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The heat flow in a body of homogeneous material is governed by the heat equation (cf. Sec. 9.7) K 2

c =-

up

where u(x, y, Z, t) is the temperature in the body. K is the thermal conductivity, o is the specific heat and p is the density of the material of the body. V2u is the Laplacian of u, and with respect to Cartesian coordinates x, y, z,

As an important application.calledon.a. which is oriented alone the x. (Fig. xis. Bar under consideration .e-dime..teraUy. ax2'~ " (jlt ~ "a2. and the heat equation becomes the :s.o-.Jet us consider the temperature in along thin bar or wire ot constant cross section and homogeneous materiat.onal heat equation iJu ~'= c .u 2 I o L . so a that heat flows in the x-directioa only ~Thens depends onlvon .x and time I. 275.nsi. 275) and is perfectly insulated ).r Fig.

3. 0) = f(x) liLt. Note that this has the same form as (2) in Sec.We shall solve (I) for some important types of boundary and initial conditions. 11. because (1) involves ut whereas the wave equation in olves "«: (Hence the classification in Probe 13 of the last section is not merely a formal matter but has far-reaching consequences with respect to the general behavior of the solutions.) Let us start with the case when the ends x = 0 and x = L of the bar are kept at temperature zero. I) =0 for all t. . Then the initial condition is (3) u(x. u(L. We shall determine a solution I) of (I) satisfying (2) and (3). [f(x) given]. Let f(x) be the initial temperature in the bar. The procedure of solving (1) will be similar to that in the case of the wave equation. The behavior of the solutions will be entirely different from that of the solutions of the wave equation. Then the boundary conditions are (2) u(O t) = 0.

We start from (4) u(x. G c2G = • Ii· F" The expression on the left depends only on t. To separate variables. The student may show that for k =:: 0 the only solution u = FG that satisfies (2) is II == O. k. t) = F(x)G(t). while the right-hand side depends only on x. we conclude that both expressions must be equal to a constant. .3. say. 11. As in Sec. . where dots denote derivatives with respect to t and primes denote derivatives with respect to x. we obtain the equation FG = c2F"G.Applying the method of separation of variables we first determine solu ions of (I) that satisfy the boundary conditions (2). Substituting this expression into (1). we divide this equation by c2FG: (5) . For negative k = _p2 we have from (5) c2G = G • P' Ii = -p · 2 .

. We must have B # 0. Thus A = 0. and. . = O. we require that F(O) F(O) = A. t) conditions (2) it follows that and u(L. since otherwise leads to sin pL 0. Frorn the boundary u(O.2. therefore. F == O... = Since G == 0 implies u == 0.We see that this yields the two linear ordinary differential (6) · equations (7) (8) F(x) = A cos px + B sin px.. F(L) = B sin pL. By (8). Hence the condition n7T L' F(L) 0 hence p n- 1. t) = F(O)G(t) =0 = F(L)G(t) 0 and F(L) = O.

satisfying (2).. we thus obtain the following solutions of (6) satisfying (2): F_.Setting B 1. For the values p just obtained it takes the form where The general solution is n= n7T'IL cn tt L 4·· 1" 2 .3. we need not consider negative integral values of n. in order to obtain the solution of the entire problem. . . . As in the previous section. n7TX B n SIn ~- L e" A n2t n- 1" 2 . ./x ) = . where B n is a constant. . 2 . . 11. (As in Sec. n7TX SIn L ' n = 1. (9) Hence the functions . .) We now consider the differential equation (7). are solutions of the heat equation (1). we shall now utilize an infinite series. . .

Third (10) s. solution also satisfying =c . I ~ ~ "" U n'\.J!J'n 'n~l ee .'. L. lX" - t)' .'.1 ( An c- Cn11).' SIn nL 1TX f() =~X. = '~B ..' consider the series '=c ..' .-"(x-. . U(0) x. ...'._ ~ n~l B' "n SI"n' . From this and (3)..-" n1rX L 11..T'o obtain a.4: (3)" we e -An2t C -. -' . !p..t') ..~.

