner with the basic fundamentals of analog computation. Computer solutions fall into two categories. but some models have other gains available. selected by the user. multiplication by a constant.
The function generator is a device used to simulate a nonlinear function by straightline segments.532 Appendix B Fig. The summer. V I ) . V. The output voltage is limited. The potentiometer. = 1 V.4. Note that the gain of the amplifiers is very high. V2 = / ( V I ) . The highgain amplifier. Potentiometers are usually IOturn pots and can be reliably set to three decimals with excellent accuracy. integration may be done rapidly and very reliably by electronic means. The potentiometer is used to scale down a voltage by an exact amount as shown in Figure B. although it should be mentioned that this symbol is not used by all manufacturers of analog equipment.2. Function generators are represented by thk “pointed box” shown in Figure B. The function generator. The integrator. The potentiometer. This . = (k1 V I + k 2 V2 + k . The integrator. where the signal is implied as going from left to right. V2 = k V l . The function generator.. usually to 100 V. The functionfmust be single valued. VO I Fig. where Vo is the initial value (at I = 0) of the output variable V4.5. as shown in Figure 9.4 where the function f is specified by the user.)dr). V. and this function is set according to the instructions for the particular computer used. Gain constants ki are chosen by the operator and are restricted to values available on the computer. B. On some analog computers it is necessary to use highgain amplifiers to simulate certain operations such as multiplication. *v Fig. usually 1 and IO.3. 8. B. Fortunately.2. 8. O 5 k 1. It is necessary to be able to perform integration if differential equations are to be solved.3. The symbol usually used for this is shown in Figure B.I. usually being greater than IO4 and often greater than IO6. This feature makes it possible to simulate with reasonable accuracy certain nonlinear functions such as generator saturation. + l‘ ( k l V I + kzVz + k 3 V. Fig.
Le. I n an analog computation the integration time must be chosen so . time scaling and amplitude scaling.e. The multiplier inverts and divides the result by 100 (on a 100V corn pu ter) . The symbol used for multiplication varies with the actual components present in the computer multiplier section. or one quarter of the difference of the squared signals. which in turn are squared and subtracted. Consider the firstorder equation dv T . Other components. To do this. A > lo4.Appendix B 533 . means that the input voltage of such amplifiers is essentially zero since the output is always limited to a finite value (often 100 V)..i ) 2 = ( v 2 + 2vi + i 2 ) . V. The multiplier. p = vi. including certain logical elements to control the computer operation. Then we form sum and difference signals. The multiplier.2) amounts to time scaling the equation.t ) dt where u is the dependent variable that is desired. we begin with two voltages.6. and f is a nonlinear function of v and t . = . The multiplier used on modern analog computers is an electronic quartersquare multiplier that operates on the following principle.= Y(v.6.2vi + i2) = 4vi and p = ( 1 / 4 ) M . Suppose we write where T = r / T . . B S .A V .1. B. . Suppose v and i are to be multiplied to find the instantaneous power. Time scaling can be illustrated by means of a simple example. but in its simplest form it may be represented as shown in Figure B. Thus replacing the constant T by unity as in (B. but such is not the case..( v . say VI. = . These specialized devices are left for the interested reader to discover for himself. The highgain amplifier. one proportional to u.VI V2 PU. 8. the other proportional to i . V .VI V2/100 V = . The constant T would appear to be merely an amplitude scale factor. T is a constant. Note that it is usually necessary to supply both the positive and negative of one signal. Most fullscale analog computers have other components not described here.( v 2 .s Fig. A + Fig. M = (v + i ) 2 . i.2 Analog computer scaling Two kinds of scaling are necessary in analog computation.
if the output plotter has a frequency limit of 1 . we could set L = 2 0 V on the amplifier supplying u. One reason for this is that the electronic integrator is unable to tell the difference between the two scale factors. (B. It also means that 100 s on the output plotter corresponds to I s of real time. Then we write . Analog computers must also be amplitude scaled so that no variables will exceed the rating of the computer amplifiers (usually 100 V). Then if u goes to 5. = assigned output level.534 Appendix B that the computed results may be conveniently plotted or displayed. it is convenient to scale time and amplitude simultaneously. Choose levels for all variables at the output of all summers and integrators.7): PG = KL.. The scaling procedure follows: 1 . 8. suppose the variable u in (B.1.7 is to integrate 6 (in pu) to get the torque angle 6 in radians. Also define L as the level of a particular variable in volts.5) where a = time scale factor P = potentiometer setting. ifa = 100. corresponding to 1. this makes one equation suffice for both kinds of scaling.0 pu. V B. 0 5 P 5 1 G = amplifier or integrator gain K = physical constant computed for this potentiometer Lo. Let the time scaling constant a be defined as follows: T = computer time t = real time a = T  I = computer time real time (B.l) ordinarily does not go f . above 5 .1 Suppose the integrator in Figure 8. the amplifier would reach 100 V . We begin with the following definitions. Choose a time scale a that is compatible with plotting equipment and will give rea sonable computation times (a few minutes at most). For example. For example. 3. 2. 0 ~ I~ the computer is rated IOOV../aL. V Lin= assigned input level. Lin tntegrator Er sunmer Fig. its maximum safe value.3 Analog computation Example B. Apply the following formula to all potentiometer settings (see Figure B. Moreover. This requires that the user estimate the maximum value of all variables to be represented and scale the values of these variables so that the maximum excursion is well below the computer rating. Time and amplitude scaling.0 pu of that variable. this means that it will take the computer 100 times as long to solve the problem as the real system would require. Actually.3) For example.O kHz. the computer should be time scaled to plot the results more slowly than this limit..7.
and 7.Ri)/T (B./aLin = (377 x 50)/(50 x 75) = = = 5. (1.5) is wR.503 = potentiometer Example B. where uF0 = ~ ~ ( 0 ) . are constants. An alternate solution utilizing the Frohlich approximation to the magnetization curve is described by the equation Solving this equation should exactly duplicate the results of Chapter 7 where this same equation was solved by formal integration.25 x 75 < 100). Solution For this problem we have the firstorder differential equation bF where u = = (u . = 75 V. B.6. IO = gain of integrator and P 0.03 Since 0 5 P S I let G setting.. up when separately excited when selfexcited + U..7 and (B. Then the levels are computed as fol!ows: 6.8.. Then compute PG = KL.Appendix B 535 JO Thus the constant K in Figure B..2 Compute the buildup curve of a dc exciter by analog computer and compare with the method of formal integration used in Chapter 7. I n our example let wR = 377.745 x 50 < 100). Also estimate d. = U.25 pu.8. 7..= 50 V. Fig. = 1.. so let L . i in S o h ion Let a = 50. = 100" = 1.. Use numerical data from Examples 7. Solution diagram for dc exciter buildup. (1. when boostbuck excited where both up and U.745 rad.4. . so let Lo. Thus the analog computer diagram is that shown in Figure B.7) = U..which is required to convert from pu to i in rad/s.5.
65 The values of R and u depend upon the type of buildup curve being simulated.O s of real time.0.4 we have T~ = 0. I . and L. = v .9.8)with numerical values.9 h = 5.0s' Then the factor 0. .lO) is shown in Figure B. we have 0. By moving the three switches simultaneously to positions R .25 s a = 279.536 Appendix B Using numerical data from Example 7.9  uF) V (B. 7.799 VF. = u .65 RvFI(279. Rewriting equation (8. Voltage levels are assumed for R Switch Code R = Separately excited C = Selfexcited L = Boortbuck excited ( ) = Voltage level of 1 .F.5. Solution diagram for Frohlich approximated buildup.25 in front of (B.lO) A convenient time scale factor is obtained by writing o r a = T / t = l / r E = 4.) (B. and 7. and 4 s on the computer corresponds to 1 .lO) becomes unity.5 we note that the derivative of uF can be greater than 100 V/s. from Table 7.6 we have Separately excited: u = up = 125 V Selfexcited: v = U. R = 30 R Boostbuck excited: u = vF + 50 V R R = = 34 Q 43.25 L. The analog computer solution for (B.REF Fig.0565 R~FI(2. This will help us scale the voltage level of fiF. From Examples 7. the same computer setup solves the separately excited. Then dividing (B. C .25 CF where uF and u are now in pu. and boostbuck buildup curves respectively.9) by the base voltage we have the pu equation 0.5.O pu .9. B. and the potentiometer settings are given in Table B.9) where R and v depend on the type of system being simulated. Suppose we choose a base voltage of 100 V.4.3 V in all cases. Also.6 52 and these values will give a ceiling of 110. selfexcited.
