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Resour ces f or mat hemat i cal l y gi f t ed st udent s
Tutorials in Algebra, Number Theory, Combinatorics and
Geometry
The aim of t his sect ion is, in t he series of t ut orials, t o cover t he mat erial of t he unwrit t en
syllabus of t he I MO, more precisely t hat part of it which is not in t he school curriculum of
most part icipat ing count ries.
Al gebr a
q Rearrangement I nequalit y This art icle by K. Wu, Andy Liu was first published in
"Mat hemat ics Compet it ions" Vol. 8, No. 1 ( 1995) , pp. 53  60. This j ournal is
published by Aust ralian Mat hemat ics Trust . The art icle is reproduced here t hanks
t o t he kind permission of t he aut hors and t he Edit or of "Mat hemat ics
Compet it ions" Warren At kins.
Combi nat or i cs
q I nt eract ive Graph Theory Tut orials By Chris K. Caldwell from t he Universit y of
Tenessee at Mart in.
q Permut at ions.
q Friendship Theorem.
Number s
q Divisibilit y and primes
q Euclidean algorit hm
q Euler' s t heorem
q Represent at ion of numbers
q Bert rand' s post ulat e.
Geomet r y
q Pt olemy' s inequalit y
q Euler' s t heorem
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Tutorials in Elementary Mathematics for Math Olympiad Students
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Syllabus of the IMO
MathOlymp.com
Resour ces f or mat hemat i cal l y gi f t ed st udent s
Unwritten Syllabus of the IMO
These t hought s were writ t en in 1997, when I was working on t he Problem Select ion
Commit t ee of t he 38t h I MO in Argent ina and when my impressions about t he problems,
which were submit t ed, and t he at t it ude of our Commit t ee t o t hese problems were st ill
fresh. I edit ed t hem very lit t le since.
The syllabus of I MO is, of course, unwrit t en but t here are several t endencies which can
be clearly observed. I t is all ruled by t radit ion, t here is no logic in all t his what soever.
Some t opics are included, alht ough t hey are not in t he school curricula for most
count ries, on t he grounds t hat t hey are t radit ional and feat ure in t he t raining
programmes of most count ries.
What i s not I ncl uded
q Any quest ions where knowledge of Calculus may be an advant age, e. g. most of
t he inequalit ies;
q Complex numbers ( alt hough t hey were in t he past , when less count ries
part icipat ed) ;
q I nversion in geomet ry ( t he Jury j ust sick and t ired of it for some reason) ;
q Solid geomet ry was also present in t he past . There are coordinat ed at t empt s t o
ret urn it int o t he I MO but t he resist ance is st rong;
q Aft er being a darling of t he Jury for some t ime, Pell' s equat ion seems t o be
st rongly out of favour.
What i s i ncl uded
q Fundament al Theorems on Arit hmet ic and Algebra, fact orizat ion of a polynomial
int o a product of irreducible polynomials;
q Symmet ric polynomials of several variables, Viet a' s t heorem;
q Linear and quadrat ic Diophant ine equat ions, including t he Pell' s equat ion ( alt hough
see t he comment above) ;
q Arit hmet ic of residues modulo n, Fermat ' s and Euler' s t heorems;
q Propert ies of t he ort hocent re, Euler' s line, nine point  circle, Simson line, Pt olemy' s
inequalit y, Ceva and Menelaus et c. ;
q I nt erest ing sit uat ion is wit h t he graph t heory. I t is sort of considered t o be all
known and virt ually disappeared from submissions t o I MO. But wat ch t his space! .
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Syllabus of the IMO
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THE REARRANGEMENT INEQUALITY
K. Wu
South China Normal University, China
Andy Liu
University of Alberta, Canada
We will introduce our subject via an example, taken from a Chinese competition in 1978.
“Ten people queue up before a tap to ﬁll their buckets. Each bucket requires a diﬀerent time to
ﬁll. In what order should the people queue up so as to minimize their combined waiting time?”
Common sense suggests that they queue up in ascending order of “bucketﬁlling time”. Let us
see if our intuition leads us astray. We will denote by T
1
< T
2
< · · · < T
10
the times required to ﬁll
the respective buckets.
If the people queue up in the order suggested, their combined waiting time will be given by
T = 10T
1
+ 9T
2
+ · · · + T
10
. For a diﬀerent queueing order, the combined waiting time will be
S = 10S
1
+ 9S
2
+· · · + S
10
, where (S
1
, S
2
, . . . , S
10
) is a permutation of (T
1
, T
2
, . . . , T
10
).
The two 10tuples being diﬀerent, there is a smallest index i for which S
i
= T
i
. Then S
j
= T
i
< S
i
for some j > i. Deﬁne S
i
= S
j
, S
j
= S
i
and S
k
= S
k
for k = i, j. Let S
= 10S
1
+ 9S
2
+ · · · + S
10
.
Then
S −S
= (11 −i)(S
i
−S
i
) + (11 −j)(S
j
−S
j
) = (S
i
−S
j
)(j −i) > 0.
Hence the switching results in a lower combined waiting time.
If (S
1
, S
2
, . . . , S
10
) = (T
1
, T
2
, . . . , T
10
), this switching process can be repeated again. We will
reach (T
1
, T
2
, . . . , T
10
) in at most 9 steps. Since the combined waiting time is reduced in each step,
T is indeed the minimum combined waiting time.
We can generalize this example to the following result.
The Rearrangement Inequality.
Let a
1
≤ a
2
≤ · · · ≤ a
n
and b
1
≤ b
2
≤ · · · ≤ b
n
be real numbers. For any permutation (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
)
of (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
), we have
a
1
b
1
+ a
2
b
2
+· · · + a
n
b
n
≥ a
1
b
1
+ a
2
b
2
+· · · + a
n
b
n
≥ a
n
b
1
+ a
n−1
b
2
+· · · + a
1
b
n
,
with equality if and only if (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
) is equal to (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
) or (a
n
, a
n−1
, . . . , a
1
) respectively.
This can be proved by the switching process used in the introductory example. See for instance
[1] or [2], which contain more general results. Note that unlike many inequalities, we do not require
the numbers involved to be positive.
Corollary 1.
Let a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
be real numbers and (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
) be a permutation of (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
). Then
a
2
1
+ a
2
2
+· · · + a
2
n
≥ a
1
a
1
+ a
2
a
2
+· · · + a
n
a
n
.
Corollary 2.
Let a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
be positive numbers and (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
) be a permutation of (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
). Then
a
1
a
1
+
a
2
a
2
+· · · +
a
n
a
n
≥ n.
A 1935 K¨ ursch´ ak problem in Hungary asked for the proof of Corollary 2, and a 1940 Moscow
Olympiad problem asked for the proof of the special case (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
) = (a
2
, a
3
, . . . , a
n
, a
1
).
We now illustrate the power of the Rearrangement Inequality by giving simple solutions to a
number of competition problems.
Example 1. (International Mathematical Olympiad, 1975)
Let x
1
≤ x
2
≤ · · · ≤ x
n
and y
1
≤ y
2
≤ · · · ≤ y
n
be real numbers. Let (z
1
, z
2
, · · · , z
n
) be a
permutation of (y
1
, y
2
, . . . , y
n
). Prove that
(x
1
−y
1
)
2
+ (x
2
−y
2
)
2
+· · · + (x
n
−y
n
)
2
≤ (x
1
−z
1
)
2
+ (x
2
−z
2
)
2
+· · · + (x
n
−z
n
)
2
.
Solution:
Note that we have y
2
1
+ y
2
2
+· · · + y
2
n
= z
2
1
+ z
2
2
+ · · · + z
2
n
. After expansion and simpliﬁcation, the
desired inequality is equivalent to
x
1
y
1
+ x
2
y
2
+· · · + x
n
y
n
≥ x
1
z
1
+ x
2
z
2
+· · · + x
n
z
n
,
which follows from the Rearrangement Inequality.
Example 2. (International Mathematical Olympiad, 1978)
Let a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
be distinct positive integers. Prove that
a
1
1
2
+
a
2
2
2
+· · · +
a
n
n
2
≥
1
1
+
1
2
+· · · +
1
n
.
Solution:
Let (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
) be the permutation of (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
) such that a
1
≤ a
2
≤ · · · ≤ a
n
. Then a
i
≥ i
for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. By the Rearrangement Inequality,
a
1
1
2
+
a
2
2
2
+· · · +
a
n
n
2
≥
a
1
1
2
+
a
2
2
2
+· · · +
a
n
n
2
≥
1
1
2
+
2
2
2
+· · · +
n
n
2
≥
1
1
+
1
2
+· · · +
1
n
.
Example 3. (International Mathematical Olympiad, 1964)
Let a, b and c be the sides of a triangle. Prove that
a
2
(b + c −a) + b
2
(c + a −b) + c
2
(a + b −c) ≤ 3abc.
Solution:
We may assume that a ≥ b ≥ c. We ﬁrst prove that c(a +b −c) ≥ b(c +a −b) ≥ a(b +c −a). Note
that c(a +b −c) −b(c +a −b) = (b −c)(b +c −a) ≥ 0. The second inequality can be proved in the
same manner. By the Rearrangement Inequality, we have
a
2
(b + c −a) + b
2
(c + a −b) + c
2
(a + b −c) ≤ ba(b + c −a) + cb(c + a −b) + ac(a + b −c),
a
2
(b + c −a) + b
2
(c + a −b) + c
2
(a + b −c) ≤ ca(b + c −a) + ab(c + a −b) + bc(a + b −c).
Adding these two inequalities, the right side simpliﬁes to 6abc. The desired inequality now follows.
Example 4. (International Mathematical Olympiad, 1983)
Let a, b and c be the sides of a triangle. Prove that a
2
b(a −b) + b
2
c(b −c) + c
2
a(c −a) ≥ 0.
Solution:
We may assume that a ≥ b, c. If a ≥ b ≥ c, we have a(b + c −a) ≤ b(c + a −b) ≤ c(a +b −c) as in
Example 3. By the Rearrangement Inequality,
1
c
a(b + c −a) +
1
a
b(c + a −b) +
1
b
c(a + b −c)
≤
1
a
a(b + c −a) +
1
b
b(c + a −b) +
1
c
c(a + b −c)
= a + b + c.
This simpliﬁes to
1
c
a(b −a) +
1
a
b(c −b) +
1
b
c(a−c) ≤ 0, which is equivalent to the desired inequality.
If a ≥ c ≥ b, then a(b + c −a) ≤ c(a + b − c) ≤ b(c + a −b). All we have to do is interchange the
second and the third terms of the displayed lines above.
Simple as it sounds, the Rearrangement Inequality is a result of fundamental importance. We
shall derive from it many familiar and useful inequalities.
Example 5. The Arithmetic Mean Geometric Mean Inequality.
Let x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
be positive numbers. Then
x
1
+ x
2
+· · · + x
n
n
≥
n
√
x
1
x
2
· · · x
n
,
with equality if and only if x
1
= x
2
= · · · = x
n
.
Proof:
Let G =
n
√
x
1
x
2
· · · x
n
, a
1
=
x
1
G
, a
2
=
x
1
x
2
G
2
, . . . , a
n
=
x
1
x
2
· · · x
n
G
n
= 1. By Corollary 2,
n ≤
a
1
a
n
+
a
2
a
1
+· · · +
a
n
a
n−1
=
x
1
G
+
x
2
G
+· · · +
x
n
G
,
which is equivalent to
x
1
+ x
2
+· · · + x
n
n
≥ G. Equality holds if and only if a
1
= a
2
= · · · = a
n
, or
x
1
= x
2
= · · · = x
n
.
Example 6. The Geometric mean Harmonic Mean Inequality.
Let x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
be positive numbers. Then
n
√
x
1
x
2
· · · x
n
≥
n
1
x
1
+
1
x
2
+· · · +
1
xn
,
with equality if and only if x
1
= x
2
= · · · = x
n
.
Proof:
Let G, a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
be as in Example 5. By Corollary 2,
n ≤
a
1
a
2
+
a
2
a
3
+· · · +
a
n
a
1
=
G
x
1
+
G
x
2
+· · · +
G
x
n
,
which is equivalent to
G ≥
n
1
x
1
+
1
x
2
+· · · +
1
xn
.
Equality holds if and only if x
1
= x
2
= · · · = x
n
.
Example 7. The Root Mean Square Arithmetic Mean Inequality.
Let x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
be real numbers. Then
x
2
1
+ x
2
2
+· · · + x
2
n
n
≥
x
1
+ x
2
+· · · + x
n
n
,
with equality if and only if x
1
= x
2
= · · · = x
n
.
Proof:
By Corollary 1, we have
x
2
1
+ x
2
2
+· · · + x
2
n
≥ x
1
x
2
+ x
2
x
3
+· · · + x
n
x
1
,
x
2
1
+ x
2
2
+· · · + x
2
n
≥ x
1
x
3
+ x
2
x
4
+· · · + x
n
x
2
,
· · · ≥ · · ·
x
2
1
+ x
2
2
+· · · + x
2
n
≥ x
1
x
n
+ x
2
x
1
+· · · + x
n
x
n−1
.
Adding these and x
2
1
+ x
2
2
+· · · + x
2
n
= x
2
1
+ x
2
2
+· · · + x
2
n
, we have
n(x
2
1
+ x
2
2
+· · · + x
2
n
) ≥ (x
1
+ x
2
+· · · + x
2
n
)
2
,
which is equivalent to the desired result. Equality holds if and only if x
1
= x
2
= · · · = x
n
.
Example 8. Cauchy’s Inequality.
Let a
1
, a
2
, . . . a
n
, b
1
, b
2
, . . . , b
n
be real numbers. Then
(a
1
b
1
+ a
2
b
2
+· · · + a
n
b
n
)
2
≤ (a
2
1
+ a
2
2
+· · · + a
2
n
)(b
2
1
+ b
2
2
+· · · + b
2
n
),
with equality if and only if for some constant k, a
i
= kb
i
for 1 ≤ i ≤ n or b
i
= ka
i
for 1 ≤ i ≤ n.
Proof:
If a
1
= a
2
= · · · = a
n
= 0 or b
1
= b
2
= · · · = b
n
= 0, the result is trivial. Otherwise, deﬁne
S =
a
2
1
+ a
2
2
+· · · + a
2
n
and T =
b
2
1
+ b
2
2
+· · · + b
2
n
. Since both are nonzero, we may let x
i
=
a
i
S
and x
n+i
=
b
i
T
for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. By Corollary 1,
2 =
a
2
1
+ a
2
2
+· · · + a
2
n
S
2
+
b
2
1
+ b
2
2
+· · · + b
2
n
T
2
= x
2
1
+ x
2
2
+· · · + x
2
2n
≥ x
1
x
n+1
+ x
2
x
n+2
+· · · + x
n
x
2n
+ x
n+1
x
1
+ x
n+2
x
2
+· · · + x
2n
x
n
=
2(a
1
b
1
+ a
2
b
2
+· · · + a
n
b
n
)
ST
,
which is equivalent to the desired result. Equality holds if and only if x
i
= x
n+i
for 1 ≤ i ≤ n, or
a
i
T = b
i
S for 1 ≤ i ≤ n.
We shall conclude this paper with two more examples whose solutions are left as exercises.
Example 9. (Chinese competition, 1984) Prove that
x
2
1
x
2
+
x
2
2
x
3
+· · · +
x
2
n
x
1
≥ x
1
+ x
2
+· · · + x
n
for all positive numbers x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
.
Example 10. (Moscow Olympiad, 1963) Prove that
a
b + c
+
b
c + a
+
c
a + b
≥
3
2
for all positive numbers a, b and c.
References:
1. G. Hardy, J. Littlewood and G. Polya, “Inequalities”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
paperback edition, (1988) 260299.
2. K. Wu, The Rearrangement Inequality, Chapter 8 in “Lecture Notes in Mathematics Compe
titions and Enrichment for High Schools” (in Chinese), ed. K. Wu et al., (1989) 8:18:25.
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Graph Theory Tutorials
Graph Theory Tutorials
Chris K. Caldwell (C) 1995
This is the home page for a series of short interactive tutorials introducing the
basic concepts of graph theory. There is not a great deal of theory here, we will
just teach you enough to wet your appetite for more!
Most of the pages of this tutorial require that you pass a quiz before continuing to the next page. So the
system can keep track of your progress you will need to register for each of these courses by pressing
the [REGISTER] button on the bottom of the first page of each tutorial. (You can use the same
username and password for each tutorial, but you will need to register separately for each course.)
Introduction to Graph Theory (6 pages)
Starting with three motivating problems, this tutorial introduces the definition of graph along
with the related terms: vertex (or node), edge (or arc), loop, degree, adjacent, path, circuit, planar,
connected and component. [Suggested prerequisites: none]
Euler Circuits and Paths
Beginning with the Königsberg bridge problem we introduce the Euler paths. After presenting
Euler's theorem on when such paths and circuits exist, we then apply them to related problems
including pencil drawing and road inspection. [Suggested prerequisites: Introduction to Graph
Theory]
Coloring Problems (6 pages)
How many colors does it take to color a map so that no two countries that share a common border
have the same color? This question can be changed to "how many colors does it take to color a
planar graph?" In this tutorial we explain how to change the map to a graph and then how to
answer the question for a graph. [Suggested prerequisites: Introduction to Graph Theory]
Adjacency Matrices (Not yet available.)
How do we represent a graph on a computer? The most common solution to this question,
adjacency matrices, is presented along with several algorithms to find a shortest path...
[Suggested prerequisites: Introduction to Graph Theory]
Related Resources for these Tutorials:
q Glossary of Graph Theory Terms
q Partially Annotated Bibliography
Similar Systems
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Graph Theory Tutorials
q Online Exercises
Other Graph Theory Resources on the Internet:
q Graph drawing
q J. Graph Algorithms & Applications
q David Eppstein's graph theory publications
q J. Spinrad research and problems on graph classes
Chris Caldwell caldwell@utm.edu
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Combinatorics. Tutorial 1:
Permutations
As of late, permutations ﬁnd their way into math olympiads more and
more often. The latest example is the Balkan Mathematics Olympiad 2001
where the following problem was suggested.
A cube of dimensions 3×3×3 is divided into 27 unit cells, each of
dimensions 1×1×1. One of the cells is empty, and all others are
ﬁlled with unit cubes which are, at random, labelled 1,2,...,26.
A legal move consists of a move of any of the unit cubes to its
neighbouring empty cell. Does there exist a ﬁnite sequence of
legal moves after which the unit cubes labelled k and 27 − k
exchange their positions for all k = 1, 2, ..., 13? (Two cells are
said to be neighbours if they share a common face.)
This tutorial was written in responce to this event.
1 Deﬁnitions and Notation
We assume here that the reader is familiar with the concept of composition
of functions f and g, which is denoted here as f ◦ g. It is a wellknown fact
that if f : A → B is a function which is both onetoone and onto then f
is invertible, i.e. there exists a function g: B → A such that g ◦ f = id
A
and f ◦ g = id
B
, where id
A
and id
B
are the identity mappings of A and B,
respectively. Note that we assume that in the composition f ◦g the function
g acts ﬁrst and f acts second: e.g., (f ◦g)(b) = f(g(b)). There are, however,
many good books using the alternative convention, so it is always necessary
to check whether a particular author uses one or the other convention.
In what follows we will be concerned with invertible functions from a
ﬁnite set to itself. For convenience, we assume that the elements of the set
are the numbers 1, 2, . . . , n (the elements of any ﬁnite set can be labelled
with the ﬁrst few integers, so this does not restrict generality).
Deﬁnition 1. Let n be a positive integer. A permutation of degree n is a
function f : {1, 2, . . . , n} → {1, 2, . . . , n} which is onetoone and onto.
1
Since a function is speciﬁed if we indicate what the image of each element
is, we can specify a permutation π by listing each element together with its
image as follows:
π =
1 2 3 · · · · · · n − 1 n
π(1) π(2) π(3) · · · · · · π(n − 1) π(n)
.
For example π =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 5 3 1 7 6 4
is the permutation of degree 7
which maps 1 to 2, 2 to 5, 3 to 3, 4 to 1, 5 to 7, 6 to 6, and 7 to 4. It is clear
that in the second row of such an array all the numbers of the top row must
appear exactly once, i.e. the second row is just a rearrangement of the top
row.
It is also clear that there are exactly n! permutations of degree n (if you
want to ﬁll the bottom row of such an array, there are n ways to ﬁll the ﬁrst
position, n − 1 ways to ﬁll the second position (since we must not repeat
the ﬁrst entry), etc., leading to a total of n(n − 1) · . . . · 2 · 1 = n! diﬀerent
possibilities).
2 Calculations with Permutations
The composition of two permutations of degree n is again a permutation of
degree n (exercise: prove that if f : A → A and g: A → A are onetoone
then f ◦ g is onetoone; prove that if f : A → A and g: A → A are onto
then f ◦ g is onto).
First of all we practice the use of our symbolism for the calculation of the
composition of two permutations. This is best done with a few examples.
In the sequel, we omit the symbol for function composition (◦), and speak
of the product πσ of two permutations π and σ, meaning the composition
π ◦ σ.
Example 1. Let
π =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
4 6 1 3 8 5 7 2
, σ =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2 4 5 6 1 8 3 7
.
Then
πσ =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
4 6 1 3 8 5 7 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2 4 5 6 1 8 3 7
=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6 3 8 5 4 2 1 7
,
2
σπ =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2 4 5 6 1 8 3 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
4 6 1 3 8 5 7 2
=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6 8 2 5 7 1 3 4
.
Explanation: the calculation of πσ requires us to ﬁnd
• the image of 1 when we apply ﬁrst σ, then π, (1
σ
→ 2
π
→ 6, so write
the 6 under the 1),
• the image of 2 when we apply ﬁrst σ, then π, (2
σ
→ 4
π
→ 3, so write
the 3 under the 2),
• etc.
The calculation of σπ requires us to ﬁnd
• the image of 1 when we apply ﬁrst π, then σ, (1
π
→ 4
σ
→ 6, so write
the 6 under the 1)
• the image of 1 when we apply ﬁrst π, then σ, (2
π
→ 6
σ
→ 8, so write
the 8 under the 2)
• etc.
.
.
.
All this is easily done at a glance and can be written down immediately;
BUT be careful to start with the right hand factor again!
Important note 1: the example shows clearly that πσ = σπ; so we have
to be very careful about the order of the factors in a product of permutations.
Important note 2: But the good news is that the composition of
permutations is associative, i.e., (πσ)τ = π(στ) for all permutations π, σ, τ.
To prove this we have to compute:
[(πσ)τ](i) = (πσ)(τ(i)) = π(σ(τ(i))),
[π(στ)](i) = π((στ)(i)) = π(σ(τ(i))).
We see that the right hand sides are the same in both cases, thus the
left hand sides are the same too.
We can also calculate the inverse of a permutation; for example, using
the same π as above, we ﬁnd
π
−1
=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
3 8 4 1 6 2 7 5
.
3
Explanation: just read the array for π from the bottom up: since π(1) = 4,
we must have π
−1
(4) = 1, hence write 1 under the 4 in the array for π
−1
,
since π(2) = 6, we must have π
−1
(6) = 2, hence write 2 under the 6 in the
array for π
−1
, etc.
Similarly, we calculate
σ
−1
=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
5 1 7 2 3 4 8 6
.
Simple algebra shows that the inverse of a product can be calculated from
the product of the inverses (but note how the order is reversed!):
(πσ)
−1
= σ
−1
π
−1
.
(To justify this, we need only check if the product of πσ and σ
−1
π
−1
equals
the identity, and this is pure algebra: it follows from the associative law that
(πσ)(σ
−1
π
−1
) = ((πσ)σ
−1
)π
−1
= π(σσ
−1
)π
−1
= ππ
−1
= id.)
Deﬁnition 2. The set of all permutations of degree n, with the composi
tion as the multiplication, is called the symmetric group of degree n, and is
denoted by S
n
.
3 Cycles
A permutation π ∈ S
n
which “cyclically permutes” some of the numbers
1, . . . , n (and leaves all others ﬁxed) is called a cycle.
For example, the permutation π =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 5 3 7 4 6 2
is a cycle,
because we have 5
π
→ 4
π
→ 7
π
→ 2
π
→ 5, and each of the other elements
of {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} stays unchanged, namely 3
π
→ 3, 6
π
→ 6. To see that,
we must of course chase an element around, the nice cyclic structure is not
immediately evident from our notation. We write π = (5 4 7 2), meaning
that all numbers not on the list are mapped to themselves, whilst the ones
in the bracket are mapped to the one listed to the right, the rightmost one
going back to the leftmost on the list.
Note: cycle notation is not unique, since there is no beginning or end
to a circle. We can write π = (5 4 7 2) and π = (2 5 4 7), as well as
π = (4 7 2 5) and π = (7 2 5 4)—they all denote one and the same cycle.
We say that a cycle is of length k (or a kcycle) if it involves k numbers.
For example, (3 6 4 9 2) is a 5cycle, (3 6) is a 2cycle, (1 3 2) is a 3
cycle. We note also that the inverse of a cycle is again a cycle. For example
4
(1 2 3)
−1
= (1 3 2) (or (3 2 1) if you prefer this). Similarly, (1 2 3 4 5)
−1
=
(1 5 4 3 2). Finding the inverse of a cycle one has to reverse the arrows.
Not all permutations are cycles; for example, the permutation
σ =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
4 3 2 11 8 9 5 6 7 10 1 12
is not a cycle (we have 1
σ
→ 4
σ
→ 11
σ
→ 1, but the other elements are not
all ﬁxed (2 goes to 3, for example). However, this permutation σ —and any
other permutation — can be written as a product of disjoint cycles, simply
by chasing each of the elements. The obvious approach is to visualise what
the permutation σ does: (draw your picture here!)
From this it is evident that every permutation can be written as a prod
uct of disjoint cycles. Moreover, any such representation is unique up to the
order of the factors. We also note that disjoint cycles commute; e.g.
(1 2 3 4)(5 6 7) = (5 6 7)(1 2 3 4).
But we recall that in general multiplication of permutations is not com
mutative; in particular, if we multiply cycles which are not disjoint, we
have to watch their order; for example: (1 2)(1 3) = (1 3 2), whilst
(1 3)(1 2) = (1 2 3), and (1 3 2) = (1 2 3).
It is clear that if τ is a cycle of length k, then τ
k
= id, i.e. if this
permutation is repeated k times, we have the identity permutation. More
generally, we will now deﬁne the order of a permutation, and the decompo
sition into a product of disjoint cycles will allow us to calculate the order of
any permutation.
Deﬁnition 3. Let π be a permutation. The smallest positive integer i such
that π
i
= id is called the order of π.
Example 2. The order of the cycle (3 2 6 4 1) is 5, as we noted before.
Example 3. The order of the permutation π = (1 2)(3 4 5) is 2 · 3 = 6.
5
Indeed,
π = (1 2)(3 4 5),
π
2
= (1 2)
2
(3 4 5)
2
= (3 5 4),
π
3
= (1 2)
3
(3 4 5)
3
= (1 2),
π
4
= (1 2)
4
(3 4 5)
4
= (3 4 5),
π
5
= (1 2)
5
(3 4 5)
5
= (1 2)(3 5 4),
π
6
= id.
Example 4. The order of the cycle (3 2 6 4 1) is 5, as we noted before.
Example 5. The order of the permutation ϕ = (1 2)(3 4 5 6) is 4. Indeed,
ϕ = (1 2)(3 4 5 6),
ϕ
2
= (1 2)
2
(3 4 5 6)
2
= (3 5)(4 6),
ϕ
3
= (1 2)
3
(3 4 5 6)
3
= (1 2)(3 6 5 4),
ϕ
4
= id.
This suggests that the order of a product of disjoint cycles equals the
lcm of the lengths of these cycles. This can be formalised in the following
Theorem 1. Let σ be a permutation and σ = τ
1
τ
2
· · · τ
r
be the decompo
sition of σ into a product of disjoint cycles. Let k be the order of σ and
k
1
, k
2
, . . . , k
r
be the orders (lengths) of τ
1
, τ
2
, . . . , τ
r
, respectively. Then
k = lcm(k
1
, k
2
, . . . , k
r
).
Proof. We ﬁrst notice that τ
m
i
= id iﬀ m is a multiple of k
i
. Then, since the
cycles τ
i
are disjoint, we know that they commute and hence
σ
m
= τ
m
1
τ
m
2
. . . τ
m
r
.
The powers τ
m
1
, τ
m
2
, . . . , τ
m
r
act on disjoint sets of indices and, if σ
m
= id,
it must be τ
m
1
= τ
m
2
= . . . = τ
m
r
= id. Indeed, if say τ
m
s
(i) = j with
i = j, then the product τ
m
1
τ
m
2
. . . τ
m
r
cannot be equal to id because all
permutations τ
m
1
, . . . , τ
m
s−1
, τ
m
s+1
, . . . , τ
m
r
leave i and j invariant. Thus the
order of σ is a multiple of each of the k
1
, k
2
, . . . , k
r
and hence the multiple
of the least common multiple of them. On the other hand, it is clear that
σ
lcm(k
1
,k
2
,...,kr)
= id, which proves the theorem.
Example 6. The order of σ = (1 2 3 4)(5 6 7)(8 9)(10 11 12)(13 14 15 16 17)
is 60.
6
Example 7. To determine the order of an arbitrary permutation, ﬁrst write
it as product of disjoint cycles. For example,
σ =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
4 3 2 11 8 9 5 6 7 10 1 12
= (1 4 11)(2 3)(5 8 6 9 7)
and therefore the order of σ is 30.
