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A row of alcoholic beverages – in this case,spirits – in a bar. An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits. They are legally consumed in most countries, and over 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption. In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person may legally buy or drink them. This minimum age varies between 16 and 25 years, depending upon the country and the type of drink. Most nations set it at 18 years of age. The production and consumption of alcohol occurs in most cultures of the world, from huntergatherer peoples to nation-states. Alcoholic beverages are often an important part of social events in these cultures. In many cultures, drinking plays a significant role in social interaction — mainly because of alcohol’s neurological effects. Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that has a depressant effect. A high blood alcohol content is usually considered to be legal drunkenness because it reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Alcohol can be addictive, and the state of addiction to alcohol is known as alcoholism.
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ol content of beverag es 3 Stand ard drinks 4 Servi ng sizes 5 Flavo ring 6 Flam mabilit y 7 Uses 8 Alcoh ol consum ption by country 9 Outri ght prohibit ion of alcohol 9 . 1 I n d
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O t h e r c o u n t r i e s
ibition of drinkin g alcohol in public places
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1 A s i a 1 1 .A m e r i c a 1 0 . 3 . 1 U n i t e d S t a t e s 11 Lega l drinkin g age 1 1 .
1 I n d i a 1 1 . 2 S o u t h K o r e a 1 1 . 1 . 2 .. 1 . 2 E u r o p e 1 1 .
2 . 2 F i n l a n d 1 1 . 3 F r a n c e 1 1 . 4 . 1 D e n m a r k 1 1 . 2 .. 2 .
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N o r t h A m e r i c a 1 1 . 1 . 4 U n i t e d S t a t e s 12 Dru nk driving laws 13 Rest rictions on product ion 1 3 .
D e n m a r k 1 3 . 2 N e w Z e a l a n d 1 3 . 3 U n i t e d K i n g d o m .
1 C a n a d a 1 4 . 4 U n i t e d S t a t e s 14 Rest rictions on sale and possess ion 1 4 . 1 3 . 2 N o r d .
2 .i c c o u n t r i e s 1 4 . 3 . 2 S w e d e n 1 4 . 2 . 1 N o r w a y 1 4 .
U n i t e d S t a t e s 15 Effe cts of alcohol on health 1 5 . 1 A l c o h o l i s m 1 5 . 2 H e a r t d .
4 C a n c e r 1 5 . 3 D e m e n t i a 1 5 . 5 D i a b e t e s .i s e a s e 1 5 .
7 O b e s i t y 1 5 . 9 . 8 L o n g e v i t y 1 5 . 6 S t r o k e 1 5 . 1 5 .
M o r t a l i t y r a t e 16 Alco hol expecta tions 17 Alco hol and religion 18 Hist ory 1 8 . 1 E a r l y r e f e r e n c e s .
3 A l c o h o l i n A m e r i c . 2 D i s t i l l e d b e v e r a g e s 1 8 . 1 8 .
a n h i s t o r y 19 Che mistry 20 Toxi cology 2 0 . 1 G r a . 1 H a n g o v e r 21 Raw materia ls of alcoholi c beverag es 22 Ingr edients 2 2 .
3 V e g e t a b l e s 2 2 . 2 F r u i t j u i c e 2 2 . 4 O t h e r .i n s 2 2 .
Brewing. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches which are mainly derived from cereal grains — most commonly malted barley although wheat.i n g r e d i e n t s 23 See also 24 Refe rences 25 Exte rnal links  Types The interior of a store in the United States that sells alcoholic beverages. Most beer is flavored with hops. stout. may also be used. The two main types of beer are lager and ale. Beverages of higher alcohol content (spirits) are produced by fermentation followed by distillation.or starch-containing plant material. Ale is further classified into varieties such as pale ale.  Beer Main articles: Beer. Other flavorings. and riceare also used. or are fermented from unmalted cereal grain are not classified as beer. Alcoholic beverages that are distilled after fermentation. maize (corn). Brewery. and Mashing Beer is the one of the world's oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverages and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. are fermented from noncereal sources such as grapesor honey. but it may be less than 2% or as much as 12%. See also: List of alcoholic beverages Alcoholic beverages that have a lower alcohol content (beer and wine) are produced by fermentation of sugar. . which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative. such as fruits or herbs. andbrown ale. The alcoholic strength of beer is usually 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (ABV).
Spirits can be added to wines to create fortified wines. or spirits.pub games. Strains of yeast have been developed that can reproduce in solutions of up to 25% ABV. Most yeasts cannot reproduce when the concentration of alcohol is higher than about 18%.2 proof) because at that point alcohol is an azeotrope with water. Grape. Wine. this was the most dilute spirit that would sustain the combustion ofgunpowder. Oenology. or apples. Wine involves a longer fermentation process than beer and also a long aging process (months or years). Degrees proof were formerly used in the United Kingdom. One standard drink always contains the same amount of alcohol regardless of serving size or the type of alcoholic beverage. and fruit wine is produced from fruits such as plums.  Standard drinks Main articles: Standard drink and Unit of alcohol A standard drink is a notional drink that contains a specified amount of pure alcohol. Distilled beverage. Ethanol. Distilling concentrates the alcohol and eliminates some of the congeners. . and pub crawling. Spirits are produced by the distillation of a fermented base product. so that is the practical limit for the strength of fermented beverages such as wine. proof is twice the percentage of alcohol by volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit (e. any distilled alcoholic beverage of 170 proof or higher is considered to be a neutral spirit. Historically. which range from regional breweries to microbreweries. Fortified wine is wine (such as port or sherry). and Liqueur Unsweetened. A spirit which contains a very high level of alcohol and does not contain any added flavoring is commonly called a neutral spirit. The beer-brewing industry is global in scope. Generally. and sake.  Wine Main articles: Aging of wine. Sparkling wine can be made by means of a secondary fermentation. such as port and sherry. alcoholic beverages that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are calledspirits. The basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries. Must.  Spirits Main articles: Distillation. In the United States. and Winemaking Wine is produced from grapes. wine.Beer is part of the drinking culture of various nations and has acquired social traditions such as beer festivals. It is usually expressed as a measure of beer. cherries.  Alcohol content of beverages Main article: Alcohol by volume The concentration of alcohol in a beverage is usually stated as the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) or asproof. to which a distilled beverage (usually brandy) has been added. The standard drink is used in many countries to quantify alcohol intake. distilled. beer.g. Ordinary distillation cannot produce alcohol of more than 95. consisting of several dominant multinational companies and thousands of smaller producers. where 100 degrees proof was equivalent to 57. resulting in an alcohol content of 9%–16% ABV. 80 proof = 40% ABV).1% ABV.6% ABV (191.
75 grams). but in Japan it is 25 ml (19.6 US fluid ounces (18 ml) of alcohol.) The flash points of alcohol concentrations from 10% ABV to 96% ABV are shown below: 10% — 120 °F (49 °C) — wine 20% — 97 °F (36 °C) — fortified wine 30% — 84 °F (29 °C) . less than average room temperature. The number of units present in a typical drink is printed on bottles. it is not used to determine serving sizes. In Ireland. during. especially distilled beverages. See also: Alcohol proof.  Serving sizes See also: Shot glass#Sizes In the United Kingdom. In the United States. Beer and wine may be flavored before fermentation. Beer is usually served in pints or halfpints ("glasses"). This is approximately the amount of alcohol in a 12-US-fluid-ounce (350 ml) glass of beer. standard servings are 250 and 500 ml for pilsner. the standard drink contains 0.16 °C). Spirits may be flavored before. a 5-USfluid-ounce (150 ml) glass of wine. A few brands of spirits have fruit or herbs inserted into the bottle at the time of bottling. The system is intended as an aid to people who are regulating the amount of alcohol they drink. A single unit of alcohol is defined as 10 ml. and Fire point Liquor that contains 40% ABV (80 US proof) will catch fire if heated to about 79 °F (26 °C) and if an ignition source is applied to it. This attribute facilitates the use of flavoring and coloring compounds in alcoholic beverages. serving size in licensed premises is regulated under the Weights and Measures Act (1985). For example. or a 1.5 ml or 71 ml. In the Netherlands and Belgium. rum. but is also served in half-pints or third-pints.  Flavoring Alcohol is a moderately good solvent for many fatty substances and essential oils. The flash point of pure alcohol is 62. In the United Kingdom.62 ml (6 grams) of alcohol in Austria.5-US-fluid-ounce (44 ml) glass of a 40% ABV (80 proof) spirit.The standard drink varies significantly from country to country. it is 7.  Flammability These flaming cocktails illustrate that a distilled beverage will readily catch fire and burn. usually American or French oak. Sometimes flavor is obtained by allowing the beverage to stand for months or years in oak barrels. (This is called its flash point. there is a system of units of alcohol which serves as a guideline for alcohol consumption. whisky. 300 and 330 ml for ales. Flavors may be naturally present in the beverage’s base material. the serving size of spirits is 35.88 °F (17. and vodka) are sold in 25 ml or 35 ml quantities or multiples thereof. Flash point. Beer is typically served in pints (568 ml). Spirits (gin. or after distillation.