46 1 .Ri) (B..4. The treatment here is simple and is intended to introduce the subject of numerical analysis to the reader who wishes to see how equations can be solved numerically.384 0.45 1.339 0.(O) = v.0/4)(50/10) PG (1. 8.o 1 . but the principles are the same. uFo bR (separately) 6 R (self) bR (boostbuck) Scdk UP UR I .5.20 0. We shall use this technique. I . 7.050 0.50 1 ./Lin)= (1.492 0..2 Digital Computer Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations The purpose of this section is to present a brief introduction to the solution of ordinary differential equations by numerical techniques.2. I25 I I I I 9 IO 11 0. a 2. Larger ndimensional systems of equations are more challenging.050 0.45 0. However. For example.56 ..20 0.1 I ) which we will solve by numerical techniques using a digital computer. dr l (u 7E . All methods divide the time domain into small segments A t long .40 0.384 x 1 Other table entries are similarly computed.695 2. I25 0. One effective method of introducing a subject is to turn immediately to a simple example that can be solved without getting completely immersed in details.56 0. and 7.92 I .== . Our sample problem is the dc exciter buildup equation from Chapter 7.339 0. dv.20 I .o 1 .1 Brief survey of numerical methods There are several welldocumented methods for solving the initial value problem by numerical integration.. for potentiometer 5 PG = (K/u)(LOu. Table B.4 7.384 0.o . Since the solution is known.6. These values are substituted into (B.125 x IO or for potentiometer 7 = = 0.20 0. I25 0. 1 10 I I I I The computed results are shown in Examples 7. which was solved by integration in Examples 7. Such problems are generally called “initial value problems” because the dependent variable vF is known to have the initial value (at r = 0) of u.I.25 = 0. The nonlinear differential equation here is VF.Appendix B 537 each amplifier and are noted in parentheses. our numerical exercise will serve as a check on the work of Chapter 7.6.384 = 0.5) to compute the PG products given in Table B. Potentiometer Potentiometer and Gain Calculations for Figure B..25 0.92/1)(10/50) = 1.9 Function K PG P G I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 scale scale time scale initial value.40 0. the real reason for choosing this example is that it is a scalar (onedimensional) system that we can solve numerically with relative ease. 8.199 0.25 0.492 0.o 0.
2. although the digital computer may be fast. Table B.I) i = f(X. the speed of computation. Instead.2. therefore. 8.I derivatives to solve for u(") Selfstarting Selfstartingpredictorcorrector Selfstarting.. However... and the generation of errors. slow Start by RungeKutta or Taylor series Imposes maximum condition on A t for stable solution Varies size of S t to control error (W2 (W3 (At)' (A05 . choosing Af too small may greatly increase the cost of a computed result and may not provide enough improvement in accuracy to be worth the extra cost... = f .. I n doing this there are three problems: getting the integration started.. for example. Thus. Thus instead of (B. a given computation scheme may start the integration using one method and then change to another method for increased speed or accuracy.12) we may write . we will investigate only the modified Euler method in enough detail to be able to work a simple problem.2 Modified Euler method Consider the firstorder differential equation fi = f(u.I) (B. x. A complete analysis of every method in Table B. ( u .t) (B.13) Thus we concern ourselves primarily with the solution of a firstorder equation... Crane .2 is beyond the scope of this appendix and the interested reader is referred to the many excellent references on the subject. Some Methods of Numerical Integration of Differential Equations Method ~~~ ~ Form orequation Order oferrors Remarks Direct integration. trapezoidal rule. A brief outline of some known methods of numerical integration is given in Table B. Some methods are selfstarting and others are not... Simpson's rule Euler Modified Euler (Heun) RungeK u tta Milne Hamming Af Must known .. any process that generates a great deal of computation may be expensive. Speed is important because. at the end of each segment.2...538 Appendix B and solve for the value of u.14) . d ' or in matrix form x'2 = fi(U. it is easily shown that any nthorder equation can be written as n firstorder equations. Note that the form of equation is given in each case as an nthorder equation.
. which we call C ( u . as shown by the dashed line in Figure B. Graphical interpretation of the predictorcorrector routine: (a) versus 1. so we conclude that P ( u l ) viously larger than the true area under the . where u is known for t = 0 (the initial value). Using this area rather than the rectangular area.lO(b). ) . as P ( u l ) = U.lO(b)]. Suppose we now approximate the value of fiI by substituting P(u. Calling this value P ( f i .. B.lO(a) and is obversus t curve.lO. where the time base has been divided into finite intervals A t wide. we compute Now approximate the true area under the 6 versus t curve between 0 and A t by a trapezoid whose top is the straight line from 6. I f we define u = u1 when t = At.'to P ( c l ) . (b) o versus 1.16) which is an extension of the initial slope out to the end of the first interval. we compute the predicted value u.10.)into the given differential equation (B. ) . IO(a).At (B. Now define which gives the initial slope of the u versus f curve. we compute a corrected value of u I . is too large [also see Figure B. Suppose the curves for u and 6 are as shown in Fig. + .Appendix B 539 V Fig. 14). as shown in Figure B. Next a predicted value for u at the end of the first interval is computed. B. But boAt is the rectangular area shown in Figure B.
25) where a and b may be found as in Example 7.9 b = 5. using C(Cl) in (B. A n alternative method is to use an approximate formula to represent the nonlinear relationship between U. + (i.)/(u.3 Use of the modified Euler method Example B./(a  0) .24) I n this way we can compute the value of i corresponding to any U. and substitute in (B.into the original equation to get a corrected r.5 ~.22) 8.26) or 6. Let us proceed using the latter of the two methods. Thus using linear interpolation. ) ( u .18) the corrector equation. we have for any value of u between uI and u2 i = i. where from Example 7.20) where k is the iteration number and e is some convenient. between given data points. Use numerical values from Example 7.4. = 500  282. small precision index (IO('. by the Frohlich equation.2 1) (B.23) becomes (B. We could store the data of Table 7. The general form of predictor and corrector equations is P ( u ~ += ) ~ ui C ( V .2.)to obtain an even better value for C ( u .) (8. ) .18) rather than P(6. . Once u I is determined as above.23) where i as a function of u. At] We now repeat this operation.C ( u .23) to find C.540 Appendix B We call (B. i = bU.2.3. . Now we substitute the corrected value of u. (B.u.l.9  UP) (B.. + ~ ) ui = + {[Ci + P(Ci+l)]/2}Af + Lji(At) (B. S o h t ion The equation requiring solution is rECF = up .)"' 5 6 (B.i . and i. )differ from one another by less than some prescribed precision index or until C(U. Thus.u.3 Solve the separately excited buildup curve by the predictorcorrector method of numerical integration.27) . by the same method. ) . we use it as the starting point to find u.19) C(ci 1 = f[C(uI)./(279.65 Thus (B. is known from Table 7.R i (B. We could proceed in two different ways at this point. for example).2 we have a = 279.. (B.3 in the computer and use linear (or other means) interpolation to compute values of i for U.This is done over and over again until successive values of C ( u .)k  C(U.
Appendix B 54 1 v READ DATA A COMPUTE 1 7 WRITE T.I I . V.II for the separately excited case. by a constant W .8 s. separately excited case. The derivative may not be needed. The computer flow diagram is shown in Figure B. V . The solution is printed in tabular form in Table B.3 with certain additional variables that must be defined. B. Computer flow diagram. Note that both uF and bF are given.4 and are therefore not plotted. The computed results agree almost exactly with the results of Example 7. . but it is known and can just as well be printed.u)] (B. WRITE W =V t VDOT’ DELTA T. VDOT El J=J+l COMPUTE B.12. To avoid confusion in programming. we drop the subscript on uF. VDOT T=T OLD = W CVDOT= W D O T v = cv t DELTA VDOT = CVDOT I 1 COMPUTE CV = V t 0.( R b / T ) [ u / ( a. and replace 7 by T to write U = W / T .5 (VDOT + CVDOT)* DELTA I COMPUTE OLD = C V Fig. represent U.28) The data that must be input to begin the solution is shown in Table B. The FORTRAN coding is given in Figure B.4 for values of t from 0 to 0.
542 Appendix B VDOTl(W.F4.V) WRITE(3.5* (VDOT+CVDOT)*DEtTA IF(CVOLDEPS) 107.F6.0 T=0.TEE.R.2 F5.A.0 cv = 0.VO.3.2.107.I3.PV) OLD=PV CVDOT = PVDOT CV = V + 0.V.4 13 F7.F5. 8.F10. Symbol UP Data and Variable Symbols.3. Table B.lOl)W.V) = (WR‘ B’V/(AV))/TEE READ( 1.2) 200 CONTINUE STOP END Fig.2.I lO)T.CV) OLD = CV GO TO 104 T=T+DELTA v=cv VDOT=CVDOT WRITE(3.2.3 F6.0 CVDOT 50.1 lO)l.2 F6.F5.3 F5.F10.3 T vo DELTA KEND EPS V V DOT F5.2 X X X X X X X X X X X X PV DOT CVDOT PV cv T F5.7 F5.0 PV = 0.F10.7) v=vo VDOT = 0.3.2 F4.3.12.F5. FORTRAN coding for the separately excited case.DELTA.3 X .106 CVDOTVDOTl(W.F5.VDOl  105 102 13 0 104 106 107 110 FORMAT(”.F7. KEND PV=V+VDOT‘DELTA PVDOTsVDOTl (W.0 PVDOT 0.VDOT DO 200 1= 1.2.2 F5.B.0 VDOT = VDOT 1 (W.KEND.4. Names.EPS 101 FORMAT(F5.V.3. and Formats N amr W TEE R B A Format Constant X X X Variable F5.