4 Transpositions. Even and Odd
Cycles of length 2 are the simplest permutations, as they involve only 2
objects. We deﬁne
Deﬁnition 4. A cycle of length 2 is called a transposition.
It is intuitively plausible that any permutation is a product of trans
positions (every arrangement of n objects can be obtained from a given
starting position by making a sequence of swaps). Once we observe how a
cycle of arbitrary length can be expressed as a product of transpositions, we
can express any permutation as product of transpositions. Here are some
examples:
Example 8. (1 2 3 4 5) = (1 5)(1 4)(1 3)(1 2) (just check that the left hand
side equals the right hand side!).
Exactly in the same way we can express an arbitrary cycle as a product
of transpositions:
(i
1
i
2
. . . i
r
) = (i
1
i
r
) . . . (i
1
i
3
)(i
1
i
2
). (1)
Example 9. To express any permutation σ as product of transpositions,
ﬁrst decompose σ into a product of disjoint cycles, then write each cycle as
product of transpositions as shown above. For example,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
4 3 2 11 8 9 5 6 7 10 1
= (1 4 11)(2 3)(5 8 6 9 7) =
(1 11)(1 4)(2 3)(5 7)(5 9)(5 6)(5 8).
Example 10. Note that there are many diﬀerent ways to write a permutation
as product of transpositions; for example
(1 2 3 4 5) = (1 5)(1 4)(1 3)(1 2) = (3 2)(3 1)(3 5)(3 4) =
(3 2)(3 1)(2 1)(2 3)(1 3)(2 3)(3 5)(3 4).
7
(Don’t ask how these products were found! The point is to check that all
these products are equal, and to note that there is nothing unique about
how one can write a permutation as product of transpositions.)
Deﬁnition 5. A permutation is called even if it can be written as a product
of an even number of transpositions. A permutation is called odd if it can
be written as a product of an odd number of transpositions.
An important point is that there is no permutation that is at the same
time even and odd—this justiﬁes the use of the terminology.
1
We will es
tablish that by looking at the polynomial
f(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
) =
i<j
(x
i
−x
j
). (2)
Example 11. For n = 3, the polynomial (2) will look like
f(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (x
1
−x
2
)(x
1
−x
3
)(x
2
−x
3
).
If σ = (1 3), we may compute
f(x
σ(1)
, x
σ(2)
, x
σ(3)
) = (x
3
−x
2
)(x
3
−x
1
)(x
2
−x
1
) = −f(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
).
This leads us to
Proposition 2. For any permutation σ from S
n
f(x
σ(1)
, x
σ(2)
, . . . , x
σ(n)
) = ±f(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
). (3)
Proof. In the lefthandside of (3), for any pair of indices i and j, we have
either x
i
−x
j
or x
j
−x
i
(but not both) wil be a factor. Thus the lefthandside
can diﬀer from the righthandside by its sign only. This proves (3).
We will write sign(σ) = 1, if we have ”+” in (3) and sign(σ) = −1 oth
erwise. We notice that
sign(στ) = sign(σ)sign(τ). (4)
Indeed,
f(x
στ(1)
, x
στ(2)
, . . . , x
στ(n)
) = sign(σ)f(x
τ(1)
, x
τ(2)
, . . . , x
τ(n)
) =
sign(σ)sign(τ)f(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
),
1
You may skip this proof for the ﬁrst reading and go straight to Example 12.
8
which shows that sign(στ) =sign(σ)sign(τ) holds.
It is clear that for π = (i i+1) we have
f(x
π(1)
, x
π(2)
, . . . , x
π(n)
) = −f(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
) (5)
(only one factor changes its sign), hence sign((i i+1)) = −1. Since
(i k+1) = (k k+1)(i k)(k k+1),
and due to (4), we see that sign((i k)) = −1 implies sign((i k+1)) = −1.
This means that by induction (5) can be extended to an arbitrary transposi
tion π. Hence (5) will be true for any odd permutation π, i.e sign(π) = −1.
At the same time, it is clear that for every even permutation π we will have
sign(π) = +1. This implies that there is no permutation which is both even
and odd.
Example 12. (1 2 3 4) is an odd permutation, because (1 2 3 4) = (1 4)(1 3)(1 2).
(1 2 3 4 5) is an even permutation, because (1 2 3 4 5) = (1 5)(1 4)(1 3)(1 2).
Example 13. Since id = (1 2)(1 2), the identity is even.
Theorem 3. A kcycle is even if k is odd; a kcycle is odd if k is even.
Proof. Immediately follows from (1).
Example 14. Let π =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
4 3 2 5 1 6 9 8 7
. Is π even or odd?
First decompose π into a product of cycles, then use the result above:
π = (1 4 5)(2 3)(7 9) (= (1 5)(1 4)(2 3)(7 9)).
We have an even number (two) of odd cycles, it shows that π is even.
Deﬁnition 6. We say that two permutations have the same parity, if they
are both odd or both even, and diﬀerent parities, if one of them is odd and
another is even.
Theorem 4. In any symmetric grooup S
n
1. The product of two even permutations is even.
2. The product of two odd permutations is even.
3. The product of an even permutation and an odd one is odd.
4. A permutation and its inverse are of the same parities.
9
Proof. Only the statements 4 needs a comment. It follows from 1 and 2.
Indeed, since the identity permutation id is even, we cannot have a permu
tation and its inverse being of diﬀerent parities.
Theorem 5. Exactly half of the elements of S
n
are even and half of them
are odd.
Proof. Denote by E the set of even permutations in S
n
, and by O the set
of odd permutations in S
n
. If τ is any ﬁxed transposition from S
n
, we
can establish a onetoone correspondence between E and O as follows: for
π in E we know that τπ belongs to O. Therefore we have a mapping
f : E → O deﬁned by f(π) = τπ. f is onetoone since τπ = τσ implies that
π = σ; f is onto, because if κ is an odd permutation then τκ is even, and
f(τκ) = ττκ = κ.
Corollary 6. The number of even permutations in S
n
is
n!
2
. The number
of odd permutations in S
n
is also
n!
2
.
Deﬁnition 7. The set of all even permutations of degree n is called the
alternating group of degree n. It is denoted by A
n
.
Example 15. We can have a look at the elements of S
4
, listing all of them,
and checking which of them are even, which of them are odd.
S
4
= {id, (1 2 3), (1 3 2), (1 2 4), (1 4 2), (2 3 4), (2 4 3),
(1 3 4), (1 4 3), (1 2)(3 4), (1 3)(2 4), (1 4)(2 3),
(1 2), (1 3), (1 4), (2 3), (2 4), (3 4), (1 2 3 4), (1 4 3 2),
(1 3 2 4), (1 4 2 3), (1 2 4 3), (1 3 4 2)}
The elements in the ﬁrst 2 lines are even permutations, and the remaining
elements are odd. We have
A
4
= {id, (1 2 3), (1 3 2), (1 2 4), (1 4 2), (2 3 4), (2 4 3),
(1 3 4), (1 4 3), (1 2)(3 4), (1 3)(2 4), (1 4)(2 3)}.
5 The interlacing shuﬄe. Puzzle 15
In this section we consider two applications of permutations.
10
We have a deck of 2n cards (normally 52), we split it into 2 halves and
then interlace them as follows. Suppose that our cards were numbered from
1 to 2n and the original order of cards was
a
1
a
2
a
3
. . . a
2n−1
a
2n
Then the two halves will contain the cards a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
and a
n+1
a
n+2
, . . . , a
2n
,
respectively. The interlacing shuﬄe will put the ﬁrst card of the second pile
ﬁrst, then the ﬁrst card of the ﬁrst pile, then the second card of the second
pile, then the second card of the ﬁrst pile etc. After the shuﬄe the order of
cards will be:
a
n+1
a
1
a
n+2
a
2
. . . a
2n
a
n
We put the permutation
σ =
1 2 3 . . . n n + 1 n + 2 . . . 2n
2 4 6 . . . 2n 1 3 . . . 2n − 1
in correspondence to this shuﬄe. We see that
σ(i) = 2i mod 2n + 1
where σ(i) is the position of the ith card after the shuﬄe.
Example 16. n = 5
σ =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 4 6 8 10 1 3 5 7 9
=
=
1 2 4 8 5 10 9 7 3 6
.
What will happen after 2, 3, 4, . . . shuﬄes? The resulting change will be
characterised by the permutations σ
2
, σ
3
, σ
4
, . . . , respectively.
In the example above
σ
2
=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
4 8 1 5 9 2 6 10 3 7
=
=
1 4 5 9 3
2 8 10 7 6
Also σ
10
= id and 10 is the order of σ. Hence all cards will be back to
their initial positions after 10 shuﬄes but not before.
11
Example 17. n = 4
σ =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2 4 6 8 1 3 5 7
=
1 2 4 8 7 5
3 6
The order of σ is 6.
We close this section with a few words about a game played with a
simple toy. This game seems to have been invented in the 1870s by the
famous puzzlemaker Sam Loyd. It caught on and became the rage in the
United States in the 1870s, and ﬁnally led to a discussion by W. Johnson in
the scholarly journal, the American Journal of Mathematics, in 1879. It is
often called the “ﬁfteen puzzle”. Our discussion will be without full proofs.
Consider a toy made up of 16 squares, numbered from 1 to 15 inclusive
and with the lower righthand corner blank.
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12
13 14 15
The toy is constructed so that squares can be slid vertically and horizontally,
such moves being possible because of the presence of the blank square.
Start with the position shown and perform a sequence of slides in such
a way that, at the end, the lower righthand square is again blank. Call
the new position “realisable.” Question: What are all possible realisable
positions?
What do we have here? After such a sequence of slides we have shuﬄed
about the numbers from 1 to 15; that is, we have eﬀected a permutation of
the numbers from 1 to 15. To ask what positions are realisable is merely
to ask what permutations can be carried out. In other words, in S
15
, the
symmetric group of degree 15, what elements can be reached via the toy?
For instance, can we get
13 4 12 15
1 14 9 6
8 3 2 7
10 5 11
12
To answer, we will characterise every position of this game by a permutation.
We will denote the empty square by the number 16. The position
a
1
a
2
a
3
a
4
a
5
a
6
a
7
a
8
a
9
a
10
a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
a
15
a
16
will be characterised by the transposition
1 2 . . . 16
a
1
a
2
. . . a
16
.
Example 18. The position
1 3 5 7
9 11 13 15
2 4 6
8 10 12 14
will correspond to the permutation
σ =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 2 4 16 6 8 10 12 14
.
If we make a move pulling down the square 13, then the new position will
be
1 3 5 7
9 11 15
2 4 13 6
8 10 12 14
and the new permutation is
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 3 5 7 9 11 16 15 2 4 13 6 8 10 12 14
=
13 16
σ.
13
Theorem 7. If a position characterised by the permutation σ can be trans
formed by legal moves to the initial position, then there exist permutations
τ
1
, τ
2
, . . . , τ
m
such that
id = τ
1
τ
2
. . . τ
m
σ. (6)
If the empty square was in the right bottom corner, then m is even and τ is
even.
Proof. As we have seen every legal move is equivalent to multiplying the
permutation corresponding to the existing position by a transposition (i 16).
Then (6) follows. In this case:
σ = τ
m
τ
m−1
. . . τ
2
τ
1
hence the parity of σ is the same as that of m.
Let us colour the board in the chessboard pattern
Every move changes the colour of the empty square. Thus, if at the
beginning and at the end the empty square was black, then there was an
even number of moves made. Therefore, if initially the right bottom corner
was empty and we could transform this position to the initial position, then
an even number of moves was made, m is even, and σ is also even.
It can be shown that every position, with an even permutation σ can be
transformed to the initial positon but no easy proof is known.
Copyright: MathOlymp.com Ltd 2001. All rights reserved.
14
Combinatorics. Tutorial 2:
Friendship Theorem
This wonderful theorem has a very simple commonsense formulation.
Namely, given a society in which any two people have exactly one friend in
common, there must be a “host,” who is everybody’s friend. Of course, this
is a graphtheoretic theorem and in order to prove it we must express it in
graphtheoretic terms.
Theorem 1 (Friendship Theorem). Suppose that G is a graph such that,
if x and y are any two distinct vertices of G, then there is a unique vetex z
adjacent in G to both x and y. Then there is a vertex adjacent to all other
vertices.
From this, it immediately follows that the graph G is a “windmill” like
the one below:
We will prove this theorem in several steps.
1
We will assume that a
counterexample G to the Friendship theorem does exist and will be working
with this counterexample until we get a contradiction. Then the theorem
will be established.
1
following largely J.Q. Longyear and T.D Parsons (1972)
1
Deﬁnition 1. A sequence of vertices x
0
, x
1
, . . . , x
n
will be called a path of
length n, if x
i−1
is adjacent to x
i
for all i = 1, 2, . . . , n. These vertices need
not be all diﬀerent, i.e. going along this path we may visit a certain vertex
several times. Any path x
0
, x
1
, . . . , x
n−1
, x
0
is called a cycle of length n.
Lemma 1. G does not have any cycles of length 4.
Proof. If we had a cycle x
0
, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
, x
0
of length 4, then x
0
and x
2
would have at least two neighbors in common, namely x
1
and x
3
, which is
not possible.
Deﬁnition 2. The degree of a vertex is the number of other vertices adjacent
to it. The graph is called regular, if all its vertices have the same degree.
Lemma 2. Any two nonadjacent vertices of G have the same degree.
Proof. Let x and y be two nonadjacent vertices and let z be their unique
common neighbor. Then x and z will have a unique common neighbor u
and y and z will have a unique common neighbor v.
z
v u
x
y
Now let u
1
, u
2
, . . . , u
s
be all other vertices adjacent to x. For each
i = 1, 2, . . . , s, let v
i
be the unique common neighbor of u
i
and y. By
inspection we check that v
i
is diﬀerent from any of the x, z, y, u, v, u
i
(every
such assumption lead to the existence of a 4cycle). Also, no two vertices v
i
and v
j
can coincide for i = j, according to the same reason.
v
s
u
s
v
2
u
2
v
1
u
1
z
u v
y
x
2
Thus, we see that the degree of x is not greater than the degree of y. But
the situation is symmetric, i.e. we can also prove that the degree of y is not
greater than the degree of x. Hence, these two degrees coincide.
Lemma 3. G is regular.
Proof. Let d(x) denote the degree of the vertex x. Suppose that G is not
regular and that there exist two vertices a and b such that d(a) = d(b).
Then a and b must be adjacent by Lemma 2. There is a unique common
neighbor c of a and b. Since either d(c) = d(a) or d(c) = d(b), or both,
we may assume that the former is true and d(c) = d(a). Now let x be any
other vertex. Then x is adjacent to one of a or b, for otherwise by Lemma 2
d(a) = d(x) = d(b), contrary to the assumption that d(a) = d(b). Similarly,
x is adjacent to either a or c. But x cannot be adjacent to both b and c, as a
is their unique common neighbor, hence x must be adjacent to a. This now
shows that all vertices of G are adjacent to a and G is not a counterexample.
Hence G is regular.
Let m be the degree of G.
Lemma 4. m is an even number.
Proof. Let v
1
, v
2
, . . . , v
m
be the vertices adjacent to v. Let us consider v
1
.
Together with v it must have a vertex which is adjacent to both. Since
v
1
, v
2
, . . . , v
m
are all vertices adjacent to v, this third vertex must be among
v
1
, v
2
, . . . , v
m
. Let it be v
2
. No other vertex among v
1
, v
2
, . . . , v
m
can be
adjacent to v
1
or to v
2
. Thus v
1
and v
2
form a pair. This way we can pair
oﬀ the vertices adjacent to v which implies that m is even. We show that
the neighborhood of every vertex v looks like a “windmill.”
Lemma 5. Let N be the number of vertices of G. Then N = m(m−1) + 1.
Proof. Let v be any vertex and v
1
, v
2
, . . . , v
m
be the vertices adjacent to v.
We know that the neighborhood of v looks like a “windmill.” Without loss
of generality we assume that the vertices are paired oﬀ so that v
1
is adjacent
to v
2
, v
3
is adjacent to v
4
and ﬁnally v
m−1
is adjacent to v
m
. Every vertex
diﬀerent from v and v
1
, v
2
, . . . , v
m
must be adjacent to one of the v
i
since
it must have a common neighbor with v. Each v
i
will have exactly m− 2
neighbors of this kind. In total we then have N = 1 + m + m(m − 2) =
m(m−1) + 1 vertices.
3
v
m
v
m1
v
6
v
1
v
2
v
3
v
4
v
5
v
m2 vertices
m2 vertices
m2 vertices
m2 vertices
m2 vertices
Let us now note that m > 2, or else G is just a triangle which is not
a counterexample. Let p be any prime which divides m− 1. Since m− 1
is odd, p is also odd. In the following two lemmas we will consider the set
S of all cycles v
0
, v
1
, . . . , v
p−1
, v
0
of length p with the ﬁxed initial point v
0
.
This means that the same cycle with two diﬀerent initial vertices will be
considered as two diﬀerent elements of S. Let us agree that if the cycle is
written as v
0
, v
1
, . . . , v
p−1
, v
0
, then v
0
is chosen as its initial point. Note that
we again do not require that all vertices in the cycle are diﬀerent.
We shall compute the cardinality S of S in two ways.
Lemma 6. S is a multiple of p.
Proof. Every cycle of length p with the ﬁxed initial point
v
0
, v
1
, . . . , v
p−1
gives us p −1 other cycles by changing the initial point of it: v
1
, v
2
, . . . , v
0
,
and v
2
, v
3
, . . . , v
1
, and so on. No two of such sequences are the same, as
suming the opposite will contradict to the primeness of p (see the solution
to Exercise 9 of the assignment ”Many faces of mathematical Induction”).
Since in every cycle of length p we can choose p initial points, and hence get
p diﬀerent elements of S, it is clear that S is divisible by p.
Proof of the Friendship Theorem. Now we will prove that S is NOT divis
ible by p which will give us a contradiction and the proof will be therefore
complete.
First, we will count the number of vertex sequences v
0
, v
1
, . . . , v
p−2
, such
that v
i
is adjacent to v
i+1
for all i = 0, 1, . . . , p − 2. There are two types
4
of such sequences: 1) those for which v
0
= v
p−2
and 2) those for which
v
0
= v
p−2
. Let K
1
and K
2
be the number of sequences of the ﬁrst and the
second type, respectively. Then K
1
+ K
2
= Nm
p−2
. Indeed, we can choose
v
0
in N diﬀerent ways, and having chosen v
0
, v
1
, . . . , v
i
, we can choose v
i+1
in
m diﬀerent ways. Now we will return to cycles with ﬁxed initial vertices from
S. Each of them can be obtained from a sequence of one of the above types
by adding a vertex v
p−1
which is adjacent to v
0
and v
p−2
and considering
v
0
as the initial vertex of this cycle. If v
0
= v
p−2
, then we can choose v
p−1
in m diﬀerent ways, while if v
0
= v
p−2
, then such v
p−1
will be unique. Thus
S = mK
1
+ K
2
. But now
S = (m−1)K
1
+ (K
1
+ K
2
) = (m−1)K
1
+ Nm
p−2
≡ Nm
p−2
(mod p)
But N ≡ 1 (mod p), and m = (m − 1) + 1 ≡ 1 (mod p), thus S ≡ 1
(mod p) which is a contradiction.
Therefore the Friendship theorem is proved.
Copyright: MathOlymp.com Ltd 2001. All rights reserved.
5
Number Theory. Tutorial 1:
Divisibility and Primes
1 Introduction
The theory of numbers is devoted to studying the set N = ¦1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .¦
of positive integers, also called the natural numbers. The most important
property of N is the following axiom (which means that it cannot be proved):
Axiom 1 (The Leastinteger Principle) A nonempty set S ⊆ N of pos
itive integers contains a smallest element.
The set of all integers
. . . , −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
is denoted by Z. In this section we use letters of the roman alphabet
a, b, c, . . . , k, l, m, n, . . . , x, y, z
to designate integers unless otherwise speciﬁed.
Theorem 1 (The division algorithm) Given any integers a, b, with a >
0, there exist unique integers q, r such that
b = qa + r, 0 ≤ r < a.
The number q is called the quotient and the number r is called the re
mainder. The notation r = b (mod a) is often used.
Example 1 35 = 3 11 + 2, −51 = (−8) 7 + 5; so that 2 = 35 (mod 11)
and 5 = −51 (mod 7).
1
Deﬁnition 1 An integer b is divisible by an integer a ,= 0, if there exists an
integer c such that b = ac or else it can be written as 0 = b (mod a). We
also say that a is a divisor of b and write a[b.
Let n be a positive integer. Let us denote by d(n) the number of divisors
of n. It is clear that 1 and n are always divisors of a number n which is
greater than 1. Thus we have d(1) = 1 and d(n) ≥ 2 for n > 1.
Deﬁnition 2 An integer n is called a prime if d(n) = 2. An integer n > 1,
which is not prime is called a composite number.
Example 2 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13 are primes; 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 are not primes; 4, 6, 8, 9, 10
are composite numbers.
Theorem 2 (The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic) Every posi
tive integer n > 1 can be expressed as a product of primes (with perhaps only
one factor), that is
n = p
α
1
1
p
α
2
2
. . . p
αr
r
,
where p
1
, p
2
, . . . , p
n
are distinct primes and α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
n
are positive inte
gers. This factoring is unique apart from the order of the prime factors.
Proof: Let us prove ﬁrst that any number n > 1 can be decomposed into
a product of primes. If n = 2, the decomposition is trivial and we have
only one factor, i.e., 2 itself. Let us assume that for all positive integers,
which are less than n, a decomposition exists. If n is a prime, then n = n
is the decomposition required. If n is composite, then n = n
1
n
2
, where
n > n
1
> 1 and n > n
2
> 1 and by the induction hypothesis there are prime
decompositions n
1
= p
1
. . . p
r
and n
2
= q
1
. . . q
s
for n
1
and n
2
. Then we may
combine them
n = n
1
n
2
= p
1
. . . p
r
q
1
. . . q
s
and get the decomposition for n and prove the ﬁrst statement.
To prove that the decomposition is unique, we shall assume the exis
tence of an integer capable of two essentially diﬀerent prime decompositions,
and from this assumption derive a contradiction. This will show that the
hypothesis that there exists an integer with two essentially diﬀerent prime
decompositions is untenable, and hence the prime decomposition of every
integer is unique. We will use the Leastinteger Principle.
2
Suppose that there exists an integer with two essentially diﬀerent prime
decompositions, then there will be a smallest such integer
n = p
1
p
2
. . . p
r
= q
1
q
2
. . . q
s
, (1)
where p
i
and q
j
are primes. By rearranging the order of the p’s and the q’s,
if necessary, we may assume that
p
1
≤ p
2
≤ . . . ≤ p
r
, q
1
≤ q
2
≤ . . . ≤ q
s
.
It is impossible that p
1
= q
1
, for if it were we could cancel the ﬁrst factor
from each side of equation (1) and to obtain two essentially diﬀerent prime
decompositions for a number smaller than n, contradicting the choice of n.
Hence either p
1
< q
1
or q
1
< p
1
. Without loss of generality we suppose that
p
1
< q
1
.
We now form the integer
n
= n − p
1
q
2
q
3
. . . q
s
. (2)
Then two decompositions of n give the following two decompositions of n
:
n
= (p
1
p
2
. . . p
r
) − (p
1
q
2
. . . q
s
) = p
1
(p
2
. . . p
r
− q
2
. . . q
s
), (3)
n
= (q
1
q
2
. . . q
s
) − (p
1
q
2
. . . q
s
) = (q
1
− p
1
)(q
2
. . . q
s
). (4)
Since p
1
< q
1
, it follows from (4) that n
is a positive integer, which is smaller
than n. Hence the prime decomposition for n
must be unique and, apart
from the order of the factors, (3) and (4) coincide. From (3) we learn that
p
1
is a factor of n
and must appear as a factor in decomposition (4). Since
p
1
< q
1
≤ q
i
, we see that p
1
,= q
i
, i = 2, 3, . . . , s. Hence, it is a factor of q
1
−p
1
,
i.e., q
1
− p
1
= p
1
m or q
1
= p
1
(m + 1), which is impossible as q
1
is prime and
q
1
,= p
1
. This contradiction completes the proof of the Fundamental Theorem
of Arithmetic.
Let x be a real number. Then it can be written in a unique way as z +e,
where z ∈ Z and 0 ≤ e < 1. Then, the following notation is used: z = ¸x,
z + 1 = ¸x, e = ¦x¦. We will use here only the ﬁrst function ¸x, which is
called the integral part of x. Examples: ¸−2.5 = −3, ¸π = 3, ¸5 = 5.
Theorem 3 The smallest prime divisor of a composite number n is less than
or equal to ¸
√
n.
3
Proof: We prove ﬁrst that n has a divisor which is greater than 1 but less
than
√
n. As n is composite, then n = d
1
d
2
, d
1
> 1 and d
2
> 1. If d
1
>
√
n
and d
2
>
√
n, then
n = d
1
d
2
> (
√
n)
2
= n,
a contradiction. Suppose, d
1
≤
√
n. Then any of the prime divisors of d
1
will be less than or equal to
√
n. But every divisor of d
1
is also a divisor of
n, thus the smallest prime divisor p of n will satisfy the inequality p ≤
√
n.
Snce p is an integer, p ≤ ¸
√
n. The theorem is proved.
Theorem 4 (Euclid) The number of primes is inﬁnite.
Proof: Suppose there were only ﬁnite number of primes p
1
, p
2
, . . . , p
r
. Then
form the integer
n = 1 + p
1
p
2
. . . p
r
.
Since n > p
i
for all i, it must be composite. Let q be the smallest prime
factor of n. As p
1
, p
2
, . . . , p
r
represent all existing primes, then q is one of
them, say q = p
1
and n = p
1
m. Now we can write
1 = n − p
1
p
2
. . . p
r
= p
1
m − p
1
p
2
. . . p
r
= p
1
(m − p
2
. . . p
r
).
We have got that p
1
> 1 is a factor of 1, which is a contradiction.
The following three theorems are far from being elementary. Of course,
no one jury assumes that students are familiar with these theorems. Nev
ertheless, some students use them and sometimes a diﬃcult math olympiad
problem can be trivialised by doing so. The attitude of the Jury of the Inter
national Mathematics Olympiad is to believe that students know what they
use. Therefore it pays to understand these results even without a proof.
Let π(x) denote the number of primes which do not exceed x. Because
of the irregular occurence of the primes, we cannot expect a simple formula
for π(x). However one of the most impressive results in advanced number
theory gives an asymptotic approximation for π(x).
Theorem 5 (The Prime Number Theorem)
lim
x→∞
π(x)
ln x
x
= 1,
where ln x is the natural logarithm, to base e.
4
Theorem 6 (Dirichlet’s Theorem) If a and b are relatively prime pos
itive integers (which means that they don’t have common prime factors in
their prime factorisations), then there are inﬁnitely many primes of the form
an + b, where n = 1, 2, . . ..
Theorem 7 (Bertrand’s Postulate, proved by Chebyschef) For every
positive integer n > 1 there is a prime p such that n < p < 2n.
5
Number Theory. Tutorial 2:
The Euclidean algorithm
1 The number of divisors of n
Let n be a positive integer with the prime factorisation
n = p
α
1
1
p
α
2
2
. . . p
αr
r
, (1)
where p
i
are distinct primes and α
i
are positive integers. How can we ﬁnd
all divisors of n? Let d be a divisor of n. Then n = dm, for some m, thus
n = dm = p
α
1
1
p
α
2
2
. . . p
αr
r
,
Since the prime factorisation of n is unique, d cannot have in its prime
factorisation a prime which is not among the primes p
1
, p
2
, . . . , p
r
. Also, a
prime p
i
in the prime factorisation of d cannot have an exponent greater than
α
i
. Therefore
d = p
β
1
1
p
β
2
2
. . . p
βr
r
, 0 ≤ β
i
≤ α
i
, i = 1, 2, . . . , r. (2)
Theorem 1. The number of positive divisors of n is
d(n) = (α
1
+ 1)(α
2
+ 1) . . . (α
r
+ 1). (3)
Proof. Indeed, we have exactly α
i
+1 possibilities to choose β
i
in (2), namely
0, 1, 2, . . . , α
i
. Thus the total number of divisors will be exactly the product
(α
1
+ 1)(α
2
+ 1) . . . (α
r
+ 1).
Deﬁnition 1. The numbers kn, where k = 0, ±1, ±2, . . . , are called multi
ples of n.
It is clear that any multiple of n given by (1) has the form
m = kp
γ
1
1
p
γ
2
2
. . . p
γr
r
, γ
i
≥ α
i
, i = 1, 2, . . . , r,
where k has no primes p
1
, p
2
, . . . , p
r
in its prime factorisation. The number
of multiples of n is inﬁnite.
1
2 Greatest common divisor and least com
mon multiple
Let a and b be two positive integers. If d is a divisor of a and also a divisor of
b, then we say that d is a common divisor of a and b. As there are only a ﬁnite
number of common divisors, there is a greatest common divisor, denoted by
gcd(a, b). The number m is said to be a common multiple of a and b if m is a
multiple of a and also a multiple of b. Among all common multiples there is a
minimal one (Leastinteger principle!). It is called the least common multiple
and it is denoted by lcm (a, b).
