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RESPONSE OF A SLIDING STRUCTURE TO KOBE EARTHQUAKE

RESPONSE OF A SLIDING STRUCTURE TO KOBE EARTHQUAKE

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National Conference on Recent Developments In Civil Engineering – 2011 (RDCE 2011

)
13 - 14 January, 2011

RESPONSE OF A SLIDING STRUCTURE TO KOBE EARTHQUAKE
Rajendra1 and Krishnamoorthy2
1. 2. PG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, MIT, Manipal, 576 104, Karnataka, India Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, MIT, Manipal, 576 104, Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT The response of a space frame structure resting on sliding type of bearing with friction pendulum system is obtained. The structure is divided into number of columns and beams using a space frame element with six degree of freedom (three translations and three rotations) at each node. The sliding bearing is modeled using a fictitious spring with two horizontal degree of freedom at each node. These springs are attached to the base of each column. The analysis consists of two phases, a sliding phase and non – sliding phase. In non - sliding phase the horizontal stiffness of sliding bearing is considered as very large where as it is equal to zero during sliding phase. The analysis is used to study the response of a four story symmetric space frame structure resting on sliding type of bearing subjected to ground acceleration due to Kobe earthquake. The response quantities considered for the study are the base shear and relative displacement at base. The response of the structure fixed at base is compared with the response of the structure isolated at base. It is concluded from the study that the response of a structure resting on sliding type of bearing with friction pendulum system is considerably less than the response of the structure fixed at base. Also, by providing the friction pendulum system as restoring force device, the displacement of the structure reduces and the structure comes back to its original position after the end of earth quake without transmitting additional force to the structure. Introduction Base isolation is an aseismic design approach in which the structure is protected from the damaging effects of severe earthquake forces by a mechanism, which reduces the transmission of horizontal acceleration into the structure. Isolation devices are essentially classified into two types - rubber bearings and sliding bearings. Although rubber bearings have been used extensively in base isolation systems, sliding bearings have recently found increasing applications. The most attractive features of the sliding bearings are its effectiveness for a wide range of frequency in puts. Sliding bearings uses rollers or sliders between the foundation and base of the structure. The shear force transmitted to the structure across the isolation interface is limited by keeping the coefficient of friction as low as practical. This results in large sliding and residual displacements, which may be difficult to incorporate in structural design. The practical effectiveness of sliding bearings can be enhanced by adding suitable restoring mechanism to reduce the displacements to manageable levels. Several systems have been suggested in the past by Chalhoub and Kelly [2], Bhasker and Jangid[1] and Zayas et al. [8] to accommodate restoring mechanism in a structure isolated by sliding systems. They are in the form of high–tension springs, laminated rubber bearings

Organized by Department of Civil Engineering Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal – 576 104, Karnataka, India

National Conference on Recent Developments In Civil Engineering – 2011 (RDCE 2011)
13 - 14 January, 2011

or by using friction pendulum systems which provides restoring mechanism by gravity. In the present paper, the space frame structure resting on sliding type of bearing with friction pendulum system subjected to Kobe earthquake is analysed. The space frame structure is divided into number of elements consisting of number of columns and beams and at each node six degree of freedom (three translations and three rotations) are considered. The sliding support is modeled using a fictitious spring beneath each column. The stiffness of spring is considered as a large value in non sliding phase and is taken as zero during sliding phase. Analytical modeling Figure 1 shows a space frame structure resting on sliding bearing. The structure is divided into number of elements consisting of beams and columns connected at nodes. Each element is modeled using two noded frame element with six degree of freedom at each node i.e., three translations along X, Y and Z axes and three rotations about these axes. For each element, the stiffness matrix, [k], consistent mass matrix [m] and transformation matrix [T] is obtained and the mass matrix and the stiffness matrix from local direction is transformed to global direction as proposed by Paz [5]. The mass matrix and stiffness matrix of each element are assembled by direct stiffness method to get the overall mass matrix [M] and stiffness matrix [K] for the entire structure. The overall dynamic equation of equilibrium for the structure can be expressed in matrix notation as & u [M] { && }+[C] { u }+[K] {u}={F (t)} (1) W where [M], [C] and [K] are the overall mass, damping, and stiffness matrices. The damping 2 of the superstructure is assumed as Rayleigh type and the damping matrix [C] is determined using the equation [C] = α [M] + β [K] where α and β are the Rayleigh constants. These & constants can be determined easily if the damping ratio for each mode are known. { && }, { u }, u {u} are the relative acceleration, velocity and displacement vectors at nodes and {F (t)} is the nodal load vector. {u} = {u1, v1, w1, θx1, θy1, θz1, u2, v2, w2, θx2, θy2, θz2, ….. un, vn, wn, θxn, θyn, θzn} where n is the number of nodes. The nodal load vector is calculated using the equation {F (t)} = - [M] {I} üg (t) Where [M] is the overall mass matrix, {I} is the influence vector, üg(t) is the ground acceleration. The sliding support is modeled using a fictitious spring of stiffness kb, with two horizontal degree of freedom and these springs are attached to the base of the bottom column. The friction pendulum system is represented as an equivalent spring with stiffness kr. The value of kr is equal to (m+mb)g/R where m is the mass of the super structure, mb is the base mass and R is the radius of curvature of the sliding surface. The isolator frequency, ωb, depends on the geometry of the surface and for friction pendulum system, this frequency is almost constant and is equal to g / R . The value of the stiffness of the bearing, kb and stiffness due to friction pendulum system, kr are added to the stiffness matrix [K] of the structure at corresponding degree of freedom to obtain the stiffness matrix of the structure and sliding bearing with friction pendulum system. When the structure is resting on sliding type of bearing with a coefficient of friction equal to, µ, then the mobilized frictional force, Fx, at base will be resisted by the frictional
Organized by Department of Civil Engineering Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal – 576 104, Karnataka, India