alcohol absorption is reduced and the rate at which alcohol is eliminated from the blood is increased. is a concern. they were commonly kept aboard sailing vessels as an important (or even the sole) source of hydration for the crew. However. potent alcoholic beverages such as vodka are popularly seen as a way to ―warm up‖ the body.5% alcohol is about 125 °F (52 °C). were used for this purpose.  Outright prohibition of alcohol . by country. people drink alcoholic beverages at lunch and dinner. For this reason. where it is quickly lost to the environment. The likely mechanism is food-induced increases in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and liver blood flow.Small beer and faux wine. in particular. In cold climates. the flash point of ordinary wine containing 12. More important was that the boiling of water (required for the brewing of beer) and the growth of yeast (required for fermentation of beer and wine) would tend to kill dangerous microorganisms. This is a misconception because the ―warmth‖ is actually caused by a transfer of heat from the body’s core to its extremities.  Uses In many countries. per year. At times and places of poor public sanitation (such as Medieval Europe). the perception alone may be welcomed when only comfort. Although alcohol kills bacteria. The alcohol content of these beverages allowed them to be stored for months or years in simple wood or clay containers without spoiling. The mechanism for the faster alcohol elimination appears to be unrelated to the type of food. its low concentration in these beverages would have had only a limited effect.40% — 79 °F (26 °C) — typical whisky 50% — 75 °F (24 °C) — strong whisky 60% — 72 °F (22 °C) 70% — 70 °F (21 °C) — absinthe 80% — 68 °F (20 °C) 90% — 63 °F (17 °C) — neutral grain spirit 96% — 63 °F (17 °C) Beverages that have a low concentration of alcohol will burn if sufficiently heated and an ignition source (such as an electric spark or a match) is applied to them. in liters of pure alcohol. For example.  Alcohol consumption by country Main article: List of countries by alcohol consumption Alcohol consumption per capita (age 15 or older). especially during the long voyages of the early modern period. Studies have found that when food is eaten before drinking alcohol. rather thanhypothermia. possibly because alcohol is a quickly absorbed source offood energy and because it dilates peripheral blood vessels (peripherovascular dilation). the consumption of alcoholic drinks was a way of avoiding water-borne diseases such as cholera.
replaced by strict rationing and later by more lax regulation. but never introduced. Prior to national Prohibition.  Nordic countries Two Nordic countries (Finland.  India In some states of India alcoholic drinks are banned (as in the states of Gujarat and Mizoram). Teetotalism. This period became known as the Prohibition era. prohibition was heavily discussed. During this time.Main articles: Moonshine. In the United States. Prohibition became extremely unpopular. sale. All of the Indian states observe dry days on major religious festivals/occasions depending on the popularity of the festival in that region. T. Following the end of prohibition. and transportation of alcoholic beverages illegal throughout the United States. and Temperance movement Some countries forbid alcoholic beverages. Prohibition has become controversial in Gujarat following a July 2009 episodein which widespread poisoning resulted from alcohol that had been sold illegally. Certain national holidays such as Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti (birthdate of Mahatma Gandhi) are meant to be dry nationally. Some of these restrictions have since been lifted. Prohibition led to the unintended consequence of causing widespread disrespect for the law. there was an attempt from 1920 to 1933 to eliminate the drinking of alcoholic beverages by means of a national prohibition of their manufacture and sale. For example. some localities (known as dry counties) continued to ban the sale of alcohol. beginning in the late 19th century. Prohibition did not have popular support. is allowed to sell wine and spirits. Rama Rao. many states and localities had enacted Prohibition within their jurisdictions. This was the result of social democratic campaigning.7% ABV. Prohibition. As a result. which led to the development of organized crime. . Prohibition in the United States. government alcohol monopolies were established with detailed restrictions and high taxes. but this was subsequently lifted. which ultimately led to the repeal of the 18th Amendment in 1933. or have forbidden them in the past. and Norway) had a period of alcohol Prohibition in the early 20th century. Dry days are also observed on voting days. a lucrative business was created for illegal producers and sellers of alcohol. as many people procured alcoholic beverages from illegal sources. supermarkets in Finland are allowed to sell only fermented beverages with an alcohol content up to 4. After the repeal of the 18th Amendment.  United States Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine brewery during the Prohibition era. In this way. which included allowing alcohol to be sold on Saturdays. In Sweden. the government monopoly. This is also the case with the Swedish Systembolaget and the Norwegian Vinmonopolet. The state of Andhra Pradesh had imposed prohibition under the Chief Ministership of N. and it resulted in large-scale smuggling. the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States made the manufacture. Rumrunning. but Alko.
A Pakistani alcohol permit limits the buyer to 100 bottles of beer or 5 bottles of liquor per month. Sudan. but not to act heavily intoxicated.  India Drinking alcohol in public is prohibited.  Prohibition of drinking alcohol in public places A sign prohibiting the drinking of alcohol in a public place in Victoria. and advertising for alcoholic beverages has been outlawed. it is generally allowed to drink alcohol. and Libya prohibit the production. and allows alcoholic beverages to be sold from vending machines.  Asia  Pakistan After its independence in 1947. Since then. such as Saudi Arabia. Major cities had a culture of drinking. Additional restrictions are sometimes applied by local authorities in problem areas. Non-Muslim foreigners are allowed to order alcohol in restaurants and hotels that have liquor licenses. Everyone. On public transportation. Pakistan’s majority Muslim population has been unable to legally buy alcohol. although these limits are not strictly enforced. and foreigners can also apply for alcohol permits (―Politics of Boozing‖). which shut down at a specific time of night. Kuwait.  Ireland . and alcohol was readily available until the mid-1970s when the Bhutto government introduced prohibition for Muslim citizens. and consumption of alcoholic beverages because they are forbidden by Islam. Other countries Some Muslim countries.Australia. Muslims make up roughly 97% of Pakistan’s population. Pakistani law was fairly liberal regarding liquor laws. Pakistani alcohol laws are more strictly enforced during the Muslim month of Ramadan. Iran.  Europe  Denmark It is generally legal to drink alcoholic beverages in the street.  Japan Japan allows open containers in some public areas. sale. so it’s only the 3% minority (mostly made up of Christians) who are eligible to buy alcohol with a permit. Pakistan. are expected to refrain from eating and drinking anything in public sight during the day. Public drunkenness is not illegal in Japan. even non-Muslims. such as certain streets and trains.
 Legal drinking age Main article: Legal drinking age Most countries have prescribed a legal drinking age which prohibits the consumption of alcohol by minors. Each municipality decides its own rules concerning drinking in public places. such as streets and parks. Nevadaor during public festivals. is against the law in most of the United States. the legal minimum age for buying and drinking alcohol is 18 to 25 years. Alcoholic beverages are prohibited in the states of Gujarat and Mizoram. Different rules may apply for different places within a municipality. but some cities and towns have by-laws that prohibit possession of an open container of alcohol in a public place.Consumption of alcohol is prohibited in outdoor public areas except those immediately outside the Bar/Pub. as does the degree to which it is enforced. Louisiana.  United Kingdom Drinking in public places is not banned by national law. andMissouri) has no such ban. Moreover. which can also vary within a country.  Sweden The legality of drinking alcoholic beverages in public places is determined by local regulations. the vast majority of its cities and counties do have it. in a restaurant. depending on the state. Some cities allow it in specified area such as on the Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas. The age at which these restrictions come to an end varies significantly from country to country. Some countries have a tiered structure that limits the sale of stronger alcoholic drinks to older adults (typically based upon the percentage of ABV) Other restrictions that some countries impose is based on the place in which alcohol is consumed.  North America  United States Drinking alcohol in public places.  Asia  India Main article: Alcohol laws of India In India. but many cities and towns prohibit possession of an open container of an alcoholic beverage in a public place. During Festivals or regattas open containers are permitted within a certain area of the festival/Regatta.  South Korea .  Netherlands Drinking in public places is not banned by national law. Most countries also prohibit the sale of alcohol to minors. even when a state (such as Nevada. or in a bar. such as in the home.
Germany. Bar owners are explicitly authorized by law to require an ID from their patrons. Some countries have a tiered structure that limits the sale of stronger alcoholic drinks to older adults (typically based upon the percentage of ABV) .  Denmark The legal age for buying alcoholic beverages containing 1. a purchaser of beer or wine must be 16 years of age. and Switzerland. and for stronger drinks from age 20. purchasers and possessors of alcoholic beverages must be 20 years of age. the purchase and possession of alcoholic beverages that have up to 22 % ABV is allowed from age 18. although 18.In South Korea. selling any type of alcoholic beverage to a minor (a person younger than 18 years of age) is forbidden. Beverages containing more than 16.  France Several laws are in place to limit alcohol consumption and reduce alcohol abuse.  Europe The legal drinking age and the legal age for buying alcoholic beverages vary from country to country in Europe. and their sale requires a license. A poster informing customers of these rules must be placed in any business that sells alcohol. Bars may not offer a ―happy hour‖ without also offering a discount on non-alcoholic drinks.5% ABV is 16 years in shops and 18 years in bars and restaurants. and 18 years of age for spirits. These laws have been strengthened several times. the legal minimum age for buying and drinking alcohol is 18. no legal drinking age. Petrol stations may not sell refrigerated alcoholic beverages and may not sell any form of alcohol after 6 p.5% ABV may not to be sold to persons under the age of 18. however. There is.Belgium. Consumption of alcohol at home is not restricted. not toward minors.  Finland In Finland. with some exceptions depending on alcohol content. in Austria. it is also forbidden for people under 18 to be in a bar or restaurant that sells alcohol without being in the company of a parent or other person over 18. Since 2009.2%-16. Stronger than 22 % ABV may be ordered in a restaurant from age 18. For example.  Italy .  Germany German law is directed toward sellers of alcoholic beverages. German law vests control of the consumption of alcoholic beverages in the hands of parents and guardians. but 18 years is the most common age.and 19-year-olds are allowed to drink alcohol. the Netherlands. Advertisement of alcoholic beverages is restricted.m.  Iceland In Iceland.