In the decomposition (1) we had all exponents positive. However, some
times it is convenient to allow some exponents to be 0. This is especially
convenient, when we consider prime factorisations of two numbers a and b,
looking for gcd (a, b) and lcm (a, b), since we may assume that both a and b
have the same set of primes in their prime factorisations.
Theorem 2. Let
a = p
α
1
1
p
α
2
2
. . . p
αr
r
, b = p
β
1
1
p
β
2
2
. . . p
βr
r
,
where α
i
≥ 0 and β
i
≥ 0, be two arbitrary positive integers. Then
gcd (a, b) = p
min(α
1
,β
1
)
1
p
min(α
2
,β
2
)
2
. . . p
min(αr,βr)
r
, (4)
and
lcm (a, b) = p
max(α
1
,β
1
)
1
p
max(α
2
,β
2
)
2
. . . p
max(αr,βr)
r
. (5)
Moreover,
gcd (a, b) · lcm (a, b) = a · b. (6)
Proof. Formulas (4) and (5) follow from our description of common divisors
and common multiples. To prove (6) we have to notice that min(α
i
, β
i
) +
max(α
i
, β
i
) = α
i
+ β
i
.
We suspect (in fact it is an open question) that prime factorisation is
computationally diﬃcult and we don’t know easy algorithms for that but
fortunately the greatest common divisor gcd(a, b) of numbers a and b can be
found without knowing the prime factorisations for a and b. This algorithm
was known to Euclid and maybe even was discovered by him.
2
Theorem 3 (The Euclidean Algorithm). Let a and b be positive inte
gers. We use the division algorithm several times to ﬁnd:
a = q
1
b + r
1
, 0 < r
1
< b,
b = q
2
r
1
+ r
2
, 0 < r
2
< r
1
,
r
1
= q
3
r
2
+ r
3
, 0 < r
3
< r
2
,
.
.
.
r
s−2
= q
s
r
s−1
+ r
s
, 0 < r
s
< r
s−1
,
r
s−1
= q
s+1
r
s
.
Then r
s
= gcd (a, b).
Proof. Is based on the observation that if a = qb + r, then gcd (a, b) =
gcd (b, r). Indeed, if d is a common divisor of a and b, then a = a
d and
b = b
d and then r = a−qb = a
d −qb
d = (a
−qb
)d and d is also a common
divisor of b and r. Also if d is a common divisor of b and r, then b = b
d,
r = r
d and a = qb + r = qb
d + r
d = (qb
+ r
)d, whence d is a common
divisor of a and b.
It is clear now that gcd (a, b) = gcd (b, r
1
) = gcd (r
1
, r
2
) = . . . =
gcd (r
s−1
, r
s
) = r
s
.
Theorem 4 (The Extended Euclidean Algorithm). Let us write the fol
lowing table with two rows R
1
, R
2
, and three columns:
a 1 0
b 0 1
.
In accordance with the Euclidean Algorithm above, we perform the following
operations with rows of this table. First we will create the third row R
3
by
subtracting from the ﬁrst row the second row times q
1
, we denote this as R
3
:=
R
1
− q
1
R
2
. Then similarly we create the fourth row: R
4
:= R
2
− q
2
R
3
. We
will continue this process as follows: when creating R
k
we will obtain it taking
R
k−2
and subtracting R
k−1
times q
k−2
, which can be written symbolically as
3
R
k
:= R
k−2
−q
k−2
R
k−1
. Eventually we will obtain the table:
a 1 0
b 0 1
r
1
1 −q
1
r
2
−q
2
1 + q
1
q
2
.
.
.
r
s
m n
.
Then gcd (a, b) = r
s
= am + bn.
Proof. We will prove this by induction. Let the kth row of the table be
R
k
= (u
k
, v
k
, w
k
).
We assume that u
i
= av
i
+bw
i
for all i < k. This is certainly true for i = 1, 2.
Then by induction hypothesis
u
k
= u
k−2
−q
k
u
k−1
= av
k−2
+ bw
k−2
−q
k
(av
k−1
+ bw
k−1
) =
a(v
k−2
−q
k
v
k−1
) + b(w
k−2
−q
k
w
k−1
) = av
k
+ bw
k
.
Thus the statement u
i
= av
i
+bw
i
is true for all i. In particular, this is true
for the last row, which gives us r
s
= am + bn.
Example 1. Let a = 321, b = 843. Find the greatest common divisor
gcd (a, b), the least common multiple lcm (a, b), and a linear presentation
of the greatest common divisor in the form gcd (a, b) = ka + mb.
The Euclidean algorithm:
321 = 0 · 843 + 321
843 = 2 · 321 + 201
321 = 1 · 201 + 120
201 = 1 · 120 + 81
120 = 1 · 81 + 39
81 = 2 · 39 + 3
39 = 13 · 3 + 0,
4
and therefore gcd(321, 843) = 3 and lcm(321, 843) =
321 · 843
3
= 107 · 843 =
90201. The Extended Euclidean algorithm:
321 1 0
843 0 1
321 1 0
201 −2 1
120 3 −1
81 −5 2
39 8 −3
3 −21 8
obtaining the linear presentation gcd (321, 843) = 3 = (−21) · 321 + 8 · 843.
3 Relatively prime numbers
Deﬁnition 2. If gcd(a, b) = 1, the numbers a and b are said to be relatively
prime (or coprime).
The following properties of relatively prime numbers are often used.
Lemma 1. Let gcd (a, b) = 1, i.e., a and b are relatively prime. Then
1. a and b do not have common primes in their prime factorisations;
2. If c is a multiple of a and also a multiple of b, then c is a multiple of
ab;
3. If ac is a multiple of b, then c is a multiple of b;
4. There exist integers m, n such that ma + nb = 1.
Proof. Part 1 follows from equation (4), parts 2 and 3 follow from part 1,
and part 4 follows from Theorem 4.
Theorem 5 (The Chinese remainder theorem). Let a and b be two rel
atively prime numbers, 0 ≤ r < a and 0 ≤ s < b. Then there exists a unique
number N such that 0 ≤ N < ab and
r = N (mod a) and s = N (mod b), (7)
i.e., N has remainder r on dividing by a and remainder s on dividing by b.
5
Proof. Let us prove ﬁrst, that there exists at most one integer N with the
conditions required. Assume, on the contrary, that for two integers N
1
and
N
2
we have 0 ≤ N
1
< ab, 0 ≤ N
2
< ab and
r = N
1
(mod a) = N
2
(mod a) and s = N
1
(mod b) = N
2
(mod b).
Let us assume that N
1
> N
2
. Then the number M = N
1
− N
2
satisﬁes
0 ≤ M < ab and
0 = M (mod a) and 0 = M (mod b). (8)
By Lemma 1 part 3, condition (8) implies that M is divisible by ab, whence
M = 0 and N
1
= N
2
.
Now we will ﬁnd an integer N, such that r = N (mod a) and s =
N (mod b), ignoring the condition 0 ≤ N < ab. By Theorem 4 there are
integers m, n such that gcd (a, b) = 1 = ma + nb. Multiplying this equation
by r −s we get the equation
r −s = (r −s)ma + (r −s)nb = m
a + n
b.
Now it is clear that the number
N = r −m
a = s + n
b
satisﬁes the condition (7). If N does not satisfy 0 ≤ N < ab, we divide N by
ab with remainder N = q · ab + N
1
. Now 0 ≤ N
1
< ab and N
1
satisﬁes (7).
Theorem is proved.
This is a constructive proof of the Chinese remainder theorem, which
gives also an algorithm of calculating such N with property (7). A shorter
but nonconsructive proof, which uses Pigeonhole principle can be found in the
training material ”Pigeonhole Principle.” It is used there to prove Fermat’s
theorem that any prime of the type 4n + 1 can be represented as a sum of
two squares.
Copyright: MathOlymp.com Ltd 2001. All rights reserved.
6
Number Theory. Tutorial 3:
Euler’s function and Euler’s Theorem
1 Euler’s φfunction
Deﬁnition 1. Let n be a positive integer. The number of positive integers
less than or equal to n that are relatively prime to n, is denoted by φ(n).
This function is called Euler’s φfunction or Euler’s totient function.
Let us denote Z
n
= {0, 1, 2, . . . , n−1} and by Z
∗
n
the set of those nonzero
numbers from Z
n
that are relatively prime to n. Then φ(n) is the number of
elements of Z
∗
n
, i.e., φ(n) = Z
∗
n
.
Example 1. Let n = 20. Then Z
∗
20
= {1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 19} and φ(20) = 8.
Lemma 1. If n = p
k
, where p is prime, then φ(n) = p
k
−p
k−1
= p
k
1 −
1
p
.
Proof. It is easy to list all integers that are less than or equal to p
k
and
not relatively prime to p
k
. They are p, 2p, 3p, . . . , p
k−1
· p. We have exactly
p
k−1
of them. Therefore p
k
−p
k−1
nonzero integers from Z
n
will be relatively
prime to n. Hence φ(n) = p
k
−p
k−1
.
An important consequence of the Chinese remainder theorem is that the
function φ(n) is multiplicative in the following sense:
Theorem 1. Let m and n be any two relatively prime positive integers. Then
φ(mn) = φ(m)φ(n).
Proof. Let Z
∗
m
= {r
1
, r
2
, . . . , r
φ(m)
} and Z
∗
n
= {s
1
, s
2
, . . . , s
φ(n)
}. By the
Chinese remainder theorem there exists a unique positive integer N
ij
such
that 0 ≤ N
ij
< mn and
r
i
= N
ij
(mod m), s
j
= N
ij
(mod n),
1
that is N
ij
has remainder r
i
on dividing by m, and remainder s
j
on dividing
by n, in particular for some integers a and b
N
ij
= am + r
i
, N
ij
= bn + s
j
. (1)
As in Tutorial 2, in the proof of the Euclidean algorithm, we notice that
gcd (N
ij
, m) = gcd (m, r
i
) = 1 and gcd (N
ij
, n) = gcd (n, s
j
) = 1, that is N
ij
is relatively prime to m and also relatively prime to n. Since m and n are
relatively prime, N
ij
is relatively prime to mn, hence N
ij
∈ Z
∗
mn
. Clearly,
diﬀerent pairs (i, j) = (k, l) yield diﬀerent numbers, that is N
ij
= N
kl
for
(i, j) = (k, l).
Suppose now that a number N = N
ij
for all i and j. Then
r = N (mod m), s = N (mod n),
where either r does not belong to Z
∗
m
or s does not belong to Z
∗
n
. Assuming
the former, we get gcd (r, m) > 1. But then gcd (N, m) = gcd (m, r) > 1 and
N does not belong to Z
∗
mn
. It shows that the numbers N
ij
and only they
form Z
∗
mn
. But there are exactly φ(m)φ(n) of the numbers N
ij
, exactly as
many as the pairs (r
i
, s
j
). Therefore φ(mn) = φ(m)φ(n).
Theorem 2. Let n be a positive integer with the prime factorisation
n = p
α
1
1
p
α
2
2
. . . p
αr
r
,
where p
i
are distinct primes and α
i
are positive integers. Then
φ(n) = n
1 −
1
p
1
1 −
1
p
2
. . .
1 −
1
p
r
.
Proof. We use Lemma 1 and Theorem 1 to compute φ(n):
φ(n) = φ (p
α
1
1
) φ (p
α
2
2
) . . . φ (p
αr
r
)
= p
α
1
1
1 −
1
p
1
p
α
2
2
1 −
1
p
2
. . . p
αr
r
1 −
1
p
r
= n
1 −
1
p
1
1 −
1
p
2
. . .
1 −
1
p
r
.
Example 2. φ(264) = φ(2
3
· 3 · 11) = 264
1
2
2
3
10
11
= 80.
2
2 Congruences. Euler’s Theorem
If a and b are intgers we write a ≡ b (mod m) and say that a is congruent
to b if a and b have the same remainder on dividing by m. For example,
41 ≡ 80 (mod 1)3, 41 ≡ −37 (mod 1)3, 41 ≡ 7 (mod 1)3.
Lemma 2. Let a and b be two integers and m is a positive integer. Then
(a) a ≡ b (mod m) if and only if a −b is divisible by m;
(b) If a ≡ b (mod m) and c ≡ d (mod m), then a + c ≡ b + d (mod m);
(c) If a ≡ b (mod m) and c ≡ d (mod m), then ac ≡ bd (mod m);
(d) If a ≡ b (mod m) and n is a positive integer, then a
n
≡ b
n
(mod m);
(e) If ac ≡ bc (mod m) and c is relatively prime to m, then a ≡ b (mod m).
Proof. (a) By the division algorithm
a = q
1
m + r
1
, 0 ≤ r
1
< m, and b = q
2
m + r
2
, 0 ≤ r
2
< m.
Thus a −b = (q
1
−q
2
)m + (r
1
−r
2
), where −m < r
1
−r
2
< m. We see that
a − b is divisible by m if and only if r
1
− r
2
is divisible by m but this can
happen if and only if r
1
−r
2
= 0, i.e., r
1
= r
2
.
(b) is an exercise.
(c) If a ≡ b (mod m) and c ≡ d (mod m), then m(a −b) and m(c −d),
i.e., a −b = im and c −d = jm for some integers i, j. Then
ac −bd = (ac −bc) +(bc−bd) = (a−b)c +b(c −d) = icm+jbm = (ic +jb)m,
whence ac ≡ bd (mod m);
(d) Follows immediately from (c)
(e) Suppose that ac ≡ bc (mod m) and gcd (c, m) = 1. Then there exist
integers u, v such that cu + mv = 1 or cu ≡ 1 (mod m). Then by (c)
a ≡ acu ≡ bcu ≡ b (mod m).
and a ≡ b (mod m) as required.
The property in Lemma 2 (e) is called the cancellation property.
Theorem 3 (Fermat’s Little Theorem). Let p be a prime. If an integer
a is not divisible by p, then a
p−1
≡ 1 (mod p). Also a
p
≡ a (mod p) for all a.
3
Proof. Let a, be relatively prime to p. Consider the numbers a, 2a, ...,
(p − 1)a. All of them have diﬀerent remainders on dividing by p. Indeed,
suppose that for some 1 ≤ i < j ≤ p−1 we have ia ≡ ja (mod p). Then
by the cancellation property a can be cancelled and i ≡ j (mod p), which is
impossible. Therefore these remainders are 1, 2, ..., p −1 and
a · 2a · · · · · (p −1)a ≡ (p −1)! (mod p),
which is
(p −1)! · a
p−1
≡ (p −1)! (mod p).
Since (p − 1)! is relatively prime to p, by the cancellation property a
p−1
≡
1 (mod p). When a is relatively prime to p, the last statement follows from
the ﬁrst one. If a is a multiple of p the last statement is also clear.
Theorem 4 (Euler’s Theorem). ) Let n be a positive integer. Then
a
φ(n)
≡ 1 (mod n)
for all a relatively prime to n.
Proof. Let Z
∗
n
= {z
1
, z
2
, . . . , z
φ(n)
}. Consider the numbers z
1
a, z
2
a, ..., z
φ(n)
a.
Both z
i
and a are relatively prime to n, therefore z
i
a is also relatively prime
to n. Suppose that r
i
= z
i
a (mod n), i.e., r
i
is the remainder on dividing
z
i
a by n. Since gcd (z
i
a, n) = gcd (r
i
, n), yielding r
i
∈ Z
∗
n
. These remainders
are all diﬀerent. Indeed, suppose that r
i
= r
j
for some 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n.
Then z
i
a ≡ z
j
a (mod n). By the cancellation property a can be cancelled
and we get z
i
≡ z
j
(mod n), which is impossible. Therefore the remainders
r
1
, r
2
, ..., r
φ(n)
coincide with z
1
, z
2
, . . . , z
φ(n)
, apart from the order in which
they are listed. Thus
z
1
a · z
2
a · . . . · z
φ(n)
a ≡ r
1
· r
2
· . . . · r
φ(n)
≡ z
1
· z
2
· . . . · z
φ(n)
(mod n),
which is
Z · a
φ(n)
≡ Z (mod n),
where Z = z
1
·z
2
·. . .·z
φ(n)
. Since Z is relatively prime to n it can be cancelled
and we get a
φ(n)
≡ 1 (mod n).
Copyright: MathOlymp.com Ltd 2001. All rights reserved.
4
Number Theory. Tutorial 4:
Representation of Numbers
1 Classical Decimal Positional System
There is an important distinction between numbers and their representations.
In the decimal system the zero and the ﬁrst nine positive integers are denoted
by symbols 0, 1, 2, . . . , 9, respectively. These symbols are called digits. The
same symbols are used to represent all the integers. The tenth integer is
denoted as 10 and an arbitrary integer N can now be represented in the
form
N = a
n
· 10
n
+ a
n−1
· 10
n−1
+ . . . + a
1
· 10 + a
0
, (1)
where a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
n
are integers that can be represented by a single digit
0, 1, 2, . . . , 9. For example, the year, when I started to think about setting
up this website, can be written as
1 · 10
3
+ 9 · 10
2
+ 9 · 10 + 8.
We shorten this expression to (1998)
(10)
or simply 1998, having the decimal
system in mind. In this notation the meaning of a digit depends on its posi
tion. Thus two digit symbols “9” are situated in the tens and the hundreds
places and their meaning is diﬀerent. In general for the number N given by
(1) we write
N = (a
n
a
n−1
. . . a
1
a
0
)
(10)
to emphasise the exceptional role of 10. This notation is called positional.
Its invention, attributed to Sumerians or Babylonians and its further devel
opment by Hindus, was of enormous signiﬁcance for civilisation. In Roman
symbolism, for example, one wrote
MCMXCVIII = (thousand) + (nine hundreds) + (ninety)+
(ﬁve) + (one) + (one) + (one),
1
It is clear that more and more new symbols such as I, V, X, C, M are
needed as numbers get larger while with the Hindu positional system now in
use we need only ten “Arabic numerals” 0, 1, 2, . . . , 9, no matter how large is
the number. The positional system was introduced into medieval Europe by
merchants, who learned it from the Arabs. It is exactly this system which
is to blame that the ancient art of computation, once conﬁned to a few
adepts, became a routine algorithmic skill that can be done automatically
by a machine, and is now taught in elementary school.
2 Other Positional Systems
Mathematically, there is nothing special in the decimal system. The use of
ten, as the base, goes back to the dawn of civilisation, and is attributed to the
fact that we have ten ﬁngers on which to count. Other number could be used
as the base, and undoubtedly some of them were used. The number words
in many languages show remnants of other bases, mainly twelve, ﬁfteen and
twenty. For example, in English the words for 11 and 12 and in Spanish
the words for 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15, are not constructed on the decimal
principle. In French a special role of the word for 20 is clearly observed. The
Babylonian astronomers had a system of notation with the base 60. This
is believed to be the reason for the customary division of the hour and the
angular degree into 60 minutes. In the theorem that follows we show that an
arbitrary positive integer b > 1 can be used as the base.
Theorem 1. Let b > 1 be a positive integer. Then every positive integer N
can be uniquely represented in the form
N = d
0
+ d
1
b + d
2
b
2
+ · · · + d
n
b
n
, (2)
where “the digits” d
0
, d
1
, . . . , d
n
lie in the range 0 ≤ d
i
≤ b−1, for all i.
Proof. The proof is by induction on N, the number being represented. Clearly,
the representation 1 = 1 for 1 is unique. Suppose, inductively, that every
integer 1, 2, . . . , N−1 is uniquely representable. Now consider the integer N.
Let d
0
= N (mod b). Then N −d
0
is divisible by b and let N
1
= (N −d
0
)/b.
Since N
1
< N, by the induction hypothesis N
1
is uniquely representable in
the form
N
1
=
N − d
0
b
= d
1
+ d
2
b + d
3
b
2
+ · · · + d
n
b
n−1
,
2
Then clearly,
N = d
0
+ N
1
b = d
0
+ d
1
b + d
2
b
2
+ · · · + d
n
b
n
,
is the representation required.
Finally, suppose that N has some other representation in this form also,
i.e.,
N = d
0
+ d
1
b + d
2
b
2
+ · · · + d
n
b
n
= e
0
+ e
1
b + e
2
b
2
+ · · · + e
n
b
n
.
Then d
0
= e
0
= r as they are equal to the remainder of N on dividing by b.
Now the number
N
1
=
N − r
b
= d
1
+d
2
b +d
3
b
2
+· · · +d
n
b
n−1
= e
1
+e
2
b +e
3
b
2
+· · · +e
n
b
n−1
has two diﬀerent representations which contradicts the inductive assumption,
since we have assumed the truth of the result for all N
1
< N.
Corollary 1. We use the notation
N = (d
n
d
n−1
. . . d
1
d
0
)
(b)
(3)
to express (2). The digits d
i
can be found by the repeated application of the
division algorithm as follows:
N = q
1
b + d
0
, (0 ≤ d
0
< b)
q
1
= q
2
b + d
1
, (0 ≤ d
1
< b)
.
.
.
q
n
= 0 · b + d
n
(0 ≤ d
n
< b)
For example, the positional system with base 5 employ the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
and we can write
1998
(10)
= 3 · 5
4
+ 0 · 5
3
+ 4 · 5
2
+ 4 · 5 + 3 = 30443
(5)
.
But in the computers’ era it is the binary (or dyadic) system (base 2) that
emerged as the most important one. We have only two digits here 0 and
1 and a very simple multiplication table for them. But under the binary
system, the representations of numbers get longer. For example,
86
(10)
= 1 · 2
6
+ 0 · 2
5
+ 1 · 2
4
+ 0 · 2
3
+ 1 · 2
2
+ 1 · 2 + 0 = 1010110
(2)
. (4)
3
Leibniz (1646–1716) was one of the proponents of the binary system. Ac
cording to Laplace: “Leibniz saw in his binary arithmetic the image of cre
ation. He imagined that Unity represented God, and zero the void; that the
Supreme Being drew all beings from the void, just as unity and zero express
all numbers in his system of numeration.”
Let us look at the binary representation of a number from the information
point of view. Information is measured in bits. One bit is a unit of infor
mation expressed as a choice between two possibilities 0 and 1. The number
of binary digits in the binary representation of a number N is therefore the
number of bits we need to transmit N through an information channel (or
input into a computer). For example, the equation (4) shows that we need 7
bits to transmit or input the number 86.
Theorem 2. To input a number N by converting it into its binary repre
sentation we need log
2
N + 1 bits of information, where x denotes the
integer part of x.
Proof. Suppose that N has n binary digits in its binary representation. That
is
N = 2
n−1
+ a
n−2
2
n−2
+ · · · + a
1
2
1
+ a
0
2
0
, a
i
∈ {0, 1}.
Then 2
n
> N ≥ 2
n−1
or n > log
2
N ≥ n − 1, i.e., log
2
N = n − 1 and thus
n = log
2
N + 1.
3 Representations for real numbers
The negative powers of 10 are used to express those real numbers which are
not integers. The other bases can be also used. For example,
1
8
= 0.125
(10)
=
1
10
+
2
10
2
+
5
10
3
=
0
2
+
0
2
2
+
1
2
3
= 0.001
(2)
1
7
= 0.142857142857 . . .
(10)
= 0.(142857)
(10)
= 0.001001 . . .
(2)
= 0.(001)
(2)
The binary expansions of irrational numbers, such as
√
5 = 10.001111000110111 . . .
(2)
,
are used sometimes in cryptography for simulating a random sequence of
bits. But this method is considered to be insecure. The number,
√
5 in the
example above, can be guessed after knowing the initial segment which will
reveal the whole sequence.
4
Number Theory. Tutorial 5:
Bertrand’s Postulate
1 Introduction
In this tutorial we are going to prove:
Theorem 1 (Bertrand’s Postulate). For each positive integer n > 1 there
is a prime p such that n < p < 2n.
This theorem was veriﬁed for all numbers less than three million for
Joseph Bertrand (18221900) and was proved by Pafnutii Chebyshev (1821
1894).
2 The ﬂoor function
Deﬁnition 1. Let x be a real number such that n ≤ x < n + 1. Then we
deﬁne x = n. This is called the ﬂoor function. x is also called the integer
part of x with x−x being called the fractional part of x. If m−1 < x ≤ m,
we deﬁne x = m. This is called the ceiling function.
In this tutorial we will make use of the ﬂoor function. Two useful prop
erties are listed in the following propositions.
Proposition 1. 2x ≤ 2x ≤ 2x + 1.
Proof. Proving such inequalities is easy (and it resembles problems with the
absolute value function). You have to represent x in the form x = x + a,
where 0 ≤ a < 1 is the fractional part of x. Then 2x = 2x +2a and we get
two cases: a < 1/2 and a ≥ 1/2. In the ﬁrst case we have
2x = 2x < 2x + 1
and in the second
2x < 2x = 2x + 1.
1
Proposition 2. let a, b be positive integers and let us divide a by b with
remainder
a = qb + r 0 ≤ r < b.
Then q = a/b and r = a − ba/b.
Proof. We simply write
a
b
= q +
r
b
and since q is an integer and 0 ≤ r/b < 1 we see that q is the integer part of
a/b and r/b is the fractional part.
Exercise 1. x + x + 1/2 = 2x.
3 Prime divisors of factorials and binomial
coeﬃcients
We start with the following
Lemma 1. Let n and b be positive integers. Then the number of integers in
the set {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} that are multiples of b is equal to n/b.
Proof. Indeed, by Proposition 2 the integers that are divisible by b will be
b, 2b, . . . , m/b · b.
Theorem 2. Let n and p be positive integers and p be prime. Then the
largest exponent s such that p
s
 n! is
s =
j≥1
_
n
p
j
_
. (1)
Proof. Let m
i
be the number of multiples of p
i
in the set {1, 2, 3, . . . , n}. Let
t = m
1
+ m
2
+ . . . + m
k
+ . . . (2)
(the sum is ﬁnite of course). Suppose that a belongs to {1, 2, 3, . . . , n}, and
such that p
j
 a but p
j+1
a. Then in the sum (2) a will be counted j times
and will contribute i towards t. This shows that t = s. Now (1) follows from
Lemma 1 since m
j
= n/p
j
.
2
Theorem 3. Let n and p be positive integers and p be prime. Then the
largest exponent s such that p
s

_
2n
n
_
is
s =
j≥1
__
2n
p
j
_
− 2
_
n
p
j
__
. (3)
Proof. Follows from Theorem 2.
Note that, due to Proposition 1, in (3) every summand is either 0 or 1.
Corollary 1. Let n ≥ 3 and p be positive integers and p be prime. Let s be
the largest exponent such that p
s

_
2n
n
_
. Then
(a) p
s
≤ 2n.
(b) If
√
2n < p, then s ≤ 1.
(c) If 2n/3 < p ≤ n, then s = 0.
Proof. (a) Let t be the largest integer such that p
t
≤ 2n. Then for j > t
__
2n
p
j
_
− 2
_
n
p
j
__
= 0.
Hence
s =
t
j=1
__
2n
p
j
_
− 2
_
n
p
j
__
≤ t.
since each summand does not exceed 1 by Proposition 1. Hence p
s
≤
2n.
(b) If
√
2n < p, then p
2
> 2n and from (a) we know that s ≤ 1.
(c) If 2n/3 < p ≤ n, then p
2
> 2n and
s =
__
2n
p
_
− 2
_
n
p
__
As 1 ≤ n/p < 3/2, we se that s = 2 − 2 · 1 = 0.
3
4 Two inequalities involving binomial coeﬃ
cients
We all know the Binomial Theorem:
(a + b)
n
=
n
k=0
_
n
k
_
a
n−k
b
k
. (4)
Let us derive some consequences from it. Substituting a = b = 1 we get:
2
n
=
n
k=0
_
n
k
_
. (5)
Lemma 2. (a) If n is odd, then
_
n
(n + 1)/2
_
≤ 2
n−1
.
(b) If n is even, then
_
n
n/2
_
≥
2
n
n
.
Proof. (a) From (5), deleting all terms except the two middle ones, we get
_
n
(n − 1)/2
_
+
_
n
(n + 1)/2
_
≤ 2
n
.
The two binomial coeﬃcients on the left are equal and we get (a).
(b) If n is even, then it is pretty easy to prove that the middle binomial
coeﬃcient is the largest one. In (5) we have n + 1 summand but we
group the two ones together and we get n summands among which the
middle binomial coeﬃcient is the largest. Hence
n
_
n
n/2
_
≥
n
k=0
_
n
k
_
= 2
n
,
which proves (b).
4
5 Proof of Bertrand’s Postulate
Finally we can pay attention to primes.
Theorem 4. Let n ≥ 2 be an integer, then
p≤n
p < 4
n
,
where the product on the left has one factor for each prime p ≤ n.
Proof. The proof is by induction over n. For n = 2 we have 2 < 4
2
, which
is true. This provides a basis for the induction. Let us assume that the
statement is proved for all integers smaller than n. If n is even, then it is not
prime, hence by induction hypothesis
p≤n
p =
p≤n−1
p < 4
n−1
< 4
n
,
so the induction step is trivial in this case. Suppose n = 2s + 1 is odd, i.e
s = (n − 1)/2. Since
s+1<p≤n
p is a divisor of
_
n
s+1
_
, we obtain
p≤n
p =
p≤s+1
p ·
s+1<p≤n
p < 4
s+1
·
_
n
s + 1
_
< 4
s+1
2
n−1
using the induction hypothesis for n = s + 1 and Lemma 2(a). Now the
righthandside can be presented as
4
s+1
2
n−1
= 2
2s+2
2
n−1
= 2
4s+2
= 4
2s+1
= 4
n
.
This proves the induction step and, hence, the theorem.
