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The administrative machinery of the Mughuls, which functioned throughout the Mughul’s rule, was introduced by Akbar and that is what, we mean Akbar’s Administration. Akbar was not only a brave soldier, a successful leader and a great religious reformer but also a great administrator. He introduced various reforms in all the branches of the administration, whether central, provincial, revenue, military or judicial.
Gate of Akbar's 1795
mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra,
Central Administration: Akbar was the overall in-charge of the central government. All the executive, judicial and legislative powers of the state were combined in him. There were no limitations on his despotism and his word was law. But Akbar had always the welfare of his people in his mind and so his was a benevolent despotism. He himself supervised all the branches of his administration and worked hard to discharge his manifold duties. He would hold an open court, listen to the complaints of his subjects and try to pacify them. Provincial Administration: Akbar divided his vast empire into fifteen provinces. He enjoyed vast powers and was in-charge of the provincial military, police, judiciary and the executive. The provincialDiwan was in-charge of the provincial finance and all bills of payments were signed by him. The Bakshi looked after the management of the provincial army. The Sadar was in-charge of the judicial charity department. The Qazi was in-charge of the judicial department of his province. He supervised the work of Qazis in the districts and towns. The Kotwal was the supreme administrator of all the ‘thanas’ of the province and was responsible for the maintenance of law and order in all the cities. The Mir Bahr was in-charge of customs and taxation department. The Waqa-i-Nawis was in charge of the secret service of the province. Military Administration: Akbar paid much attention towards the organization, equipment and discipline of the army. For efficient military administration he introduced a new system known as the Mansabdari System. The Mansabdars had to maintain soldiers according to his grade There were thirty three grades of these Mansabdars who maintained soldiers ranging from 10 to 10,000. They were paid salaries in cash and the system of assignments of lands was discouraged. They were directly under the charge of the emperor and were promoted, degrade or dismissat his will. He also revived the practice of taking the descriptive rolls of the soldiers and branding the horses. A large number of troops were, no doubt, supplied by these Mansabdars but Akbar had maintained a standing army of his own. The Mughul army consisted of infantry, cavalry,
revenue was calculated as one-third of the average produce of the previous ten years.artillery. Social Reforms: Akbar had the welfare of his people always in his mind. . In 1563. Child marriage was discouraged and female-infanticide was forbidden. A cultivated area where crops grew well was measured and taxed through fixed rates based on the area's crop and productivity. However. In 1564. Akbar changed to a decentralized system of annual assessment. was abolished. but Islamic law continued to function where the parties involved were Muslims. Taxation Akbar set about reforming the administration of his empire's land revenue by adopting a system that had been used by Sher Shah Suri. Jaziya. Remission was given to peasants when the harvest failed during times of flood or drought. Under the new system. and grouping areas with similar productivity into assessment circles. which were often higher than those in the countryside. Judicial Administration or Judicial Reforms: Akbar introduced various reforms in the administration of justice. This system was later refined. and the structure of the revenue administration was set out by the latter in a detailed memorandum submitted to the emperor in 1582-83. Akbar tried to stop the practice of Sati. which was a great burden on the Hindus. But now. taking into account local prices. to be replaced by a system called the dahsala. Capital punishment was given only in extreme cases and that too by the emperor alone. Widow-marriage was encouraged. a tax which was imposed on nonMuslims. The king was the highest court of appeal. for the first time. but this resulted in corruption among local officials and was abandoned in 1580. and navy. who also served as a revenue officer under Sher Shah Suri. to be paid to the state in cash. the Pilgrim Tax. Before him almost all the cases were decided according to the Islamic law. was also abolished. elephants. The cavalry was the most important wing of the army and special attention was paid towards its organization and equipment. From the above account it is quite clear that Akbar was a great administrator and the administrative machinery that he set up continued to function throughout the Mughul period. Akbar's dahsala system is credited to Raja Todar Mal. this placed hardship on the peasantry because tax rates were fixed on the basis of prices prevailing in the imperial court. He had taken several measures to improve the general condition of his subjects. Hindu law was administered in deciding the cases where the parties Hindus.