 In England and Wales.5 % ABV (stronger low-alcohol beer and cider) may be bought in grocery stores from the age of 18. A license to sell is required only for those establishments that serve them to the public. Alcoholic beverages are commonly sold in grocery stores and supermarkets. if it is bought by an adult.g. Alcohol laws of New York. Germany and Spain) or duty-free on the Baltic Sea ferries passing Åland.Although the minimum age in Italy for legally drinking alcohol in bars and restaurants is 16 years. as of January 1. cider. as in abar. Denmark. In Scotland. or perry with a table meal. wine. Alcohol laws of Missouri.  Sweden In Sweden. Alcoholic beverages with more than 3. bars and nightclubs from the age of 18 and in the state-run stores (Systembolaget) from the age of 20. persons over 16 may drink beer.25 % ABV (low-alcohol beer and cider) are sold without any age limit in grocery stores. while alcoholic beverages with less than 3. the purchase and possession of alcoholic beverages that have up to 22 % ABV is allowed from age 18. which tied federal highway funds to states' maintaining a minimum drinking age of 21. which due to its special status within the EU but outside the EU tax union enables duty free shopping. alcoholic beverages with less than 2. wine and spirits) may be bought at restaurants. this law is rarely enforced. a supermarket). the minimum age to purchase alcohol is 18 years in a bar or off-license establishment (e. Shop workers under the age of 18 may not legally sell alcohol. the same rules apply but there is no requirement that an adult purchase the beverage. A significant proportion of spirits consumed in Sweden is bought abroad during holidays or business trips in countries with lower alcohol taxes (e. Main article: Alcohol laws of the United States by state See also: Alcoholic beverage control state. 2007.5 % ABV (beer. and for stronger drinks from age 20. The minimum age for working in a public place where alcohol is sold is also 16 years.  North America  United States Exceptions to the minimum age of 21 for drinking alcohol in the United States. In private. a Fairleigh Dickinson University PublicMind poll found in September .  Norway In Norway. the minimum age to consume alcohol is 5 years.  United Kingdom In the United Kingdom. Estonia. and Alcohol laws of Oklahoma The legal age for buying and possessing (but not necessarily for drinking) has been 21 years in every state since shortly after the passage of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act in 1984. Alcohol laws of Kansas. Despite a rekindled national debate in 2008 on the established drinking age (initiated by several university presidents). cider.g.
This situation has made the use of home distillation equipment quite popular.  Drunk driving laws Main article: Driving under the influence Most countries have drunk driving laws which limit how much alcohol a person can consume before driving a car on a road. However. . which then levies a tax upon these beverages. and Wyoming) and the District of Columbia have laws against possession of alcohol by minors.  New Zealand New Zealand is one of the few countries where it is legal to produce any form of alcohol for personal use. Rhode Island. Florida. alcoholic beverages may be produced in the home for personal use without a license or tax. The beverages produced are neither licensed nor taxed.  Denmark Home production of wine and beer is not regulated. it is also illegal to have an open container of an alcoholic beverage in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. Massachusetts. Danish alcohol taxes are significantly lower than in Sweden and Norway. Oklahoma. Colorado. Montana. Kentucky. including spirits. Minnesota. drunk bicycling.0% to 0. Puerto Rico. political affiliation. California. but they do not prohibit its consumption by minors. has maintained a drinking age of 18. but higher than those of most other European countries. New York. Ohio. Fourteen states (Alaska. or region. Home distillation of spirits is legal but not common because it is subject to the same tax as spirits sold commercially. Some jurisdictions have similar prohibitions for drunk sailing. and Virginia) specifically permit minors to drink alcohol given to them by their parents or by someone entrusted by their parents. temporary or permanent loss of driver's license. Delaware. The permitted blood alcohol content threshold ranges from 0. Connecticut. South Carolina. In many countries. Nevada. Maine. New Mexico. Missouri. M issouri.  Restrictions on production In most countries. No significant differences emerged when considering gender. Louisiana. Mississippi. Illinois. parents of younger children were more likely to support keeping the age at 21 (83%) than parents of college-age students (67%). Oregon. a territory of the United States. Seventeen states (Arkansas.2008 that 76% of New Jerseyans supported leaving the legal drinking age at 21 years. Many states also permit the drinking of alcohol under the age of 21 for religious or health reasons. Texas. and even drunk rollerblading. the commercial production of alcoholic beverages requires a license from the government. United States customs laws stipulate that no person under the age of 21 may bring any type or quantity of alcohol into the country. In many places in the United States.08%. and imprisonment. Punishments for violation include fines. Maryland. Wisconsin. New Hampshire.
) Restrictions on the sale of alcohol vary from province to province. (SeeTaxation in Canada.‖ minimum prices.  Restrictions on sale and possession  Canada In most Canadian provinces. In the Nordic countries. All packaging of alcoholic products must contain a health warning from the Surgeon General. unlicensed) production of liquor in the United States is commonly referred to as ―moonshining.‖ Illegally produced liquor (popularly called ―white lightning‖) is not aged and contains a high percentage of alcohol. except Denmark. The state-run vendor is called Systembolaget in Sweden. and Rúsdrekkasøla Landsins in the Faroe Islands. Tobacco. Canada has some of the highest excise taxes on alcohol in the world.m. These taxes are a source of income for governments and are also meant to discourage drinking. Vínbúð in Iceland.  United States Main article: Alcohol laws of the United States by state See also: Alcohol laws of Kansas. Alko in Finland. binge drinking is an ancient tradition. individuals may produce wine and beer for personal consumption (but not for sale) in amounts [usually] of up to 100 gallons per adult per year. the Customs and Excise department issues distilling licenses. Firearms. The Bureau of Alcohol. In Alberta. privately owned liquor stores exist. and Explosives and the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (formerly a single organization called the Bureau of Alcohol. Alcohol laws of Missouri. The governments of these countries claim that the purpose of these monopolies is to reduce the consumption of alcohol. Government control and supervision of the sale of alcohol was a compromise devised in the 1920s between ―drys‖ and ―wets‖ for the purpose of ending Prohibition in Canada. and the Liquor Distribution Branch of British Columbia. and Alcohol laws of Oklahoma The production of distilled beverages is regulated and taxed. In most of the American states. Tobacco and Firearms) enforce federal laws and regulations related to alcohol. Some provinces have moved away from government monopoly. but no more than 200 gallons per household per year. Two examples of this are the Liquor Control Board of Ontario. the government has a monopoly on the sale of liquor. changes introduced in 2008 included a ban on ―happy hour. Vinmonopolet in Norway. and in Quebeca limited number of wines and liquors can be purchased at dépanneurs and grocery stores. The first such monopoly was in Falun in the 19th century. but people may produce beer and wine for personal consumption without a license. The illegal (i.  Nordic countries In each of the Nordic countries. In Alberta. Alcohol laws of New York. These . United Kingdom In the United Kingdom. there is a government monopoly on the sale of alcohol.e. and a limit on the number of drinks a person can buy in a bar or pub at one time after 1 a..