Proof of Bertrand’s Postulate. We will assume that there are no primes be
tween n and 2n and obtain a contradiction. We will obtain that, under this
assumption, the binomial coeﬃcient
_
2n
n
_
is smaller than it should be. Indeed,
in this case we have the following prime factorisation for it:
_
2n
n
_
=
p≤n
p
s
p
,
5
where s
p
is the exponent of the prime p in this factorisation. No primes
greater than n can be found in this prime factorisation. In fact, due to
Corollary 1(c) we can even write
_
2n
n
_
=
p≤2n/3
p
s
p
.
Let us recap now that due to Corollary 1 p
s
p
≤ 2n and that s
p
= 1 for
p >
√
2n. Hence
_
2n
n
_
≤
p≤
√
2n
p
s
p
·
p≤2n/3
p.
We will estimate now these product using the inequality p
s
p
≤ 2n for the ﬁrst
product and Theorem 4 for the second one. We have no more that
√
2n/2−1
factors in the ﬁrst product (as 1 and even numbers are not primes), hence
_
2n
n
_
< (2n)
√
2n/2−1
· 4
2n/3
. (6)
On the other hand, by Lemma 2(b)
_
2n
n
_
≥
2
2n
2n
=
4
n
2n
. (7)
Combining (6) and (7) we get
4
n/3
< (2n)
√
n/2
.
Applying logs on both sides, we get
2n
3
ln 2 <
_
n
2
ln(2n)
or
√
8nln 2 − 3 ln(2n) < 0. (8)
Let us substitute n = 2
2k−3
for some k. Then we get 2
k
ln 2−3(2k−2) ln 2 < 0
or 2
k
< 3(2k − 2) which is true only for k ≤ 4 (you can prove that by
6
inducton). Hence (8) is not true for n = 2
7
= 128. Let us consider the
function f(x) =
√
8x ln 2 − 3 ln(2x) deﬁned for x > 0. Its derivative is
f(x) =
√
2x · ln 2 − 3
x
.
let us note that for x ≥ 8 this derivative is positive. Thus (8) is not true for
all n ≥ 128. We proved Bertrand’s postulate for n ≥ 128. For smaller n it
can be proved by inspection. I leave this to the reader.
Copyright: MathOlymp.com Ltd 20012002. All rights reserved.
7
Geometry Tutorial 1.
Ptolemy’s inequality
One of the most important tools in proving geometric inequalities is
Theorem 1 (Ptolemy’s Inequality) Let ABCD be an arbitrary quadri
lateral in the plane. Then
AB · CD+BC · AD ≥ AC · BD.
This inequality becomes equality if and only if the quadrilateral is cyclic.
Proof: Firstly, we will consider the case, when the quadrilateral ABCD
is convex. Let us rotate the plane about B and then dilate, choosing the
coeﬃcient of the dilation k so that the image of D coincides with A. Let us
denote the image of C as C
.
C'
B
C
A
D
Since the triangles ABC
and DBC are similar we get
AB
AC
=
BD
CD
and hence
AC
=
AB · CD
BD
.
1
The triangles C
BC and ABD are also similar because
C
BC =
ABD
and
C
B
BC
=
AB
BD
= k.
This similarity yields
BC
C
C
=
BD
AD
, whence
C
C =
BC · AD
BD
.
By the Triangle inequality
AC
+C
C =
AB · CD
BD
+
BC · AD
BD
≥ AC,
and therefore AB· CD+BC · AD ≥ AC · BD. This inequality is an equality
if and only if C
is on the segment AC in which case we have
BAC =
BAC
=
BDC
and the points A, B, C, D are concyclic.
Let us assume now that the quadrilateral is not convex. Then one of
its diagonals, say BD does not have common points with the interior of the
quadrilateral.
C'
B
C
D
A
Reﬂecting C about BD we will get a convex quadrilateral ABC
D whose side
are of the same lengths as that of ABCD but the product of the diagonals
for ABCD is smaller than for ABC
D as AC < AC
and BD is the same
in both cases. Therefore Ptolemy’s inequality holds in this case too, and
inequality never becomes equality.
Another proof of Ptolemy’s inequality can be obtained using inversion.
We will prove even more general statement.
2
Theorem 2 (Generalised Ptolemy’s inequality) Let A, B, C, D be ar
bitrary points in the plane, but not on a line. Then
AB · CD+BC · AD ≥ AC · BD.
This inequality becomes equality if and only if the points A, B, C, D are con
cyclic and each of the two arcs determined by the points A, C contains one
of the two remaining points.
Proof: Consider an inversion i with pole D and any coeﬃcient r > 0. Let
A
, B
, C
be the images of A, B, C under this inversion respectively. Applying
the Triangle inequality for the points A
, B
, C
, we get
A
B
+B
C
≥ A
C
. (1)
It is wellknown (or easy to prove) how distances between points change
under inversion. In our case, if X, Y are any two points diﬀerent from D,
and if X
, Y
are their images under i then
X
Y
=
r
2
· XY
DX · DY
.
This formula can be applied to any pair of points A, B, C because they are
all diﬀerent from D. So we rewrite (1) in the form
r
2
· AB
DA· DB
+
r
2
· BC
DB · DC
≥
r
2
· AC
DA· DC
.
After multiplying both sides by DA· DB · DC, the latter becomes
AB · CD+BC · AD ≥ AC · BD, (2)
as desired. It is clear that (2) becomes equality, only when (1) becomes equal
ity. This happens, when A
, B
, C
are on the line with B
beeing between A
and C
. Since the points are not on the same line, this means that before the
inversion they were on a circle with B and D on diﬀerent arcs determined
by A and C.
Comment 1: Theorem 2 is clearly independent of whether or not the given
points lie in the same plane. It does not change in the slightest if they are
in threedimensional space.
Comment 2: Theorem 2 is also true in some cases, when the given points
lie on the same line. This case can easily be sorted out but it is not of interest
to us.
3
Geometry Tutorial 2.
Euler’s theorem
We shall prove in this section Euler’s theorem that was oﬀered in 1962 to
the participants of IMO and therefore introduced to the IMO sillabus forever.
We will prove the following lemma ﬁrst and then derive Euler’s theorem
and several other corollaries.
Lemma 1 A circle of radus r with center I is inside of a circle of radius R
with center O. Suppose A is an arbitrary point on the larger circle, AB and
AC are two chords of the larger circle which are tangent to the smaller one.
Then BC is tangent to the smaller circle if and only if IO =
R(R −2r).
Proof. Let S be a point on the larger circle such that AS is the bisector of
BAC. Let us draw CI and CS.
O
I
N
A
M
S
B
C
BC is tangent to the smaller circle if and only if
BCI =
ICA. This, in
turn, happens if and only if
SCI =
CIS, since
CIS =
ICA+
IAC =
ICA+
SCB. Furthermore,
SCI =
CIS if and only if SC = SI.
Let MN be the diameter of the large circle passing through I and O.
Then SC = SI if and only if SI · IA = SC · IA = 2Rsin α ·
r
sin α
= 2rR,
where α =
CAS.
1
As is wellknown, SI · IA = MI · IN = (R − d)(R + d), where d = IO.
Hence we have SI · IA = 2rR if and only if (R −d)(R+d) = 2rR, which is
the same as d
2
= R
2
−2rR, and the lemma is proved.
From this lemma Euler’s theorem follows:
Theorem 2 (Euler’s theorem) The distance between the incenter and the
circumcenter of a triangle is equal to
R(R −2r).
Two more remarkable corollaries from the same lemma:
Corollary 3 Two positive real numbers r and R are the inradius and cir
cumradius of some triangle ABC if and only if R ≥ 2r. Moreover,
R = 2r if and only if the triangle ABC is equilateral.
If R > 2r there exist inﬁnitely many nonsimilar triangles having R and
r as the circumradius and inradius, respectively.
Corollary 4 Consider the incircle and the circumcircle of triangle ABC.
Let us take an arbitrary point A
1
on the circumcircle and draw the chords
A
1
B
1
and B
1
C
1
both of which are tangent to the incircle. Then the chord
C
1
A
1
is also tangent to the incircle.
A
B
1
C
B
A
1
C
1
This is a partial case of the deep Poncelet’s theorem.
Theorem 5 (Poncelet) Suppose that one circle is placed inside another
circle. Let A
1
, . . . , A
n
be the points on a larger circle such that each link
of the closed broken line A
1
A
2
. . . A
n
A
1
touches the smaller circle. Then if
B
1
, . . . , B
n
be any points on the larger circle such that each link of the broken
line B
1
B
2
. . . B
n
touches the smaller circle, then B
n
B
1
also touches it.
Copyright: MathOlymp.com Ltd 2001. All rights reserved.
2
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Over 250 pages of challenging questions and solutions from
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B HENRY, L MOTTERSHEAD, A EDWARDS, J MCINTOSH, A NAKOS,
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INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS—TOURNAMENT OF
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a model for regional competitions around the world where costs and
logistics are serious considerations. This 159 page book reports the
first twelve years of this competition, including sections on its early
history, problems, solutions and statistics.
101 PROBLEMS IN ALGEBRA
EDITED BY T ANDREESCU & Z FENG
This book contains one hundred and one highly rated problems
used in training and testing the USA International Mathematical
Olympiad (IMO) team. It gradually builds students algebraic skills
and techniques and aims to broaden students’ views of mathematics
and better prepare them for possible participation in mathematical
competitions. It provides indepth enrichment in important areas of
algebra by reorganizing and enhancing students’ problemsolving
tactics, and stimulates interest for future study of mathematics.
HUNGARY ISRAEL MATHEMATICS COMPETITION
S GUERON
The Hungary Israel Mathematics Competition commenced in 1990 when
diplomatic relations between the two countries were in their infancy.
This 181 page book summarizes the first 12 years of the competition
(1990 to 2001) and includes the problems and complete solutions. The
book is directed at mathematics lovers, problem solving enthusiasts
and students who wish to improve their competition skills. No special
or advanced knowledge is required beyond that of the typical IMO
contestant and the book includes a glossary explaining the terms and
theorems which are not standard that have been used in the book.
BULGARIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION 19922001
BJ LAZAROV, JB TABOV, PJ TAYLOR & A STOROZHEV
The Bulgarian Mathematics Competition has become one of the
most difficult and interesting competitions in the world. It is unique
in structure combining mathematics and informatics problems in
a multichoice format. This book covers the first ten years of the
competition complete with answers and solutions. Students of
average ability and with an interest in the subject should be able
to access this book and find a challenge.
JOURNALS
MATHEMATICS COMPETITIONS
This biannual journal is published on behalf of the World Federation
of National Mathematics Competitions. It contains articles of interest
to academics and teachers around the world who run mathematics
competitions, including articles on actual competitions, results from
competitions, and mathematical and historical articles which may be
of interest to those associated with competitions.
PARABOLA incorporating FUNCTION
In 2005 Parabola will become Parabola incorporating Function edited by
Bruce Henry at the University of New South Wales. This triannual journal
publishes articles on applied mathematics, mathematical modelling,
statistics, pure mathematics and the history of mathematics, that can
contribute to the teaching and learning of mathematics at the senior
secondary school level. The journal’s readership consists of mathematics
students, teachers and researchers with interests in promoting excellence
in senior secondary school mathematics education.
TSHIRTS
TSHIRT SIZES XL & MEDIUM (POLYA ONLY)
The tshirts in this series are based on different mathematicians and
one informatician depicting an outstanding area of their work in a brightly
coloured cartoon representation. They are Leonhard Euler’s famous
Seven Bridges of Königsberg question, Carl Friedrich Gauss’ discovery
of the construction of a 17gon by straight edge and compass, Emmy
Noether’s work on algebraic structures, George Pólya’s Necklace Theorem,
Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet’s Pigeonhole Principle and Alan Mathison
Turing’s computing machine. The tshirts are made of 100% cotton
and are designed and printed in Australia.
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MATHEMATICAL CONTESTS – AUSTRALIAN SCENE
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CHALLENGE! 1991–1995 $A40.00
PROBLEMS TO SOLVE IN MIDDLE SCHOOL MATHEMATICS $A50.OO
AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS 1979–1995 $A40.00
EXTENSION MATERIALS
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SEEKING SOLUTIONS $A40.00
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2005
2004
continued over
2005
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CHINESE MATHEMATICS COMPETITIONS & OLYMPIADS BOOK 1 19811993
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101 PROBLEMS IN ALGEBRA
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AMT Mathematics Activity
This page is designed give students a wide range of opportunities to practice their
mathematics and informatics, and teachers warmup papers and other problems to
give their class. Problems to be found here will cover a wide range of standards,
from accessible to all students up to challenging.
When a question is posted without solution, if you are from a participating school
and within the valid school year, send your solutions here, making it clear which
problems you are answering. If your solution is complete we will acknowledge with
your name, school and school year. Generally when a sufficient number of correct
solutions are in we will post the complete solutions, and follow with new problems.
For informatics a separate method of interactive assessment is provided.
q Australian Mathematics Competition for the Westpac Awards
q Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians
q International Mathematics Tournament of Towns
q Informatics
http://www.amt.edu.au/internat.html06/01/1428 06:56:52 Õ
Mathematics Activity: MCYA
http://www.amt.edu.au/wumcya.html (1 of 2)06/01/1428 06:57:22 Õ
This page will be developed to give students a wide range of opportunities to practice their
mathematics, and teachers warmup papers and other problems to give their class. Problems to be
found here will cover a wide range of standards, from accessible to all students up to challenging.
When a question is posted without solution, if you are from a participating school and within the
valid school year, send your solutions here, making it clear which problems you are answering. If
your solution is complete we will acknowledge with your name, school and school year. Generally
when a sufficient number of correct solutions are in we will post the complete solutions, and follow
with new problems.
The problems below will require syllabus skills from the relevant year, and are for students who
enjoy mathematics and wish to test their problem solving skills.
Current Warmup problems
Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians
Solution to Problem 1
Correct Solution was received from
Correct Solution was received from
q Primary, Years 5, 6 and 7
Problem 2
Correct Solution was received from
q Junior, Years 7 and 8
Problem 2
r Brian Fernandes,Year 8, Hurlstone Agricultural High School, NSW
r Gabriel Gregory, Year 5, Sydney Grammar School St Ives, NSW
r Sheree Deng, Year 5, Essex Heights Primary School, Mt Waverley, Victoria
r Gabriel Gregory, Year 5, Sydney Grammar School, St Ives, NSW
r Siddharth Jain, Year 7, Box Hill High School, Box Hill, Victoria
r Cameron Segal, Year 4, The King David School, Armadale, Victoria
r Abdullah Sarker, Year 7, Sydney Boys High School, Surry Hills, NSW
r Kate Charters, Year 7, St. Catherine's School, Victoria
r Rowan ClymoRowlands Year 5, Lenah Valley Primary School, Tasmania
r Sebhatleb Gebrezgabir, Year 6, Campbell Street Primary School, Tasmania
r Gabriella Hannah Kontorovich, Year 5, The Emanuel School, Sydney, NSW
r Matthew O’Brien, Year 5, Kennington Primary School, Bendigo, Victoria
r Mengtong Xia, Year 5, Balwyn Primary School, Victoria
Mathematics Activity: MCYA
http://www.amt.edu.au/wumcya.html (2 of 2)06/01/1428 06:57:22 Õ
Solution to Problem 1
Correct Solution was received from
Solution to Problem 1
Correct Solution was received from
r Varun Nayyar, Year 8 Trinity Grammar School NSW (2004)
q Intermediate, Years 9 and 10
Problem 2
r Giles Gardam, Year 9, Hurlstone Agricultural High School, NSW
r Vinayak Hutchinson, Year 9, Shenton College, WA
r Sarah Liu, Year 10, Arthur Phillip High School, NSW
r Andrew Watts, Year 9, Hurlstone Agricultural High School, NSW
MATHEMATICS CHALLENGE FORYOUNGAUSTRALIANS
PRIMARY, YEARS 5, 6 and 7
WARM UP PROBLEM 02
Wildlife Park
The local wildlife park has an area where there are three types of native
animals – bandiccots, bettongs and quolls – for visitors to see on torch
light tours.
The Park Rangers keep records of the numbers of each type of animal.
At the end of both the ﬁrst and second years, there were three times
as many bettongs as quolls and half the total animal population was
bandicoots.
1. If there were three quolls at the end of the ﬁrst year, what was the
total animal population?
2. If the total population at the end of the second year was 40, how
many bandicoots, bettongs and quolls were there?
At the end of the third year, the total animal population had grown to
55. There were still three times as many bettongs as quolls and more
than half the total population was bandicoots.
3. The Chief Ranger thought he had counted eight quolls. Explain
why this was a mistake.
4. What is the largest possible number of quolls in the area at the
end of the third year?
c s2005 Australian Mathematics Trust
MATHEMATICS CHALLENGE FORYOUNGAUSTRALIANS
JUNIOR, YEARS 7 and 8
WARM UP PROBLEM 02
The Price is Perfect
On the TV show ‘The Price is Perfect’, Chloe will win all the prizes if
she can work out the mystery number. Joe, the host of the show, says:
‘Tonight’s mystery number is the largest 7digit number which has
these properties:
(a) no two digits in the number are the same;
(b) each of the number’s digits divide into the number exactly.’
1. Find the three digits which cannot be in the mystery number.
Explain why they must be excluded.
2. Find the mystery number.
Explain why it is the largest 7digit number which has these two
properties.
c s2005 Australian Mathematics Trust.
MATHEMATICS CHALLENGE FORYOUNGAUSTRALIANS
INTERMEDIATE, YEARS 9 and 10
WARM UP PROBLEM 02
Cornelius the Camel
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• 45c
55c
80c
85c
90c
105c
95c
65c
40c
Hier
Oscar’s Oasis
Philomena’s Phridge
Salvation Spring
Zingarelli’s
Maria’s Mirage
Cosmo Creek
Wombat Waterhole
Thair
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
250 km
90 km
270 km
120 km
60 km
310 km
260 km
110 km
Gianna rides her camel Cornelius across the Gibson Desert from Hier to
Thair, stopping occasionally to recharge Cornelius with water. Cornelius
holds 50 litres and can travel 100 km on 10 litres. The water sellers at
the oases between Hier and Thair charge varying amounts per litre of
water, as shown on the map. Gianna stops as infrequently as possible on
her journey as it is diﬃcult to get Cornelius going after a stop. She ﬁlls
Cornelius with 50 litres of water at Hier and starts her journey.
When she does stop, including the beginning of the journey at Hier and
the end of the journey at Thair, she always lets Cornelius ﬁll up with
water completely.
1. What is the minimum number of times Gianna must stop for water
for Cornelius? Give reasons for your answer.
2. Gianna crosses the Gibson Desert with a minimum number of stops.
At which oases should she stop to spend as little as possible on
water for Cornelius? How much does this cost her?
3. Suppose that Gianna allows for more than the minimum number
of stops (including Hier and Thair), still letting Cornelius ﬁll up
completely at each stop. What is the cheapest way to get across
the desert?
c s2005 Australian Mathematics Trust
2
Mathematics Activity: IMTOT
http://www.amt.edu.au/wuimtot.html06/01/1428 06:58:56 Õ
This page will be developed to give students a wide range of opportunities to practice their
mathematics, and teachers warmup papers and other problems to give their class. Problems to be
found here will cover a wide range of standards, from accessible to all students up to challenging.
When a question is posted without solution, if you are from a participating school and within the
valid school year, send your solutions here, making it clear which problems you are answering. If
your solution is complete we will acknowledge with your name, school and school year. Generally
when a sufficient number of correct solutions are in we will post the complete solutions, and follow
with new problems.
These Tournament questions can be extremely challenging.
International Mathematics Tournament of Towns
Problem 1.
INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS TOURNAMENT OF TOWNS
PRACTICE QUESTION 1
The least common multiple of positive integers a, b, c and d is equal to a + b + c + d.
Prove that abcd is divisible by at least one of 3 and 5.
Mathematics Activity: AMC
http://www.amt.edu.au/wuamc.html (1 of 2)06/01/1428 06:59:34 Õ
This page will be developed to give students a wide range of opportunities to practice their
mathematics, and teachers warmup papers and other problems to give their class. Problems to be
found here will cover a wide range of standards, from accessible to all students up to challenging.
When a question is posted without solution, if you are from a participating school and within the
valid school year, send your solutions here, making it clear which problems you are answering. If
your solution is complete we will acknowledge with your name, school and school year. Generally
when a sufficient number of correct solutions are in we will post the complete solutions, and follow
with new problems.
These questions use mathematics from within the school syllabus, and the questions within each set
range from broadly accessible to challenging, requiring problem solving skills.
Current Warmup papers
Australian Mathematics Competition for the Westpac Awards
q Middle Primary, Years 3 and 4
Current Problems
Correct solutions have been received from
q Upper Primary, Years 5, 6 and 7
Current Problems
Correct solutions have been received from
r Sam Bird, Year 4, St Peters Lutheran School, Blackwood, SA
r Kevin Ge, Year 3, Haberfield Public School, NSW
r Leticia Holt. Year 4, St. Joachim's Primary School, Carrum Downs, Victoria
r Devon Kaluarachchi, Year 4, St Joachim's Primary School, Victoria
r Khaw Wei Kit, Year 3, S.J.K.(C) Serdang Baru 2, Malaysia
r Samantha Molloy, Year 4, Woodlands Primary School, Langwarrin, Victoria
r Laura Roden, Year 3, Aranda Primary School, ACT
r Minmin Tai, Year 4, Haberfield Public School, NSW
r Wong Xiang Qing, Year 3, Sin Min Primary School (B), Kedah, Malaysia
r Mark Nielsen, Year 3, Castle Hill Public school, NSW
r Michelle He, Year 6, Fintona Girls School, Victoria
r Hannah Nilsson, Year 6, Marysville Primary School, Victoria
Mathematics Activity: AMC
http://www.amt.edu.au/wuamc.html (2 of 2)06/01/1428 06:59:34 Õ
q Junior, Years 7 and 8
Current Problems
Correct solutions have been received from
q Intermediate, Years 9 and 10
Current Problems
q Senior, Years 11 and 12
Current Problems
Correct solutions have been received from
r Khaw Syn Li, Year 6, S.J.K.(C) Serdang Baru 2, Malaysia
r Sherilyn Yao, Year 5, St. Michael's Primary School, Baulkham Hills, NSW
r Wong Ze Ying, Year 5, Sin Min Primary School (B), Kedah, Malaysia
r Edward Yoo, Year 5, Burrendah Primary School, WA
r Kaalya De Silva. Year 8, Smith's Hill High School, NSW
r Siddharth Jain, Year 7, Box Hill High School, Victoria
r Cara Joseph, Year 8, Wheelers Hill Secondary College, Victoria
r Hannah Nilsson, Year 6, Marysville Primary School, Victoria
r Shereen Susan Stanley, Year 8, Hunter Christian School, Mayfield, NSW
r Sherilyn Yao, Year 5, St. Michael's Primary School Baulkham Hills, NSW
r Edward Yoo, Year 5, Burrendah Primary School, WA
r Peter Yang, Year 8, North Sydney Boys High School, NSW
r Abdullah Sarker, Year 7, Sydney Boys High School, NSW
r Paulino Casimiro, Year 12, Willow International School, Mozambique
r Khaw Syn Wei, Year 11, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Serdang, Malaysia
r Kerri Lam, Year 12, East Doncaster Secondary College, Melbourne, Victoria
r Jeremiah Lock, Year 12, Raffles Junior College, Singapore
r Nazmus Salehin, Year 11, Peterborough High School, SA
AMC WARMUP PAPER
MIDDLE PRIMARY PAPER 3
1. Which of these numbers is the largest?
(A) 321 (B) 213 (C) 317 (D) 231 (E) 198
2. My dog eats
1
2
kg of dog food each day. How much dog food does he eat each week?
(A)
1
2
kg (B) 1 kg (C) 2 kg (D) 3
1
2
kg (E) 7 kg
3. In the grid, which object is found in the third square from the right, on the second
row from the top?
∞ Y
♥
3
2
⊕
♥
Y ⊕
∗
(A) ⊕ (B) ♥ (C) Y (D) 3 (E) ∗
4. A net of a cube is drawn with letters on it as
shown. When the net is made into a cube,
what letter is opposite M?
M H P K
T
G
(A) H (B) T (C) P (D) K (E) G
MP3 Page 2
5. Anne, Bob and Claire have 20 sweets in a pile. Anne takes half the pile and Bob
then takes half of what is left. Claire gets the remaining sweets. How many sweets
does Claire get?
(A) 0 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 10 (E) 15
6. In Farawayland animals are measured in swords and daggers. PussinBoots is 2
swords tall or 5 daggers tall. Donkey is 15 daggers tall.
How tall is Donkey in swords?
(A) 2 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 30 (E) 525
7. A printer prints 3 pages per minute.
How long would it take to print 189 pages?
(A) 50 mins (B) 55 mins (C) 58 mins (D) 1 hr 3 mins (E) 1 hr 5 mins
MP3 Page 3
8. How many shapes 4 cm long, 4 cm wide and 2 cm high will ﬁt in a box which
measures 12 cm long, 12 cm wide and 4 cm high?
..........................................
..........................................
..........................................
2
4
4
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
4
12
12
(A) 12 (B) 16 (C) 18 (D) 20 (E) 24
9. If 4 days after the day before yesterday is Sunday, what day of the week is tomor
row?
(A) Thursday (B) Friday (C) Saturday
(D) Sunday (E) Monday
10. Lee buys two drinks and one icecream for $7. Kim buys one drink and two ice
creams for $8. Mario buys one drink and one icecream. How much, in dollars,
will this cost Mario?
* * *
c 2006 Australian Mathematics Trust
Tutorials in Elementary Mathematics for Math Olympiad Students
Click to go back
http://matholymp.com/TUTORIALS/tutorials.html (2 of 2)5/7/2005 12:18:22 PM
Syllabus of the IMO
MathOlymp.com
Resources for mathematically gifted students
Unwritten Syllabus of the IMO
These thoughts were written in 1997, when I was working on the Problem Selection Committee of the 38th IMO in Argentina and when my impressions about the problems, which were submitted, and the attitude of our Committee to these problems were still fresh. I edited them very little since. The syllabus of IMO is, of course, unwritten but there are several tendencies which can be clearly observed. It is all ruled by tradition, there is no logic in all this whatsoever. Some topics are included, alhtough they are not in the school curricula for most countries, on the grounds that they are traditional and feature in the training programmes of most countries. What is not Included Any questions where knowledge of Calculus may be an advantage, e.g. most of the inequalities; Complex numbers (although they were in the past, when less countries participated); Inversion in geometry (the Jury just sick and tired of it for some reason); Solid geometry was also present in the past. There are coordinated attempts to return it into the IMO but the resistance is strong; After being a darling of the Jury for some time, Pell's equation seems to be strongly out of favour. What is included Fundamental Theorems on Arithmetic and Algebra, factorization of a polynomial into a product of irreducible polynomials; Symmetric polynomials of several variables, Vieta's theorem; Linear and quadratic Diophantine equations, including the Pell's equation (although see the comment above); Arithmetic of residues modulo n, Fermat's and Euler's theorems; Properties of the orthocentre, Euler's line, ninepointcircle, Simson line, Ptolemy's inequality, Ceva and Menelaus etc.; Interesting situation is with the graph theory. It is sort of considered to be all known and virtually disappeared from submissions to IMO. But watch this space!.
q
q
q q
q
q
q q
q q
q
http://matholymp.com/TUTORIALS/syllabus.html (1 of 2)5/7/2005 12:18:43 PM
Syllabus of the IMO
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Canada We will introduce our subject via an example. . Deﬁne Si = Sj . . For a diﬀerent queueing order. . . . . . their combined waiting time will be given by T = 10T1 + 9T2 + · · · + T10 . . Hence the switching results in a lower combined waiting time. T is indeed the minimum combined waiting time. . Then S − S = (11 − i)(Si − Si ) + (11 − j)(Sj − Sj ) = (Si − Sj )(j − i) > 0. . . there is a smallest index i for which Si = Ti . We will reach (T1 . The two 10tuples being diﬀerent. Then a2 + a2 + · · · + a2 ≥ a1 a1 + a2 a2 + · · · + an an . China Andy Liu University of Alberta. . Sj = Si and Sk = Sk for k = i. . . . . Let a1 . S10 ) = (T1 . . . an ) is equal to (a1 . T10 ). we do not require the numbers involved to be positive. . an ) of (a1 . . . . S10 ) is a permutation of (T1 . If (S1 . with equality if and only if (a1 . . an ). . . . a2 . This can be proved by the switching process used in the introductory example. . . . a2 . an ) or (an . .THE REARRANGEMENT INEQUALITY K. We will denote by T1 < T2 < · · · < T10 the times required to ﬁll the respective buckets. . a2 . a2 . “Ten people queue up before a tap to ﬁll their buckets. . an be real numbers and (a1 . a1 ) respectively. T2 . Then Sj = Ti < Si for some j > i. . a2 . . . an ). T2 . The Rearrangement Inequality. . S2 . . . the combined waiting time will be S = 10S1 + 9S2 + · · · + S10 . . . T10 ). . we have a1 b1 + a2 b2 + · · · + an bn ≥ a1 b1 + a2 b2 + · · · + an bn ≥ an b1 + an−1 b2 + · · · + a1 bn . If the people queue up in the order suggested. . j. . this switching process can be repeated again. which contain more general results. . a2 . See for instance [1] or [2]. Let us see if our intuition leads us astray. a2 . S2 . taken from a Chinese competition in 1978. Let S = 10S1 + 9S2 + · · · + S10 . where (S1 . . Let a1 ≤ a2 ≤ · · · ≤ an and b1 ≤ b2 ≤ · · · ≤ bn be real numbers. T10 ) in at most 9 steps. For any permutation (a1 . T2 . . In what order should the people queue up so as to minimize their combined waiting time?” Common sense suggests that they queue up in ascending order of “bucketﬁlling time”. . an−1 . Each bucket requires a diﬀerent time to ﬁll. . . an ) be a permutation of (a1 . . 1 2 n . Note that unlike many inequalities. We can generalize this example to the following result. Wu South China Normal University. Corollary 1. . . Since the combined waiting time is reduced in each step.