09 152.69 383.490 0. I90 0.420 0.26 165.410 0. Analog Computation and Simulation: Laboratory Approach. Hausner. New York.14 119.330 0.05 219. Englewood Cliffs.29 359. New York.23 367.94 228.76 109.95 124.790 0.68 334.52 98.82 254. Brace and World.52 14. L.9 I 9.58 73. McGrawHill.82 117.34 177. I O 433. Boston.440 0.200 0.76 145.21 169.080 0. Analog Computer Techniques.46 106.86 176.1 1 72. C .570 0. Johnson.41 130.J.85 0.24 164.52 Analog Computation Ashley.020 0.040 0.24 139.16 163. Introduction to Analog Computation.36 I5 I . lnlext Educational Publ.82 45.10 116.52 290.360 0. 1963.220 0.660 0.42 93.21 2 10. 1965. Blum.30 155.730 0.41 11.. 1969.64 176.460 0.380 0.240 0.82 161.42 82.06 96.03 375. R .600 0.670 0. Allyn and Bacon.97 I13.02 162.270 0. Analog and Analog/Hybrid Computer Programming.780 0.68 9.680 0.50 426.50 68. Smith. I2 22.93 24. introduction to Analog Coitrputation.32 299. Wiley.F 0..740 0.63 143.24 325.58 92. L.00 70.94 27.320 0. PrenticeHall.85 19. .83 66.80 193.060 0.630 0.050 0. Pa.. J .23 48. R .72 127.180 0.770 0.20 137. 1964. Jennass. International Textbook C o .01 342. t Separately Excited Results in Tabular Form 6F "F I VF .3 IO 0.72 15.500 0.6 I 100. J .300 0.5I 74. James.75 4 19. Analog and Digital Computer Methods in Engineering Analysis.250 0. I9 8.640 0.100 0.51 169.48 141.26 184.430 0. A .230 0.Appendix B 543 Table B.210 0.00 16.74 272.15 110. Scranton.090 0.60 6 I .69 145.43 73.05 81.260 0.87 170.690 0.49 171.50 134.560 0. . R .700 0..95 177. J .350 0.85 52.280 0.05 308.17 74.530 0.92 85. Analog Computation and Sitnulation.030 0.610 0.41 13.1I 166.84 245.03 34. Boston.28 176.390 References 40. 1963. Harcourt. I97 I .80 176.55 440.45 177.590 0.92 137.7 I 37.160 0.73 59.70 3 17.87 87.520 0.90 446.620 0.20 390.82 74.60 172. Allyn and Bacon. J .72 104.65 28 1. I20 0.290 0.20 77.480 0.43 20.21 351. G . N.20 452.30 57.38 175.5I 152.79 263.750 0.09 74.08 103. I70 0.550 0.79 157.130 0.76 168.22 177.73 130.7I 89.070 0.OO 63.21 166.340 0.00 132.010 0. C.46 20 I .57 168.470 0.400 0. 1971. Analog Computer Siniulation of Engineering Systems.68 55.4.56 149.760 0.720 0..1 I 78.63 175.46 176. I40 0.96 167.72 123.800 158.370 0.84 4 12.55 159.650 0.65 177.88 236.82 75. 2nd ed.52 10. M .06 171.57 398.5 I 32..1 I O 0. New York. Scranton. .73 154.23 72.540 0.50 48. Pa.08 176.1 I 175.09 121.0 0.09 177.510 0.84 176. M. and Wolford.78 405. . I5 29.45 160.66 147.37 18.38 12.450 0.93 53.7 IO 0. I50 0.56 39.59 42.87 25.580 0. 1965.55 177.02 73.00 44.
r Method. Matheniutic. W. Wiley. F. G. McGrawHill. New York. Pennington. R. . 1963. C'oniputer Methud. New York. B.. C.J. lnrroducrory Computer Methods and Numerical Analysis. 1968. New York. Scranton. A .. and Wolford. Matri. J. E. G . Stephenson. H. Englewood Cliffs. New York.. Pipes. S. S t a g . R. 1964. and Korn. H. McGrawHill. 1971. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. M. A.. New York. 1962..v in Power S ~ I ~ I P J Analysis.r the Phyhpical Sciences.s in Engineering Analysis. M.. G . and ElAbiad. Introduction to Nuttierical Analysis. Smith. wilf. T. 1965. Macmillan. A. M. Korn. H. Pa..s /i. 1968. L. L. New York. 1956.vJur Engineering. Marhematics Handbook for Scientists and Engineers. N. International Textbook Co. Analog and Digital Cottrputer Method.. James.544 Appendix B Digital Coniputation Hildebrand. McGrawHill. PrenticeHall. Cornpuler Simulation for Engineers.
Thus both before and after normalization we may write p = ku'i (C.2 and either comply wholly or provide a clear tran1 sition to a new system. The major pu impedances traditionally provided by the manufacturers must be maintained in the adopted system for the convenience of the users. as given by (4.l Normalization of Mutually Coupled Coils Consider the ideal transformer shown in Figure C . This means that the equations are symbolically always the same and no normalization constants are required in the pu equations. manufacturers does not satisfy requirement 2.5). volts. However. Having carefully considered a number of normalization schemes for synchronous machines and weighed the merits of each. as given by (4. The normalization scheme used by U.3]. the pu system is to be developed so that the same pu stator and rotor impedance values are obtained..1) and k is the same both before and after normalization. Other pu impedances must be related to and easily derived from the data supplied by the manufacturer. 3.2. C. At the same time it is also important to consider the traditions that have been established over the years [ I . 545 . The manufacturers use the original Park's transformation. Le. This means that power is invariant in undergoing the normalization. The system voltage equations must be exactly the same whether the equations are in pu or M K S units.S. 4. which is different from the transformation used in this book. I . and no one system is clearly superior to the others [ I . and henrys. The system power equation must be exactly the same whether the equation is in pu or M K S units. First we write t h e equations in M K S quantities. This requirement is included to simplify the simulation of the pu equations. ohms.22). For the study of system dynamic performance it is important to choose a normalization scheme that provides a convenient silnulation of the equations. All mutual inductances muSt be capable of representation as tee circuits afier normalization.appendix C Normalization There are many ways that equations can be normalized. the authors have adopted the following guidelines against which any normalization system should be measured. I . 2 . amperes.
C . u. using the subscript u to clearly distinguish pu quantities. di + LIZdr v dr = + L22 . H. Ljk = PrnNjNk and f o r j .i. R2i2 di2 + L.. we require that L I2 I2B / and since L12= La. i. we have. k = 1. Now choose base values for voltage. Dividing each equation by its base voltage. Ideal I Fig.s N. To preserve reciprocity. 02 = R. Schematic diagram of an ideal transformer.. current.2. in terms of the mutual permeance ern the coil turns N. I .+ L2I dt di2 di. For circuit I: V l B I l B I l B For circuit 2: 12Bf2B Then since any quantity is the product of its per unit and base quantities.546 Appendix C ?I "I [Te.e. V where. and time in each circuit. we have the pu (normalized) voltage equations We can define Now examine the mutual inductance coefficients. we compute vlBllB /tlB f2B E L2I I l B / V2BflB = V2B12B/t2B or SIB/tlB = S2B/t2B ..
From (C.it is apparent that we must have t l B = 128 = IB A and the mutual inductance terms of the voltage equation (C.. and the first requirement is satisfied.14) In pu these flux linkages are Xmlu Xm2u = hml/hlB = LmlIIB/LIBtlB = Lml/LIB = hmZ/X28 = L2lIlB/L2BI2B (C.2 Equal Mutual Flux Linkages To adapt the voltage equations to a pu tee circuit. ~ / = = ~ ~ B / V I B (C. with i l gives the following mutual flux linkages XmI = L. we have n = 12Bi2u/llBilu = &BUIu/hBU2u Thus the pu turns ratio nu must be nu = i z U / i l u= ~ ~ I B / =I U I .8) and base quantities are often chosen to make nu 11B/12B I . Xm2 = L Z l l l BWbturns (C. / N 2 . if this identical relationship exists between currents and voltages. 15) (C.BU L .e.8) we compute = v2B/&B or VIB1IB = v2B12B SIB = S2B ’ SB (C.Appendix C 547 The ideal transformer is also characterized as having the following constraints on primary and secondary quantities: n = i2/il = uI/u2 (C. 16) Equal pu mutual flux linkages require that Xmlu = Xm2u ( C .17) . IO) Combining with (C. i. C.4) become Then the voltage equation is exactly the same in pu as in volts. Rewriting in terms of base and pu values.IIIB = tIBand i2 = 0. Furthermore.6).7) where n = N . L I I= 41+ L m l L22 = 4 2 + Lm2 H (C. 12) From the flux linkage equations we write (in M K S units) Injecting a base current in circuit 1 with circuit 2 open.. we divide the coil inductances into a leakage and a magnetizing inductance: Le. the power is also invariant and the second requirement is also met.9) (C.