Alcohol laws of New York. particularly on spirits. In many states. distilled spirits are available in liquor stores except in Montgomery County. where they are sold only by the county. the sale of alcoholic beverages is controlled by the individual states. have very permissive alcohol laws. vary from state to state.5% alcohol by weight) can be sold in regular stores to anyone aged 18 or over. have very strict alcohol laws. where the age limit is 18. There is an ongoing debate over whether to retain these state-run monopolies. For example. liquor sales are prohibited on Sunday by a blue law.  United States This convenience store in Michigan had its retail license suspended for two weeks because it sold alcoholic beverages to minors. These taxes are levied on top of a 25% VAT on all goods and services. Norway levies some of the heaviest taxes in the world on alcoholic beverages. All alcoholic beverages can be bought at licensed bars and restaurants. In some states.monopolies have had success in the past. like all other alcohol restrictions. whereas other states. Missouri. wines. Stronger beers. from other EU countries. Alcohol laws of Missouri. Map of open container laws in the United States by state. Alcoholic drinks bought at these licensed facilities must be consumed on the premises.  Sweden In Sweden. 2. like Kansas and Oklahoma. . The places where alcohol may be sold or possessed. it is not allowed to consume alcoholic drinks bought elsewhere. and Alcohol laws of Oklahoma In the United States.74% by volume or less can be legally sold in grocery stores. A county that prohibits the sale of alcohol is known as a dry county. beer with a low alcohol content (called folköl. For example. as of September 2007 Main article: Alcohol laws of the United States by state See also: Alcoholic beverage control state. Some states. 700 mL of Absolut Vodka currently retails at 299 NOK. but they must be consumed on the premises. Alcohol laws of Kansas. in most of North Carolina. and spirits can only be bought at government monopoly vendors. alcohol can only be sold by staff qualified to serve responsibly through alcohol server training. beer and wine may be purchased in retail stores. or by licensed facilities such as restaurants and bars.25% to 3. legal or illegal. which is about US $54. but beverages with a high alcohol content can only be sold by government-run vendors to people aged 20 or older. like Louisiana. but since joining the European Union it has been difficult to curb the importation of liquor. by the counties or parishes within each state. beers with an alcohol content of 4. but distilled spirits are only available at state ABC (Alcohol Beverage Control) stores.  Norway In Norway. In Maryland. That has made the monopolies less effective in reducing excessive drinking. and Connecticut. and by local jurisdictions.
if a state does not prohibit open containers of alcohol inside moving vehicles. which speeds up glucose metabolismand can result in low blood sugar.  Effects of alcohol on health Data from The Lancet shows ethanol in comparison to other psychoactive drugs. liquor stores may not refrigerate any beverage containing more than 3. and only five states (Arkansas. which are allowed to sell their products directly to consumers. Wines and spirits are still sold at locations called "state stores." but wine kiosks are starting to be put in at grocery stores. and delayed reflexes. Blood alcohol content.Many states require that liquor may be sold only in liquor stores. Long-term effects of alcohol include changes in the metabolism of the liver and brain andalcoholism (addiction to alcohol). and look into a camera for facial identification to purchase wine. As of December. Missouri also has provisions for 3.Missouri. signature. states limit alcohol sales in grocery stores and gas stations to beer at or below 3. who in turn sell to retailers. but vomiting or unconsciousness may occur much sooner in people who have a low tolerance for alcohol. Kansas. In Oklahoma. Severe alcohol poisoning can be fatal. stronger beverages are restricted to liquor stores. causing slurred speech. The federal Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century of 1999 mandates that. and Short-term effects of alcohol Short-term effects of alcohol consumption include intoxication and dehydration. Long-term effects of alcohol. Most states follow a three-tier system in which producers cannot sell directly to retailers.S.Delaware. That is about six times the level of ordinary intoxication (0.2% alcohol.08%). although serious health dangers are incurred at this level. Exceptions often exist for brewpubs (pubs which brew their own beer) and wineries.2% beer.2% alcohol: Colorado. The kiosks are only open during the same hours as the state run liquor stores. Alcohol intoxication affects the brain. then a percentage of its federal highway funds will be transferred instead to alcohol education programs each year. 2011. and purchasers must present valid ID.45% is the concentration of blood alcohol that is fatal in 50% of the test subjects. Mississippi. and Utah. See also: Alcohol and sex. . In these states.08% limit).45% in test animals results in a median lethal dose of LD50. but must instead sell to distributors. but its permissive alcohol laws (when compared to other states) make this type of beer a rarity.40%. In Nevada. clumsiness. Most states also do not allow open containers of alcohol inside moving vehicles. Missouri. Only after all of these measures are passed is the individual allowed to obtain 1 bottle of wine from the "vending machine". and Louisiana. This means that . The high tolerance of chronic heavy drinkers may allow some of them to remain conscious at levels above . and West Virginia) allow passengers to consume alcohol while the vehicle is in motion. Minnesota. and are not open on Sundays. Oklahoma. Five U. The kiosks are connected to a database in Harrisburg. the state has a monopoly on the sale of liquor. Pennsylvania is starting to allow grocery stores and gas stations to sell alcohol. only one state (Mississippi) allows drivers to consume alcohol while driving (below the 0. A blood alcohol content of . In nineteen alcoholic beverage control states. state law does not specify the locations where alcohol may be sold. causing irritability and (for diabetics) possible death. Alcohol stimulates insulin production.
 The researchers suggest that alcohol may stimulate the release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus area of the brain. with women being at greater risk than men. Daily intake of one or two units of alcohol (a half or full standard glass of wine) is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease in men over 40. riboflavin. Alcoholism is associated with a type of dementia called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Alcoholism can lead to malnutrition because it can alter digestion and the metabolism of most nutrients. this can lead to Korsakoff's syndrome. and selenium . Muscle cramps. Osteoporosis and bone fractures may occur due to deficiency of vitamin D. and men who increased their alcohol consumption by one drink per day over the 12 years of the study had a 22% lower risk of heart attack.  Cancer Main article: Alcohol and cancer Alcohol consumption has been linked with seven types of cancer: mouth cancer. pharyngeal cancer. which is caused by a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1). Severe thiamine deficiency is common in alcoholism due to deficiency of folate. and in women who have been through menopause. However. it is estimated that 10% to 24% of dementia cases are caused by alcohol consumption. loss of appetite. breast cancer. daily light-to-moderate drinking (one to three drinks) was associated with a 42% reduction in the probability of developing dementia and a 70% reduction in risk of vascular dementia.  Alcoholism Main articles: Alcoholism and Long-term effects of alcohol Proclivity to alcoholism may be partially genetic. nausea.Alcohol also limits the production of vasopressin (ADH) from the hypothalamus and the secretion of this hormone from the posterior pituitary gland. oesophageal cancer. getting drunk one or more times per month put women at a significantly increased risk of heart attack. nerve disorders. vitamin B6. although this is disputed. and depression are common symptoms of alcoholism. laryngeal cancer. which is caused by a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1). This is what causes severe dehydration when large amounts of alcohol are drunk. bowel cancer andliver . In people aged 55 or older. negating alcohol's potential protective effect. Alcoholism is also associated with a type of dementia called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. It also causes a high concentration of water in the urine and vomit and the intense thirst that goes along with ahangover. Increased longevity due to alcohol consumption is almost entirely the result of a reduced rate of coronary heart disease.  Dementia Main article: Alcohol dementia Excessive drinking has been linked to dementia. Persons who have this proclivity may have an atypical biochemical response to alcohol.  Heart disease Main article: Alcohol and cardiovascular disease One study found that men who drank moderate amounts of alcohol three or more times a week were up to 35% less likely to have a heart attack than non-drinkers.
 For both men and women. However. and how often drinking days . which has some anti-cancer effect. A study in the United Kingdom found that alcohol causes about 6% of cancer deaths in the UK (9. Alcohol intake consists of two components: the amount consumed on drinking days (quantities). average alcohol consumption (volume) alone cannot fully explain the relationships to health outcomes such obesity. including sugar. The risk of developing cancer increases even with consumption of as little as three units of alcohol (one pint of lager or a large glass of wine) a day.5% of all global cancer deaths.40% of all cancer deaths and 3. the consumption of two or more drinks daily increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by 22%. and breast. a group of signaling proteins.63% of all cancer incidences. resulting in 3.36 times more likely to suffer a stroke than those who regularly drank a moderate amount of alcohol beverages. However. People with diabetes should avoid sugary drinks such as dessert wines and liqueurs. based on studies done so far. However. the researchers caution that the study used pure alcohol and that alcoholic beverages contain additives. Melanocortins. Some physiological substrates that underlie food intake and alcohol intake have been identified. Women who regularly consume low to moderate amounts of alcohol have an increased risk of cancer of the upper digestive tract.88 times more likely to suffer a stroke than moderate drinkers. A study in China found that alcohol causes about 4. but in long-term. frequent drinkers may compensate for energy derived from ethanol by eating less. are found to be involved in both excessive food intake and alcohol intake. Heavy drinkers are more likely to develop liver cancer due to cirrhosis of the liver. there is no strong evidence that red wine protects against cancer in humans. such as pharmaceutical compounds that may help those who suffer from both. A global study found that 3.000 deaths per year).  Diabetes Daily consumption of a small amount of pure alcohol by older women may slow or prevent the onset of diabetes by lowering the level of blood glucose. As a significant source of liquid calories.  Stroke A study found that lifelong abstainers were 2. Some of the brain signaling proteins that mediate excessive eating and weight gain also mediate uncontrolled alcohol consumption. rectum. liver. Drinking patterns can affect BMI (body mass index) outcomes: Alcohol could contribute to obesity.  Obesity Obesity and alcohol intake Physiological parallels between alcohol intake and food intake: Obesity and alcoholism were once ascribed to a weak will but are now understood to be environmentally and biological determined. The physiologic commonalities between excessive eating and excessive alcohol drinking shed light on intervention strategies. which would negate this effect. calories in liquids (alcohol) may fail to trigger the physiologic mechanism that produces the feeling of fullness in short term. Heavy drinkers were 2.6% of all cancer cases worldwide are caused by drinking alcohol. Red wine contains resveratrol.cancer.