. for (10)1 to satisfy (3).. -" " 'The solution of our problem can be established.. . .0 .f". 22 a.x S L (cf." n . assuming thatf(x)is piecewise continuous on the interval 0 s . dxB.5]. ::.Hence.. .x'' .L. Sere.'" . 5. '. . that is. The proof' which requires the knowledge of uniform convergenceof series.' f". '". . 2m. (4) in Sec. the' coefficients Bn must be chosen such that u(x. 14. (r) SID n"'1l..x.1)" and has onesided derivatives. half-range expansion of f(x). -2. (11) -. The rate of decay increases with n.t the end of Sec. under these assumptions the series (10)1 with coefficients (II) is the solution of our physical problem.. 0) becomes a. that is [cf. will be given at a later occasion (Probs.' L ~' ..' . [approaches infinity. 10.8). Because of the exponential factor all the terms in (10) approach zero as .L n I = - 1 2" •. namely. the Fourier sine series of i(x).at all interior points of that inte:rval.

OOl785t = 50 when 1 = On 0.. The initial condition gives u(x. The solution (10) is u(x.EXAMPU 1. thermal conductivity 0. Physical data for copper: density 8..001785 (sec-I]. where c2 = Klop = 0. Solutio".9510. Sinusoidal InRIal temperature Find the temperature u(x. 1000-O. Hence we obtain A12 = 1. 0) =L n=1 00 B n sin ~80 = f(x) = 100 sin ~80:X .87016400 = 0. B2 = B3 = . . I) in a laterally insulated copper bar 80 em long if the initial temperature is 100 sin (1rXI8O) OC and the ends are kept at 0 OC.92 gm/cm3" specific heat 0. Also..092 . How long will it take for the maximum temperature in the bar to drop to 50°C? First guess.(01785) = 388 [seconds] -= 6. by inspection or from (10) we get Bl = 100.5 [minutes].158· 9. In (to) we need A12 = c2..2/L 2. Hence. t) = 100 sin ~ e-O•OO1'185t. = o.092 calIgm °C. then calculate.158 [cm2/sec].5)/( -0. 8.95 calIcm sec °C.92 = 1.

actica:ll. each term has its OYlIl rate of decay.32 .32"12 . .5 looks Uk:e a sine curve: that is.O.y the g.. Had we chosen a bigger .(U607) ~ 43 [seconds]. '0..are as before . faster (9' times as fast as in Example I. which is much.3wx e-O~OU~O'1t. 21'6corresponding to t . t) == 100 sin . and terms with large n are praetically 0 after avery sh:on..time.N.. sin (31rX1BI)) '~and .01601..).(ln O. still fastervand in a sum..rapb of tbe first..5)/(. and the curve in Fig.or series of such terms. term of th.. the decay would have been. .001185- solution now is u(~t. 0. the SDlalio". it ls pr.e 0 solution. Our next example' is of this type.9' . 80 - Hence the maximumtemperatur-e drops 10 50 QC I. In (10)" instead of n :=: 1 'we now have n ~ 3-tand A.n t . so thattbe EXAMPU:~Speed 01 deoalY\ '~ SOlve the problem in Example I when theinilial tempe:rature :is 100.adler dabl .

II. (n = 3.r sin n1T'X dx + 1 L .L Integration yields Bn = 0 if n IS ev en and (n = I. t ( 12) (1 . 5. LI2 . From (11) we get Bn 2 =L = r.x) sin nstx dx ) . 9.EXAMPLE3.. -]. (The upper pan of Fig. "Triangular" InHial temperature In a bar Find the temperature in a laterally insulated bar of length L whose enos are kept at temperature o assuming that the initial temperature is I(x) ={ L-x x if if o< x < L/2. (L . L L·'2 o . . 7.. . 276 show s this function for the special L Solution.... U2 < x < L. l.

Solution of Example 3 C = 1 and various values of t . 'IT. for L = 276.u t =2 . x Fig.

-].. .Hence the solution is utx t) = 1T2 4L [.3." L.. .e.-I.2II L ~ . 11. 276 and Fig.sin 9 37i'x e" <3c '.eTTX L (/L~ C1i' . The reader may compare Fig. sin . 270 in Sec.

and the heat equation reduces to Laplace's equation+ (13) ..Steady. time independent). then iJu/at = 0.e.tate Twa I He« Flr1Jw If the heat flow is steady or stationary (i.

