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Department of Mechanical Engineering
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Lecture Notes:
M. Ghadiri
September 2010
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Stress Analysis
Stress Analysis
Axial Loading: Normal Stress
Centric & Eccentric Loading
Shearing Stress
Shearing Stress
A
F
A
P
= =
ave
t
Single Shear
A
F
A
P
2
ave
= = t
Double Shear
d t
P
A
P
= =
b
o
• Corresponding average force
intensity is called the bearing
stress,
Bearing Stress in Connections
Kinds of Stress
Stress Analysis & Design Example
• Would like to determine the
stresses in the members and
connections of the structure
shown.
• From a statics analysis:
F
AB
= 40 kN (compression)
F
BC
= 50 kN (tension)
• Must consider maximum
normal stresses in AB and
BC, and the shearing stress
and bearing stress at each
pinned connection
Rod & Boom Normal Stresses
• The rod is in tension with an axial force of 50 kN.
• The boom is in compression with an axial force of 40
kN and average normal stress of –26.7 MPa.
• The minimum area sections at the boom ends are
unstressed since the boom is in compression.
( )( )
MPa 167
m 10 300
10 50
m 10 300 mm 25 mm 40 mm 20
2 6
3
,
2 6
=
×
×
= =
× = ÷ =
÷
÷
N
A
P
A
end BC
o
• At the flattened rod ends, the smallest crosssectional
area occurs at the pin centerline,
• At the rod center, the average normal stress in the
circular crosssection (A = 314x10
6
m
2
) is s
BC
= +159
MPa.
Pin Shearing Stresses
• The crosssectional area for pins at A, B,
and C,
2 6
2
2
m 10 491
2
mm 25
÷
× =

.

\

= = t t r A
• The pin at A is in double shear with a
total force equal to the force exerted by
the boom AB,
MPa 7 . 40
m 10 491
kN 20
2 6
,
=
×
= =
÷
A
P
ave A
t
Pin Shearing Stresses
• Divide the pin at B into sections to determine
the section with the largest shear force,
(largest) kN 25
kN 15
=
=
G
E
P
P
MPa 9 . 50
m 10 491
kN 25
2 6
,
=
×
= =
÷
A
P
G
ave B
t
• Evaluate the corresponding average
shearing stress,
Pin bearing Stresses
• To determine the bearing stress at A in the boom AB, we
have t = 30 mm and d = 25 mm,
( )( )
MPa 3 . 53
mm 25 mm 30
kN 40
= = =
td
P
b
o
• To determine the bearing stress at A in the bracket,
we have t = 2(25 mm) = 50 mm and d = 25 mm,
( )( )
MPa 0 . 32
mm 25 mm 50
kN 40
= = =
td
P
b
o
Stress in Two Force Members
• Axial forces on a two force member
result in only normal stresses on a
plane cut perpendicular to the member
axis.
• Transverse forces on bolts and
pins result in only shear stresses
on the plane perpendicular to bolt
or pin axis.
Stress on an Oblique Plane
u u sin cos P V P F = =
• Resolve P into components normal and
tangential to the oblique section,
u u
u
u
t
u
u
u
o
u
u
cos sin
cos
sin
cos
cos
cos
0
0
2
0
0
A
P
A
P
A
V
A
P
A
P
A
F
= = =
= = =
• The average normal and shear stresses on
the oblique plane are
Maximum Stresses
u u t u o cos sin cos
0
2
0
A
P
A
P
= =
• Normal and shearing stresses on an oblique
plane
• The maximum normal stress occurs when the
reference plane is perpendicular to the member
axis,
0
0
m
= ' = t o
A
P
• The maximum shear stress occurs for a plane at
+ 45
o
with respect to the axis,
o t ' = = =
0 0
2
45 cos 45 sin
A
P
A
P
m
Stress Under General Loadings
A
V
A
V
A
F
x
z
A
xz
x
y
A
xy
x
A
x
A
A
=
A
A
=
A
A
=
÷ A ÷ A
÷ A
lim lim
lim
0 0
0
t t
o
• The distribution of internal stress
components may be defined as,
State of Stress
• The combination of forces generated by the
stresses must satisfy the conditions for
equilibrium:
0
0
= = =
= = =
¿ ¿ ¿
¿ ¿ ¿
z y x
z y x
M M M
F F F
( ) ( )
yx xy
yx xy z
a A a A M
t t
t t
=
A ÷ A = =
¿
0
zy yz zy yz
t t t t = = and similarly,
• Consider the moments about the z axis:
• It follows that only 6 components of stress are
required to define the complete state of stress
Stress & Strain: Axial Loading
strain normal
stress
= =
= =
L
A
P
o
c
o
L
A
P
A
P
o
c
o
=
= =
2
2
L L
A
P
o o
c
o
= =
=
2
2
Normal Strain
StressStrain Test
StressStrain Diagram: Ductile Materials
StressStrain Diagram: Brittle Materials
StressStrain Diagram
Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity
• Below the yield stress
Elasticity of Modulus
or Modulus Youngs =
=
E
Ec o
• Strength is affected by alloying,
heat treating, and manufacturing
process but stiffness (Modulus of
Elasticity) is not.