Let (z1 . . . . Prove that (x1 − y1 )2 + (x2 − y2 )2 + · · · + (xn − yn )2 ≤ (x1 − z1 )2 + (x2 − z2 )2 + · · · + (xn − zn )2 . an . . Example 1. . z2 . 1975) Let x1 ≤ x2 ≤ · · · ≤ xn and y1 ≤ y2 ≤ · · · ≤ yn be real numbers. By the Rearrangement Inequality. . . 1964) Let a. (International Mathematical Olympiad. . . a1 a2 an a1 a2 a + 2 +···+ 2 ≥ 2 + 2 +···+ n 2 1 2 n 1 2 n2 1 2 n ≥ 2 + 2 +···+ 2 1 2 n 1 1 1 ≥ + +···+ . Then a1 a2 a + + · · · + n ≥ n. a1 a2 an A 1935 K¨ rsch´k problem in Hungary asked for the proof of Corollary 2. · · · . . an be distinct positive integers. . a2 . a2 . . b and c be the sides of a triangle. a2 . (International Mathematical Olympiad. . an ) such that a1 ≤ a2 ≤ · · · ≤ an . . 2 1 2 n 1 2 n Solution: Let (a1 . Prove that a1 a2 an 1 1 1 + 2 +···+ 2 ≥ + +···+ . yn ). . a2 . Then ai ≥ i for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. We now illustrate the power of the Rearrangement Inequality by giving simple solutions to a number of competition problems. . . . . the desired inequality is equivalent to x1 y1 + x2 y2 + · · · + xn yn ≥ x1 z1 + x2 z2 + · · · + xn zn . . (International Mathematical Olympiad. . an ) = (a2 . . Let a1 . a2 . a2 . . an ). which follows from the Rearrangement Inequality. Solution: 2 2 2 2 2 2 Note that we have y1 + y2 + · · · + yn = z1 + z2 + · · · + zn . After expansion and simpliﬁcation. . . and a 1940 Moscow u a Olympiad problem asked for the proof of the special case (a1 . . . . . . a3 . . Prove that a2 (b + c − a) + b2 (c + a − b) + c2 (a + b − c) ≤ 3abc. y2 . a1 ). . an ) be a permutation of (a1 . . zn ) be a permutation of (y1 . 1 2 n Example 3. an be positive numbers and (a1 . a2 . Example 2. . an ) be the permutation of (a1 . 1978) Let a1 . . . .Corollary 2.
Prove that a2 b(a − b) + b2 c(b − c) + c2 a(c − a) ≥ 0. xn be positive numbers. . . the right side simpliﬁes to 6abc. The second inequality can be proved in the same manner. Simple as it sounds. We ﬁrst prove that c(a + b − c) ≥ b(c + a − b) ≥ a(b + c − a). n with equality if and only if x1 = x2 = · · · = xn . If a ≥ b ≥ c. By the Rearrangement Inequality. Example 5. By the Rearrangement Inequality. b and c be the sides of a triangle. The Arithmetic Mean Geometric Mean Inequality. . We shall derive from it many familiar and useful inequalities. the Rearrangement Inequality is a result of fundamental importance. Then √ n x1 x2 · · · xn ≥ 1 x1 + 1 x2 n +···+ 1 xn . which is equivalent to the desired inequality. with equality if and only if x1 = x2 = · · · = xn . Let x1 . Adding these two inequalities. Solution: We may assume that a ≥ b. 2 G G Gn a1 a2 an x1 x2 xn n≤ + +···+ = + +···+ . . a1 = . xn be positive numbers. . . we have a(b + c − a) ≤ b(c + a − b) ≤ c(a + b − c) as in Example 3.Solution: We may assume that a ≥ b ≥ c. a2 = . x1 + x2 + · · · + xn ≥ G. we have a2 (b + c − a) + b2 (c + a − b) + c2 (a + b − c) ≤ ba(b + c − a) + cb(c + a − b) + ac(a + b − c). or n Example 6. . . . c b If a ≥ c ≥ b. 1 b(c + a − b) + a 1 b(c + a − b) + b 1 c(a + b − c) b 1 c(a + b − c) c 1 This simpliﬁes to 1 a(b − a) + a b(c − b) + 1 c(a − c) ≤ 0. . Note that c(a + b − c) − b(c + a − b) = (b − c)(b + c − a) ≥ 0. Equality holds if and only if a1 = a2 = · · · = an . The Geometric mean Harmonic Mean Inequality. an = = 1. . 1983) Let a. x2 . x2 . Example 4. an a1 an−1 G G G which is equivalent to x1 = x2 = · · · = xn . then a(b + c − a) ≤ c(a + b − c) ≤ b(c + a − b). 1 a(b + c − a) + c 1 ≤ a(b + c − a) + a = a + b + c. . (International Mathematical Olympiad. Then √ x1 + x2 + · · · + xn ≥ n x1 x2 · · · xn . By Corollary 2. All we have to do is interchange the second and the third terms of the displayed lines above. . c. The desired inequality now follows. a2 (b + c − a) + b2 (c + a − b) + c2 (a + b − c) ≤ ca(b + c − a) + ab(c + a − b) + bc(a + b − c). Proof: x1 x1 x2 x1 x2 · · · xn √ Let G = n x1 x2 · · · xn . Let x1 .
. . or ai T = bi S for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. By Corollary 1. Then (a1 b1 + a2 b2 + · · · + an bn )2 ≤ (a2 + a2 + · · · + a2 )(b2 + b2 + · · · + b2 ). . . Proof: If a1 = a2 = · · · = an = 0 or b1 = b2 = · · · = bn = 0. x2 . bn be real numbers. Equality holds if and only if x1 = x2 = · · · = xn . deﬁne ai S = a2 + a2 + · · · + a2 and T = b2 + b2 + · · · + b2 . . b2 . ai = kbi for 1 ≤ i ≤ n or bi = kai for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. . T a2 + a2 + · · · + a2 b2 + b2 + · · · + b2 2 n 2 n 2 = 1 + 1 S2 T2 = x2 + x2 + · · · + x2 1 2 2n ≥ x1 xn+1 + x2 xn+2 + · · · + xn x2n + xn+1 x1 + xn+2 x2 + · · · + x2n xn 2(a1 b1 + a2 b2 + · · · + an bn ) = . xn be real numbers. Otherwise. Since both are nonzero. 1 2 n n which is equivalent to the desired result. . Example 7. ··· x1 xn + x2 x1 + · · · + xn xn−1 . . The Root Mean Square Arithmetic Mean Inequality. Equality holds if and only if x1 = x2 = · · · = xn . n≤ which is equivalent to G≥ 1 x1 a1 a2 an G G G + +···+ = + +···+ . 1 2 n 1 2 n with equality if and only if for some constant k. we may let xi = 1 2 1 2 n n S bi and xn+i = for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. . we have x2 + x2 + · · · + x2 1 2 n 2 2 x1 + x2 + · · · + x2 n ··· 2 2 x1 + x2 + · · · + x2 n ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ x1 x2 + x2 x3 + · · · + xn x1 . Example 8. a2 . Let a1 . Then x2 + x2 + · · · + x2 x1 + x2 + · · · + xn 1 2 n ≥ . . the result is trivial. n n with equality if and only if x1 = x2 = · · · = xn . x1 x3 + x2 x4 + · · · + xn x2 . a1 . . Cauchy’s Inequality. Proof: By Corollary 1. a2 a3 a1 x1 x2 xn + 1 x2 n +···+ 1 xn . we have 1 2 n 1 2 n n(x2 + x2 + · · · + x2 ) ≥ (x1 + x2 + · · · + x2 )2 . Equality holds if and only if xi = xn+i for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. By Corollary 2. . Adding these and x2 + x2 + · · · + x2 = x2 + x2 + · · · + x2 . . . an be as in Example 5. Let x1 . . a2 . . ST which is equivalent to the desired result.Proof: Let G. b1 . an .
Polya. xn . J. “Inequalities”. 1984) Prove that x2 x2 x2 1 + 2 + · · · + n ≥ x1 + x2 + · · · + xn x2 x3 x1 for all positive numbers x1 . References: 1. Hardy. 1963) Prove that a b c 3 + + ≥ b+c c+a a+b 2 for all positive numbers a. ed. Example 10. The Rearrangement Inequality. Chapter 8 in “Lecture Notes in Mathematics Competitions and Enrichment for High Schools” (in Chinese). (1988) 260299.. 2. (1989) 8:18:25. Wu. Cambridge University Press. . Wu et al. Cambridge. x2 . . Littlewood and G. .We shall conclude this paper with two more examples whose solutions are left as exercises. G. . Example 9. . K. (Chinese competition. K. (Moscow Olympiad. b and c. paperback edition.
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loop. edge (or arc).Graph Theory Tutorials Graph Theory Tutorials Chris K. we will just teach you enough to wet your appetite for more! Most of the pages of this tutorial require that you pass a quiz before continuing to the next page. degree. adjacency matrices.) How do we represent a graph on a computer? The most common solution to this question.. path. planar. There is not a great deal of theory here. connected and component.utm. but you will need to register separately for each course. So the system can keep track of your progress you will need to register for each of these courses by pressing the [REGISTER] button on the bottom of the first page of each tutorial. After presenting Euler's theorem on when such paths and circuits exist. circuit.edu/departments/math/graph/ (1 of 2)5/7/2005 12:19:20 PM . this tutorial introduces the definition of graph along with the related terms: vertex (or node).) Introduction to Graph Theory (6 pages) Starting with three motivating problems. (You can use the same username and password for each tutorial. Caldwell (C) 1995 This is the home page for a series of short interactive tutorials introducing the basic concepts of graph theory. adjacent. [Suggested prerequisites: Introduction to Graph Theory] Coloring Problems (6 pages) How many colors does it take to color a map so that no two countries that share a common border have the same color? This question can be changed to "how many colors does it take to color a planar graph?" In this tutorial we explain how to change the map to a graph and then how to answer the question for a graph. we then apply them to related problems including pencil drawing and road inspection. [Suggested prerequisites: none] Euler Circuits and Paths Beginning with the Königsberg bridge problem we introduce the Euler paths.. is presented along with several algorithms to find a shortest path. [Suggested prerequisites: Introduction to Graph Theory] Adjacency Matrices (Not yet available. [Suggested prerequisites: Introduction to Graph Theory] Related Resources for these Tutorials: q q Glossary of Graph Theory Terms Partially Annotated Bibliography Similar Systems http://www.
Graph Theory Tutorials q Online Exercises Other Graph Theory Resources on the Internet: q q q q Graph drawing J. Spinrad research and problems on graph classes Chris Caldwell caldwell@utm.edu http://www. Graph Algorithms & Applications David Eppstein's graph theory publications J.edu/departments/math/graph/ (2 of 2)5/7/2005 12:19:20 PM .utm.
. permutations ﬁnd their way into math olympiads more and more often.Combinatorics. 2. A cube of dimensions 3×3×3 is divided into 27 unit cells.e..2. Deﬁnition 1. .. It is a wellknown fact that if f : A → B is a function which is both onetoone and onto then f is invertible. The latest example is the Balkan Mathematics Olympiad 2001 where the following problem was suggested. . . . For convenience. Let n be a positive integer. . we assume that the elements of the set are the numbers 1. there exists a function g : B → A such that g ◦ f = idA and f ◦ g = idB . however. so this does not restrict generality). (f ◦ g)(b) = f (g(b)). respectively. In what follows we will be concerned with invertible functions from a ﬁnite set to itself. A permutation of degree n is a function f : {1.. where idA and idB are the identity mappings of A and B. There are.. Does there exist a ﬁnite sequence of legal moves after which the unit cubes labelled k and 27 − k exchange their positions for all k = 1. . n} which is onetoone and onto. . . n} → {1. which is denoted here as f ◦ g. 2.. at random. 2. n (the elements of any ﬁnite set can be labelled with the ﬁrst few integers. A legal move consists of a move of any of the unit cubes to its neighbouring empty cell. . One of the cells is empty. each of dimensions 1 × 1 × 1. Tutorial 1: Permutations As of late.. Note that we assume that in the composition f ◦ g the function g acts ﬁrst and f acts second: e. 13? (Two cells are said to be neighbours if they share a common face.g. 1 . 2. and all others are ﬁlled with unit cubes which are. . i. labelled 1. so it is always necessary to check whether a particular author uses one or the other convention.. .) This tutorial was written in responce to this event. many good books using the alternative convention. 1 Deﬁnitions and Notation We assume here that the reader is familiar with the concept of composition of functions f and g..26. .
4 to 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 3 8 5 4 2 1 7 2 . meaning the composition π ◦ σ. σ= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 4 5 6 1 8 3 7 . the second row is just a rearrangement of the top row.Since a function is speciﬁed if we indicate what the image of each element is. This is best done with a few examples. and speak of the product πσ of two permutations π and σ. leading to a total of n(n − 1) · . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4 6 1 3 8 5 7 2 . etc. Example 1.e. 6 to 6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 is the permutation of degree 7 2 5 3 1 7 6 4 which maps 1 to 2. there are n ways to ﬁll the ﬁrst position. 2 Calculations with Permutations The composition of two permutations of degree n is again a permutation of degree n (exercise: prove that if f : A → A and g : A → A are onetoone then f ◦ g is onetoone. i. and 7 to 4. 5 to 7. prove that if f : A → A and g : A → A are onto then f ◦ g is onto). In the sequel. · 2 · 1 = n! diﬀerent possibilities). 2 to 5. Let π= Then πσ = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4 6 1 3 8 5 7 2 = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 4 5 6 1 8 3 7 . we omit the symbol for function composition (◦). . n − 1 ways to ﬁll the second position (since we must not repeat the ﬁrst entry). 3 to 3. First of all we practice the use of our symbolism for the calculation of the composition of two permutations.. we can specify a permutation π by listing each element together with its image as follows: π= For example π = 1 2 3 ······ π(1) π(2) π(3) · · · · · · n−1 n π(n − 1) π(n) . It is also clear that there are exactly n! permutations of degree n (if you want to ﬁll the bottom row of such an array. . It is clear that in the second row of such an array all the numbers of the top row must appear exactly once.
. we ﬁnd π −1 = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3 8 4 1 6 2 7 5 3 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 8 2 5 7 1 3 4 Explanation: the calculation of πσ requires us to ﬁnd • the image of 1 when we apply ﬁrst σ. then σ. then π. BUT be careful to start with the right hand factor again! π σ π σ σ π σ π Important note 1: the example shows clearly that πσ = σπ. so we have to be very careful about the order of the factors in a product of permutations. We can also calculate the inverse of a permutation. The calculation of σπ requires us to ﬁnd • the image of 1 when we apply ﬁrst π. σ. To prove this we have to compute: [(πσ)τ ](i) = (πσ)(τ (i)) = π(σ(τ (i))). so write the 3 under the 2). so write the 6 under the 1) • the image of 1 when we apply ﬁrst π. . i. We see that the right hand sides are the same in both cases. Important note 2: But the good news is that the composition of permutations is associative. (πσ)τ = π(στ ) for all permutations π. thus the left hand sides are the same too.e. (1 → 4 → 6. • etc. (2 → 4 → 3. for example. • the image of 2 when we apply ﬁrst σ. using the same π as above.. . (1 → 2 → 6. (2 → 6 → 8. then σ. so write the 6 under the 1). τ . . [π(στ )](i) = π((στ )(i)) = π(σ(τ (i))). so write the 8 under the 2) • etc. All this is easily done at a glance and can be written down immediately. then π.σπ = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 4 5 6 1 8 3 7 = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4 6 1 3 8 5 7 2 .
as well as π = (4 7 2 5) and π = (7 2 5 4)—they all denote one and the same cycle. etc. we must of course chase an element around. To see that. . we need only check if the product of πσ and σ −1 π −1 equals the identity. with the composition as the multiplication. 6 → 6. We say that a cycle is of length k (or a kcycle) if it involves k numbers. hence write 2 under the 6 in the array for π −1 . . is called the symmetric group of degree n. Note: cycle notation is not unique. 3 Cycles A permutation π ∈ Sn which “cyclically permutes” some of the numbers 1. hence write 1 under the 4 in the array for π −1 . We write π = (5 4 7 2). we must have π −1 (4) = 1. For example 4 . since π(2) = 6. 7} stays unchanged. 1 5 3 7 4 6 2 π π π π because we have 5 → 4 → 7 → 2 → 5. we must have π −1 (6) = 2. (3 6 4 9 2) is a 5cycle. namely 3 → 3. 5. The set of all permutations of degree n. (1 3 2) is a 3cycle. For example. we calculate σ −1 = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 1 7 2 3 4 8 6 . and this is pure algebra: it follows from the associative law that (πσ)(σ −1 π −1 ) = ((πσ)σ −1 )π −1 = π(σσ −1 )π −1 = ππ −1 = id. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 For example. We note also that the inverse of a cycle is again a cycle. the rightmost one going back to the leftmost on the list. since there is no beginning or end to a circle. n (and leaves all others ﬁxed) is called a cycle. 3. the nice cyclic structure is not immediately evident from our notation. 6. and is denoted by Sn . the permutation π = is a cycle. (To justify this. 4.Explanation: just read the array for π from the bottom up: since π(1) = 4. Simple algebra shows that the inverse of a product can be calculated from the product of the inverses (but note how the order is reversed!): (πσ)−1 = σ −1 π −1 . We can write π = (5 4 7 2) and π = (2 5 4 7). and each of the other elements π π of {1.) Deﬁnition 2. . 2. meaning that all numbers not on the list are mapped to themselves. whilst the ones in the bracket are mapped to the one listed to the right. . Similarly. (3 6) is a 2cycle.
this permutation σ —and any other permutation — can be written as a product of disjoint cycles. Moreover. we will now deﬁne the order of a permutation. for example: (1 2)(1 3) = (1 3 2). Let π be a permutation. whilst (1 3)(1 2) = (1 2 3). (1 2 3 4 5)−1 = (1 5 4 3 2). the permutation σ= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 3 2 11 8 9 5 6 7 10 1 12 σ σ σ is not a cycle (we have 1 → 4 → 11 → 1. Deﬁnition 3. i. simply by chasing each of the elements. e.g. (1 2 3 4)(5 6 7) = (5 6 7)(1 2 3 4). The obvious approach is to visualise what the permutation σ does: (draw your picture here!) From this it is evident that every permutation can be written as a product of disjoint cycles. and (1 3 2) = (1 2 3). However. Example 3. The smallest positive integer i such that π i = id is called the order of π. as we noted before. We also note that disjoint cycles commute. The order of the cycle (3 2 6 4 1) is 5. for example. any such representation is unique up to the order of the factors. More generally. for example). but the other elements are not all ﬁxed (2 goes to 3. and the decomposition into a product of disjoint cycles will allow us to calculate the order of any permutation. then τ k = id. in particular. 5 . Not all permutations are cycles. The order of the permutation π = (1 2)(3 4 5) is 2 · 3 = 6. It is clear that if τ is a cycle of length k. Finding the inverse of a cycle one has to reverse the arrows. if this permutation is repeated k times.e. But we recall that in general multiplication of permutations is not commutative. we have the identity permutation.(1 2 3)−1 = (1 3 2) (or (3 2 1) if you prefer this). if we multiply cycles which are not disjoint. Similarly. Example 2. we have to watch their order.
τs+1 . . . . Example 5. τr cannot be equal to id because all m m m m permutations τ1 . . . it is clear that σ lcm (k1 . . . π 4 = (1 2)4 (3 4 5)4 = (3 4 5). = τr = id. . This suggests that the order of a product of disjoint cycles equals the lcm of the lengths of these cycles.kr ) = id. 6 . if σ m = id. . . k2 . Let σ be a permutation and σ = τ1 τ2 · · · τr be the decomposition of σ into a product of disjoint cycles. which proves the theorem. τr . ϕ4 = id.. since the cycles τi are disjoint. . . . The order of the permutation ϕ = (1 2)(3 4 5 6) is 4. Let k be the order of σ and k1 . . . . Then. . . τr leave i and j invariant. k2 . Example 4. kr ). τs−1 . . . The order of σ = (1 2 3 4)(5 6 7)(8 9)(10 11 12)(13 14 15 16 17) is 60. . This can be formalised in the following Theorem 1. . . Then k = lcm (k1 . ϕ2 = (1 2)2 (3 4 5 6)2 = (3 5)(4 6). We ﬁrst notice that τim = id iﬀ m is a multiple of ki .Indeed. On the other hand. ..k2 . as we noted before. k2 . m m m The powers τ1 . ϕ = (1 2)(3 4 5 6). respectively. The order of the cycle (3 2 6 4 1) is 5. . we know that they commute and hence m m m σ m = τ1 τ2 . π 3 = (1 2)3 (3 4 5)3 = (1 2). π 2 = (1 2)2 (3 4 5)2 = (3 5 4).. Example 6.. Thus the order of σ is a multiple of each of the k1 . . . kr be the orders (lengths) of τ1 . . kr and hence the multiple of the least common multiple of them. τr act on disjoint sets of indices and. τr . τ2 . . then the product τ1 τ2 . m m m m it must be τ1 = τ2 = . . . if say τs (i) = j with m m m i = j. τ2 . Indeed. . . π = (1 2)(3 4 5). π 5 = (1 2)5 (3 4 5)5 = (1 2)(3 5 4). ϕ3 = (1 2)3 (3 4 5 6)3 = (1 2)(3 6 5 4). . Proof. Indeed. π 6 = id.
. we can express any permutation as product of transpositions. 4 Transpositions. . for example (1 2 3 4 5) = (1 5)(1 4)(1 3)(1 2) = (3 2)(3 1)(3 5)(3 4) = (3 2)(3 1)(2 1)(2 3)(1 3)(2 3)(3 5)(3 4). For example. For example. Note that there are many diﬀerent ways to write a permutation as product of transpositions. Example 10. To express any permutation σ as product of transpositions.Example 7. 7 . We deﬁne Deﬁnition 4. ir ) = (i1 ir ) . as they involve only 2 objects. To determine the order of an arbitrary permutation. Even and Odd Cycles of length 2 are the simplest permutations. (1 2 3 4 5) = (1 5)(1 4)(1 3)(1 2) (just check that the left hand side equals the right hand side!). ﬁrst write it as product of disjoint cycles. Here are some examples: Example 8. It is intuitively plausible that any permutation is a product of transpositions (every arrangement of n objects can be obtained from a given starting position by making a sequence of swaps). A cycle of length 2 is called a transposition. Exactly in the same way we can express an arbitrary cycle as a product of transpositions: (i1 i2 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 4 3 2 11 8 9 5 6 7 10 1 = (1 4 11)(2 3)(5 8 6 9 7) = (1 11)(1 4)(2 3)(5 7)(5 9)(5 6)(5 8). then write each cycle as product of transpositions as shown above. (i1 i3 )(i1 i2 ). Once we observe how a cycle of arbitrary length can be expressed as a product of transpositions. . ﬁrst decompose σ into a product of disjoint cycles. . (1) Example 9. σ= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 3 2 11 8 9 5 6 7 10 1 12 = (1 4 11)(2 3)(5 8 6 9 7) and therefore the order of σ is 30.
xστ (2) . . . xσ(2) . . and to note that there is nothing unique about how one can write a permutation as product of transpositions. xτ (2) . 1 (4) You may skip this proof for the ﬁrst reading and go straight to Example 12. . . . . x2 . .) Deﬁnition 5. x2 . Thus the lefthandside can diﬀer from the righthandside by its sign only. . For any permutation σ from Sn f (xσ(1) . . xστ (n) ) = sign(σ)f (xτ (1) . x3 ) = (x1 − x2 )(x1 − x3 )(x2 − x3 ). In the lefthandside of (3). A permutation is called odd if it can be written as a product of an odd number of transpositions. we may compute f (xσ(1) . xσ(2) . . A permutation is called even if it can be written as a product of an even number of transpositions. . . xσ(3) ) = (x3 − x2 )(x3 − x1 )(x2 − x1 ) = −f (x1 . xn ). We will write sign(σ) = 1. the polynomial (2) will look like f (x1 .(Don’t ask how these products were found! The point is to check that all these products are equal. This leads us to Proposition 2. xn ) = i<j (xi − xj ). f (xστ (1) . . . We notice that sign(στ ) = sign(σ)sign(τ ). . . x2 . . . . For n = 3. if we have ”+” in (3) and sign(σ) = −1 otherwise. xσ(n) ) = ±f (x1. Indeed. x3 ). for any pair of indices i and j. . x2 . . (3) Proof. An important point is that there is no permutation that is at the same time even and odd—this justiﬁes the use of the terminology. If σ = (1 3). xn ). 8 . x2 . (2) Example 11.1 We will establish that by looking at the polynomial f (x1 . we have either xi −xj or xj −xi (but not both) wil be a factor. . xτ (n) ) = sign(σ)sign(τ )f (x1 . This proves (3). .
Since (i k+1) = (k k+1)(i k)(k k+1). then use the result above: π = (1 4 5)(2 3)(7 9) (= (1 5)(1 4)(2 3)(7 9)). (1 2 3 4 5) is an even permutation. We say that two permutations have the same parity. we see that sign((i k)) = −1 implies sign((i k+1)) = −1. Theorem 3. Is π even or odd? 4 3 2 5 1 6 9 8 7 First decompose π into a product of cycles. Hence (5) will be true for any odd permutation π. a kcycle is odd if k is even. hence sign((i i+1)) = −1. 3. if one of them is odd and another is even. Theorem 4. . A kcycle is even if k is odd. A permutation and its inverse are of the same parities. . Deﬁnition 6. Example 14. because (1 2 3 4) = (1 4)(1 3)(1 2). and due to (4). Proof.which shows that sign(στ ) =sign(σ)sign(τ ) holds. if they are both odd or both even. The product of two even permutations is even. the identity is even. We have an even number (two) of odd cycles. xπ(2) . . it shows that π is even. In any symmetric grooup Sn 1.e sign(π) = −1. i. At the same time. . This means that by induction (5) can be extended to an arbitrary transposition π. 9 (5) . and diﬀerent parities. Since id = (1 2)(1 2). . This implies that there is no permutation which is both even and odd. 2. Example 13. Immediately follows from (1). Example 12. x2 . Let π = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . It is clear that for π = (i i+1) we have f (xπ(1) . it is clear that for every even permutation π we will have sign(π) = +1. . because (1 2 3 4 5) = (1 5)(1 4)(1 3)(1 2). The product of an even permutation and an odd one is odd. xn ) (only one factor changes its sign). 4. The product of two odd permutations is even. . (1 2 3 4) is an odd permutation. . xπ(n) ) = −f (x1 .
Denote by E the set of even permutations in Sn . (2 3 4). Proof. (1 4 3). since the identity permutation id is even. (2 4). (1 4)(2 3)}. which of them are odd. Example 15. (1 4 2 3). The number of even permutations in Sn is . (1 2 3 4). (1 3 4). We can have a look at the elements of S4 . (1 2 3). we cannot have a permutation and its inverse being of diﬀerent parities. and f (τ κ) = τ τ κ = κ. The number 2 n! of odd permutations in Sn is also . We have A4 = {id. (1 2 4 3). (1 4)(2 3). (1 3 4). 2 Deﬁnition 7. and checking which of them are even. (1 3)(2 4).Proof. (1 4 3). Therefore we have a mapping f : E → O deﬁned by f (π) = τ π. (2 3 4). Puzzle 15 In this section we consider two applications of permutations. f is onto. (2 3). (1 4 2). (1 3)(2 4). Theorem 5. (1 3 2). It follows from 1 and 2. listing all of them. (1 3 2 4). It is denoted by An . n! Corollary 6. (1 3 2). Only the statements 4 needs a comment. (1 2 3). (1 2). (1 4). (1 4 2). (1 3 4 2)} The elements in the ﬁrst 2 lines are even permutations. 5 The interlacing shuﬄe. and the remaining elements are odd. (1 4 3 2). (1 2 4). (1 2 4). (2 4 3). S4 = {id. If τ is any ﬁxed transposition from Sn . f is onetoone since τ π = τ σ implies that π = σ. 10 . (1 2)(3 4). because if κ is an odd permutation then τ κ is even. (1 2)(3 4). (1 3). we can establish a onetoone correspondence between E and O as follows: for π in E we know that τ π belongs to O. and by O the set of odd permutations in Sn . Exactly half of the elements of Sn are even and half of them are odd. (3 4). Indeed. The set of all even permutations of degree n is called the alternating group of degree n. (2 4 3).