National Conference on Recent Developments In Civil Engineering – 2011 (RDCE 2011)
13 - 14 January, 2011

resistance, Fs, which acts against the direction of mobilized frictional force. When the mobilized frictional force, Fx, at base is less than the frictional resistance, Fs, ( i.e. |Fx| < Fs) the structure will not have relative movement at base and this phase of structure is known as non – sliding phase. However, when the mobilized frictional force, Fx is equal to or more than the frictional resistance, Fs (ie. |Fx| ≥ Fs ) the structure starts sliding at base and this phase of the structure is known as sliding phase. When the structure is in sliding phase and whenever reverses its direction of motion (when the velocity at base is equal to zero) then the structure may again stop its movement at base and may enter the non – sliding phase or may slide in opposite direction. In the present analysis, sliding bearing is modeled as a fictitious spring with stiffness, kb, connected to the base of each column. The conditions for sliding and non – sliding phase are duly checked at the end of each time step. When the structure is in non – sliding phase, the stiffness of the spring, kb, is assigned a very high value to prevent the movement of the structure at base where as when the structure is in sliding phase, the value of stiffness of spring, kb, is made equal to zero to allow the movement of the structure at base. Thus the stiffness of the spring, kb, may be equal to zero or very high value depending on the phase of the structure.
u Also, during the non - sliding phase the relative acceleration, && b, and relative velocity, & u b, of the base is equal to zero and the relative displacement at base, u, is constant during this phase. The stiffness of the spring at base of each column are considered as very large (kb= 1x1015 kN/m) during non - sliding phase. The dynamic equation of motion for the non sliding phase is same as given in equation 1. However, [K], the stiffness matrix includes the stiffness of the structure, stiffness of the spring, kb, (kb, being a very large value) and stiffness of friction pendulum system kr.

During sliding phase, the stiffness of the spring at base of each column is considered as zero (kb = 0) and the mobilized frictional force, Fx, under each column is equal to Fs and remains constant. Hence, the dynamic equations of motion for the structure during this phase is & [M] { && }+[C ] { u }+[K] {u}={F (t)} – {Fxmax} u (2) where, [K] the stiffness matrix includes the stiffness of the structure, stiffness of spring, kb (kb, being equal to zero) and stiffness of friction pendulum system, kr. {Fxmax} is the vector with zeros at all locations except those corresponding to the horizontal degree of freedom at base of the structure. At these degrees of freedom, the vector {Fxmax} will have values equal to Fs. The frictional force mobilized in the sliding system is non – linear function of the system response and hence the response of the isolated structural system is obtained in the incremental form using Newmark’s method. Owing to its unconditional stability, the constant average acceleration scheme (with β = 1/4 and γ = 1/2) is adopted. Forces in each member of the structure are obtained using the equation [k]{q}. Where [k] is the member stiffness matrix and {q} is the nodal displacement vector. The horizontal force Fbc at bottom node of the column in contact with the sliding bearing is the base shear under each column. Similarly the damping force at each node can also be obtained by
Organized by Department of Civil Engineering Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal – 576 104, Karnataka, India

National Conference on Recent Developments In Civil Engineering – 2011 (RDCE 2011)
13 - 14 January, 2011

multiplying the damping matrix [C] of the structure and restoring force device with the nodal & velocity vector { u }. The mobilized frictional force Fx under each column when the system is in non – sliding phase is determined using the equation Fx = Fbc + Fbs + Fd – F where Fd is the damping force at base of the structure and F is applied force at base of column due to ground acceleration (ie. F = -MF üg , where, MF is the base mass and üg is the ground acceleration). Fbs is the horizontal force due to friction pendulum system. It is equal to the product of the equivalent spring stiffness, kr, and the sliding displacement. It is to be noted that the relative acceleration and velocity at base is equal to zero when the system is in non sliding phase. The frictional resistance, Fs is obtained using the equation Fs = µW where µ is the coefficient of friction of the sliding material and W is the load on each column in contact with the bearing. Results and discussions