L Fig.N$f$B or (Lml /LIB ) ( I : B LIB ) LmI I : B = = (C.22). = or N i I f B = N$IZB or in terms of M M F = F2B .26) (C. (C.28) or in terms of the mutual permeance S . Now using (C. Thus the third requirement is satisfied.20) and (C.20)..20) FromS..21) = IAL2B (C.18) and (C. 18) Following a similar procedure. and (C. Tee circuit representation of a transformer An interesting point to be made here is that the requirement for equal pu mutual flux linkages is the same as equal base MMF's. + + L m u ( i l u + bu) (C. C . 2 .548 or Appendix C LmI/LlB = Lmlu = L21tlB/L2B12B (C. we can show that injecting a base current in circuit 2 with circuit 1 open (Le.22).N:I:. @.23) in the voltage equation (C. SB(Lml / L I B ) = SB(LmZ/L2B) (LmZ /L2B )(I:BLZB) Lm2I:B @.21) Comparing (C.19) Again equal pu flux linkages give Lm2/L2B = Lm2u = Ll2IZB/LlBllB (C.2. (C. = SIB IfBLiB and from (C.. uIU = R l u i l u + teilu + Lmu(ilu + t 2 k izU) uzU = RZui2.25) (C.12). with i2 = IzB i l = 0) gives the following pu flux linkages: and knlu = L12lZB/LIBIIB Xm2u = LmZ/LZB (C.24) which is represented schematically by the tee circuit shown in Figure C.4).27) (C.
a system of stator base quantities is used by U. However.29) where V = rms voltage to neutral.2. Since the transformation used in this book is power invariant. This requires equal pu mutual flux linkages (C. and (C. A variety of possible stator base quantities can be chosen to satisfy the condition of having the same pu stator impedances as supplied by the manufacturers. manufacturers that facilitates the choice of rotor base quantities. and hence this choice of stator base quantities does n o t meet requirement number 1.\/5 times line current would be attractive.17).a) pu (C. along with the requirement of equal base ampere turns (or equal pu mutuals).28). namely. IO). C. For this reason it is customary to use a stator base voltage equal to the peak linetoneutral voltage and a stator base current equal to the peak line current. = . we get u. \ / ~ v c o s ( ~ a) = v (C. Choosing VI. All circuits must have the same time base (C. the other three requirements stated in the previous sections may not be satisfied. or rms line voltage and fl times rms line current. (C. among the possible choices for the stator base: peak linetoneutral voltage and peak line current (same as the manufacturers). The requirement of a common pu tee circuit means equal pu magnetizing inductance in all circuits (C. All circuits must have the same VA base (C. To illustrate. however. For example. &VLN (rated).Appendix C C. 3. The factor of 4 appearing in the d and q axis equations of Chapter 4 would be eliminated.6).1 Summary 549 The first three normalization specifications require that 1. = ~ V C O( q t + a). to give the same pu impedances as those supplied by the manufacturers.a) u.4 V s i n ( d .30) are not identical. would reveal that the requirement of having the same identical equation hold for the M K S and the pu systems would be violated.9). the awkwardness referred to above is not encountered. For example.3 Comparison with Manufacturers’ Impedances We now select the base stator and rotor quantities to satisfy the fourth requirement. = (V/V.S. Because of a certain awkwardness in the original Park’s transformation resulting from the fact that the transformation is not power invariant. Note that in all these choices the base stator impedance is the same.9). which in turn requires that the base MMF be the same in all circuits (C. Such a choice.23). leads to a rotor VA base equal to the threephase stator VA base. Careful examination.the d a n d q axis voltages are obtained by a relation similar to that of (4. rms linetoneutral voltage and rms line current. 2. The choice of the stator base voltage VI. and the stator base current f l B determines the base stator impedance.. if the S phase voltage u..30) Note that (C.146) ud = ..29) and (C. it would appear that adoption of stator base quantities of rated rms line voltage and .)cos(d . ..
34) From (C. V f l B = rated rms line current. manufacturers is given in the Table C. kMF. The same derivation applies to a field circuit or to an amortisseur circuit.38) Thus the value of the pu d axis mutual inductance of any rotor circuit is the same as the pu magnetizing inductance of the stator..31) The rotor base quantities are selected to meet the conditions of equal SB. and FB (or A. llBL. .37) (Lml/kMF)&3 The pu d axis mutual inductance is then given by (C.l = f2~kMF k = a (C.11) and (C. Note that the base inductances and resistances are the same in both systems.33) = Ll2B 12B V I B ~ B . = kMD.. t B .S (C.33) or where kF = k MF/Lm.33)and (C. = MRu = Lmlv (C. Equal V A base gives vIBIIB = v2B12B VA (C.  VIB (k) = ~FLIB (C.34) for the rotor resistance base R ~ = B v2~/12~ = k$(v1B/llB) E ~ : R ..) Equal mutual flux linkages require that the mutual flux linkage in the d axis stator produced by a base stator current would be the same as the d axis stator flux linkage produced by a d axis rotor base current.).32) (The subscript 2 is used to indicate any rotor circuit.36) The base for the mutual inductance is obtained from (C.. B fl (C.32) and (C..550 Appendix C In this book the stator base quantities selected to meet the requirements stated above are S I B rated per phase voltampere.33) we obtain for the rotor circuit base voltage v2B = vlBIIB/12B = kFvlB (C.39) A comparison between the pu system derived in this book and that used by US. From (C.. Thus in M K S units. A IIB = I/%.35) The inductance base for the rotor circuit is then given by L2B = VZBtB/12B = (kMF/Lmd2(V1B/IlB) () i = kzFLlB (C. I . V A = VIE = rated rms voltage to neutral.
43) Resistances in ohms at 25°C: r. 55 1 Comparison of Base Quantities Per unit system used In this book By US.380 x ~ .245 0. Starting with the pu impedances supplied by the manufacturer.001 113 rF = 0.075 (C. = 1. = 0. manufacturers* Quantity/system C. the base quantities are derived and all the impedance values are calculated. The machine used for this data is the I60MVA.85PF 15kV (C .100 (C.4 I ) Time constants in seconds: = 5.185 0.42) Excitation at rated load: UF = 345 V iF = 926 A (C.64 0. = X : = = x2 XO = 0.. The data given and results computed are the same as in Example 5.5.2687 (C. = 0. The following data is provided by the manufacturer (this is actual data on an actual machine with data from the manufacturers bid or “guaranteed” data).185 X.I.70 1.023 T. = 0. Computations here are carried to about eight significant figures using a pocket “slide rule” calculator. There .24 = 0.185 0. The method used is that of Section 5.150 = X . twopole machine that is used in many of the text examples.8 of the text. One problem not mentioned there is that of finding the correct value of field resistance to use in the generator simulation.9 7.5. 0. Ratings: 160MVA Unsaturated reactances in pu: xd = 136MW 0.Appendix C Table C.40) xq = X .44) Computations are given in Example 5.. = 0. we provide a consistent set of data for a typical synchronous generator.4 Complete Data for Typical Machine To complement the discussion on normalization given in this appendix.
9 = 0.3 of d axis parameters and Table C. Compute from (5.781800664 mH = 18. while the pu values of the various amortisseur elements can be determined. = kM.402 872 1./~ VLLI d3 112~60 sB/ B ‘ I B RB AB Field LB SFB VFB IF. must be used if the correct time constant is to result. using LF from Table C.2687[(234.85402857 (C.8C. and hence all the rotor base quantities. Unfortunately. no such data is given for any of the amortisseur circuits.372245 Q (C.0102349 mH/5. their corresponding M K S data are not known. Thus.333 333 333 163 280.552 are three possibilities: Appendix C I . Table C.43). Compute from ((2.5 + 8)/(234.0)] = 0.652 582 384 6158.660 254 036 2.406 250 22.59).635 915 499. at operating temperature. Stator base values are derived from nameplate data for voltamperes.5. This is obtained from the air gap line of the magnetization curve provided by the manufacturer. Using the base values from Table C.0)/(234.677 2.371097 (C.730 193 98 53.1 where we compute k.5 + 25)) = 0. and frequency..885 8653 433.2./T. r F = 345/926 = 0.652 582 384 326.49) Note that a key element in determining the factor k F . The base quantities for all circuits are given in Table C.44) at an assumed operating temperature of 125°C: rf = 0. Compute from (C. Circuit Stator Base quantity Base Values in MKS Units Numerical value Formula Units SB V B lB SB..48) or the operating temperature is 0 = 123. is the value of M F (in H).2 and the pu values from Example 5.2. we may construct Table C.1 I5 4415 1.4 of q axis parameters.O = 2..45) 2.371097 s2 The value computed from L. IFB RFB AFB LFB MFB IBl k ~ VFBIIFB VFB~B XFBIIFB G 53.2687[(234.189475/5..325 988 441 0.070 329 184 MV A / ph ase kVLN ms A R Wb mH MVA/phase V ms A R Wb H H ./L.37257 s2 (C.972 0373 3.3 r F LF/T. The method of relating stator to field base quantities through the constant kF is shown in Example 4. which is a reasonable result.5 + 125. Working backward to compute the corresponding operating temperature.333 333 333 8. = 109.5 + 25.46) 3. XBI~B SB VBI~B VB~B SBI~FB 1 . The given values are easily identified since they are written to three decimals. voltage. we have 0.
2687 (not used) 0..109 010 235 H H MR LMD r.557 989 025 0. 1 13 1.eF 5.F .101 202 749 I .341 329 761 mH I .189 2.550 0.035 I .550 0.791 1.442 11.490 6.274 3.550 0.460 365 85 mQ mi2 S S ‘9 T7? T7? Tq 89 785 ms . I50 1.189 808 581 579 905 357 607 463 955 204 333 482 4715 397 x 455 x 165 IO’ IO’ 1.099 90. Ti0 7 .490 0.791 607 397 x IO’ 1. 25°C r.85 mR mn n S S S S 52 1 69 195 726 0.482 8.055 416 667 1.185 1.113 1.028 378 3784 0.134 800 664 529 097 475 759 282 084 193 675 mH mH H H H LD e.371 097 586 0.030 459 0.670 364 135 868 599 450 945 295 x 90 x IO’ 44 1 .3. 1.053 203.525 808 581 5.742 13.651 202 749 I .096 463 455 x .185 6.075 8.380 (not used) 0.477 2224.559 2. Lmd x d 1.023 S Table C.781 0.90 0.117 518 122 mH mH mH 0. Quadrature Axis Parameters in pu and M K S pu value M K S value Units Symbol L. 0.096 0. L.550 1. 25°C r. MF kMF MD kMD 0.54 0. I50 1.640 0.24 5.541 901 734 0.Appendix C Table 553 C. 125PC 2. Tk 7.4.Q LQ MQ kMQ LMQ r.700 0.265 5697 1.216 I .089 006 484 0.605 4 I6 667 1.541 901 734 0.. Direct Axis Parameters in pu and M KS pu value M K S value Units Symbol Ld L.575 28. eL:i.245 0.055 0.265 5691 LF L.550 IS O 0.028 0.490 0. 125°C rF 25°C rF H O I TD 70 1.559 529 097 I .247 320.