. . . Example 16. . . .. shuﬄes? The resulting change will be characterised by the permutations σ 2 . . an and an+1 an+2 . σ 3 . σ 4 . 2n 1 3 .. a2n−1 a2n Then the two halves will contain the cards a1 . n = 5 σ = = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 4 6 8 10 1 3 5 7 9 1 2 4 8 5 10 9 7 3 6 . a2n . . then the second card of the ﬁrst pile etc.. a2n an We put the permutation σ= 1 2 3 . .We have a deck of 2n cards (normally 52). Suppose that our cards were numbered from 1 to 2n and the original order of cards was a1 a2 a3 . . we split it into 2 halves and then interlace them as follows. ... Hence all cards will be back to their initial positions after 10 shuﬄes but not before. After the shuﬄe the order of cards will be: an+1 a1 an+2 a2 . . then the second card of the second pile. In the example above σ2 = = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4 8 1 5 9 2 6 10 3 7 1 4 5 9 3 2 8 10 7 6 = Also σ 10 = id and 10 is the order of σ. . . 2 4 6 . We see that σ(i) = 2i mod 2n + 1 where σ(i) is the position of the ith card after the shuﬄe. . . a2 . 4. n n + 1 n + 2 . 11 . 3. The interlacing shuﬄe will put the ﬁrst card of the second pile ﬁrst. .. = What will happen after 2. respectively. then the ﬁrst card of the ﬁrst pile. respectively. . . . 2n 2n − 1 in correspondence to this shuﬄe..
Start with the position shown and perform a sequence of slides in such a way that. we have eﬀected a permutation of the numbers from 1 to 15. in S15 . the symmetric group of degree 15. n = 4 σ= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 4 6 8 1 3 5 7 = 1 2 4 8 7 5 3 6 The order of σ is 6. the American Journal of Mathematics. To ask what positions are realisable is merely to ask what permutations can be carried out. in 1879. numbered from 1 to 15 inclusive and with the lower righthand corner blank. Consider a toy made up of 16 squares. In other words. Our discussion will be without full proofs. We close this section with a few words about a game played with a simple toy. 1 5 9 13 2 6 10 14 3 7 11 15 4 8 12 The toy is constructed so that squares can be slid vertically and horizontally. at the end. Call the new position “realisable. the lower righthand square is again blank. such moves being possible because of the presence of the blank square. and ﬁnally led to a discussion by W. can we get 13 1 8 10 4 14 3 5 12 12 9 2 11 15 6 7 . It caught on and became the rage in the United States in the 1870s.” Question: What are all possible realisable positions? What do we have here? After such a sequence of slides we have shuﬄed about the numbers from 1 to 15.Example 17. what elements can be reached via the toy? For instance. Johnson in the scholarly journal. It is often called the “ﬁfteen puzzle”. This game seems to have been invented in the 1870s by the famous puzzlemaker Sam Loyd. that is.
The position 1 9 2 8 3 11 4 10 12 5 13 7 15 6 14 16 a16 . 3 11 4 10 13 12 5 7 15 6 14 .To answer. .. The position a1 a5 a9 a13 a2 a6 a10 a14 a3 a7 a11 a15 a4 a8 a12 a16 will be characterised by the transposition 1 2 . will correspond to the permutation σ= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 2 4 16 6 8 10 12 14 .. If we make a move pulling down the square 13. we will characterise every position of this game by a permutation. Example 18. a1 a2 . We will denote the empty square by the number 16. then the new position will be 1 9 2 8 and the new permutation is 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 3 5 7 9 11 16 15 2 4 13 6 8 10 12 14 13 = 13 16 σ. .
τm such that id = τ1 τ2 . Let us colour the board in the chessboard pattern Every move changes the colour of the empty square. . Copyright: MathOlymp. .Theorem 7. if at the beginning and at the end the empty square was black. 14 . Proof. In this case: σ = τm τm−1 . then m is even and τ is even. τ2 . It can be shown that every position. if initially the right bottom corner was empty and we could transform this position to the initial position. As we have seen every legal move is equivalent to multiplying the permutation corresponding to the existing position by a transposition (i 16). If a position characterised by the permutation σ can be transformed by legal moves to the initial position. All rights reserved. then an even number of moves was made. (6) If the empty square was in the right bottom corner. and σ is also even. with an even permutation σ can be transformed to the initial positon but no easy proof is known. . τm σ. . . . . Thus.com Ltd 2001. . τ2 τ1 hence the parity of σ is the same as that of m. Therefore. m is even. then there exist permutations τ1 . Then (6) follows. then there was an even number of moves made.
1 We will assume that a counterexample G to the Friendship theorem does exist and will be working with this counterexample until we get a contradiction. Theorem 1 (Friendship Theorem). Namely. Then there is a vertex adjacent to all other vertices. Tutorial 2: Friendship Theorem This wonderful theorem has a very simple commonsense formulation.Q. this is a graphtheoretic theorem and in order to prove it we must express it in graphtheoretic terms. From this. it immediately follows that the graph G is a “windmill” like the one below: We will prove this theorem in several steps. given a society in which any two people have exactly one friend in common. Suppose that G is a graph such that. Then the theorem will be established. Longyear and T. if x and y are any two distinct vertices of G. 1 following largely J.Combinatorics. there must be a “host.” who is everybody’s friend. then there is a unique vetex z adjacent in G to both x and y.D Parsons (1972) 1 . Of course.
if xi−1 is adjacent to xi for all i = 1. u2 . according to the same reason. . x1 . A sequence of vertices x0 . u x z u1 u2 v y v1 v2 us 2 vs . s. . Lemma 1. ui (every such assumption lead to the existence of a 4cycle). n. . x0 is called a cycle of length n. u v x z y Now let u1 . . These vertices need not be all diﬀerent. . Lemma 2. . G does not have any cycles of length 4. x1 . . By inspection we check that vi is diﬀerent from any of the x. x4 .Deﬁnition 1. Any path x0 . u. x0 of length 4. 2. no two vertices vi and vj can coincide for i = j. us be all other vertices adjacent to x. Deﬁnition 2. Then x and z will have a unique common neighbor u and y and z will have a unique common neighbor v. which is not possible. if all its vertices have the same degree. v. Proof. x1 . . i. . For each i = 1. xn will be called a path of length n. let vi be the unique common neighbor of ui and y. Let x and y be two nonadjacent vertices and let z be their unique common neighbor. Any two nonadjacent vertices of G have the same degree. . . Proof. . . . . y. z. namely x1 and x3 . . 2. then x0 and x2 would have at least two neighbors in common. . The graph is called regular. Also. . The degree of a vertex is the number of other vertices adjacent to it. xn−1 . . If we had a cycle x0 .e. going along this path we may visit a certain vertex several times. . x3 . x2 .
Let d(x) denote the degree of the vertex x. i. . No other vertex among v1 . . But the situation is symmetric. v2 . Then x is adjacent to one of a or b. contrary to the assumption that d(a) = d(b). . v2 . . Since v1 . . This now shows that all vertices of G are adjacent to a and G is not a counterexample.” Without loss of generality we assume that the vertices are paired oﬀ so that v1 is adjacent to v2 . But x cannot be adjacent to both b and c. Proof. . Let v1 . we see that the degree of x is not greater than the degree of y.” Lemma 5. v3 is adjacent to v4 and ﬁnally vm−1 is adjacent to vm . . Thus v1 and v2 form a pair. we can also prove that the degree of y is not greater than the degree of x. There is a unique common neighbor c of a and b. . In total we then have N = 1 + m + m(m − 2) = m(m − 1) + 1 vertices. We show that the neighborhood of every vertex v looks like a “windmill.Thus. for otherwise by Lemma 2 d(a) = d(x) = d(b). . Let us consider v1 . We know that the neighborhood of v looks like a “windmill. x is adjacent to either a or c. . Similarly. Proof. Proof. . Together with v it must have a vertex which is adjacent to both. Suppose that G is not regular and that there exist two vertices a and b such that d(a) = d(b). we may assume that the former is true and d(c) = d(a). v2 . vm be the vertices adjacent to v. . . vm . m is an even number. Hence G is regular. Since either d(c) = d(a) or d(c) = d(b). these two degrees coincide. Let v be any vertex and v1 . hence x must be adjacent to a. . this third vertex must be among v1 . Let it be v2 . Let m be the degree of G. G is regular. or both. Every vertex diﬀerent from v and v1 . . v2 . as a is their unique common neighbor. . vm are all vertices adjacent to v. Then a and b must be adjacent by Lemma 2. Now let x be any other vertex. v2 . .e. Then N = m(m − 1) + 1. Each vi will have exactly m − 2 neighbors of this kind. Let N be the number of vertices of G. vm be the vertices adjacent to v. v2 . This way we can pair oﬀ the vertices adjacent to v which implies that m is even. . . Hence. 3 . Lemma 4. . . . . . vm can be adjacent to v1 or to v2 . vm must be adjacent to one of the vi since it must have a common neighbor with v. Lemma 3.
Let p be any prime which divides m − 1. . and so on. such that vi is adjacent to vi+1 for all i = 0. . There are two types 4 . Note that we again do not require that all vertices in the cycle are diﬀerent. v0 . vp−2 . Since m − 1 is odd. . v1 . Since in every cycle of length p we can choose p initial points. Lemma 6. we will count the number of vertex sequences v0 . . We shall compute the cardinality S of S in two ways. and v2 . then v0 is chosen as its initial point. .v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 v v6 m2 vertices m2 vertices m2 vertices v m1 vm m2 vertices m2 vertices Let us now note that m > 2. . . v1 . v0 of length p with the ﬁxed initial point v0 . . Proof. 1. . v1 . . . vp−1 gives us p − 1 other cycles by changing the initial point of it: v1 . S is a multiple of p. . . . . v3 . In the following two lemmas we will consider the set S of all cycles v0 . This means that the same cycle with two diﬀerent initial vertices will be considered as two diﬀerent elements of S. . Every cycle of length p with the ﬁxed initial point v0 . . v0 . . p is also odd. assuming the opposite will contradict to the primeness of p (see the solution to Exercise 9 of the assignment ”Many faces of mathematical Induction”). . . . . Let us agree that if the cycle is written as v0 . . Proof of the Friendship Theorem. First. vp−1 . it is clear that S is divisible by p. . . or else G is just a triangle which is not a counterexample. No two of such sequences are the same. v2 . Now we will prove that S is NOT divisible by p which will give us a contradiction and the proof will be therefore complete. v1 . p − 2. . v1 . vp−1 . . and hence get p diﬀerent elements of S. .
we can choose vi+1 in m diﬀerent ways. Therefore the Friendship theorem is proved. . . Indeed. 5 . Each of them can be obtained from a sequence of one of the above types by adding a vertex vp−1 which is adjacent to v0 and vp−2 and considering v0 as the initial vertex of this cycle. and m = (m − 1) + 1 ≡ 1 (mod p). Let K1 and K2 be the number of sequences of the ﬁrst and the second type.of such sequences: 1) those for which v0 = vp−2 and 2) those for which v0 = vp−2 . . If v0 = vp−2 . then we can choose vp−1 in m diﬀerent ways. Thus S = mK1 + K2 . All rights reserved. vi .com Ltd 2001. Copyright: MathOlymp. Then K1 + K2 = N mp−2 . Now we will return to cycles with ﬁxed initial vertices from S. v1 . respectively. . thus S ≡ 1 (mod p) which is a contradiction. we can choose v0 in N diﬀerent ways. But now S = (m − 1)K1 + (K1 + K2 ) = (m − 1)K1 + N mp−2 ≡ N mp−2 (mod p) But N ≡ 1 (mod p). and having chosen v0 . while if v0 = vp−2 . then such vp−1 will be unique.
. 0.Number Theory. The number q is called the quotient and the number r is called the remainder. . The set of all integers . . Tutorial 1: Divisibility and Primes 1 Introduction The theory of numbers is devoted to studying the set N = {1. 3. 4. . x. k. . −1. . . . −51 = (−8) · 7 + 5. . The most important property of N is the following axiom (which means that it cannot be proved): Axiom 1 (The Leastinteger Principle) A nonempty set S ⊆ N of positive integers contains a smallest element. . −2.} of positive integers. y. . m. also called the natural numbers. there exist unique integers q. . 1. 6. 3. b. −3. c. Theorem 1 (The division algorithm) Given any integers a. 1 . b. . 0 ≤ r < a. 2. z to designate integers unless otherwise speciﬁed. so that 2 = 35 (mod 11) and 5 = −51 (mod 7). . is denoted by Z. n. with a > 0. r such that b = qa + r. . l. The notation r = b (mod a) is often used. 5. 2. . . Example 1 35 = 3 · 11 + 2. In this section we use letters of the roman alphabet a.
It is clear that 1 and n are always divisors of a number n which is greater than 1. Then we may combine them n = n1 n2 = p1 . Let n be a positive integer. where n > n1 > 1 and n > n2 > 1 and by the induction hypothesis there are prime decompositions n1 = p1 . We also say that a is a divisor of b and write ab. 4. 1 2 r where p1 . then n = n1 n2 . 6. . 6. . 8.. a decomposition exists. 13 are primes. . pαr . . . 2 itself. If n is a prime. To prove that the decomposition is unique. . . . Thus we have d(1) = 1 and d(n) ≥ 2 for n > 1. . . . 9. This factoring is unique apart from the order of the prime factors. Proof: Let us prove ﬁrst that any number n > 1 can be decomposed into a product of primes. and hence the prime decomposition of every integer is unique. This will show that the hypothesis that there exists an integer with two essentially diﬀerent prime decompositions is untenable. pr q1 . qs and get the decomposition for n and prove the ﬁrst statement. . i. If n is composite. we shall assume the existence of an integer capable of two essentially diﬀerent prime decompositions. 9. We will use the Leastinteger Principle. 11. 10 are not primes. αn are positive integers. 4. . . 7. Deﬁnition 2 An integer n is called a prime if d(n) = 2. An integer n > 1. that is n = pα1 pα2 . . 2 . which is not prime is called a composite number. if there exists an integer c such that b = ac or else it can be written as 0 = b (mod a). Let us denote by d(n) the number of divisors of n. then n = n is the decomposition required. . which are less than n. Example 2 2. pn are distinct primes and α1 . 10 are composite numbers. the decomposition is trivial and we have only one factor. Let us assume that for all positive integers.e. and from this assumption derive a contradiction. p2 . . 3. . pr and n2 = q1 . 5. Theorem 2 (The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic) Every positive integer n > 1 can be expressed as a product of primes (with perhaps only one factor).Deﬁnition 1 An integer b is divisible by an integer a = 0. α2 . qs for n1 and n2 . 1. If n = 2. 8.
From (3) we learn that p1 is a factor of n and must appear as a factor in decomposition (4). . s. ≤ pr . where z ∈ Z and 0 ≤ e < 1. qs . qs ) − (p1 q2 . we see that p1 = qi .. 3. This contradiction completes the proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. . Hence either p1 < q1 or q1 < p1 . it is a factor of q1 −p1 . . We will use here only the ﬁrst function x . Since p1 < q1 ≤ qi .Suppose that there exists an integer with two essentially diﬀerent prime decompositions. Examples: −2. Hence. . (3) and (4) coincide. then there will be a smallest such integer n = p1 p2 . . . which is impossible as q1 is prime and q1 = p1 . We now form the integer n = n − p1 q2 q3 . contradicting the choice of n. (2) Then two decompositions of n give the following two decompositions of n : n = (p1 p2 . It is impossible that p1 = q1 . By rearranging the order of the p’s and the q’s. . pr ) − (p1 q2 . Theorem 3√ The smallest prime divisor of a composite number n is less than or equal to n . e = {x}. pr − q2 .5 = −3. 3 . which is called the integral part of x. . Then it can be written in a unique way as z + e. qs ). . i. for if it were we could cancel the ﬁrst factor from each side of equation (1) and to obtain two essentially diﬀerent prime decompositions for a number smaller than n. qs ) = p1 (p2 . . Let x be a real number. i = 2. . n = (q1 q2 . . . Without loss of generality we suppose that p1 < q1 . qs ). . . . z + 1 = x . . . it follows from (4) that n is a positive integer. pr = q1 q2 . . . . . (3) (4) Since p1 < q1 . . . . Hence the prime decomposition for n must be unique and. (1) where pi and qj are primes. qs . q1 − p1 = p1 m or q1 = p1 (m + 1).e. we may assume that p1 ≤ p2 ≤ . . π = 3. Then. which is smaller than n. apart from the order of the factors. ≤ qs . . q1 ≤ q2 ≤ . . qs ) = (q1 − p1 )(q2 . 5 = 5. if necessary. the following notation is used: z = x .
we cannot expect a simple formula for π(x). If d1 > n and d2 > n. d1√ ≤ n. pr = p1 (m − p2 . p r . Proof: Suppose there were only ﬁnite number of primes p1 . However one of the most impressive results in advanced number theory gives an asymptotic approximation for π(x). pr . Therefore it pays to understand these results even without a proof. As p1 . . . Because of the irregular occurence of the primes. p2 . . . . . Snce p is an integer. . d1 > 1 and d2 > 1. . The theorem is proved. . Suppose. which is a contradiction. . 4 . Now we can write 1 = n − p1 p2 . then q is one of them.Proof: We prove ﬁrst that n has a divisor which is greater than 1 but less √ √ As than n. . p2 . Let π(x) denote the number of primes which do not exceed x. Of course. . Nevertheless. Since n > pi for all i. But every divisor of d1 is also a divisor of √ n. then √ n = d1 d2 > ( n)2 = n. The following three theorems are far from being elementary. Theorem 5 (The Prime Number Theorem) lim π(x) ln x = 1. p ≤ n . . x x→∞ where ln x is the natural logarithm. pr = p1 m − p1 p2 . say q = p1 and n = p1 m. no one jury assumes that students are familiar with these theorems. thus the smallest prime√ divisor p of n will satisfy the inequality p ≤ n. to base e. √ n is composite. some students use them and sometimes a diﬃcult math olympiad problem can be trivialised by doing so. Theorem 4 (Euclid) The number of primes is inﬁnite. it must be composite. √ a contradiction. then n = d1 d2 . We have got that p1 > 1 is a factor of 1. . The attitude of the Jury of the International Mathematics Olympiad is to believe that students know what they use. Then any of the prime divisors of d1 will be less than or equal to n. Then form the integer n = 1 + p 1 p2 . . pr ). . pr represent all existing primes. Let q be the smallest prime factor of n.
. . Theorem 7 (Bertrand’s Postulate.. proved by Chebyschef) For every positive integer n > 1 there is a prime p such that n < p < 2n. 2. . 5 . then there are inﬁnitely many primes of the form an + b.Theorem 6 (Dirichlet’s Theorem) If a and b are relatively prime positive integers (which means that they don’t have common prime factors in their prime factorisations). where n = 1.
. . where k = 0. for some m. The numbers kn. pr in its prime factorisation. . . . are called multiples of n. (2) Theorem 1. . .Number Theory. 2. Indeed. Therefore d = pβ 1 pβ 2 . . pγr . . . . thus n = dm = pα1 pα2 . . . (3) Proof. ±1. . . (αr + 1). pr . . . p2 . namely 0. . . . . 1 2 r γi ≥ αi . . . ±2. . It is clear that any multiple of n given by (1) has the form m = kpγ1 pγ2 . αi . pαr . i = 1. The number of multiples of n is inﬁnite. Then n = dm. we have exactly αi + 1 possibilities to choose βi in (2). Deﬁnition 1. 1 2 r (1) Let n be a positive integer with the prime factorisation where pi are distinct primes and αi are positive integers. . where k has no primes p1 . i = 1. . . 1 2 r 0 ≤ βi ≤ αi . r. . 1 . d cannot have in its prime factorisation a prime which is not among the primes p1 . 2. . . . Also. a prime pi in the prime factorisation of d cannot have an exponent greater than αi . p2 . 1 2 r Since the prime factorisation of n is unique. The number of positive divisors of n is d(n) = (α1 + 1)(α2 + 1) . (αr + 1). Thus the total number of divisors will be exactly the product (α1 + 1)(α2 + 1) . . How can we ﬁnd all divisors of n? Let d be a divisor of n. Tutorial 2: The Euclidean algorithm 1 The number of divisors of n n = pα1 pα2 . . 2. . p β r . . 1. r. pαr . .
β1 ) min(α2 . This is especially convenient. b) and lcm (a. pmin(αr . This algorithm was known to Euclid and maybe even was discovered by him. b). r (4) . It is called the least common multiple and it is denoted by lcm (a. βi ) + max(αi . b).β2 ) p2 . Among all common multiples there is a minimal one (Leastinteger principle!). b). r (5) Proof.β1 ) max(α2 . denoted by gcd (a. To prove (6) we have to notice that min(αi .2 Greatest common divisor and least common multiple Let a and b be two positive integers. . there is a greatest common divisor. b) · lcm (a. b) = a · b. sometimes it is convenient to allow some exponents to be 0. pαr . pmax(αr . p β r . The number m is said to be a common multiple of a and b if m is a multiple of a and also a multiple of b. then we say that d is a common divisor of a and b. 1 2 r b = p β 1 pβ 2 . b) = p1 Moreover. (6) max(α1 . . . b) = p1 and lcm (a. looking for gcd (a. Let a = pα1 pα2 . be two arbitrary positive integers. 1 2 r where αi ≥ 0 and βi ≥ 0. when we consider prime factorisations of two numbers a and b. Theorem 2. 2 . In the decomposition (1) we had all exponents positive. As there are only a ﬁnite number of common divisors. b) of numbers a and b can be found without knowing the prime factorisations for a and b. However.βr ) . .β2 ) p2 min(α1 . since we may assume that both a and b have the same set of primes in their prime factorisations. . βi ) = αi + βi . Then gcd (a. gcd (a. . Formulas (4) and (5) follow from our description of common divisors and common multiples. . We suspect (in fact it is an open question) that prime factorisation is computationally diﬃcult and we don’t know easy algorithms for that but fortunately the greatest common divisor gcd (a. . If d is a divisor of a and also a divisor of b.βr ) .
Let a and b be positive integers. rs ) = rs . r1 = q3 r2 + r3 . . and three columns: a 1 0 b 0 1 . . We will continue this process as follows: when creating Rk we will obtain it taking Rk−2 and subtracting Rk−1 times qk−2 . b) = gcd (b. we denote this as R3 := R1 − q1 R2 .Theorem 3 (The Euclidean Algorithm). . Also if d is a common divisor of b and r. 0 < rs < rs−1. then a = a d and b = b d and then r = a − qb = a d − qb d = (a − qb )d and d is also a common divisor of b and r. In accordance with the Euclidean Algorithm above. . 0 < r3 < r2 . We use the division algorithm several times to ﬁnd: a = q1 b + r1 . whence d is a common divisor of a and b. b). b) = gcd (b. Let us write the following table with two rows R1 . which can be written symbolically as 3 . Is based on the observation that if a = qb + r. rs−2 = qs rs−1 + rs . Theorem 4 (The Extended Euclidean Algorithm). we perform the following operations with rows of this table. . r = r d and a = qb + r = qb d + r d = (qb + r )d. Proof. 0 < r1 < b. = gcd (rs−1 . r1 ) = gcd (r1 . First we will create the third row R3 by subtracting from the ﬁrst row the second row times q1 . then gcd (a. if d is a common divisor of a and b. Indeed. then b = b d. r2 ) = . rs−1 = qs+1 rs . R2 . b = q2 r1 + r2 . It is clear now that gcd (a. r). Then similarly we create the fourth row: R4 := R2 − q2 R3 . 0 < r2 < r1 . Then rs = gcd (a.
b). . . Let the kth row of the table be Rk = (uk . which gives us rs = am + bn. Thus the statement ui = avi + bwi is true for all i. We assume that ui = avi +bwi for all i < k. and a linear presentation of the greatest common divisor in the form gcd (a. b = 843. vk . In particular. Proof. the least common multiple lcm (a. We will prove this by induction. this is true for the last row. b). Example 1. 4 . Find the greatest common divisor gcd (a. wk ). The Euclidean algorithm: 321 843 321 201 120 81 39 = = = = = = = 0 · 843 + 321 2 · 321 + 201 1 · 201 + 120 1 · 120 + 81 1 · 81 + 39 2 · 39 + 3 13 · 3 + 0. b) = ka + mb. rs m n Then gcd (a. Then by induction hypothesis uk = uk−2 − qk uk−1 = avk−2 + bwk−2 − qk (avk−1 + bwk−1 ) = a(vk−2 − qk vk−1 ) + b(wk−2 − qk wk−1 ) = avk + bwk . Eventually we will obtain the table: a 1 0 b 0 1 r1 1 −q1 r2 −q2 1 + q1 q2 . b) = rs = am + bn.Rk := Rk−2 − qk−2 Rk−1 . Let a = 321. This is certainly true for i = 1. 2. .
the numbers a and b are said to be relatively prime (or coprime).e. If c is a multiple of a and also a multiple of b. If gcd (a. 3 Relatively prime numbers Deﬁnition 2. Then 1. then c is a multiple of ab. a and b are relatively prime. Proof. The following properties of relatively prime numbers are often used. 843) = 3 and lcm (321. Let gcd (a. Then there exists a unique number N such that 0 ≤ N < ab and r = N (mod a) and s = N (mod b). 0 ≤ r < a and 0 ≤ s < b.. i. 843) = 3 = (−21) · 321 + 8 · 843. Let a and b be two relatively prime numbers. 5 . N has remainder r on dividing by a and remainder s on dividing by b.and therefore gcd (321. Theorem 5 (The Chinese remainder theorem). (7) i. Lemma 1. 3. b) = 1. b) = 1.e. If ac is a multiple of b. then c is a multiple of b. 843) = 90201.. 2. a and b do not have common primes in their prime factorisations. The Extended Euclidean algorithm: 321 843 321 201 120 81 39 3 1 0 1 −2 3 −5 8 −21 0 1 0 1 −1 2 −3 8 321 · 843 = 107 · 843 = 3 obtaining the linear presentation gcd (321. There exist integers m. 4. Part 1 follows from equation (4). n such that ma + nb = 1. and part 4 follows from Theorem 4. parts 2 and 3 follow from part 1.
Now 0 ≤ N1 < ab and N1 satisﬁes (7). we divide N by ab with remainder N = q · ab + N1 . which gives also an algorithm of calculating such N with property (7). Theorem is proved. on the contrary. Now it is clear that the number N =r−ma=s+nb satisﬁes the condition (7). 6 .” It is used there to prove Fermat’s theorem that any prime of the type 4n + 1 can be represented as a sum of two squares. condition (8) implies that M is divisible by ab. This is a constructive proof of the Chinese remainder theorem. Multiplying this equation by r − s we get the equation r − s = (r − s)ma + (r − s)nb = m a + n b. whence M = 0 and N1 = N2 .Proof. Let us prove ﬁrst. Assume. Then the number M = N1 − N2 satisﬁes 0 ≤ M < ab and 0 = M (mod a) and 0 = M (mod b). that for two integers N1 and N2 we have 0 ≤ N1 < ab. Let us assume that N1 > N2 . All rights reserved. that there exists at most one integer N with the conditions required. (8) By Lemma 1 part 3. 0 ≤ N2 < ab and r = N1 (mod a) = N2 (mod a) and s = N1 (mod b) = N2 (mod b).com Ltd 2001. ignoring the condition 0 ≤ N < ab. If N does not satisfy 0 ≤ N < ab. A shorter but nonconsructive proof. By Theorem 4 there are integers m. which uses Pigeonhole principle can be found in the training material ”Pigeonhole Principle. Now we will ﬁnd an integer N. n such that gcd (a. such that r = N (mod a) and s = N (mod b). Copyright: MathOlymp. b) = 1 = ma + nb.
. They are p. 3. . We have exactly pk−1 of them. φ(n) = Z∗ . . 20 Lemma 1. . 1. . 9. .e. 19} and φ(20) = 8. n−1} and by Z∗ the set of those nonzero n numbers from Zn that are relatively prime to n. i. This function is called Euler’s φfunction or Euler’s totient function. rφ(m) } and Z∗ = {s1 . . 11. 13.. then φ(n) = pk −pk−1 = pk 1 − 1 . is denoted by φ(n). Let Z∗ = {r1 . 2p. It is easy to list all integers that are less than or equal to pk and not relatively prime to pk . 17. Then φ(mn) = φ(m)φ(n). Let us denote Zn = {0. The number of positive integers less than or equal to n that are relatively prime to n. By the m n Chinese remainder theorem there exists a unique positive integer Nij such that 0 ≤ Nij < mn and ri = Nij (mod m). . 2. Therefore pk − pk−1 nonzero integers from Zn will be relatively prime to n. p Proof. . . Let n = 20. pk−1 · p. n n Example 1. . . 3p. . Tutorial 3: Euler’s function and Euler’s Theorem 1 Euler’s φfunction Deﬁnition 1. . r2 . . If n = pk . 7. . Then φ(n) is the number of elements of Z∗ . Let n be a positive integer. . 1 sj = Nij (mod n). Hence φ(n) = pk − pk−1 . Then Z∗ = {1. An important consequence of the Chinese remainder theorem is that the function φ(n) is multiplicative in the following sense: Theorem 1. Let m and n be any two relatively prime positive integers. sφ(n) }. where p is prime. s2 . Proof.Number Theory.