Impact Testing
Toughness is usually measured by an impact test.
Charpy test is most commonly used in the US.
Release
Height
Izod
Test
Height after
Impact
Pendulum
Notched
Specimen
Impact
Charpy
Test
Deformation and Fracture Section
Deformation and Fracture Section
Deformation and Fracture Section
Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior
• If the strain disappears when the
stress is removed, the material is
said to behave elastically.
• The largest stress for which this
occurs is called the elastic limit.
• When the strain does not return
to zero after the stress is
removed, the material is said to
behave plastically.
Loop Hysteresis
Bauschinger Effect
Fatigue
• Fatigue properties are shown on
SN diagrams.
• A member may fail due to fatigue
at stress levels significantly below
the ultimate strength if subjected
to many loading cycles.
• When the stress is reduced below
the endurance limit, fatigue
failures do not occur for any
number of cycles.
Fatigue
Deformations Under Axial Loading
AE
P
E
E = = =
o
c c o
• From Hooke’s Law:
• From the definition of strain:
L
o
c =
• Equating and solving for the deformation,
AE
PL
= o
• With variations in loading, crosssection or
material properties,
¿
=
i i i
i i
E A
L P
o
Example 1
Deformations Under Axial Loading
in. 618 . 0 in. 07 . 1
psi 10 29
6
= =
× =
÷
d D
E
Determine the deformation of
the steel rod shown under the
given loads.
Deformations Under Axial Loading
SOLUTION:
• Divide the rod into three
components:
Static Indeterminacy
Example 2
Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel
bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at
both supports before the loads are applied.
Static Indeterminacy
SOLUTION:
• Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied
loads with the redundant constraint released,
E E A
L P
L L L L
A A A A
P P P P
i i i
i i
9
L
4 3 2 1
2 6
4 3
2 6
2 1
3
4
3
3 2 1
10 125 . 1
m 150 . 0
m 10 250 m 10 400
N 10 900 N 10 600 0
×
= ¿ =
= = = =
× = = × = =
× = × = = =
÷ ÷
o
Static Indeterminacy
• Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant
constraint,
( )
¿
×
÷ = =
= =
× = × =
÷ = =
÷ ÷
i
B
i i
i i
R
B
E
R
E A
L P
ä
L L
A A
R P P
3
2 1
2 6
2
2 6
1
2 1
10 95 . 1
m 300 . 0
m 10 250 m 10 400
Static Indeterminacy
( )
kN 577 N 10 577
0
10 95 . 1 10 125 . 1
0
3
3 9
= × =
=
×
÷
×
=
= + =
B
B
R L
R
E
R
E
o
o o o
kN 323
kN 577 kN 600 kN 300 0
=
¿ + ÷ ÷ = =
A
A y
R
R F
kN 577
kN 323
=
=
B
A
R
R
Thermal Stresses
( )
coef. expansion thermal =
= A =
o
o o o
AE
PL
L T
P T
• Treat the additional support as redundant and apply
the principle of superposition.
( ) 0
0
= + A
= + =
AE
PL
L T
P T
o
o o o
• The thermal deformation and the deformation from
the redundant support must be compatible.
( )
( ) T E
A
P
T AE P
P T
A ÷ = =
A ÷ =
= + =
o o
o
o o o 0
Poisson’s Ratio
• For a slender bar subjected to axial loading:
0 = = =
z y
x
x
E
o o
o
c
• The elongation in the xdirection is
accompanied by a contraction in the other
directions. Assuming that the material is
isotropic (no directional dependence),
0 = =
z y
c c
• Poisson’s ratio is defined as
x
z
x
y
c
c
c
c
v ÷ = ÷ = =
strain axial
strain lateral
Generalized Hooke’s Law
E E E
E E E
E E E
z
y
x
z
z
y
x
y
z
y
x
x
o
vo
vo
c
vo
o
vo
c
vo
vo
o
c
+ ÷ ÷ =
÷ + ÷ =
÷ ÷ + =
• For an element subjected to multiaxial loading,
the normal strain components resulting from the
stress components may be determined from the
principle of superposition. This requires:
1) strain is linearly related to stress
2) deformations are small
Dilatation: Bulk Modulus
• Relative to the unstressed state, the change in volume is
( )( )( )    
( )
e) unit volum per in volume (change dilatation
2 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
=
+ +
÷
=
+ + =
+ + + ÷ = + + + ÷ =
z y x
z y x
z y x z y x
E
e
o o o
v
c c c
c c c c c c
• For element subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure,
( )
( )
modulus bulk
2 1 3
2 1 3
=
÷
=
÷ =
÷
÷ =
v
v
E
k
k
p
E
p e
• Subjected to uniform pressure, dilatation must be
negative, therefore
2
1
0 < <v
Shearing Strain
• A cubic element subjected to a shear stress will
deform into a rhomboid. The corresponding shear
strain is quantified in terms of the change in angle
between the sides,
( )
xy xy
f ¸ t =
• A plot of shear stress vs. shear strain is similar the
previous plots of normal stress vs. normal strain
except that the strength values are approximately
half. For small strains,
zx zx yz yz xy xy
G G G ¸ t ¸ t ¸ t = = =
where G is the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus.