An orthodox Muslim at the outset. . resulting in the scope of the discussions broadening and extending even into areas such as the validity of the Quran and the nature of God. who sought to discredit Akbar by circulating rumours of his desire to forsake Islam. Din-i-Ilahi Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sik Akbar was deeply interested in religious and philosophical matters. appointing to his court several talented people with liberal ideas. he built a hall called the Ibadat Khana at Fatehpur Sikri. discussions and regulations on religious matters even caused some of his brilliant courtiers like Qutb-ud-din Khan Koka and Shahbaz Khan Kamboh to criticize the emperor in the court. and moved away from orthodoxy. decisions. to which he invited theologians. initially restricted to Muslims. Faizi and Birbal. In 1575. Akbar opened the Ibadat Khana to people of all religions as well as atheists. I'm familiar with the basic philosophies and beliefs of the world's major religions. were acrimonious and resulted in the participants shouting at and abusing each other. despite not being religious myself. Upset by this.. and also with many minor faiths. mystics and selected courtiers renowned for their intellectual achievements and discussed matters of spirituality with them These discussions. This shocked the orthodox theologians. he later came to be influenced by Sufi mysticism that was being preached in the country at that time. decrees. Akbar's choices. The Divine Faith of Akbar the Great Religion is one of my interests. including Abul Fazl.
. but after a series of debates turned violent.. and made a significant contribution to Akbar's later inclination towards religious tolerance Relation with Jains Akbar regularly held discussions with Jain scholars and was also greatly impacted by some of their teachings. and influenced Akbar's policy of tolerance in matters of religion. a number of rulers in various parts of the country adopted a more liberal policy of religious tolerance.One belief system I wasn't aware of until recently was the Divine Faith of Akbar the Great. That's mainly because it never took off. Initially only Islamic leaders participated. or the "Divine Faith". Founded in 1581. After discussions between all these people had mysteriously failed to resolve all religious differences once and for all. were largely above sectarian prejudices. Akbar made efforts to hear from holy men of all religions. In addition to Muslims and Hindus. Kabir and Chaitanya. His early days were spent in the backdrop of an atmosphere in which liberal sentiments were encouraged and religious narrow-mindednness was frowned upon. Zoroastrians and Jains. it probably never had more than a dozen adherents. his childhood tutors. His first encounter with Jain rituals was when he saw a Jain shravika named Champa's procession after a six month long fast. other faiths were encouraged to participate. Further. and invited religious leaders to debate each other there. attempting to foster communal harmony between Hindus and Muslims. Religious policy Akbar. the verses of the Persian poet Hafez which advocated human sympathy and a liberal outlook. It must surely rank as one of the least successful religions ever founded. as well as his mother and other members of his family. Presumably inspired by being exposed to two religions as different as Islam and Hinduism. Jews. he also spoke with Jesuit missionaries. by encouraging debates between different religious authorities to try and resolve the differences. He built a meeting house called the Ibadat Khana. as well as the Timurid ethos of religious tolerance that persisted in the polity right from the times of Timur to Humayun. From the 15th century. Akbar decided to resolve the whole 'religion' issue once and for all. he . who included two Irani Shias. Akbar thought inviting more religions to participate in a debate would result in increased civility is a mystery. Impressed by her power and devotion. Why. Akbar's religion was known as Din-i-Ilahi. and died with its founder. are believed to have been Sunni Hanafi Muslims. exactly. Akbar came to the obvious conclusion: he'd have to found his own religion. it was a synthesis of practically every religion Akbar had been exposed to.These sentiments were earlier encouraged by the teachings of popular saints like Guru Nanak. Fittingly for such a generically named religion.
he ordered the exhumation of Mir Murtaza Sharifi Shirazi . . he adopted a policy of tolerance towards the Shias and declared a prohibition on Shia-Sunni conflict. Relations with Shias and Islamic clergy During the early part of his reign. during the latter half of his reign. the Mughal Emperor Akbar famously referred to himself as: Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith. Akbar adopted an attitude of suppression towards Muslim sects that were condemned by the orthodoxy as heretical. the declaration reads: "There is none worthy of worship but God. and the empire remained neutral in matters of internal sectarian conflict. In the year 1578. Acharya accepted the invitation and began his march towards the Mughal capital from Gujarat. as Akbar increasingly came under the influence of pantheistic Sufi mysticism from the early 1570s. which continued to persist till the early 1570s He suppressed Mahdavism in 1573 during his campaign in Gujarat." . in favor of a new concept of Islam transcending the limits of religion Consequently. it caused a great shift in his outlook and culminated in his shift from orthodox Islam as traditionally professed. in the course of which the Mahdavi leader Bandagi Miyan Shiek Mustafa was arrested and brought in chains to the court for debate and released after eighteen months However. arguing that a "heretic" could not be buried so close to the grave of a Sunni saint. on the advice of Shaikh Abdu'n Nabi.invited her guru or spiritual teacher AcharyaHiravijaya Suri to Fatehpur Sikri.a Shia buried in Delhi because of the grave's proximity to that of Amir Khusrau. In 1567. and Muhammad is the messenger of God. reflecting a restrictive attitude towards the Shia.
7th (B) Bloom Field Hall Sahiwal . M. Abdullah Mehmood Class.Topic History Project Name.
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