M1 M2 M1 M1 M1 M2 M2

M2

M2

M1
M1 M1 M1 M3 M3 M4 M2 M2

M1 = 3.0 kN.sec2/m2 M2 = 2.0 kN/sec2/m2 M3 = 7.5 kN/sec2/m2 M4 = 5.0 kN/sec2/m2 4m column size = 0.6 m x 0.6 m beam size = 0.3 m x 0.6 m modulus of elasticity, E = 2x107 kN/m2 damping ratio = 5 %

M2

M4

Figure 1. Four story symmetrical space frame structure considered for the study

A space frame structure resting on sliding type of bearing with friction pendulum system shown in figure 1 is analysed. The various geometric and material parameters considered for the study are tabulated as shown in figure 1. The natural frequency of the structure is equal to 0.5 seconds (ωn = 12.56 rad/sec)., The structure is subjected to an ground acceleration due to Kobe earthquake and the relative displacement at base and base shear at various time interval are obtained. Figure 2 shows the variation of base shear and sliding displacement (relative displacement at base with respect to ground) with time for a structure resting on sliding type of bearing with friction pendulum system. The coefficient of friction of base material is equal to 0.05 and radius of the friction pendulum system is equal to 1.0 m. (period of isolation
Organized by Department of Civil Engineering Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal – 576 104, Karnataka, India

National Conference on Recent Developments In Civil Engineering – 2011 (RDCE 2011)
13 - 14 January, 2011

system Tb = 2 rad/sec). The base shear and bending moment obtained from the analysis of a structure fixed at base and for a structure isolated at base are shown in the figure. It can be observed from the figure that the base shear of the isolated structure is considerably less than the base shear of the structure fixed at base. The relative displacement of the structure at base is also within the limit. The residual displacement (displacement at the end of earthquake) of the isolated structure is almost equal to zero. Ie. the structure resting on sliding bearing with friction pendulum system comes back to its original position at the end of earthquake.

400 300 Bas e s haer (kN) 200 100 0 ‐100 ‐200 ‐300 ‐400 0 2 4 6 8 Time (s ec ) 10 12 14 16 FPS fix ed

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 ‐50 ‐100 ‐150 ‐200 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (s ec ) 12 14 16 18 20

s liding dis plac ement (mm)

Figure 2. Response of a isolated structure for Kobe earthquake

Summary and Conclusions A space frame structure resting on sliding type of bearing with friction pendulum system subjected to Kobe earthquake is analysed. The response of the structure isolated at base with friction pendulum system is compared with the structure fixed at base. Based on the analysis it is concluded that the response of the structure isolated at base is considerably less than the response of the structure fixed at base. Also, by providing the friction pendulum system as restoring force device, the displacement of the structure reduces and the structure comes back to its original position after the end of earth quake without transmitting additional forces to the structure.

Organized by Department of Civil Engineering Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal – 576 104, Karnataka, India

National Conference on Recent Developments In Civil Engineering – 2011 (RDCE 2011)
13 - 14 January, 2011

REFERENCES 1. Bhasker, P. and Jangid, R.S., “Experimental study of base – isolated structures”, Journal of earthquake Technology, ISET, vol. 38, No. 1, 2001, pp. 1-15 2. Chalhoub M.S. and Kelly J.M. “ Sliders and tension controlled reinforced bearings combined for earthquake isolation system”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 19, 1990, pp. 333 – 358. 3. Jangid, R.S. and Londhe, Y.B. “Effectiveness of elliptical rolling rods for base isolation,” Journal of structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol 124, 1998, pp 469 – 472. 4. Jangid, R.S. “Stochastic seismic response of structures isolated by rolling rods”, Engineering structures, Vol. 22, 2000, pp 937 – 946 5. Paz, M. “Structural Dynamics - Theory and Computation”, 1991, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York 6. Vafai, A. Hamidi, M. and Ahmadi. “Numerical modeling of MDOF structures with sliding supports using rigid – plastic link”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 30, 2001, pp 27 – 42 7. Yang, Y. B. Lee, T.Y and Tsai, I .C. “Response of multi - degree – of – freedom structures with sliding supports”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol 19, 1990, pp 739 - 752. 8. Zayas, V.A., Low, S.S. and Mahin, S.A. “A simple pendulum technique for achieving seismic isolation”, Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 6, 1990, pp 317 – 333.

Organized by Department of Civil Engineering Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal – 576 104, Karnataka, India

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