-dy2 . W'e sol vie this problem by' separating variables. 'This is..~planeand a given boundary condition . the mixed problem if U is prescribedon rest of C'. assuming that the temperature ". the . Substitution of u(x.dary 'value preblem.. y) == F(x}G(y) - - 1 G .et pr'oble..(x" y) equals a given function /(x) on the' upper side and o on the other three: sides of the: rectangle R.Ne'uma:nD probl.on the' boundary curve of R . a portion. of C and "« on 'the W'c'consider a Dirichlet problem in .em if the normal derivative n..A heat problem then consists of this equation to be considered in some region R of the x)'.. prescribed on COl. 'One calls it the Diricbl. .3 rectangle R' (Fig.m if u is.. = iJu "iJilI is prescribed on. d2G -k. C. caned a 'boun. 277).

277. Rectangle R and given boundary values .u=o o~~ o u=o a Fig.

From this and the boundary conditions on the left..7111 ·· 2'..(. flO) = Thisgives (14) o. . 'C a ) G "" O./.. F(a) = o. 2. k == (nw/a}2 and corresponding nonzero solutions I:":()' . ) --1W.'t a 11= 'I. -" . .X "'~ · 1f'1r r :::::::: SID ~ ."IXi = F.and right-hand sides of R". The equation for G then becomes 2·· d'-G dy2 (/ .' -.' '. .' .

. r....' the boundary condition .. Y·. . that." of -- = F R· .Solutionsare Nov.n ourproblem u :n .· .' . . .1. + B n-. .· n sin --- ...X)· -- A*.-.' From this and (14)" writing 2A.' sinh.••..)-. -H-eThi:s 'IJ ives . .'.--n..._I(.is G.-'(.. .·--. 0 or B.n1ry ......"'e '-(1 obtain the ""eigenfuDdio. r (•..~.-•...'. .Q • . -..u= 0 on the lower side of R implies that . -n: 1'. g '-'0-'tr--I1.-.)....ns.. ..(0 -... = 0-:~'.''n... --A...-. -·n..• '~'A: .= G-I( ..PI"'.' == A."O). .

we consider the infinite series u(x.right and lower sides of the rectangle R. b) = y = b we get = ~ An sm n=1 f (x) ~ *... ) = ~ "n(x.These satisfy the boundary condition II = 0 on the left . (16) and (15) with u(x. n1TX a sin • h nstb a . To obtain the solution of our problem also satisfying the boundary condition (16) u(X. n=1 y). b) = f(x) on the upper side of R. From this . · .

'I. a a - . that is..... _.e' .1..." ..'._ 2 J.. .1. by (4·.:.'._ '_ . c . ·.nwx d ... '10.'.'. '. - IL.X. in the form ut~. --".s ee tha t the solution o'fi our problem 5···.1 A! sin . . a..·5·_ (17) I U(X.) sin . _ ...)· '.X.)1) =L 'CC ..nwb I (I' "•..''1:'"'' (..~.-.a f" .. '.n1fX '.. . . a '. the: Fourier coefficients b.' J. . h- n'1i'h ) .i n.. b 'M : in" A '-'-n''''" Slol.We: canwrite this..-- . " ... .. ". of [(x).·._ '_ '. _'_. 'W' . QI.. Sec.-.n1TX sinh n'uy . b. " .1 A*s··."5. From this an d (il. - . a '.. ..··I'n·:· .b) _. s--I'n- ._ '. . a'-a '_. 'in. I "..::: 1 "__' .·. __ . '--" This shows that the expressions in the parentheses must be. ' = '-.(.

n 2 a sinh (n-nbtai J a 0 f(x) sin .where (18) A* =. it can be found in Ref. r . uxx and "w: can be established when f and are continuous and i" is piecewise continuous on the interval 0 < x :S a. [C2] listed in Appendix I. The proof is somewhat involved and relies on uniform convergence. obtained formally without regard to the convergence and the sums of the series for u. This solution. Il1TX a dx.

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