Shearing Strain
Example 3
A rectangular block of material with
modulus of rigidity G = 90 ksi is
bonded to two rigid horizontal plates.
The lower plate is fixed, while the
upper plate is subjected to a horizontal
force P. Knowing that the upper plate
moves through 0.04 in. under the action
of the force, determine a) the average
shearing strain in the material, and b)
the force P exerted on the plate.
Shearing Strain
SOLUTION:
• Determine the average angular deformation
or shearing strain of the block.
rad 020 . 0
in. 2
in. 04 . 0
tan = = ~
xy xy xy
¸ ¸ ¸
• Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress and
strain to find the corresponding shearing
stress.
( )( ) psi 1800 rad 020 . 0 psi 10 90
3
= × = =
xy xy
G¸ t
• Use the definition of shearing stress to find
the force P.
( )( )( ) lb 10 36 in. 5 . 2 in. 8 psi 1800
3
× = = = A P
xy
t
kips 0 . 36 = P
Relation Among E, n, and G
• An axially loaded slender bar will
elongate in the axial direction and
contract in the transverse directions.
• An initially cubic element oriented as in
top figure will deform into a rectangular
parallelepiped. The axial load produces a
normal strain.
• If the cubic element is oriented as in the
bottom figure, it will deform into a
rhombus. Axial load also results in a shear
strain.
( ) v + = 1
2G
E
• Components of normal and shear strain are
related,
Relation Among E, n, and G
Example 4
A circle of diameter d = 9 in. is scribed on an
unstressed aluminum plate of thickness t = 3/4
in. Forces acting in the plane of the plate later
cause normal stresses s
x
= 12 ksi and s
z
= 20
ksi.
For E = 10x10
6
psi and n = 1/3, determine the
change in:
a) the length of diameter AB,
b) the length of diameter CD,
c) the thickness of the plate, and
d) the volume of the plate.
Relation Among E, n, and G
SOLUTION:
• Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to
find the three components of normal
strain.
( ) ( )
in./in. 10 600 . 1
in./in. 10 067 . 1
in./in. 10 533 . 0
ksi 20
3
1
0 ksi 12
psi 10 10
1
3
3
3
6
÷
÷
÷
× + =
+ ÷ ÷ =
× ÷ =
÷ + ÷ =
× + =
(
¸
(
¸
÷ ÷
×
=
÷ ÷ + =
E E E
E E E
E E E
z
y
x
z
z
y
x
y
z
y
x
x
o
vo
vo
c
vo
o
vo
c
vo
vo
o
c
• Evaluate the deformation components.
( )( ) in. 9 in./in. 10 533 . 0
3 ÷
× + = = d
x A B
c o
( )( ) in. 9 in./in. 10 600 . 1
3 ÷
× + = = d
z D C
c o
( )( ) in. 75 . 0 in./in. 10 067 . 1
3 ÷
× ÷ = = t
y t
c o
in. 10 8 . 4
3 ÷
× + =
A B
o
in. 10 4 . 14
3 ÷
× + =
D C
o
in. 10 800 . 0
3 ÷
× ÷ =
t
o
• Find the change in volume
( )
3 3
3 3 3
in 75 . 0 15 15 10 067 . 1
/in in 10 067 . 1
× × × = = A
× = + + =
÷
÷
eV V
e
z y x
c c c
3
in 187 . 0 + = AV
Stress & Strain Distribution under Axial Loding
SaintVenant’s Principle
Stress Concentration
StressConcentration Factor
Stress Concentration
StressConcentration Factor
Chapter 3 Torsion
Automotive power train
Jet engine of plane
Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts
• Interested in stresses and strains of
circular shafts subjected to twisting twisting
couples couples or torques torques.