AIEE Trans. Ser. 64569 841. M. M. 77:436 56.Y . J . Schenectady. A I E E 7runs. 2. A. Cambridge Univ. R. J.. Press. W. Per unit impedances of synchronous machines. W. 4. . 1958. A .. 3.. 4.554 References Appendix C I . Lawrenson. and Stephenson. Generdl Electric Co. Lewis. 1970. f e r Unit Systrmr: With Specin/ R e f m w c c to Electrical Machines. Harris. Power system stability. Electric Utility Engineering Seminar. 1945. I. Pt. Rankin. 1973. P. Section on Synchronous Machines. 1EE Monogr. A basic analysis of synchronous machines. N.
Referring to Figure D. The items included in the tabulations are specified in Table D.1) (D. For example. 555 . Table references on these items are given in parentheses following the identifying symbol. Thus it is often necessary for the engineer to estimate or calculate the missing information. I n most cases such an accumulation of information is not available without special inquiry.I. A rather complete set of data is given for various sizes of machines driven by both steam and hydraulic turbines.appendix D Typical System Data In studying system control and stability. we compute SCR It can be shown that SCR = l B / l s PU (D. it is often helpful to have access to typical system constants.l. (See Tables D. and they permit the practicing engineer to estimate values for future instal la t ions. ( 1) Short circuit ratio The SCR is the “short circuit ratio” of a synchronous machine and is defined as the ratio of the field current required for rated open circuit voltage to the field current required for rated short circuit current [I].8 the end of this appendix. the exciter.2) z I/xd pu where x. Data are also provided that might be considered typical for certain prime mover systems. 1 D.1 require explanation. data taken from manufacturers’ bids are limited in scope. Such constants help the student or teacher become acquainted with typical system parameters.l Data for Generator Units Included here are all data normally required for dynamic simulation of the synchronous generator. Finally. the turbinegovernor system. and the power system stabilizer. The data given here were chosen simply because they were available to the authors and are probably typical. and these are often the only known data for a machine. data are provided for typical transmission lines of various voltages. is the saturated d axis synchronous reactance.) at D. An explanation of these referenced items follows. This is helpful in estimating simulation constants that can be used to represent other typical medium to large units. Certain items in Table D.
2.2 pu. . 31.the pu saturated magnetizing inductance. and short circuit characteristics of a synchronous generator (2) Generator saturation Saturation of the generator is often specified in terms of a pu saturation function SG.I . Thus we can easily determine two saturation values from the generator saturation curve to use as the basis for defining a saturation function. These values are given under open circuit conditions so that V. = I .I we arbitrarily define 51 = (fF2 .3) and will use these two values to generate a saturation function. is actually the voltage behind the leakage reactance and is the voltage across LA.3) is valid for any point yl [ 2 .556 Appendix D ‘A IB ‘s I F ‘C Field Current. Fig. With use of this definition.O and 1.l F l ) / f F l where (D. Open circuit. We compute it is common to specify two values of saturation at V.. From Figure D. full load. sG at (D. D. which is defined in terms of the open circuit terminal voltage versus field current characteristic shown in Figure D.
IF Fig.20) = 7.o/AG) 0.6) contains two unknowns and the quantities S.o = 0.6) (D. = (0. D. . one of which is given in Section 5 .80 Then we compute. IO. 2 ~ c 1 .Appendix D 557 Field Current.*/& or A. where = A.4nG = (D.4 BG = (D. we can solve for A. From the given data we write A e0. Construction used for computing saturation. 1 where we define s.2SGl.2 BG = Then.l. I and B.20 S. I Suppose that measurements on a given generator saturation curve provide the following data: S.8/0. l. using (D. (D.20)f/1.z = 0. .2. is usually less than 0. In(Scl.10).2 x 0.2SGl. There are several ways to define a saturation function. Since (D.B.l. A.2(0.7) Va = is the difTerence between the open circuit terminal voltage and the assumed saturation threshold of 0 . explicitly.2SG1. 8 ~ ~ .8 (D.2 A.04167 B. 2 / ~ G l .0 = c Rearranging and taking logarithms. and VAare known at two points. (SGl.e0. = 51n(1.9) Example D.o/AG)2 = I. 0 / ~ . = ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .10) 2 O ~ In( I .8) SGI.0.843 This gives an idea of the order of magnitude of these constants. A. ~ ~ G I . = ~ ~ 1 .2/AG) 0.26. is usually between 5 and IO.80) = 0. and B.enGvA r/.
.15) describes how V.8.13) (IF2  IFI)/IFI = K/RIFI = I'.3. is reduced by saturation below its air gap value RI. Note that the exponential saturation function does not satisfy the definition (D. (D./(IFz   V. > 0 for any V. Note that S.. Referring again to Figure D . so the saturation computed for V. and 4.I = V. IF2 (D. = R I F Z R = I'. The error is small.4.O pu voltage..4.3) we write SG E = IFI) (D.3) in the neighborhood of V. where V. however. .15) where S. and the approximation solution is considered adequate in the neighborhood of 1 . 4. The computed saturation function has the shape shown in Figure D.SGV.. = 0.15 and is treated in the literature [8121.7]. < 0.12) V. But from Figure D. we assume a similar reduction occurs under load. Usually.2. D./Kl (D. The approximate saturation function. ( 3 ) Damping It is common practice in stability studies to provide a means of adding damping that is proportional to speed or slip.14) Then from ( D . at no load. = RI. The method of introducing the damping is by means of a speed or slip feedback term similar to that shown in F i g ure 3. is usually a very small number. $G =AGeGA B V *G1 I I * 't Fig.11) does not give Refer to Figure D.. where we assume that saturation begins.3. 2 Other methods of treating saturation are found in the literature (I. 12) vi = RIF2 . S.2 . current but only produces VFlror K2 = RIF2 (D.3.10. 2. is the drop in voltage due to saturation. we write the voltage on the air gap line as V. l . Note that A . 5. This concept is discussed in Sections 2. 2. is clearly a function of yI.8 is negligible.V. 4 . When saturation is present.558 Appendix D The value of S. determined above may be used to compute the open circuit voltage (or flux linkage) in terms of the saturated value of field current (or MMF). Equation (0.6.9.2 tan0 From (D. where D is the pu damping coefficient used to compute a damping torque Td .
Appendix D defined as Td = 559 DwAVP U (D.. The models proposed by the IEEE committee in 1968 [3] have been largely superseded by newer systems and alternate models for certain older systems. The value of D also depends on the units of (D. both in design and in the models for representing the various designs. T I "bin i S ' Other signals SE + KE  I+rF' i Fig.e. Excitation systems have undergone significant changes in the past decade. Westinghouse Rototrol. Allis Chalmers Regulux: (2) TR# 0 General Electric N A 101. Then (D. i. For example. provided through private communication./sB.D)WA~ MW (D. The approach used here is the alphabetic labeling adopted by the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC). This corresponds to D = P. 18) is D' = PG/fR is MW/Hz (D. is the threephase MVA base. The value used for D depends greatly on the kind of generator model used and particularly on the modeling of the amortisseur windings.17) I t is also common to see the slip computed in hertz. a damping of 13 pu is often used to represent damping due to turbine windage and load effects (21. In some simulations the torque is computed in megawatts. Silverstat.pU. NA 108: Westinghouse MagAStat.. 1 1 . Then with the slip wA in pu Td = (SB.4D. The need for expanded modeling and common format for exchange of modeling data is under study by an IEEE working group at the time of publication of this book. fR is the base frequency in Hz. and the slip in Hz.19) wnere Pc is the scheduled power generated in M W for this unit.17) becomes Td = (sB3D/fR)fA = 'YA MW (D.16). A much higher value. . KA 1 I 1 . Type Acontinuously acting dc rotating excitation system.16) where all quantities are in pu.4. A value sometimes used for D' in (D.18) J A where S. D. (4) Voltage regulator type The type of voltage regulator system is tabulated using an alphabetical symbol that corresponds to the block diagrams shown in Figures D. WMA. TRA. fa Hz. up to 25 pu is sometimes used as a representation of amortisseur damping if this important source of damping is omitted from the machine model. Representative systems: (1) TR = 0: General Electric NA143.
Type C. D. KA 1 1  f EFDmin = s ' Other signals KFs .6.Westinghouse brushless since 1966 'REF \ 1 Exciter \ 1 t j S ' E~~ Other signals 2 trp 1  'Rmin __1 A = (0. Type DSCPT system.5. D.HEV)Z KE t If: A > 1.\ 'E ' KE 1 I+T FI S Fig. D. Type B.7. .Westinghouse pre1967 brushless.78XL1FdV.I t T S Stabilizer F Regulator Stabilizer "Rmin E~~ SE t K E  S ~ t K ~a Fig.' 1 1 __ 1 +T I R c 'Rmin 1 T I 43 'FDmin s' Oher signals / Stabilizer  ~ SK F 1 + T S F . V B = O 'FD I Fig.
