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Essential nutrients: materials that must be obtained in preassembled form because the animal’s cells cannot make them from any raw material Malnourshied: an animal whose diet is missing one or more essential nutrients Vitamins: organic molecules required in the diet in amounts that are quite small compared to amounts of amino acids and fatty acids. Minerals: inorganic nutrients, usually required in very small amounts Herbivores: animals that eat vegetation Carnivores: animals that eat other animals Omnivores: animals that eat both vegetation and other animals Suspension-feeders: animals that sift small food particles from their surroundings Substrate-feeders: live in or on their food source, eating their way through the food Deposit-feeders: salvagers of partially decayed organic material Enzymatic hydrolysis: the breaking of bonds with enzymatic addition of water (opposite of the processes learned in chapter five where molecules of water are formed when new covalent bonds are made). Intracellular Digestion: digestion occurring inside the cell membrane by enzymes Extracellular Digestion: the breakdown of food outside the cell Gastrovascular cavities: digestive sacs with single openings Sphincters: ringlike valve that close off digestive tubes like a drawstring Peristalsis: rhythmic waves of contraction Salivary amylase: digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes starch and glycogen Epiglottis: a flap that closes the opening of the windpipe with you swallow Pepsin: an enzyme that begins the hydrolysis of proteins