  Alcohol expectations Alcohol expectations are beliefs and attitudes that people have about the effects they will experience when drinking alcoholic beverages.5% of all global cancer deaths. and intoxication. then alcohol abuse might be reduced. resulting in specific behaviors.000 deaths per year). and disrupt equilibrium. A British study found that consumption of two units of alcohol (one regular glass of wine) daily by doctors aged 48+ years increased longevity by reducing the risk of death by ischaemic heart diseaseand respiratory disease. A study in the United Kingdom found that alcohol causes about 6% of cancer deaths in the UK (9. in 2001. which is almost entirely a result of lowered coronary heart disease. The manner and degree to which alcohol expectations interact with the physiological effects of intoxication. In the United Kingdom. The phenomenon of alcohol expectations recognizes that intoxication has real physiological consequences that alter a drinker's perception of space and time. or aggression.  Longevity Alcohol consumption by the elderly results in increased longevity. but abstainers and heavy drinkers showed an increase of about 50% in mortality (even after controlling for confounding factors). resulting in 3. Deaths for which alcohol consumption is known to increase risk accounted for only 5% of the total deaths.6% of all cancer cases worldwide are caused by alcohol drinking. But if a society . is unclear. reported that persons who consumed that smallest quantity (one drink per drinking day) with greatest frequency (three to seven days per week) had lowest BMI. abilities. Low consumption of alcohol had some beneficial effects. A single study found. the beneficial effects of moderate drinking were confirmed. heavy drinking is blamed for about 33. if a society believes that intoxication leads to sexual behavior.180 deaths were attributed to alcohol. while those who infrequently consumed that greatest quantity had the highest BMI. The causes of death included murder. Breslow et al. For example. and emotions. They are largely beliefs about alcohol's effects on a person’s behaviors.754 deaths in the U. Some people believe that if alcohol expectations can be changed. so a net 59. but this figure increased among those who drank more than two units of alcohol per day. Both quantity and frequency of alcohol intake are relevant to BMI outcomes: the effects of frequent-moderate drinking differ from infrequent-heavy drinking on BMI outcomes. rowdy behavior. A study in Sweden found that 29% to 44% of "unnatural" deaths (those not caused by illness) were related to alcohol.000 deaths a year. suicide. reduce psychomotor skills. It has also been found to double the lifespans of worms. asphyxia. In a 2010 long-term study of an older population. falls.  Mortality rate Main article: Long-term effects of alcohol#Alcohol-related deaths A report of the United States Centers for Disease Control estimated that medium and high consumption of alcohol led to 75. A global study found that 3. then people tend to act that way when intoxicated.S.traffic accidents.occurs (frequency).
Scientist. Therefore any substance (beyond tea or mild coffee) that affects one's mindfulness is considered to be covered by this prohibition. Islam and alcohol. Alcohol was believed to increase sexual desire and to make it easier to approach another person for sex. the Bahá'í Faith. but are actually drinking tonic water that contains alcohol. However. the scripture of Theravada Buddhism. Some Jewishtexts. Other denominations use unfermented grape juice in Communion and either abstain from alcohol by choice or prohibit it outright. "I undertake to refrain from fermented drink that causes heedlessness. Norse paganism considered alcohol to be the sap of Yggdrasil. — even when they have not been drinking it. then it usually leads to those outcomes. encourage moderate drinking on holidays (such as Purim) in order to make the occasion more joyous. Alcohol expectations vary within a society. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. depicts refraining from alcohol as essential to moral conduct because alcohol causes a loss of mindfulness. These include Islam. the United Pentecostal Church International. Men tend to become more aggressive in laboratory studies in which they are drinking only tonic water but believe that it contains alcohol." The English translation is. the Seventh-day Adventist Church. and some societies expect that drinking alcohol will cause disinhibition. Women report feeling more sexually aroused when they falsely believe the beverages they have been drinking contained alcohol (although one measure of their physiological arousal shows that they became less aroused). as in the ancient Greco-Roman religion. discourage. Some religions forbid. the Church of Christ. such as in the ecstatic rituals of Dionysus (also called Bacchus). Purim. so these outcomes are not certain. They also become less aggressive when they believe they are drinking only tonic water. most Mahayanaschools of Buddhism. some sects of Taoism (Five Precepts (Taoism) and Ten Precepts (Taoism)). Theravada.  Alcohol and religion Main articles: Religion and alcohol.believes that intoxication leads to relaxation and tranquil behavior. Alcohol expectations can operate in the absence of actual consumption of alcohol. and some sects ofHinduism. Some have postulated that pagan religions actively promoted alcohol and drunkenness as a means of fostering fertility. Christianity and alcohol. Judaism uses wine on Shabbat for Kiddush as well as in the Passover ceremony. Many Christian denominations use wine in the Eucharist or Communion and permit alcohol in moderation. some Protestant denominations of Christianity. Drunkenness was an important fertility rite in this religion. the Talmud. and Alcohol in the Bible Some alcoholic beverages have been invested with religious significance. But its purport is not that alcohol is an evil but that the carelessness it produces creates bad karma. . The drinking of alcohol is allowed. "Surā-meraya-majja-pamādaṭṭhānā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi. Research in the United States over a period of decades has shown that men tend to become more sexually aroused when they think they have been drinking alcohol. in societies in which the people do not expect that alcohol will disinhibit. Jainism." Technically this prohibition does not cover drugs other than alcohol. For example. People tend to conform to social expectations. The Pali Canon.g. The fifth of the Five Precepts states. and other religious ceremonies. e. or restrict the drinking of alcoholic beverages for various reasons. intoxication seldom leads to disinhibition and bad behavior.
 Distilled beverages . The natives of South America produced a beer-like beverage from cassava or maize. to 1 part wine and 4 parts water). Reasons that have been proposed for drinking them include: They are part of a people's standard diet They are drunk for medical reasons For their relaxant effects For their euphoric effects For recreational purposes For artistic inspiration For their putative aphrodisiac effects  Early references Chemical analysis of traces absorbed and preserved in pottery jars from the neolithic village of Jiahu in Henan province in northern China has revealed that a mixed fermented beverage made from rice. History Main article: History of alcoholic beverages Alcoholic beverages have been drunk by people around the world since ancient times. Recipes have been found on clay tablets and art in Mesopotamia that show people using straws to drink beer from large vats and pots. the women drank weaker.) This chewing technique was also used in ancient Japan to make sake from rice and other starchy crops. This is approximately the time when barley beer and grape wine were beginning to be made in the Middle East. grape wine was the prerogative of the higher classes. (Beverages of this kind are known today as cauim or chicha. Wine was consumed in Classical Greece at breakfast or at symposia. so that they can forget their misery (Proverbs 31:6-7). The Hebrew Bible recommends giving alcoholic drinks to those who are dying or depressed. A document from that time mentions nuns having an allowance of six pints of ale each day. several native civilizations had developed alcoholic beverages. consumption of the local "wine" (pulque) was generally restricted to religious ceremonies but was freely allowed to those who were older than 70 years. which had to be chewed before fermentation in order to turn the starch into sugar. and children drank the weakest. Both the Greeks and the Romans generally drank diluted wine (the strength varying from 1 part wine and 1 part water. By the time the Europeans reached the Americas in the 15th century. Cider and pomace wine were also widely available. A triple fermentation process was used — the men drank the strongest beer. The Hindu ayurvedic texts describe both the beneficial effects of alcoholic beverages and the consequences of intoxication and alcoholic diseases. beer was drunk by the whole family. and fruit was being produced as early as 9.000 years ago. According to a post-conquest Aztecdocument. The medicinal use of alcohol was mentioned in Sumerian and Egyptian texts dating from about 2100 BC. honey. and in the 1st century BC it was part of the diet of most Roman citizens. In Europe during the Middle Ages.
It was at this time that alcohol became an important part of the American diet. Acetic acid is esterified with coenzyme A to produce acetyl CoA. Paracelsus gave alcohol its modern name. ethanol is always produced by means of fermentation. it is the product of glycolysis. militia musters. Americans had inherited a hearty drinking tradition. Alcohols other than ethanol (such as propylene glycol and the sugar alcohols) appear in food and beverages. When compared to other alcohols. Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages (although novelty inebriating drinks have been made from alternate alcohols such as 2-Methyl-2-butanol). Participants would typically drink until they became intoxicated. One way was to drink small amounts daily and regularly. By the early 14th century. ethanol is only slightly toxic. Americans drank seven gallons of alcohol per person annually. the metabolism of carbohydrates by certain species of yeast in the absence of oxygen.  Toxicology Main article: Hangover In the liver. . which produces energy by oxidizing the acetyl moiety into carbon dioxide. Acetyl CoA is an intermediate that is common in the metabolism of sugars and fats. Many types of alcohol were consumed. When produced for use in a beverage. which is then further oxidized into harmless acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. court sessions. In the 1820s. Americans drank alcohol in two distinctive ways.  Chemistry Main article: Ethanol Alcohol is a general term for any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom. and began to be seen in China no later than the 14th century. Groups of people would gather in a public place for elections. usually at home or alone. and anLD50 of 9000 mg/kg (oral. The other way consisted of communal binges. the breakdown of glucose. and the butanols (four carbons. with a lowest known lethal dose in humans of 1400 mg/kg (about 20 shots for a 100 kg person). During the 19th century. Acetyl CoA can also be used for biosynthesis.  Alcohol in American history In the early 19th century. the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase oxidizes ethanol into acetaldehyde. Methanol (one carbon). thepropanols[disambiguation needed ] (three carbons giving two isomers).e. They also spread eastward from Europe. they had spread throughout the European continent. or neighborly festivities.. holiday celebrations. which encouraged the widespread production of cheap whiskey. One reason for this heavy drinking was attributed to an overabundance of corn on the western frontier. Acetyl CoA carries the acetyl moiety into the citric acid cycle. which in turn may be bound to other carbon atoms and further hydrogens. mainly due to the Mongols. which is derived from an Arabic word that means ―finely divided‖ (a reference to distillation). i. four isomers) are all commonly found alcohols — these three toxic alcohols should never be consumed in any form.Main articles: Distillation and Distilled beverages Distilled alcoholic beverages were first recorded in Europe in the mid-12th century.
