High Dive Summary (Part 1)
Formulas: The formula for the diver’s height above the ground is ℎ = 65 + 50 sin 9𝑊, where W is the number of seconds that have passed since the diver has left the 3 o’clock position. This formula is derived from the following diagram:
y 𝜃° x
The circle represents the Ferris wheel, and the angled line segment represents one side of the angle that is between the 3 o’clock radius and itself. Since the arc speed is one rotation in 40 seconds, the angular speed is nine degrees in one second. The Ferris wheel’s radius is 50 feet. A triangle was created by the angled line segment, the 3 o’clock radius, and line segment placed perpendicular to the radius and touching the edge of the circle at the same point as the first line segment. The triangle’s hypotenuse is 50 feet, which is the same as the radius. The bottom left angle is the product of 9W. Therefore, we can write the triangle as sin 𝜃 = 50 , where 𝜃 is the angle and y is the vertical leg of the triangle. Since we only want y, we can multiply the
Garg 2 entire equation by 50. Since the center of the Ferris wheel is 65 feet above the ground, we need to add 65 to the equation, and we are left with ℎ = 65 + 50 sin 9𝑊. For example, if the diver has been rotating for ten seconds, his height is 115 feet above the ground. To find the diver’s x-coordinate at the moment when he is released, we use the formula 𝑥 = 50 cos 9𝑊. This formula is derived from the circle diagram on the previous page. Using the same measures as the previous paragraph, the triangle’s hypotenuse is 50 feet. This is also the Ferris wheel’s radius. Since we want to find the diver’s x-coordinate, we need to find the horizontal leg of the triangle, or x. The angular speed is also the same as the previous paragraph, which is nine degrees per second. So, to find angle 𝜃, we must multiply wheel time, W, by 9. After we have the angle, we know that cos 𝜃 =
. To find just x, multiply both sides by 50, and
we are left with 𝑥 = 50 cos 9𝑊. For example, if the diver has been rotating for 14 seconds, his x-coordinate is -29.4 feet.
To find the amount of time the diver is falling, we use the formula 𝑡 =
formula is derived from the fact that the magnitude of gravity’s acceleration on Earth is 32 feet per second. The diver’s initial velocity is zero feet per second, obviously. His final velocity is found by multiplying 32 by the number of seconds he has fallen, or 32𝑡. Since we want to find the average velocity of these two velocities, we must add them and then divide by two, giving us 𝑣𝑎𝑣𝑔 =
(32𝑡). To find the distance he has fallen, we must multiply that by the number of
seconds he has fallen, giving us 𝑥 =
(32𝑡)𝑡, where x is the distance he has fallen. To find the
diver’s distance from the ground when he is dropped from a certain height, h, we must subtract
Garg 3 the previous formula from h, giving us 𝑑 = ℎ −
(32𝑡)𝑡, where d is the distance from the
ground. Since we want to find how long it will take to fall from h to eight feet above the ground (the height of the top of the water in the cart), we must substitute eight for d. After simplifying the formula greatly, we end up with 𝑡 =
. For example, if the diver is 100 feet above the
ground, it will take him 2.4 seconds to reach the level of the cart. To find the diver’s fall time while accounting for initial velocity, we must use the formula 𝑡 =
2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊+ (2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊)2 + 64(57+50 sin 9𝑊) 32
. This is because we need to use the quadratic
formula to solve the equation: 0 = (57 + 50 sin 9𝑊) + (2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊)𝑡 − 16 𝑡 2 . In this equation, the first part of the right side gives the initial height of the diver (subtracting 8 for the height of the cart), the middle part gives the vertical component of velocity (explained in the Velocity section), and the last part factors in acceleration due to gravity. For example, if the diver has been rotating for 8 seconds, it will take him 2.63 seconds to reach the level of the cart. To find the cart’s x-coordinate when the diver reaches the water level, we use the formula 𝑥 = −240 + 15(𝑊 + 𝐹). First of all, to find the cart’s x-coordinate after a certain amount of time, we must use the formula 𝑥 = −240 + 15𝑊, where W is the amount of time in seconds the cart has been moving. We get this formula because the speed of the cart is 15 feet per second, and the cart starts at an x-coordinate of -240. W is simply the time the diver takes to rotate on the wheel from the 3 o’clock position to his diving position. To find F, the diver’s fall time, we simply use the formula for t from the previous paragraph. For example, if the diver had been rotating for 8 seconds and had fallen for 2.63 seconds, the x-coordinate of the cart would be -80.55 feet.