• Turbine exerts torque T on the shaft.
• Shaft transmits the torque to the
generator.
• Generator creates an equal and opposite
torque T’.
Stresses in a Shaft
( )
} }
= = dA dF T t µ µ
• Net of the internal shearing stresses internal shearing stresses is an internal internal
torque torque, equal and opposite to the applied torque,
• Although the net torque due to the shearing stresses
is known, the distribution of the stresses is not.
• Distribution of shearing stresses is statically
indeterminate – must consider shaft deformations.
• Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads, the
distribution of shearing stresses due to torsional loads
can not can not be assumed uniform uniform.
Axial Shear Components
• Torque applied to shaft produces shearing shearing
stresses stresses on the faces perpendicular perpendicular to the axis.
• Conditions of equilibrium require the existence of
equal stresses on the faces of the two planes
containing the axis of the shaft.
• The existence of the axial shear components is
demonstrated by considering a shaft made up of
axial slats.
• The slats slide with respect to each other when
equal and opposite torques are applied to the ends
of the shaft.
Shaft Deformations
• From observation, the angle of twist angle of twist of the shaft is
proportional to the applied torque and to the shaft
length.
L
T
·
·


• When subjected to torsion, every crosssection of a
circular shaft remains plane remains plane and undistorted undistorted.
• Crosssections for hollow and solid circular shafts
remain plain and undistorted because a circular shaft
is axisymmetric.
• Crosssections of noncircular (nonaxisymmetric)
shafts are distorted when subjected to torsion.
Shearing Strain
• Since the ends of the element remain planar, the
shear strain is equal to angle of twist.
L
L
µ
¸ µ ¸ = = or
• It follows that
• Shear strain is proportional to twist and radius
max max
and ¸
µ
¸

¸
c L
c
= =
Stresses in Elastic Range
• Multiplying the previous equation by the shear
modulus,
max
¸
µ
¸ G
c
G =
max
t
µ
t
c
=
From Hooke’s Law, ¸ t G =
, so
The shearing stress varies The shearing stress varies linearly linearly with the radial with the radial
position in the section position in the section.
J
c
dA
c
dA T
max 2 max
t
µ
t
µt
}
=
}
= =
• Recall that the sum of the moments from the
internal stress distribution is equal to the torque
on the shaft at the section,
max 2
max
min 1
; and
Tc T c
J J c
t µ
t t
t
= = =
• The results are known as the elastic torsion elastic torsion
formulas formulas,
( )
4
1
4
2
2
1
c c J ÷ = t
4
2
1
c J t =
Example 1:
Shearing Strain
Hollow Cylindrical Steel Shaft
What is the largest torque that can be
applied to the shaft if the shearing
stress is not exceed 120 Mpa?
What is the corresponding minimum
value of the shearing stress in the
shaft?
Normal Stresses
• Elements with faces parallel and perpendicular to
the shaft axis are subjected to shear stresses only.
Normal stresses, shearing stresses or a combination
of both may be found for other orientations.
( )
max
0
0 max
45
0 max 0 max
2
2
2 45 cos 2
o
t
t
o
t t
= = =
= ° =
A
A
A
F
A A F
• Consider an element at 45
o
to the shaft axis,
• Element a is in pure shear pure shear.
• Element c is subjected to a tensile stress on two
faces and compressive stress on the other two.
• Note that all stresses for elements a and c have the
same magnitude
Torsional Failure Modes
•• Ductile Ductile materials generally fail in shear.
Brittle Brittle materials are weaker in tension
than shear.
• When subjected to torsion, a ductile
specimen breaks along a plane of
maximum shear, i.e., a plane
perpendicular to the shaft axis.
• When subjected to torsion, a brittle
specimen breaks along planes
perpendicular to the direction in which
tension is a maximum, i.e., along
surfaces at 45o to the shaft axis.
Example 2:
Shearing Strain
Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer
diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm,
respectively. Shafts AB and CD are solid of
diameter d. For the loading shown, determine
(a) the minimum and maximum shearing
stress in shaft BC, (b) the required diameter d
of shafts AB and CD if the allowable shearing
stress in these shafts is 65 MPa.
Shearing Strain
( )
CD AB
AB x
T T
T M
= · =
÷ · = =
¿
m kN 6
m kN 6 0
( ) ( )
m kN 20
m kN 14 m kN 6 0
· =
÷ · + · = =
¿
BC
BC x
T
T M
SOLUTION:
• Cut sections through shafts AB and BC and
perform static equilibrium analysis to find
torque loadings.
Shearing Strain
• Apply elastic torsion formulas to find
minimum and maximum stress on
shaft BC.