the aldehydes and carboxylic acids are poisonous. or corn) is determined by the primary grain. In the United Kingdom. However.g. . many of thempseudoscientific. lightweight persons. especially for women. such as "cherry brandy" or "plum wine. These people have a smaller quantity of water in their bodies. cider refers to the alcoholic beverage. and children. The kind of fruit must be specified. Alcohols are toxicated into the corresponding aldehydes and then into the corresponding carboxylic acids. Various factors contribute to it. Nevertheless." Beer is made from barley or a blend of several grains. fatalities from ethanol are mainly found in extreme doses associated with the induction of unconsciousness or chronic addiction (alcoholism). It has anxiolytic. and sedative actions similar to many other sedative-hypnotic drugs.rat). In contrast. ethanol affects the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors and produces a depressant (neurochemical inhibitory) effect. The hangover starts after the euphoric effects of ethanol have subsided. Gin is a similar distillate but it is flavored by juniper berries and sometimes by other herbs as well. bourbon. In the human body. Various treatments to cure hangover have been suggested.  Hangover Excessive consumption of ethanol may cause a delayed effect that is called hangover. grain or potatoes) will be called a beer. the blood alcohol concentration may still be substantial and above the limit imposed for automobile drivers and operators of heavy equipment. accidental overdosing of alcoholic drinks. a beverage fermented from a starch-heavy mash (e. Applejack is sometimes made by means of freeze distillation. is risky. In general. The threshold of effects is at 22 mg/dL. especially those containing a high percentage of alcohol. Whiskey (or whisky) is made from grain or a blend of several grains. and the acidosis can be lethal. Vodka is distilled from fermented grain or from potatoes. then the beverage is a spirit. Wine and brandy are made only from grapes.anticonvulsant. A blood alcohol concentration of 50 to 100 mg/dL may be considered legal drunkenness (laws vary by jurisdiction). and fermented apple juice is called hard cider. rye. The effects of a hangover subside over time. typically in the night and morning after alcoholic drinks were consumed. and in Australia the term is ambiguous. In the case of alcohols other than ethanol. although its pharmacological profile is not identical.  Raw materials of alcoholic beverages The names of some alcoholic beverages are determined by their base material. These metabolic products cause a poisoning and acidosis. cider often means unfermented apple juice (sometimes called sweet cider). so that the alcohol is less diluted. Ethanol is similar to other sedativehypnotics such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines both in its effect on the GABAA receptor. hypnotic. In the United States and Canada. If an alcoholic beverage is made from another kind of fruit. It is highly distilled so that it will contain less of the flavor of its base material. including the toxication of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Ethanol is also crosstolerant with benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The type of whiskey (scotch. the direct toxic effects and toxication of impurities called congeners. If the fermented mash is distilled. and dehydration. it is distinguished as fruit wine or fruit brandy.
boza (the Balkans. rice na). Lebanon. gaoliang. Republic. tesguino burukutu (Nigeria). kasikisi (with sorghum malt. pálinka tepache (Mexico) Chuoi hot (Vietnam). Ingredients  Grains Source barley rye corn Name of fermented beverage beer. Tibet).S. pear brandy. Armagna c (France). Turkey). tongba (Nepal. Arak (Syria. huangjiu and choujiu (Chi aila[disambiguation needed ] (Nepal). Tanzania). Democratic Republic of the Congo) gouqi jiu (China) gouqi jiu (China) Toddy (Sri Lanka) arrack. tuak (Borneo rea) Island). ma (komejōchū) and awamori (Japan). țuică. Turkey) buckwheat shōchū (sobajōchū) (Japan)  Fruit juice Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage brandy. sake (Japan). apfelwein perry. Central African of baijiu (China). vodka. poiré (France) vie (France). Cognac (France). Rwanda). wine juice of apples juice of pears juice of plums juice ofpineapples bananas orplantains gouqi coconut cider (U. shōchū (mugijōchū) (Japan) rye whiskey. mbege(with millet malt. certain other types sorghum thern Sudan). and vodka (rarely) chicha. wheat wheat beer weizenkorn (Germany) beer. Jordan). kvass Name of distilled beverage Scotch whisky. calvados. pisco(Chile and Peru). umeshu. wheat whisky. barley wine rye beer. lambanog (Sri Lanka. merisa (sou maotai. Korn (Germany) Bourbon whiskey. or pear Poire Williams. soju (Ko kgeolli (Korea). brem (Bali). törkölypálinka (Hungary) juice ofgrapes. vodka (Poland). cider cider"). sonti(India). corn beer. Vermouth. Cameroon) horilka (Ukraine). singani (Bolivia). ale. shōchū rice gao (Vietnam). urgwagwa (Ugan da.: "hard applejack (or apple brandy). . pálinka (Hungary) plum wine slivovitz. Rakia (The Balkans. Eau-decider. India. thwon (Nepal) millet beer (Sub-Saharan millet Africa). Branntwein (Germany). Irish whiskey. pito (Ghana). Ruou baijiu (China). bilibili (Chad.
tsipouro/tsikoudia (Greece). zivan ia (Cyprus). Coconut. Borassus flabellifer honey milk sugar Name of fermented beverage coyol wine (Central America). vodka (Poland and Germany). kefir. Trester (Germany). tembo (SubSaharan Africa). mezcal. akvavit (Scandinavia). aguardiente.chicha (Ecuador) juice of sugarcane. guaro tequila.grappa ( Italy). Arak (Iraq)  Vegetables Source juice of ginger root potato sweet potato nihamanchi (South cassava/manioc/y America). kasiri (Sub-Saharan uca Africa). pinga or cachaça (Brasil). tescovină (R omania). basi. betsa-betsa (regional) ormolasses juice of agave pulque Name of fermented beverage ginger beer (Botswana) potato beer horilka (Ukraine). ginger with raisins Myrica rubra ginger ale. poitín (poteen) (Ireland) shōchū (imojōchū) (Japan). horilka (Ukraine). raicilla  Other ingredients Source sap of palm sap of Arenga pinnata. toddy (Indian subcontinent) Tuak (Indonesia) Arrack distilled mead (mead brandy or honey brandy) arkhi (Mongolia) shōchū (kokutō shōchū): made from brown sugar (Japan) Name of distilled beverage mead. aguardente(Portugal). blaand kilju and mead or sima (Finland) . soju (Korea) Name of distilled beverage rum (Caribbean).Philippines) ginger with sugar. tej (Ethiopia) kumis. ginger beer. ginger wine yangmei jiu (China) pomace pomace wine yangmei jiu (China) Raki/Ouzo/Pastis/Sambuca (Turkey/Greece/Fra nce/Italy). marc (France).
Some are used in chemistry laboratories and industry. 18 . Another type of alcohol is ethyl alcohol. wheat or barely. It is found in cleaning solvents. called wort. also known as ethanol. or isopropyl alcohol is also used in industrial processes as well as in home cleaning products and skin lotions. It is usually consumed in diluted concentrations of absolute (i. Ethyl alcohol is also used as a reagent in some industrial applications. is prepared by combining yeast and malted cereal. Fermentation of this liquid mix produces alcohol and carbon dioxide. unless specified otherwise. e. 100 per cent) ethyl alcohol. such as grapes. The alcohol so produced is called beer. with the mixture being called "denatured ethanol" to prevent theft for human consumption. When ripe. As such. It is similar to ethanol but the end product after it is digested by the body is formaldehyde. clear liquid with harsh burning taste and high volatility. Isopropanol. Methanol. plums or apricots. A liquid mix. the grapes are crushed and fermented in large vats to produce wine. such as corn. Methanol poisoning leading to blindness has been known to occur on consuming even small amounts. Brief description of alcoholic beverages Wines are made from a variety of fruits. it is often available in large quantities inexpensively. peaches.There are different types of alcohol. paint removers. For such use. The soil in which the grapes are grown and the weather conditions in the growing season determine the quality and taste of the grapes which in turn affects the taste and quality of wines. The most common wines are produced from grapes. It is a thin. This has been consumed by human beings for its intoxicating and mind-altering effects. rye. The process of fermentation is stopped before it is completed to limit the alcohol content. This is responsible for "alcohol poisoning". The term 'alcohol'.g. isopropyl and methyl alcohol. It is also commonly known as "rubbing alcohol". or methyl alcohol or wood alcohol has been used as an industrial solvent and is also commonly available as methylated spirit. refers to ethanol or ethyl alcohol.e. Beer is also made by the process of fermentation. It contains 4 to 8 per cent of alcohol. ethyl alcohol is combined with small quantities of methanol. photocopier developer and anti-freeze solutions. which is poisonous.