Garg 4 To find the diver’s x-coordinate after landing while accounting for initial velocity, we use the formula: 𝑥 = 50 cos 9𝑊 + (−2.5𝜋 sin 9𝑊)𝑡, where t is the fall time of the diver (which can be found using the formula from the middle of the previous page). To find this formula, we must first get the x-coordinate of the platform when the diver is released, using the formula from two pages ago. Then, we must add the product of the diver’s fall time and horizontal component of velocity (explained in the Velocity section). For example, if the diver has been rotating for 8 seconds and has fallen for 2.63 seconds, his x-coordinate after falling would be -4.19 feet.
Unit Circle: Here is a diagram of the unit circle: 90°
270° In this circle, the radius is one, hence the name “unit circle”. When a value of degrees is positive, it would move counter-clockwise on the circle starting from 0°. If the value is negative,
Garg 5 it would move clockwise. The small line segment on the right side is a representation of what the sine of 45 would be. Since the radius is one, the length of the angled line segment is also one. The definition of sine in a unit circle is sin 𝜃 = 𝑦. Since the value of y is one when 𝜃 is 90°, it must be zero when 𝜃 is 180°. When 𝜃 is 270°, y must equal -1. Also, when 𝜃 is 360°, y must equal zero again. Therefore, sine is positive in the first and second quadrants, and is negative in the third and fourth quadrants. The definition of cosine in a unit circle is cos 𝜃 = 𝑥. The measure of x is one when 𝜃 is zero, and x is zero when 𝜃 is 90°. Therefore, cosine is positive in the first and fourth quadrants, and is negative in the second and third quadrants. To find a value of 𝜃 to give an equivalent value of y, one must look at the unit circle again. 90°
y 180° 𝜃 0°
270° The only other value of 𝜃 that could give the same value of y would be in the second quadrant. Therefore, we must draw another triangle that is reflected across the y-axis. When
Garg 6 we do that, the value of 𝜃 becomes 180 − 𝜃. However, if the value of 𝜃 was originally negative, then you must use 360 − 𝜃 + 180. For example, if 𝜃 = 50°, then 180 − 50 = 130°. To find equivalent angles of cosines, we must follow a process similar to the previous few paragraphs. The only difference is that instead of reflecting 𝜃 over the y-axis, we must reflect it over the x-axis in order to get the same x-coordinate. A reference angle is an angle between 0 and 90 degrees which gives an equivalent value of y, disregarding the sign of the value. To find a reference angle, one must manipulate 180, 360, and 𝜃 until a value between 0 and 90 is reached. For example, if 𝜃 is 256°, 256 − 180 = 76°, which is the reference angle. One can easily relate trigonometric functions to the unit circle. Here it is again: 90°
y 180° 𝜃 x 0°
270° The definition of sine in a circle is sin 𝜃 = 𝑟 , cosine is cos 𝜃 = 𝑟 , and tangent is tan 𝜃 = 𝑥 . In the case of the unit circle, the radius is one, so the definitions become sin 𝜃 = 𝑦, cos 𝜃 = 𝑥, and tan 𝜃 = 𝑥 . Therefore, sine in the unit circle is simply the measure of the length of the line
𝑦 𝑥 𝑦
Garg 7 segment y (as shown in the diagram), cosine is the measure of the length of x (also shown), and tangent is the quotient of y divided by x.