( ) ( ) ( )  
4 6
4 4 4
1
4
2
m 10 92 . 13
045 . 0 060 . 0
2 2
÷
× =
÷ = ÷ =
t t
c c J
( )( )
MPa 2 . 86
m 10 92 . 13
m 060 . 0 m kN 20
4 6
2
2 max
=
×
·
= = =
÷
J
c T
BC
t t
MPa 7 . 64
mm 60
mm 45
MPa 2 . 86
min
min
2
1
max
min
=
= =
t
t
t
t
c
c
MPa 7 . 64
MPa 2 . 86
min
max
=
=
t
t
• Given allowable shearing stress and applied
torque, invert the elastic torsion formula to
find the required diameter.
m 10 9 . 38
m kN 6
65
3
3
2
4
2
max
÷
× =
·
= = =
c
c
MPa
c
Tc
J
Tc
t t
t
mm 8 . 77 2 = = c d
Angle of Twist in Elastic Range
• Recall that the angle of twist and maximum
shearing strain are related,
L
c
¸ =
max
• In the elastic range, the shearing strain and
shearing stress are related by Hooke’s Law,
JG
Tc
G
= =
max
max
t
¸
• Equating the expressions for shearing strain and
solving for the angle of twist,
JG
TL
= 
Angle of Twist in Elastic Range
• If the torsional loading or shaft crosssection
changes along the length, the angle of rotation angle of rotation is
found as the sum of segment rotations
¿ =
i i i
i i
G J
L T

• If the shaft crosssection changes along the
length, the angle of rotation angle of rotation is found as following
0
L
T dx
J G
 =
}
Angle of Twist in Elastic Range
A A B B
r r   =
2
AD
T T =
Determining the Modulus of Rigidity
Torsion Testing Machine
Statically Indeterminate Shafts
• From a freebody analysis of the shaft,
which is not sufficient to find the end torques.
The problem is statically indeterminate.
ft lb 90 · = +
B A
T T
• Given the shaft dimensions and the applied
torque, we would like to find the torque reactions
at A and B.
A B
B A
T
J L
J L
T
G J
L T
G J
L T
1 2
2 1
2
2
1
1
2 1
0 = = ÷ = + =   
• Divide the shaft into two components which
must have compatible deformations,
ft lb 90
1 2
2 1
· = +
A A
T
J L
J L
T
• Substitute into the original equilibrium equation,
Stress Concentrations in Circular Shafts
Stress Concentrations in Circular Shafts
Example 3:
Stepped Shaft
Stress Concentrations in Circular Shafts
Solution:
Torsion of Noncircular Members
Torsion of Noncircular Members
Torsion of Noncircular Members
Several ThinWalled Members
ThinWalled Hollow Shafts
ThinWalled Hollow Shafts
Stress Analysis
Stress Analysis
Axial Loading: Normal Stress
Centric & Eccentric Loading .
Shearing Stress .
Shearing Stress Single Shear Double Shear ave P F A A ave P F A 2A .
Bearing Stress in Connections • Corresponding average force intensity is called the bearing stress. b P P A td .
Kinds of Stress .
Stress Analysis & Design Example • Would like to determine the stresses in the members and connections of the structure shown. and the shearing stress and bearing stress at each pinned connection . • From a statics analysis: FAB = 40 kN (compression) FBC = 50 kN (tension) • Must consider maximum normal stresses in AB and BC.
• At the flattened rod ends. • The minimum area sections at the boom ends are unstressed since the boom is in compression. the smallest crosssectional area occurs at the pin centerline.7 MPa.end 167 MPa A 300 10 6 m 2 • The boom is in compression with an axial force of 40 kN and average normal stress of –26. the average normal stress in the circular crosssection (A = 314x106m2) is sBC = +159 MPa. • At the rod center. .Rod & Boom Normal Stresses • The rod is in tension with an axial force of 50 kN. A 20 mm 40 mm 25 mm 300 10 6 m 2 P 50 103 N BC .
25 mm 6 2 A r 491 10 m 2 2 2 • The pin at A is in double shear with a total force equal to the force exerted by the boom AB.7 MPa A 49110 6 m 2 A. B. and C. ave . P 20 kN 40.Pin Shearing Stresses • The crosssectional area for pins at A.
B. ave PG 25 kN 50.Pin Shearing Stresses • Divide the pin at B into sections to determine the section with the largest shear force. PE 15 kN PG 25 kN (largest) • Evaluate the corresponding average shearing stress.9 MPa A 491 10 6 m 2 .
b P 40kN 53. b P 40kN 32.Pin bearing Stresses • To determine the bearing stress at A in the boom AB. we have t = 2(25 mm) = 50 mm and d = 25 mm.3MPa td 30mm25mm • To determine the bearing stress at A in the bracket.0 MPa td 50mm25mm . we have t = 30 mm and d = 25 mm.
