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Dartmouth Flying Club October 10, 2002 Andreas Bentz
Definition: Energy is the ability to do work. Energy cannot be created or destroyed. We can only change its form. A fluid in motion has (mainly) two forms of energy:
kinetic energy (velocity), potential energy (pressure).
The Venturi Tube and Bernoulli’s Principle kinetic energy (velocity) potential energy (pressure) velocity increases pressure decreases 4 .
8 relative low pressure upwash downwash 5 . that misunderstood force called lift. in fact.Lift: Wing Section Air flows toward the low pressure area above the wing: upwash and downwash.” Schiff p. “The reaction to downwash is. Newton’s third law of motion: to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Angle of Attack The angle of attack is the angle between the chord line and the average relative wind. Greater angle of attack creates more lift (up to a point). total lift 6 .
and perpendicular to the relative wind. This creates induced drag.Lift and Induced Drag Lift acts through the center of pressure. induced drag effective lift total lift 7 .
Almost all jet transports also have leading edge flaps. Some also increase the wing area (fowler flap).Got Lift? Flaps Flaps increase the wing’s camber. 8 .
for roll control in flight (flight spoilers).Too Much Lift? Spoilers Spoilers destroy lift: to slow down in flight (flight spoilers). to slow down on the ground (ground spoilers). 9 .
.Basic Aerodynamics Side Effects There is no such things as a free lunch.
400 1. lift/drag best glide induced drag parasite drag resistance total drag 50 100 150 200 Indicated Airspeed (knots) 11 .200 1.000 800 600 400 Drag (lbs) 200 max.Drag: Total Drag (Power Required) Curve 1.
“winglets”. drooped wings. tip tanks. 12 .Wingtip Vortices and Wake Turbulence relative low pressure Wingtip vortices create drag: “ground effect”.
Dynamic Lateral .Basic Aerodynamics Stability Longitudinal: Static.
lift increases. angle of attack increases. aircraft slows.Longitudinal Stability down lift lift Static stability (tendency to return after control input) up elevator increases downward lift. less downward lift. drag increases. angle of attack decreases (nose drops). 14 weight .
Aside: CG and Center of Pressure Location down lift lift Aft CG increases speed: the tail creates less lift (less drag). the tail creates less down force (wings need to create less lift). This also decreases stall speed (lower angle of attack req’d). 15 weight .
the airplane sideslips.g. by turbulence).Lateral Stability If one wing is lowered (e. This raises the lower wing. The lower wing has a greater angle of attack (more lift). 16 .
The airplane turns to the right. in turbulence). the vertical stabilizer creates lift toward the left.Directional Stability As the airplane turns to the left (e. 17 .g.
Reverse Command Power is work performed by the engine. Drag (thrust required) Suppose airspeed decreases. (Thrust is force created by the propeller.200 max.Speed Stability v. endurance 1.400 100% 1. 75% of max.000 800 50% 600 400 200 ca. lift/drag “Front Side”: Power is greater than required: aircraft accelerates.) Percent horsepower Power curve: 1. “Back Side”: Power is less than required: aircraft decelerates. 50 100 150 200 Indicated Airspeed (knots) 18 .
Basic Aerodynamics Turning Flight Differential Lift .
Turning Flight More lift on one wing than on the other results in roll around the longitudinal axis (bank). 20 . Lowering the aileron on one wing results in greater lift and raises that wing.
The horizontal component of lift makes the airplane turn. more total lift needs to be created: higher angle of attack req’d) Centrifugal Force 21 . Lowering the aileron on one wing results in greater lift and raises that wing. cont’d More lift on one wing than on the other results in roll around the longitudinal axis (bank). (To maintain altitude.Turning Flight. This tilts lift sideways.
22 . Adverse yaw is corrected by rudder application. more lift on one wing creates more induced drag on that wing: adverse yaw.Adverse Yaw and Frise Aileron However. Frise ailerons counter adverse yaw: They create parasite drag on the up aileron.
Basic Aerodynamics Stalls Too Much of a Good Thing .
Stalls A wing section stalls when its critical angle of attack is exceeded. Indicated stall speed depends on how much lift the wing needs to create (weight. G loading). 24 .
The nose drops: the stall “breaks”. This is the “buffet”. there will not be enough airflow over the horizontal stabilizer. cont’d The disturbed airflow over the wing hits the tail and the horizontal stabilizer. and it loses its downward lift. lift weight 25 . Eventually.Stalls.
Stalls. Why? Where do you want the wing to stall last? Ailerons 26 . cont’d The whole wing never stalls at the same time. Power-on stalls in most light singles allow the wing to stall more fully.
Stalls.) Stalls in a twin with one engine inoperative lead to roll or spin entry: Propeller slipstream delays stall. 27 . cont’d (Stalls with one Engine Inop.
Stalls. 28 . cont’d Stall strips make the wing stall sooner.
29 . Twist in the wing makes the wing root stall first: The angle of incidence decreases away from the wing root.Stalls. cont’d Definition: The angle of incidence is the acute angle between the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the chord line of the wing.
Delays stall near the wingtip (aileron effectiveness). Slots are similar but fixed. 30 . near the wingtips.Preventing Stalls Slats direct airflow over the wing to avoid boundary layer separation.
the horizontal component of lift equals centrifugal force (constant radius.Stalls and Turns Greater angles of bank require greater lift so that: the vertical component of lift equals weight (to maintain altitude). turn) 31 . coordinated.
Stalls and Turns. Stall speed increases accordingly. cont’d Load factor (multiple of aircraft gross weight the wings support) increases with bank angle. limit load factor: acrobatic 6G Normal 3.8G 32 .
rate of turn decreases. 33 . at 500 Kts the airplane would have to bank more than 50 degrees. a standard rate turn is 1. load factor increases. Uncomfortable (unsafe?) load factor. But: as airspeed increases. In order to make a 3 degree per second turn.Turns As bank increases.5 degrees per second. This is why for jet-powered airplanes.
Basic Aerodynamics High and Fast In the Flight Levels .
a certain Mach number can be achieved at a lower indicated airspeed. At higher altitudes. Temperature decreases with altitude. the same indicated airspeed leads to higher Mach numbers. Speed of sound decreases with temperature.High and Fast Mach is the ratio of the true airspeed to the speed of sound. The indicated stall speed increases with altitude (compressibility). Conversely: at higher altitudes. 35 .
a shockwave forms. Where the airflow slows to subsonic speeds.High and Fast. High-speed buffet. portions of the wing can induce supersonic airflow (critical Mach number Mcrit). shockwave forms boundary layer separates 36 . cont’d At high subsonic speeds. velocity increases velocity decreases. “Mach tuck”. “aileron snatch”. The shockwave causes boundary layer separation.
High and Fast. 37 . cont’d Vortex generators delay boundary layer separation.
38 coffin corner .High and Fast. indicated airspeed that results in critical Mcrit decreases. cont’d With altitude: indicated stall speed (low speed buffet) increases.
Press Schiff B (1985) The Proficient Pilot vol.References De Remer D (1992) Aircraft Systems for Pilots Casper: IAP FAA (1997) Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge AC61-23C Newcastle: ASA Lowery J (2001) Professional Pilot Ames: Iowa State Univ. 1 New York: Macmillan U. Navy (1965) Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators Newcastle: ASA 39 .S.
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