At times. so it is not stored in wooden casks. This is allowed to ferment.50 Whisky Cereal grains 40 . Liqueurs are made by adding sugar and flavouring such as fruits. obtained from paddy or wheat. Rum is a distilled beverage made from fermented molasses or sugarcane juice and is aged for at least three years. this juice has no intoxicating effect. with a sweetish taste. sugar or sugarcane is added to either of these two cereals and boiled with water. A white liquid.55 Rum Molasses/sugarcane 40 . It is a combination of alcohol.Whisky is made by distilling the fermented juice of cereal grains such as corn. Sherry.8 Common local brews in the countries of the South-East Asia Region Arrack is a distilled beverage. The word "Scotch" has become almost synonymous with whisky of good quality.55 Wines (Port. Grapes (also 10 . Caramel is sometimes used for colouring . herbs or flowers to brandy or to a combination of alcohol and water. yeast is added to hasten the process. Gin does not improve with age. Types of alcoholic beverages Beverage Source Alcohol content (percentage) Brandy Fruit juices 40 . etc) other fruits) Beer Cereals 4 . Brandy is usually aged in oak casks. Jaggery.60 per cent of alcohol. This liquid is collected and allowed to ferment. They are usually consumed in small quantities after dinner. When consumed fresh. This beverage contains about 50. after which it is distilled. . The colour of brandy comes either from the casks or from caramel that is added. water and various flavours. Brandy is distilled from fermented fruit juices. Gin is a distilled beverage. Toddy is obtained from the flowers of a coconut or palm tree.22 Champagne. Scotch whisky was originally made in Scotland. rye or barley. Most liqueurs contain 20-65 per cent alcohol. oozes out of 19 these flowers.
1 standard drink equals: 1 standard bottle of regular beer (285ml) Note: One unit of alcohol is equal to approximately 10 grams of absolute alcohol. and then subtracting the alcohol exported from the country. often considered as one drink. Tari Bhutan Ara India Arrack. Types of local brews in the countries of the South-East Asia Region Country Local brews Bangladesh Bangla Mad. Tadi. Chayang. one unit. Cholai. Tari. Waark Equivalence of different beverages The volume-by-volume strength of alcoholic beverages varies considerably. Annual per capita alcohol consumption per adult can be derived by: Alcohol production + alcohol imports . Sartha. Namtanmao. The same amount of alcohol. Krachae. Arrack Thailand Oou. The equivalence of different beverages is measured in terms of 'units' of alcohol.The fermented juice has an alcohol content of approximately 5-10 per cent. One unit is equal to approximately 10 grams of absolute alcohol. Desi Sharab. which is generally 120 ml or half a pint or 285 ml of beer. Tomb Sri Lanka Toddy. is also available from a glass of wine. Tharra Indonesia Palm wine Nepal Raksi.alcohol exports population 15 years of age and over The problem with this calculation is the substantial amount of unrecorded production which includes home . This number is divided by the population 15 years of age and over. since it is available from 30 ml (1 fluid ounce or small peg) of spirits like whisky. rum or brandy. 1 single measure of spirits (30ml) 1 glass of wine (120ml) 1 measure of aperitif (60ml) Total estimated alcohol consumption in a country in a given year The total estimated alcohol consumption in a country in a given year can be calculated by adding all the alcohol produced in the country and the alcohol imported.
brewing. 20 Any drink capable of being consumed containing ethanol or ethyl alcohol is an alcoholic beverage. The Beverage Act classifies all alcoholic beverages into four main categories. and beer. wine. alcohol brought into the country by overseas travellers. which is capable of use for beverage purposes. At the same time.04 alcohol beverage means "alcohol. capable of being consumed as a beverage by a human being. Bev.‖ Cirrhosis of the Liver A Leading Cause of Death Among Chronic Alcoholics By Buddy T. stockpiling of alcohol. Code Ann. § 67-1-5 "Alcoholic beverage" means any alcoholic liquid. consumption by tourists which can be substantial in some countries. alcohol. as provided for in Section 67-3-5. wastage and spillage are not subtracted from the formula. or any beverage containing more than one-half of one percent of alcohol by volume." According to Miss. However. including wines of more than five percent (5%) of alcohol by weight. either alone or when diluted. Different states have different laws relating to alcoholic beverages. but shall include native wines. 2010 About. spirits. About. Code § 1. Alco.com Health's Disease and Condition content is reviewed by the Medical Review Board See More About: health effects of alcohol liver disease cirrhosis .com Guide Updated January 01. smuggling into the country and variation in strength of different beverages. Mississippi Code of 1972. this remains a popular indicator for comparison between countries and monitoring trends within countries. namely. The words "alcoholic beverage" shall not include ethyl alcohol manufactured or distilled solely for fuel purposes. Under the Tex. illicit production. but shall not include wine containing five percent (5%) or less of alcohol by weight and shall not include beer containing not more than five percent (5%) of alcohol by weight.
Discomfort and Pain. medical.org Problems with Bad Breath?Find Out More About Bad Breath at the Colgate Oral Care Center. Here is information and Alcohol abuse is a disease that is characterized by the sufferer having a pattern of drinking excessively despite the negative effects of alcohol on the individual's work. Alcohol. and/or social life. most beginning by their mid teens. and trouble reducing its use. depression. men.www.www.Recommended for Stomach Cramps.com Alcoholism Ads Liver Disease Enlarged Liver Liver Damage Symptoms Liver Care Liver Problems Cirrhosis of the liver is one of the leading causes of death among chronic alcoholics.Ads You can stop drinkingA whole new approach that works Learn why people love this programwww. as well as having parents with alcoholism. and the elderly quite differently. can affect teens. women. educational. anxiety or another mood problem.colgate. Alcoholism is a destructive pattern of alcohol use that includes a number of symptoms. the person being unusually passive or argumentative. Almost 2. especially when consumed in excess. glazed or bloodshot eyes. and/or a deterioration in the person's appearance or hygiene. legal. including tolerance to or withdrawal from the substance. Alcohol is involved in nearly half of all violent deaths involving teens. Risk factors for developing a drinking problem include low selfesteem. using more alcohol and/or for a longer time than planned.000 people under 21 years of age die each year in car crashes in which underage drinking is involved. Alcohol abuse affects about 10% of women and 20% of men in the United States. .buscopan. Signs of alcohol intoxication include the smell of alcohol on the breath or skin.mywayout.ph/BadBreath Relieve Abdominal CrampsBuscopan® .
Cancer that starts in the liver. it is among the 10 most common cancers. and having problems because of your drinking. medications. This cancer is more frequent among Native Americans.Alcohol dependence has no one single cause and is not directly passed from one generation to another genetically. residential treatment. and environmental factors. negatively affecting virtually every organ system. is the fifth most common cancer in the world. Adequate supervision and clear communication by parents about the negative effects of alcohol and about parental expectations regarding alcohol and other drug use can significantly decrease alcohol use in teens. which I will refer to simply as liver cancer. With treatment. support groups. While some people with alcohol dependence can cut back or stop drinking without help. and only 5% of patients with liver cancer that has begun to cause symptoms survive . There is no one test that definitively indicates that someone has an alcohol-use disorder. to escape problems. and/or relapse-prevention programs. MD.. health-care practitioners diagnose these disorders by gathering comprehensive medical. getting irritated when you are unable to obtain alcohol to drink. Schoenfield. hiding alcohol in odd places. Therefore. MD Medical Editor: Leslie J. and Hispanics than among Caucasians. Asians. In the U. and mental-health information. Pacific Islanders. Alcoholism. There are numerous individual treatments for alcoholism. The long-term effects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism can be devastating and even life threatening. There are thought to be five stages of alcoholism. The Relationship of Chronic Viral Hepatitis. PhD Cancer can start within the liver (primary liver cancer or hepatocellular cancer) or spread to the liver (metastatic liver cancer) from other sites. Rather. There is no amount of alcohol intake that has been proven to be generally safe during pregnancy. or for the sole purpose of getting drunk. It has frequently spread beyond the liver by the time it is discovered. family. psychological. most are only able to do so temporarily unless they get treatment. drug testing. such as thecolon. and Cirrhosis to Liver Cancer Medical Author: Jay W. including individual and group counseling. about 70% of people with alcoholism are able to decrease the number of days they consume alcohol and improve their overall health status within six months.S. it is the result of a complex group of genetic. Liver cancer is a bad cancer. Some signs of a drinking problem include drinking alone. Codependency is the tendency to interact with another person in an excessively passive or caretaking manner that negatively affects the quality of the codependent individual's life. Marks.