Integrating regulator / / Exciter  A K ( I + TAS) “Rmin Other rigmlr .Appendix D 56 1 “REF If: hax 1 ‘E’ ‘Rmin “to b V t + .K V .8. Westinghouse BJ30. Type FWestinghouse continuously acting brushless rotating alternator excitation system.9. Representative systems: General Electric GFA4. V R = V Rmin  ‘Fhax EFDmin Fig. + ’E KE 47p EFDmin = 0 EFCmax . Type GGeneral Electric SCR excitation system.I t T S F . D.1 KFs .SE+KE Fig. D.10. D. Type Enoncontinuously acting rheostatic excitation system. “REF l+r I AI  “bax 1 +IA2‘ 1 ‘Rmin “I signals Fig.
choosing a different base affects the constant S . of ceiling.F)/F S. (5) Exciter s a t u r a t i o n The saturation of dc generator exciters is represented by an exponential model derived to fit the actual saturation curve at the exciter ceiling (max) voltage (zero field rheostat setting) and at 757.. we define the following constants at ceiling. and K. = (C .D)/D (D. may be chosen arbitrarily.20) Exciter Field Current Fig. A dc exciter saturation curve. Since the exciter input signal is usually VR .75 of ceiling and full load. and also the gain K. 0.(S. D. .. SEmrx= ( A .12.562 Appendix D 1 t T AI S  1 A2 ‘Rmin fa EFDmin E~~ “5 Other si gna Is Stabilizer SE t K E F’ 1 t T S F  Note that the regulator base voltage used to normalize V.12. + KE)EFD.B ) / B SE75max = ( E . Referring to Figure D.
C .( D.~~DEFD.20).F)/o*75DEFDmaa = (4/3)(E .. Combining (D.26) simultaneously to find (6) Governor representation Three types of governor representation are specified in this appendix: a general governor model that can be used for both steam and hydro turbines. a crosscompound governor model. Suppose we are given the numeriand 0.B)/B = ( A  B)/DEFDmaa SE. units. These values are called SEmpa and cal values of saturation at EFDmaa SE.21) or = DEFDmaa We can also compute B/F = 413 = DEFDmaa/F or F' = O..13D. The governor block diagrams are given in Figures D. The regulation R is the steadystate regulation or droop and is usually factory set at 5".25) and (D.. At E D = E D a F F mx SE = S E = ~ A .75mai (E  F)/F = (E . . any convenient base may be used).25) We then solve (D. and H in the tabulation. and a hydraulic governor model.F)/DEFDmaa (D.24) which gives the approximate saturation for any EFD. we compute the two unknowns AEX and BEX as follows.75EFDmaa.22) = = ( A . for U.15.B)/DEFDmaa AExe ( ~ ~ = B E E X FDmax (D.7SmaX respectively. The appropriate model is identified by the letters G.22) we can write SEmar (D. Using these two saturation values.23) Now define the saturation function SE 5 AExe BEXEFD (D.Appendix D 563 Then in pu with EFDFL as a base (actually.S. EFDmaa = EFDmar(V)/EFDFL(V)= B / D pu (D.
.15. Fig. Crosscompound governor block diagram. Hydroturbine governor block diagram.13.14. D. D. D. P DdTd' 7 ~ I Fig. General purpose governor block diagram.564 Appendix D Fig.
Values given in Tables D. S.32: discussions. 1968. C. Elecfr. Stability program data preparation manual. A / € € Trans. D.2 Data for Transmission lines Data are provided in Table D. 5 . Computer representation of excitation systems. Saturated synchronous reactance. 7. Dec. B. Kingsley. Still there is some merit in having approximate data that can be considered typical of stabilizer settings. and the dynamic characteristics of the unit. W. IO. T. Stabilizer types: ( I ) V. Sherman. 1950. L. R. Power. ASME J . Kirchmayer. rotor slip (2) Vx = fre (7) Power system stabilizer The constants used for power system stabilizer (PSS) settings will always depend on the location of a unit electrically in the system. May: 545. Equivalent reactance of synchronous machines. Econoniic Control ojlnrerconnected Systents.. Concordia. Fitzgerald.. 4. 1935.. Wiley. A new stability program for predicting dynamic performance of electric power systems. Rept. = accelerating power = Pa. A. K. Elecfric Machin~rI~. 2. E. PAS87: 1460 64. L.: 124. Prubhashankar. 12. 1970. Proc. M. New Y o r k .5 are actual settings used at certain locations and may be used as a rough estimate for stabilizer adjustment studies.8 provides data for making rough estimates of transmission line impedances for a variety of common 60Hz ac transmission voltages. Eng. Crary.. 1968. R. 16. and Webler. A m . 1934. K. Fig. B. S . 1959. PAS87:7340. Apr.8 for estimating the impedance of transmission lines. Westinghouse Electric Corp. Kilgore. Eng. 70731 37. The PSS block diagram is given in Figure D.r. Crary. D. New York.39.: 201 6.Vol. Power Con/: 29: 1126. Power system stabilizer block diagram. ed. Jr. C. Shildneck. and McCauley. Jr. the dynamic characteristics of the system.88: Apr. Jan. 1967. C. Usually. . / E € € Trans. Eng. Erects of saturation on machine reactances. Concordia. (Rev. (3) V .Appendix D KQV I + T 565 I vs "s iim 1 t T KQS = V lim = wA. Kingsley. Table D. 6...50. C. EnR. Elecrr. 1947. Byerly. and Kusko.: 484. 8. Mar. P. and Janischewdkyj. quency deviation = fA. lEEE Trans. Power Srsfenr Sfabdit. Mar. D. M. IEEE Working Group.: 300 305. C. accurate data are available for transmission circuits. C. L. 70 736. T. Electr. Wiley. A. E. 1951. based on actual utility line design information.. and March.16.ZD. A . New 3rd York.. Synchronous machine damping and synchronizing torques.) 3. McGraw Hill. 1971. L.. A. Digital simulation of multimachine power systems for stability studies.: 603 7. 9. 2. Elrect of steamturbine reheat on speedgovernor performances. Young. 1935. 1972. I I . References I ..
 ' R h'& mi" 'E SE.t.2 EFDFL D EXCITER VR Type Name RR Arbitrary reference number Machinerated M V A : base M V A for impedances Machinerated tcrminal voltage in kV: base k V for impedances Machinerated power factor Machine short circuit ratio Unsaturated daxis subtransient reactance Unsaturated J axis transient reactance Unsaturated d axis synchronous reactance Unsaturated 4 axis subtransient reactance Unsaturated 4 axis transient reactance Unsaturated 4 axis synchronous reactance Armature resistance Leakage o r Potier reactance Negativesequence resistance Negativesequence redclance Zerosequence reactance d axis subtransient short circuit time constant d axis transient short circuit time constant d axis subtransient open circuit time constant d axis transient open circuit time constant 4 axis suhtrunsient short circuit time constant 4 axis transient short circuit time constant 4 axis subtransient open circuit time constant 9 axis transient open circuit time constant Armature time constant M W * s Kinetic energy ofturbine + generator atratedspeedinMJorMW. ' S = speed. pu PSS reset time constant First lead time constant First lag timeconstant Second lead time constant Second lag time constant T h i r d lead time constant T h i r d lag time constant PSS output l i m i t setting. for SCPT exciter Rotating exciter saturation at ceiling voltage. Y b' "d Xb' xb xq 'a x. GENERATOR Appendix D Definitions of Tabulated Generator Unit Data EXCITER (conrbrued) ' R max Unit no. P = accelerating power PSS voltage gain.orxP '2 x2 XO 'b' 'b 1% 'bo 1.or hydro gute time constant (type G) or dashpot time constant (type H ) Steam valve bowl timeconstant (iero for type G hydrogovernor) o r ( r w / 2 for type H 1 Steam reheat timeconstant or I /I hydro water starting time constant (type C o r G)o r minimum gate velocity in M W / s ( t y p e H ) p u shaft output ahead of rehealer o r 2. C = crosscompound. starting at full load tield voltage Minimum regulator output. Rated M V A Rated kV Rated PF SC R .s I1 Machine lield resistance in II (2) Machinesaturation at 1. H = hydraulic Turbine steadystate regulation setting o r droop Maximum turbine output in M W Control timeconstant (governor delay) o r governor response timc(type H ) Hydro reset time constant (type G ) or pilot valvetime(typeH) Servo time constant (type G o r C ) .1.4 s pu TA o r 7.O sG I. starting at full load tield voltage Exciter selfexcitation at full load lield voltage Exciter time constant Rotating exciter saturation at 0.566 Table D. or lip for SC'PT exciter Derived saturation constiint for rotiiting exciters Derived saturation constant for rotating exciters Maximum field voltage o r ceiling voltage.4 I s 'A 2 s Excitation system type Excitation system name Exciter response ratio (formerly ASA response) Regulator input filter time constant Regulator gain (continuous acting regulator) or fast raiselower contact setting (rheostatic regulator) Regulator time constant ( # I ) Regulator timeconstant (62) KQV k' QS (7) s s 'Q rQl PSS speed gain.0 for hydro units(types C o r 6 ) .e2 'Q2 rQ3 s s s 'PI 'Slim s s pu .75 ceiling voltage. pu (4) (4) R ' K. pu 'Ql .Opu voltage i n pu (2) Machine saturation at I . r o maximum gate velocity i n M W / s (type H 1 STABILIZER PSS (7) (7) PSS feedback: f = frequency. 'b '1 'bo 'a *R 'F sCI. pu Minimum field voltagt: Regulator stabilizing circuit gain Regulator stabiliring circuit time constmt ( # I ) Regulator stahiliiing circuit time constant(d2) T U R B I N EGOVERNOR tiov R Pmax (6) (6) MW s 'I '2 s s r3 '4 s '5 z F (6) Governor type: G = general.75max SEmar A EX BEX EFDmax EFDmin KF ' F o r 'FI 'F2 Maximum regulator output. or K .2 pu voltage i n pu (2) Machine full load excitation i n pu (3) Machine load damning coetticient .