.Stress in Two Force Members • Axial forces on a two force member result in only normal stresses on a plane cut perpendicular to the member axis. • Transverse forces on bolts and pins result in only shear stresses on the plane perpendicular to bolt or pin axis.
Stress on an Oblique Plane • Resolve P into components normal and tangential to the oblique section. F P cos V P sin • The average normal and shear stresses on the oblique plane are F P cos P cos 2 A A0 A0 cos V P sin P sin cos A0 A A0 cos .
m P A0 0 • The maximum shear stress occurs for a plane at + 45o with respect to the axis.Maximum Stresses • Normal and shearing stresses on an oblique plane P cos 2 A0 P sin cos A0 • The maximum normal stress occurs when the reference plane is perpendicular to the member axis. m P P sin 45 cos 45 A0 2 A0 .
Stress Under General Loadings • The distribution of internal stress components may be defined as. F x x lim A 0 A xy lim A 0 V yx A V zx xz lim A 0 A .
yz zy and yz zy • It follows that only 6 components of stress are required to define the complete state of stress .State of Stress • The combination of forces generated by the stresses must satisfy the conditions for equilibrium: Fx Fy Fz 0 Mx My Mz 0 • Consider the moments about the z axis: M z 0 xy Aa yx Aa xy yx similarly.
Stress & Strain: Axial Loading Normal Strain P stress A normal strain L 2P P 2A A L P A 2 2L L .
StressStrain Test .
.
StressStrain Diagram: Ductile Materials .
StressStrain Diagram: Brittle Materials .
StressStrain Diagram .
Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity • Below the yield stress E E Youngs Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity • Strength is affected by alloying. heat treating. . and manufacturing process but stiffness (Modulus of Elasticity) is not.
Impact Testing Toughness is usually measured by an impact test. Charpy test is most commonly used in the US. Charpy Test Impact Izod Test Pendulum Release Height Height after Impact Notched Specimen .
Deformation and Fracture Section .
Deformation and Fracture Section .
Deformation and Fracture Section .
the material is said to behave elastically. Plastic Behavior • If the strain disappears when the stress is removed. • When the strain does not return to zero after the stress is removed. • The largest stress for which this occurs is called the elastic limit.Elastic vs. the material is said to behave plastically. Loop Hysteresis .
Bauschinger Effect .
• When the stress is reduced below the endurance limit.Fatigue • Fatigue properties are shown on SN diagrams. • A member may fail due to fatigue at stress levels significantly below the ultimate strength if subjected to many loading cycles. . fatigue failures do not occur for any number of cycles.
Fatigue .
Deformations Under Axial Loading • From Hooke’s Law: E P E AE • From the definition of strain: L • Equating and solving for the deformation. PL i i i Ai Ei . crosssection or material properties. PL AE • With variations in loading.
07 in.Deformations Under Axial Loading Example 1 Determine the deformation of the steel rod shown under the given loads. E 29 10 6 psi D 1. d 0. .618 in.
Deformations Under Axial Loading SOLUTION: • Divide the rod into three components: .
. assuming a close fit at both supports before the loads are applied.Static Indeterminacy Example 2 Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel bar and loading shown.
Static Indeterminacy SOLUTION: • Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied loads with the redundant constraint released.125 109 L Ai Ei E i . P 0 P2 P3 600 103 N 1 A1 A2 400 10 6 m 2 P4 900 103 N A3 A4 250 10 6 m 2 L1 L2 L3 L4 0.150 m Pi Li 1.
Static Indeterminacy • Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant constraint.95 103 RB Pi Li äR Ai Ei E i A2 250 10 6 m 2 . P P2 RB 1 A1 400 10 6 m 2 L1 L2 0.300 m 1.
125 109 1.95 103 RB 0 E E RB 577 103 N 577 kN Fy 0 R A 300 kN 600 kN 577 kN R A 323 kN R A 323 kN RB 577 kN .Static Indeterminacy L R 0 1.
T P 0 T L PL 0 AE T P 0 P AE T P E T A .Thermal Stresses • Treat the additional support as redundant and apply the principle of superposition. • The thermal deformation and the deformation from the redundant support must be compatible. PL T T L P AE thermal expansion coef.
Poisson’s Ratio • For a slender bar subjected to axial loading: x x y z 0 E • The elongation in the xdirection is accompanied by a contraction in the other directions. Assuming that the material is isotropic (no directional dependence). y z 0 • Poisson’s ratio is defined as y lateral strain z axial strain x x .
