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How did the beliefs of the Protestant Reformation challenge the views of the Catholic Church and how did the Catholic Church respond? The Protestant sect of Christianity started when Martian Luther complained about church corruption and listed his grievances against the church. This sparked an outrage among the leaders of the Catholic Church, because not only was Martian undermining their power but he also held different beliefs than what the Catholics believed in. He believed that forgiveness and salvation did not come from doing certain things and “good acts” but rather from religious faith. He also stated that salvation only came from Jesus Christ, and that the Bible and Christian traditions made up the belief system in Christianity, not the Pope’s decisions. This not only led to his excommunication from the church, but it also sparked a theological reformation in which large numbers of Catholics broke of from the church and joined the protestant religion. The Catholic Church responded by creating reformations of their own. In the 1500s, the Latin Church’s central government, or papacy, was gaining money and power, yet at the same time it was suffering from corruption. Due to Europe’s prosperity, larger donations, and heavier taxes, the Pope was able to undertake large and grand building techniques. Pope Leo the 10th was especially known for this, creating the Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome. During this time period, a German Monk challenged the Pope on the issue of indulgences. An indulgence is a pardon or forgiveness, granted by the church for past sins. You could gain this forgiveness from doing something “pleasing” to the church, such as going on a pilgrimage or paying large sums of money to the Church. Martian Luther challenged this practice saying that forgiveness did not come from “doing certain things” but rather from religious faith. He also came up with a list of 95 ways the church was corrupted and posted on the church door. This disagreement soon sparked a large theological debate, which eventually led to the Protestant Reformation. The “Lutherans” maintained the view that salvation only came from Jesus Christ and that the Bible and Christian traditions made up the belief system in Christianity, not the Pope’s decisions. The Lutherans gained large amounts of support from the Germans due to the printing press, which helped to spread Lutheran ideas. Another advantage they held was that they converted their preaching and the bible into vernacular, or the local language. (Which was in this case German) John Calvin was an influential French Protestant leader who wrote the book: The Institutes of the Christian Religion. He maintained the views of the Protestants, however he had a different view of how salvation was gained. He believed that salvation was too great for man to gain, and that salvation only came to those who predetermined by god. He also believed in a self-governing congregation, and stressed simplicity in all aspects of Christian traditions. His followers became known as Calvinists Both the Calvinists and the Lutherans became known as Protestants, and they began to break off and form their own religion. All of the Christian reforms that took place in Europe during this time period were partially motivated by social agendas. One example of this is the fact that the Protestant faith appealed largely to the German-speaking population. The effectiveness of the Protestant Reforms led to reforms within the Catholic Church itself, called the Catholic Reformation. This reformation was brought about when a Catholic Church council met in Trent from 1545 to 1563. They met in order to separate the documents and traditions of the Catholic Church from the Protestants, and in the process the put into effect several new reforms. The first reinforced the authority of the Pope, which had degraded over time due to the corruption in the Church. The Jesuits were also very important to this process. The Jesuits, otherwise known as the Society of Jesus helped to stop the massive tide of followers flowing to the Protestant side; they did so by serving as missionaries and preaching to the population

2. Discuss the advancements made in military technology during 17th and 18th century Europe. What were their roots, how did the government promote them, and what was the impact of this new technology? Europeans made many advancements in military technology during the 17 century due to the numerous civil and external wars being fought. These technologies included better ships, a better-organized army, and better fortifications. The government sponsored all of these programs in order to build up their armies, and these technological advancements were often borrowed from one country to another. This technology made a huge impact as it led to the balance of power between the European states; states would forge temporary alliances to prevent any one nation from becoming too strong. All of the constant civil wars and external conflicts led to some of the best military in the world at that time. The states would sponsor large military programs that would help provide superiority during warfare, yet as all of Europe attempted to do this, it just made it so that the technology led to longer standoffs between countries. This made ground as well as naval superiority key. On the ground, the government would often drill and train troops together as well as use propaganda to forge a strong sense of comradeship and loyalty, which often strengthened the armies. Because the armies grew immense in size, the command chain had to become more efficient and tactics had to change. New methods of signaling also led to troop efficacy, because the commanders could control their forces better and faster. In order to defend themselves from naval and land-based bombardment, governments began constructing fortifications and forts out of reinforced materials, which could standup to the fierce cannons. This however, led to a even greater standoff time because one side would hide out in these fortifications and the other side would not be able to break through the walls. This meant that a strong navy would be more important than ever. The governments and leaders of European countries strongly endorsed their navies, but England especially. King Henry VIII spent large sums of money on shipbuilding and he encouraged the use of domestic iron smelting for cannons and cannon balls. Soon after England had become Great Britain, they surpassed the rest of Europe in ship building techniques and naval size. Great Britain’s excellent ship design was largely borrowed from the Dutch. All of this warfare technology and might created a balance in power, in which states would forge temporary alliances to prevent any one nation from becoming too strong.

3. Discuss the major ideas of the Enlightenment, and describe their impact on European government, education and society. The Scientific revolution and Reformations in religion helped to create a mindset for many great European thinkers known as Enlightenment. These thinkers questioned everything from agricultural methods to theological ideas, and they suffered because of it. Their works were often banned and burned, and most of these thinkers spent their life running from unhappy leaders and groups. Although Enlightenment was very unpopular, it sparked enthusiasm and it helped people to question the whole social society in Europe. The government would naturally try to block these ideas, as they would often spark rebellions. Education was also affected because no longer was the old Greek ideas accepted, now everything was questioned.