Coordinates: Rectangular coordinates are the technical term for the system of coordinates we use most of the time on the Cartesian plane. They are in the form (x,y). Polar coordinates are in the form (r, 𝜃), where r is the radius and 𝜃 is the degrees at which the radius is located. For example, the rectangular point (2,3) would be (3.61, 56.31°) in the polar coordinate system. I found r by using Pythagorean theorem to find the hypotenuse of the triangle formed by the x and y values of (2,3). Then, I found 𝜃 by taking the inverse tangent of the quotient of 3 divided by 2, also because of the triangle. The interesting thing about polar coordinates is that there are multiple ways to represent the same point. Since the polar coordinate system is based on a circle, if we add 360° to 𝜃, we will have the same position. Therefore, adding or subtracting any number of 360s will give the same position as the original. For example, the point (5, 27°) is the exact same point as (5, 387°). Also, if there is a negative value for r, it simply means to reflect the radius to the other side of the graph. Therefore, if we want to keep the position of the point constant, we can add or subtract any number of 180s from 𝜃 and make r negative. For example, the point (5, 27°) is the exact same point as (-5, 207°).
Garg 8 Graphs: Here is a graph of 𝑦 = sin 𝑥, followed by a graph of 𝑦 = cos 𝑥:
The amplitude of a graph is the distance from the topmost or bottommost point on the graph to the midline. In these graphs, the midlines are both 𝑦 = 0, and the amplitudes are both 1. The period of this graph is 360° or 2𝜋, because that is the time in which the y-value leaves and returns to the midline twice. Sine and cosine graphs are related to the unit circle because of the amplitude and period. The amplitude on the graph is the same as the radius on the circle, and the period is the same as the circumference of the circle. This makes sense because the period is the time in which the graph returns to its midline twice, and when going around the edge of a circle, one would pass the horizontal diameter twice. Also, the amplitude is the same as the radius because they are both the maximum distance the y-value can deviate from the midline. If we were to add a number to the sine graph, such as 𝑦 = 10 + sin 𝑥, it would transform the graph. It would move the midline up 10 on the y-axis. If we were to then multiply
Garg 9 x by four, the period would become smaller by a factor of four. Then, if we were to multiply sin 4𝑥 by 5, the amplitude would become five. Here is the resultant graph of 𝑦 = 10 + 5 sin 4𝑥:
The period has become one-fourth the size, the midline has raised to be 𝑦 = 10, and the amplitude has become five. The same transformations would apply to a similar graph, but with cosine instead of sine.
Velocity: Acceleration is measured in units of distance per time per time, therefore meaning that the velocity of the object increases by a certain amount each period of time. For example, the magnitude of acceleration due to gravity on Earth is about 32 ft/s2. If an object moves with constant acceleration, then it will continue to gain velocity at a constant rate. To find the average speed of an object with constant acceleration, we must divide the sum of the initial velocity and the final velocity by two. To find the final velocity, simply multiply
Garg 10 the time by the acceleration and add it to the initial velocity. For example, if an object is dropped, its initial velocity is 0 ft/s. Since the only force acting on it is gravity, it has a constant acceleration of 32 ft/s2. If it has fallen for four seconds, its final velocity is the product of 4 and 32, plus the initial velocity, 0. The final velocity is 128 ft/s. To find the average velocity, we must add the initial and final velocities together and divide by two. In this example, the initial velocity is 64 ft/s. Relating this to the Ferris wheel, if the diver is released at a point where the wheel is moving both vertically and horizontally, the diver will fly through the air with horizontal and vertical components of velocity. His flight will appear to be on one line, but the components of velocity are acting together to form a resultant velocity. To find the horizontal and vertical components of velocity for an angle of 𝜃 where the diver is released, we must look at the Ferris wheel again: 𝜃°
When the diver is released, he will initially fly off the wheel at the same speed as the wheel is turning, which is 2.5𝜋 ft/s. This is shown by the arrow tangent to the circle. However, as we stated earlier, the diver has horizontal and vertical components of velocity that act together to
Garg 11 make him fly at a speed of 2.5𝜋 ft/s. By using the supplementary angles postulate, we can find that the bottommost angle of the triangle formed by the velocities is equal to 𝜃. Since the hypotenuse of the triangle is simply 2.5𝜋, we can find the vertical component of velocity by using the formula 𝑣𝑣 = 2.5𝜋 cos 𝜃. We can also find the horizontal component of velocity by using the formula 𝑣ℎ = −2.5𝜋 sin 𝜃. These formulas can be used for any angle on the Ferris wheel.