This requires: 1) strain is linearly related to stress 2) deformations are small x y z x E E E x y z y E E E x y z z E E E .Generalized Hooke’s Law • For an element subjected to multiaxial loading. the normal strain components resulting from the stress components may be determined from the principle of superposition.
the change in volume is e 1 1 x 1 y 1 z 1 1 x y z x y z 1 2 x y z E dilatation (change in volume per unit volume) • For element subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure. therefore 0 1 2 . dilatation must be negative. e p k 31 2 p E k E bulk modulus 31 2 • Subjected to uniform pressure.Dilatation: Bulk Modulus • Relative to the unstressed state.
The corresponding shear strain is quantified in terms of the change in angle between the sides. For small strains. xy f xy • A plot of shear stress vs.Shearing Strain • A cubic element subjected to a shear stress will deform into a rhomboid. normal strain except that the strength values are approximately half. xy G xy yz G yz zx G zx where G is the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus. shear strain is similar the previous plots of normal stress vs. .
and b) the force P exerted on the plate. while the upper plate is subjected to a horizontal force P. under the action of the force.Shearing Strain Example 3 A rectangular block of material with modulus of rigidity G = 90 ksi is bonded to two rigid horizontal plates. . determine a) the average shearing strain in the material.04 in. The lower plate is fixed. Knowing that the upper plate moves through 0.
04 in. P xy A 1800 psi 8 in.0 kips . 2 in.020 rad • Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress and strain to find the corresponding shearing stress. xy 0. 36 103 lb P 36.Shearing Strain SOLUTION: • Determine the average angular deformation or shearing strain of the block. xy G xy 90 103 psi 0.2.5 in. xy tan xy 0.020 rad 1800 psi • Use the definition of shearing stress to find the force P.
• Components of normal and shear strain are related. Axial load also results in a shear strain. • If the cubic element is oriented as in the bottom figure. • An initially cubic element oriented as in top figure will deform into a rectangular parallelepiped. E 1 2G .Relation Among E. The axial load produces a normal strain. and G • An axially loaded slender bar will elongate in the axial direction and contract in the transverse directions. it will deform into a rhombus. n.
and d) the volume of the plate. c) the thickness of the plate. is scribed on an unstressed aluminum plate of thickness t = 3/4 in. n. b) the length of diameter CD. determine the change in: a) the length of diameter AB. For E = 10x106 psi and n = 1/3. Forces acting in the plane of the plate later cause normal stresses sx = 12 ksi and sz = 20 ksi. and G Example 4 A circle of diameter d = 9 in. .Relation Among E.
C D 14.75 in. 12 ksi 0 1 20 ksi 3 10 106 psi 0./in.533 10 3 in. t y t 1.067 103 in 3/in 3 V eV 1. n.067 103 in. • Find the change in volume e x y z 1.4 10 3 in. B A x d 0.8 10 3 in./in.75in 3 V 0. 9 in.600 10 3 in. x y z y E E E 1. 9 in.800 10 3 in. B C D A 4.Relation Among E. and G SOLUTION: • Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to find the three components of normal strain. .533 10 3 in.600 103 in. x x y z E E E 1 • Evaluate the deformation components./in./in.187 in 3 x y z z E E E 1.067 10 3 15 15 0. z d 1./in./in. 0.067 103 in. t 0.
Stress & Strain Distribution under Axial Loding SaintVenant’s Principle .
Stress Concentration StressConcentration Factor .
Stress Concentration StressConcentration Factor .
Chapter 3 Torsion Jet engine of plane Automotive power train .
• Shaft transmits the torque to the generator. • Generator creates an equal and opposite torque T’. • Turbine exerts torque T on the shaft.Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts • Interested in stresses and strains of circular shafts subjected to twisting couples or torques torques. .
the distribution of the stresses is not. • Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads. torque equal and opposite to the applied torque. T dF dA • Although the net torque due to the shearing stresses is known. • Distribution of shearing stresses is statically indeterminate – must consider shaft deformations. the distribution of shearing stresses due to torsional loads can not be assumed uniform uniform.Stresses in a Shaft • Net of the internal shearing stresses is an internal torque. .
• The existence of the axial shear components is demonstrated by considering a shaft made up of axial slats. .Axial Shear Components • Torque applied to shaft produces shearing stresses on the faces perpendicular to the axis. • The slats slide with respect to each other when equal and opposite torques are applied to the ends of the shaft. • Conditions of equilibrium require the existence of equal stresses on the faces of the two planes containing the axis of the shaft.
• Crosssections for hollow and solid circular shafts remain plain and undistorted because a circular shaft is axisymmetric. every crosssection of a circular shaft remains plane and undistorted undistorted. the angle of twist of the shaft is proportional to the applied torque and to the shaft length. • Crosssections of noncircular (nonaxisymmetric) shafts are distorted when subjected to torsion. . T L • When subjected to torsion.Shaft Deformations • From observation.