680 ti 7 65.280 0.. .300 0.2.175 0. . ..0357 1. I70 0. 0...00 xb Xd X9 6.570 0.250 0.610 0.329 0.050 20.5 0.18 0.80 H4 35. 7..260 0.1.070 I..O .000 .33 I 0.495 0. 0.00 .607 I.. . 183.000 0.000 IXO. GENERATOR 567 Typical Data for Hydro ( H ) Units H3 25.. 5 ~ 0.0645 1.190 .0 I 4 0.044 2.000 0.20 0.948X 1.000 2..5.000 0..130 0.320 0.5 0.000 EFDFL D EXCITER VR type (3) .004 I 0.385 0.0029 0.5 0..660 0. 0.0032 0.057 1..80 0. 117... 1.150 I .500 ....550 .00 13.140 0. ..5 0....125 H6 54.000 0.2100 .06J SG. I20 0.90 1.240 3.400 0.050 1...507 I ..380 1.300 .0059 0..930 0.410 0.480 0.210 0.. I30 0. 1..000 0.570 2..150 .. .340 0. 5. .000 0.36 0. I30 .3127 0.685 2.sp ‘2 . 168.446 2. ..270 0.000 0.S il (2) .200 25.140 0. 3.. .074 rb’ ‘f‘0 .904 2..096 oano 5. 0.3 I2 0.5738 5.00 0.018 2.. Rated M V A Rated kV Rated PF SC R Xb‘ HI 9 .00 0. 5.137 OS60 0.004 0.7375 2. I 70 0..ooo I..I.150 2. 254.000 0.220 0.174 0.000 I .220 0.. .235 0..90 1.030 1.00 13. . 1. 107.030 0.540 0.90 0..615 0.2 1 0 “ R max “ R min KE ‘E .035 0.990 0.0042 0.450 1.700 .064 1. 1...200 0.300 ..670 x2 XO .320 0.000 0.00l6 I .040 0...240 3.00 13.035 1. 1..340 0.0027 sE.1507 2..... I827 0..650 0.600 ...000 1. 0.360 0.000 REGULUX 0.9 70 0.050 20.0017 1.193 . .....90 0.035 1.650 0.012 1.064 I. 176.91 I .000 I .950 0.090 0.0027 1.623 1.000 E GFA4 0.000 0.5 0.500 . 524.3 IO xb xq 0.770 2.580 0 .301 0.550 2.00 13.80 0.00 WR ‘F SGI.200 0. 4.258 0....88 0.79 13.050 20.320 5.264 0.9185 3.000 0...490 0.ow ..000 0.940 I . ...550 0.306 0.306 0.607 .060 0....260 .050 0. ..000 ~E RHEO 0. H2 17. 7.328 0. ..210 0. .200 0.003 0. I 50 0. ’a x x or ..000 3.100 Unit no.. H9 86. .90 1. ..060 0..297 0.760 0.390 0. I30 0.000 ..x5 0. I30 2..000 5.480 ..5 0.000 .. 0...7412 3. 0.000 NA108 0..120 0..900 HX 75.000 0.375 0.000 NA108 WMA I .320 2 .340 0...620 0..103 I .924 0. O....180 0.. 5.100 1.0I8 2.260 0.0885 0. X.95 2. .320 2.90 1..167 0.33 0.176 0.130 2. 0.120 0..3480 0.940 I .620 0.950 0..320 1.000 4.3.646 0.000 E WMA 0..000 37..850 ‘? . .318 0. H5 40.245 0. .000 4..035 1.440 1.400 ‘do T4 Tb 1’’ .687 0.155 0. .000 .033 .000 0.... ..000 1..1861 2..269 0.000 0.95 1.5 0...05 I 4.700 0.035 2.330 .0062 0.95 2.310 ...000 ‘FZ 0..00 0.00 .240 0.332 0.000 0.019 0.0015 0.199 0.50 7.200 0.... .408 0.327 0.IX00 23.000 0.000 0.Appendix D Table D.000 A NA143 0.835 .550 0..000 I. I...000 0.000 0. 0.000 0..3566 3. 0..017 rqO ? MW.000 3..000 0.760 0.90 I .020 ..00 13.80 0...000 ...670 0. 0.OO0 0.18 0.030 0. . .80 0..224 .00 13..000 0. 0.500 0.050 1.000 0....2 IO I .1219 2.2.000 0.000 0..080 2.9185 A A A A 3.000 0.135 ..160 0.00 0.lXO .. 0. .055 1. .460 2..195 0.000 .7059 3. 0.000 242..288 0.80 0.0022 .000 O.050 20. 0.020 0...2 (2) (2) 1.615 0.410 1.75 max SEmax A EX BEX EFD max &FDmin KF ?For l F I 0.099 Name RR TR KA ‘ A Or ‘ A I ‘A 2 E AJ23 0.OOO 0.000 0....200 .680 0..540 0.035 2.000 0..120 0..50 .000 65.000 0.100 0.0121 I .80 0.286 233. .000 I 2..670 0.130 2.000 0. I I I 0.660 0.000 5.000 0.ooo .018 2..000 0.
000 STABlLlLEK PSS KQV ...2.000 0.050 14.000 4. .545 .634 0. .000 2. .000 0.. . .000 0... . ......400 0.850 .300 2. ..2 (continued) TURBINEGOVEKNOR Appendix D ~~ ~~ GOV R Pmax TI (6) (6) MW S G 0..600 2......350 . .050 86.XO 16. . ...000 0.. .....920 0.) . . .00 20..920 0. . ... .000 0. .030 0.400 0. .056 40...000 I..000 4.050 . (conr... .000 0.00 16...000 0...785 2.430 2.000 2.00 0.030 0...000 0. .00 12. . ..000 0. ..000 O... ....100 S S S ‘Q3 ‘Q3 YSlim ...020 0.050 0. .000 0..000 0.000 0.ow 0. ‘Q I ‘02 TQZ . .. .50 25. .. .758 0......050 52..000 G 0. . 7QI ....050 23..700 0.. .. .100 0...000 2...050 71 S S 73 74 75 S S f (6) (7) 8..440 4. 0...000 0. .000 0.050 90.000 0.. F F F . ..500 0..000 3....500 0.050 40. . .800 0......000 30.00 16.. 0. .... ... ....568 Table D.700 0... . 0....50 0.2.000 3...300 .000 G 0.000 0.095 Tuble D....... ..500 0 .000 0. .OO0 G 0..500 0..000 G 0... ....000 G 0.. . . .. .400 0. ...000 0.000 0.920 0.000 G 0.100 PU .... ....2..000 0. . . .000 0 500 0..020 0. 0. . .. .579 2...000 G 0.758 0.500 0.000 65.300 ....150 IO.Ooo I .000 30.2. QS lQ (7) (7) S S S S . .000 G 0.2...000 0. .60 48..2..