Then r = N (mod m). that is Nij = Nkl for (i. exactly as mn many as the pairs (ri . m) = gcd (m.. r) > 1 and N does not belong to Z∗ . sj ). we get gcd (r. But there are exactly φ(m)φ(n) of the numbers Nij . Assuming m n the former. We use Lemma 1 and Theorem 1 to compute φ(n): φ(n) = φ (pα1 ) φ (pα2 ) . pαr . l). we notice that gcd (Nij . =n 1− 1 p2 Example 2. ri ) = 1 and gcd (Nij . Suppose now that a number N = Nij for all i and j. . Theorem 2. 1 − 1 pr .. j) = (k. It shows that the numbers Nij and only they mn form Z∗ . . Since m and n are relatively prime. . Clearly. 1 2 r where pi are distinct primes and αi are positive integers. s = N (mod n).that is Nij has remainder ri on dividing by m. hence Nij ∈ Z∗ .. in the proof of the Euclidean algorithm. sj ) = 1. mn diﬀerent pairs (i. Proof. . that is Nij is relatively prime to m and also relatively prime to n. Therefore φ(mn) = φ(m)φ(n). j) = (k. (1) As in Tutorial 2. pαr r . . φ (pαr ) 1 2 r = pα1 1 − 1 1 p1 1 p1 pα2 1 − 2 1− 1 p2 . φ(264) = φ(23 · 3 · 11) = 264 2 1 2 2 3 10 11 = 80. n) = gcd (n. Nij is relatively prime to mn.. . m) > 1. . and remainder sj on dividing by n. 1 − 1− 1 pr 1 pr . Let n be a positive integer with the prime factorisation n = pα1 pα2 . But then gcd (N. where either r does not belong to Z∗ or s does not belong to Z∗ . Nij = bn + sj . Then φ(n) = n 1 − 1 p1 1− 1 p2 . m) = gcd (m. in particular for some integers a and b Nij = am + ri . l) yield diﬀerent numbers.
then a ≡ b (mod m). then ap−1 ≡ 1 (mod p). Thus a − b = (q1 − q2 )m + (r1 − r2 ). and b = q2 m + r2 . and a ≡ b (mod m) as required. 41 ≡ −37 (mod 1)3. then an ≡ bn (mod m). Lemma 2. Then there exist integers u.e. 0 ≤ r2 < m. (b) If a ≡ b (mod m) and c ≡ d (mod m). i.. The property in Lemma 2 (e) is called the cancellation property. then m(a − b) and m(c − d). 41 ≡ 7 (mod 1)3. Then ac − bd = (ac − bc) + (bc − bd) = (a − b)c + b(c − d) = icm + jbm = (ic + jb)m. Let a and b be two integers and m is a positive integer. then a + c ≡ b + d (mod m). We see that a − b is divisible by m if and only if r1 − r2 is divisible by m but this can happen if and only if r1 − r2 = 0. v such that cu + mv = 1 or cu ≡ 1 (mod m). (c) If a ≡ b (mod m) and c ≡ d (mod m).2 Congruences. a − b = im and c − d = jm for some integers i. Let p be a prime. (d) Follows immediately from (c) (e) Suppose that ac ≡ bc (mod m) and gcd (c. 0 ≤ r1 < m. m) = 1.. 41 ≡ 80 (mod 1)3. whence ac ≡ bd (mod m). (e) If ac ≡ bc (mod m) and c is relatively prime to m. Also ap ≡ a (mod p) for all a. (b) is an exercise. If an integer a is not divisible by p. then ac ≡ bd (mod m).e. i. Theorem 3 (Fermat’s Little Theorem). Then by (c) a ≡ acu ≡ bcu ≡ b (mod m). For example. Euler’s Theorem If a and b are intgers we write a ≡ b (mod m) and say that a is congruent to b if a and b have the same remainder on dividing by m. (d) If a ≡ b (mod m) and n is a positive integer. (a) By the division algorithm a = q1 m + r1 . 3 . j. (c) If a ≡ b (mod m) and c ≡ d (mod m). where −m < r1 − r2 < m. r1 = r2 . Then (a) a ≡ b (mod m) if and only if a − b is divisible by m. Proof.
. ri is the remainder on dividing zi a by n. Consider the numbers a. suppose that ri = rj for some 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n.. Let a. p − 1 and a · 2a · · · · · (p − 1)a ≡ (p − 1)! (mod p). which is Z · aφ(n) ≡ Z (mod n). by the cancellation property ap−1 ≡ 1 (mod p). zφ(n) . z2 . i. . be relatively prime to p.com Ltd 2001. Copyright: MathOlymp. . n) = gcd (ri . the last statement follows from the ﬁrst one.. . These remainders n are all diﬀerent.. Theorem 4 (Euler’s Theorem).e. therefore zi a is also relatively prime to n. . . zφ(n) }. . Then aφ(n) ≡ 1 (mod n) for all a relatively prime to n. which is impossible. When a is relatively prime to p. . Consider the numbers z1 a. If a is a multiple of p the last statement is also clear. · rφ(n) ≡ z1 · z2 · . Since gcd (zi a. 2a. Suppose that ri = zi a (mod n). 2. z2 a. Then zi a ≡ zj a (mod n). Indeed.. Let Z∗ = {z1 . · zφ(n) a ≡ r1 · r2 · .Proof. Therefore the remainders r1 . .. Proof. n Both zi and a are relatively prime to n. Thus z1 a · z2 a · . . All of them have diﬀerent remainders on dividing by p. Then by the cancellation property a can be cancelled and i ≡ j (mod p). . apart from the order in which they are listed. which is impossible.. which is (p − 1)! · ap−1 ≡ (p − 1)! (mod p). Since Z is relatively prime to n it can be cancelled and we get aφ(n) ≡ 1 (mod n). . z2 . r2 . . By the cancellation property a can be cancelled and we get zi ≡ zj (mod n).... (p − 1)a. Therefore these remainders are 1.. where Z = z1 ·z2 ·. Indeed. All rights reserved...·zφ(n) . yielding ri ∈ Z∗ . suppose that for some 1 ≤ i < j ≤ p−1 we have ia ≡ ja (mod p).. . zφ(n) a. · zφ(n) (mod n). 4 . Since (p − 1)! is relatively prime to p. rφ(n) coincide with z1 . . . ) Let n be a positive integer. . . . n). .
Number Theory. Tutorial 4: Representation of Numbers
1 Classical Decimal Positional System
There is an important distinction between numbers and their representations. In the decimal system the zero and the ﬁrst nine positive integers are denoted by symbols 0, 1, 2, . . . , 9, respectively. These symbols are called digits. The same symbols are used to represent all the integers. The tenth integer is denoted as 10 and an arbitrary integer N can now be represented in the form N = an · 10n + an−1 · 10n−1 + . . . + a1 · 10 + a0 , (1) where a0 , a1 , . . . , an are integers that can be represented by a single digit 0, 1, 2, . . . , 9. For example, the year, when I started to think about setting up this website, can be written as 1 · 103 + 9 · 102 + 9 · 10 + 8. We shorten this expression to (1998)(10) or simply 1998, having the decimal system in mind. In this notation the meaning of a digit depends on its position. Thus two digit symbols “9” are situated in the tens and the hundreds places and their meaning is diﬀerent. In general for the number N given by (1) we write N = (an an−1 . . . a1 a0 )(10) to emphasise the exceptional role of 10. This notation is called positional. Its invention, attributed to Sumerians or Babylonians and its further development by Hindus, was of enormous signiﬁcance for civilisation. In Roman symbolism, for example, one wrote MCMXCVIII = (thousand) + (nine hundreds) + (ninety)+ (ﬁve) + (one) + (one) + (one), 1
It is clear that more and more new symbols such as I, V, X, C, M are needed as numbers get larger while with the Hindu positional system now in use we need only ten “Arabic numerals” 0, 1, 2, . . . , 9, no matter how large is the number. The positional system was introduced into medieval Europe by merchants, who learned it from the Arabs. It is exactly this system which is to blame that the ancient art of computation, once conﬁned to a few adepts, became a routine algorithmic skill that can be done automatically by a machine, and is now taught in elementary school.
2
Other Positional Systems
Mathematically, there is nothing special in the decimal system. The use of ten, as the base, goes back to the dawn of civilisation, and is attributed to the fact that we have ten ﬁngers on which to count. Other number could be used as the base, and undoubtedly some of them were used. The number words in many languages show remnants of other bases, mainly twelve, ﬁfteen and twenty. For example, in English the words for 11 and 12 and in Spanish the words for 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15, are not constructed on the decimal principle. In French a special role of the word for 20 is clearly observed. The Babylonian astronomers had a system of notation with the base 60. This is believed to be the reason for the customary division of the hour and the angular degree into 60 minutes. In the theorem that follows we show that an arbitrary positive integer b > 1 can be used as the base. Theorem 1. Let b > 1 be a positive integer. Then every positive integer N can be uniquely represented in the form N = d0 + d1 b + d2 b2 + · · · + dn bn , where “the digits” d0 , d1 , . . . , dn lie in the range 0 ≤ di ≤ b−1, for all i. Proof. The proof is by induction on N, the number being represented. Clearly, the representation 1 = 1 for 1 is unique. Suppose, inductively, that every integer 1, 2, . . . , N−1 is uniquely representable. Now consider the integer N. Let d0 = N (mod b). Then N − d0 is divisible by b and let N1 = (N − d0 )/b. Since N1 < N, by the induction hypothesis N1 is uniquely representable in the form N − d0 N1 = = d1 + d2 b + d3 b2 + · · · + dn bn−1 , b 2 (2)
Then clearly, N = d0 + N1 b = d0 + d1 b + d2 b2 + · · · + dn bn , is the representation required. Finally, suppose that N has some other representation in this form also, i.e., N = d0 + d1 b + d2 b2 + · · · + dn bn = e0 + e1 b + e2 b2 + · · · + en bn . Then d0 = e0 = r as they are equal to the remainder of N on dividing by b. Now the number N1 = N −r = d1 + d2 b + d3 b2 + · · · + dn bn−1 = e1 + e2 b + e3 b2 + · · · + en bn−1 b
has two diﬀerent representations which contradicts the inductive assumption, since we have assumed the truth of the result for all N1 < N. Corollary 1. We use the notation N = (dn dn−1 . . . d1 d0 )(b) (3)
to express (2). The digits di can be found by the repeated application of the division algorithm as follows: N = q1 b + d0 , q1 = q2 b + d1 , . . . qn = 0 · b + dn (0 ≤ d0 < b) (0 ≤ d1 < b) (0 ≤ dn < b)
For example, the positional system with base 5 employ the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and we can write 1998(10) = 3 · 54 + 0 · 53 + 4 · 52 + 4 · 5 + 3 = 30443(5) . But in the computers’ era it is the binary (or dyadic) system (base 2) that emerged as the most important one. We have only two digits here 0 and 1 and a very simple multiplication table for them. But under the binary system, the representations of numbers get longer. For example, 86(10) = 1 · 26 + 0 · 25 + 1 · 24 + 0 · 23 + 1 · 22 + 1 · 2 + 0 = 1010110(2). (4) 3
Leibniz (1646–1716) was one of the proponents of the binary system. According to Laplace: “Leibniz saw in his binary arithmetic the image of creation. He imagined that Unity represented God, and zero the void; that the Supreme Being drew all beings from the void, just as unity and zero express all numbers in his system of numeration.” Let us look at the binary representation of a number from the information point of view. Information is measured in bits. One bit is a unit of information expressed as a choice between two possibilities 0 and 1. The number of binary digits in the binary representation of a number N is therefore the number of bits we need to transmit N through an information channel (or input into a computer). For example, the equation (4) shows that we need 7 bits to transmit or input the number 86. Theorem 2. To input a number N by converting it into its binary representation we need log2 N + 1 bits of information, where x denotes the integer part of x. Proof. Suppose that N has n binary digits in its binary representation. That is N = 2n−1 + an−2 2n−2 + · · · + a1 21 + a0 20 , ai ∈ {0, 1}. Then 2n > N ≥ 2n−1 or n > log2 N ≥ n − 1, i.e., log2 N = n − 1 and thus n = log2 N + 1.
3
Representations for real numbers
The negative powers of 10 are used to express those real numbers which are not integers. The other bases can be also used. For example, 1 1 2 5 0 0 1 = 0.125(10) = + 2 + 3 = + 2 + 3 = 0.001(2) 8 10 10 10 2 2 2 1 = 0.142857142857 . . .(10) = 0.(142857)(10) = 0.001001 . . .(2) = 0.(001)(2) 7 The binary expansions of irrational numbers, such as √ 5 = 10.001111000110111 . . .(2) , are used sometimes in cryptography for simulating a random sequence of √ bits. But this method is considered to be insecure. The number, 5 in the example above, can be guessed after knowing the initial segment which will reveal the whole sequence. 4
In this tutorial we will make use of the ﬂoor function. In the ﬁrst case we have 2 x = 2x < 2 x + 1 and in the second 2 x < 2x = 2 x + 1.Number Theory. Two useful properties are listed in the following propositions. This is called the ﬂoor function. 2 The ﬂoor function Deﬁnition 1. Then we deﬁne x = n. Tutorial 5: Bertrand’s Postulate 1 Introduction In this tutorial we are going to prove: Theorem 1 (Bertrand’s Postulate). we deﬁne x = m. If m − 1 < x ≤ m. Then 2x = 2 x + 2a and we get two cases: a < 1/2 and a ≥ 1/2. Proof. where 0 ≤ a < 1 is the fractional part of x. This is called the ceiling function. 1 . Proving such inequalities is easy (and it resembles problems with the absolute value function). This theorem was veriﬁed for all numbers less than three million for Joseph Bertrand (18221900) and was proved by Pafnutii Chebyshev (18211894). 2 x ≤ 2x ≤ 2 x + 1. For each positive integer n > 1 there is a prime p such that n < p < 2n. Let x be a real number such that n ≤ x < n + 1. Proposition 1. You have to represent x in the form x = x + a. x is also called the integer part of x with x − x being called the fractional part of x.
2.Proposition 2. n}. 3. 2. Proof. We simply write r a =q+ b b and since q is an integer and 0 ≤ r/b < 1 we see that q is the integer part of a/b and r/b is the fractional part. . . + mk + . let a. Let t = m1 + m 2 + . . m/b · b. 3. . . 0 ≤ r < b. and such that pj  a but pj+1 a. . x + x + 1/2 = 2x . Suppose that a belongs to {1. b be positive integers and let us divide a by b with remainder a = qb + r Then q = a/b and r = a − b a/b . Then in the sum (2) a will be counted j times and will contribute i towards t. Proof. 3. n} that are multiples of b is equal to n/b . Exercise 1. Let n and b be positive integers. Indeed. Then the largest exponent s such that ps  n! is s= j≥1 n . . 3 Prime divisors of factorials and binomial coeﬃcients We start with the following Lemma 1. 2b. . Now (1) follows from Lemma 1 since mj = n/pj . 2 . . . . . pj (1) Proof. . 2. . (2) (the sum is ﬁnite of course). n}. . . . Let mi be the number of multiples of pi in the set {1. Theorem 2. by Proposition 2 the integers that are divisible by b will be b. . . This shows that t = s. Let n and p be positive integers and p be prime. . Then the number of integers in the set {1.
then p2 > 2n and from (a) we know that s ≤ 1. √ (b) If 2n < p. Let n ≥ 3 and p be positive integers and p be prime. 3 . Then the largest exponent s such that ps  2n is n s= j≥1 2n n −2 j j p p . (3) Proof. we se that s = 2 − 2 · 1 = 0. Proof.Theorem 3. (c) If 2n/3 < p ≤ n. Note that. Corollary 1. (c) If 2n/3 < p ≤ n. Hence ps ≤ 2n. Let n and p be positive integers and p be prime. (a) Let t be the largest integer such that pt ≤ 2n. in (3) every summand is either 0 or 1. Then for j > t 2n n −2 j j p p Hence t = 0. Then n (a) ps ≤ 2n. due to Proposition 1. Let s be the largest exponent such that ps  2n . then s = 0. s= j=1 2n n −2 j j p p ≤ t. since each summand does not exceed 1 by Proposition 1. Follows from Theorem 2. then s ≤ 1. √ (b) If 2n < p. then p2 > 2n and s= 2n n −2 p p As 1 ≤ n/p < 3/2.
2n ≥ . we get n n + (n − 1)/2 (n + 1)/2 ≤ 2n . (b) If n is even. Substituting a = b = 1 we get: n 2 = k=0 n n . k (4) Let us derive some consequences from it. then it is pretty easy to prove that the middle binomial coeﬃcient is the largest one. Hence n n n/2 which proves (b). n ≥ k=0 n k = 2n .4 Two inequalities involving binomial coeﬃcients n We all know the Binomial Theorem: (a + b) = k=0 n n n−k k a b . In (5) we have n + 1 summand but we group the two ones together and we get n summands among which the middle binomial coeﬃcient is the largest. k (5) Lemma 2. The two binomial coeﬃcients on the left are equal and we get (a). then n n/2 Proof. n (a) From (5). 4 . (a) If n is odd. (b) If n is even. deleting all terms except the two middle ones. then n (n + 1)/2 ≤ 2n−1 .
We will assume that there are no primes between n and 2n and obtain a contradiction.5 Proof of Bertrand’s Postulate Finally we can pay attention to primes. then p < 4n .e n s = (n − 1)/2. which is true. Let us assume that the statement is proved for all integers smaller than n. This proves the induction step and. n in this case we have the following prime factorisation for it: 2n n = p≤n p sp . This provides a basis for the induction. Since s+1<p≤n p is a divisor of s+1 . The proof is by induction over n. hence. If n is even. Theorem 4. under this assumption. then it is not prime. p≤n where the product on the left has one factor for each prime p ≤ n. i. We will obtain that. Proof of Bertrand’s Postulate. hence by induction hypothesis p= p≤n p≤n−1 p < 4n−1 < 4n . so the induction step is trivial in this case. 5 . the theorem. Indeed. Let n ≥ 2 be an integer. Suppose n = 2s + 1 is odd. Now the righthandside can be presented as 4s+1 2n−1 = 22s+2 2n−1 = 24s+2 = 42s+1 = 4n . For n = 2 we have 2 < 42 . we obtain p= p≤n p≤s+1 p· s+1<p≤n p < 4s+1 · n s+1 < 4s+1 2n−1 using the induction hypothesis for n = s + 1 and Lemma 2(a). Proof. the binomial coeﬃcient 2n is smaller than it should be.
No primes greater than n can be found in this prime factorisation. we get 2n ln 2 < 3 or √ 8n ln 2 − 3 ln(2n) < 0. We will estimate now these product using the inequality psp ≤ 2n for the ﬁrst √ product and Theorem 4 for the second one. 2n 2n (7) √ < (2n) n/2 . We have no more that 2n/2−1 factors in the ﬁrst product (as 1 and even numbers are not primes). hence 2n n √ < (2n) 2n/2−1 · 42n/3 . Hence 2n n ≤ p sp · p≤2n/3 p≤ 2n √ p. (8) n ln(2n) 2 Let us substitute n = 22k−3 for some k. Then we get 2k ln 2−3(2k−2) ln 2 < 0 or 2k < 3(2k − 2) which is true only for k ≤ 4 (you can prove that by 6 . (6) On the other hand. In fact.where sp is the exponent of the prime p in this factorisation. by Lemma 2(b) 2n n Combining (6) and (7) we get 4 n/3 ≥ 4n 22n = . Let √ recap now that due to Corollary 1 psp ≤ 2n and that sp = 1 for us p > 2n. Applying logs on both sides. due to Corollary 1(c) we can even write 2n n = p≤2n/3 p sp .
For smaller n it can be proved by inspection. All rights reserved. I leave this to the reader.com Ltd 20012002. Thus (8) is not true for all n ≥ 128. 7 . Copyright: MathOlymp. f (x) = x let us note that for x ≥ 8 this derivative is positive. We proved Bertrand’s postulate for n ≥ 128. Its derivative is √ 2x · ln 2 − 3 . Let us consider the √ function f (x) = 8x ln 2 − 3 ln(2x) deﬁned for x > 0. Hence (8) is not true for n = 27 = 128.inducton).
This inequality becomes equality if and only if the quadrilateral is cyclic. BD 1 AB BD = and hence AC CD .Geometry Tutorial 1. we will consider the case. Proof: Firstly. when the quadrilateral ABCD is convex. B C C' A D Since the triangles ABC and DBC are similar we get AC = AB · CD . Let us denote the image of C as C . Let us rotate the plane about B and then dilate. choosing the coeﬃcient of the dilation k so that the image of D coincides with A. Then AB · CD + BC · AD ≥ AC · BD. Ptolemy’s inequality One of the most important tools in proving geometric inequalities is Theorem 1 (Ptolemy’s Inequality) Let ABCD be an arbitrary quadrilateral in the plane.
say BD does not have common points with the interior of the quadrilateral.The triangles C BC and ABD are also similar because C BC = ABD and CB AB = = k. This inequality is an equality if and only if C is on the segment AC in which case we have AC + C C = BAC = BAC = BDC and the points A. Then one of its diagonals. whence This similarity yields CC AD BC · AD CC= . C. BD BD and therefore AB · CD + BC · AD ≥ AC · BD. We will prove even more general statement. Let us assume now that the quadrilateral is not convex. Therefore Ptolemy’s inequality holds in this case too. BD By the Triangle inequality AB · CD BC · AD + ≥ AC. Another proof of Ptolemy’s inequality can be obtained using inversion. B C' A C D Reﬂecting C about BD we will get a convex quadrilateral ABC D whose side are of the same lengths as that of ABCD but the product of the diagonals for ABCD is smaller than for ABC D as AC < AC and BD is the same in both cases. B. and inequality never becomes equality. BC BD BC BD = . D are concyclic. 2 .
but not on a line. B . This inequality becomes equality if and only if the points A. when A . B . Y are their images under i then r 2 · XY . the latter becomes AB · CD + BC · AD ≥ AC · BD. Comment 1: Theorem 2 is clearly independent of whether or not the given points lie in the same plane. This happens.Theorem 2 (Generalised Ptolemy’s inequality) Let A. In our case. DA · DB DB · DC DA · DC After multiplying both sides by DA · DB · DC. B . Proof: Consider an inversion i with pole D and any coeﬃcient r > 0. It does not change in the slightest if they are in threedimensional space. D are concyclic and each of the two arcs determined by the points A. Since the points are not on the same line. C are on the line with B beeing between A and C . when the given points lie on the same line. C contains one of the two remaining points. D be arbitrary points in the plane. DX · DY This formula can be applied to any pair of points A. B. we get AB +BC ≥AC . (2) as desired. C. B. Then AB · CD + BC · AD ≥ AC · BD. B. C because they are all diﬀerent from D. This case can easily be sorted out but it is not of interest to us. (1) It is wellknown (or easy to prove) how distances between points change under inversion. 3 . this means that before the inversion they were on a circle with B and D on diﬀerent arcs determined by A and C. Y are any two points diﬀerent from D. and if X . It is clear that (2) becomes equality. if X. Applying the Triangle inequality for the points A . So we rewrite (1) in the form XY = r2 · AB r2 · BC r2 · AC + ≥ . B. Let A . C under this inversion respectively. only when (1) becomes equality. C be the images of A. C. Comment 2: Theorem 2 is also true in some cases. C .
1 .Geometry Tutorial 2. Furthermore. Let S be a point on the larger circle such that AS is the bisector of BAC. We will prove the following lemma ﬁrst and then derive Euler’s theorem and several other corollaries. Suppose A is an arbitrary point on the larger circle. C S O I M B N A BC is tangent to the smaller circle if and only if BCI = ICA. Euler’s theorem We shall prove in this section Euler’s theorem that was oﬀered in 1962 to the participants of IMO and therefore introduced to the IMO sillabus forever. Let MN be the diameter of the large circle passing through I and O. sin α where α = CAS. Let us draw CI and CS. in turn. Then BC is tangent to the smaller circle if and only if IO = R(R − 2r). Lemma 1 A circle of radus r with center I is inside of a circle of radius R with center O. r Then SC = SI if and only if SI · IA = SC · IA = 2R sin α · = 2rR. happens if and only if SCI = CIS. SCI = CIS if and only if SC = SI. Proof. since CIS = ICA + IAC = ICA + SCB. AB and AC are two chords of the larger circle which are tangent to the smaller one. This.
. Let us take an arbitrary point A1 on the circumcircle and draw the chords A1 B1 and B1 C1 both of which are tangent to the incircle. . 2 . where d = IO. . Theorem 5 (Poncelet) Suppose that one circle is placed inside another circle. Then if B1 . . From this lemma Euler’s theorem follows: Theorem 2 (Euler’s theorem) The distance between the incenter and the circumcenter of a triangle is equal to R(R − 2r). Hence we have SI · IA = 2rR if and only if (R − d)(R + d) = 2rR. An be the points on a larger circle such that each link of the closed broken line A1 A2 . Bn be any points on the larger circle such that each link of the broken line B1 B2 . SI · IA = MI · IN = (R − d)(R + d). Moreover. . All rights reserved. Copyright: MathOlymp. . . .com Ltd 2001. . which is the same as d2 = R2 − 2rR. .As is wellknown. R = 2r if and only if the triangle ABC is equilateral. Two more remarkable corollaries from the same lemma: Corollary 3 Two positive real numbers r and R are the inradius and circumradius of some triangle ABC if and only if R ≥ 2r. C C1 B1 B A A1 This is a partial case of the deep Poncelet’s theorem. Then the chord C1 A1 is also tangent to the incircle. . Bn touches the smaller circle. then Bn B1 also touches it. . Corollary 4 Consider the incircle and the circumcircle of triangle ABC. respectively. and the lemma is proved. Let A1 . If R > 2r there exist inﬁnitely many nonsimilar triangles having R and r as the circumradius and inradius. An A1 touches the smaller circle.
AMT What's New Recent Postings q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q AMC scoring changes from 2007 BH Neumann Award winners announced for 2007 AIO 2006 Results Eligibility and attendance at AMOC training schools Buying photos at AMC Presentations 2006 Dates for key AMT events in 2007 AIMO and AMOC Senior Contest 2006 Results AMC 2006 medallists announced Fields Medal for Medal for Terry Tao Cheryl Praeger appointed to International Committee for Mathematics IOI Results 2006 from Merida. Please email us your view. http://www. 2005 and 2006. It is now very difficult to find a date which is clear in each state. 2006 medallists announced AMC innovations during 2004. AIC Results 2006 APMO 2006 Results (official) Announcement of 2006 Olympiad Teams Informatics. IMO Results 2006 from Ljubljana including transcript of interview of Silver Medal winner Graham White by Adam Spencer on Sydney ABC Breakfast immediately after the Closing Ceremony.au/whatsnew.amt. 2006 FARIO Results AMO 2006 Results AIIO 2006 Results Archived Postings 2006: the 29th Australian Mathematics Competition for the Westpac Awards q q q The 2007 AMC has been set for Wednesday 25 July. including scan of mark sense sheet. inc Gold and Silver Medals.html (1 of 2)06/01/1428 06:48:35 Õ . Mexico.canberra. Yucatan. showing how students answer questions 26 to 30.edu. Basic skills tests are scheduled for different dates around Australia and in some states there are end of year exam trials through early August.
html (2 of 2)06/01/1428 06:48:35 Õ .AMT What's New q q q AMC 2006 fact sheet See our Activity page (button at left) to try some warmup exercises for Australian Mathematics Competition for the Westpac Awards In 2003 the Australian Mathematics Competition for the Westpac Awards celebrated its 25th Anniversary Dates q Key dates (where determined) Australian Mathematical Olympiad Program q q q q AIMO and Senior Contest 2006 Results IMO Results 2006 from Ljubljana including transcript of interview of Silver Medal winner Graham White by Adam Spencer on Sydney ABC Breakfast immediately after the Closing Ceremony. AIC Results 2006 2006 FARIO Results AIIO 2006 Results ICMI Study on Challenging Mathematics Official Web Site of the Study. APMO 2006 Results AMO 2006 Results Informatics q q q q q AIO Results 2006 IOI Results 2006 from Merida. Mexico. Yucatan.canberra. inc Gold and Silver Medals. Seven Bridges of Königsberg q What Ever Happened to Those Bridges? by Peter Taylor International Mathematics Tournament of Towns q q Diploma Winners: Australia and New Zealand Recent Results: International http://www.amt.edu.au/whatsnew.
more..Australian Mathematics Trust .htm06/01/1428 06:49:02 Õ . http://www..au/default. These awards are given for service to the enrichment of mathematics learning in Australia. Three BH Neumann Awards announced for 2007 The Australian Mathematics Trust has announced that three mathematics educators will receive BH Neumann Awards in 2007. more. AIO 2006 Results A total of 45 students wrote the Senior version and 32 students wrote the Intermediate version of the second Australian Informatics Olympiad. more...edu..amt.Home AMC Scoring Changes From 2007 a different point system will be used for the last five questions of the Australian Mathematics Competition for the Westpac Awards..
au/amtpub.edu. (see catalogue) In addition to the books to be found in our catalogue we also recommend the publications of our sister organisation the United Kingdom Mathematics Trust. whose publications can be found here.AMT Book Shop News q q q Australian Mathematics Competition for the Westpac Awards Book 4 (19992005) is now available.amt. alternatively (for purchase via post or fax) Download catalogue and order form http://www. Enter Catalogue and Shop or. Strongly recommended for Primary students and teachers: Problems for the Middle School.html06/01/1428 06:49:28 Õ .