even five years without treatment. they also might be targeted with treatments that prevent the development of liver cancer. Early cancers can be treated by surgical removal (resection). It is the most common drinking problem for young people. Another definition for binge drinking is simply drinking to get drunk. and both viral hepatitis and alcoholism cause cirrhosis which usually precedes the development of cancer. from mild and annoying to lifethreatening. Therefore. The term "alcoholism" refers to a disease known as alcohol dependence syndrome. the contributions and interrelationships of alcohol abuse. chronic viral hepatitis is common in alcoholism. under age 21. interpersonal or legal difficulties. Binge Drinkers Have Highest Risk of Injury Heavy Drinking Dangers Brief Intervention Effective for Binge Drinkers Alcohol Abuse Binge drinking turns into alcohol abuse when someone's drinking begins to cause problems and the drinking continues anyway. Theoretically. Although the current techniques for surveillance are not very good at detecting early liver cancer. The only hope for patients who are at risk for liver cancer is regular surveillance so that the cancers can be found early. when such treatments are developed. The most common diseases associated with liver cancer are chronic viral hepatitis. Types of Alcohol Problems Alcohol problems occur at different levels of severity. binge drinking means having five or more drinks in one session for men and four or more for women. Binge Drinking Officially. neglecting child or household responsibilities or trouble with the law. destruction of the individual tumors. and cirrhosis in the development of liver cancer are complex. Despite the complexity. and cirrhosis (scarring of the liver). the most severe stage of a group of drinking problems which begins with binge drinking and alcohol abuse. or liver transplantation. Although alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is the most severe stage. newer techniques are being tested and appear to be better. What Is Alcohol Abuse? Problem Drinkers Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Alcohol Dependence . Moreover. Alcohol abuse is when someone continues to drink in spite of continued social. it is important to try to understand the contributions of each disease so that patients at highest risk for liver cancer can be targeted for surveillance. less severe drinking problems can also be dangerous. alcoholism. Alcohol abuse can result in missing time at school or work. viral hepatitis.
28 Days $4. 2010 About. Although a massive amount of scientific research indicates heredity plays some role in developing alcoholism.com Guide Updated January 02. But It Doesn't Act Like a Disease! What Do We Mean By Alcoholism? Alcohol Abuse vs. having a family history of alcoholism does not doom a person into becoming an alcoholic.com . About. Alcohol dependence is a chronic and often progressive disease that includes a strong need to drink despite repeated problems.Alcohol abuse becomes alcohol dependence when drinkers begin to experience a craving for alcohol.Effective Program. The genetic tendencies can be overcome.995alcoholrehab. Alcohol Dependence Is Alcoholism Inherited? Alcoholism tends to run in families and a vast amount of scientific research indicates that genetics play a role in developing alcohol problems.com Health's Disease and Condition content is reviewed by the Medical Review Board See More About: treatment for alcoholism detoxification pharmaceutical treatments Ads You can stop drinkingA whole new approach that works Learn why people love this programwww. But research also shows that a person's environment and peer influences also impact the risk of becoming alcohol dependent. a loss of control of their drinking.mywayout. Treatment of Alcoholism There Is No Medical Cure for Alcoholism By Buddy T.org Alcohol Rehab ProgramPrivate Rehab Center in Thailand . withdrawal symptoms when they are not drinking and an increased tolerance to alcohol so that they have to drink more to achieve the same effect.
In some cases. detox treatment can also include administering benzodiazepines (tranquilizers such as Valium.com Alcoholism is a treatable disease and many treatment programs and approaches are available to support alcoholics who have decided to get help. Even most alcoholics who seek help on their own volition have at least one relapse before they obtain long-term sobriety. Long-time. Alcoholics who are pressured into treatment by social pressure or forced to quit by circumstances rarely succeed in the long run. but no medical cure available.Health. The Stages of Rehab Recovery Relapse Triggers Spouse's Attitude Can Affect Relapse Alcohol Withdrawal Almost all alcoholics who have been chronic. the first step to treatment is a sincere desire to get help. Ativan or Serax). convulsions. includes abstinence from alcohol in a controlled environment and close monitoring of vital signs and any withdrawal symptoms.which can include confusion. hallucinations. Approximately 95 percent of alcoholics experience mild to moderate withdrawal symptoms that can be treated by health-care providers on an outpatient basis.breakingfreeaddictionrecovery. heavy drinkers who decide to quit drinking should seek medical assistance first.com Ask a Doctor Online NowA Doctor Will Answer You Now! Questions Answered Every 9 Seconds. Regardless of how someone is diagnosed as alcohol dependent or how they came to realize they have a serious drinking problem. Librium. Holistic. These symptoms can range from mild shakes and discomfort to life-threatening delirium tremens -.com Alcoholism Ads Alcohol Detox Treatment Addiction Treatment Drinking Treatment Alcoholism Drug Rehab Treatment Ads Break Free From AddictionAddiction's Complicated. Recovery Doesn't Have To Be.JustAnswer. Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms The Range of Withdrawal Symptoms Treatment for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms Alcohol Rehab and Treatment Facilities . heavy drinkers will experience some level of withdrawal symptoms when they suddenly stop drinking. Detoxification treatment.Luxury Retreat AustraliaPrivate. autonomic instability and death.sanctuarybb. One-on-One Treatment for Addictionswww. but five percent experience severe withdrawals and should be treated in a hospital or a facility that specializes in detoxification.
strength and hope with each other to solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. a fellowship of men and women who share their experience. Naltrexone (Revia) blocks the affects of alcohol in the brain and reduces alcohol craving. Acamprosate (Campral) relieves the distress and discomfort alcoholics experience when they stop drinking. Thousands of facilities in the United States offer alcohol and drug rehabilitation and treatment services. combined with other treatment efforts. three medications approved in the U. after which the alcoholic's dependency on alcohol is primarily psychological. Scientific research has shown that participation in support groups. outpatient counseling and therapy. is more effective in helping alcoholics remain sober than participating in treatment by itself. Participation in A. Antabuse (disulfiram) works as a deterrent against drinking by making the person sick if they consume any alcohol. For those who do not prefer the 12-step approach. rather than physical or chemical. The goal after detox is to prevent a relapse of excessive drinking. Antabuse (disulfiram) Naltrexone (Revia or Vivitrol) Acamprosate (Campral) Is There a Pill to Reduce Craving? Alcoholism Support Groups One of the oldest and most well-known "treatments" for alcoholism is Alcoholics Anonymous. The goal of these facilities is to help the alcoholic learn how to remain sober and resist the urge to drink. is free. Meeting Online Meetings Find a Non-Step Support Group Readers Respond: What was the biggest advantage of going to a residential alcohol and drug rehab? .S. for the treatment of alcoholism. What Can I Expect at a 12-Step Meeting? Find an A. Currently. many other support groups are available.A.The process of detoxification from alcohol takes three to seven days. there are medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that are used to help people who have stopped drinking to remain sober. What Can I Expect at Rehab? Components of Effective Treatment Programs Cognitive Behavior Therapy Locate a Treatment Facility Pharmaceutical Treatment for Alcoholism Although there is no "magic pill" that will cure alcoholism.A. ranging from short-term residential or in-patient hospitalization to long-term.
Getting Well From Alcoholism or an Alcohol Proble.net Related Searches alcohol withdrawal symptoms detoxification treatment delirium tremens health care providers alcohol rehab medical cure Explore Alcoholism Must Reads What Is Alcoholism? Symptoms of Alcoholism Withdrawal Symptoms Treatment of Alcoholism Help for Families Most Popular Alcoholism Screening Quiz Withdrawal Symptom Quiz . How Alcoholics Get Well ..Read responses (34) Post Your Answer Alcoholism Symptoms What Are the Signs of a Drinking Problem? How Can I Tell If I Have a Drinking Problem? Alcoholism Screening Quiz Related Articles Alcohol Withdrawal .ch Israel Medical Treatmenttop medical institutions and expert in medical serviceswww.com SiegfriedPharmaceutical and Chemical Development and Productionwww.Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Quiz Effects of Marijuana .heptech..guide21.Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms Make It Hard to Quit Drink.AlfaScientific.com/ On-Site Drug TestsImmediate... Fast & Easy Results Test 12 Drugs at Once .Don't Be Afraid of Alcohol Withdrawal Alcohol Withdrawal .siegfried.Buy Online!www. Getting Help for Alcoholism and Addiction New Advances in Alcoholism Treatment Buddy T Alcoholism Guide Sign up for My Newsletter Headlines Forum Advertisement Ads Surviving Liver DiseaseHepTech is a proven management system with clinical researchwww.
Marijuana Problem Screening Quiz Adult Child of Alcoholics Screening Quiz See More About: treatment for alcoholism detoxification pharmaceutical treatments By Category Alcoholism 101 About Drug Abuse Effects of Alcohol Do I Have A Problem? How to Stop Treatment Centers Find a Meeting 12 Step Recovery Support for Families Binge Drinking College Drinking Facts for Teens Drunk Driving Women and Alcohol research on chirrhosis from the National Digestive Diseases Clearinghouse .
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