.220 0.230 2..000 .6Xh 0.282 I .. I55 0.150 HI3 131.050 0.0049 0.000 .143 0.995 0.000 0. I30 0. 9..686 0.700 .04 I 7..002 0.020 0.000 0.000 272.330 439. .40 0..r4 or .. 7.100 0...20 0.535 0.400 ‘b ‘20 .080 0.734 (2) (2) 2.3.0236 I.184 0..1. 0...00 13.2 .. 0. 0.000 WMA NA143 0.360 502. x .870 3.030 2.00 200...030 .360 1.040 ‘bo 1 . ..000 0.07 I .510 0.002 I 0. 1.300 1.000 0.. 0.480 0.560 1.00 ..000 A SIEMEN I . .000 0.120 0.030 .0 0..o I..570 0..255 0.3.953 0..000 I . .0023 0..000 O. 0..680 .. 2.000 0.312 0.000 1.20s 0.243 0.Appendix D Table D..770 0...5 I.000 ..000 0. 0. ..302 0.80 0.484 0.50 0.00 I8..0014 0.000 0.330 0.0245 0.85 1.120 I.000 0..950 2...024 1.000 0.040 8.0237 0.550 .029 5..90 1.. 0.260 0..00 I1 0. 0.020 HI7 250.00 13.000 0.00 O.287 0.960 .161 HI2 125.000 0.340 .730 .80 0.646 0.040 0.310 0.160 ..010 0..000 2m .85 I.330 0.730 4...060 0. .070 0.i ‘ 2 HI0 100..000 50. S 312. I20 1.600 0..975 .000 0.028 HI6 23 I .5.206 0. 2.0096 1. 0.90 . 0.00 13.60 13. 469..000 0. 0.90 I.273 0.478 1.407 0...000 1. .. 0.000 0.00 0.~396 .90 I ..080 .410 0.050 0.% ‘a .270 0..280 .200 0.568 0.000 0. (4) A A A G A A KA ‘ A Or ‘ A I ‘A 2 “Rmax “R KE TE min SE.730 4.600 0.o 0.181 0.010 1..200 786.000 0.0043 1.220 2. lq0 la ..850 2.5 I .985 0.3.245 0..15max SEmax AEX BEX EFDmax &FDmin KF TFor‘FI ‘F2 WMA NAI43A SC K WMA I ..0276 1.950 0..310 ..300 0.600 0.568 0.200 .330 EFDFL D EXCITER VK type Name RR 7R . 0. 0. HI1 115.‘d xi .080 0.. 0..OO0 400..000 ...000 .5612 1.01 I 0.200 .280 0.039 6...870 3..rp ‘2 .020 0.88 2.9227 3.940 .269 0... .850 2.80 0...270 ..000 276.930 0.278 M W .178 0.00 0. H 18 615.80 0.00 12.000 0. . 1603.770 0.. I642 0..000 100..230 0.646 ..030 7. I80 458.219 (2) 0...200 0. .1 13 0.060 0.... ..2995 O.060 .. I70 HI 4 145..295 0..320 0.0195 0.850 2..000 . ..610 0.332 0.175 0.0648 1.09 0.0303 0..600 2.1274 0..573 0. 0.290 0.000 0.000 0.221 0.vi ... ...000 A J ASEA I .405 0. 0..870 5.131 1. .00 WR ‘F sGI. . 0.000 0.2IX 0.034 .300 0....000 4.00 0.200 0.2 (conhuedl GENERATOR Unit no.000 3.920 0. . I20 0.870 .182 0. .690 0.163 . .008 0. ..40 0.610 0. .308 0. 1 .000 1.1461 3. ..229 (3) 2.000 0.960 3.004 0.00 .00 15.020 3.Oh0 0.315 I .08 I 2 0. .040 0.rb ...90 1.020 0.000 0. 0...333 0.000 .5 0.80 0.570 0.320 0.438 1...000 54. Rated M V A Rated kV Rated PF SC R Xb‘ 569 .00 14..000 5.0024 0. .ooo 0. 392..0377 0.O sGl.000 3.000 0.375 0. 0.000 0.243 0.21 I 0. l ? .258 0.035 1.200 0.000 0.03 I 7 0.12 0. I50 0.060 0.000 7. . I20 0.300 0.027 0.290 0.990 2.140 0.326 .250 0.533 0.990 5.573 HIS 158...195 0..314 1.014 0.2847 0.000 0.800 0.725 2.612 2.000 17.6303 2.985 2. 0. 6.147 0.510 0. ...000 7. 0.120 4.00 0..3..950 1.990 0..000 400.050 0. I 3 5 0...480 1.155 0.000 0.os 0.732 0.000 0.105 0... I70 0.400 1.062 I.04s 0.1Sh 0.00 0.220 0..r 7. .000 0. . 0.120 .10 13.020 0.000 0...180 0.330 0.0769 0.000 .050 0... I 2 7 0. 0.. 3 166...379 0.00 0.XY79 0.000 0....000 0.20 0..5 0.7 I O 0...95 1.592 2.402 0.. .1 .200 3.000 .000 0.200 .080 . .710 0.o 0...07 I .
600 0.415 2..000 1.020 0. ...00 160.590 0.000 3.600 0.020 0.00 30.050 250. ... .000 0.000 0.000 0.100 4.000 0.000 0. ...053 0. .000 0.000 G 0..050 5.380 0.000 55. .. .000 0.000 0..2 (continued) TURBINEGOVERNOR GOV Appendix D R Pmax TI (6) (6) MW S S S S S 72 13 74 75 F (6) G 0.100 0. .000 0.. ..000 0.100 0.050 0..740 2.000 0.700 0.020 0O O ... . . . F 'Q r QI S S 'e I '3 Q '2 4 7e2 S S S S 'Q3 "slim P" 0.O 0. . ..050 155.020 0..000 .000 0. .oO0 F o..00 31.500 65.431 0..050 267..000 15.000 G 0.000 0.000 10.393 0. ..100 ...520 0.498 2. .050 .30 36..000 G 0.000 0.500 0...00 G 0..000 0...500 0.000 4.300 10.000 0. .020 0..020 0. 2.00 52.250 0.038 120..431 0.900 2.00 4. .051 115. .000 STA B I LlZER PSS KQV QS (7) (7) (7) S F F F .470 8.020 1..000 0.oO0 0..000 0....090 F o.000 0.00 27.300 3. 0.030 133.000 6.050 0.. ..020 0. ... .053 0.. . .000 0.000 0.120 0.000 0...00 G 0..200 0.700 0..000 G G 0..000 0..000 IO...240 6.000 1. ....000 0. .000 . .... .800 0.380 0..570 Table D.. .050 603. 2...040 0. 0.000 0. .000 2.000 0.. .520 0...050 171.. .....500 0..000 . .650 2...000 0...500 0.OOO 30. . .. . .000 G 0..00 124. . .000 0. .515 2... .000 8...oO0 10.....
.270 0.85 0..050 20.90 0.4320 2.095 0. I20 2.120 0.000 175... .070 0.os0 0.670 2..105 0...00 13.1 16 0. I20 0.140 S NAlOl 0. .380 I .750 0..0484 4.375 0..057 0..000 57. 0.118 0.520 0. . .000 2.900 . 0.279 0.000 ..500 0.220 2.292 2 .. .50 NA143A 0.000 0.078 0..00 15.075 0.970 0.85 0. 0.500 .50 0.882 F7 147..300 0.177 125.500 0.240 F6 125. 0.00 .220 0.80 0.220 1..882 0.000 0..29 13..00 0..120 0.000 .00 0... 0..80 F2 35...093 0.232 1.085 0. F5 Typical Data for Fossil Steam (Fl Ilnits 100..372 F3 51.033 8.500 2. 0.020 0..017 0.600 5.000 260.050 K" ..85 0..216 0..40 0.133 0..070 0.050 ..023 1. I34 0.390 596..3.. 0..100 .295 0. .80 0.00 0.059 4.500 0.0 0.80 0..220 0.210 0.140 464.000 400..1026 0.000 0.000 0. . I .80 0. .003 I 0.000 0..0933 0.250 1..364 2. .90 0.100 0.80 0..060 0.715 I . I30 0..016 0.050 GFA4 0.065 0.00 13.. I74 I .077 F4 75. GENERATOR Unit no. 0.80 09 ..050 0.0082 0. 154.50 0.200 WMA 0.108 ...038 6.035 . I85 I .134 0.2067 0. . .134 . I30 0.805 3..000 0.000 WMA I .145 0.. . .360 0.060 0....02 I5 0.10 15. 0.070 0. 6. ..3 IO 2.0035 0.00 13..035 0....4044 2.. .000 25.64 0..299 I . .640 .50 0.. ' A Or I A I E BJ30 0..000 0.50 0.80 0.50 0..3928 2..976 I .215 0. .980 0. .099 0..00 I4 0. .042 5..1 I6 0.2 I8 1.140 498.209 I ..000 sG I .180 0.160 0.23 I 1.000 VR type Name RR TR A A E (4) (4) S DU A A A NAlOl 0....20 13. 0. 0..200 25.0034 0.035 ..300 0.470 43 I .216 0.80 0.724 2.210 1. I34 0. .50 0.Table D..0072 .90 0.886 2.290 0.80 I .118 0..092 0.105 0.0284 0.280 0. .80 0.400 .50 0.050 20.2 I6 0..250 0. 0.850 I ..537 0.00 0.023 .000 0..50 0.2 EFDFL D EXCITER ~~ ~~~~ (2) (2) (3) FI 25...50 0. .300 0.145 0.004 .
000 I .417 0..500 4....Oo0 0.812 I .Ooo TURBINE GOVERNOR GOV R Pmax S S (6) (6) MW G 0....Ooo 0. .300 0.2254 0..000 0.200 0.000 I . 4im .000 4.200 0.438 0.300 0....0015 I . .280 I o....... .6 1....OO0 1..Ooo 1..300 0. .050 105.090 0..250 STABILIZER PSS KQV .00 0.. .. . .Ooo 0...370 0 1I 0 . ...0769 1.00 0.300 0..Ooo G 0.75max SEmax AEX BEX EFDmax 0..50 0..2096 4.000 I ..105 0. . ..100 .Oo0 0. ....200 0. .0895 0.0 0. . .4628 4.349 0. .120 0. .090 0.000 0..030 EFDmin KF ‘ForrFl ‘F7 0.00 0. .414 0.5833 348 . .OO0 0.00 0.0601 0.0392 0...000 0.0684 0.. .000 I .‘A2 0. . 2 0.3604 0..000 6.. .700 10. .Oo0 14 .. . .350 0.000 I .0445 0.6349 3.. ....200 O...000 0.500 0.ooo 0.000 I ..000 0...000 1..0012 I .170 0.380 O.Ooo 0.Ooo 0.000 0..000 0. . ..083 0.020 0...700 0.6I30 0.Ooo G 0..220 0. . ...... .10 0..180 0.000 0. ..Ooo G 0.3774 0.. 0. 0... . O.000 4..050 121.000 0.050 22.000 0.950 0. .I 0 3 4. . .0016 1..090 0.200 O..OO0 1.... . ..6130 0.500 0.00I 6 1. ..... .Ooo 0. .OO0 ....300 0.050 120 3.. S S S PU .. . . Qs ‘Q (7) (7) (7) S S S .080 I ..Ooo O. .000 0.050 36.0582 0.3 3.Ooo I ...000 0....6774 4.I 0 3 0.. .