CHALLENGE! 1991–1995 JB HENRY. The book is a powerful tool for motivating and challenging students of all levels. AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION BOOK 3 1992–1998 WJ ATKINS. Space and Number. GAUSS: Recommended for students of about Year 8. Space. With each problem there are teacher’s notes and fully worked solutions. The material is recommended for senior and advanced students. rates and number theory. tessellations. Australian Mathematics Olympiad. A NAKOS. EULER: Recommended for students of about Year 7. Schools find these sets extremely valuable in setting their students miscellaneous exercises. algebra. Measurement. AMC SOLUTIONS AND STATISTICS & PJ TAYLOR This book provides. base five arithmetic. answers and solutions. It is a valuable resource book for the classroom and the talented student. EXTENSION MATERIALS ENRICHMENT STUDENT NOTES The Student Notes are supplied to students enrolled in the program along with other materials provided to their teacher. results and statistics for: Australian Intermediate Mathematics Olympiad (formerly AMOC Intermediate Contest). AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS 1979–1995 & PJ TAYLOR This book is a collection of Australian Mathematical Olympiad papers from the first in 1979 to 1995. Diaphantine equations. The solutions to all problems are included and in a number of cases alternative solutions are also offered. These six stages offer extension material for students from year 5 to year 10. The CD runs on all Windows platforms.Australian Mathematics Trust COMPETITION MATERIALS BUNDLES OF PAST AMC PAPERS Bundles of past Australian Mathematics Competition papers are available for practice. In 199195 there were two versions. each year. arithmetricks. JE MUNRO & PJ TAYLOR Over 290 pages of challenging questions and solutions from Australian Mathematics Competition papers from 19921998. topics include Pythagoras’ theorem. International Mathematical Olympiad. polyhedra. A EDWARDS. counting and congruences. the CD is ideal to help students practice particular skills. The problems can be accessed by topics as in the book and in this mode. The questions have been grouped by topic and ranked in order of difficulty. The books consist of the questions. This book reproduces the problems which have been set over the first 6 years of the event. Bundles are also available in sets of ten identical papers in each division of the Competition. topics include polyominoes. a Junior version for Year 7 and 8 students and an Intermediate . Some problems have extension problems presented with the teacher’s notes. It also provides statistical data on levels of Australian response rates and other analytical information. PÓLYA: Recommended for students of about Year 10. D KING & PJ O’HALLORAN This 258 page book consists of over 500 questions. From 2004 there is also a Primary version providing questions. full solutions and statistics from the AMC papers of 197884. DIRICHLET: This book has chapters on some problem solving techniques. Each bundle contains five different papers and an answer key. Counting. with details of medallists and prize winners. solutions. Each of the 65 problems is presented ready to be photocopied for classroom use. counting and pigeonhole principle. Asian Pacific Mathematics Olympiad. L MOTTERSHEAD. G POLLARD & PJ TAYLOR Over 250 pages of challenging questions and solutions from Australian Mathematics Competition papers from 19851991. in that order. In another mode students can simulate writing the actual papers and determine the score that they would have gained. There is a chart suggesting which problemsolving strategies could be used with each problem. Intermediate or Senior levels. pattern seeking. A EDWARDS. JB HENRY & A DI PASQUALE These books provide an annual record of the Australian Mathematical Olympiad Committee’s program. topics include elementary number theory and geometry. inequalities and geometry. answers. A THOMAS & G VARDARO. solutions and statistics for the Middle and Upper Primary papers. WJ ATKINS AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION BOOK 1 1978–1984 J EDWARDS. inequalities and circle geometry. J DOWSEY. A NAKOS & G VARDARO The Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians attracts thousands of entries from Australian Schools annually. NOETHER: Recommended for students of about Year 9. MATHEMATICAL CONTESTS—AUSTRALIAN SCENE AM STOROZHEV. and Maths Challenge Stage of the Mathematical Challenge for Young Australians. sequences. PROBLEMS TO SOLVE IN MIDDLE SCHOOL MATHEMATICS B HENRY. NEWTON: Recommended for students of about Year 5 and 6. Each year it involves solving indepth problems over a three week period. Logic) and are roughly in order of difficulty within each topic. Time. We are making these Notes available as a text book to interested parties for whom the program is not available. topics include number theory. L MOTTERSHEAD. This collection of problems is designed for use with students in Years 5 to 8. AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION BOOK 3 ON CD PROGRAMMED BY E STOROZHEV This CD contains the same problems and solutions as the corresponding book. The problems are arranged in topics (Number. It is designed for students in Year 6 or 7. version for Year 9 and 10 students. patterns and divisibility. AMOC Senior Mathematics Contest. topics include polynomials. a record of the AMC questions. K SIMS. H LAUSCH AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION BOOK 2 1985–1991 PJ O’HALLORAN. J MCINTOSH. together with solutions and extension questions. Bundles are available for Junior.
Duntroon and Foundation Member of the Australian Mathematical Olympiad Committee. including articles on actual competitions. George Pólya’s Necklace Theorem. Professor John Burns. 101 PROBLEMS IN ALGEBRA & Z FENG This book contains one hundred and one highly rated problems used in training and testing the USA International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) team. This book brings together the problems and solutions of the last four years of the AllUnion Mathematics Olympiads. All problems have two or more independent solutions. Unlike other books in which only complete solutions are given. & A STOROZHEV The Bulgarian Mathematics Competition has become one of the most difficult and interesting competitions in the world. pure mathematics and the history of mathematics. PJ TAYLOR INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS USSR MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS 1989–1992 AM SLINKO Arkadii Slinko. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS—TOURNAMENT OF TOWNS 19801984. Carl Friedrich Gauss’ discovery of the construction of a 17gon by straight edge and compass. This book covers the first ten years of the competition complete with answers and solutions. It is unique in structure combining mathematics and informatics problems in a multichoice format. including sections on its early history. problems. and mathematical and historical articles which may be of interest to those associated with competitions. this book is a must for a student planning on developing the ability to solve advanced mathematics problems. the APMO has become a model for regional competitions around the world where costs and logistics are serious considerations. It contains articles of interest to academics and teachers around the world who run mathematics competitions. Emmy Noether’s work on algebraic structures. statistics. JB TABOV The Hungary Israel Mathematics Competition commenced in 1990 when diplomatic relations between the two countries were in their infancy. this competition had its origins in Eastern Europe (as did the Olympiad) but is now open to cities throughout the world. They are Leonhard Euler’s famous Seven Bridges of Königsberg question. This 181 page book summarizes the first 12 years of the competition (1990 to 2001) and includes the problems and complete solutions. sometimes powerful techniques. This book contains some of the best problems from the national Olympiads. HUNGARY ISRAEL MATHEMATICS COMPETITION S GUERON MATHEMATICAL TOOLCHEST & N WILLIAMS This 120 page book is intended for talented or interested secondary school students who are keen to develop their mathematical knowledge. 19841989. The book is directed at mathematics lovers. was one of the leading figures of the USSR Mathematical Olympiad Committee during the last years before democratisation. problem solving enthusiasts and students who wish to improve their competition skills. many with distinctive flavour and come in all levels of difficulty. solves the problems of the 1988. PARABOLA incorporating FUNCTION In 2005 Parabola will become Parabola incorporating Function edited by Bruce Henry at the University of New South Wales. Not only are the problems and solutions highly expository but the book is worth reading alone for the fascinating history of mathematics competitions to be found in the introduction. solutions and statistics. The books contain formal treatments of methods which may be familiar or may introduce the student to new. The journal’s readership consists of mathematics students. Written in an inimitable and sensitive style. BOOKS 1 & 2 & PJ TAYLOR These books introduce senior students aspiring to Olympiad competition to particular mathematical problem solving techniques. It contains a comprehensive collection of theorems and other results from many branches of mathematics. John Burns describes the complete thought processes he went through when solving the problems from scratch. from the relatively basic to the most challenging. 1989 and 1990 International Mathematical Olympiads. JOURNALS MATHEMATICS COMPETITIONS This biannual journal is published on behalf of the World Federation of National Mathematics Competitions. the Chinese National High School Competition and the Chinese Mathematical Olympiad.SEEKING SOLUTIONS JC BURNS ASIAN PACIFIC MATHEMATICS OLYMPIADS 19892000 H LAUSCH & C BOSCHGIRAL With innovative regulations and procedures. The problems are meticulously constructed. Motion. JB TABOV. CHINESE MATHEMATICS COMPETITIONS & OLYMPIADS BOOK 1 19811993 & BOOK 2 19932001 A LIU These books contain the papers of two contests. Diophantine Equations and Counting Techniques–areas that students consistently find difficult. Ranking only behind the International Mathematical Olympiad. The tshirts are made of 100% cotton and are designed and printed in Australia. teachers and researchers with interests in promoting excellence in senior secondary school mathematics education. It gradually builds students algebraic skills and techniques and aims to broaden students’ views of mathematics and better prepare them for possible participation in mathematical competitions. Students of average ability and with an interest in the subject should be able to access this book and find a challenge. EDITED BY T ANDREESCU PROBLEM SOLVING VIA THE AMC WARREN ATKINS This 210 page book shows how to develop techniques for solving problems in the Australian Mathematics Competition. No special or advanced knowledge is required beyond that of the typical IMO contestant and the book includes a glossary explaining the terms and theorems which are not standard that have been used in the book. 180. AW PLANK METHODS OF PROBLEM SOLVING. BULGARIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION 19922001 BJ LAZAROV. 200 and 180 pages respectively. contain all the problems and solutions of the Tournaments. . These books of 115. This 159 page book reports the first twelve years of this competition. This triannual journal publishes articles on applied mathematics. indicating their richness as mathematical problems. 19931997 PJ TAYLOR The International Mathematics Tournament of Towns is a problem solving competition in which teams from different cities are handicapped according to the population of the city. 19891993. results from competitions. mathematical modelling. now at the University of Auckland. formerly Professor of Mathematics at the Royal Military College. These problems have been selected from topics such as Geometry. that can contribute to the teaching and learning of mathematics at the senior secondary school level. Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet’s Pigeonhole Principle and Alan Mathison Turing’s computing machine. It provides indepth enrichment in important areas of algebra by reorganizing and enhancing students’ problemsolving tactics. and stimulates interest for future study of mathematics. ME KUCZMA TSHIRTS TSHIRT SIZES XL & MEDIUM (POLYA ONLY) The tshirts in this series are based on different mathematicians and one informatician depicting an outstanding area of their work in a brightly coloured cartoon representation. POLISH & AUSTRIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS 19811995 & E WINDISCHBACHER Poland and Austria hold some of the strongest traditions of Mathematical Olympiads in Europe even holding a joint Olympiad of high quality.
50 PER BUNDLE JUNIOR INTERMEDIATE SENIOR PAST PAPERS (for home use) Junior (years 7 & 8) — Bundle contains one each of: 2001.00 $A40. BOOK 1 METHODS OF PROBLEM SOLVING. 2005 past papers with answer key AMC SOLUTIONS & STATISTICS (Junior.00 $A40.00 2005* $A35.50 $A40.00 $A50.50 2005 2004 $A35. BOOK 2 .00 $A40.OO $A40.au/amtpub.00 $A28.CD MATHEMATICAL CONTESTS – AUSTRALIAN SCENE Editions from previous years are available (19922004) (write in box which year/s you wish to order) CHALLENGE! 1991–1995 PROBLEMS TO SOLVE IN MIDDLE SCHOOL MATHEMATICS AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS 1979–1995 EXTENSION MATERIALS ENRICHMENT STUDENT NOTES (write quantity in box) NEWTON DIRICHLET EULER GAUSS NOETHER POLYA $A40.00 $A40. University of Canberra ACT 2601. 2004.edu. Intermediate and Senior Divisions) Editions from previous years are available (19922004) (write in box which year/s you wish to order) $A21. 2002.Publication Order Form To order any of the listed items. 2002.00 $A40.amt.00 $A40. 2004.00 $A40.00 $A28.00 PER BUNDLE $A21. 2002.00 PER BUNDLE $A21. complete the Publications Order Form below and return by email.50 $A40. 2003.00 continued over SEEKING SOLUTIONS PROBLEM SOLVING VIA THE AMC MATHEMATICAL TOOLCHEST METHODS OF PROBLEM SOLVING. 2005 past papers with answer key Intermediate (years 9 & 10) — Bundle contains one each of: 2001.00 $A40. AUSTRALIA Ph: (02) 6201 5137 Ph: +61 (2) 6201 5137 from within Australia from outside Australia Fax: +61 (2) 6201 5052 Fax: (02) 6201 5052 ] ] Email: publications@amt.00 $A28.html BOOK TITLE COMPETITION MATERIALS BUNDLES OF PAST AMC PAPERS (write quantity in box) 10 identical papers per bundle with answer key for school use 2000 MIDDLE PRIMARY UPPER PRIMARY QTY UNIT PRICE TOTAL 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 $A13.au Web: www.00 AMC SOLUTIONS & STATISTICS (Middle & Upper Primary Divisions) No other previous editions are available AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION BK 1 AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION BK 2 AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION BK 3 AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION BK 3 . fax or mail to: Australian Mathematics Trust. 2003. 2003.edu. 2005 past papers with answer key Senior (years 11 & 12) — Bundle contains one each of: 2001.00 PER BUNDLE 2005 $A35. 2004.
PLEASE FORWARD PUBLICATIONS TO : NAME ADDRESS SUBURB POSTCODE COUNTRY © 200206 AMT Publishing AMT T Ltd ACN 083 950 341 .00 $A40. $A * Not available till March 2006 TOTAL $A METHOD OF PAYMENT CHEQUE VISA Total Amount: $A IF PAYING BY ABN: 39 120 172 502 SCHOOL PURCHASE ORDER NUMBER: BANKDRAFT MASTERCARD AUSTRALIAN BANKCARD AMERICAN EXPRESS Tel (bh): OR A USTRALIAN B ANKCARD .00 $A28.30 EACH Overseas Postage–for postage and handling outside Australia add $A13.00 JOURNALS MATHEMATICS COMPETITIONS – WORLD FEDERATION JOURNAL 2005 Subscription – (2 issues annually in July & Dec) PARABOLA inc FUNCTION – 2005 Subscription (3 issues annually from Jan–Dec) $A68.00 $A40. V ISA . THE AMT REGRETS THAT NONSCHOOL ORDERS CANNOT BE ACCEPTED WITHOUT PAYMENT.00 TSHIRTS (indicate quantity in box) DIRICHLET XL POLYA MED EULER XL POLYA XL GAUSS XL TURING XL NOETHER XL $A25.00 $A40. AUSTRALIA PLEASE ALLOW 14 DAYS FOR DELIVERY.00 $A40.00 for each additional book. University of Canberra ACT 2601. MADE PAYABLE TO AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS TRUST Australian Mathematics Trust.00 $A40.00 $A40.00 TOTAL POLISH & AUSTRIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS 19811995 ASIAN PACIFIC MATHEMATICS OLYMPIADS 19892000 CHINESE MATHEMATICS COMPETITIONS & OLYMPIADS BOOK 1 19811993 CHINESE MATHEMATICS COMPETITIONS & OLYMPIADS BOOK 2 19932001 101 PROBLEMS IN ALGEBRA HUNGARY ISRAEL MATHEMATICS COMPETITION BULGARIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION 19922001 $A40.BOOK TITLE INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS USSR MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS 1989–1992 TOURNAMENT OF TOWNS (indicate quantity in box) 19801984 19841989 19891993 19931997 QTY UNIT PRICE $A40.00 for first book then add $A5.00 $A40. M ASTERCARD A MERICAN E XPRESS COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING : Card Number: Cardholder’s Name: (as shown on card) Card Expiry Date: Cardholder’s Signature: Date: AND SENT TO: ALL PAYMENTS (CHEQUES/BANKDRAFTS) SHOULD BE IN AUSTRALIAN CURRENCY.
and teachers warmup papers and other problems to give their class. Generally when a sufficient number of correct solutions are in we will post the complete solutions. Problems to be found here will cover a wide range of standards.au/internat. When a question is posted without solution. school and school year. and follow with new problems. send your solutions here. q Australian Mathematics Competition for the Westpac Awards Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians International Mathematics Tournament of Towns Informatics q q q http://www. if you are from a participating school and within the valid school year. If your solution is complete we will acknowledge with your name. from accessible to all students up to challenging.amt.html06/01/1428 06:56:52 Õ . For informatics a separate method of interactive assessment is provided.edu. making it clear which problems you are answering.AMT Mathematics Activity This page is designed give students a wide range of opportunities to practice their mathematics and informatics.
amt. St Ives. Surry Hills. Victoria r Rowan ClymoRowlands Year 5.au/wumcya. The King David School. Year 5. Essex Heights Primary School. NSW r Gabriel Gregory. Year 7. Years 7 and 8 Problem 2 Correct Solution was received from r Brian Fernandes.edu. from accessible to all students up to challenging. Sydney Grammar School. Current Warmup problems q q Primary.Year 8. Box Hill High School. school and school year. Year 5. Year 4. Year 5. and are for students who enjoy mathematics and wish to test their problem solving skills. Campbell Street Primary School. Sydney Grammar School St Ives. The problems below will require syllabus skills from the relevant year. NSW r Siddharth Jain. Year 7. Mt Waverley. When a question is posted without solution. Hurlstone Agricultural High School. Generally when a sufficient number of correct solutions are in we will post the complete solutions. Year 5. Lenah Valley Primary School. Year 6. Victoria r Abdullah Sarker.html (1 of 2)06/01/1428 06:57:22 Õ . Year 5. Armadale. Box Hill. Victoria r Gabriel Gregory. making it clear which problems you are answering. Tasmania r Sebhatleb Gebrezgabir. 6 and 7 Problem 2 Correct Solution was received from r Sheree Deng. If your solution is complete we will acknowledge with your name. NSW http://www. Sydney Boys High School. Sydney. and teachers warmup papers and other problems to give their class. NSW Solution to Problem 1 Correct Solution was received from r Kate Charters. Year 7. Kennington Primary School. send your solutions here. Balwyn Primary School. Catherine's School. Years 5. Victoria r Mengtong Xia. Year 5. The Emanuel School. Victoria Junior. NSW r Matthew O’Brien. St. Victoria r Cameron Segal.Mathematics Activity: MCYA Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians This page will be developed to give students a wide range of opportunities to practice their mathematics. Tasmania r Gabriella Hannah Kontorovich. Problems to be found here will cover a wide range of standards. and follow with new problems. Bendigo. if you are from a participating school and within the valid school year.
au/wumcya. Years 9 and 10 Problem 2 Solution to Problem 1 Correct Solution was received from r Giles Gardam. WA r Sarah Liu. NSW http://www. Year 9. NSW r Vinayak Hutchinson. Year 10. Hurlstone Agricultural High School. Hurlstone Agricultural High School.edu.Mathematics Activity: MCYA q Solution to Problem 1 Correct Solution was received from r Varun Nayyar. Shenton College. Arthur Phillip High School.html (2 of 2)06/01/1428 06:57:22 Õ . Year 9. NSW r Andrew Watts. Year 8 Trinity Grammar School NSW (2004) Intermediate.amt. Year 9.
4. how many bandicoots. the total animal population had grown to 55. YEARS 5.MATHEMATICS CHALLENGE FOR YOUNG AUSTRALIANS PRIMARY. Explain why this was a mistake. There were still three times as many bettongs as quolls and more than half the total population was bandicoots. 6 and 7 WARM UP PROBLEM 02 Wildlife Park The local wildlife park has an area where there are three types of native animals – bandiccots. The Park Rangers keep records of the numbers of each type of animal. If there were three quolls at the end of the ﬁrst year. The Chief Ranger thought he had counted eight quolls. What is the largest possible number of quolls in the area at the end of the third year? c 2005 Australian Mathematics Trust . 1. bettongs and quolls were there? At the end of the third year. If the total population at the end of the second year was 40. what was the total animal population? 2. At the end of both the ﬁrst and second years. there were three times as many bettongs as quolls and half the total animal population was bandicoots. bettongs and quolls – for visitors to see on torchlight tours. 3.
Explain why it is the largest 7digit number which has these two properties. the host of the show. Find the mystery number.’ 1. Chloe will win all the prizes if she can work out the mystery number. says: ‘Tonight’s mystery number is the largest 7digit number which has these properties: (a) no two digits in the number are the same. Joe. Find the three digits which cannot be in the mystery number. Explain why they must be excluded. 2. YEARS 7 and 8 WARM UP PROBLEM 02 The Price is Perfect On the TV show ‘The Price is Perfect’. . c 2005 Australian Mathematics Trust. (b) each of the number’s digits divide into the number exactly.MATHEMATICS CHALLENGE FOR YOUNG AUSTRALIANS JUNIOR.
...... 1. . ... . .. ... . . ..... .. ... . . . . . . ... . What is the minimum number of times Gianna must stop for water for Cornelius? Give reasons for your answer.. . .. . . . .... . . .. . ... . .. . . . . ...... ... . ... . . . . . .. . Gianna stops as infrequently as possible on her journey as it is diﬃcult to get Cornelius going after a stop. Cornelius holds 50 litres and can travel 100 km on 10 litres... .. ... . . ... ..... . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. .. .. . ... .. ..... .. .. .. . . 310 km • Maria’s Mirage 120 km 60 km 90c • Zingarelli’s 85c • Salvation Spring 55c • Wombat Waterhole 270 km 90 km •Oscar’s Oasis 250 km Hier • 80c Philomena’s Phridge • 45c Gianna rides her camel Cornelius across the Gibson Desert from Hier to Thair... . . ... . . ... . ... . .... . ...... .... . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . .. ... .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .... ... . . ... .... .. YEARS 9 and 10 WARM UP PROBLEM 02 Cornelius the Camel 105c . ... . . ... .... ... . . .. stopping occasionally to recharge Cornelius with water. . . .. .. . .. . She ﬁlls Cornelius with 50 litres of water at Hier and starts her journey. ... . . ... . .. . . .. . ...... .. . . . ... .. . ... . . . . ....... . including the beginning of the journey at Hier and the end of the journey at Thair... .. . . .. .. . . ... . . . .MATHEMATICS CHALLENGE FOR YOUNG AUSTRALIANS INTERMEDIATE. . .. . . . .. .. .. Gianna crosses the Gibson Desert with a minimum number of stops.. . . .. .. . ... 95c Cosmo Creek• 260 km 65c 110 km 40c • Thair . . .. .. ... . . . . .. . . .. . . . . as shown on the map... . 2... . . . .. ...... ... .... . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . ... ... .. ... . ... she always lets Cornelius ﬁll up with water completely. .... . . ... . . .. ... . .. . ... ... .. .. . . . When she does stop...... .. ...... . . . . . .. . .... . At which oases should she stop to spend as little as possible on water for Cornelius? How much does this cost her? . . . .. .. .. .. . ... The water sellers at the oases between Hier and Thair charge varying amounts per litre of water. .. .
What is the cheapest way to get across the desert? c 2005 Australian Mathematics Trust 2 . Suppose that Gianna allows for more than the minimum number of stops (including Hier and Thair).3. still letting Cornelius ﬁll up completely at each stop.
amt.html06/01/1428 06:58:56 Õ . from accessible to all students up to challenging. Problems to be found here will cover a wide range of standards. and follow with new problems. Problem 1. and teachers warmup papers and other problems to give their class. school and school year.au/wuimtot. if you are from a participating school and within the valid school year. http://www. send your solutions here. making it clear which problems you are answering. When a question is posted without solution. If your solution is complete we will acknowledge with your name.edu. These Tournament questions can be extremely challenging. Generally when a sufficient number of correct solutions are in we will post the complete solutions.Mathematics Activity: IMTOT International Mathematics Tournament of Towns This page will be developed to give students a wide range of opportunities to practice their mathematics.
INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS TOURNAMENT OF TOWNS PRACTICE QUESTION 1 The least common multiple of positive integers a. c and d is equal to a + b + c + d. b. Prove that abcd is divisible by at least one of 3 and 5. .
Victoria r Hannah Nilsson. Current Warmup papers q q Middle Primary. Blackwood. Castle Hill Public school.Mathematics Activity: AMC Australian Mathematics Competition for the Westpac Awards This page will be developed to give students a wide range of opportunities to practice their mathematics. Malaysia r Samantha Molloy. If your solution is complete we will acknowledge with your name. Sin Min Primary School (B). Year 4. Joachim's Primary School. Year 6. send your solutions here. from accessible to all students up to challenging. Woodlands Primary School. Aranda Primary School.J. NSW r Leticia Holt. Year 4. Marysville Primary School. St Peters Lutheran School. Fintona Girls School. Years 3 and 4 Current Problems Correct solutions have been received from r Sam Bird.html (1 of 2)06/01/1428 06:59:34 Õ . and teachers warmup papers and other problems to give their class. Year 3.K. Victoria r Devon Kaluarachchi. Year 6. When a question is posted without solution. Victoria http://www. Year 3. requiring problem solving skills. Generally when a sufficient number of correct solutions are in we will post the complete solutions. if you are from a participating school and within the valid school year. Year 4. Kedah. Year 4. and follow with new problems. Year 4. S. Victoria r Khaw Wei Kit. 6 and 7 Current Problems Correct solutions have been received from r Michelle He. These questions use mathematics from within the school syllabus. making it clear which problems you are answering. ACT r Minmin Tai. SA r Kevin Ge. school and school year. NSW r Wong Xiang Qing. and the questions within each set range from broadly accessible to challenging. Haberfield Public School. Victoria r Laura Roden. Carrum Downs. NSW Upper Primary. Langwarrin. Malaysia r Mark Nielsen. Year 3. St Joachim's Primary School.(C) Serdang Baru 2. Year 3. Problems to be found here will cover a wide range of standards. Years 5. St. Haberfield Public School.amt.au/wuamc. Year 3.edu.
North Sydney Boys High School. Years 11 and 12 Current Problems Correct solutions have been received from r Paulino Casimiro. NSW r Sherilyn Yao. Year 11. NSW r Abdullah Sarker. Burrendah Primary School. Peterborough High School. Box Hill High School. Year 7. St. Sin Min Primary School (B). St.amt. Mayfield.edu. Year 5. Hunter Christian School. NSW Intermediate. Singapore r Nazmus Salehin. Year 6. Year 5.Mathematics Activity: AMC q q q Khaw Syn Li. Year 7.html (2 of 2)06/01/1428 06:59:34 Õ . Victoria r Shereen Susan Stanley. Years 7 and 8 Current Problems Correct solutions have been received from r Kaalya De Silva. Victoria r Hannah Nilsson. East Doncaster Secondary College. Year 5. Year 12. Burrendah Primary School. NSW r Wong Ze Ying. Wheelers Hill Secondary College. Sydney Boys High School. Marysville Primary School. Raffles Junior College. Baulkham Hills. Year 8.K. Year 5. WA r Peter Yang. Victoria r Cara Joseph. Year 12. Year 8.au/wuamc. Michael's Primary School. S. Michael's Primary School Baulkham Hills. Years 9 and 10 Current Problems Senior. WA Junior.(C) Serdang Baru 2. NSW r Siddharth Jain. Smith's Hill High School. SA r http://www. NSW r Edward Yoo. Year 5. Year 12. Year 11. Year 8. Melbourne. Year 8. Malaysia r Kerri Lam. Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Serdang. Kedah. Victoria r Jeremiah Lock. Mozambique r Khaw Syn Wei. Year 6.J. Malaysia r Edward Yoo. Willow International School. Malaysia r Sherilyn Yao.
Which of these numbers is the largest? (A) 321 (B) 213 (C) 317 (D) 231 (E) 198 2. on the second row from the top? ∞ 2 ⊕ ♥ 3 ∗ ♥ ⊕ (C) (D) (A) ⊕ (B) ♥ 3 G (E) ∗ 4. In the grid. My dog eats (A) 1 kg 2 1 kg of dog food each day. A net of a cube is drawn with letters on it as shown. what letter is opposite M? H M T P K (A) H (B) T (C) P (D) K (E) G . How much dog food does he eat each week? 2 (B) 1 kg (C) 2 kg 1 (D) 3 kg 2 (E) 7 kg 3. When the net is made into a cube.AMC WARMUP PAPER MIDDLE PRIMARY PAPER 3 1. which object is found in the third square from the right.
How many sweets does Claire get? (A) 0 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 10 (E) 15 6. PussinBoots is 2 swords tall or 5 daggers tall. Anne. Bob and Claire have 20 sweets in a pile. How long would it take to print 189 pages? (A) 50 mins (B) 55 mins (C) 58 mins (D) 1 hr 3 mins (E) 1 hr 5 mins . In Farawayland animals are measured in swords and daggers. Anne takes half the pile and Bob then takes half of what is left.MP3 Page 2 5. Claire gets the remaining sweets. How tall is Donkey in swords? (A) 2 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 30 (E) 525 7. Donkey is 15 daggers tall. A printer prints 3 pages per minute.
....... in dollars.... .... .. .. . . .... . Lee buys two drinks and one icecream for $7... ... ..MP3 Page 3 8..... . How much. . . .. .... .... ... . Mario buys one drink and one icecream. . .. . . ..... . . .... If 4 days after the day before yesterday is Sunday....................... .... .. what day of the week is tomorrow? (A) Thursday (D) Sunday (B) Friday (E) Monday (C) Saturday 10.. ... .. will this cost Mario? *** c 2006 Australian Mathematics Trust . 12 cm wide and 4 cm high? ... .. .. .... . 2 4 ... ... .. . ... ............... How many shapes 4 cm long..... . .... ... .... . .. .. .... Kim buys one drink and two icecreams for $8.... 12 (A) 12 (B) 16 (C) 18 (D) 20 (E) 24 9.. . . ...... ..... . ..... . ...... . .............. . . .. ... . .. .. ....... 4 cm wide and 2 cm high will ﬁt in a box which measures 12 cm long. .. . . ...... .. .... 4 12 4 .. .
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