High Dive Summary (Part 2)
To solve the unit problem for “High Dive” and to find when the diver should be released from the Ferris wheel, we must solve the system of equations involving the diver’s x-coordinate after falling and the cart’s x-coordinate. This is because we want both of the x-coordinates to be the same, so that the diver falls into the cart. To find the formula for the diver’s x-coordinate after falling from the Ferris wheel, we must first find the formula for the diver’s fall time with an initial velocity, which is: 2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊 + (2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊)2 + 64(57 + 50 sin 9𝑊) 32
This formula makes sense because it is solving the quadratic equation that we set up to find the diver’s fall time with an initial velocity. The first part of the formula, in the top left corner, gives the diver’s vertical velocity at the moment he is released. The rightmost part of the top of the equation gives the diver’s height at the time he is released. Now that we have the diver’s fall time, we need to find the diver’s x-coordinate after he falls to the ground (actually eight feet above the ground because of the cart’s height). To find this, we need to subtract the diver’s horizontal displacement from the x-coordinate of the platform’s position when he was released. The formula for this is: 2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊 + (2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊)2 + 64(57 + 50 sin 9𝑊) ) − 2.5𝜋 sin 9𝑊 32
= 50 cos 9𝑊 − (
Garg 13 The first part of the equation gives the platform’s x-coordinate at the time of the diver’s release. The last part of the equation, the horizontal speed of the diver, is multiplied by the fall time to give the horizontal displacement of the diver. Now we need to find the cart’s x-coordinate. To find this, we need to add W and t together to find the total time it takes from the beginning of the cart’s movement to when the diver hits the cart. Then, we need to multiply the number of seconds by 15 ft/s, which is the speed of the cart. Lastly, we need to add the number to -240 in order to find the x-coordinate if the cart starts 240 feet to the left of the Ferris wheel. The formula for this is: 2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊 + (2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊)2 + 64(57 + 50 sin 9𝑊) ) 32
= −240 + 15(𝑊 +
After we have the formulas for the diver’s x-coordinate after falling and the cart’s x-coordinate, we need to find which value of W gives the same output for both formulas. In order to do this, we need to set up a system of equations: 2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊 + = −240 + 15(𝑊 + 2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊 + (2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊)2 + 64(57 + 50 sin 9𝑊) ) 32 (2.5𝜋 cos 9𝑊)2 + 64(57 + 50 sin 9𝑊) ) − 2.5𝜋 sin 9𝑊 32
50 cos 9𝑊 − (
After solving for W (using a graphing calculator), we get 11.449 seconds, or 103.04 degrees counterclockwise.
High Dive Summary (Part 3)
I felt that throughout the course of the High Dive unit, I understood most of the concepts. I believe that it is a good idea to teach mathematical concepts through real-life situations because it gives me a chance to relate math to scenarios that I might be familiar with, therefore making it easier for me to understand the concepts. Regarding my ability to solve a problem that is as complex and has as many components as High Dive, I believe that for most of the time, I had a good grasp of all the different components. The only time when my belief faltered was near the end, when we had a huge load of information stored in our notes and it was beginning to get difficult to remember all of it. However, I think that if we had gone through the unit a bit faster, I would have remembered it all fairly well. Two things that I believe I did well in this unit are relating trigonometric functions to the unit circle and velocity/acceleration. I found that the unit circle was an excellent visual representation of the trigonometric functions, and that I learned about sine, cosine, and tangent fairly quickly by using the unit circle. I also found that since I am currently in Physics, everything related to movement, such as velocity and acceleration, was extremely easy to think about and calculate. The similar timing of Pre-Calculus and Physics helped a lot with the entire process of learning the steps needed to solve the High Dive problem.