Shearing Strain • Since the ends of the element remain planar. the shear strain is equal to angle of twist. • It follows that L or L • Shear strain is proportional to twist and radius c max and max L c .
so J 1 c4 2 The shearing stress varies linearly with the radial position in the section section. max c G . • Recall that the sum of the moments from the internal stress distribution is equal to the torque on the shaft at the section. T dA max 2 dA max J c c 4 4 J 1 c2 c1 2 • The results are known as the elastic torsion formulas. G G max c From Hooke’s Law. and J J min c1 .Stresses in Elastic Range • Multiplying the previous equation by the shear modulus. Tc T max c 2 max .
Shearing Strain Example 1: What is the largest torque that can be applied to the shaft if the shearing stress is not exceed 120 Mpa? What is the corresponding minimum value of the shearing stress in the shaft? Hollow Cylindrical Steel Shaft .
• Note that all stresses for elements a and c have the same magnitude . F 2 max A0 cos 45 max A0 2 45o F max A0 2 max A A0 2 • Element a is in pure shear shear.Normal Stresses • Elements with faces parallel and perpendicular to the shaft axis are subjected to shear stresses only. Normal stresses. • Element c is subjected to a tensile stress on two faces and compressive stress on the other two. • Consider an element at 45o to the shaft axis. shearing stresses or a combination of both may be found for other orientations.
i.e. .. Brittle materials are weaker in tension than shear. • When subjected to torsion. i. along surfaces at 45o to the shaft axis.Torsional Failure Modes • Ductile materials generally fail in shear. • When subjected to torsion. a brittle specimen breaks along planes perpendicular to the direction in which tension is a maximum. a ductile specimen breaks along a plane of maximum shear. a plane perpendicular to the shaft axis..e.
Shearing Strain Example 2: Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm. respectively. determine (a) the minimum and maximum shearing stress in shaft BC. (b) the required diameter d of shafts AB and CD if the allowable shearing stress in these shafts is 65 MPa. . For the loading shown. Shafts AB and CD are solid of diameter d.
M x 0 6 kN m TAB TAB 6 kN m TCD M x 0 6 kN m 14 kN m TBC TBC 20 kN m .Shearing Strain SOLUTION: • Cut sections through shafts AB and BC and perform static equilibrium analysis to find torque loadings.
2 MPa 60 mm max 86.7 MPa min 64. invert the elastic torsion formula to find the required diameter.2 MPa min 64.0454 2 2 max m 4 Tc Tc J c4 2 65MPa 6 kN m c3 2 13.Shearing Strain • Apply elastic torsion formulas to find minimum and maximum stress on shaft BC.92 10 6 m 4 c 38.8 mm 86.7 MPa .0604 0. J 4 4 c2 c1 0. • Given allowable shearing stress and applied torque.9 103 m d 2c 77.060 m J 13.2 MPa min c1 max c2 min 45 mm 86.92 10 6 max 2 TBC c2 20 kN m 0.
max max Tc G JG • Equating the expressions for shearing strain and solving for the angle of twist.Angle of Twist in Elastic Range • Recall that the angle of twist and maximum shearing strain are related. max c L • In the elastic range. the shearing strain and shearing stress are related by Hooke’s Law. TL JG .
Angle of Twist in Elastic Range • If the torsional loading or shaft crosssection changes along the length. the angle of rotation is found as following L 0 T dx JG . the angle of rotation is found as the sum of segment rotations Ti Li i J i Gi • If the shaft crosssection changes along the length.
Angle of Twist in Elastic Range T A D 2T rA A rB B .
Determining the Modulus of Rigidity Torsion Testing Machine .
Statically Indeterminate Shafts
• Given the shaft dimensions and the applied torque, we would like to find the torque reactions at A and B. • From a freebody analysis of the shaft,
TA TB 90 lb ft
which is not sufficient to find the end torques. The problem is statically indeterminate. • Divide the shaft into two components which must have compatible deformations,
1 2
T A L1 TB L2 0 J1G J 2G LJ TB 1 2 TA L2 J1
• Substitute into the original equilibrium equation,
LJ TA 1 2 TA 90 lb ft L2 J1
Stress Concentrations in Circular Shafts
Stress Concentrations in Circular Shafts
Example 3:
Stepped Shaft
Stress Concentrations in Circular Shafts
Solution:
Torsion of Noncircular Members .
Torsion of Noncircular Members .
Torsion of Noncircular Members Several ThinWalled Members .
ThinWalled Hollow Shafts .
ThinWalled Hollow Shafts .
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